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Sample records for alpha-synuclein exhibit hyperactivity

  1. Motor deficits and beta oscillations are dissociable in an alpha-synuclein model of Parkinson's disease.

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    Brys, Ivani; Nunes, Jessica; Fuentes, Romulo

    2017-08-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterised by progressive motor symptoms resulting from chronic loss of dopaminergic neurons in the nigrostriatal pathway. The over expression of the protein alpha-synuclein in the substantia nigra has been used to induce progressive dopaminergic neuronal loss and to reproduce key histopathological and temporal features of PD in animal models. However, the neurophysiological aspects of the alpha-synuclein PD model have been poorly characterised. Hereby, we performed chronic in vivo electrophysiological recordings in the corticostriatal circuit of rats injected with viral vector to over express alpha-synuclein in the right substantia nigra. Our model, previously shown to exhibit mild motor deficits, presented moderate dopaminergic cell loss but did not present prominent local field potential oscillations in the beta frequency range (11-30 Hz), considered a hallmark of PD, during the 9 weeks after onset of alpha-synuclein over expression. Spinal cord stimulation, a potential PD symptomatic therapy, was applied regularly from sixth to ninth week after alpha-synuclein over expression onset and had an inhibitory effect on the firing rate of corticostriatal neurons in both control and alpha-synuclein hemispheres. Dopamine synthesis inhibition at the end of the experiment resulted in severe parkinsonian symptoms such as akinesia and increased beta and high-frequency (>90 Hz) oscillations. These results suggest that the alpha-synuclein PD model with moderate level of dopaminergic depletion does not reproduce the prominent corticostriatal beta oscillatory activity associated to parkinsonian conditions. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Alpha-Synuclein Expression Restricts RNA Viral Infections in the Brain.

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    Beatman, Erica L; Massey, Aaron; Shives, Katherine D; Burrack, Kristina S; Chamanian, Mastooreh; Morrison, Thomas E; Beckham, J David

    2015-12-30

    We have discovered that native, neuronal expression of alpha-synuclein (Asyn) inhibits viral infection, injury, and disease in the central nervous system (CNS). Enveloped RNA viruses, such as West Nile virus (WNV), invade the CNS and cause encephalitis, yet little is known about the innate neuron-specific inhibitors of viral infections in the CNS. Following WNV infection of primary neurons, we found that Asyn protein expression is increased. The infectious titer of WNV and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) TC83 in the brains of Asyn-knockout mice exhibited a mean increase of 10(4.5) infectious viral particles compared to the titers in wild-type and heterozygote littermates. Asyn-knockout mice also exhibited significantly increased virus-induced mortality compared to Asyn heterozygote or homozygote control mice. Virus-induced Asyn localized to perinuclear, neuronal regions expressing viral envelope protein and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated trafficking protein Rab1. In Asyn-knockout primary neuronal cultures, the levels of expression of ER signaling pathways, known to support WNV replication, were significantly elevated before and during viral infection compared to those in Asyn-expressing primary neuronal cultures. We propose a model in which virus-induced Asyn localizes to ER-derived membranes, modulates virus-induced ER stress signaling, and inhibits viral replication, growth, and injury in the CNS. These data provide a novel and important functional role for the expression of native alpha-synuclein, a protein that is closely associated with the development of Parkinson's disease. Neuroinvasive viruses such as West Nile virus are able to infect neurons and cause severe disease, such as encephalitis, or infection of brain tissue. Following viral infection in the central nervous system, only select neurons are infected, implying that neurons exhibit innate resistance to viral infections. We discovered that native neuronal expression of alpha-synuclein

  3. Alpha-synuclein structure, functions, and interactions

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    Fatemeh Nouri Emamzadeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, when a clinical diagnosis of Parkinson′s disease (PD is made, serious damage has already been done to nerve cells of the substantia nigra pars compacta. The diagnosis of PD in its earlier stages, before this irreversible damage, would be of enormous benefit for future treatment strategies designed to slow or halt the progression of this disease that possibly prevents accumulation of toxic aggregates. As a molecular biomarker for the detection of PD in its earlier stages, alpha-synuclein (α-syn, which is a key component of Lewy bodies, in which it is found in an aggregated and fibrillar form, has attracted considerable attention. Here, α-syn is reviewed in details.

  4. Membrane interactions of oligomeric alpha-synuclein : potential role in Parkinson's disease

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    van Rooijen, Bart D; Claessens, Mireille M A E; Subramaniam, Vinod

    alpha-Synuclein is a small neuronal protein that has been implicated to play an important role in Parkinson's disease. Genetic mutations and multiplications in the alpha-synuclein gene can cause familial forms of the disease. In aggregated fibrillar form, alpha-synuclein is the main component of

  5. A stable lipid-induced aggregate of alpha-synuclein

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    Drescher, Malte; van Rooijen, Bart D; Veldhuis, Gertjan; Subramaniam, Vinod; Huber, Martina

    2010-01-01

    The Parkinson's disease-related protein alpha-Synuclein (alphaS) is a 140 residue intrinsically disordered protein. Its membrane-binding properties are thought to be relevant for its physiological or pathologic activity. Here, the interaction of alphaS with POPG

  6. Alpha-synuclein in cutaneous small nerve fibers

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    Siepmann T

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Timo Siepmann,1 Ben Min-Woo Illigens,2 Kristian Barlinn1 1Department of Neurology, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany; 2Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: Despite progression in the development of pharmacological therapy, treatment of alpha synucleinopathies, such as Parkinson’s disease (PD and some atypical parkinsonism syndromes, is still challenging. To date, our knowledge of the mechanisms whereby the pathological form of alpha-synuclein causes structural and functional damage to the nervous system is limited and, consequently, there is a lack of specific diagnostic tools to evaluate pathology in these patients and differentiate PD from other neurodegenerative proteinopathies. Recent studies indicated that alpha-synuclein deposition in cutaneous small nerve fibers assessed by skin biopsies might be a valid disease marker of PD and facilitate early differentiation of PD from atypical parkinsonism syndromes. This observation is relevant since early diagnosis may enable timely treatment and improve quality of life. However, challenges include the necessity of standardizing immunohistochemical analysis techniques and the identification of potential distinct patterns of intraneural alpha-synuclein deposition among synucleinopathies. In this perspective, we explore the scientific and clinical opportunities arising from alpha-synuclein assessment using skin biopsies. These include elucidation of the peripheral nervous system pathology of PD and other synucleinopathies, identification of novel targets to study response to neuroprotective treatment, and improvement of clinical management. Furthermore, we discuss future challenges in exploring the diagnostic value of skin biopsy assessment for alpha-synuclein deposition and implementing the technique in clinical practice. Keywords: Parkinson’s disease, diagnosis, skin

  7. Alpha-synuclein suppression by targeted small interfering RNA in the primate substantia nigra.

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    Alison L McCormack

    Full Text Available The protein alpha-synuclein is involved in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders. Its toxic potential appears to be enhanced by increased protein expression, providing a compelling rationale for therapeutic strategies aimed at reducing neuronal alpha-synuclein burden. Here, feasibility and safety of alpha-synuclein suppression were evaluated by treating monkeys with small interfering RNA (siRNA directed against alpha-synuclein. The siRNA molecule was chemically modified to prevent degradation by exo- and endonucleases and directly infused into the left substantia nigra. Results compared levels of alpha-synuclein mRNA and protein in the infused (left vs. untreated (right hemisphere and revealed a significant 40-50% suppression of alpha-synuclein expression. These findings could not be attributable to non-specific effects of siRNA infusion since treatment of a separate set of animals with luciferase-targeting siRNA produced no changes in alpha-synuclein. Infusion with alpha-synuclein siRNA, while lowering alpha-synuclein expression, had no overt adverse consequences. In particular, it did not cause tissue inflammation and did not change (i the number and phenotype of nigral dopaminergic neurons, and (ii the concentrations of striatal dopamine and its metabolites. The data represent the first evidence of successful anti-alpha-synuclein intervention in the primate substantia nigra and support further development of RNA interference-based therapeutics.

  8. Alpha-synuclein gene deletion decreases brain palmitate uptake and alters the palmitate metabolism in the absence of alpha-synuclein palmitate binding

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    Golovko, Mikhail Y; Færgeman, Nils J.; Cole, Nelson B

    2005-01-01

    :0 in the choline glycerophospholipids. No differences in incorporation rate or turnover were observed in liver phospholipids, confirming that these changes in lipid metabolism were brain specific. Using titration microcalorimetry, we observed no binding of 16:0 or oleic acid to alpha-synuclein in vitro. Thus....... To better define a role for alpha-synuclein in brain fatty acid uptake and metabolism, we infused awake, wild-type, or alpha-synuclein gene-ablated mice with [1-(14)C]palmitic acid (16:0) and assessed fatty acid uptake and turnover kinetics in brain phospholipids. Alpha-synuclein deficiency decreased brain......, alpha-synuclein has effects on 16:0 uptake and metabolism similar to those of an FABP, but unlike FABP, it does not directly bind 16:0; hence, the mechanism underlying these effects is different from that of a classical FABP....

  9. Mechanisms of alpha-Synuclein Aggregation and Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    poorly understood. Some studies suggest that neurotoxins, such as the pesticide rotenone or paraquat , stimulate -synuclein aggregation (16). The...Vidal, R., Plant , G., Frangione, B., Revesz, T., 2001. Regional distribution of amyloid-Bri deposition and its association with neuro- J.W. Geddes...functionally associated with the mitochondrion in Arabidopsis cells. Plant Cell 15, 2140–2151. Goedert, M., 2001. Alpha-synuclein and neurodegenerative

  10. Increased intestinal permeability correlates with sigmoid mucosa alpha-synuclein staining and endotoxin exposure markers in early Parkinson's disease.

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    Christopher B Forsyth

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder of aging. The pathological hallmark of PD is neuronal inclusions termed Lewy bodies whose main component is alpha-synuclein protein. The finding of these Lewy bodies in the intestinal enteric nerves led to the hypothesis that the intestine might be an early site of PD disease in response to an environmental toxin or pathogen. One potential mechanism for environmental toxin(s and proinflammatory luminal products to gain access to mucosal neuronal tissue and promote oxidative stress is compromised intestinal barrier integrity. However, the role of intestinal permeability in PD has never been tested. We hypothesized that PD subjects might exhibit increased intestinal permeability to proinflammatory bacterial products in the intestine. To test our hypothesis we evaluated intestinal permeability in subjects newly diagnosed with PD and compared their values to healthy subjects. In addition, we obtained intestinal biopsies from both groups and used immunohistochemistry to assess bacterial translocation, nitrotyrosine (oxidative stress, and alpha-synuclein. We also evaluated serum markers of endotoxin exposure including LPS binding protein (LBP. Our data show that our PD subjects exhibit significantly greater intestinal permeability (gut leakiness than controls. In addition, this intestinal hyperpermeability significantly correlated with increased intestinal mucosa staining for E. coli bacteria, nitrotyrosine, and alpha-synuclein as well as serum LBP levels in PD subjects. These data represent not only the first demonstration of abnormal intestinal permeability in PD subjects but also the first correlation of increased intestinal permeability in PD with intestinal alpha-synuclein (the hallmark of PD, as well as staining for gram negative bacteria and tissue oxidative stress. Our study may thus shed new light on PD pathogenesis as well as provide a new method for earlier

  11. alpha-Synuclein enhances secretion and toxicity of amyloid beta peptides in PC12 cells

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    Kazmierczak, Anna; Strosznajder, Joanna B.; Adamczyk, Agata

    2008-01-01

    alpha-Synuclein is the fundamental component of Lewy bodies which occur in the brain of 60% of sporadic and familial Alzheimer's disease patients. Moreover, a proteolytic fragment of alpha-synuclein, the so-called non-amyloid component of Alzheimer's disease amyloid, was found to be an integral part

  12. Alpha-Synuclein: From Early Synaptic Dysfunction to Neurodegeneration

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    Veronica Ghiglieri

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades, many experimental and clinical studies have provided solid evidence that alpha-synuclein (α-syn, a small, natively unfolded protein, is closely related to Parkinson’s disease (PD pathology. To provide an overview on the different roles of this protein, here we propose a synopsis of seminal and recent studies that explored the many aspects of α-syn. Ranging from the physiological functions to its neurodegenerative potential, the relationship with the possible pathogenesis of PD will be discussed. Close attention will be paid on early cellular and molecular alterations associated with the presence of α-syn aggregates.

  13. Alpha-Synuclein Toxicity in the Early Secretory Pathway: How it Drives Neurodegeneration in Parkinsons Disease

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    Ting eWang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Alpha-synuclein is a predominant player in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s Disease. However, despite extensive study for two decades, its physiological and pathological mechanisms remain poorly understood. Alpha-synuclein forms a perplexing web of interactions with lipids, trafficking machinery, and other regulatory factors. One emerging consensus is that synaptic vesicles are likely the functional site for alpha-synuclein, where it appears to facilitate vesicle docking and fusion. On the other hand, the disfunctions of alpha-synuclein are more dispersed and numerous; when mutated or over-expressed, alpha-synuclein affects several membrane trafficking and stress pathways, including exocytosis, ER-to-Golgi transport, ER stress, Golgi homeostasis, endocytosis, autophagy, oxidative stress and others. Here we examine recent developments in alpha-synuclein’s toxicity in the early secretory pathway placed in the context of emerging themes from other affected pathways to help illuminate its underlying pathogenic mechanisms in neurodegeneration.

  14. Alpha-synuclein-immunoreactive deposits in human and animal prion diseases.

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    Haïk, S; Privat, N; Adjou, K T; Sazdovitch, V; Dormont, D; Duyckaerts, C; Hauw, J J

    2002-05-01

    Prion related disorders are associated with the accumulation of a misfolded isoform (PrPsc) of the host-encoded prion protein, PrP. There is strong evidence for the involvement of unidentified co-factors in the PrP to PrPsc conversion process. In this study, we show alpha-synuclein-immunoreactive deposits in the central nervous system of various prion diseases (sporadic, iatrogenic and new variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob diseases, and experimental scrapie of hamsters). alpha-Synuclein accumulated close to PrPsc deposits but we did not observe strict colocalization of prion protein and alpha-synuclein immunoreactivities particularly in PrPsc plaques. alpha-Synuclein is thought to be a key player in some neurodegenerative disorders, is able to interact with amyloid structures and has known chaperone-like activities. Our results, in various prion diseases, suggest a role for alpha-synuclein in regulating PrPsc formation.

  15. Interaction between viologen-phosphorus dendrimers and {alpha}-synuclein

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    Milowska, Katarzyna, E-mail: milowska@biol.uni.lodz.pl [Department of General Biophysics, Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, University of Lodz, Pomorska 141/143, 90-236 Lodz (Poland); Grochowina, Justyna [Department of General Biophysics, Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, University of Lodz, Pomorska 141/143, 90-236 Lodz (Poland); Katir, Nadia [Laboratoire de Chimie de Coordination CNRS, 205 route de Narbonne, 31077 Toulouse (France); El Kadib, Abdelkrim [Institute of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology (INANOTECH)-MAScIR (Moroccan Foundation for Advanced Science, Innovation and Research), ENSET, Avenue de I' Armee Royale, Madinat El Irfane, 10100 Rabat (Morocco); Majoral, Jean-Pierre [Laboratoire de Chimie de Coordination CNRS, 205 route de Narbonne, 31077 Toulouse (France); Bryszewska, Maria; Gabryelak, Teresa [Department of General Biophysics, Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, University of Lodz, Pomorska 141/143, 90-236 Lodz (Poland)

    2013-02-15

    In this study the interaction between viologen-phosphorus dendrimers and {alpha}-synuclein (ASN) was examined. Polycationic viologen-phosphorus dendrimers (two positive charges per viologen unit) are novel compounds with relatively unknown properties. The influence of these viologen dendrimers on ASN was tested using fluorimetric and circular dichroism methods. ASN contains four tyrosine residues; therefore, the influence of dendrimers on protein molecular conformation by measuring the changes in the ASN fluorescence in the presence of dendrimers was evaluated. The interaction of dendrimers with free L-tyrosine was also monitored. Results show that viologen-phosphorus dendrimers interact with ASN; they quenched the fluorescence of ASN as well as free tyrosine by dynamic and static ways. However, the quenching was not accompanied by modifications in the ASN secondary structure. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interaction between viologen-phosphorus dendrimers and {alpha}-synuclein (ASN) was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Viologen-phosphorus dendrimers can quench the fluorescence of tyrosine in ASN. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dendrimers caused red-shift in maximum of fluorescence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Viologen-phosphorus dendrimers did not change the secondary structure of ASN.

  16. Structure, function and toxicity of alpha-synuclein: the Bermuda triangle in synucleinopathies.

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    Villar-Piqué, Anna; Lopes da Fonseca, Tomás; Outeiro, Tiago Fleming

    2016-10-01

    Parkinson's disease belongs to a group of currently incurable neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the misfolding and accumulation of alpha-synuclein aggregates that are commonly known as synucleinopathies. Clinically, synucleinopathies are heterogeneous, reflecting the somewhat selective neuronal vulnerability characteristic of each disease. The precise molecular underpinnings of synucleinopathies remain unclear, but the process of aggregation of alpha-synuclein appears as a central event. However, there is still no consensus with respect to the toxic forms of alpha-synuclein, hampering our ability to use the protein as a target for therapeutic intervention. To decipher the molecular bases of synucleinopathies, it is essential to understand the complex triangle formed between the structure, function and toxicity of alpha-synuclein. Recently, important steps have been undertaken to elucidate the role of the protein in both physiological and pathological conditions. Here, we provide an overview of recent findings in the field of alpha-synuclein research, and put forward a new perspective over paradigms that persist in the field. Establishing whether alpha-synuclein has a causative role in all synucleinopathies will enable the identification of targets for the development of novel therapeutic strategies for this devastating group of disorders. Alpha-synuclein is the speculated cornerstone of several neurodegenerative disorders known as Synucleinopathies. Nevertheless, the mechanisms underlying the pathogenic effects of this protein remain unknown. Here, we review the recent findings in the three corners of alpha-synuclein biology - structure, function and toxicity - and discuss the enigmatic roads that have accompanied alpha-synuclein from the beginning. This article is part of a special issue on Parkinson disease. © 2015 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  17. Drift diffusion model of reward and punishment learning in rare alpha-synuclein gene carriers.

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    Moustafa, Ahmed A; Kéri, Szabolcs; Polner, Bertalan; White, Corey

    To understand the cognitive effects of alpha-synuclein polymorphism, we employed a drift diffusion model (DDM) to analyze reward- and punishment-guided probabilistic learning task data of participants with the rare alpha-synuclein gene duplication and age- and education-matched controls. Overall, the DDM analysis showed that, relative to controls, asymptomatic alpha-synuclein gene duplication carriers had significantly increased learning from negative feedback, while they tended to show impaired learning from positive feedback. No significant differences were found in response caution, response bias, or motor/encoding time. We here discuss the implications of these computational findings to the understanding of the neural mechanism of alpha-synuclein gene duplication.

  18. Modification of C Terminus Provides New Insights into the Mechanism of alpha-Synuclein Aggregation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Afitska, Kseniia; Fučíková, A.; Shvadchak, Volodymyr V.; Yushchenko, Dmytro A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 113, č. 10 (2017), s. 2182-2191 ISSN 0006-3495 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : alpha-synuclein * aggregation * kinetics Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics OBOR OECD: Biophysics Impact factor: 3.656, year: 2016

  19. Defining the Role of Alpha-Synuclein in Enteric Dysfunction in Parkinsons Disease

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    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0676 TITLE: Defining the Role of Alpha-Synuclein in Enteric Dysfunction in Parkinson’s Disease PRINCIPAL...TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Defining the Role of Alpha-Synuclein in Enteric Dysfunction in Parkinson’s Disease 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-16...STATEMENT Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The most recognizable feature of Parkinson’s disease (PD

  20. C. elegans model identifies genetic modifiers of alpha-synuclein inclusion formation during aging.

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    Tjakko J van Ham

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Inclusions in the brain containing alpha-synuclein are the pathological hallmark of Parkinson's disease, but how these inclusions are formed and how this links to disease is poorly understood. We have developed a C. elegans model that makes it possible to monitor, in living animals, the formation of alpha-synuclein inclusions. In worms of old age, inclusions contain aggregated alpha- synuclein, resembling a critical pathological feature. We used genome-wide RNA interference to identify processes involved in inclusion formation, and identified 80 genes that, when knocked down, resulted in a premature increase in the number of inclusions. Quality control and vesicle-trafficking genes expressed in the ER/Golgi complex and vesicular compartments were overrepresented, indicating a specific role for these processes in alpha-synuclein inclusion formation. Suppressors include aging-associated genes, such as sir-2.1/SIRT1 and lagr-1/LASS2. Altogether, our data suggest a link between alpha-synuclein inclusion formation and cellular aging, likely through an endomembrane-related mechanism. The processes and genes identified here present a framework for further study of the disease mechanism and provide candidate susceptibility genes and drug targets for Parkinson's disease and other alpha-synuclein related disorders.

  1. Individual Amino Acid Supplementation Can Improve Energy Metabolism and Decrease ROS Production in Neuronal Cells Overexpressing Alpha-Synuclein.

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    Delic, Vedad; Griffin, Jeddidiah W D; Zivkovic, Sandra; Zhang, Yumeng; Phan, Tam-Anh; Gong, Henry; Chaput, Dale; Reynes, Christian; Dinh, Vinh B; Cruz, Josean; Cvitkovic, Eni; Placides, Devon; Frederic, Ernide; Mirzaei, Hamed; Stevens, Stanley M; Jinwal, Umesh; Lee, Daniel C; Bradshaw, Patrick C

    2017-09-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by alpha-synuclein accumulation and loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) region of the brain. Increased levels of alpha-synuclein have been shown to result in loss of mitochondrial electron transport chain complex I activity leading to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. WT alpha-synuclein was stably overexpressed in human BE(2)-M17 neuroblastoma cells resulting in increased levels of an alpha-synuclein multimer, but no increase in alpha-synuclein monomer levels. Oxygen consumption was decreased by alpha-synuclein overexpression, but ATP levels did not decrease and ROS levels did not increase. Treatment with ferrous sulfate, a ROS generator, resulted in decreased oxygen consumption in both control and alpha-synuclein overexpressing cells. However, this treatment only decreased ATP levels and increased ROS production in the cells overexpressing alpha-synuclein. Similarly, paraquat, another ROS generator, decreased ATP levels in the alpha-synuclein overexpressing cells, but not in the control cells, further demonstrating how alpha-synuclein sensitized the cells to oxidative insult. Proteomic analysis yielded molecular insights into the cellular adaptations to alpha-synuclein overexpression, such as the increased abundance of many mitochondrial proteins. Many amino acids and citric acid cycle intermediates and their ester forms were individually supplemented to the cells with L-serine, L-proline, L-aspartate, or L-glutamine decreasing ROS production in oxidatively stressed alpha-synuclein overexpressing cells, while diethyl oxaloacetate or L-valine supplementation increased ATP levels. These results suggest that dietary supplementation with individual metabolites could yield bioenergetic improvements in PD patients to delay loss of dopaminergic neurons.

  2. A stable lipid-induced aggregate of alpha-synuclein.

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    Drescher, Malte; van Rooijen, Bart D; Veldhuis, Gertjan; Subramaniam, Vinod; Huber, Martina

    2010-03-31

    The Parkinson's disease-related protein alpha-Synuclein (alphaS) is a 140 residue intrinsically disordered protein. Its membrane-binding properties are thought to be relevant for its physiological or pathologic activity. Here, the interaction of alphaS with POPG [1-Palmitoyl-2-Oleoyl-sn-Glycero-3-(Phosphorac-(1-glycerol))] small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs) is investigated by spin-label EPR using double electron-electron resonance (DEER). Intermolecular distances between four single mutants reveal that well-defined aggregates are formed. The data suggest a coexistence of two dimer structures with main interactions in the helix 2, encompassing residues 50-100. Previously, the horseshoe conformation was detected by intramolecular restraints obtained by DEER on alphaS double mutants (Drescher et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2008, 130, 7796). The present study suggests that interdigitation of two monomers in the aggregate fills the void between the two helices of each of the monomers thus providing a rationale for the horseshoe structure. This aggregate is lipid induced and affects the structure of the POPG SUVs, which become leaky and diminish in size upon contact with alphaS suggesting a possible origin of conflicting results in the recent literature (Jao et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2008, 105 (50), 19666; Georgieva et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2008, 130 (39), 12856; Bortolus et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2008, 130, 6690).

  3. Impaired baroreflex function in mice overexpressing alpha-synuclein

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    Sheila eFleming

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction, such as orthostatic hypotension consequent to baroreflex failure and cardiac sympathetic denervation, is frequently observed in the synucleinopathy Parkinson’s disease (PD. In the present study, the baroreceptor reflex was assessed in mice overexpressing human wildtype alpha-synuclein (Thy1-aSyn, a genetic mouse model of synucleinopathy. The beat-to-beat change in heart rate, computed from R-R interval, in relation to blood pressure was measured in anesthetized and conscious mice equipped with arterial blood pressure telemetry transducers during transient bouts of hypertension and hypotension. Compared to wildtype, tachycardia following nitroprusside-induced hypotension was significantly reduced in Thy1-aSyn mice. Thy1-aSyn mice also showed an abnormal cardiovascular response (i.e., diminished tachycardia to muscarinic blockade with atropine. We conclude that Thy1-aSyn mice have impaired basal and dynamic range of sympathetic and parasympathetic-mediated changes in heart rate and will be a useful model for long-term study of cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction associated with PD.

  4. 17-AAG induces cytoplasmic alpha-synuclein aggregate clearance by induction of autophagy.

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    Riedel, Michael; Goldbaum, Olaf; Schwarz, Lisa; Schmitt, Sebastian; Richter-Landsberg, Christiane

    2010-01-18

    The accumulation and aggregation of alpha-synuclein in nerve cells and glia are characteristic features of a number of neurodegenerative diseases termed synucleinopathies. alpha-Synuclein is a highly soluble protein which in a nucleation dependent process is capable of self-aggregation. The causes underlying aggregate formation are not yet understood, impairment of the proteolytic degradation systems might be involved. In the present study the possible aggregate clearing effects of the geldanamycin analogue 17-AAG (17-(Allylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin) was investigated. Towards this, an oligodendroglial cell line (OLN-93 cells), stably expressing human alpha-synuclein (A53T mutation) was used. In these cells small punctate aggregates, not staining with thioflavine S, representing prefibrillary aggregates, occur characteristically. Our data demonstrate that 17-AAG attenuated the formation of alpha-synuclein aggregates by stimulating macroautophagy. By blocking the lysosomal compartment with NH(4)Cl the aggregate clearing effects of 17-AAG were abolished and alpha-synuclein deposits were enlarged. Analysis of LC3-II immunoreactivity, which is an indicator of autophagosome formation, further revealed that 17-AAG led to the recruitment of LC3-II and to the formation of LC3 positive puncta. This effect was also observed in cultured oligodendrocytes derived from the brains of newborn rats. Inhibition of macroautophagy by 3-methyladenine prevented 17-AAG induced occurrence of LC3 positive puncta as well as the removal of alpha-synuclein aggregates in OLN-A53T cells. Our data demonstrate for the first time that 17-AAG not only causes the upregulation of heat shock proteins, but also is an effective inducer of the autophagic pathway by which alpha-synuclein can be removed. Hence geldanamycin derivatives may provide a means to modulate autophagy in neural cells, thereby ameliorating pathogenic aggregate formation and protecting the cells during disease and aging.

  5. Analysis of alpha-synuclein in malignant melanoma - development of a SRM quantification assay.

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    Charlotte Welinder

    Full Text Available Globally, malignant melanoma shows a steady increase in the incidence among cancer diseases. Malignant melanoma represents a cancer type where currently no biomarker or diagnostics is available to identify disease stage, progression of disease or personalized medicine treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the tissue expression of alpha-synuclein, a protein implicated in several disease processes, in metastatic tissues from malignant melanoma patients. A targeted Selected Reaction Monitoring (SRM assay was developed and utilized together with stable isotope labeling for the relative quantification of two target peptides of alpha-synuclein. Analysis of alpha-synuclein protein was then performed in ten metastatic tissue samples from the Lund Melanoma Biobank. The calibration curve using peak area ratio (heavy/light versus concentration ratios showed linear regression over three orders of magnitude, for both of the selected target peptide sequences. In support of the measurements of specific protein expression levels, we also observed significant correlation between the protein and mRNA levels of alpha-synuclein in these tissues. Investigating levels of tissue alpha-synuclein may add novel aspect to biomarker development in melanoma, help to understand disease mechanisms and ultimately contribute to discriminate melanoma patients with different prognosis.

  6. Concentration dependence of alpha-synuclein fibril length assessed by quantitative atomic force microscopy and statistical-mechanical theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Raaij, Martijn E; van Gestel, Jeroen; Segers-Nolten, Ine M J; de Leeuw, Simon W; Subramaniam, Vinod

    2008-01-01

    The initial concentration of monomeric amyloidogenic proteins is a crucial factor in the in vitro formation of amyloid fibrils. We use quantitative atomic force microscopy to study the effect of the initial concentration of human alpha-synuclein on the mean length of mature alpha-synuclein fibrils,

  7. Polychlorinated biphenyls alter expression of alpha-synuclein, synaptophysin and parkin in the rat brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malkiewicz, Katarzyna; Mohammed, Roma; Folkesson, Ronnie

    2006-01-01

    did not cause changes in the expression and processing of APP but at a dose 100 microg/g/day repeated for 6 days caused a decrease in the expression of alpha-synuclein in the cerebellum, cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus of the animals sacrificed 2 days after treatment. The decrease in alpha......-synuclein was accompanied by a transient increase in parkin and synaptophysin levels. Interestingly, in the hypothalamus the levels of alpha-synuclein remained decreased after 21 days post treatment perhaps due to regional differences in the PCBs elimination or perhaps a more specific interaction with the dopaminergic...... cells that are present in the hypothalamus that needs to be investigated further....

  8. An unexpected improvement in spatial learning and memory ability in alpha-synuclein A53T transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qi; Xu, YuYu; Wan, WenPing; Ma, ZeGang

    2018-02-01

    Growing evidence suggests, as Parkinson's disease (PD) progresses, that its non-motor symptoms appear prior to or in parallel with its motor deficits. Alpha-synuclein A53T transgenic mouse (A53T) is an essential tool to investigate the onsets and the extents of PD non-motor symptoms. Our aim is to investigate spatial learning and memory ability in A53T mice. In our rotarod tests, no motor coordination impairments were detected in mice of 3, 6, 9, and 12 months old. We then investigated their spatial learning and memory ability through Morris water maze in 3- and 9-month-old mice. No significant difference in escape latency was detected among the A53T mice and the control mice. However, an unexpected improvement in spatial learning and memory ability was observed in the probe session among the A53T mice. Reversal learning by Morris water maze also indicated that 3- and 9-month-old A53T mice exhibited a better cognitive flexibility compared to their littermate controls. Further studies by western blots showed that alpha-synuclein expressions in hippocampus of the A53T mice were noticeably up-regulated. The immunofluorescence staining of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (Brdu) and doublecortin (DCX) demonstrated that neither the Brdu-positive neurons nor the Brdu/DCX positive neurons in hippocampus were significantly altered between the two groups. These results suggest that our A53T mice exhibit improved spatial learning and memory ability prior to their motor coordination deficits. These results are not induced by neurogenesis in the hippocampus.

  9. Rasagiline protects against alpha-synuclein induced sensitivity to oxidative stress in dopaminergic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, K Y; Cooper, J M; Schapira, A H V

    2010-11-01

    Rasagiline is a propargylamine and irreversible monoamine oxidase (MAO) B inhibitor used for the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). It has demonstrated neuroprotective properties in laboratory studies. Current concepts of PD aetiopathogenesis include the role of alpha-synuclein, protein aggregation, free radical metabolism and mitochondrial dysfunction in contributing to cell death. We have used a combination of alpha-synuclein and free radical mediated toxicity in a dopaminergic cell line to provide a model of nigral toxicity in order to investigate the potential molecular mechanisms that mediate rasagiline protection. We demonstrate that rasagiline protects against cell death induced by the combination of free radicals generated by paraquat and either wild-type or A53T mutant alpha-synuclein over-expression. This protection was associated with a reduction in caspase 3 activation, a reduction in superoxide generation and a trend to ameliorate the fall in mitochondrial membrane potential. Rasagiline induced an increase in cellular glutathione levels. The results support a role for rasagiline in protecting dopaminergic cells against free radical mediated damage and apoptosis in the presence of alpha-synuclein over-expression. The data are of relevance to the interpretation of the potential mechanisms of action of rasagiline in explaining the results of disease modification trials in PD. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Sensitive electrochemical detection of native and aggregated alpha-synuclein protein involved in Parkinson's disease

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Masařík, Michal; Stobiecka, A.; Kizek, René; Jelen, František; Pechan, Zdeněk; Hoyer, W.; Jovin, T.; Subramaniam, V.; Paleček, Emil

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 16, 13-14 (2004), s. 1172-1181 ISSN 1040-0397 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/03/0566 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5004920 Keywords : electrochemistry of proteins * alpha-synuclein aggregation * adsorptive transfer stripping Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.038, year: 2004

  11. Dermal phospho-alpha-synuclein deposits confirm REM sleep behaviour disorder as prodromal Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doppler, Kathrin; Jentschke, Hanna-Maria; Schulmeyer, Lena; Vadasz, David; Janzen, Annette; Luster, Markus; Höffken, Helmut; Mayer, Geert; Brumberg, Joachim; Booij, Jan; Musacchio, Thomas; Klebe, Stephan; Sittig-Wiegand, Elisabeth; Volkmann, Jens; Sommer, Claudia; Oertel, Wolfgang H.

    2017-01-01

    Phosphorylated alpha-synuclein (p-alpha-syn) deposits, one of the neuropathological hallmarks of Parkinson's disease (PD), have recently been detected in dermal nerve fibres in PD patients with good specificity and sensitivity. Here, we studied whether p-alpha-syn may serve as a biomarker in

  12. Changes in interfacial properties of alpha-synuclein preceding its aggregation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paleček, Emil; Ostatná, Veronika; Masařík, Michal; Bertoncini, C.W.; Jovin, T.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 133, - (2008), s. 76-84 ISSN 0003-2654 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KAN400310651; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06035 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : alpha-synuclein * Parkinson's disease Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.761, year: 2008

  13. Single-molecule FRET reveals structural heterogeneity of SDS-bound alpha-synuclein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, Gertjan; Segers-Nolten, Ine; Ferlemann, Eva; Subramaniam, Vinod

    2009-01-01

    SDS-concentration-dependent alpha-synuclein structure: Upon interaction with SDS, alpha Syn folds into a structure with two antiparallel alpha-helices. We show from single-molecule FRET that alpha Synn adopts this conformation in an all-or-none fashion below the SDS critical micelle concentration.

  14. The temporal expression pattern of alpha-synuclein modulates olfactory neurogenesis in transgenic mice.

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    Sebastian R Schreglmann

    Full Text Available Adult neurogenesis mirrors the brain´s endogenous capacity to generate new neurons throughout life. In the subventricular zone/ olfactory bulb system adult neurogenesis is linked to physiological olfactory function and has been shown to be impaired in murine models of neuronal alpha-Synuclein overexpression. We analyzed the degree and temporo-spatial dynamics of adult olfactory bulb neurogenesis in transgenic mice expressing human wild-type alpha-Synuclein (WTS under the murine Thy1 (mThy1 promoter, a model known to have a particularly high tg expression associated with impaired olfaction.Survival of newly generated neurons (NeuN-positive in the olfactory bulb was unchanged in mThy1 transgenic animals. Due to decreased dopaminergic differentiation a reduction in new dopaminergic neurons within the olfactory bulb glomerular layer was present. This is in contrast to our previously published data on transgenic animals that express WTS under the control of the human platelet-derived growth factor β (PDGF promoter, that display a widespread decrease in survival of newly generated neurons in regions of adult neurogenesis, resulting in a much more pronounced neurogenesis deficit. Temporal and quantitative expression analysis using immunofluorescence co-localization analysis and Western blots revealed that in comparison to PDGF transgenic animals, in mThy1 transgenic animals WTS is expressed from later stages of neuronal maturation only but at significantly higher levels both in the olfactory bulb and cortex.The dissociation between higher absolute expression levels of alpha-Synuclein but less severe impact on adult olfactory neurogenesis in mThy1 transgenic mice highlights the importance of temporal expression characteristics of alpha-Synuclein on the maturation of newborn neurons.

  15. Age-dependent effects of A53T alpha-synuclein on behavior and dopaminergic function.

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    Adam W Oaks

    Full Text Available Expression of A53T mutant human alpha-synuclein under the mouse prion promoter is among the most successful transgenic models of Parkinson's disease. Accumulation of A53T alpha-synuclein causes adult mice to develop severe motor impairment resulting in early death at 8-12 months of age. In younger, pre-symptomatic animals, altered motor activity and anxiety-like behaviors have also been reported. These behavioral changes, which precede severe neuropathology, may stem from non-pathological functions of alpha-synuclein, including modulation of monoamine neurotransmission. Our analysis over the adult life-span of motor activity, anxiety-like, and depressive-like behaviors identifies perturbations both before and after the onset of disease. Young A53T mice had increased distribution of the dopamine transporter (DAT to the membrane that was associated with increased striatal re-uptake function. DAT function decreased with aging, and was associated with neurochemical alterations that included increased expression of beta-synuclein and gamma synuclein. Prior to normalization of dopamine uptake, transient activation of Tau kinases and hyperphosphorylation of Tau in the striatum were also observed. Aged A53T mice had reduced neuron counts in the substantia nigra pars compacta, yet striatal medium spiny neuron dendritic spine density was largely maintained. These findings highlight the involvement of the synuclein family of proteins and phosphorylation of Tau in the response to dopaminergic dysfunction of the nigrostriatal pathway.

  16. Genetic variants of the alpha-synuclein gene SNCA are associated with multiple system atrophy.

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    Ammar Al-Chalabi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Multiple system atrophy (MSA is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by parkinsonism, cerebellar ataxia and autonomic dysfunction. Pathogenic mechanisms remain obscure but the neuropathological hallmark is the presence of alpha-synuclein-immunoreactive glial cytoplasmic inclusions. Genetic variants of the alpha-synuclein gene, SNCA, are thus strong candidates for genetic association with MSA. One follow-up to a genome-wide association of Parkinson's disease has identified association of a SNP in SNCA with MSA. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: We evaluated 32 SNPs in the SNCA gene in a European population of 239 cases and 617 controls recruited as part of the Neuroprotection and Natural History in Parkinson Plus Syndromes (NNIPPS study. We used 161 independently collected samples for replication. Two SNCA SNPs showed association with MSA: rs3822086 (P = 0.0044, and rs3775444 (P = 0.012, although only the first survived correction for multiple testing. In the MSA-C subgroup the association strengthened despite more than halving the number of cases: rs3822086 P = 0.0024, OR 2.153, (95% CI 1.3-3.6; rs3775444 P = 0.0017, OR 4.386 (95% CI 1.6-11.7. A 7-SNP haplotype incorporating three SNPs either side of rs3822086 strengthened the association with MSA-C further (best haplotype, P = 8.7 x 10(-4. The association with rs3822086 was replicated in the independent samples (P = 0.035. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We report a genetic association between MSA and alpha-synuclein which has replicated in independent samples. The strongest association is with the cerebellar subtype of MSA. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00211224.

  17. Inducible alpha-synuclein overexpression affects human Neural Stem Cells behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Conti, Luciano; Zasso, Jacopo; Cutarelli, Alessandro; Ahmed, Mastad

    2018-01-01

    Converging evidence suggest that levels of alpha-Synuclein (aSyn) expression play a critical role in Parkinson's disease (PD). Several mutations of the SNCA gene, encoding for aSyn have been associated to either the familial or the sporadic forms of PD. Nonetheless, the mechanism underlying wild type aSyn-mediated neurotoxicity in neuronal cells as well as its specific driving role in PD pathogenesis has yet to be fully clarified. In this view, the development of proper in vitro cellular syst...

  18. Alpha-synuclein accumulates in the brain of scrapie-affected sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjou, K T; Allix, S; Ouidja, M O; Backer, S; Couquet, C; Cornuejols, M-J; Deslys, J-P; Brugère, H; Brugère-Picoux, J; El-Hachimi, K H

    2007-07-01

    Immunohistochemical examination demonstrated widespread granular deposits of alpha-synuclein (alphaSN) in the brains of sheep and goats with natural scrapie, especially in the cornu ammonis and subiculum of the hippocampus; this contrasted with the diffuse and non-granular immunolabelling seen in healthy controls. There was non-regular "co-localization" of PrP(Sc) and alphaSN. The findings resembled those reported in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and in experimental prion disease in hamsters and mice. The results suggest that perturbation of alphaSN metabolism plays a role in human and animal prion diseases.

  19. A Swedish family with de novo alpha-synuclein A53T mutation: evidence for early cortical dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puschmann, Andreas; Ross, Owen A; Vilariño-Güell, Carles

    2009-01-01

    A de novo alpha-synuclein A53T (p.Ala53 Th; c.209G > A) mutation has been identified in a Swedish family with autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease (PD). Two affected individuals had early-onset (before 31 and 40 years), severe levodopa-responsive PD with prominent dysphasia, dysarthria, and cog......A de novo alpha-synuclein A53T (p.Ala53 Th; c.209G > A) mutation has been identified in a Swedish family with autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease (PD). Two affected individuals had early-onset (before 31 and 40 years), severe levodopa-responsive PD with prominent dysphasia, dysarthria...

  20. Validation of a quantitative cerebrospinal fluid alpha-synuclein assay in a European-wide interlaboratory study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, N.; Persson, S.; Alcolea, D.

    2015-01-01

    Decreased levels of alpha-synuclein (aSyn) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in Parkinson's disease and related synucleinopathies have been reported, however, not consistently in all cross-sectional studies. To test the performance of one recently released human-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent...

  1. Co-ordinate transcriptional regulation of dopamine synthesis genes by alpha-synuclein in human neuroblastoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Melisa J; O'Farrell, Casey; Daya, Sneha; Ahmad, Rili; Miller, David W; Hardy, John; Farrer, Matthew J; Cookson, Mark R

    2003-05-01

    Abnormal accumulation of alpha-synuclein in Lewy bodies is a neuropathological hallmark of both sporadic and familial Parkinson's disease (PD). Although mutations in alpha-synuclein have been identified in autosomal dominant PD, the mechanism by which dopaminergic cell death occurs remains unknown. We investigated transcriptional changes in neuroblastoma cell lines transfected with either normal or mutant (A30P or A53T) alpha-synuclein using microarrays, with confirmation of selected genes by quantitative RT-PCR. Gene products whose expression was found to be significantly altered included members of diverse functional groups such as stress response, transcription regulators, apoptosis-inducing molecules, transcription factors and membrane-bound proteins. We also found evidence of altered expression of dihydropteridine reductase, which indirectly regulates the synthesis of dopamine. Because of the importance of dopamine in PD, we investigated the expression of all the known genes in dopamine synthesis. We found co-ordinated downregulation of mRNA for GTP cyclohydrolase, sepiapterin reductase (SR), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and aromatic acid decarboxylase by wild-type but not mutant alpha-synuclein. These were confirmed at the protein level for SR and TH. Reduced expression of the orphan nuclear receptor Nurr1 was also noted, suggesting that the co-ordinate regulation of dopamine synthesis is regulated through this transcription factor.

  2. Accumulation of phosphorylated alpha-synuclein (p129S) and retinal pathology in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by accumulation of misfolded alpha-synuclein within the CNS. Although non-motor clinical phenotypes of PD such as visual dysfunction have become increasingly apparent, retinal pathology associated with PD is not well under...

  3. Inducible alpha-synuclein expression affects human Neural Stem Cell behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zasso, Jacopo; Mastad, Ahmed; Cutarelli, Alessandro; Conti, Luciano

    2018-04-19

    Converging evidence suggest that levels of alpha-Synuclein (aSyn) expression play a critical role in Parkinson's disease (PD). Several mutations of the SNCA gene, encoding for aSyn have been associated to either the familial or the sporadic forms of PD. Nonetheless, the mechanism underlying wild type aSyn-mediated neurotoxicity in neuronal cells as well as its specific driving role in PD pathogenesis has yet to be fully clarified. In this view, the development of proper in vitro cellular systems is a crucial step. Here we present a novel human Tet-on hNSC cell line, in which aSyn timing and level of expression can be tightly experimentally tuned. Induction of aSyn in self-renewing hNSCs leads to progressive formation of aSyn aggregates and impairs their proliferation and cell survival. Furthermore, aSyn induction during the neuronal differentiation process results in reduced neuronal differentiation and increased number astrocytes and undifferentiated cells in culture. Finally, acute aSyn induction in hNSC-derived dopaminergic neuronal cultures results in cell toxicity. This novel conditional in vitro cell model system may be a valuable tool for dissecting of aSyn pathogenic effects in hNSCs and neurons and in developing new potential therapeutic strategies.

  4. Features of alpha-synuclein that could explain the progression and irreversibility of Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scarlet eGallegos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Alpha-synuclein is a presynaptic protein expressed throughout the central nervous system, and it is the main component of Lewy bodies, one of the histopathological features of Parkinson’s disease (PD which is a progressive and irreversible neurodegenerative disorder. The conformational flexibility of α-synuclein allows it to adopt different conformations, i.e. bound to membranes or form aggregates, the oligomers are believed to be the more toxic species. In this review, we will focus on two major features of α-synuclein, transmission and toxicity that could help to understand the pathological characteristics of PD. One important feature of α-synuclein is its ability to be transmitted from neuron to neuron using mechanisms such as endocytosis, plasma membrane penetration or through exosomes, thus propagating the Lewy body pathology to different brain regions thereby contributing to the progressiveness of PD. The second feature of α-synuclein is that it confers cytotoxicity to recipient cells, principally when it is in an oligomeric state. This form causes mitochondrial dysfunction, endoplasmic reticulum stress, oxidative stress, proteasome impairment, disruption of plasma membrane and pore formation, and lead to apoptosis pathway activation and consequent cell death. The complexity of α-synuclein oligomerization and formation of toxic species could be a major factor for the irreversibility of PD and could also explain the lack of successful therapies to halt the disease.

  5. Mitochondrial Dysfunction: The Road to Alpha-Synuclein Oligomerization in PD

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    A. R. Esteves

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available While the etiology of Parkinson's disease remains largely elusive, there is accumulating evidence suggesting that mitochondrial dysfunction occurs prior to the onset of symptoms in Parkinson's disease. Mitochondria are remarkably primed to play a vital role in neuronal cell survival since they are key regulators of energy metabolism (as ATP producers, of intracellular calcium homeostasis, of NAD+/NADH ratio, and of endogenous reactive oxygen species production and programmed cell death. In this paper, we focus on mitochondrial dysfunction-mediated alpha-synuclein aggregation. We highlight some of the findings that provide proof of evidence for a mitochondrial metabolism control in Parkinson's disease, namely, mitochondrial regulation of microtubule-dependent cellular traffic and autophagic lysosomal pathway. The knowledge that microtubule alterations may lead to autophagic deficiency and may compromise the cellular degradation mechanisms that culminate in the progressive accumulation of aberrant protein aggregates shields new insights to the way we address Parkinson's disease. In line with this knowledge, an innovative window for new therapeutic strategies aimed to restore microtubule network may be unlocked.

  6. Viable neuronopathic Gaucher disease model in Medaka (Oryzias latipes displays axonal accumulation of alpha-synuclein.

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    Norihito Uemura

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Homozygous mutations in the glucocerebrosidase (GBA gene result in Gaucher disease (GD, the most common lysosomal storage disease. Recent genetic studies have revealed that GBA mutations confer a strong risk for sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD. To investigate how GBA mutations cause PD, we generated GBA nonsense mutant (GBA-/- medaka that are completely deficient in glucocerebrosidase (GCase activity. In contrast to the perinatal death in humans and mice lacking GCase activity, GBA-/- medaka survived for months, enabling analysis of the pathological progression. GBA-/- medaka displayed the pathological phenotypes resembling human neuronopathic GD including infiltration of Gaucher cell-like cells into the brains, progressive neuronal loss, and microgliosis. Detailed pathological findings represented lysosomal abnormalities in neurons and alpha-synuclein (α-syn accumulation in axonal swellings containing autophagosomes. Unexpectedly, disruption of α-syn did not improve the life span, formation of axonal swellings, neuronal loss, or neuroinflammation in GBA-/- medaka. Taken together, the present study revealed GBA-/- medaka as a novel neuronopathic GD model, the pahological mechanisms of α-syn accumulation caused by GCase deficiency, and the minimal contribution of α-syn to the pathogenesis of neuronopathic GD.

  7. Propagated but Topologically Distributed Forebrain Neurons Expressing Alpha-Synuclein in Aged Macaques.

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    Katsuo Kimura

    Full Text Available In neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease (PD, alpha-synuclein (α-syn accumulates to induce cell death and/or form a cytoplasmic inclusion called Lewy body (LB. This α-syn-related pathology is termed synucleinopathy. It remains unclear how α-syn accumulation expands during the progress of synucleinopathy in the human brain. In our study, we investigated the patterns of distribution and propagation of forebrain neurons expressing α-syn in aged macaques. It was found that the occurrence of α-syn-positive neurons proceeded topologically based on the midbrain dopamine pathways arising from the substantia nigra and the ventral tegmental area where they were primarily observed. In the nigrostriatal or mesolimbic dopamine pathway, the age-dependent increase in α-syn-positive neurons was evident in the striatum or the nucleus accumbens, respectively. Concerning the nigrostriatal pathway, a mediolateral or rostrocaudal gradient was seen in the substantia nigra or the striatum, respectively, and a compensatory increase in dopamine transporter occurred in the striatum regardless of the decreased dopamine level. In the mesocortical dopamine pathway, α-syn-positive neurons appeared in the prefrontal and then motor areas of the frontal lobe. Given that neither LB formation nor clinical phenotype manifestation was detected in any of the monkeys examined in the present study, aged macaques may be useful as a potential presymptomatic model for PD and LB-related neuropsychiatric disorders.

  8. Alterations in lysosomal and proteasomal markers in Parkinson's disease: relationship to alpha-synuclein inclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yaping; Dodiya, Hemraj; Aebischer, Patrick; Olanow, C Warren; Kordower, Jeffrey H

    2009-09-01

    We explored the relationship between ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) and lysosomal markers and the formation of alpha-synuclein (alpha-syn) inclusions in nigral neurons in Parkinson disease (PD). Lysosome Associated Membrane Protein 1(LAMP1), Cathepsin D (CatD), and Heat Shock Protein73 (HSP73) immunoreactivity were significantly decreased within PD nigral neurons when compared to age-matched controls. This decrease was significantly greater in nigral neurons that contained alpha-syn inclusions. Immunoreactivity for 20S proteasome was similarly reduced in PD nigral neurons, but only in cells that contained inclusions. In aged control brains, there is staining for alpha-syn protein, but it is non-aggregated and there is no difference in LAMP1, CatD, HSP73 or 20S proteasome immunoreactivity between alpha-syn positive or negative neuromelanin-laden nigral neurons. Targeting over-expression of mutant human alpha-syn in the rat substantia nigra using viral vectors revealed that lysosomal and proteasomal markers were significantly decreased in the neurons that displayed alpha-syn-ir inclusions. These findings suggest that alpha-syn aggregation is a key feature associated with decline of proteasome and lysosome and support the hypothesis that cell degeneration in PD involves proteosomal and lysosomal dysfunction, impaired protein clearance, and protein accumulation and aggregation leading to cell death.

  9. Quantitative Measurement of Intact Alpha-Synuclein Proteoforms from Post-Mortem Control and Parkinson's Disease Brain Tissue by Intact Protein Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellie, John F.; Higgs, Richard E.; Ryder, John W.; Major, Anthony; Beach, Thomas G.; Adler, Charles H.; Merchant, Kalpana; Knierman, Michael D.

