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Sample records for alpha-toxin encoding plc

  1. Sequence variation in the alpha-toxin encoding plc gene of Clostridium perfringens strains isolated from diseased and healthy chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard, L; Engberg, RM; Pedersen, Karl;

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyse the genetic diversity of the alpha-toxin encoding plc gene and the variation in a-toxin production of Clostridium perfringens type A strains isolated from presumably healthy chickens and chickens suffering from either necrotic enteritis (NE) or cholangio......-hepatitis. The a-toxin encoding plc genes from 60 different pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) types (strains) of C perfringens were sequenced and translated in silico to amino acid sequences and the a-toxin production was investigated in batch cultures of 45 of the strains using an enzyme...

  2. Phospholipase C Produced by Clostridium botulinum Types C and D:Comparison of Gene, Enzymatic, and Biological Activities with Those of Clostridium perfringens Alpha-toxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakurai,Jun

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium botulinum type C and D strains recently have been found to produce PLC on egg yolk agar plates. To characterize the gene, enzymatic and biological activities of C. botulinum PLCs (Cb-PLCs, the cb-plc genes from 8 strains were sequenced, and 1 representative gene was cloned and expressed as a recombinant protein. The enzymatic and hemolytic activities of the recombinant Cb-PLC were measured and compared with those of the Clostridium perfringens alpha-toxin. Each of the eight cb-plc genes encoded a 399 amino acid residue protein preceded by a 27 residue signal peptide. The protein consists of 2 domains, the N- and C-domains, and the overall amino acid sequence identity between Cb-PLC and alpha-toxin was greater than 50%, suggesting that Cb-PLC is homologous to the alpha-toxin. The key residues in the N-domain were conserved, whereas those in the C-domain which are important in membrane interaction were different than in the alpha-toxin. As expected, Cb-PLC could hydrolyze egg yolk phospholipid, p-nitrophenylphosphorylcholine, and sphingomyelin, and also exhibited hemolytic activity;however, its activities were about 4- to over 200-fold lower than those of alpha-toxin. Although Cb-PLC showed weak enzymatic and biological activities, it is speculated that Cb-PLC might play a role in the pathogenicity of botulism or for bacterial survival.

  3. Characterization of alpha-toxin hla gene variants, alpha-toxin expression levels, and levels of antibody to alpha-toxin in hemodialysis and postsurgical patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma-Kuinkel, Batu K; Wu, Yuling; Tabor, David E; Mok, Hoyin; Sellman, Bret R; Jenkins, Amy; Yu, Li; Jafri, Hasan S; Rude, Thomas H; Ruffin, Felicia; Schell, Wiley A; Park, Lawrence P; Yan, Qin; Thaden, Joshua T; Messina, Julia A; Fowler, Vance G; Esser, Mark T

    2015-01-01

    Alpha-toxin is a major Staphylococcus aureus virulence factor. This study evaluated potential relationships between in vitro alpha-toxin expression of S. aureus bloodstream isolates, anti-alpha-toxin antibody in serum of patients with S. aureus bacteremia (SAB), and clinical outcomes in 100 hemodialysis and 100 postsurgical SAB patients. Isolates underwent spa typing and hla sequencing. Serum anti-alpha-toxin IgG and neutralizing antibody levels were measured by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and a red blood cell (RBC)-based hemolysis neutralization assay. Neutralization of alpha-toxin by an anti-alpha-toxin monoclonal antibody (MAb MEDI4893) was tested in an RBC-based lysis assay. Most isolates encoded hla (197/200; 98.5%) and expressed alpha-toxin (173/200; 86.5%). In vitro alpha-toxin levels were inversely associated with survival (cure, 2.19 μg/ml, versus failure, 1.09 μg/ml; P toxin-expressing S. aureus isolates (P toxin is highly conserved in clinical S. aureus isolates. Higher in vitro alpha-toxin levels were associated with a positive clinical outcome. Although patients infected with alpha-toxin-producing S. aureus exhibited higher anti-alpha-toxin antibody levels, these levels were not associated with a better clinical outcome in this study.

  4. Analysis of expression of the alpha-toxin gene (hla) of Staphylococcus aureus by using a chromosomally encoded hla::lacZ gene fusion.

    OpenAIRE

    Ohlsen, K; Koller, K P; Hacker, J

    1997-01-01

    The staphylococcal alpha-toxin (Hla) is a major virulence factor contributing to Staphylococcus aureus pathogenesis. To elucidate the conditions influencing hla expression, the determinant was fused to lacZ, the reporter gene coding for beta-galactosidase. The hla::lacZ fusion was integrated into the chromosome of the wild-type S. aureus strain Wood 46, leading to the variant Wood 46-3. Alpha-toxin expression was found to be dependent on temperature, showing a maximum at 42 degrees C. Further...

  5. Cloning and expression of AtPLC6, a gene encoding a phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xiaojing; CAO Zhixiang; LIU Guoqin; Madan K. Bhattacharrya; REN Dongtao

    2004-01-01

    A full-length eDNA clone corresponding to a putative phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PIPLC) was isolated from Arabidopsis thaliana by screening a cDNA library and using RT-PCR strategy. The cDNA, designated AtPLC6, encodes a putative polypeptide of 578 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of 66251.84 D and a pI of 7.24. The sequence analysis indicates that the polypeptide contains X, Y, EF-hand and C2 domains. The overall structure of putative AtPLC6 protein, like other plant PI-PLCs, is most similar to that of mammalian PLC& The recombinant AtPLC6 protein expressed in E. coli was able to hydrolyze phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biophosphate (PIP2) to generate inositol 1,4,5-trisphate (IP3) and 1,2-diacylglycerol (DAG). The protein hydrolyzes PIP2 in a Ca2+-dependent manner and the optimum concentration of Ca2+ is 10 μmol/L.These results suggested that AtPLC6 gene encodes a genuine PI-PLC. Northern blot analysis showed that the AtPLC6 gene is expressed at low level in all examined tissues, such as roots,stems, leaves, flowers, siliques and seedlings under normal growth conditions. The gene is strongly induced under low temperature and weakly induced under various stresses,such as ABA, high-salt stress and heat. These results suggested that AtPLC6 might be involved in the signal-transduction pathways of cold responses of the plants.

  6. Characterization of polymorphisms and isoforms of the Clostridium perfringens phospholipase C gene (plc) reveals high genetic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Flávia F; Almeida, Marcelle O; Barroca, Tatiana M; Horta, Carolina C R; Carmo, Anderson O; Silva, Rodrigo O S; Pires, Prhiscylla S; Lobato, Francisco C F; Kalapothakis, Evanguedes

    2012-10-12

    Clostridium perfringens phospholipase C (Cp-PLC), also called alpha-toxin, is encoded by the plc gene and has been implicated in several diseases; however, only a few studies have described polymorphisms in this gene. The aim of this study was to analyze polymorphisms in the Cp-PLC nucleotide and amino acid sequences obtained from isolates from different regions and to compare them to Clostridium phospholipase C sequences deposited in the NCBI database. Environmental samples (sediment, poultry feed, sawdust) and stool samples (from poultry, bovine, swine, horse, caprine, bird, dog, rabbit, toucan) were collected from healthy and sick animals. A total of 73 isolates were analyzed with the majority of samples belonging to the toxin type A subtype and possessing the gene encoding for the beta-2 toxin. Comparison of plc gene sequences from respective isolates revealed a high genetic diversity in the nucleotide sequences of mature Cp-PLC. Sequence comparisons identified 30 amino acid substitutions and 34 isoforms including some isoforms with substitutions in amino acids critical to toxin function. Comparison of sequences obtained in this study to Cp-PLC sequences obtained from the NCBI database resulted in the identification of 11 common haplotypes and 22 new isoforms. Phylogenetic analysis of phospholipase C sequences obtained from other Clostridium species identified relationships previously described. This report describes a broad characterization of the genetic diversity in the C. perfringens plc gene resulting in the identification of various isoforms. A better understanding of sequences encoding phospholipase C isoforms may reveal changes associated with protein function and C. perfringens virulence.

  7. Staphylococcus aureus in vitro secretion of alpha toxin (hla) correlates with the affiliation to clonal complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monecke, Stefan; Müller, Elke; Büchler, Joseph; Stieber, Bettina; Ehricht, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    The alpha toxin of Staphylococcus aureus is a pore forming toxin that penetrates host cell membranes causing osmotic swelling, rupture, lysis and subsequently cell death. Haemolysin alpha is toxic to a wide range of different mammalian cells; i.e., neurotoxic, dermonecrotic, haemolytic, and it can cause lethality in a wide variety of animals. In this study, the in vitro alpha toxin production of 648 previously genotyped isolates of S. aureus was measured quantitatively using antibody microarrays. Isolates originated from medical and veterinary settings and were selected in order to represent diverse clonal complexes and defined clinical conditions. Generally, the production of alpha toxin in vitro is related to the clonal complex affiliation. For clonal complexes CC22, CC30, CC45, CC479, CC705 and others, invariably no alpha toxin production was noted under the given in vitro conditions, while others, such as CC1, CC5, CC8, CC15 or CC96 secreted variable or high levels of alpha toxin. There was no correlation between alpha toxin yield and clinical course of the disease, or between alpha toxin yield and host species.

  8. Staphylococcus aureus in vitro secretion of alpha toxin (hla correlates with the affiliation to clonal complexes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Monecke

    Full Text Available The alpha toxin of Staphylococcus aureus is a pore forming toxin that penetrates host cell membranes causing osmotic swelling, rupture, lysis and subsequently cell death. Haemolysin alpha is toxic to a wide range of different mammalian cells; i.e., neurotoxic, dermonecrotic, haemolytic, and it can cause lethality in a wide variety of animals. In this study, the in vitro alpha toxin production of 648 previously genotyped isolates of S. aureus was measured quantitatively using antibody microarrays. Isolates originated from medical and veterinary settings and were selected in order to represent diverse clonal complexes and defined clinical conditions. Generally, the production of alpha toxin in vitro is related to the clonal complex affiliation. For clonal complexes CC22, CC30, CC45, CC479, CC705 and others, invariably no alpha toxin production was noted under the given in vitro conditions, while others, such as CC1, CC5, CC8, CC15 or CC96 secreted variable or high levels of alpha toxin. There was no correlation between alpha toxin yield and clinical course of the disease, or between alpha toxin yield and host species.

  9. Veal calves produce less antibodies against C. perfringens alpha toxin compared to beef calves

    OpenAIRE

    Valgaeren, Bonnie R.; Bart Pardon; Evy Goossens; Stefanie Verherstraeten; Sophie Roelandt; Leen Timbermont; Nicky Van Der Vekens; Sabrina Stuyvaert; Linde Gille; Laura Van Driessche; Freddy Haesebrouck; Richard Ducatelle; Filip Van Immerseel; Piet Deprez

    2015-01-01

    Enterotoxaemia is a disease with a high associated mortality rate, affecting beef and veal calves worldwide, caused by C. perfringens alpha toxin and perfringolysin. A longitudinal study was conducted to determine the dynamics of antibodies against these toxins in 528 calves on 4 beef and 15 veal farms. The second study aimed to determine the effect of solid feed intake on the production of antibodies against alpha toxin and perfringolysin. The control group only received milk replacer, wher...

  10. Veal Calves Produce Less Antibodies against C. Perfringens Alpha Toxin Compared to Beef Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie R. Valgaeren

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Enterotoxaemia is a disease with a high associated mortality rate, affecting beef and veal calves worldwide, caused by C. perfringens alpha toxin and perfringolysin. A longitudinal study was conducted to determine the dynamics of antibodies against these toxins in 528 calves on 4 beef and 15 veal farms. The second study aimed to determine the effect of solid feed intake on the production of antibodies against alpha toxin and perfringolysin. The control group only received milk replacer, whereas in the test group solid feed was provided. Maternal antibodies for alpha toxin were present in 45% of the veal calves and 66% of the beef calves. In beef calves a fluent transition from maternal to active immunity was observed for alpha toxin, whereas almost no veal calves developed active immunity. Perfringolysin antibodies significantly declined both in veal and beef calves. In the second study all calves were seropositive for alpha toxin throughout the experiment and solid feed intake did not alter the dynamics of alpha and perfringolysin antibodies. In conclusion, the present study showed that veal calves on a traditional milk replacer diet had significantly lower alpha toxin antibodies compared to beef calves in the risk period for enterotoxaemia, whereas no differences were noticed for perfringolysin.

  11. Veal Calves Produce Less Antibodies against C. Perfringens Alpha Toxin Compared to Beef Calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valgaeren, Bonnie R; Pardon, Bart; Goossens, Evy; Verherstraeten, Stefanie; Roelandt, Sophie; Timbermont, Leen; Van Der Vekens, Nicky; Stuyvaert, Sabrina; Gille, Linde; Van Driessche, Laura; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Ducatelle, Richard; Van Immerseel, Filip; Deprez, Piet

    2015-07-01

    Enterotoxaemia is a disease with a high associated mortality rate, affecting beef and veal calves worldwide, caused by C. perfringens alpha toxin and perfringolysin. A longitudinal study was conducted to determine the dynamics of antibodies against these toxins in 528 calves on 4 beef and 15 veal farms. The second study aimed to determine the effect of solid feed intake on the production of antibodies against alpha toxin and perfringolysin. The control group only received milk replacer, whereas in the test group solid feed was provided. Maternal antibodies for alpha toxin were present in 45% of the veal calves and 66% of the beef calves. In beef calves a fluent transition from maternal to active immunity was observed for alpha toxin, whereas almost no veal calves developed active immunity. Perfringolysin antibodies significantly declined both in veal and beef calves. In the second study all calves were seropositive for alpha toxin throughout the experiment and solid feed intake did not alter the dynamics of alpha and perfringolysin antibodies. In conclusion, the present study showed that veal calves on a traditional milk replacer diet had significantly lower alpha toxin antibodies compared to beef calves in the risk period for enterotoxaemia, whereas no differences were noticed for perfringolysin. PMID:26184311

  12. The Staphylococcus aureus Alpha-Toxin Perturbs the Barrier Function in Caco-2 Epithelial Cell Monolayers by Altering Junctional Integrity

    OpenAIRE

    Kwak, Young-Keun; Vikström, Elena; Magnusson, Karl-Eric; Vécsey-Semjén, Beatrix; Colque-Navarro, Patricia; Möllby, Roland

    2012-01-01

    Increased microvascular permeability is a hallmark of sepsis and septic shock. Intestinal mucosal dysfunction may allow translocation of bacteria and their products, thereby promoting sepsis and inflammation. Although Staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin significantly contributes to sepsis and perturbs the endothelial barrier function, little is known about possible effects of S. aureus alpha-toxin on human epithelial barrier functions. We hypothesize that S. aureus alpha-toxin in the blood can ...

  13. Passive immunization with antiserum to a nontoxic alpha-toxin mutant from Staphylococcus aureus is protective in a murine model.

    OpenAIRE

    Menzies, B E; Kernodle, D S

    1996-01-01

    A nonhemolytic, nonlethal variant of Staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin constructed via oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis and containing a single amino acid substitution (H-35 to L) was used to immunize a rabbit. The resulting antiserum was cross-reactive with wild-type alpha-toxin and neutralized its hemolytic activity in vitro. Passive immunization of mice with rabbit antiserum conferred protection against lethal challenge with wild-type alpha-toxin and against acute lethal challenge with...

  14. Staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin-induced cell death : predominant necrosis despite apoptotic caspase activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essmann, F; Bantel, H; Totzke, G; Engels, I H; Sinha, B; Schulze-Osthoff, K; Jänicke, R U

    2003-01-01

    Recent data suggest that alpha-toxin, the major hemolysin of Staphylococcus aureus, induces cell death via the classical apoptotic pathway. Here we demonstrate, however, that although zVAD-fmk or overexpression of Bcl-2 completely abrogated caspase activation and internucleosomal DNA fragmentation,

  15. Excitatory effect of Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin on the rat isolated aorta.

    OpenAIRE

    Fujii, Y.; Nomura, S; Oshita, Y.; Sakurai, J

    1986-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin caused contraction of the isolated aorta of the rat in a dose-dependent manner. The contractile action caused by the toxin was inhibited or abolished by calcium antagonists such as nifedipine, verapamil and cinnarizine, or a Ca-free medium, but was not affected by phentolamine, chlorpheniramine, atropine, tetrodotoxin or a low Na medium. The toxin stimulated Ca uptake into the aorta in a dose-dependent manner. 8-N,N'-diethylaminooctyl-3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoa...

  16. Induction of muscle-relaxing factor by staphylococcal alpha-toxin.

    OpenAIRE

    Harshman, S; Sugg, N

    1994-01-01

    Brain tissue and serum from mice intracerebrally injected with 1 microgram of staphylococcal alpha-toxin contained elevated amounts of a naturally occurring brain tissue component(s) called muscle-relaxing factor (MRF). MRF induced reversible, generalized, flaccid paralysis of mice after intracerebral but not intraperitoneal or intravenous administration. MRF (i) was soluble in Hanks balanced salt solution and in acidified (pH 2) Hanks balanced salt solution, in which it partitions into ethyl...

  17. Effect of staphylococcal alpha-toxin on intracellular Ca2+ in polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Suttorp, N; Habben, E

    1988-01-01

    Staphylococcal alpha-toxin, a channel-forming protein, stimulates leukotriene B4 formation in rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) (N. Suttorp, W. Seeger, J. Zucker-Reimann, L. Roka, and S. Bhakdi, Infect. Immun. 55:104-110, 1987). The concept was advanced that transmembrane toxin pores act as Ca2+ gates allowing passive Ca2+ influx into the cell, thus initiating stimulus response coupling. A critical step in this hypothesis is the demonstration of an increase in the cytosolic free Ca2+ ...

  18. Distinction between pore assembly by staphylococcal alpha-toxin versus leukotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubert, Olivier; Voegelin, Joëlle; Guillet, Valérie; Tranier, Samuel; Werner, Sandra; Colin, Didier A; Dalla Serra, Mauro; Keller, Daniel; Monteil, Henri; Mourey, Lionel; Prévost, Gilles

    2007-01-01

    The staphylococcal bipartite leukotoxins and the homoheptameric alpha-toxin belong to the same family of beta-barrel pore-forming toxins despite slight differences. In the alpha-toxin pore, the N-terminal extremity of each protomer interacts as a deployed latch with two consecutive protomers in the vicinity of the pore lumen. N-terminal extremities of leukotoxins as seen in their three-dimensional structures are heterogeneous in length and take part in the beta-sandwich core of soluble monomers. Hence, the interaction of these N-terminal extremities within structures of adjacent monomers is questionable. We show here that modifications of their N-termini by two different processes, using fusion with glutathione S-transferase (GST) and bridging of the N-terminal extremity to the adjacent beta-sheet via disulphide bridges, are not deleterious for biological activity. Therefore, bipartite leukotoxins do not need a large extension of their N-terminal extremities to form functional pores, thus illustrating a microheterogeneity of the structural organizations between bipartite leukotoxins and alpha-toxin.

  19. Autophagy mediates tolerance to Staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Katie; Reyes-Robles, Tamara; Alonzo, Francis; Durbin, Joan; Torres, Victor J; Cadwell, Ken

    2015-04-01

    Resistance and tolerance are two defense strategies employed by the host against microbial threats. Autophagy-mediated degradation of bacteria has been extensively described as a major resistance mechanism. Here we find that the dominant function of autophagy proteins during infections with the epidemic community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300 is to mediate tolerance rather than resistance. Atg16L1 hypomorphic mice (Atg16L1(HM)), which have reduced autophagy, were highly susceptible to lethality in both sepsis and pneumonia models of USA300 infection. Autophagy confers protection by limiting the damage caused by α-toxin, particularly to endothelial cells. Remarkably, Atg16L1(HM) mice display enhanced survival rather than susceptibility upon infection with α-toxin-deficient S. aureus. These results identify an essential role for autophagy in tolerance to Staphylococcal disease and highlight how a single virulence factor encoded by a pathogen can determine whether a given host factor promotes tolerance or resistance.

  20. Detection of Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin gene in lambs by loop mediated isothermal amplification

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    B. Radhika

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP was standardized for rapid detection of Clostridium perfringens. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 fecal samples were collected from enterotoxemia suspected lambs were used for screening of C. perfringens cpa gene by LAMP. The specificity of the LAMP amplified products was tested by digesting with restriction enzyme XmnI for alpha toxin gene. Results: Out of 120 samples screened 112 (93.3% samples were positive by both LAMP and polymerase chain reaction (PCR for detection of cpa gene which indicated the equal sensitivity of both the tests. The enzyme produced single cut in 162 base pair amplified product of alpha toxin gene at 81 base pair resulting in a single band in gel electrophoresis. Conclusion: Both LAMP and PCR for detection of cpa gene indicated the equal sensitivity of both the tests. Standardization of LAMP reaction for amplification of epsilon and beta toxin genes will help to identify the C. perfringens toxin types from the clinical samples. The test could be a suitable alternative to the PCR in detection of toxin types without the help of sophisticated machinery like thermal cycler. Considering its simplicity in operation and high sensitivity, there is the potential use of this technique in clinical diagnosis and surveillance of infectious diseases.

  1. Identification and validation of a linear protective neutralizing epitope in the β-pore domain of alpha toxin.

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    Jon Oscherwitz

    Full Text Available The plethora of virulence factors associated with Staphylococcus aureus make this bacterium an attractive candidate for a molecularly-designed epitope-focused vaccine. This approach, which necessitates the identification of neutralizing epitopes for incorporation into a vaccine construct, is being evaluated for pathogens where conventional approaches have failed to elicit protective humoral responses, like HIV-1 and malaria, but may also hold promise for pathogens like S. aureus, where the elicitation of humoral immunity against multiple virulence factors may be required for development of an effective vaccine. Among the virulence factors employed by S. aureus, animal model and epidemiological data suggest that alpha toxin, a multimeric β-pore forming toxin like protective antigen from Bacillus anthracis, is particularly critical, yet no candidate neutralizing epitopes have been delineated in alpha toxin to date. We have previously shown that a linear determinant in the 2β2-2β3 loop of the pore forming domain of B. anthracis protective antigen is a linear neutralizing epitope. Antibody against this site is highly potent for neutralizing anthrax lethal toxin in vitro and for protection of rabbits in vivo from virulent B. anthracis. We hypothesized that sequences in the β-pore of S. aureus alpha toxin that share structural and functional homology to β-pore sequences in protective antigen would contain a similarly critical neutralizing epitope. Using an in vivo mapping strategy employing peptide immunogens, an optimized in vitro toxin neutralization assay, and an in vivo dermonecrosis model, we have now confirmed the presence of this epitope in alpha toxin, termed the pore neutralizing determinant. Antibody specific for this determinant neutralizes alpha toxin in vitro, and is highly effective for mitigating dermonecrosis and bacterial growth in a mouse model of S. aureus USA300 skin infection. The delineation of this linear neutralizing

  2. Purification of alpha-toxin from Staphylococcus aureus and application to cell permeabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, I.; Ahnert-Hilger, G.; Fuchs, G.; Gratzl, M.

    1987-07-01

    Crude alpha-toxin was produced by Staphylococcus aureus, strain Wood 46. The amount of exotoxin was monitored during growth and all subsequent purification steps by determination of its hemolytic activity against rabbit erythrocytes. The culture supernatant was treated with ammonium sulfate (75% saturation). The resulting precipitate was dialyzed and subjected to cation-exchange chromatography. The fractions containing the hemolytic activity were further purified by gel chromatography. The final product was enriched by a factor of 8.5 compared to the crude toxin. In sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis the purified toxin exhibited one major band. It caused the release of /sup 86/Rb+ and ATP from rat insulinoma (RIN A2) as well as pheochromocytoma cells (PC12) in culture, indicating efficient permeabilization of their plasma membranes for small molecules.

  3. Osmoprotectant-dependent expression of plcH, encoding the hemolytic phospholipase C, is subject to novel catabolite repression control in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    OpenAIRE

    Sage, A E; Vasil, M L

    1997-01-01

    Expression of the hemolytic phospholipase C (PlcH) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is induced under phosphate starvation conditions or in the presence of the osmoprotectants choline and glycine betaine. Because choline and glycine betaine may serve as carbon and energy sources in addition to conferring osmoprotection to P. aeruginosa, it seemed possible that induction of plcH is subject to catabolite repression control (CRC) by tricarboxylic cycle intermediates such as succinate. Total phospholipas...

  4. The psmα locus regulates production of Staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin during infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berube, Bryan J; Sampedro, Georgia R; Otto, Michael; Bubeck Wardenburg, Juliane

    2014-08-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of human bacterial infection, causing a wide spectrum of disease ranging from skin and soft tissue infections to life-threatening pneumonia and sepsis. S. aureus toxins play an essential role in disease pathogenesis, contributing to both immunomodulation and host tissue injury. Prominent among these toxins are the membrane-active pore-forming cytolysin alpha-toxin (Hla) and the amphipathic α-helical phenol-soluble modulin (PSM) peptides. As deletion of either the hla or psm locus leads to a phenotypically similar virulence defect in skin and soft tissue infection, we sought to determine the relative contribution of each locus to disease pathogenesis. Here we show that production of Hla can be modulated by PSM expression. An S. aureus mutant lacking PSM expression exhibits a transcriptional delay in hla mRNA production and therefore fails to secrete normal levels of Hla at early phases of growth. This leads to attenuation of virulence in vitro and in murine skin and lung models of infection, correlating with reduced recovery of Hla from host tissues. Production of Hla and restoration of staphylococcal virulence can be achieved in the psm mutant by plasmid-driven overexpression of hla. Our study suggests the coordinated action of Hla and PSMs in host tissue during early pathogenesis, confirming a major role for Hla in epithelial injury during S. aureus infection. These findings highlight the possibility that therapeutics targeting PSM production may simultaneously prevent Hla-mediated tissue injury.

  5. Effectiveness of Alpha-toxin Fab Monoclonal Antibody Therapy in Limiting the Pathology of Staphylococcus aureus Keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, A; Foletti, D; Bierdeman, M; Tang, A; Arana, A; Hasa-Moreno, A; Sangalang, E; O'Callaghan, R J

    2014-06-01

    Abstract Purpose: To investigate the effectiveness of a high-affinity human monoclonal antibody Fab fragment to Staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin (LTM14 Fab) as therapy for S. aureus keratitis. Methods: A single topical drop of the LTM14 Fab antibody to alpha-toxin alone, or in 0.006% benzalkonium chloride (BAK), was applied every 30 min to S. aureus-infected rabbit corneas from 9 to 14 hours post-infection. Erosions and pathology were measured at 15 h post-infection. Results: LTM14 Fab with BAK limited corneal erosions better than LTM14 Fab alone (p = 0.036), and both limited erosions compared to untreated eyes (p ≤ 0.0001). Overall pathology was similar in all groups (p ≥ 0.070), but iritis and chemosis were reduced by treatment (p ≤ 0.036). Conclusions: The high-affinity human monoclonal Fab fragment antibody (LTM14 Fab) to S. aureus alpha-toxin was effective in reducing corneal damage during S. aureus keratitis.

  6. A chimeric scorpion alpha-toxin displays de novo electrophysiological properties similar to those of alpha-like toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhaouala-Zahar, Balkiss; Benkhalifa, Rym; Srairi, Najet; Zenouaki, Ilhem; Ligny-Lemaire, Caroline; Drevet, Pascal; Sampieri, François; Pelhate, Marcel; El Ayeb, Mohamed; Ménez, André; Karoui, Habib; Ducancel, Frédéric

    2002-06-01

    BotXIV and LqhalphaIT are two structurally related long chain scorpion alpha-toxins that inhibit sodium current inactivation in excitable cells. However, while LqhalphaIT from Leiurus quinquestriatus hebraeus is classified as a true and strong insect alpha-toxin, BotXIV from Buthus occitanus tunetanus is characterized by moderate biological activities. To assess the possibility that structural differences between these two molecules could reflect the localization of particular functional topographies, we compared their sequences. Three structurally deviating segments located in three distinct and exposed loops were identified. They correspond to residues 8-10, 19-22, and 38-43. To evaluate their functional role, three BotXIV/LqhalphaIT chimeras were designed by transferring the corresponding LqhalphaIT sequences into BotXIV. Structural and antigenic characterizations of the resulting recombinant chimera show that BotXIV can accommodate the imposed modifications, confirming the structural flexibility of that particular alpha/beta fold. Interestingly, substitution of residues 8-10 yields to a new electrophysiological profile of the corresponding variant, partially comparable to that one of alpha-like scorpion toxins. Taken together, these results suggest that even limited structural deviations can reflect functional diversity, and also that the structure-function relationships between insect alpha-toxins and alpha-like scorpion toxins are probably more complex than expected.

  7. Solucions PLC obertes

    OpenAIRE

    López Llauradó, Oriol

    2006-01-01

    Treball que, després de revisar el concepte de PLC i d'exposar la necessitat de solucions obertes, defineix el concepte de PLC obert, basat en programari lliure i presenta alguns projectes interessants de PLC obert.

  8. Evaluation of genetically inactivated alpha toxin for protection in multiple mouse models of Staphylococcus aureus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca A Brady

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen and a leading cause of nosocomial and community-acquired infections. Development of a vaccine against this pathogen is an important goal. While S. aureus protective antigens have been identified in the literature, the majority have only been tested in a single animal model of disease. We wished to evaluate the ability of one S. aureus vaccine antigen to protect in multiple mouse models, thus assessing whether protection in one model translates to protection in other models encompassing the full breadth of infections the pathogen can cause. We chose to focus on genetically inactivated alpha toxin mutant HlaH35L. We evaluated the protection afforded by this antigen in three models of infection using the same vaccine dose, regimen, route of immunization, adjuvant, and challenge strain. When mice were immunized with HlaH35L and challenged via a skin and soft tissue infection model, HlaH35L immunization led to a less severe infection and decreased S. aureus levels at the challenge site when compared to controls. Challenge of HlaH35L-immunized mice using a systemic infection model resulted in a limited, but statistically significant decrease in bacterial colonization as compared to that observed with control mice. In contrast, in a prosthetic implant model of chronic biofilm infection, there was no significant difference in bacterial levels when compared to controls. These results demonstrate that vaccines may confer protection against one form of S. aureus disease without conferring protection against other disease presentations and thus underscore a significant challenge in S. aureus vaccine development.

  9. Identification of tomato phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase-C (PI-PLC) family members and the role of PLC4 and PLC6 in HR and disease resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vossen, Jack H; Abd-El-Haliem, Ahmed; Fradin, Emilie F; van den Berg, Grardy C M; Ekengren, Sophia K; Meijer, Harold J G; Seifi, Alireza; Bai, Yuling; ten Have, Arjen; Munnik, Teun; Thomma, Bart P H J; Joosten, Matthieu H A J

    2010-04-01

    The perception of pathogen-derived elicitors by plants has been suggested to involve phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase-C (PI-PLC) signalling. Here we show that PLC isoforms are required for the hypersensitive response (HR) and disease resistance. We characterised the tomato [Solanum lycopersicum (Sl)] PLC gene family. Six Sl PLC-encoding cDNAs were isolated and their expression in response to infection with the pathogenic fungus Cladosporium fulvum was studied. We found significant regulation at the transcriptional level of the various SlPLCs, and SlPLC4 and SlPLC6 showed distinct expression patterns in C. fulvum-resistant Cf-4 tomato. We produced the encoded proteins in Escherichia coli and found that both genes encode catalytically active PI-PLCs. To test the requirement of these Sl PLCs for full Cf-4-mediated recognition of the effector Avr4, we knocked down the expression of the encoding genes by virus-induced gene silencing. Silencing of SlPLC4 impaired the Avr4/Cf-4-induced HR and resulted in increased colonisation of Cf-4 plants by C. fulvum expressing Avr4. Furthermore, expression of the gene in Nicotiana benthamiana enhanced the Avr4/Cf-4-induced HR. Silencing of SlPLC6 did not affect HR, whereas it caused increased colonisation of Cf-4 plants by the fungus. Interestingly, Sl PLC6, but not Sl PLC4, was also required for resistance to Verticillium dahliae, mediated by the transmembrane Ve1 resistance protein, and to Pseudomonas syringae, mediated by the intracellular Pto/Prf resistance protein couple. We conclude that there is a differential requirement of PLC isoforms for the plant immune response and that Sl PLC4 is specifically required for Cf-4 function, while Sl PLC6 may be a more general component of resistance protein signalling.

  10. Staphylococcus aureus Alpha-Toxin Is Conserved among Diverse Hospital Respiratory Isolates Collected from a Global Surveillance Study and Is Neutralized by Monoclonal Antibody MEDI4893.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabor, David E; Yu, Li; Mok, Hoyin; Tkaczyk, Christine; Sellman, Bret R; Wu, Yuling; Oganesyan, Vaheh; Slidel, Tim; Jafri, Hasan; McCarthy, Michael; Bradford, Patricia; Esser, Mark T

    2016-09-01

    Staphylococcus aureus infections lead to an array of illnesses ranging from mild skin infections to serious diseases, such endocarditis, osteomyelitis, and pneumonia. Alpha-toxin (Hla) is a pore-forming toxin, encoded by the hla gene, that is thought to play a key role in S. aureus pathogenesis. A monoclonal antibody targeting Hla, MEDI4893, is in clinical development for the prevention of S. aureus ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). The presence of the hla gene and Hla protein in 994 respiratory isolates collected from patients in 34 countries in Asia, Europe, the United States, Latin America, the Middle East, Africa, and Australia was determined. Hla levels were correlated with the geographic location, age of the subject, and length of stay in the hospital. hla gene sequence analysis was performed, and mutations were mapped to the Hla crystal structure. S. aureus supernatants containing Hla variants were tested for susceptibility or resistance to MEDI4893. The hla gene was present and Hla was expressed in 99.0% and 83.2% of the isolates, respectively, regardless of geographic region, hospital locale, or age of the subject. More methicillin-susceptible than methicillin-resistant isolates expressed Hla (86.9% versus 78.8%; P = 0.0007), and S. aureus isolates from pediatric patients expressed the largest amounts of Hla. Fifty-seven different Hla subtypes were identified, and 91% of the isolates encoded an Hla subtype that was neutralized by MED4893. This study demonstrates that Hla is conserved in diverse S. aureus isolates from around the world and is an attractive target for prophylactic monoclonal antibody (MAb) or vaccine development.

  11. First chemical synthesis of a scorpion alpha-toxin affecting sodium channels: the Aah I toxin of Androctonus australis hector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M'Barek, Sarrah; Fajloun, Ziad; Cestèle, Sandrine; Devaux, Christiane; Mansuelle, Pascal; Mosbah, Amor; Jouirou, Besma; Mantegazza, Massimo; Van Rietschoten, Jurphaas; El Ayeb, Mohamed; Rochat, Hervé; Sabatier, Jean-Marc; Sampieri, François

    2004-11-01

    Aah I is a 63-residue alpha-toxin isolated from the venom of the Buthidae scorpion Androctonus australis hector, which is considered to be the most dangerous species. We report here the first chemical synthesis of Aah I by the solid-phase method, using a Fmoc strategy. The synthetic toxin I (sAah I) was renatured in DMSO-Tris buffer, purified and subjected to thorough analysis and comparison with the natural toxin. The sAah I showed physico-chemical (CD spectrum, molecular mass, HPLC elution), biochemical (amino-acid composition, sequence), immunochemical and pharmacological properties similar to those of the natural toxin. The synthetic toxin was recognized by a conformation-dependent monoclonal anti-Aah I antibody, with an IC50 value close to that for the natural toxin. Following intracerebroventricular injection, the synthetic and the natural toxins were similarly lethal to mice. In voltage-clamp experiments, Na(v) 1.2 sodium channel inactivation was inhibited by the application of sAah I or of the natural toxin in a similar way. This work describes a simple protocol for the chemical synthesis of a scorpion alpha-toxin, making it possible to produce structural analogues in time.

  12. Staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin induces apoptosis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells : role of endogenous tumour necrosis factor-alpha and the mitochondrial death pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haslinger, Bettina; Strangfeld, Katrin; Peters, Georg; Schulze-Osthoff, Klaus; Sinha, Bhanu

    2003-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus infections can result in septic and toxic shock with depletion of immune cells and massive cytokine production. Recently, we showed that, in S. aureus-infected Jurkat T cells, alpha-toxin is the major mediator of caspase activation and apoptosis. Here, we investigated the mecha

  13. In Vitro Selection of Single-Stranded DNA Molecular Recognition Elements against S. aureus Alpha Toxin and Sensitive Detection in Human Serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ka L. Hong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alpha toxin is one of the major virulence factors secreted by Staphylococcus aureus, a bacterium that is responsible for a wide variety of infections in both community and hospital settings. Due to the prevalence of S. aureus related infections and the emergence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus, rapid and accurate diagnosis of S. aureus infections is crucial in benefiting patient health outcomes. In this study, a rigorous Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX variant previously developed by our laboratory was utilized to select a single-stranded DNA molecular recognition element (MRE targeting alpha toxin with high affinity and specificity. At the end of the 12-round selection, the selected MRE had an equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd of 93.7 ± 7.0 nM. Additionally, a modified sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was developed by using the selected ssDNA MRE as the toxin-capturing element and a sensitive detection of 200 nM alpha toxin in undiluted human serum samples was achieved.

  14. Transacsys PLC - Final Results

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Final results from Transacsys PLC. A subsidary of this company was set up to develop the CERN EDH system into a commercial product but incurred too much financial loss so the project was cancelled (1/2 page).

  15. Detection of Alpha-Toxin and Other Virulence Factors in Biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus on Polystyrene and a Human Epidermal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmens-den Toom, N. A.; Willemse, J.; Koning, R. A.; Demmers, J. A. A.; Dekkers, D. H. W.; Rijkers, E.; El Ghalbzouri, A.; Nibbering, P. H.; van Wamel, W.

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aim The ability of Staphylococcus aureus to successfully colonize (a)biotic surfaces may be explained by biofilm formation and the actions of virulence factors. The aim of the present study was to establish the presence of 52 proteins, including virulence factors such as alpha-toxin, during biofilm formation of five different (methicillin resistant) S. aureus strains on Leiden human epidermal models (LEMs) and polystyrene surfaces (PS) using a competitive Luminex-based assay. Results All five S. aureus strains formed biofilms on PS, whereas only three out of five strains formed biofilms on LEMs. Out of the 52 tested proteins, six functionally diverse proteins (ClfB, glucosaminidase, IsdA, IsaA, SACOL0688 and nuclease) were detected in biofilms of all strains on both PS and LEMs. At the same time, four toxins (alpha-toxin, gamma-hemolysin B and leukocidins D and E), two immune modulators (formyl peptide receptor-like inhibitory protein and Staphylococcal superantigen-like protein 1), and two other proteins (lipase and LytM) were detectable in biofilms by all five S. aureus strains on LEMs, but not on PS. In contrast, fibronectin-binding protein B (FnbpB) was detectable in biofilms by all S. aureus biofilms on PS, but not on LEMs. These data were largely confirmed by the results from proteomic and transcriptomic analyses and in case of alpha-toxin additionally by GFP-reporter technology. Conclusion Functionally diverse virulence factors of (methicillin-resistant) S. aureus are present during biofilm formation on LEMs and PS. These results could aid in identifying novel targets for future treatment strategies against biofilm-associated infections. PMID:26741798

  16. Detection of Alpha-Toxin and Other Virulence Factors in Biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus on Polystyrene and a Human Epidermal Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P M den Reijer

    Full Text Available The ability of Staphylococcus aureus to successfully colonize (abiotic surfaces may be explained by biofilm formation and the actions of virulence factors. The aim of the present study was to establish the presence of 52 proteins, including virulence factors such as alpha-toxin, during biofilm formation of five different (methicillin resistant S. aureus strains on Leiden human epidermal models (LEMs and polystyrene surfaces (PS using a competitive Luminex-based assay.All five S. aureus strains formed biofilms on PS, whereas only three out of five strains formed biofilms on LEMs. Out of the 52 tested proteins, six functionally diverse proteins (ClfB, glucosaminidase, IsdA, IsaA, SACOL0688 and nuclease were detected in biofilms of all strains on both PS and LEMs. At the same time, four toxins (alpha-toxin, gamma-hemolysin B and leukocidins D and E, two immune modulators (formyl peptide receptor-like inhibitory protein and Staphylococcal superantigen-like protein 1, and two other proteins (lipase and LytM were detectable in biofilms by all five S. aureus strains on LEMs, but not on PS. In contrast, fibronectin-binding protein B (FnbpB was detectable in biofilms by all S. aureus biofilms on PS, but not on LEMs. These data were largely confirmed by the results from proteomic and transcriptomic analyses and in case of alpha-toxin additionally by GFP-reporter technology.Functionally diverse virulence factors of (methicillin-resistant S. aureus are present during biofilm formation on LEMs and PS. These results could aid in identifying novel targets for future treatment strategies against biofilm-associated infections.

  17. Quantitative Detection of Clostridium perfringens in Broiler Chickens by Real-Time PCR Targeting the Alpha-Toxin Gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard, Lone; Engberg, Ricarda M.; Schramm, Andreas;

    2006-01-01

    QUANTITATIVE DETECTION OF CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS IN BROILER CHICKENS BY REAL-TIME PCR TARGETING THE ALPHA-TOXIN GENE L. Abildgaard 1, R.M. Engberg 1, A. Schramm 2, O. Højberg 1 1 Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Animal Health, Welfare and Nutrition, Tjele, Denmark; 2...... by antibiotics (ionophores) presently used to prevent parasitic coccidiosis. From 2012 the European Union has banned these anticoccidials as feed additives, wherefore alternatives are needed to suppress C. perfringens and/or α-toxin production. A real-time PCR primer-probe set targeting the α-toxin gene...

  18. The putative phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C gene, PLC1, of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is important for cell growth.

    OpenAIRE

    Yoko-o, T; Matsui, Y; Yagisawa, H; Nojima, H; Uno, I; Toh-E, A

    1993-01-01

    Using the polymerase chain reaction technique, we have isolated a gene that encodes a putative phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PLC) in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The nucleotide sequence indicates that the gene encodes a polypeptide of 869 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of 101 kDa. This polypeptide has both the X and Y regions conserved among mammalian PLC-beta, -gamma, and -delta, and the structure is most similar to that of mammalian PLC-delta. This ...

