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Sample records for alpha-toxin encoding plc

  1. Sequence variation in the alpha-toxin encoding plc gene of Clostridium perfringens strains isolated from diseased and healthy chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard, L; Engberg, RM; Pedersen, Karl;

    2009-01-01

    different a-toxin sequence types among the 60 strains. Moreover, a type II intron of 834 non-coding nucleotides was identified in the pic gene of three of the investigated strains. The in vitro alpha-toxin production investigated in 45 of the strains, including the three harbouring the intron, revealed...... no correlation between PFGE type, alpha-toxin sequence type, health status of the host chickens and level of a-toxin production. It is therefore concluded that neither pic gene type nor alpha-toxin production level seems to correlate to origin (healthy or diseased chicken) of the C perfringens strains. (C) 2008...

  2. Phospholipase C Produced by Clostridium botulinum Types C and D:Comparison of Gene, Enzymatic, and Biological Activities with Those of Clostridium perfringens Alpha-toxin

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    Sakurai,Jun

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium botulinum type C and D strains recently have been found to produce PLC on egg yolk agar plates. To characterize the gene, enzymatic and biological activities of C. botulinum PLCs (Cb-PLCs, the cb-plc genes from 8 strains were sequenced, and 1 representative gene was cloned and expressed as a recombinant protein. The enzymatic and hemolytic activities of the recombinant Cb-PLC were measured and compared with those of the Clostridium perfringens alpha-toxin. Each of the eight cb-plc genes encoded a 399 amino acid residue protein preceded by a 27 residue signal peptide. The protein consists of 2 domains, the N- and C-domains, and the overall amino acid sequence identity between Cb-PLC and alpha-toxin was greater than 50%, suggesting that Cb-PLC is homologous to the alpha-toxin. The key residues in the N-domain were conserved, whereas those in the C-domain which are important in membrane interaction were different than in the alpha-toxin. As expected, Cb-PLC could hydrolyze egg yolk phospholipid, p-nitrophenylphosphorylcholine, and sphingomyelin, and also exhibited hemolytic activity;however, its activities were about 4- to over 200-fold lower than those of alpha-toxin. Although Cb-PLC showed weak enzymatic and biological activities, it is speculated that Cb-PLC might play a role in the pathogenicity of botulism or for bacterial survival.

  3. Phospholipase C produced by Clostridium botulinum types C and D: comparison of gene, enzymatic, and biological activities with those of Clostridium perfringens alpha-toxin.

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    Fatmawati, Ni Nengah Dwi; Sakaguchi, Yoshihiko; Suzuki, Tomonori; Oda, Masataka; Shimizu, Kenta; Yamamoto, Yumiko; Sakurai, Jun; Matsushita, Osamu; Oguma, Keiji

    2013-01-01

    Clostridium botulinum type C and D strains recently have been found to produce PLC on egg yolk agar plates. To characterize the gene, enzymatic and biological activities of C. botulinum PLCs (Cb-PLCs), the cb-plc genes from 8 strains were sequenced, and 1 representative gene was cloned and expressed as a recombinant protein. The enzymatic and hemolytic activities of the recombinant Cb-PLC were measured and compared with those of the Clostridium perfringens alpha-toxin. Each of the eight cb-plc genes encoded a 399 amino acid residue protein preceded by a 27 residue signal peptide. The protein consists of 2 domains, the N- and C-domains, and the overall amino acid sequence identity between Cb-PLC and alpha-toxin was greater than 50%, suggesting that Cb-PLC is homologous to the alpha-toxin. The key residues in the N-domain were conserved, whereas those in the C-domain which are important in membrane interaction were different than in the alpha-toxin. As expected, Cb-PLC could hydrolyze egg yolk phospholipid, p-nitrophenylphosphorylcholine, and sphingomyelin, and also exhibited hemolytic activity;however, its activities were about 4- to over 200-fold lower than those of alpha-toxin. Although Cb-PLC showed weak enzymatic and biological activities, it is speculated that Cb-PLC might play a role in the pathogenicity of botulism or for bacterial survival.

  4. Characterization of alpha-toxin hla gene variants, alpha-toxin expression levels, and levels of antibody to alpha-toxin in hemodialysis and postsurgical patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia.

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    Sharma-Kuinkel, Batu K; Wu, Yuling; Tabor, David E; Mok, Hoyin; Sellman, Bret R; Jenkins, Amy; Yu, Li; Jafri, Hasan S; Rude, Thomas H; Ruffin, Felicia; Schell, Wiley A; Park, Lawrence P; Yan, Qin; Thaden, Joshua T; Messina, Julia A; Fowler, Vance G; Esser, Mark T

    2015-01-01

    Alpha-toxin is a major Staphylococcus aureus virulence factor. This study evaluated potential relationships between in vitro alpha-toxin expression of S. aureus bloodstream isolates, anti-alpha-toxin antibody in serum of patients with S. aureus bacteremia (SAB), and clinical outcomes in 100 hemodialysis and 100 postsurgical SAB patients. Isolates underwent spa typing and hla sequencing. Serum anti-alpha-toxin IgG and neutralizing antibody levels were measured by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and a red blood cell (RBC)-based hemolysis neutralization assay. Neutralization of alpha-toxin by an anti-alpha-toxin monoclonal antibody (MAb MEDI4893) was tested in an RBC-based lysis assay. Most isolates encoded hla (197/200; 98.5%) and expressed alpha-toxin (173/200; 86.5%). In vitro alpha-toxin levels were inversely associated with survival (cure, 2.19 μg/ml, versus failure, 1.09 μg/ml; P toxin-expressing S. aureus isolates (P toxin is highly conserved in clinical S. aureus isolates. Higher in vitro alpha-toxin levels were associated with a positive clinical outcome. Although patients infected with alpha-toxin-producing S. aureus exhibited higher anti-alpha-toxin antibody levels, these levels were not associated with a better clinical outcome in this study.

  5. A recombinant carboxy-terminal domain of alpha-toxin protects mice against Clostridium perfringens.

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    Nagahama, Masahiro; Oda, Masataka; Kobayashi, Keiko; Ochi, Sadayuki; Takagishi, Teruhisa; Shibutani, Masahiro; Sakurai, Jun

    2013-05-01

    Clostridium perfringens alpha-toxin (CP, 370 residues) is one of the main agents involved in the development of gas gangrene. In this study, the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the C-terminal domain (CP251-370) of the toxin and phospholipase C (PLC; CB, 372 residues) of Clostridum bifermentans isolated from cases of clostridium necrosis were examined. The recombinant proteins were expressed as glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion proteins. Antibodies that cross-reacted with alpha-toxin were produced after immunization with recombinant proteins including GST-CP251-370, GST-CP281-370, GST-CP311-370, CB1-372 and GST-CB251-372. Anti-GST-CP251-370, anti-GST-CP281-370 and anti-GST-CP311-370 sera neutralized both the PLC and hemolytic activities of alpha-toxin, whereas anti-CB1-372 and anti-GST-CB251-372 weakly neutralized these activities. Immunization with GST-CP251-370 and GST-CP281-370 provided protection against the lethal effects of the toxin and C. perfringens type A NCTC8237. Partial protection from the toxin and C. perfringens was elicited by immunization with GST-CP311-370 and CB1-372. GST-CP251-370 and GST-CP281-370 are promising candidates for vaccines for clostridial-induced gas gangrene.

  6. Cloning and expression of AtPLC6, a gene encoding a phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xiaojing; CAO Zhixiang; LIU Guoqin; Madan K. Bhattacharrya; REN Dongtao

    2004-01-01

    A full-length eDNA clone corresponding to a putative phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PIPLC) was isolated from Arabidopsis thaliana by screening a cDNA library and using RT-PCR strategy. The cDNA, designated AtPLC6, encodes a putative polypeptide of 578 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of 66251.84 D and a pI of 7.24. The sequence analysis indicates that the polypeptide contains X, Y, EF-hand and C2 domains. The overall structure of putative AtPLC6 protein, like other plant PI-PLCs, is most similar to that of mammalian PLC& The recombinant AtPLC6 protein expressed in E. coli was able to hydrolyze phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biophosphate (PIP2) to generate inositol 1,4,5-trisphate (IP3) and 1,2-diacylglycerol (DAG). The protein hydrolyzes PIP2 in a Ca2+-dependent manner and the optimum concentration of Ca2+ is 10 μmol/L.These results suggested that AtPLC6 gene encodes a genuine PI-PLC. Northern blot analysis showed that the AtPLC6 gene is expressed at low level in all examined tissues, such as roots,stems, leaves, flowers, siliques and seedlings under normal growth conditions. The gene is strongly induced under low temperature and weakly induced under various stresses,such as ABA, high-salt stress and heat. These results suggested that AtPLC6 might be involved in the signal-transduction pathways of cold responses of the plants.

  7. Characterization of polymorphisms and isoforms of the Clostridium perfringens phospholipase C gene (plc) reveals high genetic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Flávia F; Almeida, Marcelle O; Barroca, Tatiana M; Horta, Carolina C R; Carmo, Anderson O; Silva, Rodrigo O S; Pires, Prhiscylla S; Lobato, Francisco C F; Kalapothakis, Evanguedes

    2012-10-12

    Clostridium perfringens phospholipase C (Cp-PLC), also called alpha-toxin, is encoded by the plc gene and has been implicated in several diseases; however, only a few studies have described polymorphisms in this gene. The aim of this study was to analyze polymorphisms in the Cp-PLC nucleotide and amino acid sequences obtained from isolates from different regions and to compare them to Clostridium phospholipase C sequences deposited in the NCBI database. Environmental samples (sediment, poultry feed, sawdust) and stool samples (from poultry, bovine, swine, horse, caprine, bird, dog, rabbit, toucan) were collected from healthy and sick animals. A total of 73 isolates were analyzed with the majority of samples belonging to the toxin type A subtype and possessing the gene encoding for the beta-2 toxin. Comparison of plc gene sequences from respective isolates revealed a high genetic diversity in the nucleotide sequences of mature Cp-PLC. Sequence comparisons identified 30 amino acid substitutions and 34 isoforms including some isoforms with substitutions in amino acids critical to toxin function. Comparison of sequences obtained in this study to Cp-PLC sequences obtained from the NCBI database resulted in the identification of 11 common haplotypes and 22 new isoforms. Phylogenetic analysis of phospholipase C sequences obtained from other Clostridium species identified relationships previously described. This report describes a broad characterization of the genetic diversity in the C. perfringens plc gene resulting in the identification of various isoforms. A better understanding of sequences encoding phospholipase C isoforms may reveal changes associated with protein function and C. perfringens virulence.

  8. Interferon-γ Protects from Staphylococcal Alpha Toxin-Induced Keratinocyte Death through Apolipoprotein L1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauweiler, Anne M; Goleva, Elena; Leung, Donald Y M

    2016-03-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a bacterial pathogen that frequently infects the skin, causing lesions and cell destruction through its primary virulence factor, alpha toxin. Here we show that interferon gamma (IFN-?) protects human keratinocytes from cell death induced by staphylococcal alpha toxin. We find that IFN-? prevents alpha toxin binding and reduces expression of the alpha toxin receptor, a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10 (ADAM10). We determine that the mechanism for IFN-?-mediated resistance to alpha toxin involves the induction of autophagy, a process of cellular adaptation to sublethal damage. We find that IFN-? potently stimulates activation of the primary autophagy effector, light chain 3 (LC3). This process is dependent on upregulation of apolipoprotein L1. Depletion of apolipoprotein L1 by small interfering RNA significantly increases alpha toxin-induced lethality and inhibits activation of light chain 3. We conclude that IFN-? plays a significant role in protecting human keratinocytes from the lethal effects of staphylococcal alpha toxin through apolipoprotein L1-induced autophagy.

  9. Staphylococcus aureus in vitro secretion of alpha toxin (hla correlates with the affiliation to clonal complexes.

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    Stefan Monecke

    Full Text Available The alpha toxin of Staphylococcus aureus is a pore forming toxin that penetrates host cell membranes causing osmotic swelling, rupture, lysis and subsequently cell death. Haemolysin alpha is toxic to a wide range of different mammalian cells; i.e., neurotoxic, dermonecrotic, haemolytic, and it can cause lethality in a wide variety of animals. In this study, the in vitro alpha toxin production of 648 previously genotyped isolates of S. aureus was measured quantitatively using antibody microarrays. Isolates originated from medical and veterinary settings and were selected in order to represent diverse clonal complexes and defined clinical conditions. Generally, the production of alpha toxin in vitro is related to the clonal complex affiliation. For clonal complexes CC22, CC30, CC45, CC479, CC705 and others, invariably no alpha toxin production was noted under the given in vitro conditions, while others, such as CC1, CC5, CC8, CC15 or CC96 secreted variable or high levels of alpha toxin. There was no correlation between alpha toxin yield and clinical course of the disease, or between alpha toxin yield and host species.

  10. Staphylococcus aureus in vitro secretion of alpha toxin (hla) correlates with the affiliation to clonal complexes.

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    Monecke, Stefan; Müller, Elke; Büchler, Joseph; Stieber, Bettina; Ehricht, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    The alpha toxin of Staphylococcus aureus is a pore forming toxin that penetrates host cell membranes causing osmotic swelling, rupture, lysis and subsequently cell death. Haemolysin alpha is toxic to a wide range of different mammalian cells; i.e., neurotoxic, dermonecrotic, haemolytic, and it can cause lethality in a wide variety of animals. In this study, the in vitro alpha toxin production of 648 previously genotyped isolates of S. aureus was measured quantitatively using antibody microarrays. Isolates originated from medical and veterinary settings and were selected in order to represent diverse clonal complexes and defined clinical conditions. Generally, the production of alpha toxin in vitro is related to the clonal complex affiliation. For clonal complexes CC22, CC30, CC45, CC479, CC705 and others, invariably no alpha toxin production was noted under the given in vitro conditions, while others, such as CC1, CC5, CC8, CC15 or CC96 secreted variable or high levels of alpha toxin. There was no correlation between alpha toxin yield and clinical course of the disease, or between alpha toxin yield and host species.

  11. Veal Calves Produce Less Antibodies against C. Perfringens Alpha Toxin Compared to Beef Calves

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    Bonnie R. Valgaeren

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Enterotoxaemia is a disease with a high associated mortality rate, affecting beef and veal calves worldwide, caused by C. perfringens alpha toxin and perfringolysin. A longitudinal study was conducted to determine the dynamics of antibodies against these toxins in 528 calves on 4 beef and 15 veal farms. The second study aimed to determine the effect of solid feed intake on the production of antibodies against alpha toxin and perfringolysin. The control group only received milk replacer, whereas in the test group solid feed was provided. Maternal antibodies for alpha toxin were present in 45% of the veal calves and 66% of the beef calves. In beef calves a fluent transition from maternal to active immunity was observed for alpha toxin, whereas almost no veal calves developed active immunity. Perfringolysin antibodies significantly declined both in veal and beef calves. In the second study all calves were seropositive for alpha toxin throughout the experiment and solid feed intake did not alter the dynamics of alpha and perfringolysin antibodies. In conclusion, the present study showed that veal calves on a traditional milk replacer diet had significantly lower alpha toxin antibodies compared to beef calves in the risk period for enterotoxaemia, whereas no differences were noticed for perfringolysin.

  12. LYSIS OF BACTERIAL PROTOPLASTS AND SPHEROPLASTS BY STAPHYLOCOCCAL ALPHA-TOXIN AND STREPTOLYSIN S.

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    BERNHEIMER, A W; SCHWARTZ, L L

    1965-05-01

    Bernheimer, Alan W. (New York University School of Medicine, New York, N.Y.), and Lois L. Schwartz. Lysis of bacterial protoplasts and spheroplasts by staphylococcal alpha-toxin and streptolysin S. J. Bacteriol. 89:1387-1392. 1965.-Protoplasts of Bacillus megaterium, Sarcina lutea, and Streptococcus pyogenes, and spheroplasts of Escherichia coli were lysed by staphylococcal alpha-toxin, whereas spheroplasts of Vibrio metschnikovii and V. comma were not. In the spectrum of its lytic action, streptolysin S qualitatively resembled staphylococcal alpha-toxin except for failure to lyse S. pyogenes protoplasts. In contrast to the two foregoing agents, streptolysin O did not lyse protoplasts and spheroplasts. The observations are interpreted in relation to similarities and differences in lipid composition of bacterial and mammalian cell membranes.

  13. Programmed cellular necrosis mediated by the pore-forming alpha-toxin from Clostridium septicum.

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    Kennedy, Catherine L; Smith, Danielle J; Lyras, Dena; Chakravorty, Anjana; Rood, Julian I

    2009-07-01

    Programmed necrosis is a mechanism of cell death that has been described for neuronal excitotoxicity and ischemia/reperfusion injury, but has not been extensively studied in the context of exposure to bacterial exotoxins. The alpha-toxin of Clostridium septicum is a beta-barrel pore-forming toxin and a potent cytotoxin; however, the mechanism by which it induces cell death has not been elucidated in detail. We report that alpha-toxin formed Ca(2+)-permeable pores in murine myoblast cells, leading to an increase in intracellular Ca(2+) levels. This Ca(2+) influx did not induce apoptosis, as has been described for other small pore-forming toxins, but a cascade of events consistent with programmed necrosis. Ca(2+) influx was associated with calpain activation and release of cathepsins from lysosomes. We also observed deregulation of mitochondrial activity, leading to increased ROS levels, and dramatically reduced levels of ATP. Finally, the immunostimulatory histone binding protein HMGB1 was found to be released from the nuclei of alpha-toxin-treated cells. Collectively, these data show that alpha-toxin initiates a multifaceted necrotic cell death response that is consistent with its essential role in C. septicum-mediated myonecrosis and sepsis. We postulate that cellular intoxication with pore-forming toxins may be a major mechanism by which programmed necrosis is induced.

  14. Staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin-induced cell death : predominant necrosis despite apoptotic caspase activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essmann, F; Bantel, H; Totzke, G; Engels, I H; Sinha, B; Schulze-Osthoff, K; Jänicke, R U

    2003-01-01

    Recent data suggest that alpha-toxin, the major hemolysin of Staphylococcus aureus, induces cell death via the classical apoptotic pathway. Here we demonstrate, however, that although zVAD-fmk or overexpression of Bcl-2 completely abrogated caspase activation and internucleosomal DNA fragmentation,

  15. Distinction between pore assembly by staphylococcal alpha-toxin versus leukotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubert, Olivier; Voegelin, Joëlle; Guillet, Valérie; Tranier, Samuel; Werner, Sandra; Colin, Didier A; Dalla Serra, Mauro; Keller, Daniel; Monteil, Henri; Mourey, Lionel; Prévost, Gilles

    2007-01-01

    The staphylococcal bipartite leukotoxins and the homoheptameric alpha-toxin belong to the same family of beta-barrel pore-forming toxins despite slight differences. In the alpha-toxin pore, the N-terminal extremity of each protomer interacts as a deployed latch with two consecutive protomers in the vicinity of the pore lumen. N-terminal extremities of leukotoxins as seen in their three-dimensional structures are heterogeneous in length and take part in the beta-sandwich core of soluble monomers. Hence, the interaction of these N-terminal extremities within structures of adjacent monomers is questionable. We show here that modifications of their N-termini by two different processes, using fusion with glutathione S-transferase (GST) and bridging of the N-terminal extremity to the adjacent beta-sheet via disulphide bridges, are not deleterious for biological activity. Therefore, bipartite leukotoxins do not need a large extension of their N-terminal extremities to form functional pores, thus illustrating a microheterogeneity of the structural organizations between bipartite leukotoxins and alpha-toxin.

  16. Autophagy mediates tolerance to Staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin.

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    Maurer, Katie; Reyes-Robles, Tamara; Alonzo, Francis; Durbin, Joan; Torres, Victor J; Cadwell, Ken

    2015-04-01

    Resistance and tolerance are two defense strategies employed by the host against microbial threats. Autophagy-mediated degradation of bacteria has been extensively described as a major resistance mechanism. Here we find that the dominant function of autophagy proteins during infections with the epidemic community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300 is to mediate tolerance rather than resistance. Atg16L1 hypomorphic mice (Atg16L1(HM)), which have reduced autophagy, were highly susceptible to lethality in both sepsis and pneumonia models of USA300 infection. Autophagy confers protection by limiting the damage caused by α-toxin, particularly to endothelial cells. Remarkably, Atg16L1(HM) mice display enhanced survival rather than susceptibility upon infection with α-toxin-deficient S. aureus. These results identify an essential role for autophagy in tolerance to Staphylococcal disease and highlight how a single virulence factor encoded by a pathogen can determine whether a given host factor promotes tolerance or resistance.

  17. Detection of Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin gene in lambs by loop mediated isothermal amplification

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    B. Radhika

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP was standardized for rapid detection of Clostridium perfringens. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 fecal samples were collected from enterotoxemia suspected lambs were used for screening of C. perfringens cpa gene by LAMP. The specificity of the LAMP amplified products was tested by digesting with restriction enzyme XmnI for alpha toxin gene. Results: Out of 120 samples screened 112 (93.3% samples were positive by both LAMP and polymerase chain reaction (PCR for detection of cpa gene which indicated the equal sensitivity of both the tests. The enzyme produced single cut in 162 base pair amplified product of alpha toxin gene at 81 base pair resulting in a single band in gel electrophoresis. Conclusion: Both LAMP and PCR for detection of cpa gene indicated the equal sensitivity of both the tests. Standardization of LAMP reaction for amplification of epsilon and beta toxin genes will help to identify the C. perfringens toxin types from the clinical samples. The test could be a suitable alternative to the PCR in detection of toxin types without the help of sophisticated machinery like thermal cycler. Considering its simplicity in operation and high sensitivity, there is the potential use of this technique in clinical diagnosis and surveillance of infectious diseases.

  18. Pore-forming activity of alpha-toxin is essential for clostridium septicum-mediated myonecrosis.

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    Kennedy, Catherine L; Lyras, Dena; Cordner, Leanne M; Melton-Witt, Jody; Emmins, John J; Tweten, Rodney K; Rood, Julian I

    2009-03-01

    Clostridium septicum alpha-toxin is a beta-barrel pore-forming cytolysin that is functionally similar to aerolysin. Residues important in receptor binding, oligomerization, and pore formation have been identified; however, little is known about the activity of the toxin in an infection, although it is essential for disease. We have now shown that deletion of a small portion of the transmembrane domain, so that the toxin is no longer able to form pores, completely abrogates its ability to contribute to disease, as does replacement of the sole cysteine residue with leucine. However, although previous biochemical and cytotoxicity assays clearly indicated that mutations in residues important in oligomerization, binding, and prepore conversion greatly reduced activity or rendered the toxin inactive, once the mutated toxins were overexpressed by the natural host in the context of an infection it was found they were able to cause disease in a mouse model of myonecrosis. These results highlight the importance of testing the activity of virulence determinants in the normal host background and in an infectious disease context and provide unequivocal evidence that it is the ability of alpha-toxin to form a pore that confers its toxicity in vivo.

  19. Identification and validation of a linear protective neutralizing epitope in the β-pore domain of alpha toxin.

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    Jon Oscherwitz

    Full Text Available The plethora of virulence factors associated with Staphylococcus aureus make this bacterium an attractive candidate for a molecularly-designed epitope-focused vaccine. This approach, which necessitates the identification of neutralizing epitopes for incorporation into a vaccine construct, is being evaluated for pathogens where conventional approaches have failed to elicit protective humoral responses, like HIV-1 and malaria, but may also hold promise for pathogens like S. aureus, where the elicitation of humoral immunity against multiple virulence factors may be required for development of an effective vaccine. Among the virulence factors employed by S. aureus, animal model and epidemiological data suggest that alpha toxin, a multimeric β-pore forming toxin like protective antigen from Bacillus anthracis, is particularly critical, yet no candidate neutralizing epitopes have been delineated in alpha toxin to date. We have previously shown that a linear determinant in the 2β2-2β3 loop of the pore forming domain of B. anthracis protective antigen is a linear neutralizing epitope. Antibody against this site is highly potent for neutralizing anthrax lethal toxin in vitro and for protection of rabbits in vivo from virulent B. anthracis. We hypothesized that sequences in the β-pore of S. aureus alpha toxin that share structural and functional homology to β-pore sequences in protective antigen would contain a similarly critical neutralizing epitope. Using an in vivo mapping strategy employing peptide immunogens, an optimized in vitro toxin neutralization assay, and an in vivo dermonecrosis model, we have now confirmed the presence of this epitope in alpha toxin, termed the pore neutralizing determinant. Antibody specific for this determinant neutralizes alpha toxin in vitro, and is highly effective for mitigating dermonecrosis and bacterial growth in a mouse model of S. aureus USA300 skin infection. The delineation of this linear neutralizing

  20. Identification and validation of a linear protective neutralizing epitope in the β-pore domain of alpha toxin.

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    Oscherwitz, Jon; Cease, Kemp B

    2015-01-01

    The plethora of virulence factors associated with Staphylococcus aureus make this bacterium an attractive candidate for a molecularly-designed epitope-focused vaccine. This approach, which necessitates the identification of neutralizing epitopes for incorporation into a vaccine construct, is being evaluated for pathogens where conventional approaches have failed to elicit protective humoral responses, like HIV-1 and malaria, but may also hold promise for pathogens like S. aureus, where the elicitation of humoral immunity against multiple virulence factors may be required for development of an effective vaccine. Among the virulence factors employed by S. aureus, animal model and epidemiological data suggest that alpha toxin, a multimeric β-pore forming toxin like protective antigen from Bacillus anthracis, is particularly critical, yet no candidate neutralizing epitopes have been delineated in alpha toxin to date. We have previously shown that a linear determinant in the 2β2-2β3 loop of the pore forming domain of B. anthracis protective antigen is a linear neutralizing epitope. Antibody against this site is highly potent for neutralizing anthrax lethal toxin in vitro and for protection of rabbits in vivo from virulent B. anthracis. We hypothesized that sequences in the β-pore of S. aureus alpha toxin that share structural and functional homology to β-pore sequences in protective antigen would contain a similarly critical neutralizing epitope. Using an in vivo mapping strategy employing peptide immunogens, an optimized in vitro toxin neutralization assay, and an in vivo dermonecrosis model, we have now confirmed the presence of this epitope in alpha toxin, termed the pore neutralizing determinant. Antibody specific for this determinant neutralizes alpha toxin in vitro, and is highly effective for mitigating dermonecrosis and bacterial growth in a mouse model of S. aureus USA300 skin infection. The delineation of this linear neutralizing determinant in alpha

  1. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the complex between a human anti-alpha toxin antibody fragment and alpha toxin.

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    Oganesyan, Vaheh; Barnes, Arnita; Tkaczyk, Christine; Ferguson, Andrew; Wu, Herren; Dall'Acqua, William F

    2013-03-01

    Staphylococcus aureus alpha toxin (AT) has been crystallized in complex with the Fab fragment of a human antibody (MEDI4893). This constitutes the first reported crystals of AT bound to an antibody. The monoclinic crystals belonged to space group P2₁, with unit-cell parameters a=85.52, b=148.50, c=93.82 Å, β=99.82°. The diffraction of the crystals extended to 2.56 Å resolution. The asymmetric unit contained two MEDI4893 Fab-AT complexes. This corresponds to a crystal volume per protein weight (VM) of 2.3 Å3 Da(-1) and a solvent content of 47%. The three-dimensional structure of this complex will contribute to an understanding of the molecular basis of the interaction of MEDI4893 with AT. It will also shed light on the mechanism of action of this antibody, the current evaluation of which in the field of S. aureus-mediated diseases makes it a particularly interesting case study. Finally, this study will provide the three-dimensional structure of AT in a monomeric state for the first time.

  2. Purification of alpha-toxin from Staphylococcus aureus and application to cell permeabilization

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    Lind, I.; Ahnert-Hilger, G.; Fuchs, G.; Gratzl, M.

    1987-07-01

    Crude alpha-toxin was produced by Staphylococcus aureus, strain Wood 46. The amount of exotoxin was monitored during growth and all subsequent purification steps by determination of its hemolytic activity against rabbit erythrocytes. The culture supernatant was treated with ammonium sulfate (75% saturation). The resulting precipitate was dialyzed and subjected to cation-exchange chromatography. The fractions containing the hemolytic activity were further purified by gel chromatography. The final product was enriched by a factor of 8.5 compared to the crude toxin. In sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis the purified toxin exhibited one major band. It caused the release of /sup 86/Rb+ and ATP from rat insulinoma (RIN A2) as well as pheochromocytoma cells (PC12) in culture, indicating efficient permeabilization of their plasma membranes for small molecules.

  3. The effect of feeding a commercial essential oil product on Clostridium perfringens numbers in the intestine of broiler chickens measured by real-time PCR targeting the α-toxin-encoding gene (plc)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard, Lone; Højberg, Ole; Schramm, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    concentrations of 100 and 200 mg/kg feed of the essential oil blend did not reduce the intestinal numbers of C. perfringens compared to a non-supplemented control group (P>0.05). Further, the essential oil blend failed to improve (P>0.05) both the growth and feed conversion ratio of the broilers. For rapid...... quantification of C. perfringens type A in broilers, a real-time PCR assay, targeting the α-toxin-encoding plc gene, was developed for use in ileal and caecal samples and was shown to be a fast and reliable alternative to conventional plate counting....

  4. The psmα locus regulates production of Staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin during infection.

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    Berube, Bryan J; Sampedro, Georgia R; Otto, Michael; Bubeck Wardenburg, Juliane

    2014-08-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of human bacterial infection, causing a wide spectrum of disease ranging from skin and soft tissue infections to life-threatening pneumonia and sepsis. S. aureus toxins play an essential role in disease pathogenesis, contributing to both immunomodulation and host tissue injury. Prominent among these toxins are the membrane-active pore-forming cytolysin alpha-toxin (Hla) and the amphipathic α-helical phenol-soluble modulin (PSM) peptides. As deletion of either the hla or psm locus leads to a phenotypically similar virulence defect in skin and soft tissue infection, we sought to determine the relative contribution of each locus to disease pathogenesis. Here we show that production of Hla can be modulated by PSM expression. An S. aureus mutant lacking PSM expression exhibits a transcriptional delay in hla mRNA production and therefore fails to secrete normal levels of Hla at early phases of growth. This leads to attenuation of virulence in vitro and in murine skin and lung models of infection, correlating with reduced recovery of Hla from host tissues. Production of Hla and restoration of staphylococcal virulence can be achieved in the psm mutant by plasmid-driven overexpression of hla. Our study suggests the coordinated action of Hla and PSMs in host tissue during early pathogenesis, confirming a major role for Hla in epithelial injury during S. aureus infection. These findings highlight the possibility that therapeutics targeting PSM production may simultaneously prevent Hla-mediated tissue injury.

  5. Effectiveness of Alpha-toxin Fab Monoclonal Antibody Therapy in Limiting the Pathology of Staphylococcus aureus Keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, A; Foletti, D; Bierdeman, M; Tang, A; Arana, A; Hasa-Moreno, A; Sangalang, E; O'Callaghan, R J

    2014-06-01

    Abstract Purpose: To investigate the effectiveness of a high-affinity human monoclonal antibody Fab fragment to Staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin (LTM14 Fab) as therapy for S. aureus keratitis. Methods: A single topical drop of the LTM14 Fab antibody to alpha-toxin alone, or in 0.006% benzalkonium chloride (BAK), was applied every 30 min to S. aureus-infected rabbit corneas from 9 to 14 hours post-infection. Erosions and pathology were measured at 15 h post-infection. Results: LTM14 Fab with BAK limited corneal erosions better than LTM14 Fab alone (p = 0.036), and both limited erosions compared to untreated eyes (p ≤ 0.0001). Overall pathology was similar in all groups (p ≥ 0.070), but iritis and chemosis were reduced by treatment (p ≤ 0.036). Conclusions: The high-affinity human monoclonal Fab fragment antibody (LTM14 Fab) to S. aureus alpha-toxin was effective in reducing corneal damage during S. aureus keratitis.

  6. A chimeric scorpion alpha-toxin displays de novo electrophysiological properties similar to those of alpha-like toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhaouala-Zahar, Balkiss; Benkhalifa, Rym; Srairi, Najet; Zenouaki, Ilhem; Ligny-Lemaire, Caroline; Drevet, Pascal; Sampieri, François; Pelhate, Marcel; El Ayeb, Mohamed; Ménez, André; Karoui, Habib; Ducancel, Frédéric

    2002-06-01

    BotXIV and LqhalphaIT are two structurally related long chain scorpion alpha-toxins that inhibit sodium current inactivation in excitable cells. However, while LqhalphaIT from Leiurus quinquestriatus hebraeus is classified as a true and strong insect alpha-toxin, BotXIV from Buthus occitanus tunetanus is characterized by moderate biological activities. To assess the possibility that structural differences between these two molecules could reflect the localization of particular functional topographies, we compared their sequences. Three structurally deviating segments located in three distinct and exposed loops were identified. They correspond to residues 8-10, 19-22, and 38-43. To evaluate their functional role, three BotXIV/LqhalphaIT chimeras were designed by transferring the corresponding LqhalphaIT sequences into BotXIV. Structural and antigenic characterizations of the resulting recombinant chimera show that BotXIV can accommodate the imposed modifications, confirming the structural flexibility of that particular alpha/beta fold. Interestingly, substitution of residues 8-10 yields to a new electrophysiological profile of the corresponding variant, partially comparable to that one of alpha-like scorpion toxins. Taken together, these results suggest that even limited structural deviations can reflect functional diversity, and also that the structure-function relationships between insect alpha-toxins and alpha-like scorpion toxins are probably more complex than expected.

  7. Impact of the regulatory loci agr, sarA and sae of Staphylococcus aureus on the induction of alpha-toxin during device-related infection resolved by direct quantitative transcript analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerke, C; Fluckiger, U; Steinhuber, A; Zimmerli, W; Wolz, C

    2001-06-01

    The cytotoxic alpha-toxin (encoded by hla) of Staphylococcus aureus is regulated by three loci, agr, sarA and sae, in vitro. Here, we assess the regulation of hla in a guinea pig model of device-related infection by quantifying RNAIII (the effector molecule of agr) and hla directly in exudates accumulating in infected devices without subculturing of the bacteria. LightCycler reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to quantify the transcripts. Strains RN6390 and Newman expressed considerably smaller amounts of RNAIII in the guinea pig than during in vitro growth. The residual RNAIII expression decreased during the course of infection and was negatively correlated with bacterial densities. As with RNAIII, the highest hla expression was detected in both strains early in infection. Even in strain Newman, a weak hla producer in vitro, a pronounced expression of hla was observed during infection. Likewise, four S. aureus isolates from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients expressed Q1hla despite an inactive agr during device-related infection as in the CF lung. Mutation of agr and sarA in strain Newman and RN6390 had no consequence for hla expression in vivo. In contrast, the mutation in sae resulted in severe downregulation of hla in vitro as well as in vivo. In conclusion, S. aureus seems to be provided with regulatory circuits different from those characterized in vitro to ensure alpha-toxin synthesis during infections.

  8. Identification of tomato phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase-C (PI-PLC) family members and the role of PLC4 and PLC6 in HR and disease resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vossen, Jack H; Abd-El-Haliem, Ahmed; Fradin, Emilie F; van den Berg, Grardy C M; Ekengren, Sophia K; Meijer, Harold J G; Seifi, Alireza; Bai, Yuling; ten Have, Arjen; Munnik, Teun; Thomma, Bart P H J; Joosten, Matthieu H A J

    2010-04-01

    The perception of pathogen-derived elicitors by plants has been suggested to involve phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase-C (PI-PLC) signalling. Here we show that PLC isoforms are required for the hypersensitive response (HR) and disease resistance. We characterised the tomato [Solanum lycopersicum (Sl)] PLC gene family. Six Sl PLC-encoding cDNAs were isolated and their expression in response to infection with the pathogenic fungus Cladosporium fulvum was studied. We found significant regulation at the transcriptional level of the various SlPLCs, and SlPLC4 and SlPLC6 showed distinct expression patterns in C. fulvum-resistant Cf-4 tomato. We produced the encoded proteins in Escherichia coli and found that both genes encode catalytically active PI-PLCs. To test the requirement of these Sl PLCs for full Cf-4-mediated recognition of the effector Avr4, we knocked down the expression of the encoding genes by virus-induced gene silencing. Silencing of SlPLC4 impaired the Avr4/Cf-4-induced HR and resulted in increased colonisation of Cf-4 plants by C. fulvum expressing Avr4. Furthermore, expression of the gene in Nicotiana benthamiana enhanced the Avr4/Cf-4-induced HR. Silencing of SlPLC6 did not affect HR, whereas it caused increased colonisation of Cf-4 plants by the fungus. Interestingly, Sl PLC6, but not Sl PLC4, was also required for resistance to Verticillium dahliae, mediated by the transmembrane Ve1 resistance protein, and to Pseudomonas syringae, mediated by the intracellular Pto/Prf resistance protein couple. We conclude that there is a differential requirement of PLC isoforms for the plant immune response and that Sl PLC4 is specifically required for Cf-4 function, while Sl PLC6 may be a more general component of resistance protein signalling.

  9. Evaluation of genetically inactivated alpha toxin for protection in multiple mouse models of Staphylococcus aureus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca A Brady

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen and a leading cause of nosocomial and community-acquired infections. Development of a vaccine against this pathogen is an important goal. While S. aureus protective antigens have been identified in the literature, the majority have only been tested in a single animal model of disease. We wished to evaluate the ability of one S. aureus vaccine antigen to protect in multiple mouse models, thus assessing whether protection in one model translates to protection in other models encompassing the full breadth of infections the pathogen can cause. We chose to focus on genetically inactivated alpha toxin mutant HlaH35L. We evaluated the protection afforded by this antigen in three models of infection using the same vaccine dose, regimen, route of immunization, adjuvant, and challenge strain. When mice were immunized with HlaH35L and challenged via a skin and soft tissue infection model, HlaH35L immunization led to a less severe infection and decreased S. aureus levels at the challenge site when compared to controls. Challenge of HlaH35L-immunized mice using a systemic infection model resulted in a limited, but statistically significant decrease in bacterial colonization as compared to that observed with control mice. In contrast, in a prosthetic implant model of chronic biofilm infection, there was no significant difference in bacterial levels when compared to controls. These results demonstrate that vaccines may confer protection against one form of S. aureus disease without conferring protection against other disease presentations and thus underscore a significant challenge in S. aureus vaccine development.

  10. Staphylococcus aureus Alpha-Toxin Is Conserved among Diverse Hospital Respiratory Isolates Collected from a Global Surveillance Study and Is Neutralized by Monoclonal Antibody MEDI4893.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabor, David E; Yu, Li; Mok, Hoyin; Tkaczyk, Christine; Sellman, Bret R; Wu, Yuling; Oganesyan, Vaheh; Slidel, Tim; Jafri, Hasan; McCarthy, Michael; Bradford, Patricia; Esser, Mark T

    2016-09-01

    Staphylococcus aureus infections lead to an array of illnesses ranging from mild skin infections to serious diseases, such endocarditis, osteomyelitis, and pneumonia. Alpha-toxin (Hla) is a pore-forming toxin, encoded by the hla gene, that is thought to play a key role in S. aureus pathogenesis. A monoclonal antibody targeting Hla, MEDI4893, is in clinical development for the prevention of S. aureus ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). The presence of the hla gene and Hla protein in 994 respiratory isolates collected from patients in 34 countries in Asia, Europe, the United States, Latin America, the Middle East, Africa, and Australia was determined. Hla levels were correlated with the geographic location, age of the subject, and length of stay in the hospital. hla gene sequence analysis was performed, and mutations were mapped to the Hla crystal structure. S. aureus supernatants containing Hla variants were tested for susceptibility or resistance to MEDI4893. The hla gene was present and Hla was expressed in 99.0% and 83.2% of the isolates, respectively, regardless of geographic region, hospital locale, or age of the subject. More methicillin-susceptible than methicillin-resistant isolates expressed Hla (86.9% versus 78.8%; P = 0.0007), and S. aureus isolates from pediatric patients expressed the largest amounts of Hla. Fifty-seven different Hla subtypes were identified, and 91% of the isolates encoded an Hla subtype that was neutralized by MED4893. This study demonstrates that Hla is conserved in diverse S. aureus isolates from around the world and is an attractive target for prophylactic monoclonal antibody (MAb) or vaccine development.

  11. First chemical synthesis of a scorpion alpha-toxin affecting sodium channels: the Aah I toxin of Androctonus australis hector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M'Barek, Sarrah; Fajloun, Ziad; Cestèle, Sandrine; Devaux, Christiane; Mansuelle, Pascal; Mosbah, Amor; Jouirou, Besma; Mantegazza, Massimo; Van Rietschoten, Jurphaas; El Ayeb, Mohamed; Rochat, Hervé; Sabatier, Jean-Marc; Sampieri, François

    2004-11-01

    Aah I is a 63-residue alpha-toxin isolated from the venom of the Buthidae scorpion Androctonus australis hector, which is considered to be the most dangerous species. We report here the first chemical synthesis of Aah I by the solid-phase method, using a Fmoc strategy. The synthetic toxin I (sAah I) was renatured in DMSO-Tris buffer, purified and subjected to thorough analysis and comparison with the natural toxin. The sAah I showed physico-chemical (CD spectrum, molecular mass, HPLC elution), biochemical (amino-acid composition, sequence), immunochemical and pharmacological properties similar to those of the natural toxin. The synthetic toxin was recognized by a conformation-dependent monoclonal anti-Aah I antibody, with an IC50 value close to that for the natural toxin. Following intracerebroventricular injection, the synthetic and the natural toxins were similarly lethal to mice. In voltage-clamp experiments, Na(v) 1.2 sodium channel inactivation was inhibited by the application of sAah I or of the natural toxin in a similar way. This work describes a simple protocol for the chemical synthesis of a scorpion alpha-toxin, making it possible to produce structural analogues in time.

  12. Staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin induces apoptosis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells : role of endogenous tumour necrosis factor-alpha and the mitochondrial death pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haslinger, Bettina; Strangfeld, Katrin; Peters, Georg; Schulze-Osthoff, Klaus; Sinha, Bhanu

    2003-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus infections can result in septic and toxic shock with depletion of immune cells and massive cytokine production. Recently, we showed that, in S. aureus-infected Jurkat T cells, alpha-toxin is the major mediator of caspase activation and apoptosis. Here, we investigated the mecha

  13. Quantitative Detection of Clostridium perfringens in Broiler Chickens by Real-Time PCR Targeting the Alpha-Toxin Gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard, Lone; Engberg, Ricarda M.; Schramm, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    QUANTITATIVE DETECTION OF CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS IN BROILER CHICKENS BY REAL-TIME PCR TARGETING THE ALPHA-TOXIN GENE L. Abildgaard 1, R.M. Engberg 1, A. Schramm 2, O. Højberg 1 1 Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Animal Health, Welfare and Nutrition, Tjele, Denmark; 2...... University of Aarhus, Institute of Biological Sciences, Department of Microbiology, Aarhus, Denmark Necrotic enteritis is a severe gastrointestinal disease in broiler chickens caused by C. perfringens producing α-toxin (phospholipase C). The incidence of necrotic enteritis in broilers has been reduced...... by antibiotics (ionophores) presently used to prevent parasitic coccidiosis. From 2012 the European Union has banned these anticoccidials as feed additives, wherefore alternatives are needed to suppress C. perfringens and/or α-toxin production. A real-time PCR primer-probe set targeting the α-toxin gene...

  14. Clostridium perfringens strains from bovine enterotoxemia cases are not superior in in vitro production of alpha toxin, perfringolysin O and proteolytic enzymes

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background: Bovine enterotoxemia is a major cause of mortality in veal calves. Predominantly veal calves of beef cattle breeds are affected and losses due to enterotoxemia may account for up to 20% of total mortality. Clostridium perfringens type A is considered to be the causative agent. Recently, alpha toxin and perfringolysin O have been proposed to play an essential role in the development of disease. However, other potential virulence factors also may play a role in the pathogenesis of b...