    2014-07-01

    A robust top down proteomics method is presented for profiling alpha-synuclein species from autopsied human frontal cortex brain tissue from Parkinson's cases and controls. The method was used to test the hypothesis that pathology associated brain tissue will have a different profile of post-translationally modified alpha-synuclein than the control samples. Validation of the sample processing steps, mass spectrometry based measurements, and data processing steps were performed. The intact protein quantitation method features extraction and integration of m/z data from each charge state of a detected alpha-synuclein species and fitting of the data to a simple linear model which accounts for concentration and charge state variability. The quantitation method was validated with serial dilutions of intact protein standards. Using the method on the human brain samples, several previously unreported modifications in alpha-synuclein were identified. Low levels of phosphorylated alpha synuclein were detected in brain tissue fractions enriched for Lewy body pathology and were marginally significant between PD cases and controls (p = 0.03).

  10. Nigrostriatal dynein changes in A53T alpha-synuclein transgenic mice [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/2wb

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    Yan Liu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The accumulation of misfolded a-synuclein is mechanistically linked to neurodegeneration in Parkinson’s disease (PD and other alpha-synucleinopathies. However, how alpha-synuclein causes neurodegeneration is unresolved. Several studies have supported the involvement of dynein, the major motor for retrograde axonal transport in alpha-synuclein-dependent neurodegeneration, especially in the nigrostriatal system. Therefore, we examined the nigrostriatal dyneins in transgenic mice that overexpress human A53T alpha-synuclein and recapitulate key features of a PD-like neuronal synucleinopathy. Age-matched nontransgenic littermates were used as controls. The results demonstrated that the protein level of dynein was decreased in the striatum, whereas it was elevated in the substantia nigra. Double immunostaining results revealed that the reduction in dynein level was associated with aggregation of A53T a-synuclein in the striatum. Furthermore, we performed a quantitative analysis of motor behaviors in A53T alpha-synuclein transgenic mice and controls using a modified open field test. We demonstrated that the protein level of dynein in the striatum was significantly correlated with the motor behaviors. Together, our data indicate that dynein changes in the nigrostriatal system of A53T alpha-synuclein transgenic mice may contribute to their severe movement disorder.

  11. DOPAL is transmissible to and oligomerizes alpha-synuclein in human glial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinsmaa, Yunden; Sullivan, Patricia; Sharabi, Yehonatan; Goldstein, David S

    2016-01-01

    Glial cytoplasmic inclusions (GCIs) containing alpha-synuclein (AS) are a neuropathologic hallmark of multiple system atrophy (MSA). Oligomerized AS is thought to be the pathogenic form of the protein. Glial cells normally express little AS, but they can take up AS from the extracellular fluid. 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL), an obligate intermediate in the intra-neuronal metabolism of dopamine (DA), potently oligomerizes AS. In this study we tested whether DOPAL is taken up by human glial cells and augments intracellular oligomerization of AS. DOPAL (exogenous or endogenous from co-incubation with PC12 cells) and AS (native or A53T mutant form) were added to the incubation medium of glial cells (glioblastoma or MO3.13 oligodendrocytes). Glial cellular contents of DOPAL and its intracellular metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) were measured at up to 180 min of incubation. Glial cellular AS oligomers were quantified by Western blotting. Neither glioblastoma nor MO3.13 cells contained endogenous catecholamines or AS. Co-incubation of the cells with DA-producing PC12 cells produced time-related increases in DOPAL and DOPAC contents. Similarly, glial cellular DOPAL and DOPAC contents increased rapidly after addition of DOPAL to the medium. After addition of native or A53T-AS, intracellular AS also increased. Incubation of glial cells with both DOPAL and AS enhanced the intracellular oligomerization of native and A53T-AS. DOPAL is transmissible to glial cells and enhances intracellular oligomerization of AS. An interaction of DOPAL with AS might help explain the formation of CGIs in MSA. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Abnormal Salivary Total and Oligomeric Alpha-Synuclein in Parkinson's Disease.

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    Giorgio Vivacqua

    Full Text Available In Parkinson's disease (PD, alpha-synuclein (a-syn can be detected in biological fluids including saliva. Although previous studies found reduced a-syn total (a-syntotal concentration in saliva of PD patients, no studies have previously examined salivary a-syn oligomers (a-synolig concentrations or assessed the correlation between salivary a-syntotal, a-synolig and clinical features in a large cohort of PD patients. Is well known that a-synolig exerts a crucial neurotoxic effect in PD. We collected salivary samples from 60 PD patients and 40 age- and sex-comparable healthy subjects. PD was diagnosed according to the United Kingdom Brain Bank Criteria. Samples of saliva were analyzed by specific anti-a-syn and anti-oligomeric a-syn ELISA kits. A complete clinical evaluation of each patient was performed using MDS-Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, Montreal Cognitive Assessment and Frontal Assessment Battery. Salivary a-syntotal was lower, whereas a-synolig was higher in PD patients than healthy subjects. The a-synolig/a-syntotal ratio was also higher in patients than in healthy subjects. Salivary a-syntotal concentration negatively correlated with that of a-synolig and correlated with several patients' clinical features. In PD, decreased salivary concentration of a-syntotal may reflect the reduction of a-syn monomers (a-synmon, as well as the formation of insoluble intracellular inclusions and soluble oligomers. The combined detection of a-syntotal and a-synolig in the saliva might help the early diagnosis of PD.

  13. Modelling Ser129 phosphorylation inhibits membrane binding of pore-forming alpha-synuclein oligomers.

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    Georg Sebastian Nübling

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In several neurodegenerative diseases, hyperphosphorylation at position Ser129 is found in fibrillar deposits of alpha-synuclein (asyn, implying a pathophysiological role of asyn phosphorylation in neurodegeneration. However, recent animal models applying asyn phosphorylation mimics demonstrated a protective effect of phosphorylation. Since metal-ion induced asyn oligomers were identified as a potential neurotoxic aggregate species with membrane pore-forming abilities, the current study was undertaken to determine effects of asyn phosphorylation on oligomer membrane binding. METHODS: We investigated the influence of S129 phosphorylation on interactions of metal-ion induced asyn oligomers with small unilamellar lipid vesicles (SUV composed of POPC and DPPC applying the phosphorylation mimic asyn129E. Confocal single-particle fluorescence techniques were used to monitor membrane binding at the single-particle level. RESULTS: Binding of asyn129E monomers to gel-state membranes (DPPC-SUV is slightly reduced compared to wild-type asyn, while no interactions with membranes in the liquid-crystalline state (POPC-SUV are seen for both asyn and asyn129E. Conversely, metal-ion induced oligomer formation is markedly increased in asyn129E. Surprisingly, membrane binding to POPC-SUV is nearly absent in Fe(3+ induced asyn129E oligomers and markedly reduced in Al(3+ induced oligomers. CONCLUSION: The protective effect of pseudophosphorylation seen in animal models may be due to impeded oligomer membrane binding. Phosphorylation at Ser129 may thus have a protective effect against neurotoxic asyn oligomers by preventing oligomer membrane binding and disruption of the cellular electrophysiological equilibrium. Importantly, these findings put a new complexion on experimental pharmaceutical interventions against POLO-2 kinase.

  14. Pancreatic mitochondrial complex I exhibits aberrant hyperactivity in diabetes

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    Jinzi Wu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that NADH/NAD+ redox balance is heavily perturbed in diabetes, and the NADH/NAD+ redox imbalance is a major source of oxidative stress in diabetic tissues. In mitochondria, complex I is the only site for NADH oxidation and NAD+ regeneration and is also a major site for production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS. Yet how complex I responds to the NADH/NAD+ redox imbalance and any potential consequences of such response in diabetic pancreas have not been investigated. We report here that pancreatic mitochondrial complex I showed aberrant hyperactivity in either type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Further studies focusing on streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetes indicate that complex I hyperactivity could be attenuated by metformin. Moreover, complex I hyperactivity was accompanied by increased activities of complexes II to IV, but not complex V, suggesting that overflow of NADH via complex I in diabetes could be diverted to ROS production. Indeed in diabetic pancreas, ROS production and oxidative stress increased and mitochondrial ATP production decreased, which can be attributed to impaired pancreatic mitochondrial membrane potential that is responsible for increased cell death. Additionally, cellular defense systems such as glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, sirtuin 3, and NQO1 were found to be compromised in diabetic pancreas. Our findings point to the direction that complex I aberrant hyperactivity in pancreas could be a major source of oxidative stress and β cell failure in diabetes. Therefore, inhibiting pancreatic complex I hyperactivity and attenuating its ROS production by various means in diabetes might serve as a promising approach for anti-diabetic therapies.

  15. Dermal phospho-alpha-synuclein deposits confirm REM sleep behaviour disorder as prodromal Parkinson's disease.

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    Doppler, Kathrin; Jentschke, Hanna-Maria; Schulmeyer, Lena; Vadasz, David; Janzen, Annette; Luster, Markus; Höffken, Helmut; Mayer, Geert; Brumberg, Joachim; Booij, Jan; Musacchio, Thomas; Klebe, Stephan; Sittig-Wiegand, Elisabeth; Volkmann, Jens; Sommer, Claudia; Oertel, Wolfgang H

    2017-04-01

    Phosphorylated alpha-synuclein (p-alpha-syn) deposits, one of the neuropathological hallmarks of Parkinson's disease (PD), have recently been detected in dermal nerve fibres in PD patients with good specificity and sensitivity. Here, we studied whether p-alpha-syn may serve as a biomarker in patients with a high risk of developing PD, such as those with REM sleep behaviour disorder (RBD). We compared the presence and distribution of p-alpha-syn deposits in dermal nerve fibres in 18 patients with RBD, 25 patients with early PD and 20 normal controls. Skin biopsy was taken at C7, Th10, and the upper and lower leg. Presynaptic dopamine transporter imaging using FP-CIT-SPECT was performed in all patients with RBD and in 11 patients with PD. All RBD patients underwent olfactory function testing. The likelihood ratio (LR) for prodromal PD was calculated for each patient based on published research criteria. Skin serial sections were assessed by double-immunofluorescence labelling with antibodies to pSer129-alpha-syn under blinded conditions. P-alpha-syn was visualized in 10/18 patients with RBD (sensitivity of 55.6%) and in 20/25 early PD patients (sensitivity of 80%) but in none of the controls (specificity of 100%). The percentage of dermal structures innervated by p-alpha-syn-positive fibres was negatively correlated with dopamine transporter binding in the FP-CIT-SPECT (ρ = -0.377, p = 0.048), with olfactory function (ρ = -0.668, p = 0.002), and positively correlated with the total LR for RBD to present prodromal PD (ρ = 0.531, p = 0.023). Dermal p-alpha-syn can be considered a peripheral histopathological marker of synucleinopathy and can be detected in a subgroup of RBD patients presumably representing prodromal PD. Dermal p-alpha-syn is detectable in RBD patients without PD motor symptoms, thereby stratifying a patient group that is of great interest for clinical trials testing disease-modifying drugs.

  16. The role of alpha-synuclein in melanin synthesis in melanoma and dopaminergic neuronal cells.

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    Tianhong Pan

    Full Text Available The relatively high co-occurrence of Parkinson's disease (PD and melanoma has been established by a large number of epidemiological studies. However, a clear biological explanation for this finding is still lacking. Ultra-violet radiation (UVR-induced skin melanin synthesis is a defense mechanism against UVR-induced damage relevant to the initiation of melanoma, whereas, increased neuromelanin (NM, the melanin synthesized in dopaminergic neurons, may enhance the susceptibility to oxidative stress-induced neuronal injury relevant to PD. SNCA is a PD-causing gene coding for alpha-Synuclein (α-Syn that expresses not only in brain, but also in skin as well as in tumors, such as melanoma. The findings that α-Syn can interact with tyrosinase (TYR and inhibit tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, both of which are enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of melanin and dopamine (DA, led us to propose that α-Syn may participate in the regulation of melanin synthesis. In this study, by applying ultraviolet B (UVB light, a physiologically relevant stimulus of melanogenesis, we detected melanin synthesis in A375 and SK-MEL-28 melanoma cells and in SH-SY5Y and PC12 dopaminergic neuronal cells and determined effects of α-Syn on melanin synthesis. Our results showed that UVB light exposure increased melanin synthesis in all 4 cell lines. However, we found that α-Syn expression reduced UVB light-induced increase of melanin synthesis and that melanin content was lower when melanoma cells were expressed with α-Syn, indicating that α-Syn may have inhibitory effects on melanin synthesis in melanoma cells. Different from melanoma cells, the melanin content was higher in α-Syn-over-expressed dopaminergic neuronal SH-SY5Y and PC12 cells, cellular models of PD, than that in non-α-Syn-expressed control cells. We concluded that α-Syn could be one of the points responsible for the positive association between PD and melanoma via its differential roles in melanin synthesis in

  17. Evidence for Intramolecular Antiparallel Beta-Sheet Structure in Alpha-Synuclein Fibrils from a Combination of Two-Dimensional Infrared Spectroscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy

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    Roeters, Steven J; Iyer, Aditya; Pletikapić, Galja; Kogan, Vladimir; Subramaniam, Vinod; Woutersen, Sander

    2017-01-01

    The aggregation of the intrinsically disordered protein alpha-synuclein (αS) into amyloid fibrils is thought to play a central role in the pathology of Parkinson's disease. Using a combination of techniques (AFM, UV-CD, XRD, and amide-I 1D- and 2D-IR spectroscopy) we show that the structure of αS

  18. Progressive Aggregation of Alpha-Synuclein and Selective Degeneration of Lewy Inclusion-Bearing Neurons in a Mouse Model of Parkinsonism

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    Valerie R. Osterberg

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aggregated alpha-synuclein inclusions are found where cell death occurs in several diseases, including Parkinson’s disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and multiple-system atrophy. However, the relationship between inclusion formation and an individual cell’s fate has been difficult to study with conventional techniques. We developed a system that allows for in vivo imaging of the same neurons over months. We show that intracerebral injection of preformed fibrils of recombinant alpha-synuclein can seed aggregation of transgenically expressed and endogenous alpha-synuclein in neurons. Somatic inclusions undergo a stage-like maturation, with progressive compaction coinciding with decreased soluble somatic and nuclear alpha-synuclein. Mature inclusions bear the post-translational hallmarks of human Lewy pathology. Long-term imaging of inclusion-bearing neurons and neighboring neurons without inclusions demonstrates selective degeneration of inclusion-bearing cells. Our results indicate that inclusion formation is tightly correlated with cellular toxicity and that seeding may be a pathologically relevant mechanism of progressive neurodegeneration in many synucleinopathies.

  19. Protein aggregation containing beta-amyloid, alpha-synuclein and hyperphosphorylated tau in cultured cells of hippocampus, substantia nigra and locus coeruleus after rotenone exposure

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    Martins Stephanie A

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein aggregates containing alpha-synuclein, beta-amyloid and hyperphosphorylated tau are commonly found during neurodegenerative processes which is often accompanied by the impairment of mitochondrial complex I respiratory chain and dysfunction of cellular systems of protein degradation. In view of this, we aimed to develop an in vitro model to study protein aggregation associated to neurodegenerative diseases using cultured cells from hippocampus, locus coeruleus and substantia nigra of newborn Lewis rats exposed to 0.5, 1, 10 and 25 nM of rotenone, which is an agricultural pesticide, for 48 hours. Results We demonstrated that the proportion of cells in culture is approximately the same as found in the brain nuclei they were extracted from. Rotenone at 0.5 nM was able to induce alpha-synuclein and beta amyloid aggregation, as well as increased hyperphosphorylation of tau, although high concentrations of this pesticide (over 1 nM lead cells to death before protein aggregation. We also demonstrated that the 14kDa isoform of alpha-synuclein is not present in newborn Lewis rats. Conclusion Rotenone exposure may lead to constitutive protein aggregation in vitro, which may be of relevance to study the mechanisms involved in idiopathic neurodegeneration.

  20. Effect of the cross-talk between autophagy and endoplasmic reticulum stress on Mn-induced alpha-synuclein oligomerization.

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    Liu, Chang; Yan, Dong-Ying; Tan, Xuan; Ma, Zhuo; Wang, Can; Deng, Yu; Liu, Wei; Yang, Tian-Yao; Xu, Zhao-Fa; Xu, Bin

    2018-03-01

    Overexposure to manganese (Mn) has been known to induce alpha-synuclein (α-Syn) oligomerization, which is degraded mainly depending on endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) and autophagy pathways. However, little data reported the cross-talk between ER stress and autophagy on Mn-induced α-Syn oligomerization. To explore the relationship between ER stress and autophagy, we used 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA, the ER stress inhibitor), rapamycin (Rap, autophagy activator) and 3-methyladenine (3-MA, autophagy inhibitor) in mice model of manganism. After 4 weeks of treatment with Mn, both ER stress and autophagy were activated. Exposed to Mn also resulted in α-Syn oligomerization and neuronal cell damage in the brain tissue of mice, which could be relieved by 4-PBA pretreatment. Moreover, when the ER stress was inhibited, the activation of autophagy was also inhibited. Rap pretreatment significantly activated autophagy and decreased α-Syn oligomers. However, 3-MA pretreatment inhibited autophagy resulting in increase of α-Syn oligomers, and compensatorily activated PERK signaling pathway. Our results also demonstrated that the inhibition of autophagy by 3-MA aggravated neuronal cell damage. The findings clearly demonstrated that the cross-talking between autophagy and ER stress might play an important role in the α-Syn oligomerization and neurotoxicity by Mn. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. An alpha-synuclein MRM assay with diagnostic potential for Parkinson's disease and monitoring disease progression

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    Yang, Li [Department of Pathology, University of Washington, Seattle WA USA; Stewart, Tessandra [Department of Pathology, University of Washington, Seattle WA USA; Shi, Min [Department of Pathology, University of Washington, Seattle WA USA; Pottiez, Gwenael [Department of Pathology, University of Washington, Seattle WA USA; Dator, Romel [Department of Pathology, University of Washington, Seattle WA USA; Wu, Rui [Department of Pathology, University of Washington, Seattle WA USA; Department of Pathology, No. 3 Hospital of Beijing University, Beijing China; Aro, Patrick [Department of Pathology, University of Washington, Seattle WA USA; Schuster, Robert J. [Department of Pathology, University of Washington, Seattle WA USA; Ginghina, Carmen [Department of Pathology, University of Washington, Seattle WA USA; Pan, Catherine [Department of Pathology, University of Washington, Seattle WA USA; Gao, Yuqian [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Qian, Weijun [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Zabetian, Cyrus P. [Parkinson' s Disease Research and Geriatric Research, Education and Clinical Center, Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle WA USA; Department of Neurology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle WA USA; Hu, Shu-Ching [Department of Neurology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle WA USA; Quinn, Joseph F. [Department of Neurology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland OR USA; Zhang, Jing [Department of Pathology, University of Washington, Seattle WA USA; Department of Pathology, Peking University Health Science Centre and Third Hospital, Beijing 100083 China

    2017-04-19

    Aim: The alpha-synuclein (α-syn) level in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), as measured by immunoassays, is promising as a Parkinson’s disease (PD) biomarker. However, the levels of total α-syn are inconsistent among studies with large cohorts and different measurement platforms. Total α-syn level also does not correlate with disease severity or progression. Here, we developed a highly sensitive Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM) method to measure absolute CSF α-syn peptide concentrations without prior enrichment or fractionation, aiming to discover new candidate biomarkers. Results: Six peptides covering 73% of protein sequence were reliably identified, and two were consistently quantified in cross-sectional and longitudinal cohorts. Absolute concentration of α-syn in human CSF was determined to be 2.1ng/mL. A unique α-syn peptide, TVEGAGSIAAATGFVK (81-96), displayed excellent correlation with previous immunoassay results in two independent PD cohorts (p < 0.001), correlated with disease severity, and its changes significantly tracked the disease progression longitudinally. Conclusions: An MRM assay to quantify human CSF α-syn was developed and optimized. Sixty clinical samples from cross-sectional and longitudinal PD cohorts were analyzed with this approach. Although further larger-scale validation is needed, the results suggest that α-syn peptide could serve as a promising biomarker in PD diagnosis and progression.

  2. Mechanisms of Alpha-Synuclein Action on Neurotransmission: Cell-Autonomous and Non-Cell Autonomous Role

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    Marco Emanuele

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Mutations and duplication/triplication of the alpha-synuclein (αSyn-coding gene have been found to cause familial Parkinson’s disease (PD, while genetic polymorphisms in the region controlling the expression level and stability of αSyn have been identified as risk factors for idiopathic PD, pointing to the importance of wild-type (wt αSyn dosage in the disease. Evidence that αSyn is present in the cerebrospinal fluid and interstitial brain tissue and that healthy neuronal grafts transplanted into PD patients often degenerate suggests that extracellularly-released αSyn plays a role in triggering the neurodegenerative process. αSyn’s role in neurotransmission has been shown in various cell culture models in which the protein was upregulated or deleted and in knock out and transgenic animal, with different results on αSyn’s effect on synaptic vesicle pool size and mobilization, αSyn being proposed as a negative or positive regulator of neurotransmitter release. In this review, we discuss the effect of αSyn on pre- and post-synaptic compartments in terms of synaptic vesicle trafficking, calcium entry and channel activity, and we focus on the process of exocytosis and internalization of αSyn and on the spreading of αSyn-driven effects due to the presence of the protein in the extracellular milieu.

  3. Beta-synuclein occurs in vivo in lipid-associated oligomers and forms hetero-oligomers with alpha-synuclein.

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    Israeli, Eitan; Sharon, Ronit

    2009-01-01

    Alpha-synuclein (alphaS) and beta-synuclein (betaS) are homologous proteins implicated in Parkinson's disease and related synucleinopathies. While alphaS is neurotoxic and its aggregation and deposition in Lewy bodies is related to neurodegeneration, betaS is considered as a potent inhibitor of alphaS aggregation and toxicity. No mechanism for the neuroprotective role of betaS has been described before. Here, we report that similar to alphaS, betaS normally occurs in lipid-associated, soluble oligomers in wild-type (WT) mouse brains. We partially purified betaS and alphaS proteins from whole mouse brain by size exclusion followed by ion exchange chromatography and found highly similar elution profiles. Using this technique, we were able to partially separate betaS from alphaS and further separate betaS monomer from its own oligomers. Importantly, we show that although alphaS and betaS share high degree of similarities, betaS oligomerization is not affected by increasing cellular levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), while alphaS oligomerization is dramatically enhanced by PUFA. We show the in vivo occurrence of hetero-oligomers of alphaS and betaS and suggest that betaS expression inhibits PUFA-enhanced alphaS oligomerization by forming hetero-oligomers up to a quatramer that do not further propagate.

  4. A study on the modulation of alpha-synuclein fibrillation by Scutellaria pinnatifida extracts and its neuroprotective properties

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    Sashourpour, Mahdyeh; Zahri, Saber; Radjabian, Tayebeh; Ruf, Viktoria; Pan-Montojo, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Aggregation of alpha-synuclein (α-SN) is a key pathogenic event in Parkinson’s disease (PD) leading to dopaminergic degeneration. The identification of natural compounds inhibiting α-SN aggregation may have a major role in treating PD. Different Scutellaria species are known as valuable medicinal plants, primarily due to their high flavonoid levels. Scutellaria pinnatifida (S. pinnatifida) is endemic to Iran; however, the knowledge of its pharmaceutical properties is limited. Here we report that S. pinnatifida extracts have an anti-fibrillation effect on α-SN aggregation and neuroprotective properties on PC12 and primary dopaminergic neurons. Treatment during α-SN fibril formation with S. pinnatifida extracts showed that the extractions performed with dichloromethane (DCMEx) and n-butanol (BuOHEx) strongly inhibited α-SN fibrillation. TLC-based analysis revealed that S. pinnatifida contains a great amount of flavonoids with high antioxidant properties as shown using a radical scavenging assay. Further analysis using HPLC and Mass spectroscopy on the DCMEx revealed the presence of baicalein in this extract. We then selected the more efficient extracts based on cell viability and ROS scavenging on PC12 cells and tested their neuroprotective properties on primary dopaminergic neurons. Our results showed the extracts strongly protected against α-SN oligomers. Surprisingly, they also neutralized the severe toxicity of paraquat. Therefore, S. pinnatifida may be a potential valuable medicinal herb for further studies related to the treatment of PD. PMID:28957336

  5. Induction of alpha-synuclein pathology in the enteric nervous system of the rat and non-human primate results in gastrointestinal dysmotility and transient CNS pathology.

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    Manfredsson, Fredric P; Luk, Kelvin C; Benskey, Matthew J; Gezer, Aysegul; Garcia, Joanna; Kuhn, Nathan C; Sandoval, Ivette M; Patterson, Joseph R; O'Mara, Alana; Yonkers, Reid; Kordower, Jeffrey H

    2018-04-01

    Alpha-Synuclein (α-syn) is by far the most highly vetted pathogenic and therapeutic target in Parkinson's disease. Aggregated α-syn is present in sporadic Parkinson's disease, both in the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS). The enteric division of the PNS is of particular interest because 1) gastric dysfunction is a key clinical manifestation of Parkinson's disease, and 2) Lewy pathology in myenteric and submucosal neurons of the enteric nervous system (ENS) has been referred to as stage zero in the Braak pathological staging of Parkinson's disease. The presence of Lewy pathology in the ENS and the fact that patients often experience enteric dysfunction before the onset of motor symptoms has led to the hypothesis that α-syn pathology starts in the periphery, after which it spreads to the CNS via interconnected neural pathways. Here we sought to directly test this hypothesis in rodents and non-human primates (NHP) using two distinct models of α-syn pathology: the α-syn viral overexpression model and the preformed fibril (PFF) model. Subjects (rat and NHP) received targeted enteric injections of PFFs or adeno-associated virus overexpressing the Parkinson's disease associated A53T α-syn mutant. Rats were evaluated for colonic motility monthly and sacrificed at 1, 6, or 12 months, whereas NHPs were sacrificed 12 months following inoculation, after which the time course and spread of pathology was examined in all animals. Rats exhibited a transient GI phenotype that resolved after four months. Minor α-syn pathology was observed in the brainstem (dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus and locus coeruleus) 1 month after PFF injections; however, no pathology was observed at later time points (nor in saline or monomer treated animals). Similarly, a histopathological analysis of the NHP brains revealed no pathology despite the presence of robust α-syn pathology throughout the ENS which persisted for the entirety of the study (12

  6. A53T-alpha-synuclein overexpression impairs dopamine signaling and striatal synaptic plasticity in old mice.

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    Alexander Kurz

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD, the second most frequent neurodegenerative disorder at old age, can be caused by elevated expression or the A53T missense mutation of the presynaptic protein alpha-synuclein (SNCA. PD is characterized pathologically by the preferential vulnerability of the dopaminergic nigrostriatal projection neurons.Here, we used two mouse lines overexpressing human A53T-SNCA and studied striatal dysfunction in the absence of neurodegeneration to understand early disease mechanisms. To characterize the progression, we employed young adult as well as old mice. Analysis of striatal neurotransmitter content demonstrated that dopamine (DA levels correlated directly with the level of expression of SNCA, an observation also made in SNCA-deficient (knockout, KO mice. However, the elevated DA levels in the striatum of old A53T-SNCA overexpressing mice may not be transmitted appropriately, in view of three observations. First, a transcriptional downregulation of the extraneural DA degradation enzyme catechol-ortho-methytransferase (COMT was found. Second, an upregulation of DA receptors was detected by immunoblots and autoradiography. Third, extensive transcriptome studies via microarrays and quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qPCR of altered transcript levels of the DA-inducible genes Atf2, Cb1, Freq, Homer1 and Pde7b indicated a progressive and genotype-dependent reduction in the postsynaptic DA response. As a functional consequence, long term depression (LTD was absent in corticostriatal slices from old transgenic mice.Taken together, the dysfunctional neurotransmission and impaired synaptic plasticity seen in the A53T-SNCA overexpressing mice reflect early changes within the basal ganglia prior to frank neurodegeneration. As a model of preclinical stages of PD, such insights may help to develop neuroprotective therapeutic approaches.

  7. Significant Changes in Plasma Alpha-Synuclein and Beta-Synuclein Levels in Male Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

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    Wilaiwan Sriwimol

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Alpha-synuclein (α-synuclein and beta-synuclein (β-synuclein are presynaptic proteins playing important roles in neuronal plasticity and synaptic vesicle regulation. To evaluate the association of these two proteins and autism spectrum disorder (ASD, we investigated the plasma α-synuclein and β-synuclein levels in 39 male children with ASD (2 subgroups: 25 autism and 14 pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS comparing with 29 sex- and age-matched controls by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. We first determined the levels of these two proteins in the ASD subgroups and found that there were no significant differences in both plasma α-synuclein and β-synuclein levels in the autism and PDD-NOS groups. Thus, we could combine the 2 subgroups into one ASD group. Interestingly, the mean plasma α-synuclein level was significantly lower (P<0.001 in the ASD children (10.82±6.46 ng/mL than in the controls (29.47±18.62 ng/mL, while the mean plasma β-synuclein level in the ASD children (1344.19±160.26 ng/mL was significantly higher (P<0.05 than in the controls (1219.16±177.10 ng/mL. This is the first study examining the associations between α-synuclein and β-synuclein and male ASD patients. We found that alterations in the plasma α-synuclein and β-synuclein levels might be implicated in the association between synaptic abnormalities and ASD pathogenesis.

  8. Antidepressants reduce neuroinflammatory responses and astroglial alpha-synuclein accumulation in a transgenic mouse model of Multiple System Atrophy

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    Valera, Elvira; Ubhi, Kiren; Mante, Michael; Rockenstein, Edward; Masliah, Eliezer

    2014-01-01

    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the pathological accumulation of alpha-synuclein (α-syn) within oligodendroglial cells. This accumulation is accompanied by neuroinflammation with astrogliosis and microgliosis, that leads to neuronal death and subsequent parkinsonism and dysautonomia. Antidepressants have been explored as neuroprotective agents as they normalize neurotrophic factor levels, increase neurogenesis and reduce neurodegeneration, but their anti-inflammatory properties have not been fully characterized. We analyzed the anti-inflammatory profiles of three different antidepressants (fluoxetine, olanzapine and amitriptyline) in the MBP1-hα-syn transgenic (tg) mouse model of MSA. We observed that antidepressant treatment decreased the number of α-syn-positive cells in the basal ganglia of 11-month old tg animals. This reduction was accompanied with a similar decrease in the colocalization of α-syn with astrocyte markers in this brain structure. Consistent with these results, antidepressants reduced astrogliosis in the hippocampus and basal ganglia of the MBP1-hα-syn tg mice, and modulated the expression levels of key cytokines that were dysregulated in the tg mouse model, such as IL-1β. In vitro experiments in the astroglial cell line C6 confirmed that antidepressants inhibited NF-κB translocation to the nucleus and reduced IL-1β protein levels. We conclude that the anti-inflammatory properties of antidepressants in the MBP1-hα-syn tg mouse model of MSA might be related to their ability to inhibit α-syn propagation from oligodendrocytes to astroglia and to regulate transcription factors involved in cytokine expression. Our results suggest that antidepressants might be of interest as anti-inflammatory and α-syn-reducing agents for MSA and other α-synucleinopathies. PMID:24310907

  9. Differential regulation of wild-type and mutant alpha-synuclein binding to synaptic membranes by cytosolic factors

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    Figeys Daniel

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alpha-Synuclein (α-syn, a 140 amino acid protein associated with presynaptic membranes in brain, is a major constituent of Lewy bodies in Parkinson's disease (PD. Three missense mutations (A30P, A53T and E46K in the α-syn gene are associated with rare autosomal dominant forms of familial PD. However, the regulation of α-syn's cellular localization in neurons and the effects of the PD-linked mutations are poorly understood. Results In the present study, we analysed the ability of cytosolic factors to regulate α-syn binding to synaptic membranes. We show that co-incubation with brain cytosol significantly increases the membrane binding of normal and PD-linked mutant α-syn. To characterize cytosolic factor(s that modulate α-syn binding properties, we investigated the ability of proteins, lipids, ATP and calcium to modulate α-syn membrane interactions. We report that lipids and ATP are two of the principal cytosolic components that modulate Wt and A53T α-syn binding to the synaptic membrane. We further show that 1-O-hexadecyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (C16:0 PAF is one of the principal lipids found in complex with cytosolic proteins and is required to enhance α-syn interaction with synaptic membrane. In addition, the impaired membrane binding observed for A30P α-syn was significantly mitigated by the presence of protease-sensitive factors in brain cytosol. Conclusion These findings suggest that endogenous brain cytosolic factors regulate Wt and mutant α-syn membrane binding, and could represent potential targets to influence α-syn solubility in brain.

  10. Charge state dependent fragmentation of gaseous [alpha]-synuclein cations via ion trap and beam-type collisional activation

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    Chanthamontri, Chamnongsak; Liu, Jian; McLuckey, Scott A.

    2009-06-01

    Ions derived from nano-electrospray ionization (nano-ESI) of [alpha]-synuclein, a 14.5 kDa, 140 amino acid residue protein that is a major component of the Lewy bodies associated with Parkinson's disease, have been subjected to ion trap and beam-type collisional activation. The former samples products from fragmentation at rates generally lower than 100 s-1 whereas the latter samples products from fragmentation at rates generally greater than 103 s-1. A wide range of protein charge states spanning from as high as [M+17H]17+ to as low as [M+4H]4+ have been formed either directly from nano-ESI or via ion/ion proton transfer reactions involving the initially formed protein cations and have been subjected to both forms of collision-induced dissociation (CID). The extent of sequence information (i.e., number of distinct amide bond cleavages) available from either CID method was found to be highly sensitive to protein precursor ion charge state. Furthermore, the relative contributions of the various competing dissociation channels were also dependent upon precursor ion charge state. The qualitative trends in the changes in extent of amide bond cleavages and identities of bonds cleaved with precursor ion charge state were similar for two forms of CID. However, for every charge state examined, roughly twice the primary sequence information resulted from beam-type CID relative to ion trap CID. For example, evidence for cleavage of 86% of the protein amide bonds was observed for the [M+9H]9+ precursor ion using beam-type CID whereas 41% of the bonds were cleaved for the same precursor ion using ion trap CID. The higher energies required to drive fragmentation reactions at rates necessary to observe products in the beam experiment access more of the structurally informative fragmentation channels, which has important implications for whole protein tandem mass spectrometry.

  11. Rasagiline ameliorates olfactory deficits in an alpha-synuclein mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

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    Géraldine H Petit

    Full Text Available Impaired olfaction is an early pre-motor symptom of Parkinson's disease. The neuropathology underlying olfactory dysfunction in Parkinson's disease is unknown, however α-synuclein accumulation/aggregation and altered neurogenesis might play a role. We characterized olfactory deficits in a transgenic mouse model of Parkinson's disease expressing human wild-type α-synuclein under the control of the mouse α-synuclein promoter. Preliminary clinical observations suggest that rasagiline, a monoamine oxidase-B inhibitor, improves olfaction in Parkinson's disease. We therefore examined whether rasagiline ameliorates olfactory deficits in this Parkinson's disease model and investigated the role of olfactory bulb neurogenesis. α-Synuclein mice were progressively impaired in their ability to detect odors, to discriminate between odors, and exhibited alterations in short-term olfactory memory. Rasagiline treatment rescued odor detection and odor discrimination abilities. However, rasagiline did not affect short-term olfactory memory. Finally, olfactory changes were not coupled to alterations in olfactory bulb neurogenesis. We conclude that rasagiline reverses select olfactory deficits in a transgenic mouse model of Parkinson's disease. The findings correlate with preliminary clinical observations suggesting that rasagiline ameliorates olfactory deficits in Parkinson's disease.

  12. Rasagiline ameliorates olfactory deficits in an alpha-synuclein mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

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    Petit, Géraldine H; Berkovich, Elijahu; Hickery, Mark; Kallunki, Pekka; Fog, Karina; Fitzer-Attas, Cheryl; Brundin, Patrik

    2013-01-01

    Impaired olfaction is an early pre-motor symptom of Parkinson's disease. The neuropathology underlying olfactory dysfunction in Parkinson's disease is unknown, however α-synuclein accumulation/aggregation and altered neurogenesis might play a role. We characterized olfactory deficits in a transgenic mouse model of Parkinson's disease expressing human wild-type α-synuclein under the control of the mouse α-synuclein promoter. Preliminary clinical observations suggest that rasagiline, a monoamine oxidase-B inhibitor, improves olfaction in Parkinson's disease. We therefore examined whether rasagiline ameliorates olfactory deficits in this Parkinson's disease model and investigated the role of olfactory bulb neurogenesis. α-Synuclein mice were progressively impaired in their ability to detect odors, to discriminate between odors, and exhibited alterations in short-term olfactory memory. Rasagiline treatment rescued odor detection and odor discrimination abilities. However, rasagiline did not affect short-term olfactory memory. Finally, olfactory changes were not coupled to alterations in olfactory bulb neurogenesis. We conclude that rasagiline reverses select olfactory deficits in a transgenic mouse model of Parkinson's disease. The findings correlate with preliminary clinical observations suggesting that rasagiline ameliorates olfactory deficits in Parkinson's disease.

  13. Dopamine Cytotoxicity Involves Both Oxidative and Nonoxidative Pathways in SH-SY5Y Cells: Potential Role of Alpha-Synuclein Overexpression and Proteasomal Inhibition in the Etiopathogenesis of Parkinson's Disease

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    Kalpita Banerjee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The cytotoxic effects of dopamine (DA on several catecholaminergic cell lines involve DA oxidation products like reactive oxygen species (ROS and toxic quinones and have implications in the pathogenesis of sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD. However, many molecular details are yet to be elucidated, and the possible nonoxidative mechanism of dopamine cytotoxicity has not been studied in great detail. Results. Cultured SH-SY5Y cells treated with DA (up to 400 μM or lactacystin (5 μM or DA (400 μM plus N-acetylcysteine (NAC, 2.5 mM for 24 h are processed accordingly to observe the cell viability, mitochondrial dysfunctions, oxidative stress parameters, proteasomal activity, expression of alpha-synuclein gene, and intracellular accumulation of the protein. DA causes mitochondrial dysfunction and extensive loss of cell viability partially inhibited by NAC, potent inhibition of proteasomal activity marginally prevented by NAC, and overexpression with accumulation of intracellular alpha-synuclein partially preventable by NAC. Under similar conditions of incubation, NAC completely prevents enhanced production of ROS and increased formation of quinoprotein adducts in DA-treated SH-SY5Y cells. Separately, proteasomal inhibitor lactacystin causes accumulation of alpha-synuclein as well as mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death. Conclusions. DA cytotoxicity includes both oxidative and nonoxidative modes and may involve overexpression and accumulation of alpha-synuclein as well as proteasomal inhibition.

  14. Reciprocal signals between microglia and neurons regulate alpha-synuclein secretion by exophagy through a neuronal cJU-N-Nterminal kinase-signaling axis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dan Ploug; Ejlerskov, Patrick; Rasmussen, Izabela

    2016-01-01

    Background: Secretion of proteopathic alpha-synuclein (alpha-SNC) species from neurons is a suspected driving force in the propagation of Parkinson's disease (PD). We have previously implicated exophagy, the exocytosis of autophagosomes, as a dominant mechanism of alpha-SNC secretion...... in monoculture to TNF alpha, a classical pro-inflammatory mediator of activated microglia, is sufficient to increase alpha-SNC secretion in a mechanism dependent on JNK2 or JNK3. In continuation hereof, we show that also IFN beta and TGF beta increase the release of alpha-SNC from PC12 neurons. Conclusions: We...... implicate stress kinases of the JNK family in the regulation of exophagy and release of alpha-SNC following endogenous or exogenous stimulation. In a wider scope, our results imply that microglia not only inflict bystander damage to neurons in late phases of inflammatory brain disease but may also be active...

  15. LARGE ANIMAL PARKINSONS DISEASE MODELS USING VIRAL VECTORS AND INOCULATION OF PREFORMED FIBRILS TO MEDIATE ALPHA-SYNUCLEIN OVEREXPRESSION AND MISFOLDING IN THE GOTTINGEN MINIPIG CNS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glud, Andreas Nørgaard; Landau, A.M.; Johnsen, Erik Lisbjerg

    2015-01-01

    Animal models towards understanding and treating Parkinson’s disease (PD) are important translational steps toward clinical applications. The Göttingen minipig(GM), fits progressional neurological models due to an relative low adult weight between 20-40 kg, and has a large gyrencephalic brain (6x 5...... x 4 cm) that can be examined at sufficient resolution using both conventional clinical scanning modalities and preclinical testing of deep brain stimulation, stem cell grafting and other neuromodulatory devices. Aim: Using inoculating of human or pig alpha-synuclein(aSYN) fibrils or overexpressing a......SYN using Lenti virus(LV) and Adeno Assosiated Virus(AAV) vectors in the nigrostriatal system, we hope to create a new porcine model for PD. Methods: Using conventional human-intended stereotaxic neurosurgery methods, we apply aSYN in the catecholamine nigrostriatal system of 13 GM. The changes...

  16. Predictors of Reading Comprehension among Struggling Readers Who Exhibit Differing Levels of Inattention and Hyperactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Elizabeth; Barnes, Marcia; Fall, Anna-Mari; Roberts, Greg

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of inference making, decoding, memory, and vocabulary on reading comprehension among 7th- through 12th-grade struggling readers with varying levels of inattention and hyperactivity. We categorized a group of 414 struggling readers into 3 groups based on results from factor mixture modeling:…

  17. In parkinsonian substantia nigra, alpha-synuclein is modified by acrolein, a lipid-peroxidation product, and accumulates in the dopamine neurons with inhibition of proteasome activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamoto-Nagai, M; Maruyama, W; Hashizume, Y; Yoshida, M; Osawa, T; Riederer, P; Naoi, M

    2007-01-01

    alpha-Synuclein (alphaSYN) plays a central role in the neural degeneration of Parkinson's disease (PD) through its conformational change. In PD, alphaSYN, released from the membrane, accumulates in the cytoplasm and forms Lewy body. However, the mechanism behind the translocation and conformational change of alphaSYN leading to the cell death has not been well elucidated. This paper reports that in the dopamine neurons of the substantia nigra containing neuromelanin from PD patients, alphaSYN was modified with acrolein (ACR), an aldehyde product of lipid peroxidation. Histopathological observation confirmed the co-localization of protein immunoreactive to anti-alphaSYN and ACR antibody. By Western blot analyses of samples precipitated with either anti-alphaSYN or anti-ACR antibody, increase in ACR-modified alphaSYN was confirmed in PD brain. Modification of recombinant alphaSYN by ACR enhanced its oligomerization, and at higher ACR concentrations alphaSYN was fragmented and polymerized forming a smear pattern in SDS-PAGE. ACR reduced 20S proteasome activity through the direct modification of the proteasome proteins and the production of polymerized ACR-modified proteins, which inhibited proteasome activity in vitro. These results suggest that ACR may initiate vicious cycle of modification and aggregation of proteins, including alphaSYN, and impaired proteolysis system, to cause neuronal death in PD.

  18. The Anticholinesterase Phenserine and Its Enantiomer Posiphen as 5′Untranslated-Region-Directed Translation Blockers of the Parkinson’s Alpha Synuclein Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohan Mikkilineni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is compelling support for limiting expression of alpha-synuclein (α-syn in the brains of Parkinson’s disease (PD patients. An increase of SNCA gene copy number can genetically cause familial PD where increased dose of this pathogenic protein correlates with severity of symptoms (triplication of the SNCA gene causes dementia in PD patients. Gene promoter polymorphisms were shown to increase α-synuclein expression as a risk for PD. Cholinesterase inhibitors can clinically slow cognitive decline in the later stages of PD etiology similar to their widespread use in Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Pertinent to this, we identified that the well-tolerated anticholinesterase, phenserine, blocked neural SNCA mRNA translation and tested for targeting via its 5′untranslated region (5′UTR in a manner similar to its action to limit the expression of the AD-specific amyloid precursor protein (APP. Posiphen, its better-tolerated (+ enantiomer (devoid of anticholinesterase action, repressed neural α-synuclein translation. Primary metabolic analogs of posiphen were, likewise, characterized using primary fetal neurons grown ex vivo from the brains of Parkinson’s transgenic mice expressing the human SNCA gene.

  19. In Situ Peroxidase Labeling and Mass-Spectrometry Connects Alpha-Synuclein Directly to Endocytic Trafficking and mRNA Metabolism in Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Chee Yeun; Khurana, Vikram; Yi, Song; Sahni, Nidhi; Loh, Ken H; Auluck, Pavan K; Baru, Valeriya; Udeshi, Namrata D; Freyzon, Yelena; Carr, Steven A; Hill, David E; Vidal, Marc; Ting, Alice Y; Lindquist, Susan

    2017-02-22

    Synucleinopathies, including Parkinson's disease (PD), are associated with the misfolding and mistrafficking of alpha-synuclein (α-syn). Here, using an ascorbate peroxidase (APEX)-based labeling method combined with mass spectrometry, we defined a network of proteins in the immediate vicinity of α-syn in living neurons to shed light on α-syn function. This approach identified 225 proteins, including synaptic proteins, proteins involved in endocytic vesicle trafficking, the retromer complex, phosphatases and mRNA binding proteins. Many were in complexes with α-syn, and some were encoded by genes known to be risk factors for PD and other neurodegenerative diseases. Endocytic trafficking and mRNA translation proteins within this spatial α-syn map overlapped with genetic modifiers of α-syn toxicity, developed in an accompanying study (Khurana et al., this issue of Cell Systems). Our data suggest that perturbation of these particular pathways is directly related to the spatial localization of α-syn within the cell. These approaches provide new avenues to systematically examine protein function and pathology in living cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The different faces of the p. A53T alpha-synuclein mutation: A screening of Greek patients with parkinsonism and/or dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breza, Marianthi; Koutsis, Georgios; Karadima, Georgia; Potagas, Constantin; Kartanou, Chrisoula; Papageorgiou, Sokratis G; Paraskevas, George P; Kapaki, Elisabeth; Stefanis, Leonidas; Panas, Marios

    2018-04-13

    The p. A53T mutation in the alpha-synuclein (SNCA) gene is a rare cause of autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease (PD). Although generally rare, it is particularly common in the Greek population due to a founder effect. A53T-positive PD patients often develop dementia during disease course and may very rarely present with dementia. We screened for the p. A53T SNCA mutation a total of 347 cases of Greek origin with parkinsonism and/or dementia, collected over 15 years at the Neurogenetics Unit, Eginition Hospital, University of Athens. Cases were classified into: "pure parkinsonism", "pure dementia" and "parkinsonism plus dementia". In total, 4 p. A53T SNCA mutation carriers were identified. All had autosomal dominant family history and early onset. Screening of the "pure parkinsonism" category revealed 2 cases with typical PD. The other two mutation carriers were identified in the "parkinsonism plus dementia" category. One had a diagnosis of PD dementia and the other of behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia. Screening of patients with "pure dementia" failed to identify any further A53T-positive cases. Our results confirm that the p. A53T SNCA mutation is relatively common in Greek patients with PD or PD plus dementia, particularly in cases with early onset and/or autosomal dominant family history. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Microglia acquire distinct activation profiles depending on the degree of alpha-synuclein neuropathology in a rAAV based model of Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesa Sanchez-Guajardo

    Full Text Available Post-mortem analysis of brains from Parkinson's disease (PD patients strongly supports microglia activation and adaptive immunity as factors contributing to disease progression. Such responses may be triggered by alpha-synuclein (alpha-syn, which is known to be the main constituent of the aggregated proteins found in Lewy bodies in the brains of PD patients. To investigate this we used a recombinant viral vector to express human alpha-syn in rat midbrain at levels that induced neuronal pathology either in the absence or the presence of dopaminergic cell death, thereby mimicking early or late stages of the disease. Microglia activation was assessed by stereological quantification of Mac1+ cells, as well as the expression patterns of CD68 and MCH II. In our study, when alpha-syn induced neuronal pathology but not cell death, a fast transient increase in microglia cell numbers resulted in the long-term induction of MHC II+ microglia, denoting antigen-presenting ability. On the other hand, when alpha-syn induced both neuronal pathology and cell death, there was a delayed increase in microglia cell numbers, which correlated with long-lasting CD68 expression and a morphology reminiscent of peripheral macrophages. In addition T-lymphocyte infiltration, as judged by the presence of CD4+ and CD8+ cells, showed distinct kinetics depending on the degree of neurodegeneration, and was significantly higher when cell death occurred. We have thus for the first time shown that the microglial response differs depending on whether alpha-syn expression results on cell death or not, suggesting that microglia may play different roles during disease progression. Furthermore, our data suggest that the microglial response is modulated by early events related to alpha-syn expression in substantia nigra and persists at the long term.

  2. Comparison of independent screens on differentially vulnerable motor neurons reveals alpha-synuclein as a common modifier in motor neuron diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Rachel A; Kaifer, Kevin A; Osman, Erkan Y; Carella, Francesco; Tiberi, Ariana; Ross, Jolill; Pennetta, Giuseppa; Lorson, Christian L; Murray, Lyndsay M

    2017-03-01

    The term "motor neuron disease" encompasses a spectrum of disorders in which motor neurons are the primary pathological target. However, in both patients and animal models of these diseases, not all motor neurons are equally vulnerable, in that while some motor neurons are lost very early in disease, others remain comparatively intact, even at late stages. This creates a valuable system to investigate the factors that regulate motor neuron vulnerability. In this study, we aim to use this experimental paradigm to identify potential transcriptional modifiers. We have compared the transcriptome of motor neurons from healthy wild-type mice, which are differentially vulnerable in the childhood motor neuron disease Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA), and have identified 910 transcriptional changes. We have compared this data set with published microarray data sets on other differentially vulnerable motor neurons. These neurons were differentially vulnerable in the adult onset motor neuron disease Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), but the screen was performed on the equivalent population of neurons from neurologically normal human, rat and mouse. This cross species comparison has generated a refined list of differentially expressed genes, including CELF5, Col5a2, PGEMN1, SNCA, Stmn1 and HOXa5, alongside a further enrichment for synaptic and axonal transcripts. As an in vivo validation, we demonstrate that the manipulation of a significant number of these transcripts can modify the neurodegenerative phenotype observed in a Drosophila line carrying an ALS causing mutation. Finally, we demonstrate that vector-mediated expression of alpha-synuclein (SNCA), a transcript decreased in selectively vulnerable motor neurons in all four screens, can extend life span, increase weight and decrease neuromuscular junction pathology in a mouse model of SMA. In summary, we have combined multiple data sets to identify transcripts, which are strong candidates for being phenotypic modifiers

  3. 5-HT2A Receptor Binding in the Frontal Cortex of Parkinson's Disease Patients and Alpha-Synuclein Overexpressing Mice: A Postmortem Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Nadja Bredo; Olesen, Mikkel Vestergaard; Brudek, Tomasz; Plenge, Per; Klein, Anders Bue; Westin, Jenny E; Fog, Karina; Wörtwein, Gitta; Aznar, Susana

    2016-01-01

    The 5-HT2A receptor is highly involved in aspects of cognition and executive function and seen to be affected in neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease and related to the disease pathology. Even though Parkinson's disease (PD) is primarily a motor disorder, reports of impaired executive function are also steadily being associated with this disease. Not much is known about the pathophysiology behind this. The aim of this study was thereby twofold: (1) to investigate 5-HT2A receptor binding levels in Parkinson's brains and (2) to investigate whether PD associated pathology, alpha-synuclein (AS) overexpression, could be associated with 5-HT2A alterations. Binding density for the 5-HT2A-specific radioligand [(3)H]-MDL 100.907 was measured in membrane suspensions of frontal cortex tissue from PD patients. Protein levels of AS were further measured using western blotting. Results showed higher AS levels accompanied by increased 5-HT2A receptor binding in PD brains. In a separate study, we looked for changes in 5-HT2A receptors in the prefrontal cortex in 52-week-old transgenic mice overexpressing human AS. We performed region-specific 5-HT2A receptor binding measurements followed by gene expression analysis. The transgenic mice showed lower 5-HT2A binding in the frontal association cortex that was not accompanied by changes in gene expression levels. This study is one of the first to look at differences in serotonin receptor levels in PD and in relation to AS overexpression.