  19. The Parametric model for PLC reference chanells and its verification in real PLC environment

    OpenAIRE

    Róka, R.

    2008-01-01

    For the expansion of PLC systems, it is necesssary to have a detailed knowledge of the PLC transmission channel properties. This contribution shortly discusses characteristics of the PLC environment and a classification of PLC transmission channels. A main part is focused on the parametric model for PLC reference channels and its verification in the real PLC environment utilizing experimental measurements.

  20. The Parametric Model for PLC Reference Chanells and its Verification in Real PLC Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Rastislav Roka

    2008-01-01

    For the expansion of PLC systems, it is necesssary to have a detailed knowledge of the PLC transmission channel properties. This contribution shortly discusses characteristics of the PLC environment and a classification of PLC transmission channels. A main part is focused on the parametric model for PLC reference channels and its verification in the real PLC environment utilizing experimental measurements.

  1. Evaluation in broilers of the probiotic properties of Pichia pastoris and a recombinant P. pastoris containing the Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil de los Santos, João Rodrigo; Storch, Otávio Brod; Fernandes, Cristina Gevehr; Gil-Turnes, Carlos

    2012-05-01

    The probiotic properties of Pichia pastoris and of a recombinant P. pastoris containing the Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin gene were evaluated in broilers. One-day-old chicks randomly divided in four groups were fed with commercial feed devoid of antibacterials. The control group (1) received plain food, while the other groups were supplemented with either P. pastoris (2), the recombinant P. pastoris (3) or Bacillus cereus var. Toyoi (4). At day 49, live weights, feed efficiency and seroconversions were higher (P0.05) among the supplemented groups. Adverse reactions were not observed in histopathologic evaluation. We concluded that P. pastoris and the recombinant P. pastoris could be used as probiotics in broilers. PMID:22176763

  2. Biochemical characterization of the tomato phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) family and its role in plant immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-El-Haliem, Ahmed M; Vossen, Jack H; van Zeijl, Arjan; Dezhsetan, Sara; Testerink, Christa; Seidl, Michael F; Beck, Martina; Strutt, James; Robatzek, Silke; Joosten, Matthieu H A J

    2016-09-01

    Plants possess effective mechanisms to quickly respond to biotic and abiotic stresses. The rapid activation of phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PLC) enzymes occurs early after the stimulation of plant immune-receptors. Genomes of different plant species encode multiple PLC homologs belonging to one class, PLCζ. Here we determined whether all tomato homologs encode active enzymes and whether they can generate signals that are distinct from one another. We searched the recently completed tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) genome sequence and identified a total of seven PLCs. Recombinant proteins were produced for all tomato PLCs, except for SlPLC7. The purified proteins showed typical PLC activity, as different PLC substrates were hydrolysed to produce diacylglycerol. We studied SlPLC2, SlPLC4 and SlPLC5 enzymes in more detail and observed distinct requirements for Ca(2+) ions and pH, for both their optimum activity and substrate preference. This indicates that each enzyme could be differentially and specifically regulated in vivo, leading to the generation of PLC homolog-specific signals in response to different stimuli. PLC overexpression and specific inhibition of PLC activity revealed that PLC is required for both specific effector- and more general "pattern"-triggered immunity. For the latter, we found that both the flagellin-triggered response and the internalization of the corresponding receptor, Flagellin Sensing 2 (FLS2) of Arabidopsis thaliana, are suppressed by inhibition of PLC activity. Altogether, our data support an important role for PLC enzymes in plant defence signalling downstream of immune receptors. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Lipid Biology edited by Kent D. Chapman and Ivo Feussner. PMID:26825689

  3. Biochemical characterization of the tomato phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) family and its role in plant immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-El-Haliem, Ahmed M; Vossen, Jack H; van Zeijl, Arjan; Dezhsetan, Sara; Testerink, Christa; Seidl, Michael F; Beck, Martina; Strutt, James; Robatzek, Silke; Joosten, Matthieu H A J

    2016-09-01

    Plants possess effective mechanisms to quickly respond to biotic and abiotic stresses. The rapid activation of phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PLC) enzymes occurs early after the stimulation of plant immune-receptors. Genomes of different plant species encode multiple PLC homologs belonging to one class, PLCζ. Here we determined whether all tomato homologs encode active enzymes and whether they can generate signals that are distinct from one another. We searched the recently completed tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) genome sequence and identified a total of seven PLCs. Recombinant proteins were produced for all tomato PLCs, except for SlPLC7. The purified proteins showed typical PLC activity, as different PLC substrates were hydrolysed to produce diacylglycerol. We studied SlPLC2, SlPLC4 and SlPLC5 enzymes in more detail and observed distinct requirements for Ca(2+) ions and pH, for both their optimum activity and substrate preference. This indicates that each enzyme could be differentially and specifically regulated in vivo, leading to the generation of PLC homolog-specific signals in response to different stimuli. PLC overexpression and specific inhibition of PLC activity revealed that PLC is required for both specific effector- and more general "pattern"-triggered immunity. For the latter, we found that both the flagellin-triggered response and the internalization of the corresponding receptor, Flagellin Sensing 2 (FLS2) of Arabidopsis thaliana, are suppressed by inhibition of PLC activity. Altogether, our data support an important role for PLC enzymes in plant defence signalling downstream of immune receptors. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Lipid Biology edited by Kent D. Chapman and Ivo Feussner.

  4. Reliability analysis of PLC safety equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FMEA analysis for Nuclear Safety Grade PLC, failure rate prediction for nuclear safety grade PLC, sensitivity analysis for components failure rate of nuclear safety grade PLC, unavailability analysis support for nuclear safety system

  5. Reliability analysis of PLC safety equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, J.; Kim, J. Y. [Chungnam Nat. Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-06-15

    FMEA analysis for Nuclear Safety Grade PLC, failure rate prediction for nuclear safety grade PLC, sensitivity analysis for components failure rate of nuclear safety grade PLC, unavailability analysis support for nuclear safety system.

  6. The Futility of PLC Lite

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuFour, Rick; Reeves, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Although many schools around the world have claimed to embrace the Professional Learning Community process, it would be more accurate to describe the current state of affairs in many schools as PLC Lite. Educators rename their traditional faculty or department meetings as PLC meetings, engage in book studies that result in no action, or devote…

  7. Biochemical characterization of the tomato phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) family and its role in plant immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Abd-el-Haliem; J.H. Vossen; A. van Zeijl; S. Dezhsetan; C. Testerink; M.F. Seidl; M. Beck; J. Strutt; S. Robatzek; M.H.A.J. Joosten

    2016-01-01

    Plants possess effective mechanisms to quickly respond to biotic and abiotic stresses. The rapid activation of phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PLC) enzymes occurs early after the stimulation of plant immune-receptors. Genomes of different plant species encode multiple PLC homologs bel

  8. Equity valuation Asos PLC

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, Mariana Borges

    2015-01-01

    This thesis aims to study the value of Asos PLC. The valuation was based in four methodologies, the Discounted Cash Flow (DCF), the Economic Value Added (EVA), the Trading Multiples and the Transaction Multiples. Using the DCF method, a price of 3.054p was obtained and the EVA yielded a comparable lower value of 2.528p. Regarding the Relative Valuation, this was the method which delivered the lowest values of 1.573p for the Trading Multiples and 1.253p for the Transaction Multiples. It ...

  9. Anglo American plc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Anglo American plc with its subsidiaries, joint ventures and associates, is a world leader in gold, platinum group metals and diamonds, is one of the world's largest private-sector coal producers, and has interests in base and ferrous metals, industrial minerals and forest products. The first Safety, Health and Environment (SHE) report, covers these aspects of the company's business and reports case studies at operations worldwide. These include achievements by Anglo Coal in its South African operations and Carbones del Cerrejon in Colombia.

  10. Development of PLC Technology in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jianming; Cuiwei

    2005-01-01

    In China there built a large scale of power line communication (Abbr. PLC)testing network. This paper presents the research and development on PLC technology in China and also the application and popularization of PLC in Chinese market. At the end, the next focal points of PLC technology research are deeply discussed.

  11. Design of object control using PLC

    OpenAIRE

    Ryčl, Jakub

    2013-01-01

    The work deals with the issue of control system using PLC. In the introduction are processed mainly general information about PLC and ways of his programming. Next is prepared methodology for system design with PLC, which is then tested in the practical part. It describes in detail the complete formation of the hall ventilation system with control by PLC.

  12. Anti-alpha-toxin monoclonal antibody and antibiotic combination therapy improves disease outcome and accelerates healing in a Staphylococcus aureus dermonecrosis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliard, Jamese J; Datta, Vivekananda; Tkaczyk, Christine; Hamilton, Melissa; Sadowska, Agnieszka; Jones-Nelson, Omari; O'Day, Terrence; Weiss, William J; Szarka, Szabolcs; Nguyen, Vien; Prokai, Laszlo; Suzich, JoAnn; Stover, C Kendall; Sellman, Bret R

    2015-01-01

    Alpha-toxin (AT) is a major virulence determinant in Staphylococcus aureus skin and soft tissue infection models. We previously demonstrated that prophylactic administration of 2A3, an AT-neutralizing monoclonal antibody (MAb), prevents S. aureus disease in a mouse dermonecrosis model by neutralizing AT-mediated tissue necrosis and immune evasion. In the present study, MEDI4893*, an affinity-optimized version of 2A3, was characterized for therapeutic activity in the dermonecrosis model as a single agent and in combination with two frontline antibiotics, vancomycin and linezolid. MEDI4893* postinfection therapy was found to exhibit a therapeutic treatment window similar to that for linezolid but longer than that for vancomycin. Additionally, when combined with either vancomycin or linezolid, MEDI4893* resulted in reduced tissue damage, increased neutrophil and macrophage infiltration and abscess formation, and accelerated healing relative to those with the antibiotic monotherapies. These data suggest that AT neutralization with a potent MAb holds promise for both prophylaxis and adjunctive therapy with antibiotics and may be a valuable addition to currently available options for the treatment of S. aureus skin and soft tissue infections.

  13. A multi-omics approach identifies key hubs associated with cell type-specific responses of airway epithelial cells to staphylococcal alpha-toxin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Richter

    Full Text Available Responsiveness of cells to alpha-toxin (Hla from Staphylococcus aureus appears to occur in a cell-type dependent manner. Here, we compare two human bronchial epithelial cell lines, i.e. Hla-susceptible 16HBE14o- and Hla-resistant S9 cells, by a quantitative multi-omics strategy for a better understanding of Hla-induced cellular programs. Phosphoproteomics revealed a substantial impact on phosphorylation-dependent signaling in both cell models and highlights alterations in signaling pathways associated with cell-cell and cell-matrix contacts as well as the actin cytoskeleton as key features of early rHla-induced effects. Along comparable changes in down-stream activity of major protein kinases significant differences between both models were found upon rHla-treatment including activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor EGFR and mitogen-activated protein kinases MAPK1/3 signaling in S9 and repression in 16HBE14o- cells. System-wide transcript and protein expression profiling indicate induction of an immediate early response in either model. In addition, EGFR and MAPK1/3-mediated changes in gene expression suggest cellular recovery and survival in S9 cells but cell death in 16HBE14o- cells. Strikingly, inhibition of the EGFR sensitized S9 cells to Hla indicating that the cellular capacity of activation of the EGFR is a major protective determinant against Hla-mediated cytotoxic effects.

  14. Slovak Electric, Plc., 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovenske elektrarne, a.s. (Slovak Electric, Plc.) was established on November 1, 1994 as one entity among new entities created as successors to the former Slovensky energeticky podnik. The subject activity is the generation of electric power, operation of transmission 220 kV and 400 kV systems, transit, import, export, and sales of electric power. Besides these activities the company deals with generation, distribution, and sales of heat. The company operates one nuclear power station, three thermal power plants, and thirty hydro power plants. One nuclear Power plant is under construction (state up tu June 1997). On this CD ROM next chapters are presented: (1) The structure of the company; (2) The production Units; (3) The economic power of the company; (4) The operation culture of the company; (5) The strategic plans of the company

  15. Slovak Electric, Plc., 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovenske elektrarne, a.s. (Slovak Electric, Plc., abbrevation 'SE, a.s.') is the Slovak electricity generating utility, incorporated on November 1, 1994 as one of new companies formed from substantially all of the assets and a legal successor of Slovensky energeticky podnik, s.p., founded on January 1, 1969 in the form of SEP group. From its predecessor, Slovak Electric, Plc., took over generation of power, operation of 220 kV and 400 kV power system, transit, import, export, and sale of electricity. It is also involved in generation, distribution, and sale of heat. At present, SE's share of electriciry sales in the Slovak Republic is 88.47%. Electricity is delivered to three regional distribution companies and directly to several major industrial enterprises. SE, a.s. operates one nuclear power station, three thermal power plants, and 30 hydro power plants. The second nuclear power plant is under construction (state up tu June 1997) and SE is participating in the construction of two hydro power plants and one combined cycle power plant. The efforts of SE, s.a. focus on the generation of power and heat with minimal environmental impacts. Ecology is given priority in the SE, a.s. development programmes. SE's mission is to permanently satisfy customers' needs, for an acceptable price and with minimal environmental impact. On this CD ROM next chapters are presented: (1) The structure of the Company; (2) Production units; (3) The economic power of the Company; (4) The operation culture; (5) The strategic plans of the Company

  16. Staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin mediates general and cell type-specific changes in metabolite concentrations of immortalized human airway epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Gierok

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin (Hla is a potent pore-forming cytotoxin that plays an important role in the pathogenesis of S. aureus infections, including pneumonia. The impact of Hla on the dynamics of the metabolome in eukaryotic host cells has not been investigated comprehensively. Using 1H-NMR, GC-MS and HPLC-MS, we quantified the concentrations of 51 intracellular metabolites and assessed alterations in the amount of 25 extracellular metabolites in the two human bronchial epithelial cell lines S9 and 16HBE14o- under standard culture conditions and after treatment with sub-lethal amounts (2 µg/ml of recombinant Hla (rHla in a time-dependent manner. Treatment of cells with rHla caused substantial decreases in the concentrations of intracellular metabolites from different metabolic pathways in both cell lines, including ATP and amino acids. Concomitant increases in the extracellular concentrations were detected for various intracellular compounds, including nucleotides, glutathione disulfide and NAD+. Our results indicate that rHla has a major impact on the metabolome of eukaryotic cells as a consequence of direct rHla-mediated alterations in plasma membrane permeability or indirect effects mediated by cellular signalling. However, cell-specific changes also were observed. Glucose consumption and lactate production rates suggest that the glycolytic activity of S9 cells, but not of 16HBE14o- cells, is increased in response to rHla. This could contribute to the observed higher level of resistance of S9 cells against rHla-induced membrane damage.

  17. A PLC Journey. Classroom Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Martha E.

    2011-01-01

    Being involved in a PLC (professional learning community) has strengthened the author's work with students; they have shown improvement, which affirms the process. In this paper the author shares the following lessons she learned: (1) Administrative support both in word and deed is crucial; (2) Communication was vertical and horizontal; (3)…

  18. PLC VE PLC ILE ROTORU SARGILI ASENKRON MOTORA YOL VERME

    OpenAIRE

    İSMAİL COŞKUN; İBRAHİM YÜCEDAĞ

    1998-01-01

    Günilinüzde tcknoloj i hızla ilerlemekte ve bw1a paralel olarak kullanılan sistcnıler de değişmektedir. Bu değişim tasarıını kolay. ckonoınik. luzlı tepkili sistemi elde etıneye yönelik alınaktadır. Değişim zinciri içerisinde Otoınas\\on ve Otoınatik Kumanda sektörü önemli bir halka� ı teşkil etıncktcdir. Bu sektörde, Programlanabilir Mantık Kontrol ( PLC ) hızla kullanılmaya başlanmıştır. Bu çalışınada PLC' ·ı cr genel olarak değerlendirilmiş olup. PLC ilc rotoru sargılı asenkron ınotora yol ...

  19. 大豆磷脂酶C基因GmPLC12的表达分析与原核表达%Expression Analysis and Prokaryotic Expression of GmPLC12 in Glycine max

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王法微; 包桥桥; 邓宇; 董金晔; 崔志彤; 王慧莹; 修华谦; 李海燕

    2015-01-01

    Phospholipase C (PLC) is a class of enzymes that cleave phospholipids into diacyl glycerol (DAG) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3). It plays an important role in plant abiotic stresses. In this study, we ifrstly cloned the GmPLC12 gene from soybean (Glycine max). The full-length of GmPLC12 is 1 671 bp and encoding 556 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that GmPLC12 shared highest homology with PvPLC1 and VuPLC. Real-time quantitative analysis showed that the expression levels of GmPLC12 were induced by salt, alkali and salt-alkaline treatments, especially salt-alkaline stress. Subsequently, GmPLC12 was ligated into pE-T28a vector and transferred into Escherichia coli strain BL21. The recombinant protein was induced by IPTG and showed an about 70 kDa bands, which was consistent with prediction.%磷脂酶C (phospholipase C, PLC)是一类能够水解磷脂生成肌醇三磷酸与二酰甘油的酶,在植物非生物胁迫中起着重要的调控作用。本研究首次从大豆中克隆了大豆磷脂酶C基因GmPLC12,其全长cDNA序列1671 bp,编码一个由556个氨基酸组成的蛋白。系统发育树分析发现, GmPLC12与菜豆PvPLC1、豇豆VuPLC同源性最近。利用实时定量PCR分析发现, GmPLC12在盐、碱以及盐碱胁迫下表达量升高极为显著,尤其是盐碱胁迫。将GmPLC12基因连接到原核表达载体中并利用IPTG诱导表达,产生一条约为70 kDa的条带,与预期结果一致。

  20. PLC Based Hydraulic Auto Ladle System

    OpenAIRE

    Amogh Tayade; Anuja Chitre

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we have implemented a PLC based Hydraulic Auto Ladle System for Casting Department of Victory Precisions Pvt. Ltd. Chakan, Pune. This project work presents the study and design of PLC based Hydraulic Auto Ladle System. Aluminium pouring is the key process in Casting and Forging industry. Different products are manufactured by the company for automobile sector using aluminium. Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) is used for the automation of pouring process. Au...

  1. Equity valuation of Tesco Plc.

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitz, Clemens

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation aimed to value the British retailer Tesco Plc. The objective was to determine a target price for the company and as a consequence determine a buy or sell recommendation when comparing it to the current market price. After the state of the art of literature regarding equity valuation has been assessed, the retail industry as well as Tesco have been analysed in more detail. Based on this, the retail business of Tesco has been valued using the Adjusted Present Va...

  2. Speed Control of Induction Motor Using PLC and SCADA System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Seksak Elsaid,

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Automation or automatic control is the use of various control systems for operating equipment such as machinery, processes in factories, boilers and heat-treating ovens, switching in telephone networks, steering and stabilization of ships, aircraft and other applications with minimal or reduced human intervention. Some processes have been completely automated. The motor speed is controlled via the driver as an open loop control. To make a more precise closed loop control of motor speed we will use a tachometer to measure the speed and feed it back to the PLC, which compares to the desired value and take a control action, then the signal is transferred to the motor – via driver – to increase / decrease the speed. We will measure the speed of the motor using an incremental rotary encoder by adjusting parameters (PLC, driver and also we need to reduce the overall cost of the system. Our control system will be held using the available Siemens PLC. In addition, we will monitor motor parameters via SCADA system.

  3. PLC Multi-Chip Integration Technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Motohaya; Ishii

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews recent progress on integrated multi-chip modules composed of silica-based planar lightwave circuits (PLCs) with a relatively high core-to-cladding index contrast A. These compact and highly functional modules were fabricated by using the PLC-PLC direct attachment technique.

  4. PLC Multi-Chip Integration Technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Motohaya Ishii

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews recent progress on integrated multi-chip modules composed of silica-based planarlightwave circuits (PLCs) with a relatively high core-to-cladding index contrast △. These compact and highlyfunctional modules were fabricated by using the PLC-PLC direct attachment technique.

  5. Automated Formal Verification for PLC Control Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fernández Adiego, Borja

    2014-01-01

    Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) are widely used devices used in industrial control systems. Ensuring that the PLC software is compliant with its specification is a challenging task. Formal verification has become a recommended practice to ensure the correctness of the safety-critical software. However, these techniques are still not widely applied in industry due to the complexity of building formal models, which represent the system and the formalization of requirement specifications. We propose a general methodology to perform automated model checking of complex properties expressed in temporal logics (e.g. CTL, LTL) on PLC programs. This methodology is based on an Intermediate Model (IM), meant to transform PLC programs written in any of the languages described in the IEC 61131-3 standard (ST, IL, etc.) to different modeling languages of verification tools. This approach has been applied to CERN PLC programs validating the methodology.

  6. Using of Finite Automation at Programming PLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Rastocny

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is concerning with systematic advances at programming programmable logic controllers (PLC, which comes out from algebraic description of behaviour of sequential circuit, in the way of finite automaton. This kind of access is streamlining the work of a programmer and enabling to use formalisms in the of whole process of system development, that is from process of analysing demands to process of verification and validation created program. The paper considers about using of ladder diagram at programming PLC.

  7. PlcR在炭疽芽胞杆菌A16R中的功能研究%The function of PlcR inBacillus anthracis vaccine strain A16R

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾晓琳; 王东澍; 高志奇; 冯尔玲; 郑继平; 王恒樑; 郭桂英; 刘先凯

    2015-01-01

    炭疽芽胞杆菌(Bacillus anthracis)、蜡样芽胞杆菌(B. cereus)和苏云金芽胞杆菌(B. thuringiensis)均属于蜡样芽胞杆菌群,在遗传学上有很高的相似性.PlcR (Phospholipase C regulator)在蜡样芽胞杆菌中是十分重要的调控因子,但plcR基因在炭疽芽胞杆菌中发生一个无义突变导致在炭疽芽胞杆菌中产生一个截短PlcR蛋白.为了研究plcR基因对炭疽芽胞杆菌功能的影响,文章以蜡样芽胞杆菌CMCC6330基因组为模板,构建重组表达质粒pBE2A-plcR后导入炭疽芽胞杆菌疫苗株 A16R中获得重组菌株,对其进行表型分析.结果显示,炭疽芽胞杆菌重组菌株的溶血活性基本没有恢复,但恢复了部分神经鞘磷脂酶活性,表明将蜡样芽胞杆菌的 plcR基因导入炭疽芽胞杆菌后,可以直接激活神经鞘磷脂酶活性.%Bacillus anthracis,B. thuringiensis andB. cereus are members of theB. cereusgroup. They share high genetic similarity. Whereas plcR (Phospholipase C regulator) usually encodes a functional pleiotropic activator pro-tein inB. cereus andB. thuringiensis isolates, a characteristic nonsense mutation is found in allB. anthracisstrains investigated, making the gene dysfunctional. To study the function of PlcR inB. anthracis, we used theB. cereus CMCC63301genome as a template and constructed a recombinant expression plasmid pBE2A-plcR, and introduced it intothe B. anthracis vaccine strain A16R, and then analyzed the activity of the hemolysin and sphingomyelinase. The results showed that transformation ofB. anthracis with plasmid pBE2A-plcR carrying the nativeB. cereus plcR gene active the expression of sphingomyelinase gene, but did not activate expression of hemolysin genes ofB. anthracis A16R.

  8. A gene encoding a phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C is induced by dehydration and salt stress in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    OpenAIRE

    Hirayama, T.; Ohto, C; Mizoguchi, T; Shinozaki, K

    1995-01-01

    A cDNA corresponding to a putative phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) in the higher plant Arabidopsis thaliana was cloned by use of the polymerase chain reaction. The cDNA, designated cAtPLC1, encodes a putative polypeptide of 561 aa with a calculated molecular mass of 64 kDa. The putative product includes so-called X and Y domains found in all PI-PLCs identified to date. In mammalian cells, there are three types of PI-PLC, PLC-beta, -gamma, and -delta. The overall structu...

  9. NIH 3T3 cells stably transfected with the gene encoding phosphatidylcholine-hydrolyzing phospholipase C from Bacillus cereus acquire a transformed phenotype.

    OpenAIRE

    Johansen, T.; Bjørkøy, G; Overvatn, A; Diaz-Meco, M T; Traavik, T; Moscat, J

    1994-01-01

    In order to determine whether chronic elevation of intracellular diacylglycerol levels generated by hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine (PC) by PC-hydrolyzing phospholipase C (PC-PLC) is oncogenic, we generated stable transfectants of NIH 3T3 cells expressing the gene encoding PC-PLC from Bacillus cereus. We found that constitutive expression of this gene (plc) led to transformation of NIH 3T3 cells as evidenced by anchorage-independent growth in soft agar, formation of transformed foci in tiss...

  10. PLC technologies: present and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Katsunari

    2001-07-01

    Current performances and future prospects of functional planar lightwave circuits (PLCs) will be described. Channel numbers of AWGs have been dramatically increased up to 400ch in single wafer. In the multi-chip configuration, 1010 ch has been achieved with 10 GHz channel spacing. Although throughput of the transport can be increased to tera-bit level by the WDM technology, signal processing in the electrical layer becomes a serious problem due to its sped limit. Optical functional devices, therefore, are important for solving these issues. Various kinds of optical signal processing devices have been developed; they are, dispersion slope equalizers, PMD equalizers, temporal pulse shapers and optical label recognition circuits. Optical address signal recognition will be a key technology for future label- switched networks, where each router has to provide an ultrahigh throughput exceeding the electronic speed limits. We proposed a novel optical circuit for recognizing an optical pulse pattern, which is based on an optical digital- to-analog converter fabricated on a PLC. The circuit converts the optical pulse pattern to analog optical amplitude, and enables us to recognize the address.

  11. Plc Based Scrap Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Mishra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have implemented an automated scrap management system for Maintenance Department of Bharat Forge Ltd. Hadapsar, Pune. Bharat Forge is a well known industry for manufacturing of Crank Shaft and various kinds of axels. To manage the scrap & wastage during mass production is a tedious and time consuming job. Scrap Management System is used for storing the scrap & garbage. This Scrap Management System had several problem like huge manpower requirement, time due to which there may be chances of misoperation due to unawareness of handling the system. When any fault is generated due to locking or mechanical operating problem of limit switches, the whole operation can be halt. These flaws lead to increasing concern regarding safety operations and constant maintenance. The conventional system which is in use was developed with a relay logic to control all its operations. But due to bulkiness of the relay logic and number of wiring there are lot of problems during maintenance of the system. This leads to develop some efficient system which find a solution to the painstaking maintenance problems of relay logic, ease of handling, reduction of manpower, & nullify the storing problem of scrap. This can be satisfactorily achieved by replacing the old relay logic by a newly designed PLC system by us.

  12. PlcR1 and PlcR2 are putative calcium-binding proteins required for secretion of the hemolytic phospholipase C of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    OpenAIRE

    Cota-Gomez, A; Vasil, A I; Kadurugamuwa, J; Beveridge, T J; Schweizer, H. P.; Vasil, M L

    1997-01-01

    The plcHR operon of Pseudomonas aeruginosa includes the structural gene for the hemolytic phospholipase C,plcH (previously known as plcS), and two overlapping, in-phase, genes designated plcR1 and plcR2. Hemolytic and phospholipase C (PLC) activities produced by Escherichia coli and P. aeruginosa T7 expression systems were measured in strains carrying both plcH and plcR genes and in strains carrying each gene separately. When plcH was expressed by itself in the E. coli T7 system, the area of ...

  13. Modem -repeater for narrow band technology of PLC

    OpenAIRE

    Bednář, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Bachelor’s thesis is focused on PLC communications, particulary on PLC modem. For starters it is necessery to learn about basics of PLC, learn how is PLC transmited, advantages and disadvantages. In the next part i will focus on modem itself, choosing a suitable communication unit by given parameters, creating external circuits to adjust the signal for our purposes. At last i will design printed circuit, realize the modem and verify its funcionality.

  14. Dynamics of plc gene transcription and α-toxin production during growth of Clostridium perfringens strains with contrasting α-toxin production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard, Lone; Schramm, Andreas; Rudi, Knut;

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate transcription dynamics of the α-toxin-encoding plc gene relative to two housekeeping genes (gyrA and rplL) in batch cultures of three Clostridium perfringens strains with low, intermediate, and high levels of α-toxin production, respectively. The plc...... transcript level was always low in the low α-toxin producing strain. For the two other strains, plc transcription showed an inducible pattern and reached a maximum level in the late exponential growth phase. The transcription levels were however inversely correlated to α-toxin production for the two strains....... We propose that this discrepancy is due to differences in plc translation rates between the strains and that strain-specific translational rates therefore must be determined before α-toxin production can be extrapolated from transcript levels in C. perfringens....

  15. The Setup Programmable Logical Controller (PLC) and an asynchronous engine

    OpenAIRE

    Černý, David

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this Bachelor Thesis is to design a Setup using the Programmable Logic Controller (PLC). The five essential assignments were prepared using both digital and analog PLC?s inputs and outputs. The purpose of the assignments is to teach and demonstrate the functionality of the PLC Setup.

  16. Insertion- and Deletion-Associated Genetic Diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Phospholipase C-Encoding Genes among 106 Clinical Isolates from Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Talarico, Sarah; Durmaz, Riza; Yang, Zhenhua

    2005-01-01

    Bacterial phospholipase C has been reported to play a role in the pathogenesis of many bacteria. In order to gain a better understanding of the potential role of Mycobacterium tuberculosis phospholipase C in the pathogenesis of human tuberculosis, we investigated the genetic diversity of the four M. tuberculosis phospholipase C-encoding genes (plcA, plcB, plcC, and plcD) resulting from the IS6110 insertion and associated deletion, among 106 clinical isolates obtained from Turkey, by using PCR...

  17. Amersham International plc. Report and Accounts 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Annual Report and Accounts for Amersham International plc for the year 1995 are presented. This leading health science company develops products, services and technologies based on its expertise in labelling and detection at the molecular level. Recent work in the fields of life science research, nuclear medicine and industrial quality and safety assurance are described. (UK)

  18. PLC based Smart Street Lighting Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V.Pushpa Latha

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Conventional street lighting systems in most of the areas are Online at regular intervals of time irrespective of the seasonal variations. The street lights are simply switched on at afternoon and turned off in the morning. The consequence is that a large amount of Power is wasted meaninglessly. As energy consumption is an issue of increasing interest, possible energy savings in public street lighting systems are recently discussed from different viewpoints. The purpose of this work is to describe the Smart Street Lighting system, an approach to accomplish the demand for flexible public lighting systems using a Programmable Logic controller (PLC. The main difference from other computers is that PLCs are armoured for severe conditions such as dust, moisture, heat, cold etc., and have the facility for extensive input/output (I/O arrangements. In the proposed paper, street lights are controlled using millennium 3 PLC taking the seasonal variations into consideration.

  19. Power Management using PLC and SCADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambarish A. Salodkar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Operation, control and protection system can be implemented to cover various industries starting from small scale industries to wide area operation and controlling. Power Control operation with Supervisory Control Data Acquisition (SCADA System is mandatory to run smooth heater control in industries. High scale SCADA system with enhanced features not only used for wide area system operation, but also covers Distribution Management System (DMS, Energy Management System (EMS, various Network Applications and Metering Management systems. This implementation includes power management for such industries using PLC and SCADA system. Control algorithm measures critical parameters and adjust variable outputs to optimize power by turning ON/OFF the heater with improved performance. Further electricity cost further reduces by around 5�20PLC and SCADA is used to model and realize the complete system and perform the experiment for result analysis.

  20. Practical application with plc in manipulation of a robotic arm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Barz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the use of a robotic arm PLC Siemens in order not using CNC commands. This is done by programming the PLC ladder diagram language that makes movement on the three axes of the arm by means of stepper motors. Required command console PLC is built with the help of a touch screen HMI Weintek. In the user interface are introduced distances and displacement speeds on the three axes.

  1. The use of compact programmable controllers (PLC) for measuring applications

    OpenAIRE

    Burda, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to determine the extent to which one can use compact PLC technology for measurement applications. The first chapter "Programmable Logic Controllers" describes the basic functions and structure of PLC. The next chapter provides a brief list of compact PLC series produced by different manufacturers which are usable for measurement applications. With the selected automat I performed some measurement and present an evaluation of the results. The last chapt...

  2. Intelligent traffic control system using PLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barz, C.; Todea, C.; Latinovic, T.; Preradovic, D. M.; Deaconu, S.; Berdie, A.

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents the traffic control system controlled through a PLC which takes the signals from different sensors on roads. The global system developed ensures the coordination of four intersections, setting a path that respects coordination type green light, the integration of additional sensors, the implementation of probes radar to inform traffic participants about recommended speed for accessing the green state located in the intersection that will follow to cross.

  3. 76 FR 44079 - M (2003) PLC (f/k/a Marconi PLC), Mayfair Mining & Minerals, Inc., MM2 Group, Inc., Nayna...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION M (2003) PLC (f/k/a Marconi PLC), Mayfair Mining & Minerals, Inc.,MM2 Group, Inc., Nayna Networks... current and accurate information concerning the securities of M (2003) PLC (f/k/a Marconi PLC) because...

  4. An Evolutionarily Conserved PLC-PKD-TFEB Pathway for Host Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najibi, Mehran; Labed, Sid Ahmed; Visvikis, Orane; Irazoqui, Javier Elbio

    2016-05-24

    The mechanisms that tightly control the transcription of host defense genes have not been fully elucidated. We previously identified TFEB as a transcription factor important for host defense, but the mechanisms that regulate TFEB during infection remained unknown. Here, we used C. elegans to discover a pathway that activates TFEB during infection. Gene dkf-1, which encodes a homolog of protein kinase D (PKD), was required for TFEB activation in nematodes infected with Staphylococcus aureus. Conversely, pharmacological activation of PKD was sufficient to activate TFEB. Furthermore, phospholipase C (PLC) gene plc-1 was also required for TFEB activation, downstream of Gαq homolog egl-30 and upstream of dkf-1. Using reverse and chemical genetics, we discovered a similar PLC-PKD-TFEB axis in Salmonella-infected mouse macrophages. In addition, PKCα was required in macrophages. These observations reveal a previously unknown host defense signaling pathway, which has been conserved across one billion years of evolution.

  5. Development of tools for automatic generation of PLC code

    CERN Document Server

    Koutli, Maria; Rochez, Jacques

    This Master thesis was performed at CERN and more specifically in the EN-ICE-PLC section. The Thesis describes the integration of two PLC platforms, that are based on CODESYS development tool, to the CERN defined industrial framework, UNICOS. CODESYS is a development tool for PLC programming, based on IEC 61131-3 standard, and is adopted by many PLC manufacturers. The two PLC development environments are, the SoMachine from Schneider and the TwinCAT from Beckhoff. The two CODESYS compatible PLCs, should be controlled by the SCADA system of Siemens, WinCC OA. The framework includes a library of Function Blocks (objects) for the PLC programs and a software for automatic generation of the PLC code based on this library, called UAB. The integration aimed to give a solution that is shared by both PLC platforms and was based on the PLCOpen XML scheme. The developed tools were demonstrated by creating a control application for both PLC environments and testing of the behavior of the code of the library.

  6. 在系统设计中学习PLC%Learning PLC in the system design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张旭

    2012-01-01

    For vocational schools PLC teaching, the main focus on the ladder diagram, Instruction List, Sequential Function Chart programming, while ignoring the overall design of the PLC controlling system, causing the students can not really learn the PLC. By a complete design instance of simulating crossroads traffic light system on the remote monitoring and controlling, based on $7-200 Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) of Siemens and KingView 6.53. It describes the effect of the system design in the learning of PLC courses. It is favourable for further motivating students' initiative of self-independent studying and for comprehensively understanding and mastering of theoretical knowledge so as to make students really master PLC.%针对当今职业院校PLC教学中,主要侧重于梯形图、语句表、顺序功能图的程序设计.而忽略了PLC控制系统的整体设计,造成学生不能真正学懂PLC的问题,通过一个完整的基于S7—200可编程控制器和组态王6.53软件的远程监控十字路口交通灯模拟系统设计实例,阐述了学生完成系统设计在PLC课程学习中的作用在于。有利于进一步调动学生自主学习的积极性,有利于全面理解和掌握理论知识,使学生真正掌握PLC。

  7. Equity valuation : Rolls-Royce PLC

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca, Mafalda Filipa Sousa

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to evaluate Rolls-Royce PLC. In order to do so, two valuation methodologies will be presented. The first one regards the Discount Cash Flow – WACC methodology, where each sector of the company is valued. By doing so, it is possible to reach a price per share of 1369 pence. Therefore, when using this methodology, the company is presented as a buying opportunity (the market yields a price of 1112 pence.) The second valuation presented and which is introduced ...

  8. Cascade model of power lines for PLC

    OpenAIRE

    Dziura, Michal

    2012-01-01

    This bachelor´s thesis deals with studies of power-line in terms of possibilities for using grid as a transmission medium for data transmission. Theoretical part is focused on PLC technology and the parameters of high-voltage lines. In very practical part the modeling of power-line by cascade parameters of two-port network is examined. Influence of va-rious changes in network topology are included in this thesis and also their influence on transfer function. The last part outlines the method ...

  9. PLC Based Automatic Multistoried Car Parking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swanand S .Vaze

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This project work presents the study and design of PLC based Automatic Multistoried Car Parking System. Multistoried car parking is an arrangement which is used to park a large number of vehicles in least possible place. For making this arrangement in a real plan very high technological instruments are required. In this project a prototype of such a model is made. This prototype model is made for accommodating twelve cars at a time. Availability of the space for parking is detected by optical proximity sensor which is placed on the pallet. A motor controlled elevator is used to lift the cars. Elevator status is indicated by LED which is placed on ground floor. Controlling of the platforms and checking the vacancies is done by PLC. For unparking of car, keyboard is interfaced with the model for selection of required platform. Automation is done to reduce requirement of space and also to reduce human errors, which in-turn results in highest security and greatest flexibility. Due to these advantages, this system can be used in hotels, railway stations, airports where crowding of car is more.

  10. Activated PLC-γ1 is catalytically induced at LAT but activated PLC-γ1 is localized at both LAT- and TCR-containing complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Orcutt, Noemi; Vacaflores, Aldo; Connolly, Sean F; Bunnell, Stephen C; Houtman, Jon C D

    2014-04-01

    Phospholipase C-γ1 (PLC-γ1) is a key regulator of T cell receptor (TCR)-induced signaling. Activation of the TCR enhances PLC-γ1 enzymatic function, resulting in calcium influx and the activation of PKC family members and RasGRP. The current model is that phosphorylation of LAT tyrosine 132 facilitates the recruitment of PLC-γ1, leading to its activation and function at the LAT complex. In this study, we examined the phosphorylation kinetics of LAT and PLC-γ1 and the cellular localization of activated PLC-γ1. We observed that commencement of the phosphorylation of LAT tyrosine 132 and PLC-γ1 tyrosine 783 occurred simultaneously, supporting the current model. However, once begun, PLC-γ1 activation occurred more rapidly than LAT tyrosine 132. The association of LAT and PLC-γ1 was more transient than the interaction of LAT and Grb2 and a pool of activated PLC-γ1 translocated away from LAT to cellular structures containing the TCR. These studies demonstrate that LAT and PLC-γ1 form transient interactions that catalyze the activation of PLC-γ1, but that activated PLC-γ1 resides in both LAT and TCR clusters. Together, this work highlights that our current model is incomplete and the activation and function of PLC-γ1 in T cells is highly complex.

  11. The PlcR virulence regulon of Bacillus cereus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Gohar

    Full Text Available PlcR is a Bacillus cereus transcriptional regulator, which activates gene expression by binding to a nucleotidic sequence called the 'PlcR box'. To build a list of all genes included in the PlcR regulon, a consensus sequence was identified by directed mutagenesis. The reference strain ATCC14579 sequenced genome was searched for occurrences of this consensus sequence to produce a virtual regulon. PlcR control of these genes was confirmed by comparing gene expression in the reference strain and its isogenic Delta-plcR strain using DNA microarrays, lacZ fusions and proteomics methods. The resulting list included 45 genes controlled by 28 PlcR boxes. Forty of the PlcR controlled proteins were exported, of which 22 were secreted in the extracellular medium and 18 were bound or attached to cell wall structures (membrane or peptidoglycan layer. The functions of these proteins were related to food supply (phospholipases, proteases, toxins, cell protection (bacteriocins, toxins, transporters, cell wall biogenesis and environment-sensing (two-component sensors, chemotaxis proteins, GGDEF family regulators. Four genes coded for cytoplasmic regulators. The PlcR regulon appears to integrate a large range of environmental signals, including food deprivation and self cell-density, and regulate the transcription of genes designed to overcome obstacles that hinder B. cereus growth within the host: food supply, host barriers, host immune defenses, and competition with other bacterial species. PlcR appears to be a key component in the efficient adaptation of B. cereus to its host environment.

  12. The PLC Control System of Vacuum Resin Shot Dosing Equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Shao-ying; XU Yu; HE Zheng-wen

    2003-01-01

    The principle and working process of Vacuum Resin Shot Dosing Equipment(VRSDE) are analyzed and the characteristics of IP1612-220PLC (Programmable Logical Controller) are introduced briefly at first. Then the authors discuss the flow of program, the assignment of PLC I/O ports,the wiring diagram, and the ladder logic program of the PLC control system of VRSDE in detail.Some application issues of the system are accounted for in addition. Finally, according to the information acquired from users, the authors draw the conclusion: this system owns a high reliability and availability and greatly improves the automatic degree of VRDE.