  15. Structural features of the pore formed by Staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin inferred from chemical modification and primary structure analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menestrina, G; Belmonte, G; Parisi, V; Morante, S

    1992-09-01

    Staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin makes cells and model membranes permeable to ions and uncharged molecules by opening oligomeric pores of uniform size. Its primary sequence reveals peculiar features which give some hints on the structure of the pore. A flexible region separating the toxin into two halves, several amphiphilic beta-strands and two amphiphilic alpha-helices long enough to span the hydrophobic core of the lipid bilayer are predicted. In analogy to bacterial porins, we propose that the inner walls of the pore are, at least in part, built by an amphiphilic beta-barrel. The model is consistent with circular dichroism data and with the electrophysiological properties of the pore. Functional information on this toxin were obtained by chemical modification of its four histidine residues. Specific carbethoxylation suggested they have different roles: one is required for specific receptor binding, one for oligomerisation and two for unspecific lipid binding. A tentative assignment of each histidine to its specific role is done on the basis of the structural predictions. A functionally related hemolysin, Aeromonas hydrophyla aerolysin, reveals remarkably similar features including the presence and location of histidines involved in receptor binding and oligomerisation.

  16. In Vitro Selection of Single-Stranded DNA Molecular Recognition Elements against S. aureus Alpha Toxin and Sensitive Detection in Human Serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ka L. Hong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alpha toxin is one of the major virulence factors secreted by Staphylococcus aureus, a bacterium that is responsible for a wide variety of infections in both community and hospital settings. Due to the prevalence of S. aureus related infections and the emergence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus, rapid and accurate diagnosis of S. aureus infections is crucial in benefiting patient health outcomes. In this study, a rigorous Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX variant previously developed by our laboratory was utilized to select a single-stranded DNA molecular recognition element (MRE targeting alpha toxin with high affinity and specificity. At the end of the 12-round selection, the selected MRE had an equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd of 93.7 ± 7.0 nM. Additionally, a modified sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was developed by using the selected ssDNA MRE as the toxin-capturing element and a sensitive detection of 200 nM alpha toxin in undiluted human serum samples was achieved.

  17. Transacsys PLC - Final Results

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Final results from Transacsys PLC. A subsidary of this company was set up to develop the CERN EDH system into a commercial product but incurred too much financial loss so the project was cancelled (1/2 page).

  18. Detection of Alpha-Toxin and Other Virulence Factors in Biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus on Polystyrene and a Human Epidermal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmens-den Toom, N. A.; Willemse, J.; Koning, R. A.; Demmers, J. A. A.; Dekkers, D. H. W.; Rijkers, E.; El Ghalbzouri, A.; Nibbering, P. H.; van Wamel, W.

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aim The ability of Staphylococcus aureus to successfully colonize (a)biotic surfaces may be explained by biofilm formation and the actions of virulence factors. The aim of the present study was to establish the presence of 52 proteins, including virulence factors such as alpha-toxin, during biofilm formation of five different (methicillin resistant) S. aureus strains on Leiden human epidermal models (LEMs) and polystyrene surfaces (PS) using a competitive Luminex-based assay. Results All five S. aureus strains formed biofilms on PS, whereas only three out of five strains formed biofilms on LEMs. Out of the 52 tested proteins, six functionally diverse proteins (ClfB, glucosaminidase, IsdA, IsaA, SACOL0688 and nuclease) were detected in biofilms of all strains on both PS and LEMs. At the same time, four toxins (alpha-toxin, gamma-hemolysin B and leukocidins D and E), two immune modulators (formyl peptide receptor-like inhibitory protein and Staphylococcal superantigen-like protein 1), and two other proteins (lipase and LytM) were detectable in biofilms by all five S. aureus strains on LEMs, but not on PS. In contrast, fibronectin-binding protein B (FnbpB) was detectable in biofilms by all S. aureus biofilms on PS, but not on LEMs. These data were largely confirmed by the results from proteomic and transcriptomic analyses and in case of alpha-toxin additionally by GFP-reporter technology. Conclusion Functionally diverse virulence factors of (methicillin-resistant) S. aureus are present during biofilm formation on LEMs and PS. These results could aid in identifying novel targets for future treatment strategies against biofilm-associated infections. PMID:26741798

  19. Detection of Alpha-Toxin and Other Virulence Factors in Biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus on Polystyrene and a Human Epidermal Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P M den Reijer

    Full Text Available The ability of Staphylococcus aureus to successfully colonize (abiotic surfaces may be explained by biofilm formation and the actions of virulence factors. The aim of the present study was to establish the presence of 52 proteins, including virulence factors such as alpha-toxin, during biofilm formation of five different (methicillin resistant S. aureus strains on Leiden human epidermal models (LEMs and polystyrene surfaces (PS using a competitive Luminex-based assay.All five S. aureus strains formed biofilms on PS, whereas only three out of five strains formed biofilms on LEMs. Out of the 52 tested proteins, six functionally diverse proteins (ClfB, glucosaminidase, IsdA, IsaA, SACOL0688 and nuclease were detected in biofilms of all strains on both PS and LEMs. At the same time, four toxins (alpha-toxin, gamma-hemolysin B and leukocidins D and E, two immune modulators (formyl peptide receptor-like inhibitory protein and Staphylococcal superantigen-like protein 1, and two other proteins (lipase and LytM were detectable in biofilms by all five S. aureus strains on LEMs, but not on PS. In contrast, fibronectin-binding protein B (FnbpB was detectable in biofilms by all S. aureus biofilms on PS, but not on LEMs. These data were largely confirmed by the results from proteomic and transcriptomic analyses and in case of alpha-toxin additionally by GFP-reporter technology.Functionally diverse virulence factors of (methicillin-resistant S. aureus are present during biofilm formation on LEMs and PS. These results could aid in identifying novel targets for future treatment strategies against biofilm-associated infections.

  20. The Parametric Model for PLC Reference Chanells and its Verification in Real PLC Environment

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    For the expansion of PLC systems, it is necesssary to have a detailed knowledge of the PLC transmission channel properties. This contribution shortly discusses characteristics of the PLC environment and a classification of PLC transmission channels. A main part is focused on the parametric model for PLC reference channels and its verification in the real PLC environment utilizing experimental measurements.

  1. Reliability analysis of PLC safety equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, J.; Kim, J. Y. [Chungnam Nat. Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-06-15

    FMEA analysis for Nuclear Safety Grade PLC, failure rate prediction for nuclear safety grade PLC, sensitivity analysis for components failure rate of nuclear safety grade PLC, unavailability analysis support for nuclear safety system.

  2. Biochemical characterization of the tomato phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) family and its role in plant immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-El-Haliem, Ahmed M; Vossen, Jack H; van Zeijl, Arjan; Dezhsetan, Sara; Testerink, Christa; Seidl, Michael F; Beck, Martina; Strutt, James; Robatzek, Silke; Joosten, Matthieu H A J

    2016-09-01

    Plants possess effective mechanisms to quickly respond to biotic and abiotic stresses. The rapid activation of phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PLC) enzymes occurs early after the stimulation of plant immune-receptors. Genomes of different plant species encode multiple PLC homologs belonging to one class, PLCζ. Here we determined whether all tomato homologs encode active enzymes and whether they can generate signals that are distinct from one another. We searched the recently completed tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) genome sequence and identified a total of seven PLCs. Recombinant proteins were produced for all tomato PLCs, except for SlPLC7. The purified proteins showed typical PLC activity, as different PLC substrates were hydrolysed to produce diacylglycerol. We studied SlPLC2, SlPLC4 and SlPLC5 enzymes in more detail and observed distinct requirements for Ca(2+) ions and pH, for both their optimum activity and substrate preference. This indicates that each enzyme could be differentially and specifically regulated in vivo, leading to the generation of PLC homolog-specific signals in response to different stimuli. PLC overexpression and specific inhibition of PLC activity revealed that PLC is required for both specific effector- and more general "pattern"-triggered immunity. For the latter, we found that both the flagellin-triggered response and the internalization of the corresponding receptor, Flagellin Sensing 2 (FLS2) of Arabidopsis thaliana, are suppressed by inhibition of PLC activity. Altogether, our data support an important role for PLC enzymes in plant defence signalling downstream of immune receptors. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Lipid Biology edited by Kent D. Chapman and Ivo Feussner.

  3. Immunization with recombinant bivalent chimera r-Cpae confers protection against alpha toxin and enterotoxin of Clostridium perfringens type A in murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shreya, Das; Uppalapati, Siva R; Kingston, Joseph J; Sripathy, Murali H; Batra, Harsh V

    2015-05-01

    Clostridium perfringens type A, an anaerobic pathogen is the most potent cause of soft tissue infections like gas gangrene and enteric diseases like food poisoning and enteritis. The disease manifestations are mediated via two important exotoxins, viz. myonecrotic alpha toxin (αC) and enterotoxin (CPE). In the present study, we synthesized a bivalent chimeric protein r-Cpae comprising C-terminal binding regions of αC and CPE using structural vaccinology rationale and assessed its protective efficacy against both alpha toxin (αC) and enterotoxin (CPE) respectively, in murine model. Active immunization of mice with r-Cpae generated high circulating serum IgG (systemic), significantly increased intestinal mucosal s-IgA antibody titres and resulted in substantial protection to the immunized animals (100% and 75% survival) with reduced tissue morbidity when administered with 5×LD(100) doses of αC (intramuscular) and CPE (intra-gastric gavage) respectively. Mouse RBCs and Caco-2 cells incubated with a mixture of anti-r-Cpae antibodies and αC and CPE respectively, illustrated significantly higher protection against the respective toxins. Passive immunization of mice with a similar mixture resulted in 91-100% survival at the end of the 15 days observation period while mice immunized with a concoction of sham sera and respective toxins died within 2-3 days. This work demonstrates the efficacy of the rationally designed r-Cpae chimeric protein as a potential sub unit vaccine candidate against αC and CPE of C. perfringens type A toxemia.

  4. The Futility of PLC Lite

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuFour, Rick; Reeves, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Although many schools around the world have claimed to embrace the Professional Learning Community process, it would be more accurate to describe the current state of affairs in many schools as PLC Lite. Educators rename their traditional faculty or department meetings as PLC meetings, engage in book studies that result in no action, or devote…

  5. The function of PlcR in Bacillus anthracis vaccine strain A16R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaolin, Jia; Dongshu, Wang; Zhiqi, Gao; Erling, Feng; Jiping, Zheng; Hengliang, Wang; Guiying, Guo; Xiankai, Liu

    2015-05-01

    Bacillus anthracis, B. thuringiensis and B. cereus are members of the B. cereus group. They share high genetic similarity. Whereas plcR (Phospholipase C regulator) usually encodes a functional pleiotropic activator protein in B. cereus and B. thuringiensis isolates, a characteristic nonsense mutation is found in all B. anthracis strains investigated, making the gene dysfunctional. To study the function of PlcR in B. anthracis, we used the B. cereus CMCC63301 genome as a template and constructed a recombinant expression plasmid pBE2A-plcR, and introduced it into the B. anthracis vaccine strain A16R, and then analyzed the activity of the hemolysin and sphingomyelinase. The results showed that transformation of B. anthracis with plasmid pBE2A-plcR carrying the native B. cereus plcR gene active the expression of sphingomyelinase gene, but did not activate expression of hemolysin genes of B. anthracis A16R.

  6. Development of PLC Technology in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jianming; Cuiwei

    2005-01-01

    In China there built a large scale of power line communication (Abbr. PLC)testing network. This paper presents the research and development on PLC technology in China and also the application and popularization of PLC in Chinese market. At the end, the next focal points of PLC technology research are deeply discussed.

  7. Study on polymorphisms of plc genes for 38 clinical isolates of mycobacterium tuberculosis in Qinghai%青海省38株结核分枝杆菌plc基因多态性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兆芬; 马永成; 李斌; 蒋明霞; 苏效东; 刘寿; 文国颖; 李尔琛

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨青海地区临床分离的结核杆菌中磷脂酶C编码基因plcABCD的突变情况.方法 38株结核杆菌增菌后提取DNA,并对4个基因plcA,plcB,plcC,plcD同时进行扩增,用琼脂糖凝胶电泳检测扩增产物并分析菌株基因的突变或缺失情况.结果 38株菌被分为6个基因型,其中12株含有完整的所有plcABCD基因,为plc野生株,占31.58%;26株菌有不同plc基因的缺失,为plc突变株,占68.42%.2株菌同时缺失了plcABD基因.plcA,plcB,plcC,plcD各基因的突变发生率分别为13.16%,10.53%,7.89%,47.37%.结论 青海地区临床分离的结核杆菌plc基因呈现多态性,plcD基因最易发生突变.%OBJECTIVE To explore deletions or mutations of phospholipase C-encoding genes for clinical strains of mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated in Qinghai. METHODS 38 strains from patients with tuberculosis were identified and bacterial DNA was extracted. plcABCD genes were amplified by four pairs of primers of plcA, plcB, plcC and plcD. PCR products were checked by agarose gel electrophoresis. RESULTS On the basis of presence or absence of plcABCD genes, 38 isolates were distributed in 6 different genotypes. Of which, 12 isolates (31.58%) were pic wild genotype which showed presence of all four pic genes; 26 isolates (68.42%) were mutant types with an interruption or deletion of different pic genes. 2 isolates deleted simultaneously three genes of plcA, plcB and plcD. Mutation rates were 13.16% for plcA, 10.53% for plcB, 7.89% for plcC and 47.37% for plcD respectively. CONCLUSION Isolates of M. tuberculosis present polymorphisms in loci of pic genes. There is a higher frequency of mutations in plcD gene than other three plcC genes.

  8. Anti-alpha-toxin monoclonal antibody and antibiotic combination therapy improves disease outcome and accelerates healing in a Staphylococcus aureus dermonecrosis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliard, Jamese J; Datta, Vivekananda; Tkaczyk, Christine; Hamilton, Melissa; Sadowska, Agnieszka; Jones-Nelson, Omari; O'Day, Terrence; Weiss, William J; Szarka, Szabolcs; Nguyen, Vien; Prokai, Laszlo; Suzich, JoAnn; Stover, C Kendall; Sellman, Bret R

    2015-01-01

    Alpha-toxin (AT) is a major virulence determinant in Staphylococcus aureus skin and soft tissue infection models. We previously demonstrated that prophylactic administration of 2A3, an AT-neutralizing monoclonal antibody (MAb), prevents S. aureus disease in a mouse dermonecrosis model by neutralizing AT-mediated tissue necrosis and immune evasion. In the present study, MEDI4893*, an affinity-optimized version of 2A3, was characterized for therapeutic activity in the dermonecrosis model as a single agent and in combination with two frontline antibiotics, vancomycin and linezolid. MEDI4893* postinfection therapy was found to exhibit a therapeutic treatment window similar to that for linezolid but longer than that for vancomycin. Additionally, when combined with either vancomycin or linezolid, MEDI4893* resulted in reduced tissue damage, increased neutrophil and macrophage infiltration and abscess formation, and accelerated healing relative to those with the antibiotic monotherapies. These data suggest that AT neutralization with a potent MAb holds promise for both prophylaxis and adjunctive therapy with antibiotics and may be a valuable addition to currently available options for the treatment of S. aureus skin and soft tissue infections.

  9. Staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin mediates general and cell type-specific changes in metabolite concentrations of immortalized human airway epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Gierok

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin (Hla is a potent pore-forming cytotoxin that plays an important role in the pathogenesis of S. aureus infections, including pneumonia. The impact of Hla on the dynamics of the metabolome in eukaryotic host cells has not been investigated comprehensively. Using 1H-NMR, GC-MS and HPLC-MS, we quantified the concentrations of 51 intracellular metabolites and assessed alterations in the amount of 25 extracellular metabolites in the two human bronchial epithelial cell lines S9 and 16HBE14o- under standard culture conditions and after treatment with sub-lethal amounts (2 µg/ml of recombinant Hla (rHla in a time-dependent manner. Treatment of cells with rHla caused substantial decreases in the concentrations of intracellular metabolites from different metabolic pathways in both cell lines, including ATP and amino acids. Concomitant increases in the extracellular concentrations were detected for various intracellular compounds, including nucleotides, glutathione disulfide and NAD+. Our results indicate that rHla has a major impact on the metabolome of eukaryotic cells as a consequence of direct rHla-mediated alterations in plasma membrane permeability or indirect effects mediated by cellular signalling. However, cell-specific changes also were observed. Glucose consumption and lactate production rates suggest that the glycolytic activity of S9 cells, but not of 16HBE14o- cells, is increased in response to rHla. This could contribute to the observed higher level of resistance of S9 cells against rHla-induced membrane damage.

  10. A PLC Journey. Classroom Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Martha E.

    2011-01-01

    Being involved in a PLC (professional learning community) has strengthened the author's work with students; they have shown improvement, which affirms the process. In this paper the author shares the following lessons she learned: (1) Administrative support both in word and deed is crucial; (2) Communication was vertical and horizontal; (3)…

  11. Usage of Wifi Technology for PLC Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Jaromír ŠKUTA

    2009-01-01

    This contribution describes usage of WIFI technology for programming and parameterization of application in PLC. INSYS WLAN unit from the Microelectronics INSYS Corporation is the base of application. Software access point with using USB WIFI component WL167 is running in industrial PC. Particular PC clients are connecting into network infrastructure PLC by the help of this access point and INSYS WLAN unit. This connection allows configuring and uploading program into this PLC.

  12. Speed Control of Induction Motor Using PLC and SCADA System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Seksak Elsaid,

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Automation or automatic control is the use of various control systems for operating equipment such as machinery, processes in factories, boilers and heat-treating ovens, switching in telephone networks, steering and stabilization of ships, aircraft and other applications with minimal or reduced human intervention. Some processes have been completely automated. The motor speed is controlled via the driver as an open loop control. To make a more precise closed loop control of motor speed we will use a tachometer to measure the speed and feed it back to the PLC, which compares to the desired value and take a control action, then the signal is transferred to the motor – via driver – to increase / decrease the speed. We will measure the speed of the motor using an incremental rotary encoder by adjusting parameters (PLC, driver and also we need to reduce the overall cost of the system. Our control system will be held using the available Siemens PLC. In addition, we will monitor motor parameters via SCADA system.

  13. PLC Multi-Chip Integration Technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Motohaya; Ishii

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews recent progress on integrated multi-chip modules composed of silica-based planar lightwave circuits (PLCs) with a relatively high core-to-cladding index contrast A. These compact and highly functional modules were fabricated by using the PLC-PLC direct attachment technique.

  14. PLC Multi-Chip Integration Technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Motohaya Ishii

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews recent progress on integrated multi-chip modules composed of silica-based planarlightwave circuits (PLCs) with a relatively high core-to-cladding index contrast △. These compact and highlyfunctional modules were fabricated by using the PLC-PLC direct attachment technique.

  15. General and Versatile Autoinhibition of PLC Isozymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hicks, Stephanie N.; Jezyk, Mark R.; Gershburg, Svetlana; Seifert, Jason P.; Harden, T. Kendall; Sondek, John (UNC)

    2008-10-31

    Phospholipase C (PLC) isozymes are directly activated by heterotrimeric G proteins and Ras-like GTPases to hydrolyze phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate into the second messengers diacylglycerol and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. Although PLCs play central roles in myriad signaling cascades, the molecular details of their activation remain poorly understood. As described here, the crystal structure of PLC-{beta}2 illustrates occlusion of the active site by a loop separating the two halves of the catalytic TIM barrel. Removal of this insertion constitutively activates PLC-{beta}2 without ablating its capacity to be further stimulated by classical G protein modulators. Similar regulation occurs in other PLC members, and a general mechanism of interfacial activation at membranes is presented that provides a unifying framework for PLC activation by diverse stimuli.

  16. Automated Formal Verification for PLC Control Systems

    CERN Multimedia

    Fernández Adiego, Borja

    2014-01-01

    Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) are widely used devices used in industrial control systems. Ensuring that the PLC software is compliant with its specification is a challenging task. Formal verification has become a recommended practice to ensure the correctness of the safety-critical software. However, these techniques are still not widely applied in industry due to the complexity of building formal models, which represent the system and the formalization of requirement specifications. We propose a general methodology to perform automated model checking of complex properties expressed in temporal logics (e.g. CTL, LTL) on PLC programs. This methodology is based on an Intermediate Model (IM), meant to transform PLC programs written in any of the languages described in the IEC 61131-3 standard (ST, IL, etc.) to different modeling languages of verification tools. This approach has been applied to CERN PLC programs validating the methodology.

  17. Using of Finite Automation at Programming PLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Rastocny

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is concerning with systematic advances at programming programmable logic controllers (PLC, which comes out from algebraic description of behaviour of sequential circuit, in the way of finite automaton. This kind of access is streamlining the work of a programmer and enabling to use formalisms in the of whole process of system development, that is from process of analysing demands to process of verification and validation created program. The paper considers about using of ladder diagram at programming PLC.

  18. Can your software engineer program your PLC?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrowman, Alastair J.; Taylor, Philip

    2016-07-01

    The use of Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) in the control of large physics experiments is ubiquitous1, 2, 3. The programming of these controllers is normally the domain of engineers with a background in electronics, this paper introduces PLC program development from the software engineer's perspective. PLC programs provide the link between control software running on PC architecture systems and physical hardware controlled and monitored by digital and analog signals. The higher-level software running on the PC is typically responsible for accepting operator input and from this deciding when and how hardware connected to the PLC is controlled. The PLC accepts demands from the PC, considers the current state of its connected hardware and if correct to do so (based upon interlocks or other constraints) adjusts its hardware output signals appropriately for the PC's demands. A published ICD (Interface Control Document) defines the PLC memory locations available to be written and read by the PC to control and monitor the hardware. Historically the method of programming PLCs has been ladder diagrams that closely resemble circuit diagrams, however, PLC manufacturers nowadays also provide, and promote, the use of higher-level programming languages4. Based on techniques used in the development of high-level PC software to control PLCs for multiple telescopes, this paper examines the development of PLC programs to operate the hardware of a medical cyclotron beamline controlled from a PC using the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS), which is also widely used in telescope control5, 6, 7. The PLC used is the new generation Siemens S7-1200 programmed using Siemens Pascal based Structured Control Language (SCL), which is their implementation of Structured Text (ST). The approach described is that from a software engineer's perspective, utilising Siemens Totally Integrated Automation (TIA) Portal integrated development environment (IDE) to create

  19. PlcR在炭疽芽胞杆菌A16R中的功能研究%The function of PlcR inBacillus anthracis vaccine strain A16R

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾晓琳; 王东澍; 高志奇; 冯尔玲; 郑继平; 王恒樑; 郭桂英; 刘先凯

    2015-01-01

    炭疽芽胞杆菌(Bacillus anthracis)、蜡样芽胞杆菌(B. cereus)和苏云金芽胞杆菌(B. thuringiensis)均属于蜡样芽胞杆菌群,在遗传学上有很高的相似性.PlcR (Phospholipase C regulator)在蜡样芽胞杆菌中是十分重要的调控因子,但plcR基因在炭疽芽胞杆菌中发生一个无义突变导致在炭疽芽胞杆菌中产生一个截短PlcR蛋白.为了研究plcR基因对炭疽芽胞杆菌功能的影响,文章以蜡样芽胞杆菌CMCC6330基因组为模板,构建重组表达质粒pBE2A-plcR后导入炭疽芽胞杆菌疫苗株 A16R中获得重组菌株,对其进行表型分析.结果显示,炭疽芽胞杆菌重组菌株的溶血活性基本没有恢复,但恢复了部分神经鞘磷脂酶活性,表明将蜡样芽胞杆菌的 plcR基因导入炭疽芽胞杆菌后,可以直接激活神经鞘磷脂酶活性.%Bacillus anthracis,B. thuringiensis andB. cereus are members of theB. cereusgroup. They share high genetic similarity. Whereas plcR (Phospholipase C regulator) usually encodes a functional pleiotropic activator pro-tein inB. cereus andB. thuringiensis isolates, a characteristic nonsense mutation is found in allB. anthracisstrains investigated, making the gene dysfunctional. To study the function of PlcR inB. anthracis, we used theB. cereus CMCC63301genome as a template and constructed a recombinant expression plasmid pBE2A-plcR, and introduced it intothe B. anthracis vaccine strain A16R, and then analyzed the activity of the hemolysin and sphingomyelinase. The results showed that transformation ofB. anthracis with plasmid pBE2A-plcR carrying the nativeB. cereus plcR gene active the expression of sphingomyelinase gene, but did not activate expression of hemolysin genes ofB. anthracis A16R.

  20. A preliminary study on introductory teaching of PLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang-hanyan; Xu Hong-Pin

    2015-01-01

    #%The focus of this paper is the introductory teaching of PLC (Programmable Logic Control er) in secondary vocational schools,In order to make the students know PLC intuitively and progressively,the introductory teaching are offered based on the combination of PLC and relay system.This paper guide students to understand the plc control by jog motor control and self-locking control,and the obvious result is obtained.

  1. Dynamics of plc gene transcription and α-toxin production during growth of Clostridium perfringens strains with contrasting α-toxin production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard, Lone; Schramm, Andreas; Rudi, Knut;

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate transcription dynamics of the α-toxin-encoding plc gene relative to two housekeeping genes (gyrA and rplL) in batch cultures of three Clostridium perfringens strains with low, intermediate, and high levels of α-toxin production, respectively. The plc...... transcript level was always low in the low α-toxin producing strain. For the two other strains, plc transcription showed an inducible pattern and reached a maximum level in the late exponential growth phase. The transcription levels were however inversely correlated to α-toxin production for the two strains....... We propose that this discrepancy is due to differences in plc translation rates between the strains and that strain-specific translational rates therefore must be determined before α-toxin production can be extrapolated from transcript levels in C. perfringens....

  2. PLC based Smart Street Lighting Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V.Pushpa Latha

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Conventional street lighting systems in most of the areas are Online at regular intervals of time irrespective of the seasonal variations. The street lights are simply switched on at afternoon and turned off in the morning. The consequence is that a large amount of Power is wasted meaninglessly. As energy consumption is an issue of increasing interest, possible energy savings in public street lighting systems are recently discussed from different viewpoints. The purpose of this work is to describe the Smart Street Lighting system, an approach to accomplish the demand for flexible public lighting systems using a Programmable Logic controller (PLC. The main difference from other computers is that PLCs are armoured for severe conditions such as dust, moisture, heat, cold etc., and have the facility for extensive input/output (I/O arrangements. In the proposed paper, street lights are controlled using millennium 3 PLC taking the seasonal variations into consideration.

  3. Intelligent traffic control system using PLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barz, C.; Todea, C.; Latinovic, T.; Preradovic, D. M.; Deaconu, S.; Berdie, A.

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents the traffic control system controlled through a PLC which takes the signals from different sensors on roads. The global system developed ensures the coordination of four intersections, setting a path that respects coordination type green light, the integration of additional sensors, the implementation of probes radar to inform traffic participants about recommended speed for accessing the green state located in the intersection that will follow to cross.

  4. PLC Based Automatic Multistoried Car Parking System

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This project work presents the study and design of PLC based Automatic Multistoried Car Parking System. Multistoried car parking is an arrangement which is used to park a large number of vehicles in least possible place. For making this arrangement in a real plan very high technological instruments are required. In this project a prototype of such a model is made. This prototype model is made for accommodating twelve cars at a time. Availability of the space for parking is detecte...

  5. Practical application with plc in manipulation of a robotic arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Barz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the use of a robotic arm PLC Siemens in order not using CNC commands. This is done by programming the PLC ladder diagram language that makes movement on the three axes of the arm by means of stepper motors. Required command console PLC is built with the help of a touch screen HMI Weintek. In the user interface are introduced distances and displacement speeds on the three axes.

  6. 76 FR 44079 - M (2003) PLC (f/k/a Marconi PLC), Mayfair Mining & Minerals, Inc., MM2 Group, Inc., Nayna...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION M (2003) PLC (f/k/a Marconi PLC), Mayfair Mining & Minerals, Inc.,MM2 Group, Inc., Nayna Networks... current and accurate information concerning the securities of M (2003) PLC (f/k/a Marconi PLC) because...

  7. Power Line Communication (PLC) in Space - Current Status and Outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, J.

    2012-05-01

    The Power Line Communication (PLC) technology as known from various terrestrial applications, e.g. in building automation, in the automotive sector and on aircraft, appears to be a promising technology for the use on spacecraft. Starting from a critical overview on existing terrestrial PLC applications with their pros and cons, the paper gives a motivation for the introduction of the PLC technology on spacecraft, discusses the potential areas where it can be applied and is highlighting the potential problem areas. A short overview of on-going ESA PLC activities is provided and an outlook is given.

  8. Development of tools for automatic generation of PLC code

    CERN Document Server

    Koutli, Maria; Rochez, Jacques

    This Master thesis was performed at CERN and more specifically in the EN-ICE-PLC section. The Thesis describes the integration of two PLC platforms, that are based on CODESYS development tool, to the CERN defined industrial framework, UNICOS. CODESYS is a development tool for PLC programming, based on IEC 61131-3 standard, and is adopted by many PLC manufacturers. The two PLC development environments are, the SoMachine from Schneider and the TwinCAT from Beckhoff. The two CODESYS compatible PLCs, should be controlled by the SCADA system of Siemens, WinCC OA. The framework includes a library of Function Blocks (objects) for the PLC programs and a software for automatic generation of the PLC code based on this library, called UAB. The integration aimed to give a solution that is shared by both PLC platforms and was based on the PLCOpen XML scheme. The developed tools were demonstrated by creating a control application for both PLC environments and testing of the behavior of the code of the library.

  9. An Evolutionarily Conserved PLC-PKD-TFEB Pathway for Host Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najibi, Mehran; Labed, Sid Ahmed; Visvikis, Orane; Irazoqui, Javier Elbio

    2016-05-24

    The mechanisms that tightly control the transcription of host defense genes have not been fully elucidated. We previously identified TFEB as a transcription factor important for host defense, but the mechanisms that regulate TFEB during infection remained unknown. Here, we used C. elegans to discover a pathway that activates TFEB during infection. Gene dkf-1, which encodes a homolog of protein kinase D (PKD), was required for TFEB activation in nematodes infected with Staphylococcus aureus. Conversely, pharmacological activation of PKD was sufficient to activate TFEB. Furthermore, phospholipase C (PLC) gene plc-1 was also required for TFEB activation, downstream of Gαq homolog egl-30 and upstream of dkf-1. Using reverse and chemical genetics, we discovered a similar PLC-PKD-TFEB axis in Salmonella-infected mouse macrophages. In addition, PKCα was required in macrophages. These observations reveal a previously unknown host defense signaling pathway, which has been conserved across one billion years of evolution.

  10. Design and first commissioning results of PLC-based control systems for the Mercator telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessemier, Wim; Deconinck, Geert; Raskin, Gert; Saey, Philippe; Van Winckel, Hans

    2012-09-01

    The 1.2m optical Mercator Telescope (based at the Roque de Los Muchachos Observatory at La Palma) is currently in the commissioning phase of a third permanently installed instrument called MAIA (Mercator Advanced Imager for Asteroseismology), a three-channel frame-transfer imager optimized for rapid photometry. Despite having three cryostats, MAIA is designed as a highly compact and portable instrument by using small Stirling-type cryocoolers, and a single PLC in charge of all temperature control loops, cryocooler interaction, telemetry acquisition and other instrument control related tasks. To accommodate MAIA at the Nasmyth B focal station of the telescope, a new mechanism for the tertiary mirror had to be built since the former mechanism only allowed motor controlled access to the Cassegrain and Nasmyth A focal stations. A second PLC has been installed in order to control the two degrees of freedom of this mirror mechanism by interfacing with its motor controllers, high-precision optical encoders, and limit switches. This PLC is not dedicated to the tertiary mirror control but will serve as a general purpose controller for various tasks related to the telescope and the observatory, as part of a new Telescope Control System primarily based on PLCs and OPC UA communication technology. Due to the central location of the PLC inside the observatory, the position control loops of the mirror mechanism are distributed using EtherCAT as the communication fieldbus. In this paper we present the design and the first commissioning results of both the MAIA instrument control and the tertiary mirror control.

  11. 产气荚膜梭菌α毒素突变体构建及其卵黄抗体制备%Construction of Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin mutant and preparation of egg yolk IgY antibody

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李箐; 辛文文; 康琳; 高姗; 王景林

    2013-01-01

    目的 制备特异性的产气荚膜梭菌α毒素(Clostridium perfringens alpha-toxin,CPA)卵黄抗体(yolk immunoglobulin,IgY).方法 利用定点突变技术,将CPA第56位天冬氨酸和第68位组氨酸分别突变为丝氨酸,构建了重组表达载体pTIG-mCPAD56S和pTIG-mCPAH68S,将其转化入E.coli Origami中进行诱导表达.用亲和层析的方法对突变体蛋白进行纯化并对其活性及抗原性进行检测,将获得的突变体蛋白分别免疫健康母鸡,收集鸡蛋;经水稀释法纯化卵黄中IgY;用酶联免疫吸附试验检测IgY效价;通过筛选保护剂而选择最佳的IgY冻干条件.结果 与结论 pTIG-mCPA在Origami表达菌株中得到高效表达,经验证,mCPAD56S和mCPAH68S均完全失去生物学活性同时保留抗原性;纯化卵黄后得到较高纯度的特异性IgY,其效价可达到1∶200 000;经过IgY冻干条件的筛选,最终选择不添加保护剂大量冻干IgY作为抗体的储备.该研究为研制基于IgY抗体的检测方法奠定了基础.

  12. Isolation of cDNA encoding the catalytic site of phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C from Coffea arabica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Cach, Lucila A; Ortiz-García, Matilde M; Minero-García, Yereni; Muñoz-Sánchez, J Armando; Hernández-Sotomayor, SM Teresa; Suárez-Solís, Víctor M

    2008-01-01

    A cDNA encoding the catalytic site of a phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) was isolated from Coffea arabica suspension cells. The cDNA (designated CaPLC) encodes a polypeptide of 308 amino acids, containing the catalytic X and Y domains, and has 99% identity to the soybean gene. Recombinant CaPLC protein was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified, and used to produce a polyclonal antibody. The peptide has a molecular mass of 27 kDa on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and western blot analyses. Immunoblots revealed the presence of PLC-like proteins in the tissues of different plant species. PMID:19513191

  13. 在系统设计中学习PLC%Learning PLC in the system design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张旭

    2012-01-01

    For vocational schools PLC teaching, the main focus on the ladder diagram, Instruction List, Sequential Function Chart programming, while ignoring the overall design of the PLC controlling system, causing the students can not really learn the PLC. By a complete design instance of simulating crossroads traffic light system on the remote monitoring and controlling, based on $7-200 Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) of Siemens and KingView 6.53. It describes the effect of the system design in the learning of PLC courses. It is favourable for further motivating students' initiative of self-independent studying and for comprehensively understanding and mastering of theoretical knowledge so as to make students really master PLC.%针对当今职业院校PLC教学中,主要侧重于梯形图、语句表、顺序功能图的程序设计.而忽略了PLC控制系统的整体设计,造成学生不能真正学懂PLC的问题,通过一个完整的基于S7—200可编程控制器和组态王6.53软件的远程监控十字路口交通灯模拟系统设计实例,阐述了学生完成系统设计在PLC课程学习中的作用在于。有利于进一步调动学生自主学习的积极性,有利于全面理解和掌握理论知识,使学生真正掌握PLC。

  14. DC-PLC Modem design for PV module monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Duc Ma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, power line communication (PLC is a very efficient technique in cost aspect because it is communication system using power line without extra communication cables. In case of DC-PLC, it send a communication signal of the high frequency band to the monitoring system through the DC power line and is widely used for DC grid or the distributed generation system using DC source. Especially, the management system which evaluates the performance and efficiency of PV module by measuring PV power through monitoring system based on the DC-PLC has been increased. In this paper, apply the DC-PLC method for low cost PV module monitoring system and constitutes a measuring device and communication modem on a MCU. For the communication performance, we use the digital filter and apply the multi-carrier communication. The proposed DC-PLC Modem is verified through simulation and experiment.

  15. PLC Based Automatic Multistoried Car Parking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swanand S .Vaze

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This project work presents the study and design of PLC based Automatic Multistoried Car Parking System. Multistoried car parking is an arrangement which is used to park a large number of vehicles in least possible place. For making this arrangement in a real plan very high technological instruments are required. In this project a prototype of such a model is made. This prototype model is made for accommodating twelve cars at a time. Availability of the space for parking is detected by optical proximity sensor which is placed on the pallet. A motor controlled elevator is used to lift the cars. Elevator status is indicated by LED which is placed on ground floor. Controlling of the platforms and checking the vacancies is done by PLC. For unparking of car, keyboard is interfaced with the model for selection of required platform. Automation is done to reduce requirement of space and also to reduce human errors, which in-turn results in highest security and greatest flexibility. Due to these advantages, this system can be used in hotels, railway stations, airports where crowding of car is more.

  16. The PlcR virulence regulon of Bacillus cereus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Gohar

    Full Text Available PlcR is a Bacillus cereus transcriptional regulator, which activates gene expression by binding to a nucleotidic sequence called the 'PlcR box'. To build a list of all genes included in the PlcR regulon, a consensus sequence was identified by directed mutagenesis. The reference strain ATCC14579 sequenced genome was searched for occurrences of this consensus sequence to produce a virtual regulon. PlcR control of these genes was confirmed by comparing gene expression in the reference strain and its isogenic Delta-plcR strain using DNA microarrays, lacZ fusions and proteomics methods. The resulting list included 45 genes controlled by 28 PlcR boxes. Forty of the PlcR controlled proteins were exported, of which 22 were secreted in the extracellular medium and 18 were bound or attached to cell wall structures (membrane or peptidoglycan layer. The functions of these proteins were related to food supply (phospholipases, proteases, toxins, cell protection (bacteriocins, toxins, transporters, cell wall biogenesis and environment-sensing (two-component sensors, chemotaxis proteins, GGDEF family regulators. Four genes coded for cytoplasmic regulators. The PlcR regulon appears to integrate a large range of environmental signals, including food deprivation and self cell-density, and regulate the transcription of genes designed to overcome obstacles that hinder B. cereus growth within the host: food supply, host barriers, host immune defenses, and competition with other bacterial species. PlcR appears to be a key component in the efficient adaptation of B. cereus to its host environment.

  17. Activated PLC-γ1 is catalytically induced at LAT but activated PLC-γ1 is localized at both LAT- and TCR-containing complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Orcutt, Noemi; Vacaflores, Aldo; Connolly, Sean F; Bunnell, Stephen C; Houtman, Jon C D

    2014-04-01

    Phospholipase C-γ1 (PLC-γ1) is a key regulator of T cell receptor (TCR)-induced signaling. Activation of the TCR enhances PLC-γ1 enzymatic function, resulting in calcium influx and the activation of PKC family members and RasGRP. The current model is that phosphorylation of LAT tyrosine 132 facilitates the recruitment of PLC-γ1, leading to its activation and function at the LAT complex. In this study, we examined the phosphorylation kinetics of LAT and PLC-γ1 and the cellular localization of activated PLC-γ1. We observed that commencement of the phosphorylation of LAT tyrosine 132 and PLC-γ1 tyrosine 783 occurred simultaneously, supporting the current model. However, once begun, PLC-γ1 activation occurred more rapidly than LAT tyrosine 132. The association of LAT and PLC-γ1 was more transient than the interaction of LAT and Grb2 and a pool of activated PLC-γ1 translocated away from LAT to cellular structures containing the TCR. These studies demonstrate that LAT and PLC-γ1 form transient interactions that catalyze the activation of PLC-γ1, but that activated PLC-γ1 resides in both LAT and TCR clusters. Together, this work highlights that our current model is incomplete and the activation and function of PLC-γ1 in T cells is highly complex.

  18. Practical Curriculum Design Based on Food Motoring System of PLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Yang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The study designed a kind of stepping food motoring control system based on PLC and touch screen, complete the secondary design and renovation based on PLC technology. According to the trend that the PLC new technology is widely and deeply applied into modern food industrial production, combining students electrician, maintenance electrician basic skill training needs to make a reformation of the food motoring system of student training curriculum. This system has simple structure, stable performance, economic value, outstanding using effect, remarkable specific design example and expected effect.

  19. Trends in Control Area of PLC Reliability and Safety Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Zdansky

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Extension of the PLC application possibilities is closely related to increase of reliability and safety parameters. If the requirement of reliability and safety parameters will be suitable, the PLC could by implemented to specific applications such the safety-related processes control. The goal of this article is to show the way which producers are approaching to increase PLC`s reliability and safety parameters. The second goal is to analyze these parameters for range of present choice and describe the possibility how the reliability and safety parameters can be affected.

  20. The PLC Control System of Vacuum Resin Shot Dosing Equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Shao-ying; XU Yu; HE Zheng-wen

    2003-01-01

    The principle and working process of Vacuum Resin Shot Dosing Equipment(VRSDE) are analyzed and the characteristics of IP1612-220PLC (Programmable Logical Controller) are introduced briefly at first. Then the authors discuss the flow of program, the assignment of PLC I/O ports,the wiring diagram, and the ladder logic program of the PLC control system of VRSDE in detail.Some application issues of the system are accounted for in addition. Finally, according to the information acquired from users, the authors draw the conclusion: this system owns a high reliability and availability and greatly improves the automatic degree of VRDE.

  1. Pneumatic, PLC Controlled, Automotive Gear Shifting Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muntaser Momani

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a gear shifting mechanism was designed and applied to make the shifting process faster and less destructible for the driver. The new device must be reliable, has a small dimensions, low construction and maintenance cost. This paper aims to improve gear shifting process using devices as: a manual four speed gear box, four pneumatic double acting cylinders, four pneumatic two position five ways directional control valves, Programmable Logic Controller (PLC LOGO unit, an electrical motor, an electrical clutch, a belt, two pulleys, limit switches, push buttons, bulbs, a table (holder and power supply. According to suggested gear_ shifting method the driver can select the transmission gear ratio without moving his hands from the steering wheel by putting the gear shifting push buttons on the steering wheel. Using this method leaves to the driver the excitement of choosing the shifting moment.

  2. Study on Measuring System of Casing Machine Based on PLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiqiang Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available According to the technology requirements of measurement for animal casing, in this paper, we use PLC and touch screen as the control core, the electromechanical integration design ideas to research the methods and principles for casing measure, and analyze the mechanical structures and mechanical characteristics of casing machine. As the control core, the programmable logic controller (PLC ensures that the whole control system has high precision, high stability, high reliability during the operation time. Through PLC and touch screen well match with PLC which make the casing machine more convenient to operate the whole system. The configuration software form has a brief and intuitive interface on touch screen which makes it easy to use. The mechanical structure and control system of this casing machine are more stable, more reliable and with high anti-interference ability, and satisfies various requirements for animal casings, easy and convenient to operate.

  3. Applying Model Checking to Industrial-Sized PLC Programs

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2079190; Darvas, Daniel; Blanco Vinuela, Enrique; Tournier, Jean-Charles; Bliudze, Simon; Blech, Jan Olaf; Gonzalez Suarez, Victor M

    2015-01-01

    Programmable logic controllers (PLCs) are embedded computers widely used in industrial control systems. Ensuring that a PLC software complies with its specification is a challenging task. Formal verification has become a recommended practice to ensure the correctness of safety-critical software but is still underused in industry due to the complexity of building and managing formal models of real applications. In this paper, we propose a general methodology to perform automated model checking of complex properties expressed in temporal logics (\\eg CTL, LTL) on PLC programs. This methodology is based on an intermediate model (IM), meant to transform PLC programs written in various standard languages (ST, SFC, etc.) to different modeling languages of verification tools. We present the syntax and semantics of the IM and the transformation rules of the ST and SFC languages to the nuXmv model checker passing through the intermediate model. Finally, two real cases studies of \\CERN PLC programs, written mainly in th...