  4. MicroRNA expressing profiles in A53T mutant alpha-synuclein transgenic mice and Parkinsonian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Mingshu; Xiao, Yousheng; Huang, Shuxuan; Cen, Luan; Chen, Xiang; Zhang, Limin; Luo, Qin; Li, Shaomin; Yang, Xinling; Lin, Xian; Xu, Pingyi

    2017-01-03

    α-synuclein gene mutations can cause α-synuclein protein aggregation in the midbrain of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a key role in the metabolism of α-synuclein but the mechanism involved in synucleinopathy remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the miRNA profiles in A53T-α-synuclein transgenic mice and analyzed the candidate miRNAs in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of PD patients. The 12-month A53T-transgenic mouse displayed hyperactive movement and anxiolytic-like behaviors with α-synuclein aggregation in midbrain. A total of 317,759 total and 289,207 unique small RNA sequences in the midbrain of mice were identified by high-throughput deep sequencing. We found 644 miRNAs were significantly changed in the transgenic mice. Based on the conserved characteristic of miRNAs, we selected 11 candidates from the 40 remarkably expressed miRNAs and explored their expression in 44 CSF samples collected from PD patients. The results revealed that 11 microRNAs were differently expressed in CSF, emphatically as miR-144-5p, miR-200a-3p and miR-542-3p, which were dramatically up-regulated in both A53T-transgenic mice and PD patients, and had a helpful accuracy for the PD prediction. The ordered logistic regression analysis showed that the severity of PD has strong correlation with an up-expression of miR-144-5p, miR-200a-3p and miR-542-3p in CSF. Taken together, our data suggested that miRNAs in CSF, such as miR-144-5p, miR-200a-3p and miR-542-3p, may be useful to the PD diagnosis as potential biomarkers.

  5. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    A Look of Hope Islam Mahmoud Sweity From 19 to 30 June 2017 CERN Meyrin, Main Building Islam Mahmoud Sweity Islam Mahmoud Sweity was born in 1997 at Beit Awwa, Palestine. She is currently following a course to get an Art diploma of Painting at the college of Fine Arts at An-Najah National University under the supervision of Esmat Al As'aad. Her portraits, landscapes and still life paintings are full of life and shining colours. Charged of emotional empathy they catch the attention of the viewer and are reminding us that life is beautiful and worth living in spite of all difficulties we have to go through. She participated in many exhibitions and has exposed her drawings in 2015 at CERN and in France in the framework of the exhibition "The Origin“, and in 2017 in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Palestina and Jordan. In this exhibition the oil paintings made in the past year will be presented. For more information : staff.association@cern.ch | T&eacu...

  6. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    Encounters Hanne Blitz From February 1st to 12th 2016 CERN Meyrin, Main Building What is our reaction to a first encounter with a tourist attraction? Contemporary Dutch painter Hanne Blitz captures visitors' responses to art and architecture, sweeping vistas and symbolic memorials. Encounters, a series of oil paintings curated specially for this CERN exhibition, depicts tourists visiting cultural highlights around the world. A thought-provoking journey not to be missed, and a tip of the hat to CERN's large Hadron Collider.

  7. Towards a Non-Human Primate Model of Alpha-Synucleinopathy for Development of Therapeutics for Parkinson's Disease: Optimization of AAV1/2 Delivery Parameters to Drive Sustained Expression of Alpha Synuclein and Dopaminergic Degeneration in Macaque.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James B Koprich

    Full Text Available Recent failures in clinical trials for disease modification in Parkinson's disease have highlighted the need for a non-human primate model of the synucleinopathy underpinning dopaminergic neuron degeneration. The present study was defined to begin the development of such a model in cynomolgus macaque. We have validated surgical and vector parameters to define a means to provide a robust over-expression of alpha-synuclein which is associated with Lewy-like pathology and robust degeneration of the nigrostriatal pathway. Thus, an AAV1/2 vector incorporating strong transcription and transduction regulatory elements was used to deliver the gene for the human A53T mutation of alpha-synuclein. When injected into 4 sites within each substantia nigra (7 μl per site, 1.7 x 1012 gp/ml, this vector provided expression lasting at least 4 months, and a 50% loss of nigral dopaminergic neurons and a 60% reduction in striatal dopamine. Further studies will be required to develop this methodology into a validated model of value as a drug development platform.

  8. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Sintropie Flavio Pellegrini From 13 to 24 March 2017 CERN Meyrin, Main Building Energia imprigionata - Flavio Pellegrini. The exhibition is composed by eleven wood artworks with the expression of movement as theme. The artworks are the result of harmonics math applied to sculpture. The powerful black colour is dominated by the light source, generating reflexes and modulations. The result is a continuous variation of perspective visions. The works generate, at a first approach, an emotion of mystery and incomprehension, only a deeper contemplation lets one discover entangling and mutative details, evidencing the elegance of the lines and letting the meaning emerge. For more information : staff.association@cern.ch | Tél: 022 766 37 38

  9. Alpha synuclein in Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Christine Lund; Romero-Ramos, Marina; Halliday, Glenda M

    2014-01-01

    The perception of Parkinson’s disease (PD) as a disease centered on dopaminergic striatonigral neurodegeneration has changed fundamentally since 1997 when the first mutation in the SNCA gene (PARK1) encoding a-synuclein was discovered (Polymeropoulos et al. 1997). This discovery formed the basis...

  10. Alpha synuclein in Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Christine Lund; Romero-Ramos, Marina; Halliday, Glenda M

    2014-01-01

    The perception of Parkinson’s disease (PD) as a disease centered on dopaminergic striatonigral neurodegeneration has changed fundamentally since 1997 when the first mutation in the SNCA gene (PARK1) encoding a-synuclein was discovered (Polymeropoulos et al. 1997). This discovery formed the basis ...

  11. Site-specific perturbations of alpha-synuclein fibril structure by the Parkinson's disease associated mutations A53T and E46K.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisel R Lemkau

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is pathologically characterized by the presence of Lewy bodies (LBs in dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra. These intracellular inclusions are largely composed of misfolded α-synuclein (AS, a neuronal protein that is abundant in the vertebrate brain. Point mutations in AS are associated with rare, early-onset forms of PD, although aggregation of the wild-type (WT protein is observed in the more common sporadic forms of the disease. Here, we employed multidimensional solid-state NMR experiments to assess A53T and E46K mutant fibrils, in comparison to our recent description of WT AS fibrils. We made de novo chemical shift assignments for the mutants, and used these chemical shifts to empirically determine secondary structures. We observe significant perturbations in secondary structure throughout the fibril core for the E46K fibril, while the A53T fibril exhibits more localized perturbations near the mutation site. Overall, these results demonstrate that the secondary structure of A53T has some small differences from the WT and the secondary structure of E46K has significant differences, which may alter the overall structural arrangement of the fibrils.

  12. Ts1Cje Down syndrome model mice exhibit environmental stimuli-triggered locomotor hyperactivity and sociability concurrent with increased flux through central dopamine and serotonin metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimohata, Atsushi; Ishihara, Keiichi; Hattori, Satoko; Miyamoto, Hiroyuki; Morishita, Hiromasa; Ornthanalai, Guy; Raveau, Matthieu; Ebrahim, Abdul Shukkur; Amano, Kenji; Yamada, Kazuyuki; Sago, Haruhiko; Akiba, Satoshi; Mataga, Nobuko; Murphy, Niall P; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Yamakawa, Kazuhiro

    2017-07-01

    Ts1Cje mice have a segmental trisomy of chromosome 16 that is orthologous to human chromosome 21 and display Down syndrome-like cognitive impairments. Despite the occurrence of affective and emotional impairments in patients with Down syndrome, these parameters are poorly documented in Down syndrome mouse models, including Ts1Cje mice. Here, we conducted comprehensive behavioral analyses, including anxiety-, sociability-, and depression-related tasks, and biochemical analyses of monoamines and their metabolites in Ts1Cje mice. Ts1Cje mice showed enhanced locomotor activity in novel environments and increased social contact with unfamiliar partners when compared with wild-type littermates, but a significantly lower activity in familiar environments. Ts1Cje mice also exhibited some signs of decreased depression like-behavior. Furthermore, Ts1Cje mice showed monoamine abnormalities, including increased extracellular dopamine and serotonin, and enhanced catabolism in the striatum and ventral forebrain. This study constitutes the first report of deviated monoamine metabolism that may help explain the basis for abnormal behaviors, including the environmental stimuli-triggered hyperactivity, increased sociability and decreased depression-like behavior in Ts1Cje mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Intricacies of alpha-synuclein aggregation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mucibabic, M.

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the presence of abnormal deposits of aggregated proteins in the brain tissue, known as Lewy bodies. The major components of Lewy bodies are aggregated forms of a small presynaptic protein known as α-synuclein (α-syn). In this thesis

  14. Assays for alpha-synuclein aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giehm, Lise; Lorenzen, Nikolai; Otzen, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Over the last few decades, protein aggregation gone from being an irritating side product in the test tube to becoming a subject of great interest. This has been stimulated by the realization that a large and growing number of diseases is associated with the formation and accumulation of proteins...

  15. Children, Hyperactivity and Low Frustration Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaughnessy, Michael F.; Scott, Patricia Carol

    This paper addresses issues regarding the hyperactive child, the impulsive child, and the low frustration tolerance child. It points out the subjectivity involved in identifying children as hyperactive, and outlines various forms of hyperactivity: the child who is in constant movement, the child who manages control in school but exhibits whirlwind…

  16. Neuropathology in mice expressing mouse alpha-synuclein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus Rieker

    Full Text Available α-Synuclein (αSN in human is tightly linked both neuropathologically and genetically to Parkinson's disease (PD and related disorders. Disease-causing properties in vivo of the wildtype mouse ortholog (mαSN, which carries a threonine at position 53 like the A53T human mutant version that is genetically linked to PD, were never reported. To this end we generated mouse lines that express mαSN in central neurons at levels reaching up to six-fold compared to endogenous mαSN. Unlike transgenic mice expressing human wildtype or mutant forms of αSN, these mαSN transgenic mice showed pronounced ubiquitin immunopathology in spinal cord and brainstem. Isoelectric separation of mαSN species revealed multiple isoforms including two Ser129-phosphorylated species in the most severely affected brain regions. Neuronal Ser129-phosphorylated αSN occurred in granular and small fibrillar aggregates and pathological staining patterns in neurites occasionally revealed a striking ladder of small alternating segments staining either for Ser129-phosphorylated αSN or ubiquitin but not both. Axonal degeneration in long white matter tracts of the spinal cord, with breakdown of myelin sheaths and degeneration of neuromuscular junctions with loss of integrity of the presynaptic neurofilament network in mαSN transgenic mice, was similar to what we have reported for mice expressing human αSN wildtype or mutant forms. In hippocampal neurons, the mαSN protein accumulated and was phosphorylated but these neurons showed no ubiquitin immunopathology. In contrast to the early-onset motor abnormalities and muscle weakness observed in mice expressing human αSN, mαSN transgenic mice displayed only end-stage phenotypic alterations that manifested alongside with neuropathology. Altogether these findings show that increased levels of wildtype mαSN does not induce early-onset behavior changes, but drives end-stage pathophysiological changes in murine neurons that are strikingly similar to those evoked by expression of human wildtype or mutant forms.

  17. A Stable Lipid-Induced Aggregate of alpha-Synuclein

    OpenAIRE

    Drescher, Malte; Rooijen, Bart D. van; Veldhuis, Gertjan; Subramaniam, Vinod; Huber, Martina

    2010-01-01

    The Parkinson’s disease-related protein α-Synuclein (αS) is a 140 residue intrinsically disordered protein. Its membrane-binding properties are thought to be relevant for its physiological or pathologic activity. Here, the interaction of αS with POPG [1-Palmitoyl-2-Oleoyl-sn-Glycero-3-(Phosphorac-(1-glycerol))] small unilamellar vesicles (SUVs) is investigated by spin-label EPR using double electron−electron resonance (DEER). Intermolecular distances between four single mutants reveal that we...

  18. Alpha-synuclein in PD: pathogenesis and treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    inclusions in nigral neurons in Parkinson disease (PD). Lysosome Associated Membrane Protein 1(LAMP1), Cathepsin D 5 ( CatD ), and Heat Shock Protein73 (HSP73...difference in LAMP1, CatD , HSP73 or 20S proteasome immunoreactivity between alpha-syn positive or negative neuromelanin-laden nigral neurons. Targeting

  19. Structural and functional characterization of two alpha-synuclein strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousset, Luc; Pieri, Laura; Ruiz-Arlandis, Gemma; Gath, Julia; Jensen, Poul Henning; Habenstein, Birgit; Madiona, Karine; Olieric, Vincent; Böckmann, Anja; Meier, Beat H.; Melki, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    α-synuclein aggregation is implicated in a variety of diseases including Parkinson’s disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, pure autonomic failure and multiple system atrophy. The association of protein aggregates made of a single protein with a variety of clinical phenotypes has been explained for prion diseases by the existence of different strains that propagate through the infection pathway. Here we structurally and functionally characterize two polymorphs of α-synuclein. We present evidence that the two forms indeed fulfil the molecular criteria to be identified as two strains of α-synuclein. Specifically, we show that the two strains have different structures, levels of toxicity, and in vitro and in vivo seeding and propagation properties. Such strain differences may account for differences in disease progression in different individuals/cell types and/or types of synucleinopathies. PMID:24108358

  20. Human Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Rikke

    From 1870s to 1910s, more than 50 exhibitions of so-called exotic people took place in Denmark. Here large numbers of people of Asian and African origin were exhibited for the entertainment and ‘education’ of a mass audience. Several of these exhibitions took place in Copenhagen Zoo. Here differe...

  1. Immersive Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiam, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    The immersive exhibition is a specialized exhibition genre in museums, which creates the illusion of time and place by representing key characteristics of a reference world and by integrating the visitor in this three-dimensionally reconstructed world (Mortensen 2010). A successful representation...

  2. Exhibit Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Marianne Foss

    of tools and processes to guide the design of educational science exhibits. The guiding paradigm for this development is design-based research, which is characterised by an iterative cycle of design, enactment, and analysis. In the design phase, an educational intervention is planned and carried out based......) a synthesis of the findings from the first two studies with findings from the literature to generate two types of results: a coherent series of suggestions for a design iteration of the studied exhibit as well as a more general normative model for exhibit engineering. Finally, another perspective......Science museums define the objectives of their exhibitions in terms of visitor learning outcomes. Yet, exhibit designers lack theoretical and empirical research findings on which to base the creation of such educational environments. Here, this shortcoming is addressed through the development...

  3. Human Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Rikke

    From 1870s to 1910s, more than 50 exhibitions of so-called exotic people took place in Denmark. Here large numbers of people of Asian and African origin were exhibited for the entertainment and ‘education’ of a mass audience. Several of these exhibitions took place in Copenhagen Zoo. Here different...... light on the staging of exhibitions, the daily life of the exhibitees, the wider connections between shows across Europe and the thinking of the time on matters of race, science, gender and sexuality. A window onto contemporary racial understandings, the book presents interviews with the descendants...... of displayed people, connecting the attitudes and science of the past with both our (continued) modern fascination with ‘the exotic’, and contemporary language and popular culture. As such, it will be of interest to scholars of sociology, anthropology and history working in the areas of gender and sexuality...

  4. Human Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Rikke

    From 1870s to 1910s, more than 50 exhibitions of so-called exotic people took place in Denmark. Here large numbers of people of Asian and African origin were exhibited for the entertainment and ‘education’ of a mass audience. Several of these exhibitions took place in Copenhagen Zoo. Here different...... ‘villages’ constructed in the middle of the zoo hosted men, women and children, who sometimes stayed for months, performing their ‘daily lives’ for the thousands and thousands of curious Danes. While such shows occurred frequently in European cities in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries...... light on the staging of exhibitions, the daily life of the exhibitees, the wider connections between shows across Europe and the thinking of the time on matters of race, science, gender and sexuality. A window onto contemporary racial understandings, the book presents interviews with the descendants...

  5. Hyperactivity and sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... likely to be hyperactive if they eat sugar, artificial sweeteners, or certain food colorings. Other experts disagree with this. Side Effects Some people claim that eating sugar (such as sucrose), aspartame, and artificial flavors and colors lead to hyperactivity and other ...

  6. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001551.htm Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a problem caused ...

  7. Allergies and Hyperactivity (and sugar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Allergies and Hyperactivity Page Content Article Body Parents often ... for hyperactivity are based on the belief that allergies or reactions to foods cause undesirable behavior. The ...

  8. hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was once thought that attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. (ADHD) did not persist into adolescence, but results from two prospective studies suggest otherwise.1-3. The results of a meta-analysis suggest a 15% persistence rate of ADHD into adolescence when the full Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of.

  9. Involvement of the Cerebellum in Parkinson Disease and Dementia with Lewy Bodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seidel, Kay; Bouzrou, Mohamed; Heidemann, Nina; Kruger, Rejko; Schöls, Ludger; den Dunnen, Wilfred F. A.; Korf, Horst-Werner; Rüb, Udo

    Brains from patients with Parkinson disease or dementia with Lewy bodies show aggregation of alpha-synuclein in precerebellar brainstem structures. Furthermore, patients exhibit resting tremor, unstable gait, and impaired balance, which may be associated with cerebellar dysfunction. Therefore, we

  10. Parallel Exhibits: Combining Physical and Virtual Exhibits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lischke, L.; Dingler, T.; Schneegaß, S.; Schmidt, A.; van der Vaart, M.; Wozniak, P.; Gottlieb, H.; Szeląg, M.

    2014-01-01

    People have a special fascination for original physical objects, their texture, and visible history. However, the digitization of exhibits and the use of these data is a current challenge for museums. We believe that museums need to capitalize on the affordances of physical exhibits to help users

  11. Adult Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Overview Adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental health disorder that ... combination of persistent problems, such as difficulty paying attention, hyperactivity and impulsive behavior. Adult ADHD can lead ...

  12. Hyperactivity: a current assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swidler, H J; Walson, P D

    1979-10-01

    Hyperactivity in children is frequently overdiagnosed and inappropriately managed. When a syndrome of hyperactive behavior associated with learning difficulties is established, aggressive multifaceted management is indicated. Many possible etiologies have been suggested, but none of these has yet been proven. It may well be that more than one etiology exists and that many children have multiple factors contributing to their illness. None of the nontraditional therapies recently receiving attention, such as the Feingold diet, have had any proven benefit, although scattered anecdotal reports and some recent controlled trials suggest that some nontraditional therapies may be of limited value in some children. The most important consideration in therapy is that of defining specific problem areas for each individual child and assuring that each is dealt with appropriately. Caution must be exercised to avoid the pitfall of using drugs as the sole modality of treatment. Finally, parental education must never be overlooked.

  13. Britain exhibition at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Bertin; CERN PhotoLab

    1969-01-01

    The United Kingdom inaugurated the Industrial Exhibitions in 1968, and it wasn't till 1971 that other countries staged exhibitions at CERN. This photo was taken in 1969, at the second British exhibition, where 16 companies were present.

  14. Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tube DysfunctionStrep ThroatHyperthyroidismOpioid AddictionDiabetesCroupAnemia Home Diseases and Conditions Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Condition Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity ...

  15. Rapid Self-assembly of alpha-Synuclein Observed by In Situ Atomic Force Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoyer, Wolfgang; Cherny, Dmitry; Subramaniam, Vinod; Jovin, Thomas M.

    2004-01-01

    Self-assembly of α-synuclein resulting in protein aggregates of diverse morphology has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders known as synucleinopathies. Apart from its biomedical relevance, this aggregation process is representative of the

  16. NMR of alpha-synuclein-polyamine complexes elucidates the mechanism and kinetics of induced aggregation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernández, Claudio O.; Hoyer, Wolfgang; Zweckstetter, Markus; Jares-Erijman, Elizabeth A.; Subramaniam, Vinod; Griesinger, Christian; Jovin, Thomas M.

    2004-01-01

    The aggregation of α-synuclein is characteristic of Parkinson's disease (PD) and other neurodegenerative synucleinopathies. The 140-aa protein is natively unstructured; thus, ligands binding to the monomeric form are of therapeutic interest. Biogenic polyamines promote the aggregation of α-synuclein

  17. Alpha-synuclein cell-to-cell transfer and seeding in grafted dopaminergic neurons in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Angot

    Full Text Available Several people with Parkinson's disease have been treated with intrastriatal grafts of fetal dopaminergic neurons. Following autopsy, 10-22 years after surgery, some of the grafted neurons contained Lewy bodies similar to those observed in the host brain. Numerous studies have attempted to explain these findings in cell and animal models. In cell culture, α-synuclein has been found to transfer from one cell to another, via mechanisms that include exosomal transport and endocytosis, and in certain cases seed aggregation in the recipient cell. In animal models, transfer of α-synuclein from host brain cells to grafted neurons has been shown, but the reported frequency of the event has been relatively low and little is known about the underlying mechanisms as well as the fate of the transferred α-synuclein. We now demonstrate frequent transfer of α-synuclein from a rat brain engineered to overexpress human α-synuclein to grafted dopaminergic neurons. Further, we show that this model can be used to explore mechanisms underlying cell-to-cell transfer of α-synuclein. Thus, we present evidence both for the involvement of endocytosis in α-synuclein uptake in vivo, and for seeding of aggregation of endogenous α-synuclein in the recipient neuron by the transferred α-synuclein. Finally, we show that, at least in a subset of the studied cells, the transmitted α-synuclein is sensitive to proteinase K. Our new model system could be used to test compounds that inhibit cell-to-cell transfer of α-synuclein and therefore might retard progression of Parkinson neuropathology.

  18. Effects of Trehalose on Thermodynamic Properties of Alpha-synuclein Revealed through Synchrotron Radiation Circular Dichroism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Ruzza

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Many neurodegenerative diseases, including Huntington’s, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases, are characterized by protein misfolding and aggregation. The capability of trehalose to interfere with protein misfolding and aggregation has been recently evaluated by several research groups. In the present work, we studied, by means of synchrotron radiation circular dichroism (SRCD spectroscopy, the dose-effect of trehalose on α-synuclein conformation and/or stability to probe the capability of this osmolyte to interfere with α-synuclein’s aggregation. Our study indicated that a low trehalose concentration stabilized α-synuclein folding much better than at high concentration by blocking in vitro α-synuclein’s polymerisation. These results suggested that trehalose could be associated with other drugs leading to a new approach for treating Parkinson’s and other brain-related diseases.

  19. The regulation of catalase activity by PPAR gamma is affected by alpha-synuclein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yakunin, Eugenia; Kisos, Haya; Kulik, Willem; Grigoletto, Jessica; Wanders, Ronald J. A.; Sharon, Ronit

    2014-01-01

    Objective: While evidence for oxidative injury is frequently detected in brains of humans affected by Parkinson's disease (PD) and in relevant animal models, there is uncertainty regarding its cause. We tested the potential role of catalase in the oxidative injury that characterizes PD. Methods:

  20. Multiple system atrophy: genetic risks and alpha-synuclein mutations [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather T Whittaker

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Multiple system atrophy (MSA is one of the few neurodegenerative disorders where we have a significant understanding of the clinical and pathological manifestations but where the aetiology remains almost completely unknown. Research to overcome this hurdle is gaining momentum through international research collaboration and a series of genetic and molecular discoveries in the last few years, which have advanced our knowledge of this rare synucleinopathy. In MSA, the discovery of α-synuclein pathology and glial cytoplasmic inclusions remain the most significant findings. Families with certain types of α-synuclein mutations develop diseases that mimic MSA, and the spectrum of clinical and pathological features in these families suggests a spectrum of severity, from late-onset Parkinson’s disease to MSA. Nonetheless, controversies persist, such as the role of common α-synuclein variants in MSA and whether this disorder shares a common mechanism of spreading pathology with other protein misfolding neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we review these issues, specifically focusing on α-synuclein mutations.

  1. Early synaptic dysfunction induced by alpha-synuclein in a rat model of Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phan, Jenny-Ann; Stokholm, Kathrine; Zareba-Paslawska, Justyna

    2017-01-01

    Evidence suggests that synapses are affected first in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Here, we tested the claim that pathological accumulation of α-synuclein, and subsequent synaptic disruption, occur in absence of dopaminergic neuron loss in PD. We determined early synaptic changes in rats...... that overexpress human α-synuclein by local injection of viral-vectors in midbrain. We aimed to achieve α-synuclein levels sufficient to induce terminal pathology without significant loss of nigral neurons. We tested synaptic disruption in vivo by analyzing motor defects and binding of a positron emission...... tomography (PET) radioligand to the vesicular monoamine transporter 2, (VMAT2), [11C]dihydrotetrabenazine (DTBZ). Animals overexpressing α-synuclein had progressive motor impairment and, 12 weeks post-surgery, showed asymmetric in vivo striatal DTBZ binding. The PET images matched ligand binding in post...

  2. Molecular and Biological Compatibility with Host Alpha-Synuclein Influences Fibril Pathogenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelvin C. Luk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The accumulation and propagation of misfolded α-synuclein (α-Syn is a central feature of Parkinson’s disease and other synucleinopathies. Molecular compatibility between a fibrillar seed and its native protein state is a major determinant of amyloid self-replication. We show that cross-seeded aggregation of human (Hu and mouse (Ms α-Syn is bidirectionally restricted. Although fibrils formed by Hu-Ms-α-Syn chimeric mutants can overcome this inhibition in cell-free systems, sequence homology poorly predicts their efficiency in inducing α-Syn pathology in primary neurons or after intracerebral injection into wild-type mice. Chimeric α-Syn fibrils demonstrate enhanced or reduced pathogenicities compared with wild-type Hu- or Ms-α-Syn fibrils. Furthermore, α-Syn mutants induced to polymerize by fibrillar seeds inherit the functional properties of their template, suggesting that transferable pathogenic and non-pathogenic states likely influence the initial engagement between exogenous α-Syn seeds and endogenous neuronal α-Syn. Thus, transmission of synucleinopathies is regulated by biological processes in addition to molecular compatibility.

  3. Small-angle neutron scattering reveals the assembly of alpha-synuclein in lipid membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anunciado, Divina; Rai, Durgesh K; Qian, Shuo; Urban, Volker; O'Neill, Hugh

    2015-12-01

    The aggregation of α-synuclein (asyn), an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP), is a hallmark in Parkinson's disease (PD). We investigated the conformational changes that asyn undergoes in the presence of membrane and membrane mimetics using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). In solution, asyn is monomeric and unfolded assuming an ensemble of conformers spanning extended and compact conformations. Using the contrast variation technique and SANS, the protein scattering signal in the membrane-protein complexes is selectively highlighted in order to monitor its conformational changes in this environment. We showed that in the presence of phospholipid membranes asyn transitions from a monodisperse state to aggregated structures with sizes ranging from 200 to 900Å coexisting with the monomeric species. Detailed SANS data analysis revealed that asyn aggregates have a hierarchical organization in which clusters of smaller asyn aggregates assemble to form the larger structures. This study provides new insight into the mechanism of asyn aggregation. We propose an aggregation mechanism in which stable asyn aggregates seed the aggregation process and hence the hierarchical assembly of structures. Our findings demonstrate that membrane-induced conformational changes in asyn lead to its heterogeneous aggregation which could be physiologically relevant in its function or in the diseased state. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Long-term polarization of microglia upon alpha-synuclein overexpression in nonhuman primates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barkholt, Pernille; Sanchez-Guajardo, Vanesa Maria; Kirik, Denis

    2012-01-01

    response is modulated by events related to ﰇ-synuclein expression in substantia nigra and persists in the long term. The data presented here is in agreement with that previously observed in a recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) ﰇ-synuclein rat model, thereby validating both the findings and the model...

  5. Alpha-synuclein induces lysosomal rupture and cathepsin dependent reactive oxygen species following endocytosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Freeman

    Full Text Available α-synuclein dysregulation is a critical aspect of Parkinson's disease pathology. Recent studies have observed that α-synuclein aggregates are cytotoxic to cells in culture and that this toxicity can be spread between cells. However, the molecular mechanisms governing this cytotoxicity and spread are poorly characterized. Recent studies of viruses and bacteria, which achieve their cytoplasmic entry by rupturing intracellular vesicles, have utilized the redistribution of galectin proteins as a tool to measure vesicle rupture by these organisms. Using this approach, we demonstrate that α-synuclein aggregates can induce the rupture of lysosomes following their endocytosis in neuronal cell lines. This rupture can be induced by the addition of α-synuclein aggregates directly into cells as well as by cell-to-cell transfer of α-synuclein. We also observe that lysosomal rupture by α-synuclein induces a cathepsin B dependent increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS in target cells. Finally, we observe that α-synuclein aggregates can induce inflammasome activation in THP-1 cells. Lysosomal rupture is known to induce mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation, both of which are well established aspects of Parkinson's disease, thus connecting these aspects of Parkinson's disease to the propagation of α-synuclein pathology in cells.

  6. Quantitative morphological analysis reveals ultrastructural diversity of amyloid fibrils from alpha-synuclein mutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Raaij, Martijn E; Segers-Nolten, Ine M J; Subramaniam, Vinod

    2006-01-01

    High resolution atomic force microscopy is a powerful tool to characterize nanoscale morphological features of protein amyloid fibrils. Comparison of fibril morphological properties between studies has been hampered by differences in analysis procedures and measurement error determination used by

  7. Studies of interaction between cyanine dye T-284 and fibrillar alpha-synuclein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volkova, Kateryna D; Kovalska, Vladyslava B; Yu Losytskyy, Mykhaylo; Veldhuis, Gertjan; Segers-Nolten, G M J; Tolmachev, Olexiy I; Subramaniam, Vinod; Yarmoluk, Sergiy M

    2010-01-01

    A key feature of Parkinson's disease is the formation and accumulation of amyloid fibrils of the natively unfolded protein α-synuclein (ASN) inside neurons. Recently we have proposed novel sensitive monomethinecyanine dye T-284 as fluorescent probe for quantitative detection of ASN amyloid fibrils.

  8. Studies of Interaction Between Cyanine Dye T-284 and Fibrillar Alpha-Synuclein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volkova, Kateryna D.; Kovalska, Vladyslava B.; Losytskyy, Mykhaylo Yu.; Veldhuis, G.J.; Veldhuis, G.; Segers-Nolten, Gezina M.J.; Tolmachev, Olexiy I.; Subramaniam, Vinod; Yarmoluk, Sergiy M.

    2010-01-01

    A key feature of Parkinson’s disease is the formation and accumulation of amyloid fibrils of the natively unfolded protein α-synuclein (ASN) inside neurons. Recently we have proposed novel sensitive monomethinecyanine dye T-284 as fluorescent probe for quantitative detection of ASN amyloid fibrils.

  9. Alpha-synuclein aggregates activate calcium pump SERCA leading to calcium dysregulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betzer, Cristine; Lassen, Louise Berkhoudt; Olsen, Anders

    2018-01-01

    cytosolic Ca2+levels followed by a later Ca2+increase. Aggregated but not monomeric α-synuclein binds to and activates SERCAin vitro, and proximity ligation assays confirm this interaction in cells. The SERCA inhibitor cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) normalises both the initial reduction and the later increase......Aggregation of α-synuclein is a hallmark of Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies. We here investigate the relationship between cytosolic Ca2+and α-synuclein aggregation. Analyses of cell lines and primary culture models of α-synuclein cytopathology reveal an early phase with reduced...... in cytosolic Ca2+CPA protects the cells against α-synuclein-aggregate stress and improves viability in cell models and inCaenorhabditis elegans in vivoProximity ligation assays also reveal an increased interaction between α-synuclein aggregates and SERCA in human brains affected by dementia with Lewy bodies...

  10. The Neuroprotective Role of Protein Quality Control in Halting the Development of Alpha-Synuclein Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Destiny-Love Manecka

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Synucleinopathies are a family of neurodegenerative disorders that comprises Parkinson’s disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and multiple system atrophy. Each of these disorders is characterized by devastating motor, cognitive, and autonomic consequences. Current treatments for synucleinopathies are not curative and are limited to improvement of quality of life for affected individuals. Although the underlying causes of these diseases are unknown, a shared pathological hallmark is the presence of proteinaceous inclusions containing the α-synuclein (α-syn protein in brain tissue. In the past few years, it has been proposed that these inclusions arise from the self-templated, prion-like spreading of misfolded and aggregated forms of α-syn throughout the brain, leading to neuronal dysfunction and death. In this review, we describe how impaired protein homeostasis is a prominent factor in the α-syn aggregation cascade, with alterations in protein quality control (PQC pathways observed in the brains of patients. We discuss how PQC modulates α-syn accumulation, misfolding and aggregation primarily through chaperoning activity, proteasomal degradation, and lysosome-mediated degradation. Finally, we provide an overview of experimental data indicating that targeting PQC pathways is a promising avenue to explore in the design of novel neuroprotective approaches that could impede the spreading of α-syn pathology and thus provide a curative treatment for synucleinopathies.

  11. Alpha-synuclein oligomers - neurotoxic molecules in Parkinson’s disease and other Lewy body disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Ingelsson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Adverse intra- and extracellular effects of toxic α-synuclein are believed to be central to the pathogenesis in Parkinson’s disease and other disorders with Lewy body pathology in the nervous system. One of the physiological roles of α-synuclein relates to the regulation of neurotransmitter release at the presynapse, although it is still unclear whether this mechanism depends on the action of monomers or smaller oligomers. As for the pathogenicity, accumulating evidence suggest that prefibrillar species, rather than the deposits per se, are responsible for the toxicity in affected cells. In particular, larger oligomers or protofibrils of α-synuclein have been shown to impair protein degradation as well as the function of several organelles, such as the mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum. Accumulating evidence further suggest that oligomers/protofibrils may have a toxic effect on the synapse, which may lead to disrupted electrophysiological properties. In addition, recent data indicate that oligomeric α-synuclein species can spread between cells, either as free-floating proteins or via extracellular vesicles, and thereby act as seeds to propagate disease between interconnected brain regions. Taken together, several lines of evidence suggest that α-synuclein have neurotoxic properties and therefore should be an appropriate molecular target for therapeutic intervention in Parkinson’s disease and other disorders with Lewy pathology. In this context, immunotherapy with monoclonal antibodies against α-synuclein oligomers/protofibrils should be a particularly attractive treatment option.

  12. Parkinson's disease induced pluripotent stem cells with triplication of the alpha-synuclein locus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Devine, M.J.; Ryten, M.; Vodička, Petr; Thomson, A.J.; Burdon, T.; Houlden, H.; Cavaleri, F.; Nagano, M.; Drummond, N.J.; Taanman, J.W.; Schapira, A.H.; Gwinn, K.; Hardy, J.; Lewis, P.A.; Kunath, T.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 440 (2011), s. 1-1 ISSN 2041-1723 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : gene duplication * dementia * association Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 7.396, year: 2011

  13. TDP-43 Potentiates Alpha-synuclein Toxicity to Dopaminergic Neurons in Transgenic Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Tian; Huang, Cao; Tong, Jianbin; Yang, Ming; Zhou, Hongxia; Xia, Xu-Gang

    2011-01-01

    TDP-43 and α-synuclein are two disease proteins involved in a wide range of neurodegenerative diseases. While TDP-43 proteinopathy is considered a pathologic hallmark of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobe degeneration, α-synuclein is a major component of Lewy body characteristic of Parkinson's disease. Intriguingly, TDP-43 proteinopathy also coexists with Lewy body and with synucleinopathy in certain disease conditions. Here we reported the effects of TDP-43 on α-synuclein neurotoxicity in transgenic mice. Overexpression of mutant TDP-43 (M337V substitution) in mice caused early death in transgenic founders, but overexpression of normal TDP-43 only induced a moderate loss of cortical neurons in the transgenic mice at advanced ages. Interestingly, concomitant overexpression of normal TDP-43 and mutant α-synuclein caused a more severe loss of dopaminergic neurons in the double transgenic mice as compared to single-gene transgenic mice. TDP-43 potentiated α-synuclein toxicity to dopaminergic neurons in living animals. Our finding provides in vivo evidence suggesting that disease proteins such as TDP-43 and α-synuclein may play a synergistic role in disease induction in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:21448284

  14. Blood Plasma of Patients with Parkinson’s Disease Increases Alpha-Synuclein Aggregation and Neurotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A pathological hallmark of Parkinson’s disease (PD is formation of Lewy bodies in neurons of the brain. This has been attributed to the spread of α-synuclein (α-syn aggregates, which involves release of α-syn from a neuron and its reuptake by a neighboring neuron. We found that treatment with plasma from PD patients induced more α-syn phosphorylation and oligomerization than plasma from normal subjects (NS. Compared with NS plasma, PD plasma added to primary neuron cultures caused more cell death in the presence of extracellular α-syn. This was supported by the observations that phosphorylated α-syn oligomers entered neurons, rapidly increased accumulated thioflavin S-positive inclusions, and induced a series of metabolic changes that included activation of polo-like kinase 2, inhibition of glucocerebrosidase and protein phosphatase 2A, and reduction of ceramide levels, all of which have been shown to promote α-syn phosphorylation and aggregation. We also analyzed neurotoxicity of α-syn oligomers relative to plasma from different patients. Neurotoxicity was not related to age or gender of the patients. However, neurotoxicity was positively correlated with H&Y staging score. The modification in the plasma may promote spreading of α-syn aggregates via an alternative pathway and accelerate progression of PD.

  15. Toxic properties of microsome-associated alpha-synuclein species in mouse primary neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colla, Emanuela; Panattoni, Giulia; Ricci, Alessio; Rizzi, Caterina; Rota, Lucia; Carucci, Nicola; Valvano, Verdiana; Gobbo, Francesco; Capsoni, Simona; Lee, Michael K; Cattaneo, Antonino

    2018-03-01

    α-synuclein (αS) is a small protein that self-aggregates into α-helical oligomer species and subsequently into larger insoluble amyloid fibrils that accumulate in intraneuronal inclusions during the development of Parkinson's disease. Toxicity of αS oligomers and fibrils has been long debated and more recent data are suggesting that both species can induce neurodegeneration. However while most of these data are based on differences in structure between oligomer and aggregates, often preassembled in vitro, the in vivo situation might be more complex and subcellular locations where αS species accumulate, rather than their conformation, might contribute to enhanced toxicity. In line with this observation, we have shown that αS oligomers and aggregates are associated with the endoplasmic reticulum/microsomes (ER/M) membrane in vivo and how accumulation of soluble αS oligomers at the ER/M level precedes neuronal degeneration in a mouse model of α-synucleinopathies. In this paper we took a further step, investigating the biochemical and functional features of αS species associated with the ER/M membrane. We found that by comparison with non-microsomal associated αS (P10), the ER/M-associated αS pool is a unique population of oligomers and aggregates with specific biochemical traits such as increased aggregation, N- and C-terminal truncations and phosphorylation at serine 129. Moreover, when administered to murine primary neurons, ER/M-associated αS species isolated from diseased A53T human αS transgenic mice induced neuronal changes in a time- and dose-dependent manner. In fact the addition of small amounts of ER/M-associated αS species from diseased mice to primary cultures induced the formation of beads-like structures or strings of fibrous αS aggregates along the neurites, occasionally covering the entire process or localizing at the soma level. By comparison treatment with P10 fractions from the same diseased mice resulted in the formation of scarce and small puncta only when administered at high amount. Moreover, increasing the amount of P100/M fractions obtained from diseased and, more surprisingly, from presymptomatic mice induced a significant level of neuronal death that was prevented when neurons were treated with ER/M fractions immunodepleted of αS high molecular weight (HMW) species. These data provide the first evidence of the existence of two different populations of αS HMW species in vivo, putting the spotlight on the association to ER/M membrane as a necessary step for the acquisition of αS toxic features. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Alpha-Synuclein in Parkinson's Disease: From Pathogenetic Dysfunction to Potential Clinical Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lingjia; Pu, Jiali

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disease/synucleinopathy that develops slowly; however, there is no efficient method of early diagnosis, nor is there a cure. Progressive dopaminergic neuronal cell loss in the substantia nigra pars compacta and widespread aggregation of the α-synuclein protein (encoded by the SNCA gene) in the form of Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites are the neuropathological hallmarks of Parkinson's disease. The SNCA gene has undergone gene duplications, triplications, and point mutations. However, the specific mechanism of α-synuclein in Parkinson's disease remains obscure. Recent research showed that various α-synuclein oligomers, pathological aggregation, and propagation appear to be harmful in certain areas in Parkinson's disease patients. This review summarizes our current knowledge of the pathogenetic dysfunction of α-synuclein associated with Parkinson's disease and highlights current approaches that seek to develop this protein as a possible diagnostic biomarker and therapeutic target.

  17. Digital collections and exhibits

    CERN Document Server

    Denzer, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Today's libraries are taking advantage of cutting-edge technologies such as flat panel displays using touch, sound, and hands-free motions to design amazing exhibits using everything from simple computer hardware to advanced technologies such as the Microsoft Kinect. Libraries of all types are striving to add new interactive experiences for their patrons through exciting digital exhibits, both online and off. Digital Collections and Exhibits takes away the mystery of designing stunning digital exhibits to spotlight library trea

  18. Ethics on Exhibit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vick, Randy M.

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses ethical questions raised by an exhibition of work by an artist with a history of mental illness and the exhibition's relevance to art therapy and “outsider art” discourse on the subject. Considerations for how such an exhibit could be handled had the circumstances included an art therapist and art therapy client are…

  19. Discrimination? - Exhibition of posters

    OpenAIRE

    Jakimovska, Jana

    2017-01-01

    Participation in the exhibition with the students form the Art Academy. The exhibition consisted of 15 posters tackling the subjects of hate speech and discrimination. The exhibition happened thanks to the invitation of the Faculty of Law at UGD, and it was a part of a larger event of launching books on the aforementioned subjects.

  20. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Marguerite; Nigg, Joel T.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last two decades, there have been numerous technical and methodological advances available to clinicians and researchers to better understand attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its etiology. Despite the growing body of literature investigating the disorder’s pathophysiology, ADHD remains a complex psychiatric disorder to characterize. This chapter will briefly review the literature on ADHD, with a focus on its history, the current genetic insights, neurophysiologic theories, and the use of neuroimaging to further understand the etiology. We address some of the major concerns that remain unclear about ADHD, including subtype instability, heterogeneity, and the underlying neural correlates that define the disorder. We highlight that the field of ADHD is rapidly evolving; the descriptions provided here will hopefully provide a sturdy foundation for which to build and improve our understanding of the disorder. PMID:24214656

  1. Exhibition; Image display agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normazlin Ismail

    2008-01-01

    This article touches on the role of Malaysian Nuclear Agency as nuclear research institutions to promote, develop and encourage the peaceful uses of nuclear technology in its agricultural, medical, manufacturing, industrial, health and environment for the development of the country running successfully. Maturity of Malaysian Nuclear Agency in dealing with nuclear technology that are very competitive and globalization cannot be denied. On this basis Malaysian Nuclear Agency was given the responsibility to strengthen the nuclear technology in Malaysia. One way is through an exhibition featuring the research, discoveries and new technology products of the nuclear technology. Through this exhibition is to promote the nuclear technology and introduce the image of the agency in the public eye. This article also states a number of exhibits entered by the Malaysian Nuclear Agency and achievements during the last exhibition. Authors hope that the exhibition can be intensified further in the future.

  2. Space physics exhibits underway

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVito, M. Catherine

    AGU is planning a new space science exhibit for the Smithsonian Institution's National Air and Space Museum in Washington that will help visitors come to an understanding of space science as a comprehensive, interdisciplinary, and exciting field. The title of the exhibit is “Electric Space: Our Earth-Sun Environment.” The exhibit's five modules will include demonstrations of the effects of particle and field radiation on humans and satellites in space and on human technology on the ground. The project also includes a larger traveling version that will visit science and technology centers throughout the United States. The first exhibit is planned to open at the Air and Space Museum in late summer or early fall 1992, in time for International Space Year activities; the traveling exhibit will begin touring in early 1993.

  3. Clinical use of a modified release methylphenidate in the treatment of childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Takon, Inyang

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most commonly diagnosed neurobehavioural disorder in childhood, affecting over 5% of children worldwide. As well as the core symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity, patients often exhibit learning difficulties and impairment in social functioning. The frequency of referral is higher for boys than for girls (about 2:1), and girls are generally older at the time of referral. Pharmacological therapy is considered the...

  4. Council Chamber exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    To complete the revamp of CERN’s Council Chamber, a new exhibition is being installed just in time for the June Council meetings.   Panels will showcase highlights of CERN’s history, using some of the content prepared for the exhibitions marking 50 years of the PS, which were displayed in the main building last November. The previous photo exhibition in the Council Chamber stopped at the 1970s. To avoid the new panels becoming quickly out of date, photos are grouped together around specific infrastructures, rather than following a classic time-line. “We have put the focus on the accelerators – the world-class facilities that CERN has been offering researchers over the years, from the well-known large colliders to the lesser-known smaller facilities,” says Emma Sanders, who worked on the content. The new exhibition will be featured in a future issue of the Bulletin with photos and an interview with Fabienne Marcastel, designer of the exhibit...

  5. EXHIBITION: Accelerated Particles

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    An exhibition of plastic arts and two evenings of performances by sound and visual artists as part of CERN's 50th anniversary celebrations. Fifty candles for CERN, an international laboratory renowned for fundamental research, is a cause for celebration. Since March this year, Geneva and neighbouring parts of France have been the venues for a wealth of small and large-scale events, which will continue until November. Given CERN's location in the commune of Meyrin, the ForuMeyrin is hosting exhibitions of plastic arts and performances entitled: Accelerated Particles. Several works will be exhibited and performed in two 'salons'. Salon des matières: An exhibition of plastic arts From Tues 12 October to Wed 3 November 2004 Tuesdays to Fridays: 16:00 to 19:00 Saturdays: 14:00 to 18:00 Exhibition open late on performance nights, entrance free Salon des particules: Musical and visual performances Tues 12 and Mon 25 October from 20:00 to 23:00 Preview evening for both events: Tues 12 October from 18:...

  6. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokor, Gyula; Anderson, Peter D

    2014-08-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurobiological condition of childhood onset with the hallmarks of inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Inattention includes excessive daydreaming, disorganization, and being easily distracted. Impulsivity manifests as taking an action before fully thinking of the consequences. Hyperactivity includes an excessive rate of speech and motor activity. Complications of ADHD include academic failure, low self-esteem, poor work performance, substance abuse, criminal justice issues, and social problems. ADHD is predominately due to decreased activity in the frontal lobe. Dopamine and norepinephrine are the main neurotransmitters involved in the pathophysiology of ADHD. Pharmacological treatment of ADHD includes psychostimulants, norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, α2 agonists, bupropion, and monoamine oxidase inhibitors. The most effective medications are the psychostimulants. Nonpharmacological treatment of ADHD includes coaching, providing structure, academic accommodations, and work accommodations. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Exhibition in Sight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Burton

    1978-01-01

    Ludwig Mies van der Rohe is known primarily as an architect. However, he also designed chairs and tables. Discusses an exhibit held in New York City a few months ago which showed how well the famous architect achieved his goals in the area of furniture design. (Author/RK)

  8. EXHIBITION: Accelerated Particles

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    http://www.cern.ch/cern50/ An exhibition of plastic arts and two evenings of performances by sound and visual artists as part of CERN's fiftieth anniversary celebrations. The fiftieth anniversary of a world famous organization like CERN, an international laboratory specializing in fundamental research, is a cause for celebration. Since March this year, Geneva and neighbouring parts of France have been the venues for a wealth of small and large-scale events, which will continue until November. Given CERN's location in the commune of Meyrin, the ForuMeyrin is hosting two "salons" consisting of an exhibition of plastic arts and evenings of music and visual arts performances with the collective title of "Accelerated Particles". Several works will be exhibited and performed. Salon des matières: An exhibition of plastic arts Until Wednesday 3 November 2004. Tuesdays to Fridays: 4.00 p.m. to 7.00 p.m. Saturdays: 2.00 p.m. to 6.00 p.m. Doors open late on the evening of the performances. Salon des ...

  9. Exhibition in Sight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Burton

    1978-01-01

    One of the most offbeat exhibitions presented in the last several years was the widely celebrated Warhol-Wyeth duo show, "Portraits of Each Other", held at the Brandywine River Museum in Chadds Ford, Pennsylvania. Discusses their paintings and their diametrically different personalities. (Author/RK)

  10. Testosterone and Androgen Receptor Sensitivity in Relation to Hyperactivity Symptoms in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pivovarciova

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASD and hyperactivity symptoms exhibit an incidence that is male-biased. Thus androgen activity can be considered a plausible biological risk factor for these disorders. However, there is insufficient information about the association between increased androgen activity and hyperactivity symptoms in children with ASD.In the present study, the relationship between parameters of androgenicity (plasmatic testosterone levels and androgen receptor sensitivity and hyperactivity in 60 boys (age 3-15 with ASD is investigated. Given well documented differences in parent and trained examiners ratings of symptom severity, we employed a standardized parent`s questionnaire (Nisonger Child Behavior Rating Form as well as a direct examiner`s rating (Autism diagnostic observation schedule for assessment of hyperactivity symptoms.Although it was found there was no significant association between actual plasmatic testosterone levels and hyperactivity symptoms, the number of CAG triplets was significantly negatively correlated with hyperactivity symptoms (R2 = 0.118, p = 0.007 in the sample, indicating increased androgen receptor sensitivity in association with hyperactivity symptoms. Direct trained examiner´s assessment appeared to be a relevant method for evaluating of behavioral problems in the investigation of biological underpinnings of these problems in our study.A potential ASD subtype characterized by increased rates of hyperactivity symptoms might have distinct etiopathogenesis and require a specific behavioral and pharmacological approach. We propose an increase of androgen receptor sensitivity as a biomarker for a specific ASD subtype accompanied with hyperactivity symptoms. Findings are discussed in terms of their implications for practice and future research.

  11. Upcycling CERN Exhibitions

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Summer is coming - and with it, a new Microcosm exhibition showcasing CERN (see here). But while the new exhibit is preparing to enchant visitors, many have been asking about the site's former content. Will it simply be out with the old and in with the new? Not as such!   The plasma ball from Microcosm is now on display at the LHCb site. As Microcosm's new content is moving in, its old content is moving up. From LHCb to IdeaSquare, former Microcosm displays and objects are being installed across the CERN site. "Microcosm featured many elements that were well suited to life outside of the exhibition," says Emma Sanders, Microcosm project leader in the EDU group. "We didn't want this popular content to go to waste, and so set out to find them new homes across CERN." The LHCb experiment has received a number of Microcosm favourites, including the Rutherford experiment, the cosmic ray display and the Thomson experiment. "We&...

  12. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-04-10

    This podcast discusses Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, or ADHD, the most common behavioral disorder in children. Learn about symptoms, risk factors, and treatment.  Created: 4/10/2014 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD).   Date Released: 5/7/2014.

  13. Smithsonian climate change exhibits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mohi

    2006-05-01

    Two new museum exhibits, ``Arctic: A Friend Acting Strangely'' and ``Atmosphere: Change is in the Air'' opened 15 April at the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History in Washington, D.C., in partnership with the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, NASA, and the U.S. National Science Foundation. In ``Arctic: A Friend Acting Strangely,'' anecdotes from indigenous polar people reveal how climate changes have affected life within the last 50 years. For example, as permafrost melts and sea ice shrinks, plant distributions and animal migration patterns are changing, severely affecting culture.

  14. Designing an exhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingemann, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    is enveloped by the design process but also by the end product, which is an artefact. Design is much more than a given form that serves the function of an object. I will provide an illustrative case example focuses on the processes of developing the visual and symbolic design of a small poster exhibition...... by following the design-thinking processes in detail. The fundamental concept is an introverted analysis completed by giving one person two roles, that of designer and researcher. The result is a dialogue concerning the processual experience as a reflection-in-action. The contribution to a general core...