  13. Pneumatic, PLC Controlled, Automotive Gear Shifting Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muntaser Momani

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a gear shifting mechanism was designed and applied to make the shifting process faster and less destructible for the driver. The new device must be reliable, has a small dimensions, low construction and maintenance cost. This paper aims to improve gear shifting process using devices as: a manual four speed gear box, four pneumatic double acting cylinders, four pneumatic two position five ways directional control valves, Programmable Logic Controller (PLC LOGO unit, an electrical motor, an electrical clutch, a belt, two pulleys, limit switches, push buttons, bulbs, a table (holder and power supply. According to suggested gear_ shifting method the driver can select the transmission gear ratio without moving his hands from the steering wheel by putting the gear shifting push buttons on the steering wheel. Using this method leaves to the driver the excitement of choosing the shifting moment.

  14. Programmable logic controller (PLC) for safety systems of nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A programmable logic controller (PLC) has been developed by RCnD, BARC for use in the safety critical systems in nuclear power plants. This PLC uses qualified hardware developed in RCnD for use in NPP. The programming software conforms to IEC-61131 part 3. The application programming is done on function block diagram (FBD) editor and the FBD is automatically converted into code in high level language (C / C++). This feature makes the application easily decipherable and therefore easily subjected to reviews and other validation techniques. The key to make quality software for use in nuclear systems is to enforce various standards in the design and development of the software, something, which is not possible to do with a commercially available PLC. This PLC with its software completely transparent lends itself to rigorous verification and validation easily

  15. Applying Model Checking to Industrial-Sized PLC Programs

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2079190; Darvas, Daniel; Blanco Vinuela, Enrique; Tournier, Jean-Charles; Bliudze, Simon; Blech, Jan Olaf; Gonzalez Suarez, Victor M

    2015-01-01

    Programmable logic controllers (PLCs) are embedded computers widely used in industrial control systems. Ensuring that a PLC software complies with its specification is a challenging task. Formal verification has become a recommended practice to ensure the correctness of safety-critical software but is still underused in industry due to the complexity of building and managing formal models of real applications. In this paper, we propose a general methodology to perform automated model checking of complex properties expressed in temporal logics (\\eg CTL, LTL) on PLC programs. This methodology is based on an intermediate model (IM), meant to transform PLC programs written in various standard languages (ST, SFC, etc.) to different modeling languages of verification tools. We present the syntax and semantics of the IM and the transformation rules of the ST and SFC languages to the nuXmv model checker passing through the intermediate model. Finally, two real cases studies of \\CERN PLC programs, written mainly in th...

  16. Functional analysis of the extended N-terminal region in PLC-δ1 (MlPLC-δ1) from the mud loach, Misgurnus mizolepis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Na Young; Ahn, Sang Jung; Kim, Moo-Sang; Seo, Jung Soo; Jung, Se Hwan; Park, Sung Hwan; Lee, Hyung Ho; Chung, Joon Ki

    2014-01-01

    Mud loach phospholipase C-δ1 (MlPLC-δ1) contains all the characteristic domains found in mammalian PLC-δ isozymes (pleckstrin homology domain, EF-hands, X–Y catalytic region, and C2 domain) as well as an extended 26-amino acid (aa)-long N-terminal region that is an alternative splice form of PLC-δ1 and is novel to vertebrate PLC-δ. In the present structure-function analysis, deletion of the extended N-terminal region caused complete loss of phosphatidylinositol (PI)- and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2)-hydrolyzing activity in MlPLC-δ1. Additionally, recombinant full-length MlPLC-δ1 PLC activity was reduced in a dose-dependent manner by coincubation with the 26-aa protein fragment. Using a protein-lipid overlay assay, both full-length MlPLC-δ1 and the 26-aa protein fragment had substantial affinity for PIP2, whereas deletion of the 26-aa region from MlPLC-δ1 (MlPLC-δ1-deletion) resulted in lower affinity for PIP2. These results suggest that the novel N-terminal exon of MlPLC-δ1 could play an important role in the regulation of PLC-δ1.

  17. PLC-δ1-Lf, a novel N-terminal extended phospholipase C-δ1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Na Young; Ahn, Sang Jung; Kim, Moo-Sang; Seo, Jung Soo; Kim, Bo Seong; Bak, Hye Jin; Lee, Jin Young; Park, Myoung-Ae; Park, Ju Hyeon; Lee, Hyung Ho; Chung, Joon Ki

    2013-10-10

    Phospholipase C-δ (PLC-δ), a key enzyme in phosphoinositide turnover, is involved in a variety of physiological functions. The widely expressed PLC-δ1 isoform is the best characterized and the most well understood phospholipase family member. However, the functional and molecular mechanisms of PLC-δ1 remain obscure. Here, we identified that the N-terminal region of mouse PLC-δ1 gene has two variants, a novel alternative splicing form, named as long form (mPLC-δ1-Lf) and the previously reported short form (mPLC-δ1-Sf), having exon 2 and exon 1, respectively, while both the gene variants share exons 3-16 for RNA transcription. Furthermore, the expression, identification and enzymatic characterization of the two types of PLC-δ1 genes were compared. Expression of mPLC-δ1-Lf was found to be tissue specific, whereas mPLC-δ1-Sf was widely distributed. The recombinant mPLC-δ1-Sf protein exhibited higher activity than recombinant mPLC-δ1-Lf protein. Although, the general catalytic and regulatory properties of mPLC-δ1-Lf are similar to those of PLC-δ1-Sf isozyme, the mPLC-δ1-Lf showed some distinct regulatory properties, such as tissue-specific expression and lipid binding specificity, particularly for phosphatidylserine.

  18. Modulace v PLC systémech

    OpenAIRE

    Procházka, Vít

    2008-01-01

    V bakalářské práci je popsán princip a způsob komunikace po elektrické napájecí síti PLC, možnosti využití, jak v průmyslových aplikacích, ale hlavně v širokopásmových systémech, které mohou představovat slibnou konkurenci k tradičním širokopásmovým přístupům, např. přípojkám xDSL, aniž by bylo nutné instalovat nové vodiče, WIFI. Jsou popsány problémy, které se mohou vyskytnout v komunikačním kanálu z hlediska elektromagnetické kompatibility a různých druhů rušení. Pro přenos datového signálu...

  19. File list: Oth.Plc.20.Crotonyl_lysine.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Plc.20.Crotonyl_lysine.AllCell mm9 TFs and others Crotonyl lysine Placenta http...://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Plc.20.Crotonyl_lysine.AllCell.bed ...

  20. File list: His.Plc.10.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Plc.10.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells mm9 Histone Placenta Trophoblast giant cel...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Plc.10.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells.bed ...

  1. File list: His.Plc.50.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Plc.50.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells mm9 Histone Placenta Trophoblast giant cel...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Plc.50.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells.bed ...

  2. File list: His.Plc.20.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Plc.20.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells mm9 Histone Placenta Trophoblast giant cel...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Plc.20.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells.bed ...

  3. File list: His.Plc.05.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Plc.05.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells mm9 Histone Placenta Trophoblast giant cel...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Plc.05.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells.bed ...

  4. Efficient Implementation of a Symbol Timing Estimator for Broadband PLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nombela, Francisco; García, Enrique; Mateos, Raúl; Hernández, Álvaro

    2015-08-21

    Broadband Power Line Communications (PLC) have taken advantage of the research advances in multi-carrier modulations to mitigate frequency selective fading, and their adoption opens up a myriad of applications in the field of sensory and automation systems, multimedia connectivity or smart spaces. Nonetheless, the use of these multi-carrier modulations, such as Wavelet-OFDM, requires a highly accurate symbol timing estimation for reliably recovering of transmitted data. Furthermore, the PLC channel presents some particularities that prevent the direct use of previous synchronization algorithms proposed in wireless communication systems. Therefore more research effort should be involved in the design and implementation of novel and robust synchronization algorithms for PLC, thus enabling real-time synchronization. This paper proposes a symbol timing estimator for broadband PLC based on cross-correlation with multilevel complementary sequences or Zadoff-Chu sequences and its efficient implementation in a FPGA; the obtained results show a 90% of success rate in symbol timing estimation for a certain PLC channel model and a reduced resource consumption for its implementation in a Xilinx Kyntex FPGA.

  5. Investigation of PLC band nucleation in AA5754

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Simultaneous propagation of bands in transverse and longitudinal directions. ► PLC band nucleation at the back front of Lüders bands. ► Characteristic time of critical strain decreases with strain rate. ► Simultaneous existence of two type-B bands at specimen shoulder. - Abstract: The purpose of the present work is the experimental investigation of the nucleation of PLC deformation bands in the aluminium alloy AA5754. The PLC bands are investigated using both mechanical methods and infrared (IR) thermography. The latter employs a high-speed IR camera which captures local changes of radiated power resulting from mechanical dissipation and heating due to the nucleation of PLC bands. The resulting IR images are used to determine spatio-temporal power field variations via image subtraction. Furthermore, band trajectories obtained from the IR images are used to study possible correlations between the spatio-temporal evolution of stress and radiated power in the specimens and PLC band development.

  6. Efficient Implementation of a Symbol Timing Estimator for Broadband PLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Nombela

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Broadband Power Line Communications (PLC have taken advantage of the research advances in multi-carrier modulations to mitigate frequency selective fading, and their adoption opens up a myriad of applications in the field of sensory and automation systems, multimedia connectivity or smart spaces. Nonetheless, the use of these multi-carrier modulations, such as Wavelet-OFDM, requires a highly accurate symbol timing estimation for reliably recovering of transmitted data. Furthermore, the PLC channel presents some particularities that prevent the direct use of previous synchronization algorithms proposed in wireless communication systems. Therefore more research effort should be involved in the design and implementation of novel and robust synchronization algorithms for PLC, thus enabling real-time synchronization. This paper proposes a symbol timing estimator for broadband PLC based on cross-correlation with multilevel complementary sequences or Zadoff-Chu sequences and its efficient implementation in a FPGA; the obtained results show a 90% of success rate in symbol timing estimation for a certain PLC channel model and a reduced resource consumption for its implementation in a Xilinx Kyntex FPGA.

  7. Accounting Ratios and Bankruptcy Prediction: Woolworths Geoup PLC as A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Okuguni, Anthony I

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT This research attempts to ascertain the predictive ability of accounting ratios using Woolworths Group plc. This was achieved by carrying out Financial Ratio Analysis, Altman Z-score, Robertson R-ratio and Trend Analysis of Woolworths Group plc. In addition, the causes of bankruptcy at Woolworths Group plc would be ascertained. Finally the research would use mathematical models to ascertain the predictability of bankruptcy at Woolworths Group plc. The main findings of this re...

  8. Reciprocal regulation of transcription factors and PLC isozyme gene expression in adult cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singal, Tushi; Dhalla, Naranjan S; Tappia, Paramjit S

    2010-06-01

    By employing a pharmacological approach, we have shown that phospholipase C (PLC) activity is involved in the regulation of gene expression of transcription factors such as c-Fos and c-Jun in cardiomyocytes in response to norepinephrine (NE). However, there is no information available regarding the identity of specific PLC isozymes involved in the regulation of c-Fos and c-Jun or on the involvement of these transcription factors in PLC isozyme gene expression in adult cardiomyocytes. In this study, transfection of cardiomyocytes with PLC isozyme specific siRNA was found to prevent the NE-mediated increases in the corresponding PLC isozyme gene expression, protein content and activity. Unlike PLC gamma(1) gene, silencing of PLC beta(1), beta(3) and delta(1) genes with si RNA prevented the increases in c-Fos and c-Jun gene expression in response to NE. On the other hand, transfection with c-Jun si RNA suppressed the NE-induced increase in c-Jun as well as PLC beta(1), beta(3) and delta(1) gene expression, but had no effect on PLC gamma(1) gene expression. Although transfection of cardiomyocytes with c-Fos si RNA prevented NE-induced expression of c-Fos, PLC beta(1) and PLC beta(3) genes, it did not affect the increases in PLC delta(1) and PLC gamma(1) gene expression. Silencing of either c-Fos or c-Jun also depressed the NE-mediated increases in PLC beta(1), beta(3) and gamma(1) protein content and activity in an isozyme specific manner. Furthermore, silencing of all PLC isozymes as well as of c-Fos and c-Jun resulted in prevention of the NE-mediated increase in atrial natriuretic factor gene expression. These findings, by employing gene silencing techniques, demonstrate that there occurs a reciprocal regulation of transcription factors and specific PLC isozyme gene expression in cardiomyocytes.

  9. MIMO communications for inhome PLC networks: measurements and results up to 100 MHz

    OpenAIRE

    HASHMAT, Rehan; Pagani, Pascal; CHONAVEL, Thierry

    2010-01-01

    Power Line Communications (PLC) is used for information exchange over the lines installed for delivering the electrical power. Inhome PLC is a technology which delivers telecom services to every corner of a household through already existing electrical wiring. In recent years, PLC has emerged as a potential candidate for domestic high bit rate services. The current inhome PLC technology, based on Single-Input Single-Output (SISO) configuration, under achieves the capacity offered by the physi...

  10. Global regulator Anr represses PlcH phospholipase activity in Pseudomonas aeruginosa when oxygen is limiting

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Angelyca A.; Daniels, Emily F.; Hammond, John H.; Willger, Sven D.; Hogan, Deborah A.

    2014-01-01

    Haemolytic phospholipase C (PlcH) is a potent virulence and colonization factor that is expressed at high levels by Pseudomonas aeruginosa within the mammalian host. The phosphorylcholine liberated from phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin by PlcH is further catabolized into molecules that both support growth and further induce plcH expression. We have shown previously that the catabolism of PlcH-released choline leads to increased activity of Anr, a global transcriptional regulator that pro...

  11. 76 FR 29814 - Statutory Debarment and Reinstatement of BAE Systems plc

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-23

    ... Statutory Debarment and Reinstatement of BAE Systems plc Bureau of Political-Military Affairs; Statutory Debarment and Reinstatement of BAE Systems plc and Policy of Denial Concerning Certain Non-U.S. Subsidiaries... BAE Systems plc (``BAES'') as a result of its conviction of conspiracy (18 U.S.C. 371) to...

  12. Prototype of Automated PLC Model Checking Using Continuous Integration Tools

    CERN Document Server

    Lettrich, Michael

    2015-01-01

    To deal with the complexity of operating and supervising large scale industrial installations at CERN, often Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) are used. A failure in these control systems can cause a disaster in terms of economic loses, environmental damages or human losses. Therefore the requirements to software quality are very high. To provide PLC developers with a way to verify proper functionality against requirements, a Java tool named PLCverif has been developed which encapsulates and thus simplifies the use of third party model checkers. One of our goals in this project is to integrate PLCverif in development process of PLC programs. When the developer changes the program, all the requirements should be verified again, as a change on the code can produce collateral effects and violate one or more requirements. For that reason, PLCverif has been extended to work with Jenkins CI in order to trigger automatically the verication cases when the developer changes the PLC program. This prototype has been...

  13. Hitsausprosessin 3D-simulointi PLC-rajapinnalla

    OpenAIRE

    Ali-Jaakkola, Ilmari

    2016-01-01

    Tämän insinöörityön tilaajana oli Visual Components Oy, joka tuottaa tehdassimulointiohjelmia. Työn tarkoituksena oli simuloida hitsausprosessi, jota ohjataan PLC:llä, ja tehdä tutoriaali PLC:n liittämisestä simulaatioon. Työssä tarkastellaan tehdassimulaatioita sekä niihin usein yhdistettyä etäohjelmointia, virtuaalista käyttöönottoa ja PLC:tä. Lisäksi tutustutaan 3DAutomate tehdassimulaatio-ohjelman käyttämiseen, josta käydään läpi kappaleen luominen ja muokkaaminen sekä simulaation rak...

  14. Opravdanost primjene PLC-a za "manje" aplikacije

    OpenAIRE

    Srpak, Dunja

    2008-01-01

    Primjena programabilnog logičkog upravljača (u daljnjem tekstu PLC, od engl. Programmable Logic Controller) u automatizaciji danas je već znatno raširena, moglo bi se reći "nije ništa novo". Ipak, kad se kaže da je upravljanje nekim strojem, uređajem ili postrojenjem izvedeno PLC-om, većina automatski očekuje kompliciranu i svakako skupu automatiku. Istina je da ozbiljnije, složenije i zahtjevnije izvedbe upravljačkih sklopova danas podrazumijevaju primjenu PLC-a, čak i više njih umreženih u ...

  15. Performance Evaluation of CE-OFDM in PLC Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Ghzaoui Mohammed

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available One major drawback associated with an OFDM system is that the transmitter’s output signal may have a high peak-to-average ratio (PAPR. High levels of PAR may be a limiting factor for power line communication (PLC where regulatory bodies have fixed the maximum amount of transmit power. To overcome this problem, many approaches have been presented in the literature. One potential solution for reducing the peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR in an OFDM system is to utilize a constant envelope OFDM (CE-OFDM system. This paper describes a CE-OFDM based modem for Power Line Communications (PLC over the low voltage distribution network. The impact of the electrical appliances on the signal transmission is investigated. The good performances of the BER have been checked by the simulation platform of real PLC channel using Matlab. Finally, CE-OFDM-CPM is compared with conventional OFDM under HomePlug AV.

  16. Transforming PLC Programs into Formal Models for Verification Purposes

    CERN Document Server

    Darvas, D; Blanco, E

    2013-01-01

    Most of CERN’s industrial installations rely on PLC-based (Programmable Logic Controller) control systems developed using the UNICOS framework. This framework contains common, reusable program modules and their correctness is a high priority. Testing is already applied to find errors, but this method has limitations. In this work an approach is proposed to transform automatically PLC programs into formal models, with the goal of applying formal verification to ensure their correctness. We target model checking which is a precise, mathematical-based method to check formalized requirements automatically against the system.

  17. Model-based automated testing of critical PLC programs.

    CERN Document Server

    Fernández Adiego, B; Tournier, J-C; González Suárez, V M; Bliudze, S

    2014-01-01

    Testing of critical PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) programs remains a challenging task for control system engineers as it can rarely be automated. This paper proposes a model based approach which uses the BIP (Behavior, Interactions and Priorities) framework to perform automated testing of PLC programs developed with the UNICOS (UNified Industrial COntrol System) framework. This paper defines the translation procedure and rules from UNICOS to BIP which can be fully automated in order to hide the complexity of the underlying model from the control engineers. The approach is illustrated and validated through the study of a water treatment process.

  18. 78 FR 23316 - The Royal Bank of Scotland plc, et al.; Notice of Application and Temporary Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ... COMMISSION The Royal Bank of Scotland plc, et al.; Notice of Application and Temporary Order April 12, 2013.... APPLICANTS: The Royal Bank of Scotland plc (``RBS plc''), Citizens Investment Advisors (``Citizens IA''), a... Exchange Commission, 100 F Street NE., Washington, DC 20549-1090. Applicants: RBS plc, RBS, Gogarburn,...

  19. Activation of the latent PlcR regulon in Bacillus anthracis

    OpenAIRE

    Sastalla, Inka; Maltese, Lauren M.; Pomerantseva, Olga M.; Pomerantsev, Andrei P; Keane-Myers, Andrea; Stephen H Leppla

    2010-01-01

    Many genes in Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis are under the control of the transcriptional regulator PlcR and its regulatory peptide, PapR. In Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, PlcR is inactivated by truncation, and consequently genes having PlcR binding sites are expressed at very low levels when compared with B. cereus. We found that activation of the PlcR regulon in B. anthracis by expression of a PlcR–PapR fusion protein does not alter sporulation in strains c...

  20. A single substitution in 5'-untranslated region of plcB is involved in enhanced broad-range phospholipase C activity in Listeria monocytogenes strain H4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Bai; Jianshun Chen; Qiaomiao Chen; Xiaokai Luo; Weihuan Fang; Lingli Jiang

    2011-01-01

    To examine whether the in vitro phospholipase activity in Listeria monocytogenes strain H4 was due to two nucleotide mutations (C to T at position -26 and A to G at position + 1) in plcB or resulted from regulatory activation, two mutants H4-plcB-ml (single mutation at position -26) and H4-plcB-m2 (substitution at both positions) were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis. It was found that the two mutants had significantly lower transcription of plcB than their parent strain H4 and did not show phospho-Hpase activity on the egg yolk agar, implying that the apparent phospholipase activity of strain H4 could be related to single substitution at position -26 ofplcB, most probably by its 5t-untranslated region (5'-UTR) regulation mechanism. Tn917-based transposon mutagenesis generated eight L. monocytogenes mutants lacking phospholipase activity among 560 mutant candidates. Seven mutants had transposon insertion into prfA (encoding positive regulatory factor A) open reading frame, whereas only one mutant (WF-L127) was inserted into the P1 promoter region ofprfA (prfAP1). Transcription of major virulence genes was significantly lower in both types of mutants than in their parent strain H4. Disruption of prfAP1 in WFL127 abolished its phospholipase C activity but did not change its hemolytic phenotype, indicating that plcB was more dependent on prfA regulation than hly. Taken together, this study presents some evidence for the regulation ofplcB expression by its 5'-UTR mechanism.

  1. Activated PLC-γ1 is Catalytically Induced at LAT but Activated PLC-γ1 is Localized at both LAT- and TCR-Containing Complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz-Orcutt, Noemi; Vacaflores, Aldo; Connolly, Sean F.; Bunnell, Stephen C.; Houtman, Jon C.D.

    2014-01-01

    Phospholipase C-γ1 (PLC-γ1) is a key regulator of T cell receptor (TCR)-induced signaling. Activation of the TCR enhances PLC-γ1 enzymatic function, resulting in calcium influx and the activation of PKC family members and RasGRP. The current model is that phosphorylation of LAT tyrosine 132 facilitates the recruitment of PLC-γ1, leading to its activation and function at the LAT complex. In this study, we examined the phosphorylation kinetics of LAT and PLC-γ1 and the cellular localization of ...

  2. Multiprog Virtual Laboratory Applied to PLC Programming Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyr, Wen-Jye

    2010-01-01

    This study develops a Multiprog virtual laboratory for a mechatronics education designed to teach how to programme a programmable logic controller (PLC). The study was carried out with 34 students in the Department of Industry Education and Technology at National Changhua University of Education in Taiwan. In total, 17 students were assigned to…

  3. PowerGen plc report and accounts 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual report and accounts of PowerGen plc for the year 1994 are presented. Financial highlights are quoted, followed by the Chairman's statement, reviews by the Chief Executive and Financial Directors, reports by the Auditors and Directors, balance sheets and details of the consolidated profit and loss account and principal accounting policies. A four year summary and shareholder information are included. (UK)

  4. Integration of the HVCM PLC into the PEFP Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Young Gi; Jang, Ji Ho; Kwon, Hyeok Jung; Cho, Yong Sub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    The High Voltage Converter Modulators (HVCM) for the 100-MeV accelerator was installed to drive the 20-MeV linac. There are two klystrons in the 20-MeV linac and one modulator was used to drive two klystrons simultaneously. The HVCM for the 20-MeV linac area in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is shown in Fig. 1. We were faced with the necessity of integrating Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) for the HVCM into the Proton Engineering Frontier Project (PEFP) control system. At the PEFP, Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) has become the most widely used solution for building control systems for 100MeV proton accelerator. The EPICS as a standard development tool is a distributed architecture that provides several solutions such as independent programming tools for operating system, operator interface tools, and archiving tools. Although EPICS is used directly in our control system, HVCMs were delivered with the Allen-Bradley ControlLogix as a PLC. The industrial PLC has been verified for safety systems. We need to connect an interface from our EPICS control system to AB-PLC using Ethernet/IP (ControlNet over Ethernet) protocol over Ethernet. In this paper, we will present the communication protocol and EPICS IOC installation for the EPICS based PLC control system

  5. Integration of the HVCM PLC into the PEFP Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The High Voltage Converter Modulators (HVCM) for the 100-MeV accelerator was installed to drive the 20-MeV linac. There are two klystrons in the 20-MeV linac and one modulator was used to drive two klystrons simultaneously. The HVCM for the 20-MeV linac area in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is shown in Fig. 1. We were faced with the necessity of integrating Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) for the HVCM into the Proton Engineering Frontier Project (PEFP) control system. At the PEFP, Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) has become the most widely used solution for building control systems for 100MeV proton accelerator. The EPICS as a standard development tool is a distributed architecture that provides several solutions such as independent programming tools for operating system, operator interface tools, and archiving tools. Although EPICS is used directly in our control system, HVCMs were delivered with the Allen-Bradley ControlLogix as a PLC. The industrial PLC has been verified for safety systems. We need to connect an interface from our EPICS control system to AB-PLC using Ethernet/IP (ControlNet over Ethernet) protocol over Ethernet. In this paper, we will present the communication protocol and EPICS IOC installation for the EPICS based PLC control system

  6. PI-PLC: Phosphoinositide-Phospholipase C in Plant Signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Munnik

    2014-01-01

    Historically, phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) to generate the second messengers, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG), which release Ca2+ from intracellular stores and activate member

  7. Úzkopásmová PLC komunikace se standardy G3-PLC, PRIME a IEEE-1901.2

    OpenAIRE

    Skrášek, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Diplomová práce pojednává o standardech úzkopásmové PLC komunikace. V teoretické části jsou popsány všechny dostupné OFDM standardy, mezi něž patří G3-PLC, PRIME, IEEE-1901.2 a G.hnem. Praktická část se zabývá standardy PRIME a G3-PLC. Dále je také porovnán systém OFDM se systémem komunikace na jedné nosné frekvenci v prostředí s reálným rušením. V poslední části je popsán návrh dvou firmware pro PLC modemy Texas Instruments TMDSPLCKIT-V3, které umožňují UART komunikaci a dálkový sběr dat. K ...

  8. The phenotype of a phospholipase C (plc-1) mutant in a filamentous fungus, Neurospora crassa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Roger R; Giblon, Rachel E; Lorenti, Miranda S H

    2015-09-01

    In the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa, phospholipase C may play a role in hyphal extension at the growing tips as part of a growth-sensing mechanism that activates calcium release from internal stores to mediate continued expansion of the hyphal tip. One candidate for a tip-localized phospholipase C is PLC-1. We characterized morphology and growth characteristics of a knockout mutant (KO plc-1) and a RIP mutated strain (RIP plc-1) (missense mutations and a nonsense mutation render the gene product non-functional). Growth and hyphal cytology of wildtype and KO plc-1 were similar, but the RIP plc-1 mutant grew slower and exhibited abnormal membrane structures at the hyphal tip, imaged using the fluorescence dye FM4-64. To test for causes of the slower growth of the RIP plc-1 mutant, we examined its physiological poise compared to wildtype and the KO plc-1 mutant. The electrical properties of all three strains and the electrogenic contribution of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase (identified by cyanide inhibition) were the same. Responses to high osmolarity were also similar. However, the RIP plc-1 mutant had a significantly lower turgor, a possible cause of its slower growth. While growth of all three strains was inhibited by the phospholipase C inhibitor 3-nitrocoumarin, the RIP plc-1 mutant did not exhibit hyphal bursting after addition of the inhibitor, observed in both wildtype and the KO plc-1 mutant. Although the plc-1 gene is not obligatory for tip growth, the phenotype of the RIP plc-1 mutant - abnormal tip cytology, lower turgor and resistance to inhibitor-induced hyphal bursting - suggest it does play a role in tip growth. The expression of a dysfunctional plc-1 gene may cause a shift to alternative mechanism(s) of growth sensing in hyphal extension. PMID:26212074

  9. Activation of the latent PlcR regulon in Bacillus anthracis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastalla, Inka; Maltese, Lauren M; Pomerantseva, Olga M; Pomerantsev, Andrei P; Keane-Myers, Andrea; Leppla, Stephen H

    2010-10-01

    Many genes in Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis are under the control of the transcriptional regulator PlcR and its regulatory peptide, PapR. In Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, PlcR is inactivated by truncation, and consequently genes having PlcR binding sites are expressed at very low levels when compared with B. cereus. We found that activation of the PlcR regulon in B. anthracis by expression of a PlcR-PapR fusion protein does not alter sporulation in strains containing the virulence plasmid pXO1 and thereby the global regulator AtxA. Using comparative 2D gel electrophoresis, we showed that activation of the PlcR regulon in B. anthracis leads to upregulation of many proteins found in the secretome of B. cereus, including phospholipases and proteases, such as the putative protease BA1995. Transcriptional analysis demonstrated expression of BA1995 to be dependent on PlcR-PapR, even though the putative PlcR recognition site of the BA1995 gene does not exactly match the PlcR consensus sequence, explaining why this protein had escaped recognition as belonging to the PlcR regulon. Additionally, while transcription of major PlcR-dependent haemolysins, sphingomyelinase and anthrolysin O is enhanced in response to PlcR activation in B. anthracis, only anthrolysin O contributes significantly to lysis of human erythrocytes. In contrast, the toxicity of bacterial culture supernatants from a PlcR-positive strain towards murine macrophages occurred independently of anthrolysin O expression in vitro and in vivo. PMID:20688829

  10. Design of PLC-based Traffic Light Monitoring System%基于 PLC 的交通灯监控系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵鹏; 荆红莉

    2016-01-01

    以 PC 机作为上位机,组态王软件作为上位机软件,三菱 PLC 作为下位机,组成一套以交通灯为被控对象的三菱 PLC 控制管理系统。通过对交通灯的时序分析、PLC 选项、I /O 分配及 PLC 接线等环节完成系统硬件设计;软件采用梯形图编写,实现在 PC机上启动、停止、在线修改信号灯时间、紧急情况处理及夜间模式切换等功能,达到 PC 机与 PLC 的实时交互。系统画面直观,能够模拟真实的控制现场,且操控方便,为系统的实际应用提供了可靠保障。%A Mitsubishi PLC control and management system is built up for control of traffic lights,using PC as upper computer,KingView as upper computer software and Mitsubishi PLC as lower computer.The system hardware design is completed through timing sequence analysis,PLC option,I /O distribution and PLC wiring.The software is compiled in ladder diagrams to perform such functions as start and stop through the PC,on-line modification of signal light time,emergency treatment and switch-over of night mode,so as to realize real-time interaction between the PC and PLC.This system with intuitive view can simulate actual control sites and is easy to operate, thus providing reliable guarantee for its actual application.

  11. A Software Agent for Automatic Creation of a PLC Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid M. Aly

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Using structured design techniques to design a Programmable Logical Control (PLC program would decrease the time needed for debugging and produces a concise bug free code. This study is concerned with the design of a software agent for automatic creation of code for a PLC program that can be downloaded on a Siemens Step 7 series. The code is generated according to the syntax rules for the AWL Language, AWL is the abbreviation for the germen word Anweisungsliste which means Instruction List The proposed system uses object oriented approach to transfer the design specification into an object that adequately describes the system using the state based design technique. The industrial system specifications are supplied by the user through a simple Graphical User Interface (GUI environment These specification define the attributes vales of an object oriented class describing the control system, all the functions needed to generate the code are encapsulated in the class.

  12. FORRBIDDEN STATE APPROACH FOR PETRI NETS USIGN PLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif AYBAR

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the forbidden state controller design approach is considered to realize by using PLC for Petri nets. First, the structure of the ordinary Petri nets is transfer to the ladder diagram form of PLC, a controller design for the forbidden states, the controlled ladder diagram is obtained such that information about the marking vector and the disabled transition, which are obtained by using the de-signed controller. The controlled ladder diagram is obtained such that the information which contains on the state and disabled transition, is added to the ladder diagram. In addition, the algorithm and steps are also given to add the designed controller to the ladder diagram. Consequently, the occurence of the forbidden states is avoided in the considered Petri net by the developed method.

  13. British Nuclear Fuels plc: report and accounts 1987-88

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Energy Committee has considered the report and accounts of BNFL (British Nuclear Fuels PLC) for the year 1987-88. The report looks at BNFL as a government owned PLC - its activities and financial performance. Various questions are raised about the underlying financial position justifying the optimism portrayed in the report and accounts. The impact of cost-plus contracts on UK customers is examined. The economics of THORP (Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant) are also examined especially as the escalation in the cost of constructing THORP means that a substantial loss will be made in the reprocessing of waste for which contracts were signed in the late 1960s or early 1970s. The main conclusions of the report are summarized. One of these is that the UK must be cautious about becoming a repository of foreign nuclear waste. Other specific recommendations are made - some about the decommissioning of BNFL plant. (UK)

  14. Bringing Automated Formal Verification to PLC Program Development

    CERN Document Server

    Fernández Adiego, Borja; Blanco Viñuela, Enrique

    Automation is the field of engineering that deals with the development of control systems for operating systems such as industrial processes, railways, machinery or aircraft without human intervention. In most of the cases, a failure in these control systems can cause a disaster in terms of economic losses, environmental damages or human losses. For that reason, providing safe, reliable and robust control systems is a first priority goal for control engineers. Ideally, control engineers should be able to guarantee that both software and hardware fulfill the design requirements. This is an enormous challenge in which industry and academia have been working and making progresses in the last decades. This thesis focuses on one particular type of control systems that operates industrial processes, the PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) - based control systems. Moreover it targets one of the main challenges for these systems, guaranteeing that PLC programs are compliant with their specifications. Traditionally ...

  15. Performance Evaluation of CE-OFDM in PLC Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El ghzaoui Mohammed, Belkadid Jamal, Benbassou Ali

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available One major drawback associated with an OFDM system is that the transmitter’soutput signal may have a high peak-to-average ratio (PAPR. High levels of PARmay be a limiting factor for power line communication (PLC where regulatorybodies have fixed the maximum amount of transmit power. To overcome thisproblem, many approaches have been presented in the literature. One potentialsolution for reducing the peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR in an OFDMsystem is to utilize a constant envelope OFDM (CE-OFDM system. This paperdescribes a CE-OFDM based modem for Power Line Communications (PLCover the low voltage distribution network. The impact of the electrical applianceson the signal transmission is investigated. The good performances of the BERhave been checked by the simulation platform of real PLC channel using Matlab.Finally, CE-OFDM-CPM is compared with conventional OFDM under HomePlugAV..

  16. Design of a Virtual PLC Using Lab View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muntaser Momani

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Using LabVIEW environment a trial has been made to create a set of programmable virtual instruments, which resemble the traditional PLC programmable functions and networks. The target of this work is to improve the programmability of PC-based control systems. Bringing the PLC to the industrial type computer it becomes possible to make use of the advantages of computer based DCSs. It will be possible to have unlimited number of programmable objects, and to run more than one program at the same time. By utilizing LabVIEW front panel it is an easy job to realize MMI as required, and by creating sub VIs the program becomes more compact and easier to debug.

  17. 78 FR 54149 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR) Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    ..., Amendment 39-17061 (77 FR 31176, May 25, 2012), and adding the following new AD: 2013-15-10 Rolls-Royce plc...-17061 (77 FR 31176, May 25, 2012). (c) Applicability This AD applies to Rolls-Royce plc (RR) RB211-Trent... approved for IBR on June 29, 2012, (77 FR 31176, May 25, 2012). (i) Rolls-Royce plc RB211 Trent 700...

  18. Fifth Baltic Sea pollution load compilation (PLC-5)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knuuttila, S.; Svendsen, L.M.; Staaf, H.; Kotilainen, P.; Boutrup, S.; Pyhala, M.; Durkin, M.

    2011-07-01

    This report includes the main results from the Fifth Pollution Load Compilation abbreviated PLC-5. It includes quantified annual waterborne total loads (from rivers, unmonitored and coastal areas as well as direct point and diffuse sources discharging directly to the Baltic Sea) from 1994 to 2008 to provide a basis for evaluating any decreasing (or increasing) trends in the total waterborne inputs to the Baltic Sea. Chapter 1 contains the objectives of PLC and the framework on classification of inputs and sources. Chapter 2 includes a short description of the Baltic Sea catchment area, while the methods for quantification and analysis together with quality assurance topics are briefly introduced in Chapter 3. More detailed information on methodologies is presented in the PLC-5 guidelines (HELCOM 2006). Chapter 4 reports the total inputs to the Baltic Sea of nutrients and selected heavy metals. Furthermore, the results of the quatification of discharges and losses of nitrogen and phosphorus from point and diffuse sources into inland surface waters within the Baltic Sea catchment area (source-oriented approach or gross loads) as well as the total load to the maritime area (load-oriented approarch or net loads) in 2006 are shown. Typically, results are presented by country and by main Baltic Sea sub-region. In Chapter 5, flow normalization is introduced and the results of trend analyses on 1994-2008 time series data on total waterborne loads of nitrogen and phosphorus are given together with a first evaluation of progress in obtaining the provisional reduction targets by country and by main Baltic Sea sub-region. Chapter 6 includes discussion of some of the main conclusions and advice for future PLCs. The annexes contain the flow-normalized annual load data and figures and tables with results from the PLC-5.

  19. Articulating Factors Defining RMS Delay Spread in LV PLC Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Sabih Güzelgöz; Hasan Basri Çelebi; Hüseyin Arslan

    2010-01-01

    Communication over the power line network (PLN) referred as power line communication (PLC) has a long history of narrowband applications. With the recent developments in the field of digital communications, current interest is to exploit this medium for wideband communications for several applications such as Internet access, home networking, and in-vehicle data communication. In line with this recently emerging interest which envisions the conversion of a power transmission netwo...

  20. Improving work efficiency in Traffic Planning : Finnair Plc

    OpenAIRE

    Tonteri, Antti

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present thesis was to find out the most important improvement areas in the work of Traffic Planning team, which is part of Resource Management department at Finnair Plc. Finnair is a Finnish commercial airline focusing on the traffic between Europe and Asia. The team members have reported dissatisfaction about the working environment especially during the last two years. The objective of this this study was to identify the main problem areas and find solution(s) to improve ...

  1. PLC BASED RATIO CONTROLLER AND MATERIAL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Badwaik Prof. V. M. Umale

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Automation in an industry using programmable logic controller (PLC can be enumerated by optimizing the use of process control equipment, decreases the response time for process and equipment contingencies, provides information about process status, manages process logic at the plant floor level and increases overall productivity and plant efficiency. The primary reason for designing such a system is to eliminate large cost involved in replacing complicated relay based machine control system & to reduce process time. Ratio control system is feed forward system where one variable is controlled in ratio to another to satisfy some higher level objectives. Two difference chemicals are supplied from different tanks in proper ratio by maintaining the flow of quantity. Then desired mixture is obtained &checks the ratio of composition if any unbalanced, controlled by controlled values of supply tanks. Then this mixture is distributed as per requirements. In Industries for ten machines, total cycle time with existing PLC based system is 75 sec. But our modified PLC based system total cycle time is improved as 45 sec. Hence total reach time of distribution system is improved.

  2. PLC based control system and maintenance activities at NCAR, Bilaspur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 3.0 MV high current low energy Pelletron Accelerator facility (Model 9SDH-4, NEC, USA) with TORUIS (ion source for H+ and He2+ beam current H+ ion ∼ 50μA @ 6 MeV, He2+ at ∼ 10μA) and SNICS-II ion source for heavy ions has been commissioned as 'National Centre for Accelerator Based Research' in the Department of Pure and Applied Physics, Guru Ghasidas Vishwavidyalaya. In this paper, we detail out the control system developed and implemented at NCAR. The basic idea of controlling the machine is by providing the output signal through PLC to ACPC of accelerator using user interface points provided by the manufacturer. The PLC based system generates output signal once it receives the feedback signals from search and secure switches, door lock switches and scram switches interlocked with PLC. The output is controlled by ladder logic and is activated only when all the radiation monitors are in healthy state and outside radiations monitor having low radiation level. The details of control system and maintenance activities will be discussed in the paper

  3. A study of PLC system vulnerability checklists in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because the design of the PLCs (Programmable Logic Controller) in the I and C (Instrument and Control) systems for NPP (Nuclear Power Plant) were carried out independently, the problems of cyber security were not addressed in the PLC system designs. Recently, the analysis and the countermeasure development for the PLC systems became mandatory due to the developments in cyber attack techniques and the increasingly revealed vulnerability to such attacks. A comparative analysis on the cyber security checklist of PLC in industry control system and in NPP systems was carried out, and in this paper, the cyber security regulatory trend and the PLC usage status are described

  4. Process operation and control by PLC system for Kroll's reduction of ZrCl4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For automatic monitoring and control of pressure and temperature of Kroll's reduction of zirconium chloride, the PLC system has been designed, manufactured, installed and commissioned for one reduction unit at ZSP. The unit has been successfully in use on line with PLC for about one hundred batches. The safety features have been ascertained for regular use of PLC with provision of manual overide, in case of any malfunctioning. The paper is the review of performance and functioning of the system to include the additional features of the PLC for the remaining four such units. (author)

  5. Phospholipase C-η1 is activated by intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization and enhances GPCRs/PLC/Ca(2+) signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Kuk; Choi, Jung Woong; Lim, Seyoung; Kwon, Ohman; Seo, Jeong Kon; Ryu, Sung Ho; Suh, Pann-Ghill

    2011-06-01

    Phospholipase C-η1 (PLC-η1) is the most recently identified PLC isotype and is primarily expressed in nerve tissue. However, its functional role is unclear. In the present study, we report for the first time that PLC-η1 acts as a signal amplifier in G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-mediated PLC and Ca(2+) signaling. Short-hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated knockdown of endogenous PLC-η1 reduced lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)-, bradykinin (BK)-, and PACAP-induced PLC activity in mouse neuroblastoma Neuro2A (N2A) cells, indicating that PLC-η1 participates in GPCR-mediated PLC activation. Interestingly, ionomycin-induced PLC activity was significantly decreased by PLC-η1, but not PLC-η2, knockdown. In addition, we found that intracellular Ca(2+) source is enough for PLC-η1 activation. Furthermore, the IP(3) receptor inhibitor, 2-APB, inhibited LPA-induced PLC activity in control N2A cells, whereas this effect was not observed in PLC-η1 knockdown N2A cells, suggesting a pivotal role of intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization in PLC-η1 activation. Finally, we found that LPA-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation and expression of the downstream target gene, krox-24, were significantly decreased by PLC-η1 knockdown, and these knockdown effects were abolished by 2-APB. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that PLC-η1 is activated via intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization from the ER, and therefore amplifies GPCR-mediated signaling.