  4. Functional analysis of the extended N-terminal region in PLC-δ1 (MlPLC-δ1) from the mud loach, Misgurnus mizolepis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Na Young; Ahn, Sang Jung; Kim, Moo-Sang; Seo, Jung Soo; Jung, Se Hwan; Park, Sung Hwan; Lee, Hyung Ho; Chung, Joon Ki

    2014-01-01

    Mud loach phospholipase C-δ1 (MlPLC-δ1) contains all the characteristic domains found in mammalian PLC-δ isozymes (pleckstrin homology domain, EF-hands, X–Y catalytic region, and C2 domain) as well as an extended 26-amino acid (aa)-long N-terminal region that is an alternative splice form of PLC-δ1 and is novel to vertebrate PLC-δ. In the present structure-function analysis, deletion of the extended N-terminal region caused complete loss of phosphatidylinositol (PI)- and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2)-hydrolyzing activity in MlPLC-δ1. Additionally, recombinant full-length MlPLC-δ1 PLC activity was reduced in a dose-dependent manner by coincubation with the 26-aa protein fragment. Using a protein-lipid overlay assay, both full-length MlPLC-δ1 and the 26-aa protein fragment had substantial affinity for PIP2, whereas deletion of the 26-aa region from MlPLC-δ1 (MlPLC-δ1-deletion) resulted in lower affinity for PIP2. These results suggest that the novel N-terminal exon of MlPLC-δ1 could play an important role in the regulation of PLC-δ1.

  5. Towards Designing PLC Networks for Ubiquitous Connectivity in Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Kamran; Pefkianakis, Ioannis; Liu, Alex X.; Kim, Kyu-Han

    2016-01-01

    Powerline communication (PLC) provides inexpensive, secure and high speed network connectivity, by leveraging the existing power distribution networks inside the buildings. While PLC technology has the potential to improve connectivity and is considered a key enabler for sensing, control, and automation applications in enterprises, it has been mainly deployed for improving connectivity in homes. Deploying PLCs in enterprises is more challenging since the power distribution network is more com...

  6. PLC Hardware Discrimination using RF-DNA fingerprinting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-19

    PLC HARDWARE DISCRIMINATION USING RF-DNA FINGERPRINTING THESIS Bradley C. Wright, Civilian, USAF AFIT-ENG-T-14-J-12 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR...protection in the United States. AFIT-ENG-T-14-J-12 PLC HARDWARE DISCRIMINATION USING RF-DNA FINGERPRINTING THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department... DISCRIMINATION USING RF-DNA FINGERPRINTING Bradley C. Wright, B.S.E.E. Civilian, USAF Approved: /signed/ Maj Samuel J. Stone, PhD (Chairman) /signed/ Michael A

  7. PLC-δ1-Lf, a novel N-terminal extended phospholipase C-δ1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Na Young; Ahn, Sang Jung; Kim, Moo-Sang; Seo, Jung Soo; Kim, Bo Seong; Bak, Hye Jin; Lee, Jin Young; Park, Myoung-Ae; Park, Ju Hyeon; Lee, Hyung Ho; Chung, Joon Ki

    2013-10-10

    Phospholipase C-δ (PLC-δ), a key enzyme in phosphoinositide turnover, is involved in a variety of physiological functions. The widely expressed PLC-δ1 isoform is the best characterized and the most well understood phospholipase family member. However, the functional and molecular mechanisms of PLC-δ1 remain obscure. Here, we identified that the N-terminal region of mouse PLC-δ1 gene has two variants, a novel alternative splicing form, named as long form (mPLC-δ1-Lf) and the previously reported short form (mPLC-δ1-Sf), having exon 2 and exon 1, respectively, while both the gene variants share exons 3-16 for RNA transcription. Furthermore, the expression, identification and enzymatic characterization of the two types of PLC-δ1 genes were compared. Expression of mPLC-δ1-Lf was found to be tissue specific, whereas mPLC-δ1-Sf was widely distributed. The recombinant mPLC-δ1-Sf protein exhibited higher activity than recombinant mPLC-δ1-Lf protein. Although, the general catalytic and regulatory properties of mPLC-δ1-Lf are similar to those of PLC-δ1-Sf isozyme, the mPLC-δ1-Lf showed some distinct regulatory properties, such as tissue-specific expression and lipid binding specificity, particularly for phosphatidylserine.

  8. Efficient Implementation of a Symbol Timing Estimator for Broadband PLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Nombela

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Broadband Power Line Communications (PLC have taken advantage of the research advances in multi-carrier modulations to mitigate frequency selective fading, and their adoption opens up a myriad of applications in the field of sensory and automation systems, multimedia connectivity or smart spaces. Nonetheless, the use of these multi-carrier modulations, such as Wavelet-OFDM, requires a highly accurate symbol timing estimation for reliably recovering of transmitted data. Furthermore, the PLC channel presents some particularities that prevent the direct use of previous synchronization algorithms proposed in wireless communication systems. Therefore more research effort should be involved in the design and implementation of novel and robust synchronization algorithms for PLC, thus enabling real-time synchronization. This paper proposes a symbol timing estimator for broadband PLC based on cross-correlation with multilevel complementary sequences or Zadoff-Chu sequences and its efficient implementation in a FPGA; the obtained results show a 90% of success rate in symbol timing estimation for a certain PLC channel model and a reduced resource consumption for its implementation in a Xilinx Kyntex FPGA.

  9. Efficient Implementation of a Symbol Timing Estimator for Broadband PLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nombela, Francisco; García, Enrique; Mateos, Raúl; Hernández, Álvaro

    2015-08-21

    Broadband Power Line Communications (PLC) have taken advantage of the research advances in multi-carrier modulations to mitigate frequency selective fading, and their adoption opens up a myriad of applications in the field of sensory and automation systems, multimedia connectivity or smart spaces. Nonetheless, the use of these multi-carrier modulations, such as Wavelet-OFDM, requires a highly accurate symbol timing estimation for reliably recovering of transmitted data. Furthermore, the PLC channel presents some particularities that prevent the direct use of previous synchronization algorithms proposed in wireless communication systems. Therefore more research effort should be involved in the design and implementation of novel and robust synchronization algorithms for PLC, thus enabling real-time synchronization. This paper proposes a symbol timing estimator for broadband PLC based on cross-correlation with multilevel complementary sequences or Zadoff-Chu sequences and its efficient implementation in a FPGA; the obtained results show a 90% of success rate in symbol timing estimation for a certain PLC channel model and a reduced resource consumption for its implementation in a Xilinx Kyntex FPGA.

  10. File list: Oth.Plc.20.Crotonyl_lysine.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Plc.20.Crotonyl_lysine.AllCell mm9 TFs and others Crotonyl lysine Placenta http...://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Plc.20.Crotonyl_lysine.AllCell.bed ...

  11. File list: Oth.Plc.05.Crotonyl_lysine.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Plc.05.Crotonyl_lysine.AllCell mm9 TFs and others Crotonyl lysine Placenta http...://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Plc.05.Crotonyl_lysine.AllCell.bed ...

  12. File list: Oth.Plc.10.Crotonyl_lysine.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Plc.10.Crotonyl_lysine.AllCell mm9 TFs and others Crotonyl lysine Placenta http...://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Plc.10.Crotonyl_lysine.AllCell.bed ...

  13. File list: Oth.Plc.50.Crotonyl_lysine.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Plc.50.Crotonyl_lysine.AllCell mm9 TFs and others Crotonyl lysine Placenta http...://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Plc.50.Crotonyl_lysine.AllCell.bed ...

  14. File list: His.Plc.20.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Plc.20.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells mm9 Histone Placenta Trophoblast giant cel...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Plc.20.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells.bed ...

  15. File list: His.Plc.10.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Plc.10.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells mm9 Histone Placenta Trophoblast giant cel...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Plc.10.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells.bed ...

  16. File list: His.Plc.50.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Plc.50.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells mm9 Histone Placenta Trophoblast giant cel...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Plc.50.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells.bed ...

  17. File list: His.Plc.05.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Plc.05.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells mm9 Histone Placenta Trophoblast giant cel...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Plc.05.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells.bed ...

  18. PLC 通信接口的控制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘威

    2013-01-01

      随着控制设备在工业领域的广泛应用,软 PLC 技术已经成为工业领域研究的热点,软 PLC 和传统的硬 PLC 相比,具有更强的数据处理能力,更加开放的体系结构和开放的体系结构。目前软 PLC 的研究主要是针对逻辑控制方面,现针对软 PLC 开放中的不足,主要介绍了软 PLC 与实时数据库通信接口的控制,通过软 PLC 与组态软件的通讯,扩展了软 PLC 的功能。

  19. 77 FR 2932 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR) Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ...-Royce plc, Corporate Communications, P.O. Box 31, Derby, England, DE248BJ; phone: 011-44-1332-242424... in this AD, contact Rolls-Royce plc, Corporate Communications, P.O. Box 31, Derby, England,...

  20. 78 FR 5126 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-24

    ... identified in this AD, contact Rolls-Royce plc, Corporate Communications, P.O. Box 31, Derby, DE248BJ, United... information identified in this AD, contact Rolls-Royce plc, Corporate Communications, P.O. Box 31,...

  1. 78 FR 11976 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ... information identified in this AD, contact Rolls-Royce plc, Corporate Communications, P.O. Box 31, Derby... Rolls-Royce plc, Corporate Communications, P.O. Box 31, Derby, England, DE248BJ; phone:...

  2. 78 FR 17297 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ... information identified in this AD, contact Rolls-Royce plc, Corporate Communications, P.O. Box 31, Derby..., contact Rolls-Royce plc, Corporate Communications, P.O. Box 31, Derby, England, DE248BJ; phone:...

  3. 78 FR 20509 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... identified in this proposed AD, contact Rolls-Royce plc, Corporate Communications, P.O. Box 31, Derby... information identified in this AD, contact Rolls-Royce plc, Corporate Communications, P.O. Box 31,...

  4. 78 FR 22180 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    ... identified in this AD, contact Rolls-Royce plc, Corporate Communications, P.O. Box 31, Derby, England... identified in this AD, contact Rolls-Royce plc, Corporate Communications, P.O. Box 31, Derby,...

  5. 77 FR 20508 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ..., contact Rolls-Royce plc, Corporate Communications, P.O. Box 31, Derby, England, DE248BJ, telephone: 011-44... this AD, contact Rolls-Royce plc, Corporate Communications, P.O. Box 31, Derby, England,...

  6. 77 FR 31176 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR) Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... plc, Corporate Communications, P.O. Box 31, Derby, England, DE248BJ; phone: 011-44-1332-242424; fax..., contact Rolls-Royce plc, Corporate Communications, P.O. Box 31, Derby, England, DE248BJ; phone:...

  7. 77 FR 13483 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR) Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... Rolls-Royce plc, Corporate Communications, P.O. Box 31, Derby, England, DE248BJ; phone: 011-44-1332..., contact Rolls-Royce plc, Corporate Communications, P.O. Box 31, Derby, England, DE248BJ; phone:...

  8. 77 FR 40820 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-11

    ...-Royce plc, Corporate Communications, P.O. Box 31, Derby, England, DE248BJ; phone: 011-44-1332-242424..., contact Rolls-Royce plc, Corporate Communications, P.O. Box 31, Derby, ] England, DE248BJ; phone:...

  9. 77 FR 56760 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-14

    ... information identified in this AD, contact Rolls-Royce plc, Corporate Communications, P.O. Box 31, Derby... identified in this AD, contact Rolls-Royce plc, Corporate Communications, P.O. Box 31, Derby,...

  10. Reciprocal regulation of transcription factors and PLC isozyme gene expression in adult cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singal, Tushi; Dhalla, Naranjan S; Tappia, Paramjit S

    2010-06-01

    By employing a pharmacological approach, we have shown that phospholipase C (PLC) activity is involved in the regulation of gene expression of transcription factors such as c-Fos and c-Jun in cardiomyocytes in response to norepinephrine (NE). However, there is no information available regarding the identity of specific PLC isozymes involved in the regulation of c-Fos and c-Jun or on the involvement of these transcription factors in PLC isozyme gene expression in adult cardiomyocytes. In this study, transfection of cardiomyocytes with PLC isozyme specific siRNA was found to prevent the NE-mediated increases in the corresponding PLC isozyme gene expression, protein content and activity. Unlike PLC gamma(1) gene, silencing of PLC beta(1), beta(3) and delta(1) genes with si RNA prevented the increases in c-Fos and c-Jun gene expression in response to NE. On the other hand, transfection with c-Jun si RNA suppressed the NE-induced increase in c-Jun as well as PLC beta(1), beta(3) and delta(1) gene expression, but had no effect on PLC gamma(1) gene expression. Although transfection of cardiomyocytes with c-Fos si RNA prevented NE-induced expression of c-Fos, PLC beta(1) and PLC beta(3) genes, it did not affect the increases in PLC delta(1) and PLC gamma(1) gene expression. Silencing of either c-Fos or c-Jun also depressed the NE-mediated increases in PLC beta(1), beta(3) and gamma(1) protein content and activity in an isozyme specific manner. Furthermore, silencing of all PLC isozymes as well as of c-Fos and c-Jun resulted in prevention of the NE-mediated increase in atrial natriuretic factor gene expression. These findings, by employing gene silencing techniques, demonstrate that there occurs a reciprocal regulation of transcription factors and specific PLC isozyme gene expression in cardiomyocytes.

  11. MIMO communications for inhome PLC networks: measurements and results up to 100 MHz

    OpenAIRE

    HASHMAT, Rehan; Pagani, Pascal; CHONAVEL, Thierry

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Power Line Communications (PLC) is used for information exchange over the lines installed for delivering the electrical power. Inhome PLC is a technology which delivers telecom services to every corner of a household through already existing electrical wiring. In recent years, PLC has emerged as a potential candidate for domestic high bit rate services. The current inhome PLC technology, based on Single-Input Single-Output (SISO) configuration, under achieves the capac...

  12. PLC automaty a jejich využití v praxi

    OpenAIRE

    Častalovský, Marek

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this Bachelor thesis was to analyze PLC and their application in practice. The text summarizes the basic technical parameters of the PLC. The introduction is focused to automation in general. The most important part is devoted to the PLC and their use. Another part deals with its programming. The following chapter discusses the major manufacturers of PLC. The next chapter is discussed communication. Another chapter deals with the MMI interface. The last chapter deals with IFM...

  13. Accounting Ratios and Bankruptcy Prediction: Woolworths Geoup PLC as A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Okuguni, Anthony I

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT This research attempts to ascertain the predictive ability of accounting ratios using Woolworths Group plc. This was achieved by carrying out Financial Ratio Analysis, Altman Z-score, Robertson R-ratio and Trend Analysis of Woolworths Group plc. In addition, the causes of bankruptcy at Woolworths Group plc would be ascertained. Finally the research would use mathematical models to ascertain the predictability of bankruptcy at Woolworths Group plc. The main findings of this re...

  14. 结核分枝杆菌102株临床分离株的磷脂酶C编码基因多态性%Genetic diversity of phospholipase C-encoding genes among 102 clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兆芬; Michael R.Barer

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore and analyze genetic mutations of phospholipase C (PLC)-encoding genes plcABCD among clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and to provide scientific basis for understanding virulence and pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Methods A total of 102 isolates from patients with active tuberculosis were identified. Bacterial DNA was extracted. All plcABCD genes were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and checked for deletions or mutations by agarose gel electrophoresis. Results According to presence or absence of plcABCD genes, 102 isolates were divided into 13 genotypes. Thirty-one (30.39%) isolates were plc wild genotype with all plcABCD genes; 71(69. 61%) isolates were plc mutant type with different plc gene deletions. Of 71 plc mutant isolates, 48 missed only one of four plc genes, 14 had deletions of 2 plc genes, 8 were triple mutants and 1 was quadruple mutant. There were 61 (59. 80%) isolates with plcD gene mutation, while the mutation rates of plcA, plcB and plcC genes were lower, which were 15. 69%(16/102), 9. 80%(10/102) and 16. 67%(17/ 102), respectively. Conclusion This study shows great diversity in plcABCD genes among clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, with the most common of plcD.%目的 分析临床分离的结核分枝杆菌中磷脂酶C(PLC)编码基因plcABCD的突变情况,以进一步了解结核分枝杆菌的致病力.方法 102株菌株均分离于结核病患者并准确鉴定.增菌后提取DNA,并对plcABCD 4个基因同时扩增,扩增产物经电泳后分析基因的突变或缺失.结果 根据plcABCD 4个基因的存在或缺失情况,102株菌可以分为13个基因型,其中31株含有完整的plcABCD所有基因.为plc野生株,占30.39%;71株菌有不同plc基因的缺失,为plc突变株,突变率为69.61%.71株突变型菌株中,只缺失任意1个plc基因的有48株,发生任意2个plc基因缺失或突变的共有14株,发生任意3个plc基因缺失或突变的共有8株

  15. Prototype of Automated PLC Model Checking Using Continuous Integration Tools

    CERN Document Server

    Lettrich, Michael

    2015-01-01

    To deal with the complexity of operating and supervising large scale industrial installations at CERN, often Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) are used. A failure in these control systems can cause a disaster in terms of economic loses, environmental damages or human losses. Therefore the requirements to software quality are very high. To provide PLC developers with a way to verify proper functionality against requirements, a Java tool named PLCverif has been developed which encapsulates and thus simplifies the use of third party model checkers. One of our goals in this project is to integrate PLCverif in development process of PLC programs. When the developer changes the program, all the requirements should be verified again, as a change on the code can produce collateral effects and violate one or more requirements. For that reason, PLCverif has been extended to work with Jenkins CI in order to trigger automatically the verication cases when the developer changes the PLC program. This prototype has been...

  16. 78 FR 6749 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    ... Directives; Rolls-Royce plc Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... all Rolls-Royce plc (RR) models RB211 Trent 768-60, 772-60, and 772B-60 turbofan engines. This.... For service information identified in this proposed AD, contact Rolls-Royce plc, P.O. Box 31,...

  17. 78 FR 61171 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ...-01-AD; Amendment 39-17599; AD 2013-19-17] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc... adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Rolls-Royce plc (RR) RB211-535E4-B-37 series turbofan... directive (AD): 200X-19-17 Rolls-Royce plc Amendment 39-17599; Docket No. FAA-2013- 0029;...

  18. 76 FR 29814 - Statutory Debarment and Reinstatement of BAE Systems plc

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-23

    ... Statutory Debarment and Reinstatement of BAE Systems plc Bureau of Political-Military Affairs; Statutory Debarment and Reinstatement of BAE Systems plc and Policy of Denial Concerning Certain Non-U.S. Subsidiaries... BAE Systems plc (``BAES'') as a result of its conviction of conspiracy (18 U.S.C. 371) to...

  19. 77 FR 13485 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ...-25-AD; Amendment 39-16970; AD 2012-04-14] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc... plc, requested that we reference the latest service information, which is Alert Service Bulletin (ASB... Rolls-Royce plc, requested that we add a Previous Credit paragraph to list the original ASB to...

  20. 75 FR 12154 - Airworthiness Directives; Short Brothers PLC Model SD3 Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Short Brothers PLC... Brothers PLC, Airworthiness, P.O. Box 241, Airport Road, Belfast, BT3 9DZ Northern Ireland; telephone +44(0... 16, 2006) and adding the following new AD: Short Brothers PLC: Docket No. FAA-2010-0225;...

  1. 78 FR 34550 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc Turbojet Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ...-44-AD; Amendment 39-17473; AD 2013-11-13] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc... adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Rolls-Royce plc (RR) Viper Mk. 601-22 turbojet engines...-Royce plc, P.O. Box 3, Gypsy Patch Lane, Filton, Bristol, BS347QE, United Kingdom; phone: 011-44-...

  2. 76 FR 52288 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR) Trent 800 Series Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR... plc, P.O. Box 31, Derby, DE24 8BJ, United Kingdom: telephone 44 (0) 1332 242424; fax 44 (0) 1332... Service Information Rolls-Royce plc has issued Alert Service Bulletin RB.211-73-AD685, Revision 5,...

  3. 78 FR 68360 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-14

    ...-01-AD; Amendment 39-17599; AD 2013-19-17] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc.... That AD applies to all Rolls-Royce plc (RR) RB211-535E4-B-37 series turbofan engines. The AD number is...-17 Rolls-Royce plc: Amendment 39-17599; Docket No. FAA-2013- 0029; * * * * * Issued in...

  4. 77 FR 39157 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ...-13-AD; Amendment 39-17082; AD 2012-12-03] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc... comments. SUMMARY: We are superseding an existing airworthiness directive (AD) for all Rolls-Royce plc (RR...-Royce plc, P.O. Box 31, Derby, DE24 8BJ, United Kingdom; phone: 011 44 1332 242424; fax: 011 44...

  5. 77 FR 26216 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-03

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc... Rolls-Royce plc (RR) RB211-Trent 875-17, RB211-Trent 877-17, RB211-Trent 884-17, RB211-Trent 884B-17... information identified in this AD, contact Rolls-Royce plc, Corporate Communications, P.O. Box 31,...

  6. 75 FR 46864 - Airworthiness Directives; Short Brothers PLC Model SD3 Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-04

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Short Brothers PLC... this proposed AD, contact Short Brothers PLC, Airworthiness, P.O. Box 241, Airport Road, Belfast, BT3... new AD: Short Brothers PLC: Docket No. FAA-2010-0225; Directorate Identifier 2009-NM-203-AD....

  7. Transforming PLC Programs into Formal Models for Verification Purposes

    CERN Document Server

    Darvas, D; Blanco, E

    2013-01-01

    Most of CERN’s industrial installations rely on PLC-based (Programmable Logic Controller) control systems developed using the UNICOS framework. This framework contains common, reusable program modules and their correctness is a high priority. Testing is already applied to find errors, but this method has limitations. In this work an approach is proposed to transform automatically PLC programs into formal models, with the goal of applying formal verification to ensure their correctness. We target model checking which is a precise, mathematical-based method to check formalized requirements automatically against the system.

  8. Model-based automated testing of critical PLC programs.

    CERN Document Server

    Fernández Adiego, B; Tournier, J-C; González Suárez, V M; Bliudze, S

    2014-01-01

    Testing of critical PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) programs remains a challenging task for control system engineers as it can rarely be automated. This paper proposes a model based approach which uses the BIP (Behavior, Interactions and Priorities) framework to perform automated testing of PLC programs developed with the UNICOS (UNified Industrial COntrol System) framework. This paper defines the translation procedure and rules from UNICOS to BIP which can be fully automated in order to hide the complexity of the underlying model from the control engineers. The approach is illustrated and validated through the study of a water treatment process.

  9. Design of a Virtual PLC Using Lab View

    OpenAIRE

    Muntaser Momani

    2010-01-01

    Using LabVIEW environment a trial has been made to create a set of programmable virtual instruments, which resemble the traditional PLC programmable functions and networks. The target of this work is to improve the programmability of PC-based control systems. Bringing the PLC to the industrial type computer it becomes possible to make use of the advantages of computer based DCSs. It will be possible to have unlimited number of programmable objects, and to run more than one program at the same...

  10. 78 FR 23316 - The Royal Bank of Scotland plc, et al.; Notice of Application and Temporary Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ... COMMISSION The Royal Bank of Scotland plc, et al.; Notice of Application and Temporary Order April 12, 2013.... APPLICANTS: The Royal Bank of Scotland plc (``RBS plc''), Citizens Investment Advisors (``Citizens IA''), a... Exchange Commission, 100 F Street NE., Washington, DC 20549-1090. Applicants: RBS plc, RBS, Gogarburn,...

  11. A single substitution in 5'-untranslated region of plcB is involved in enhanced broad-range phospholipase C activity in Listeria monocytogenes strain H4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Bai; Jianshun Chen; Qiaomiao Chen; Xiaokai Luo; Weihuan Fang; Lingli Jiang

    2011-01-01

    To examine whether the in vitro phospholipase activity in Listeria monocytogenes strain H4 was due to two nucleotide mutations (C to T at position -26 and A to G at position + 1) in plcB or resulted from regulatory activation, two mutants H4-plcB-ml (single mutation at position -26) and H4-plcB-m2 (substitution at both positions) were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis. It was found that the two mutants had significantly lower transcription of plcB than their parent strain H4 and did not show phospho-Hpase activity on the egg yolk agar, implying that the apparent phospholipase activity of strain H4 could be related to single substitution at position -26 ofplcB, most probably by its 5t-untranslated region (5'-UTR) regulation mechanism. Tn917-based transposon mutagenesis generated eight L. monocytogenes mutants lacking phospholipase activity among 560 mutant candidates. Seven mutants had transposon insertion into prfA (encoding positive regulatory factor A) open reading frame, whereas only one mutant (WF-L127) was inserted into the P1 promoter region ofprfA (prfAP1). Transcription of major virulence genes was significantly lower in both types of mutants than in their parent strain H4. Disruption of prfAP1 in WFL127 abolished its phospholipase C activity but did not change its hemolytic phenotype, indicating that plcB was more dependent on prfA regulation than hly. Taken together, this study presents some evidence for the regulation ofplcB expression by its 5'-UTR mechanism.

  12. Arabidopsis PLC2 is involved in auxin-modulated reproductive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; He, Yuqing; Wang, Yarui; Zhao, Shujuan; Chen, Xi; Ye, Tiantian; Wu, Yuxuan; Wu, Yan

    2015-11-01

    Phospholipase C (PLC) is an enzyme that plays crucial roles in various signal transduction pathways in mammalian cells. However, the role of PLC in plant development is poorly understood. Here we report involvement of PLC2 in auxin-mediated reproductive development in Arabidopsis. Disruption of PLC2 led to sterility, indicating a significant role for PLC2 in reproductive development. Development of both male and female gametophytes was severely perturbed in plc2 mutants. Moreover, elevated auxin levels were observed in plc2 floral tissues, suggesting that the infertility of plc2 plants may be associated with increased auxin concentrations in the reproductive organs. We show that expression levels of the auxin reporters DR5:GUS and DR5:GFP were elevated in plc2 anthers and ovules. In addition, we found that expression of the auxin biosynthetic YUCCA genes was increased in plc2 plants. We conclude that PLC2 is involved in auxin biosynthesis and signaling, thus modulating development of both male and female gametophytes in Arabidopsis.

  13. Distinguishing Internet-facing ICS Devices Using PLC Programming Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-19

    automated by use of web - scraping techniques. These techniques make an HTTP GET request for the Diagnostic Web Page and search the web page source code...devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 4.3.2 Collecting Diagnostic Web Page Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 4.3.3 Collecting PLC Code...EtherNet/IP Architecture [25]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 2.7 EtherNet/IP Module Web Server

  14. Integration of the HVCM PLC into the PEFP Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Young Gi; Jang, Ji Ho; Kwon, Hyeok Jung; Cho, Yong Sub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    The High Voltage Converter Modulators (HVCM) for the 100-MeV accelerator was installed to drive the 20-MeV linac. There are two klystrons in the 20-MeV linac and one modulator was used to drive two klystrons simultaneously. The HVCM for the 20-MeV linac area in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is shown in Fig. 1. We were faced with the necessity of integrating Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) for the HVCM into the Proton Engineering Frontier Project (PEFP) control system. At the PEFP, Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) has become the most widely used solution for building control systems for 100MeV proton accelerator. The EPICS as a standard development tool is a distributed architecture that provides several solutions such as independent programming tools for operating system, operator interface tools, and archiving tools. Although EPICS is used directly in our control system, HVCMs were delivered with the Allen-Bradley ControlLogix as a PLC. The industrial PLC has been verified for safety systems. We need to connect an interface from our EPICS control system to AB-PLC using Ethernet/IP (ControlNet over Ethernet) protocol over Ethernet. In this paper, we will present the communication protocol and EPICS IOC installation for the EPICS based PLC control system

  15. Modem -repeater for narrow band technology of PLC

    OpenAIRE

    Bednář, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Bakalářská práce je zaměřená na problematiku PLC komunikace, konkrétně na PLC modem. Pro začátek je nutné se seznámit s technologií PLC jako takovu, nastudovat principy přenosu, výhody, nevýhody. V další části se blíže zaměřím na samotný modem a jeho návrh, od výběru vhodné komunikační jednotky podle daných paramtrů, externích obvodů pro úpravu signálu. Nakonec navhrnu plošný spoj, modem realizovat a ověřit si jeho funkčnost. Bachelor’s thesis is focused on PLC communications, particulary ...

  16. Multiprog Virtual Laboratory Applied to PLC Programming Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyr, Wen-Jye

    2010-01-01

    This study develops a Multiprog virtual laboratory for a mechatronics education designed to teach how to programme a programmable logic controller (PLC). The study was carried out with 34 students in the Department of Industry Education and Technology at National Changhua University of Education in Taiwan. In total, 17 students were assigned to…

  17. Úzkopásmová PLC komunikace se standardy G3-PLC, PRIME a IEEE-1901.2

    OpenAIRE

    Skrášek, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Diplomová práce pojednává o standardech úzkopásmové PLC komunikace. V teoretické části jsou popsány všechny dostupné OFDM standardy, mezi něž patří G3-PLC, PRIME, IEEE-1901.2 a G.hnem. Praktická část se zabývá standardy PRIME a G3-PLC. Dále je také porovnán systém OFDM se systémem komunikace na jedné nosné frekvenci v prostředí s reálným rušením. V poslední části je popsán návrh dvou firmware pro PLC modemy Texas Instruments TMDSPLCKIT-V3, které umožňují UART komunikaci a dálkový sběr dat. K ...

  18. Design of PLC-based Traffic Light Monitoring System%基于 PLC 的交通灯监控系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵鹏; 荆红莉

    2016-01-01

    以 PC 机作为上位机,组态王软件作为上位机软件,三菱 PLC 作为下位机,组成一套以交通灯为被控对象的三菱 PLC 控制管理系统。通过对交通灯的时序分析、PLC 选项、I /O 分配及 PLC 接线等环节完成系统硬件设计;软件采用梯形图编写,实现在 PC机上启动、停止、在线修改信号灯时间、紧急情况处理及夜间模式切换等功能,达到 PC 机与 PLC 的实时交互。系统画面直观,能够模拟真实的控制现场,且操控方便,为系统的实际应用提供了可靠保障。%A Mitsubishi PLC control and management system is built up for control of traffic lights,using PC as upper computer,KingView as upper computer software and Mitsubishi PLC as lower computer.The system hardware design is completed through timing sequence analysis,PLC option,I /O distribution and PLC wiring.The software is compiled in ladder diagrams to perform such functions as start and stop through the PC,on-line modification of signal light time,emergency treatment and switch-over of night mode,so as to realize real-time interaction between the PC and PLC.This system with intuitive view can simulate actual control sites and is easy to operate, thus providing reliable guarantee for its actual application.

  19. Bringing Automated Formal Verification to PLC Program Development

    CERN Document Server

    Fernández Adiego, Borja; Blanco Viñuela, Enrique

    Automation is the field of engineering that deals with the development of control systems for operating systems such as industrial processes, railways, machinery or aircraft without human intervention. In most of the cases, a failure in these control systems can cause a disaster in terms of economic losses, environmental damages or human losses. For that reason, providing safe, reliable and robust control systems is a first priority goal for control engineers. Ideally, control engineers should be able to guarantee that both software and hardware fulfill the design requirements. This is an enormous challenge in which industry and academia have been working and making progresses in the last decades. This thesis focuses on one particular type of control systems that operates industrial processes, the PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) - based control systems. Moreover it targets one of the main challenges for these systems, guaranteeing that PLC programs are compliant with their specifications. Traditionally ...

  20. A Software Agent for Automatic Creation of a PLC Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid M. Aly

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Using structured design techniques to design a Programmable Logical Control (PLC program would decrease the time needed for debugging and produces a concise bug free code. This study is concerned with the design of a software agent for automatic creation of code for a PLC program that can be downloaded on a Siemens Step 7 series. The code is generated according to the syntax rules for the AWL Language, AWL is the abbreviation for the germen word Anweisungsliste which means Instruction List The proposed system uses object oriented approach to transfer the design specification into an object that adequately describes the system using the state based design technique. The industrial system specifications are supplied by the user through a simple Graphical User Interface (GUI environment These specification define the attributes vales of an object oriented class describing the control system, all the functions needed to generate the code are encapsulated in the class.

  1. FORRBIDDEN STATE APPROACH FOR PETRI NETS USIGN PLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif AYBAR

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the forbidden state controller design approach is considered to realize by using PLC for Petri nets. First, the structure of the ordinary Petri nets is transfer to the ladder diagram form of PLC, a controller design for the forbidden states, the controlled ladder diagram is obtained such that information about the marking vector and the disabled transition, which are obtained by using the de-signed controller. The controlled ladder diagram is obtained such that the information which contains on the state and disabled transition, is added to the ladder diagram. In addition, the algorithm and steps are also given to add the designed controller to the ladder diagram. Consequently, the occurence of the forbidden states is avoided in the considered Petri net by the developed method.

  2. Fifth Baltic Sea pollution load compilation (PLC-5)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knuuttila, S.; Svendsen, L.M.; Staaf, H.; Kotilainen, P.; Boutrup, S.; Pyhala, M.; Durkin, M.

    2011-07-01

    This report includes the main results from the Fifth Pollution Load Compilation abbreviated PLC-5. It includes quantified annual waterborne total loads (from rivers, unmonitored and coastal areas as well as direct point and diffuse sources discharging directly to the Baltic Sea) from 1994 to 2008 to provide a basis for evaluating any decreasing (or increasing) trends in the total waterborne inputs to the Baltic Sea. Chapter 1 contains the objectives of PLC and the framework on classification of inputs and sources. Chapter 2 includes a short description of the Baltic Sea catchment area, while the methods for quantification and analysis together with quality assurance topics are briefly introduced in Chapter 3. More detailed information on methodologies is presented in the PLC-5 guidelines (HELCOM 2006). Chapter 4 reports the total inputs to the Baltic Sea of nutrients and selected heavy metals. Furthermore, the results of the quatification of discharges and losses of nitrogen and phosphorus from point and diffuse sources into inland surface waters within the Baltic Sea catchment area (source-oriented approach or gross loads) as well as the total load to the maritime area (load-oriented approarch or net loads) in 2006 are shown. Typically, results are presented by country and by main Baltic Sea sub-region. In Chapter 5, flow normalization is introduced and the results of trend analyses on 1994-2008 time series data on total waterborne loads of nitrogen and phosphorus are given together with a first evaluation of progress in obtaining the provisional reduction targets by country and by main Baltic Sea sub-region. Chapter 6 includes discussion of some of the main conclusions and advice for future PLCs. The annexes contain the flow-normalized annual load data and figures and tables with results from the PLC-5.

  3. Photonic integrated circuits based on silica and polymer PLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izuhara, T.; Fujita, J.; Gerhardt, R.; Sui, B.; Lin, W.; Grek, B.

    2013-03-01

    Various methods of hybrid integration of photonic circuits are discussed focusing on merits and challenges. Material platforms discussed in this report are mainly polymer and silica. We categorize the hybridization methods using silica and polymer waveguides into two types, chip-to-chip and on-chip integration. General reviews of these hybridization technologies from the past works are reviewed. An example for each method is discussed in details. We also discuss current status of our silica PLC hybrid integration technology.

  4. PLC BASED RATIO CONTROLLER AND MATERIAL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Badwaik Prof. V. M. Umale

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Automation in an industry using programmable logic controller (PLC can be enumerated by optimizing the use of process control equipment, decreases the response time for process and equipment contingencies, provides information about process status, manages process logic at the plant floor level and increases overall productivity and plant efficiency. The primary reason for designing such a system is to eliminate large cost involved in replacing complicated relay based machine control system & to reduce process time. Ratio control system is feed forward system where one variable is controlled in ratio to another to satisfy some higher level objectives. Two difference chemicals are supplied from different tanks in proper ratio by maintaining the flow of quantity. Then desired mixture is obtained &checks the ratio of composition if any unbalanced, controlled by controlled values of supply tanks. Then this mixture is distributed as per requirements. In Industries for ten machines, total cycle time with existing PLC based system is 75 sec. But our modified PLC based system total cycle time is improved as 45 sec. Hence total reach time of distribution system is improved.

  5. 78 FR 5 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ...-14-AD; Amendment 39-17290; AD 2012-25-09] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc... adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Rolls-Royce plc (RR) RB211-524G2-19; RB211-524G2-T-19... amends Sec. 39.13 by adding the following new AD: 2012-25-09 Rolls-Royce plc: Amendment 39-17290;...

  6. 76 FR 64283 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR) Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-18

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR... identified in this AD, contact Rolls-Royce plc, Corporate Communications, P.O. Box 31, Derby, England..., September 9, 2008), for all Rolls-Royce plc RB211-Trent 553- 61, 553A2-61, 556-61, 556A2-61, 556B-61,...

  7. Phospholipase C-η1 is activated by intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization and enhances GPCRs/PLC/Ca(2+) signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Kuk; Choi, Jung Woong; Lim, Seyoung; Kwon, Ohman; Seo, Jeong Kon; Ryu, Sung Ho; Suh, Pann-Ghill

    2011-06-01

    Phospholipase C-η1 (PLC-η1) is the most recently identified PLC isotype and is primarily expressed in nerve tissue. However, its functional role is unclear. In the present study, we report for the first time that PLC-η1 acts as a signal amplifier in G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-mediated PLC and Ca(2+) signaling. Short-hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated knockdown of endogenous PLC-η1 reduced lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)-, bradykinin (BK)-, and PACAP-induced PLC activity in mouse neuroblastoma Neuro2A (N2A) cells, indicating that PLC-η1 participates in GPCR-mediated PLC activation. Interestingly, ionomycin-induced PLC activity was significantly decreased by PLC-η1, but not PLC-η2, knockdown. In addition, we found that intracellular Ca(2+) source is enough for PLC-η1 activation. Furthermore, the IP(3) receptor inhibitor, 2-APB, inhibited LPA-induced PLC activity in control N2A cells, whereas this effect was not observed in PLC-η1 knockdown N2A cells, suggesting a pivotal role of intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization in PLC-η1 activation. Finally, we found that LPA-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation and expression of the downstream target gene, krox-24, were significantly decreased by PLC-η1 knockdown, and these knockdown effects were abolished by 2-APB. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that PLC-η1 is activated via intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization from the ER, and therefore amplifies GPCR-mediated signaling.

  8. MHO1, an evolutionarily conserved gene, is synthetic lethal with PLC1; Mho1p has a role in invasive growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan D Schlatter

    Full Text Available The novel protein Memo (Mediator of ErbB2 driven cell motility was identified in a screen for ErbB2 interacting proteins and found to have an essential function in cell motility. Memo is evolutionarily conserved with homologs found in all branches of life; the human and yeast proteins have a similarity of >50%. In the present study we used the model organism S. cerevisiae to characterize the Memo-homologue Mho1 (Yjr008wp and to investigate its function in yeast. In a synthetic lethal screen we found MHO1 as a novel synthetic lethal partner of PLC1, which encodes the single phospholipase C in yeast. Double-deleted cells lacking MHO1 and PLC1, proliferate for up to ten generations. Introduction of human Memo into the memoΔplc1Δ strain rescued the synthetic lethal phenotype suggesting that yeast and human proteins have similar functions. Mho1 is present in the cytoplasm and the nucleus of yeast cells; the same distribution of Memo was found in mammalian cells. None of the Memo homologues have a characteristic nuclear localization sequence, however, a conserved nuclear export sequence is found in all. In mammalian cells, blocking nuclear export with Leptomycin B led to nuclear Memo accumulation, suggesting that it is actively exported from the nucleus. In yeast MHO1 expression is induced by stress conditions. Since invasive growth in S. cerevisiea is also stress-induced, we tested Mho1's role in this response. MHO1 deletion had no effect on invasion induced by nutrient deprivation, however, Mho1 overexpression blocked the invasive ability of yeast cells, suggesting that Mho1 might be acting in a dominant negative manner. Taken together, our results show that MHO1 is a novel synthetic lethal interactor with PLC1, and that both gene products are required for proliferation. Moreover, a role for Memo in cell motility/invasion appears to be conserved across species.

  9. 77 FR 10355 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR) RB211-Trent 800 Series Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    .... ADDRESSES: For service information identified in this AD, contact Rolls-Royce plc, Corporate Communications... identified in this AD, contact Rolls-Royce plc, Corporate Communications, P.O. Box 31, Derby, DE24...

  10. Silica-based PLC with heterogeneously-integrated PDs for one-chip DP-QPSK receiver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurata, Yu; Nasu, Yusuke; Tamura, Munehisa; Kasahara, Ryoichi; Aozasa, Shinichi; Mizuno, Takayuki; Yokoyama, Haruki; Tsunashima, Satoshi; Muramoto, Yoshifumi

    2012-12-10

    To realize a DP-QPSK receiver PLC, we heterogeneously integrated eight high-speed PDs on a silica-based PLC platform with a PBS, 90-degree optical hybrids and a VOA. The use of a 2.5%-Δ waveguide reduced the receiver PLC size to 11 mm x 11 mm. We successfully demonstrated 32 Gbaud DP-QPSK signal demodulation with the receiver PLC.

  11. File list: His.Plc.50.Pan_lysine_crotonylation.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  12. File list: His.Plc.05.Pan_lysine_crotonylation.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  13. File list: DNS.Plc.50.AllAg.Trophoblast_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  14. File list: Pol.Plc.05.RNA_Polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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    Full Text Available Pol.Plc.05.RNA_Polymerase_III.AllCell mm9 RNA polymerase RNA Polymerase III Placent...a http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Plc.05.RNA_Polymerase_III.AllCell.bed ...

  15. File list: Pol.Plc.10.RNA_Polymerase_II.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  16. File list: Pol.Plc.10.RNA_Polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  17. File list: His.Plc.10.Pan_lysine_crotonylation.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

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    Full Text Available His.Plc.10.Pan_lysine_crotonylation.AllCell mm9 Histone Pan lysine crotonylation Pl...acenta http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Plc.10.Pan_lysine_crotonylation.AllCell.bed ...

  18. File list: His.Plc.10.Pan_lysine_crotonylation.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Plc.10.Pan_lysine_crotonylation.AllCell hg19 Histone Pan lysine crotonylation P...lacenta http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Plc.10.Pan_lysine_crotonylation.AllCell.bed ...

  19. File list: Unc.Plc.10.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Plc.10.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells mm9 Unclassified Placenta Trophoblast gian...t cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Plc.10.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells.bed ...

  20. File list: Unc.Plc.50.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Plc.50.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells mm9 Unclassified Placenta Trophoblast gian...t cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Plc.50.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells.bed ...

  1. File list: ALL.Plc.05.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Plc.05.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells mm9 All antigens Placenta Trophoblast gian...SRX344646,SRX344644 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Plc.05.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells.bed ...

  2. File list: Oth.Plc.05.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Plc.05.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells mm9 TFs and others Placenta Trophoblast gian...t cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Plc.05.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells.bed ...

  3. File list: DNS.Plc.05.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Plc.05.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells mm9 DNase-seq Placenta Trophoblast giant c...ells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Plc.05.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells.bed ...

  4. File list: DNS.Plc.50.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Plc.50.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells mm9 DNase-seq Placenta Trophoblast giant c...ells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Plc.50.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells.bed ...

  5. File list: Pol.Plc.20.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Plc.20.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells mm9 RNA polymerase Placenta Trophoblast gian...t cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Plc.20.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells.bed ...

  6. File list: DNS.Plc.10.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Plc.10.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells mm9 DNase-seq Placenta Trophoblast giant c...ells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Plc.10.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells.bed ...

  7. File list: ALL.Plc.50.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Plc.50.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells mm9 All antigens Placenta Trophoblast gian...SRX344643,SRX344646 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Plc.50.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells.bed ...

  8. File list: Oth.Plc.10.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Plc.10.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells mm9 TFs and others Placenta Trophoblast gian...t cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Plc.10.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells.bed ...

  9. File list: Pol.Plc.50.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Plc.50.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells mm9 RNA polymerase Placenta Trophoblast gian...t cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Plc.50.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells.bed ...

  10. File list: Oth.Plc.50.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Plc.50.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells mm9 TFs and others Placenta Trophoblast gian...t cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Plc.50.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells.bed ...

  11. File list: Oth.Plc.20.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Plc.20.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells mm9 TFs and others Placenta Trophoblast gian...t cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Plc.20.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells.bed ...

  12. File list: Pol.Plc.05.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Plc.05.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells mm9 RNA polymerase Placenta Trophoblast gian...t cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Plc.05.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells.bed ...

  13. File list: Pol.Plc.10.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Plc.10.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells mm9 RNA polymerase Placenta Trophoblast gian...t cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Plc.10.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells.bed ...