  15. Anniversary Exhibition. Nechvolodov.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - -

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available On the 10th of August, 2005 in Tartu (the second biggest educational and cultural city in Estonia Stanislav Nechvolodov's exhibition was opened to show the 5-year cycle of his work, traditional for the author and his admirers. At the opening ceremony Nechvolodov said that the exhibition was the last one and appointed on his 70th anniversary.The architectural and building society in Irkutsk remembers Stanislav Nechvolodov as an architect working on dwelling and civil buildings in 1960-70s. Below are some extracts from the Estonian press.«Postimees» newspaper, December 1993. The interview «Expressionistic naturalist, conservative Nechvolodov» by journalist Eric Linnumyagi. He asks about all the details and describes the troubles experienced by Nechvolodov during the perestroika period in Estonia, for example: the Tartu University refused to install the sculpture of Socrat, the art school refused to engage him as an instructor, the sculpture of Socrat moved to Vrotzlav, Poland, and Nechvolodov moved to Poland to read lectures there.«Tartu» newspaper, November 2000. Mats Oun, artist, says in the article «Nechvolodov: a man of Renaissance»: «Nechvolodov works in Estonia, his works are placed in many local and foreign museums. Regardless some insignificant faults, he deserves a high estimation, and his manysided open exhibition can be an example for other artists. He is a man of Renaissance».

  16. Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    to accomplish. 2. Self concerns which involve self esteem . This is the way one feels about oneself. One’s self esteem can often be related to...ADD group was described by teachers as less happy while ADHD boys were rated as more unpopular, self -destructive and aggressive. Many studies have...also have decreased self esteem , depression and poor peer acceptance (Pelham & Bender, 1982; Weiss, 1985). Children with hyperactivity have

  17. Cortisol Response to Stress in Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corominas-Roso, Margarida; Palomar, Gloria; Ferrer, Roser; Real, Alberto; Nogueira, Mariana; Corrales, Montserrat; Casas, Miguel; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep Antoni

    2015-03-17

    Differences in the cortisol response have been reported between children exhibiting the inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive subtypes of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. However, there is no such information about adults. The aim of the present study was to determine the possible differences between the combined and inattentive subtypes in the cortisol response to stress. Ninety-six adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, 38 inattentive and 58 combined, without any medical or psychiatric comorbidities and 25 healthy controls were included. The Trier Social Stress Test was used to assess physiological stress responses. Clinical data and subjective stress levels, including the Perceived Stress Scale, were also recorded. No significant differences in the cortisol response to the Trier Social Stress Test were found between patients and controls. However, albeit there were no basal differences, lower cortisol levels at 15 (P=.015), 30 (P=.015), and 45 minutes (P=.045) were observed in the combined compared with the inattentive subtype after the stress induction; these differences disappeared 60 minutes after the stress. In contrast, the subjective stress responses showed significant differences between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder patients and controls (Pattention deficit hyperactivity disorder subtypes. In turn, subjective stress measures, such as the Perceived Stress Scale, positively correlated with the whole cortisol stress response (Pattention deficit hyperactivity disorder adults exhibited a normal cortisol response to stress when challenged. Nevertheless, the inattentive patients displayed a higher level of cortisol after stress compared with the combined patients. Despite the differences in the cortisol response, adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder reported high levels of subjective stress in their every-day life. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  18. The Severity of Vestibular Dysfunction in Deafness as a Determinant of Comorbid Hyperactivity or Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, Michelle W; Vijayakumar, Sarath; McKeehan, Nicholas; Jones, Sherri M; Hébert, Jean M

    2017-05-17

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and anxiety-related disorders occur at rates 2-3 times higher in deaf compared with hearing children. Potential explanations for these elevated rates and the heterogeneity of behavioral disorders associated with deafness have usually focused on socio-environmental rather than biological effects. Children with the 22q11.2 deletion or duplication syndromes often display hearing loss and behavioral disorders, including ADHD and anxiety-related disorders. Here, we show that mouse mutants with either a gain or loss of function of the T-Box transcription factor gene, Tbx1 , which lies within the 22q11.2 region and is responsible for most of the syndromic defects, exhibit inner ear defects and hyperactivity. Furthermore, we show that (1) inner ear dysfunction due to the tissue-specific loss of Tbx1 or Slc12a2 , which encodes a sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter and is also necessary for inner ear function, causes hyperactivity; (2) vestibular rather than auditory failure causes hyperactivity; and (3) the severity rather than the age of onset of vestibular dysfunction differentiates whether hyperactivity or anxiety co-occurs with inner ear dysfunction. Together, these findings highlight a biological link between inner ear dysfunction and behavioral disorders and how sensory abnormalities can contribute to the etiology of disorders traditionally considered of cerebral origin. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT This study examines the biological rather than socio-environmental reasons why hyperactivity and anxiety disorders occur at higher rates in deaf individuals. Using conditional genetic approaches in mice, the authors show that (1) inner ear dysfunction due to either Tbx1 or Slc12a2 mutations cause hyperactivity; (2) it is vestibular dysfunction, which frequently co-occurs with deafness but often remains undiagnosed, rather than auditory dysfunction that causes hyperactivity and anxiety-related symptoms; and (3) the severity of

  19. Prenatal Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke and Hyperactivity Behavior in Chinese Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qingmei; Hou, Xiang-Yu; Yin, Xiao-Na; Wen, Guo-Min; Sun, Dengli; Xian, Dan-Xia; Fan, Lijun; Jiang, Hui; Jing, Jin; Jin, Yu; Wu, Chuan-An; Chen, Wei-Qing

    2017-09-27

    This study aimed to examine the association between prenatal environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure and hyperactivity behaviors in young children. A cross-sectional study was undertaken among 21,243 participants from all of the kindergartens in Longhua District of Shenzhen, China. Multivariate logistic regression models and hierarchical linear models were employed to assess the associations. After adjusting for potential confounders of gender, preterm birth, birth asphyxiation, etc., prenatal ETS exposure was significantly associated with an increased risk of hyperactivity behaviors in young children (OR (95% CI) = 1.51 (1.28-1.77); β (95% CI) = 0.017 (0.013-0.020)). Along with increases in children's prenatal ETS exposure dose (measured by daily ETS exposure duration, daily cigarette consumption by household members, and overall score of prenatal ETS exposure), the children were also increasingly more likely to exhibit hyperactivity behaviors. Furthermore, children whose mothers had prenatal ETS exposure in any one or more of the pregnancy trimesters were more likely to exhibit hyperactivity behaviors as compared with those born to non-exposure mothers (all p prenatal ETS exposure could be associated with a detrimental impact on offspring's hyperactivity behaviors, and public health efforts are needed to reduce prenatal ETS exposure.

  20. A Meta-Analysis of Working Memory Impairments in Children with Attention-Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinussen, Rhonda; Hayden, Jill; Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah; Tannock, Rosemary

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine the empirical evidence for deficits in working memory (WM) processes in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: Exploratory meta-analytic procedures were used to investigate whether children with ADHD exhibit WM impairments. Twenty-six empirical research studies published from…

  1. Perceived Social Support by Children with Characteristics of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaray, Michelle Kilpatrick; Elliott, Stephen N.

    2001-01-01

    Investigates perceptions of social support behaviors exhibited by significant adults and peers at school among a group of students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) characteristics. Data indicates that children with characteristics of ADHD perceived lower frequencies of overall support, and that both the ADHD and control groups…

  2. Utricular paresis and semicircular canal hyperactivity: a distinct otolith syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeli, Simon I; Snapp, Hillary; Velandia, Sandra; Morgenstein, Kari

    2015-04-01

    Although combined utricular and canal paresis has been described previously, this is the first report of canal hyperactivity associated with utricular hypofunction. Unsteadiness and swaying were the most common symptoms, and patients with shorter duration of symptoms also had positional vertigo. We propose that this syndrome is a variant of utricular dysfunction and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of peripheral vestibular disorders. To describe a syndrome of instability associated with utricular dysfunction and hyperactive caloric responses. The study comprised 11 consecutive patients exhibiting abnormalities of the eccentric subjective visual vertical test (e-SVV) and high responses during the caloric test of the videonystagmography (VNG). We carried out a review of symptoms, physical examination, and vestibular tests. There was no gender predilection or obvious etiology. The patients' main complaint included instability with linear symptoms (i.e., tilting, rocking, and swaying), with positional vertigo as a secondary symptom. Oculomotor testing, visual fixation index, and brain MRI were normal, excluding a central nervous system disorder. VNG was essentially normal except for hyperactive responses during the caloric testing in all patients. Abnormal e-SVV was found in 10 patients unilaterally and bilaterally in 1 patient. Abnormal oVEMP was found in seven of seven patients, further supporting a utricular site of lesion.

  3. Medication Treatment for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Joseph B.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Hughes, Elizabeth M.

    2011-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has become the most commonly diagnosed psychiatric disorder among school-age children. For more than half a century, physicians have prescribed medications to help manage behaviors such as hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention. Today, there is a growing consensus that ADHD is a biologically…

  4. The relationship between hyperactivity dyslexia disorder and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hyperactivity and dyslexia disorder, which was discovered at begining of the the twentieth century, also affects academic life negatively. In this study, the relationship between hyperactivity/dyslexia disorder and emotional intelligence and success has been analysed. In this study, the first-year students of primary schools in ...

  5. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Intervention: Strategies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper addresses attention deficit hyperactivity disorder intervention strategies for primary school teachers. Wrong labelling of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder has given rise to this paper. Hitherto not much attention has been given to the pupils who manifest symptoms of this chronic behavioural ...

  6. Structural variation of alpha-synuclein with temperature by a coarse-grained approach with knowledge-based interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Mirau

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite enormous efforts, our understanding the structure and dynamics of α-synuclein (ASN, a disordered protein (that plays a key role in neurodegenerative disease is far from complete. In order to better understand sequence-structure-property relationships in α-SYNUCLEIN we have developed a coarse-grained model using knowledge-based residue-residue interactions and used it to study the structure of free ASN as a function of temperature (T with a large-scale Monte Carlo simulation. Snapshots of the simulation and contour contact maps show changes in structure formation due to self-assembly as a function of temperature. Variations in the residue mobility profiles reveal clear distinction among three segments along the protein sequence. The N-terminal (1-60 and C-terminal (96-140 regions contain the least mobile residues, which are separated by the higher mobility non-amyloid component (NAC (61-95. Our analysis of the intra-protein contact profile shows a higher frequency of residue aggregation (clumping in the N-terminal region relative to that in the C-terminal region, with little or no aggregation in the NAC region. The radius of gyration (Rg of ASN decays monotonically with decreasing the temperature, consistent with the finding of Allison et al. (JACS, 2009. Our analysis of the structure function provides an insight into the mass (N distribution of ASN, and the dimensionality (D of the structure as a function of temperature. We find that the globular structure with D ≈ 3 at low T, a random coil, D ≈ 2 at high T and in between (2 ≤ D ≤ 3 at the intermediate temperatures. The magnitudes of D are in agreement with experimental estimates (J. Biological Chem 2002.

  7. Early and progressive microstructural brain changes in mice overexpressing human alpha-Synuclein detected by diffusion kurtosis imaging

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Khairnar, A.; Rudá-Kučerová, J.; Szabó, N.; Dražanová, Eva; Arab, A.; Hutter-Paier, B.; Neddens, J.; Latta, P.; Starčuk jr., Zenon; Rektorová, I.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 61, MAR (2017), s. 197-208 ISSN 0889-1591 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015062; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : MRI * diffusion kurtosis imaging * substantia nigra * sriatum * thalamus * TNWT-61 * parkinson's disease * transgenic mice * animal model Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers OBOR OECD: 1.7 Other natural sciences Impact factor: 5.964, year: 2016

  8. Non-uniform self-assembly: On the anisotropic architecture of alpha-synuclein supra-fibrillar aggregates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Semerdzhiev, S. A.; Shvadchak, Volodymyr V.; Subramaniam, V.; Claessens, M. M. A. E.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, Aug 9 (2017), č. článku 7699. ISSN 2045-2322 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : liquid crystal spherulites * Parkinson's disease * Alzheimer's disease Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics OBOR OECD: Biophysics Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016 https://www.nature.com/ articles /s41598-017-06532-1

  9. Structural model for alpha-synuclein fibrils derived from high resolution imaging and nanomechanical studies using atomic force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sweers, K.K.M.; Segers-Nolten, Gezina M.J.; Bennink, Martin L.; Subramaniam, Vinod

    2012-01-01

    A number of proteins form supramolecular protein aggregates called amyloid fibrils which self-assemble under appropriate conditions. We have used high-resolution atomic force microscopy to obtain detailed ultrastructural information on fibrils formed from the E46K mutant of the human α-synuclein

  10. The mechanism of sirtuin 2–mediated exacerbation of alpha-synuclein toxicity in models of Parkinson disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francelle, Laetitia; Pinho, Raquel; Szegö, Éva M.; Martinho, Renato; Munari, Francesca; Lázaro, Diana F.; Moniot, Sébastien; Guerreiro, Patrícia; Fonseca, Luis; Marijanovic, Zrinka; Antas, Pedro; Gerhardt, Ellen; Enguita, Francisco Javier; Fauvet, Bruno; Penque, Deborah; Pais, Teresa Faria; Tong, Qiang; Becker, Stefan; Kügler, Sebastian; Lashuel, Hilal Ahmed; Steegborn, Clemens; Zweckstetter, Markus; Outeiro, Tiago Fleming

    2017-01-01

    Sirtuin genes have been associated with aging and are known to affect multiple cellular pathways. Sirtuin 2 was previously shown to modulate proteotoxicity associated with age-associated neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer and Parkinson disease (PD). However, the precise molecular mechanisms involved remain unclear. Here, we provide mechanistic insight into the interplay between sirtuin 2 and α-synuclein, the major component of the pathognomonic protein inclusions in PD and other synucleinopathies. We found that α-synuclein is acetylated on lysines 6 and 10 and that these residues are deacetylated by sirtuin 2. Genetic manipulation of sirtuin 2 levels in vitro and in vivo modulates the levels of α-synuclein acetylation, its aggregation, and autophagy. Strikingly, mutants blocking acetylation exacerbate α-synuclein toxicity in vivo, in the substantia nigra of rats. Our study identifies α-synuclein acetylation as a key regulatory mechanism governing α-synuclein aggregation and toxicity, demonstrating the potential therapeutic value of sirtuin 2 inhibition in synucleinopathies. PMID:28257421

  11. The mechanism of sirtuin 2-mediated exacerbation of alpha-synuclein toxicity in models of Parkinson disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Machado de Oliveira

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Sirtuin genes have been associated with aging and are known to affect multiple cellular pathways. Sirtuin 2 was previously shown to modulate proteotoxicity associated with age-associated neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer and Parkinson disease (PD. However, the precise molecular mechanisms involved remain unclear. Here, we provide mechanistic insight into the interplay between sirtuin 2 and α-synuclein, the major component of the pathognomonic protein inclusions in PD and other synucleinopathies. We found that α-synuclein is acetylated on lysines 6 and 10 and that these residues are deacetylated by sirtuin 2. Genetic manipulation of sirtuin 2 levels in vitro and in vivo modulates the levels of α-synuclein acetylation, its aggregation, and autophagy. Strikingly, mutants blocking acetylation exacerbate α-synuclein toxicity in vivo, in the substantia nigra of rats. Our study identifies α-synuclein acetylation as a key regulatory mechanism governing α-synuclein aggregation and toxicity, demonstrating the potential therapeutic value of sirtuin 2 inhibition in synucleinopathies.

  12. Region-specific tauopathy and synucleinopathy in brain of the alpha-synuclein overexpressing mouse model of Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masliah Eliezer

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background α-synuclein [α-Syn]-mediated activation of GSK-3β leading to increases in hyperphosphorylated Tau has been shown by us to occur in striata of Parkinson's diseased [PD] patients and in animal models of PD. In Alzheimer's disease, tauopathy exists in several brain regions; however, the pattern of distribution of tauopathy in other brain regions of PD or in animal models of PD is not known. The current studies were undertaken to analyze the distribution of tauopathy in different brain regions in a widely used mouse model of PD, the α-Syn overexpressing mouse. Results High levels of α-Syn levels were seen in the brain stem, with a much smaller increase in the frontal cortex; neither cerebellum nor hippocampus showed any overexpression of α-Syn. Elevated levels of p-Tau, hyperphosphorylated at Ser202, Ser262 and Ser396/404, were seen in brain stem, with lower levels seen in hippocampus. In both frontal cortex and cerebellum, increases were seen only in p-Ser396/404 Tau, but not in p-Ser202 and p-Ser262. p-GSK-3β levels were not elevated in any of the brain regions, although total GSK-3β was elevated in brain stem. p-p38MAPK levels were unchanged in all brain regions examined, while p-ERK levels were elevated in brain stem, hippocampus and cerebellum, but not the frontal cortex. p-JNK levels were increased in brain stem and cerebellum but not in the frontal cortex or hippocampus. Elevated levels of free tubulin, indicating microtubule destabilization, were seen only in the brain stem. Conclusion Our combined data suggest that in this animal model of PD, tauopathy, along with microtubule destabilization, exists primarily in the brain stem and striatum, which are also the two major brain regions known to express high levels of α-Syn and undergo the highest levels of degeneration in human PD. Thus, tauopathy in PD may have a very restricted pattern of distribution.

  13. Pressure effects on .alpha.-synuclein amyloid fibrils: an experimental investigation on their dissociation and reversible nature

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Piccirilli, F.; Plotegher, N.; Spinozzi, F.; Bubacco, L.; Mariani, P.; Beltramini, M.; Tessari, I.; Militello, V.; Perucchi, A.; Amenitsch, H.; Baldassarri Jr., E.; Steinhart, Miloš; Lupi, S.; Ortore, M. G.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 627, 1 August (2017), s. 46-55 ISSN 0003-9861 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : amyloid * high-pressure * SAXS Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 3.165, year: 2016

  14. Late-stage alpha-synuclein accumulation in TNWT-61 mouse model of Parkinson's disease detected by diffusion kurtosis imaging

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Khairnar, A.; Rudá-Kučerová, J.; Dražanová, Eva; Szabó, N.; Latta, P.; Arab, A.; Hutter-Paier, B.; Havas, D.; Windisch, M.; Šulcová, A.; Starčuk jr., Zenon; Király, A.; Rektorová, I.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 136, č. 6 (2016), s. 1259-1269 ISSN 0022-3042 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : diffusion kurtosis imaging * diffusion kurtosis imaging * Parkinson's disease * TBSS * TNWT-61 * transgenic mice Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 4.083, year: 2016

  15. Alpha synuclein protein is involved in Aluminum-induced cell death and oxidative stress in PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saberzadeh, Jamileh; Arabsolghar, Rita; Takhshid, Mohammad Ali

    2016-03-15

    Increased expression and aggregation of α-synuclein (α-syn) protein plays a critical role in mediating the toxic effects of a number of neurodegenerative substances including metals. Thus, knockdown expression of α-syn is proposed as a possible modality for treatment of Parkinson disease (PD). Aluminum (Al) is a neurotoxic metal that contributes to pathogenesis of PD. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of α-syn protein in mediating Al-induced toxicity in PC12 cells. Specific α-syn small interference RNA (siRNA) was applied to knockdown the expression of α-syn protein in PC12 cells. The effects of different concentrations of Al-maltolate (Almal) were then evaluated on cell viability and oxidative stress in the α-syn downregulated cells. The results showed that Almal dose dependently induced apoptosis and increased malondialdehyde (MDA) and catalase activity in PC12 cells. Downregulation of α-syn protein significantly increased cell viability and decreased oxidative markers in Almal-treated cells. These findings suggest that α-syn protein may mediate Al-induced apoptosis and oxidative stress in PC12 cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Alpha-synuclein sequesters Dnmt1 from the nucleus: a novel mechanism for epigenetic alterations in Lewy body diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desplats, Paula; Spencer, Brian; Coffee, Elizabeth; Patel, Pruthul; Michael, Sarah; Patrick, Christina; Adame, Anthony; Rockenstein, Edward; Masliah, Eliezer

    2011-03-18

    DNA methylation is a major epigenetic modification that regulates gene expression. Dnmt1, the maintenance DNA methylation enzyme, is abundantly expressed in the adult brain and is mainly located in the nuclear compartment, where it has access to chromatin. Hypomethylation of CpG islands at intron 1 of the SNCA gene has recently been reported to result in overexpression of α-synuclein in Parkinson disease (PD) and related disorders. We therefore investigated the mechanisms underlying altered DNA methylation in PD and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). We present evidence of reduction of nuclear Dnmt1 levels in human postmortem brain samples from PD and DLB patients as well as in the brains of α-synuclein transgenic mice models. Furthermore, sequestration of Dnmt1 in the cytoplasm results in global DNA hypomethylation in human and mouse brains, involving CpG islands upstream of SNCA, SEPW1, and PRKAR2A genes. We report that association of Dnmt1 and α-synuclein might mediate aberrant subcellular localization of Dnmt1. Nuclear Dnmt1 levels were partially rescued by overexpression of Dnmt1 in neuronal cell cultures and in α-synuclein transgenic mice brains. Our results underscore a novel mechanism for epigenetic dysregulation in Lewy body diseases, which might underlie the decrease in DNA methylation reported for PD and DLB.

  17. Application of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry for study on fibrillar and oligomeric aggregates of alpha-synuclein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Severinovskaya, O. V.; Kovalska, V B; Losytskyy, M Yu; Cherepanov, V. V.; Subramaniam, V.; Yarmoluk, S M

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To study the α-synuclein (ASN) aggregates of different structural origin, namely amyloid fibrils and spherical oligomers, in comparison with a native protein. Methods. MALDI TOF mass spectrometry and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Results. The mass spectra of native and fibrillar ASN have

  18. SMG1 identified as a regulator of Parkinson's disease-associated alpha-synuclein through siRNA screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne Henderson-Smith

    Full Text Available Synucleinopathies are a broad class of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the presence of intracellular protein aggregates containing α-synuclein protein. The aggregated α-synuclein protein is hyperphosphorylated on serine 129 (S129 compared to the unaggregated form of the protein. While the precise functional consequences of S129 hyperphosphorylation are still being clarified, numerous in vitro and in vivo studies suggest that S129 phosphorylation is an early event in α-synuclein dysfunction and aggregation. Identifying the kinases and phosphatases that regulate this critical phosphorylation event may ultimately prove beneficial by allowing pharmacological mitigation of synuclein dysfunction and toxicity in Parkinson's disease and other synucleinopathies. We report here the development of a high-content, fluorescence-based assay to quantitate levels of total and S129 phosphorylated α-synuclein protein. We have applied this assay to conduct high-throughput loss-of-function screens with siRNA libraries targeting 711 known and predicted human kinases and 206 phosphatases. Specifically, knockdown of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase related kinase SMG1 resulted in significant increases in the expression of pS129 phosphorylated α-synuclein (p-syn. Moreover, SMG1 protein levels were significantly reduced in brain regions with high p-syn levels in both dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB and Parkinson's disease with dementia (PDD. These findings suggest that SMG1 may play an important role in increased α-synuclein pathology during the course of PDD, DLB, and possibly other synucleinopathies.

  19. The anti-parkinsonian drug selegiline (R(-)-deprenyl) inhibits the nucleation phase of {alpha}-synuclein aggregation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Follmer, Cristian; Braga, Carolina A.; Khattar, Elias; Palhano, Fernando; Freitas, Monica S.; Silva, Jerson L.; Foguel, Debora [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Bioquimica Medica; Lara, Flavio Alves [Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Microbiologia Celular; Lashuel, Hilal [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2008-07-01

    Full text: Parkinson's disease (P D) is a chronic disorder characterized by the formation of intra neuronal inclusions called Le wy bodies mainly composed of a-synuclein (a-syn), a natively- unfolded protein with unknown function. Its implication in P D is due to the fact that two mutations (A30P and A53T) are linked to early-onset forms of P D. Selegiline (R(-)-deprenyl) is a noncompetitive monoamino oxidase-B inhibitor which has ne uroprotective effects. It has been administered to P D patients either as monotherapy or in combination with L-dopa. However, its mechanism is unknown. We evaluated the effect of Sel in the in vitro aggregation of A30P either in the presence or absence of amyloid seeds (small fibrils acting as a nucleus). We observed that Sel (1:0.5 or 1:1.5 protein:Sel ratio ) delays fibril formation by enhancing the nucleation phase. Sel effects on fibril formation are abolished when previously added seeds are present, suggesting that Sel interferes with nucleus formation, and is dependent of the A30P:Sel ratio. This inhibitory effect of Sel on the nucleation phase was also evaluated by using another amyloidogenic, natively- unfolded protein, Sup35, but in this case, the effect of Sel was not abolished when Sel was added after the end of the lag phase. We also observed that Sel in combination with dopamine (DA) favors fibril formation. Currently, we are mapping A30P-Sel interaction by NMR. We observed that in the presence of Sel (1:2 p tn:Sel ratio), very little changes occur in the HSQC spectra of the isotopically labeled protein. These results suggest that in the presence of DA, Sel favors the conversion of the toxic prot ofibrils into the non-toxic fibrils, alleviating the dopaminergic neurons from toxic effects. In the non-dopaminergic neurons, Sel would slow down the fibrillation process, probably by forming large spherical aggregates.

  20. 5-HT2A Receptor Binding in the Frontal Cortex of Parkinson's Disease Patients and Alpha-Synuclein Overexpressing Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Nadja Bredo; Olesen, Mikkel Vestergaard; Brudek, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    The receptor is highly involved in aspects of cognition and executive function and seen to be affected in neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s disease and related to the disease pathology. Even though Parkinson’s disease (PD) is primarily a motor disorder, reports of impaired executive fun...

  1. The mechanisms of sirtuin 2-mediated exacerbation of alpha-synuclein toxicity in models of Parkinson disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirtuin genes have been associated with aging and are known to affect multiple cellular pathways. Sirtuin 2 was previously shown to modulate proteotoxicity associated with age-associated neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer and Parkinson disease (PD). However, the precise molecular mechanis...

  2. Alpha-Synuclein Pathology in Sensory Nerve Terminals of the Upper Aerodigestive Tract of Parkinson’s Disease Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Liancai; Chen, Jingming; Sobotka, Stanislaw; Nyirenda, Themba; Benson, Brian; Gupta, Fiona; Sanders, Ira; Adler, Charles H.; Caviness, John N.; Shill, Holly A.; Sabbagh, Marwan; Samanta, Johan E.; Sue, Lucia I.; Beach, Thomas G.

    2015-01-01

    Dysphagia is common in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and causes significant morbidity and mortality. PD dysphagia has usually been explained as dysfunction of central motor control, much like other motor symptoms that are characteristic of the disease. However, PD dysphagia does not correlate with severity of motor symptoms nor does it respond to motor therapies. It is known that PD patients have sensory deficits in the pharynx, and that impaired sensation may contribute to dysphagia. However, the underlying cause of the pharyngeal sensory deficits in PD is not known. We hypothesized that PD dysphagia with sensory deficits may be due to degeneration of the sensory nerve terminals in the upper aerodigestive tract (UAT). We have previously shown that Lewy-type synucleinopathy (LTS) is present in the main pharyngeal sensory nerves of PD patients, but not in controls. In this study, the sensory terminals in UAT mucosa were studied to discern the presence and distribution of LTS. Whole-mount specimens (tongue-pharynx-larynx-upper esophagus) were obtained from 10 deceased human subjects with clinically diagnosed and neuropathologically confirmed PD (five with dysphagia and five without) and four age-matched healthy controls. Samples were taken from six sites and immunostained for phosphorylated α-synuclein (PAS). The results showed the presence of PAS-immunoreactive (PAS-ir) axons in all the PD subjects and in none of the controls. Notably, PD patients with dysphagia had more PAS-ir axons in the regions that are critical for initiating the swallowing reflex. These findings suggest that Lewy pathology affects mucosal sensory axons in specific regions of the UAT and may be related to PD dysphagia. PMID:26041249

  3. Alpha-Synuclein Pathology in Sensory Nerve Terminals of the Upper Aerodigestive Tract of Parkinson's Disease Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Liancai; Chen, Jingming; Sobotka, Stanislaw; Nyirenda, Themba; Benson, Brian; Gupta, Fiona; Sanders, Ira; Adler, Charles H; Caviness, John N; Shill, Holly A; Sabbagh, Marwan; Samanta, Johan E; Sue, Lucia I; Beach, Thomas G

    2015-08-01

    Dysphagia is common in Parkinson's disease (PD) and causes significant morbidity and mortality. PD dysphagia has usually been explained as dysfunction of central motor control, much like other motor symptoms that are characteristic of the disease. However, PD dysphagia does not correlate with severity of motor symptoms nor does it respond to motor therapies. It is known that PD patients have sensory deficits in the pharynx, and that impaired sensation may contribute to dysphagia. However, the underlying cause of the pharyngeal sensory deficits in PD is not known. We hypothesized that PD dysphagia with sensory deficits may be due to degeneration of the sensory nerve terminals in the upper aerodigestive tract (UAT). We have previously shown that Lewy-type synucleinopathy (LTS) is present in the main pharyngeal sensory nerves of PD patients, but not in controls. In this study, the sensory terminals in UAT mucosa were studied to discern the presence and distribution of LTS. Whole-mount specimens (tongue-pharynx-larynx-upper esophagus) were obtained from 10 deceased human subjects with clinically diagnosed and neuropathologically confirmed PD (five with dysphagia and five without) and four age-matched healthy controls. Samples were taken from six sites and immunostained for phosphorylated α-synuclein (PAS). The results showed the presence of PAS-immunoreactive (PAS-ir) axons in all the PD subjects and in none of the controls. Notably, PD patients with dysphagia had more PAS-ir axons in the regions that are critical for initiating the swallowing reflex. These findings suggest that Lewy pathology affects mucosal sensory axons in specific regions of the UAT and may be related to PD dysphagia.

  4. Drp-1 dependent mitochondrial fragmentation and protective autophagy in dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells overexpressing alpha-synuclein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Jimena Hebe; Alaimo, Agustina; Gorojod, Roxana Mayra; Porte Alcon, Soledad; Fuentes, Federico; Coluccio Leskow, Federico; Kotler, Mónica Lidia

    2018-04-01

    Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative movement disorder caused by the loss of dopaminergic neurons from substantia nigra. It is characterized by the accumulation of aggregated α-synuclein as the major component of the Lewy bodies. Additional common features of this disease are the mitochondrial dysfunction and the activation/inhibition of autophagy both events associated to the intracellular accumulation of α-synuclein. The mechanism by which these events contribute to neural degeneration remains unknown. In the present work we investigated the effect of α-synuclein on mitochondrial dynamics and autophagy/mitophagy in SH-SY5Y cells, an in vitro model of Parkinson disease. We demonstrated that overexpression of wild type α-synuclein causes moderated toxicity, ROS generation and mitochondrial dysfunction. In addition, α-synuclein induces the mitochondrial fragmentation on a Drp-1-dependent fashion. Overexpression of the fusion protein Opa-1 prevented both mitochondrial fragmentation and cytotoxicity. On the other hand, cells expressing α-synuclein showed activated autophagy and particularly mitophagy. Employing a genetic strategy we demonstrated that autophagy is triggered in order to protect cells from α-synuclein-induced cell death. Our results clarify the role of Opa-1 and Drp-1 in mitochondrial dynamics and cell survival, a controversial α-synuclein research issue. The findings presented point to the relevance of mitochondrial homeostasis and autophagy in the pathogenesis of PD. Better understanding of the molecular interaction between these processes could give rise to novel therapeutic methods for PD prevention and amelioration. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Behavioural characterisation of rats exposed neonatally to bisphenol-A: responses to a novel environment and to methylphenidate challenge in a putative model of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiguchi, M.; Fujita, S.; Oki, H.; Shimizu, N.; Cools, A.R.; Koshikawa, N.

    2008-01-01

    Neonatal exposure of rats to bisphenol-A, an endocrine disruptor, has recently been proposed as a possible animal model of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), because such rats exhibit motor hyperactivity. To strengthen the face validity of this animal model, the present study

  6. Exhibition

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association

    2018-01-01

    Univers Du 9 au 20 avril 2018 | CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal Stéphanie Cousin Obsédée par les rêves, les mondes surréalistes et insolites, je m’empare de formes provenant des mes propres travaux photographiques ou d’images que je modifie et mixe. Je fais évoluer mes univers oniriques de femmes-animaux ainsi que mes espaces et natures imaginaires. Avec ma démarche artistique, je cherche à mettre en images nos rêves et nos cauchemars, l’irréel et le surréel, le mystique et les affres de notre inconscient. Je cherche à représenter tout ce qui sommeille au plus profond de nous-même à l’aide de symboles, parfois en utilisant des images de cultures ancestrales. Photographie-collage, je cherche à ajouter quelques notes à la définition de la photographie du 21ièm...

  7. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2018-01-01

    Cosmos KOLI Du 15 au 26 janvier 2018 CERN Meyrin, Main Building (Nébuleuse d'Orion- KOLI) KOLI, Artiste confirmé, diplômé de l’Académie de Beaux Arts de Tirana, depuis 26 ans en Suisse, où il a participé à maintes expositions collectives et organisé 10 expositions privées avec  beaucoup de succès, s’exprime actuellement dans un bonheur de couleur et de matières qui côtoient des hautes sphères… le cosmos ! Gagnant d’un premier prix lors d’une exposition collective organisée par le consulat Italien, il s’est installé au bord du lac dans le canton de Vaud où il vit depuis maintenant déjà 13 ans. www.kolicreation.com Pour plus d’informations et demandes d’accès : staff.association@cern.ch | T&eacut...

  8. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    Jan Hladky, physicien de l'Institut de Physique de l'Académie des Sciences de la République tchèque, et membre de la collaboration Alice, expose ses œuvres au Bâtiment principal du 20 avril au 6 mai. Son exposition est dédiée aux victimes du séisme de Sendai. Des copies de ses œuvres seront mises en vente et les sommes récoltées seront versées au profit des victimes.

  9. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    La mosaïque ou quand détruire permet de construire Lauren Decamps Du 28 novembre au 9 décembre 2016 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal Paysage d'Amsterdam - Lauren Decamps On ne doit jamais rien détruire qu'on ne soit sûr de pouvoir remplacer aussi avantageusement " écrivait Plutarque dans ses Œuvres morales du 1er siècle après JC. L'artiste mosaïste Lauren Decamps adhère à cette idée et tente à sa manière de donner une nouvelle vie à ses matériaux en les taillant puis les réassemblant, créant ainsi des œuvres abstraites et figuratives.

  10. Exhibition

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association

    2018-01-01

    En dehors des frontières Maxence Piquet Du 2 au 11 mai 2018 | CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal Exposition de peinture d'un artiste autodidacte Maxence Piquet (signature artiste M-P), avec différentes techniques (acrylique, huile, fusain, collage...) et sur différents supports. Un art souvent brut et parfois provoquant, avec des touches expressionnistes et cubistes principale origine de son art. Des œuvres souvent vivent et colorées... Cette exposition est la première en dehors d ses frontières Lorraine et a pour but de faire voyager son art au regard du plus grand nombre . Pour plus d’informations et demandes d’accès : staff.association@cern.ch | Tél: 022 766 37 38

  11. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Le Point Isabelle Gailland Du 20 février au 3 mars 2017 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal La Diagonale - Isabelle Gailland. Au départ, un toujours même point minuscule posé au centre de ce que la toile est un espace. Une réplique d'autres points, condensés, alignés, isolés, disséminés construiront dans leur extension, la ligne. Ces lignes, croisées, courbées, déviées, prolongées, seront la structure contenant et séparant la matière des couleurs. La rotation de chaque toile en cours d'exécution va offrir un accès illimité à la non-forme et à la forme. Le point final sera l'ouverture sur différents points de vue de ce que le point et la ligne sont devenus une représentation pour l'œil et l'im...

  12. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    The Elementary Particles of Painting Alfonso Fratteggiani Bianchi and Ermanno Imbergamo From September 26 to October 7, 2016 CERN Meyrin, Main Building With intentions similar to those of CERN physicists, the artist Alfonso Fratteggiani Bianchi investigates the color pigment, studying its interaction with light and with the support on which it is deposited. He creates monochrome paintings by spreading the color pigment in the pure state on stones, without using glue or any other type of adhesive. With intentions similar to artists, the physicist Ermanno Imbergamo investigates the use of luminescent wavelength shifters, materials commonly used in Particle Physics, for art. He creates other monochrome artworks, which disclose further aspects of interaction among light, color pigments and support. For more information: staff.association@cern.ch | Tel: 022 767 28 19

  13. Exhibition

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association

    2018-01-01

    Univers Du 9 au 20 avril 2018 | CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal Stéphanie Cousin Obsédée par les rêves, les mondes surréalistes et insolites, je m’empare de formes provenant des mes propres travaux photographiques ou d’images que je modifie et mixe. Je fais évoluer mes univers oniriques de femmes-animaux ainsi que mes espaces et natures imaginaires. Avec ma démarche artistique, je cherche à mettre en images nos rêves et nos cauchemars, l’irréel et le surréel, le mystique et les affres de notre inconscient. Je cherche à représenter tout ce qui sommeille au plus profond de nous-même à l’aide de symboles, parfois en utilisant des images de cultures ancestrales. Photographie-collage, je cherche à ajouter quelques notes à la définition de la photographie du 21iè...

  14. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Œuvres recentes Fabienne Wyler Du 6 au 17 février 2017 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal L'escalier du diable B - aquarelle, encre de Chine XLV - Fabienne Wyler. En relation avec certains procédés d’écriture contemporaine (par ex. Webern ou certaines musiques conçues par ordinateur), les compositions picturales de Fabienne Wyler s’élaborent à partir de « modules » (groupes de quadrangles) qu’elle reproduit en leur faisant subir toutes sortes de transformations et de déplacements : étirements, renversements, rotations, effet miroir, transpositions, déphasages, superpositions, etc., et ceci à toutes les échelles. Au fil des œuvres sont apparues des séries intitulées, Bifurcations, Intermittences, Attracteurs étranges, Polyrythmies. Ces titres ont un lien &e...

  15. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Les vibrantes Patrick Robbe-Grillet Du 30 octobre au 10 novembre 2017 CERN Meyrin, Main Building Patrick Robbe-Grillet - Feux d'artifices Qui est Patrick Robbe-Grillet ? Artiste Franco-Suisse, né en 1968 à Genève. En recherche du sentiment de paix, autodidacte, après un séjour en Chine en 2000, puis au Japon en 2002, suivi d’un long questionnement, il trouve sa voie dans la peinture, élément libérateur de sa créativité et expression de sa sensibilité à fleur de peau. « La Chine m’a enseigné les courbes, les nuances. Le Japon, la ligne droite, la rigueur. » Vous avez su rendre visible l'invisible ! - commentaire de Monsieur Fawaz Gruosi Pour plus d’informations et demandes d’accès : staff.association@cern.ch | Tél : 022 766 37 38

  16. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Firmament des toiles Joëlle Lalagüe Du 6 au 16 juin 2017 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal Phylaë Voyage - Joëlle Lalagüe. Each picture is an invitation for a cosmic trip. This is a whispering of soul, which comes from origins. A symphony of the world, some notes of love, a harmony for us to fly to infinity. Pour plus d’informations et demandes d'accès : staff.association@cern.ch | Tél: 022 766 37 38

  17. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Still Life Jérémy Bajulaz Du 25 septembre au 6 octobre 2017 CERN Meyrin, Main Building (Aubergine - Jérémy Bajulaz) Né en 1991 en Haute-Savoie, France. Diplômé de l'Ecole Emile Cohl à Lyon, Jérémy Bajulaz intègre en 2014 le programme d'artiste en résidence au Centre Genevois de Gravure Contemporaine. C'est là que son travail prendra corps, autour de la lumière et de ses vibrations aux travers de sujets comme le portrait et la nature morte, dans le souci de l'observation; le regard prenant une place importante dans le processus créatif. Lauréat 2017 du VII Premio AAAC, son travail a été présenté dans de nombreuses expositions collectives, en 2015 au Bâtiment d’Art Contemporain de Genève, en 2016 au 89e Salon de Lyon et du ...

  18. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

    Energie sombre, matière noire J.-J. Dalmais - J. Maréchal Du 11 au 27 novembre 2014, CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal A l’image des particules atomiques qui ont tissé des liens pour créer la matière, deux artistes haut bugistes croisent leurs regards et conjuguent leurs expressions singulières pour faire naître une vision commune de l’univers, produit des forces primordiales. Les sculptures de Jean-Jacques Dalmais et les peintures de Jacki Maréchal se rencontrent pour la première fois et se racontent par un enrichissement mutuel la belle histoire de la Vie. Dialogue magique des œuvres en mouvement qui questionnent en écho l’énergie sombre et la matière noire. Cette harmonieuse confluence de jeux de miroir et de résonnance illumine de poésie et de sobriété l’espace expos&...

  19. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    COLORATION Sandra Duchêne From September 5 to 16, 2016 CERN Meyrin, Main Building La recherche de l’Universel. Après tout ! C’est de l’Amour ! What else to say ? …La couleur, l’ENERGIE de la vie…

  20. Exhibition

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Harmonie Nathalie Lenoir Du 4 au 15 septembre 2017 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal Peindre est un langage. Le tracé du pinceau sur le lin en est l'expression. A qui appartient un tableau en définitive ? A celui qui l'a peint ? A celui qui le regarde ? A celui qui l'emporte ? La peinture est une émotion partagée... Laissez-vous projeter de l'autre côté de la toile, prenez un moment pour rêver, en harmonie avec les éléments, parce-que la peinture parle à votre âme… Pour plus d’informations et demandes d’accès : staff.association@cern.ch | Tél : 022 766 37 38

  1. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Gaïa Manuella Cany Du 10 au 28 avril 2017 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal Oiseau - Manuella Cany. Tableaux abstraits inspirés de vues satellites ou photos prises du ciel. Certains sont à la frontière du figuratif alors que d'autres permettent de laisser libre cours à son imagination. Aux détails infinis, ces tableaux sont faits pour être vus de loin et de près grâce à une attention toute particulière apportée aux effets de matières et aux couleurs le long de volutes tantôt nuancées tantôt contrastées.   Pour plus d’informations : staff.association@cern.ch | Tél: 022 766 37 38

  2. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    La couleur des jours oriSio Du 2 au 12 mai 2017 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal oriSio - Motus Suite à un fort intérêt pour la Chine et une curiosité pour un médium très ancien, la laque ! Je réinterprète cet art à travers un style abstrait. Je présente ici des laques sur aluminium, travaillés au plasma et ensuite colorés à l’aide de pigments pour l’essentiel. Mes œuvres je les veux brutes, déchirées, évanescentes, gondolées, voire trouées mais avec une belle approche de profondeur de la couleur.   Pour plus d’informations : staff.association@cern.ch | Tél: 022 766 37 38

  3. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

      Parallels vision Astronomical subjects which evoke extrasensory kinetic visions Alberto Di Fabio From 8 to 10 October, CERN Meyrin, Main Building In the framework of Italy@cern, the Staff Association presents Alberto Di Fabio. Di Fabio’s work is inspired by the fundamental laws of the physical world, as well as organic elements and their interrelation. His paintings and works on paper merge the worlds of art and science, depicting natural forms and biological structures in vivid colour and imaginative detail. For all additional information: staff.association@cern.ch | Tel: 022 767 28 19

  4. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosler, M.; Casas, M.; Konofal, E.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine available literature regarding attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults. METHODS: An electronic literature search of peer-reviewed English language articles using MEDLINE (without time limits) was undertaken. RESULTS: Symptoms of ADHD in adults exert a

  5. Faststats: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)* Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... visits Number of visits to physician offices with attention deficit disorder as the primary diagnosis: 10.9 ...

  6. The relationship between hyperactivity dyslexia disorder and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF.MIREKU

    and memory disorder, learning disabilities in some subjects ( reading, writting, spelling and mathematics ), hearing disorder, neurological findings, brain electroencephalography (EEG). He categorized these characteristics in four groups; learning disability, hyperactivity, social and emotional problems, insufficiency of.

  7. Focusing on ADHD - Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Subscribe September 2014 Print this issue Focusing on ADHD Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder En español Send us ... Power of Pets Sound Health Wise Choices Managing ADHD Help kids with ADHD stay on top of ...

  8. ADHD Diet: Do Food Additives Cause Hyperactivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... say about the relationship between food additives and ADHD? Answers from David C. Agerter, M.D Food ... There's no solid evidence that food additives cause attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the topic of food additives and ...

  9. Detection of feigned attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tucha, Lara; Fuermaier, Anselm B.M.; Koerts, Janneke; Groen, Yvonne; Thome, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there is an increasing awareness that individuals may purposely feign or exaggerate symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to gain external incentives, including access to stimulant drugs or special academic accommodations. There are vast consequences of

  10. The World of Virtual Exhibitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Eiselt

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available EXTENDED ABSTRACTSpecial collections of the National and University Library (NUK hide a lot of items of precious value. The Slovenian cultural heritage is stored on paper or on other media as a part of the library’s Manuscripts, Incunabula and Rare Books Collection, Old Prints Collection, Maps and Pictorial Collection, Music Collection, Ephemera Collection, Serials Collection, and Slovenian Diaspora Publications Collection. Only a small part of the treasures is temporary revealed to the public on special exhibitions. The idea of virtual exhibitions of library treasures was born in 2005. The library aimed to exhibit precious items of special collections of high historical or artistic value. In 2008 the first two virtual exhibitions were created in-house offering access to the rich collections of old postcards of Ljubljana at the beginning of 20th century kept in the Maps and Pictorial Collection of NUK. They were soon followed by other virtual exhibitions. At the beginning they were organised in the same way as physical exhibitions, afterwards different programs were used for creation of special effects (for ex. 3D wall. About two years ago it was decided that the creation of virtual exhibitions will be simplified. Files of digitised and borndigital library materials in jpg format are imported to MS PowerPoint 2010. Each jpg file is now formatted by adding a frame, a description … to the slides which are saved as jpg files. The last step is the import of jpg files into Cooliris application used for NUK web exhibitions. In the paper the virtual exhibition design and creation, the technical point of view and criteria for the selection of exhibition content are explained following the example of the virtual exhibitions the Old Postcards of Ljubljana, Photo Ateliers in Slovenia, a collection of photographs Four Seasons by Fran Krašovec and photos of Post-Earthquake Ljubljana in 1895.

  11. ADHD-hyperactive/impulsive subtype in adults

    OpenAIRE

    Gibbins, Christopher; Weiss, Margaret D.; Goodman, David W.; Hodgkins, Paul S.; Landgraf, Jeanne M.; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2010-01-01

    This is the first study to evaluate ADHD-hyperactive/impulsive subtype in a large clinical sample of adults with ADHD. The Quality of Life, Effectiveness, Safety and Tolerability (QuEST) study included 725 adults who received clinician diagnoses of any ADHD subtype. Cross-sectional baseline data from 691 patients diagnosed with the hyperactive/impulsive (HI), inattentive (IA) and combined subtypes were used to compare the groups on the clinician administered ADHD-RS, clinical features and hea...

  12. ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER. A CLINICAL LECTURE

    OpenAIRE

    A. S. Kotov; M. N. Borisova; M. V. Panteleeva; Yu. V. Matyuk; A. V. Shatalin

    2015-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a serious problem to pediatric neurologists. The prevalence of ADHD in developed countries ranges from 1 to 20 %. ADHD is characterized by a triad of symptoms: inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity (the International Statistical Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, codes it as F90) and it is the most common conduct disorder in children. The etiology of ADHD remains disсutable to the present day; there are a few basic concepts of t...

  13. Photowalk Exhibition opens at Microcosm

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    The winning photographs from the 2010 Global Particle Physics Photowalk competition will go on display at Microcosm from 11 February to 2 April. The exhibition is part of a global photography event taking place over three continents, with Photowalk exhibitions opening simultaneously at Fermilab in the US, KEK in Japan and here at CERN.   DESY wire chamber - First place people's choice; second place global jury competition. Photographer: Hans-Peter Hildebrandt  If you were one of the 1,300 photography lovers who voted in last year’s Photowalk competition, this exhibition is your chance to see the winning entries in print. The exhibition will take place in the downstairs gallery of Microcosm, overlooking the garden. 15 photographs will be on display, with each of the laboratories that participated in Photowalk represented by their 3 winning entries. Among them will be the “people’s choice” sunburst photo of a particle detector at DESY (Photo 1), and...

  14. Mothers' Reflections on the Role of the Educational Psychologist in Supporting Their Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohangi, K.; Archer, K.

    2015-01-01

    The characteristically disruptive conduct exhibited both at school and home by children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) appears to be particularly emotionally difficult for the children's mothers, who often turn to educational professionals for guidance. With a view to improving best practice in assistance to mothers…

  15. Greenhouse Earth: A Traveling Exhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, W.H.; Caesar, S.

    1992-09-01

    The Franklin Institute Science Museum provided an exhibit entitled the Greenhouse Earth: A Traveling Exhibition. This 3500 square-foot exhibit on global climate change was developed in collaboration with the Association of Science-Technology Centers. The exhibit opened at The Franklin Institute on February 14, 1992, welcoming 291,000 visitors over its three-month stay. During its three-year tour, Greenhouse Earth will travel to ten US cities, reaching two million visitors. Greenhouse Earth aims to deepen public understanding of the scientific issues of global warming and the conservation measures that can be taken to slow its effects. The exhibit features hands-on exhibitry, interactive computer programs and videos, a theater production, a ''demonstration cart,'' guided tours, and lectures. supplemental educational programs at the Institute included a teachers preview, a symposium on climate change, and a ''satellite field trip.'' The development of Greenhouse Earth included front-end and formative evaluation procedures. Evaluation includes interviews with visitors, prototypes, and summative surveys for participating museums. During its stay in Philadelphia, Greenhouse Earth was covered by the local and national press, with reviews in print and broadcast media. Greenhouse Earth is the first large-scale museum exhibit to address global climate change

  16. Globe exhibit wins international acclaim

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    The Globe’s “Universe of Particles” exhibition has recently received four prestigious awards for its avant-garde design. This external praise is great encouragement for the CERN exhibitions currently on the drawing board.   The Universe of Particles exhibition has won 4 awards for its avant-garde design. Back in 2008, the design company Atelier Brückner was presented with a challenge: to design the layout of a new permanent exhibition for CERN, one that would epitomize both the Organization and its research. The brief was concise but complex: the exhibit had to be symbolic of the Organization, use modern technology, engage and immerse visitors, and, preferably, use touch-screen technology. With the help of IArt, an interactive technology firm, and based on the content provided by CERN’s Education Group, Atelier Brückner developed the “Universe of Particles” exhibit as it is today. Its principal concept centred on the s...

  17. Sleep disturbances in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruyt, Karen; Gozal, David

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we advocate the need for better understanding and treatment of children exhibiting inattentive, hyperactive, impulsive behaviors, by in-depth questioning on sleepiness, sleep-disordered breathing or problematic behaviors at bedtime, during the night and upon awakening, as well as night-to-night sleep duration variability. The relationships between sleep and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are complex and are routinely overlooked by practitioners. Motricity and somnolence, the most consistent complaints and objectively measured sleep problems in children with ADHD, may develop as a consequence of multidirectional and multifactorial pathways. Therefore, subjectively perceived or reported restless sleep should be evaluated with specific attention to restless legs syndrome or periodic limb movement disorder, and awakenings should be queried with regard to parasomnias, dyssomnias and sleep-disordered breathing. Sleep hygiene logs detailing sleep onset and offset quantitatively, as well as qualitatively, are required. More studies in children with ADHD are needed to reveal the 24-h phenotype, or its sleep comorbidities. PMID:21469929

  18. Attention in Hyperactive Children and the Effect of Methylphenidate (Ritalin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Donald H.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    Hyperactive children treated with methylphenidate (ritalin) showed a significant improvement in all aspects of performance in an experimenter-paced task when compared to a control group of hyperactive children given a placebo. (Author/WY)

  19. Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Data and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Note: Javascript is disabled ... claims to understand diagnosis and treatment patterns for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). On this page you ...

  20. Dansk standardisering af attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder-ratingskalaen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lotte; Jørgensen, Siv Lykke; Dalsgaard, Søren

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. The diagnostic classification is based on developmental anamnesis, objective examination, neuropsychological tests, observation of the child, and evaluation of the symptoms...