  6. MHO1, an evolutionarily conserved gene, is synthetic lethal with PLC1; Mho1p has a role in invasive growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan D Schlatter

    Full Text Available The novel protein Memo (Mediator of ErbB2 driven cell motility was identified in a screen for ErbB2 interacting proteins and found to have an essential function in cell motility. Memo is evolutionarily conserved with homologs found in all branches of life; the human and yeast proteins have a similarity of >50%. In the present study we used the model organism S. cerevisiae to characterize the Memo-homologue Mho1 (Yjr008wp and to investigate its function in yeast. In a synthetic lethal screen we found MHO1 as a novel synthetic lethal partner of PLC1, which encodes the single phospholipase C in yeast. Double-deleted cells lacking MHO1 and PLC1, proliferate for up to ten generations. Introduction of human Memo into the memoΔplc1Δ strain rescued the synthetic lethal phenotype suggesting that yeast and human proteins have similar functions. Mho1 is present in the cytoplasm and the nucleus of yeast cells; the same distribution of Memo was found in mammalian cells. None of the Memo homologues have a characteristic nuclear localization sequence, however, a conserved nuclear export sequence is found in all. In mammalian cells, blocking nuclear export with Leptomycin B led to nuclear Memo accumulation, suggesting that it is actively exported from the nucleus. In yeast MHO1 expression is induced by stress conditions. Since invasive growth in S. cerevisiea is also stress-induced, we tested Mho1's role in this response. MHO1 deletion had no effect on invasion induced by nutrient deprivation, however, Mho1 overexpression blocked the invasive ability of yeast cells, suggesting that Mho1 might be acting in a dominant negative manner. Taken together, our results show that MHO1 is a novel synthetic lethal interactor with PLC1, and that both gene products are required for proliferation. Moreover, a role for Memo in cell motility/invasion appears to be conserved across species.

  7. Silica-based PLC with heterogeneously-integrated PDs for one-chip DP-QPSK receiver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurata, Yu; Nasu, Yusuke; Tamura, Munehisa; Kasahara, Ryoichi; Aozasa, Shinichi; Mizuno, Takayuki; Yokoyama, Haruki; Tsunashima, Satoshi; Muramoto, Yoshifumi

    2012-12-10

    To realize a DP-QPSK receiver PLC, we heterogeneously integrated eight high-speed PDs on a silica-based PLC platform with a PBS, 90-degree optical hybrids and a VOA. The use of a 2.5%-Δ waveguide reduced the receiver PLC size to 11 mm x 11 mm. We successfully demonstrated 32 Gbaud DP-QPSK signal demodulation with the receiver PLC.

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  7. File list: Oth.Plc.50.AllAg.Trophoblast_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Plc.50.AllAg.Trophoblast_stem_cells mm9 TFs and others Placenta Trophoblast ste...SRX192101,SRX204142,SRX204143,SRX192100,SRX192102 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Plc.50.AllAg.Trophoblast_stem_cells.bed ...

  8. File list: His.Plc.10.Pan_lysine_crotonylation.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Plc.10.Pan_lysine_crotonylation.AllCell mm9 Histone Pan lysine crotonylation Pl...acenta http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Plc.10.Pan_lysine_crotonylation.AllCell.bed ...

  9. File list: His.Plc.10.Pan_lysine_crotonylation.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Plc.10.Pan_lysine_crotonylation.AllCell hg19 Histone Pan lysine crotonylation P...lacenta http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Plc.10.Pan_lysine_crotonylation.AllCell.bed ...

  10. File list: His.Plc.20.Pan_lysine_acetylation.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Plc.20.Pan_lysine_acetylation.AllCell mm9 Histone Pan lysine acetylation Placen...ta http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Plc.20.Pan_lysine_acetylation.AllCell.bed ...

  11. File list: His.Plc.10.Pan_lysine_acetylation.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Plc.10.Pan_lysine_acetylation.AllCell mm9 Histone Pan lysine acetylation Placen...ta http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Plc.10.Pan_lysine_acetylation.AllCell.bed ...

  12. File list: His.Plc.10.Pan_lysine_acetylation.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Plc.10.Pan_lysine_acetylation.AllCell hg19 Histone Pan lysine acetylation Place...nta http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Plc.10.Pan_lysine_acetylation.AllCell.bed ...

  13. File list: Pol.Plc.10.RNA_Polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Plc.10.RNA_Polymerase_III.AllCell mm9 RNA polymerase RNA Polymerase III Placent...a http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Plc.10.RNA_Polymerase_III.AllCell.bed ...

  14. File list: InP.Plc.50.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Plc.50.Input_control.AllCell hg19 Input control Input control Placenta SRX19004...9,SRX080366 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Plc.50.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  15. File list: InP.Plc.10.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Plc.10.Input_control.AllCell mm9 Input control Input control Placenta SRX344648...310,SRX871506,SRX142911,SRX871507,SRX204148,SRX192098,SRX192097,SRX192099 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Plc.10.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  16. File list: InP.Plc.05.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Plc.05.Input_control.AllCell mm9 Input control Input control Placenta SRX344647...160,SRX204147,SRX404310,SRX871506,SRX871507,SRX192098,SRX192097,SRX192099 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Plc.05.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  17. File list: InP.Plc.20.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Plc.20.Input_control.AllCell mm9 Input control Input control Placenta SRX112971...02,SRX404310,SRX1072160,SRX871507,SRX192097,SRX192098,SRX192099,SRX204148 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Plc.20.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  18. File list: InP.Plc.20.Input_control.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Plc.20.Input_control.AllCell hg19 Input control Input control Placenta SRX08036...6,SRX190049 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Plc.20.Input_control.AllCell.bed ...

  19. File list: Pol.Plc.50.RNA_Polymerase_II.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Plc.50.RNA_Polymerase_II.AllCell mm9 RNA polymerase RNA Polymerase II Placenta ...SRX160402,SRX112969 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Plc.50.RNA_Polymerase_II.AllCell.bed ...

  20. File list: Pol.Plc.20.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Plc.20.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell hg19 RNA polymerase RNA polymerase II Placenta... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Plc.20.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell.bed ...

  1. File list: NoD.Plc.05.NA.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Plc.05.NA.AllCell hg19 No description NA Placenta SRX252721,SRX300951,SRX252729...,SRX252732,SRX300962,SRX300957 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.Plc.05.NA.AllCell.bed ...

  2. File list: NoD.Plc.50.NA.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Plc.50.NA.AllCell hg19 No description NA Placenta SRX252721,SRX300962,SRX252732...,SRX300957,SRX300951,SRX252729 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.Plc.50.NA.AllCell.bed ...

  3. File list: NoD.Plc.20.NA.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Plc.20.NA.AllCell hg19 No description NA Placenta SRX252721,SRX300962,SRX252732...,SRX300957,SRX300951,SRX252729 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.Plc.20.NA.AllCell.bed ...

  4. 78 FR 60658 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ..., Amendment 39-16969 (77 FR 13483, March 7, 2012) and adding the following new AD: 2013-19-21 Rolls Royce plc...-16969 (77 FR 13483, March 7, 2012). (c) Applicability This AD applies to the following Rolls-Royce plc... AD 2012-04-13, Amendment 39-16969 (77 FR 13483, March 7, 2012), (``AD 2012-04-13''). AD...

  5. 76 FR 25353 - Hikma Pharmaceuticals PLC; Analysis of Agreement Containing Consent Orders To Aid Public Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION Hikma Pharmaceuticals PLC; Analysis of Agreement Containing Consent Orders To Aid Public Comment AGENCY... Pharmaceuticals PLC (``Hikma'') that is designed to remedy the anticompetitive effects of Hikma's acquisition...

  6. 77 FR 26216 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-03

    ...-23, Amendment 39-17004 (77 FR 20508, April 5, 2012), and adding the following new AD: Rolls-Royce plc..., Amendment 39-17004 (77 FR 20508, April 5, 2012). (c) Applicability This AD applies to Rolls-Royce plc (RR...-06-23, Amendment 39-17004 (77 FR 20508, April 5, 2012), for all RR RB211-Trent 875-17,...

  7. 78 FR 68360 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-14

    ...: Airworthiness Directive 2013-19-17, Amendment 39-17599 (78 FR 61171, October 3, 2013), currently requires...-01-AD; Amendment 39-17599; AD 2013-19-17] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc.... That AD applies to all Rolls-Royce plc (RR) RB211-535E4-B-37 series turbofan engines. The AD number...

  8. 78 FR 20509 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... 12866, (2) Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc... (NPRM). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Rolls-Royce plc...

  9. File list: Unc.Plc.10.Unclassified.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Plc.10.Unclassified.AllCell mm9 Unclassified Unclassified Placenta SRX112966,SR...X530049 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Plc.10.Unclassified.AllCell.bed ...

  10. File list: Unc.Plc.20.Unclassified.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Plc.20.Unclassified.AllCell mm9 Unclassified Unclassified Placenta SRX112966,SR...X530049 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Plc.20.Unclassified.AllCell.bed ...

  11. File list: NoD.Plc.10.AllAg.Placenta [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Plc.10.AllAg.Placenta hg19 No description Placenta Placenta SRX252721,SRX300951...,SRX252732,SRX300962,SRX300957,SRX252729 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.Plc.10.AllAg.Placenta.bed ...

  12. File list: ALL.Plc.10.AllAg.Placenta [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Plc.10.AllAg.Placenta mm9 All antigens Placenta Placenta SRX112968,SRX185853,SR...SRX185885,SRX112971,SRX143854,SRX878733,SRX871503,SRX871502,SRX871506,SRX871507 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Plc.10.AllAg.Placenta.bed ...

  13. File list: DNS.Plc.10.AllAg.Placenta [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Plc.10.AllAg.Placenta hg19 DNase-seq Placenta Placenta SRX089258,SRX089254,SRX1...21285,SRX201830,SRX101015,SRX201819,SRX214046 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.Plc.10.AllAg.Placenta.bed ...

  14. File list: ALL.Plc.20.AllAg.Placenta [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Plc.20.AllAg.Placenta mm9 All antigens Placenta Placenta SRX112968,SRX185853,SR...SRX871506,SRX871502,SRX112969,SRX185854,SRX112967,SRX871500,SRX112966,SRX871507 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Plc.20.AllAg.Placenta.bed ...

  15. File list: InP.Plc.20.AllAg.Placenta [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Plc.20.AllAg.Placenta mm9 Input control Placenta Placenta SRX112971,SRX185885,S...RX143854,SRX878733,SRX871503,SRX871506,SRX871502,SRX871507 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Plc.20.AllAg.Placenta.bed ...

  16. File list: NoD.Plc.05.AllAg.Placenta [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Plc.05.AllAg.Placenta hg19 No description Placenta Placenta SRX252721,SRX300951...,SRX252729,SRX252732,SRX300962,SRX300957 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.Plc.05.AllAg.Placenta.bed ...

  17. File list: InP.Plc.05.AllAg.Placenta [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Plc.05.AllAg.Placenta mm9 Input control Placenta Placenta SRX185885,SRX878733,S...RX112971,SRX143854,SRX871502,SRX871503,SRX871506,SRX871507 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Plc.05.AllAg.Placenta.bed ...

  18. File list: ALL.Plc.05.AllAg.Placenta [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Plc.05.AllAg.Placenta mm9 All antigens Placenta Placenta SRX185885,SRX112968,SR...SRX871501,SRX878733,SRX112971,SRX143854,SRX871502,SRX871503,SRX871506,SRX871507 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Plc.05.AllAg.Placenta.bed ...

  19. File list: DNS.Plc.50.AllAg.Placenta [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Plc.50.AllAg.Placenta hg19 DNase-seq Placenta Placenta SRX089258,SRX121285,SRX0...89254,SRX201830,SRX201819,SRX101015,SRX214046 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.Plc.50.AllAg.Placenta.bed ...

  20. File list: ALL.Plc.50.AllAg.Placenta [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Plc.50.AllAg.Placenta mm9 All antigens Placenta Placenta SRX112968,SRX185853,SR...SRX878733,SRX871502,SRX112969,SRX112967,SRX871500,SRX112966,SRX185854,SRX871507 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Plc.50.AllAg.Placenta.bed ...

  1. File list: InP.Plc.10.AllAg.Placenta [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Plc.10.AllAg.Placenta mm9 Input control Placenta Placenta SRX185885,SRX112971,S...RX143854,SRX878733,SRX871503,SRX871502,SRX871506,SRX871507 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Plc.10.AllAg.Placenta.bed ...

  2. File list: His.Plc.05.AllAg.Placenta [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Plc.05.AllAg.Placenta mm9 Histone Placenta Placenta SRX112968,SRX185853,SRX1129...67,SRX185854,SRX112970,SRX185855,SRX871504,SRX871505,SRX871500,SRX871501 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Plc.05.AllAg.Placenta.bed ...

  3. File list: NoD.Plc.20.AllAg.Placenta [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Plc.20.AllAg.Placenta hg19 No description Placenta Placenta SRX252721,SRX300962...,SRX252732,SRX300957,SRX300951,SRX252729 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.Plc.20.AllAg.Placenta.bed ...

  4. File list: His.Plc.10.AllAg.Placenta [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Plc.10.AllAg.Placenta mm9 Histone Placenta Placenta SRX112968,SRX185853,SRX1129...67,SRX185854,SRX112970,SRX185855,SRX871505,SRX871501,SRX871504,SRX871500 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Plc.10.AllAg.Placenta.bed ...

  5. File list: DNS.Plc.05.AllAg.Placenta [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Plc.05.AllAg.Placenta hg19 DNase-seq Placenta Placenta SRX089258,SRX089254,SRX1...21285,SRX101015,SRX201830,SRX201819,SRX214046 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.Plc.05.AllAg.Placenta.bed ...

  6. File list: His.Plc.50.AllAg.Placenta [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Plc.50.AllAg.Placenta mm9 Histone Placenta Placenta SRX112968,SRX185853,SRX1129...70,SRX185855,SRX871505,SRX871504,SRX871501,SRX112967,SRX871500,SRX185854 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Plc.50.AllAg.Placenta.bed ...

  7. File list: NoD.Plc.50.AllAg.Placenta [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Plc.50.AllAg.Placenta hg19 No description Placenta Placenta SRX252721,SRX300962...,SRX252732,SRX300957,SRX300951,SRX252729 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.Plc.50.AllAg.Placenta.bed ...

  8. File list: His.Plc.20.AllAg.Placenta [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Plc.20.AllAg.Placenta mm9 Histone Placenta Placenta SRX112968,SRX185853,SRX1129...70,SRX185855,SRX871505,SRX871504,SRX871501,SRX185854,SRX112967,SRX871500 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/His.Plc.20.AllAg.Placenta.bed ...

  9. File list: Pol.Plc.05.RNA_Polymerase_III.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Plc.05.RNA_Polymerase_III.AllCell mm9 RNA polymerase RNA Polymerase III Placent...a http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Plc.05.RNA_Polymerase_III.AllCell.bed ...

  10. Narrowband Power Line Comunication Based on G3 PLC and PRIME Standarts

    OpenAIRE

    Csiba, P.

    2015-01-01

    This project is focused on narrowband PLC communication. In this project is described the experimental measurements with TMDSPLCKIT-V4 kit from the Texas Instruments company. The measurements are performed in home environment. This kit allows to compare standards PRIME and G3-PLC.

  11. File list: Pol.Plc.05.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Plc.05.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells mm9 RNA polymerase Placenta Trophoblast gian...t cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Plc.05.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells.bed ...

  12. File list: ALL.Plc.50.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Plc.50.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells mm9 All antigens Placenta Trophoblast gian...SRX344643,SRX344646 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Plc.50.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells.bed ...

  13. File list: Oth.Plc.05.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Plc.05.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells mm9 TFs and others Placenta Trophoblast gian...t cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Plc.05.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells.bed ...

  14. File list: Unc.Plc.10.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Plc.10.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells mm9 Unclassified Placenta Trophoblast gian...t cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Plc.10.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells.bed ...

  15. File list: Oth.Plc.10.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Plc.10.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells mm9 TFs and others Placenta Trophoblast gian...t cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Plc.10.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells.bed ...

  16. File list: Pol.Plc.50.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Plc.50.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells mm9 RNA polymerase Placenta Trophoblast gian...t cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Plc.50.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells.bed ...

  17. File list: ALL.Plc.10.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Plc.10.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells mm9 All antigens Placenta Trophoblast gian...SRX344644,SRX344645 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Plc.10.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells.bed ...

  18. File list: Pol.Plc.10.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Plc.10.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells mm9 RNA polymerase Placenta Trophoblast gian...t cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Plc.10.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells.bed ...

  19. File list: Pol.Plc.20.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Plc.20.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells mm9 RNA polymerase Placenta Trophoblast gian...t cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Plc.20.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells.bed ...

  20. File list: DNS.Plc.10.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Plc.10.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells mm9 DNase-seq Placenta Trophoblast giant c...ells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Plc.10.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells.bed ...

  1. File list: DNS.Plc.20.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Plc.20.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells mm9 DNase-seq Placenta Trophoblast giant c...ells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Plc.20.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells.bed ...

  2. File list: Unc.Plc.05.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Plc.05.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells mm9 Unclassified Placenta Trophoblast gian...t cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Plc.05.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells.bed ...

  3. File list: ALL.Plc.05.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Plc.05.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells mm9 All antigens Placenta Trophoblast gian...SRX344646,SRX344644 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/ALL.Plc.05.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells.bed ...

  4. File list: Unc.Plc.50.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Plc.50.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells mm9 Unclassified Placenta Trophoblast gian...t cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Plc.50.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells.bed ...

  5. File list: Oth.Plc.20.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  10. File list: Oth.Plc.50.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  11. 78 FR 10172 - Lisa Anne Cornell and G. Ware Cornell, Jr. v. Princess Cruise Lines, Ltd. (Corp), Carnival PLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ... Lisa Anne Cornell and G. Ware Cornell, Jr. v. Princess Cruise Lines, Ltd. (Corp), Carnival PLC, and..., Jr., hereinafter ``Complainants,'' against Princess Cruise Lines, Ltd (Corp), Carnival plc, and... common carrier for hire of passengers from ports in the United States;'' Respondent Carnival plc ``is...

  12. AUTOMATION OF PLC PROGRAMMING WHEN IMPLEMENTING ALGORITHMS OF GUARANTEEING CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Levinskyi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available During developing programs for programmable logic controllers (PLCs the concept of model-oriented design is increasingly used. In particular, usage of Simulink PLC Coder is giving the opportunity to get SCL program codefrom Simulink model which contains certain dynamic elements. Then, for example, this SCL code can be transformed to functional blocks of the Simatic S7-300 (VIPA 300 PLC. This significantly reduces the timerequired to develop code in the language of SCL and reduces requirements for specialists’ qualification when developing control systems. In this article we provide an example of PLC programming automation whenimplementing algorithms of guaranteeing control (AGC. For certain types of technological processes it is typical to contain monotonically increasing function of the effectiveness with fixed one-way restriction in regulations. Forexample, in the grinders, presses, extruders the load current of the drive is stabilized using the change of feed. Energy efficiency of these plants will increase with increasing of the set point (SP to the controller of the drive loadcurrent stabilization loop. However, an increase in SP increases the probability of triggering appropriate protection, for example, as a result of random changes in the properties of raw materials. Therefore, to avoid this accident, thepower of driving motors is often unreasonably overrated. And in this case they are used with currents equal to the half of rated.Systems of guaranteeing control (SGC are used to solve the contradiction between the need to improvethe efficiency and increasing probability of an accident.

  13. PENGENDALIAN MESIN HOIST HANGER DALAM PROSES PTC/ED MENGGUNAKAN PLC OMRON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyudi Wahyudi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of technology demands efficient and work speed, so it needs a system which can handleseveral things.This problem can be covered with PLC (Programmable Logic Control that can integrateseveral self standing component to be an integrated control system and can be changed the configurationwithout change all instrument. Modify the ladder program can alter system of PLC. This paper showsHoist Hanger system in PTC/ED (Pre Treatment Chemical/Electrocoat Dispotition process that controlledby PLC. Above input from limit switch, sensor, or the other input, PLC system drives the motorrelay Hoist Hanger machine. That cause the motor relay Hoist Hanger change its condition, so the movingof Hoist Hanger machine will be suitable with PLC program.

  14. Run-time system based on LinSERCANS and Soft-PLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cunfeng KANG; Chong WANG; Chunmin MA; Xudong HUANG; Renyuan FEI

    2009-01-01

    Soft-PLC with open architecture is the direction of development in industrial automation. This paper discusses the method of communication between the interface functions of LinSERCANS under RTLinux and the external library of Soft-PLC under Windows. Based on the API HOOK theory, the communication between the interface functions of LinSERCANS and the external libraries of Soft-PLC is set up and it solves the calling functions of dynamic link libraries in different operation systems. It is able to combine LinSERCANS with the Soft-PLC, and a run-time system is developed based on the interface technology of the serial real-time communication system (SERCOS) and technology of soft-PLC. This run-time system has been used in all electronic injection molding machines and works very well.

  15. The Integration of DCS I/O to an Existing PLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhukhan, Debashis; Mihevic, John

    2013-01-01

    At the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), Existing Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) I/O was replaced with Distributed Control System (DCS) I/O, while keeping the existing PLC sequence Logic. The reason for integration of the PLC logic and DCS I/O, along with the evaluation of the resulting system is the subject of this paper. The pros and cons of the old system and new upgrade are described, including operator workstation screen update times. Detail of the physical layout and the communication between the PLC, the DCS I/O and the operator workstations are illustrated. The complex characteristics of a central process control system and the plan to remove the PLC processors in future upgrades is also discussed.

  16. Fc gamma receptor activation induces the tyrosine phosphorylation of both phospholipase C (PLC)-gamma 1 and PLC-gamma 2 in natural killer cells

    OpenAIRE

    1992-01-01

    Crosslinking of the low affinity immunoglobulin G (IgG) Fc receptor (Fc gamma R type III) on natural killer (NK) cells initiates antibody- dependent cellular cytotoxicity. During this process, Fc gamma R stimulation results in the rapid activation of phospholipase C (PLC), which hydrolyzes membrane phosphoinositides, generating inositol-1,4,5- trisphosphate and sn-1,2-diacylglycerol as second messengers. We have recently reported that PLC activation after Fc gamma R stimulation can be inhibit...

  17. Reseach of Control System of Packaging Machine on PLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao SUN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available An automatic control system of sampling package for sample coal is designed according to the realities of sample coal powdery materials which are based on controller (PLC. The system can realize the functions of random sampling, auto-weighting, auto-packaging, and auto-sealing off. It also can adjust waste less, control convenient, zero point self-tuning and dynamics weighing measurement. It can be used in sampling weighing package of sample coal. Various performance indicators can be stably and reliably used in field.

  18. Astable multivibrator circuits made with low capacity PLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, I.; Popa, G. N.; Diniş, C. M.; Deaconu, S. I.

    2016-02-01

    The paper presents three versions of astable multivibrator structures that can be made with PS-3 (Klöckner-Moeller) PLCs. They have, in their composition, two time-on delay timers (TR type) that can be found in PS-3 PLC. For each astable multivibrator circuits present the principle accompanied by graphic representations of the main signals of the astable multivibrator circuits and the mode of operation of these circuits using time diagrams. These astable multivibrator strucures can be used, special, for teaching PLCs.

  19. AUTOMATION OF GLASS TEMPERING FURNACE BY USING PLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah BÜYÜKYILDIZ

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a furnace which is used for observation of environments under high temperature, and also used for manufacturing of glasses which are resisted to high temperature has been designed and implemented. Automation of this system has been done by using PLC. Operating parameters of furnace such as materials entering, the furnace, the local temperature control of furnace, cooling control and materials outing have been sensed with Hall Effect Sensor. Furthermore, the observation of parameters of furnace on screen has been provided with SCADA software. Obtained products have been shown the system works successfully.

  20. Automated Verification Environment for TwinCAT PLC Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Beckmann, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The European XFEL will have three undulator systems SASE1, SASE2, and SASE3 to produce extremely brilliant, ultra-short pulses of x-rays with wavelengths down to 0.1 nm. The undulator gap is adjustable in order to vary photon beam energy. The corresponding motion control is implemented with industrial PCs running Beckhoff TwinCAT Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs). So far, the functionality of the PLC programs has been verified on system level with the final hardware. This is a time-consum...

  1. Participation of PLA2 and PLC in DhL-induced activation of Rhinella arenarum oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata-Martínez, J; Medina, M F; Gramajo-Bühler, M C; Sánchez-Toranzo, G

    2016-08-01

    Rhinella arenarum oocytes can be artificially activated, a process known as parthenogenesis, by a sesquiterpenic lactone of the guaianolide group, dehydroleucodine (DhL). Transient increases in the concentration of cytosolic Ca2+ are essential to trigger egg activation events. In this sense, the 1-4-5 inositol triphosphate receptors (IP3R) seem to be involved in the Ca2+ transient release induced by DhL in this species. We analyzed the involvement of phosphoinositide metabolism, especially the participation of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and phospholipase C (PLC) in DhL-induced activation. Different doses of quinacrine, aristolochic acid (ATA) (PLA2 inhibitors) or neomycin, an antibiotic that binds to PIP2, thus preventing its hydrolysis, were used in mature Rhinella arenarum oocytes. In order to assay the participation of PI-PLC and PC- PLC we used U73122, a competitive inhibitor of PI-PLC dependent events and D609, an inhibitor of PC-PLC. We found that PLA2 inhibits quinacrine more effectively than ATA. This difference could be explained by the fact that quinacrine is not a specific inhibitor for PLA2 while ATA is specific for this enzyme. With respect to the participation of PLC, a higher decrease in oocyte activation was detected when cells were exposed to neomycin. Inhibition of PC-PLC with D609 and IP-PLC with U73122 indicated that the last PLC has a significant participation in the effect of DhL-induced activation. Results would indicate that DhL induces activation of in vitro matured oocytes of Rhinella arenarum by activation of IP-PLC, which in turn may induce IP3 formation which produces Ca2+ release.

  2. Participation of PLA2 and PLC in DhL-induced activation of Rhinella arenarum oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata-Martínez, J; Medina, M F; Gramajo-Bühler, M C; Sánchez-Toranzo, G

    2016-08-01

    Rhinella arenarum oocytes can be artificially activated, a process known as parthenogenesis, by a sesquiterpenic lactone of the guaianolide group, dehydroleucodine (DhL). Transient increases in the concentration of cytosolic Ca2+ are essential to trigger egg activation events. In this sense, the 1-4-5 inositol triphosphate receptors (IP3R) seem to be involved in the Ca2+ transient release induced by DhL in this species. We analyzed the involvement of phosphoinositide metabolism, especially the participation of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and phospholipase C (PLC) in DhL-induced activation. Different doses of quinacrine, aristolochic acid (ATA) (PLA2 inhibitors) or neomycin, an antibiotic that binds to PIP2, thus preventing its hydrolysis, were used in mature Rhinella arenarum oocytes. In order to assay the participation of PI-PLC and PC- PLC we used U73122, a competitive inhibitor of PI-PLC dependent events and D609, an inhibitor of PC-PLC. We found that PLA2 inhibits quinacrine more effectively than ATA. This difference could be explained by the fact that quinacrine is not a specific inhibitor for PLA2 while ATA is specific for this enzyme. With respect to the participation of PLC, a higher decrease in oocyte activation was detected when cells were exposed to neomycin. Inhibition of PC-PLC with D609 and IP-PLC with U73122 indicated that the last PLC has a significant participation in the effect of DhL-induced activation. Results would indicate that DhL induces activation of in vitro matured oocytes of Rhinella arenarum by activation of IP-PLC, which in turn may induce IP3 formation which produces Ca2+ release. PMID:26350822

  3. ENCODE data at the ENCODE portal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Cricket A; Chan, Esther T; Davidson, Jean M; Malladi, Venkat S; Strattan, J Seth; Hitz, Benjamin C; Gabdank, Idan; Narayanan, Aditi K; Ho, Marcus; Lee, Brian T; Rowe, Laurence D; Dreszer, Timothy R; Roe, Greg; Podduturi, Nikhil R; Tanaka, Forrest; Hong, Eurie L; Cherry, J Michael

    2016-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) Project is in its third phase of creating a comprehensive catalog of functional elements in the human genome. This phase of the project includes an expansion of assays that measure diverse RNA populations, identify proteins that interact with RNA and DNA, probe regions of DNA hypersensitivity, and measure levels of DNA methylation in a wide range of cell and tissue types to identify putative regulatory elements. To date, results for almost 5000 experiments have been released for use by the scientific community. These data are available for searching, visualization and download at the new ENCODE Portal (www.encodeproject.org). The revamped ENCODE Portal provides new ways to browse and search the ENCODE data based on the metadata that describe the assays as well as summaries of the assays that focus on data provenance. In addition, it is a flexible platform that allows integration of genomic data from multiple projects. The portal experience was designed to improve access to ENCODE data by relying on metadata that allow reusability and reproducibility of the experiments. PMID:26527727

  4. The Causes of Labour Turnover in Bottling Companies in Nigeria: A Comparative Study of Coca-Cola Plc and Seven Up Plc. Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.A. Chukwu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the causes of labour turnover in Coca-Cola Plc and Seven Up Plc. in Lagos, Nigeria. They are the major producers of soft drink in Nigeria. Labour turnover costs soft drink industries in Nigeria considerable amount of money yearly in recruiting and training replacements. It is an economic drain to the industry. A sizeable income is also incurred through new employees that are more prone to accidents, causes more breakages and make more mistakes than experience workers. Other loses are also incurred through reduced production, work disruption and increase scrap and overtime as a result of departed workers. A cross-sectional survey was utilized to collect data for answering research questionnaires and testing hypothesis in this study. The data collected from questionnaire instrument were also analysed using percentages (% and Z-test for comparing two proportions. Comparative analysis of the data showed that Seven Up Plc. rated unwillingness to perform as major cause of discharge while Coca-Cola Plc. rated attitudinal causes. Both companies rated unsatisfactory pay as the major cause of resignation. Seven Up Plc. was not significantly better than Coca-Cola Plc. on a hypothesis testing about the difference between proportions of samples. The Null hypothesis assumed that there were no difference in parameters and that the difference observed between sample percent was due to chance.

  5. A Spontaneous Translational Fusion of Bacillus cereus PlcR and PapR Activates Transcription of PlcR-Dependent Genes in Bacillus anthracis via Binding with a Specific Palindromic Sequence

    OpenAIRE

    Pomerantsev, Andrei P; Pomerantseva, Olga M.; Stephen H Leppla

    2004-01-01

    Transformation of Bacillus anthracis with plasmid pUTE29-plcR-papR carrying the native Bacillus cereus plcR-papR gene cluster did not activate expression of B. anthracis hemolysin genes, even though these are expected to be responsive to activation by the global regulator PlcR. To further characterize the action of PlcR, we examined approximately 3,000 B. anthracis transformants containing pUTE29-plcR-papR and found a single hemolytic colony. The hemolytic strain contained a plasmid having a ...

  6. Alpha-Toxin Promotes Mucosal Biofilm Formation by Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele J Anderson

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus causes numerous diseases in humans ranging from the mild skin infections to serious, life-threatening, superantigen-mediated Toxic Shock Syndrome (TSS. S. aureus may also be asymptomatically carried in the anterior nares, vagina or on the skin, which serve as reservoirs for infection. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis clonal type USA200 is the most widely disseminated colonizer and a major cause of TSS. Our prior studies indicated that α-toxin was a major epithelial proinflammatory exotoxin produced by TSS S. aureus USA200 isolates. It also facilitated the penetration of TSS Toxin-1 (TSST-1 across vaginal mucosa. However, the majority of menstrual TSS isolates produce low α-toxin due to a nonsense point mutation at codon 113, designated hly, suggesting mucosal adaptation. The aim of this study was to characterize the differences between TSS USA200 strains [high (hla+ and low (hly+ α-toxin producers] in their abilities to infect and disrupt vaginal mucosal tissue. A mucosal model was developed using ex vivo porcine vaginal mucosa, LIVE/DEAD® staining and confocal microscropy to characterize biofilm formation and tissue viability of TSS USA 200 isolates CDC587 and MN8, which contain the α-toxin pseudogene (hly, MNPE (hla+ and MNPE isogenic hla knockout (hlaKO. All TSS strains grew to similar bacterial densities (1-5 x 108 CFU on the mucosa and were proinflammatory over 3 days. However, MNPE formed biofilms with significant reductions in the mucosal viability whereas neither CDC587, MN8 (hly+, or MNPE hlaKO, formed biofilms and were less cytotoxic. The addition of exogenous, purified α-toxin to MNPE hlaKO restored the biofilm phenotype. Our studies suggest α-toxin affects S. aureus phenotypic growth on vaginal mucosa, by promoting tissue disruption and biofilm formation; and α–toxin mutants (hly are not benign colonizers, but rather form a different type of infection, which we have termed high density pathogenic variants (HDPV.

  7. Commercial information system of Slovak Electricity Transmission System, Plc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commercial Information System (CIS), which main role of is to support the commercial activities of the company, is built up by business department of SEPS, Plc in close co-operation with the supplier company Sfera, Plc. The system entries are data from electricity meters obtained by automatized data acquisition and from bugging sheets, contractual hour diagrams, parameters of transmission system like measuring schemes and formulas for calculation of demand and supply, contractual data resulting from agreements, business conditions, URSO decisions and valid legislative. A part of the system is also support of process of data evaluation like calculation of transmitted energy quantity, calculation of actual output diagrams, comparison of actual and contractual diagrams, calculation of system divergence, calculation of demand divergence, etc. The final price for the drawings of services, which are joined with transmission of the electric power will be determined by the accounting process. In this causality there are automatically made out invoices for access, losses, system charges, system services, short-term and long-term transits, divergences and for cross-border transmission auctions. System also generates various specialized synopses and statistics for the evaluation requirements of important aspects and for parameter observations. Successive liberalisation of the electricity power market, changes in legislative and URSO decisions require CIS to be sufficiently configurable and to adapt flexible on the alternating environs. (author)

  8. PDZ domain-containing 1 (PDZK1) protein regulates phospholipase C-β3 (PLC-β3)-specific activation of somatostatin by forming a ternary complex with PLC-β3 and somatostatin receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Kuk; Kwon, Ohman; Kim, Jinho; Kim, Eung-Kyun; Park, Hye Kyung; Lee, Ji Eun; Kim, Kyung Lock; Choi, Jung Woong; Lim, Seyoung; Seok, Heon; Lee-Kwon, Whaseon; Choi, Jang Hyun; Kang, Byoung Heon; Kim, Sanguk; Ryu, Sung Ho; Suh, Pann-Ghill

    2012-06-15

    Phospholipase C-β (PLC-β) is a key molecule in G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-mediated signaling. Many studies have shown that the four PLC-β subtypes have different physiological functions despite their similar structures. Because the PLC-β subtypes possess different PDZ-binding motifs, they have the potential to interact with different PDZ proteins. In this study, we identified PDZ domain-containing 1 (PDZK1) as a PDZ protein that specifically interacts with PLC-β3. To elucidate the functional roles of PDZK1, we next screened for potential interacting proteins of PDZK1 and identified the somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) as another protein that interacts with PDZK1. Through these interactions, PDZK1 assembles as a ternary complex with PLC-β3 and SSTRs. Interestingly, the expression of PDZK1 and PLC-β3, but not PLC-β1, markedly potentiated SST-induced PLC activation. However, disruption of the ternary complex inhibited SST-induced PLC activation, which suggests that PDZK1-mediated complex formation is required for the specific activation of PLC-β3 by SST. Consistent with this observation, the knockdown of PDZK1 or PLC-β3, but not that of PLC-β1, significantly inhibited SST-induced intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization, which further attenuated subsequent ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that the formation of a complex between SSTRs, PDZK1, and PLC-β3 is essential for the specific activation of PLC-β3 and the subsequent physiologic responses by SST.

  9. Functional roles of PC-PLC and Cdc20 in the cell cycle, proliferation, and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiwei; Yu, Yongfeng; Fu, Da; Li, Ziming; Niu, Xiaoming; Liao, Meilin; Lu, Shun

    2010-06-01

    Phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC) is the major enzyme in the Phosphatidylcholine (PC) cycle and is involved in many long-term cellular responses such as activation, proliferation, and differentiation events. Cell division cycle 20 homolog (Cdc20) is an essential cell-cycle regulator required for the completion of mitosis. Our previous studies identified the interaction between PC-PLC and Cdc20. Through the interaction, Cdc20 could mediate the degradation of PC-PLC by Cdc20-mediated ubiquitin proteasome pathway (UPP). In this study, we found that PC-PLC might not be involved in cancer metastasis. Inhibition of PC-PLC by D609 could cause cell proliferation inhibition and apoptosis inhibition in CBRH-7919 cells. Inhibition of PC-PLC could also influence the cell cycle by arresting the cells in G1 phase, and Cdc20 might be involved in these processes. Taken together, in this report, we provided new evidence for the functional roles of PC-PLC and Cdc20 in the cell cycle, proliferation, and apoptosis in CBRH-7919 cells.

  10. PLC-gamma1 and Rac1 coregulate EGF-induced cytoskeleton remodeling and cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Siwei; Wang, Qian; Wang, Yi; Chen, Xinmei; Wang, Zhixiang

    2009-06-01

    It is well established that epidermal growth factor (EGF) induces the cytoskeleton reorganization and cell migration through two major signaling cascades: phospholipase C-gamma1 (PLC-gamma1) and Rho GTPases. However, little is known about the cross talk between PLC-gamma1 and Rho GTPases. Here we showed that PLC-gamma1 forms a complex with Rac1 in response to EGF. This interaction is direct and mediated by PLC-gamma1 Src homology 3 (SH3) domain and Rac1 (106)PNTP(109) motif. This interaction is critical for EGF-induced Rac1 activation in vivo, and PLC-gamma1 SH3 domain is actually a potent and specific Rac1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor in vitro. We have also demonstrated that the interaction between PLC-gamma1 SH3 domain and Rac1 play a significant role in EGF-induced F-actin formation and cell migration. We conclude that PLC-gamma1 and Rac1 coregulate EGF-induced cell cytoskeleton remodeling and cell migration by a direct functional interaction.

  11. Modelling and simulation tooling controlled by the PLC in the robot cell in NX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banas, W.; Gwiazda, A.; Monica, Z.; Sekala, A.; Foit, K.

    2016-08-01

    Many CAD programs allows the simulation of machines. Often, before creating the real machine can simulate the operation and see how it works. In these cases, set values of the forces acting on an element or displacement of the element. It is very easy for simple machines. Programming in this way PLC controlled system is very complicated because have to save the the entire PLC logic in the simulation program. It would be good simply connect the PLC or PLC simulation program to a CAD program enabling the simulation. There are many possibilities for sending information between the PLC and CAD. PLC to control most of the actuators using the digital outputs 0 or 1. Actuators often have two states but the transition from one to the other takes some time. By setting additional parameters may be the behaviour of the simulation as in real life. Setting these parameters is usually held in the testing phase before running it means that the system is assembled and can be damaged. Often this is the only opportunity to verify the PLC program. It is worth noting that such testing and running takes place on the production line and needs to be stopped.

  12. PLC Transformation of T68 Boring Lathe%T68镗床的 PLC 改造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙小春

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the transformation of T68 boring lathe with Mitsubishi FX1S series PLC ,and states the transfor‐ming scheme of the system ,meantime ,according to the working requirements and characteristics of T68 boring lathe ,the as‐signments of PLC input and output was confirmed .The defects of relay control circuits were improved ,and a ladder diagram was designed and spot adjustment was performed .%介绍了利用三菱FX1S系列PLC对T68镗床的改造,阐述了系统的改造方案,同时配合T68镗床的工作要求和特点,确定了 PLC的输入输出分配,改进了原有继电器控制电路的缺陷,设计出梯形图并进行现场调试。

  13. Implementation of a Fractional Model-Based Fault Detection Algorithm into a PLC Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopka, Ryszard

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents results related to the implementation of model-based fault detection and diagnosis procedures into a typical PLC controller. To construct the mathematical model and to implement the PID regulator, a non-integer order differential/integral calculation was used. Such an approach allows for more exact control of the process and more precise modelling. This is very crucial in model-based diagnostic methods. The theoretical results were verified on a real object in the form of a supercapacitor connected to a PLC controller by a dedicated electronic circuit controlled directly from the PLC outputs.

  14. Latex Dipping Machine PLC Control and Its Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yimin Zhang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Latex dipping machine is based on a latex patent products new-production condom and the development of the machine. The latex dipping agencies combined with production condom mechanism. First it realized a 3-dimensional accurate localization system using stepping motors. SIMATIC S7-200 series programmable controller, motion module EM253 and stepping motor are tied in wedlock to realize allocation of 3-dimension of X axis and Y axis and Z axis. Through the PTO pulse of Siemens S7-200 PLC controller and combined with the use of EM253 module, through the mould precise control programming soak glue and roll edge to achieve the control mold of rotation and swinging the uniform distributed latex. And the system has applied successfully in foreign-funded enterprise of Singapore.

  15. PLC-Based Pressure Control in Multi-Pump Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vodovozov Valery

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the centrifugal pumps represented the most popular type of pumping equipment used in different areas. The pressure control approach for variable speed driven (VSD parallel connected centrifugal pumps is reported. The goal of the study is optimization of some quality indices, such as efficiency, consumed power, productivity, energy carrier temperature, heat irradiation, etc. One of them – efficiency – has been studied in the paper more carefully. The mathematical model of pumping process is discussed and a vector-matrix description of the multi-pump application is given. The program-based pressure control system is developed which productivity is changed by regulating the number of working pumps. The paper introduces new pressure control algorithms based on the working point estimation intended for programmable logical controllers (PLC. Experiments prove correctness of the offered methodology.

  16. Coded Adaptive Linear Precoded Discrete Multitone Over PLC Channel

    CERN Document Server

    Muhammad, Fahad Syed; Hélard, Jean-François; Crussière, Matthieu

    2008-01-01

    Discrete multitone modulation (DMT) systems exploit the capabilities of orthogonal subcarriers to cope efficiently with narrowband interference, high frequency attenuations and multipath fadings with the help of simple equalization filters. Adaptive linear precoded discrete multitone (LP-DMT) system is based on classical DMT, combined with a linear precoding component. In this paper, we investigate the bit and energy allocation algorithm of an adaptive LP-DMT system taking into account the channel coding scheme. A coded adaptive LPDMT system is presented in the power line communication (PLC) context with a loading algorithm which accommodates the channel coding gains in bit and energy calculations. The performance of a concatenated channel coding scheme, consisting of an inner Wei's 4-dimensional 16-states trellis code and an outer Reed-Solomon code, in combination with the proposed algorithm is analyzed. Theoretical coding gains are derived and simulation results are presented for a fixed target bit error ra...