  14. File list: Unc.Plc.05.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Plc.05.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells mm9 Unclassified Placenta Trophoblast gian...t cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Plc.05.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells.bed ...

  15. File list: ALL.Plc.10.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Plc.10.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells mm9 All antigens Placenta Trophoblast gian...SRX344644,SRX344645 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Plc.10.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells.bed ...

  16. File list: DNS.Plc.20.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Plc.20.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells mm9 DNase-seq Placenta Trophoblast giant c...ells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Plc.20.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells.bed ...

  17. File list: ALL.Plc.20.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Plc.20.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells mm9 All antigens Placenta Trophoblast gian...SRX344644,SRX344643 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Plc.20.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells.bed ...

  18. File list: Unc.Plc.20.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Plc.20.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells mm9 Unclassified Placenta Trophoblast gian...t cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Plc.20.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells.bed ...

  19. File list: InP.Plc.20.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Plc.20.Input_control.AllCell mm9 Input control Input control Placenta SRX112971...02,SRX404310,SRX1072160,SRX871507,SRX192097,SRX192098,SRX192099,SRX204148 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Plc.20.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  20. File list: InP.Plc.50.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Plc.50.Input_control.AllCell hg19 Input control Input control Placenta SRX19004...9,SRX080366 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Plc.50.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  1. File list: His.Plc.10.Pan_lysine_acetylation.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Plc.10.Pan_lysine_acetylation.AllCell mm9 Histone Pan lysine acetylation Placen...ta http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Plc.10.Pan_lysine_acetylation.AllCell.bed ...

  2. File list: His.Plc.10.Pan_lysine_acetylation.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Plc.10.Pan_lysine_acetylation.AllCell hg19 Histone Pan lysine acetylation Place...nta http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Plc.10.Pan_lysine_acetylation.AllCell.bed ...

  3. File list: NoD.Plc.20.NA.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Plc.20.NA.AllCell hg19 No description NA Placenta SRX252721,SRX300962,SRX252732...,SRX300957,SRX300951,SRX252729 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.Plc.20.NA.AllCell.bed ...

  4. File list: NoD.Plc.05.NA.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Plc.05.NA.AllCell hg19 No description NA Placenta SRX252721,SRX300951,SRX252729...,SRX252732,SRX300962,SRX300957 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.Plc.05.NA.AllCell.bed ...

  5. File list: NoD.Plc.50.NA.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Plc.50.NA.AllCell hg19 No description NA Placenta SRX252721,SRX300962,SRX252732...,SRX300957,SRX300951,SRX252729 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.Plc.50.NA.AllCell.bed ...

  6. File list: ALL.Plc.05.AllAg.Trophoblast_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Plc.05.AllAg.Trophoblast_stem_cells mm9 All antigens Placenta Trophoblast stem ...X018522,SRX018523,SRX192101,SRX204140,SRX204141,SRX204142 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Plc.05.AllAg.Trophoblast_stem_cells.bed ...

  7. File list: DNS.Plc.10.AllAg.Trophoblast_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Plc.10.AllAg.Trophoblast_stem_cells mm9 DNase-seq Placenta Trophoblast stem cel...ls SRX367112,SRX160411 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Plc.10.AllAg.Trophoblast_stem_cells.bed ...

  8. File list: His.Plc.20.Pan_lysine_acetylation.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Plc.20.Pan_lysine_acetylation.AllCell mm9 Histone Pan lysine acetylation Placen...ta http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Plc.20.Pan_lysine_acetylation.AllCell.bed ...

  9. File list: Oth.Plc.20.AllAg.Trophoblast_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Plc.20.AllAg.Trophoblast_stem_cells mm9 TFs and others Placenta Trophoblast ste...SRX192101,SRX204142,SRX204143,SRX192100,SRX192102 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Plc.20.AllAg.Trophoblast_stem_cells.bed ...

  10. File list: Oth.Plc.50.AllAg.Trophoblast_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Plc.50.AllAg.Trophoblast_stem_cells mm9 TFs and others Placenta Trophoblast ste...SRX192101,SRX204142,SRX204143,SRX192100,SRX192102 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Plc.50.AllAg.Trophoblast_stem_cells.bed ...

  11. 76 FR 65136 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR) Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ... Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR) Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... Friday, except Federal holidays. For service information identified in this AD, contact Rolls-Royce plc...-07, Amendment 39-166679 (76 FR 24793, May 3, 2011), and adding the following new AD: Rolls-Royce...

  12. Troubleshooting of an Electromechanical System (Westinghouse PLC Controlling a Pneumatic Robot). High-Technology Training Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, James D.

    This training module on the troubleshooting of an electromechanical system, The Westinghouse Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) controlling a pneumatic robot, is used for a troubleshooting unit in an electromechanical systems/robotics and automation systems course. In this unit, students locate and repair a defect in a PLC-operated machine. The…

  13. File list: DNS.Plc.50.DNase-Seq.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Plc.50.DNase-Seq.AllCell hg19 DNase-seq DNase-Seq Placenta SRX089258,SRX121285,...SRX089254,SRX201830,SRX069084,SRX193582,SRX201819,SRX101015,SRX069127,SRX214046 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.Plc.50.DNase-Seq.AllCell.bed ...

  14. File list: Pol.Plc.50.RNA_Polymerase_II.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Plc.50.RNA_Polymerase_II.AllCell mm9 RNA polymerase RNA Polymerase II Placenta ...SRX160402,SRX112969 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Plc.50.RNA_Polymerase_II.AllCell.bed ...

  15. File list: Pol.Plc.20.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Plc.20.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell hg19 RNA polymerase RNA polymerase II Placenta... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Plc.20.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell.bed ...

  16. File list: InP.Plc.05.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Plc.05.Input_control.AllCell hg19 Input control Input control Placenta SRX19004...9,SRX080366 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Plc.05.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  17. File list: InP.Plc.10.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Plc.10.Input_control.AllCell mm9 Input control Input control Placenta SRX344648...310,SRX871506,SRX142911,SRX871507,SRX204148,SRX192098,SRX192097,SRX192099 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Plc.10.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  18. File list: InP.Plc.20.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Plc.20.Input_control.AllCell hg19 Input control Input control Placenta SRX08036...6,SRX190049 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Plc.20.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  19. File list: InP.Plc.05.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Plc.05.Input_control.AllCell mm9 Input control Input control Placenta SRX344647...160,SRX204147,SRX404310,SRX871506,SRX871507,SRX192098,SRX192097,SRX192099 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Plc.05.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  20. File list: Unc.Plc.10.AllAg.Trophoblast_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Plc.10.AllAg.Trophoblast_stem_cells mm9 Unclassified Placenta Trophoblast stem ...cells SRX530049 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Plc.10.AllAg.Trophoblast_stem_cells.bed ...

  1. File list: Pol.Plc.10.AllAg.Trophoblast_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Plc.10.AllAg.Trophoblast_stem_cells mm9 RNA polymerase Placenta Trophoblast stem... cells SRX160402 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Plc.10.AllAg.Trophoblast_stem_cells.bed ...

  2. File list: DNS.Plc.20.AllAg.Trophoblast_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Plc.20.AllAg.Trophoblast_stem_cells mm9 DNase-seq Placenta Trophoblast stem cel...ls SRX367112 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Plc.20.AllAg.Trophoblast_stem_cells.bed ...

  3. File list: His.Plc.10.AllAg.Trophoblast_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Plc.10.AllAg.Trophoblast_stem_cells mm9 Histone Placenta Trophoblast stem cells...04137,SRX204138,SRX204140,SRX204141 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Plc.10.AllAg.Trophoblast_stem_cells.bed ...

  4. File list: His.Plc.20.AllAg.Trophoblast_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Plc.20.AllAg.Trophoblast_stem_cells mm9 Histone Placenta Trophoblast stem cells...18523,SRX204140,SRX204137,SRX204141 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Plc.20.AllAg.Trophoblast_stem_cells.bed ...

  5. File list: ALL.Plc.50.AllAg.Trophoblast_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Plc.50.AllAg.Trophoblast_stem_cells mm9 All antigens Placenta Trophoblast stem ...92100,SRX192102,SRX1072154,SRX1072155,SRX530049 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Plc.50.AllAg.Trophoblast_stem_cells.bed ...

  6. File list: Oth.Plc.10.AllAg.Trophoblast_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Plc.10.AllAg.Trophoblast_stem_cells mm9 TFs and others Placenta Trophoblast stem...SRX204143,SRX192101,SRX192100,SRX192102,SRX204142 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Plc.10.AllAg.Trophoblast_stem_cells.bed ...

  7. File list: ALL.Plc.20.AllAg.Trophoblast_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Plc.20.AllAg.Trophoblast_stem_cells mm9 All antigens Placenta Trophoblast stem ...X204137,SRX204143,SRX204141,SRX192100,SRX192102 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Plc.20.AllAg.Trophoblast_stem_cells.bed ...

  8. File list: Pol.Plc.05.AllAg.Trophoblast_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Plc.05.AllAg.Trophoblast_stem_cells mm9 RNA polymerase Placenta Trophoblast stem... cells SRX160402 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Plc.05.AllAg.Trophoblast_stem_cells.bed ...

  9. 77 FR 73268 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... service information identified in this AD, contact Rolls-Royce plc, Corporate Communications, P.O. Box 31... September 11, 2012. (3) For service information identified in this AD, contact Rolls-Royce plc, Corporate Communications, P.O. Box 31, Derby, England, DE248BJ; phone: 011-44-1332-242424; fax: 011-44-1332- 245418,...

  10. 78 FR 70489 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-26

    ... plc, Corporate Communications, P.O. Box 31, Derby, DE24 8BJ, UK; phone: 44-0-1332-242424; fax: 44-0... identified in this AD, contact Rolls-Royce plc, Corporate Communications, P.O. Box 31, Derby, DE24 8BJ,...

  11. 78 FR 20505 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... information identified in this proposed AD, contact Rolls-Royce plc, Corporate Communications, P.O. Box 31... information. (3) For service information identified in this AD, contact Rolls-Royce plc, Corporate Communications, P.O. Box 31, Derby, England, DE248BJ; phone: 011-44-1332-242424; fax: 011-44-1332-249936 or...

  12. 77 FR 32007 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-31

    ... plc, Corporate Communications, P.O. Box 31, Derby, England DE248BJ; phone: 011-44-1332-242424; fax...-Royce plc, Corporate Communications, P.O. Box 31, Derby, England DE248BJ; phone: 011-44-1332-242424;...

  13. 78 FR 60658 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ..., contact Rolls-Royce plc, Corporate Communications, P.O. Box 31, Derby, England, DE248BJ; phone: 011-44.... (ii) None. (3) For service information identified in this AD, contact Rolls-Royce plc, Corporate Communications, P.O. Box 31, Derby, England, DE248BJ; phone: 011-44-1332-242424; fax: 011-44-1332- 249936;...

  14. 78 FR 70487 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-26

    ... plc, Corporate Communications, P.O. Box 31, Derby, DE24 8BJ, UK; phone: 44-0-1332-242424; fax: 44-0... AD, contact Rolls-Royce plc, Corporate Communications, P.O. Box 31, Derby, DE24 8BJ, UK; phone:...

  15. 78 FR 20507 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... information identified in this AD, contact Rolls-Royce plc, Corporate Communications, P.O. Box 31, Derby... related information. (3) For service information identified in this AD, contact Rolls-Royce plc, Corporate Communications, P.O. Box 31, Derby, England, DE248BJ; phone: 011-44-1332-242424; fax: 011-44-1332- 249936;...

  16. File list: Pol.Plc.20.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Plc.20.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell hg19 RNA polymerase RNA polymerase III Placen...ta http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Plc.20.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell.bed ...

  17. File list: Pol.Plc.50.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Plc.50.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell hg19 RNA polymerase RNA polymerase III Placen...ta http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Plc.50.RNA_polymerase_III.AllCell.bed ...

  18. File list: Pol.Plc.50.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Plc.50.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell hg19 RNA polymerase RNA polymerase II Placenta... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Plc.50.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell.bed ...

  19. AUTOMATION OF PLC PROGRAMMING WHEN IMPLEMENTING ALGORITHMS OF GUARANTEEING CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Levinskyi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available During developing programs for programmable logic controllers (PLCs the concept of model-oriented design is increasingly used. In particular, usage of Simulink PLC Coder is giving the opportunity to get SCL program codefrom Simulink model which contains certain dynamic elements. Then, for example, this SCL code can be transformed to functional blocks of the Simatic S7-300 (VIPA 300 PLC. This significantly reduces the timerequired to develop code in the language of SCL and reduces requirements for specialists’ qualification when developing control systems. In this article we provide an example of PLC programming automation whenimplementing algorithms of guaranteeing control (AGC. For certain types of technological processes it is typical to contain monotonically increasing function of the effectiveness with fixed one-way restriction in regulations. Forexample, in the grinders, presses, extruders the load current of the drive is stabilized using the change of feed. Energy efficiency of these plants will increase with increasing of the set point (SP to the controller of the drive loadcurrent stabilization loop. However, an increase in SP increases the probability of triggering appropriate protection, for example, as a result of random changes in the properties of raw materials. Therefore, to avoid this accident, thepower of driving motors is often unreasonably overrated. And in this case they are used with currents equal to the half of rated.Systems of guaranteeing control (SGC are used to solve the contradiction between the need to improvethe efficiency and increasing probability of an accident.

  20. 75 FR 17630 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc RB211 Trent 700 and Trent 800 Series Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc...-Royce plc has issued Alert Service Bulletin RB.211-72-AG086, dated December 4, 2008. The actions.... 39.13 2. The FAA amends Sec. 39.13 by adding the following new AD: Rolls-Royce plc: Docket No....

  1. 75 FR 63727 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR) RB211-524 Series Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR...-2251. Contact Rolls-Royce plc, P.O. Box 31, Derby, DE24 8BJ, United Kingdom; telephone: 011-44-1332...: Rolls-Royce plc: Docket No. FAA-2009-0162; Directorate Identifier 2004-NE-19-AD. Comments Due Date...

  2. 75 FR 61361 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR) RB211-535 Series Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR...-Royce plc., P.O. Box 31, Derby, DE24 8BJ, United Kingdom; Telephone: 011 44 1332 242424, Fax: 011 44... docket. Relevant Service Information Rolls-Royce plc has issued Alert Service Bulletin (ASB)...

  3. 75 FR 58290 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc RB211 Trent 700 and Trent 800 Series Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ...-27-AD; Amendment 39-16446; AD 2010-20-11] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc...-Royce plc: Amendment 39-16446. Docket No. FAA- 2010-0364; Directorate Identifier 2009-NE-27-AD...) None. Applicability (c) This AD applies to Rolls-Royce plc model (RR) RB211 Trent 768-60, 772-60,...

  4. 77 FR 21588 - Hart and Cooley, Inc., A Subsidiary of Tomkins, PLC Including On-Site Leased Workers from...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ... Employment and Training Administration Hart and Cooley, Inc., A Subsidiary of Tomkins, PLC Including On- Site... subsidiary of Tomkins, PLC, including on-site leased workers from Reliable, Masiello Employment Services... workers from Hart and Cooley, Inc., a subsidiary of Tomkins, PLC, including on-site leased workers...

  5. 76 FR 30529 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR) RB211-535 Series Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    ...-39-AD; Amendment 39-16707; AD 2011-11-08] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR... plc asked us to use a different statement for Rolls-Royce contact information in paragraph (i) of the... commenters, FedEx, American Airlines, and Rolls-Royce plc asked us to change the definition of a shop...

  6. 75 FR 69611 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc RB211-Trent 768, 772, and 772B Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ... Directives; Rolls-Royce plc RB211-Trent 768, 772, and 772B Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation... require the same initial and repetitive visual inspections of Rolls-Royce plc RB211-Trent 768 and 772... directive (AD) 98-09-27, Amendment 39-10508 (63 FR 24911, May 6, 1998): Rolls-Royce plc: Docket No....

  7. 78 FR 39062 - Group Lotus plc; Modification of a Temporary Exemption From an Advanced Air Bag Requirement of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Group Lotus plc; Modification of a Temporary Exemption From... Protection. SUMMARY: This notice modifies the temporary exemption granted to Group Lotus plc (Lotus) on March... in the Federal Register a notice granting Group Lotus Plc (Lotus) a temporary exemption from...

  8. 78 FR 10172 - Lisa Anne Cornell and G. Ware Cornell, Jr. v. Princess Cruise Lines, Ltd. (Corp), Carnival PLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ... Lisa Anne Cornell and G. Ware Cornell, Jr. v. Princess Cruise Lines, Ltd. (Corp), Carnival PLC, and..., Jr., hereinafter ``Complainants,'' against Princess Cruise Lines, Ltd (Corp), Carnival plc, and... common carrier for hire of passengers from ports in the United States;'' Respondent Carnival plc ``is...

  9. 76 FR 40217 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR) RB211-524 Series Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ...; AD 2011-13-01] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR) RB211-524 Series Turbofan... plc (RR): Amendment 39-16724; Docket No. FAA- 2011-0624; Directorate Identifier 2010-NE-11-AD.... (2) For service information identified in this AD, contact Rolls-Royce plc, P.O. Box 31, Derby,...

  10. Astable multivibrator circuits made with low capacity PLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, I.; Popa, G. N.; Diniş, C. M.; Deaconu, S. I.

    2016-02-01

    The paper presents three versions of astable multivibrator structures that can be made with PS-3 (Klöckner-Moeller) PLCs. They have, in their composition, two time-on delay timers (TR type) that can be found in PS-3 PLC. For each astable multivibrator circuits present the principle accompanied by graphic representations of the main signals of the astable multivibrator circuits and the mode of operation of these circuits using time diagrams. These astable multivibrator strucures can be used, special, for teaching PLCs.

  11. Reseach of Control System of Packaging Machine on PLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao SUN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available An automatic control system of sampling package for sample coal is designed according to the realities of sample coal powdery materials which are based on controller (PLC. The system can realize the functions of random sampling, auto-weighting, auto-packaging, and auto-sealing off. It also can adjust waste less, control convenient, zero point self-tuning and dynamics weighing measurement. It can be used in sampling weighing package of sample coal. Various performance indicators can be stably and reliably used in field.

  12. AUTOMATION OF GLASS TEMPERING FURNACE BY USING PLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah BÜYÜKYILDIZ

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a furnace which is used for observation of environments under high temperature, and also used for manufacturing of glasses which are resisted to high temperature has been designed and implemented. Automation of this system has been done by using PLC. Operating parameters of furnace such as materials entering, the furnace, the local temperature control of furnace, cooling control and materials outing have been sensed with Hall Effect Sensor. Furthermore, the observation of parameters of furnace on screen has been provided with SCADA software. Obtained products have been shown the system works successfully.

  13. PENGENDALIAN MESIN HOIST HANGER DALAM PROSES PTC/ED MENGGUNAKAN PLC OMRON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyudi Wahyudi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of technology demands efficient and work speed, so it needs a system which can handleseveral things.This problem can be covered with PLC (Programmable Logic Control that can integrateseveral self standing component to be an integrated control system and can be changed the configurationwithout change all instrument. Modify the ladder program can alter system of PLC. This paper showsHoist Hanger system in PTC/ED (Pre Treatment Chemical/Electrocoat Dispotition process that controlledby PLC. Above input from limit switch, sensor, or the other input, PLC system drives the motorrelay Hoist Hanger machine. That cause the motor relay Hoist Hanger change its condition, so the movingof Hoist Hanger machine will be suitable with PLC program.

  14. The Integration of DCS I/O to an Existing PLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhukhan, Debashis; Mihevic, John

    2013-01-01

    At the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), Existing Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) I/O was replaced with Distributed Control System (DCS) I/O, while keeping the existing PLC sequence Logic. The reason for integration of the PLC logic and DCS I/O, along with the evaluation of the resulting system is the subject of this paper. The pros and cons of the old system and new upgrade are described, including operator workstation screen update times. Detail of the physical layout and the communication between the PLC, the DCS I/O and the operator workstations are illustrated. The complex characteristics of a central process control system and the plan to remove the PLC processors in future upgrades is also discussed.

  15. Run-time system based on LinSERCANS and Soft-PLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cunfeng KANG; Chong WANG; Chunmin MA; Xudong HUANG; Renyuan FEI

    2009-01-01

    Soft-PLC with open architecture is the direction of development in industrial automation. This paper discusses the method of communication between the interface functions of LinSERCANS under RTLinux and the external library of Soft-PLC under Windows. Based on the API HOOK theory, the communication between the interface functions of LinSERCANS and the external libraries of Soft-PLC is set up and it solves the calling functions of dynamic link libraries in different operation systems. It is able to combine LinSERCANS with the Soft-PLC, and a run-time system is developed based on the interface technology of the serial real-time communication system (SERCOS) and technology of soft-PLC. This run-time system has been used in all electronic injection molding machines and works very well.

  16. Participation of PLA2 and PLC in DhL-induced activation of Rhinella arenarum oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata-Martínez, J; Medina, M F; Gramajo-Bühler, M C; Sánchez-Toranzo, G

    2016-08-01

    Rhinella arenarum oocytes can be artificially activated, a process known as parthenogenesis, by a sesquiterpenic lactone of the guaianolide group, dehydroleucodine (DhL). Transient increases in the concentration of cytosolic Ca2+ are essential to trigger egg activation events. In this sense, the 1-4-5 inositol triphosphate receptors (IP3R) seem to be involved in the Ca2+ transient release induced by DhL in this species. We analyzed the involvement of phosphoinositide metabolism, especially the participation of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and phospholipase C (PLC) in DhL-induced activation. Different doses of quinacrine, aristolochic acid (ATA) (PLA2 inhibitors) or neomycin, an antibiotic that binds to PIP2, thus preventing its hydrolysis, were used in mature Rhinella arenarum oocytes. In order to assay the participation of PI-PLC and PC- PLC we used U73122, a competitive inhibitor of PI-PLC dependent events and D609, an inhibitor of PC-PLC. We found that PLA2 inhibits quinacrine more effectively than ATA. This difference could be explained by the fact that quinacrine is not a specific inhibitor for PLA2 while ATA is specific for this enzyme. With respect to the participation of PLC, a higher decrease in oocyte activation was detected when cells were exposed to neomycin. Inhibition of PC-PLC with D609 and IP-PLC with U73122 indicated that the last PLC has a significant participation in the effect of DhL-induced activation. Results would indicate that DhL induces activation of in vitro matured oocytes of Rhinella arenarum by activation of IP-PLC, which in turn may induce IP3 formation which produces Ca2+ release.

  17. The Causes of Labour Turnover in Bottling Companies in Nigeria: A Comparative Study of Coca-Cola Plc and Seven Up Plc. Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.A. Chukwu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the causes of labour turnover in Coca-Cola Plc and Seven Up Plc. in Lagos, Nigeria. They are the major producers of soft drink in Nigeria. Labour turnover costs soft drink industries in Nigeria considerable amount of money yearly in recruiting and training replacements. It is an economic drain to the industry. A sizeable income is also incurred through new employees that are more prone to accidents, causes more breakages and make more mistakes than experience workers. Other loses are also incurred through reduced production, work disruption and increase scrap and overtime as a result of departed workers. A cross-sectional survey was utilized to collect data for answering research questionnaires and testing hypothesis in this study. The data collected from questionnaire instrument were also analysed using percentages (% and Z-test for comparing two proportions. Comparative analysis of the data showed that Seven Up Plc. rated unwillingness to perform as major cause of discharge while Coca-Cola Plc. rated attitudinal causes. Both companies rated unsatisfactory pay as the major cause of resignation. Seven Up Plc. was not significantly better than Coca-Cola Plc. on a hypothesis testing about the difference between proportions of samples. The Null hypothesis assumed that there were no difference in parameters and that the difference observed between sample percent was due to chance.

  18. PDZ domain-containing 1 (PDZK1) protein regulates phospholipase C-β3 (PLC-β3)-specific activation of somatostatin by forming a ternary complex with PLC-β3 and somatostatin receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Kuk; Kwon, Ohman; Kim, Jinho; Kim, Eung-Kyun; Park, Hye Kyung; Lee, Ji Eun; Kim, Kyung Lock; Choi, Jung Woong; Lim, Seyoung; Seok, Heon; Lee-Kwon, Whaseon; Choi, Jang Hyun; Kang, Byoung Heon; Kim, Sanguk; Ryu, Sung Ho; Suh, Pann-Ghill

    2012-06-15

    Phospholipase C-β (PLC-β) is a key molecule in G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-mediated signaling. Many studies have shown that the four PLC-β subtypes have different physiological functions despite their similar structures. Because the PLC-β subtypes possess different PDZ-binding motifs, they have the potential to interact with different PDZ proteins. In this study, we identified PDZ domain-containing 1 (PDZK1) as a PDZ protein that specifically interacts with PLC-β3. To elucidate the functional roles of PDZK1, we next screened for potential interacting proteins of PDZK1 and identified the somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) as another protein that interacts with PDZK1. Through these interactions, PDZK1 assembles as a ternary complex with PLC-β3 and SSTRs. Interestingly, the expression of PDZK1 and PLC-β3, but not PLC-β1, markedly potentiated SST-induced PLC activation. However, disruption of the ternary complex inhibited SST-induced PLC activation, which suggests that PDZK1-mediated complex formation is required for the specific activation of PLC-β3 by SST. Consistent with this observation, the knockdown of PDZK1 or PLC-β3, but not that of PLC-β1, significantly inhibited SST-induced intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization, which further attenuated subsequent ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that the formation of a complex between SSTRs, PDZK1, and PLC-β3 is essential for the specific activation of PLC-β3 and the subsequent physiologic responses by SST.

  19. PLC Transformation of T68 Boring Lathe%T68镗床的 PLC 改造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙小春

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the transformation of T68 boring lathe with Mitsubishi FX1S series PLC ,and states the transfor‐ming scheme of the system ,meantime ,according to the working requirements and characteristics of T68 boring lathe ,the as‐signments of PLC input and output was confirmed .The defects of relay control circuits were improved ,and a ladder diagram was designed and spot adjustment was performed .%介绍了利用三菱FX1S系列PLC对T68镗床的改造,阐述了系统的改造方案,同时配合T68镗床的工作要求和特点,确定了 PLC的输入输出分配,改进了原有继电器控制电路的缺陷,设计出梯形图并进行现场调试。

  20. Modelling and simulation tooling controlled by the PLC in the robot cell in NX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banas, W.; Gwiazda, A.; Monica, Z.; Sekala, A.; Foit, K.

    2016-08-01

    Many CAD programs allows the simulation of machines. Often, before creating the real machine can simulate the operation and see how it works. In these cases, set values of the forces acting on an element or displacement of the element. It is very easy for simple machines. Programming in this way PLC controlled system is very complicated because have to save the the entire PLC logic in the simulation program. It would be good simply connect the PLC or PLC simulation program to a CAD program enabling the simulation. There are many possibilities for sending information between the PLC and CAD. PLC to control most of the actuators using the digital outputs 0 or 1. Actuators often have two states but the transition from one to the other takes some time. By setting additional parameters may be the behaviour of the simulation as in real life. Setting these parameters is usually held in the testing phase before running it means that the system is assembled and can be damaged. Often this is the only opportunity to verify the PLC program. It is worth noting that such testing and running takes place on the production line and needs to be stopped.

  1. Functional roles of PC-PLC and Cdc20 in the cell cycle, proliferation, and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiwei; Yu, Yongfeng; Fu, Da; Li, Ziming; Niu, Xiaoming; Liao, Meilin; Lu, Shun

    2010-06-01

    Phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC) is the major enzyme in the Phosphatidylcholine (PC) cycle and is involved in many long-term cellular responses such as activation, proliferation, and differentiation events. Cell division cycle 20 homolog (Cdc20) is an essential cell-cycle regulator required for the completion of mitosis. Our previous studies identified the interaction between PC-PLC and Cdc20. Through the interaction, Cdc20 could mediate the degradation of PC-PLC by Cdc20-mediated ubiquitin proteasome pathway (UPP). In this study, we found that PC-PLC might not be involved in cancer metastasis. Inhibition of PC-PLC by D609 could cause cell proliferation inhibition and apoptosis inhibition in CBRH-7919 cells. Inhibition of PC-PLC could also influence the cell cycle by arresting the cells in G1 phase, and Cdc20 might be involved in these processes. Taken together, in this report, we provided new evidence for the functional roles of PC-PLC and Cdc20 in the cell cycle, proliferation, and apoptosis in CBRH-7919 cells.

  2. PLC-gamma1 and Rac1 coregulate EGF-induced cytoskeleton remodeling and cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Siwei; Wang, Qian; Wang, Yi; Chen, Xinmei; Wang, Zhixiang

    2009-06-01

    It is well established that epidermal growth factor (EGF) induces the cytoskeleton reorganization and cell migration through two major signaling cascades: phospholipase C-gamma1 (PLC-gamma1) and Rho GTPases. However, little is known about the cross talk between PLC-gamma1 and Rho GTPases. Here we showed that PLC-gamma1 forms a complex with Rac1 in response to EGF. This interaction is direct and mediated by PLC-gamma1 Src homology 3 (SH3) domain and Rac1 (106)PNTP(109) motif. This interaction is critical for EGF-induced Rac1 activation in vivo, and PLC-gamma1 SH3 domain is actually a potent and specific Rac1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor in vitro. We have also demonstrated that the interaction between PLC-gamma1 SH3 domain and Rac1 play a significant role in EGF-induced F-actin formation and cell migration. We conclude that PLC-gamma1 and Rac1 coregulate EGF-induced cell cytoskeleton remodeling and cell migration by a direct functional interaction.

  3. Alpha-Toxin Promotes Mucosal Biofilm Formation by Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele J Anderson

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus causes numerous diseases in humans ranging from the mild skin infections to serious, life-threatening, superantigen-mediated Toxic Shock Syndrome (TSS. S. aureus may also be asymptomatically carried in the anterior nares, vagina or on the skin, which serve as reservoirs for infection. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis clonal type USA200 is the most widely disseminated colonizer and a major cause of TSS. Our prior studies indicated that α-toxin was a major epithelial proinflammatory exotoxin produced by TSS S. aureus USA200 isolates. It also facilitated the penetration of TSS Toxin-1 (TSST-1 across vaginal mucosa. However, the majority of menstrual TSS isolates produce low α-toxin due to a nonsense point mutation at codon 113, designated hly, suggesting mucosal adaptation. The aim of this study was to characterize the differences between TSS USA200 strains [high (hla+ and low (hly+ α-toxin producers] in their abilities to infect and disrupt vaginal mucosal tissue. A mucosal model was developed using ex vivo porcine vaginal mucosa, LIVE/DEAD® staining and confocal microscropy to characterize biofilm formation and tissue viability of TSS USA 200 isolates CDC587 and MN8, which contain the α-toxin pseudogene (hly, MNPE (hla+ and MNPE isogenic hla knockout (hlaKO. All TSS strains grew to similar bacterial densities (1-5 x 108 CFU on the mucosa and were proinflammatory over 3 days. However, MNPE formed biofilms with significant reductions in the mucosal viability whereas neither CDC587, MN8 (hly+, or MNPE hlaKO, formed biofilms and were less cytotoxic. The addition of exogenous, purified α-toxin to MNPE hlaKO restored the biofilm phenotype. Our studies suggest α-toxin affects S. aureus phenotypic growth on vaginal mucosa, by promoting tissue disruption and biofilm formation; and α–toxin mutants (hly are not benign colonizers, but rather form a different type of infection, which we have termed high density pathogenic variants (HDPV.

  4. Knowledge-based engineering of a PLC controlled telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessemier, Wim; Raskin, Gert; Saey, Philippe; Van Winckel, Hans; Deconinck, Geert

    2016-08-01

    As the new control system of the Mercator Telescope is being finalized, we can review some technologies and design methodologies that are advantageous, despite their relative uncommonness in astronomical instrumentation. Particular for the Mercator Telescope is that it is controlled by a single high-end soft-PLC (Programmable Logic Controller). Using off-the-shelf components only, our distributed embedded system controls all subsystems of the telescope such as the pneumatic primary mirror support, the hydrostatic bearing, the telescope axes, the dome, the safety system, and so on. We show how real-time application logic can be written conveniently in typical PLC languages (IEC 61131-3) and in C++ (to implement the pointing kernel) using the commercial TwinCAT 3 programming environment. This software processes the inputs and outputs of the distributed system in real-time via an observatory-wide EtherCAT network, which is synchronized with high precision to an IEEE 1588 (PTP, Precision Time Protocol) time reference clock. Taking full advantage of the ability of soft-PLCs to run both real-time and non real-time software, the same device also hosts the most important user interfaces (HMIs or Human Machine Interfaces) and communication servers (OPC UA for process data, FTP for XML configuration data, and VNC for remote control). To manage the complexity of the system and to streamline the development process, we show how most of the software, electronics and systems engineering aspects of the control system have been modeled as a set of scripts written in a Domain Specific Language (DSL). When executed, these scripts populate a Knowledge Base (KB) which can be queried to retrieve specific information. By feeding the results of those queries to a template system, we were able to generate very detailed "browsable" web-based documentation about the system, but also PLC software code, Python client code, model verification reports, etc. The aim of this paper is to

  5. Implementation of a Fractional Model-Based Fault Detection Algorithm into a PLC Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopka, Ryszard

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents results related to the implementation of model-based fault detection and diagnosis procedures into a typical PLC controller. To construct the mathematical model and to implement the PID regulator, a non-integer order differential/integral calculation was used. Such an approach allows for more exact control of the process and more precise modelling. This is very crucial in model-based diagnostic methods. The theoretical results were verified on a real object in the form of a supercapacitor connected to a PLC controller by a dedicated electronic circuit controlled directly from the PLC outputs.

  6. 山地果园双轨运输机自动停车系统设计-基于 PLC%Design of Mountainous Orchard Double-track Transport Automatic Parking System-Based on PLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳玉平; 洪添胜; 苏建; 焦富江; 马煜东; 蔡志成

    2015-01-01

    为实现山地果园牵引式双轨运输机在任意设定区间的首尾极限位置自动停车,避免载物滑车冲离轨道的有效区域,在分析运输机整机结构及工作原理的基础上,采用旋转编码器等硬件,设计了一种基于 PLC 的自动定位停车及自动往返运载的控制系统。采用台达 DOPSoft1.01.08编制人机交互软件,在 WPL Soft 环境下,采用梯形图方法编制系统控制软件,实现了运输机运行参数实时监控与调节,提高了该类运输机的使用安全性。%In order to achieve the mountain orchard double-track transport parking automatically at the limit position of arbitrary range of the track and avoid the loading block rushing out of track effective area,based on analysis the whole transport structure characteristics and the working principle of the transport, this paper used the hardware like rotary en-coder to design the mountain orchard traction double-track transport automatic parking system and automatic shuttling ba-sing on the PLC.Using the delta DOPSoft1.01.08 compiled the human-computer interaction software and using the lad-der diagram method compiled the control system software under the WPL Soft environment.The automatic parking control system realized the real-time monitoring,regulating operation parameters of the transport and improved the safety of using of this kind of transport.

  7. PLC-Based Pressure Control in Multi-Pump Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vodovozov Valery

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the centrifugal pumps represented the most popular type of pumping equipment used in different areas. The pressure control approach for variable speed driven (VSD parallel connected centrifugal pumps is reported. The goal of the study is optimization of some quality indices, such as efficiency, consumed power, productivity, energy carrier temperature, heat irradiation, etc. One of them – efficiency – has been studied in the paper more carefully. The mathematical model of pumping process is discussed and a vector-matrix description of the multi-pump application is given. The program-based pressure control system is developed which productivity is changed by regulating the number of working pumps. The paper introduces new pressure control algorithms based on the working point estimation intended for programmable logical controllers (PLC. Experiments prove correctness of the offered methodology.

  8. Latex Dipping Machine PLC Control and Its Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yimin Zhang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Latex dipping machine is based on a latex patent products new-production condom and the development of the machine. The latex dipping agencies combined with production condom mechanism. First it realized a 3-dimensional accurate localization system using stepping motors. SIMATIC S7-200 series programmable controller, motion module EM253 and stepping motor are tied in wedlock to realize allocation of 3-dimension of X axis and Y axis and Z axis. Through the PTO pulse of Siemens S7-200 PLC controller and combined with the use of EM253 module, through the mould precise control programming soak glue and roll edge to achieve the control mold of rotation and swinging the uniform distributed latex. And the system has applied successfully in foreign-funded enterprise of Singapore.

  9. Formal verification of complex properties on PLC programs

    CERN Document Server

    Darvas, D; Voros, A; Bartha, T; Blanco Vinuela, E; Gonzalez Suarez, V M

    2014-01-01

    Formal verification has become a recommended practice in the safety-critical application areas. However, due to the complexity of practical control and safety systems, the state space explosion often prevents the use of formal analysis. In this paper we extend our former verification methodology with effective property preserving reduction techniques. For this purpose we developed general rule-based reductions and a customized version of the Cone of Influence (COI) reduction. Using these methods, the verification of complex requirements formalised with temporal logics (e.g. CTL, LTL) can be orders of magnitude faster. We use the NuSMV model checker on a real-life PLC program from CERN to demonstrate the performance of our reduction techniques.

  10. Using Moeller PLC in automation of an artesian fountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barz, C.; Latinovic, T.; Deaconu, S.; Preradović, D.; Pop, P. P.; Pop-Vadean, A.

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents the use of a Moeller PLC in the automation of an artesian fountains from Baia Mare. The application is developed in Ladder Diagram and contains two modes of operation. The first mode is the Automatic Mode in which are defines certain operating times of the artesian fountains pumps. These set times make recurrence of the operation. The second mode is the Manual Mode in which each pump is operated independently. Manual mode is only active for service personal, according to the user accounts and authorization rights of its. All orders are made with a touch screen Weintek in menus that are created for application. Using the Service Menu can visualize defects occurred during the regime of operation, which is recorded.

  11. Coded Adaptive Linear Precoded Discrete Multitone Over PLC Channel

    CERN Document Server

    Muhammad, Fahad Syed; Hélard, Jean-François; Crussière, Matthieu

    2008-01-01

    Discrete multitone modulation (DMT) systems exploit the capabilities of orthogonal subcarriers to cope efficiently with narrowband interference, high frequency attenuations and multipath fadings with the help of simple equalization filters. Adaptive linear precoded discrete multitone (LP-DMT) system is based on classical DMT, combined with a linear precoding component. In this paper, we investigate the bit and energy allocation algorithm of an adaptive LP-DMT system taking into account the channel coding scheme. A coded adaptive LPDMT system is presented in the power line communication (PLC) context with a loading algorithm which accommodates the channel coding gains in bit and energy calculations. The performance of a concatenated channel coding scheme, consisting of an inner Wei's 4-dimensional 16-states trellis code and an outer Reed-Solomon code, in combination with the proposed algorithm is analyzed. Theoretical coding gains are derived and simulation results are presented for a fixed target bit error ra...

  12. 77 FR 20987 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-09

    ..., Amendment 39-16970 (77 FR 13485, March 7, 2012), currently requires inspecting the front combustion liner...; AD 2012-04-14] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc Turbofan Engines...

  13. Modelling and Formal Verification of Timing Aspects in Large PLC Programs

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez Adiego, B; Blanco Vinuela, E; Tournier, J-C; Gonzalez Suarez, V M; Blech, J O

    2014-01-01

    One of the main obstacle that prevents model checking from being widely used in industrial control systems is the complexity of building formal models out of PLC programs, especially when timing aspects need to be integrated. This paper brings an answer to this obstacle by proposing a methodology to model and verify timing aspects of PLC programs. Two approaches are proposed to allow the users to balance the trade-off between the complexity of the model, i.e. its number of states, and the set of specifications possible to be verified. A tool supporting the methodology which allows to produce models for different model checkers directly from PLC programs has been developed. Verification of timing aspects for real-life PLC programs are presented in this paper using NuSMV.

  14. 78 FR 54149 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR) Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    ... service information identified in this AD, contact Rolls-Royce plc, Corporate Communications, P.O. Box 31..., Corporate Communications, P.O. Box 31, Derby, England, DE248BJ; phone: 011-44-1332-242424; fax:...

  15. 77 FR 75831 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ..., contact Rolls-Royce plc, Corporate Communications, P.O. Box 31, Derby, England, DE248BJ, phone: 011-44..., Corporate Communications, P.O. Box 31, Derby, England, DE248BJ, phone: 011-44-1332-242424; fax:...

  16. 76 FR 24796 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc RB211-Trent 800 Series Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    ..., Corporate Communications, P.O. Box 31, Derby, England, DE248BJ, telephone: 011-44-1332-242424; fax: 011-44... 25, 2009 for related information. Contact Rolls-Royce plc, Corporate Communications, P.O. Box...

  17. 77 FR 58762 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-24

    ..., contact Rolls-Royce plc, Corporate Communications, P.O. Box 31, Derby, England, DE248BJ, phone: 011-44..., Corporate Communications, P.O. Box 31, Derby, England, DE248BJ, phone: 011-44-1332-242424; fax:...

  18. 78 FR 17300 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ..., Corporate Communications, P.O. Box 31, Derby, England, DE248BJ; phone: 011 44 1332 242424; fax: 011 44 1332... service information identified in this AD, contact Rolls-Royce plc, Corporate Communications, P.O. Box...

  19. 78 FR 28161 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    .... For service information identified in this AD, contact Rolls-Royce plc, Corporate Communications, P.O..., Corporate Communications, P.O. Box 31, Derby, England, DE248BJ; phone: 011-44-1332-242424; fax:...

  20. 77 FR 6668 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... plc, Corporate Communications, P.O. Box 31, Derby, England, DE248BJ; phone: 011-44-1332-242424; fax..., Corporate Communications, P.O. Box 31, Derby, England, DE248BJ; phone: 011-44-1332-242424; fax:...

  1. Performance analysis of the PLC (Power Line Communication) in medium voltage electrical networks; Analise de desempenho de sistemas PLC em redes eletricas de media tensao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mota, A.A.; Paleta, R. [Pontificia Universidade Catolica de Campinas (PUC-Campinas), SP (Brazil)], E-mail: amota@puc-campinas.edu.br; Mota, L.T.M.; Ricardo, R.A. [Indelmatec Engenharia, Campinas, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: mota@indelmatec.com.br

    2009-07-01

    Nowadays, the information access in communication networks is widely explored due to the increase of Internet users. In this context, the PLC (Power Line Communication) technology is an alternative for data transmission. This technology is based on the usage of transmission/distribution power lines for data transmission. However there are some problems related to the usage of this technology: adequate data transmission rates and generation of acceptable levels of electromagnetic interference (EMI). This work had the objective of studying the performance of PLC systems in medium voltage electrical networks, through the assess of data transmission rates and the generated EMI. Tests were carried out in a test field that corresponded to a medium voltage electrical network and the obtained results show that, under some circumstances, the PLC system does not reach the existent technical recommendations. (author)

  2. Enhancements of G3-PLC Technology for Smart-Home/Building Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Luca Di Bert; Salvatore D'Alessandro; Tonello, Andrea M.

    2013-01-01

    To enable the smart grid concept, it is fundamental to consider the in-home/building context where, beside the conventional home networking services, home automation and smart energy management services have to be offered. In this paper, we consider the in-home/building scenario, for which we propose a convergent network architecture to enhance the performance of the narrowband power line communication (PLC) G3-PLC technology through its integration with an Ethernet-based network....