  1. Neurobiology of hyperactivity and reward : Agreeable restlessness in Anorexia Nervosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheurink, Anton J. W.; Boersma, Gretha J.; Nergardh, Ricard; Sodersten, Per; Nergårdh, Ricard; Södersten, Per

    2010-01-01

    Restricted food intake is associated with increased physical activity, very likely an evolutionary advantage, initially both functional and rewarding. The hyperactivity of patients with Anorexia Nervosa, however, is a main problem for recovery. This seemingly paradoxical reward of hyperactivity in

  2. Pax2-Islet1 Transgenic Mice Are Hyperactive and Have Altered Cerebellar Foliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohuslavova, Romana; Dodd, Nicole; Macova, Iva; Chumak, Tetyana; Horak, Martin; Syka, Josef; Fritzsch, Bernd; Pavlinkova, Gabriela

    2017-03-01

    The programming of cell fate by transcription factors requires precise regulation of their time and level of expression. The LIM-homeodomain transcription factor Islet1 (Isl1) is involved in cell-fate specification of motor neurons, and it may play a similar role in the inner ear. In order to study its role in the regulation of vestibulo-motor development, we investigated a transgenic mouse expressing Isl1 under the Pax2 promoter control (Tg +/- ). The transgenic mice show altered level, time, and place of expression of Isl1 but are viable. However, Tg +/- mice exhibit hyperactivity, including circling behavior, and progressive age-related decline in hearing, which has been reported previously. Here, we describe the molecular and morphological changes in the cerebellum and vestibular system that may cause the hyperactivity of Tg +/- mice. The transgene altered the formation of folia in the cerebellum, the distribution of calretinin labeled unipolar brush cells, and reduced the size of the cerebellum, inferior colliculus, and saccule. Age-related progressive reduction of calbindin expression was detected in Purkinje cells in the transgenic cerebella. The hyperactivity of Tg +/- mice is reduced upon the administration of picrotoxin, a non-competitive channel blocker for the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor chloride channels. This suggests that the overexpression of Isl1 significantly affects the functions of GABAergic neurons. We demonstrate that the overexpression of Isl1 affects the development and function of the cerebello-vestibular system, resulting in hyperactivity.

  3. Exhibition - Mathematics, A Beautiful Elsewhere

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    From 21 October 2011 to 18 March 2012, the Fondation Cartier pour l’art contemporain will present the exhibition Mathematics: A Beautiful Elsewhere, an exhibition developed in association with the Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques (IHÉS) and under the patronage of UNESCO. For this unprecedented event, the foundation invited mathematicians to work with artists with whom it has previously worked to create an exhibition that allows visitors to see, hear, do, interpret and think about mathematics. By bringing mathematics into its premises, the Fondation Cartier is itself undergoing the “sudden change of scenery” described by mathematician Alexandre Grothendieck. More information is available here. Fondation Cartier pour l’art contemporain 261, boulevard Raspail 75014 Paris http://fondation.cartier.com Private Visit For professors, researchers and all the staff of Mathematics departments...

  4. Leptin's effect on hyperactivity : Potential downstream effector mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillebrand, J. J. G.; Kas, M.J.H.; van Elburg, A. A.; Hoek, H. W.; Adan, R. A. H.

    2008-01-01

    Up to 80% of patients with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) demonstrate hyperactivity. Hyperactivity counteracts weight gain during treatment and is associated with poor outcome of the disease. We hypothesized that hyperactivity in AN patients has a neurobiological basis and used an animal model-based

  5. Mechanisms of coexistence of factor VII hyperactivity with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dyslipidaemia, DM and obesity were found to induce FVII hyperactivity. Hyperglycaemia, insulin resistance, high levels of FFAs and leptin constitute the underlying mechanisms for coexistence of FVII hyperactivity and metabolic disorders. Factor VII hyperactivity does not cause development of MI de novo. In conclusion ...

  6. ADHD-hyperactive/impulsive subtype in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen V. Faraone

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the first study to evaluate ADHD-hyperactive/impulsive subtype in a large clinical sample of adults with ADHD. The Quality of Life, Effectiveness, Safety and Tolerability (QuEST study included 725 adults who received clinician diagnoses of any ADHD subtype. Cross-sectional baseline data from 691 patients diagnosed with the hyperactive/impulsive (HI, inattentive (IA and combined subtypes were used to compare the groups on the clinician administered ADHD-RS, clinical features and health-related quality of life. A consistent pattern of differences was found between the ADHD-I and combined subtypes, with the combined subtype being more likely to be diagnosed in childhood, more severe symptom severity and lower HRQL. Twenty-three patients out of the total sample of 691 patients (3% received a clinician diagnosis of ADHD - hyperactive/impulsive subtype. Review of the ratings on the ADHD-RS-IV demonstrated, however, that this group had ratings of inattention comparable to the inattentive group. There were no significant differences found between the ADHD-HI and the other subtypes in symptom severity, functioning or quality of life. The hyperactive/impulsive subtype group identified by clinicians in this study was not significantly different from the rest of the sample. By contrast, significant differences were found between the inattentive and combined types. This suggests that in adults, hyperactivity declines and inattention remains significant, making the hyperactive/impulsive subtype as defined by childhood criteria a very rare condition and raising questions as to the validity of the HI subtype in adults.

  7. Learning from Exhibitions: Chuck Close.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark M.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the artwork of Chuck Close, who is well known for his over-sized portraits of fellow artists and anonymous sitters, and the exhibition of his work that premiered at New York's Museum of Modern Art before traveling to other cities in the United States. (CMK)

  8. "Big Science" exhibition at Balexert

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    CERN is going out to meet those members of the general public who were unable to attend the recent Open Day. The Laboratory will be taking its "Big Science" exhibition from the Globe of Science and Innovation to the Balexert shopping centre from 19 to 31 May 2008. The exhibition, which shows the LHC and its experiments through the eyes of a photographer, features around thirty spectacular photographs measuring 4.5 metres high and 2.5 metres wide. Welcomed and guided around the exhibition by CERN volunteers, shoppers at Balexert will also have the opportunity to discover LHC components on display and watch films. "Fun with Physics" workshops will be held at certain times of the day. Main hall of the Balexert shopping centre, ground floor, from 9.00 a.m. to 7.00 p.m. Monday to Friday and from 10 a.m. to 6 p.m. on the two Saturdays. Call for volunteers All members of the CERN personnel are invited to enrol as volunteers to help welcom...

  9. Mobile Technologies in Museum Exhibitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Medić

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to be up–to–date and give visitors a memorable and unique experience, museums are including usage of digital technologies in their exhibitions. Even though museums in Serbia are very important part of tourism offer, they still have traditional settings that are poorly interpreted. The majority of them have a scientific and historical review which is unattractive for various target groups of visitors and for museums it’s important to continually try out new ways in interpretation of their settings. Because technology continues to rapidly change the way we communicate, cultural institutions should adapt to new ways of communication with their visitors. This paper examines mobile technologies that can be used in museums to give visitors a different experience and transfer the knowledge innovatively. In that way it will be presented the modern concept of presentation of museum exhibitions, focusing on usage of mobile devices through mobile applications and QR codes. The paper provides the broad understanding of usage mobile technologies in museum exhibitions with its advantages and limitations. The research results can help the museums management to improve interpretation and communication with visitors and enrich the visitor experience.

  10. Modafinil Trial in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A film-coated tablet formulation of modafinil (ProvigilR was used to treat a total of 246 patients, ages 6 to 17 years, with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD at the Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, and other centers.

  11. Did goethe describe attention deficit hyperactivity disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonazza, Sara; Scaglione, Cesa; Poppi, Massimo; Rizzo, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    As early as 1846, the typical symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were described by Heinrich Hoffmann (1809-1894). However, in Goethe's masterpiece Faust (1832), the character of Euphorion strongly suggests ADHD diagnosis. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Personality Correlates of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilveil, Ira; Clark, Dona

    This study delineates personality correlates of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD.) A standardized projective technique (the Roberts Apperception Test for Children (RATC) and the Conners Parent Rating Scale were administered to 52 ADHD children, ages 6-15. Results indicated that, when compared to the RATC standardization sample, ADHD…

  13. Stigma in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, Kathi; Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Lara

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a frequently diagnosed disorder in child- and adulthood with a high impact affecting multiple facets of social life. Therefore, patients suffering from ADHD are at high risk to be confronted with stigma, prejudices, and discrimination. A review of

  14. hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptomatology and psychiatric co ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), this study aimed to establish the prevalence of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) ADHD in a cohort of South African adolescents who had been diagnosed with the disorder in ...

  15. Comorbidity of Learning Disorders and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in a Sample of Omani Schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watfa S. Al-Mamari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The estimated worldwide prevalence of learning disorders (LDs is approximately 2‒10% among school-aged children. LDs have variable clinical features and are often associated with other disorders. This study aimed to examine the comorbidity of LDs and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD among a sample of schoolchildren in Oman. Methods: This study was conducted between January 2014 and January 2015 at the Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman. The Learning Disabilities Diagnostic Inventory (LDDI and the 28- item version of the Conners’ Teacher Rating Scale was completed by classroom teachers to determine the existence of LD and ADHD symptoms in 321 children in grades 1‒4 who had been referred to a learning support unit for LDs from elementary schools in Muscat. Results: The mean age of the students was 8.5 years. Among the cohort, 30% were reported to have symptoms of ADHD, including conduct problems (24%, hyperactivity (24% and inattentivepassive behaviours (41%. Male students reportedly exhibited greater conduct problems and hyperactivity than females. However, there were no gender differences noted between LDDI scores. Conclusion: This study suggests that Omani schoolchildren with LDs are likely to exhibit signs of ADHD. The early identification of this disorder is essential considering the chronic nature of ADHD. For interventional purposes, multidisciplinary teams are recommended, including general and special educators, clinical psychologists, school counsellors, developmental or experienced general paediatricians and child psychiatrists.

  16. Contemporary Developments in Cinema Exhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Hanson, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    he work offered for this PhD by Published Works charts the history of cinema exhibition in Britain from the late 1950s to the present. At the start of this period, cinemagoing as a form of public entertainment entered a long period of decline that was only arrested with the development and growth of multiplex cinemas in the 1980s and 1990s. Despite these changes, the feature film itself remained a culturally and commercially valuable artefact, though increasingly this meant the Hollywood fil...

  17. Exhibition Review: The Fallen Woman

    OpenAIRE

    Maxwell, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The Foundling Museum’s recent small exhibition ‘The Fallen Woman’ forms a salutary contrast with the considerably larger show ‘Splendour and Misery: Pictures of Prostitution, 1850-1910’ at the Musée d’Orsay, Paris (22 September 2015–17 January 2016). The Paris show, dedicated to the depiction of the ‘realities and fantasies’ of female prostitution–male prostitution, a thriving concern in this era, being singularly absent–lent heavily on the ‘fantasies’, serving up the masculine objectificatio...

  18. Working memory impairments in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder with and without comorbid language learning disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinussen, Rhonda; Tannock, Rosemary

    2006-10-01

    Our objectives were to examine whether children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are impaired on one or more components of working memory (WM) independent of comorbid language learning disorders, and whether WM impairments are more strongly related to symptoms of inattention than to symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity. Four groups of children participated: ADHD (n = 62); ADHD+RD/LI (n = 32); RD/LI (n = 15); and a typically developing comparison group (n = 34). Four simple and brief measures of WM were used that varied in modality (auditory-verbal; visual-spatial) and processing demands (temporary storage versus manipulation of information). Children with ADHD without comorbid language learning disorders exhibited deficits in visual-spatial storage and verbal and visual-spatial central executive (C.E.) functions that were independent of comorbid psychiatric disorders. Children with language learning disorders, regardless of comorbidity with ADHD, exhibited impairments in both verbal and spatial storage as well as C.E. domains of WM. Symptoms of inattention, but not symptoms of hyperactivity/impulsivity, predicted performance on verbal and visual-spatial C.E. measures independent of age, verbal cognitive ability, and reading and language performance. Findings are consistent with data implicating neuropsychological impairments in ADHD. The dimensional results are also consistent with prior research demonstrating the neuropsychological impairments are more strongly associated with the inattention symptom dimension than with the hyperactive-impulsive dimension.

  19. Statistical Evidence Suggests that Inattention Drives Hyperactivity/Impulsivity in Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova, Elena; Groot, Perry; Claassen, Tom; van Hulzen, Kimm J.; Glennon, Jeffrey C.; Franke, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Background Numerous factor analytic studies consistently support a distinction between two symptom domains of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. Both dimensions show high internal consistency and moderate to strong correlations with each other. However, it is not clear what drives this strong correlation. The aim of this paper is to address this issue. Method We applied a sophisticated approach for causal discovery on three independent data sets of scores of the two ADHD dimensions in NeuroIMAGE (total N = 675), ADHD-200 (N = 245), and IMpACT (N = 164), assessed by different raters and instruments, and further used information on gender or a genetic risk haplotype. Results In all data sets we found strong statistical evidence for the same pattern: the clear dependence between hyperactivity/impulsivity symptom level and an established genetic factor (either gender or risk haplotype) vanishes when one conditions upon inattention symptom level. Under reasonable assumptions, e.g., that phenotypes do not cause genotypes, a causal model that is consistent with this pattern contains a causal path from inattention to hyperactivity/impulsivity. Conclusions The robust dependency cancellation observed in three different data sets suggests that inattention is a driving factor for hyperactivity/impulsivity. This causal hypothesis can be further validated in intervention studies. Our model suggests that interventions that affect inattention will also have an effect on the level of hyperactivity/impulsivity. On the other hand, interventions that affect hyperactivity/impulsivity would not change the level of inattention. This causal model may explain earlier findings on heritable factors causing ADHD reported in the study of twins with learning difficulties. PMID:27768717

  20. Enrico Fermi exhibition at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    A touring exhibition celebrating the centenary of Enrico Fermi's birth in 1901 will be on display at CERN (Main Building, Mezzanine) from 12-27 September. You are cordially invited to the opening celebration on Thursday 12 September at 16:00 (Main Building, Council Chamber), which will include speechs from: Luciano Maiani Welcome and Introduction Arnaldo Stefanini Celebrating Fermi's Centenary in Documents and Pictures Antonino Zichichi The New 'Centro Enrico Fermi' at Via Panisperna Ugo Amaldi Fermi at Via Panisperna and the birth of Nuclear Medicine Jack Steinberger Fermi in Chicago Valentin Telegdi A Close-up of Fermi and the screening of a documentary video about Fermi: Scienziati a Pisa: Enrico Fermi (Scientists at Pisa: Enrico Fermi) created by Francesco Andreotti for La Limonaia from early film, photographs and sound recordings (In Italian, with English subtitles - c. 30 mins). This will be followed by an aperitif on the Mezz...

  1. Crows spontaneously exhibit analogical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Anna; Zorina, Zoya; Obozova, Tanya; Wasserman, Edward

    2015-01-19

    Analogical reasoning is vital to advanced cognition and behavioral adaptation. Many theorists deem analogical thinking to be uniquely human and to be foundational to categorization, creative problem solving, and scientific discovery. Comparative psychologists have long been interested in the species generality of analogical reasoning, but they initially found it difficult to obtain empirical support for such thinking in nonhuman animals (for pioneering efforts, see [2, 3]). Researchers have since mustered considerable evidence and argument that relational matching-to-sample (RMTS) effectively captures the essence of analogy, in which the relevant logical arguments are presented visually. In RMTS, choice of test pair BB would be correct if the sample pair were AA, whereas choice of test pair EF would be correct if the sample pair were CD. Critically, no items in the correct test pair physically match items in the sample pair, thus demanding that only relational sameness or differentness is available to support accurate choice responding. Initial evidence suggested that only humans and apes can successfully learn RMTS with pairs of sample and test items; however, monkeys have subsequently done so. Here, we report that crows too exhibit relational matching behavior. Even more importantly, crows spontaneously display relational responding without ever having been trained on RMTS; they had only been trained on identity matching-to-sample (IMTS). Such robust and uninstructed relational matching behavior represents the most convincing evidence yet of analogical reasoning in a nonprimate species, as apes alone have spontaneously exhibited RMTS behavior after only IMTS training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and tuberous sclerosis complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agati, Elisa; Moavero, Romina; Cerminara, Caterina; Curatolo, Paolo

    2009-10-01

    The neurobiological basis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in tuberous sclerosis complex is still largely unknown. Cortical tubers may disrupt several brain networks that control different types of attention. Frontal lobe dysfunction due to seizures or epileptiform electroencephalographic discharges may perturb the development of brain systems that underpin attentional and hyperactive functions during a critical early stage of brain maturation. Comorbidity of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with mental retardation and autism spectrum disorders is frequent in children with tuberous sclerosis. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may also reflect a direct effect of the abnormal genetic program. Treatment of children with tuberous sclerosis complex with combined symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and epilepsy may represent a challenge for clinicians, because antiepileptic therapy and drugs used to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may aggravate the clinical picture of each other.

  3. Increase or Decrease of fMRI Activity in Adult Attention Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder: Does It Depend on Task Difficulty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biehl, Stefanie C; Merz, Christian J; Dresler, Thomas; Heupel, Julia; Reichert, Susanne; Jacob, Christian P; Deckert, Jürgen; Herrmann, Martin J

    2016-05-27

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder has been shown to affect working memory, and fMRI studies in children and adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder report hypoactivation in task-related attentional networks. However, studies with adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder patients addressing this issue as well as the effects of clinically valid methylphenidate treatment are scarce. This study contributes to closing this gap. Thirty-five adult patients were randomized to 6 weeks of double-blind placebo or methylphenidate treatment. Patients completed an fMRI n-back working memory task both before and after the assigned treatment, and matched healthy controls were tested and compared to the untreated patients. There were no whole-brain differences between any of the groups. However, when specified regions of interest were investigated, the patient group showed enhanced BOLD responses in dorsal and ventral areas before treatment. This increase was correlated with performance across all participants and with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in the patient group. Furthermore, we found an effect of treatment in the right superior frontal gyrus, with methylphenidate-treated patients exhibiting increased activation, which was absent in the placebo-treated patients. Our results indicate distinct activation differences between untreated adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder patients and matched healthy controls during a working memory task. These differences might reflect compensatory efforts by the patients, who are performing at the same level as the healthy controls. We furthermore found a positive effect of methylphenidate on the activation of a frontal region of interest. These observations contribute to a more thorough understanding of adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and provide impulses for the evaluation of therapy-related changes. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf

  4. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in prison inmates

    OpenAIRE

    Ginsberg, Ylva

    2012-01-01

    Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is an inherited developmental disorder with early onset, chronically persisting in the vast majority of cases. ADHD is associated with pervasive cognitive, emotional and functional impairments, as well as an increased rate of coexisting disorders. ADHD in the presence of early disruptive behaviours increase the risk for later delinquency. ADHD is estimated to be present in about 25-45% of adult prison inmates, thus 10-times increased...

  5. Stigma in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, Anna K.; Fuermaier, Anselm B. M.; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Lara

    2012-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a frequently diagnosed disorder in child- and adulthood with a high impact affecting multiple facets of social life. Therefore, patients suffering from ADHD are at high risk to be confronted with stigma, prejudices, and discrimination. A review of the empirical research in the field of ADHD with regard to stigma was performed. The findings of investigations in this field were clustered in different categories, including stigma in children wit...

  6. Genetic Basis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Nihal Yurteri; A. Evren Tufan; Gizem Melissa Akgun; Ayten Erdogan

    2011-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neuropsychiatric disorders of childhood. Due to studies reporting that the effects of ADHD diagnosis on functioning may last throughout life, this disorder, which has great importance for child and adolescent psychiatry, started to attract greater attention recently in terms of adult psychiatry. A review, evaluating the results of studies conducted on the genetic basis of ADHD, which started to attract increasing attent...

  7. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    White, Russell D.; Harris, George D.; Gibson, Margaret E.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is common in the general population, and many individuals with this condition participate in sports activity at all competition levels. Evidence Acquisition: Related studies were selected through literature searches of PubMed, MEDLINE, and Cochrane databases for the years 1991 to 2011. Key search terms were ADD, ADHD, sports, athletes, athletics, guidelines, NCAA, WADA, IOC, college, concussion, diagnosis, management, treatment, evaluat...

  8. Mindfulness and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Smalley, Susan L.; Loo, Sandra K.; Hale, T. Sigi; Shrestha, Anshu; McGough, James; Flook, Lisa; Reise, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a disorder characterized by attentional difficulties. Mindfulness is a receptive attention to present experience. Both ADHD and mindfulness are associated with attention and personality. This study tests whether individuals with ADHD have lower mindfulness scores than controls and, if true, whether personality contributes to these differences. 105 adults (half with ADHD) were assessed for mindfulness, using the Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulne...

  9. Translational Hyperactivity as a Target for Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Terrian, David

    2003-01-01

    ...) gene family contribute to the translational hyperactivity that accompanies the unrestrained cell cycle reentry and unlimited replicative potential of prostate cancer cells Experiments designed...

  10. Medical Comorbidities in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irem Yalug

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is one of the most common developmental disorders of childhood with a reported world-wide prevalence of 8 to 12 %. In studies conducted in our country the prevalence rates in community were reported to vary between 8.6 to 8.1 % while clinical prevalence rates were reported to vary between 8.6 to 29.44 %. Fifty to eighty percent of cases were reported to continue into adolescence while thirty to fifty percent may continue into adulthood. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is known to accompany subtle physical anomalies, allergic and neurologic disorders, obesity and eating disorders, traumatic injuries, risky sexual behavior, sleep disorders, substance and alcohol use, axis I and II disorders, occupational, legal and academic problems and increased treatment expenditures. Though the effects of this disorder continue throughout life, create burdens to the society along with its treatment as well as disabling the affected patients through their lives, and receive increasing attention in recent years, reviews focusing on problems associated with it are lacking. Therefore, this study aimed to summarize the results of previous studies conducted about medical comorbidities in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

  11. Assessing sensory processing problems in children with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Beth; Daly, Brian P; Nicholls, Elizabeth G; Gullo, Dominic F

    2015-02-01

    This exploratory study investigated whether children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at greater risk than children without ADHD for problems with sensory processing and if certain sensory systems are more closely associated with the core symptoms of ADHD, specifically inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. The sample included 20 children with ADHD and 27 children without ADHD, ages 5 to 10 years. Assessments included the Sensory Processing Measure-Home Form and the Conners 3rd edition-Parent Short Form. After controlling for age, children with ADHD exhibited more sensory processing problems on all scales of the Sensory Processing Measure with small to medium effect sizes observed (η(2) = .27 to .61). For children with ADHD, the Social Participation (r = .50) and Planning and Ideas (r = .73) subtests of the Sensory Processing Measure were significantly associated with hyperactivity/impulsivity, but not with inattention on the subtests of the Conners Parent Short Form. The results suggest the importance of assessing sensory processing issues in children with ADHD to guide in the intervention process.

  12. Functional Connectivity of Child and Adolescent Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Patients: Correlation with IQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bo-yong; Hong, Jisu; Lee, Seung-Hak; Park, Hyunjin

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a pervasive neuropsychological disorder that affects both children and adolescents. Child and adolescent ADHD patients exhibit different behavioral symptoms such as hyperactivity and impulsivity, but not much connectivity research exists to help explain these differences. We analyzed openly accessible resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) data on 112 patients (28 child ADHD, 28 adolescent ADHD, 28 child normal control (NC), and 28 adolescent NC). We used group independent component analysis (ICA) and weighted degree values to identify interaction effects of age (child and adolescent) and symptom (ADHD and NC) in brain networks. The frontoparietal network showed significant interaction effects (p = 0.0068). The frontoparietal network is known to be related to hyperactive and impulsive behaviors. Intelligence quotient (IQ) is an important factor in ADHD, and we predicted IQ scores using the results of our connectivity analysis. IQ was predicted using degree centrality values of networks with significant interaction effects of age and symptom. Actual and predicted IQ scores demonstrated significant correlation values, with an error of about 10%. Our study might provide imaging biomarkers for future ADHD and intelligence studies. PMID:27881961

  13. A review of the pathophysiology, etiology, and treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Alok; Couture, Justin

    2014-02-01

    To review the pathophysiology, etiology, and treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A literature search was conducted in PubMed and EMBASE using the terms attention deficit hyperactive disorder, ADHD, pathophysiology, etiology, and neurobiology. Limits applied were the following: published in the past 10 years (January 2003 to August 2013), humans, review, meta-analysis, and English language. These yielded 63 articles in PubMed and 74 in EMBASE. After removing duplicate/irrelevant articles, 86 articles and their relevant reference citations were reviewed. ADHD is a neurological disorder that affects children, but symptoms may persist into adulthood. Individuals suffering from this disorder exhibit hyperactivity, inattention, impulsivity, and problems in social interaction and academic performance. Medications used to treat ADHD such as methylphenidate, amphetamine, and atomoxetine indicate a dopamine/norepinephrine deficit as the neurochemical basis of ADHD, but the etiology is more complex. Moreover, these agents have poor adverse effect profiles and a multitude of drug interactions. Because these drugs are also dispensed to adults who may have concomitant conditions or medications, a pharmacist needs to be aware of these adverse events and drug interactions. This review, therefore, focuses on the pathophysiology, etiology, and treatment of ADHD and details the adverse effects and drug interaction profiles of the drugs used to treat it. Published research shows the benefit of drug therapy for ADHD in children, but given the poor adverse effect and drug interaction profiles, these must be dispensed with caution.

  14. Functional Connectivity of Child and Adolescent Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Patients: Correlation with IQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bo-Yong; Hong, Jisu; Lee, Seung-Hak; Park, Hyunjin

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a pervasive neuropsychological disorder that affects both children and adolescents. Child and adolescent ADHD patients exhibit different behavioral symptoms such as hyperactivity and impulsivity, but not much connectivity research exists to help explain these differences. We analyzed openly accessible resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) data on 112 patients (28 child ADHD, 28 adolescent ADHD, 28 child normal control (NC), and 28 adolescent NC). We used group independent component analysis (ICA) and weighted degree values to identify interaction effects of age (child and adolescent) and symptom (ADHD and NC) in brain networks. The frontoparietal network showed significant interaction effects ( p = 0.0068). The frontoparietal network is known to be related to hyperactive and impulsive behaviors. Intelligence quotient (IQ) is an important factor in ADHD, and we predicted IQ scores using the results of our connectivity analysis. IQ was predicted using degree centrality values of networks with significant interaction effects of age and symptom. Actual and predicted IQ scores demonstrated significant correlation values, with an error of about 10%. Our study might provide imaging biomarkers for future ADHD and intelligence studies.

  15. Inattention and hyperactivity and the achievement gap among urban minority youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Charles E

    2011-10-01

    To outline the prevalence and disparities of inattention and hyperactivity among school-aged urban minority youth, causal pathways through which inattention and hyperactivity adversely affects academic achievement, and proven or promising approaches for schools to address these problems. Literature review. Approximately 4.6 million (8.4%) of American youth aged 6-17 have received a diagnosis of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and almost two thirds of these youth are reportedly under treatment with prescription medications. Urban minority youth are not only more likely to be affected but also less likely to receive accurate diagnosis and treatment. Causal pathways through which ADHD may affect academic achievement include sensory perceptions, cognition, school connectedness, absenteeism, and dropping out. In one study, youth with diagnosed ADHD were 2.7 times as likely to drop out (10.0% vs. 22.9%). A similar odds ratio for not graduating from high school was found in another prospective study, with an 8-year follow-up period (odds ratio = 2.4). There are many children who are below the clinical diagnostic threshold for ADHD but who exhibit signs and symptoms that interfere with learning. Evidence-based programs emphasizing functional academic and social outcomes are available. Inattention and hyperactivity are highly and disproportionately prevalent among school-aged urban minority youth, have a negative impact on academic achievement through their effects on sensory perceptions, cognition, school connectedness, absenteeism, and dropping out, and effective practices are available for schools to address these problems. This prevalent and complex syndrome has very powerful effects on academic achievement and educational attainment, and should be a high priority in efforts to help close the achievement gap. © 2011, American School Health Association.

  16. Hyperactivity, Shyness, and Sex: Development and Socio-Emotional Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydell, Ann-Margret; Diamantopoulou, Sofia; Thorell, Lisa B.; Bohlin, Gunilla

    2009-01-01

    Based on formulations about the possible consequences for adaptation of gender non-normative behaviour, we investigated predictive and concurrent relations of hyperactivity and shyness to various aspects of adaptation focusing on possible effects of sex. At ages 5-6, parents and preschool teachers rated hyperactivity and shyness for 151 children…

  17. Do Hyperactive Symptoms Matter in ADHD-I Restricted Phenotype?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Marcelo; Ludwig, Henrique; Rohde, Luis A.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate a proposed restrictive inattentive type of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) by comparing clinical correlates among youths with ADHD inattentive type (ADHD-I) as a function of the number of hyperactivity symptoms presented (none vs. 3 or less) and controls (individuals without ADHD).…

  18. Hyper-Activity in Children Having Behavior Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, A. T.

    2009-01-01

    Frequently, child guidance clinics, pediatricians, teachers, and others have brought to their attention children who manifest hyper-activity as an outstanding feature and of such a degree as to be regarded outside the bounds of normal conduct. The literature on this subject, except for hyper-activity in infancy, has mostly to do with the…

  19. Neurocognitive psychotherapy for adult attention deficit hyperactive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susmita Halder

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Previously thought as a childhood disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is reported to be spreading at an increasing rate and affecting 4% to 5% of the adult population. It is characterized by persistent problems of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. We present the case of an adult ADHD patient intervened with neurocognitive psychotherapy.

  20. Fathering and Mothering of Preschool Boys with Hyperactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keown, Louise

    2011-01-01

    This study examined links between paternal and maternal parenting factors and preschool hyperactivity in a community sample. Forty-one hyperactive and 38 comparison boys (aged 47-62 months) and their fathers and mothers were assessed on a range of interview, parent questionnaire, and observational measures of parenting and child behavior. Results…

  1. Persistence of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder into adulthood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Persistence of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder into adulthood: A study conducted on parents of children diagnosed with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Z Mahomedy, D van der Westhuizen, MJ van der Linde, J Coetsee. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  2. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder | du Plessis | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is a common neurobehavioural disorder that compromises the core symptoms of developmentally inappropriate levels of inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. Many patients are still not diagnosed, or do not receive appropriate sustained treatment, in spite of a general greater ...

  3. The Relationship between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Child Temperament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Marie; McClowry, Sandra Graham; Castellanos, Francisco X.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined empirical and theoretical differences and similarities between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and child temperament in 32 ADHD children aged 6-11 years, and a comparison group of 23 children with similar sociodemographic characteristics. Children were assessed for ADHD symptoms (hyperactivity, impulsivity, and…

  4. Development of the Nursing Outcome (NOC) label: hyperactivity level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Carol L; Wasson, Dianne; Anderson, Mary Ann; Brighton, Veronica; Dixon, Lois

    2005-01-01

    Hyperactivity, a persistent, severe pattern of inattention or impulsivity, places children at risk for impaired functioning in many developmental areas. This behavior is characterized by short attention span, low frustration tolerance, impulsivity, distractibility, and increased physical activity. Responses from multiple sources in the child's environment must be monitored to manage childhood hyperactivity. Success at school, in peer relationships, and parent-child interactions is frequently affected by hyperactivity. Using a focus group approach, a Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC) label, definition, and indicators were developed for Hyperactivity Level. Review of the literature allowed for a content analysis approach and conceptualization of hyperactivity at several levels. Twenty three (23) measurable indicators were formulated and refined into conceptually and clinically coherent outcomes. Clinical relevance and utility were presented through a case study approach.

  5. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, S.

    2013-01-01

    The proposed revision of the diagnostic criteria in DSM-5 for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) will not fundamentally change the concept of ADHD. This is mainly due to the fact that, DSM-5 will retain the exact DSM-IV wording of all 18 symptoms, but will add new examples that make...... will most likely increase the prevalence of ADHD, especially in adults and adolescents, but maybe also in children. The added examples will also result in necessary revisions and new validations of rating scales and diagnostic interviews. This review will examine each of the proposed DSM-5 changes...

  6. Treatment Approaches to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antai-Otong, Deborah; Zimmerman, Michele L

    2016-06-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder in children, adolescents, and adults, with a prevalence estimated from 5% to 7% across cultures and approximately 2% to 5% in adults. This lifelong disorder challenges nurses to understand the basis of ADHD, analyze symptoms, differentiate coexisting disorders, gather health information from varied sources, and implement person-centered multimodal treatment. Nurses are poised to plan, and work with patients, families, and teachers in the community and school systems to optimize academic and occupational performance and improve quality of life. Pharmacotherapy, psychoeducation, and behavioral therapies are strong components of multimodal treatment planning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [DMS-5 - attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banaschewski, Tobias; Döpfner, Manfred

    2014-07-01

    Modifications to the DSM-5 criteria for the diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders are described and discussed. The main modifications concern the onset of the disorder, the reduction on the number of criteria fulfilled for a diagnosis in patients aged 17 years or older, and the elimination of autism spectrum disorders as an exclusion criterion for this diagnosis. These changes are mainly welcomed. However, the demanded increase in the age for the latest onset of the disorder may prove to be problematic.

  8. Attentional blink in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A. Amador-Campos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To explore the temporal mechanism of attention in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and controls using a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP task in which two letters (T1 and T2 were presented in close temporal proximity among distractors (attentional blink [AB].Method:Thirty children aged between 9 and 13 years (12 with ADHD combined type and 18 controls took part in the study. Both groups performed two kinds of RSVP task. In the single task, participants simply had to identify a target letter (T1, whereas in the dual task, they had to identify a target letter (T1 and a probe letter (T2.Results:The ADHD and control groups were equivalent in their single-task performance. However, in the dual-task condition, there were significant between-group differences in the rate of detection of the probe letter (T2 at lag + 1 and lag + 4. The ADHD group exhibited a larger overall AB compared with controls.Conclusion:Our findings provide support for a link between ADHD and attentional blink.

  9. Attentional blink in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador-Campos, Juan A; Aznar-Casanova, J Antonio; Bezerra, Izabela; Torro-Alves, Nelson; Sánchez, Manuel M

    2015-01-01

    To explore the temporal mechanism of attention in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and controls using a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task in which two letters (T1 and T2) were presented in close temporal proximity among distractors (attentional blink [AB]). Thirty children aged between 9 and 13 years (12 with ADHD combined type and 18 controls) took part in the study. Both groups performed two kinds of RSVP task. In the single task, participants simply had to identify a target letter (T1), whereas in the dual task, they had to identify a target letter (T1) and a probe letter (T2). The ADHD and control groups were equivalent in their single-task performance. However, in the dual-task condition, there were significant between-group differences in the rate of detection of the probe letter (T2) at lag + 1 and lag + 4. The ADHD group exhibited a larger overall AB compared with controls. Our findings provide support for a link between ADHD and attentional blink.

  10. Development of congress and exhibition in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedorova Ekaterina Valerevna

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the article the history of the development and current state of exhibition activity in Russia, considered the potential and prospects of the congress and exhibition activities of Russia in the international market.

  11. Diacylglycerol kinase β knockout mice exhibit lithium-sensitive behavioral abnormalities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi Kakefuda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diacylglycerol kinase (DGK is an enzyme that phosphorylates diacylglycerol (DG to produce phosphatidic acid (PA. DGKβ is widely distributed in the central nervous system, such as the olfactory bulb, cerebral cortex, striatum, and hippocampus. Recent studies reported that the splice variant at the COOH-terminal of DGKβ was related to bipolar disorder, but its detailed mechanism is still unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, we performed behavioral tests using DGKβ knockout (KO mice to investigate the effects of DGKβ deficits on psychomotor behavior. DGKβ KO mice exhibited some behavioral abnormalities, such as hyperactivity, reduced anxiety, and reduced depression. Additionally, hyperactivity and reduced anxiety were attenuated by the administration of the mood stabilizer, lithium, but not haloperidol, diazepam, or imipramine. Moreover, DGKβ KO mice showed impairment in Akt-glycogen synthesis kinase (GSK 3β signaling and cortical spine formation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that DGKβ KO mice exhibit lithium-sensitive behavioral abnormalities that are, at least in part, due to the impairment of Akt-GSK3β signaling and cortical spine formation.

  12. ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER. A CLINICAL LECTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kotov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a serious problem to pediatric neurologists. The prevalence of ADHD in developed countries ranges from 1 to 20 %. ADHD is characterized by a triad of symptoms: inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity (the International Statistical Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, codes it as F90 and it is the most common conduct disorder in children. The etiology of ADHD remains disсutable to the present day; there are a few basic concepts of the origin of this disorder. Its manifestations may be a reason for family conflicts, poor peer relationships, social and school maladjustment, learning problems, lower academic performance, accidents and injuries, smoking, psychoactive substance abuse (toxicomania, narcomania, delinquencies, deviant social behavior, thus having a negative impact on all spheres of a patient’s life. The manifestations of ADHD may continue in adulthood, resulting in work and family life problems, low self-evaluation, alcohol and psychoactive substance abuse, and other unfavorable consequences. The authors describe the etiology, pathogenesis, diagnostic principles (diagnostic scales and tests, differential diagnosis (by setting out a large group of different diseases, the manifestations of which can mimic ADHD, treatment, and prognosis of the disorder. Within its therapeutic correction framework, the authors present the definition and general principles of Montessori therapy, including recommendations for parents and relatives to deal with children with ADHD. 

  13. [Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdizán, J R; Izaguerri-Gracia, A C

    2009-02-27

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may exist in up to 60% of adults, whose first symptoms appeared before they were seven years old. Since it is a neurobiological condition, its basic symptoms -lack of attention, hyperactivity and impulsiveness- are similar at all ages, but in adults the clinical manifestations are specific to the subgroup with more frequent comorbidities than in childhood. Manifestations that characteristically appear in adults are difficulty in concentrating, poorer memory and short-term memory, disorganisation, difficulties with self-discipline, impulsiveness, low self-esteem, mental restlessness, frustration and limited social skills. Today, adult cases are underdiagnosed because for a long time ADHD was thought to be a condition that only affected children and teenagers; however, although its clinical manifestations in adults are essentially similar to those seen in children, they are different and have different forms of presentation. There are no biomedical tests that allow an objective diagnosis to be established, and thus care must be taken to draw up and evaluate a patient record that includes possible symptoms since childhood, typical signs and symptoms, and any relevant comorbidities. Self-evaluation scales are necessary as the preferred instrument for use as an aid to the patient record. The main pharmacological treatment is based on psychopharmaceuticals such as immediate-, controlled- or extended-release methylphenidate and on atomoxetine; cognitive-behavioural and psychosocial treatment should also be associated.

  14. Current pharmacotherapy of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, D S

    2013-10-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurobehavioral developmental disorder in children and adults characterized by a persistent pattern of impulsiveness, inattention and hyperactivity. It affects about 3-10% of children and 2-5% of adolescents and adults and occurs about four times more commonly in boys than girls. The cause of ADHD is unknown, but it has strong genetic and environment components. The first-line treatment options for ADHD include behavioral therapy, pharmacotherapy with stimulants or both. Methylphenidate and amphetamine salts are the stimulant drugs of choice for ADHD treatment. Amphetamines act by increasing presynaptic release of dopamine and other biogenic amines in the brain. Methylphenidate inhibits the reuptake of dopamine and norepinephrine and therefore its pharmacology is identical to that of amphetamines. Lisdex-amfetamine is a prodrug of dextroamphetamine with low feasibility for abuse. Atomoxetine, a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, is an alternative, non-stimulant drug for ADHD but it is less efficacious than stimulants. Stimulants are generally safe but are associated with adverse effects including headache, insomnia, anorexia and weight loss. There is increased awareness about serious cardiovascular and psychiatric adverse events with ADHD drugs including concern for growth suppression in children. Stimulants have a high potential for abuse and dependence, and should be handled safely to prevent misuse and abuse. Copyright 2013 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  15. Investigating Design Research Landscapes through Exhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Li; Hansen, Flemming Tvede; Mäkelä, Maarit

    2013-01-01

    What characterizes a design research exhibition compared to a traditional design and art exhibition? How do you show the very materialities of the design experiments as a means for communicating knowledge of research and of practice? How do you present, review and utilize such an exhibition...

  16. 18 CFR 50.7 - Applications: exhibits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... congestion on the electric transmission system. (2) Power flow cases used to analyze the proposed and future... ELECTRIC TRANSMISSION FACILITIES § 50.7 Applications: exhibits. Each exhibit must contain a title page... § 50.5. (g) Exhibit G—Engineering data. (1) A detailed project description including: (i) Name and...

  17. Affordances and distributed cognition in museum exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiam, Marianne; May, Michael; Marandino, Martha

    2014-01-01

    consistent framework. Here, we invoke the notions of affordance and distributed cognition to explain in a coherent way how visitors interact with exhibits and exhibit spaces and make meaning from those interactions, and we exemplify our points using observations of twelve visitors to exhibits at a natural...... history museum. We show how differences in exhibit characteristics give rise to differences in the interpretive strategies used by visitors in their meaning-making process, and conclude by discussing how the notions of affordance and distributed cognition can be used in an exhibit design perspective....

  18. Poor response inhibition: at the nexus between substance abuse and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groman, Stephanie M; James, Alex S; Jentsch, J David

    2009-05-01

    The co-morbidity between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and substance abuse and dependence disorders may have multiple causes and consequences. In this review, we will describe neurobehavioral, genetic and animal model studies that support the notion that a common, genetically determined failure of response inhibition function is an endophenotype for both disorders. Through an impairment in the ability to cognitively control pre-potent behaviors, subjects can exhibit a collection of ADHD-like traits (impulsivity and hyperactivity), as well as susceptibility for the initiation of drug taking and its ultimate progression to an inflexible, uncontrollable form. At the neural level, dysfunction within circuitry that includes the ventrolateral frontal and cingulate cortices, as well as in associated basal ganglia zones, contributes to a common pattern of behavioral impairment, explaining aspects of co-morbidity. Animal models of substance abuse/dependence and ADHD that exhibit deficits in response inhibition have substantiated the role of this endophenotype in both disorders and their co-morbidity and should provide a testing ground for interventions targeting it. New directions for research that will further explore this hypothesis and begin to reveal the underlying biological mechanisms will be proposed.

  19. Neurofibromatosis type 1 and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a case study and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel CS

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Carmen Sílvia Miguel, Tiffany M Chaim-Avancini, Maria Aparecida Silva, Mario Rodrigues LouzãAdult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Program (PRODATH, Institute of Psychiatry, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, BrazilBackground: The cognitive profile of children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1 and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD has been well characterized, but few studies have evaluated the cognitive abilities of adults with NF1 and ADHD.Objectives: We investigated 1 the cognitive profile of an adult patient with NF1 and inattention problems, 2 changes in his cognition after 14 months of follow-up, and 3 whether the patient exhibited comorbid NF1 and ADHD or secondary ADHD-like symptoms.Methods: We administered neuropsychological tests of executive function, attention, verbal and visual memory, visuospatial function, and language during two evaluations separated by 14 months.Results: We found no changes in sustained attention, language, or verbal memory. Visual memory, verbal learning, selective attention inhibitory control, and problem solving declined over time, whereas visual search, psychomotor speed, visuospatial function, and mental flexibility improved.Conclusion: Our patient exhibited a cognitive profile characteristic of both NF1 and ADHD, leading to the hypothesis that the patient had comorbid ADHD instead of secondary ADHD-like symptoms. More studies are necessary to characterize the cognition of patients with NF1 and ADHD.Keywords: ADHD, executive function, NF1, low-grade pontine glioma, cognition

  20. A Heuristic for Improving Transmedia Exhibition Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selvadurai, Vashanth; Rosenstand, Claus Andreas Foss

    2017-01-01

    The area of interest is transmedia experiences in exhibitions. The research question is: How to involve visitors in a transmedia experience for an existing exhibition, which bridges the pre-, during- and post-experience? Research through design, and action research are the methods used to design...... and reflect on a transmedia experience for an existing exhibition. This is framed with literature about exhibitions and transmedia, and analyzed with quantitative data from a case-study of visitors in the exhibition; this is organizationally contextualized. The contribution covers a significant gap...... in the scientific field of designing transmedia experience in an exhibition context that links the pre- and post-activities to the actual visit (during-activities). The result of this study is a preliminary heuristic for establishing a relation between the platform and content complexity in transmedia exhibitions....

  1. Living with symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Merete B; Pedersen, Preben U; Larsen, Palle

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) relates to four dimensions of behavior: inattentiveness, restlessness, impulsiveness and hyperactivity. Symptoms affect multiple areas of daily life such as academic performance and social functioning. Despite the negative effects of ADHD....... Medication has proven to be very useful as it leads to less hyperactivity and enhances ability to stay focused and be more organized. Finally, insight into ADHD has a positive impact on the ability to manage the consequences of ADHD.Health professionals should, when advising adults with ADHD, fundamentally...

  2. Aberrant brain activation of error processing among adults with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiao-Yun Chen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD have a deficit in their cognitive control. The aim of this study was to reveal the brain correlates of the deficits in response inhibition or error processing in adult ADHD. A total of 29 adults with ADHD and 25 control individuals were recruited. They completed an event-related-design Go/No-go task under functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning. Both the ADHD group and the control group exhibited activation of the frontostriatal network when processing response inhibition. They also exhibited activation of the frontoinsula cortex and anterior cingulate in error processing. Adults with ADHD have a lower brain activation of error processing over the right inferior frontal lobe adjacent to the insula than control individuals. The altered frontoinsula cortex activation may represent the mechanism of error processing deficit among adults with ADHD.

  3. Double-stranded DNA Stimulates the Fibrillation of alpha-Synuclein in vitro and is Associated with the Mature Fibrils: An Electron Microscopy Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cherny, Dmitry; Hoyer, Wolfgang; Subramaniam, Vinod; Jovin, Thomas M.

    2004-01-01

    Filamentous aggregates formed by α-synuclein are a prominent and presumably key etiological factor in Parkinson's and other neurodegenerative diseases characterized by motor disorders. Numerous studies have demonstrated that various environmental and intracellular factors affect the fibrillation

  4. Dose-dependent striatal changes in dopaminergic terminals and alpha-synuclein reactivity in a porcine model of progressive Parkinson’s disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Slot; Glud, Andreas Nørgaard; Møller, Arne

    2011-01-01

    ) or acute MPTP intoxication for 11 days (24 mg MPTP/day, n=2) and 9 weeks of recovery. Four pigs served as normal controls. Animals were euthanized with intracardial pentobarbital injections, transcardially perfused with 5 L 4% paraformaldehyde and the brains removed. The striatae and brain stems including...... in the number of fibers and terminals in the 18 mg group. Some sense of direction of fibers was preserved in these groups, but this was completely lost in the 24 mg animals, which additionally presented with smaller, fewer terminals. In the locus coeruleus, the 18 mg animals showed decreased TH fiber staining...

  5. Suppression of MAPK attenuates neuronal cell death induced by activated glia-conditioned medium in alpha-synuclein overexpressing SH-SY5Y cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yshii, Lidia M; Denadai-Souza, Alexandre; Vasconcelos, Andrea R; Avellar, Maria Christina W; Scavone, Cristoforo

    2015-10-26

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease with characteristics and symptoms that are well defined. Nevertheless, its aetiology remains unknown. PD is characterized by the presence of Lewy bodies inside neurons. α-Synuclein (α-syn) is a soluble protein present in the pre-synaptic terminal of neurons. Evidence suggests that α-syn has a fundamental role in PD pathogenesis, given that it is an important component of Lewy bodies localized in the dopaminergic neurons of PD patients. In the present study, we investigated the influence of wild type (WT) and A30P α-syn overexpression on neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y toxicity induced by the conditioned medium (CM) from primary cultures of glia challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Escherichia coli. We observed that SH-SY5Y cells transduced with α-syn (WT or A30P) and treated with CM from LPS-activated glia cells show evidence of cell death, which is not reverted by NF-κB inhibition by sodium salicylate or by blockage of P50 (NF-κB subunit). Furthermore, the expression of A30P α-syn in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y decreases the cell death triggered by the CM of activated glia versus WT α-syn or control group. This effect of A30P α-syn may be due to the low MAPK42/44 phosphorylation. This finding is substantiated by MEK1 inhibition by PD98059, decreasing LDH release by CM in SH-SY5Y cells. Our results suggest that SH-SY5Y cells transduced with α-syn (WT or A30P) and treated with CM from LPS-activated glia cells show cell death, which is not reverted by NF-κB blockage. Additionally, the expression of A30P α-syn on neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y leads to decreased cell death triggered by the CM of activated glia, when compared to WT α-syn or control group. The mechanism underlying this process remains to be completely elucidated, but the present data suggest that MAPK42/44 phosphorylation plays an important role in this process. CRD42015020829.

  6. Glutathione S-Transferase Alpha 4 Prevents Dopamine Neurodegeneration in a Rat Alpha-Synuclein Model of Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Jewett

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is a common, progressive neurodegenerative disease, which typically presents itself with a range of motor symptoms, like resting tremor, bradykinesia, and rigidity, but also non-motor symptoms such as fatigue, constipation, and sleep disturbance. Neuropathologically, PD is characterized by loss of dopaminergic cells in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc and Lewy bodies, neuronal inclusions containing α-synuclein (α-syn. Mutations and copy number variations of SNCA, the gene encoding α-syn, are linked to familial PD and common SNCA gene variants are associated to idiopathic PD. Large-scale genome-wide association studies have identified risk variants across another 40 loci associated to idiopathic PD. These risk variants do not, however, explain all the genetic contribution to idiopathic PD. The rat Vra1 locus has been linked to neuroprotection after nerve- and brain injury in rats. Vra1 includes the glutathione S-transferase alpha 4 (Gsta4 gene, which encodes a protein involved in clearing lipid peroxidation by-products. The DA.VRA1 congenic rat strain, carrying PVG alleles in Vra1 on a DA strain background, was recently reported to express higher levels of Gsta4 transcripts and to display partial neuroprotection of SNpc dopaminergic neurons in a 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA induced model for PD. Since α-syn expression increases the risk for PD in a dose-dependent manner, we assessed the neuroprotective effects of Vra1 in an α-syn-induced PD model. Human wild-type α-syn was overexpressed by unilateral injections of the rAAV6-α-syn vector in the SNpc of DA and DA.VRA1 congenic rats. Gsta4 gene expression levels were significantly higher in the striatum and midbrain of DA.VRA1 compared to DA rats at 3 weeks post surgery, in both the ipsilateral and contralateral sides. At 8 weeks post surgery, DA.VRA1 rats suffered significantly lower fiber loss in the striatum and lower loss of dopaminergic neurons in the SNpc compared to DA. Immunofluorescent stainings showed co-expression of Gsta4 with Gfap at 8 weeks suggesting that astrocytic expression of Gsta4 underlies Vra1-mediated neuroprotection to α-syn induced pathology. This is the second PD model in which Vra1 is linked to protection of the nigrostriatal pathway, solidifying Gsta4 as a potential therapeutic target in PD.