  17. Formal verification of complex properties on PLC programs

    CERN Document Server

    Darvas, D; Voros, A; Bartha, T; Blanco Vinuela, E; Gonzalez Suarez, V M

    2014-01-01

    Formal verification has become a recommended practice in the safety-critical application areas. However, due to the complexity of practical control and safety systems, the state space explosion often prevents the use of formal analysis. In this paper we extend our former verification methodology with effective property preserving reduction techniques. For this purpose we developed general rule-based reductions and a customized version of the Cone of Influence (COI) reduction. Using these methods, the verification of complex requirements formalised with temporal logics (e.g. CTL, LTL) can be orders of magnitude faster. We use the NuSMV model checker on a real-life PLC program from CERN to demonstrate the performance of our reduction techniques.

  18. An encoding device and a method of encoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to an encoding device, such as an optical position encoder, for encoding input from an object, and a method for encoding input from an object, for determining a position of an object that interferes with light of the device. The encoding device comprises a light source...

  19. Amersham plc UK Replacement Dose Record Keeping System (DRS2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Dose Record Keeping System used for Amersham plc Classified persons in the UK has recently been replaced. This paper describes the system developed, to satisfy the UK legislation (IRR99 [1], RADS3 [2]) and allow the Radiation Protection Advisers quick and easy access to relevant information. The system has a fully featured security structure, allowing different individuals to have different levels of access and is run across four sites in the UK. The number of users at any one time is unlimited and the system is designed in such a way as to be fully expandable to any size of operation. An audit trail is employed to allow the tracking of all actions, from who logged on to who issued a dosimeter. All different components of dose are accounted for and the system is flexible enough to incorporate new dose levels / limits should they be introduced in the future. Historical data from the previous system has been migrated allowing seventeen years of dose information to be called onto the screen instantly. The entire dose history, down to individual dosimeter measurements, can be called up at any time. Operational information can also be stored along side Dose Record entries to assist the Radiation Protection Advisers in their duties (e.g. activity in urine, electronic dosimeter readings). The project was completed in close collaboration with a third party contractor and Amersham plc holds the Intellectual Property Rights (IPR). The architecture employed uses an Oracle database with a Windows XP application front end. The final developed system is fully configurable and has proved an invaluable tool for both the Radiation Protection Adviser and the Amersham Dosimetry Service. (Author) 2 refs

  20. Modelling and Formal Verification of Timing Aspects in Large PLC Programs

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez Adiego, B; Blanco Vinuela, E; Tournier, J-C; Gonzalez Suarez, V M; Blech, J O

    2014-01-01

    One of the main obstacle that prevents model checking from being widely used in industrial control systems is the complexity of building formal models out of PLC programs, especially when timing aspects need to be integrated. This paper brings an answer to this obstacle by proposing a methodology to model and verify timing aspects of PLC programs. Two approaches are proposed to allow the users to balance the trade-off between the complexity of the model, i.e. its number of states, and the set of specifications possible to be verified. A tool supporting the methodology which allows to produce models for different model checkers directly from PLC programs has been developed. Verification of timing aspects for real-life PLC programs are presented in this paper using NuSMV.

  1. 77 FR 20987 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-09

    ..., Amendment 39-16970 (77 FR 13485, March 7, 2012), currently requires inspecting the front combustion liner...; AD 2012-04-14] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc Turbofan Engines...

  2. PLC PROGRAMLAMA EĞİTİMİNDE PC_SIMU YAZILIMININ KULLANIMI

    OpenAIRE

    ENGİN UFUK ERGÜL; CENK GEZEGİN

    2013-01-01

    PLC (Programlanabilir Lojik Denetleyici)’ lerin son yıllarda artan kullanımına paralel olarak bu konuda yetişmiş bilgi ve beceriye sahip teknik personele olan talep de artmaktadır. PLC’ lerin ek donanımlarının ve PLC içeren deney setlerinin fiyatları oldukça yüksektir. Bu yüzden eğitim kurumları PLC eğitimi konusunda öğrencilere tüm imkânları sağlamakta yetersiz kalmaktadır. Ayrıca gerçek sistemlere benzeyen PLC kontrollü proseslerin boyutları bir laboratuara sığdırılamayacak kadar büyük ve m...

  3. Study of Real- time PCR Assay for Rapid Detection of Alpha Toxin Gene from Clostridium perfringens in Food%食品中产气荚膜梭菌α毒素基因快速检测方法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺连华; 扈庆华; 王冰; 吴平芳; 石晓路; 陈妙玲

    2011-01-01

    Objective To rapidly detect Clostridium perfringens by developing a molecular - beacon - based PCR assay, and the established method was applied to rapid diagnosis of food poisoning. Methods Based on the core sequence of gene published on GenBank, the primers and modified molecular beacons were designed to detect alpha toxin gene from Clostridium perfringens. The probe was labeled with FAM in 5' end. The molecular beacons and primer set were tested against numerous strains from 10 different bacterial species. Results With the PCR assay based on the molecular beacon, Clostridium perfringens and no false signals were observed. There was no cross - reaction with other bacteria as control. 40 food samples were tested, 3 samples were found Clostridium perfringens positive by the PCR assay. Among the tested positive samples, 2 samples were detected Clostridium perfringens positive by traditional culture method. The overall test could be finished within 2 hours to one day starting from sample preparation. Conclusions The molecular - beacon - based PCR assay is rapid, sensitive, and specific. It could be applied to the rapid diagnosis of Clostridium perfringens food poisoning.%目的 建立分子信标荧光PCR体系检测产气荚膜梭菌的快速检测方法,应用于食物中毒快速诊断和食品微生物检验.方法 根据GenBank公布的保守序列,针对α毒素基因设计一对引物和分子信标探针,用FAM荧光剂标记探针的5端,并进行特异性和灵敏度分析,同时以10种细菌作对照.结果 分子信标荧光PCR反应体系检测10种细菌,只有产气荚膜梭菌出现特异荧光信号,其他均无荧光信号,而且与其他细菌无交叉反应.对40份食品样品进行检测,3份产气荚膜梭菌PCR阳性,其余样品为阴性,检测仅需2 h.3份阳性样本经传统方法培养,2份有检出产气荚膜梭菌.结论 分子信标荧光PCR检测体系快速、灵敏度高,特异性强,可用于产气荚膜梭菌食物中毒的快

  4. Performance analysis of the PLC (Power Line Communication) in medium voltage electrical networks; Analise de desempenho de sistemas PLC em redes eletricas de media tensao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mota, A.A.; Paleta, R. [Pontificia Universidade Catolica de Campinas (PUC-Campinas), SP (Brazil)], E-mail: amota@puc-campinas.edu.br; Mota, L.T.M.; Ricardo, R.A. [Indelmatec Engenharia, Campinas, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: mota@indelmatec.com.br

    2009-07-01

    Nowadays, the information access in communication networks is widely explored due to the increase of Internet users. In this context, the PLC (Power Line Communication) technology is an alternative for data transmission. This technology is based on the usage of transmission/distribution power lines for data transmission. However there are some problems related to the usage of this technology: adequate data transmission rates and generation of acceptable levels of electromagnetic interference (EMI). This work had the objective of studying the performance of PLC systems in medium voltage electrical networks, through the assess of data transmission rates and the generated EMI. Tests were carried out in a test field that corresponded to a medium voltage electrical network and the obtained results show that, under some circumstances, the PLC system does not reach the existent technical recommendations. (author)

  5. Developing a Novel USB-PLC Controller for a Mechatronics Cloud Laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Wen-Jye Shyr; Chia-Ming Lin

    2013-01-01

    This study proposes the development and implementation of a novel Universal Serial Bus (USB)‐Programmable Logic Controller (PLC), called a USB‐PLC controller, for a mechatronics cloud laboratory. The aim of a mechatronics cloud laboratory is to provide state of the art research quality equipment to students, allowing them to conduct hands‐on experiments via the Internet. One objective of the cloud laboratory is to not only provide equipment for conducting set experiments, but also to provide ...

  6. Corporate Social Responsibility and Organizational Profitability: An Empirical Investigation of United Bank for Africa (UBA) Plc.

    OpenAIRE

    Oyetayo O. Folajin; Oluwaseun T. Ibitoye; A.T. Dunsin

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of Corporate Social Responsibility on bank profitability with particular reference to United Bank for Africa (UBA) Plc. The study used annual reports of United Bank for Africa (UBA) Plc. Data used include corporate social responsibility expenditure and profit after tax for the period of 2006-2012. Data relating to cost/investment/expenditure as the case may be for the bank on corporate social responsibility and profitability was used to construct ordinary le...

  7. 78 FR 11976 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ..., Amendment 39-16724 (76 FR 40217, July 8, 2011) and adding the following new AD: 2013-04-01 Rolls-Royce plc... (76 FR 40217, July 8, 2011). (c) Applicability This AD applies to Rolls-Royce plc (RR) RB211-524D4-19... publication as of August 12, 2011, (76 FR 40217, July 8, 2011). We must receive any comments on this AD...

  8. 76 FR 65136 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR) Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ...-07, Amendment 39-166679 (76 FR 24793, May 3, 2011), and adding the following new AD: Rolls-Royce plc..., Amendment 39-16669 (76 FR 24793, May 3, 2011). (c) Applicability This AD applies to Rolls-Royce plc (RR...-09-07, Amendment 39-16669 (76 FR 24793, May 3, 2011), for all RR model RB211-524G2-T-19,...

  9. Gnb isoforms control a signaling pathway comprising Rac1, Plcβ2, and Plcβ3 leading to LFA-1 activation and neutrophil arrest in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Helena; Stadtmann, Anika; Riad, Daniel; Rossaint, Jan; Sohlbach, Charlotte; Germena, Giulia; Wu, Dianqing; Simon, Scott I; Ley, Klaus; Zarbock, Alexander

    2016-01-21

    Chemokines are required for leukocyte recruitment and appropriate host defense and act through G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), which induce downstream signaling leading to integrin activation. Although the α and β subunits of the GPCRs are the first intracellular molecules that transduce signals after ligand binding and are therefore indispensable for downstream signaling, relatively little is known about their contribution to lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) activation and leukocyte recruitment. We used knockout mice and short hairpin RNA to knock down guanine nucleotide binding protein (GNB) isoforms (GNB1, GNB2, GNB4, and GNB5) in HL60 cells and primary murine hematopoietic cells. Neutrophil function was assessed by using intravital microscopy, flow chamber assays, and chemotaxis and biochemistry studies. We unexpectedly discovered that all expressed GNB isoforms are required for LFA-1 activation. Their downregulation led to a significant impairment of LFA-1 activation, which was demonstrated in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we showed that GPCR activation leads to Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1)-dependent activation of both phospholipase C β2 (Plcβ2) and Plcβ3. They act nonredundantly to produce inositol triphosphate-mediated intracellular Ca(2+) flux and LFA-1 activation that support chemokine-induced arrest in vivo. In a complex inflammatory disease model, Plcβ2-, Plcβ3-, or Rac1-deficient mice were protected from lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury. Taken together, we demonstrated that all Gnb isoforms are required for chemokine-induced downstream signaling, and Rac1, Plcβ2, and Plcβ3 are critically involved in integrin activation and leukocyte arrest. PMID:26468229

  10. Design of PLC Offline Simulation Software%PLC离线仿真软件的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏端峰; 柯宗武; 姜楚乔

    2014-01-01

    PLC has been widely used in industrial automation. Before running on the PLC, a Ladder Chart must be carried out several times in pro-gram debugging on the PLC. There are problems of high cost and big risk issues when program development and debugging on the real PLC. Offline simulation software can replace the real PLC, complete this part of function better. Analyzes PLC offline simulation software design principles and implementation from the aspect of system architecture, functional requirements and the actual design.%PLC作为一种以微电脑为核心的自动控制装置,已经在工业自动化领域广泛应用。一个工业控制程序从设计到实际运行必须多次在PLC上进行程序调试,但实物PLC上进行程序开发、调试存在着成本高、风险大的问题。而PLC离线仿真软件可以替代实物PLC,较好地完成这部分功能。从PLC离线仿真软件整体系统结构、需要实现的功能及实际设计几个方面阐述PLC离线仿真软件的设计原理及实现方案。

  11. Optical interconnection for a polymeric PLC device using simple positional alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Jin Hwa; Kim, Po Jin; Cho, Cheon Soo; Lee, El-Hang; Kim, Chang-Seok; Jeong, Myung Yung

    2011-04-25

    This study proposes a simple cost-effective method of optical interconnection between a planar lightwave circuit (PLC) device chip and an optical fiber. It was conducted to minimize and overcome the coupling loss caused by lateral offset which is due to the process tolerance and the dimensional limitation existing between PLC device chips and fiber array blocks with groove structures. A PLC device chip and a fiber array block were simultaneously fabricated in a series of polymer replication processes using the original master. The dimensions (i.e., width and thickness) of the under-clad of the PLC device chip were identical to those of the fiber array block. The PLC device chip and optical fiber were aligned by simple positional control for the vertical direction of the PLC device chip under a particular condition. The insertion loss of the proposed 1 x 2 multimode optical splitter device interconnection was 4.0 dB at 850 nm and the coupling loss was below 0.1 dB compared with single-fiber based active alignment.

  12. A formal safety analysis for PLC software-based safety critical system using Z

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a formal safety analysis technique which is demonstrated by performing empirical formal safety analysis with the case study of beamline hutch door Interlock system that is developed by using PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) systems at the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory. In order to perform formal safety analysis, we have built the Z formal specifications representation from user requirement written in ambiguous natural language and target PLC ladder logic, respectively. We have also studied the effective method to express typical PLC timer component by using specific Z formal notation which is supported by temporal history. We present a formal proof technique specifying and verifying that the hazardous states are not introduced into ladder logic in the PLC-based safety critical system. And also, we have found that some errors or mismatches in user requirement and final implemented PLC ladder logic while analyzing the process of the consistency and completeness of Z translated formal specifications. In the case of relatively small systems like Beamline hutch door interlock system, a formal safety analysis including explicit proof is highly recommended so that the safety of PLC-based critical system may be enhanced and guaranteed. It also provides a helpful benefits enough to comprehend user requirement expressed by ambiguous natural language

  13. Cbl Suppresses B Cell Receptor–Mediated Phospholipase C (Plc)-γ2 Activation by Regulating B Cell Linker Protein–Plc-γ2 Binding

    OpenAIRE

    Yasuda, Tomoharu; Maeda, Akito; Kurosaki, Mari; Tezuka, Tohru; Hironaka, Katsunori; Yamamoto, Tadashi; Kurosaki, Tomohiro

    2000-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that the Cbl protein plays a negative role in immune receptor signaling; however, the mode of Cbl action in B cell receptor (BCR) signaling still remains unclear. DT40 B cells deficient in Cbl showed enhanced BCR-mediated phospholipase C (PLC)-γ2 activation, thereby leading to increased apoptosis. A possible explanation for the involvement of Cbl in PLC-γ2 activation was provided by findings that Cbl interacts via its Src homology 2 (SH2) domain with B cell lin...

  14. Involvement of PLC-beta3 in the effect of morphine on memory retrieval in passive avoidance task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, E; Lehmann, D; Vivoli, E; Norcini, M; Ghelardini, C

    2010-06-01

    Phospholipase C (PLC) is one signalling effector enzyme whose activity is directly modulated by opioids. Several physiological studies have implicated PLC-linked pathways in in-vivo pain regulation and opioid tolerance. Co-administration of PLC-beta(2/3) activity blocker M119 with morphine resulted in a dramatic increase in morphine-induced amnesic effect in mice, proving a role for beta subunit of PLC enzyme in these processes. Administration of morphine to mice at amnesic dose increased PLC-beta(3) activity, with respect to basal value, in the membrane-soluble material from anterior cortex and hippocampal formation in brain areas. PLC-beta(3) appears to be simultaneously implicated in both analgesic and amnesic effects induced by administration of morphine to mice suggesting a commonality in the molecular mechanisms of morphine-induced analgesia and memory impairment.

  15. PLC Control Method and Realiztation of Repeatability for Picomotor Actuators%Pico电机的PLC控制方法及其重复性的实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乐兆山; 陆林海; 朱寒雨

    2011-01-01

    主要论述和解决了新型的Pico电机在应用过程中碰到的两个问题,即如何利用PLC控制Pico电机以及如何实现该电机的重复性.在以PLC为主要控制解决方案的场合,使用该方法可以节约系统成本,降低系统复杂性.通过加装旋转编码器,有效地解决了电机本身重复性差的问题.%Two problems in the usage of the novel Picomotor actuator were discussed and settled.One is how to use PLC to control the Picomotor actuator,the other is how to achieve it repeatability.Using PLC to control the whole system can save system cost,reduce the complexity of the system.By installing a rotatory encoder,excellent repeatability can be achieved.

  16. Developing a PLC-friendly state machine model: lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessemier, Wim; Deconinck, Geert; Raskin, Gert; Saey, Philippe; Van Winckel, Hans

    2014-07-01

    Modern Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) have become an attractive platform for controlling real-time aspects of astronomical telescopes and instruments due to their increased versatility, performance and standardization. Likewise, vendor-neutral middleware technologies such as OPC Unified Architecture (OPC UA) have recently demonstrated that they can greatly facilitate the integration of these industrial platforms into the overall control system. Many practical questions arise, however, when building multi-tiered control systems that consist of PLCs for low level control, and conventional software and platforms for higher level control. How should the PLC software be structured, so that it can rely on well-known programming paradigms on the one hand, and be mapped to a well-organized OPC UA interface on the other hand? Which programming languages of the IEC 61131-3 standard closely match the problem domains of the abstraction levels within this structure? How can the recent additions to the standard (such as the support for namespaces and object-oriented extensions) facilitate a model based development approach? To what degree can our applications already take advantage of the more advanced parts of the OPC UA standard, such as the high expressiveness of the semantic modeling language that it defines, or the support for events, aggregation of data, automatic discovery, ... ? What are the timing and concurrency problems to be expected for the higher level tiers of the control system due to the cyclic execution of control and communication tasks by the PLCs? We try to answer these questions by demonstrating a semantic state machine model that can readily be implemented using IEC 61131 and OPC UA. One that does not aim to capture all possible states of a system, but rather one that attempts to organize the course-grained structure and behaviour of a system. In this paper we focus on the intricacies of this seemingly simple task, and on the lessons that we

  17. Ral GTPase interacts with the N-terminal in addition to the C-terminal region of PLC-delta1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grujic, Ognjen; Bhullar, Rajinder P

    2009-06-12

    Previously, we have shown that RalA, a calmodulin (CaM)-binding protein, binds to the C2 region in the C-terminal of PLC-delta1, and increases its enzymatic activity. Since PLC-delta1 contains a CaM-like region in its N-terminus, we have investigated if RalA can also bind to the N-terminus of PLC-delta1. Therefore, we created a GST-PLC-delta1 construct consisting of the first 294 amino acids of PLC-delta1 (GST-PLC-delta1(1-294)). In vitro binding experiments confirmed that PLC-delta1(1-294) was capable of binding directly to RalA. W-7 coupled to polyacrylamide beads bound pure PLC-delta1, demonstrating that PLC-delta1 contains a CaM-like region. Competition assays with W-7, peptides representing RalA and the newly identified RalB CaM-binding regions, or the IQ peptide from PLC-delta1 were able to inhibit RalA binding to PLC-delta1(1-294). This study demonstrates that there are two binding sites for RalA in PLC-delta1 and provides further insight into the role of Ral GTPase in the regulation of PLC-delta1 function.

  18. IDENTIFICATION OF ENCODED BEADS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention is relates to methods for the identification of spatially encoded beaded or granulated matrices comprising a plurality of immobilised particles. The identification is based on a distance matrix determination or based on a set of geometrical figures, such a triangles, on the ......The present invention is relates to methods for the identification of spatially encoded beaded or granulated matrices comprising a plurality of immobilised particles. The identification is based on a distance matrix determination or based on a set of geometrical figures, such a triangles...

  19. Polarization encoded color camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonbrun, Ethan; Möller, Guðfríður; Di Caprio, Giuseppe

    2014-03-15

    Digital cameras would be colorblind if they did not have pixelated color filters integrated into their image sensors. Integration of conventional fixed filters, however, comes at the expense of an inability to modify the camera's spectral properties. Instead, we demonstrate a micropolarizer-based camera that can reconfigure its spectral response. Color is encoded into a linear polarization state by a chiral dispersive element and then read out in a single exposure. The polarization encoded color camera is capable of capturing three-color images at wavelengths spanning the visible to the near infrared. PMID:24690806

  20. Plasmids encoding therapeutic agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keener, William K.

    2007-08-07

    Plasmids encoding anti-HIV and anti-anthrax therapeutic agents are disclosed. Plasmid pWKK-500 encodes a fusion protein containing DP178 as a targeting moiety, the ricin A chain, an HIV protease cleavable linker, and a truncated ricin B chain. N-terminal extensions of the fusion protein include the maltose binding protein and a Factor Xa protease site. C-terminal extensions include a hydrophobic linker, an L domain motif peptide, a KDEL ER retention signal, another Factor Xa protease site, an out-of-frame buforin II coding sequence, the lacZ.alpha. peptide, and a polyhistidine tag. More than twenty derivatives of plasmid pWKK-500 are described. Plasmids pWKK-700 and pWKK-800 are similar to pWKK-500 wherein the DP178-encoding sequence is substituted by RANTES- and SDF-1-encoding sequences, respectively. Plasmid pWKK-900 is similar to pWKK-500 wherein the HIV protease cleavable linker is substituted by a lethal factor (LF) peptide-cleavable linker.

  1. DNA sequences encoding erythropoietin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, F.K.

    1987-10-27

    A purified and isolated DNA sequence is described consisting essentially of a DNA sequence encoding a polypeptide having an amino acid sequence sufficiently duplicative of that of erythropoietin to allow possession of the biological property of causing bone marrow cells to increase production of reticulocytes and red blood cells, and to increase hemoglobin synthesis or iron uptake.

  2. Time-Encoded Imagers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marleau, Peter; Brubaker, Erik

    2014-11-01

    This report provides a short overview of the DNN R&D funded project, Time-Encoded Imagers. The project began in FY11 and concluded in FY14. The Project Description below provides the overall motivation and objectives for the project as well as a summary of programmatic direction. It is followed by a short description of each task and the resulting deliverables.

  3. Catalytic activity of nuclear PLC-beta(1) is required for its signalling function during C2C12 differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramazzotti, Giulia; Faenza, Irene; Gaboardi, Gian Carlo; Piazzi, Manuela; Bavelloni, Alberto; Fiume, Roberta; Manzoli, Lucia; Martelli, Alberto M; Cocco, Lucio

    2008-11-01

    Here we report that PLC-beta(1) catalytic activity plays a role in the increase of cyclin D3 levels and induces the differentiation of C2C12 skeletal muscle cells. PLC-beta(1) mutational analysis revealed the importance of His(331) and His(378) for the catalysis. The expression of PLC-beta(1) and cyclin D3 proteins is highly induced during the process of skeletal myoblast differentiation. We have previously shown that PLC-beta(1) activates cyclin D3 promoter during the differentiation of myoblasts to myotubes, indicating that PLC-beta(1) is a crucial regulator of the mouse cyclin D3 gene. We show that after insulin treatment cyclin D3 mRNA levels are lower in cells overexpressing the PLC-beta(1) catalytically inactive form in comparison to wild type cells. We describe a novel signalling pathway elicited by PLC-beta(1) that modulates AP-1 activity. Gel mobility shift assay and supershift performed with specific antibodies indicate that the c-jun binding site is located in a cyclin D3 promoter region specifically regulated by PLC-beta(1) and that c-Jun binding activity is significantly increased by insulin and PLC-beta(1) overexpression. Mutation of AP-1 site decreased the basal cyclin D3 promoter activity and eliminated its induction by insulin and PLC-beta(1). These results hint at the fact that PLC-beta(1) catalytic activity signals a c-jun/AP-1 target gene, i.e. cyclin D3, during myogenic differentiation.

  4. PC-PLC/sphingomyelin synthase activity plays a central role in the development of myogenic tone in murine resistance arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauban, Joseph R H; Zacharia, Joseph; Fairfax, Seth; Wier, Withrow Gil

    2015-06-15

    Myogenic tone is an intrinsic property of the vasculature that contributes to blood pressure control and tissue perfusion. Earlier investigations assigned a key role in myogenic tone to phospholipase C (PLC) and its products, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG). Here, we used the PLC inhibitor, U-73122, and two other, specific inhibitors of PLC subtypes (PI-PLC and PC-PLC) to delineate the role of PLC in myogenic tone of pressurized murine mesenteric arteries. U-73122 inhibited depolarization-induced contractions (high external K(+) concentration), thus confirming reports of nonspecific actions of U-73122 and its limited utility for studies of myogenic tone. Edelfosine, a specific inhibitor of PI-PLC, did not affect depolarization-induced contractions but modulated myogenic tone. Because PI-PLC produces IP3, we investigated the effect of blocking IP3 receptor-mediated Ca(2+) release on myogenic tone. Incubation of arteries with xestospongin C did not affect tone, consistent with the virtual absence of Ca(2+) waves in arteries with myogenic tone. D-609, an inhibitor of PC-PLC and sphingomyelin synthase, strongly inhibited myogenic tone and had no effect on depolarization-induced contraction. D-609 appeared to act by lowering cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration to levels below those that activate contraction. Importantly, incubation of pressurized arteries with a membrane-permeable analog of DAG induced vasoconstriction. The results therefore mandate a reexamination of the signaling pathways activated by the Bayliss mechanism. Our results suggest that PI-PLC and IP3 are not required in maintaining myogenic tone, but DAG, produced by PC-PLC and/or SM synthase, is likely through multiple mechanisms to increase Ca(2+) entry and promote vasoconstriction.

  5. Software control of the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope enclosure PLC hardware using COTS software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrowman, Alastair J.; de Bilbao, Lander; Ariño, Javier; Murga, Gaizka; Goodrich, Bret; Hubbard, John R.; Greer, Alan; Mayer, Chris; Taylor, Philip

    2012-09-01

    As PLCs evolve from simple logic controllers into more capable Programmable Automation Controllers (PACs), observatories are increasingly using such devices to control complex mechanisms1, 2. This paper describes use of COTS software to control such hardware using the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) Common Services Framework (CSF). We present the Enclosure Control System (ECS) under development in Spain and the UK. The paper details selection of the commercial PLC communication library PLCIO. Implemented in C and delivered with source code, the library separates the programmer from communication details through a simple API. Capable of communicating with many types of PLCs (including Allen-Bradley and Siemens) the API remains the same irrespective of PLC in use. The ECS is implemented in Java using the observatory's framework that provides common services for software components. We present a design following a connection-based approach where all components access the PLC through a single connection class. The link between Java and PLCIO C library is provided by a thin Java Native Interface (JNI) layer. Also presented is a software simulator of the PLC based upon the PLCIO Virtual PLC. This creates a simulator operating below the library's API and thus requires no change to ECS software. It also provides enhanced software testing capabilities prior to hardware becoming available. Results are presented in the form of communication timing test data, showing that the use of CSF, JNI and PLCIO provide a control system capable of controlling enclosure tracking mechanisms, that would be equally valid for telescope mount control.

  6. Intrathecal PLC(β3) oligodeoxynucleotides antisense potentiates acute morphine efficacy and attenuates chronic morphine tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quanhong, Zhou; Ying, Xue; Moxi, Chen; Tao, Xu; Jing, Wang; Xin, Zhang; Li, Wang; Derong, Cui; Xiaoli, Zhang; Wei, Jiang

    2012-09-01

    Morphine is a mainstay for chronic pain treatment, but its efficacy has been hampered by physical tolerance. The underlying mechanism for chronic morphine induced tolerance is complicated and not well understood. PLC(β3) is regarded as an important factor in the morphine tolerance signal pathway. In this study, we determined intrathecal (i.t.) administration of an antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) of PLC(β3) could quicken the on-set antinociceptive efficacy of acute morphine treatment and prolong the maximum effect up to 4h. The antisense could also attenuate the development of morphine-induced tolerance and left shift the ED50 after 7 day of coadministration with morphine. These results probably were contributed by the PLC(β3) antisense ODN as they successfully knocked down protein expression levels and reduced activity of PLC(β3) in spinal cord in rats. The mismatch group had no such effects. The results confirmed the important involvement of PLC(β3) in both acute morphine efficacy and chronic morphine tolerance at spinal level in rats. This study may provide an idea for producing a novel adjuvant for morphine treatment.

  7. Realizace úzkopásmových PLC modemů

    OpenAIRE

    Kubíček, Lukáš

    2012-01-01

    Diplomová práce se věnuje úzkopásmové technologii přenosu dat el. sítí NN (PLC) a~možnostem jejího využití v senzorových sítích. Zabývá se jak strukturou a základními vlastnostmi PLC standardu, tak možnostmi jeho uplatnění v praxi. Hlavní částí této práce je realizace PLC sítě pomocí IO ST7570 firmy STMicroelectronics. Jako příklad praktického využití PLC technologie je tato síť připojena k počítači, ve kterém jsou data ze senzoru (wattmetru) připojenému k PLC modemu ukládána pomocí aplikace ...

  8. PLC ? datové přenosy v elektrorozvodné síti

    OpenAIRE

    Páter, David

    2007-01-01

    Cílem této diplomové práce je seznámit čtenáře s konceptem datových přenosů v elektrorozvodné síti ? PLC (Powerline Communication), provést analýzu současného stavu v PLC oblasti ve světě a v České republice, vyzkoušet možnosti PLC v praxi, identifikovat přednosti a omezení PLC a srovnat PLC s konkurenčními komunikačními technologiemi v České republice. Za účelem dosažení stanovených cílů je diplomová práce členěna na dvě hlavní části ? teoretickou a praktickou. Teoretická část je založena př...

  9. PLC/DTAM Software Programs for Pumping Instrumentation and Control Skid X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the software programs for the Allen-Bradley SLC 500 programmable logic controller (PLC) and the Allen-Bradley DTAM PLUS operator interface module used on Pumping Instrumentation and Control (PIC) skid ''X''. The software programs for the SLC 500 and DTAM Plus are based on the core programs provided by Allen-Bradley. The PLC and DTAM software programs on skid ''D'' for SX-104 are the baseline programs. These baselines will be tailored for each individual BY-farm skid. An Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) and an Operational Test Procedure (OTP) verify that the software programs meet the specific requirements for BY-105 pumping. This document represents the final PLC and DTAM programs for PIC skid ''X'' at BY-105. These programs were printed out after the performance of the OTP. The OTP acts as the final qualification test for the software programs. Functional requirements and details of the PLC ladder logic are described in this document. The final programs entered into the PLC and DTAM Plus are included as Appendices to this document

  10. File list: Oth.Plc.10.AllAg.Induced_trophoblast_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Plc.10.AllAg.Induced_trophoblast_stem_cells mm9 TFs and others Placenta Induced trophoblast stem... cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Plc.10.AllAg.Induced_trophoblast_stem_cells.bed ...

  11. File list: NoD.Plc.20.AllAg.Induced_trophoblast_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Plc.20.AllAg.Induced_trophoblast_stem_cells mm9 No description Placenta Induced trophoblast stem... cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/NoD.Plc.20.AllAg.Induced_trophoblast_stem_cells.bed ...

  12. File list: Unc.Plc.50.AllAg.Induced_trophoblast_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Plc.50.AllAg.Induced_trophoblast_stem_cells mm9 Unclassified Placenta Induced trophoblast stem... cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Plc.50.AllAg.Induced_trophoblast_stem_cells.bed ...

  13. File list: Unc.Plc.20.AllAg.Induced_trophoblast_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Plc.20.AllAg.Induced_trophoblast_stem_cells mm9 Unclassified Placenta Induced trophoblast stem... cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Plc.20.AllAg.Induced_trophoblast_stem_cells.bed ...

  14. File list: NoD.Plc.10.AllAg.Induced_trophoblast_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  15. File list: InP.Plc.10.AllAg.Induced_trophoblast_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  16. File list: InP.Plc.20.AllAg.Induced_trophoblast_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  17. File list: NoD.Plc.05.AllAg.Trophoblast_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  18. File list: Pol.Plc.20.AllAg.Induced_trophoblast_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  19. File list: ALL.Plc.50.AllAg.Induced_trophoblast_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  20. File list: DNS.Plc.20.AllAg.Induced_trophoblast_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  1. File list: ALL.Plc.05.AllAg.Induced_trophoblast_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  3. File list: Pol.Plc.05.AllAg.Induced_trophoblast_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  4. File list: DNS.Plc.10.AllAg.Induced_trophoblast_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  5. File list: NoD.Plc.05.AllAg.Induced_trophoblast_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  6. File list: His.Plc.50.AllAg.Induced_trophoblast_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  7. File list: Pol.Plc.10.AllAg.Induced_trophoblast_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  8. File list: NoD.Plc.50.AllAg.Induced_trophoblast_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  9. File list: InP.Plc.50.AllAg.Induced_trophoblast_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  10. File list: Oth.Plc.20.AllAg.Induced_trophoblast_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  11. File list: Unc.Plc.10.AllAg.Induced_trophoblast_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  12. File list: Pol.Plc.50.AllAg.Induced_trophoblast_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  13. File list: InP.Plc.05.AllAg.Induced_trophoblast_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  14. File list: ALL.Plc.20.AllAg.Induced_trophoblast_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  15. File list: Oth.Plc.50.AllAg.Induced_trophoblast_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  16. File list: DNS.Plc.50.AllAg.Induced_trophoblast_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  17. File list: ALL.Plc.10.AllAg.Induced_trophoblast_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  18. File list: Oth.Plc.05.AllAg.Induced_trophoblast_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  19. File list: His.Plc.05.AllAg.Induced_trophoblast_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  1. File list: His.Plc.20.AllAg.Induced_trophoblast_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  2. Cell-cycle-dependent PC-PLC regulation by APC/C(Cdc20)-mediated ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Da; Ma, Yushui; Wu, Wei; Zhu, Xuchao; Jia, Chengyou; Zhao, Qianlei; Zhang, Chunyi; Wu, Xing Zhong

    2009-07-01

    Phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C (PC-PLC) is involved in the cell signal transduction, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. The mechanism of its action, however, has not been fully understood, particularly, the role of PC-PLC in the cell cycle. In the present study, we found that cell division cycle 20 homolog (Cdc20) and PC-PLC were co-immunoprecipitated reciprocally by either antibody in rat hepatoma cells CBRH-7919 as well as in rat liver tissue. Using confocal microscopy, we found that PC-PLC and Cdc20 were co-localized in the perinuclear endoplasmic reticulum region (the "juxtanuclear quality control" compartment, JUNQ). The expression level and activities of PC-PLC changed in a cell-cycle-dependent manner and were inversely correlated with the expression of Cdc20. Intriguingly, Cdc20 overexpression altered the subcellular localization and distribution of PC-PLC, and caused PC-PLC degradation by the ubiquitin proteasome pathway (UPP). Taken together, our data indicate that PC-PLC regulation in cell cycles is controlled by APC/C(Cdc20)-mediated UPP.

  3. 77 FR 10355 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR) RB211-Trent 800 Series Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... (68 FR 49344, August 18, 2003) and adding the following new AD: 2012-04-01 Rolls-Royce plc: Amendment... (68 FR 49344, August 18, 2003). (c) Applicability This AD applies to Rolls-Royce plc (RR) RB211-Trent...) 2003-16- 18, amendment 39-13271 (68 FR 49344, August 18, 2003). That AD applies to the...

  4. 75 FR 28655 - Rexam Closure Systems, Inc. a Subsidiary of Rexam PLC Including On-Site Leased Workers From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... Closure Systems, Inc., a subsidiary of Rexam PLC, Hamlet, North Carolina. The notice was published in the Federal Register on April 23, 2010 (75 FR 21357). At the request of the State Agency, the Department... Employment and Training Administration Rexam Closure Systems, Inc. a Subsidiary of Rexam PLC Including...

  5. 77 FR 21588 - Hart and Cooley, Inc., A Subsidiary of Tomkins, PLC Including On-Site Leased Workers from...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ... of determination was published in the Federal Register on April 23, 2010 (75 FR 21354). At the... Employment and Training Administration Hart and Cooley, Inc., A Subsidiary of Tomkins, PLC Including On- Site... subsidiary of Tomkins, PLC, including on-site leased workers from Reliable, Masiello Employment...

  6. File list: NoD.Plc.10.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  7. File list: NoD.Plc.05.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  8. File list: NoD.Plc.50.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  9. File list: InP.Plc.20.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  11. File list: InP.Plc.50.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  12. File list: NoD.Plc.20.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  13. File list: InP.Plc.10.AllAg.Trophoblast_giant_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  14. Encoded combinatorial chemistry.

    OpenAIRE

    Brenner, S; Lerner, R A

    1992-01-01

    The diversity of chemical synthesis and the power of genetics are linked to provide a powerful, versatile method for drug screening. A process of alternating parallel combinatorial synthesis is used to encode individual members of a large library of chemicals with unique nucleotide sequences. After the chemical entity is bound to a target, the genetic tag can be amplified by replication and utilized for enrichment of the bound molecules by serial hybridization to a subset of the library. The ...

  15. Optimized design of PSA nitrogen-manufacturing system based on PLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Zongyao; Ma, Xiushui; Jiang, Jun

    2011-05-01

    Firstly introducing principle and technological process of PSA nitrogen-manufacturing system, on condition of its high air consumption and weak in nitrogen-manufacturing system at present. We repeatedly studied the controlled object in this process, analyzed the PLC procedure based on the program rule of PLC of Siemens S7-200 series, then re-program PLC procedure without altering the nitrogen production technique of PSA nitrogen-manufacturing system. At the same time, in order to improve the operation efficiency of the response of action, we also did experiment and demonstration in the consistency of the I/O port and peripheral equipment. In this paper, through optimization of hardware and software design, the nitrogen producing cost was calculated at RMB 0.35 per m3, declined by 12% from the original RMB 0.4 per m3.

  16. PLC顺序控制法编程应用%Application of PLC Sequence Control Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋国杰

    2015-01-01

    With the development of automatic control technology, the application of PLC is becoming more and more widely. The sequential control method is the most common and effective programming method for PLC programming. In this paper, based on MITSUBISHI PLC, through an example to illustrate the progra-mming ideas and operation steps of sequential control method.%随着自动控制技术的发展,PLC的应用也越来越广泛,顺序控制法是进行PLC编程时最常用、最有效的编程方法。以三菱PLC为模型,通过实例来说明顺序控制法的编程思路和操作步骤。

  17. Advanced Autonomous Domestic PLC Integrated System%国产PLC集成系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙超; 郭彦樟; 傅涛; 陈洪业

    2016-01-01

    PLC system is currently dominated by foreign brands,at present domestic manufacturers gradually in the control of independent research and development of domestic PLC,for PLC system integration includes the whole door,installation,wiring, power supply and other multiple system,text in view of the above system were simple analysis.%PLC系统目前以国外品牌为主,目前国内厂家陆续在研发自主可控的国产PLC,对于PLC系统的集成包含整体防护、安装、接线、供电等多个系统,文本针对上述系统进行了简单的分析。

  18. NB-PLC channel modelling with cyclostationary noise addition & OFDM implementation for smart grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Togis; Gupta, K. K.

    2016-03-01

    Power line communication (PLC) technology can be a viable solution for the future ubiquitous networks because it provides a cheaper alternative to other wired technology currently being used for communication. In smart grid Power Line Communication (PLC) is used to support communication with low rate on low voltage (LV) distribution network. In this paper, we propose the channel modelling of narrowband (NB) PLC in the frequency range 5 KHz to 500 KHz by using ABCD parameter with cyclostationary noise addition. Behaviour of the channel was studied by the addition of 11KV/230V transformer, by varying load location and load. Bit error rate (BER) Vs signal to noise ratio SNR) was plotted for the proposed model by employing OFDM. Our simulation results based on the proposed channel model show an acceptable performance in terms of bit error rate versus signal to noise ratio, which enables communication required for smart grid applications.

  19. Design and Implementation of PLC-Based Automatic Sun tracking System for Parabolic Trough Solar Concentrator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jinping

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A sun-tracking system for parabolic trough solar concentrators (PTCs is a control system used to orient the concentrator toward the sun always, so that the maximum energy can be collected. The work presented here is a design and development of PLC based sun tracking control system for PTC. Sun tracking control system consists of a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC and a single axis hydraulic drives tracking control system. Hydraulic drives and the necessary tracking angle algorithm have been designed and developed to perform the technical tasks. A PLC unit was employed to control and monitor the mechanical movement of the PTC and to collect and store data related to the tracking angle of PTC. It is found that the tracking error of the system is less than 0.6°. Field experience shows that tracking algorithm act stable and reliable and suit for PTCs.

  20. Bringing Automated Model Checking to PLC Program Development - A CERN Case Study

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez Adiego, B; Tournier, J-C; Blanco Vinuela, E; Gonzalez Suarez, V M

    2014-01-01

    Verification of critical software is a high priority but a challenging task for industrial control systems. Model checking appears to be an appropriate approach for this purpose. However, this technique is not widely used in industry yet, due to some obstacles. The main obstacles encountered when trying to apply formal verification techniques at industrial installations are the difficulty of creating models out of PLC programs and defining formally the specification requirements. In addition, models produced out of real-life programs have a huge state space, thus preventing the verification due to performance issues. Our work at CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) focuses on developing efficient automatic verification methods for industrial critical installations based on PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) control systems. In this paper, we present a tool generating automatically formal models out of PLC code. The tool implements a general methodology which can support several input languages, ...