  3. Biofilm Formation by Bacillus cereus Is Influenced by PlcR, a Pleiotropic Regulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsueh, Yi-Huang; Somers, Eileen B.; Lereclus, Didier; Wong, Amy C. Lee

    2006-01-01

    The ΔplcR mutant of Bacillus cereus strain ATCC 14579 developed significantly more biofilm than the wild type and produced increased amounts of biosurfactant. Biosurfactant production is required for biofilm formation and may be directly or indirectly repressed by PlcR, a pleiotropic regulator. Coating polystyrene plates with surfactin, a biosurfactant from Bacillus subtilis, rescued the deficiency in biofilm formation by the wild type. PMID:16820512

  4. Bacillus cereus Fnr binds a [4Fe-4S] cluster and forms a ternary complex with ResD and PlcR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esbelin Julia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacillus cereus is a facultative anaerobe that causes diarrheal disease in humans. Diarrheal syndrome may result from the secretion of various virulence factors including hemolysin BL and nonhemolytic enterotoxin Nhe. Expression of genes encoding Hbl and Nhe is regulated by the two redox systems, ResDE and Fnr, and the virulence regulator PlcR. B. cereus Fnr is a member of the Crp/Fnr family of iron-sulfur (Fe-S proteins. Only its apo-form has so far been studied. A major goal in deciphering the Fnr-dependent regulation of enterotoxin genes is thus to obtain and characterize holoFnr. Results Fnr has been subjected to in vitro Fe-S cluster reconstitution under anoxic conditions. UV-visible and EPR spectroscopic analyses together with the chemical estimation of the iron content indicated that Fnr binds one [4Fe-4S]2+ cluster per monomer. Atmospheric O2 causes disassembly of the Fe-S cluster, which exhibited a half-life of 15 min in air. Holo- and apoFnr have similar affinities for the nhe and hbl promoter regions, while holoFnr has a higher affinity for fnr promoter region than apoFnr. Both the apo- and holo-form of Fnr interact with ResD and PlcR to form a ternary complex. Conclusions Overall, this work shows that incorporation of the [4Fe-4S]2+ cluster is not required for DNA binding of Fnr to promoter regions of hbl and nhe enterotoxin genes or for the formation of a ternary complex with ResD and PlcR. This points to some new unusual properties of Fnr that may have physiological relevance in the redox regulation of enterotoxin gene regulation.

  5. Arbitration Award of ICSID on the Investment Disputes of Churchill Mining PLC v. Republic of Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yordan Gunawan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The research is aimed at analyzing the ICSID (International Centre Settlement Investment Dispute decision in solving a dispute between Churchill Mining PLC and the Government of the Republic of Indonesia. The case brought to the public attention, because mining license owned by PT. Ridlatama which acquired from Churchill Mining PLC had been revocated. Churchill Mining PLC holds 75% share of PT. Ridlatama and it suffered losses caused by the revocation of its mining license. Churchill Mining PLC filed the case to the local court but it failed. Churchill Mining PLC then sought ruling from International arbitration or ICSID. On December 6, 2016, ICSID issued a decision that clearly threw out Churchill Mining PLC claim. ICSID, the World Bank court, ordered the firm to pay a total of US$.9.446.528 in cost to the Government of the Republic of Indonesia. It is based on the evidences that the UK-Australia company did the fraud and had document forgery of coal mining permit in East Kutai, Indonesia. So the firm has violated the Bilateral Investment Treaties between Indonesia-UK and Indonesia-Australia.

  6. Optical interconnection for a polymeric PLC device using simple positional alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Jin Hwa; Kim, Po Jin; Cho, Cheon Soo; Lee, El-Hang; Kim, Chang-Seok; Jeong, Myung Yung

    2011-04-25

    This study proposes a simple cost-effective method of optical interconnection between a planar lightwave circuit (PLC) device chip and an optical fiber. It was conducted to minimize and overcome the coupling loss caused by lateral offset which is due to the process tolerance and the dimensional limitation existing between PLC device chips and fiber array blocks with groove structures. A PLC device chip and a fiber array block were simultaneously fabricated in a series of polymer replication processes using the original master. The dimensions (i.e., width and thickness) of the under-clad of the PLC device chip were identical to those of the fiber array block. The PLC device chip and optical fiber were aligned by simple positional control for the vertical direction of the PLC device chip under a particular condition. The insertion loss of the proposed 1 x 2 multimode optical splitter device interconnection was 4.0 dB at 850 nm and the coupling loss was below 0.1 dB compared with single-fiber based active alignment.

  7. A Review of Wireless and PLC Propagation Channel Characteristics for Smart Grid Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabih Güzelgöz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless, power line communication (PLC, fiber optic, Ethernet, and so forth are among the communication technologies on which smart grid communication infrastructure is envisioned to be built. Among these, wireless and PLC-based solutions are attractive considering the cost of initial deployment. Wireless communication deployment in smart grid covers a variety of environments such as indoor, outdoor, and electric-power-system facilities. Similar diversity is expected in PLC deployment as well covering low voltage (LV, medium voltage (MV, and high voltage (HV segments of the grid. In spite of being attractive, wireless and PLC channels are very harsh posing great challenges to performance of communication systems. In proposing solutions to smart grid communication needs, two approaches are likely to be followed. One is based on the use of existing wireless and PLC technologies with some modifications, and the other relies upon developing novel communication protocols particularly addressing the smart grid needs. Both of these approaches require an in-depth knowledge of communication channel characteristics. The aim of this study is to reveal the wireless and PLC channel characteristics of smart grid environments in terms of several parameters such as path loss and attenuation, time dispersion, time selectivity, amplitude statistics, and noise characteristics.

  8. Design of PLC Offline Simulation Software%PLC离线仿真软件的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏端峰; 柯宗武; 姜楚乔

    2014-01-01

    PLC has been widely used in industrial automation. Before running on the PLC, a Ladder Chart must be carried out several times in pro-gram debugging on the PLC. There are problems of high cost and big risk issues when program development and debugging on the real PLC. Offline simulation software can replace the real PLC, complete this part of function better. Analyzes PLC offline simulation software design principles and implementation from the aspect of system architecture, functional requirements and the actual design.%PLC作为一种以微电脑为核心的自动控制装置,已经在工业自动化领域广泛应用。一个工业控制程序从设计到实际运行必须多次在PLC上进行程序调试,但实物PLC上进行程序开发、调试存在着成本高、风险大的问题。而PLC离线仿真软件可以替代实物PLC,较好地完成这部分功能。从PLC离线仿真软件整体系统结构、需要实现的功能及实际设计几个方面阐述PLC离线仿真软件的设计原理及实现方案。

  9. Involvement of PLC-beta3 in the effect of morphine on memory retrieval in passive avoidance task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, E; Lehmann, D; Vivoli, E; Norcini, M; Ghelardini, C

    2010-06-01

    Phospholipase C (PLC) is one signalling effector enzyme whose activity is directly modulated by opioids. Several physiological studies have implicated PLC-linked pathways in in-vivo pain regulation and opioid tolerance. Co-administration of PLC-beta(2/3) activity blocker M119 with morphine resulted in a dramatic increase in morphine-induced amnesic effect in mice, proving a role for beta subunit of PLC enzyme in these processes. Administration of morphine to mice at amnesic dose increased PLC-beta(3) activity, with respect to basal value, in the membrane-soluble material from anterior cortex and hippocampal formation in brain areas. PLC-beta(3) appears to be simultaneously implicated in both analgesic and amnesic effects induced by administration of morphine to mice suggesting a commonality in the molecular mechanisms of morphine-induced analgesia and memory impairment.

  10. 75 FR 50877 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc RB211-524C2 Series Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ...-21-AD; Amendment 39-16405; AD 2010-17-13] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc... 2. The FAA amends Sec. 39.13 by adding the following new AD: 2010-17-13 Rolls-Royce plc (Formerly.... Affected ADs (b) None. Applicability (c) This AD applies to Rolls-Royce plc (RR) model RB211-524C2-19...

  11. 76 FR 12277 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc RB211-Trent 768, 772, and 772B Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-07

    ...-AD; Amendment 39-16620; AD 98-09-27R1] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc RB211... of Rolls-Royce plc RB211-Trent 768 and 772 series turbofan engine thrust reverser hinge lugs and..., Amendment 39-10508 (63 FR 24911, May 6, 1998): 98-09-27R1 Rolls-Royce plc: Amendment 39-16620. Docket...

  12. Developing a PLC-friendly state machine model: lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessemier, Wim; Deconinck, Geert; Raskin, Gert; Saey, Philippe; Van Winckel, Hans

    2014-07-01

    Modern Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) have become an attractive platform for controlling real-time aspects of astronomical telescopes and instruments due to their increased versatility, performance and standardization. Likewise, vendor-neutral middleware technologies such as OPC Unified Architecture (OPC UA) have recently demonstrated that they can greatly facilitate the integration of these industrial platforms into the overall control system. Many practical questions arise, however, when building multi-tiered control systems that consist of PLCs for low level control, and conventional software and platforms for higher level control. How should the PLC software be structured, so that it can rely on well-known programming paradigms on the one hand, and be mapped to a well-organized OPC UA interface on the other hand? Which programming languages of the IEC 61131-3 standard closely match the problem domains of the abstraction levels within this structure? How can the recent additions to the standard (such as the support for namespaces and object-oriented extensions) facilitate a model based development approach? To what degree can our applications already take advantage of the more advanced parts of the OPC UA standard, such as the high expressiveness of the semantic modeling language that it defines, or the support for events, aggregation of data, automatic discovery, ... ? What are the timing and concurrency problems to be expected for the higher level tiers of the control system due to the cyclic execution of control and communication tasks by the PLCs? We try to answer these questions by demonstrating a semantic state machine model that can readily be implemented using IEC 61131 and OPC UA. One that does not aim to capture all possible states of a system, but rather one that attempts to organize the course-grained structure and behaviour of a system. In this paper we focus on the intricacies of this seemingly simple task, and on the lessons that we

  13. Study of Real- time PCR Assay for Rapid Detection of Alpha Toxin Gene from Clostridium perfringens in Food%食品中产气荚膜梭菌α毒素基因快速检测方法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺连华; 扈庆华; 王冰; 吴平芳; 石晓路; 陈妙玲

    2011-01-01

    Objective To rapidly detect Clostridium perfringens by developing a molecular - beacon - based PCR assay, and the established method was applied to rapid diagnosis of food poisoning. Methods Based on the core sequence of gene published on GenBank, the primers and modified molecular beacons were designed to detect alpha toxin gene from Clostridium perfringens. The probe was labeled with FAM in 5' end. The molecular beacons and primer set were tested against numerous strains from 10 different bacterial species. Results With the PCR assay based on the molecular beacon, Clostridium perfringens and no false signals were observed. There was no cross - reaction with other bacteria as control. 40 food samples were tested, 3 samples were found Clostridium perfringens positive by the PCR assay. Among the tested positive samples, 2 samples were detected Clostridium perfringens positive by traditional culture method. The overall test could be finished within 2 hours to one day starting from sample preparation. Conclusions The molecular - beacon - based PCR assay is rapid, sensitive, and specific. It could be applied to the rapid diagnosis of Clostridium perfringens food poisoning.%目的 建立分子信标荧光PCR体系检测产气荚膜梭菌的快速检测方法,应用于食物中毒快速诊断和食品微生物检验.方法 根据GenBank公布的保守序列,针对α毒素基因设计一对引物和分子信标探针,用FAM荧光剂标记探针的5端,并进行特异性和灵敏度分析,同时以10种细菌作对照.结果 分子信标荧光PCR反应体系检测10种细菌,只有产气荚膜梭菌出现特异荧光信号,其他均无荧光信号,而且与其他细菌无交叉反应.对40份食品样品进行检测,3份产气荚膜梭菌PCR阳性,其余样品为阴性,检测仅需2 h.3份阳性样本经传统方法培养,2份有检出产气荚膜梭菌.结论 分子信标荧光PCR检测体系快速、灵敏度高,特异性强,可用于产气荚膜梭菌食物中毒的快

  14. PLC Control Method and Realiztation of Repeatability for Picomotor Actuators%Pico电机的PLC控制方法及其重复性的实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乐兆山; 陆林海; 朱寒雨

    2011-01-01

    主要论述和解决了新型的Pico电机在应用过程中碰到的两个问题,即如何利用PLC控制Pico电机以及如何实现该电机的重复性.在以PLC为主要控制解决方案的场合,使用该方法可以节约系统成本,降低系统复杂性.通过加装旋转编码器,有效地解决了电机本身重复性差的问题.%Two problems in the usage of the novel Picomotor actuator were discussed and settled.One is how to use PLC to control the Picomotor actuator,the other is how to achieve it repeatability.Using PLC to control the whole system can save system cost,reduce the complexity of the system.By installing a rotatory encoder,excellent repeatability can be achieved.

  15. PLC在工业自动化控制中的应用%Application of PLC in Industrial Automation Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗勇

    2012-01-01

    叙述了PLC在工业自动化控制中的应用,并对可编程器PLC进行了简要介绍,分析了PLC的通信功能和特点,探讨了PLC在工业自动化领域的未来发展。%The author described application of PLC in industrial automation control, and briefly introduced PLC. Then, the author analyzed of communication function and features of PLC, and discussed future development of PLC in industrial automation field.

  16. DNA sequences encoding erythropoietin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, F.K.

    1987-10-27

    A purified and isolated DNA sequence is described consisting essentially of a DNA sequence encoding a polypeptide having an amino acid sequence sufficiently duplicative of that of erythropoietin to allow possession of the biological property of causing bone marrow cells to increase production of reticulocytes and red blood cells, and to increase hemoglobin synthesis or iron uptake.

  17. Negative Beta Encoder

    CERN Document Server

    Kohda, Tohru; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2008-01-01

    A new class of analog-digital (A/D), digital-analog (D/A) converters as an alternative to conventional ones, called $\\beta$-encoder, has been shown to have exponential accuracy in the bit rates while possessing self-correction property for fluctuations of amplifier factor $\\beta$ and quantizer threshold $\

  18. Time-Encoded Imagers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marleau, Peter; Brubaker, Erik

    2014-11-01

    This report provides a short overview of the DNN R&D funded project, Time-Encoded Imagers. The project began in FY11 and concluded in FY14. The Project Description below provides the overall motivation and objectives for the project as well as a summary of programmatic direction. It is followed by a short description of each task and the resulting deliverables.

  19. Ral GTPase interacts with the N-terminal in addition to the C-terminal region of PLC-delta1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grujic, Ognjen; Bhullar, Rajinder P

    2009-06-12

    Previously, we have shown that RalA, a calmodulin (CaM)-binding protein, binds to the C2 region in the C-terminal of PLC-delta1, and increases its enzymatic activity. Since PLC-delta1 contains a CaM-like region in its N-terminus, we have investigated if RalA can also bind to the N-terminus of PLC-delta1. Therefore, we created a GST-PLC-delta1 construct consisting of the first 294 amino acids of PLC-delta1 (GST-PLC-delta1(1-294)). In vitro binding experiments confirmed that PLC-delta1(1-294) was capable of binding directly to RalA. W-7 coupled to polyacrylamide beads bound pure PLC-delta1, demonstrating that PLC-delta1 contains a CaM-like region. Competition assays with W-7, peptides representing RalA and the newly identified RalB CaM-binding regions, or the IQ peptide from PLC-delta1 were able to inhibit RalA binding to PLC-delta1(1-294). This study demonstrates that there are two binding sites for RalA in PLC-delta1 and provides further insight into the role of Ral GTPase in the regulation of PLC-delta1 function.

  20. Catalytic activity of nuclear PLC-beta(1) is required for its signalling function during C2C12 differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramazzotti, Giulia; Faenza, Irene; Gaboardi, Gian Carlo; Piazzi, Manuela; Bavelloni, Alberto; Fiume, Roberta; Manzoli, Lucia; Martelli, Alberto M; Cocco, Lucio

    2008-11-01

    Here we report that PLC-beta(1) catalytic activity plays a role in the increase of cyclin D3 levels and induces the differentiation of C2C12 skeletal muscle cells. PLC-beta(1) mutational analysis revealed the importance of His(331) and His(378) for the catalysis. The expression of PLC-beta(1) and cyclin D3 proteins is highly induced during the process of skeletal myoblast differentiation. We have previously shown that PLC-beta(1) activates cyclin D3 promoter during the differentiation of myoblasts to myotubes, indicating that PLC-beta(1) is a crucial regulator of the mouse cyclin D3 gene. We show that after insulin treatment cyclin D3 mRNA levels are lower in cells overexpressing the PLC-beta(1) catalytically inactive form in comparison to wild type cells. We describe a novel signalling pathway elicited by PLC-beta(1) that modulates AP-1 activity. Gel mobility shift assay and supershift performed with specific antibodies indicate that the c-jun binding site is located in a cyclin D3 promoter region specifically regulated by PLC-beta(1) and that c-Jun binding activity is significantly increased by insulin and PLC-beta(1) overexpression. Mutation of AP-1 site decreased the basal cyclin D3 promoter activity and eliminated its induction by insulin and PLC-beta(1). These results hint at the fact that PLC-beta(1) catalytic activity signals a c-jun/AP-1 target gene, i.e. cyclin D3, during myogenic differentiation.

  1. PC-PLC/sphingomyelin synthase activity plays a central role in the development of myogenic tone in murine resistance arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauban, Joseph R H; Zacharia, Joseph; Fairfax, Seth; Wier, Withrow Gil

    2015-06-15

    Myogenic tone is an intrinsic property of the vasculature that contributes to blood pressure control and tissue perfusion. Earlier investigations assigned a key role in myogenic tone to phospholipase C (PLC) and its products, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG). Here, we used the PLC inhibitor, U-73122, and two other, specific inhibitors of PLC subtypes (PI-PLC and PC-PLC) to delineate the role of PLC in myogenic tone of pressurized murine mesenteric arteries. U-73122 inhibited depolarization-induced contractions (high external K(+) concentration), thus confirming reports of nonspecific actions of U-73122 and its limited utility for studies of myogenic tone. Edelfosine, a specific inhibitor of PI-PLC, did not affect depolarization-induced contractions but modulated myogenic tone. Because PI-PLC produces IP3, we investigated the effect of blocking IP3 receptor-mediated Ca(2+) release on myogenic tone. Incubation of arteries with xestospongin C did not affect tone, consistent with the virtual absence of Ca(2+) waves in arteries with myogenic tone. D-609, an inhibitor of PC-PLC and sphingomyelin synthase, strongly inhibited myogenic tone and had no effect on depolarization-induced contraction. D-609 appeared to act by lowering cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration to levels below those that activate contraction. Importantly, incubation of pressurized arteries with a membrane-permeable analog of DAG induced vasoconstriction. The results therefore mandate a reexamination of the signaling pathways activated by the Bayliss mechanism. Our results suggest that PI-PLC and IP3 are not required in maintaining myogenic tone, but DAG, produced by PC-PLC and/or SM synthase, is likely through multiple mechanisms to increase Ca(2+) entry and promote vasoconstriction.

  2. Intrathecal PLC(β3) oligodeoxynucleotides antisense potentiates acute morphine efficacy and attenuates chronic morphine tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quanhong, Zhou; Ying, Xue; Moxi, Chen; Tao, Xu; Jing, Wang; Xin, Zhang; Li, Wang; Derong, Cui; Xiaoli, Zhang; Wei, Jiang

    2012-09-07

    Morphine is a mainstay for chronic pain treatment, but its efficacy has been hampered by physical tolerance. The underlying mechanism for chronic morphine induced tolerance is complicated and not well understood. PLC(β3) is regarded as an important factor in the morphine tolerance signal pathway. In this study, we determined intrathecal (i.t.) administration of an antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) of PLC(β3) could quicken the on-set antinociceptive efficacy of acute morphine treatment and prolong the maximum effect up to 4h. The antisense could also attenuate the development of morphine-induced tolerance and left shift the ED50 after 7 day of coadministration with morphine. These results probably were contributed by the PLC(β3) antisense ODN as they successfully knocked down protein expression levels and reduced activity of PLC(β3) in spinal cord in rats. The mismatch group had no such effects. The results confirmed the important involvement of PLC(β3) in both acute morphine efficacy and chronic morphine tolerance at spinal level in rats. This study may provide an idea for producing a novel adjuvant for morphine treatment.

  3. Realizace úzkopásmových PLC modemů

    OpenAIRE

    Kubíček, Lukáš

    2012-01-01

    Diplomová práce se věnuje úzkopásmové technologii přenosu dat el. sítí NN (PLC) a~možnostem jejího využití v senzorových sítích. Zabývá se jak strukturou a základními vlastnostmi PLC standardu, tak možnostmi jeho uplatnění v praxi. Hlavní částí této práce je realizace PLC sítě pomocí IO ST7570 firmy STMicroelectronics. Jako příklad praktického využití PLC technologie je tato síť připojena k počítači, ve kterém jsou data ze senzoru (wattmetru) připojenému k PLC modemu ukládána pomocí aplikace ...

  4. Software control of the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope enclosure PLC hardware using COTS software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrowman, Alastair J.; de Bilbao, Lander; Ariño, Javier; Murga, Gaizka; Goodrich, Bret; Hubbard, John R.; Greer, Alan; Mayer, Chris; Taylor, Philip

    2012-09-01

    As PLCs evolve from simple logic controllers into more capable Programmable Automation Controllers (PACs), observatories are increasingly using such devices to control complex mechanisms1, 2. This paper describes use of COTS software to control such hardware using the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) Common Services Framework (CSF). We present the Enclosure Control System (ECS) under development in Spain and the UK. The paper details selection of the commercial PLC communication library PLCIO. Implemented in C and delivered with source code, the library separates the programmer from communication details through a simple API. Capable of communicating with many types of PLCs (including Allen-Bradley and Siemens) the API remains the same irrespective of PLC in use. The ECS is implemented in Java using the observatory's framework that provides common services for software components. We present a design following a connection-based approach where all components access the PLC through a single connection class. The link between Java and PLCIO C library is provided by a thin Java Native Interface (JNI) layer. Also presented is a software simulator of the PLC based upon the PLCIO Virtual PLC. This creates a simulator operating below the library's API and thus requires no change to ECS software. It also provides enhanced software testing capabilities prior to hardware becoming available. Results are presented in the form of communication timing test data, showing that the use of CSF, JNI and PLCIO provide a control system capable of controlling enclosure tracking mechanisms, that would be equally valid for telescope mount control.

  5. PLC applications in industrial automation%PLC在工业自动化中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔德政; 李振华

    2013-01-01

    伴随着计算机技术及电子技术的发展,PLC技术在近些年来得到了快速的发展。在工业自动化控制中,PLC取代了传统的继电器控制系统。在本文中首先对PLC进行整体介绍,随后分析PLC在工业自动化控制的应用状况,最后针对PLC的快速发展,讨论其在工业自动化控制的未来发展趋势。%With the computer technology and electronic technology,PLC technology in recent years has been rapid development.In industrial automation control,PLC replaces the traditional relay control system.In this paper first introduces the PLC as a whole,followed by an analysis of PLC in the industrial automation and control application status,and finally the rapid development of the PLC to discuss its future in the industrial automation and control trends.

  6. 电力系统中的 PLC 抗电磁干扰技术探讨%Investigation of PLC Anti-Jamming Technique in Electric Power System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙延岭; 彭文才; 刘国敏

    2014-01-01

    可编程控制器(PLC)广泛应用在电力系统中,本文分析了电力系统中电磁干扰的来源和影响因素,详细介绍了 MB 系列 PLC 开发过程中的抗电磁干扰技术,并结合工程应用经验介绍了 PLC 系统中电源、I/O 以及通信的抗干扰措施,对于 PLC 的开发尤其是工程应用具有一定的借鉴意义。%Programmable logic controller(PLC)has been widely used in electric power system.Analysis to source and influen-cing factor of electromagnetic interference in electric power system.is shown.Anti-Jamming technique to electromagnetic inter-ference in development of MB series PLC is introduced.And the Anti-Jamming measure of power,I/O and communication in PLC system is introduced according to engineering application experience.This has certain referenced effect to PLC develop-ment especially engineering application.

  7. File list: Unc.Plc.20.AllAg.Induced_trophoblast_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Plc.20.AllAg.Induced_trophoblast_stem_cells mm9 Unclassified Placenta Induced trophoblast stem... cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Plc.20.AllAg.Induced_trophoblast_stem_cells.bed ...

  8. File list: Unc.Plc.50.AllAg.Induced_trophoblast_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  9. File list: NoD.Plc.20.AllAg.Induced_trophoblast_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  10. File list: NoD.Plc.20.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  11. File list: InP.Plc.50.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  12. File list: InP.Plc.10.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  13. File list: NoD.Plc.10.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  14. File list: InP.Plc.05.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  16. File list: InP.Plc.20.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  17. File list: NoD.Plc.50.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  18. File list: NoD.Plc.05.AllAg.Trophoblast_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  19. File list: InP.Plc.20.AllAg.Trophoblast_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Plc.20.AllAg.Trophoblast_stem_cells mm9 Input control Placenta Trophoblast stem...rchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Plc.20.AllAg.Trophoblast_stem_cells.bed ...

  20. Cell-cycle-dependent PC-PLC regulation by APC/C(Cdc20)-mediated ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Da; Ma, Yushui; Wu, Wei; Zhu, Xuchao; Jia, Chengyou; Zhao, Qianlei; Zhang, Chunyi; Wu, Xing Zhong

    2009-07-01

    Phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC) is involved in the cell signal transduction, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. The mechanism of its action, however, has not been fully understood, particularly, the role of PC-PLC in the cell cycle. In the present study, we found that cell division cycle 20 homolog (Cdc20) and PC-PLC were co-immunoprecipitated reciprocally by either antibody in rat hepatoma cells CBRH-7919 as well as in rat liver tissue. Using confocal microscopy, we found that PC-PLC and Cdc20 were co-localized in the perinuclear endoplasmic reticulum region (the "juxtanuclear quality control" compartment, JUNQ). The expression level and activities of PC-PLC changed in a cell-cycle-dependent manner and were inversely correlated with the expression of Cdc20. Intriguingly, Cdc20 overexpression altered the subcellular localization and distribution of PC-PLC, and caused PC-PLC degradation by the ubiquitin proteasome pathway (UPP). Taken together, our data indicate that PC-PLC regulation in cell cycles is controlled by APC/C(Cdc20)-mediated UPP.

  1. 75 FR 27973 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc RB211-524C2 Series Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc...-2251. Contact Rolls-Royce plc, P.O. Box 31, Derby, DE24 8BJ, United Kingdom; telephone 011 44 1332... further information by examining the MCAI in the AD docket. Relevant Service Information Rolls-Royce...

  2. 77 FR 39564 - Group Lotus Plc, Receipt of Petition for Temporary Exemption From an Advanced Air Bag Requirement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Group Lotus Plc, Receipt of Petition for Temporary Exemption... Crash Protection. SUMMARY: In accordance with the procedures in 49 CFR part 555, Group Lotus Plc has... went into effect, low volume manufacturers now have access to advanced air bag technology....

  3. File list: NoD.Plc.05.AllAg.Induced_trophoblast_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  4. File list: Oth.Plc.05.AllAg.Induced_trophoblast_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  5. File list: InP.Plc.50.AllAg.Induced_trophoblast_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  6. File list: Pol.Plc.20.AllAg.Induced_trophoblast_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  7. File list: ALL.Plc.10.AllAg.Induced_trophoblast_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  9. File list: ALL.Plc.20.AllAg.Induced_trophoblast_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  10. File list: Pol.Plc.05.AllAg.Induced_trophoblast_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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    Full Text Available Pol.Plc.05.AllAg.Induced_trophoblast_stem_cells mm9 RNA polymerase Placenta Induced... trophoblast stem cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Plc.05.AllAg.Induced_trophoblast_stem_cells.bed ...

  11. File list: NoD.Plc.50.AllAg.Induced_trophoblast_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  12. File list: His.Plc.20.AllAg.Induced_trophoblast_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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    Full Text Available Pol.Plc.50.AllAg.Induced_trophoblast_stem_cells mm9 RNA polymerase Placenta Induced... trophoblast stem cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Plc.50.AllAg.Induced_trophoblast_stem_cells.bed ...

  14. File list: ALL.Plc.50.AllAg.Induced_trophoblast_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  15. File list: InP.Plc.05.AllAg.Induced_trophoblast_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  16. File list: DNS.Plc.05.AllAg.Induced_trophoblast_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  18. File list: DNS.Plc.10.AllAg.Induced_trophoblast_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  1. File list: Oth.Plc.20.AllAg.Induced_trophoblast_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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    Full Text Available Oth.Plc.20.AllAg.Induced_trophoblast_stem_cells mm9 TFs and others Placenta Induced... trophoblast stem cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Plc.20.AllAg.Induced_trophoblast_stem_cells.bed ...

  2. File list: ALL.Plc.05.AllAg.Induced_trophoblast_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  5. File list: Pol.Plc.10.AllAg.Induced_trophoblast_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  8. File list: Oth.Plc.10.AllAg.Induced_trophoblast_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  9. File list: InP.Plc.20.AllAg.Induced_trophoblast_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  10. MultiController: the PLC-SCADA object for advanced regulation

    CERN Document Server

    Ortola, J

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays, industrial solutions with PLCs (Programmable Logic Controllers) have basic control loop features. The SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) system is a key point of the process control system due to an efficient HMI (Human Machine Interfaces) that provides an open method of tuning and leading possibilities. As a consequence, advanced control algorithms have to be developed and implemented for those PLC-SCADA solutions in order to provide perspectives in solving complex and critical regulation problems. The MultiController is an object integrated for a large scale project at CERN (the European Organization for Nuclear Research) named LHC-GCS (Large Hadron Collider - Gas Control System). It is developed for a Framework called CERN-UNICOS based on PLC-SCADA facilities. The MultiController object offers various advanced control loop strategies. It gives to the user advanced control algorithms like PID, Smith Predictor, PFC, GPC and RST. It is implemented as a monolithic entity (in PLC and SCA...

  11. Design and Implementation of PLC-Based Automatic Sun tracking System for Parabolic Trough Solar Concentrator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jinping

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A sun-tracking system for parabolic trough solar concentrators (PTCs is a control system used to orient the concentrator toward the sun always, so that the maximum energy can be collected. The work presented here is a design and development of PLC based sun tracking control system for PTC. Sun tracking control system consists of a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC and a single axis hydraulic drives tracking control system. Hydraulic drives and the necessary tracking angle algorithm have been designed and developed to perform the technical tasks. A PLC unit was employed to control and monitor the mechanical movement of the PTC and to collect and store data related to the tracking angle of PTC. It is found that the tracking error of the system is less than 0.6°. Field experience shows that tracking algorithm act stable and reliable and suit for PTCs.

  12. Optimized design of PSA nitrogen-manufacturing system based on PLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Zongyao; Ma, Xiushui; Jiang, Jun

    2011-05-01

    Firstly introducing principle and technological process of PSA nitrogen-manufacturing system, on condition of its high air consumption and weak in nitrogen-manufacturing system at present. We repeatedly studied the controlled object in this process, analyzed the PLC procedure based on the program rule of PLC of Siemens S7-200 series, then re-program PLC procedure without altering the nitrogen production technique of PSA nitrogen-manufacturing system. At the same time, in order to improve the operation efficiency of the response of action, we also did experiment and demonstration in the consistency of the I/O port and peripheral equipment. In this paper, through optimization of hardware and software design, the nitrogen producing cost was calculated at RMB 0.35 per m3, declined by 12% from the original RMB 0.4 per m3.

  13. NB-PLC channel modelling with cyclostationary noise addition & OFDM implementation for smart grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Togis; Gupta, K. K.

    2016-03-01

    Power line communication (PLC) technology can be a viable solution for the future ubiquitous networks because it provides a cheaper alternative to other wired technology currently being used for communication. In smart grid Power Line Communication (PLC) is used to support communication with low rate on low voltage (LV) distribution network. In this paper, we propose the channel modelling of narrowband (NB) PLC in the frequency range 5 KHz to 500 KHz by using ABCD parameter with cyclostationary noise addition. Behaviour of the channel was studied by the addition of 11KV/230V transformer, by varying load location and load. Bit error rate (BER) Vs signal to noise ratio SNR) was plotted for the proposed model by employing OFDM. Our simulation results based on the proposed channel model show an acceptable performance in terms of bit error rate versus signal to noise ratio, which enables communication required for smart grid applications.

  14. The upgrade of an educational observatory control system with a PLC-based architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldini, V.; Cirami, R.; Coretti, I.; Di Marcantonio, P.; Galeotta, S.; Iafrate, G.; Mannetta, M.; Santin, P.

    2014-07-01

    A Celestron C14 telescope equipped with a robotic Paramount ME equatorial mount is being used for public outreach at the Basovizza site of the INAF-Astronomical Observatory of Trieste. Although the telescope could be fully remotely controlled, the control of the instrumentations and the movement of the main motor of the dome requires the physical presence of an operator. To overcome this limitation the existing control system has been upgraded using a Beckhoff PLC to allow the remote control of the whole instrumentation, including the management of the newly installed weather sensor and the access to the telescope area. Exploiting the decentralization features typical of a PLC based solution, the PLC modules are placed in two different racks, according to the function to be controlled. A web interface is used for the communication between the user and the instrumentation. The architecture of this control system will be presented in detail in this paper.

  15. PLC顺序控制法编程应用%Application of PLC Sequence Control Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋国杰

    2015-01-01

    With the development of automatic control technology, the application of PLC is becoming more and more widely. The sequential control method is the most common and effective programming method for PLC programming. In this paper, based on MITSUBISHI PLC, through an example to illustrate the progra-mming ideas and operation steps of sequential control method.%随着自动控制技术的发展,PLC的应用也越来越广泛,顺序控制法是进行PLC编程时最常用、最有效的编程方法。以三菱PLC为模型,通过实例来说明顺序控制法的编程思路和操作步骤。

  16. Bringing Automated Model Checking to PLC Program Development - A CERN Case Study

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez Adiego, B; Tournier, J-C; Blanco Vinuela, E; Gonzalez Suarez, V M

    2014-01-01

    Verification of critical software is a high priority but a challenging task for industrial control systems. Model checking appears to be an appropriate approach for this purpose. However, this technique is not widely used in industry yet, due to some obstacles. The main obstacles encountered when trying to apply formal verification techniques at industrial installations are the difficulty of creating models out of PLC programs and defining formally the specification requirements. In addition, models produced out of real-life programs have a huge state space, thus preventing the verification due to performance issues. Our work at CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) focuses on developing efficient automatic verification methods for industrial critical installations based on PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) control systems. In this paper, we present a tool generating automatically formal models out of PLC code. The tool implements a general methodology which can support several input languages, ...

  17. Mitigation of Noise in OFDM Based Plc System Using Filter Kernel Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha G Krishnan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Power line communication is a technology that transforms power line in to pathway for conveyance of broadband data. It is cost less than other communication approach and for better bandwidth efficiency OFDM based PLC system is used. In real PLC environment some electrical appliances will produce noise. To mitigate this noise filter kernel design is used, so periodic impulsive noise and Gaussian noises are removed from PLC communication system by using this filter kernel design. MATLAB is used for the simulation and the result shows that filter kernel is simple and effective noise mitigation technique. Further in future, interference due to obstacles also wants to be mitigated for the better data transmission without noise.

  18. 75 FR 61363 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc RB211-524 Series, -535 Series, RB211 Trent 700 Series...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc... Federal holidays. Fax: (202) 493-2251. Contact Rolls-Royce plc, P.O. Box 31, Derby, DE24 8BJ, United... docket. Relevant Service Information Rolls-Royce plc has issued Alert Service Bulletin...

  19. 75 FR 27964 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR) RB211-22B and RB211-524 Series Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR... Federal holidays. Fax: (202) 493-2251. Contact Rolls-Royce plc, P.O. Box 31, Derby, DE24 8BJ, United... examining the MCAI in the AD docket. Relevant Service Information Rolls-Royce plc has issued Alert...

  20. 76 FR 24793 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR) RB211-524 Series and RB211 Trent 500, 700, and 800...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    ...-29-AD; Amendment 39-16669; AD 2011-09-07] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR... amends Sec. 39.13 by adding the following new AD: 2011-09-07 Rolls-Royce plc (RR): Amendment 39-16669...) and 1 CFR part 51. (2) For service information identified in this AD, contact Rolls-Royce plc,...

  1. 76 FR 20229 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR) RB211-Trent 768-60 and Trent 772-60 Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ...-AD; Amendment 39-16660; AD 2011-08-10] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR... AD, contact Rolls-Royce plc, P.O. Box 31, Derby, DE24 8BJ, United Kingdom; telephone 44 1332 242424...-Royce plc: Amendment 39-16660; Docket No. FAA-2011- 0233; Directorate Identifier 98-ANE-10-AD....

  2. Research on Development Prospects of PLC Control System%PLC控制系统发展前景研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雪燃

    2016-01-01

    PLC(Programmable logic controller)is a widely used technique in the industrial field.We firstly outlines the background and current development of PLC technology to clarify the function of PLC technology.Secondly,we introduce its advantages in industrial applications has become a pillar of the field of automation technology. Finally,we introduce the development prospects of the PLC system.%可编程序控制器(Programmable Logic Controller,PLC)是一种普遍应用在工业领域中的技术.文章简述了PLC技术的产生背景与发展现状,阐明PLC技术的功能及其在工业应用中的优点现已成为自动化领域的技术支柱,并介绍了PLC系统的发展前景.

  3. Enterprise network with software Asterisk PBX based on the PLC technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Maar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the software Asterisk PBX solution design in enterprise PLC network (Power Line Communication. The description of the installation and configuration of software Asterisk PBX is involved in the design. The secure interconnection of two enterprise PLC network is implemented via the telecommunication tunnel with security grant using the Cisco routers. The connection between two Asterisk PBXs is designed in context of the establishment of the tunnel. The subject of the article is also cross/connection of exchanges Asterisk PBX and hardware PBX - IP Panasonic PBX K-NS500.

  4. A Practical Applications of Virtual PLC using LabVIEW Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad K. Abuzalata

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study thirteen different functions (VIs are designed and tested .These include, single input single output, single input two outputs, latch outputs, timer, counter, logic function, less, greater and equal functions, XOR function, compound function and shift register. At the end of the study, for illustration purposes, the 7-day tea maker, electro-pneumatic drive system and their simulation were developed and tested. Results of experiment show complete coincidence between the PLC-based control and Virtual PLC-based program results.

  5. One-way data transfer for PLC to VME status reporting at the Advanced Photon Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, S. J.

    1994-12-01

    The Personnel Safety System for the experimental beamlines at the Advanced Photon Source will use a large number of Allen Bradley Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC) to replace conventional relay logic. PLCs allow for the design of a very advanced safety system that can handle a large number of I/O points. Certain situations require monitoring of the safety system from various locations around the storage ring via the EPICS OPI (operator interface) consoles. This presentation covers the chosen method for transferring data from the Personnel Safety System into an EPICS database. Specifications on PLC ladder design, EPICS database design and hardware selection are also discussed.

  6. 2-aminohydroxamic acid derivatives as inhibitors of Bacillus cereus phosphatidylcholine preferred phospholipase C PC-PLC(Bc).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Bulnes, Patricia; González-Roura, Albert; Canals, Daniel; Delgado, Antonio; Casas, Josefina; Llebaria, Amadeu

    2010-12-15

    Phosphatidylcholine preferring phospholipase C (PC-PLC) is an important enzyme that plays a key role in a variety of cellular events and lipid homoeostases. Bacillus cereus phospholipase C (PC-PLC(Bc)) has antigenic similarity with the elusive mammalian PC-PLC, which has not thus far been isolated and purified. Therefore the discovery of inhibitors of PC-PLC(Bc) is of current interest. Here, we describe the synthesis and biological evaluation of a new type of compounds inhibiting PC-PLC(Bc). These compounds have been designed by evolution of previously described 2-aminohydroxamic acid PC-PLC(Bc) inhibitors that block the enzyme by coordination of the zinc active site atoms present in PC-PLC(Bc) [Gonzalez-Roura, A.; Navarro, I.; Delgado, A.; Llebaria, A.; Casas, J. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.2004, 43, 862]. The new compounds maintain the zinc coordinating groups and possess an extra trimethylammonium function, linked to the hydroxyamide nitrogen by an alkyl chain, which is expected to mimic the trimethylammonium group of the phosphatidylcholine PC-PLC(Bc) substrates. Some of the compounds described inhibit the enzyme with IC(50)'s in the low micromolar range. Unexpectedly, the most potent inhibitors found are those that possess a trimethylammonium group but have chemically blocked the zinc coordinating functionalities. The results obtained suggest that PC-PLC(Bc) inhibition is not due to the interaction of compounds with the phospholipase catalytic zinc atoms, but rather results from the inhibitor cationic group recognition by the PC-PLC(Bc) amino acids involved in choline lipid binding.

  7. Spectrally encoded confocal microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tearney, G.J.; Webb, R.H.; Bouma, B.E. [Wellman Laboratories of Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, 50 Blossom Street, BAR 703, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States)

    1998-08-01

    An endoscope-compatible, submicrometer-resolution scanning confocal microscopy imaging system is presented. This approach, spectrally encoded confocal microscopy (SECM), uses a quasi-monochromatic light source and a transmission diffraction grating to detect the reflectivity simultaneously at multiple points along a transverse line within the sample. Since this method does not require fast spatial scanning within the probe, the equipment can be miniaturized and incorporated into a catheter or endoscope. Confocal images of an electron microscope grid were acquired with SECM to demonstrate the feasibility of this technique. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital Optical Society of America}

  8. The Application of Omron CJ1 PLC in the Glass Tempered Furnace%OMRON CJ1PLC 在玻璃钢化炉上的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙行建; 杨学松; 谢智海

    2011-01-01

    本文介绍了OMRON CJ1系列PLC在玻璃钢化炉上的应用,针对钢化炉的非标而且类型多样化的特点,充分利用CJ1任务化、功能化及虚拟化等灵活强大的编程功能,不仅实现了对生产工艺过程精确完美的控制,而且实现了程序的相对标准化.%This paper introduces ihe application of omron CJ1 PLC in the glass tempering furnace, The tempering furnaces have features of nonstandard and multiplex lype.CJ1 PLC have flexible and strong programming Functions of task and fiction. It completes the perfect control of the product process, and programming standardization.

  9. The Application of PLC (Powerline Communications) in Brazil in the regulatory viewpoint; A aplicacao do PLC no Brasil do ponto de vista regulatorio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Daniel; Silva Filho, Armando [Agencia Nacional de Energia Eletrica (ANEEL), Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Superintendencia de Regulacao dos Servicos de Distribuicao

    2010-07-01

    The Powerline Communications technology - PLC allows transmission of data, voice, image and access to high speed internet by the grid, so that a power plug can also be an access point to the network communication. Considering that the electric grid reaches the vast majority of households, there is great potential in using this technology as a tool to achieve the reality of digital inclusion in the country. However, its implementation must be accompanied by effective regulation, both through policies with respect to the conditions of use of radio frequencies, as in regulating the use of distribution networks of electricity as a means of transport for communication signal. In this context, the present article deals with the fundamental rules governing the application of PLC technology from the standpoint of the distributors and consumers of electricity, with attention to quality assurance of electrical energy and facility security.

  10. 基于 PLC 的液压滑台控制系统设计%Design of Hydraulic Control System Based on PLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔培平

    2014-01-01

    Aiming at the existing problem of relay contactor control system ,this article used PLC technology to control the feeding motion of hydraulic sliding table .The PLC models was chosen ,the hardware and software were designed ,and the ladder diagram was given .The system has been applied to the actual cutting process ,and the feasibility and practicability has been verified .%针对继电器接触器控制系统存在的问题,采用PLC技术对液压动力滑台进给运动进行控制。选择了PLC机型,进行了硬件设计、软件设计,并画出了梯形图。应用于实际切削过程中,验证了其可行性和实用性。

  11. The transformation method of functional flow chart programming wih small PLC%小型 PLC 功能流程图编程的转换方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭昆丽; 黄杰; 杨过

    2013-01-01

    According to the present weakness of the sequence control using small programmable logic con-troller (PLC) ,the modular transformation thought was adopted and five different methods to transfer sequential function chart (SFC) into ladder diagram (LAD) were used .It makes the programming meth-od simple and practical .Finally ,a transformation example based on SIEMENS S7-200 PLC was analyzed , and the comprehensive comparison of the conversion method was made .%针对目前采用小型可编程序逻辑控制器(PLC )实现顺序控制所存在的问题,采用模块化转换思想,使用5种不同方法将顺序功能图转换为梯形图。提高了顺控编程方法的规律性,实现其编程方法的简单、实用。以西门子S7-200 PLC为例进行实例转换分析,最后对各转换方法进行了综合比较。

  12. 基于硬解题的PLC设计及其在测发控系统中的应用%The Design of PLC Based on Hardware Logic Solver and Its Application in Test and Launch Control System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋征宇; 刘亮亮

    2012-01-01

    The ladder chart is used widely in the programming of PLC. It can be translated and executed by CPU or specific ladder chart process unit. By Comparing with CPU, the specific ladder chart process u-nit, which is more efficient and lower power consummation, is the preferential choice for high-class PLC and can be used in the worse environment. By the study of composition of ladder chart, a method of ladder chart encoding is proposed and a specific ladder chart process unit design named HLS (Hardware Logic Solver) is done. After the integrating with the CPU and other peripherals, all missions of PLC control can be processed in one chip, including ladder chart process, communication control and interrupt process etc, and the PLC can be smaller. Due to the high reliability, PLC based HLS is applied to the design of several launch vehicles.%梯形图是目前应用最为广泛的PLC编程语言,根据解析方式不同分为硬解题和软解题两种.硬解题采用专用的梯形图硬件处理器,跟采用通用处理器软件解析方式相比,梯形图处理速率大大提升、功耗明显降低,能够满足恶劣环境下高可靠性应用需求,是高端PLC中的首选.本文通过研究梯形图构图原理,提出了一种梯形图编码方法,采用该方法完成了梯形图硬解题专用处理器HLS(Hardware Logic Solver)设计,并通过与通用处理器双核集成,在一个芯片实现了梯形图解析、通信控制、中断处理等全部内容,进一步提升了PLC的集成化、小型化水平.采用硬解题的PLC满足火箭测发控系统高可靠应用要求,已经在多个运载火箭中应用.