  7. Overexpression of alpha-synuclein at non-toxic levels increases dopaminergic cell death induced by copper exposure via modulation of protein degradation pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandhan, Annadurai; Rodriguez-Rocha, Humberto; Bohovych, Iryna; Griggs, Amy M; Zavala-Flores, Laura; Reyes-Reyes, Elsa M; Seravalli, Javier; Stanciu, Lia A; Lee, Jaekwon; Rochet, Jean-Christophe; Khalimonchuk, Oleh; Franco, Rodrigo

    2015-09-01

    Gene multiplications or point mutations in alpha (α)-synuclein are associated with familial and sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD). An increase in copper (Cu) levels has been reported in the cerebrospinal fluid and blood of PD patients, while occupational exposure to Cu has been suggested to augment the risk to develop PD. We aimed to elucidate the mechanisms by which α-synuclein and Cu regulate dopaminergic cell death. Short-term overexpression of wild type (WT) or mutant A53T α-synuclein had no toxic effect in human dopaminergic cells and primary midbrain cultures, but it exerted a synergistic effect on Cu-induced cell death. Cell death induced by Cu was potentiated by overexpression of the Cu transporter protein 1 (Ctr1) and depletion of intracellular glutathione (GSH) indicating that the toxic effects of Cu are linked to alterations in its intracellular homeostasis. Using the redox sensor roGFP, we demonstrated that Cu-induced oxidative stress was primarily localized in the cytosol and not in the mitochondria. However, α-synuclein overexpression had no effect on Cu-induced oxidative stress. WT or A53T α-synuclein overexpression exacerbated Cu toxicity in dopaminergic and yeast cells in the absence of α-synuclein aggregation. Cu increased autophagic flux and protein ubiquitination. Impairment of autophagy by overexpression of a dominant negative Atg5 form or inhibition of the ubiquitin/proteasome system (UPS) with MG132 enhanced Cu-induced cell death. However, only inhibition of the UPS stimulated the synergistic toxic effects of Cu and α-synuclein overexpression. Our results demonstrate that α-synuclein stimulates Cu toxicity in dopaminergic cells independent from its aggregation via modulation of protein degradation pathways. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder during adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnin, E; Maurs, C

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), although considered a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental condition, is nevertheless a frequent and disabling condition in adults. A proportion of such patients are not diagnosed during childhood or adolescence, as diagnosis of the syndrome is rather complex, especially when other psychiatric, neurological or other neurodevelopmental conditions are also associated, yet comorbidities and consequences of ADHD are frequently observed in adults and older populations. As ADHD patients present to memory clinics with attentional and executive disorders, neuropsychological examinations of undiagnosed ADHD patients may reveal atypical cognitive profiles that can complicate the usual diagnostic procedure and increase the risk of delayed diagnosis or misdiagnosis. Thus, explorations of cognitive and/or behavioral disorders in adult populations should systematically screen for this neurodevelopmental condition. Accurate diagnosis could lead to non-pharmaceutical and/or pharmaceutical treatments to improve symptoms and quality of life for adult ADHD patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Detection of feigned attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucha, Lara; Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Koerts, Janneke; Groen, Yvonne; Thome, Johannes

    2015-08-01

    In recent years, there is an increasing awareness that individuals may purposely feign or exaggerate symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to gain external incentives, including access to stimulant drugs or special academic accommodations. There are vast consequences of undetected feigned ADHD such as substantial costs covered by society for unnecessary assessments and treatments, unjustified occupation of limited medical resources and undermining society's trust in the existence of the disorder or the effectiveness of treatment. In times of economic crisis and cost savings in the medical sector, the detection of feigned ADHD is of importance. This review briefly describes the research on this topic with an emphasis on the approaches available for detection of feigned ADHD (i.e., self-report questionnaires, personality inventories, cognitive tests used in routine neuropsychological assessment and tests specifically designed for detecting feigned cognitive dysfunction). Promising approaches and measures are available for identifying feigned ADHD but there is an immediate need for further research.

  10. Neurobiology driving hyperactivity in activity-based anorexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adan, R A H; Hillebrand, J J G; Danner, U N; Cardona Cano, S; Kas, M J H; Verhagen, L A W

    2011-01-01

    Hyperactivity in anorexia nervosa is difficult to control and negatively impacts outcome. Hyperactivity is a key driving force to starvation in an animal model named activity-based anorexia (ABA). Recent research has started unraveling what mechanisms underlie this hyperactivity. Besides a general increase in locomotor activity that may be an expression of foraging behavior and involves frontal brain regions, the increased locomotor activity expressed before food is presented (food anticipatory behavior or FAA) involves hypothalamic neural circuits. Ghrelin plays a role in FAA, whereas decreased leptin signaling is involved in both aspects of increased locomotor activity. We hypothesize that increased ghrelin and decreased leptin signaling drive the activity of dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area. In anorexia nervosa patients, this altered activity of the dopamine system may be involved not only in hyperactivity but also in aberrant cognitive processing related to food.

  11. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Tuberous Sclerosis Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at an increased risk for autism spectrum disorder. Autism spectrum disorder may cause hyperactivity and inattention, and some children may have both autism and ADHD. As listed above, there are a ...

  12. Stigmatization in teachers towards adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuermaier, Anselm B.M.; Tucha, Lara; Müller, Kathi; Koerts, Janneke; Hauser, Joachim; Lange, Klaus W; Tucha, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is understood as a developmental disorder which shares common characteristics between childhood, adolescence and adulthood. However, ADHD is widely associated with misconceptions and misbeliefs which can lead to stigmatization. Teachers

  13. Complex Prospective Memory in Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuermaier, Anselm B. M.; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Aschenbrenner, Steffen; Westermann, Celina; Weisbrod, Matthias; Lange, Klaus W.; Tucha, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults has been associated with disturbances of attention and executive functions. Furthermore, impairments of verbal and figural retrospective memory were reported. However, little is known about the effects of ADHD on prospective

  14. Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Symptoms and Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Note: Javascript is disabled ... for developmental level: Often fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork, ...

  15. Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): The Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Signs Treating ADHD Reprints For More Information Share Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): The Basics Download PDF ... Overview Do you find it hard to pay attention? Do you feel the need to move constantly ...

  16. The origins and consequences of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by developmentally inappropriate levels of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity, and is the most common neurodevelopmental disorder of childhood. This highly prevalent disorder is estimated to affect about 5% of school-age children worldwide, with a substantial degree of persistence over time. Although the specific cause of ADHD is still largely unknown, despite a long history of research, it is believed to involve multip...

  17. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Adolescents With Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Karen L; Lam, David; Tsui, Sarah; Ngan, Mary; Tsang, Brian; Lam, Siu M

    2016-04-01

    We examined attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in adolescents with epilepsy and the association with seizure-related and sociodemographic variables. Strengths and Weakness of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms and Normal Behaviors rating scale was administered to 122 children with epilepsy and 50 children with asthma, aged 10 to 18 years attending mainstream schools. Twenty-nine (23.7%) adolescents with epilepsy compared with five (10%) with asthma had attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (P = 0.037). Adolescents with epilepsy had a significantly higher score in the inattention subscale when compared with those with asthma (-0.25 ± 1.2 vs -0.64 ± 1.07, P = 0.049). Combined subtype was most frequent in the epilepsy group. Oppositional defiant disorders were more prevalent in those having attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Psychiatric assistance had only been provided to one third of our patients with epilepsy and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder at the time of study. There was a negative correlation between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder scores and age of seizure onset. A positive correlation was observed between the number of antiepileptic drugs and the inattentive subscale score. The impact of various correlates on individual subtypes was not identical. Independent risk factors associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder were medical comorbidities (odds ratio = 12.82, 95% confidence interval 4.44, 37.03, P Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is overrepresented in adolescents with epilepsy; screening for its symptoms should be an integral part of management in adolescents with epilepsy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Are Eating Disorders Related to Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder?

    OpenAIRE

    Reinblatt, Shauna P.

    2015-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a disorder characterized by impulsivity, hyperactivity, and inattention. Binge-eating behavior is often impulsive and is the hallmark of the two eating disorders, binge-eating disorder (BED) and bulimia nervosa (BN), both of which are associated with significant health impairment. Bingeing behavior is also seen in the binge purge subtype of anorexia nervosa. Individuals with AN of the binge purge subtypes, BN and BED, have been found to exhib...

  19. Hyperactivity in boys with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): the association between deficient behavioral inhibition, attentional processes, and objectively measured activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderson, R Matt; Rapport, Mark D; Kasper, Lisa J; Sarver, Dustin E; Kofler, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary models of ADHD hypothesize that hyperactivity reflects a byproduct of inhibition deficits. The current study investigated the relationship between children's motor activity and behavioral inhibition by experimentally manipulating demands placed on the limited-resource inhibition system. Twenty-two boys (ADHD = 11, TD = 11) between the ages of 8 and 12 years completed a conventional stop-signal task, two choice-task variants (no-tone, ignore-tone), and control tasks while their motor activity was measured objectively by actigraphs placed on their nondominant wrist and ankles. All children exhibited significantly higher activity rates under all three experimental tasks relative to control conditions, and children with ADHD moved significantly more than typically developing children across conditions. No differences in activity level were observed between the inhibition and noninhibition experimental tasks for either group, indicating that activity level was primarily associated with basic attentional rather than behavioral inhibition processes.

  20. Encountering Nanotechnology in an Interactive Exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murriello, Sandra E.; Knobel, Marcelo

    2008-01-01

    This article offers findings from a learning sciences-informed evaluation of a nanoscience and nanotechnology exhibition called Nano-Aventura (NanoAdventure), based on four interactive-collaborative games and two narrated videos. This traveling exhibition was developed in Brazil by the Museu Exploratorio de Ciencias for children and teenagers…

  1. Steady motions exhibited by Duffing's equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Yoshisuke

    1980-01-01

    Various types of steady states take place in the system exhibited by Duffing's equation. Among them harmonic, higher harmonic and subharmonic motions are popularly known. Then ultrasubharmonic motions of different orders are fairly known. However chaotic motions are scarcely known. By using analog and digital computers, this report makes a survey of the whole aspect of steady motions exhibited by Duffing's equation. (author)

  2. Science Fiction Exhibits as STEM Gateways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robie, Samantha

    Women continue to hold less than a quarter of all STEM jobs in the United States, prompting many museums to develop programs and exhibits with the express goal of interesting young girls in scientific fields. At the same time, a number of recent museum exhibits have harnessed the popularity of pop culture and science fiction in order to interest general audiences in STEM subject matter, as well as using the exhibits as springboards to expand or shift mission goals and focus. Because science fiction appears to be successful at raising interest in STEM fields, it may be an effective way to garner the interest of young girls in STEM in particular. This research seeks to describe the ways in which museums are currently using science fiction exhibits to interest young girls in STEM fields and careers. Research focused on four institutions across the country hosting three separate exhibits, and included staff interviews and content analysis of exhibit descriptions, promotional materials, a summative evaluation and supplementary exhibit productions. In some ways, science fiction exhibits do serve young girls, primarily through the inclusion of female role models, staff awareness, and prototype testing to ensure interactives are attractive to girls as well as to boys. However, STEM appears to be underutilized, which may be partly due to a concern within the field that the outcome of targeting a specific gender could be construed as "stereotyping".

  3. Let's play game exhibitions : A curator's perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, Jesse; Glas, M.A.J.; van Vught, J.F.

    2017-01-01

    The Netherlands Institute for Sound and Vision is home to The Experience, a museum exhibiting the history of media in the Netherlands. For ten months in 2016 and 2017, The Experience hosted a temporary exhibition entitled Let’s YouTube . During the Let’s YouTube game month, we programmed a ten-day

  4. The Culture of Exhibitions and Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Doumas

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article reflects on temporary exhibitions from a theoretical as well as practical perspective. Regarded as a particularly effective mass-communication medium, exhibitions have a dual nature: they are scholarly undertakings, bringing off a curator’s vision and, simultaneously, they are projects with economic implications that need to be well managed and administered. The role of conservation in the making of temporary exhibitions, either in-house or touring, is here discussed in relation to how work is planned and prioritized as well as how time is managed and staff is allocated. Reference to weaknesses that lessen the crucial input of conservation in the decision-making process is also made. Much of the debate, which focuses on art exhibitions, concerns practicalities encountered in a private museum that extend from the very early stages of selecting objects for display to the mounting of an exhibition.

  5. Holland at CERN – Industrial exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    Sponsored by EVD, an agency of the Dutch Ministry of the Economy From 8 to 11 November 2010 Industrial Exhibition Administration Building Bldg. 61 9-00 - 17-30 Twenty seven companies will present their latest technology at the industrial exhibition "Holland at CERN". Dutch industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. Individual interviews will take place directly at the stands in the Main Building. The firms will contact relevant users/technicians but any user wishing to make contact with a particular firm is welcome to use the contact details which are available from each departmental secretariat or at the following URL: http://gs-dep.web.cern.ch/gs-dep/groups/sem/ls/Industrial_Exhibitions.htm#Industrial_exhibitions You will find the list of exhibitors below. LIST OF EXHIBITORS: Schelde Exotech Vernooy BV Triumph Group INCAA Computers DeMaCo Holland bv TNO Science & Industry Janssen Precision Engi...

  6. Imaging functional and structural brain connectomics in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Miao; Shu, Ni; Cao, Qingjiu; Wang, Yufeng; He, Yong

    2014-12-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neurodevelopment disorders in childhood. Clinically, the core symptoms of this disorder include inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Previous studies have documented that these behavior deficits in ADHD children are associated with not only regional brain abnormalities but also changes in functional and structural connectivity among regions. In the past several years, our understanding of how ADHD affects the brain's connectivity has been greatly advanced by mapping topological alterations of large-scale brain networks (i.e., connectomes) using noninvasive neurophysiological and neuroimaging techniques (e.g., electroencephalograph, functional MRI, and diffusion MRI) in combination with graph theoretical approaches. In this review, we summarize the recent progresses of functional and structural brain connectomics in ADHD, focusing on graphic analysis of large-scale brain systems. Convergent evidence suggests that children with ADHD had abnormal small-world properties in both functional and structural brain networks characterized by higher local clustering and lower global integrity, suggesting a disorder-related shift of network topology toward regular configurations. Moreover, ADHD children showed the redistribution of regional nodes and connectivity involving the default-mode, attention, and sensorimotor systems. Importantly, these ADHD-associated alterations significantly correlated with behavior disturbances (e.g., inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms) and exhibited differential patterns between clinical subtypes. Together, these connectome-based studies highlight brain network dysfunction in ADHD, thus opening up a new window into our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of this disorder. These works might also have important implications on the development of imaging-based biomarkers for clinical diagnosis and treatment evaluation in ADHD.

  7. Museum Exhibitions: Optimizing Development Using Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusenbery, P. B.

    2002-12-01

    The Space Science Institute (SSI) of Boulder, Colorado, has recently developed two museum exhibits called the Space Weather Center and MarsQuest. It is currently planning to develop a third exhibit called InterActive Earth. The Space Weather Center was developed in partnership with various research missions at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. The development of these exhibitions included a comprehensive evaluation plan. I will report on the important role evaluation plays in exhibit design and development using MarsQuest and InterActive Earth as models. The centerpiece of SSI's Mars Education Program is the 5,000-square-foot traveling exhibition, MarsQuest: Exploring the Red Planet, which was developed with support from the National Science Foundation (NSF), NASA, and several corporate donors. The MarsQuest exhibit is nearing the end of a highly successful, fully-booked three-year tour. The Institute plans to send an enhanced and updated MarsQuest on a second three-year tour and is also developing Destination: Mars, a mini-version of MarsQuest designed for smaller venues. They are designed to inspire and empower participants to extend the excitement and science content of the exhibitions into classrooms and museum-based education programs in an ongoing fashion. The centerpiece of the InterActive Earth project is a traveling exhibit that will cover about 4,000 square feet. The major goal of the proposed exhibit is to introduce students and the public to the complexity of the interconnections in the Earth system, and thereby, to inspire them to better understand planet Earth. Evaluation must be an integral part of the exhibition development process. For MarsQuest, a 3-phase evaluation (front end, formative and summative) was conducted by Randi Korn and Associates in close association with the development team. Sampling procedures for all three evaluation phases ensured the participation of all audiences, including family groups, students, and adults. Each phase of

  8. A mini-exhibition with maximum content

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2011-01-01

    The University of Budapest has been hosting a CERN mini-exhibition since 8 May. While smaller than the main travelling exhibition it has a number of major advantages: its compact design alleviates transport difficulties and makes it easier to find suitable venues in the Member States. Its content can be updated almost instantaneously and it will become even more interactive and high-tech as time goes by.   The exhibition on display in Budapest. The purpose of CERN's new mini-exhibition is to be more interactive and easier to install. Due to its size, the main travelling exhibition cannot be moved around quickly, which is why it stays in the same country for 4 to 6 months. But this means a long waiting list for the other Member States. To solve this problem, the Education Group has designed a new exhibition, which is smaller and thus easier to install. Smaller maybe, but no less rich in content, as the new exhibition conveys exactly the same messages as its larger counterpart. However, in the slimm...

  9. 18 CFR 32.2 - Required exhibits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of operating such facilities. Exhibit B. A general or key map on a scale not greater than 20 miles to... facilities used for the generation and transmission of electric energy, indicating on said map the points...

  10. Fermi centenary exhibition comes to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    A touring exhibition, "Enrico Fermi - immagini e documenti inediti" (Enrico Fermi - unpublished images and documents), celebrating the centenary of Enrico Fermi's birth in 1901 was on display at CERN from 12 to 27 September 2002.

  11. France at CERN – Industrial exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    FP Department

    2012-01-01

    Industrial Exhibition Administration Building Bldg 61 – 1st Floor Tuesday 27 March: 9 a.m. – 5.30 p.m. Wednesday 28 March: 9 a.m. – 2 p.m.   About thirty French companies are presenting their latest technological advances during the industrial exhibition "France at CERN", featuring products and technologies specifically related to CERN activities. Individual B2B meetings can be organized with the sales and technical representatives of participating firms and will take place at either the companies’ exhibition stands or in conference rooms in the Main Building. Individuals wishing to make contact with one or more companies must use the contact details available from each secretariat of department or by using this link. B2B meetings will be coordinated by UBIFRANCE. You will also find the list of exhibiting and participating companies online here. This event is sponsored by the French subsidiary of RS Components, the most important distri...

  12. High Quality Virtual Reality for Architectural Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreutzberg, Anette

    2016-01-01

    This paper will summarise the findings from creating and implementing a visually high quality Virtual Reality (VR) experiment as part of an international architecture exhibition. It was the aim to represent the architectural spatial qualities as well as the atmosphere created from combining natural...... and artificial lighting in a prominent not yet built project. The outcome is twofold: Findings concerning the integration of VR in an exhibition space and findings concerning the experience of the virtual space itself. In the exhibition, an important aspect was the unmanned exhibition space, requiring the VR...... experience to be self-explanatory. Observations of different visitor reactions to the unmanned VR experience compared with visitor reactions at guided tours with personal instructions are evaluated. Data on perception of realism, spatial quality and light in the VR model were collected with qualitative...

  13. [Methylphenidate use in dogs with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A case report of a Weimaraner bitch].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piturru, P

    2014-04-16

    A 10-month-old Weimaraner bitch was presented at the practice exhibiting agitation, hyperactivity, inability to learn and attention deficit. The diagnostic findings were excessive, long-lasting acoustic and locomotory activity with unexpected inappropriate reactions. Hematological and biochemical blood analyses did not demonstrate abnormal findings. The first attempts at behavioral therapy and fluoxetine application were unsatisfactory. Therefore, a test was conducted with medication for central nervous system stimulation to confirm a diagnosis of hyperkinesis. Following the diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, the therapy was continued with behavioral modifications, with special consideration of rehabituation and resocialization as well as the use of methylphenidate. During the course of the therapy the bitch developed hyperactivity again when on heat. After changing the dosage of methylphenidate and additionally using dog appeasing pheromone, the behavior of the bitch became normal after 8 days. Two months later endoscopic ovarioectomy was performed. Twelve months after the initial use of methylphenidate the medication could be discontinued completely and the dog's behavior was normal. The methylphenidate dosage used during this therapy was much higher than recommended in the literature.

  14. Delayed sleep timing and symptoms in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a controlled actigraphy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Karen L; May, Roberta S; Besing, Rachel C; Tankersly, Amelia P; Fargason, Rachel E

    2013-05-01

    Patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often exhibit disrupted sleep and circadian rhythms. Determination of whether sleep disturbance and/or circadian disruption are differentially associated with symptom severity is necessary to guide development of future treatment strategies. Therefore, we measured sleep and ADHD symptoms in participants aged 19-65 who met the DSM-IV-TR (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision) criteria for ADHD and insomnia without psychiatric comorbidities by monitoring actigraphy and daily sleep logs for 2 wks, as well as the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), the ADHD Rating Scale (ADHD-RS), and a clinic-designed sleep behavior questionnaire. Principal components analysis identified correlated circadian- and sleep-related variables in all participants with ADHD who completed the study (n = 24). The identified components were entered into a backwards stepwise linear regression analysis, which indicated that delayed sleep timing and increased sleepiness (ESS) (but not sleep duration or sleep efficiency) significantly predicted greater severity of both hyperactive-impulsive and inattentive ADHD symptoms (p sleep quality (PSQI scores; p sleep" compared with 57.2% and 50% of inattentive and symptom-controlled participants, respectively (p sleep timing and daytime sleepiness, suggesting that treatment interventions aimed at advancing circadian phase may improve daytime sleepiness. In addition, ADHD adults with combined hyperactive-impulsive and inattentive symptoms have decreased sleep quality as well as the delayed sleep timing of predominately inattentive subtypes.

  15. Clinical use of a modified release methylphenidate in the treatment of childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takon Inyang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is the most commonly diagnosed neurobehavioural disorder in childhood, affecting over 5% of children worldwide. As well as the core symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity, patients often exhibit learning difficulties and impairment in social functioning. The frequency of referral is higher for boys than for girls (about 2:1, and girls are generally older at the time of referral. Pharmacological therapy is considered the first-line treatment for patients with severe ADHD and severe impairment. Stimulant medications are licensed in the UK for the management of ADHD in school-age children and young people, and are effective in controlling ADHD symptoms. While immediate-release preparations of methylphenidate (MPH have proven effective in the treatment of ADHD, there are a number of problems associated with their use, most notably compliance, stigma and medication diversion. Modified release preparations are now available that overcome the need for multiple daily dosing, and which offer different MPH release profiles, thereby enabling the physician to match the medication to the patient's particular requirements. This review describes the diagnosis, referral and treatment pathways for patients with ADHD in the UK and the practical considerations when initiating pharmacological treatment. The clinical experience of treating ADHD with a modified-release MPH preparation (Equasym XL® is illustrated with case studies.

  16. A multidimensional approach of impulsivity in adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Régis; Dauvilliers, Yves; Jaussent, Isabelle; Billieux, Joël; Bayard, Sophie

    2015-06-30

    We aimed to compare adult patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and matched controls on four dimensions of impulsivity (urgency, lack of premeditation, lack of perseverance, and sensation seeking) and to examine the association between impulsivity and ADHD symptoms. The study was conducted on 219 participants: 72 adult ADHD patients and 147 aged and gender matched controls. All participants completed questionnaires measuring the various facets of impulsivity (UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale), ADHD and depressive symptoms severity. Patients were also assessed for ADHD subtypes, mood disorders, and addictive behaviors. ADHD patients exhibited higher urgency, lower premeditation and lower perseverance in comparison to controls. Lack of perseverance showed the strongest association with ADHD (area under curve=0.95). Patients with combined inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive subtypes reported more frequently substance abuse problems and had higher scores on urgency and sensation seeking dimensions of impulsivity than those with predominantly inattentive subtype. We report for the first time a multidimensional evaluation of impulsivity in adult ADHD patients. The UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale may constitute a useful screening tool for ADHD in adults and may help to further understanding the psychological mechanisms underlying the differences between the ADHD subgroups. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Clinical use of a modified release methylphenidate in the treatment of childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takon, Inyang

    2011-09-30

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most commonly diagnosed neurobehavioural disorder in childhood, affecting over 5% of children worldwide. As well as the core symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity, patients often exhibit learning difficulties and impairment in social functioning. The frequency of referral is higher for boys than for girls (about 2:1), and girls are generally older at the time of referral.Pharmacological therapy is considered the first-line treatment for patients with severe ADHD and severe impairment. Stimulant medications are licensed in the UK for the management of ADHD in school-age children and young people, and are effective in controlling ADHD symptoms.While immediate-release preparations of methylphenidate (MPH) have proven effective in the treatment of ADHD, there are a number of problems associated with their use, most notably compliance, stigma and medication diversion. Modified release preparations are now available that overcome the need for multiple daily dosing, and which offer different MPH release profiles, thereby enabling the physician to match the medication to the patient's particular requirements.This review describes the diagnosis, referral and treatment pathways for patients with ADHD in the UK and the practical considerations when initiating pharmacological treatment. The clinical experience of treating ADHD with a modified-release MPH preparation (Equasym XL®) is illustrated with case studies.

  18. Altered regional homogeneity patterns in adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xunheng; Jiao, Yun; Tang, Tianyu; Wang, Hui; Lu, Zuhong

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Investigating the discriminative brain map for patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) based on feature selection and classifier; and identifying patients with ADHD based on the discriminative model. Materials and methods: A dataset of resting state fMRI contains 23 patients with ADHD and 23 healthy subjects were analyzed. Regional homogeneity (ReHo) was extracted from resting state fMRI signals and used as model inputs. Raw ReHo features were ranked and selected in a loop according to their p values. Selected features were trained and tested by support vector machines (SVM) in a cross validation procedure. Cross validation was repeated in feature selection loop to produce optimized model. Results: Optimized discriminative map indicated that the ADHD brains exhibit more increased activities than normal controls in bilateral occipital lobes and left front lobe. The altered brain regions included portions of basal ganglia, insula, precuneus, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), thalamus, and cerebellum. Correlation coefficients indicated significant positive correlation of inattentive scores with bilateral cuneus and precuneus, and significant negative correlation of hyperactive/impulsive scores with bilateral insula and claustrum. Additionally, the optimized model produced total accuracy of 80% and sensitivity of 87%. Conclusion: ADHD brain regions were more activated than normal controls during resting state. Linear support vector classifier can provide useful discriminative information of altered ReHo patterns for ADHD; and feature selection can improve the performances of classification

  19. Altered regional homogeneity patterns in adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xunheng [School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Key Laboratory of Child Development and Learning Science (Ministry of Education), Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Jiao, Yun, E-mail: yunjiao@seu.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Imaging and Functional Imaging, Department of Radiology, Zhongda Hospital, Medical School of Southeast University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Tang, Tianyu; Wang, Hui; Lu, Zuhong [School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Key Laboratory of Child Development and Learning Science (Ministry of Education), Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: Investigating the discriminative brain map for patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) based on feature selection and classifier; and identifying patients with ADHD based on the discriminative model. Materials and methods: A dataset of resting state fMRI contains 23 patients with ADHD and 23 healthy subjects were analyzed. Regional homogeneity (ReHo) was extracted from resting state fMRI signals and used as model inputs. Raw ReHo features were ranked and selected in a loop according to their p values. Selected features were trained and tested by support vector machines (SVM) in a cross validation procedure. Cross validation was repeated in feature selection loop to produce optimized model. Results: Optimized discriminative map indicated that the ADHD brains exhibit more increased activities than normal controls in bilateral occipital lobes and left front lobe. The altered brain regions included portions of basal ganglia, insula, precuneus, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), thalamus, and cerebellum. Correlation coefficients indicated significant positive correlation of inattentive scores with bilateral cuneus and precuneus, and significant negative correlation of hyperactive/impulsive scores with bilateral insula and claustrum. Additionally, the optimized model produced total accuracy of 80% and sensitivity of 87%. Conclusion: ADHD brain regions were more activated than normal controls during resting state. Linear support vector classifier can provide useful discriminative information of altered ReHo patterns for ADHD; and feature selection can improve the performances of classification.

  20. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and intellectual giftedness: a study of symptom frequency and minor physical anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minahim, Daniel; Rohde, Luis A

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the presence of symptoms of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in intellectually gifted adults and children. Two cross-sectional studies were performed in children and adults whose intelligence quotient (IQ) had been previously evaluated using Raven's Progressive Matrices (RPM) test. Seventy-seven adults displaying IQ scores above the 98th percentile were assessed using the Adult Self-Report Scale (ASRS-18) for signs of ADHD and a modified Waldrop scale for minor physical anomalies (MPAs). Thirty-nine children (grades 1-5) exhibiting IQ scores above the 99th percentile, as well as an equally matched control group, were assessed for ADHD by teachers using the Swanson, Nolan and Pelham IV Rating Scale (SNAP-IV) as used in the NIMH Collaborative Multisite Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (MTA-SNAP-IV). In gifted adults, the frequency of ADHD-positive cases was 37.8%, and the total MPA score was significantly associated with ADHD (p validity of this diagnosis in this population. Furthermore, the significant association between MPAs and ADHD suggests that a neurodevelopmental condition underlies these symptoms.

  1. The presentation of energy topics at exhibitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moergeli, H.P.

    1984-01-01

    The author examines the problems confronting an electricity supply company when trying to communicate its energy policy to the general public at exhibitions and fairs. The company has to convey a message of reliable power supplies, increasing demand, the advantages of nuclear energy, the safe storage of radioactive waste and the need for new generating plants. The author describes some of the displays being used to attract the public to the Bern Power Stations stand at the Bern Exhibition 1984. (R.S.)

  2. [All-Russian hygienic exhibitions and museums].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzybaeva, M P

    2011-01-01

    The material about the popularization of hygiene and health education in Russia in the second half of the 19th century to early 20th century through exhibition and museum activities has been collected for the first time and analyzed in the paper. The role of scientists and scientific medical societies in this process is noted. The significance of museum and exhibition activities in this area for the development of medical science is defined.

  3. Sex differences in science museum exhibit attraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arámbula Greenfield, Teresa

    This study examines the relative attraction of hands-on, interactive science museum exhibits for females and males. Studies have demonstrated that such exhibits can be effective learning experiences for children, with both academic and affective benefits. Other studies have shown that girls and boys do not always experience the same science-related educational opportunities and that, even when they do, they do not necessarily receive the same benefits from them. These early differences can lead to more serious educational and professional disparities later in life. As interactive museum exhibits represent a science experience that is-readily available to both girls and boys, the question arose as to whether they were being used similarly by the two groups as well as by adult women and men. It was found that both girls and boys used all types of exhibits, but that girls were more likely than boys to use puzzles and exhibits focusing on the human body; boys were more likely than girls to use computers and exhibits illustrating physical science principles. However, this was less true of children accompanied by adults (parents) than it was of unaccompanied children on school field trips who roamed the museum more freely.Received: 16 February 1994; Revised: 3 February 1995;

  4. Social skills training for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children aged 5 to 18 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storebø, Ole Jakob; Skoog, Maria; Damm, Dorte

    2011-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children is associated with hyperactivity and impulsitivity, attention problems, and difficulties with social interactions. Pharmacological treatment may alleviate symptoms of ADHD but seldom solves difficulties with social interactions. Social s...

  5. Living with symptoms of Attention DeficitHyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauge Berring, Lene; Bjerrum, Merete Bender; Pedersen, Preben Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) relates to four dimensions of behavior: inattentiveness, restlessness, impulsiveness and hyperactivity. Symptoms affect multiple areas of daily life such as academic performance and social functioning. Despite the negative effects of ADHD, people...

  6. Subclinical symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are associated with specific creative processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, N.; Nevicka, B.; Baas, M.

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by distractibility, hyperactivity, and impulsive behavior. Although ADHD generally associates with a range of cognitive impairments, evidence suggests that people with ADHD may be more creative than people

  7. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Motor Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulardins, Juliana B; Marques, Juliana C B; De Oliveira, Jorge A

    2017-04-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurobehavioral disorder during childhood, affecting approximately 3-6% of school-aged children; its cardinal symptoms of high activity, impulsivity, and behavioral distractibility might be assumed to have close relationships to interferences with motor skills. A separate body of literature attests to ways that motor problems can severely impact children's daily lives, as motor problems may occur in 30-50% of children with ADHD. This article critically reviews research on motor impairment in children with ADHD, notable differences in motor performance of individuals with ADHD compared with age-matched controls, and possible neural underpinnings of this impairment. We discuss the highly prevalent link between ADHD and developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and the lack of a clear research consensus about motor difficulties in ADHD. Despite increasing evidence and diagnostic classifications that define DCD by motor impairment, the role of ADHD symptoms in DCD has not been delineated. Similarly, while ADHD may predispose children to motor problems, it is unclear whether any such motor difficulties observed in this population are inherent to ADHD or are mediated by comorbid DCD. Future research should address the exact nature and long-term consequences of motor impairment in children with ADHD and elucidate effective treatment strategies for these disorders together and apart.

  8. [Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and adoption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Mayoralas, Daniel Martín; Fernández-Perrone, Ana L; López-Arribas, Sonia; Pelaz-Antolín, Antonio; Fernández-Jaén, Alberto

    2015-02-25

    The term adoption or adoptive filiation is understood as referring to the legal act by which family ties are created between two persons such that a relationship of fatherhood or motherhood is established between them. AIMS. The purpose of this study is to outline the problems derived from prenatal exposure to alcohol and other risk factors, from hypostimulation during the 'critical period' in institutionalised patients (especially those adopted from eastern European countries) and their relation with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This work also seeks to take a deeper look into the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of these problems. These children have problems in terms of psychosocial relationships, behavioural problems, delayed language or reading development and, above all, ADHD. In practice it is extremely difficult to separate the two factors during the assessment of children adopted from eastern European countries in neuropaediatric consultations. Exactly how all these factors are interrelated is not well understood. There is a close relationship between prenatal exposure to alcohol and the consequences of adoption. There is a need for placebo-controlled randomised studies, with larger population samples, that test the benefits and profile of side effects, both with psychostimulants and with atomoxetine in this group of patients.

  9. Disorders of motor neurons manifested by hyperactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grapperon, A M; Attarian, S

    2017-05-01

    Neuronal and/or axonal hyperactivity and hyperexcitability is an important feature of motor neuron diseases. It results clinically in cramps and fasciculations. It is not specific to motor neuron diseases, and can occur in healthy subjects, as well as in various pathologies of the peripheral nervous system, including nerve hyperexcitability syndromes. Hyperexcitability plays an important and debated role in the pathophysiology of motor neuron diseases, especially in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The mechanisms causing hyperexcitability are not yet clearly identified. While most studies favor a distal axonal origin site of fasciculations, some of the fasciculations could be of cortical origin. The consequences of hyperexcitability are also discussed, whether it is rather protective or deleterious in the disease course. Fasciculations are depicted both clinically and using electromyogram, and more recently the interest of ultrasound has been highlighted. The importance of fasciculation potentials in the diagnosis of ALS led to changes in electrophysiological criteria at Awaji consensus conference. The contribution of these modifications to ALS diagnosis has been the subject of several studies. In clinical practice, it is necessary to distinguish fasciculations potentials of motor neuron disease from benign fasciculations. In most studies of fasciculation potentials in ALS, the presence of complex fasciculation potentials appears to be relevant for the diagnosis and the prognosis of the disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Developmental psychopathology: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Sören; Petermann, Franz

    2009-09-17

    Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), formerly regarded as a typical childhood disorder, is now known as a developmental disorder persisting over the lifespan. Starting in preschool-age, symptoms vary depending on the age group affected. According to the variability of ADHD-symptoms and the heterogeneity of comorbid psychiatric disorders, a broad review of recent studies was performed. These findings were summarized in a developmental psychopathological model, documenting relevant facts on a timeline. Based on a genetic disposition and a neuropsychological deregulation, there is evidence for factors which persist across the lifespan, change age-dependently, or show validity in a specific developmental phase. Qualitative changes can be found for children in preschool-age and adults. These differences have implications for clinical practice as they can be used for prevention, diagnostic proceedings, and therapeutic intervention as well as for planning future studies. The present article is a translated and modified version of the German article "Entwicklungspsychopathologie der ADHS", published in Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie, Psychologie und Psychotherapie, 56, 2008, S. 265-274.

  11. Developmental psychopathology: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petermann Franz

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD, formerly regarded as a typical childhood disorder, is now known as a developmental disorder persisting over the lifespan. Starting in preschool-age, symptoms vary depending on the age group affected. Method According to the variability of ADHD-symptoms and the heterogeneity of comorbid psychiatric disorders, a broad review of recent studies was performed. These findings were summarized in a developmental psychopathological model, documenting relevant facts on a timeline. Results Based on a genetic disposition and a neuropsychological deregulation, there is evidence for factors which persist across the lifespan, change age-dependently, or show validity in a specific developmental phase. Qualitative changes can be found for children in preschool-age and adults. Conclusion These differences have implications for clinical practice as they can be used for prevention, diagnostic proceedings, and therapeutic intervention as well as for planning future studies. The present article is a translated and modified version of the German article "Entwicklungspsychopathologie der ADHS", published in Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie, Psychologie und Psychotherapie, 56, 2008, S. 265-274.

  12. Stigma in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Anna K; Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Lara

    2012-09-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a frequently diagnosed disorder in child- and adulthood with a high impact affecting multiple facets of social life. Therefore, patients suffering from ADHD are at high risk to be confronted with stigma, prejudices, and discrimination. A review of the empirical research in the field of ADHD with regard to stigma was performed. The findings of investigations in this field were clustered in different categories, including stigma in children with ADHD, stigma in adults with ADHD, stigma in relatives or in people close to a patient with ADHD, and the influence of stigma on authorities' attitudes toward patients with ADHD. Variables identified to contribute to stigma in ADHD are public's uncertainty concerning the reliability/validity of an ADHD diagnosis and the related diagnostic assessment, public's perceived dangerousness of individuals with ADHD, socio-demographical factors as age, gender, and ethnicity of the respondent or the target individual with ADHD, stigmatization of ADHD treatment, for example public's skepticism toward ADHD medication and disclosure of diagnostic status as well as medication status of the individual with ADHD. The contribution of stigma associated with ADHD can be conceptualized as an underestimated risk factor, affecting treatment adherence, treatment efficacy, symptom aggravation, life satisfaction, and mentally well-being of individuals affected by ADHD. Public as well as health professionals' concepts about ADHD are highly diverse, setting individuals with an ADHD diagnosis at greater risk to get stigmatized.

  13. [A case of prolonged paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Akiko; Ide, Shuhei; Iwasaki, Yuji; Kaga, Makiko; Arima, Masataka

    2016-03-01

    We report the case of a 4-year-old girl who presented with paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity (PSH), after developing severe hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy because of cardiopulmonary arrest. She showed dramatic paroxysmal sympathetic activity with dystonia. She was treated with wide variety of medications against PSH, which were found to be effective in previous studies. Among them, morphine, bromocriptine, propranolol, and clonidine were effective in reducing the frequency of her attacks while gabapentin, baclofen, dantrolene, and benzodiazepine were ineffective. Though the paroxysms decreased markedly after the treatment, they could not be completely controlled beyond 500 days. Following the treatment, levels of plasma catecholamines and their urinary metabolites decreased to normal during inter- paroxysms. However, once a paroxysm had recurred, these levels were again very high. This case study is considered significant for two rea- sons. One is that PSH among children have been rarely reported, and the other is that this case of prolonged PSH delineated the transition of plasma catecholamines during the treatment. The excitatory: inhibitory ratio (EIR) model proposed by Baguley was considered while dis- cussing drug sensitivity in this case. Accumulation of similar case studies will help establish more effective treatment strategies and elucidate the pathophysiology of PSH.

  14. Mindfulness and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalley, Susan L; Loo, Sandra K; Hale, T Sigi; Shrestha, Anshu; McGough, James; Flook, Lisa; Reise, Steven

    2009-10-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a disorder characterized by attentional difficulties. Mindfulness is a receptive attention to present experience. Both ADHD and mindfulness are associated with attention and personality. This study tests whether individuals with ADHD have lower mindfulness scores than controls and, if true, whether personality contributes to these differences. One hundred and five adults (half with ADHD) were assessed for mindfulness, using the Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills, and personality, using the Tridimensional Character Inventory. Individuals with ADHD report themselves as less mindful than non-ADHD controls and more novelty-seeking, less self-directed, and more self-transcendent. Mindfulness is negatively associated with ADHD and positively associated with self-directedness and self-transcendence. Analyses of subscales of mindfulness suggest that ADHD is associated most with the "Acting in Awareness" dimension, perhaps because of shared items reflecting attentional variability. The current findings support that a large portion of variability in trait mindfulness can be explained by ADHD status and personality traits of self-directedness and self-transcendence. It further suggests that interventions that increase mindfulness might improve symptoms of ADHD and increase self-directedness and/or self-transcendence.

  15. Maternal Anxiety and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roohallah Mirzaaghas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim:  According to the previous studies, anxiety along with some other psychiatric disorders is common among mothers of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Since maternal anxiety affects mother-child interactions, early treatment plays an important role in the prognosis of ADHD in children. This study aimed to determine the relationship between maternal anxiety and hyperactivity in children. Methods: This study was conducted on 112 mothers of ADHD children (aged 6-12 years, selected via convenience sampling from October to December 2012. The subjects lived in districts 2 and 6 of Tehran and were referred to consultation centers. Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 42 (DASS-42 and Swanson, Nolan and Pelham (SNAP-IV questionnaires were completed by the subjects. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used for the analysis of the relationship between variables. Results: A positive correlation was found between maternal anxiety and children’s hyperactivity (P=0.05. In fact, high levels of maternal anxiety are accounted for various child-rearing problems such as children’s hyperactivity. Conclusion: High levels of maternal anxiety lead to child rearing problems, which in turn cause various disorders such as hyperactivity in children.

  16. CERN exhibition a big hit in Bulgaria

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The first CERN exhibition in Bulgaria attracted many visitors. In the first ever CERN exhibition to be held in Bulgaria, over 1,400 visitors, many of them students and young physicists, visited the 10-day event in Sofia. The CERN mini-exhibition took place at the National Earth and Mankind Museum between 8 and 17 November. Permanently staffed by young physicists from Sofia University, there were exhibits on display about research activities at CERN, as well as four additional posters describing Bulgaria's participation. The inauguration took place on the morning of 8 November in the presence of the Vice-Minister for Science and Education, Mrs. Vanya Dobreva, and some 200 guests. A series of short speeches were followed by a visit to the exhibition. CERN's representative at the event, Ray Lewis, was then asked by Professor Matey Mateev, President of the Union of Physicists in Bulgaria, to say a few words on behalf of the Organization. Numerous journalists were also present at the inauguration. A painting enti...

  17. Turning energy around: an interactive exhibition experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Kellberg

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A transition from the fossil-fuel driven to a sustainable energy system is an enormous global challenge: climate change and finite resources require countries all over the world to change their way of producing, transporting and using energy. The Energiewende (energy transition will require major changes in the current energy supply system in Germany – but also worldwide. These changes will not only affect the technical sector but will also include ecological questions, social issues and political matters. Whether any transition is going to favour large scale solutions or decentralised technologies depends on local situations and global interconnections, and above all on a democratic process. Hence energy transition succeeds or fails with the acceptance and participation of society. To deal with this overwhelmingly complex topic and its multi-layered dependencies, the Deutsches Museum has designed an exhibition providing visitors with background knowledge about the necessities and challenges of energy transition, unpicking the links between the different technical, economic and social challenges. The exhibition accomplishes the task with an engaging and facilitating approach while taking into account the highly emotive aspects of energy transition as a societal issue. This paper presents the concept of the travelling exhibition energie.wenden, relating it to the Deutsches Museum´s tradition of exhibitions as well as to the challenge of how to deal with socio-scientific topics in scientific exhibitions.

  18. Teacher Response to the Methylphenidate (Ritalin) versus Placebo Status of Hyperactive Boys in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, Carol K.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Teacher behaviors toward hyperactive boys on methylphenidate (ritalin), toward hyperactive boys on placebo, and toward normal comparison peers were compared. Teachers were more intense and controlling toward hyperactive boys on placebo, but no differences emerged between comparison and medicated groups. Need for broader monitoring of treatment…

  19. The exploration of the exhibition informatization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiankang

    2017-06-01

    The construction and management of exhibition informatization is the main task and choke point during the process of Chinese exhibition industry’s transformation and promotion. There are three key points expected to realize a breakthrough during the construction of Chinese exhibition informatization, and the three aspects respectively are adopting service outsourcing to construct and maintain the database, adopting advanced chest card technology to collect various kinds of information, developing statistics analysis to maintain good cutomer relations. The success of Chinese exhibition informatization mainly calls for mature suppliers who can provide construction and maintenance of database, the proven technology, a sense of data security, advanced chest card technology, the ability of data mining and analysis and the ability to improve the exhibition service basing on the commercial information got from the data analysis. Several data security measures are expected to apply during the process of system developing, including the measures of the terminal data security, the internet data security, the media data security, the storage data security and the application data security. The informatization of this process is based on the chest card designing. At present, there are several types of chest card technology: bar code chest card; two-dimension code card; magnetic stripe chest card; smart-chip chest card. The information got from the exhibition data will help the organizers to make relevant service strategies, quantify the accumulated indexes of the customers, and improve the level of the customer’s satisfaction and loyalty, what’s more, the information can also provide more additional services like the commercial trips, VIP ceremonial reception.

  20. Exhibits in libraries a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Mary E

    2005-01-01

    "Ccomprehensive...detailed"--Booklist; "thoroughly reseached...highly recommended"--Journal of Access Services. Library exhibits are more than entertainment for patrons. They can inspire and educate, stimulate an interest that can be explored in a book, or attract visitors who otherwise wouldn't stop by. Displays are also an opportunity for a library to put its creative foot forward or help patrons navigate the facility itself. This comprehensive "how-to" includes everything a librarian or staff member needs to know to put on an exhibit, from hatching ideas to evaluating the end result. Illustrations and photographs show practical methods of planning, labeling and displaying.

  1. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Preschool-Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Mini; Pergjika, Alba

    2017-07-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder marked by age-inappropriate deficits in attention or hyperactivity/impulsivity that interfere with functioning or development. It is highly correlated with other disorders, such as oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, and mood symptoms. The etiology is multifactorial, and neuroimaging findings are nonspecific. Although assessment tools exist, there is variability among them, and historically, parent-teacher agreement has not been consistent. Treatment algorithm for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in preschoolers includes behavioral interventions first followed by psychopharmacologic treatment when behavioral therapies fail. Other nonpharmacologic and nonbehavioral interventions are discussed including the role of exercise and nutrition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Hyperactivity and motoric activity in ADHD: Characterization, assessment, and intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina eGawrilow

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present literature review is threefold. (1 We will review theories, models, and studies on symptomatic hyperactivity and motoric activity in ADHD. (2 Another focus will be on assessment methods that have been proven to be effective in the detection of hyperactivity and motoric activity in children, adolescents, and adults with and without ADHD and emerging areas of research in the field of ADHD. We will compare subjective methods (i.e., rating scales and objective methods (i.e., accelerometers. (3 Finally, physical activity intervention studies aiming at a modification of activity and overactive behavior will be summarized that seem to be promising candidates for alleviating hyperactivity symptoms in children, adolescents, and adults with ADHD.

  3. Peer tutoring for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: effects on classroom behavior and academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuPaul, G J; Ervin, R A; Hook, C L; McGoey, K E

    1998-01-01

    We investigated the effects of classwide peer tutoring (CWPT) on the classroom behavior and academic performance of students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Typical instructional activities were contrasted with CWPT for 18 children with ADHD and 10 peer comparison students attending first- through fifth-grade general education classes. CWPT led to increases in active engagement in academic tasks along with reductions in off-task behavior for most participants. Of students with ADHD, 50% exhibited improvements in academic performance in math or spelling during CWPT conditions, as measured by a treatment success index. Participating teachers and students reported a high level of satisfaction with intervention procedures. Our results suggest that peer tutoring appears to be an effective strategy for addressing the academic and behavioral difficulties associated with ADHD in general education settings.

  4. Early childhood temperament in pediatric bipolar disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Amy E; Schenkel, Lindsay S; Pavuluri, Mani N

    2008-04-01

    Recent theories suggest that children with pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) may exhibit more difficult temperaments premorbidly, including traits such as behavioral disinhibition and difficulty with emotion regulation. We investigated temperament characteristics retrospectively during infancy and toddlerhood in subjects with PBD (n=25), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; n=25), and healthy controls (n=25). Children with PBD were reported to experience increased difficult temperament in both infancy and toddlerhood compared to children with ADHD. Several characteristics of difficult temperament were associated with residual symptoms of mania and depression. Difficult premorbid temperament characteristics may be a specific indicator of a bipolar diathesis, or might signal underlying dysfunction in affective processes that significantly increase risk for a mood disorder.

  5. Update on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Katie Campbell

    2004-04-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is present in 3% to 10% of children in the United States. Children with ADHD can have academic impairments, social dysfunction, and poor self-esteem. There is also a higher risk of both cigarette smoking and substance abuse. Given this, the importance of treatment for ADHD needs to be underscored. This article will briefly review the diagnosis, etiology, and treatment of ADHD, with particular focus on nonstimulant medication and alternative treatment modalities. Recent evidence suggests that the overall rate of medication treatment for ADHD has been increasing, with over 2 million children being treated with stimulants in 1997. With this increase, controversy has arisen over the possible association of stimulants with growth suppression. In addition, estimates indicate that as many as 30% of children with ADHD either do not respond to stimulant treatment or cannot tolerate the treatment secondary to side effects. This has lead to the consideration of treatment with both nonstimulant medications as well as alternative therapies, including diet, iron supplementation, herbal medications, and neurofeedback. Considering the various treatment options now available for ADHD, along with the complexity of the condition, clinical practice guidelines are emerging for the treatment of ADHD and will be discussed. ADHD continues to be a serious health problem. Adequate treatment is needed to avoid academic impairments, social dysfunction, and poor self-esteem. This treatment includes consideration of stimulant medication, nonstimulant medication, as well as alternative therapies. The child with ADHD is likely better served with a mutimodal treatment plan, including medication, parent/school counseling, and behavioral therapy. Implementing an evidenced based algorithm for the treatment of ADHD may prove to be most effective.

  6. Zinc in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, L Eugene; DiSilvestro, Robert A

    2005-08-01

    The aim of this study was to review the published evidence for a role of zinc nutrition in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A computer literature search was supplemented by the authors' knowledge. Numerous controlled studies report cross-sectional evidence of lower zinc tissue levels (serum, red cells, hair, urine, nails) in children who have ADHD, compared to normal controls and population norms. A few studies show correlations of zinc level with either clinical severity or a change thereof in response to stimulant or chemical challenge. Two placebo-controlled trials--one of zinc monotherapy, the other of zinc supplementation of methylphenidate--reported significant benefit. However, diagnostic procedures and sample representativeness were often not clear, and most such reports have come from countries and cultures with different diets and/or socioeconomic realities than are found in the United States (only one American sample in nine published reports). In particular, both positive clinical trials of zinc supplementation came from the Mid-East (Turkey and Iran), an area with suspected endemic zinc deficiency. The largest of these trials used zinc doses above the recommended upper tolerable limit and had a 2 in 3 dropout rate. It is not clear how well the accumulating evidence for a possible role of zinc in ADHD applies to middle-class American children. However, the evidence appears strong enough to warrant further controlled study in well-diagnosed samples representative of the socioeconomic spectrum. Hypothesis-testing clinical trials are needed of this potential treatment that, if found effective, might become a relatively safe, cheap substitute for, or adjunct to, current treatments in some patients. At present, it should remain an investigational treatment.

  7. Preliminary Evidence for Reduced Post-Error Reaction Time Slowing in Hyperactive/Inattentive Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berwid, Olga G.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.; Johnson, Ray E.; Marks, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder has been associated with deficits in self-regulatory cognitive processes, some of which are thought to lie at the heart of the disorder. Slowing of reaction times (RTs) for correct responses following errors made during decision tasks has been interpreted as an indication of intact self-regulatory functioning and has been shown to be attenuated in school-aged children with ADHD. This study attempted to examine whether ADHD symptoms are associated with an early-emerging deficit in post-error slowing. Method A computerized two-choice RT task was administered to an ethnically diverse sample of preschool-aged children classified as either ‘control’ (n = 120) or ‘hyperactive/inattentive’ (HI; n = 148) using parent- and teacher-rated ADHD symptoms. Analyses were conducted to determine whether HI preschoolers exhibit a deficit in this self-regulatory ability. Results HI children exhibited reduced post-error slowing relative to controls on the trials selected for analysis. Supplementary analyses indicated that this may have been due to a reduced proportion of trials following errors on which HI children slowed rather than to a reduction in the absolute magnitude of slowing on all trials following errors. Conclusions High levels of ADHD symptoms in preschoolers may be associated with a deficit in error processing as indicated by post-error slowing. The results of supplementary analyses suggest that this deficit is perhaps more a result of failures to perceive errors than of difficulties with executive control. PMID:23387525

  8. 18 CFR 153.8 - Required exhibits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Seismic Risk Map of the United States, or where there is a risk of surface faulting or ground liquefaction... facilities in the United States and Canada or Mexico; (5) Exhibit E. If the proposal is to import or export... the Seismic Review of LNG Facilities,” NBSIR 84-2833. This document may be obtained from the National...