  1. Technical considerations for the development of an engineering safety features control system with PLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technical considerations are summarized for the development of an ESFCS(Engineered Safety Features Control System) with PLC (Programmable Logic Controller). The ESFCS is required for the mitigation of plant accident conditions and therefore developed in conformance with the design requirements applied to the safety critical system. The design of ESFCS primarily considered its safety, and the system has an architecture that will be able to minimize spurious actuation. The PLC based functional distribution and redundant design features are adopted, and the fieldbus is applied in the communication of information and control signals between PLC processors. It is expected that the ESFCS will have several advanced design features compared with the conventional systems supplied by foreign vendors

  2. The upgrade of an educational observatory control system with a PLC-based architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldini, V.; Cirami, R.; Coretti, I.; Di Marcantonio, P.; Galeotta, S.; Iafrate, G.; Mannetta, M.; Santin, P.

    2014-07-01

    A Celestron C14 telescope equipped with a robotic Paramount ME equatorial mount is being used for public outreach at the Basovizza site of the INAF-Astronomical Observatory of Trieste. Although the telescope could be fully remotely controlled, the control of the instrumentations and the movement of the main motor of the dome requires the physical presence of an operator. To overcome this limitation the existing control system has been upgraded using a Beckhoff PLC to allow the remote control of the whole instrumentation, including the management of the newly installed weather sensor and the access to the telescope area. Exploiting the decentralization features typical of a PLC based solution, the PLC modules are placed in two different racks, according to the function to be controlled. A web interface is used for the communication between the user and the instrumentation. The architecture of this control system will be presented in detail in this paper.

  3. Mitigation of Noise in OFDM Based Plc System Using Filter Kernel Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha G Krishnan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Power line communication is a technology that transforms power line in to pathway for conveyance of broadband data. It is cost less than other communication approach and for better bandwidth efficiency OFDM based PLC system is used. In real PLC environment some electrical appliances will produce noise. To mitigate this noise filter kernel design is used, so periodic impulsive noise and Gaussian noises are removed from PLC communication system by using this filter kernel design. MATLAB is used for the simulation and the result shows that filter kernel is simple and effective noise mitigation technique. Further in future, interference due to obstacles also wants to be mitigated for the better data transmission without noise.

  4. 2-aminohydroxamic acid derivatives as inhibitors of Bacillus cereus phosphatidylcholine preferred phospholipase C PC-PLC(Bc).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Bulnes, Patricia; González-Roura, Albert; Canals, Daniel; Delgado, Antonio; Casas, Josefina; Llebaria, Amadeu

    2010-12-15

    Phosphatidylcholine preferring phospholipase C (PC-PLC) is an important enzyme that plays a key role in a variety of cellular events and lipid homoeostases. Bacillus cereus phospholipase C (PC-PLC(Bc)) has antigenic similarity with the elusive mammalian PC-PLC, which has not thus far been isolated and purified. Therefore the discovery of inhibitors of PC-PLC(Bc) is of current interest. Here, we describe the synthesis and biological evaluation of a new type of compounds inhibiting PC-PLC(Bc). These compounds have been designed by evolution of previously described 2-aminohydroxamic acid PC-PLC(Bc) inhibitors that block the enzyme by coordination of the zinc active site atoms present in PC-PLC(Bc) [Gonzalez-Roura, A.; Navarro, I.; Delgado, A.; Llebaria, A.; Casas, J. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.2004, 43, 862]. The new compounds maintain the zinc coordinating groups and possess an extra trimethylammonium function, linked to the hydroxyamide nitrogen by an alkyl chain, which is expected to mimic the trimethylammonium group of the phosphatidylcholine PC-PLC(Bc) substrates. Some of the compounds described inhibit the enzyme with IC(50)'s in the low micromolar range. Unexpectedly, the most potent inhibitors found are those that possess a trimethylammonium group but have chemically blocked the zinc coordinating functionalities. The results obtained suggest that PC-PLC(Bc) inhibition is not due to the interaction of compounds with the phospholipase catalytic zinc atoms, but rather results from the inhibitor cationic group recognition by the PC-PLC(Bc) amino acids involved in choline lipid binding.

  5. Development Research for Cramo Plc Annual Report to Meet the Requirements of IR Communications

    OpenAIRE

    Hirvonen, Mirjam

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of the research is to attain feedback on the 2009 Annual Report from selected stakeholders that could help to develop the annual report of the commissioning company, Cramo Plc, for the year 2011. Other objectives are to find out what status the annual report has among the sample and how it is used. The author worked at Cramo Plc as assistant trainee during the research process. The annual report is a key communication tool of a public limited company; it is designed...

  6. A Practical Applications of Virtual PLC using LabVIEW Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad K. Abuzalata

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study thirteen different functions (VIs are designed and tested .These include, single input single output, single input two outputs, latch outputs, timer, counter, logic function, less, greater and equal functions, XOR function, compound function and shift register. At the end of the study, for illustration purposes, the 7-day tea maker, electro-pneumatic drive system and their simulation were developed and tested. Results of experiment show complete coincidence between the PLC-based control and Virtual PLC-based program results.

  7. One-way data transfer for PLC to VME status reporting at the Advanced Photon Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, S. J.

    1994-12-01

    The Personnel Safety System for the experimental beamlines at the Advanced Photon Source will use a large number of Allen Bradley Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC) to replace conventional relay logic. PLCs allow for the design of a very advanced safety system that can handle a large number of I/O points. Certain situations require monitoring of the safety system from various locations around the storage ring via the EPICS OPI (operator interface) consoles. This presentation covers the chosen method for transferring data from the Personnel Safety System into an EPICS database. Specifications on PLC ladder design, EPICS database design and hardware selection are also discussed.

  8. AB Nordea Bank Finland Plc Lietuvos skyriaus darbdavio vidinio įvaizdžio stiprinimas

    OpenAIRE

    Stundytė, Inga

    2009-01-01

    Ši tema pasirinkta siekiant išanalizuoti Nordea banko esamą darbdavio įvaizdį, bei išaiškinti darbuotojų pasitenkinimo juo lygį. Nagrinėti darbdavio įvaizdį svarbu dėl to, kad egzistuoja ryšis tarp pasitenkinimo darbdaviu bei įsipareigojimo organizacijai. Darbo tikslas: Parengti rekomendacijas AB Nordea Bank Finland Plc Lietuvos skyriaus vidinio darbdavio įvaizdžio stiprinimui. Darbo uždaviniai: Nustatyti veiksnius, neigiamai įtakojančius AB Nordea Bank Finland Plc Lietuvos skyriaus ...

  9. 基于 PLC 的液压滑台控制系统设计%Design of Hydraulic Control System Based on PLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔培平

    2014-01-01

    Aiming at the existing problem of relay contactor control system ,this article used PLC technology to control the feeding motion of hydraulic sliding table .The PLC models was chosen ,the hardware and software were designed ,and the ladder diagram was given .The system has been applied to the actual cutting process ,and the feasibility and practicability has been verified .%针对继电器接触器控制系统存在的问题,采用PLC技术对液压动力滑台进给运动进行控制。选择了PLC机型,进行了硬件设计、软件设计,并画出了梯形图。应用于实际切削过程中,验证了其可行性和实用性。

  10. The Application of PLC (Powerline Communications) in Brazil in the regulatory viewpoint; A aplicacao do PLC no Brasil do ponto de vista regulatorio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Daniel; Silva Filho, Armando [Agencia Nacional de Energia Eletrica (ANEEL), Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Superintendencia de Regulacao dos Servicos de Distribuicao

    2010-07-01

    The Powerline Communications technology - PLC allows transmission of data, voice, image and access to high speed internet by the grid, so that a power plug can also be an access point to the network communication. Considering that the electric grid reaches the vast majority of households, there is great potential in using this technology as a tool to achieve the reality of digital inclusion in the country. However, its implementation must be accompanied by effective regulation, both through policies with respect to the conditions of use of radio frequencies, as in regulating the use of distribution networks of electricity as a means of transport for communication signal. In this context, the present article deals with the fundamental rules governing the application of PLC technology from the standpoint of the distributors and consumers of electricity, with attention to quality assurance of electrical energy and facility security.

  11. Spectrally encoded confocal microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tearney, G.J.; Webb, R.H.; Bouma, B.E. [Wellman Laboratories of Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, 50 Blossom Street, BAR 703, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States)

    1998-08-01

    An endoscope-compatible, submicrometer-resolution scanning confocal microscopy imaging system is presented. This approach, spectrally encoded confocal microscopy (SECM), uses a quasi-monochromatic light source and a transmission diffraction grating to detect the reflectivity simultaneously at multiple points along a transverse line within the sample. Since this method does not require fast spatial scanning within the probe, the equipment can be miniaturized and incorporated into a catheter or endoscope. Confocal images of an electron microscope grid were acquired with SECM to demonstrate the feasibility of this technique. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital Optical Society of America}

  12. 基于硬解题的PLC设计及其在测发控系统中的应用%The Design of PLC Based on Hardware Logic Solver and Its Application in Test and Launch Control System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋征宇; 刘亮亮

    2012-01-01

    The ladder chart is used widely in the programming of PLC. It can be translated and executed by CPU or specific ladder chart process unit. By Comparing with CPU, the specific ladder chart process u-nit, which is more efficient and lower power consummation, is the preferential choice for high-class PLC and can be used in the worse environment. By the study of composition of ladder chart, a method of ladder chart encoding is proposed and a specific ladder chart process unit design named HLS (Hardware Logic Solver) is done. After the integrating with the CPU and other peripherals, all missions of PLC control can be processed in one chip, including ladder chart process, communication control and interrupt process etc, and the PLC can be smaller. Due to the high reliability, PLC based HLS is applied to the design of several launch vehicles.%梯形图是目前应用最为广泛的PLC编程语言,根据解析方式不同分为硬解题和软解题两种.硬解题采用专用的梯形图硬件处理器,跟采用通用处理器软件解析方式相比,梯形图处理速率大大提升、功耗明显降低,能够满足恶劣环境下高可靠性应用需求,是高端PLC中的首选.本文通过研究梯形图构图原理,提出了一种梯形图编码方法,采用该方法完成了梯形图硬解题专用处理器HLS(Hardware Logic Solver)设计,并通过与通用处理器双核集成,在一个芯片实现了梯形图解析、通信控制、中断处理等全部内容,进一步提升了PLC的集成化、小型化水平.采用硬解题的PLC满足火箭测发控系统高可靠应用要求,已经在多个运载火箭中应用.

  13. The transformation method of functional flow chart programming wih small PLC%小型 PLC 功能流程图编程的转换方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭昆丽; 黄杰; 杨过

    2013-01-01

    According to the present weakness of the sequence control using small programmable logic con-troller (PLC) ,the modular transformation thought was adopted and five different methods to transfer sequential function chart (SFC) into ladder diagram (LAD) were used .It makes the programming meth-od simple and practical .Finally ,a transformation example based on SIEMENS S7-200 PLC was analyzed , and the comprehensive comparison of the conversion method was made .%针对目前采用小型可编程序逻辑控制器(PLC )实现顺序控制所存在的问题,采用模块化转换思想,使用5种不同方法将顺序功能图转换为梯形图。提高了顺控编程方法的规律性,实现其编程方法的简单、实用。以西门子S7-200 PLC为例进行实例转换分析,最后对各转换方法进行了综合比较。

  14. The ability of Listeria monocytogenes PI-PLC to facilitate escape from the macrophage phagosome is dependent on host PKCbeta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poussin, Mathilde A; Leitges, Michael; Goldfine, Howard

    2009-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes are facultative intracellular pathogenic bacteria that can infect macrophages as well as non-professional phagocytes. After entry in the host cell, the bacteria escape from the phagosome into the cytoplasm. In murine macrophages and in cell lines derived from these cells, escape of L. monocytogenes from the phagosome is absolutely dependent on listeriolysin O (LLO) and facilitated by a secreted phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC). Work in this laboratory has previously demonstrated a LLO and PI-PLC-dependent translocation of host PKCbeta isoforms. Pharmacological inhibition of PKCbeta resulted in a significant reduction in permeabilization of the phagosome, and in the number of bacteria reaching the cytosol. These findings led to the prediction that the bacterial PI-PLC promotes escape through the production of diacylglycerol leading to the activation of host PKCbeta. To test this hypothesis, bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMf) obtained from PKCbeta knockout (PKCbetaKO) or C57Bl/6 mice were infected with L. monocytogenes. We observed that wild-type L. monocytogenes escapes from the phagosome of PKCbetaKO BMMf as well as from C57Bl/6 BMMf. However, in PKCbetaKO BMMf, L. monocytogenes uses a PI-PLC-independent, but phosphatidylcholine-preferring PLC (PC-PLC)-dependent pathway to facilitate escape. These findings strongly support the hypothesis that PI-PLC promotes escape through mobilization of host PKCbeta.

  15. Spatio-temporal PLC activation in parallel with intracellular Ca2+ wave propagation in mechanically stimulated single MDCK cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Akira; Hayashida, Yasunori; Furukawa, Katsuko S; Ushida, Takashi

    2010-03-01

    Intracellular Ca2+ transients are evoked either by the opening of Ca2+ channels on the plasma membrane or by phospholipase C (PLC) activation resulting in IP3 production. Ca2+ wave propagation is known to occur in mechanically stimulated cells; however, it remains uncertain whether and how PLC activation is involved in intracellular Ca2+ wave propagation in mechanically stimulated cells. To answer these questions, it is indispensable to clarify the spatio-temporal relations between intracellular Ca2+ wave propagation and PLC activation. Thus, we visualized both cytosolic Ca2+ and PLC activation using a real-time dual-imaging system in individual Mardin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells. This system allowed us to simultaneously observe intracellular Ca2+ wave propagation and PLC activation in a spatio-temporal manner in a single mechanically stimulated MDCK cell. The results showed that PLC was activated not only in the mechanically stimulated region but also in other subcellular regions in parallel with intracellular Ca2+ wave propagation. These results support a model in which PLC is involved in Ca2+ signaling amplification in mechanically stimulated cells.

  16. Antimicrobial activity of pleurocidin is retained in Plc-2, a C-terminal 12-amino acid fragment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Andre L A; Díaz-Dellavalle, Paola; Cabrera, Andrea; Larrañaga, Patricia; Dalla-Rizza, Marco; De-Simone, Salvatore G

    2013-07-01

    An analysis of a series of five peptides composed of various portions of the pleurocidin (Plc) sequence identified a l2-amino acid fragment from the C-terminus of Plc, designated Plc-2, as the smallest fragment that retained a antimicrobial activity comparable to that of the parent compound. MIC tests in vitro with low-ionic-strength medium showed that Plc-2 has potent activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus but not against Enterococcus faecalis. The antifungal activity of the synthetic peptides against phytopathogenic fungi, such as Fusarium oxysporum, Colletotrichum sp., Aspergillus niger and Alternaria sp., also identified Plc-2 as a biologically active peptide. Microscopy studies of fluorescently stained fungi treated with Plc-2 demonstrated that cytoplasmic and nuclear membranes were compromised in all strains of phytopathogenic fungi tested. Together, these results identify Plc-2 as a potential antimicrobial agent with similar properties to its parent compound, pleurocidin. In addition, it demonstrated that the KHVGKAALTHYL residues are critical for the antimicrobial activity described for pleurocidin.

  17. 定时器的PLC程序设计%On the PLC Program Design of Timer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪涛轶

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to realize to the timing diagram of On-delay, Off-delay and Self-hold and program design of PLC.%本文旨在实现接通延时定时器、断开延时定时器、多谐震荡器的时序图及PLC程序设计。

  18. Trust and Collaboration in PLC Teams: Teacher Relationships, Principal Support, and Collaborative Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallam, Pamela R.; Smith, Henry R.; Hite, Julie M.; Hite, Steven J.; Wilcox, Bradley R.

    2015-01-01

    Professional learning communities (PLCs) are being recognized as effective in improving teacher collaboration and student achievement. Trust is critical in effectively implementing the PLC model, and the school principal is best positioned to influence school trust levels. Using five facets of trust, this research sought to clarify the impact of…

  19. Homeplug AV and IEEE 1901 a handbook for PLC designers and users

    CERN Document Server

    Latchman, Haniph A; Yonge, Larry; Gavette, Sherman

    2013-01-01

      The only authorized book explaining the HomePlug networking standards HomePlug is a growing technology for creating high-speed Power Line Communication (PLC) networks by transmitting data over in-home or in-office power lines. Users only need to plug adapters into wall outlets to create an instant network of computers, printers, routers, home entertainment

  20. 77 FR 13483 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR) Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ...-07 (76 FR 24793, May 3, 2011), or, have Rolls-Royce plc revise Alert Service Bulletin (ASB) No. RB..., Amendment 39-16669 (76 FR 24793, May 3, 2011). That AD applies to the specified products. The NPRM published in the Federal Register on October 20, 2011 (76 FR 65136). That NPRM proposed to continue to...

  1. 77 FR 75831 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... December 14, 2007 (72 FR 67568, November 29, 2007). (i) Rolls-Royce plc Service Bulletin No. RB.211-72-F117... incorporation by reference of certain other publications as of December 14, 2007 (72 FR 67568, November 29, 2007... 2007-24-09 (72 FR 67568, November 29, 2007) which corresponds with EASA AD 2007-0260R1. Our AD has...

  2. 77 FR 2932 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR) Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ..., (73 FR 52201, September 9, 2008). (c) Applicability This AD applies to Rolls-Royce plc (RR) RB211... Federal Register on October 18, 2011 (76 FR 64283). That NPRM proposed to require for certain RB211-Trent... 12866, (2) Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR...

  3. Automated Translation of Safety Critical Application Software Specifications into PLC Ladder Logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leucht, Kurt W.; Semmel, Glenn S.

    2008-01-01

    The numerous benefits of automatic application code generation are widely accepted within the software engineering community. A few of these benefits include raising the abstraction level of application programming, shorter product development time, lower maintenance costs, and increased code quality and consistency. Surprisingly, code generation concepts have not yet found wide acceptance and use in the field of programmable logic controller (PLC) software development. Software engineers at the NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) recognized the need for PLC code generation while developing their new ground checkout and launch processing system. They developed a process and a prototype software tool that automatically translates a high-level representation or specification of safety critical application software into ladder logic that executes on a PLC. This process and tool are expected to increase the reliability of the PLC code over that which is written manually, and may even lower life-cycle costs and shorten the development schedule of the new control system at KSC. This paper examines the problem domain and discusses the process and software tool that were prototyped by the KSC software engineers.

  4. 76 FR 80430 - Rio Tinto plc and Rio Tinto Limited; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Rio Tinto plc and Rio Tinto Limited; Notice of Application December 19, 2011. AGENCY: Securities...) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 (the ``Act''). SUMMARY: Summary of Application: Rio Tinto...

  5. The effect of PLC-γ2 inhibitors on the growth of human tumour cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Linda; Reynisdóttir, Inga; Reynisson, Jóhannes

    2012-08-01

    The phosphoinositide specific-phospholipase C-γ (PLC-γ1 and 2) enzymes are plausible anticancer targets implicated in cell motility important to invasion and dissemination of tumour cells. A host of known PLC-γ2 inhibitors were tested against the NCI60 panel of human tumour cell lines as well as their commercially available structural derivatives. A class of thieno[2,3-b]pyridines showed excellent growth arrest with derivative 3 giving GI(50) = 58 nM for the melanoma MDA-MB-435 cell line. The PLC-γ2 is uniquely expressed in haematopoietic cells and the leukaemia tumour cell lines were growth restricted on average GI(50) = 275 nM by derivative 3 indicating a specific interaction with this isoform. Furthermore, a moderate growth inhibition was found for compound classes of indoles and 1H-pyrazoles. It is likely that the active compounds do not only inhibit the PLC-γ2 isoform but other PLCs as well due to their conserved binding site. The compounds tested were identified by applying the tools of chemoinformatics, which supports the use of in silico methods in drug design.

  6. 77 FR 6668 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78...'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have... plc Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule;...

  7. 77 FR 56760 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-14

    ... April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). Authority for This Rulemaking Title 49 of the United States Code... Order 12866; 2. Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR... plc Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule;...

  8. 77 FR 32007 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-31

    ... FR 19477-78). Authority for This Rulemaking Title 49 of the United States Code specifies the FAA's... ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3... plc Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule;...

  9. 78 FR 6749 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    ... complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant economic... Directives; Rolls-Royce plc Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT....

  10. 77 FR 39157 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ..., Amendment 39-16384 (75 FR 49368, August 13, 2010). (c) Applicability This AD applies to Rolls-Royce plc (RR..., 2010, we issued AD 2010-16-07, Amendment 39-16384 (75 FR 49368, August 13, 2010), for RR model RB211... Since we issued AD 2010-16-07 (75 FR 49368, August 13, 2010), RR determined that engines that are...

  11. 76 FR 52288 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR) Trent 800 Series Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    ... Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). Discussion The European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA... rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and (3) Will... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc...

  12. 76 FR 2605 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc RB211-Trent 800 Series Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). Discussion The European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA... Order 12866; 2. Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR... Directives; Rolls-Royce plc RB211-Trent 800 Series Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation...

  13. Applying Hamming Code to Memory System of Safety Grade PLC (POSAFE-Q) Processor Module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If some errors such as inverted bits occur in the memory, instructions and data will be corrupted. As a result, the PLC may execute the wrong instructions or refer to the wrong data. Hamming Code can be considered as the solution for mitigating this mis operation. In this paper, we apply hamming Code, then, we inspect whether hamming code is suitable for to the memory system of the processor module. In this paper, we applied hamming code to existing safety grade PLC (POSAFE-Q). Inspection data are collected and they will be referred for improving the PLC in terms of the soundness. In our future work, we will try to improve time delay caused by hamming calculation. It will include CPLD optimization and memory architecture or parts alteration. In addition to these hamming code-based works, we will explore any methodologies such as mirroring for the soundness of safety grade PLC. Hamming code-based works can correct bit errors, but they have limitation in multi bits errors

  14. A Research on Seamless Platform Change of Reactor Protection System From PLC to FPGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) has been widely used to implement real-time controllers in nuclear RPSs (Reactor Protection Systems). Increasing complexity and maintenance cost, however, are now demanding more powerful and cost-effective implementation such as FPGA (Field-Programmable Gate Array). Abandoning all experience and knowledge accumulated over the decades and starting an all-new development approach is too risky for such safety-critical systems. This paper proposes an RPS software development process with a platform change from PLC to FPGA, while retaining all outputs from the established development. This paper transforms FBD designs of the PLC-based software development into a behaviorally-equivalent Verilog program, which is a starting point of a typical FPGA-based hardware development. We expect that the proposed software development process can bridge the gap between two software developing approaches with different platforms, such as PLC and FPGA. This paper also demonstrates its effectiveness using an example of a prototype version of a real-world RPS in Korea

  15. 75 FR 15321 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc RB211-Trent 800 Series Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    ... Register on January 5, 2010 (75 FR 264). That NPRM proposed to correct an unsafe condition for the... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant...; AD 2010-06-14] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc RB211-Trent 800...

  16. Úzkopásmová PLC komunikace pro Smart Metering

    OpenAIRE

    Kubů, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Tato bakalářská práce se zabývá úzkopásmovou PLC komunikací. V práci je popsán základní princip, rozdělení PLC komunikace, historie technologie, využívané komunikační standardy a rušení ovlivňující datovou komunikaci této technologie. V rámci této práce byly provedeny i experimentální měření v reálném prostředí s modemy od firmy Texas Instruments C2000 PLC TMDSPLCKITV4 a C2000 PLC TMDSPLCKIT-V3. Výsledky tohoto měření jsou reálné přenosové rychlosti. Dále byla vytvořena aplikace pro dálkový s...

  17. Neuropeptide Y reduces the expression of PLCB2, PLCD1 and selected PLC genes in cultured human endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Vasco, V R; Leopizzi, M; Puggioni, C; Della Rocca, C; Businaro, R

    2014-09-01

    Endothelial cells (EC) are the first elements exposed to mediators circulating in the bloodstream, and react to stimulation with finely tuned responses mediated by different signal transduction pathways, leading the endothelium to adapt. Neuropeptide Y (NPY), the most abundant peptide in heart and brain, is mainly involved in the neuroendocrine regulation of the stress response. The regulatory roles of NPY depend on many factors, including its enzymatic processing, receptor subtypes and related signal transduction systems, including the phosphoinositide (PI) pathway and related phospholipase C (PI-PLC) family of enzymes. The panel of expression of PI-PLC enzymes differs comparing quiescent versus differently stimulated human EC. Growing evidences indicate that the regulation of the expression of PLC genes, which codify for PI-PLC enzymes, might act as an additional mechanism of control of the PI signal transduction pathway. NPY was described to potentiate the activation of PI-PLC enzymes in different cell types, including EC. In the present experiments, we stimulated human umbilical vein EC using different doses of NPY in order to investigate a possible role upon the expression PLC genes. NPY reduced the overall transcription of PLC genes, excepting for PLCE. The most significant effects were observed for PLCB2 and PLCD1, both isoforms recruited by means of G-proteins and G-protein-coupled receptors. NPY behavior was comparable with other PI-PLC interacting molecules that, beside the stimulation of phospholipase activity, also affect the upcoming enzymes' production acting upon gene expression. That might represent a mode to regulate the activity of PI-PLC enzymes after activation.

  18. 西门子PLC在铝挤压机控制中的应用%Application of Siemens PLC in control of aluminum extrusion press

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴婷婷; 李卓伟

    2012-01-01

    In order to realize intelligent management and control of technological process and improve higher productive efficiency and quality of aluminum profiles, according to 27. 5MN aluminum extrusion, SIEMENS S7-400 PLC was adopted. The hardware constitution, controlled object, program design and technological process of the PLC in automatic control sys-lem are discussed. At the same time, encoder control and pump start-stop control programs of the system are introduced in detail. Aluminum extrusion can accomplish start-stop control linkage, closed-loop control, automation alarm and a series of functions. It is a very good solution for more and more large and complex automatic control system.%基于实现生产过程的智能化管理与控制以及提高铝挤压制品的质量和产量的目的,结合27.5MN的铝挤压机的生产工艺,采用了SIEMENS S7-400系列PLC的控制系统.着重阐述该类型PLC、在自控系统中的硬件构成、控制对象、程序设计以及工艺流程.对编码器控制、泵起停控制的语句表程序作了详细介绍.该控制系统实现了设备的连锁启停、回路调节、报警等一系列功能.对于当前越来越庞大和复杂的自动化控制系统是一种非常好的解决方案.

  19. 基于触摸屏的模具清扫机械手 PLC 控制系统%PLC Control System Design of Mould Cleaning Manipulator Based on HMI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金姣; 吴斌方; 王君明

    2014-01-01

    介绍一种基于触摸屏和可编程序控制器(PLC)的泡沫塑料成型模具清扫机械手控制系统设计方案,详细阐述控制系统硬件组成和软件设计思路,重点介绍 PLC 判定清扫模具的触摸屏界面和梯形图程序。%This paper introduces a control system design of mould cleaning manipulator for foam plastics based on HMI and PLC.It explains in great detail the hardware structure and software design idea of the control system,especially the HMI operation interface and ladder diagram for PLC to determine the next mould,which would be immediately cleaned by the manipulator.

  20. Selecting Operations for Assembler Encoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Praczyk

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Assembler Encoding is a neuro-evolutionary method in which a neural network is represented in the form of a simple program called Assembler Encoding Program. The task of the program is to create the so-called Network Definition Matrix which maintains all the information necessary to construct the network. To generate Assembler Encoding Programs and the subsequent neural networks evolutionary techniques are used.
    The performance of Assembler Encoding strongly depends on operations used in Assembler Encoding Programs. To select the most effective operations, experiments in the optimization and the predator-prey problem were carried out. In the experiments, Assembler Encoding Programs equipped with different types of operations were tested. The results of the tests are presented at the end of the paper.

  1. Security Analysis of PHP Encoder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunlong Yao

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available As an open source server-side scripts language, PHP is used more and more widely by Web developers now. Protecting PHP code from being plagiarized is also a hot research issue especially with the rapid development of dynamic web industry and people’s copyright protection consciousness. Usually the developers use PHP encoders to encrypt the PHP codes before selling them out. There are several different kinds of PHP encoders with different performances. In this paper, we analyze and compare the security level of some well-known encoders. From a fully new aspect, we try to analyze the output of the encoders with the random statistical tests, which is never done before. Also, we demonstrate the soundness of our method. We figure out the test suite which is most suitable for PHP encoders and explain the reasons. Finally, we carry out the experiments and draw a conclusion about the security of the PHP encoders based on our results

  2. The PLC Control Design of Ship Boat Crane%舰船吊艇机的PLC控制设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吉哲; 任荣社; 余凤豪

    2012-01-01

    PLC控制相比传统的继电器控制更加可靠稳定。本文针对舰船吊艇机利用西门子S7—200型PLC设计了一种PLC控制线路,介绍了其功能和作用,并给出了吊艇机PLC控制的端子接线图、梯形图和对应语句表,具有一定的现实指导意义。%PLC control compared with the traditional relay control system is more reliable and stable. In this paper, the ship boat crane by using Siemens $7-200 PLC designed a PLC control circuit, and introduced its function and role, and gave the boat hoist machine PLC control terminal wiring diagram, ladder diagram and the corresponding statement list, had certain realistic directive significance.

  3. 76 FR 59013 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR) RB211-Trent 800 Series Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Airworthiness Directive 2011-08-07, Amendment 39-16657 (76 FR 24798, May 3, 2011...-30-AD; Amendment 39-16657; AD 2011-08-07] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc...

  4. Using PLC for Custom-design of a PID/PWM Program to Control a Heater Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad A.K. Alia

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a practical approach to control a continuous-time process variable (temperature using a discrete controller (PLC and a custom-designed software control algorithm and hardware interface, in a closed-loop system. Unlike the conventionally known technique of transforming a digital control action into a proportional analogue one by a D/A converter followed by power amplifier, the control action was formed internally by the PLC as a PID/PWM signal, which was used to trigger the power stage. This approach helped reducing the error due D/A conversion, maximized utilization of the PLC and reduced total cost. The control system is realized by utilizing the heater of the training board (RGT1, manufactured by DL-lorenzo Company and it simulates an analogue heating control system. The PLC is Siemens Simatic S7-214 model. An experimental result has shown that the control algorithm functions perfectly.

  5. PLC Control Design of CNC Table%数控工作台的PLC控制设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丰玉臣

    2011-01-01

    文章阐述了数控工作台的控制要求,PLC控制电路和接线,参数设置内容及方法.重点叙述了PLC梯形图的编制过程.%This paper describes the control requirements of the CNC table, PLC control circuits and wiring, the content and methods of parameter set, and describes the process of preparing the PLC ladder.

  6. Development of Remote Monitoring and a Control System Based on PLC and WebAccess for Learning Mechatronics

    OpenAIRE

    Wen-Jye Shyr; Te-Jen Su; Chia-Ming Lin

    2013-01-01

    This study develops a novel method for learning mechatronics using remote monitoring and control, based on a programmable logic controller (PLC) and WebAccess. A mechatronics module, a Web‐CAM and a PLC were integrated with WebAccess software to organize a remote laboratory. The proposed system enables users to access the Internet for remote monitoring and control of the mechatronics module via a web browser, thereby enhancing work flexibility by enabling personnel to control mechatronics equ...

  7. Design of a New Virtual Interaction Based PLC Training Using Virtual Sensors and Actuators: System and Its Application

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon Sang Kim; Hak-Man Kim

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a new virtual interaction based programmable logic controller (PLC) training system using virtual sensors and actuators. The proposed system is composed of four components including virtual sensors (for interacting between user and input devices), virtual actuators (for manipulating and controlling device or equipment), virtual PLC (for programming and generating command), and virtual networks (for interfacing the interactions and transferring the data between all the comp...

  8. Important role of PLC-γ1 in hypoxic increase in intracellular calcium in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Vishal R; Song, Tengyao; Joseph, Leroy; Mei, Lin; Zheng, Yun-Min; Wang, Yong-Xiao

    2013-02-01

    An increase in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) induces hypoxic cellular responses in the lungs; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain incompletely understood. We report, for the first time, that acute hypoxia significantly enhances phospholipase C (PLC) activity in mouse resistance pulmonary arteries (PAs), but not in mesenteric arteries. Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence staining reveal the expression of PLC-γ1 protein in PAs and PASMCs, respectively. The activity of PLC-γ1 is also augmented in PASMCs following hypoxia. Lentiviral shRNA-mediated gene knockdown of mitochondrial complex III Rieske iron-sulfur protein (RISP) to inhibit reactive oxygen species (ROS) production prevents hypoxia from increasing PLC-γ1 activity in PASMCs. Myxothiazol, a mitochondrial complex III inhibitor, reduces the hypoxic response as well. The PLC inhibitor U73122, but not its inactive analog U73433, attenuates the hypoxic vasoconstriction in PAs and hypoxic increase in [Ca(2+)](i) in PASMCs. PLC-γ1 knockdown suppresses its protein expression and the hypoxic increase in [Ca(2+)](i). Hypoxia remarkably increases inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)) production, which is blocked by U73122. The IP(3) receptor (IP(3)R) antagonist 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB) or xestospongin-C inhibits the hypoxic increase in [Ca(2+)](i). PLC-γ1 knockdown or U73122 reduces H(2)O(2)-induced increase in [Ca(2+)](i) in PASMCs and contraction in PAs. 2-APB and xestospongin-C produce similar inhibitory effects. In conclusion, our findings provide novel evidence that hypoxia activates PLC-γ1 by increasing RISP-dependent mitochondrial ROS production in the complex III, which causes IP(3) production, IP(3)R opening, and Ca(2+) release, playing an important role in hypoxic Ca(2+) and contractile responses in PASMCs.

  9. 76 FR 65997 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR) RB211-535 Series Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ...-08, Amendment 39-16707 (76 FR 30529, May 26, 2011), and adding the following new AD: Rolls-Royce plc..., Amendment 39-16707 (76 FR 30529, May 26, 2011). (c) Applicability This AD applies to Rolls-Royce plc RB211... (76 FR 30529, May 26, 2011), for all RR RB211-535E4-37, -535E4-B-37, -535E4-B- 75, and...

  10. PLC-γ1 signaling plays a subtype-specific role in postbinding cell entry of influenza A virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Liqian; Ly, Hinh; Liang, Yuying

    2014-01-01

    Host signaling pathways and cellular proteins play important roles in the influenza viral life cycle and can serve as antiviral targets. In this study, we report the engagement of host phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase γ1 (PLC-γ1) in mediating cell entry of influenza virus H1N1 but not H3N2 subtype. Both PLC-γ1-specific inhibitor and short hairpin RNA (shRNA) strongly suppress the replication of H1N1 but not H3N2 viruses in cell culture, suggesting that PLC-γ1 plays an important subtype-specific role in the influenza viral life cycle. Further analyses demonstrate that PLC-γ1 activation is required for viral postbinding cell entry. In addition, H1N1, but not H3N2, infection leads to the phosphorylation of PLC-γ1 at Ser 1248 immediately after infection and independent of viral replication. We have further shown that H1N1-induced PLC-γ1 activation is downstream of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling. Interestingly, both H1N1 and H3N2 infections activate EGFR, but only H1N1 infection leads to PLC-γ1 activation. Taking our findings together, we have identified for the first time the subtype-specific interplay of host PLC-γ1 signaling and H1N1 virus that is critical for viral uptake early in the infection. Our study provides novel insights into how virus interacts with the cellular signaling network by demonstrating that viral determinants can regulate how the host signaling pathways function in virally infected cells.

  11. The release of glutamate from cortical neurons regulated by BDNF via the TrkB/Src/PLC-γ1 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zitao; Fan, Jin; Ren, Yongxin; Zhou, Wei; Yin, Guoyong

    2013-01-01

    The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) participates in the regulation of cortical neurons by influencing the release of glutamate. However, the specific mechanisms are unclear. Hence, we isolated and cultured the cortical neurons of Sprague Dawley rats. Specific inhibitors of TrkB, Src, PLC-γ1, Akt, and MEK1/2 (i.e., K252a, PP2, U73122, LY294002, and PD98059, respectively) were used to treat cortical neurons and to detect the glutamate release from cortical neurons stimulated with BDNF. BDNF significantly increased glutamate release, and simultaneously enhanced phosphorylation levels of TrkB, Src, PLC-γ, Akt, and Erk1/2. For BDNF-stimulated cortical neurons, K252a inhibited glutamate release and inhibited the phosphorylation levels of TrkB, Src, PLC-γ, Erk1/2, and Akt (P PLC-γ1 (P 0.05). U73122 inhibited the glutamate release from BDNF-stimulated cortical neurons, but had no influence on the phosphorylation levels of TrkB, Src, Erk1/2, or Akt (P > 0.05). LY294002 and PD98059 did not affect the BDNF-stimulated glutamate release and did not inhibit the phosphorylation levels of TrkB, Src, or PLC-γ1. In summary, BDNF stimulated the glutamate release from cortical neurons via the TrkB/Src/PLC-γ1 signaling pathway.

  12. PLC Input and Output Points of the Expansion Method%PLC输入输出点数的扩展方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘冬梅

    2011-01-01

    In designing a PLC control system,PLC may encounter the problem of inadequate input and output points,without increasing the PLC configuration in the case,in addition to the use of external resources through the expansion of hardware point PLC,the PLC can also use the internal resources by programming the software for PLC extension points.%在设计一个PLC控制系统时,可能会遇到PLC输入输出点数不足的问题,在不增加PLC配置的情况下,除利用外部资源通过硬件实现PLC点数的扩展,还可利用PLC的内部资源通过编程即软件来实现PLC点数的扩展。

  13. Analysis and Design of PLC-based Control System for Automatic Beverage Filling Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yundan Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic filling system is the main equipment in the food machinery industry. With the development of beverage industry and increasing demand of the filling system. The relay control method in traditional Filling machine has low automation and integration level and cannot satisfy the rapid development of automatic production. PLC control method has advantages of simple programming, strong anti-interference and high working reliability, has gradually replace the relay control method. In this study, hardware and software for the automatic filling system based on PLC control is designed, especially the injection section servo control system which adopts the servo motor driver metering pump is carefully analyzed and the filling precision is highly improved.

  14. Common Problems in NC PLC Programming%数控PLC编程常见问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐亮波

    2016-01-01

    Many CNC systems have an open PLC, and provide corresponding ladder editing software, which can meet the needs of the secondary development, and achieve a variety of customization features. This paper introduces some problems in PLC programming what can be easily overlooked,such as dual-coil,subroutine calls,etc.%许多数控系统中都具有开放式PLC,并提供了对应的梯形图编辑软件,可满足二次开发需要,方便实现各种定制功能。介绍了PLC编程过程中容易被忽视的一些问题,如双线圈、子程序调用等问题。

  15. Enhanced Operation of Electricity Distribution Grids Through Smart Metering PLC Network Monitoring, Analysis and Grid Conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iker Urrutia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Low Voltage (LV electricity distribution grid operations can be improved through a combination of new smart metering systems’ capabilities based on real time Power Line Communications (PLC and LV grid topology mapping. This paper presents two novel contributions. The first one is a new methodology developed for smart metering PLC network monitoring and analysis. It can be used to obtain relevant information from the grid, thus adding value to existing smart metering deployments and facilitating utility operational activities. A second contribution describes grid conditioning used to obtain LV feeder and phase identification of all connected smart electric meters. Real time availability of such information may help utilities with grid planning, fault location and a more accurate point of supply management.

  16. Integrated software environment dedicated for implementation of control systems based on PLC controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymon SURMA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Industrial processes’ control systems based on PLC controllers play today a very important role in all fields of transport, including also sea transport. Construction of control systems is the field of engineering, which has been continuously evolving towards maximum simplification of system design path. Up to now the time needed forthe system construction from the design to commissioning had to be divided into a few stages. A mistake made in an earlier stage caused that in most cases the next stages had to be restarted. Available debugging systems allows defect detection at an early stage of theproject implementation. The paper presents general characteristic of integrated software for implementation of complex control systems. The issues related to the software use for programming of the visualisation environment, control computer, selection oftransmission medium and transmission protocol as well as PLC controllers’ configuration, software and control have been analysed.

  17. Saltwell Leak Detector Station Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) Software Configuration Management Plan (SCMP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WHITE, K.A.

    2000-11-28

    This document provides the procedures and guidelines necessary for computer software configuration management activities during the operation and maintenance phases of the Saltwell Leak Detector Stations as required by HNF-PRO-309, Rev. 1, Computer Software Quality Assurance, Section 2.4, Software Configuration Management. The software configuration management plan (SCMP) integrates technical and administrative controls to establish and maintain technical consistency among requirements, physical configuration, and documentation for the Saltwell Leak Detector Station Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) software during the Hanford application, operations and maintenance. This SCMP establishes the Saltwell Leak Detector Station PLC Software Baseline, status changes to that baseline, and ensures that software meets design and operational requirements and is tested in accordance with their design basis.

  18. Saltwell PIC Skid Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) Software Configuration Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KOCH, M.R.

    1999-11-16

    This document provides the procedures and guidelines necessary for computer software configuration management activities during the operation and maintenance phases of the Saltwell PIC Skids as required by LMH-PRO-309, Rev. 0, Computer Software Quality Assurance, Section 2.6, Software Configuration Management. The software configuration management plan (SCMP) integrates technical and administrative controls to establish and maintain technical consistency among requirements, physical configuration, and documentation for the Saltwell PIC Skid Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) software during the Hanford application, operations and maintenance. This SCMP establishes the Saltwell PIC Skid PLC Software Baseline, status changes to that baseline, and ensures that software meets design and operational requirements and is tested in accordance with their design basis.