  13. Trust and Collaboration in PLC Teams: Teacher Relationships, Principal Support, and Collaborative Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallam, Pamela R.; Smith, Henry R.; Hite, Julie M.; Hite, Steven J.; Wilcox, Bradley R.

    2015-01-01

    Professional learning communities (PLCs) are being recognized as effective in improving teacher collaboration and student achievement. Trust is critical in effectively implementing the PLC model, and the school principal is best positioned to influence school trust levels. Using five facets of trust, this research sought to clarify the impact of…

  14. The effect of PLC-γ2 inhibitors on the growth of human tumour cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Linda; Reynisdóttir, Inga; Reynisson, Jóhannes

    2012-08-01

    The phosphoinositide specific-phospholipase C-γ (PLC-γ1 and 2) enzymes are plausible anticancer targets implicated in cell motility important to invasion and dissemination of tumour cells. A host of known PLC-γ2 inhibitors were tested against the NCI60 panel of human tumour cell lines as well as their commercially available structural derivatives. A class of thieno[2,3-b]pyridines showed excellent growth arrest with derivative 3 giving GI(50) = 58 nM for the melanoma MDA-MB-435 cell line. The PLC-γ2 is uniquely expressed in haematopoietic cells and the leukaemia tumour cell lines were growth restricted on average GI(50) = 275 nM by derivative 3 indicating a specific interaction with this isoform. Furthermore, a moderate growth inhibition was found for compound classes of indoles and 1H-pyrazoles. It is likely that the active compounds do not only inhibit the PLC-γ2 isoform but other PLCs as well due to their conserved binding site. The compounds tested were identified by applying the tools of chemoinformatics, which supports the use of in silico methods in drug design.

  15. Automated Translation of Safety Critical Application Software Specifications into PLC Ladder Logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leucht, Kurt W.; Semmel, Glenn S.

    2008-01-01

    The numerous benefits of automatic application code generation are widely accepted within the software engineering community. A few of these benefits include raising the abstraction level of application programming, shorter product development time, lower maintenance costs, and increased code quality and consistency. Surprisingly, code generation concepts have not yet found wide acceptance and use in the field of programmable logic controller (PLC) software development. Software engineers at the NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) recognized the need for PLC code generation while developing their new ground checkout and launch processing system. They developed a process and a prototype software tool that automatically translates a high-level representation or specification of safety critical application software into ladder logic that executes on a PLC. This process and tool are expected to increase the reliability of the PLC code over that which is written manually, and may even lower life-cycle costs and shorten the development schedule of the new control system at KSC. This paper examines the problem domain and discusses the process and software tool that were prototyped by the KSC software engineers.

  16. Úzkopásmová PLC komunikace pro Smart Metering

    OpenAIRE

    Kubů, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Tato bakalářská práce se zabývá úzkopásmovou PLC komunikací. V práci je popsán základní princip, rozdělení PLC komunikace, historie technologie, využívané komunikační standardy a rušení ovlivňující datovou komunikaci této technologie. V rámci této práce byly provedeny i experimentální měření v reálném prostředí s modemy od firmy Texas Instruments C2000 PLC TMDSPLCKITV4 a C2000 PLC TMDSPLCKIT-V3. Výsledky tohoto měření jsou reálné přenosové rychlosti. Dále byla vytvořena aplikace pro dálkový s...

  17. Design and Construction Transceiver Module Using Polymer PLC Hybrid Integration Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Jerabek, Vitezslav; Huttel, Ivan; Prajzler, Vaclav; Busek, Karel

    2010-01-01

    In this paper were presented first steps, which guide to the design and construction of a VHGT attached WDM triplex transceiver module TRx using polymer PLC hybrid integration technology. We report on the results measuring of the optical attenuation of the

  18. 定时器的PLC程序设计%On the PLC Program Design of Timer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪涛轶

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to realize to the timing diagram of On-delay, Off-delay and Self-hold and program design of PLC.%本文旨在实现接通延时定时器、断开延时定时器、多谐震荡器的时序图及PLC程序设计。

  19. Homeplug AV and IEEE 1901 a handbook for PLC designers and users

    CERN Document Server

    Latchman, Haniph A; Yonge, Larry; Gavette, Sherman

    2013-01-01

      The only authorized book explaining the HomePlug networking standards HomePlug is a growing technology for creating high-speed Power Line Communication (PLC) networks by transmitting data over in-home or in-office power lines. Users only need to plug adapters into wall outlets to create an instant network of computers, printers, routers, home entertainment

  20. 78 FR 6206 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    ..., Corporate Communications, P.O. Box 31, Derby, England, DE248BJ; phone: 011-44-1332-242424; fax: 011-44-1332... this AD, contact Rolls-Royce plc, Corporate Communications, P.O. Box 31, Derby, England, DE248BJ;...

  1. Antimicrobial activity of pleurocidin is retained in Plc-2, a C-terminal 12-amino acid fragment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Andre L A; Díaz-Dellavalle, Paola; Cabrera, Andrea; Larrañaga, Patricia; Dalla-Rizza, Marco; De-Simone, Salvatore G

    2013-07-01

    An analysis of a series of five peptides composed of various portions of the pleurocidin (Plc) sequence identified a l2-amino acid fragment from the C-terminus of Plc, designated Plc-2, as the smallest fragment that retained a antimicrobial activity comparable to that of the parent compound. MIC tests in vitro with low-ionic-strength medium showed that Plc-2 has potent activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus but not against Enterococcus faecalis. The antifungal activity of the synthetic peptides against phytopathogenic fungi, such as Fusarium oxysporum, Colletotrichum sp., Aspergillus niger and Alternaria sp., also identified Plc-2 as a biologically active peptide. Microscopy studies of fluorescently stained fungi treated with Plc-2 demonstrated that cytoplasmic and nuclear membranes were compromised in all strains of phytopathogenic fungi tested. Together, these results identify Plc-2 as a potential antimicrobial agent with similar properties to its parent compound, pleurocidin. In addition, it demonstrated that the KHVGKAALTHYL residues are critical for the antimicrobial activity described for pleurocidin.

  2. Spatio-temporal PLC activation in parallel with intracellular Ca2+ wave propagation in mechanically stimulated single MDCK cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Akira; Hayashida, Yasunori; Furukawa, Katsuko S; Ushida, Takashi

    2010-03-01

    Intracellular Ca2+ transients are evoked either by the opening of Ca2+ channels on the plasma membrane or by phospholipase C (PLC) activation resulting in IP3 production. Ca2+ wave propagation is known to occur in mechanically stimulated cells; however, it remains uncertain whether and how PLC activation is involved in intracellular Ca2+ wave propagation in mechanically stimulated cells. To answer these questions, it is indispensable to clarify the spatio-temporal relations between intracellular Ca2+ wave propagation and PLC activation. Thus, we visualized both cytosolic Ca2+ and PLC activation using a real-time dual-imaging system in individual Mardin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells. This system allowed us to simultaneously observe intracellular Ca2+ wave propagation and PLC activation in a spatio-temporal manner in a single mechanically stimulated MDCK cell. The results showed that PLC was activated not only in the mechanically stimulated region but also in other subcellular regions in parallel with intracellular Ca2+ wave propagation. These results support a model in which PLC is involved in Ca2+ signaling amplification in mechanically stimulated cells.

  3. The ability of Listeria monocytogenes PI-PLC to facilitate escape from the macrophage phagosome is dependent on host PKCbeta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poussin, Mathilde A; Leitges, Michael; Goldfine, Howard

    2009-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes are facultative intracellular pathogenic bacteria that can infect macrophages as well as non-professional phagocytes. After entry in the host cell, the bacteria escape from the phagosome into the cytoplasm. In murine macrophages and in cell lines derived from these cells, escape of L. monocytogenes from the phagosome is absolutely dependent on listeriolysin O (LLO) and facilitated by a secreted phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC). Work in this laboratory has previously demonstrated a LLO and PI-PLC-dependent translocation of host PKCbeta isoforms. Pharmacological inhibition of PKCbeta resulted in a significant reduction in permeabilization of the phagosome, and in the number of bacteria reaching the cytosol. These findings led to the prediction that the bacterial PI-PLC promotes escape through the production of diacylglycerol leading to the activation of host PKCbeta. To test this hypothesis, bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMf) obtained from PKCbeta knockout (PKCbetaKO) or C57Bl/6 mice were infected with L. monocytogenes. We observed that wild-type L. monocytogenes escapes from the phagosome of PKCbetaKO BMMf as well as from C57Bl/6 BMMf. However, in PKCbetaKO BMMf, L. monocytogenes uses a PI-PLC-independent, but phosphatidylcholine-preferring PLC (PC-PLC)-dependent pathway to facilitate escape. These findings strongly support the hypothesis that PI-PLC promotes escape through mobilization of host PKCbeta.

  4. 基于松下PLC-触摸屏折弯系统的设计%Design of Bending System based on Panasonic PLC and Touch Screen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈龙; 张河; 席恩科

    2016-01-01

    可编程逻辑控制器(PLC),作为工业自动化三大技术支柱(PLC、机器人、CADPCAM)之一,被称作为工业控制的灵魂。在处理模拟量能力、数字运算能力、人机接口能力和网络能力方面,PLC逐渐进入过程控制领域,诞生了各种各样的特殊功能单元、产生了各种人机界面单元、通信单元;使应用可编程逻辑控制器的工业控制设备的配套更加容易。触摸屏的应运而生无疑是21世纪自动化领域里的一个巨大的革新。本文主要介绍了松下 PLC和昆仑通态触摸屏控制系统在折弯设备中的应用,整个系统结构紧凑,操作简便,可视化功能强,实现了对自动折弯过程的智能控制。%PLC,as one of the most important technology in three technology stanchions of industrial au-tomation,has been regarded as the soul of industry control.PLC has proceeded into process con-trol region because of its ability in analog dealing,digital operation,man-machine interface and network.With the rapid development of the technology,more and more machines and site opera-tions tend to use the man-machine interface.The powerful function and complicated data process-ing of the PLC lead to the emerging of man-machine interface which is simple and convenient to match the PLC.The man-machine interface which emerges as the times requirement is a huge in-novation in automation aspects of 2 1 century.This paper mainly introduces the Panasonic PLC and Kunlun on-state touch screen which are applied in bending device.The structure of the whole sys-tem is compact,easy to work,and the visual function is powerful.It accomplished the intelligent control to automatic bending.

  5. Neuropeptide Y reduces the expression of PLCB2, PLCD1 and selected PLC genes in cultured human endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Vasco, V R; Leopizzi, M; Puggioni, C; Della Rocca, C; Businaro, R

    2014-09-01

    Endothelial cells (EC) are the first elements exposed to mediators circulating in the bloodstream, and react to stimulation with finely tuned responses mediated by different signal transduction pathways, leading the endothelium to adapt. Neuropeptide Y (NPY), the most abundant peptide in heart and brain, is mainly involved in the neuroendocrine regulation of the stress response. The regulatory roles of NPY depend on many factors, including its enzymatic processing, receptor subtypes and related signal transduction systems, including the phosphoinositide (PI) pathway and related phospholipase C (PI-PLC) family of enzymes. The panel of expression of PI-PLC enzymes differs comparing quiescent versus differently stimulated human EC. Growing evidences indicate that the regulation of the expression of PLC genes, which codify for PI-PLC enzymes, might act as an additional mechanism of control of the PI signal transduction pathway. NPY was described to potentiate the activation of PI-PLC enzymes in different cell types, including EC. In the present experiments, we stimulated human umbilical vein EC using different doses of NPY in order to investigate a possible role upon the expression PLC genes. NPY reduced the overall transcription of PLC genes, excepting for PLCE. The most significant effects were observed for PLCB2 and PLCD1, both isoforms recruited by means of G-proteins and G-protein-coupled receptors. NPY behavior was comparable with other PI-PLC interacting molecules that, beside the stimulation of phospholipase activity, also affect the upcoming enzymes' production acting upon gene expression. That might represent a mode to regulate the activity of PI-PLC enzymes after activation.

  6. Dopamine Promotes Motor Cortex Plasticity and Motor Skill Learning via PLC Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rioult-Pedotti, Mengia-Seraina; Pekanovic, Ana; Atiemo, Clement Osei; Marshall, John; Luft, Andreas Rüdiger

    2015-01-01

    Dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area, the major midbrain nucleus projecting to the motor cortex, play a key role in motor skill learning and motor cortex synaptic plasticity. Dopamine D1 and D2 receptor antagonists exert parallel effects in the motor system: they impair motor skill learning and reduce long-term potentiation. Traditionally, D1 and D2 receptor modulate adenylyl cyclase activity and cyclic adenosine monophosphate accumulation in opposite directions via different G-proteins and bidirectionally modulate protein kinase A (PKA), leading to distinct physiological and behavioral effects. Here we show that D1 and D2 receptor activity influences motor skill acquisition and long term synaptic potentiation via phospholipase C (PLC) activation in rat primary motor cortex. Learning a new forelimb reaching task is severely impaired in the presence of PLC, but not PKA-inhibitor. Similarly, long term potentiation in motor cortex, a mechanism involved in motor skill learning, is reduced when PLC is inhibited but remains unaffected by the PKA inhibitor. Skill learning deficits and reduced synaptic plasticity caused by dopamine antagonists are prevented by co-administration of a PLC agonist. These results provide evidence for a role of intracellular PLC signaling in motor skill learning and associated cortical synaptic plasticity, challenging the traditional view of bidirectional modulation of PKA by D1 and D2 receptors. These findings reveal a novel and important action of dopamine in motor cortex that might be a future target for selective therapeutic interventions to support learning and recovery of movement resulting from injury and disease.

  7. Dopamine Promotes Motor Cortex Plasticity and Motor Skill Learning via PLC Activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengia-Seraina Rioult-Pedotti

    Full Text Available Dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area, the major midbrain nucleus projecting to the motor cortex, play a key role in motor skill learning and motor cortex synaptic plasticity. Dopamine D1 and D2 receptor antagonists exert parallel effects in the motor system: they impair motor skill learning and reduce long-term potentiation. Traditionally, D1 and D2 receptor modulate adenylyl cyclase activity and cyclic adenosine monophosphate accumulation in opposite directions via different G-proteins and bidirectionally modulate protein kinase A (PKA, leading to distinct physiological and behavioral effects. Here we show that D1 and D2 receptor activity influences motor skill acquisition and long term synaptic potentiation via phospholipase C (PLC activation in rat primary motor cortex. Learning a new forelimb reaching task is severely impaired in the presence of PLC, but not PKA-inhibitor. Similarly, long term potentiation in motor cortex, a mechanism involved in motor skill learning, is reduced when PLC is inhibited but remains unaffected by the PKA inhibitor. Skill learning deficits and reduced synaptic plasticity caused by dopamine antagonists are prevented by co-administration of a PLC agonist. These results provide evidence for a role of intracellular PLC signaling in motor skill learning and associated cortical synaptic plasticity, challenging the traditional view of bidirectional modulation of PKA by D1 and D2 receptors. These findings reveal a novel and important action of dopamine in motor cortex that might be a future target for selective therapeutic interventions to support learning and recovery of movement resulting from injury and disease.

  8. Selecting Operations for Assembler Encoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Praczyk

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Assembler Encoding is a neuro-evolutionary method in which a neural network is represented in the form of a simple program called Assembler Encoding Program. The task of the program is to create the so-called Network Definition Matrix which maintains all the information necessary to construct the network. To generate Assembler Encoding Programs and the subsequent neural networks evolutionary techniques are used.
    The performance of Assembler Encoding strongly depends on operations used in Assembler Encoding Programs. To select the most effective operations, experiments in the optimization and the predator-prey problem were carried out. In the experiments, Assembler Encoding Programs equipped with different types of operations were tested. The results of the tests are presented at the end of the paper.

  9. 基于触摸屏的模具清扫机械手 PLC 控制系统%PLC Control System Design of Mould Cleaning Manipulator Based on HMI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金姣; 吴斌方; 王君明

    2014-01-01

    介绍一种基于触摸屏和可编程序控制器(PLC)的泡沫塑料成型模具清扫机械手控制系统设计方案,详细阐述控制系统硬件组成和软件设计思路,重点介绍 PLC 判定清扫模具的触摸屏界面和梯形图程序。%This paper introduces a control system design of mould cleaning manipulator for foam plastics based on HMI and PLC.It explains in great detail the hardware structure and software design idea of the control system,especially the HMI operation interface and ladder diagram for PLC to determine the next mould,which would be immediately cleaned by the manipulator.

  10. 西门子PLC在铝挤压机控制中的应用%Application of Siemens PLC in control of aluminum extrusion press

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴婷婷; 李卓伟

    2012-01-01

    In order to realize intelligent management and control of technological process and improve higher productive efficiency and quality of aluminum profiles, according to 27. 5MN aluminum extrusion, SIEMENS S7-400 PLC was adopted. The hardware constitution, controlled object, program design and technological process of the PLC in automatic control sys-lem are discussed. At the same time, encoder control and pump start-stop control programs of the system are introduced in detail. Aluminum extrusion can accomplish start-stop control linkage, closed-loop control, automation alarm and a series of functions. It is a very good solution for more and more large and complex automatic control system.%基于实现生产过程的智能化管理与控制以及提高铝挤压制品的质量和产量的目的,结合27.5MN的铝挤压机的生产工艺,采用了SIEMENS S7-400系列PLC的控制系统.着重阐述该类型PLC、在自控系统中的硬件构成、控制对象、程序设计以及工艺流程.对编码器控制、泵起停控制的语句表程序作了详细介绍.该控制系统实现了设备的连锁启停、回路调节、报警等一系列功能.对于当前越来越庞大和复杂的自动化控制系统是一种非常好的解决方案.

  11. Honeywell EPKS与PLC RS232接口通信的实现及应用%Implementation and Application of the Communication Between Honeywell EPKS and the PLC RS232 Interface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄庆鸿; 郭正华

    2012-01-01

    以Honeywell EPKS系列DCS与某成套装置PLC RS232接口通信为实例,着重介绍了实现DCS与PLC RS232通信的协议转换网络搭建、软件组态和调试方法,并分析了项目实施过程中的一些技术要点和故障排除方法.

  12. 76 FR 59013 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR) RB211-Trent 800 Series Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Airworthiness Directive 2011-08-07, Amendment 39-16657 (76 FR 24798, May 3, 2011...-30-AD; Amendment 39-16657; AD 2011-08-07] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc...

  13. PLC实习教学设备设计方案%A Design Scheme for Practice Teaching Apparatus of PLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡敬峰

    2013-01-01

    In accordance with the requirements of the maintenance electrician syllabus, an economical, practical, nice, small footprint practice teaching equipment for PLC is designed. The device allows students intuitively and fully manifest the control process of PLC control, practice design thinking of PLC, and increase their interest in learning PLC.%  根据维修电工教学大纲的要求,设计一种经济实用、美观大方、占用空间小的PLC实习教学设备。该设备能让学生直观、全面的体现PLC的控制过程,锻炼PLC的程序设计思想,增加了学生对PLC的学习兴趣。

  14. The PLC Control Design of Ship Boat Crane%舰船吊艇机的PLC控制设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吉哲; 任荣社; 余凤豪

    2012-01-01

    PLC控制相比传统的继电器控制更加可靠稳定。本文针对舰船吊艇机利用西门子S7—200型PLC设计了一种PLC控制线路,介绍了其功能和作用,并给出了吊艇机PLC控制的端子接线图、梯形图和对应语句表,具有一定的现实指导意义。%PLC control compared with the traditional relay control system is more reliable and stable. In this paper, the ship boat crane by using Siemens $7-200 PLC designed a PLC control circuit, and introduced its function and role, and gave the boat hoist machine PLC control terminal wiring diagram, ladder diagram and the corresponding statement list, had certain realistic directive significance.

  15. PLC-controlled cryostats for the BlackGEM and MeerLICHT detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raskin, Gert; Morren, Johan; Pessemier, Wim; Bloemen, Steven; Klein-Wolt, Marc; Roelfsema, Ronald; Groot, Paul; Aerts, Conny

    2016-08-01

    BlackGEM is an array of telescopes, currently under development at the Radboud University Nijmegen and at NOVA (Netherlands Research School for Astronomy). It targets the detection of the optical counterparts of gravitational waves. The first three BlackGEM telescopes are planned to be installed in 2018 at the La Silla observatory (Chile). A single prototype telescope, named MeerLICHT, will already be commissioned early 2017 in Sutherland (South Africa) to provide an optical complement for the MeerKAT radio array. The BlackGEM array consists of, initially, a set of three robotic 65-cm wide-field telescopes. Each telescope is equipped with a single STA1600 CCD detector with 10.5k x 10.5k 9-micron pixels that covers a 2.7 square degrees field of view. The cryostats for housing these detectors are developed and built at the KU Leuven University (Belgium). The operational model of BlackGEM requires long periods of reliable hands-off operation. Therefore, we designed the cryostats for long vacuum hold time and we make use of a closed-cycle cooling system, based on Polycold PCC Joule-Thomson coolers. A single programmable logic controller (PLC) controls the cryogenic systems of several BlackGEM telescopes simultaneously, resulting in a highly reliable, cost-efficient and maintenance-friendly system. PLC-based cryostat control offers some distinct advantages, especially for a robotic facility. Apart of temperature monitoring and control, the PLC also monitors the vacuum quality, the power supply and the status of the PCC coolers (compressor power consumption and temperature, pressure in the gas lines, etc.). Furthermore, it provides an alarming system and safe and reproducible procedures for automatic cool down and warm up. The communication between PLC and higher-level software takes place via the OPC-UA protocol, offering a simple to implement, yet very powerful interface. Finally, a touch-panel display on the PLC provides the operator with a user-friendly and robust

  16. Important role of PLC-γ1 in hypoxic increase in intracellular calcium in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Vishal R; Song, Tengyao; Joseph, Leroy; Mei, Lin; Zheng, Yun-Min; Wang, Yong-Xiao

    2013-02-01

    An increase in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) induces hypoxic cellular responses in the lungs; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain incompletely understood. We report, for the first time, that acute hypoxia significantly enhances phospholipase C (PLC) activity in mouse resistance pulmonary arteries (PAs), but not in mesenteric arteries. Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence staining reveal the expression of PLC-γ1 protein in PAs and PASMCs, respectively. The activity of PLC-γ1 is also augmented in PASMCs following hypoxia. Lentiviral shRNA-mediated gene knockdown of mitochondrial complex III Rieske iron-sulfur protein (RISP) to inhibit reactive oxygen species (ROS) production prevents hypoxia from increasing PLC-γ1 activity in PASMCs. Myxothiazol, a mitochondrial complex III inhibitor, reduces the hypoxic response as well. The PLC inhibitor U73122, but not its inactive analog U73433, attenuates the hypoxic vasoconstriction in PAs and hypoxic increase in [Ca(2+)](i) in PASMCs. PLC-γ1 knockdown suppresses its protein expression and the hypoxic increase in [Ca(2+)](i). Hypoxia remarkably increases inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)) production, which is blocked by U73122. The IP(3) receptor (IP(3)R) antagonist 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB) or xestospongin-C inhibits the hypoxic increase in [Ca(2+)](i). PLC-γ1 knockdown or U73122 reduces H(2)O(2)-induced increase in [Ca(2+)](i) in PASMCs and contraction in PAs. 2-APB and xestospongin-C produce similar inhibitory effects. In conclusion, our findings provide novel evidence that hypoxia activates PLC-γ1 by increasing RISP-dependent mitochondrial ROS production in the complex III, which causes IP(3) production, IP(3)R opening, and Ca(2+) release, playing an important role in hypoxic Ca(2+) and contractile responses in PASMCs.

  17. PLC-γ1 signaling plays a subtype-specific role in postbinding cell entry of influenza A virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Liqian; Ly, Hinh; Liang, Yuying

    2014-01-01

    Host signaling pathways and cellular proteins play important roles in the influenza viral life cycle and can serve as antiviral targets. In this study, we report the engagement of host phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase γ1 (PLC-γ1) in mediating cell entry of influenza virus H1N1 but not H3N2 subtype. Both PLC-γ1-specific inhibitor and short hairpin RNA (shRNA) strongly suppress the replication of H1N1 but not H3N2 viruses in cell culture, suggesting that PLC-γ1 plays an important subtype-specific role in the influenza viral life cycle. Further analyses demonstrate that PLC-γ1 activation is required for viral postbinding cell entry. In addition, H1N1, but not H3N2, infection leads to the phosphorylation of PLC-γ1 at Ser 1248 immediately after infection and independent of viral replication. We have further shown that H1N1-induced PLC-γ1 activation is downstream of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling. Interestingly, both H1N1 and H3N2 infections activate EGFR, but only H1N1 infection leads to PLC-γ1 activation. Taking our findings together, we have identified for the first time the subtype-specific interplay of host PLC-γ1 signaling and H1N1 virus that is critical for viral uptake early in the infection. Our study provides novel insights into how virus interacts with the cellular signaling network by demonstrating that viral determinants can regulate how the host signaling pathways function in virally infected cells.

  18. Group Control System by PC and PLC%PC-PLC组成的电梯群控系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐勇奇; 赵葵银

    2001-01-01

    介绍一种由PC与PLC组成的电梯群控系统,讲述了系统的软件设计方法和PLC与PC之间的通讯方案。%This paper introduced the group control system of an elevator control system with PC and PLC and also described the design of its software and the communication method between PLC and PC.

  19. PLC Control Design of CNC Table%数控工作台的PLC控制设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丰玉臣

    2011-01-01

    文章阐述了数控工作台的控制要求,PLC控制电路和接线,参数设置内容及方法.重点叙述了PLC梯形图的编制过程.%This paper describes the control requirements of the CNC table, PLC control circuits and wiring, the content and methods of parameter set, and describes the process of preparing the PLC ladder.

  20. The release of glutamate from cortical neurons regulated by BDNF via the TrkB/Src/PLC-γ1 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zitao; Fan, Jin; Ren, Yongxin; Zhou, Wei; Yin, Guoyong

    2013-01-01

    The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) participates in the regulation of cortical neurons by influencing the release of glutamate. However, the specific mechanisms are unclear. Hence, we isolated and cultured the cortical neurons of Sprague Dawley rats. Specific inhibitors of TrkB, Src, PLC-γ1, Akt, and MEK1/2 (i.e., K252a, PP2, U73122, LY294002, and PD98059, respectively) were used to treat cortical neurons and to detect the glutamate release from cortical neurons stimulated with BDNF. BDNF significantly increased glutamate release, and simultaneously enhanced phosphorylation levels of TrkB, Src, PLC-γ, Akt, and Erk1/2. For BDNF-stimulated cortical neurons, K252a inhibited glutamate release and inhibited the phosphorylation levels of TrkB, Src, PLC-γ, Erk1/2, and Akt (P PLC-γ1 (P 0.05). U73122 inhibited the glutamate release from BDNF-stimulated cortical neurons, but had no influence on the phosphorylation levels of TrkB, Src, Erk1/2, or Akt (P > 0.05). LY294002 and PD98059 did not affect the BDNF-stimulated glutamate release and did not inhibit the phosphorylation levels of TrkB, Src, or PLC-γ1. In summary, BDNF stimulated the glutamate release from cortical neurons via the TrkB/Src/PLC-γ1 signaling pathway.

  1. PLC based automatic control of pasteurize mix in ice cream production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xudong; Liang, Kai

    2013-03-01

    This paper describes the automatic control device of pasteurized mix in the ice cream production process.We design a scheme of control system using FBD program language and develop the programmer in the STEP 7-Micro/WIN software, check for any bugs before downloading into PLC .These developed devices will able to provide flexibility and accuracy to control the step of pasteurized mix. The operator just Input the duration and temperature of pasteurized mix through control panel. All the steps will finish automatically without any intervention in a preprogrammed sequence stored in programmable logic controller (PLC). With the help of this equipment we not only can control the quality of ice cream for various conditions, but also can simplify the production process. This control system is inexpensive and can be widely used in ice cream production industry.

  2. Enhanced Operation of Electricity Distribution Grids Through Smart Metering PLC Network Monitoring, Analysis and Grid Conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iker Urrutia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Low Voltage (LV electricity distribution grid operations can be improved through a combination of new smart metering systems’ capabilities based on real time Power Line Communications (PLC and LV grid topology mapping. This paper presents two novel contributions. The first one is a new methodology developed for smart metering PLC network monitoring and analysis. It can be used to obtain relevant information from the grid, thus adding value to existing smart metering deployments and facilitating utility operational activities. A second contribution describes grid conditioning used to obtain LV feeder and phase identification of all connected smart electric meters. Real time availability of such information may help utilities with grid planning, fault location and a more accurate point of supply management.

  3. Design of monitoring system for mail-sorting based on the Profibus S7 series PLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W.; Jia, S. H.; Wang, Y. H.; Liu, H.; Tang, G. C.

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid development of the postal express, the workload of mail sorting is increasing, but the automatic technology of mail sorting is not mature enough. In view of this, the system uses Siemens S7-300 PLC as the main station controller, PLC of Siemens S7-200/400 is from the station controller, through the man-machine interface configuration software MCGS, PROFIBUS-DP communication, RFID technology and mechanical sorting hand achieve mail classification sorting monitoring. Among them, distinguish mail-sorting by scanning RFID posted in the mail electronic bar code (fixed code), the system uses the corresponding controller on the acquisition of information processing, the processed information transmit to the sorting manipulator by PROFIBUS-DP. The system can realize accurate and efficient mail sorting, which will promote the development of mail sorting technology.

  4. Saltwell Leak Detector Station Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) Software Configuration Management Plan (SCMP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WHITE, K.A.

    2000-11-28

    This document provides the procedures and guidelines necessary for computer software configuration management activities during the operation and maintenance phases of the Saltwell Leak Detector Stations as required by HNF-PRO-309, Rev. 1, Computer Software Quality Assurance, Section 2.4, Software Configuration Management. The software configuration management plan (SCMP) integrates technical and administrative controls to establish and maintain technical consistency among requirements, physical configuration, and documentation for the Saltwell Leak Detector Station Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) software during the Hanford application, operations and maintenance. This SCMP establishes the Saltwell Leak Detector Station PLC Software Baseline, status changes to that baseline, and ensures that software meets design and operational requirements and is tested in accordance with their design basis.

  5. Saltwell PIC Skid Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) Software Configuration Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KOCH, M.R.

    1999-11-16

    This document provides the procedures and guidelines necessary for computer software configuration management activities during the operation and maintenance phases of the Saltwell PIC Skids as required by LMH-PRO-309, Rev. 0, Computer Software Quality Assurance, Section 2.6, Software Configuration Management. The software configuration management plan (SCMP) integrates technical and administrative controls to establish and maintain technical consistency among requirements, physical configuration, and documentation for the Saltwell PIC Skid Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) software during the Hanford application, operations and maintenance. This SCMP establishes the Saltwell PIC Skid PLC Software Baseline, status changes to that baseline, and ensures that software meets design and operational requirements and is tested in accordance with their design basis.

  6. Developing a Novel USB-PLC Controller for a Mechatronics Cloud Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jye Shyr

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes the development and implementation of a novel Universal Serial Bus (USB‐Programmable Logic Controller (PLC, called a USB‐PLC controller, for a mechatronics cloud laboratory. The aim of a mechatronics cloud laboratory is to provide state of the art research quality equipment to students, allowing them to conduct hands‐on experiments via the Internet. One objective of the cloud laboratory is to not only provide equipment for conducting set experiments, but also to provide a means for students to access research equipment in order to conduct individual research experiments. The proposed controller for these cloud laboratory experiments has been chosen in order to expose the students to as many different engineering and technology disciplines as possible.

  7. Analysis and Design of PLC-based Control System for Automatic Beverage Filling Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yundan Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic filling system is the main equipment in the food machinery industry. With the development of beverage industry and increasing demand of the filling system. The relay control method in traditional Filling machine has low automation and integration level and cannot satisfy the rapid development of automatic production. PLC control method has advantages of simple programming, strong anti-interference and high working reliability, has gradually replace the relay control method. In this study, hardware and software for the automatic filling system based on PLC control is designed, especially the injection section servo control system which adopts the servo motor driver metering pump is carefully analyzed and the filling precision is highly improved.

  8. Development of a PLC modem for data transmission over a PWM power supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batard, Christophe; Ginot, Nicolas; Mannah, Marc Anthony; Millet, Christophe; Poitiers, Frédéric

    2014-04-01

    In variable-speed electrical drive and online conditioning monitoring, a feedback loop is required in order to transmit the sensor information from the motor to the controller close to the inverter. Additional cabling is used for signalling. This extra cabling has a significant cost and data transmission may not be reliable. Thus, the use of power line communication (PLC) technology to transmit data in motor drive application is quite interesting. The use of a PLC modem dedicated to the home network in a three-phase inverter-fed motor power cable does not work. Therefore, specific coupling interfaces are developed to transmit data through a pulse-width modulated power supply. Laboratory tests have shown that the couplers are operating properly. They ensure reliable data transmission in a motor drive application.

  9. Common Problems in NC PLC Programming%数控PLC编程常见问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐亮波

    2016-01-01

    Many CNC systems have an open PLC, and provide corresponding ladder editing software, which can meet the needs of the secondary development, and achieve a variety of customization features. This paper introduces some problems in PLC programming what can be easily overlooked,such as dual-coil,subroutine calls,etc.%许多数控系统中都具有开放式PLC,并提供了对应的梯形图编辑软件,可满足二次开发需要,方便实现各种定制功能。介绍了PLC编程过程中容易被忽视的一些问题,如双线圈、子程序调用等问题。

  10. PLC Input and Output Points of the Expansion Method%PLC输入输出点数的扩展方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘冬梅

    2011-01-01

    In designing a PLC control system,PLC may encounter the problem of inadequate input and output points,without increasing the PLC configuration in the case,in addition to the use of external resources through the expansion of hardware point PLC,the PLC can also use the internal resources by programming the software for PLC extension points.%在设计一个PLC控制系统时,可能会遇到PLC输入输出点数不足的问题,在不增加PLC配置的情况下,除利用外部资源通过硬件实现PLC点数的扩展,还可利用PLC的内部资源通过编程即软件来实现PLC点数的扩展。

  11. Effective time management for high performance in an organization Case: Lasaco Assurance PLC

    OpenAIRE

    Adeojo, Adeyinka

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to determine the effect of time management on high organizational performance using LASACO ASSURANCE Plc. as a case company. In this thesis, the employees working with the company were sent questionnaires. Their responses were critically analyzed and thus related to the theories. A quantitative approach was used as the methodology. According to the theory, time management is a method for managers to increase work performance effectiveness. Time man...

  12. Experimental Study of 6LoPLC for Home Energy Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustine Ikpehai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ubiquitous connectivity is already transforming residential dwellings into smart homes. As citizens continue to embrace the smart home paradigm, a new generation of low-rate and low-power communication systems is required to leverage the mass market presented by energy management in homes. Although Power Line Communication (PLC technology has evolved in the last decade, the adaptation of PLC for constrained networks is not fully charted. By adapting some features of IEEE 802.15.4 and IPv6 over Low-power Wireless Personal Area Network (6LoWPAN into power lines, this paper demonstrates a low-rate, low-power PLC system over the IPv6 network (referred to as 6LoPLC, for Home Energy Management System (HEMS applications. The overall idea is to provide a framework for assessing various scenarios that cannot be easily investigated with the limited number of evaluation hardware available. In this respect, a network model is developed in NS-3 (Version 21 to measure several important characteristics of the designed system and then validated with experimental results obtained using the Hanadu evaluation kits. Following the good agreement between the two, the NS-3 model is utilised to investigate more complex scenarios and various use-cases, such as the effects of impulsive noise, the number of nodes and packet size on the latency and Bit Error Rate (BER performances. We further demonstrate that for different network and application configurations, optimal data sizes exist. For instance, the results reveal that in order to guarantee 99% system reliability, the HEMS application data must not exceed 64 bytes. Finally, it is shown that with impulsive noise in a HEMS network comprising 50 appliances, provided the size of the payload does not exceed 64 bytes, monitoring and control applications incur a maximum latency of 238.117 ms and 248.959 ms, respectively; both of which are within acceptable limits.

  13. Drosophila fatty acid taste signals through the PLC pathway in sugar-sensing neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masek, Pavel; Keene, Alex C

    2013-01-01

    Taste is the primary sensory system for detecting food quality and palatability. Drosophila detects five distinct taste modalities that include sweet, bitter, salt, water, and the taste of carbonation. Of these, sweet-sensing neurons appear to have utility for the detection of nutritionally rich food while bitter-sensing neurons signal toxicity and confer repulsion. Growing evidence in mammals suggests that taste for fatty acids (FAs) signals the presence of dietary lipids and promotes feeding. While flies appear to be attracted to fatty acids, the neural basis for fatty acid detection and attraction are unclear. Here, we demonstrate that a range of FAs are detected by the fly gustatory system and elicit a robust feeding response. Flies lacking olfactory organs respond robustly to FAs, confirming that FA attraction is mediated through the gustatory system. Furthermore, flies detect FAs independent of pH, suggesting the molecular basis for FA taste is not due to acidity. We show that low and medium concentrations of FAs serve as an appetitive signal and they are detected exclusively through the same subset of neurons that sense appetitive sweet substances, including most sugars. In mammals, taste perception of sweet and bitter substances is dependent on phospholipase C (PLC) signaling in specialized taste buds. We find that flies mutant for norpA, a Drosophila ortholog of PLC, fail to respond to FAs. Intriguingly, norpA mutants respond normally to other tastants, including sucrose and yeast. The defect of norpA mutants can be rescued by selectively restoring norpA expression in sweet-sensing neurons, corroborating that FAs signal through sweet-sensing neurons, and suggesting PLC signaling in the gustatory system is specifically involved in FA taste. Taken together, these findings reveal that PLC function in Drosophila sweet-sensing neurons is a conserved molecular signaling pathway that confers attraction to fatty acids.

  14. PEMBUATAN SISTEM KONTROL MESIN CAULKING ROD GUIDE OTOMATIS MENGGUNAKAN PLC OMRON CPM1A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahril Ardi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Kenaikan tingkat produksi shock absorber perusahaan manufaktur membuat proses produksi harus berjalan dengan baik . Pipa proses pemotongan pada mendempul panduan mesin batang memiliki beberapa masalah yang harus diatasi . Untuk mengatasi masalah tersebut kemudian melakukan modifikasi mesin batang mendempul yang secara otomatis dapat mengurangi waktu siklus pada proses mendempul batang dari 4,5 detik per potong sehingga tingkat produksi memotong garis pipa dapat ditingkatkan . Sistem kontrol otomatis mendempul mesin batang panduan ini dirancang untuk menggunakan Programmable Logic Controller (PLC

  15. 160 Gb/s OFDM transmission utilizing an all-optical symbol generator based on PLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiaojun; Qiao, Yaojun; Li, Wei; Mei, Junyao; Qin, Yi

    2009-11-01

    We demonstrate a 160 Gb/s orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) system using an all-optical symbol generator based on planar light circuit (PLC) technology. Excellent bit error rate (BER) is observed after long-distance transmission. The proposed symbol generator fundamentally eliminates the processing speed limits introduced by electronics and is suitable for high integration, making it physically realizable to build high-speed all-optical OFDM systems with a large number of subcarriers.

  16. Perceived environmental uncertainty : understanding the implications for strategy development processes across Barclays Plc

    OpenAIRE

    Ryder, Jansen

    2005-01-01

    The managerial issue being addressed in this research is perceived environmental uncertainty (experienced by corporate strategists) and its implications for strategy development processes at the strategic business unit level (or business-level strategy) across Barclays Bank PLC. The objectives of the research are achieved through: an extensive review of the strategy and uncertainty literature (Project 1); a series of semi-structured interviews with fifteen members of the Group ...

  17. RIAM Regulates the Cytoskeletal Distribution and Activation of PLC-γ1 in T cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patsoukis, Nikolaos; Lafuente, Esther M.; Meraner, Paul; Kim, Jin sub; Dombkowski, David; Li, Lequn; Boussiotis, Vassiliki A.

    2010-01-01

    Rap1-GTP-interacting adaptor molecule (RIAM), an adaptor molecule of the Mig-10/RIAM/Lamellipodin (MRL) family, plays a critical role in actin reorganization and inside-out activation of integrins in lymphocytes and platelets. We investigated the role of RIAM in T cell receptor (TCR)-mediated signaling. Elimination of endogenous RIAM by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) resulted in impaired generation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) and mobilization of intracellular Ca2+, whereas phosphorylation of ζ chain–associated protein kinase of 70 kD (ZAP-70) and formation of the linker of activated T cells (LAT) signalosome were unaffected. Knockdown of RIAM also resulted in defective nuclear translocation of the transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) and activation of Ras guanine nucleotide-releasing protein 1 (RasGRP)1, which led to the diminished transcription of Il2. These events were associated with the impaired translocation of phosphorylated phospholipase C γ1 (PLC-γ1) to the actin cytoskeleton, which was required for the recruitment of PLC-γ1 to the immediate proximity of its substrate phosphatidylinositol 4,5 bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P2], and were reversed by reconstitution of cells with RIAM. Thus, by regulating the activation of PLC-γ1, RIAM has a central role in the activation of T cells and the transcription of target genes. PMID:19952372

  18. Application of MicroLogixTM 1200 PLC in Battery OCV Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Zhiyuan; Yang Yonggang; Zhao Xiaolong; Wu Fengming

    2004-01-01

    The application of MicroLogixTM 1200 PLC made by American AB Company in battery automatic production line located in Inner Mongolia Rare Earth Ovonic High-Power MH/Ni Battery Co., Ltd was introduced.OCV namely open circuit voltage could be somewhat different because of the build materials of negative electrode, positive electrode and electrolyte.So OCV test can check the voltage value of electrolyte filled cells and figure out if the value is within the process specification.MicroLogixTM 1200 relay output type PLC, DeviceNet communication card, variable speed driver, Panelview 1000 color touch screen and some other hardwares were chosen.Then programme by using RSLOGIX500 software, a flexible and skillful use of shift and XOR command in PLC system can make the equipments realize the high automation.Through DeviceNet network based on CAN and with the advantages of quick response and high reliability transmit the information to supervise and control master panel, the system with these components can successfully realize proceeding the battery OCV test and control.The equipments are running stably, locating and test accuracy satisfy the process request.

  19. Modeling of Hydration, Compressive Strength, and Carbonation of Portland-Limestone Cement (PLC Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Yong Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Limestone is widely used in the construction industry to produce Portland limestone cement (PLC concrete. Systematic evaluations of hydration kinetics, compressive strength development, and carbonation resistance are crucial for the rational use of limestone. This study presents a hydration-based model for evaluating the influences of limestone on the strength and carbonation of concrete. First, the hydration model analyzes the dilution effect and the nucleation effect of limestone during the hydration of cement. The degree of cement hydration is calculated by considering concrete mixing proportions, binder properties, and curing conditions. Second, by using the gel–space ratio, the compressive strength of PLC concrete is evaluated. The interactions among water-to-binder ratio, limestone replacement ratio, and strength development are highlighted. Third, the carbonate material contents and porosity are calculated from the hydration model and are used as input parameters for the carbonation model. By considering concrete microstructures and environmental conditions, the carbon dioxide diffusivity and carbonation depth of PLC concrete are evaluated. The proposed model has been determined to be valid for concrete with various water-to-binder ratios, limestone contents, and curing periods.