  9. After Terror Charges, Artist Exhibits Academic Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robin

    2008-01-01

    Steven Kurtz, a professor of visual studies at the State University of New York, has been working with various bacteria as part of his counterculture exhibit artworks for nearly 20 years. Four years ago, federal agents raided his home in a bioterrorism investigation. The federal agents had been called to the house by local police officers…

  10. 18 CFR 34.4 - Required exhibits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-month period for which financial statements have been published, provided that the 12-month period ended... the pro forma basis must be clearly identified. (d) Exhibit D. The Income Statement and attached notes for the most recent 12-month period for which financial statements have been published, provided that...

  11. CERN exhibition wins yet another design prize

    CERN Multimedia

    Joannah Caborn Wengler

    2012-01-01

    The “Universe of Particles” exhibition in CERN’s Globe wins the silver design prize from the German direct business communications association FAMAB.   Not only do tens of thousands of people visit the “Universe of Particles” exhibition each year, but juries for design prizes are crossing its threshold more and more frequently too. In 2011 alone it claimed 8 awards, including winning outright the 2011 Annual Multimedia award, the iF Communication Design for Corporate Architecture award and the Modern Decoration Media award (the Bulletin already reported on some of these in July 2011). The FAMAB award is the latest to join the prestigious list. The jury of FAMAB’s “ADAM 2011” award was particularly impressed by the hands-on nature of the exhibition, which encourages visitors to get interested in science. They also appreciated the way that the space in the Globe is not just a container for the exhibits, but itself ...

  12. Comic Strips to Accompany Science Museum Exhibits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Beom Sun; Park, Eun-mi; Kim, Sang-Hee; Cho, Sook-kyoung; Chung, Min Suk

    2016-01-01

    Science museums make the effort to create exhibits with amusing explanations. However, existing explanation signs with lengthy text are not appealing, and as such, visitors do not pay attention to them. In contrast, conspicuous comic strips composed of simple drawings and humors can attract science museum visitors. This study attempted to reveal…

  13. How do exhibition visitors describe aesthetic qualities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bente Dahl; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2007-01-01

    In this investigation, visitors to an art and design exhibition have used an interactive computer program to express the qualities they consider important for an art or design object (artefact). They have then used the program with their individually selected qualities to assess the artefacts. In...

  14. Dansk standardisering af attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder-ratingskalaen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lotte; Jørgensen, Siv Lykke; Dalsgaard, Søren

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. The diagnostic classification is based on developmental anamnesis, objective examination, neuropsychological tests, observation of the child, and evaluation of the symptoms...... were calculated for both girls and boys in three age-groups, for parent answers and teacher answers separately. CONCLUSION: There were significant variations in ratings of ADHD and behavioural symptoms as a function of gender and age. It is crucial, during an evaluation of a child, to compare his......, measure symptom-load and evaluate outcome of treatment of ADHD. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Apr-27...

  15. [Sleeping disorders can imitate attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvolby, Allan; Jørgensen, Jan Ib; Bilenberg, Niels

    2005-10-10

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is often associated with anxiety, depression, oppositional defiant disorder and sleeping difficulties. Sleeping disorders are reported in more than 50% of children with ADHD. On the other hand, symptoms of sleep disorder, inattention, hyperactivity and impulsiveness can imitate the symptoms of ADHD. We describe a 5(1/2)-year-old boy with symptoms of attention deficit and social withdrawal. His sleep was disturbed, with late sleep onset and frequent awakening during the night. After correction of his sleep pattern, the symptoms of attention deficit and social withdrawal disappeared.

  16. Teacher Attitudes towards Students Who Exhibit ADHD-Type Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulholland, Sarah M.; Cumming, Therese M.; Jung, Jae Yup

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, its diagnosis and its treatment have been controversial since the 1970s (Kean, 2012), with opinions differing with respect to the diagnostic process, whether it in fact exists, or if it is an excuse for poor parenting and teaching (Maras, Redmayne, Hall, Braithwaite, & Prior, 1997). There are currently…

  17. Travelling CERN Exhibition ''When Energy Becomes Matter''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The European Laboratory for Nuclear Research (CERN) and the H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics together with the Institute of Physics of the Jagiellonian University and the University of Mining and Metallurgy, and under the auspices of the Polish National Atomic Energy Agency organized in the Museum of Nature in Cracow from October 16 till December 16, 2000 the exhibition ''When Energy Becomes Matter''. The Office of the ''Festival Cracow 2000'' was the main sponsor of that event. The exhibition was a part of the F estival Cracow 2000'' called ''Festival of Youngsters Cracow 2000''. Invitations, posters and information leaflets were sent to more than 3000 schools in southern Poland. The exhibition was divided into four specially designed quadrants. In the first the visitor was informed what kind of scales are in use to describe the Universe and the atom. The second introduced elementary particles via the cosmic ray demonstrations. Particle acceleration was demonstrated with the help of a TV set. The third segment was devoted to the Large Hadron Collider and its experiments: CMS, ATLAS, ALICE and LHCb. The last segment was an attempt to explain what are quarks, leptons and intermediate bosons. In addition it was also explained what is antimatter and why symmetry is broken in Nature. In one of the rooms we arranged the cinema where five movies was continuously presented. Thanks to the Cracow TV it was possible to prepare Polish translations of the films: B ack to creation , P owers of ten , L HC - time machine , S tars underground , and G eneva event . Another attraction of the exhibition was the Internet room equipped with the help of Polish Telecommunication. The exhibition was open seven days per week from 10 to 17 h. During the working days every 20 minutes a new group of about 25-30 people was visiting the exhibition. Each group was guided by students and PhD students from our Institute, Jagiellonian University and University of Mining

  18. Hyperactivity in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Impairing Deficit or Compensatory Behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarver, Dustin E; Rapport, Mark D; Kofler, Michael J; Raiker, Joseph S; Friedman, Lauren M

    2015-10-01

    Excess gross motor activity (hyperactivity) is considered a core diagnostic feature of childhood ADHD that impedes learning. This view has been challenged, however, by recent models that conceptualize excess motor activity as a compensatory mechanism that facilitates neurocognitive functioning in children with ADHD. The current study investigated competing model predictions regarding activity level's relation with working memory (WM) performance and attention in boys aged 8-12 years (M = 9.64, SD = 1.26) with ADHD (n = 29) and typically developing children (TD; n = 23). Children's phonological WM and attentive behavior were objectively assessed during four counterbalanced WM tasks administered across four separate sessions. These data were then sequenced hierarchically based on behavioral observations of each child's gross motor activity during each task. Analysis of the relations among intra-individual changes in observed activity level, attention, and performance revealed that higher rates of activity level predicted significantly better, but not normalized WM performance for children with ADHD. Conversely, higher rates of activity level predicted somewhat lower WM performance for TD children. Variations in movement did not predict changes in attention for either group. At the individual level, children with ADHD and TD children were more likely to be classified as reliably Improved and Deteriorated, respectively, when comparing their WM performance at their highest versus lowest observed activity level. These findings appear most consistent with models ascribing a functional role to hyperactivity in ADHD, with implications for selecting behavioral treatment targets to avoid overcorrecting gross motor activity during academic tasks that rely on phonological WM.

  19. Blebbishields and mitotic cells exhibit robust macropinocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinesh, Goodwin G; Kamat, Ashish M

    2017-03-01

    Cancer stem cells can survive and undergo transformation after apoptosis by initiating robust endocytosis. Endocytosis in-turn drives formation of serpentine filopodia, which promote construction of blebbishields from apoptotic bodies. However, the status and role of macropinocytosis in blebbishields is not known. Here, we show by scanning electron microscopy and by macropinocytosis assays that blebbishields exhibit robust macropinocytosis. Inhibiting dynamin-mediated endocytosis does not affect macropinocytosis in blebbishields or in mitotic cells. In addition, inhibiting macropinocytosis did not inhibit construction of blebbishields from apoptotic bodies. Thus, although apoptotic cancer stem cells exhibit robust macropinocytosis, macropinocytosis is not essential to generate blebbishields, although it may play other roles in blebbishield biology. © 2016 BioFactors, 43(2):181-186, 2017. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  20. LHC INAUGURATION, LHC Fest highlights: exhibition time!

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    David Gross, one of the twenty-one Nobel Laureates who have participated in the project.Tuesday 21 October 2008 Accelerating Nobels Colliding Charm, Atomic Cuisine, The Good Anomaly, A Quark Somewhere on the White Paper, Wire Proliferation, A Tale of Two Liquids … these are just some of the titles given to artworks by Physics Nobel Laureates who agreed to make drawings of their prize-winning discoveries (more or less reluctantly) during a special photo session. Science photographer Volker Steger made portraits of Physics Nobel Laureates and before the photo sessions he asked them to make a drawing of their most important discovery. The result is "Accelerating Nobels", an exhibition that combines unusual portraits of and original drawings by twenty-one Nobel laureates in physics whose work is closely related to CERN and the LHC. This exhibition will be one of the highlights of the LHC celebrations on 21 October in the SM18 hall b...

  1. Exhibition: Women and Sciences by Fiami

    CERN Multimedia

    Globe Info

    2011-01-01

    The 19-panel exhibition is on display at CERN's Microcosm from Monday to Saturday from 10.00 a.m. to 5.00 p.m.   Marie Curie won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry one hundred years ago. She is the only woman ever to win two Nobel Prizes, which is a testament to her remarkable work. But throughout history, women have played a role in science either in their own right or alongside other scientists. In this special exhibition, the comic-strip artist Fiami takes a look back at the relationship between women and science through his portraits of Mileva Einstein, Marie-Anne Lavoisier and, of course, Marie Curie. Fiami has recently published an entire album devoted to Marie Curie. Texts in French All ages - Entrance free Femmes et Sciences is on display at Microcosm: From Wednesday 21 September 2011 to Tuesday 20 December 2011.

  2. Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command exhibit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Designed to entertain while educating, StenniSphere at the John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., includes informative displays and exhibits from NASA and other agencies located at Stennis, such as this one from the Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command. Visitors can 'travel' three-dimensionally under the sea and check on the weather back home in the Weather Center. StenniSphere is open free of charge from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily.

  3. Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command exhibit entrance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    StenniSphere at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., invites visitors to discover why America comes to Stennis Space Center before going into space. Designed to entertain while educating, StenniSphere includes informative displays and exhibits from NASA and other agencies located at Stennis, such as this one from the Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command. Visitors can 'travel' three-dimensionally under the sea and check on the weather back home in the Weather Center.

  4. Bumblebees exhibit the memory spacing effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Nicholas R. T.; Song, Jeremy; Nieh, James C.

    2009-10-01

    Associative learning is key to how bees recognize and return to rewarding floral resources. It thus plays a major role in pollinator floral constancy and plant gene flow. Honeybees are the primary model for pollinator associative learning, but bumblebees play an important ecological role in a wider range of habitats, and their associative learning abilities are less well understood. We assayed learning with the proboscis extension reflex (PER), using a novel method for restraining bees (capsules) designed to improve bumblebee learning. We present the first results demonstrating that bumblebees exhibit the memory spacing effect. They improve their associative learning of odor and nectar reward by exhibiting increased memory acquisition, a component of long-term memory formation, when the time interval between rewarding trials is increased. Bombus impatiens forager memory acquisition (average discrimination index values) improved by 129% and 65% at inter-trial intervals (ITI) of 5 and 3 min, respectively, as compared to an ITI of 1 min. Memory acquisition rate also increased with increasing ITI. Encapsulation significantly increases olfactory memory acquisition. Ten times more foragers exhibited at least one PER response during training in capsules as compared to traditional PER harnesses. Thus, a novel conditioning assay, encapsulation, enabled us to improve bumblebee-learning acquisition and demonstrate that spaced learning results in better memory consolidation. Such spaced learning likely plays a role in forming long-term memories of rewarding floral resources.

  5. Exhibition: Linus Pauling and the Twentieth Century

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On April 28 the exhibit Linus Pauling and the Twentieth Century organised by UNIDIR (United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research) and SGI (Soka Gakkai International) as well as with the contributions of CERN and the University of Geneva, opened at the United Nations Office of Geneva. Linus Pauling is the only person to date to have won two unshared Nobel Prizes: Chemistry in 1954 and Peace in 1962. The first was awarded for his landmark research on the nature of the chemical bond and its application in understanding the structure of complex substances. The second one acknowledged his courageous protest against atmospheric nuclear testing and his championship of international peace. The exhibit, for audience of all ages, traces seven decades of Linus Pauling's life and influence on the 20th century. Before starting its European tour at the UNESCO headquarters in Paris, the exhibit opened in 1998 in San Francisco and then travelled within the United-States and to Japan with an attendance of more than one...

  6. Exhibition: Linus Pauling and the Twentieth Century

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On April 28 the exhibit Linus Pauling and the Twentieth Century organised by UNIDIR (United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research) and SGI (Soka Gakkai International) as well as with the contributions of CERN and the University of Geneva, opens at the United Nations Office of Geneva. Linus Pauling is the only person to date to have won two unshared Nobel Prizes: Chemistry in 1954 and Peace in 1962. The first was awarded for his landmark research on the nature of the chemical bond and its application in understanding the structure of complex substances. The second one acknowledged his courageous protest against atmospheric nuclear testing and his championship of international peace. The exhibit, for all ages' audiences, traces seven decades of Linus Pauling's life and influence on the 20th century. Before starting its European tour at the UNESCO headquarters in Paris, the exhibit opened in 1998 in San Francisco and then travelled within the United-States and to Japan with an attendance of more than one m...

  7. Exhibition: Dialogue between Science and religion

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Can the theory of the Big Bang reached by physicists and the concept of creation beloved of religion ever be reconciled? The two approaches have at least one point in common: they do not provide a final answer to the mysteries of the birth of the Universe. And this means that dialogue is alays possible between the two. It is to show the potential of such an exchange that Geneva's Société Evangélique organization is opening an exhibition under the title 'Big Bang and Creation', at the Planète Charmilles shopping centre, to run from 19 to 30 March. View of the 'Big Bang and Creation' exhibition. The exhibition is divided into three sections, showing the views of the scientist and those of the believer without setting them up in opposition to one another. In the first section, under a representation of the vault of heaven, the visitor will discover the different ideas explaining the birth of the Universe: Genesis and the Big Bang, and the different dominant theories ...

  8. Art exhibit focuses on African astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-07-01

    Connections between Africans and astronomy are the focus of a new exhibition in the National Museum of African Art in Washington, D. C. "African Cosmos: Stellar Arts," which includes artwork, cultural items, and scientific displays from ancient to contemporary times, is the first major exhibit "that brings together arts and science focused on Africa's contribution to keen observations of the heavens over time," curator Christine Mullen Kreamer said at a 20 June news briefing. Among the exhibit's nearly 100 objects are an ancient Egyptian mummy board that includes a representation of the sky goddess Nut, sculptures by the Dogon people of Mali depicting figures in relation to the cosmos, a video that uses data from two square degrees of the Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Evolution Survey, and a nearly floor-to-ceiling "Rainbow Serpent" constructed of plastic containers by Benin artist Hazoume. An untitled acrylic painting (Figure 1) by South African Gavin Jantjes evokes a myth of the Khoi San people of southern Africa, as it portrays a girl throwing evening fire embers into the night sky, where they remained as the Milky Way.

  9. Persistence of attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder into adulthood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-02-14

    Feb 14, 2006 ... Introduction. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), which is marked by inattention, distractibility and impulsivity, has long been known as a childhood disorder. ADHD is the most common emotional, cognitive and behavioural disorder treated in children affecting an estimated 4-12% of school aged ...

  10. Classroom Discipline with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Edward A.; Kirby, Sandra H.

    1994-01-01

    Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often discipline problems, but their disruptive behavior is usually not willful or intentional. After describing the educational history of one person with ADHD, the article makes suggestions for disciplining children with ADHD in the classroom. (SM)

  11. Test Anxiety and College Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jason M.; Lindstrom, Will; Foels, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    Test anxiety was examined in college students with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Results indicated that, relative to college students without ADHD, college students with ADHD reported higher total test anxiety as well as specific aspects of test anxiety, including worry (i.e., cognitive aspects of test anxiety) and…

  12. Structural basis for hyperactivity of cN-II mutants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hnízda, Aleš; Škerlová, Jana; Šinalová, Martina; Pachl, Petr; Man, Petr; Novák, Petr; Fábry, Milan; Řezáčová, Pavlína; Veverka, Václav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 1 (2015), s. 4 ISSN 1211-5894. [Discussions in Structural Molecular Biology. Annual Meeting of the Czech Society for Structural Biology /13./. 19.03.2015-21.03.2015, Nové Hrady] Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:68378050 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : cN-II mutants * enzyme hyperactivity Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  13. Interference Control in Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mourik, Rosa; Papanikolau, Alky; van Gellicum-Bijlhout, Joyce; van Oostenbruggen, Janneke; Veugelers, Diane; Post-Uiterweer, Annebeth; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2009-01-01

    The view that Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is associated with a diminished ability to control interference is controversial and based exclusively on results of (verbal)-visual interference tasks, primarily the Stroop Color Word task. The present study compares medication-naive children with ADHD (n = 35 and n = 51 in Experiments…

  14. DSM-5 Further Inflates Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batstra, Laura; Frances, Allen

    Since the publication of DSM-IV in 1994, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) prevalence and medication use unexpectedly increased significantly. In this article, we explore the DSM-5 proposals for ADHD that are likely to further increase its prevalence. We also address the possible

  15. Language Impairment in the Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Sean M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a ubiquitous designation that affects the identification, assessment, treatment, and study of pediatric language impairments (LIs). Method: Current literature is reviewed in 4 areas: (a) the capacity of psycholinguistic, neuropsychological, and socioemotional behavioral indices to…

  16. Parents Psychopathology of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margari, Francesco; Craig, Francesco; Petruzzelli, Maria Giuseppina; Lamanna, Annalinda; Matera, Emilia; Margari, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a disorder with extremely complex etiology, not yet well defined but certainly multi-factorial. This study investigated the possible etiopathogenetic role of ADHD symptoms and psychopathology disorders in parents of children with ADHD. We present a case-control study of parents of 50 children…

  17. Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Participating in Recess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Matthew D.; Justice, Michael J.; Rosko, Kelly M.

    2014-01-01

    The participation of a student with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in recess can often be both challenging and rewarding for the student and teacher. This paper will address common characteristics of children with ADHD and present basic solutions to improve the experience of these children in the recess setting. Initially, the…

  18. School Experiences of Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Judith; Daniels, Lesley

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on a qualitative study of the school experiences of adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the context of quantitative research on teacher attitudes and practices, adolescent self-appraisals, and social and family relationships. Twelve adolescents with ADHD participated in in-depth, semistructured…

  19. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms mediate early-onset smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizink, A.C.; Van Lier, P.A.C.; Crijnen, A.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims: Symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have often been associated with early-onset smoking. We hypothesize that reductions in ADHD symptoms due to an intervention have a mediating effect on early-onset smoking. Methods: In a universal, school-based, randomized

  20. Exploring five common assumptions on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batstra, Laura; Nieweg, Edo H.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    The number of children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and treated with medication is steadily increasing. The aim of this paper was to critically discuss five debatable assumptions on ADHD that may explain these trends to some extent. These are that ADHD (i) causes

  1. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Functional Defecation Disorders in Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuizenga-Wessel, Sophie; Koppen, Ilan J. N.; Vriesman, Mana H.; Di Lorenzo, Carlo; van Dijk, Marieke; Beelen, Maureen L. R.; Groeneweg, Michael; Stoffelsen, Reino J.; Benninga, Marc A.

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children presenting with functional defecation disorders (FDDs) and to assess the prevalence of FDDs in children with ADHD. Methods: A cross-sectional cohort study was carried out

  2. The Role of Drugs, Diet, and Food Additives in Hyperactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harshbarger, Mary E.

    A variety of causes have been suggested for hyperactivity: anoxia and other adverse birth conditions, genetic factors, delayed maturation, maternal smoking and drinking during pregnancy, interaction of temperament and environment, lead poisoning, radiation stress, allergy and food additives, and deprivation of required stimulation. Treatments…

  3. Infant Crying and Risk of Hyperactivity and Learning Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Infants with persistent crying (PC in the first 6 months (mean age 3.8 months were reassessed at 8 to 10 years of age and compared with 64 classroom controls for hyperactivity, conduct problems and academic difficulties in a prospective study at the University of Hertfordshire, UK.

  4. School-Based Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Brandon K.; Storer, Jennifer; Watabe, Yuko; Sadler, Joanna; Evans, Steven W.

    2011-01-01

    The authors review the research literature regarding school-based treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Students with ADHD often do not receive access to special services, even though the impairments associated with the disorder often compromise learning and cause concerns for classroom teachers, school administrators, and…

  5. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and social dysfunctioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijmeijer, Judith S.; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Mulligan, Aisling; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with functional impairments in different areas of daily life. One such area is social functioning. The purpose of this paper is to critically review research on social dysfunctioning in children with ADHD. Children with ADHD often have

  6. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and social dysfunctioning.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijmeijer, J.S.; Minderaa, R.B.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Mulligan, A.; Hartman, C.A.; Hoekstra, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with functional impairments in different areas of daily life. One such area is social functioning. The purpose of this paper is to critically review research on social dysfunctioning in children with ADHD. Children with ADHD often have

  7. GAME BIOFEEDBACK TECHNOLOGY IN ATTENTION DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Stoller

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We continue the study of students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder when using betastimulating game neurofeedback. The dynamics of segmental characteristics of the alpha rhythm and θ/β ratio for different groups of successful training. Evaluate the effectiveness of training in terms of the number of ADHD symptoms (at the beginning and end of the training.

  8. Measurement of Stigmatization towards Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuermaier, Anselm B. M.; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Mueller, Anna K.; Lange, Klaus W.; Tucha, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: In general, assessment tools for stigma in mental disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are lacking. Moreover, misbeliefs and misconceptions about ADHD are common, in particular with regard to the adult form of ADHD. The aim of the present study was to develop

  9. Assessing Stimulant Treatment of Hyperactivity by Bristol Social Adjustment Guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broad, James

    Eighteen medically diagnosed hyperactive boys, matched individually for age, sex, teacher defined ability, and school class, took part in a double blind, placebo controlled trial of the effects of Ritalin on social behavior as measured by global rating scales. Behavior ratings by parents and teachers improved significantly when Ss were given…

  10. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Korean Juvenile Delinquents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Paul Kyuman; Jung, Hyun-Oak; Noh, Kyung-Sun

    2001-01-01

    Identifies attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) in Korean juvenile delinquents. Intelligence tests, Test of Variables of Attention, Teacher Report form, Youth Self-Report, and Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale were administered to 98 incarcerated youth and 84 nondelinquent youth. In the delinquent youth, 42.2% of the adolescents were…

  11. Sleep disorders in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medina Permatawati

    2018-03-01

    Conclusion The proportion of sleep disorder in children with ADHD is relatively high, with the majority having a disorder of initiating and maintaining sleep. Children with combined type ADHD experience a higher amount of sleep disorder than those with either the inattention or hyperactive-impulsive types of ADHD. Children with poor sleep hygiene have significantly more severe sleep disorders.

  12. Brain differences between persistent and remitted attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattfeld, Aaron T; Gabrieli, John D E; Biederman, Joseph; Spencer, Thomas; Brown, Ariel; Kotte, Amelia; Kagan, Elana; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan

    2014-09-01

    Previous resting state studies examining the brain basis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder have not distinguished between patients who persist versus those who remit from the diagnosis as adults. To characterize the neurobiological differences and similarities of persistence and remittance, we performed resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging in individuals who had been longitudinally and uniformly characterized as having or not having attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in childhood and again in adulthood (16 years after baseline assessment). Intrinsic functional brain organization was measured in patients who had a persistent diagnosis in childhood and adulthood (n = 13), in patients who met diagnosis in childhood but not in adulthood (n = 22), and in control participants who never had attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (n = 17). A positive functional correlation between posterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortices, major components of the default-mode network, was reduced only in patients whose diagnosis persisted into adulthood. A negative functional correlation between medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices was reduced in both persistent and remitted patients. The neurobiological dissociation between the persistence and remittance of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder may provide a framework for the relation between the clinical diagnosis, which indicates the need for treatment, and additional deficits that are common, such as executive dysfunctions. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: Why should we pay ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder, with a chronic, costly and debilitating course if untreated. Limited access to diagnosis and treatment for adults with ADHD contributes to the cost of the disorder and the burden of disease. Aim: This study aims to identify ...

  14. Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder among school children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To estimate the prevalence and determinants of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms among school children in Kinshasa, an African urban setting. Methods: The 18-items of the Disruptive Behaviour Disorder rating scale (DBD), which is based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for ...

  15. Adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: A database analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic, costly and debilitating disorder. In South Africa (SA), access to funding for care and treatment of ADHD is limited, and research is lacking. Aim: This study aimed to establish the current situation with regard to the psychiatric management of and ...

  16. Community survey of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood neuro-developmental condition with early onset. ADHD affects children worldwide. However, there is a variation in the prevalence across different countries. In Nigeria, there is paucity of information on the prevalence. To provide the ...

  17. The medical management of attention-deficit / hyperactivity disorder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focuses specifically on the medical management of attention-deficit / hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and the options currently available in South Africa. References are made to current thinking on the etiology of this disorder and the pharmacological principles involved in its treatment. This review will not try to ...

  18. Very Low Birth Weight and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meere, Jaap; Börger, Norbert A.; Potgieter, Stephanus Theron; Pirila, Silja; De Cock, Paul

    2009-01-01

    It is well recognized that reaction time performance of term-born children with a normal birth weight (NBW > 2500 g) who fulfill the DSM-IV criteria for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the primary school age is sensitive for the presentation rate of stimuli. They have been found

  19. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and bipolar mood disorder in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and bipolar mood disorder in children and adolescents. L Scribante. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/sajpsychiatry.v15i2.205 · AJOL African Journals ...

  20. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptom self-report among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of self-reported attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms among medical students in Eldoret, Kenya. Method: A cross-sectional descriptive study of all medical students who gave consent to participate in the study. Undertaken at Moi University's School of Medicine in ...

  1. Wildland firefighters and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles G. Palmer; Steven Gaskill; Joe Domitrovich; Marcy McNamara; Brian Knutson; Alysha. Spear

    2011-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common disorders of childhood, affecting 3 to 7 percent of the population (American Psychiatric Association 2000). Research has indicated that the prevalence rate of ADHD in adult populations is approximately 4.4 percent and that the majority of those cases go untreated (Kessler et al. 2006). To date,...

  2. Hippocampus and amygdala morphology in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plessen, Kerstin J; Bansal, Ravi; Zhu, Hongtu

    2006-01-01

    CONTEXT: Limbic structures are implicated in the genesis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by the presence of mood and cognitive disturbances in affected individuals and by elevated rates of mood disorders in family members of probands with ADHD. OBJECTIVE: To study the morphology...

  3. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Executive Function Impairment: An Overview.

    OpenAIRE

    Carruthers, Lindsey.

    2016-01-01

    As with any cognitive ability, attention is vulnerable to dysfunction. The most common attentional problem is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This brief overview will highlight the symptoms and deficits associated with ADHD, its prevalence in today’s society, the association between executive function impairment and ADHD using Barkley’s (1997) work, and the personal and societal effects of the disorder.

  4. Nurse evaluation of hyperactivity in anorexia nervosa : A comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Elburg, Annemarie A.; Hoek, Hans W.; Kas, Martien J.H.; van Engeland, Herman

    2007-01-01

    Up to 80% of patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) manifest elevated levels of physical activity or hyperactivity. A variety of methods have been used to evaluate activity levels, mostly questionnaires but also expensive and invasive methods such as actometry or other measurements of energy

  5. Experimental Training of Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscalkiene, Viktorija

    2009-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) negatively affects the cognitive and psychomotoric spheres of the pupil's social behavior and social adaptation. The review of many studies states that pupils with AD/HD achieve worse learning results because of insufficiently functioning cognitive processes, such as attention, (work) memory,…

  6. Language impairment in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Safaa Refaat El Sady

    2013-06-06

    Jun 6, 2013 ... Abstract Language impairment (Li) is a highly prevalent comorbidity in children with psychiatric disorders and behavioral problems. The most common psychiatric diagnosis among children with. Li is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and conversely, Li is a frequent comorbidity found in children ...

  7. Adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: key conceptual issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asherson, P.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Faraone, S.V; Rohde, L.A.

    2016-01-01

    For many years, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was thought to be a childhood-onset disorder that has a limited effect on adult psychopathology. However, the symptoms and impairments that define ADHD often affect the adult population, with similar responses to drugs such as

  8. Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserstein, Jeanette; Wasserstein, Adella; Wolf, Lorraine E.

    This digest examines attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and symptoms of the disability. Pertinent adult problems include: (1) substance abuse, antisocial behaviors, and criminality, all of which can occur in adults with ADHD; (2) poor social skills or deficits in self-awareness are also frequent; (3) occurrence of ADHD with…

  9. Source Discrimination in Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuermaier, Anselm B. M.; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Aschenbrenner, Steffen; Weisbrod, Matthias; Lange, Klaus W.; Tucha, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The context of memory experiences is referred to as source memory and can be distinguished from the content of episodic item memory. Source memory represents a crucial part of biographic events and elaborate memory experiences. Whereas individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity

  10. Mars in their eyes - a cartoon exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillinger, Pi.

    Recently a collection of 120 cartoons which tell the story of Mars exploration and scientific discovery, past, present and future, was held in London. We discuss the aims of the exhibition, to what extent we believe the original aims were met and report on additional outreach opportunities resulting from the project. The overriding aim was to capitalise on the popular appeal of accessible art - most people admit to enjoying cartoons. This was strengthened by hanging the originals of cartoons which had, mostly, been published in newspapers and magazines in a wide selection of countries. The provenances served to indicate the attraction of Mars to a wide public. We were fortunate to work with the Cartoon Art Trust of the UK who was in the process of relocating to new premises and opening as The Cartoon Museum, in the tourist area of Bloomsbury, central London, very close to the British Museum. "Mars in their Eyes" ran for 10 weeks during April to July 2006; immediately following which a selection of the cartoons was displayed at the week-long Royal Society Summer Exhibition. We explore the differences between the two exhibitions and comment on the various audience responses. We use this comparison to discuss whether a project which is primarily art can be extended to explain science. Does the coupling merely result in dumbing-down of both cultures or is there a true synergy? The experience has led us to coin the phrase "extreme outreach". Projects which are as ambitious as "Mars in their Eyes", without the security of a safe, captive audience, for example at a Science Centre, must be judged by different criteria. Indeed if the project does not meet comparable targets like large visitor numbers, then the honest evaluation of such details can only inform future activities and must not be reflected in the future funding of only "safe" outreach activities.

  11. QUANTUM: The Exhibition - quantum at the museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laforest, Martin; Olano, Angela; Day-Hamilton, Tobi

    Distilling the essence of quantum phenomena, and how they are being harnessed to develop powerful quantum technologies, into a series of bite-sized, elementary-school-level pieces is what the scientific outreach team at the University of Waterloo's Institute for Quantum Computing was tasked with. QUANTUM: The Exhibition uses a series of informational panels, multimedia and interactive displays to introduce visitors to quantum phenomena and how they will revolutionize computing, information security and sensing. We'll discuss some of the approaches we took to convey the essence and impact of quantum mechanics and technologies to a lay audience while ensuring scientific accuracy.

  12. Art Therapy Exhibitions: Exploitation or Advocacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Terri

    2017-01-01

    Promoting awareness of human trafficking by sharing trauma survivors' art and summaries of their life stories suggests ethical complexities that have been typically neglected by bioethicists. Although these survivors voluntarily share the objects they created during art therapy sessions, they are still at risk of harm, including further exploitation, due to their vulnerability, high rates of victim sensitivity, and the mental health consequences of their traumatic experiences. While some argue that the benefits of sublimation and art therapy for human trafficking survivors make sharing their art worth the risk, anti-trafficking organizations and supporters of such art exhibitions have responsibilities to be trauma informed. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Library exhibits and programs boost science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusenbery, Paul B.; Curtis, Lisa

    2012-05-01

    Science museums let visitors explore and discover, but for many families there are barriers—such as cost or distance—that prevent them from visiting museums and experiencing hands-on science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) learning. Now educators are reaching underserved audiences by developing STEM exhibits and programs for public libraries. With more than 16,000 outlets in the United States, public libraries serve almost every community in the country. Nationwide, they receive about 1.5 billion visits per year, and they offer their services for free.

  14. CERN Inspires Art in Major New Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Signatures of the Invisible, an exhibition inspired by CERN, opened at the Atlantis Gallery in London on Thursday, 1 March before going on a world tour. The fruit of a close collaboration between CERN and the London Institute, the exhibition brings together works from many leading European contemporary artists. White wooden boxes on a grey floor... the lids opened, unveiling brilliant white light from a bunch of optical fibres carefully stuck together in the shape of a square. Another holds a treasure of lead glass surrounded by enigmatic black mirrors. What's it all about? Signatures of the Invisible, that's what, a joint project organised by the London Institute, one of the world's largest college of art, and our Laboratory. Damien Foresy from the EST workshop putting finishing touches to the spinning tops of French artist Jérôme Basserode. Monica Sand's boxes are just one of the many works based around materials used in particle detection at CERN that was admired at the opening o...

  15. Exhibiting health and medicine as culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whiteley, Louise; Tybjerg, Karin; Pedersen, Bente Vinge

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: This paper discusses the potential role of medical museums in public engagement with health and medicine, based on the work of Medical Museion at the University of Copenhagen. Rather than asking whether cultural venues such as museums can directly improve the well-being of their vis......Introduction: This paper discusses the potential role of medical museums in public engagement with health and medicine, based on the work of Medical Museion at the University of Copenhagen. Rather than asking whether cultural venues such as museums can directly improve the well......-being of their visitors, we instead focus on how museums should communicate about health and medicine. Methods: The paper describes three examples of exhibitions at Medical Museion that attempt to display medicine as culture, and draws out three of the key strategies they employ. Results: The three key strategies are: (1......) medicine is presented through historically specific material objects; (2) these objects areused to explore the processes of research and the evolution of practice; and (3) exhibitions are designed to emphasize an implied relationship between the objects’ functions and the visitor’s own body. Conclusion...

  16. Children's drawings exhibited in the Globe

    CERN Multimedia

    Elizabeth Roe

    2010-01-01

    "Draw Me A Physicist" has been a success. Members of the public visiting the exhibition in the Globe of Science and Innovation have praised the scientific and creative balance the children of neighbouring France and the Canton of Geneva have obtained through their visit to CERN.   The Draw Me a Physicist exhibition in the Globe For a six-month period 9 to 11-year olds from the Pays de Gex, Meyrin, Satigny and Vernier have been able to enjoy a balance between science and art, through drawing and defining their interpretations of a physicist. In May, eight pairs of drawings from each participating class were selected by the schools to be displayed on the second floor of the Globe. Since the images have been put up, the viewers have enjoyed the contrast between the "before" pictures of vibrant Albert Einsteins to the "after" pictures of casual people sitting in an office. The large room in the Globe has been transformed from a hollow shell int...

  17. Oral and intravenous caffeine for treatment of children with post-sedation paradoxical hyperactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Joan T; Towbin, Richard B; Bartko, MaryBeth; Baskin, Kevin M; Cahill, Anne Marie; Kaye, Robin D

    2004-12-01

    Paradoxical hyperactivity (PH) is a known complication of sedation in children, especially with barbiturates such as pentobarbital. The accompanying inconsolable irritability and agitation, similar to behaviors reported in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), is uncomfortable for the child and anxiety-provoking for parents and health-care workers. Our objective was to describe our experience with oral (PO) and intravenous (IV) caffeine as a treatment for sedation-induced PH. From January 2000 to April 2003, 19,894 children were sedated in our institution for radiology procedures. Of these, 360 children were diagnosed with PH. A total of 229 children exhibiting symptoms of PH after sedative administration were treated with PO caffeine ( n=88; 43 boys, 45 girls; mean age 4.5 years, mean weight 18.7 kg) or IV caffeine ( n=131; 73 boys, 58 girls; mean age 4.8 years, mean weight 20.1 kg) or both ( n=10; 8 boys, 2 girls; mean age 5.0 years, mean weight 19.9 kg). A positive effect was defined as a decrease in agitation, crying, or hyperactivity within 40 min of caffeine administration. A control group ( n=45) was obtained from those 141 children who experienced post-sedation PH but were not treated with caffeine, and matched for age and sex with samples of children treated with IV caffeine ( n=45) and PO caffeine ( n=45). Children treated intravenously received the equivalent of 20 mg/kg caffeine citrate (to a maximum of 200 mg). Of those treated with IV caffeine, 82/131 (63%) showed a positive effect, and returned to baseline behavioral status after an average of 33 min (SD=23 min). The untreated control group required a significantly longer time to recover ( Pcaffeine. Children treated orally received approximately 1.0-2.5 mg/kg caffeine in Mountain Dew (Pepsi-Cola Company), and 36/88 (41%) showed a positive effect and returned to baseline behavioral status after an average of 42 min (SD=27 min). Of the 10 children treated with both PO and IV

  18. Exhibition Season: Annual Archaeological Exhibitions in London, 1880s-1930s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amara Thornton

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Annual archaeological exhibitions were a visible symbol of archaeological research. Held mainly in London, the displays encapsulated a network of archaeologists, artists, architects and curators, and showcased the work of the first generations of trained archaeologists. The exhibition catalogues and published reviews of the displays provide a unique method for exploring the reception and sponsorship of archaeological work overseas and its promotion to a fascinated, well connected and well moneyed public. The exhibitions were a space in which conversation and networking were as important as educational enrichment. This paper analyses the social history of the “annual exhibition” in archaeology, highlighting the development and maintenance of the networks behind archaeological research, the geography of London as a way to examine influence in archaeology, and the utility of exhibitions for archaeological publicity during this period of exploration.

  19. [Psychiatric comorbidity related to children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder at schools in Sfax, Tunisia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khemakhem, K; Ayedi, H; Moalla, Y; Yaich, S; Hadjkacem, I; Walha, A; Damak, J; Ghribi, F

    2015-02-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent behavioral disorder particularly noticed among school children. It is often associated with other psychological troubles at the origin of an additional difficulty that has to be overcome. Our research's aim was to study the comorbidity of school-aged children diagnosed with ADHD in Sfax, Tunisia. A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out from 1st April 2008 to 1st October 2008. Five hundred and thirteen pupils aged between 6 and 12, from primary arbitrarily chosen schools from Sfax were subjected to this study. Measurements were carried out in two steps: parents and teachers of each child filled in separately Conners questionnaire, then children with a score in subscales inattention, hyperactivity impulsivity higher than 70 were selected for psychiatric interview that was intended to confirm or to invalidate the ADHD diagnosis and the possible comorbid diagnosis. The diagnoses were made according to DSM-IV-TR. We have noticed that 109 pupils exhibited at least one pathological score on the Conners questionnaire. After interviewing these 109 pupils, the results have shown that 51 among them fulfilled criteria of ADHD. Prevalence of ADHD was found to be 9.94 %. About 72.54 % of children with ADHD had one or more comorbid disorder: learning disabilities (23.52 % of cases), anxiety disorder (31.37 % of cases), oppositional defiant disorder in (15.68 % of cases), mood disorder (3.92 % of cases), enuresis (13.72 % of cases) and slight mental retardation (1.95 % of cases). We can say that this study has shown that ADHD school children's psychiatric comorbidity is similar to any other previous study. Copyright © 2013 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Identification of a Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3[beta] Inhibitor that Attenuates Hyperactivity in CLOCK Mutant Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozikowski, Alan P.; Gunosewoyo, Hendra; Guo, Songpo; Gaisina, Irina N.; Walter, Richard L.; Ketcherside, Ariel; McClung, Colleen A.; Mesecar, Andrew D.; Caldarone, Barbara (Psychogenics); (Purdue); (UIC); (UTSMC)

    2012-05-02

    Bipolar disorder is characterized by a cycle of mania and depression, which affects approximately 5 million people in the United States. Current treatment regimes include the so-called 'mood-stabilizing drugs', such as lithium and valproate that are relatively dated drugs with various known side effects. Glycogen synthase kinase-3{beta} (GSK-3{beta}) plays a central role in regulating circadian rhythms, and lithium is known to be a direct inhibitor of GSK-3{beta}. We designed a series of second generation benzofuran-3-yl-(indol-3-yl)maleimides containing a piperidine ring that possess IC{sub 50} values in the range of 4 to 680 nM against human GSK-3{beta}. One of these compounds exhibits reasonable kinase selectivity and promising preliminary absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) data. The administration of this compound at doses of 10 to 25 mg kg{sup -1} resulted in the attenuation of hyperactivity in amphetamine/chlordiazepoxide-induced manic-like mice together with enhancement of prepulse inhibition, similar to the effects found for valproate (400 mg kg{sup -1}) and the antipsychotic haloperidol (1 mg kg{sup -1}). We also tested this compound in mice carrying a mutation in the central transcriptional activator of molecular rhythms, the CLOCK gene, and found that the same compound attenuates locomotor hyperactivity in response to novelty. This study further demonstrates the use of inhibitors of GSK-3{beta} in the treatment of manic episodes of bipolar/mood disorders, thus further validating GSK-3{beta} as a relevant therapeutic target in the identification of new therapies for bipolar patients.

  1. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and intellectual giftedness: a study of symptom frequency and minor physical anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Minahim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the presence of symptoms of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in intellectually gifted adults and children. Methods: Two cross-sectional studies were performed in children and adults whose intelligence quotient (IQ had been previously evaluated using Raven’s Progressive Matrices (RPM test. Seventy-seven adults displaying IQ scores above the 98th percentile were assessed using the Adult Self-Report Scale (ASRS-18 for signs of ADHD and a modified Waldrop scale for minor physical anomalies (MPAs. Thirty-nine children (grades 1-5 exhibiting IQ scores above the 99th percentile, as well as an equally matched control group, were assessed for ADHD by teachers using the Swanson, Nolan and Pelham IV Rating Scale (SNAP-IV as used in the NIMH Collaborative Multisite Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (MTA-SNAP-IV. Results: In gifted adults, the frequency of ADHD-positive cases was 37.8%, and the total MPA score was significantly associated with ADHD (p < 0.001. In children, the ADHD-positive case frequency was 15.38% in the gifted group and 7.69% in the control group (odds ratio [OR] = 2.18, p = 0.288. Conclusions: The high frequency of ADHD symptoms observed, both in gifted adults and in gifted (and non-gifted children, further supports the validity of this diagnosis in this population. Furthermore, the significant association between MPAs and ADHD suggests that a neurodevelopmental condition underlies these symptoms.

  2. Shape-Memory PVDF Exhibiting Switchable Piezoelectricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeher, Robin; Raidt, Thomas; Novak, Nikola; Katzenberg, Frank; Tiller, Joerg C

    2015-12-01

    In this study, a material is designed which combines the properties of shape-memory and electroactive polymers. This is achieved by covalent cross-linking of polyvinylidene fluoride. The resulting polymer network exhibits excellent shape-memory properties with a storable strain of 200%, and fixity as well as recovery values of 100%. Programming upon rolling induces the transformation from the nonelectroactive α-phase to the piezoelectric β-phase. The highest β-phase content is found to be 83% for a programming strain of 200% affording a d33 value of -30 pm V(-1). This is in good accordance with literature known values for piezoelectric properties. Thermal triggering this material does not only result in a shape change but also renders the material nonelectroactive. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. The Road Transport world exhibition in Paris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Following the agreement between French and German professionals of automobile and industrial vehicle, the Road Transport world exhibition will take place alternatively in Paris and Hanover. The 1995 meeting has taken place in Paris (September 15-21) and about 20 countries were represented. Road transport is the principal way of goods transportation in France and represent 88% of the traffic explained in tons gross and 70% in tons km. The petroleum dependence of the transportation sector is becoming a worrying problem as the gasoline and diesel fuels taxes will be discussed in the 1996 financial laws project. According to the last ''Worldwide energetic perspectives'' report published by the IEA, in 2010 the transportation sector could absorb more than 60% of the worldwide petroleum consumption. This increase represents a challenge to the petroleum industry to increase the energetic efficiency of the vehicle fuels and the production of diesel fuels, and conversely to reduce the pollution effluents. (J.S.). 4 tabs

  4. The coordination office at SIREME 2008 exhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grotz, Claudia; Cassin, Fabrice; Evrard, Aurelien; Froeding, Veronique; Galaup, Serge; Kaelble, Laure; Persem, Melanie; Regnier, Yannick; )

    2008-01-01

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised several presentations at the occasion of the SIREME International exhibition of renewable energies and energy management. This document brings together these presentations (slides) dealing with: 1 - The new German Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG) and its impact on wind energy (Claudia Grotz); 2 - Consequences of the July 10, 2006 wind energy tariff bylaw cancelling (Fabrice Cassin); 3 - Wind energy trajectory in France and Germany: a political perspective (Aurelien Evrard); 4 - The wind energy development areas (Veronique Froeding); 5 - A commitment at the heart of our business: renewable energy sources (Serge Galaup); 6 - The wind energy coordination office (Laure Kaelble); 7 - New challenges of the German wind energy market (Melanie Persem); 8 - An industry - a qualification standard (Yannick Regnier)

  5. Characterizing operant hyperactivity in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hill Jade C

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Operant hyperactivity, the emission of reinforced responses at an inordinately high rate, has been reported in children with ADHD and in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat (SHR, the most widely studied animal model of ADHD. The SHR emits behavior at hyperactive levels, relative to a normoactive strain, only when such behavior is seldom reinforced. Because of its dependence on rate of reinforcement, operant hyperactivity appears to be driven primarily by incentive motivation, not motoric capacity. This claim was evaluated in the present study using a novel strategy, based on the organization of behavior in bouts of reinforced responses separated by pauses. Method Male SHR, Wistar-Kyoto (WKY and Wistar rats (WIS were exposed each to a multiple variable-interval schedule of sucrose reinforcement (12, 24, 48, 96, and 192 s between post-natal days (PND 48 and 93. Responding in each schedule was examined in two epochs, PND 58-62 and 89-93. Parameters of response-reinforcement functions (Herrnstein's hyperbola and bout-organized behavior were estimated in each epoch. Results SHR emitted higher response rates than WKY and WIS, but only when rate of reinforcement was low (fewer than 2 reinforcers per minute, and particularly in the second epoch. Estimates of Herrnstein's hyperbola parameters suggested the primacy of motivational over motoric factors driving the response-rate differential. Across epochs and schedules, a more detailed analysis of response bouts by SHR revealed that these were shorter than those by WKY, but more frequent than those by WKY and WIS. Differences in bout length subsided between epochs, but differences in bout-initiation rate were exacerbated. These results were interpreted in light of robust evidence linking changes in bout-organization parameters and experimental manipulations of motivation and response-reinforcement contingency. Conclusions Operant hyperactivity in SHR was confirmed. Although incentive

  6. Exhibition of Stochastic Resonance in Vestibular Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvan-Garza, R. C.; Clark, T. K.; Merfeld, D. M.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Oman, C. M.; Mulavara, A. P.

    2016-01-01

    Astronauts experience sensorimotor changes during spaceflight, particularly during G-transitions. Post flight sensorimotor changes include spatial disorientation, along with postural and gait instability that may degrade operational capabilities of the astronauts and endanger the crew. A sensorimotor countermeasure that mitigates these effects would improve crewmember safety and decrease risk. The goal of this research is to investigate the potential use of stochastic vestibular stimulation (SVS) as a technology to improve sensorimotor function. We hypothesize that low levels of SVS will improve sensorimotor perception through the phenomenon of stochastic resonance (SR), when the response of a nonlinear system to a weak input signal is enhanced by the application of a particular nonzero level of noise. This study aims to advance the development of SVS as a potential countermeasure by 1) demonstrating the exhibition of stochastic resonance in vestibular perception, a vital component of sensorimotor function, 2) investigating the repeatability of SR exhibition, and 3) determining the relative contribution of the semicircular canals (SCC) and otolith (OTO) organs to vestibular perceptual SR. A constant current stimulator was used to deliver bilateral bipolar SVS via electrodes placed on each of the mastoid processes, as previously done. Vestibular perceptual motion recognition thresholds were measured using a 6-degree of freedom MOOG platform and a 150 trial 3-down/1-up staircase procedure. In the first test session, we measured vestibular perceptual thresholds in upright roll-tilt at 0.2 Hz (SCC+OTO) with SVS ranging from 0-700 µA. In a second test session a week later, we re-measured roll-tilt thresholds with 0, optimal (from test session 1), and 1500 µA SVS levels. A subset of these subjects, plus naive subjects, participated in two additional test sessions in which we measured thresholds in supine roll-rotation at 0.2 Hz (SCC) and upright y-translation at 1 Hz

  7. Dissociation of working memory impairments and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron T. Mattfeld

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Prevailing neuropsychological models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD propose that ADHD arises from deficits in executive functions such as working memory, but accumulating clinical evidence suggests a dissociation between ADHD and executive dysfunctions. This study examined whether ADHD and working memory capacity are behaviorally and neurobiologically separable using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Participants diagnosed with ADHD in childhood who subsequently remitted or persisted in their diagnosis as adults were characterized at follow-up in adulthood as either impaired or unimpaired in spatial working memory relative to controls who never had ADHD. ADHD participants with impaired spatial working memory performed worse than controls and ADHD participants with unimpaired working memory during an n-back working memory task while being scanned. Both controls and ADHD participants with unimpaired working memory exhibited significant linearly increasing activation in the inferior frontal junction, precuneus, lingual gyrus, and cerebellum as a function of working-memory load, and these activations did not differ significantly between these groups. ADHD participants with impaired working memory exhibited significant hypoactivation in the same regions, which was significantly different than both control participants and ADHD participants with unimpaired working memory. These findings support both a behavioral and neurobiological dissociation between ADHD and working memory capacity.

  8. Dissociation of working memory impairments and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattfeld, Aaron T; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Biederman, Joseph; Spencer, Thomas; Brown, Ariel; Fried, Ronna; Gabrieli, John D E

    2016-01-01

    Prevailing neuropsychological models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) propose that ADHD arises from deficits in executive functions such as working memory, but accumulating clinical evidence suggests a dissociation between ADHD and executive dysfunctions. This study examined whether ADHD and working memory capacity are behaviorally and neurobiologically separable using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants diagnosed with ADHD in childhood who subsequently remitted or persisted in their diagnosis as adults were characterized at follow-up in adulthood as either impaired or unimpaired in spatial working memory relative to controls who never had ADHD. ADHD participants with impaired spatial working memory performed worse than controls and ADHD participants with unimpaired working memory during an n-back working memory task while being scanned. Both controls and ADHD participants with unimpaired working memory exhibited significant linearly increasing activation in the inferior frontal junction, precuneus, lingual gyrus, and cerebellum as a function of working-memory load, and these activations did not differ significantly between these groups. ADHD participants with impaired working memory exhibited significant hypoactivation in the same regions, which was significantly different than both control participants and ADHD participants with unimpaired working memory. These findings support both a behavioral and neurobiological dissociation between ADHD and working memory capacity.

  9. Neurofibromatosis type 1 and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a case study and literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Carmen Sílvia; Chaim-Avancini, Tiffany M; Silva, Maria Aparecida; Louzã, Mario Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    Background The cognitive profile of children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been well characterized, but few studies have evaluated the cognitive abilities of adults with NF1 and ADHD. Objectives We investigated 1) the cognitive profile of an adult patient with NF1 and inattention problems, 2) changes in his cognition after 14 months of follow-up, and 3) whether the patient exhibited comorbid NF1 and ADHD or secondary ADHD-like symptoms. Methods We administered neuropsychological tests of executive function, attention, verbal and visual memory, visuospatial function, and language during two evaluations separated by 14 months. Results We found no changes in sustained attention, language, or verbal memory. Visual memory, verbal learning, selective attention inhibitory control, and problem solving declined over time, whereas visual search, psychomotor speed, visuospatial function, and mental flexibility improved. Conclusion Our patient exhibited a cognitive profile characteristic of both NF1 and ADHD, leading to the hypothesis that the patient had comorbid ADHD instead of secondary ADHD-like symptoms. More studies are necessary to characterize the cognition of patients with NF1 and ADHD. PMID:25848279

  10. Exercise improves behavioral, neurocognitive, and scholastic performance in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontifex, Matthew B; Saliba, Brian J; Raine, Lauren B; Picchietti, Daniel L; Hillman, Charles H

    2013-03-01

    To examine the effect of a single bout of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise on preadolescent children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using objective measures of attention, brain neurophysiology, and academic performance. Using a within-participants design, task performance and event-related brain potentials were assessed while participants performed an attentional-control task following a bout of exercise or seated reading during 2 separate, counterbalanced sessions. Following a single 20-minute bout of exercise, both children with ADHD and healthy match control children exhibited greater response accuracy and stimulus-related processing, with the children with ADHD also exhibiting selective enhancements in regulatory processes, compared with after a similar duration of seated reading. In addition, greater performance in the areas of reading and arithmetic were observed following exercise in both groups. These findings indicate that single bouts of moderately intense aerobic exercise may have positive implications for aspects of neurocognitive function and inhibitory control in children with ADHD. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Quaternary naltrexone reverses radiogenic and morphine-induced locomotor hyperactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickley, G.A.; Stevens, K.E.; Galbraith, J.A.; White, G.A.; Gibbs, G.L.