  19. Binding of phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C-zeta (PLC-zeta) to phospholipid membranes: potential role of an unstructured cluster of basic residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomikos, Michail; Mulgrew-Nesbitt, Anna; Pallavi, Payal; Mihalyne, Gyongyi; Zaitseva, Irina; Swann, Karl; Lai, F Anthony; Murray, Diana; McLaughlin, Stuart

    2007-06-01

    Phospholipase C-zeta (PLC-zeta) is a sperm-specific enzyme that initiates the Ca2+ oscillations in mammalian eggs that activate embryo development. It shares considerable sequence homology with PLC-delta1, but lacks the PH domain that anchors PLC-delta1 to phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, PIP2. Thus it is unclear how PLC-zeta interacts with membranes. The linker region between the X and Y catalytic domains of PLC-zeta, however, contains a cluster of basic residues not present in PLC-delta1. Application of electrostatic theory to a homology model of PLC-zeta suggests this basic cluster could interact with acidic lipids. We measured the binding of catalytically competent mouse PLC-zeta to phospholipid vesicles: for 2:1 phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidylserine (PC/PS) vesicles, the molar partition coefficient, K, is too weak to be of physiological significance. Incorporating 1% PIP2 into the 2:1 PC/PS vesicles increases K about 10-fold, to 5x10(3) M-1, a biologically relevant value. Expressed fragments corresponding to the PLC-zeta X-Y linker region also bind with higher affinity to polyvalent than monovalent phosphoinositides on nitrocellulose filters. A peptide corresponding to the basic cluster (charge=+7) within the linker region, PLC-zeta-(374-385), binds to PC/PS vesicles with higher affinity than PLC-zeta, but its binding is less sensitive to incorporating PIP2. The acidic residues flanking this basic cluster in PLC-zeta may account for both these phenomena. FRET experiments suggest the basic cluster could not only anchor the protein to the membrane, but also enhance the local concentration of PIP2 adjacent to the catalytic domain.

  20. Perceived environmental uncertainty : understanding the implications for strategy development processes across Barclays Plc

    OpenAIRE

    Ryder, Jansen

    2005-01-01

    The managerial issue being addressed in this research is perceived environmental uncertainty (experienced by corporate strategists) and its implications for strategy development processes at the strategic business unit level (or business-level strategy) across Barclays Bank PLC. The objectives of the research are achieved through: an extensive review of the strategy and uncertainty literature (Project 1); a series of semi-structured interviews with fifteen members of the Group ...

  1. The Detailed Forms of the LMC Cepheid PL and PLC Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Koen, C.; Kanbur, S.; Ngeow, C.

    2007-01-01

    Possible deviations from linearity of the LMC Cepheid PL and PLC relations are investigated. Two datasets are studied, respectively from the OGLE and MACHO projects. A nonparametric test, based on linear regression residuals, suggests that neither PL relation is linear. If colour dependence is allowed for then the MACHO PL relation is found to deviate more significantly from the linear, while the OGLE PL relation is consistent with linearity. These finding are confirmed by fitting "Generalise...

  2. Analysing the importance of internal auditors for John Holt Nigeria Plc.

    OpenAIRE

    Tijani, Gbenga

    2014-01-01

    This bachelor’s thesis deals with analyzing the importance of internal auditors for the company. It aims to solve the issue about the way the new management of John Holt Nigeria Plc perceives the internal audit department. The management of the company believe that the organization can function effectively without the internal audit department. Therefore, as a result of the ongoing downsizing process in the company, the management is considering scrapping the audit department. The main object...

  3. Drosophila fatty acid taste signals through the PLC pathway in sugar-sensing neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Masek

    Full Text Available Taste is the primary sensory system for detecting food quality and palatability. Drosophila detects five distinct taste modalities that include sweet, bitter, salt, water, and the taste of carbonation. Of these, sweet-sensing neurons appear to have utility for the detection of nutritionally rich food while bitter-sensing neurons signal toxicity and confer repulsion. Growing evidence in mammals suggests that taste for fatty acids (FAs signals the presence of dietary lipids and promotes feeding. While flies appear to be attracted to fatty acids, the neural basis for fatty acid detection and attraction are unclear. Here, we demonstrate that a range of FAs are detected by the fly gustatory system and elicit a robust feeding response. Flies lacking olfactory organs respond robustly to FAs, confirming that FA attraction is mediated through the gustatory system. Furthermore, flies detect FAs independent of pH, suggesting the molecular basis for FA taste is not due to acidity. We show that low and medium concentrations of FAs serve as an appetitive signal and they are detected exclusively through the same subset of neurons that sense appetitive sweet substances, including most sugars. In mammals, taste perception of sweet and bitter substances is dependent on phospholipase C (PLC signaling in specialized taste buds. We find that flies mutant for norpA, a Drosophila ortholog of PLC, fail to respond to FAs. Intriguingly, norpA mutants respond normally to other tastants, including sucrose and yeast. The defect of norpA mutants can be rescued by selectively restoring norpA expression in sweet-sensing neurons, corroborating that FAs signal through sweet-sensing neurons, and suggesting PLC signaling in the gustatory system is specifically involved in FA taste. Taken together, these findings reveal that PLC function in Drosophila sweet-sensing neurons is a conserved molecular signaling pathway that confers attraction to fatty acids.

  4. An efficient bit-loading algorithm with peak BER constraint for the band-extended PLC

    OpenAIRE

    Maiga, Ali; Baudais, Jean-Yves; Hélard, Jean-François

    2009-01-01

    ISBN: 978-1-4244-2936-3 International audience Powerline communications (PLC) have become a viable local area network (LAN) solution for in-home networks. In order to achieve high bit rate over powerline, the current technology bandwidth is increased up to 100 MHz within the European project OMEGA. In this paper, an efficient bit-loading algorithm with peak BER constraint is proposed. This algorithm tries to maximize the overall data rate based on linear precoded discrete multitone (LP-...

  5. Radioisotopes in the service of mankind: the work of Amersham International plc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper concerns Amersham International plc - a high technology company providing specialised radioactive products for use in health care, life sciences research, and industry. A brief description is given of the development of the company, and the rise in the use of radioisotopes in our present day world. Details of Amersham's medical, industrial and research products are given, along with the marketing facilities of the products. (U.K.)

  6. PEMBUATAN SISTEM KONTROL MESIN CAULKING ROD GUIDE OTOMATIS MENGGUNAKAN PLC OMRON CPM1A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahril Ardi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Kenaikan tingkat produksi shock absorber perusahaan manufaktur membuat proses produksi harus berjalan dengan baik . Pipa proses pemotongan pada mendempul panduan mesin batang memiliki beberapa masalah yang harus diatasi . Untuk mengatasi masalah tersebut kemudian melakukan modifikasi mesin batang mendempul yang secara otomatis dapat mengurangi waktu siklus pada proses mendempul batang dari 4,5 detik per potong sehingga tingkat produksi memotong garis pipa dapat ditingkatkan . Sistem kontrol otomatis mendempul mesin batang panduan ini dirancang untuk menggunakan Programmable Logic Controller (PLC

  7. Drosophila fatty acid taste signals through the PLC pathway in sugar-sensing neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masek, Pavel; Keene, Alex C

    2013-01-01

    Taste is the primary sensory system for detecting food quality and palatability. Drosophila detects five distinct taste modalities that include sweet, bitter, salt, water, and the taste of carbonation. Of these, sweet-sensing neurons appear to have utility for the detection of nutritionally rich food while bitter-sensing neurons signal toxicity and confer repulsion. Growing evidence in mammals suggests that taste for fatty acids (FAs) signals the presence of dietary lipids and promotes feeding. While flies appear to be attracted to fatty acids, the neural basis for fatty acid detection and attraction are unclear. Here, we demonstrate that a range of FAs are detected by the fly gustatory system and elicit a robust feeding response. Flies lacking olfactory organs respond robustly to FAs, confirming that FA attraction is mediated through the gustatory system. Furthermore, flies detect FAs independent of pH, suggesting the molecular basis for FA taste is not due to acidity. We show that low and medium concentrations of FAs serve as an appetitive signal and they are detected exclusively through the same subset of neurons that sense appetitive sweet substances, including most sugars. In mammals, taste perception of sweet and bitter substances is dependent on phospholipase C (PLC) signaling in specialized taste buds. We find that flies mutant for norpA, a Drosophila ortholog of PLC, fail to respond to FAs. Intriguingly, norpA mutants respond normally to other tastants, including sucrose and yeast. The defect of norpA mutants can be rescued by selectively restoring norpA expression in sweet-sensing neurons, corroborating that FAs signal through sweet-sensing neurons, and suggesting PLC signaling in the gustatory system is specifically involved in FA taste. Taken together, these findings reveal that PLC function in Drosophila sweet-sensing neurons is a conserved molecular signaling pathway that confers attraction to fatty acids.

  8. Finanční analýza Polymetal International Plc

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina ENACHE

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this Master's thesis is to evaluate the financial situation of Polymetal International Plc for the period between 2008 - 2012 using standard financial analysis techniques and procedures, outline the foreign accounting reporting standards and indicate the relation between company's financial results and market gold price change. The thesis consists of two main parts: theoretical and practical. In the theoretical part are defined the main financial analysis techniques and are d...

  9. What do innovators do to succeed? A case study of Sage plc

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Manuel Au-Yong; Barandas, Hortênsia; Barros, António

    2007-01-01

    What do innovators do in their efforts to succeed? Successful innovation is embedded and leveraged by the management strategy. Sage plc, the third largest management software company in the world, is analysed. Various factors are seen to foster an innovation culture at Sage: an open organizational culture, a responsive market orientation coupled with a proactive market orientation, an international expansion strategy according to a multi-domestic orientation, and a horizontal i...

  10. Research on Automatic Irrigation Algorithm of Strawberry Greenhouse Based on PLC

    OpenAIRE

    Jianlun, Wang; Shuting, Wang; Jianshu, Chen; Hao, Liu; Dongbo, Xu

    2013-01-01

    International audience In order to realize efficient water-saving irrigation of strawberry greenhouse in precision agriculture, the paper proposed an automatic irrigation algorithm based on fuzzy comprehensive evaluation irrigation based on PLC and the configuration software, and build a remote control system. By measuring the greenhouse soil parameters and strawberry soil moisture data to determine the upper and lower limits of irrigation and set buried position of moisture sensors. Use f...

  11. Study of PLC and Its Application in Conveyor Based Object Sorting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankita Chauhan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Automation devices such as controllers and data systems and/or services Systems and methods are provided that receive statements or other unit of data interaction from an automation device, provide the statements to an appropriate system or service for processing, and optionally return a response such as a Result set. Furthermore, in accordance with an aspect of the invention native controller code, variables, or tags can be mapped to stored data, procedures or combinations of data and/or procedures and updated automatically or semi-automatically. A programmable logic controller (PLC or programmable controller is a digital computer used for automation of electromechanical processes, such as control of machinery on factory assembly lines, amusement rides, or lighting fixtures. PLCs are used in many industries and machines. Unlike general-purpose The subject invention pertains to facilitating communication between industrial computers, the PLC is designed for multiple inputs and output arrangements, extended temperature ranges, immunity to electrical noise, and resistance to vibration and impact. Programs to control machine operation are typically stored in battery-backed or non-volatile memory. A PLC is an example of a real time system since output results must be produced in response to input conditions within a bounded time, otherwise unintended operation will result

  12. Application of MicroLogixTM 1200 PLC in Battery OCV Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Zhiyuan; Yang Yonggang; Zhao Xiaolong; Wu Fengming

    2004-01-01

    The application of MicroLogixTM 1200 PLC made by American AB Company in battery automatic production line located in Inner Mongolia Rare Earth Ovonic High-Power MH/Ni Battery Co., Ltd was introduced.OCV namely open circuit voltage could be somewhat different because of the build materials of negative electrode, positive electrode and electrolyte.So OCV test can check the voltage value of electrolyte filled cells and figure out if the value is within the process specification.MicroLogixTM 1200 relay output type PLC, DeviceNet communication card, variable speed driver, Panelview 1000 color touch screen and some other hardwares were chosen.Then programme by using RSLOGIX500 software, a flexible and skillful use of shift and XOR command in PLC system can make the equipments realize the high automation.Through DeviceNet network based on CAN and with the advantages of quick response and high reliability transmit the information to supervise and control master panel, the system with these components can successfully realize proceeding the battery OCV test and control.The equipments are running stably, locating and test accuracy satisfy the process request.

  13. The low PLC-δ1 expression in cystic fibrosis bronchial epithelial cells induces upregulation of TRPV6 channel activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachel, Laura; Norez, Caroline; Jayle, Christophe; Becq, Frédéric; Vandebrouck, Clarisse

    2015-01-01

    Increase of Ca(2+) influx in Cystic Fibrosis (CF) cells has been reported to be related to Transient Receptor Potential Canonical (TRPC6) channel, which is implicated in a functional coupling with Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane conductance Regulator (CFTR). Several members of the Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid (TRPV) channels family have already been described as emerging target for respiratory diseases. Two specific isoforms, TRPV5 and TRPV6 are of particular interest in the context of CF Ca(2+) homeostasis as they are highly selective toward Ca(2+) and constitutively activated. Thus, we investigated the involvement of these channels in Ca(2+) influx in CF and non-CF human bronchial epithelial cell lines. 16HBE14o-, CFBE41o- cell lines, primary human airway epithelial cells (hAEC) and freshly isolated human airway epithelial cells from CF and non-CF individuals were used. We showed that both channels are expressed in CF and non-CF cells and constitutive Ca(2+) influx was significantly higher (85%) in cells from CF individuals compared to cells from non-CF ones. Using the selective inhibitor of TRPV6 channel SOR-C27 and a siRNA strategy, our results revealed that TRPV6 was mostly involved in the increase of Ca(2+) influx. TRPV6 channel is negatively regulated by the PLC-PIP2 pathway. We measured the Ca(2+) influx in the presence of the non-specific PLC inhibitor, U73122, in non-CF human bronchial epithelial cells. Ca(2+) influx was increased by 33% with U73122 and this increase was largely reduced in the presence of SOR-C27. PLC inhibition in CF cells by U73122 had no effect on Ca(2+) influx. These results showed that PLC-PIP2 pathway is dysregulated in CF cells and leads to the increase of TRPV6 activity. The regulation of TRPV6 by PLC-PIP2 pathway implicates the specific PLC isoform, PLC-δ1. Immunoblot experiments revealed that expression of PLC-δ1 was decreased by 70% in CF cells. TRPV6 activity was normalized but not the level of expression of PLC-δ1

  14. Analysis of Typical Application Programming Skills of Emphasis and Difficulty Instructions in PLC Teaching%PLC 教学中重、难点指令的典型应用编程技巧解析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卞和营; 张晓丽

    2014-01-01

    PLC 技术应用中,程序的编写是实现控制的关键环节。一个优秀的程序可以节省硬件成本,减少程序的步数和占用的内存空间,并且能够提高控制系统的响应速度。编写 PLC 优秀程序的关键是掌握一定的编程技巧。以 S7-200PLC 梯形图程序编写为例,对教学中重、难点指令的典型应用编程技巧进行归纳分析,为PLC 应用领域的相关工程技术人员提供参考。%Programming is the key of the control system in the field of PLC technology. A good program can not only save the hardware cost,reduce the number of program steps and the memory space occupied,but also can improve the response speed of control system. However,the key to writing and a good program is to know well programming skills. Therefore,typical application programming skills of emphasis and difficulty instructions in PLC teaching are induced and analyzed with writing the S7 - 200PLC ladder diagram programming for example in this paper,which can provide reference for the relevant engineering technical field.

  15. Effect of phosphatidylcholine on the level expression of plc genes of Aspergillus fumigatus by real time PCR method and investigation of these genes using bioinformatics analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Dehghan-Noodeh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Phosphlipases are a group of enzymes that breakdown phosphatidylcholine (phospholipids molecules producing second products. These produced products have a divers role in the cell like signal transduction and digestion in humans. In this research the effect of phosphatidylcholine on the expression of plc genes of A. fumigatus was studied. The plc genes of this fungus were also interrogated using bioinformatics studies.Real-time PCR was performed to study the expression of plc genes and these genes were interrogated using bioinformatics studies.There was more significant expression for all three plc genes when A. fumigatus was grown on the presence of phosphatidylcholine in the medium. The sequence of plc genes of A. fumigatus was also interrogated using bioinformatics analysis and their relationship with the other microorganisms was investigated.Real-time PCR revealed that afplc1, afplc2 and afplc3 were up-regulated in the presence of phosphatidylcholine. In this study we suggest either the plc's of A. fumigatus were present in an ancestral genome and have become lost in some lineages, or that they have been acquired from other organisms by horizontal gene transfer. We also found that plc's of this fungus appeared to be more closely related to the plant plc's than the bacterial plc's.

  16. Research on Embedded PLC Graphical Programming%嵌入式PLC图形化编程技术的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晨; 王力生; 贾廷纲; 徐志明

    2015-01-01

    可编程控制器(Programmable Logic Controller, PLC)是为广大工程技术员所熟知并广泛使用的,为了适应广大工程技术员的使用需求和习惯,可编程控制器并不采用微机的编程语言,而是使用了面向过程的,更直观的编程语言,在PLC中,图形化编程语言梯形图极易上手,通俗易懂,与电气控制原理图相一致,所以成为了PLC的主要编程语言。但是,梯形图并不能被可编程控制器识别,不能直接运行。所以,如何提高开发效率,使梯形图直接转化为PLC指令成为了嵌入式PLC的一个研究热点。%As most of the PLC users are engineers and technicians who are not professional computer programmers ,control-ori⁃ented and problem-oriented natural language is used in PLC programming. Ladder Diagram is the main PLC programming lan⁃guage which is vivid,simple and correspondent with electrical control schematic diagram. PLC Ladder Diagram cannot be interpret⁃ed by the Computer directly,So how to translate the visualized ladder diagram into PLC instruction sequence and enhance the effi⁃ciency of system has become a hot debated topic in embedded PLC filed.

  17. 1p36.32 rearrangements and the role of PI-PLC η2 in nervous tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Vasco, Vincenza Rita

    2011-07-01

    Deletions in the distal region of the short arm of chromosome 1 (1p36) are widely diffuse, both in congenital 1p36 Deletion Syndrome and as somatic abnormalities in tumours. Rearrangements in 1p36 have been described in a broad spectrum of human neoplasias in addition to other chromosomal abnormalities. In neuroblastomas, wide hemizygous deletions in 1p36.23-1p36.32 have been described suggesting that the 1p36 region contains a tumour-suppressor gene involved in malignancy. A role for phosphoinositide (PI)-specific phospholipase C (PLC) η2, whose gene maps on 1p36.32, was suggested. PI-PLC η2 belongs to a family of enzymes related to the phosphoinositide signalling pathway, which provide an important intracellular signalling system involved in a variety of cell functions such as hormone secretion, neurotransmitter signal transduction, cell growth, membrane trafficking, ion channel activity, regulation of the cytoskeleton, cell cycle control and apoptosis. Expression of PI-PLC η2 occurs after birth and continues throughout the life. Synapse formation occurs during a short period of postnatal development. Thus, it is likely that PI-PLC η2 acts in formation and maintenance of the neuronal network in the brain. The fact that PI-PLC η2, a highly neuron-specific isozyme, is abundantly expressed in the postnatal brain suggests the importance of PI-PLC η2 in formation and maintenance of the neuronal network in the postnatal brain. Further studies are required to verify the possible involvement of PI-PLC η2 mutation/deletion in central nervous tumour tissues presenting abnormalities of the 1p36 chromosomal band.

  18. Self-Organising Stochastic Encoders

    CERN Document Server

    Luttrell, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The processing of mega-dimensional data, such as images, scales linearly with image size only if fixed size processing windows are used. It would be very useful to be able to automate the process of sizing and interconnecting the processing windows. A stochastic encoder that is an extension of the standard Linde-Buzo-Gray vector quantiser, called a stochastic vector quantiser (SVQ), includes this required behaviour amongst its emergent properties, because it automatically splits the input space into statistically independent subspaces, which it then separately encodes. Various optimal SVQs have been obtained, both analytically and numerically. Analytic solutions which demonstrate how the input space is split into independent subspaces may be obtained when an SVQ is used to encode data that lives on a 2-torus (e.g. the superposition of a pair of uncorrelated sinusoids). Many numerical solutions have also been obtained, using both SVQs and chains of linked SVQs: (1) images of multiple independent targets (encod...

  19. Cell encoding recombinant human erythropoietin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, A.K.; Withy, R.M.; Zabrecky, J.R.; Masiello, N.C.

    1990-09-04

    This patent describes a C127 cell transformed with a recombinant DNA vector. It comprises: a DNA sequence encoding human erythropoietin, the transformed cell being capable of producing N-linked and O-linked glycosylated human erythropoietin.

  20. Prospective radiological dose assessment. Amersham plc (Amersham site) variation application December 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amersham plc (previously Nycomed-Amersham plc) submitted an application to the Environment Agency in December 1998 for a variation to their radioactive waste discharge authorisations granted under the Radioactive Substances Act 1993. The application requested a reduction in the discharge limits for certain radionuclides and no change for the remaining radionuclides. Amersham plc undertook a further review of their discharge requirements and submitted a new assessment for revised limits in January 2001. This report provides an assessment of the radiological implications of discharges at these revised limits requested by Amersham plc and the limits proposed by the Agency. It has been prepared by the National Compliance Assessment Service at the request of Thames Region to support their determination of the application. Four candidate critical groups were identified who could be exposed to discharges from the Amersham site: 1) Sewage workers at the Maple Lodge sewage works who might be exposed to external radiation from discharges contained within sewage and inadvertently inhale or ingest sewage. 2) Anglers on the Grand Union Canal who eat a small proportion of their annual catch of freshwater fish, who drink water abstracted solely from the River Colne and eat vegetables irrigated by water from the canal. 3) Persons living closest to site who eat locally produced food. 4) Dog walkers living near to site who eat locally produced food. For continuous discharges at the Agency's proposed annual limits, the highest dose of 160 μSv/y is predicted to be received by infants who live closest to the site and eat locally produced food. Therefore, this has been identified as the critical group. Children and adults living at the same location and eating locally produced food receive doses of 140 μSv/y and 130 μSv/y respectively. The critical group dose is less than the source constraint of 300 μSv/y. The dose is dominated by direct radiation from the site (110 μSv/y) and the

  1. Security Analysis of PHP Encoder

    OpenAIRE

    Chunlong Yao; Fengjiao Yin; Xu Li; Fenglong Fan

    2013-01-01

    As an open source server-side scripts language, PHP is used more and more widely by Web developers now. Protecting PHP code from being plagiarized is also a hot research issue especially with the rapid development of dynamic web industry and people’s copyright protection consciousness. Usually the developers use PHP encoders to encrypt the PHP codes before selling them out. There are several different kinds of PHP encoders with different performances. In this paper, we analyze and compa...

  2. PLC的编程语言与编程注意事项%PLC Programming Language and Programming Announcements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    濮海坤

    2013-01-01

    This paper briefly described the basic characteristics of programmable controller (PLC) and development situation, introduces the programming language and its function characteristics of PLC sequence function diagram, ladder diagram, functional block diagram and instruction list, expounds the programming rules and matters needing attention of PLC ladder diagram and instruction list in programming language, etc. On top of the programming language, programming method and the matters needing attention of PLC program has great significance for quick starting to apply PLC programming.%本文简述了可编程控制器(PLC)的基本特点和发展情况,介绍了PLC的顺序功能图、梯形图、功能模块图、指令表和结构文本等编程语言及其功能特点,阐述了PLC在编程过程中梯形图与指令表语言编程的规则和注意事项等。熟练掌握PLC程序的编程语言、编程方法及编程注意事项,对于PLC编程的快速入门及工程应用具有十分重要的意义。

  3. PLC虚拟实验室的研究与建设%Research and Construction of a PLC Virtual Laboratory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王啸东

    2012-01-01

    This paper described three PLC experimental systems, and analyzed their strengths and weaknesses. Taking the "liquid mixing device control" experiment as an example, it presented the construction of the PLC virtual laboratory based on Mitsubishi GX, GT software. The PLC program can be designed, run, debugged, and monitored in the PLC virtual laboratory by just using computers and related software. The PLC virtual laboratory proved to be a cheap and efficient training system.%介绍了3种PLC实验系统,分析了各自的优缺点,并以“液体混合装置控制”实验为例,重点介绍了基于三菱GX、GT系列软件的PLC虚拟实验室的建设方案.在PLC虚拟实验室只需计算机和相关软件就可以完成PLC程序设计、运行调试、过程监控等实训内容,是一种廉价、高效的实训系统.

  4. Relax and refill: xylem rehydration prior to hydraulic measurements favours embolism repair in stems and generates artificially low PLC values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifilò, Patrizia; Raimondo, Fabio; Lo Gullo, Maria A; Barbera, Piera M; Salleo, Sebastiano; Nardini, Andrea

    2014-11-01

    Diurnal changes in percentage loss of hydraulic conductivity (PLC), with recorded values being higher at midday than on the following morning, have been interpreted as evidence for the occurrence of cycles of xylem conduits' embolism and repair. Recent reports have suggested that diurnal PLC changes might arise as a consequence of an experimental artefact, that is, air entry into xylem conduits upon cutting stems, even if under water, while under substantial tension generated by transpiration. Rehydration procedures prior to hydraulic measurements have been recommended to avoid this artefact. In the present study, we show that xylem rehydration prior to hydraulic measurements might favour xylem refilling and embolism repair, thus leading to PLC values erroneously lower than those actually experienced by transpiring plants. When xylem tension relaxation procedures were performed on stems where refilling mechanisms had been previously inhibited by mechanical (girdling) or chemical (orthovanadate) treatment, PLC values measured in stems cut under native tension were the same as those measured after sample rehydration/relaxation. Our data call for renewed attention to the procedures of sample collection in the field and transport to the laboratory, and suggest that girdling might be a recommendable treatment prior to sample collection for PLC measurements.

  5. Data communication between Panasonic PLC and PC using SerialPort control in C#.NET environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ting; Gan, Xiaochuan; Ma, Liqun

    2015-02-01

    With the gradual promotion of Microsoft.NET platform, C# as an object-oriented programming language based on the platform has been widely used. Therefore, more attention is concentrated on how to achieve the communication between Panasonic PLC and PC efficiently and fast in C#.NET environment. In this paper, a method of using SerialPort control which could be used for achieving communication between PLC and PC is introduced. Meanwhile, the reason of abnormal thread when displayed the receiving data in form is analyzed and the programming method to solve the problem of thread safety is designed. Achieving the communication of Panasonic PLC and PC in C#.NET environment can give full play to the advantages of the .NET framework. It is practical, easy communication, high reliability and can combine with other measurement and calibration procedures effectively and conveniently. Configuration software is expensive and can only communicate with PLC separately, but these shortcomings can be solved in C#.NET environment. A well-designed user interface realized real-time monitoring of PLC parameters and achieved management and control integration. The experiment show that this method of data transfer is accurate and the program' running is stable.

  6. Návrh sítě PLC pro dálkový sběr dat

    OpenAIRE

    Šebela, Miroslav

    2008-01-01

    V práci je dle zadání proveden návrh sítě PLC (power line carrier communication) pro dálkový sběr dat. Pro bližší seznámení se s touto technologií je rozvedena problematika komunikace po silovém vedení a možnosti využití PLC technologie. Jsou naznačeny možnosti širokopásmového, zejména však úzkopásmového přenosu dat pomocí PLC. Je popsána obecná struktura PLC sítě pro sběr dat z měřících přístrojů a nakonec je zde popsán návrh PLC sítě na vybrané lokalitě spolu s výběrem dodavatele komponent....

  7. 自动售货机系统的PLC控制设计%PLC Control System Design of Vending Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐圣龙

    2014-01-01

    Taking Vending machine based on PLC control as an example , this paper introduces the structure of the vending machine , operation process , working principle and function . Automatically trading process is divided into several program modules by PLC programming control , and practice has proved that vending machine with PLC control can improve the stability of the system , ensure the long-term stable operation .%本文以 PLC控制自动售货机,介绍了自动售货机的结构、运行流程、工作原理及功能,将自动交易过程划分为若干个程序模块通过 PLC 编程控制,实践证明,在自动售货机中加入 PLC 的控制可以提高系统的稳定性,保证其长期稳定运行。

  8. 对自动生产线中PLC控制技术应用的几点探讨%Discussion on the application of PLC control in automatic production line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈学钊

    2015-01-01

    本文就PLC的基本原理,PLC的软硬件设计和PLC的实际应用,全方位探讨PLC在自动生产线中的应用。%This paper discusses the application of PLC in automatic production line based on the basic principle of PLC,the design of hardware and software of PLC and the practical application of PLC.

  9. 浅析 PLC 梯形图与继电器控制线路的差别%Brief Analysis of Differences Between PLC Ladder Chart and Relay Control Circuit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤文利

    2014-01-01

    文章分析了PLC程序与继电器线路工作原理的差别,并用举例的方法说明照搬成熟的继电器控制线路进行PLC编程或照搬PLC程序连接继电器控制线路,都不能实现需要的逻辑功能。%While it analyzes the different working principles between PLC ladder chart and the relay circuit , the paper illustrates the reason why it is unable to perform its logic function by copying the relay control circuit for PLC programming or the PLC program for the relay control circuit .

  10. High-speed narrowband PLC - High-performance Access Powerline Communication structures in smart grid; High-Speed Narrowband PLC. Leistungsfaehige Access-Powerline-Kommunikationsstrukturen im Smart Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Offner, Georg [devolo AG, Aachen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The smart grid provides a stable operation of a decentralized power system which is fed more and more by small providers by means of solar technology and wind power technology. Furthermore, commercial and private clients profit from the smart grid, as they may capture information about their current consumption in real time or can obtain these data from the Internet. The author of the contribution under consideration presents new approaches to access powerline communications that enable efficient communication between IPv6 based household meter and network station. The contribution under consideration describes the technologies used as well as practical experiences and initial results from field tests. Here insights from the integration of G3-PLC are in the foreground.

  11. 77 FR 37740 - Stagecoach Group plc and Coach USA, Inc., et al.-Acquisition of Control of Assets-American Coach...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARMENT OF TRANSPORATION Surface Transportation Board Stagecoach Group plc and Coach USA, Inc., et al.--Acquisition of Control of..., DOT. ACTION: Notice of Finance Application. SUMMARY: On May 25, 2012, Stagecoach Group plc...

  12. LAT-independent Erk activation via Bam32-PLC-γ1-Pak1 complexes: GTPase-independent Pak1 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouquette-Jazdanian, Alexandre K; Sommers, Connie L; Kortum, Robert L; Morrison, Deborah K; Samelson, Lawrence E

    2012-10-26

    In T cells, the adaptor Bam32 is coupled to Erk activation downstream of the TCR by an unknown mechanism. We characterized in Jurkat cells and primary T lymphocytes a pathway dependent on Bam32-PLC-γ1-Pak1 complexes, in which Pak1 kinase activates Raf-1 and Mek-1, both upstream of Erk. In the Bam32-PLC-γ1-Pak1 complex, catalytically inactive PLC-γ1 is used as a scaffold linking Bam32 to Pak1. PLC-γ1(C-SH2) directly binds S141 of Bam32, preventing LAT-mediated activation of Ras by PLC-γ1. The Bam32-PLC-γ1 interaction enhances the binding of the SH3 domain of the phospholipase with Pak1. The PLC-γ1(SH3)-Pak1 interaction activates Pak1 independently of the small GTPases Rac1/Cdc42, previously described as being the only activators of Pak1 in T cells. Direct binding of the SH3 domain of PLC-γ1 to Pak1 dissociates inactive Pak1 homodimers, a mechanism required for Pak1 activation. We have thus uncovered a LAT/Ras-independent, Bam32-nucleated pathway that activates Erk signaling in T cells.

  13. Arabidopsis AtPLC2 Is a Primary Phosphoinositide-Specific Phospholipase C in Phosphoinositide Metabolism and the Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazue Kanehara

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Phosphoinositides represent important lipid signals in the plant development and stress response. However, multiple isoforms of the phosphoinositide biosynthetic genes hamper our understanding of the pivotal enzymes in each step of the pathway as well as their roles in plant growth and development. Here, we report that phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C2 (AtPLC2 is the primary phospholipase in phosphoinositide metabolism and is involved in seedling growth and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress responses in Arabidopsis thaliana. Lipidomic profiling of multiple plc mutants showed that the plc2-1 mutant increased levels of its substrates phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, suggesting that the major phosphoinositide metabolic pathway is impaired. AtPLC2 displayed a distinct tissue expression pattern and localized at the plasma membrane in different cell types, where phosphoinositide signaling occurs. The seedlings of plc2-1 mutant showed growth defect that was complemented by heterologous expression of AtPLC2, suggesting that phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C activity borne by AtPLC2 is required for seedling growth. Moreover, the plc2-1 mutant showed hypersensitive response to ER stress as evidenced by changes in relevant phenotypes and gene expression profiles. Our results revealed the primary enzyme in phosphoinositide metabolism, its involvement in seedling growth and an emerging link between phosphoinositide and the ER stress response.

  14. 升降横移立体车库 PLC 程序设计概述%Overview of Lifting and Transferring TridimensionaI Garage PLC Program Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾元武; 韩宝林; 陶磊; 任小锋

    2014-01-01

    According to the operation principIe of Iifting and transfering tridimensionaI garage,this paper designs controI program on the Siemens S7-200 PLC controI pIatform,to achieve automatic controI for automatic stereo garage.%根据升降横移类自动化立体车库的运行原理,以西门子 S7-200 PLC 为控制平台,设计了一种车库控制程序,实现自动化立体车库的自动控制。

  15. The VB programming of the communication protocol simulating Simatic PLC S7-300%模拟西门子PLC S7-300通信协议的VB程序设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李妍; 李茜; 张文林

    2006-01-01

    现代工业控制特别是造纸领域中,西门子PLC S7-300是应用最广的大中型PLC.而Visual Basic在开发可视化环境下的监控系统时具有其独特的优势,倍受青睐.本文用VB模拟西门子PLCS7-300的通信协议,提出了VB在串行通信中一种新的应用方法.

  16. A Modification of Gamma Surveymeter Dosemeter 3007A for Monitoring Use Ethernet by PLC T100MD Series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been modified a gamma surveymeter Dosemeter 3007A. The Surveymeter represents analogous surveymeter, so that an interface for data acquisition is required. Acquisition system from surveymeter is added to the voltage amplifier module from 0 - 200 mV to 0 - 5 V. This voltage value will represent of doses 0 - 5 mR/hour. Hereinafter the analogous signal 0 - 5 V as signal of input to peripheral of PLC T100MD series. Data in the form of processed analogous signal presented at local display of PLC. For long distance monitoring, data have been sent to a computer from PLC by ethernet. After this modification, the surveymeter can be used to monitor from long distance. By using Internet Service Provider, monitoring can be done at any time and any where as long as network internet is available. (author)

  17. Fault tolerant PLC system using CPU and I/O redundancy with switch over logic system for nuclear instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear instrumentation in power plants and fuel reprocessing plants demand very high reliable fault tolerant programmable logic controllers (PLC) since it is directly related to hazardous operation involving safety of plant, operator and in turn public at large. Components of control systems can fail depending on the circumstances and level of preparedness in plants, leading to a minor or major disaster. Utilizing existing technology and configuring system architecture, a fault tolerant PLC can provide superior solution to meet some of the challenges like high reliability, integrity and availability. This paper presents the background, concepts and implementation of fault tolerant PLC architecture using CPU and I/O redundancy with switch over logic system for nuclear instrumentation. (author)

  18. Fly Photoreceptors Encode Phase Congruency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friederich, Uwe; Billings, Stephen A.; Hardie, Roger C.; Juusola, Mikko; Coca, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    More than five decades ago it was postulated that sensory neurons detect and selectively enhance behaviourally relevant features of natural signals. Although we now know that sensory neurons are tuned to efficiently encode natural stimuli, until now it was not clear what statistical features of the stimuli they encode and how. Here we reverse-engineer the neural code of Drosophila photoreceptors and show for the first time that photoreceptors exploit nonlinear dynamics to selectively enhance and encode phase-related features of temporal stimuli, such as local phase congruency, which are invariant to changes in illumination and contrast. We demonstrate that to mitigate for the inherent sensitivity to noise of the local phase congruency measure, the nonlinear coding mechanisms of the fly photoreceptors are tuned to suppress random phase signals, which explains why photoreceptor responses to naturalistic stimuli are significantly different from their responses to white noise stimuli. PMID:27336733

  19. Construction of a multi-vender fieldbus system for PC-based control using soft PLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. H.; Park, Y. J.; Choi, J. M.; Park, J. S. [Hankyong National Univ., Ansung (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    The relationship between the IEC 61131-3 programming language and the fieldbus application that became necessary as an outcome of the recent automation technology was described.An educational text for the field users on the integration of the Input/Output (I/O) modules and on the IEC 61131-3 programming language was prepared. An attempt was made to include description of the various kind of the fieldbuses and promote understanding of the CAN and the AS-I bus using a practical approach. The profibus is most widely used in the world, and thus is an important and a standardized tool in the area of the process control. A method of integrating the profibus with the most commonly used I/O modules in the field was suggested. The most essential characteristics of the IEC 61131-3 programming language was also described. A method for the construction of the multi-vender I/O modules by the Soft PLC 4C of the softings was suggested. Various technical steps are necessary for the integration of the I/O modules by the soft PLC. An additional software is needed for the more intelligent devises possessing complex technical functions, such as the control valve, the AC driver among others. The 4C control by the softing which is an important industrial solution for the soft PLC was specifically designed for the profibus. So, an OPC server is needed to exchange between the other fieldbuses while the optimum performance is only achieved by using the profibus card by softing. This implies that the business aspect has played a major role for developing the profibus by softing and the domestic users need to pay careful attention to this point additional software tools, such as the PDM or the comuwinn II, are necessary in the process control area to operate a complex and instruments using the DP/PA segment coupler. 13 refs., 46 figs., 12 tabs. (Author)

  20. Generating Safety-Critical PLC Code From a High-Level Application Software Specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The benefits of automatic-application code generation are widely accepted within the software engineering community. These benefits include raised abstraction level of application programming, shorter product development time, lower maintenance costs, and increased code quality and consistency. Surprisingly, code generation concepts have not yet found wide acceptance and use in the field of programmable logic controller (PLC) software development. Software engineers at Kennedy Space Center recognized the need for PLC code generation while developing the new ground checkout and launch processing system, called the Launch Control System (LCS). Engineers developed a process and a prototype software tool that automatically translates a high-level representation or specification of application software into ladder logic that executes on a PLC. All the computer hardware in the LCS is planned to be commercial off the shelf (COTS), including industrial controllers or PLCs that are connected to the sensors and end items out in the field. Most of the software in LCS is also planned to be COTS, with only small adapter software modules that must be developed in order to interface between the various COTS software products. A domain-specific language (DSL) is a programming language designed to perform tasks and to solve problems in a particular domain, such as ground processing of launch vehicles. The LCS engineers created a DSL for developing test sequences of ground checkout and launch operations of future launch vehicle and spacecraft elements, and they are developing a tabular specification format that uses the DSL keywords and functions familiar to the ground and flight system users. The tabular specification format, or tabular spec, allows most ground and flight system users to document how the application software is intended to function and requires little or no software programming knowledge or experience. A small sample from a prototype tabular spec application is

  1. On the Expressiveness of the Approach to Constructing PLC-programs by LTL-Specification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Kuzmin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the approach to constructing and verification of discrete PLC-programs by LTL-specification. This approach provides an ability of correctness analysis of PLC-programs by the model checking method. The linear temporal logic LTL is used as a language of specification of the program behavior. The correctness analysis of LTL-specification is automatically performed by the symbolic model checking tool Cadence SMV. The article demonstrates the consistency of the approach to constructing and verification of PLC programs by LTL-specification from the point of view of Turing power. It is proved, that in accordance with this approach for any Minsky counter machine can be built an LTL-specification, which is used for machine implementation in any PLC programming language of standard IEC 61131-3. Minsky machines equipollent Turing machines, and the considered approach also has Turing power. The proof focuses on representation of a counter machine behavior in the form of a set of LTL-formulas and matching these formulas to constructions of ST and SFC languages. SFC is interesting as a specific graphical language. ST is considered as a basic language because an implementation of a counter machine in IL, FBD/CFC and LD languages is reduced to rewriting blocks of ST-program. The idea of the proof is demonstrated by an example of a Minsky 3-counter machine, which implements a function of squaring.

  2. Synaptic encoding of temporal contiguity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srdjan eOstojic

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Often we need to perform tasks in an environment that changes stochastically. In these situations it is important to learn the statistics of sequences of events in order to predict the future and the outcome of our actions. The statistical description of many of these sequences can be reduced to the set of probabilities that a particular event follows another event (temporal contiguity. Under these conditions, it is important to encode and store in our memory these transition probabilities. Here we show that for a large class of synaptic plasticity models, the distribution of synaptic strengths encodes transitions probabilities. Specifically, when the synaptic dynamics depend on pairs of contiguous events and the synapses can remember multiple instances of the transitions, then the average synaptic weights are a monotonic function of the transition probabilities. The synaptic weights converge to the distribution encoding the probabilities also when the correlations between consecutive synaptic modifications are considered. We studied how this distribution depends on the number of synaptic states for a specific model of a multi-state synapse with hard bounds. In the case of bistable synapses, the average synaptic weights are a smooth function of the transition probabilities and the accuracy of the encoding depends on the learning rate. As the number of synaptic states increases, the average synaptic weights become a step function of the transition probabilities. We finally show that the information stored in the synaptic weights can be read out by a simple rate-based neural network. Our study shows that synapses encode transition probabilities under general assumptions and this indicates that temporal contiguity is likely to be encoded and harnessed in almost every neural circuit in the brain.

  3. FINDING THE OPTIMAL LENGTH OF DATA FRAME IN PLC COMPUTER NETWORK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuangRonghui; Zhoumingtian

    2003-01-01

    The length of data frame is an important parameter in Medium Access Control (MAC) layer protocol.A method of finding the optimal length of data frame when impulsive disturdance is inuolved in PowerLine Communications (PLC) is proposed.Having analyzed the characteristics of impulsive disturbance in powerline and the collision mechanism between the disturbance and data frame,this letter gives the function of the network channel utilization with the length of data frame in MAC layer and the impulsive disurbance.Our stochastic process simulation shows that it is feasible to get the optimal length of data frame.