  20. 76 FR 24798 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR) RB211-Trent 875-17, RB211-Trent 877-17, RB211...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    ...-30-AD; Amendment 39-16657; AD 2011-08-07] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR... 2. The FAA amends Sec. 39.13 by adding the following new AD: 2011-08-07 Rolls-Royce plc: Amendment... applies to Rolls-Royce plc (RR) RB211-Trent 875-17, RB211-Trent 877-17, RB211-Trent 884-17,...

  1. 75 FR 51654 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR) RB211-22B and RB211-524 Series Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ...-10] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR) RB211-22B and RB211-524 Series.... The FAA amends Sec. 39.13 by adding the following new AD: 2010-17-10 Rolls-Royce plc: Amendment 39... AD applies to Rolls-Royce plc RB211-22B series and RB211-524B4-D-02, RB211-524D4-19,...

  2. 75 FR 33738 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR) RB211-524 Series and RB211 Trent 500, 700, and 800...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... plc (RR) RB211-524 Series and RB211 Trent 500, 700, and 800 Series Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal... holidays. Fax: (202) 493-2251. Contact Rolls-Royce plc, P.O. Box 31, Derby, DE24 8BJ, United Kingdom; phone... Information Rolls-Royce plc has issued Alert Service Bulletin RB.211-72-AF964, Revision 1, dated June 6,...

  3. Binding of phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C-zeta (PLC-zeta) to phospholipid membranes: potential role of an unstructured cluster of basic residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomikos, Michail; Mulgrew-Nesbitt, Anna; Pallavi, Payal; Mihalyne, Gyongyi; Zaitseva, Irina; Swann, Karl; Lai, F Anthony; Murray, Diana; McLaughlin, Stuart

    2007-06-01

    Phospholipase C-zeta (PLC-zeta) is a sperm-specific enzyme that initiates the Ca2+ oscillations in mammalian eggs that activate embryo development. It shares considerable sequence homology with PLC-delta1, but lacks the PH domain that anchors PLC-delta1 to phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, PIP2. Thus it is unclear how PLC-zeta interacts with membranes. The linker region between the X and Y catalytic domains of PLC-zeta, however, contains a cluster of basic residues not present in PLC-delta1. Application of electrostatic theory to a homology model of PLC-zeta suggests this basic cluster could interact with acidic lipids. We measured the binding of catalytically competent mouse PLC-zeta to phospholipid vesicles: for 2:1 phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidylserine (PC/PS) vesicles, the molar partition coefficient, K, is too weak to be of physiological significance. Incorporating 1% PIP2 into the 2:1 PC/PS vesicles increases K about 10-fold, to 5x10(3) M-1, a biologically relevant value. Expressed fragments corresponding to the PLC-zeta X-Y linker region also bind with higher affinity to polyvalent than monovalent phosphoinositides on nitrocellulose filters. A peptide corresponding to the basic cluster (charge=+7) within the linker region, PLC-zeta-(374-385), binds to PC/PS vesicles with higher affinity than PLC-zeta, but its binding is less sensitive to incorporating PIP2. The acidic residues flanking this basic cluster in PLC-zeta may account for both these phenomena. FRET experiments suggest the basic cluster could not only anchor the protein to the membrane, but also enhance the local concentration of PIP2 adjacent to the catalytic domain.

  4. The low PLC-δ1 expression in cystic fibrosis bronchial epithelial cells induces upregulation of TRPV6 channel activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachel, Laura; Norez, Caroline; Jayle, Christophe; Becq, Frédéric; Vandebrouck, Clarisse

    2015-01-01

    Increase of Ca(2+) influx in Cystic Fibrosis (CF) cells has been reported to be related to Transient Receptor Potential Canonical (TRPC6) channel, which is implicated in a functional coupling with Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane conductance Regulator (CFTR). Several members of the Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid (TRPV) channels family have already been described as emerging target for respiratory diseases. Two specific isoforms, TRPV5 and TRPV6 are of particular interest in the context of CF Ca(2+) homeostasis as they are highly selective toward Ca(2+) and constitutively activated. Thus, we investigated the involvement of these channels in Ca(2+) influx in CF and non-CF human bronchial epithelial cell lines. 16HBE14o-, CFBE41o- cell lines, primary human airway epithelial cells (hAEC) and freshly isolated human airway epithelial cells from CF and non-CF individuals were used. We showed that both channels are expressed in CF and non-CF cells and constitutive Ca(2+) influx was significantly higher (85%) in cells from CF individuals compared to cells from non-CF ones. Using the selective inhibitor of TRPV6 channel SOR-C27 and a siRNA strategy, our results revealed that TRPV6 was mostly involved in the increase of Ca(2+) influx. TRPV6 channel is negatively regulated by the PLC-PIP2 pathway. We measured the Ca(2+) influx in the presence of the non-specific PLC inhibitor, U73122, in non-CF human bronchial epithelial cells. Ca(2+) influx was increased by 33% with U73122 and this increase was largely reduced in the presence of SOR-C27. PLC inhibition in CF cells by U73122 had no effect on Ca(2+) influx. These results showed that PLC-PIP2 pathway is dysregulated in CF cells and leads to the increase of TRPV6 activity. The regulation of TRPV6 by PLC-PIP2 pathway implicates the specific PLC isoform, PLC-δ1. Immunoblot experiments revealed that expression of PLC-δ1 was decreased by 70% in CF cells. TRPV6 activity was normalized but not the level of expression of PLC-δ1

  5. PNA-encoded chemical libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambaldo, Claudio; Barluenga, Sofia; Winssinger, Nicolas

    2015-06-01

    Peptide nucleic acid (PNA)-encoded chemical libraries along with DNA-encoded libraries have provided a powerful new paradigm for library synthesis and ligand discovery. PNA-encoding stands out for its compatibility with standard solid phase synthesis and the technology has been used to prepare libraries of peptides, heterocycles and glycoconjugates. Different screening formats have now been reported including selection-based and microarray-based methods that have yielded specific ligands against diverse target classes including membrane receptors, lectins and challenging targets such as Hsp70.

  6. Analysis of Typical Application Programming Skills of Emphasis and Difficulty Instructions in PLC Teaching%PLC 教学中重、难点指令的典型应用编程技巧解析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卞和营; 张晓丽

    2014-01-01

    PLC 技术应用中,程序的编写是实现控制的关键环节。一个优秀的程序可以节省硬件成本,减少程序的步数和占用的内存空间,并且能够提高控制系统的响应速度。编写 PLC 优秀程序的关键是掌握一定的编程技巧。以 S7-200PLC 梯形图程序编写为例,对教学中重、难点指令的典型应用编程技巧进行归纳分析,为PLC 应用领域的相关工程技术人员提供参考。%Programming is the key of the control system in the field of PLC technology. A good program can not only save the hardware cost,reduce the number of program steps and the memory space occupied,but also can improve the response speed of control system. However,the key to writing and a good program is to know well programming skills. Therefore,typical application programming skills of emphasis and difficulty instructions in PLC teaching are induced and analyzed with writing the S7 - 200PLC ladder diagram programming for example in this paper,which can provide reference for the relevant engineering technical field.

  7. The research and design of PLC analog control system%策论基于PLC模拟控制系统的研发与设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雪林

    2014-01-01

    文章围绕 PLC 的标准模拟控制系统的设计展开,详细介绍了 PLC 标准模拟控制系统的组成和PID控制的基本原理,并介绍了该系统在LNG船舶货物控制系统中的应用。%Based on designing of the analog control system in PLC standard, this article analyses the structure of PLC standard analog control system , introduces the basic principle in PID control , and introduces the application of the system in the LNG transport ship control system.

  8. Cell encoding recombinant human erythropoietin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, A.K.; Withy, R.M.; Zabrecky, J.R.; Masiello, N.C.

    1990-09-04

    This patent describes a C127 cell transformed with a recombinant DNA vector. It comprises: a DNA sequence encoding human erythropoietin, the transformed cell being capable of producing N-linked and O-linked glycosylated human erythropoietin.

  9. Compressed Encoding for Rank Modulation

    CERN Document Server

    Gad, Eyal En; Jiang,; Bruck, Jehoshua

    2011-01-01

    Rank modulation has been recently proposed as a scheme for storing information in flash memories. While rank modulation has advantages in improving write speed and endurance, the current encoding approach is based on the "push to the top" operation that is not efficient in the general case. We propose a new encoding procedure where a cell level is raised to be higher than the minimal necessary subset - instead of all - of the other cell levels. This new procedure leads to a significantly more compressed (lower charge levels) encoding. We derive an upper bound for a family of codes that utilize the proposed encoding procedure, and consider code constructions that achieve that bound for several special cases.

  10. Self-Organising Stochastic Encoders

    CERN Document Server

    Luttrell, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The processing of mega-dimensional data, such as images, scales linearly with image size only if fixed size processing windows are used. It would be very useful to be able to automate the process of sizing and interconnecting the processing windows. A stochastic encoder that is an extension of the standard Linde-Buzo-Gray vector quantiser, called a stochastic vector quantiser (SVQ), includes this required behaviour amongst its emergent properties, because it automatically splits the input space into statistically independent subspaces, which it then separately encodes. Various optimal SVQs have been obtained, both analytically and numerically. Analytic solutions which demonstrate how the input space is split into independent subspaces may be obtained when an SVQ is used to encode data that lives on a 2-torus (e.g. the superposition of a pair of uncorrelated sinusoids). Many numerical solutions have also been obtained, using both SVQs and chains of linked SVQs: (1) images of multiple independent targets (encod...

  11. 1p36.32 rearrangements and the role of PI-PLC η2 in nervous tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Vasco, Vincenza Rita

    2011-07-01

    Deletions in the distal region of the short arm of chromosome 1 (1p36) are widely diffuse, both in congenital 1p36 Deletion Syndrome and as somatic abnormalities in tumours. Rearrangements in 1p36 have been described in a broad spectrum of human neoplasias in addition to other chromosomal abnormalities. In neuroblastomas, wide hemizygous deletions in 1p36.23-1p36.32 have been described suggesting that the 1p36 region contains a tumour-suppressor gene involved in malignancy. A role for phosphoinositide (PI)-specific phospholipase C (PLC) η2, whose gene maps on 1p36.32, was suggested. PI-PLC η2 belongs to a family of enzymes related to the phosphoinositide signalling pathway, which provide an important intracellular signalling system involved in a variety of cell functions such as hormone secretion, neurotransmitter signal transduction, cell growth, membrane trafficking, ion channel activity, regulation of the cytoskeleton, cell cycle control and apoptosis. Expression of PI-PLC η2 occurs after birth and continues throughout the life. Synapse formation occurs during a short period of postnatal development. Thus, it is likely that PI-PLC η2 acts in formation and maintenance of the neuronal network in the brain. The fact that PI-PLC η2, a highly neuron-specific isozyme, is abundantly expressed in the postnatal brain suggests the importance of PI-PLC η2 in formation and maintenance of the neuronal network in the postnatal brain. Further studies are required to verify the possible involvement of PI-PLC η2 mutation/deletion in central nervous tumour tissues presenting abnormalities of the 1p36 chromosomal band.

  12. Research on Embedded PLC Graphical Programming%嵌入式PLC图形化编程技术的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晨; 王力生; 贾廷纲; 徐志明

    2015-01-01

    可编程控制器(Programmable Logic Controller, PLC)是为广大工程技术员所熟知并广泛使用的,为了适应广大工程技术员的使用需求和习惯,可编程控制器并不采用微机的编程语言,而是使用了面向过程的,更直观的编程语言,在PLC中,图形化编程语言梯形图极易上手,通俗易懂,与电气控制原理图相一致,所以成为了PLC的主要编程语言。但是,梯形图并不能被可编程控制器识别,不能直接运行。所以,如何提高开发效率,使梯形图直接转化为PLC指令成为了嵌入式PLC的一个研究热点。%As most of the PLC users are engineers and technicians who are not professional computer programmers ,control-ori⁃ented and problem-oriented natural language is used in PLC programming. Ladder Diagram is the main PLC programming lan⁃guage which is vivid,simple and correspondent with electrical control schematic diagram. PLC Ladder Diagram cannot be interpret⁃ed by the Computer directly,So how to translate the visualized ladder diagram into PLC instruction sequence and enhance the effi⁃ciency of system has become a hot debated topic in embedded PLC filed.

  13. A Study on the Control System for Marine Power Stations Based on PLC-PPU%基于PLC/PPU的网络型船舶电站控制技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安亮; 张毅

    2012-01-01

      In view of the administration of current marine power stations, this article probes into the control system for a power station based on PLC-PPU Network with the starting, switch closing, splitting and halting of the generator set as the main line. In addition, it studies the PLC-PPU control technique and operation mechanism of PLC-PPU network. It may be of reference significance for marine and electrical management personnel.%  文章针对新型船舶电站的管理需要,提出了以发电机组启动、合闸、解列、停机为主线剖析某电站底层控制网络(PLC/PPU网络)的控制技术,讨论了PLC/PPU网络中的设备PLC、PPU的控制技术及整个网络的运行机制,对船舶轮机、电气管理人员有一定的参考意义。

  14. Data communication between Panasonic PLC and PC using SerialPort control in C#.NET environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ting; Gan, Xiaochuan; Ma, Liqun

    2015-02-01

    With the gradual promotion of Microsoft.NET platform, C# as an object-oriented programming language based on the platform has been widely used. Therefore, more attention is concentrated on how to achieve the communication between Panasonic PLC and PC efficiently and fast in C#.NET environment. In this paper, a method of using SerialPort control which could be used for achieving communication between PLC and PC is introduced. Meanwhile, the reason of abnormal thread when displayed the receiving data in form is analyzed and the programming method to solve the problem of thread safety is designed. Achieving the communication of Panasonic PLC and PC in C#.NET environment can give full play to the advantages of the .NET framework. It is practical, easy communication, high reliability and can combine with other measurement and calibration procedures effectively and conveniently. Configuration software is expensive and can only communicate with PLC separately, but these shortcomings can be solved in C#.NET environment. A well-designed user interface realized real-time monitoring of PLC parameters and achieved management and control integration. The experiment show that this method of data transfer is accurate and the program' running is stable.

  15. Relax and refill: xylem rehydration prior to hydraulic measurements favours embolism repair in stems and generates artificially low PLC values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifilò, Patrizia; Raimondo, Fabio; Lo Gullo, Maria A; Barbera, Piera M; Salleo, Sebastiano; Nardini, Andrea

    2014-11-01

    Diurnal changes in percentage loss of hydraulic conductivity (PLC), with recorded values being higher at midday than on the following morning, have been interpreted as evidence for the occurrence of cycles of xylem conduits' embolism and repair. Recent reports have suggested that diurnal PLC changes might arise as a consequence of an experimental artefact, that is, air entry into xylem conduits upon cutting stems, even if under water, while under substantial tension generated by transpiration. Rehydration procedures prior to hydraulic measurements have been recommended to avoid this artefact. In the present study, we show that xylem rehydration prior to hydraulic measurements might favour xylem refilling and embolism repair, thus leading to PLC values erroneously lower than those actually experienced by transpiring plants. When xylem tension relaxation procedures were performed on stems where refilling mechanisms had been previously inhibited by mechanical (girdling) or chemical (orthovanadate) treatment, PLC values measured in stems cut under native tension were the same as those measured after sample rehydration/relaxation. Our data call for renewed attention to the procedures of sample collection in the field and transport to the laboratory, and suggest that girdling might be a recommendable treatment prior to sample collection for PLC measurements.

  16. PLC的编程语言与编程注意事项%PLC Programming Language and Programming Announcements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    濮海坤

    2013-01-01

    This paper briefly described the basic characteristics of programmable controller (PLC) and development situation, introduces the programming language and its function characteristics of PLC sequence function diagram, ladder diagram, functional block diagram and instruction list, expounds the programming rules and matters needing attention of PLC ladder diagram and instruction list in programming language, etc. On top of the programming language, programming method and the matters needing attention of PLC program has great significance for quick starting to apply PLC programming.%本文简述了可编程控制器(PLC)的基本特点和发展情况,介绍了PLC的顺序功能图、梯形图、功能模块图、指令表和结构文本等编程语言及其功能特点,阐述了PLC在编程过程中梯形图与指令表语言编程的规则和注意事项等。熟练掌握PLC程序的编程语言、编程方法及编程注意事项,对于PLC编程的快速入门及工程应用具有十分重要的意义。

  17. 浅谈PLC的发展及应用%Discussion on the Development and Application of PLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽然; 张芬

    2012-01-01

    PLC在现代自动化行业中应用广泛,长期以来PLC始终处于工业自动化控制领域的主战场,在世界各地发挥着越来越大的作用.当今科学技术突飞猛进,PLC的应用及发展前景怎样,笔者对此进行了探讨.本文概述了PLC的定义及特点,介绍了PLC的应用领域和在国内外的发展状况,分析了PLC的发展前景.%The PLC, which plays an important role in industrial automation control area for a long time, is used widely in the modem automation industry. The author discusses on the application and development prospect of PLC along with the rapid development of science and technology. The article presents the definition and characteristic of PLC, introduces the application area of PLC and its development at home and abroad, and analyzes the PLC development prospects.

  18. Návrh sítě PLC pro dálkový sběr dat

    OpenAIRE

    Šebela, Miroslav

    2008-01-01

    V práci je dle zadání proveden návrh sítě PLC (power line carrier communication) pro dálkový sběr dat. Pro bližší seznámení se s touto technologií je rozvedena problematika komunikace po silovém vedení a možnosti využití PLC technologie. Jsou naznačeny možnosti širokopásmového, zejména však úzkopásmového přenosu dat pomocí PLC. Je popsána obecná struktura PLC sítě pro sběr dat z měřících přístrojů a nakonec je zde popsán návrh PLC sítě na vybrané lokalitě spolu s výběrem dodavatele komponent....

  19. PLC虚拟实验室的研究与建设%Research and Construction of a PLC Virtual Laboratory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王啸东

    2012-01-01

    This paper described three PLC experimental systems, and analyzed their strengths and weaknesses. Taking the "liquid mixing device control" experiment as an example, it presented the construction of the PLC virtual laboratory based on Mitsubishi GX, GT software. The PLC program can be designed, run, debugged, and monitored in the PLC virtual laboratory by just using computers and related software. The PLC virtual laboratory proved to be a cheap and efficient training system.%介绍了3种PLC实验系统,分析了各自的优缺点,并以“液体混合装置控制”实验为例,重点介绍了基于三菱GX、GT系列软件的PLC虚拟实验室的建设方案.在PLC虚拟实验室只需计算机和相关软件就可以完成PLC程序设计、运行调试、过程监控等实训内容,是一种廉价、高效的实训系统.

  20. Multidimensionally encoded magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Fa-Hsuan

    2013-07-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) typically achieves spatial encoding by measuring the projection of a q-dimensional object over q-dimensional spatial bases created by linear spatial encoding magnetic fields (SEMs). Recently, imaging strategies using nonlinear SEMs have demonstrated potential advantages for reconstructing images with higher spatiotemporal resolution and reducing peripheral nerve stimulation. In practice, nonlinear SEMs and linear SEMs can be used jointly to further improve the image reconstruction performance. Here, we propose the multidimensionally encoded (MDE) MRI to map a q-dimensional object onto a p-dimensional encoding space where p > q. MDE MRI is a theoretical framework linking imaging strategies using linear and nonlinear SEMs. Using a system of eight surface SEM coils with an eight-channel radiofrequency coil array, we demonstrate the five-dimensional MDE MRI for a two-dimensional object as a further generalization of PatLoc imaging and O-space imaging. We also present a method of optimizing spatial bases in MDE MRI. Results show that MDE MRI with a higher dimensional encoding space can reconstruct images more efficiently and with a smaller reconstruction error when the k-space sampling distribution and the number of samples are controlled.

  1. High-speed narrowband PLC - High-performance Access Powerline Communication structures in smart grid; High-Speed Narrowband PLC. Leistungsfaehige Access-Powerline-Kommunikationsstrukturen im Smart Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Offner, Georg [devolo AG, Aachen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The smart grid provides a stable operation of a decentralized power system which is fed more and more by small providers by means of solar technology and wind power technology. Furthermore, commercial and private clients profit from the smart grid, as they may capture information about their current consumption in real time or can obtain these data from the Internet. The author of the contribution under consideration presents new approaches to access powerline communications that enable efficient communication between IPv6 based household meter and network station. The contribution under consideration describes the technologies used as well as practical experiences and initial results from field tests. Here insights from the integration of G3-PLC are in the foreground.

  2. 浅析 PLC 梯形图与继电器控制线路的差别%Brief Analysis of Differences Between PLC Ladder Chart and Relay Control Circuit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤文利

    2014-01-01

    文章分析了PLC程序与继电器线路工作原理的差别,并用举例的方法说明照搬成熟的继电器控制线路进行PLC编程或照搬PLC程序连接继电器控制线路,都不能实现需要的逻辑功能。%While it analyzes the different working principles between PLC ladder chart and the relay circuit , the paper illustrates the reason why it is unable to perform its logic function by copying the relay control circuit for PLC programming or the PLC program for the relay control circuit .

  3. 对自动生产线中PLC控制技术应用的几点探讨%Discussion on the application of PLC control in automatic production line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈学钊

    2015-01-01

    本文就PLC的基本原理,PLC的软硬件设计和PLC的实际应用,全方位探讨PLC在自动生产线中的应用。%This paper discusses the application of PLC in automatic production line based on the basic principle of PLC,the design of hardware and software of PLC and the practical application of PLC.

  4. 76 FR 70336 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc RB211-524G2-19; -524G2-T-19; -524G3-19; -524G3-T-19...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ... plc RB211-524G2-19; -524G2- T-19; -524G3-19; -524G3-T-19; 524H2-19; -524H2-T-19; -524H-36; and - 524H..., 2011. The Director of the Federal Register approved the incorporation by reference of Rolls-Royce plc... Information Rolls-Royce plc has issued Rolls-Royce plc Alert Service Bulletin No. RB.211-73-AG054, Revision...

  5. Virally encoded 7TM receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, M M; Waldhoer, M; Lüttichau, H R

    2001-01-01

    A number of herpes- and poxviruses encode 7TM G-protein coupled receptors most of which clearly are derived from their host chemokine system as well as induce high expression of certain 7TM receptors in the infected cells. The receptors appear to be exploited by the virus for either immune evasion...... in various parts of the viral life cyclus. Most of the receptors encoded by human pathogenic virus are still orphan receptors, i.e. the endogenous ligand is unknown. In the few cases where it has been possible to characterize these receptors pharmacologically, they have been found to bind a broad spectrum...... expression of this single gene in certain lymphocyte cell lineages leads to the development of lesions which are remarkably similar to Kaposi's sarcoma, a human herpesvirus 8 associated disease. Thus, this and other virally encoded 7TM receptors appear to be attractive future drug targets....

  6. Synaptic encoding of temporal contiguity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srdjan eOstojic

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Often we need to perform tasks in an environment that changes stochastically. In these situations it is important to learn the statistics of sequences of events in order to predict the future and the outcome of our actions. The statistical description of many of these sequences can be reduced to the set of probabilities that a particular event follows another event (temporal contiguity. Under these conditions, it is important to encode and store in our memory these transition probabilities. Here we show that for a large class of synaptic plasticity models, the distribution of synaptic strengths encodes transitions probabilities. Specifically, when the synaptic dynamics depend on pairs of contiguous events and the synapses can remember multiple instances of the transitions, then the average synaptic weights are a monotonic function of the transition probabilities. The synaptic weights converge to the distribution encoding the probabilities also when the correlations between consecutive synaptic modifications are considered. We studied how this distribution depends on the number of synaptic states for a specific model of a multi-state synapse with hard bounds. In the case of bistable synapses, the average synaptic weights are a smooth function of the transition probabilities and the accuracy of the encoding depends on the learning rate. As the number of synaptic states increases, the average synaptic weights become a step function of the transition probabilities. We finally show that the information stored in the synaptic weights can be read out by a simple rate-based neural network. Our study shows that synapses encode transition probabilities under general assumptions and this indicates that temporal contiguity is likely to be encoded and harnessed in almost every neural circuit in the brain.

  7. 77 FR 37740 - Stagecoach Group plc and Coach USA, Inc., et al.-Acquisition of Control of Assets-American Coach...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARMENT OF TRANSPORATION Surface Transportation Board Stagecoach Group plc and Coach USA, Inc., et al.--Acquisition of Control of..., DOT. ACTION: Notice of Finance Application. SUMMARY: On May 25, 2012, Stagecoach Group plc...

  8. LAT-independent Erk activation via Bam32-PLC-γ1-Pak1 complexes: GTPase-independent Pak1 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouquette-Jazdanian, Alexandre K; Sommers, Connie L; Kortum, Robert L; Morrison, Deborah K; Samelson, Lawrence E

    2012-10-26

    In T cells, the adaptor Bam32 is coupled to Erk activation downstream of the TCR by an unknown mechanism. We characterized in Jurkat cells and primary T lymphocytes a pathway dependent on Bam32-PLC-γ1-Pak1 complexes, in which Pak1 kinase activates Raf-1 and Mek-1, both upstream of Erk. In the Bam32-PLC-γ1-Pak1 complex, catalytically inactive PLC-γ1 is used as a scaffold linking Bam32 to Pak1. PLC-γ1(C-SH2) directly binds S141 of Bam32, preventing LAT-mediated activation of Ras by PLC-γ1. The Bam32-PLC-γ1 interaction enhances the binding of the SH3 domain of the phospholipase with Pak1. The PLC-γ1(SH3)-Pak1 interaction activates Pak1 independently of the small GTPases Rac1/Cdc42, previously described as being the only activators of Pak1 in T cells. Direct binding of the SH3 domain of PLC-γ1 to Pak1 dissociates inactive Pak1 homodimers, a mechanism required for Pak1 activation. We have thus uncovered a LAT/Ras-independent, Bam32-nucleated pathway that activates Erk signaling in T cells.

  9. 76 FR 65941 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc RB211-524 Series, RB211-Trent 700 Series, and RB211...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... Corporate Communications at Rolls-Royce plc, PO Box 31, Derby, DE24 8BJ, United Kingdom, phone: 011-44-1331... including. We changed paragraph (k) of the AD to state ``* * * contact Corporate Communications at Rolls... service information identified in this AD, contact Corporate Communications at Rolls-Royce plc, PO Box...

  10. 升降横移立体车库 PLC 程序设计概述%Overview of Lifting and Transferring TridimensionaI Garage PLC Program Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾元武; 韩宝林; 陶磊; 任小锋

    2014-01-01

    According to the operation principIe of Iifting and transfering tridimensionaI garage,this paper designs controI program on the Siemens S7-200 PLC controI pIatform,to achieve automatic controI for automatic stereo garage.%根据升降横移类自动化立体车库的运行原理,以西门子 S7-200 PLC 为控制平台,设计了一种车库控制程序,实现自动化立体车库的自动控制。

  11. The VB programming of the communication protocol simulating Simatic PLC S7-300%模拟西门子PLC S7-300通信协议的VB程序设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李妍; 李茜; 张文林

    2006-01-01

    现代工业控制特别是造纸领域中,西门子PLC S7-300是应用最广的大中型PLC.而Visual Basic在开发可视化环境下的监控系统时具有其独特的优势,倍受青睐.本文用VB模拟西门子PLCS7-300的通信协议,提出了VB在串行通信中一种新的应用方法.

  12. On the Expressiveness of the Approach to Constructing PLC-programs by LTL-Specification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Kuzmin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the approach to constructing and verification of discrete PLC-programs by LTL-specification. This approach provides an ability of correctness analysis of PLC-programs by the model checking method. The linear temporal logic LTL is used as a language of specification of the program behavior. The correctness analysis of LTL-specification is automatically performed by the symbolic model checking tool Cadence SMV. The article demonstrates the consistency of the approach to constructing and verification of PLC programs by LTL-specification from the point of view of Turing power. It is proved, that in accordance with this approach for any Minsky counter machine can be built an LTL-specification, which is used for machine implementation in any PLC programming language of standard IEC 61131-3. Minsky machines equipollent Turing machines, and the considered approach also has Turing power. The proof focuses on representation of a counter machine behavior in the form of a set of LTL-formulas and matching these formulas to constructions of ST and SFC languages. SFC is interesting as a specific graphical language. ST is considered as a basic language because an implementation of a counter machine in IL, FBD/CFC and LD languages is reduced to rewriting blocks of ST-program. The idea of the proof is demonstrated by an example of a Minsky 3-counter machine, which implements a function of squaring.

  13. Construction of a multi-vender fieldbus system for PC-based control using soft PLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. H.; Park, Y. J.; Choi, J. M.; Park, J. S. [Hankyong National Univ., Ansung (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    The relationship between the IEC 61131-3 programming language and the fieldbus application that became necessary as an outcome of the recent automation technology was described.An educational text for the field users on the integration of the Input/Output (I/O) modules and on the IEC 61131-3 programming language was prepared. An attempt was made to include description of the various kind of the fieldbuses and promote understanding of the CAN and the AS-I bus using a practical approach. The profibus is most widely used in the world, and thus is an important and a standardized tool in the area of the process control. A method of integrating the profibus with the most commonly used I/O modules in the field was suggested. The most essential characteristics of the IEC 61131-3 programming language was also described. A method for the construction of the multi-vender I/O modules by the Soft PLC 4C of the softings was suggested. Various technical steps are necessary for the integration of the I/O modules by the soft PLC. An additional software is needed for the more intelligent devises possessing complex technical functions, such as the control valve, the AC driver among others. The 4C control by the softing which is an important industrial solution for the soft PLC was specifically designed for the profibus. So, an OPC server is needed to exchange between the other fieldbuses while the optimum performance is only achieved by using the profibus card by softing. This implies that the business aspect has played a major role for developing the profibus by softing and the domestic users need to pay careful attention to this point additional software tools, such as the PDM or the comuwinn II, are necessary in the process control area to operate a complex and instruments using the DP/PA segment coupler. 13 refs., 46 figs., 12 tabs. (Author)

  14. Generating Safety-Critical PLC Code From a High-Level Application Software Specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The benefits of automatic-application code generation are widely accepted within the software engineering community. These benefits include raised abstraction level of application programming, shorter product development time, lower maintenance costs, and increased code quality and consistency. Surprisingly, code generation concepts have not yet found wide acceptance and use in the field of programmable logic controller (PLC) software development. Software engineers at Kennedy Space Center recognized the need for PLC code generation while developing the new ground checkout and launch processing system, called the Launch Control System (LCS). Engineers developed a process and a prototype software tool that automatically translates a high-level representation or specification of application software into ladder logic that executes on a PLC. All the computer hardware in the LCS is planned to be commercial off the shelf (COTS), including industrial controllers or PLCs that are connected to the sensors and end items out in the field. Most of the software in LCS is also planned to be COTS, with only small adapter software modules that must be developed in order to interface between the various COTS software products. A domain-specific language (DSL) is a programming language designed to perform tasks and to solve problems in a particular domain, such as ground processing of launch vehicles. The LCS engineers created a DSL for developing test sequences of ground checkout and launch operations of future launch vehicle and spacecraft elements, and they are developing a tabular specification format that uses the DSL keywords and functions familiar to the ground and flight system users. The tabular specification format, or tabular spec, allows most ground and flight system users to document how the application software is intended to function and requires little or no software programming knowledge or experience. A small sample from a prototype tabular spec application is

  15. The electromagnetic compatibility of the PLC technology; La compatibilite electromagnetique de la technologie CPL. Des donnees sur les lignes electriques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bermudez, J.-L.; Marthe, E.; Rachidi, F.; Rubinstein, M.; Vukicevic, A.

    2006-07-01

    PLC (Power Line Communications) in Europe or BPL (Broadband over Power Lines) in the US are techniques that allows the utilization of low and middle voltage power lines for the transmission of high frequencies by coupling electrical signals to them. In this way, unshielded power lines may be used for the transmission of numerical information similar to the well known xDSL-techniques using telephone lines. Typically, the frequency range used by PLC is between 9 kHz and 30 MHz. The authors describe the general principles and investigate possible electromagnetic interference with existing radio frequency equipment like xDSL, CATV (Cable Television) and Wireless (GSM, Bluetooth, WiFi). Finally, they present theoretical and experimental results of techniques allowing the reduction of such interference by reducing the emission of electromagnetic signals from PLC systems. The preferred method is based on an active control by injecting an auxiliary signal into the third conductor (ground)

  16. STS-65 PLC Hieb at mockup side hatch prepares to egress via an inflated slide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    STS-65 Mission Specialist and Payload Commander (PLC) Richard J. Hieb, wearing launch and entry suit (LES) and launch and entry helmet (LEH), sits at the top of the inflated slide at the crew compartment trainer (CCT) side hatch and listens to a crew training staffer's instructions. Hieb practiced post landing emergency escape procedures along with his six STS-65 crewmates. The CCT is located in the Johnson Space Center's (JSC's) Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9NE. Hieb will join five NASA astronauts and a Japanese payload specialist for the International Microgravity Laboratory 2 (IML-2) mission aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, later this year.

  17. FINDING THE OPTIMAL LENGTH OF DATA FRAME IN PLC COMPUTER NETWORK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuangRonghui; Zhoumingtian

    2003-01-01

    The length of data frame is an important parameter in Medium Access Control (MAC) layer protocol.A method of finding the optimal length of data frame when impulsive disturdance is inuolved in PowerLine Communications (PLC) is proposed.Having analyzed the characteristics of impulsive disturbance in powerline and the collision mechanism between the disturbance and data frame,this letter gives the function of the network channel utilization with the length of data frame in MAC layer and the impulsive disurbance.Our stochastic process simulation shows that it is feasible to get the optimal length of data frame.

  18. FINDING THE OPTIMAL LENGTH OF DATA FRAME IN PLC COMPUTER NETWORK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Ronghui; Zhou Mingtian; She Kun

    2003-01-01

    The length of data frame is an important parameter in Medium Access Control(MAC) layer protocol. A method of finding the optimal length of data frame when impulsive disturbance is involved in PowerLine Communications (PLC) is proposed. Having analyzed the characteristics of impulsive disturbance in powerline and the collision mechanism between the disturbance and data frame, this letter gives the function of the network channel utilization with the length of data frame in MAC layer and the impulsive disturbance. Our stochastic process simulation shows that it is feasible to get the optimal length of data frame.

  19. Boiler level control system based on ControlLogix5550 PLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>This paper is a research design based on EFPT process control device.In the design,actual industry field has been simulated and corresponding modelling has been carried on for the boiler level system.Then the appropriate PID parameter has been sorted out and ControlLogix5550 PLC has been used to control the entire boiler level system. At last,a corresponding control interface has been established and the boiler level has been under a safe and accurate control.

  20. Realization of Intelligent Measurement and Control System for Limb Rehabilitation Based on PLC and Touch Screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangquan

    According to the treatment needs of patients with limb movement disorder, on the basis of the limb rehabilitative training prototype, function of measure and control system are analyzed, design of system hardware and software is completed. The touch screen which is adopt as host computer and man-machine interaction window is responsible for sending commands and training information display; The PLC which is adopt as slave computer is responsible for receiving control command from touch screen, collecting the sensor data, regulating torque and speed of motor by analog output according to the different training mode, realizing ultimately active and passive training for limb rehabilitation therapy.

  1. Application of PLC in My Plant%PLC在我厂的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁峰军; 滕卫杰

    2001-01-01

    以我厂中小型可编程控制器的选型、编程、维护为背景,初步总结了PLC的应用经验。%Based on the background of small-size PLC selecting,programming and maintaining,the experience of the several kinds of PLCs that my plant used is summarized.PLCs hardware and software of each companies respectively has different characteristics,it should be on the basis of the concrete analysis of concrete circumstances in use.

  2. A Numerical Tele-service System and its Realization on a PC-PLC Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Modern telecommunication methods have many impacts on manufacturing, and tele-service has become one of the strategic approaches to realize the ideas of a flexible manufacturing system. Monitoring and maintenance of production lines from the remote monitor center is an important application of such techniques. This paper presents a typical model of tele-service systems and discusses the underlying challenges. RMMST (remote monitoring and maintenance system testbed), based on PC-PLC and their networks which are used widely in production lines, is presented in detail as a concrete example. With the support of digital technique, RMMST can be used in the monitoring and maintenance of remote production lines conveniently.

  3. Establishment of hepatitis E virus infection-permissive and -non-permissive human hepatoma PLC/PRF/5 subclones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiota, Tomoyuki; Li, Tian-Cheng; Yoshizaki, Sayaka; Kato, Takanobu; Wakita, Takaji; Ishii, Koji

    2015-02-01

    PLC/PRF/5 cells show limited permissiveness, meaning that almost all subclones are permissive; however, some subclones do not exhibit permissiveness for hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection. In this study, the single-cell cloning of PLC/PRF/5 was performed and heterogeneous subclones characterized. Notably, the efficiency of intracellular virus replication did not correlate with the permissiveness for HEV infection. However, as well as binding permissive subclones, virus-like particles bound non-permissive subclones on various levels, suggesting that these subclones have some deficiencies in the attachment and entry steps of infection. Our data would be useful for investigating the HEV life cycle.

  4. The command of the Flour Transport Pumps in a Cereal Mill with PLC Siemens S7-1200

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Răduca

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents pump control with PLC Siemens Simatic S7 - 1200, for transporting flour designed to be implemented in the Pfalzmühle Mannheim. The order was designed to replace the old system made in various traditional contacts and relays. Programming PLC Simatic S7 - 1200, which is a powerful and reliable, a new generation, was conducted in FBD. In order to verify the accuracy and to optimize the operation of the control system was built a functional model.

  5. Design and construction of a VHGT-attached WDM-type triplex transceiver module using polymer PLC hybrid integration technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerábek, Vitezslav; Hüttel, Ivan; Prajzler, Václav; Busek, K.; Seliger, P.

    2008-11-01

    We report about design and construction of the bidirectional transceiver TRx module for subscriber part of the passive optical network PON for a fiber to the home FTTH topology. The TRx module consists of a epoxy novolak resin polymer planar lightwave circuit (PLC) hybrid integration technology with volume holographic grating triplex filter VHGT, surface-illuminated photodetectors and spot-size converted Fabry-Pérot laser diode in SMD package. The hybrid PLC has composed from a two parts-polymer optical waveguide including VHGT filter section and a optoelectronic microwave section. The both parts are placed on the composite substrate.

  6. A new Matlab coder for generating Structured Text Language from matrix expression for PLC and PAC controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buciakowski, Mariusz; Witczak, Piotr

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a new Matlab toolbox for synthesis of Structured Text (ST) code for Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC) and Programmable Automation Controller (PAC). This tool can directly generate IEC 61131-3 Structured Text Language from Matlab script for selected Integrated Development Environments (IDEs). The generated code can be verified and compared with the results obtained with Matlab simulation. After this, generated code can be used in IDEs, compiled and uploaded to a PLC or PAC controller for final verification. This approach leaves all available Matlab toolboxes for programmers use, thus allowing fast and easy synthesis developed algorithms.

  7. Design of a Pneumatic Robotic Arm for Solar Cell Tester System By using PLC controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousif I. Al Mashhadany

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar cell testers sort photovoltaic cells according to their electrical performance, tested under simulated sunlight. A variety of testers exist, but they all face a common challenge of handling cells that are very small and thin, which makes it difficult to transport the cells from the conveyer to the storage box. This paper presents a new design for a handling robot with vacuum end-effectors, which uses a PLC controller to govern the movement of the cells and the testing process. The design applies to solar cell testers for monocrystalline, polycrystalline, cadmium telluride (CdTe, and copper indium diselenide (CIS cells. Each cell is tested for efficiency and categorized accordingly into four groups (A to D. A Virtual Reality (VR model was built to simulate the system, keeping in mind real world constraints. Two photoelectric sensors were used to make detections for both the testing process and the robot movement. The PLC controller guides the trajectory of the robot according to the results of the efficiency testing. It was seen that the system worked very well, with the testing process and the robot movement interacting smoothly. The robot trajectory was seen to be highly accurate, and the pick and place operations were done with great precision.

  8. Motion control solution for new PLC-based standard development platform for VLT instrument control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovic, D.; Brast, R.; Di Lieto, N.; Kiekebusch, M.; Knudstrup, J.; Lucuix, C.

    2014-07-01

    More than a decade ago, due to obsolescence issues, ESO initiated the design and implementation of a custom-made CANbus based motion controller (CAN-RMC) to provide, together with a tailor-made software library (motor library), the motion control capabilities for the VME platform needed for the second generation VLT/VLTI instruments. The CAN-RMC controller has been successfully used in a number of VLT instruments but it has high production costs compared to the commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) industrial solutions available on the market today. In the scope of the selection of a new PLC-based platform for the VLT instrument control systems, ESO has evaluated motion control solutions from the company Beckhoff. This paper presents the investigation, implementation and testing of the PLC/TwinCAT/EtherCAT motion controllers for DC and stepper motors and their adaptation and integration into the VLT instrumentation framework. It reports functional and performance test results for the most typical use cases of astronomical instruments like initialization sequences, tracking, switch position detections, backslash compensation, brake handling, etc. In addition, it gives an overview of the main features of TwinCAT NC/PTP, PLCopen MC, EtherCAT motion control terminals and the engineering tools like TwinCAT Scope that are integrated into the development environment and simplify software development, testing and commissioning of motorized instrument functions.

  9. Automated Water Supply System and Water Theft Identification Using PLC and SCADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Anubha Panchal,

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In today’s world rapid growing urban residential areas, to avoid scarcity of water problems and requirements of consumers, therefore it is supposed to supply adequate water distribution networks are managed automatically. Along with this another problem in the water supply system is that public is using suction pumps to suck the water directly from the home street pipeline. The best way to improve the automation and monitoring architectures which contain a supervision and control system for the real time installation, programmable logic controllers with basic functions communication systems, standard interfaces or dedicated ones with proximity sensors, electrical drive elements, measuring devices, etc. In this project it is proposed to develop the PLC & SCADA based water monitoring and theft prevention. Control System is further coupled to SCADA unit .This paper focuses particularly to a control system for controlling and monitoring within a Water Distribution System. Process automation system based upon utilization of an industrial PLC and PC systems including all the network components represents the best way to improve the water distribution technological process.

  10. Controlling the Filling and Capping Operation of a Bottling Plant using PLC and SCADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunal Chakraborty

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents basic stages of operation of a bottling plant, i.e. the filling and capping process. The main aim of our paper is to control the filling and capping section of a bottling plant simultaneously. At first a set of empty bottle is run by using a conveyer towards filling section, after the operation, the filled bottles are sent towards the capping section. After successful capping operation, the sealed bottles terminate towards exit and a new set of empty bottle arrive, in this way the process continues. This paper includes the method using which, a bunch of bottles can be filled and capped at one instant of time. This method has made the operation more flexible and time saving. The filling and capping operations are controlled using Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC, as the PLC’s are very much user-efficient, cost-effective and easy to control. By using PLC automation the whole process is kept under control. SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition is used to monitor the process by means of a display system.

  11. Design of an Intelligent Water Supply Control System Based on Mitsubishi FX2N Series PLC%基于三菱 FX2N 系列 PLC 的智能供水控制系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵媛

    2016-01-01

    文章以三菱 FX2N -32MR 型 PLC 为智能核心元件,设计了可能在工作/备用状态下任意切换的两台供水泵电机的自动控制系统,包括控制方案、主电路、控制电路(I /O 接线图)、控制程序(梯形图),并阐明了水位信号的 PLC 识别问题等技术细节,经过生产实际运行检验,设计合理、运行可靠。%Using Mitsubishi PLC FX2N -32MR as intelligent core element,this paper gives the design of an automatic control system consisting of two water supply pump motors which can be switched over at will between working/stand-by states,including control scheme,main circuit,control circuit (I /O wiring diagram)and control program (ladder diagram),and clarifies technical details such as PLC identification of water level signal.Actual operation in production process verifies its reasonable design and reliable operation.