    1984-04-01

    The present study attempted to determine the relative role of the peripheral and central nervous system in the production of morphine-induced or radiation-induced locomotor hyperactivity of the mouse. Toward this end, we used a quaternary derivative of an opiate antagonist (naltrexone methobromide), which presumably does not cross the blood-brain barrier. Quaternary naltrexone was used to challenge the stereotypic locomotor response observed in these mice after either an i.p. injection of morphine or exposure to 1500 rads /sup 60/Co. The quaternary derivative of naltrexone reversed the locomotor hyperactivity normally observed in the C57BL/6J mouse after an injection of morphine. It also significantly attenuated radiation-induced locomotion. The data reported here support the hypothesis of endorphin involvement in radiation-induced and radiogenic behaviors. However, these conclusions are contingent upon further research which more fully evaluates naltrexone methobromide's capacity to cross the blood-brain barrier.

  12. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and the behavior of "Che" Guevara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teive, Hélio A G; Zavala, Jorge A; Munhoz, Renato P; Lara, Diogo R; Lima, Pedro; Palmini, André

    2009-09-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a childhood onset neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. ADHD is related to several co-morbidities, such as opposition defiant disorder, conduct disorder, mood and anxiety disturbances, as well as tics and Tourette's syndrome. The objective of this report is to shed an alternative light on the personality of Ernesto "Che" Guevara, discussing whether he might have had ADHD. Several published biographies of Che Guevara were reviewed. Established ADHD criteria (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition), were used as a framework to evaluate Che's behaviour. In addition, we compared the main features of Che's reported behaviour to the set of abnormalities leading to the diagnosis of ADHD in adults proposed by Wender and colleagues and known as the UTAH ADHD criteria. Analysis of the most renowned biographies of Ernesto "Che" Guevara suggests that he may have had ADHD.

  13. Propranolol for Paroxysmal Sympathetic Hyperactivity with Lateralizing Hyperhidrosis after Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason W. Siefferman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain injury can lead to impaired cortical inhibition of the hypothalamus, resulting in increased sympathetic nervous system activation. Symptoms of paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity may include hyperthermia, tachycardia, tachypnea, vasodilation, and hyperhidrosis. We report the case of a 41-year-old man who suffered from a left middle cerebral artery stroke and subsequently developed central fever, contralateral temperature change, and hyperhidrosis. His symptoms abated with low-dose propranolol and then returned upon discontinuation. Restarting propranolol again stopped his symptoms. This represents the first report of propranolol being used for unilateral dysautonomia after stroke. Propranolol is a lipophilic nonselective beta-blocker which easily crosses the blood-brain barrier and may be used to treat paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity.

  14. Intervention for executive functions in attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Menezes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate if an executive functions (EF intervention could promote these skills in individuals with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Eighteen children and adolescents, 7-13 years old, divided into experimental (EG, N = 8 and control (CG, N = 10 groups, were assessed in the Block Design and Vocabulary subtests of the WISC III and seven tests of EF. Parents answered two scales, measuring EF and inattention and hyperactivity signs. EG children participated in a program to promote EF in twice-weekly group sessions of one hour each. After 8 months of intervention, groups were assessed again. ANCOVA, controlling for age, intelligence quotient and pretest performance, revealed gains in attention/inhibition and auditory working memory measures for the EG. No effect was found for scales or measures of more complex EF. Results are not conclusive, but they illustrate some promising data about EF interventions in children and adolescents with ADHD.

  15. No objectively measured sleep disturbances in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergwerff, Catharina E; Luman, Marjolein; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2016-10-01

    The main goal of this study was to gain more insight into sleep disturbances in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, using objective measures of sleep quality and quantity. The evidence for sleep problems in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder thus far is inconsistent, which might be explained by confounding influences of comorbid internalizing and externalizing problems and low socio-economic status. We therefore investigated the mediating and moderating role of these factors in the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and sleep problems. To control for the effects of stimulant medication use, all participants were tested free of medication. Sixty-three children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and 61 typically developing children, aged 6-13 years, participated. Sleep was monitored for one to three school nights using actigraphy. Parent and teacher questionnaires assessed symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, internalizing behaviour, oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder. Results showed no differences between the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and typically developing group in any sleep parameter. Within the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder group, severity of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms was not related to sleep quality or quantity. Moderation analyses in the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder group showed an interaction effect between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and internalizing and externalizing behaviour on total sleep time, time in bed and average sleep bout duration. The results of our study suggest that having attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is not a risk factor for sleep problems. Internalizing and externalizing behaviour moderate the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and sleep, indicating a complex interplay between psychiatric symptoms and sleep.

  16. Regional brain network organization distinguishes the combined and inattentive subtypes of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Jacqueline F. Saad; Kristi R. Griffiths; Michael R. Kohn; Simon Clarke; Leanne M. Williams; Mayuresh S. Korgaonkar

    2017-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is characterized clinically by hyperactive/impulsive and/or inattentive symptoms which determine diagnostic subtypes as Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive (ADHD-HI), Predominantly Inattentive (ADHD-I), and Combined (ADHD-C). Neuroanatomically though we do not yet know if these clinical subtypes reflect distinct aberrations in underlying brain organization. We imaged 34 ADHD participants defined using DSM-IV criteria as ADHD-I (n?=?16) or as ADH...

  17. VIRTUAL EXHIBITION AND FRUITION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL FINDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Manferdini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available During the last two decades, since digital technologies have become more sophisticated in acquiring real data and building faithful copies of them, their improvements have suggested interesting applications in the field of valorisation of Historical, Cultural and Artistic Heritage, with significant consequences in the share and widespread of knowledge. But although several technologies and methodologies for 3d digitization have recently been developed and improved, the lack of a standard procedure and the costs connected to their use still doesn't encourage the systematic digital acquisition of wide collections and heritage. The aim of this paper is to show the state of the art of a project whose aim is to provide a methodology and a procedure to create digital reproductions of artefacts for Institutions called to preserve, manage and enhance the fruition of archaeological finds inside museums or through digital exhibitions. Our project’s aim is to find the most suitable procedure to digitally acquire archaeo logical artefacts that usually have small dimensions and have very complex and detailed surfaces. Within our methodology, particular attention has been paid to the use of widely shared and open-source visualization systems that enhance the involvement of the user by emphasizing three-dimensional characteristics of artefacts through virtual reality.

  18. Salbutamol exhibits androgenic activity in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bueren, André O; Ma, Risheng; Schlumpf, Margret; Lichtensteiger, Walter

    2007-01-01

    Background Salbutamol has been shown to mediate anabolic effects after intravenous administration. However, the mechanism responsible for the anabolic actions of salbutamol remains unknown. Aim To investigate the potential mechanism by which salbutamol mediates anabolic effects in vitro. Methods The potential androgenic activity of salbutamol was investigated in vitro by the A‐Screen assay that measures androgen‐dependent inhibition of proliferation of the androgen receptor (AR)‐positive human mammary carcinoma cell line, MCF7‐AR1. Results The assay was validated with three known androgens; methyltrienolone (R1881), 5α‐dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and danazol. IC50 values of R1881, DHT and danazol, 4.41×10–11, 4.44×10−11 and 1.08×10−8 M, respectively, were in the ranges known from earlier studies. Our results demonstrate that salbutamol exhibits androgenic activity, with an IC50 value of 8.93×10−6 M. Anti‐estrogenic or cytotoxic effects, which might have interfered with the assay, were excluded by additional experiments on wild‐type MCF7 and MCF7‐AR1 cells, respectively. Conclusion These data indicate that salbutamol exerts anabolic effects through androgen receptor agonistic activity in vitro. PMID:17510230

  19. Plant shoots exhibit synchronized oscillatory motions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciszak, Marzena; Masi, Elisa; Baluška, František; Mancuso, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    In animals, the ability to move has evolved as an important means of protection from predators and for enhancing nutrient uptake. In the animal kingdom, an individual's movements may become coordinated with those of other individuals that belong to the same group, which leads, for example, to the beautiful collective patterns that are observed in flocks of birds and schools of fish or in animal migration. Land plants, however, are fixed to the ground, which limits their movement and, apparently, their interactions and collective behaviors. We show that emergent maize plants grown in a group exhibit synchronized oscillatory motions that may be in-phase or anti-phase. These oscillations occur in short bursts and appear when the leaves rupture from the coleoptile tip. The appearance of these oscillations indicates an abrupt increase in the plant growth rate, which may be associated with a sudden change in the energy uptake for photosynthesis. Our results suggest that plant shoots behave as a complex network of biological oscillators, interacting through biophysical links, e.g. chemical substances or electric signals.

  20. Gastric schwannoma exhibiting increased fluorodeoxyglucose uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Daisuke; Koide, Naohiko; Hiraga, Risako; Furuya, Naoyuki; Akamatsu, Taiji; Uehara, Takeshi; Miyagawa, Shinichi

    2009-01-01

    This is the first case of gastric schwannoma that exhibited increased accumulation of [(18)F] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) on positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. The patient was a 60-year-old woman in whom esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed a submucosal tumor, about 25 mm in size, in the upper body of the stomach, with ulceration at the top of the tumor. Endoscopic ultrasonography revealed a well-defined hypoechoic mass located in the proper muscle layer of the stomach. The specimen taken from the tumor showed only inflammatory degenerative tissue. Abdominal computed tomography revealed a tumor in the upper body of the stomach. FDG-PET showed FDG uptake (standardized uptake value [SUV] max 5.8) coincident with the tumor. Hence, the tumor was diagnosed initially as a gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the stomach. Laparoscopic partial gastrectomy was performed. Pathological examination showed that the tumor consisted of spindle cells with large nuclei, and mitosis was absent. The Ki-67 labeling index of the tumor cells was 4%. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells showed a positive reaction for S-100 protein, whereas they were negative for KIT, CD 34, and alpha-smooth muscle actin protein. The tumor was diagnosed as a benign gastric schwannoma. Gastric schwannoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of submucosal tumors of the stomach with FDG uptake.

  1. Diagnostic Issues and Gender Differences of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Valdovinos, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    This literature review looks at different studies on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder(ADHD) and the findings on gender differences. Many studies have analyzed male and femaleADHD behaviors, cognitive functioning, IQ, task performance, and parent/teacher and selfreportedratings. Most studies have found that the results for gender differences vary due to thevarying sample selection methods that they use, which include clinical and community samples,sample size, culture, and age. Results...

  2. Motor development of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa Neto, Francisco; Goulardins, Juliana B.; Rigoli, Daniela; Piek, Jan P.; Oliveira, Jorge A. de

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To compare both global and specific domains of motor development of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with that of typically developing children.Methods:Two hundred children (50 children with clinical diagnoses of ADHD, according to the DSM-IV-TR and 150 typically developing controls), aged 5 to 10 years, participated in this cross-sectional study. The Motor Development Scale was used to assess fine and global motricity, balance, body schema, and spatial ...

  3. Stigmatization in teachers towards adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Fuermaier, Anselm BM; Tucha, Lara; Mueller, Anna K; Koerts, Janneke; Hauser, Joachim; Lange, Klaus W; Tucha, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is understood as a developmental disorder which shares common characteristics between childhood, adolescence and adulthood. However, ADHD is widely associated with misconceptions and misbeliefs which can lead to stigmatization. Teachers have an important role for the individual development as they accompany students for a long period of time. The aim of the present study was to explore stigmatizing attitudes in teachers towards adults...

  4. Measurement of Stigmatization towards Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Fuermaier, Anselm B. M.; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Mueller, Anna K.; Lange, Klaus W.; Tucha, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In general, assessment tools for stigma in mental disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are lacking. Moreover, misbeliefs and misconceptions about ADHD are common, in particular with regard to the adult form of ADHD. The aim of the present study was to develop a questionnaire measuring stigma in adults with ADHD and to demonstrate its sensitivity. METHODS: A questionnaire initially containing 64 items associated with stigma in adults with ADHD was devel...

  5. Sleep disorders in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Medina Permatawati; Agung Triono; Mei Neni Sitaresmi

    2018-01-01

    Background Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurobehavioral abnormality that commonly occurs among children. Sleep disorders are comorbid with ADHD. Sleep disorders in Indonesian children with ADHD have not been widely studied. Objective To understand the proportion and factors that influence sleep disorders in children with ADHD. Methods This cross-sectional study involved 54 children aged 3-14 years who had been diagnosed with ADHD by a pediatric growth and develo...

  6. Attentional blink in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Amador, Juan Antonio; Aznar Casanova, José Antonio; Bezerra, Izabela; Torro Alves, Nelson; Moreno Sánchez, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the temporal mechanism of attention in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and controls using a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task in which two letters (T1 and T2) were presented in close temporal proximity among distractors (attentional blink [AB]). Method: Thirty children aged between 9 and 13 years (12 with ADHD combined type and 18 controls) took part in the study. Both groups performed two kinds of RSVP task. In the single task, p...

  7. Cognitive-behavioural programme for children with attention hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.A. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) affects between 1% and 20% of school-aged children. Many aspects of the disorder remain largely speculative including the treatment of it, and often these children experience significant learning, social and emotional difficulties from their childhood years through to adulthood. Pharmacological treatment of the disorder has gained wide acceptance and it has achieved much success in bringing about positive short-term changes in the behavi...

  8. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Obesity: Update 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Cortese, Samuele; Tessari, Luca

    2017-01-01

    While psychiatric comorbidities of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been extensively explored, less attention has been paid to somatic conditions possibly associated with this disorder. However, mounting evidence in the last decade pointed to a possible significant association between ADHD and certain somatic conditions, including obesity. This papers provides an update of a previous systematic review on the relationship between obesity and ADHD (Cortese and Vincenzi, Curr...

  9. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Rydén, Eleonore

    2010-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental disorder, i.e., it is by definition present from childhood. The main features characterizing ADHD are the difficulties to regulate attention, activity level, and impulses. The hallmark of bipolar disorder is episodic mood alterations with restitution between episodes. Although debut in childhood may occur, bipolar disorder typically debuts in late adolescence or early adulthood. The overarching aim with this ...

  10. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in postsecondary students

    OpenAIRE

    Nugent, Kevin; Smart, Wallace

    2014-01-01

    Kevin Nugent,1 Wallace Smart2,3 1Kinark Child and Family Services, Trent University and Sir Sanford Fleming College, Peterborough, ON, Canada; 2Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada; 3University of Lethbridge Health Centre, Lethbridge, AB, Canada Abstract: A PubMed review was conducted for papers reporting on attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in postsecondary students. The review was performed in order to determ...

  11. On the Meaning of ExhibitionsExhibition Epistèmes in a Historical Perspective

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    Kerstin Smeds

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay aims at contributing to our understanding of the nature of exhibitions, namely how and why we make them, and what they – and the things in them – might symbolize. My focus will be on exhibitions of objects in classical museums of cultural history, archaeology and ethnology/ethnography. I will discuss how scientific epistemologies and discourses, as well as the history of ideas and ideologies, are reflected in the way museums and exhibitions are organized. Theoretically, I will lean on ideas of Michel Foucault presented in his work The Order of Things (Foucault, 1991 and Power/Knowledge (Gordon 1980, but also on Mieke Bal’s Double Exposures (1996, and a few others.

  12. A hyperactive sleeping beauty transposase enhances transgenesis in zebrafish embryos

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    Lardelli Michael

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transposons are useful molecular tools for transgenesis. The 'sleeping beauty' transposon is a synthetic member of the Tc1/mariner transposon family. Davidson et al. (2003 previously described a vector for zebrafish transgenesis consisting of the inverted repeats of 'sleeping beauty' flanking the gene to be transposed. Subsequently, there have been attempts to enhance the transpositional activity of 'sleeping beauty' by increasing the activity of its transposase. Recently, Mates et al. (2009 generated a hyperactive transposase giving a 100-fold increased transposition rate in mouse embryos. Findings The aim of this experiment was to determine whether this novel hyperactive transposase enhances transgenesis in zebrafish embryos. Using our previously characterised mitfa-amyloidβ-GFP transgene, we observed an eight-fold enhancement in transient transgenesis following detection of transgene expression in melanophores by whole mount in-situ hybridisation. However, high rates of defective embryogenesis were also observed. Conclusion The novel hyperactive 'sleeping beauty' transposase enhances the rate of transgenesis in zebrafish embryos.

  13. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children undergoing peritoneal dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefichaijan, Parsa; Sharafkhah, Mojtaba; Vazirian, Shams; Seyedzadeh, Abolhasan; Rafeie, Mohammad; Salehi, Bahman; Amiri, Mohammad; Ebrahimimonfared, Mohsen

    2015-03-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common childhood psychiatric disorder. This disorder is more prevalent in some chronic disease. The aim of this study was to investigate ADHD in children with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and to compare the results with those of healthy children. This case-control study was conducted for six months (December 22, 2013 to June 21, 2014) on five to 16-year-old children, visiting the Pediatric Dialysis Unit of Amirkabir Hospital, Arak, Iran, and Taleghani Hospital, Kermanshah, Iran. A total of 100 children with ESRD who had undergone CAPD for at least six months and 100 healthy children were included in this study as case and control groups, respectively. ADHD was diagnosed by Conner's Parent Rating Scale-48 (CPRS-48) and DSM-IV-TR criteria, and was confirmed through consultation by psychologist. Data were analyzed by Binomial test in SPSS 18. The ADHD inattentive type was observed in 16 cases (16%) with CAPD and five controls (5%) (P = 0.01). Moreover, ADHD hyperactive-impulsive type was observed in 27 cases (27%) with CAPD and seven controls (9%) (P = 0.002). Despite these significant differences, no children were diagnosed with ADHD combined type among all subjects. Inattentive type and hyperactive-impulsive type of ADHD are more prevalent in children with ESRD undergoing CAPD. Therefore screening methods for ADHD is necessary in these patients.

  14. Comorbidity of Social Anxiety Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Koyuncu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite high rates of reported comorbidity in patients with social anxiety disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder comorbidity was not evaluated in these studies. Studies, investigating the prevalence of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD comorbidity in social anxiety disorder are limited and little is known about it. The reason for this may be the fact that, ADHD have been seen as a childhood disease over a period of time. In the prospective studies ,it is reported that ADHD is often observed in the adulthood and effects persist . On the other hand, studies on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, higher rates of social anxiety disorder comorbidity have been reported. The presence of comorbid anxiety disorder increases the risk of impulsive feature in ADHD, causes problems in functionality, impaired compliance and resistance to the treatment. The aim of this article is to investigate the the status of social anxiety disorder and ADHD comorbidity and to discuss the hypothesis of antidepressant-associated hypomanic shift due to antidepressant treatment in social anxiety disorder patients. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(1.000: 10-21

  15. Giant Piezoelectricity on Si for Hyperactive MEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, S. H.; Park, J.; Kim, D. M.; Aksyuk, V. A.; Das, R. R.; Bu, S. D.; Felker, D. A.; Lettieri, J.; Vaithyanathan, V.; Bharadwaja, S. S. N.; Bassiri-Gharb, N.; Chen, Y. B.; Sun, H. P.; Folkman, C. M.; Jang, H. W.; Kreft, D. J.; Streiffer, S. K.; Ramesh, R.; Pan, X. Q.; Trolier-McKinstry, S.; Schlom, D. G.; Rzchowski, M. S.; Blick, R. H.; Eom, C. B.

    2011-11-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) incorporating active piezoelectric layers offer integrated actuation, sensing, and transduction. The broad implementation of such active MEMS has long been constrained by the inability to integrate materials with giant piezoelectric response, such as Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PMN-PT). We synthesized high-quality PMN-PT epitaxial thin films on vicinal (001) Si wafers with the use of an epitaxial (001) SrTiO3 template layer with superior piezoelectric coefficients (e31,f = -27 ± 3 coulombs per square meter) and figures of merit for piezoelectric energy-harvesting systems. We have incorporated these heterostructures into microcantilevers that are actuated with extremely low drive voltage due to thin-film piezoelectric properties that rival bulk PMN-PT single crystals. These epitaxial heterostructures exhibit very large electromechanical coupling for ultrasound medical imaging, microfluidic control, mechanical sensing, and energy harvesting.

  16. Giant piezoelectricity on Si for hyperactive MEMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, S H; Park, J; Kim, D M; Aksyuk, V A; Das, R R; Bu, S D; Felker, D A; Lettieri, J; Vaithyanathan, V; Bharadwaja, S S N; Bassiri-Gharb, N; Chen, Y B; Sun, H P; Folkman, C M; Jang, H W; Kreft, D J; Streiffer, S K; Ramesh, R; Pan, X Q; Trolier-McKinstry, S; Schlom, D G; Rzchowski, M S; Blick, R H; Eom, C B

    2011-11-18

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) incorporating active piezoelectric layers offer integrated actuation, sensing, and transduction. The broad implementation of such active MEMS has long been constrained by the inability to integrate materials with giant piezoelectric response, such as Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O(3)-PbTiO(3) (PMN-PT). We synthesized high-quality PMN-PT epitaxial thin films on vicinal (001) Si wafers with the use of an epitaxial (001) SrTiO(3) template layer with superior piezoelectric coefficients (e(31,f) = -27 ± 3 coulombs per square meter) and figures of merit for piezoelectric energy-harvesting systems. We have incorporated these heterostructures into microcantilevers that are actuated with extremely low drive voltage due to thin-film piezoelectric properties that rival bulk PMN-PT single crystals. These epitaxial heterostructures exhibit very large electromechanical coupling for ultrasound medical imaging, microfluidic control, mechanical sensing, and energy harvesting.

  17. 77 FR 31420 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... also determine that the exhibition or display of the exhibit objects at The Museum of Modern Art, New...: Game Plan'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the United States, are of cultural...

  18. Relationships between behavioral symptoms of non-medicated Chinese children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and parenting stress: Comparison of different subtypes and comorbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Jiang, Wen-Qing; Du, Ya-Song; Coghill, David

    2016-06-01

    To identify the characteristics of behavior problems among children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and their relation with parenting stress. The Conners Parent Symptom Questionnaire (PSQ) and Parenting Stress Index (PSI) were used to assess the symptoms and parenting stress of 132 non-medicated children with ADHD as compared with 88 healthy controls. Every PSQ factor of ADHD children was higher than in the control group; children with the combined subtype of ADHD had the highest scores in conduct and learning problems, impulsivity/hyperactivity, and overall hyperactivity index; the PSI total stress, child domain, and parent domain scores were all higher in the ADHD group than in the control group; children with the combined subtype of ADHD had the highest score in the competence subscale of the parent domain, whereas the PSI total stress score of parents of children with ADHD and comorbid oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) was higher than that of parents of children with only ADHD. The PSI total stress score was positively correlated with all PSQ factor scores. The PSQ factors of conduct problems and learning problems were found to be significant predictors in a regression analysis. The children with ADHD exhibited abnormal parenting stress compared with healthy controls, which was much more pronounced when the children had comorbid ODD. Furthermore, parenting stress was related with the severity of ADHD symptoms, suggesting that children with the combined subtype of ADHD require particular attention in the future. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. Validity and reliability of the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder self-report scale (ASRS-v1.1) in a clinical sample with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlucci, Samantha; Ivanova, Iryna; Bissada, Hany; Tasca, Giorgio A

    2017-08-01

    Individuals with eating disorders (EDs) commonly experience comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The shared features of EDs and ADHD, such as inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity, may exacerbate ED symptomatology and pose challenges to treatment. It is important to screen patients with EDs for symptoms of ADHD to optimize their treatment outcomes. However, the psychometrics of common measures of ADHD have not yet been examined within an ED population. An example of such a measure is the ADHD self-report scale (ASRS-v1.1) symptom checklist, which identifies the presence of ADHD symptoms. This study reports a psychometric study of the ASRS-v1.1 in a clinical sample of 500 adults with an ED. A confirmatory factor analysis indicated the ASRS-v1.1 maintained its two-factor structure of inattention and impulsivity/hyperactivity. The item loadings demonstrated path invariance across ED diagnostic groups indicating construct validity. Further, the subscales exhibited good internal consistency and they were significantly correlated with other measures of impulsivity indicating convergent validity. The ED sample had significantly higher mean scores than published nonclinical norms indicating predictive validity, but the ASRS-v1.1 scores were not significantly different among ED diagnostic groups. Results suggest the ASRS-v1.1 is a valid and reliable screening tool for identifying symptoms of ADHD among adults seeking treatment for ED. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Sex Differences in the Effect of Atomoxetine on the QT Interval in Adult Patients With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yutaro; Tajiri, Misuzu; Sugimoto, Atsunori; Orime, Naoki; Hayashi, Taketsugu; Egawa, Jun; Sugai, Takuro; Inoue, Yoshimasa; Someya, Toshiyuki

    2017-02-01

    The effects of atomoxetine on QT in adults remain unclear. In this study, we examined whether the use of atomoxetine to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults is associated with QT prolongation. Forty-one subjects with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder were enrolled in this study. Participants were administered 40, 80, or 120 mg atomoxetine daily and were maintained on their respective dose for at least 2 weeks. We conducted electrocardiographic measurements and blood tests, measuring plasma atomoxetine concentrations after treatment. Electrocardiograms of 24 of the patients were also obtained before atomoxetine treatment. The QT interval was corrected using Bazett (QTcB) and Fridericia (QTcF) correction formulas. In these 24 patients, only the female patients had prolonged QTcB (P = 0.039) after atomoxetine treatment. There was no correlation between plasma atomoxetine concentrations and the corrected QT interval (QTc), or between atomoxetine dosage and the QTc. However, in female patients, there was a significant positive correlation between atomoxetine dosage and the QTcB (r = 0.631, P = 0.012), and there was a marginally significant positive correlation between atomoxetine dosage and the QTcF (r = 0.504, P = 0.055). In male patients, there was no correlation between atomoxetine dosage and the QTcB or QTcF intervals. There was no correlation between plasma atomoxetine concentrations and the QTc in either female or male patients. Clinicians should exhibit caution when prescribing atomoxetine, particularly for female patients.

  1. Abnormal response of melanin-concentrating hormone deficient mice to fasting: hyperactivity and rapid eye movement sleep suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willie, J T; Sinton, C M; Maratos-Flier, E; Yanagisawa, M

    2008-10-28

    Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide that has been implicated in energy homeostasis. Pharmacological studies with MCH and its receptor antagonists have suggested additional behavioral roles for the neuropeptide in the control of mood and vigilance states. These suggestions have been supported by a report of modified sleep in the MCH-1 receptor knockout mouse. Here we found that MCH knockout (MCH(-)(/)(-)) mice slept less during both the light and dark phases under baseline conditions. In response to fasting, MCH(-)(/)(-) mice exhibited marked hyperactivity, accelerated weight loss and an exaggerated decrease in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Following a 6-h period of sleep deprivation, however, the sleep rebound in MCH(-)(/)(-) mice was normal. Thus MCH(-)(/)(-) mice adapt poorly to fasting, and their loss of bodyweight under this condition is associated with behavioral hyperactivity and abnormal expression of REM sleep. These results support a role for MCH in vigilance state regulation in response to changes in energy homeostasis and may relate to a recent report of initial clinical trials with a novel MCH-1 receptor antagonist. When combined with caloric restriction, the treatment of healthy, obese subjects with this compound resulted in some subjects experiencing vivid dreams and sleep disturbances.

  2. 45 CFR 1160.4 - Eligibility for international exhibitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... AND ARTIFACTS INDEMNITY ACT § 1160.4 Eligibility for international exhibitions. An indemnity agreement... the educational, cultural, historical, or scientific significance of the exhibition on Renoir. It...

  3. Correlations of gene expression with ratings of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity in tourette syndrome : a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tian, Yingfang; Stamova, Boryana; Ander, Bradley P.; Jickling, Glen C.; Gunther, Joan R.; Corbett, Blythe A.; Bos-Veneman, Netty G. P.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Schweitzer, Julie B.; Sharp, Frank R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Inattentiveness, impulsivity and hyperactivity are the primary behaviors associated with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Previous studies showed that peripheral blood gene expression signatures can mirror central nervous system disease. Tourette syndrome (TS) is

  4. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptom severity and sleep problems in adult participants of the Netherlands sleep registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, Suzan W.N.; Bijlenga, Denise; Benjamins, Jeroen S.; Beekman, Aartjan T.F.; Kooij, J. J.Sandra; Van Someren, Eus J W

    2017-01-01

    Background We examined whether current overall attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), inattention, or hyperactivity symptom severities are associated with the current presence and persistent history of sleep problems. Methods N = 942 participants of the Netherlands Sleep Registry filled

  5. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptom severity and sleep problems in adult participants of the Netherlands sleep registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, Suzan W N; Bijlenga, Denise; Benjamins, Jeroen S; Beekman, Aartjan T F; Kooij, J J Sandra; Van Someren, Eus J W

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We examined whether current overall attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), inattention, or hyperactivity symptom severities are associated with the current presence and persistent history of sleep problems. METHODS: N = 942 participants of the Netherlands Sleep Registry filled

  6. Could I Have Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)? Finding an Answer to ADHD as an Adult

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ADHD? For More Information Share Could I Have Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)? Download PDF Download ePub ... organized? Have you wondered whether you might have attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)? Our society has become ...

  7. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder among Children Aged 5-17 Years in the United States, 1998-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Order from the National Technical Information Service NCHS Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Aged 5–17 ... 2009 The percentage of children ever diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) increased from 7% to ...

  8. A feasibility study on the effectiveness of a full-body videogame intervention for decreasing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerdmeester, J.W.; Cima, M.; Granic, I.; Hashemian, Y.; Gotsis, M.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The current study assessed the feasibility and effectiveness of a full-body-driven intervention videogame targeted at decreasing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, specifically inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity, and motor deficiency. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The

  9. Disrupted functional connectivity of cerebellar default network areas in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucyi, Aaron; Hove, Michael J; Biederman, Joseph; Van Dijk, Koene R A; Valera, Eve M

    2015-09-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is increasingly understood as a disorder of spontaneous brain-network interactions. The default mode network (DMN), implicated in ADHD-linked behaviors including mind-wandering and attentional fluctuations, has been shown to exhibit abnormal spontaneous functional connectivity (FC) within-network and with other networks (salience, dorsal attention and frontoparietal) in ADHD. Although the cerebellum has been implicated in the pathophysiology of ADHD, it remains unknown whether cerebellar areas of the DMN (CerDMN) exhibit altered FC with cortical networks in ADHD. Here, 23 adults with ADHD and 23 age-, IQ-, and sex-matched controls underwent resting state fMRI. The mean time series of CerDMN areas was extracted, and FC with the whole brain was calculated. Whole-brain between-group differences in FC were assessed. Additionally, relationships between inattention and individual differences in FC were assessed for between-group interactions. In ADHD, CerDMN areas showed positive FC (in contrast to average FC in the negative direction in controls) with widespread regions of salience, dorsal attention and sensorimotor networks. ADHD individuals also exhibited higher FC (more positive correlation) of CerDMN areas with frontoparietal and visual network regions. Within the control group, but not in ADHD, participants with higher inattention had higher FC between CerDMN and regions in the visual and dorsal attention networks. This work provides novel evidence of impaired CerDMN coupling with cortical networks in ADHD and highlights a role of cerebro-cerebellar interactions in cognitive function. These data provide support for the potential targeting of CerDMN areas for therapeutic interventions in ADHD. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Functional connectivity of neural motor networks is disrupted in children with developmental coordination disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R. McLeod

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Developmental coordination disorder (DCD and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD are prevalent childhood disorders that frequently co-occur. Evidence from neuroimaging research suggests that children with these disorders exhibit disruptions in motor circuitry, which could account for the high rate of co-occurrence. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the functional connections of the motor network in children with DCD and/or ADHD compared to typically developing controls, with the aim of identifying common neurophysiological substrates. Resting-state fMRI was performed on seven children with DCD, 21 with ADHD, 18 with DCD + ADHD and 23 controls. Resting-state connectivity of the primary motor cortex was compared between each group and controls, using age as a co-factor. Relative to controls, children with DCD and/or ADHD exhibited similar reductions in functional connectivity between the primary motor cortex and the bilateral inferior frontal gyri, right supramarginal gyrus, angular gyri, insular cortices, amygdala, putamen, and pallidum. In addition, children with DCD and/or ADHD exhibited different age-related patterns of connectivity, compared to controls. These findings suggest that children with DCD and/or ADHD exhibit disruptions in motor circuitry, which may contribute to problems with motor functioning and attention. Our results support the existence of common neurophysiological substrates underlying both motor and attention problems.

  11. Designing immersion exhibits as border-crossing environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Marianne Foss

    2010-01-01

    be applied to achieve an understanding of the immersion exhibit form. The argument proceeds by demonstrating how the characteristics of immersion exhibits, and visitors to them, classify them as microcultures, and examining the implications of this for exhibit design using a hypothetical immersion exhibit...

  12. Maternal Positive Parenting Style Is Associated with Better Functioning in Hyperactive/Inattentive Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Dione M.; Flory, Janine D.; Miller, Carlin J.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2011-01-01

    Many preschoolers are highly inattentive, impulsive, and hyperactive; but only some are impaired in their functioning. Yet factors leading to functional impairment, above and beyond the severity of inattentive and hyperactive symptoms, have not been systematically examined. This study examined a model suggesting that after controlling for…

  13. Students Diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Collaborative Strategies for School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shillingford-Butler, M. Ann; Theodore, Lea

    2013-01-01

    The school setting can be a difficult place for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The core symptoms of ADHD, which include inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity, make meeting the curriculum demands of the classroom challenging. That ADHD negatively impacts not only academic performance but also social and…

  14. Factor Structure of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms for Children Age 3 to 5 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGoey, Kara E.; Schreiber, James; Venesky, Lindsey; Westwood, Wendy; McGuirk, Lindsay; Schaffner, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) distinguishes two dimensions of symptoms, inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity for ages 3 to adulthood. Currently, no separate classification for preschool-age children exists, whereas preliminary research suggests that the two-factor structure of ADHD may not match the…

  15. Altered brain structural networks in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder children revealed by cortical thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tian; Chen, Yanni; Li, Chenxi; Li, Youjun; Wang, Jue

    2017-07-04

    This study investigated the cortical thickness and topological features of human brain anatomical networks related to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Data were collected from 40 attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder children and 40 normal control children. Interregional correlation matrices were established by calculating the correlations of cortical thickness between all pairs of cortical regions (68 regions) of the whole brain. Further thresholds were applied to create binary matrices to construct a series of undirected and unweighted graphs, and global, local, and nodal efficiencies were computed as a function of the network cost. These experimental results revealed abnormal cortical thickness and correlations in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and showed that the brain structural networks of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder subjects had inefficient small-world topological features. Furthermore, their topological properties were altered abnormally. In particular, decreased global efficiency combined with increased local efficiency in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder children led to a disorder-related shift of the network topological structure toward regular networks. In addition, nodal efficiency, cortical thickness, and correlation analyses revealed that several brain regions were altered in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder patients. These findings are in accordance with a hypothesis of dysfunctional integration and segregation of the brain in patients with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and provide further evidence of brain dysfunction in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder patients by observing cortical thickness on magnetic resonance imaging.

  16. A Meta-Analysis of Behavioral Parent Training for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pei-chin; Niew, Wern-ing; Yang, Hao-jan; Chen, Vincent Chin-hung; Lin, Keh-chung

    2012-01-01

    This meta-analysis examined the effect of behavioral parent training on child and parental outcomes for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Meta-analytic procedures were used to estimate the effect of behavioral parent training on children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Variables moderating the intervention…

  17. A Weak Association between Traits of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Gambling in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canu, Will H.; Schatz, Nicole K.

    2011-01-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has been characterized as a comorbidity to pathological gambling (PG). However, contradictory evidence has emerged, and it has not been established whether nonimpulsive features of ADHD (e.g., inattention, hyperactivity) contribute to PG risk, or how robust this relationship is in college samples.…

  18. Links between Co-Occurring Social-Communication and Hyperactive-Inattentive Trait Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Pourcain, Beate; Mandy, William P.; Heron, Jon; Golding, Jean; Smith, George Davey; Skuse, David H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: There is overlap between an autistic and hyperactive-inattentive symptomatology when studied cross-sectionally. This study is the first to examine the longitudinal pattern of association between social-communication deficits and hyperactive-inattentive symptoms in the general population, from childhood through adolescence. We explored…

  19. An Exploratory Study of the Relationship between Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Youth Homelessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Blake

    2014-01-01

    A 1997 study by Lomas and Garside suggests a 62% prevalence rate of ADHD [Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder] amongst homeless, which prompts a need for further elucidation of this relationship. This study sought to examine the relationship between Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and the homeless youth population aged 18-24. The…

  20. Subtypes versus Severity Differences in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in the Northern Finnish Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubke, Gitta H.; Muthen, Bengt; Moilanen, Irma K.; McGough, James J.; Loo, Sandra K.; Swanson, James M.; Yang, May H.; Taanila, Anja; Hurtig, Tuula; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Smalley, Susan L.

    2007-01-01

    A study aims to analyze whether behaviors of attention-deficit, hyperactivity among adolescents in Northern Finland reflect distinct subtypes of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The results conclude that the majority of the Cohort falls into low-scoring groups of unaffecteds while a high-scoring minority group reflects an ADHD…

  1. Reading and listening comprehension and their relation to inattention and hyperactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Kate; Bignell, Simon

    2014-03-01

    Children with diagnoses of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently have reading problems. To date, it is not clear whether poor reading is associated with both inattention and hyperactivity and also whether poor reading comprehension is the result of poor word reading skills or more general language comprehension weaknesses. We report two studies to examine how reading and listening comprehension skills are related to inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. Separate groups of 7- to 11-year-olds participated in each study. In both studies, we used teacher ratings of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity to identify three groups at risk of ADHD: poor attention, high hyperactivity, poor attention and high hyperactivity, and also same-age controls. In Study 1, we explored how inattention and hyperactivity predicted reading after controlling for non-verbal IQ and vocabulary. In Study 2, we compared listening and reading comprehension in these groups. Poor attention was related to poor reading comprehension, although the relation was partially mediated by word reading skill (Study 1). Groups with high hyperactivity had weak listening comprehension relative to reading comprehension (Study 2). These results indicate that the reading comprehension problems of children with attention difficulties are related to poor word reading and that listening comprehension is particularly vulnerable in children at risk of ADHD. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  2. The Cheshire Cat Enigma: Emotion Recognition Abilities of Preschool Boys with and without Hyperactivity and Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Megan

    2010-01-01

    This research examined the emotion recognition abilities of preschoolers with and without hyperactivity and aggression. Previous research identified that school age children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have more difficulty understanding facial expressions associated with emotions, take longer than their age-matched peers…

  3. An Experimental Evaluation of Hyperactivity and Food Additives. 1977-Phase I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, J. Preston

    Reported are findings of a study involving 46 families in which the effect of the Feingold (additive free) diet on hyperactivity in preschool and elementary age children was investigated. Eleven sections cover the following project components: introduction (definition of hyperactivity and the B. Feingold hypothesis), methodology, demographic…

  4. Effects of Age and Ritalin Dosage on the Mother-Child Interactions of Hyperactive Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkley, Russell A.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Observed the mother-child interactions of three age groups of hyperactive children (N=54) during free play and task settings using two dose levels of Ritalin. Results indicated that the interactions of hyperactive boys with their mothers improve with age, and that Ritalin produces further improvements regardless of age examined. (LLL)

  5. Electrophysiological Indices of Abnormal Error-Processing in Adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groom, Madeleine J.; Cahill, John D.; Bates, Alan T.; Jackson, Georgina M.; Calton, Timothy G.; Liddle, Peter F.; Hollis, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Background: Impaired cognitive control has been frequently observed in children and young people with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and might underlie the excessive hyperactivity and impulsivity in this population. We investigated behavioural and electrophysiological indices relevant to one domain of cognitive control; namely…

  6. A MOTOR PRESETTING STUDY IN HYPERACTIVE, LEARNING-DISABLED AND CONTROL CHILDREN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERMEERE, J; VREELING, HJ; SERGEANT, J

    1992-01-01

    Motor presetting was investigated in hyperactive children, learning disabled children and normal controls. The reaction time of the hyperactive group was more sensitive to increases in interstimulus interval (event rate) than was that of the learning disabled and the controls. This finding indicates

  7. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Sensory Modulation Disorder: A Comparison of Behavior and Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lucy Jane; Nielsen, Darci M.; Schoen, Sarah A.

    2012-01-01

    Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are impulsive, inattentive and hyperactive, while children with sensory modulation disorder (SMD), one subtype of Sensory Processing Disorder, have difficulty responding adaptively to daily sensory experiences. ADHD and SMD are often difficult to distinguish. To differentiate these…

  8. Development of Exhibit on Arctic Climate Change Called The Arctic: A Friend Acting Strangely Exhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stauffer, Barbara W.

    2006-04-01

    The exhibition, The Arctic: A Friend Acting Strangely, was developed at the Smithsonian Institution’s National Museum of Natural History (NMNH) as a part of the museum’s Forces of Change exhibit series on global change. It opened to the public in Spring 2006, in conjunction with another Forces of Change exhibit on the Earth’s atmosphere called Change Is in the Air. The exhibit was a 2000 square-foot presentation that explored the forces and consequences of the changing Arctic as documented by scientists and native residents alike. Native peoples of the Arctic have always lived with year-to-year fluctuations in weather and ice conditions. In recent decades, they have witnessed that the climate has become unpredictable, the land and sea unfamiliar. An elder in Arctic Canada recently described the weather as uggianaqtuq —an Inuit word that can suggest strange, unexpected behavior, sometimes described as that of “a friend acting strangely.” Scientists too have been documenting dramatic changes in the Arctic. Air temperatures have warmed over most—though not all—of the Arctic since the 1950s; Arctic precipitation may have increased by as much as 8%; seasonal melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet has increased on average by 16% since 1979; polar-orbiting satellites have measured a 15¬–20% decline in sea ice extent since the 1970s; aircraft reconnaissance and ship observations show a steady decrease in sea ice since the 1950s. In response to this warming, plant distributions have begun to shift and animals are changing their migration routes. Some of these changes may have beneficial effects while others may bring hardship or have costly implications. And, many scientists consider arctic change to be a ‘bell-weather’ for large-scale changes in other regions of the world. The exhibition included text, photos artifacts, hands-on interactives and other exhibitry that illustrated the changes being documented by indigenous people and scientists alike.

  9. Contributing factors in the manifestation of aggression in preschoolers with hyperactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stormont-Spurgin, M; Zentall, S S

    1995-03-01

    This study examined family characteristics of preschoolers with hyperactivity. We assessed child-rearing practices, maternal depression, marital conflict, and social support. Sixty-three preschool boys were placed in a hyperactivity-aggressive, hyperactive, aggressive or comparison group based on behavioral ratings. Parents were given questionnaires, mothers were interviewed, and children were administered the Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-Educational Battery and were observed playing. Compared to preschoolers with hyperactivity, preschoolers with hyperactivity plus aggression had families with (a) more restrictive fathers, (b) siblings who retaliated aggressively, and (c) mothers who reported more physical aggression directed to their partners and more verbal aggression received. Follow-forward aggression ratings were predicted by initial child manageability and maternal depression, perceived support, and low income.

  10. Parental happiness and strain among young adult parents diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Rhiannon A

    2018-03-01

    This study used data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) to examine whether young adult parents diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder experience less parental happiness and/or more parental strain than their counterparts not diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Results from logistic regression models indicated that young adult parents ever diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder have significantly greater odds of feeling overwhelmed as parents and significantly lower odds of feeling close to their children or happy in their role as parents compared to those never diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Potential implications of these results for scholars as well as health professionals treating adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder patients with children are discussed.

  11. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children with benign epilepsy and their siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett-Back, Odeya; Keren, Amit; Zelnik, Nathanel

    2011-03-01

    This prospective study explores the prevalence and characteristics of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children with benign epilepsy, compared with its prevalence in their siblings. Among 40 patients with benign epilepsy, 28 (70%) were diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: 19 with the inattentive type, one with the hyperactive type, and eight with the combined type. In the control group of 12 siblings, only two (16.7%) were diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (Pattentional difficulties was evident in children whose seizures were more resistant and required more than one antiepileptic drug for seizure control. Children with more epileptiform features in their electroencephalograms were also more subject to signs of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Larger scale studies are required to validate our findings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Mice lacking the synaptic adhesion molecule Neph2/Kirrel3 display moderate hyperactivity and defective novel object preference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Yeon eChoi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Synaptic adhesion molecules regulate diverse aspects of neuronal synapse development, including synapse specificity, formation, and maturation. Neph2, also known as Kirrel3, is an immunoglobulin superfamily adhesion molecule implicated in intellectual disability, neurocognitive delay associated with Jacobsen syndrome, and autism spectrum disorders. We here report mice lacking Neph2 (Neph2–/– mice display moderate hyperactivity in a familiar but not novel environment and novel object recognition deficit with normal performances in Morris water maze spatial learning and memory, contextual fear conditioning and extinction, and pattern separation tests. These mice show normal levels of anxiety-like behaviors, social interaction, and repetitive behaviors. At the synapse level, Neph2–/– dentate gyrus granule cells exhibit unaltered dendritic spine density and spontaneous excitatory synaptic transmission. These results suggest that Neph2 is important for normal locomotor activity and object recognition memory.

  13. The Speed of Visual Attention and Motor-Response Decisions in Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cross-Villasana, Fernando; Finke, Kathrin; Hennig-Fast, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Adults with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) exhibit slowed reaction times (RTs) in various attention tasks. The exact origins of this slowing, however, have not been yet established. Potential candidates are early sensory processes mediating the deployment...... of focal-attention, stimulus-response translation processes deciding upon the appropriate motor-response, and motor processes generating the response. Methods: We combined mental chronometry (RT) measures of adult ADHD (n = 15) and healthy control (n = 15) participants with their lateralized event......-related potentials (ERP) during the performance of a visual-search task to differentiate potential sources of slowing at separable levels of processing: the posterior contralateral negativity (PCN) was used to index focalattentional selection times, while the lateralized readiness potentials synchronized to stimulus...

  14. Poor performance of fine motor activity among biological parents of children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Chun Hung

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been proposed that the dopaminergic system and heritability may play roles in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. We assessed the performance of healthy parents of children with ADHD in the finger tapping test (FTT in this study, which is a reliable test and sensitive to central dopamine activity. A total of 16 parents of children with ADHD and 32 controls were enrolled. The FTT was conducted. The 16 healthy parents of children with ADHD exhibited a significantly poorer performance in the FTT, using the nondominant hand, than the 32 healthy controls. This finding indicated that poor motor function could be a potential characteristic in parents of offspring with ADHD.

  15. An analysis of challenging behavior, comorbid psychopathology, and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Fragile X Syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Newman, Isabel

    2015-03-01

    The present study sought to investigate the relationship between challenging behavior, comorbid psychopathology, and Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD\\/HD) in Fragile X Syndrome (FRAX). Additionally, this study sought to examine how such disorders are predicted by gender, presence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and presence of intellectual disability (ID). A total of 47 children and adolescents with FRAX were assessed. Results revealed high levels of challenging behavior and AD\\/HD symptoms within the sample, with some participants exhibiting symptoms of comorbid psychopathology. Further analysis revealed that challenging behavior and comorbid psychopathology were positively correlated, with stereotypy correlating most strongly with comorbid psychopathology. In addition, ASD was found to predict challenging behavior, and gender was found to predict AD\\/HD symptoms. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  16. Cognitive Inhibitory Control and Arithmetic Word Problem Solving in Children with Attention Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigem Sabagh-Sabbagh

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A sample of 30 subjects, 10 with Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder(ADHD and 20 non-ADHD children, statistically controlled byage, gender, academic grades and normal full scale intelligence quotient,was selected. To measure cognitive inhibitory control, a math problem solving ability test containing four problems for each level with verbal and numerical irrelevant content was administered. ADHD children exhibited significantly inferior performance in choosing correct answers (p = 0.011 with a large effect size (d = 1.00 and a significantly superior number of irrelevant answers (p = 0.004 with a very large effect size. In conclusion ADHD children showed a cognitive inhibitory control disorder, measured by math problem solving ability.

  17. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and substance abuse - A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Søren; Madsen, Anders G.; Bikic, Aida

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the history of the studies of mental health problems and substance use disorder (SUD) and the neurobiology and etiology of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and SUD. Additionally, we review the literature on the associations between ADHD and SUD......, the association between stimulant treatment in patients with ADHD and the risk of SUD and the guidelines for clinical assessment and treatment of adolescents with ADHD and comorbid SUD. There is substantial evidence suggesting that patients with ADHD are at increased risk of SUD, and that comorbid conduct...

  18. Hippocampus and amygdala morphology in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plessen, Kerstin J; Bansal, Ravi; Zhu, Hongtu

    2006-01-01

    CONTEXT: Limbic structures are implicated in the genesis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by the presence of mood and cognitive disturbances in affected individuals and by elevated rates of mood disorders in family members of probands with ADHD. OBJECTIVE: To study the morphology...... of disturbances in the perception of time, temporal processing (eg, delay aversion), and stimulus seeking associated with ADHD. Disrupted connections between the amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex may contribute to behavioral disinhibition. Our findings suggest involvement of the limbic system...

  19. Associations Between Autoimmune Diseases and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Philip Finn Rising; Benros, Michael Eriksen; Dalsgaard, Søren

    2017-01-01

    attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHOD: A cohort was formed of all singletons born in Denmark from 1990 to 2007, resulting in a study population of 983,680 individuals followed from 1995 to 2012. Information on autoimmune diseases was obtained from the Danish National Hospital Register......OBJECTIVE: Recent studies have suggested that autoimmune diseases and immune activation play a part in the pathogenesis of different neurodevelopmental disorders. This study investigated the association between a personal history and a family history of autoimmune disease and the risk of developing...

  20. Amygdala Hyperactivity in MAM Model of Schizophrenia is Normalized by Peripubertal Diazepam Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yijuan; Grace, Anthony A

    2016-09-01

    In addition to prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus, amygdala may have a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, given its pivotal role in emotion and extensive connectivity with the PFC and hippocampus. Moreover, abnormal activities of amygdala may be related to the anxiety observed in schizophrenia patients and at-risk adolescents. These at-risk subjects demonstrated heightened levels of anxiety, which are correlated with the onset of psychosis later in life. Similarly, rats that received methyl azoxymethanol acetate (MAM) gestationally exhibited higher levels of anxiety peripubertally. In the current study, the heightened anxiety was also observed in adult MAM animals, as well as higher firing rates of BLA neurons in both peripubertal and adult MAM rats. In addition, the power of BLA theta oscillations of adult MAM rats showed a larger increase in response to conditioned stimuli (CS). We showed previously that administration of the antianxiety drug diazepam during the peripubertal period prevents the hyperdopaminergic state in adult MAM rats. In this study, we found that peripubertal diazepam treatment reduced heightened anxiety, decreased BLA neuron firing rates and attenuated the CS-induced increase in BLA theta power in adult MAM rats, supporting a persistent normalization by this treatment. This study provides a link between BLA hyperactivity and anxiety in schizophrenia model rats and that circumvention of stress may prevent the emergence of pathology in the adult.