  4. FINDING THE OPTIMAL LENGTH OF DATA FRAME IN PLC COMPUTER NETWORK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Ronghui; Zhou Mingtian; She Kun

    2003-01-01

    The length of data frame is an important parameter in Medium Access Control(MAC) layer protocol. A method of finding the optimal length of data frame when impulsive disturbance is involved in PowerLine Communications (PLC) is proposed. Having analyzed the characteristics of impulsive disturbance in powerline and the collision mechanism between the disturbance and data frame, this letter gives the function of the network channel utilization with the length of data frame in MAC layer and the impulsive disturbance. Our stochastic process simulation shows that it is feasible to get the optimal length of data frame.

  5. A Numerical Tele-service System and its Realization on a PC-PLC Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Modern telecommunication methods have many impacts on manufacturing, and tele-service has become one of the strategic approaches to realize the ideas of a flexible manufacturing system. Monitoring and maintenance of production lines from the remote monitor center is an important application of such techniques. This paper presents a typical model of tele-service systems and discusses the underlying challenges. RMMST (remote monitoring and maintenance system testbed), based on PC-PLC and their networks which are used widely in production lines, is presented in detail as a concrete example. With the support of digital technique, RMMST can be used in the monitoring and maintenance of remote production lines conveniently.

  6. Realization of Intelligent Measurement and Control System for Limb Rehabilitation Based on PLC and Touch Screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangquan

    According to the treatment needs of patients with limb movement disorder, on the basis of the limb rehabilitative training prototype, function of measure and control system are analyzed, design of system hardware and software is completed. The touch screen which is adopt as host computer and man-machine interaction window is responsible for sending commands and training information display; The PLC which is adopt as slave computer is responsible for receiving control command from touch screen, collecting the sensor data, regulating torque and speed of motor by analog output according to the different training mode, realizing ultimately active and passive training for limb rehabilitation therapy.

  7. STS-65 PLC Hieb at mockup side hatch prepares to egress via an inflated slide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    STS-65 Mission Specialist and Payload Commander (PLC) Richard J. Hieb, wearing launch and entry suit (LES) and launch and entry helmet (LEH), sits at the top of the inflated slide at the crew compartment trainer (CCT) side hatch and listens to a crew training staffer's instructions. Hieb practiced post landing emergency escape procedures along with his six STS-65 crewmates. The CCT is located in the Johnson Space Center's (JSC's) Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9NE. Hieb will join five NASA astronauts and a Japanese payload specialist for the International Microgravity Laboratory 2 (IML-2) mission aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, later this year.

  8. Implementation of RS-485 Communication between PLC and PC of Distributed Control System Based on VB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian Zhang, Chuan; Da Huang, Zhi; Qing Zhou, Gui; Chong, Kil To

    2015-05-01

    This paper focuses on achieving RS-485 communication between programmable logical controller (PLC) and PC based on visual basic 6.0 (VB6.0) on an experimental automatic production line. Mitsubishi FX2N PLCs and a PC are chosen as slave stations and main station, respectively. Monitoring software is developed using VB6.0 for data input/output, flow control and online parameters setting. As a result, all functions are fulfilled with robust performance. It is concluded from results that one PC can monitor several PLCs using RS-485 communication.

  9. Application of PLC in My Plant%PLC在我厂的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁峰军; 滕卫杰

    2001-01-01

    以我厂中小型可编程控制器的选型、编程、维护为背景,初步总结了PLC的应用经验。%Based on the background of small-size PLC selecting,programming and maintaining,the experience of the several kinds of PLCs that my plant used is summarized.PLCs hardware and software of each companies respectively has different characteristics,it should be on the basis of the concrete analysis of concrete circumstances in use.

  10. Boiler level control system based on ControlLogix5550 PLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>This paper is a research design based on EFPT process control device.In the design,actual industry field has been simulated and corresponding modelling has been carried on for the boiler level system.Then the appropriate PID parameter has been sorted out and ControlLogix5550 PLC has been used to control the entire boiler level system. At last,a corresponding control interface has been established and the boiler level has been under a safe and accurate control.

  11. Development of PLC based chiller control system for 3 MeV DC electron beam accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 3 MeV DC electron beam accelerator is under development at Electron beam center, Kharghar, Navi Mumbai. The accelerator has various sections, where heat is generated during operation due to factors contributed by efficiency. The areas that produce heat such as beam dump, HV oscillator, scan horn region etc need to be cooled. A 5TR chiller unit has been installed in a room in the vicinity of the accelerator. Standard chiller unit available in the market do not provide a remote control interface, instead they provide on panel local controllers for the operation of the system. A PLC based interlock has been developed to control all the chiller components such as Cooling tower fan, cooling tower pump, ON/OFF operation of compressor etc. All the components used in chiller unit are interfaced to PLC besides temperature sensor. All machine safety interlock have been introduced by using suitable hardware such as antifreeze coil used to trip compressor in case of control failure may make the ice of water being cooled. The operating point of the chiller has been set to provide water 22-24 degree C. The PLC has been programmed using ladder logic programming method. The system is fully automatic. The system can be operated by setting the set temperature say 22 degree C and temperature hysteresis say 2 degree C. Pressing start button operates different units of the system automatically. Its starts the compressor when the water temperature is 22+2 degree C and stops the compressor when temp reaches at 22 degree C. Any unexpected failure such as 3Phase sequence change/phase failure, over load relay trip, excess temp are indicated by a hooter sound along with fault display on the HMI. A touch screen panel has been provided for human machine interface. This development of control system for chiller sub-system of accelerator has helped us in bringing the chiller unit control from the control room using Ethernet link using Modbus TCP-IP. The implementation of PLC controlled chiller

  12. Virally encoded 7TM receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, M M; Waldhoer, M; Lüttichau, H R;

    2001-01-01

    A number of herpes- and poxviruses encode 7TM G-protein coupled receptors most of which clearly are derived from their host chemokine system as well as induce high expression of certain 7TM receptors in the infected cells. The receptors appear to be exploited by the virus for either immune evasion...... expression of this single gene in certain lymphocyte cell lineages leads to the development of lesions which are remarkably similar to Kaposi's sarcoma, a human herpesvirus 8 associated disease. Thus, this and other virally encoded 7TM receptors appear to be attractive future drug targets....

  13. Establishment of hepatitis E virus infection-permissive and -non-permissive human hepatoma PLC/PRF/5 subclones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiota, Tomoyuki; Li, Tian-Cheng; Yoshizaki, Sayaka; Kato, Takanobu; Wakita, Takaji; Ishii, Koji

    2015-02-01

    PLC/PRF/5 cells show limited permissiveness, meaning that almost all subclones are permissive; however, some subclones do not exhibit permissiveness for hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection. In this study, the single-cell cloning of PLC/PRF/5 was performed and heterogeneous subclones characterized. Notably, the efficiency of intracellular virus replication did not correlate with the permissiveness for HEV infection. However, as well as binding permissive subclones, virus-like particles bound non-permissive subclones on various levels, suggesting that these subclones have some deficiencies in the attachment and entry steps of infection. Our data would be useful for investigating the HEV life cycle.

  14. The command of the Flour Transport Pumps in a Cereal Mill with PLC Siemens S7-1200

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Răduca

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents pump control with PLC Siemens Simatic S7 - 1200, for transporting flour designed to be implemented in the Pfalzmühle Mannheim. The order was designed to replace the old system made in various traditional contacts and relays. Programming PLC Simatic S7 - 1200, which is a powerful and reliable, a new generation, was conducted in FBD. In order to verify the accuracy and to optimize the operation of the control system was built a functional model.

  15. Hybrid encoding method for hiding information by assembling double-random phase-encoding technique and binary encoding method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kuang Tsan

    2010-07-01

    A hybrid encoding method is used to assemble the double-random phase-encoding technique and the binary encoding method. Because the double-random phase-encoding technique is robust for noises and the binary encoding method is free of using external keys, the proposed hybrid encoding method has their advantages. The hybrid encoding method first encodes a covert image to form a complex-number matrix by using the double-random phase-encoding technique, where two random real-number matrices are used to increase the security of the encoding work. Then the elements of the two random real-number matrices and the elements of the complex-number matrix are encoded to form a binary-bit string by using the binary encoding method. Finally, the binary data in the binary-bit string are encoded into a host image to form an overt image with hidden information by using a gray-value modulation method. The decoding work is easy for authorized people, but it is very difficult for unauthorized people. Therefore, the proposed hybrid encoding method is a very useful encoding method.

  16. Automated Water Supply System and Water Theft Identification Using PLC and SCADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Anubha Panchal,

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In today’s world rapid growing urban residential areas, to avoid scarcity of water problems and requirements of consumers, therefore it is supposed to supply adequate water distribution networks are managed automatically. Along with this another problem in the water supply system is that public is using suction pumps to suck the water directly from the home street pipeline. The best way to improve the automation and monitoring architectures which contain a supervision and control system for the real time installation, programmable logic controllers with basic functions communication systems, standard interfaces or dedicated ones with proximity sensors, electrical drive elements, measuring devices, etc. In this project it is proposed to develop the PLC & SCADA based water monitoring and theft prevention. Control System is further coupled to SCADA unit .This paper focuses particularly to a control system for controlling and monitoring within a Water Distribution System. Process automation system based upon utilization of an industrial PLC and PC systems including all the network components represents the best way to improve the water distribution technological process.

  17. Controlling the Filling and Capping Operation of a Bottling Plant using PLC and SCADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunal Chakraborty

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents basic stages of operation of a bottling plant, i.e. the filling and capping process. The main aim of our paper is to control the filling and capping section of a bottling plant simultaneously. At first a set of empty bottle is run by using a conveyer towards filling section, after the operation, the filled bottles are sent towards the capping section. After successful capping operation, the sealed bottles terminate towards exit and a new set of empty bottle arrive, in this way the process continues. This paper includes the method using which, a bunch of bottles can be filled and capped at one instant of time. This method has made the operation more flexible and time saving. The filling and capping operations are controlled using Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC, as the PLC’s are very much user-efficient, cost-effective and easy to control. By using PLC automation the whole process is kept under control. SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition is used to monitor the process by means of a display system.

  18. Motion control solution for new PLC-based standard development platform for VLT instrument control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovic, D.; Brast, R.; Di Lieto, N.; Kiekebusch, M.; Knudstrup, J.; Lucuix, C.

    2014-07-01

    More than a decade ago, due to obsolescence issues, ESO initiated the design and implementation of a custom-made CANbus based motion controller (CAN-RMC) to provide, together with a tailor-made software library (motor library), the motion control capabilities for the VME platform needed for the second generation VLT/VLTI instruments. The CAN-RMC controller has been successfully used in a number of VLT instruments but it has high production costs compared to the commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) industrial solutions available on the market today. In the scope of the selection of a new PLC-based platform for the VLT instrument control systems, ESO has evaluated motion control solutions from the company Beckhoff. This paper presents the investigation, implementation and testing of the PLC/TwinCAT/EtherCAT motion controllers for DC and stepper motors and their adaptation and integration into the VLT instrumentation framework. It reports functional and performance test results for the most typical use cases of astronomical instruments like initialization sequences, tracking, switch position detections, backslash compensation, brake handling, etc. In addition, it gives an overview of the main features of TwinCAT NC/PTP, PLCopen MC, EtherCAT motion control terminals and the engineering tools like TwinCAT Scope that are integrated into the development environment and simplify software development, testing and commissioning of motorized instrument functions.

  19. Design of a Pneumatic Robotic Arm for Solar Cell Tester System By using PLC controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousif I. Al Mashhadany

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar cell testers sort photovoltaic cells according to their electrical performance, tested under simulated sunlight. A variety of testers exist, but they all face a common challenge of handling cells that are very small and thin, which makes it difficult to transport the cells from the conveyer to the storage box. This paper presents a new design for a handling robot with vacuum end-effectors, which uses a PLC controller to govern the movement of the cells and the testing process. The design applies to solar cell testers for monocrystalline, polycrystalline, cadmium telluride (CdTe, and copper indium diselenide (CIS cells. Each cell is tested for efficiency and categorized accordingly into four groups (A to D. A Virtual Reality (VR model was built to simulate the system, keeping in mind real world constraints. Two photoelectric sensors were used to make detections for both the testing process and the robot movement. The PLC controller guides the trajectory of the robot according to the results of the efficiency testing. It was seen that the system worked very well, with the testing process and the robot movement interacting smoothly. The robot trajectory was seen to be highly accurate, and the pick and place operations were done with great precision.

  20. Design of an Intelligent Water Supply Control System Based on Mitsubishi FX2N Series PLC%基于三菱 FX2N 系列 PLC 的智能供水控制系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵媛

    2016-01-01

    文章以三菱 FX2N -32MR 型 PLC 为智能核心元件,设计了可能在工作/备用状态下任意切换的两台供水泵电机的自动控制系统,包括控制方案、主电路、控制电路(I /O 接线图)、控制程序(梯形图),并阐明了水位信号的 PLC 识别问题等技术细节,经过生产实际运行检验,设计合理、运行可靠。%Using Mitsubishi PLC FX2N -32MR as intelligent core element,this paper gives the design of an automatic control system consisting of two water supply pump motors which can be switched over at will between working/stand-by states,including control scheme,main circuit,control circuit (I /O wiring diagram)and control program (ladder diagram),and clarifies technical details such as PLC identification of water level signal.Actual operation in production process verifies its reasonable design and reliable operation.

  1. The Application of PLC in the CGJ-100 Milling Cutting Machine Control System%PLC 在 CGJ-100铣切机控制系统中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永聪; 张晨曦; 王晓奎

    2014-01-01

    A ccording to the w orking process ofthe m illing cutting m achine for ROGERS materials,the Delta PLC as the low erm achine,touch screen as hum an-com puterinterface,a milling cutting machine control system , which controls three kinem atic axes through PLC , such as X、Y and Z axes, autom ation is realized. Practical operation show s that the control system im proves the production efficiency.%根据铣切机对罗杰斯板的加工过程,采用台达 PLC 作为下位机,触摸屏作为人机界面,构成铣切机控制系统,通过 PLC 控制 X 、Y 及 Z 3个运动轴,实现控制自动化。在实际运行中表明,采用该控制系统提高了生产效率。

  2. 基于RS485的小型PLC ModBus总线通信与实现%Bus Communication and Achieve of the Small PLC ModBus Based on RS485

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨帆

    2012-01-01

    ModBus作为一种开放式通信协议,愈来愈多地被小型PLC厂家选用,并逐渐成为产品的标准配置之一。首先介绍了汇川H2U系列PLC的ModBus总线通信技术,然后给出了实现H2UPLC与MD320变频器ModBus总线通信的硬件连接、变频器参数设置以及PLC通信程序。实际应用表明该方案工程实现容易、性价比高。%ModBus is increasing to choose by small PLC manufacturers as an open communication protocol, and becoming to one of the standard configuration of the product. Firstly the paper introduces bus communication technology of inovance H2U series PLC ModBus, and then achieves hardware connection,inverters parameter settings and PLC communication program of the H2U PLC and MD320 inverter ModBus bus communication. Practical application shows that the program works easily and cost -effectivly.

  3. Cells transformed by PLC-gamma 1 overexpression are highly sensitive to clostridium difficile toxin A-induced apoptosis and mitotic inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Hyo Jung; Kang, Jin Ku; Chang, Jong Soo; Lee, Min Soo; Nam, Seung Taek; Jung, Hyun Woo; Kim, Sung-Kuk; Ha, Eun-Mi; Seok, Heon; Son, Seung Woo; Park, Young Joo; Kim, Ho

    2012-01-01

    Phospholipase C-γl (PLC-γl) expression is associated with cellular transformation. Notably, PLC-gamma is up-regulated in colorectal cancer tissue and breast carcinoma. Because exotoxins released by Clostridium botulinum have been shown to induce apoptosis and promote growth arrest in various cancer cell lines, we examined here the potential of Clostridium difficile toxin A to selectively induce apoptosis in cells transformed by PLC-γl overexpression. We found that PLC-γl-transformed cells, but not vectortransformed (control) cells, were highly sensitive to C. difficile toxin A-induced apoptosis and mitotic inhibition. Moreover, expression of the proapoptotic Bcl2 family member, Bim, and activation of caspase-3 were significantly up-regulated by toxin A in PLC-γl-transformed cells. Toxin A-induced cell rounding and paxillin dephosphorylation were also significantly higher in PLC-γl-transformed cells than in control cells. These findings suggest that C. difficile toxin A may have potential as an anticancer agent against colorectal cancers and breast carcinomas in which PLC-γl is highly up-regulated.

  4. Research and Achievement of Soft PLC Control System%软PLC控制系统研究与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏两河

    2013-01-01

      With the development of computer technology and establishment of IEC6113-3 standard, the development of soft PLC technology is strongly developed. Compared with the traditional hard PLC, soft PLC provides the advantage of powerful ability of data process, net communication and open system structure, which can meet the demands of the flexibility and open design of control system in the industry automation field. With the main design of soft PLC, the system structure and the implementation program and achievement of the software are analyzed.%  随着近年来计算机技术的发展以及IEC6113-3标准的制定,软PLC的技术得到了长足发展。较之传统的硬PLC而言,软PLC控制系统具有强大的数据处理能力、网络通信能力、开放的体系结构等优势,可满足当下工业自动化领域中控制系统柔性及开放性的要求。本文从软PLC的总体设计入手,论述了系统结构与软件实施方案及软件的实现。

  5. 信号是PLC编程的关键%The Signal Is the Key of PLC Programming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯启荣

    2015-01-01

    通过介绍了如何找到控制信号对PLC进行编程.编制符合控制要求的PLC程序,是我们学习PLC的难点.在PLC编程过程中,只要找到控制对象的控制信号,搞清楚这个控制信号什么时候产生,什么时候消失,会用这个信号去控制控制对象即可.当由多个信号控制同一控制对象时,只要将多个控制信号并联就可以.因此,只要将控制信号找到,程序基本上就已经编制完成.%Through the introduction of how to find control signal program the PLC. The PLC program that meets the control requirements is the difficulty when we learn PLC. During PLC programming, we only need find the control signal of the control object, and make clear the time when the control signal produced and when it will disappear. And we are able to control the object with the signal. When the same control is controlled by many signals, we only need to make control signals in parallel. Therefore, as long as the control signal is found, the program will have been completed basically.

  6. PLC-based control system for 10 MeV linear accelerator (LCS) at EBC Kharghar, BARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently the 10 MeV Linac is being used for different research and industrial applications. The control system in operation was developed using CAMAC based Data Acquisition System (DAS) and Hard-wired Interlock System. It is proposed to replace the CAMAC system with a state-of-the-art indigenously developed Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) that is verified to the level of a Class IB computer-based system used in nuclear power plants. A PLC node comprises of two VME bus based CPU boards (PowerPC MPC7447, 600MHz) working in redundant mode. The inputs and outputs are common to both CPUs. The I/O boards are hot swappable and intelligent. An intelligent Ethernet board is used for communication with a PC running the SCADA software and industry standard communication protocols drivers. The PLC hardware and software has undergone rigorous verification and validation. A user-friendly 'Application Development Environment' is provided to the process engineer for building the application using pre-defined function blocks. The LCS developed using PLC is to be used for operating the Linac irradiation facility, remotely as well as locally in a fail-safe mode, with sequential start-up and sequential shut-down. Apart from system status monitoring, data archiving, alarm generation and setpoint adjustments, it monitors the important parameters and trips the Gun Modulator High Voltage (GM HV), the Klystron Modulator High Voltage (KM HV) and the Electron Gun Power Supply (EG PS) on fault conditions. (author)

  7. 76 FR 72650 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR) RB211 Trent 800 Series Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    ... Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). Discussion The European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA... Order 12866; 2. Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc...

  8. 75 FR 15326 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc RB211-Trent 500, 700, and 800 Series Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    ...-16092 (74 FR 62222, November 27, 2009), with a proposed AD. The proposed AD applies to Rolls-Royce plc... regulations as of January 4, 2010 (74 FR 6222, November 27, 2009). ADDRESSES: The Docket Operations office is... Register on January 6, 2010 (75 FR 801). That action proposed to correct an unsafe condition for...

  9. 78 FR 39062 - Group Lotus plc; Modification of a Temporary Exemption From an Advanced Air Bag Requirement of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    ... small manufacturers such as Lotus as of September 1, 2012. \\1\\ 78 FR 15114. After publication of Lotus's... exemption, in control of the company's dealers. See 60 FR 12281 (Mar. 6, 1995). The 50 vehicles will count... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Group Lotus plc; Modification of a Temporary Exemption...

  10. 76 FR 12277 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc RB211-Trent 768, 772, and 772B Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-07

    ..., Amendment 39-10508 (63 FR 24911, May 6, 1998): 98-09-27R1 Rolls-Royce plc: Amendment 39-16620. Docket No...: ] Discussion On April 23, 1998, the FAA Engine & Propeller Directorate issued engine AD 98-09-27 (63 FR 24911... (66 FR 23838, May 10, 2001). Those ADs both require the same initial and repetitive visual...

  11. 75 FR 49368 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR) RB211-Trent 900 Series Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78...'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have...-13-AD; Amendment 39-16384; AD 2010-16-07] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc...

  12. 76 FR 40217 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR) RB211-524 Series Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). Authority for This Rulemaking Title 49 of the United... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant economic impact, positive or...; AD 2011-13-01] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR) RB211-524 Series...

  13. MHC class I signaling in T cells leads to tyrosine kinase activity and PLC-gamma 1 phosphorylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, S; Odum, Niels; Claesson, M H

    1995-01-01

    phosphorylation and the subsequent calcium response. The early tyrosine kinase activity was found to be dependent on expression of the TCR/CD3 complex and the CD45 molecule on the surface of the T cells. Furthermore, MHC-I cross-linking was shown to tyrosine phosphorylate PLC-gamma 1 (phospholipase C-gamma 1...

  14. 76 FR 30529 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR) RB211-535 Series Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    ... Register on October 5, 2010 (75 FR 61361). That NPRM proposed to correct an unsafe condition for the...'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have...-39-AD; Amendment 39-16707; AD 2011-11-08] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc...

  15. 75 FR 34172 - Rexam Closure Systems, Inc., a Subsidiary of Rexam PLC, Including On-Site Leased Workers From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... published in the Federal Register on April 23, 2010 (75 FR 21357). The notice was amended on May 11, 2010 to... notice was published in the Federal Register on May 21, 2010 (75 FR 28655). At the request of a company... Employment and Training Administration Rexam Closure Systems, Inc., a Subsidiary of Rexam PLC, Including...

  16. 75 FR 69611 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc RB211-Trent 768, 772, and 772B Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ...-10508 (63 FR 24911, May 6, 1998): Rolls-Royce plc: Docket No. FAA-2010-0960; Directorate Identifier 98... the DOT's complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR...-27 (63 FR 24911, May 6, 1998). On April 30, 2001, the FAA Transport Airplane Directorate...

  17. Turning the Tide: Creating Professional Learning Communities (PLC) to Improve Teaching Practice and Learning in South African Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botha, E. M.

    2012-01-01

    Poor learner performance in South African schools raises concerns related to lack of commitment and accountability from school leaders and teachers with no common vision to promote a culture of high learner performance. This paper provides a literature overview of research available on the impact of professional learning communities (PLC) on…

  18. 75 FR 61361 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR) RB211-535 Series Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). Discussion The European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA... 12866; 2. Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc...

  19. 77 FR 1009 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR) RB211-524 Series Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-09

    ..., approved for IBR February 9, 2005 (70 FR 680, January 5, 2005). (3) Rolls-Royce plc Service Bulletin No. RB... listed in this AD as of February 9, 2005 (70 FR 680, January 5, 2005). ADDRESSES: For service information... CFR part 39 to supersede airworthiness directive (AD) 2004-26- 05, amendment 39-13917 (70 FR...

  20. Professional Learning Communities: An Analysis of Teacher Participation in a PLC and the Relationship with Student Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylsworth, Anthony James

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to compare teacher participation in a Professional Learning Community with the performance of their students. Student achievement data from multiple subject-alike groups were compared in a pre-and post-PLC format, using an independent, two-sample t-test. Overall, 10 PLCs from one high school in a suburban, Iowa setting were…

  1. 75 FR 45560 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR) RB211-Trent 800 Series Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). Discussion The European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA... Order 12866; 2. Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc...

  2. 76 FR 14797 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR) RB211-Trent 900 Series Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ... Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). Authority for This Rulemaking Title 49 of the United... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant economic impact, positive or...-05-AD; Amendment 39-16636; AD 2011-06-11] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc...

  3. Encoding information into precipitation structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Kirsten; Bena, Ioana; Droz, Michel; Rácz, Zoltan

    2008-12-01

    Material design at submicron scales would be profoundly affected if the formation of precipitation patterns could be easily controlled. It would allow the direct building of bulk structures, in contrast to traditional techniques which consist of removing material in order to create patterns. Here, we discuss an extension of our recent proposal of using electrical currents to control precipitation bands which emerge in the wake of reaction fronts in A+ + B- → C reaction-diffusion processes. Our main result, based on simulating the reaction-diffusion-precipitation equations, is that the dynamics of the charged agents can be guided by an appropriately designed time-dependent electric current so that, in addition to the control of the band spacing, the width of the precipitation bands can also be tuned. This makes straightforward the encoding of information into precipitation patterns and, as an amusing example, we demonstrate the feasibility by showing how to encode a musical rhythm.

  4. Geometric Hyperplanes: Desargues Encodes Doily

    CERN Document Server

    Saniga, Metod

    2011-01-01

    It is shown that the structure of the generalized quadrangle of order two is fully encoded in the properties of the Desargues configuration. A point of the quadrangle is represented by a geometric hyperplane of the Desargues configuration and its line by a set of three hyperplanes such that one of them is the complement of the symmetric difference of the remaining two and they all share a pair of non-collinear points.

  5. Synaptic encoding of temporal contiguity

    OpenAIRE

    Srdjan Ostojic; Stefano Fusi

    2013-01-01

    Often we need to perform tasks in an environment that changes stochastically. In these situations it is important to learn the statistics of sequences of events in order to predict the future and the outcome of our actions. The statistical description of many of these sequences can be reduced to the set of probabilities that a particular event follows another event (temporal contiguity). Under these conditions, it is important to encode and store in our memory these transition probabilities. ...

  6. The application of SIEMENS PLC in grinding line%西门子PLC在打磨线上的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王卓为

    2013-01-01

    Siemens PLC, being as mainstream automatic control system, at present is widely applied in in-dustrial field. The article introduces a situation in which one communication module will be equipped in Siemens S7-300 PLC master station, connected to other external machines, to form one local network in in-dustrial field, by PLC-S7 software such functions can be realized as modifying data in control system, moni-toring machine in real time, checking failures. The article puts emphasis on introduction for analysis over is-sues like collision of robot during operation process, reciprocal interlocking of signals, acknowledge between machines, and also introduction for how to use PLC-S7 software optimize program to eliminate the failure fi-nally, so that the maintenance cost and breakdown rate can be reduced, and productive rate can be in-creased. All of those shows that the Siemens PLC has characters such as convenience, stability, easy mainte-nance and so on in industrial application.%  西门子PLC作为一款主流的自动化控制系统,目前被广泛的应用在工业领域。介绍工厂设备从西门子S7-300PLC主站配一个通信模块,与外部其他设备的通信,构成一个工业现场局部网络。通过西门子PLC- S7软件实现对控制设备的数据随时修改、实时监视和故障查询的功能。着重介绍设备在使用过程中出现的机器人碰撞问题,在对设备之间的信号互相联锁和应答等方面进行分析,并运用西门子PLC- S7软件进行程序的修改优化,最终排除了此类故障,降低了维修成本和故障停机率,提高了生产效率。说明了西门子PLC在工业领域的应用具有便捷性、稳定性和易维护等特点。

  7. Vector Encoding in Biochemical Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Garrett; Sun, Bo

    Encoding of environmental cues via biochemical signaling pathways is of vital importance in the transmission of information for cells in a network. The current literature assumes a single cell state is used to encode information, however, recent research suggests the optimal strategy utilizes a vector of cell states sampled at various time points. To elucidate the optimal sampling strategy for vector encoding, we take an information theoretic approach and determine the mutual information of the calcium signaling dynamics obtained from fibroblast cells perturbed with different concentrations of ATP. Specifically, we analyze the sampling strategies under the cases of fixed and non-fixed vector dimension as well as the efficiency of these strategies. Our results show that sampling with greater frequency is optimal in the case of non-fixed vector dimension but that, in general, a lower sampling frequency is best from both a fixed vector dimension and efficiency standpoint. Further, we find the use of a simple modified Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process as a model qualitatively captures many of our experimental results suggesting that sampling in biochemical networks is based on a few basic components.

  8. Factory Equipment Maintenance and Debugging PLC Programming Ideas to Build%工厂PLC设备维修与调试编程思路构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张自强

    2014-01-01

    In-depth analysis of PLC programmable controller with the function and role, explore maintenance and debugging PLC programming ideas factory equipment, to provide some references for the exclusion of the plant PLC equipment failure.%深入分析PLC可编程控制器具备的功能和作用,探究工厂中PLC设备的维修和调试编程思路,为工厂PLC设备故障的排除提供一些参考。

  9. 浅谈PLC机械加工数控机床改造技术%On the transformation technology of PLC machine tool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洋

    2015-01-01

    The powerful function of numerical control machine tool can not be separated from the use of PLC technology,text through the PLC technology to explain the simple introduction of the PLC machine tool transformation technology, to achieve the maximization of corporate profits.%数控机床的强大功能离不开PLC技术的采用,文本通过对PLC技术的简单介绍来阐述PLC机械加工数控机床改造技术,实现企业利润的最大化.

  10. Structural basis for the activation mechanism of the PlcR virulence regulator by the quorum-sensing signal peptide PapR

    OpenAIRE

    Grenha, Rosa; Slamti, Leyla; Nicaise, Magali; Refes, Yacine; Lereclus, Didier; Nessler, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    The quorum-sensing regulator PlcR is the master regulator of most known virulence factors in Bacillus cereus. It is a helix-turn-helix (HTH)-type transcription factor activated upon binding of its cognate signaling peptide PapR on a tetratricopeptide repeat-type regulatory domain. The structural and functional properties of PlcR have defined a new family of sensor regulators, called the RNPP family (for Rap, NprR, PrgX, and PlcR), in Gram-positive bacteria. To fully understand the activation ...

  11. Automatic test of PLC program based on OPC%基于OPC的PLC程序自动化测试

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王达; 赵千川; 马喜春

    2011-01-01

    可编程逻辑控制器(PLC)是一种应用非常广泛的工业控制装置.随着PLC程序的规模和复杂性不断增加,研究PLC程序的自动化测试方法具有重要的意义.将高级语言程序自动化测试的思想引入PLC程序测试中,提出了一种基于OPC的PLC程序自动化测试框架.针对病房监护程序,搭建了一个自动化测试系统,验证了所提测试框架的可行性.最后,结合案例分析了PLC程序自动化测试的优势与可能遇到的困难.%The programmable logic controller (PLC) is a kind of electrical device widely used in the industrial field. With the increasing size and complexity of PLC program, the study of its testing becomes very significant. A framework for the automatic test of PLC program based on OPC is proposed by introducing the idea of automatic test for programs written in advanced programming languages. In order to validate the feasibility of the proposed framework, an automatic test system is set up for a program used for ward care. Finally, based on the experimental study, the advantage of the automatic test for PLC program is analyzed, and the difficulties are discussed.

  12. Pathway-selective suppression of chemokine receptor signaling in B cells by LPS through downregulation of PLC-β2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirakawa, Aiko-Konno; Liao, Fang; Zhang, Hongwei H; Hedrick, Michael N; Singh, Satya P; Wu, Dianqing; Farber, Joshua M

    2010-11-01

    Lymphocyte activation leads to changes in chemokine receptor expression. There are limited data, however, on how lymphocyte activators can alter chemokine signaling by affecting downstream pathways. We hypothesized that B cell-activating agents might alter chemokine responses by affecting downstream signal transducers, and that such effects might differ depending on the activator. We found that activating mouse B cells using either anti-IgM or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) increased the surface expression of CCR6 and CCR7 with large increases in chemotaxis to their cognate ligands. By contrast, while anti-IgM also led to enhanced calcium responses, LPS-treated cells showed only small changes in calcium signaling as compared with cells that were freshly isolated. Of particular interest, we found that LPS caused a reduction in the level of B-cell phospholipase C (PLC)-β2 mRNA and protein. Data obtained using PLC-β2(-/-) mice showed that the β2 isoform mediates close to one-half the chemokine-induced calcium signal in resting and anti-IgM-activated B cells, and we found that calcium signals in the LPS-treated cells were boosted by increasing the level of PLC-β2 using transfection, consistent with a functional effect of downregulating PLC-β2. Together, our results show activator-specific effects on responses through B-cell chemokine receptors that are mediated by quantitative changes in a downstream signal-transducing protein, revealing an activity for LPS as a downregulator of PLC-β2, and a novel mechanism for controlling chemokine-induced signals in lymphocytes.

  13. Intracellular calcium level is an important factor influencing ion channel modulations by PLC-coupled metabotropic receptors in hippocampal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Yuto; Echigo, Ryousuke; Kashima, Kousuke; Minami, Hanae; Watanabe, Megumi; Nishikawa, Yuiko; Muranishi, Miho; Yoneda, Mitsugu; Ohno-Shosaku, Takako

    2013-05-28

    Signaling pathways involving phospholipase C (PLC) are involved in various neural functions. Understanding how these pathways are regulated will lead to a better understanding of their roles in neural functions. Previous studies demonstrated that receptor-driven PLCβ activation depends on intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i), suggesting the possibility that PLCβ-dependent cellular responses are basically Ca(2+) dependent. To test this possibility, we examined whether modulations of ion channels driven by PLC-coupled metabotropic receptors are sensitive to [Ca(2+)]i using cultured hippocampal neurons. Muscarinic activation triggered an inward current at -100 mV (the equilibrium potential for K(+)) in a subpopulation of neurons. This current response was suppressed by pirenzepine (an M1-preferring antagonist), PLC inhibitor, non-selective cation channel blocker, and lowering [Ca(2+)]i. Using the neurons showing no response at -100 mV, effects of muscarinic activation on K(+) channels were examined at -40 mV. Muscarinic activation induced a transient decrease of the holding outward current. This current response was mimicked and occluded by XE991, an M-current K(+) channel blocker, suppressed by pirenzepine, PLC inhibitor and lowering [Ca(2+)]i, and enhanced by elevating [Ca(2+)]i. Similar results were obtained when group I metabotropic glutamate receptors were activated instead of muscarinic receptors. These results clearly show that ion channel modulations driven by PLC-coupled metabotropic receptors are dependent on [Ca(2+)]i, supporting the hypothesis that cellular responses induced by receptor-driven PLCβ activation are basically Ca(2+) dependent.

  14. Dystrophin/α1-syntrophin scaffold regulated PLC/PKC-dependent store-operated calcium entry in myotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabourin, Jessica; Harisseh, Rania; Harnois, Thomas; Magaud, Christophe; Bourmeyster, Nicolas; Déliot, Nadine; Constantin, Bruno

    2012-12-01

    In skeletal muscles from patient suffering of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy and from mdx mice, the absence of the cytoskeleton protein dystrophin has been shown to be essential for maintaining a normal calcium influx. We showed that a TRPC store-dependent cation influx is increased by loss of dystrophin or a scaffolding protein α1-syntrophin, however the mechanisms of this calcium mishandling are incompletely understood. First of all, we confirmed that TRPC1 but also STIM1 and Orai1 are supporting the store-operated cation entry which is enhanced in dystrophin-deficient myotubes. Next, we demonstrated that inhibition of PLC or PKC in dystrophin-deficient myotubes restores elevated cation entry to normal levels similarly to enforced minidystrophin expression. In addition, silencing α1-syntrophin also increased cation influx in a PLC/PKC dependent pathway. We also showed that α1-syntrophin and PLCβ are part of a same protein complex reinforcing the idea of their inter-relation in calcium influx regulation. This elevated cation entry was decreased to normal levels by chelating intracellular free calcium with BAPTA-AM. Double treatments with BAPTA-AM and PLC or PKC inhibitors suggested that the elevation of cation influx by PLC/PKC pathway is dependent on cytosolic calcium. All these results demonstrate an involvement in dystrophin-deficient myotubes of a specific calcium/PKC/PLC pathway in elevation of store-operated cation influx supported by the STIM1/Orai1/TRPC1 proteins, which is normally regulated by the α1-syntrophin/dystrophin scaffold.

  15. Determinants of GPI-PLC localisation to the flagellum and access to GPI-anchored substrates in trypanosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunter, Jack; Webb, Helena; Carrington, Mark

    2013-01-01

    In Trypanosoma brucei, glycosylphosphatidylinositol phospholipase C (GPI-PLC) is a virulence factor that releases variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) from dying cells. In live cells, GPI-PLC is localised to the plasma membrane where it is concentrated on the flagellar membrane, so activity or access must be tightly regulated as very little VSG is shed. Little is known about regulation except that acylation within a short internal motif containing three cysteines is necessary for GPI-PLC to access VSG in dying cells. Here, GPI-PLC mutants have been analysed both for subcellular localisation and for the ability to release VSG from dying cells. Two sequence determinants necessary for concentration on the flagellar membrane were identified. First, all three cysteines are required for full concentration on the flagellar membrane. Mutants with two cysteines localise predominantly to the plasma membrane but lose some of their flagellar concentration, while mutants with one cysteine are mainly localised to membranes between the nucleus and flagellar pocket. Second, a proline residue close to the C-terminus, and distant from the acylated cysteines, is necessary for concentration on the flagellar membrane. The localisation of GPI-PLC to the plasma but not flagellar membrane is necessary for access to the VSG in dying cells. Cellular structures necessary for concentration on the flagellar membrane were identified by depletion of components. Disruption of the flagellar pocket collar caused loss of concentration whereas detachment of the flagellum from the cell body after disruption of the flagellar attachment zone did not. Thus, targeting to the flagellar membrane requires: a titratable level of acylation, a motif including a proline, and a functional flagellar pocket. These results provide an insight into how the segregation of flagellar membrane proteins from those present in the flagellar pocket and cell body membranes is achieved.

  16. A compact 1×64 optical power splitter using silica-based PLC on quartz substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liangliang; An, Junming; Wu, Yuanda; Wang, Yue; Zhang, Jiashun; Li, Jianguang; Wang, Hongjie; Zhang, Xiaoguang; Pan, Pan; Dai, Hongqing; Qi, Ying; Zhong, Fei; Zha, Qiang; Hu, Xiongwei; Zhao, Degang

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, a compact and low wavelength-dependence loss (WDL) 1×64 optical power splitter is fabricated using silica-based PLC technology on quartz substrate. The cascaded Y-branch structures are optimized in detail, and a compact 1×64 optical power splitter layout is obtained. The measured results show that the insertion loss (IL), the uniformity and WDL of the best results of all splitters are less than 19.2 dB, 1.0 dB and 0.5 dB, respectively, in the wavelength range from 1.26 μm to 1.65 μm, and the total product ratio of Standard grade in a whole 6 in. wafer is more than 80%. The results imply that our technology completely satisfies the need of mass manufacture.

  17. Advanced design technique of human-machine interfaces for PLC control of complex systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Árpád-István Sütő

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Touchscreen operator panels proved to be a convenient succesor for clasical operator panels for implementing human-machine interfaces (HMIs in programmable logic controllers (PLC systems. The paper introduces a new technique for HMIs design in such systems, based on the idea of touchscreens replication. This redundancy allow actions which are not possible within the menus and sub-menus of a single touchscreen. Its strenght is revealed especially in complex systems, where operators can easily be overwhelmed by the huge amount of process information. The technique was applied on a mill tube rolling installation. The results also proved an increase of system security and zero downtime for HMI maintenance activities.

  18. STS-55 MS1/PLC Ross monitors Payload Specialist Walter's Anthrorack activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 German Payload Specialist 1 Ulrich Walter breathes into Rack 9 Anthrorack (AR) (Human Physiology Laboratory) device for Pulmonary Perfusion and Ventilation During Rest and Exercise experiment while working inside the Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) science module aboard the Earth-orbiting Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102. Seated on the bicycle ergometer, Walter utilizes the respiratory monitoring system, part of a broad battery of experiments designed to investigate human physiology under microgravity conditions. In the background, Mission Specialist 1 (MS1) and Payload Commander (PLC) Jerry L. Ross monitors Walter's activity. Walter represents the German Aerospace Research Establishment (DLR) on the 10-day SL-D2 mission. Visible on the aft end cone are a fire extinguisher and the Crew Telesupport Experiment (CTE) Macintosh portable computer mounted on an adjustable work platform.

  19. Automatic convey or System with In–Process Sorting Mechanism using PLC and HMI System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y V Aruna

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Programmable logic controllers are widely used in many manufacturing process like machinery packaging material handling automatic assembly. These are special type of microprocessor based controller used for any application that needs any kind of electrical controller including lighting controller and HVAC control system. Automatic conveyor system is a computerized control method of controlling and managing the sorting mechanism at the same time maintaining the efficiency of the industry & quality of the products.HMI for automatic conveyor system is considered the primary way of controlling each operation. Text displays are available as well as graphical touch screens. It is used in touch panels and local monitoring of machines. This paper deals with the efficient use of PLC in automatic conveyor system and also building the accuracy in it.

  20. Design of Control System for Flexible Packaging Bags Palletizing Production Line Based on PLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Huiping; Chen, Lin; Zhao, Xiaoming; Liu, Zhanyang

    Flexible packaging bags palletizing production line is to put the bags in the required area according to particular order and size, in order to finish handling, storage, loading and unloading, transportation and other logistics work of goods. Flexible packaging bags palletizing line is composed of turning bags mechanism, shaping mechanism, indexing mechanism, marshalling mechanism, pushing bags mechanism, pressing bags mechanism, laminating mechanism, elevator, tray warehouse, tray conveyor and loaded tray conveyor. Whether the whole production line can smoothly run depends on each of the above equipment and precision control among them. In this paper the technological process and the control logic of flexible packaging bags palletizing production line is introduced. Palletizing process of the production line realized automation by means of a control system based on programmable logic controller (PLC). It has the advantages of simple structure, reliable and easy maintenance etc.