  12. 基于RS485的小型PLC ModBus总线通信与实现%Bus Communication and Achieve of the Small PLC ModBus Based on RS485

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨帆

    2012-01-01

    ModBus作为一种开放式通信协议,愈来愈多地被小型PLC厂家选用,并逐渐成为产品的标准配置之一。首先介绍了汇川H2U系列PLC的ModBus总线通信技术,然后给出了实现H2UPLC与MD320变频器ModBus总线通信的硬件连接、变频器参数设置以及PLC通信程序。实际应用表明该方案工程实现容易、性价比高。%ModBus is increasing to choose by small PLC manufacturers as an open communication protocol, and becoming to one of the standard configuration of the product. Firstly the paper introduces bus communication technology of inovance H2U series PLC ModBus, and then achieves hardware connection,inverters parameter settings and PLC communication program of the H2U PLC and MD320 inverter ModBus bus communication. Practical application shows that the program works easily and cost -effectivly.

  13. Encoding information into precipitation structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Kirsten; Bena, Ioana; Droz, Michel; Rácz, Zoltan

    2008-12-01

    Material design at submicron scales would be profoundly affected if the formation of precipitation patterns could be easily controlled. It would allow the direct building of bulk structures, in contrast to traditional techniques which consist of removing material in order to create patterns. Here, we discuss an extension of our recent proposal of using electrical currents to control precipitation bands which emerge in the wake of reaction fronts in A+ + B- → C reaction-diffusion processes. Our main result, based on simulating the reaction-diffusion-precipitation equations, is that the dynamics of the charged agents can be guided by an appropriately designed time-dependent electric current so that, in addition to the control of the band spacing, the width of the precipitation bands can also be tuned. This makes straightforward the encoding of information into precipitation patterns and, as an amusing example, we demonstrate the feasibility by showing how to encode a musical rhythm.

  14. Geometric Hyperplanes: Desargues Encodes Doily

    CERN Document Server

    Saniga, Metod

    2011-01-01

    It is shown that the structure of the generalized quadrangle of order two is fully encoded in the properties of the Desargues configuration. A point of the quadrangle is represented by a geometric hyperplane of the Desargues configuration and its line by a set of three hyperplanes such that one of them is the complement of the symmetric difference of the remaining two and they all share a pair of non-collinear points.

  15. Vector Encoding in Biochemical Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Garrett; Sun, Bo

    Encoding of environmental cues via biochemical signaling pathways is of vital importance in the transmission of information for cells in a network. The current literature assumes a single cell state is used to encode information, however, recent research suggests the optimal strategy utilizes a vector of cell states sampled at various time points. To elucidate the optimal sampling strategy for vector encoding, we take an information theoretic approach and determine the mutual information of the calcium signaling dynamics obtained from fibroblast cells perturbed with different concentrations of ATP. Specifically, we analyze the sampling strategies under the cases of fixed and non-fixed vector dimension as well as the efficiency of these strategies. Our results show that sampling with greater frequency is optimal in the case of non-fixed vector dimension but that, in general, a lower sampling frequency is best from both a fixed vector dimension and efficiency standpoint. Further, we find the use of a simple modified Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process as a model qualitatively captures many of our experimental results suggesting that sampling in biochemical networks is based on a few basic components.

  16. 76 FR 72650 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR) RB211 Trent 800 Series Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    ... Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). Discussion The European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA... Order 12866; 2. Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc...

  17. 75 FR 49368 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR) RB211-Trent 900 Series Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78...'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have...-13-AD; Amendment 39-16384; AD 2010-16-07] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc...

  18. 75 FR 34172 - Rexam Closure Systems, Inc., a Subsidiary of Rexam PLC, Including On-Site Leased Workers From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages Are Paid Through Owens Illinois Manufacturing, Hamlet, NC; Amended... workers of Rexam Closure Systems, Inc., a subsidiary of Rexam PLC, Hamlet, North Carolina. The notice was... from Olston Staffing were employed on-site at the Hamlet, North Carolina location of Rexam...

  19. 75 FR 28655 - Rexam Closure Systems, Inc. a Subsidiary of Rexam PLC Including On-Site Leased Workers From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ...) Wages Are Paid Through Owens Illinois Manufacturing Hamlet, NC; Amended Certification Regarding... Closure Systems, Inc., a subsidiary of Rexam PLC, Hamlet, North Carolina. The notice was published in the..., Hamlet, North Carolina, who became totally or partially separated from employment on or after November...

  20. MHC class I signaling in T cells leads to tyrosine kinase activity and PLC-gamma 1 phosphorylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, S; Odum, Niels; Claesson, M H

    1995-01-01

    phosphorylation and the subsequent calcium response. The early tyrosine kinase activity was found to be dependent on expression of the TCR/CD3 complex and the CD45 molecule on the surface of the T cells. Furthermore, MHC-I cross-linking was shown to tyrosine phosphorylate PLC-gamma 1 (phospholipase C-gamma 1...

  1. Turning the Tide: Creating Professional Learning Communities (PLC) to Improve Teaching Practice and Learning in South African Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botha, E. M.

    2012-01-01

    Poor learner performance in South African schools raises concerns related to lack of commitment and accountability from school leaders and teachers with no common vision to promote a culture of high learner performance. This paper provides a literature overview of research available on the impact of professional learning communities (PLC) on…

  2. Research and Achievement of Soft PLC Control System%软PLC控制系统研究与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏两河

    2013-01-01

      With the development of computer technology and establishment of IEC6113-3 standard, the development of soft PLC technology is strongly developed. Compared with the traditional hard PLC, soft PLC provides the advantage of powerful ability of data process, net communication and open system structure, which can meet the demands of the flexibility and open design of control system in the industry automation field. With the main design of soft PLC, the system structure and the implementation program and achievement of the software are analyzed.%  随着近年来计算机技术的发展以及IEC6113-3标准的制定,软PLC的技术得到了长足发展。较之传统的硬PLC而言,软PLC控制系统具有强大的数据处理能力、网络通信能力、开放的体系结构等优势,可满足当下工业自动化领域中控制系统柔性及开放性的要求。本文从软PLC的总体设计入手,论述了系统结构与软件实施方案及软件的实现。

  3. 信号是PLC编程的关键%The Signal Is the Key of PLC Programming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯启荣

    2015-01-01

    通过介绍了如何找到控制信号对PLC进行编程.编制符合控制要求的PLC程序,是我们学习PLC的难点.在PLC编程过程中,只要找到控制对象的控制信号,搞清楚这个控制信号什么时候产生,什么时候消失,会用这个信号去控制控制对象即可.当由多个信号控制同一控制对象时,只要将多个控制信号并联就可以.因此,只要将控制信号找到,程序基本上就已经编制完成.%Through the introduction of how to find control signal program the PLC. The PLC program that meets the control requirements is the difficulty when we learn PLC. During PLC programming, we only need find the control signal of the control object, and make clear the time when the control signal produced and when it will disappear. And we are able to control the object with the signal. When the same control is controlled by many signals, we only need to make control signals in parallel. Therefore, as long as the control signal is found, the program will have been completed basically.

  4. Cells transformed by PLC-gamma 1 overexpression are highly sensitive to clostridium difficile toxin A-induced apoptosis and mitotic inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Hyo Jung; Kang, Jin Ku; Chang, Jong Soo; Lee, Min Soo; Nam, Seung Taek; Jung, Hyun Woo; Kim, Sung-Kuk; Ha, Eun-Mi; Seok, Heon; Son, Seung Woo; Park, Young Joo; Kim, Ho

    2012-01-01

    Phospholipase C-γl (PLC-γl) expression is associated with cellular transformation. Notably, PLC-gamma is up-regulated in colorectal cancer tissue and breast carcinoma. Because exotoxins released by Clostridium botulinum have been shown to induce apoptosis and promote growth arrest in various cancer cell lines, we examined here the potential of Clostridium difficile toxin A to selectively induce apoptosis in cells transformed by PLC-γl overexpression. We found that PLC-γl-transformed cells, but not vectortransformed (control) cells, were highly sensitive to C. difficile toxin A-induced apoptosis and mitotic inhibition. Moreover, expression of the proapoptotic Bcl2 family member, Bim, and activation of caspase-3 were significantly up-regulated by toxin A in PLC-γl-transformed cells. Toxin A-induced cell rounding and paxillin dephosphorylation were also significantly higher in PLC-γl-transformed cells than in control cells. These findings suggest that C. difficile toxin A may have potential as an anticancer agent against colorectal cancers and breast carcinomas in which PLC-γl is highly up-regulated.

  5. The application of SIEMENS PLC in grinding line%西门子PLC在打磨线上的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王卓为

    2013-01-01

    Siemens PLC, being as mainstream automatic control system, at present is widely applied in in-dustrial field. The article introduces a situation in which one communication module will be equipped in Siemens S7-300 PLC master station, connected to other external machines, to form one local network in in-dustrial field, by PLC-S7 software such functions can be realized as modifying data in control system, moni-toring machine in real time, checking failures. The article puts emphasis on introduction for analysis over is-sues like collision of robot during operation process, reciprocal interlocking of signals, acknowledge between machines, and also introduction for how to use PLC-S7 software optimize program to eliminate the failure fi-nally, so that the maintenance cost and breakdown rate can be reduced, and productive rate can be in-creased. All of those shows that the Siemens PLC has characters such as convenience, stability, easy mainte-nance and so on in industrial application.%  西门子PLC作为一款主流的自动化控制系统,目前被广泛的应用在工业领域。介绍工厂设备从西门子S7-300PLC主站配一个通信模块,与外部其他设备的通信,构成一个工业现场局部网络。通过西门子PLC- S7软件实现对控制设备的数据随时修改、实时监视和故障查询的功能。着重介绍设备在使用过程中出现的机器人碰撞问题,在对设备之间的信号互相联锁和应答等方面进行分析,并运用西门子PLC- S7软件进行程序的修改优化,最终排除了此类故障,降低了维修成本和故障停机率,提高了生产效率。说明了西门子PLC在工业领域的应用具有便捷性、稳定性和易维护等特点。

  6. Determinants of GPI-PLC localisation to the flagellum and access to GPI-anchored substrates in trypanosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunter, Jack; Webb, Helena; Carrington, Mark

    2013-01-01

    In Trypanosoma brucei, glycosylphosphatidylinositol phospholipase C (GPI-PLC) is a virulence factor that releases variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) from dying cells. In live cells, GPI-PLC is localised to the plasma membrane where it is concentrated on the flagellar membrane, so activity or access must be tightly regulated as very little VSG is shed. Little is known about regulation except that acylation within a short internal motif containing three cysteines is necessary for GPI-PLC to access VSG in dying cells. Here, GPI-PLC mutants have been analysed both for subcellular localisation and for the ability to release VSG from dying cells. Two sequence determinants necessary for concentration on the flagellar membrane were identified. First, all three cysteines are required for full concentration on the flagellar membrane. Mutants with two cysteines localise predominantly to the plasma membrane but lose some of their flagellar concentration, while mutants with one cysteine are mainly localised to membranes between the nucleus and flagellar pocket. Second, a proline residue close to the C-terminus, and distant from the acylated cysteines, is necessary for concentration on the flagellar membrane. The localisation of GPI-PLC to the plasma but not flagellar membrane is necessary for access to the VSG in dying cells. Cellular structures necessary for concentration on the flagellar membrane were identified by depletion of components. Disruption of the flagellar pocket collar caused loss of concentration whereas detachment of the flagellum from the cell body after disruption of the flagellar attachment zone did not. Thus, targeting to the flagellar membrane requires: a titratable level of acylation, a motif including a proline, and a functional flagellar pocket. These results provide an insight into how the segregation of flagellar membrane proteins from those present in the flagellar pocket and cell body membranes is achieved.

  7. Intracellular calcium level is an important factor influencing ion channel modulations by PLC-coupled metabotropic receptors in hippocampal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Yuto; Echigo, Ryousuke; Kashima, Kousuke; Minami, Hanae; Watanabe, Megumi; Nishikawa, Yuiko; Muranishi, Miho; Yoneda, Mitsugu; Ohno-Shosaku, Takako

    2013-05-28

    Signaling pathways involving phospholipase C (PLC) are involved in various neural functions. Understanding how these pathways are regulated will lead to a better understanding of their roles in neural functions. Previous studies demonstrated that receptor-driven PLCβ activation depends on intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i), suggesting the possibility that PLCβ-dependent cellular responses are basically Ca(2+) dependent. To test this possibility, we examined whether modulations of ion channels driven by PLC-coupled metabotropic receptors are sensitive to [Ca(2+)]i using cultured hippocampal neurons. Muscarinic activation triggered an inward current at -100 mV (the equilibrium potential for K(+)) in a subpopulation of neurons. This current response was suppressed by pirenzepine (an M1-preferring antagonist), PLC inhibitor, non-selective cation channel blocker, and lowering [Ca(2+)]i. Using the neurons showing no response at -100 mV, effects of muscarinic activation on K(+) channels were examined at -40 mV. Muscarinic activation induced a transient decrease of the holding outward current. This current response was mimicked and occluded by XE991, an M-current K(+) channel blocker, suppressed by pirenzepine, PLC inhibitor and lowering [Ca(2+)]i, and enhanced by elevating [Ca(2+)]i. Similar results were obtained when group I metabotropic glutamate receptors were activated instead of muscarinic receptors. These results clearly show that ion channel modulations driven by PLC-coupled metabotropic receptors are dependent on [Ca(2+)]i, supporting the hypothesis that cellular responses induced by receptor-driven PLCβ activation are basically Ca(2+) dependent.

  8. Pathway-selective suppression of chemokine receptor signaling in B cells by LPS through downregulation of PLC-β2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirakawa, Aiko-Konno; Liao, Fang; Zhang, Hongwei H; Hedrick, Michael N; Singh, Satya P; Wu, Dianqing; Farber, Joshua M

    2010-11-01

    Lymphocyte activation leads to changes in chemokine receptor expression. There are limited data, however, on how lymphocyte activators can alter chemokine signaling by affecting downstream pathways. We hypothesized that B cell-activating agents might alter chemokine responses by affecting downstream signal transducers, and that such effects might differ depending on the activator. We found that activating mouse B cells using either anti-IgM or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) increased the surface expression of CCR6 and CCR7 with large increases in chemotaxis to their cognate ligands. By contrast, while anti-IgM also led to enhanced calcium responses, LPS-treated cells showed only small changes in calcium signaling as compared with cells that were freshly isolated. Of particular interest, we found that LPS caused a reduction in the level of B-cell phospholipase C (PLC)-β2 mRNA and protein. Data obtained using PLC-β2(-/-) mice showed that the β2 isoform mediates close to one-half the chemokine-induced calcium signal in resting and anti-IgM-activated B cells, and we found that calcium signals in the LPS-treated cells were boosted by increasing the level of PLC-β2 using transfection, consistent with a functional effect of downregulating PLC-β2. Together, our results show activator-specific effects on responses through B-cell chemokine receptors that are mediated by quantitative changes in a downstream signal-transducing protein, revealing an activity for LPS as a downregulator of PLC-β2, and a novel mechanism for controlling chemokine-induced signals in lymphocytes.

  9. Dystrophin/α1-syntrophin scaffold regulated PLC/PKC-dependent store-operated calcium entry in myotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabourin, Jessica; Harisseh, Rania; Harnois, Thomas; Magaud, Christophe; Bourmeyster, Nicolas; Déliot, Nadine; Constantin, Bruno

    2012-12-01

    In skeletal muscles from patient suffering of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy and from mdx mice, the absence of the cytoskeleton protein dystrophin has been shown to be essential for maintaining a normal calcium influx. We showed that a TRPC store-dependent cation influx is increased by loss of dystrophin or a scaffolding protein α1-syntrophin, however the mechanisms of this calcium mishandling are incompletely understood. First of all, we confirmed that TRPC1 but also STIM1 and Orai1 are supporting the store-operated cation entry which is enhanced in dystrophin-deficient myotubes. Next, we demonstrated that inhibition of PLC or PKC in dystrophin-deficient myotubes restores elevated cation entry to normal levels similarly to enforced minidystrophin expression. In addition, silencing α1-syntrophin also increased cation influx in a PLC/PKC dependent pathway. We also showed that α1-syntrophin and PLCβ are part of a same protein complex reinforcing the idea of their inter-relation in calcium influx regulation. This elevated cation entry was decreased to normal levels by chelating intracellular free calcium with BAPTA-AM. Double treatments with BAPTA-AM and PLC or PKC inhibitors suggested that the elevation of cation influx by PLC/PKC pathway is dependent on cytosolic calcium. All these results demonstrate an involvement in dystrophin-deficient myotubes of a specific calcium/PKC/PLC pathway in elevation of store-operated cation influx supported by the STIM1/Orai1/TRPC1 proteins, which is normally regulated by the α1-syntrophin/dystrophin scaffold.

  10. PRIME和G3-PLC路由机制对比%Comparison of G3-PLC and PRIME Routing Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁红; 姚青; 赵小进; 罗彬; 王夏娇

    2014-01-01

    The present work analyzes and compares two popular standards' routing mechanisms for data transmission based on OFDM narrowband PLC communications: PRIME and G3-PLC. PRIME protocol uses a routing mechanism for tree-based centralized and distributed networks combined, G3-PLC protocol uses Load network routing protocol based on Mesh network topology. The comparison shows that, for the dynamic and time-varying characteristics of the power of communication, based on Load Mesh routing protocol used in the network topology better reflect the robustness. So, G3-PLC routing mechanism has an advantage in our national network environmental.%本文针对目前两种基于OFDM的窄带PLC通信协议PRIME和G3-PLC中的路由机制进行了对比。PRIME协议中采用基于树状网的集中式与分布式结合的路由机制,G3-PLC协议中采用基于Mesh网络拓扑结构的Load路由协议进行网络路由。经分析对比可知,具有自组织、自愈、多跳式等特定的mesh网络拓扑结构下,采用基于Load的路由协议,对于电力通信的动态和时变特性更能体现鲁棒性。因此,G3-PLC路由机制在我国国网环境下更具有优势。

  11. Automatic test of PLC program based on OPC%基于OPC的PLC程序自动化测试

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王达; 赵千川; 马喜春

    2011-01-01

    可编程逻辑控制器(PLC)是一种应用非常广泛的工业控制装置.随着PLC程序的规模和复杂性不断增加,研究PLC程序的自动化测试方法具有重要的意义.将高级语言程序自动化测试的思想引入PLC程序测试中,提出了一种基于OPC的PLC程序自动化测试框架.针对病房监护程序,搭建了一个自动化测试系统,验证了所提测试框架的可行性.最后,结合案例分析了PLC程序自动化测试的优势与可能遇到的困难.%The programmable logic controller (PLC) is a kind of electrical device widely used in the industrial field. With the increasing size and complexity of PLC program, the study of its testing becomes very significant. A framework for the automatic test of PLC program based on OPC is proposed by introducing the idea of automatic test for programs written in advanced programming languages. In order to validate the feasibility of the proposed framework, an automatic test system is set up for a program used for ward care. Finally, based on the experimental study, the advantage of the automatic test for PLC program is analyzed, and the difficulties are discussed.

  12. 浅谈PLC机械加工数控机床改造技术%On the transformation technology of PLC machine tool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洋

    2015-01-01

    The powerful function of numerical control machine tool can not be separated from the use of PLC technology,text through the PLC technology to explain the simple introduction of the PLC machine tool transformation technology, to achieve the maximization of corporate profits.%数控机床的强大功能离不开PLC技术的采用,文本通过对PLC技术的简单介绍来阐述PLC机械加工数控机床改造技术,实现企业利润的最大化.

  13. Factory Equipment Maintenance and Debugging PLC Programming Ideas to Build%工厂PLC设备维修与调试编程思路构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张自强

    2014-01-01

    In-depth analysis of PLC programmable controller with the function and role, explore maintenance and debugging PLC programming ideas factory equipment, to provide some references for the exclusion of the plant PLC equipment failure.%深入分析PLC可编程控制器具备的功能和作用,探究工厂中PLC设备的维修和调试编程思路,为工厂PLC设备故障的排除提供一些参考。

  14. Hall effect encoding of brushless dc motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berard, C. A.; Furia, T. J.; Goldberg, E. A.; Greene, R. C.

    1970-01-01

    Encoding mechanism integral to the motor and using the permanent magnets embedded in the rotor eliminates the need for external devices to encode information relating the position and velocity of the rotating member.

  15. Automatic convey or System with In–Process Sorting Mechanism using PLC and HMI System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y V Aruna

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Programmable logic controllers are widely used in many manufacturing process like machinery packaging material handling automatic assembly. These are special type of microprocessor based controller used for any application that needs any kind of electrical controller including lighting controller and HVAC control system. Automatic conveyor system is a computerized control method of controlling and managing the sorting mechanism at the same time maintaining the efficiency of the industry & quality of the products.HMI for automatic conveyor system is considered the primary way of controlling each operation. Text displays are available as well as graphical touch screens. It is used in touch panels and local monitoring of machines. This paper deals with the efficient use of PLC in automatic conveyor system and also building the accuracy in it.

  16. Advanced design technique of human-machine interfaces for PLC control of complex systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Árpád-István Sütő

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Touchscreen operator panels proved to be a convenient succesor for clasical operator panels for implementing human-machine interfaces (HMIs in programmable logic controllers (PLC systems. The paper introduces a new technique for HMIs design in such systems, based on the idea of touchscreens replication. This redundancy allow actions which are not possible within the menus and sub-menus of a single touchscreen. Its strenght is revealed especially in complex systems, where operators can easily be overwhelmed by the huge amount of process information. The technique was applied on a mill tube rolling installation. The results also proved an increase of system security and zero downtime for HMI maintenance activities.

  17. The PLC-based Industrial Temperature Control System: Design and Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Fanjie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Targeting at the problem of slow response and low accuracy of the automatic temperature control system for material processing and boiler heating, a new design method is proposed to work with the PLC-based temperature control system, where the box temperature control may be achieved through the fan and the heating plate. The hardware design and software design of the system are analyzed in detail. In this paper, a combination of the traditional PID control and the more popular fuzzy control is taken as the control program to achieve the overall design of the control algorithm. Followed by the simulation in the MATLAB software, the designed system is highlighted by its the characteristics of impressive stability, precision and robustness.

  18. Design of GLP lab environment parameters monitor system based on Schneider PLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Xiaoqin; Xu, Huihui; Duan, Zhengang; Zhang, Yong

    2008-10-01

    According to the technological process and the requirement for system control of the GLP Laboratory, an automatic system is designed to monitor and control over the environment parameters of the GLP laboratory. The system is composed of a programmable controller and touching screen as the processing unit. The Schneider PLC TSX P57303 controller with its counterpart input/output modules is adopted as the hardware platform and the Schneider PL7-MICRO/WIN as the software platform. This paper presents the main flow process design of the control system. The test results show that the control system can run automatically and switch mutually under different modes, and the functions such as monitor and control over the environment parameters of the GLP laboratory are realized.

  19. Design of Control System for Flexible Packaging Bags Palletizing Production Line Based on PLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Huiping; Chen, Lin; Zhao, Xiaoming; Liu, Zhanyang

    Flexible packaging bags palletizing production line is to put the bags in the required area according to particular order and size, in order to finish handling, storage, loading and unloading, transportation and other logistics work of goods. Flexible packaging bags palletizing line is composed of turning bags mechanism, shaping mechanism, indexing mechanism, marshalling mechanism, pushing bags mechanism, pressing bags mechanism, laminating mechanism, elevator, tray warehouse, tray conveyor and loaded tray conveyor. Whether the whole production line can smoothly run depends on each of the above equipment and precision control among them. In this paper the technological process and the control logic of flexible packaging bags palletizing production line is introduced. Palletizing process of the production line realized automation by means of a control system based on programmable logic controller (PLC). It has the advantages of simple structure, reliable and easy maintenance etc.

  20. A compact 1×64 optical power splitter using silica-based PLC on quartz substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liangliang; An, Junming; Wu, Yuanda; Wang, Yue; Zhang, Jiashun; Li, Jianguang; Wang, Hongjie; Zhang, Xiaoguang; Pan, Pan; Dai, Hongqing; Qi, Ying; Zhong, Fei; Zha, Qiang; Hu, Xiongwei; Zhao, Degang

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, a compact and low wavelength-dependence loss (WDL) 1×64 optical power splitter is fabricated using silica-based PLC technology on quartz substrate. The cascaded Y-branch structures are optimized in detail, and a compact 1×64 optical power splitter layout is obtained. The measured results show that the insertion loss (IL), the uniformity and WDL of the best results of all splitters are less than 19.2 dB, 1.0 dB and 0.5 dB, respectively, in the wavelength range from 1.26 μm to 1.65 μm, and the total product ratio of Standard grade in a whole 6 in. wafer is more than 80%. The results imply that our technology completely satisfies the need of mass manufacture.

  1. A Component-Based Modeling and Validation Method for PLC Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Programmable logic controllers (PLCs are complex embedded systems that are widely used in industry. This paper presents a component-based modeling and validation method for PLC systems using the behavior-interaction-priority (BIP framework. We designed a general system architecture and a component library for a type of device control system. The control software and hardware of the environment were all modeled as BIP components. System requirements were formalized as monitors. Simulation was carried out to validate the system model. A realistic example from industry of the gates control system was employed to illustrate our strategies. We found a couple of design errors during the simulation, which helped us to improve the dependability of the original systems. The results of experiment demonstrated the effectiveness of our approach.

  2. Extending the Use of PLC Simulator Software in Student Laboratory Works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HABA, C.-G.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a system that can extend the use of PLC simulator software in real world experiments. The system is composed of a software and a hardware part. The software is designed to monitor the simulator user interface, to provide user-like inputs to this interface and to exchange data with the hardware part. The hardware is used to interface the simulator running on a PC with external input and output devices. Input signals are converted into inputs for the simulated design; outputs from the simulated design are converted into output signals that control output devices connected to the hardware part. The system can work with various types of simulators and can be used in university labs to design and test digital control systems with low to moderate complexity.

  3. Regulation of Gβγi-dependent PLC-β3 activity in smooth muscle: inhibitory phosphorylation of PLC-β3 by PKA and PKG and stimulatory phosphorylation of Gαi-GTPase-activating protein RGS2 by PKG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalli, Ancy D; Kumar, Divya P; Al-Shboul, Othman; Mahavadi, Sunila; Kuemmerle, John F; Grider, John R; Murthy, Karnam S

    2014-11-01

    In gastrointestinal smooth muscle, agonists that bind to Gi-coupled receptors activate preferentially PLC-β3 via Gβγ to stimulate phosphoinositide (PI) hydrolysis and generate inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) leading to IP3-dependent Ca(2+) release and muscle contraction. In the present study, we identified the mechanism of inhibition of PLC-β3-dependent PI hydrolysis by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG). Cyclopentyl adenosine (CPA), an adenosine A1 receptor agonist, caused an increase in PI hydrolysis in a concentration-dependent fashion; stimulation was blocked by expression of the carboxyl-terminal sequence of GRK2(495-689), a Gβγ-scavenging peptide, or Gαi minigene but not Gαq minigene. Isoproterenol and S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) induced phosphorylation of PLC-β3 and inhibited CPA-induced PI hydrolysis, Ca(2+) release, and muscle contraction. The effect of isoproterenol on all three responses was inhibited by PKA inhibitor, myristoylated PKI, or AKAP inhibitor, Ht-31, whereas the effect of GSNO was selectively inhibited by PKG inhibitor, Rp-cGMPS. GSNO, but not isoproterenol, also phosphorylated Gαi-GTPase-activating protein, RGS2, and enhanced association of Gαi3-GTP and RGS2. The effect of GSNO on PI hydrolysis was partly reversed in cells (i) expressing constitutively active GTPase-resistant Gαi mutant (Q204L), (ii) phosphorylation-site-deficient RGS2 mutant (S46A/S64A), or (iii) siRNA for RGS2. We conclude that PKA and PKG inhibit Gβγi-dependent PLC-β3 activity by direct phosphorylation of PLC-β3. PKG, but not PKA, also inhibits PI hydrolysis indirectly by a mechanism involving phosphorylation of RGS2 and its association with Gαi-GTP. This allows RGS2 to accelerate Gαi-GTPase activity, enhance Gαβγi trimer formation, and inhibit Gβγi-dependent PLC-β3 activity.

  4. 基于Modbus协议的PLC远程控制%PLC remote control based on Modbus protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鸿儒

    2015-01-01

    In the industrial control, programmable logic controller(PLC)as an industrial control device has been widely used.With a high real-time, high reliability of PLC communication technology, has become a key automatic control system with excellent performance.Modbus protocol is a common language used in the electronic controller.Through this agreement,can realize the controller and other equipment(PC)remote communication between.This design is based on PLC's existing laboratory as the object,to achieve remote control of computer of Modbus protocol based on PLC.To realize the remote control host computer on the PLC,the communication media the most ideal is commonly used network,namely the unshielded twisted pair (UTP).It is necessary to establish on the Ethernet, Modbus communication protocol is TCP/IP protocol. The design of the main completed completed the hardware connection and the ladder diagram program,realized the control of the output coil,in the establishment of the PLC and computer network communication,to complete the configuration and the PC and PLC of PLC communication module based on Ethernet connection,debugging software to communicate with Modbus TCP test,test the results show that the host computer and delta PLC two from the station can establish stable Modbus communication.%在工业控制中,可编程控制器(PLC)作为工业控制装置已得到广泛的应用。采用高度实时性、高可靠性的PLC通信技术,就成为构成性能优异的自动控制系统的关键所在。Modbus协议是应用于电子控制器的一种通用语言。通过此协议,可实现控制器与其他设备(上位机)之间的远程通信。本设计就是以实验室现有的PLC为对象,实现基于Modbus协议的上位机对PLC的远程控制。实现上位机对PLC的远程控制,最理想的通信媒介就是通常所用的网线,即非屏蔽双绞线(UTP)。这就需要建立在以太网之上,即TCP/IP协议之上的Modbus通信协议

  5. Low level of LAT-PLC-γ1 interaction is associated with Th2 polarized differentiation: a contributing factor to the etiology of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiaohua; Cui, Zhilei; Gu, Wen; Xu, Weiguo; Guo, Xuejun

    2014-07-01

    Linker for activation of T cells (LAT) is a key adaptor in the T cell receptor (TCR) signaling pathway. The expression of LAT is lower in asthmatic patients than that in healthy people, but there is little knowledge about the mechanism underlying this phenomenon. This study was aimed to determine whether LAT-PLC-γ1 interaction was involved in the development of asthma. It was shown that the phosphorylation of PLC-γ1 decreased in the asthmatic mouse model and Th2 cell differentiated CD4(+) T cells. In addition, depleted endogenous PLC-γ1 promoted CD4(+) T cells to differentiate into IL-4-Productor. It was therefore concluded that the low level of LAT-PLC-γ1 interaction was associated with Th2 polarized differentiation, and this may contribute to the etiology of asthma.

  6. Implement Innovation Education Teaching Strategies in PLC Course%PLC课程教学中实施创新教育的策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑剑锋

    2011-01-01

    With the rapid development of industrial automation,PLC has also been widely recognized in many fields.By analyzing the tradinonal PLC teaching process,this thesis describes the importance of education for innovaion in PLC course.Finally the new ideas for applicating in PLC course are put forward.%随着自动化工业的迅速发展,PLC在各个领域得到广泛的应用。从分析传统PLC课程教学中存在的问题入手,阐述了PLC课程中进行创新教育的重要性,提出了PLC教学中实施创新教育的思路。

  7. Design of Temperature Control System for Heat Treatment Furnace Based on PLC%基于PLC的热处理温度控制系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛玉明

    2013-01-01

    From the perspective of PLC control,the technology for temperature control of heat treatment furnace was analyzed,and according to the I/O,choosing the PLC,using a special module to complete the analog input,the basic process of program design was given,and the design of temperature control system based on PLC was complete.%从PLC控制的角度出发,分析热处理炉温度控制系统的相关技术,根据输入输出点的配置选择合适的PLC,选用特殊模块完成模拟量输入,给出程序设计的基本流程,完成了温度控制的PLC控制系统设计.

  8. Omron c200h-plc program design and application%欧姆龙C200 H型PLC编程设计精讲实例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高永斌

    2014-01-01

    The article introduces the feature of the Omron C200H-PLC,analyses some typical circuits,gives the I/O allocation table,draws the wiring diagram,designs the ladder diagrams that meet the control requirement, summarizes three kinds of PLC programmed design methods.%介绍了欧姆龙(OMRON)C200H_PLC 的性能特点,通过几个典型电路的分析,列出 I/O 分配表、画出接线图,设计出符合控制要求的梯形图,总结出3种 PLC 程序的设计方法。

  9. PLC编程技术应用与解析%AppIication and AnaIysis of PLC Programming TechnoIogy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李言武

    2014-01-01

    Based on the anaIysis of PLC programming technoIogy appIication,this paper introduces the method of the writing of the PLC controI program and anaIyzes the basic idea of PLC programming technoIogy with SingIe button PLC controI case, in order to heIp improve the abiIity of programming beginners.%在分析PLC技术应用的基础上,用单按钮PLC控制案例介绍了PLC控制程序的编写方法,剖析了PLC编程技术的基本思路,以助于提高初学者的程序设计能力。

  10. PLC 控制的专用自动攻丝系统设计%Design of Special Automatic Tapping System Based on PLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨侠; 李书鹏; 肖昂; 郭钊

    2016-01-01

    针对某企业专用零件攻丝生产效率低、加工精度差等问题,设计了专用自动攻丝系统。该系统主要以西门子200系列PLC为主控制器,松下A5系列伺服电机为执行机构,配套伺服驱动器为硬件平台。使用STEP7-Micro/WIN软件编写指令产生高速脉冲串实现伺服驱动器的位置控制,最终实现了丝锥对零件的精确定位加工。系统操作简单、运行安全稳定,提高了生产效率,降低了加工成本。%A special automatic tapping system is designed to improve production efficiency and machining precision of the special tapping parts by cooperating with the enterprise .The system is mainly comprised of Siemens 200 series PLC that is the main controller , Panasonic A5 series servo motor as the actuator ,matching servo drive as hardware platform .By using STEP7-Micro/WIN software to w rite instructions to generate high-speed pulse sequence ,the position control of AC servo driver is achieved ,it has finally achieved the precise positioning fabrication of the parts .The system operation is simple ,safe and stable ,which improves the production efficiency and reduces the manufacturing cost .It will has a good application foreground in the aspect of special components bath tapping ,and the control method has certain reference value for similar automation production equipment .

  11. PLC-γ directly binds activated c-Src, which is necessary for carbachol-mediated inhibition of NHE3 activity in Caco-2/BBe cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachos, Nicholas C; Lee, Luke J; Kovbasnjuk, Olga; Li, Xuhang; Donowitz, Mark

    2013-08-01

    Elevated levels of intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) inhibit Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 3 (NHE3) activity in the intact intestine. We previously demonstrated that PLC-γ directly binds NHE3, an interaction that is necessary for [Ca(2+)]i inhibition of NHE3 activity, and that PLC-γ Src homology 2 (SH2) domains may scaffold Ca(2+) signaling proteins necessary for regulation of NHE3 activity. [Ca(2+)]i regulation of NHE3 activity is also c-Src dependent; however, the mechanism by which c-Src is involved is undetermined. We hypothesized that the SH2 domains of PLC-γ might link c-Src to NHE3-containing complexes to mediate [Ca(2+)]i inhibition of NHE3 activity. In Caco-2/BBe cells, carbachol (CCh) decreased NHE3 activity by ∼40%, an effect abolished with the c-Src inhibitor PP2. CCh treatment increased the amount of active c-Src as early as 1 min through increased Y(416) phosphorylation. Coimmunoprecipitation demonstrated that c-Src associated with PLC-γ, but not NHE3, under basal conditions, an interaction that increased rapidly after CCh treatment and occurred before the dissociation of PLC-γ and NHE3 that occurred 10 min after CCh treatment. Finally, direct binding to c-Src only occurred through the PLC-γ SH2 domains, an interaction that was prevented by blocking the PLC-γ SH2 domain. This study demonstrated that c-Src 1) activity is necessary for [Ca(2+)]i inhibition of NHE3 activity, 2) activation occurs rapidly (∼1 min) after CCh treatment, 3) directly binds PLC-γ SH2 domains and associates dynamically with PLC-γ under elevated [Ca(2+)]i conditions, and 4) does not directly bind NHE3. Under elevated [Ca(2+)]i conditions, PLC-γ scaffolds c-Src into NHE3-containing multiprotein complexes before dissociation of PLC-γ from NHE3 and subsequent endocytosis of NHE3.

  12. Molecular mechanisms for protein-encoded inheritance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiltzius, Jed J.W.; Landau, Meytal; Nelson, Rebecca; Sawaya, Michael R.; Apostol, Marcin I.; Goldschmidt, Lukasz; Soriaga, Angela B.; Cascio, Duilio; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta; Eisenberg, David; (Cornell); (HHMI)

    2009-12-01

    In prion inheritance and transmission, strains are phenotypic variants encoded by protein 'conformations'. However, it is unclear how a protein conformation can be stable enough to endure transmission between cells or organisms. Here we describe new polymorphic crystal structures of segments of prion and other amyloid proteins, which offer two structural mechanisms for the encoding of prion strains. In packing polymorphism, prion strains are encoded by alternative packing arrangements (polymorphs) of {beta}-sheets formed by the same segment of a protein; in segmental polymorphism, prion strains are encoded by distinct {beta}-sheets built from different segments of a protein. Both forms of polymorphism can produce enduring conformations capable of encoding strains. These molecular mechanisms for transfer of protein-encoded information into prion strains share features with the familiar mechanism for transfer of nucleic acid-encoded information into microbial strains, including sequence specificity and recognition by noncovalent bonds.

  13. Molecular mechanisms for protein-encoded inheritance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltzius, Jed J W; Landau, Meytal; Nelson, Rebecca; Sawaya, Michael R; Apostol, Marcin I; Goldschmidt, Lukasz; Soriaga, Angela B; Cascio, Duilio; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta; Eisenberg, David

    2009-09-01

    In prion inheritance and transmission, strains are phenotypic variants encoded by protein 'conformations'. However, it is unclear how a protein conformation can be stable enough to endure transmission between cells or organisms. Here we describe new polymorphic crystal structures of segments of prion and other amyloid proteins, which offer two structural mechanisms for the encoding of prion strains. In packing polymorphism, prion strains are encoded by alternative packing arrangements (polymorphs) of beta-sheets formed by the same segment of a protein; in segmental polymorphism, prion strains are encoded by distinct beta-sheets built from different segments of a protein. Both forms of polymorphism can produce enduring conformations capable of encoding strains. These molecular mechanisms for transfer of protein-encoded information into prion strains share features with the familiar mechanism for transfer of nucleic acid-encoded information into microbial strains, including sequence specificity and recognition by noncovalent bonds.

  14. A New Method of PLC Programing and Its Popularized Application%PLC程序设计的新方法与推广应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘亚宇; 杨文松

    2001-01-01

    提出可编程序控制器PLC程序设计的一种新方法——模拟状态图法,该方法能简化设计,提高设计速度和质量。%This paper introduces a new method of PLC programing- simulating state pattern, which can be applied to any type of PLC. This method can simplify design, improve quality and speed of design.

  15. 基于DSP/BIOS的PLC执行系统开发%Development of PLC execution system based-on DSP/BIOS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建伟; 赖乙宗; 李松; 王世勇

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the shortcoming of the Soft-PLC is analyzed, and the development of Soft-PLC execution system based on DSP/BIOS real-time system kernel running in embedded processor is put forward. Through the analysis of the architecture and operational principles of the Soft-PLC, the task scheduling program based on DSP/BIOS is given. Then, the PLC instruction execution library is established and running processes of Soft-PLC execution system is determined. Finally, the performance of the Soft-PLC execution system tests shows that Soft-PLC execution system based on embedded processor can effectively compensate for the shortcoming of soft PLC in real-time and stability, and has considerable development potential in the area of automatic control.%分析了目前软PLC在实时性方面存在的不足;提出采用基于DSP/BIOS实时内核的嵌入式处理器的软PLC执行系统架构.首先,通过分析软PLC执行系统的架构及工作原理,给出了基于DSP/BIOS的任务调度方案;其次,建立PLC指令的执行函数库,确定PLC执行系统的运行流程;最后,对该PLC执行系统性能进行的测试表明,基于嵌入式处理器的软PLC执行系统能有效地弥补软PIC在实时性及稳定性方面的不足,在自动控制方面具有相当大的发展潜力.

  16. PLC联网在空调系统中的应用%The Application of PLC Networking in the Air Conditioning System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊万忠; 孙吉献; 武亚庆

    2001-01-01

    A net system based on the PLC of MELSEC is introduced.The hardware form,communication principle and software implementation of PLC networking are described in detail.%介绍了一种以三菱PLC为核心组成的网络系统,详细描述了PLC联网通信的硬件组成、通信原理及软件实现。

  17. DESIGNING COMPILATION SYSTEM OF PLC SOURCE PROGRAM BASED ON ARM-FPGA%基于 ARM-FPGA的 PLC源程序编译系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋玉新; 蔡启仲; 李克俭; 张炜

    2013-01-01

    在研究PLC程序编译执行过程和新指令特点的基础上,基于ARM-FPGA的PLC主机结构,提出一种新型PLC指令的编译方法。静态编译将指令的操作数转换为PLC软元件的直接地址,建立转移类指令的转移地址链表,编译成为新的PLC程序代码序列;动态编译在PLC程序执行过程中将新程序指令中操作数的直接地址转换为立即数,由FPGA模块执行。通过对PLC用户源程序的编译与执行,表明该方法能够充分应用FPGA高速并行处理的功能,提高了PLC程序执行的速度。%Based on the study of compilation and execution process of PLC program and the features of new instructions , we propose a novel compilation method of PLC program on a PLC platform designed by ARM-FPGA.The static compilation converts the instruction operands to direct address of PLC soft components , sets up the branch address link list of branch instructions , and the new PLC program code sequence is complied;the dynamic compilation converts the direct address of operands in new program instructions to immediate data during the execution process of PLC program and this is done by FPGA module .By compiling and executing PLC user source program , it is demonstrated that our proposed method can speed up the processing of PLC program by fully utilising the high speed parallel processing functions of FPGA.

  18. 基于MCGS的PLC仿真实训系统的设计与实现%The PLC Simulation Training System's Design and Implementation Based on MCGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘小春

    2012-01-01

    The paper introduces the method of PLC simulation system's design, includes the hardware's design. The process of MCGS simulation system's development's PLC Program's design.%介绍了使用MCGS开发PLC仿真实训系统的方法,主要包括硬件系统的构建、MCGS仿真系统开发流程、PLC程序设计.

  19. The Application of Delta PLC and Touch Screen to Fine Knitting Puncture Machine%台达 PLC 与触摸屏在细编穿刺机上的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢晓熙; 徐澄

    2013-01-01

    设计了以台达PLC和触摸屏为核心的细编机控制系统,介绍了控制系统的设计过程,论述了触摸屏界面的制作方法及PLC程序的设计方法,并给出典型的程序段。%It designs the fine knitting machine control system with delta PLC and touch screen , introduces the de-sign process of the control system , analyzes the production method of the touch screen interface and the design approach of the PLC program , and presents typical program segments .

  20. Application and Optimization of PLC in Precision Processing Control System Application and Optimization of PLC in Precision Processing Control System%PLC在精处理控制系统中的应用与优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王龙

    2015-01-01

    本文主要介绍了PLC在火电厂凝结水精处理系统中的具体应用。探讨了凝结水精处理PLC控制系统现在存在的弊端,利用程序和硬件优化解决这些弊端,使凝结水精处理系统更稳定,更安全,自动化程度更高。%This paper mainly introduces the specific application of PLC in the condensation water precision processing system in the thermal power plant, discusses the existing shortcomings of condensation water precision processing PLC control system, and uses the program and hardware optimization to solve these shortcomings to make the condensation water precision processing system more stable, safety and make the degree of automation more higher.