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Sample records for alpha-synuclein exhibit hyperactivity

  1. ALPHA-SYNUCLEIN STRUCTURE, AGGREGATION AND MODULATORS

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    Pinakin K. Makwana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Alpha-synuclein is an intrinsically unstructured protein, involved in various neurodegenerative disorders. In vitro/in vivo experiments, as well as genetic mutation studies establish a direct link between alphasynuclein and synucleinopathies. Due to its natively unfolded state, alpha synuclein can adopt numerous conformations upon interaction with its partners and cellular factors, offering explanation for its diverse interactions. Aggregated form of alpha-synuclein has been observed in the brain of patients with synucleinopathies, a hallmark of neurodegeneration, and cell death has been attributed to aggregation induced toxicity. The process of aggregation involves nucleation, followed by intermediate oligomeric states, and finally the fibrillar amyloids. Of the various conformations/species that alpha-synuclein assumes before it transforms into mature amyloid fibrils, the oligomeric species is the most toxic. Thus, an effective way to limit disease progression is by modifying/slowing down protein aggregation/deposition in the brain. Various small natural products, synthetic chemicals, peptides and antibodies specific to alpha-synuclein have been designed/identified to reduce its rate of aggregation. Unfortunately, not even a handful of the molecules have cleared the clinical trials. Even today, medications available for Parkinson’s patients are mostly the drugs that adjust for loss of dopamine in the brain, and hence do not stop the progression of the disease or cure the symptoms. Thus, more molecular level studies are warranted to fully elucidate the process of alpha-synuclein aggregation, which in turn could help in identifying novel therapeutics and preventives. The present review summarizes the insights gained into the structure, in vitro aggregation and inhibitors/modulators of alpha-synuclein aggregation, that can be used to design better and effective inhibitors against the diseases.

  2. Curcumin inhibits aggregation of alpha-synuclein.

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    Pandey, Neeraj; Strider, Jeffrey; Nolan, William C; Yan, Sherry X; Galvin, James E

    2008-04-01

    Aggregation of amyloid-beta protein (Abeta) is a key pathogenic event in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Curcumin, a constituent of the Indian spice Turmeric is structurally similar to Congo Red and has been demonstrated to bind Abeta amyloid and prevent further oligomerization of Abeta monomers onto growing amyloid beta-sheets. Reasoning that oligomerization kinetics and mechanism of amyloid formation are similar in Parkinson's disease (PD) and AD, we investigated the effect of curcumin on alpha-synuclein (AS) protein aggregation. In vitro model of AS aggregation was developed by treatment of purified AS protein (wild-type) with 1 mM Fe3+ (Fenton reaction). It was observed that the addition of curcumin inhibited aggregation in a dose-dependent manner and increased AS solubility. The aggregation-inhibiting effect of curcumin was next investigated in cell culture utilizing catecholaminergic SH-SY5Y cell line. A model system was developed in which the red fluorescent protein (DsRed2) was fused with A53T mutant of AS and its aggregation examined under different concentrations of curcumin. To estimate aggregation in an unbiased manner, a protocol was developed in which the images were captured automatically through a high-throughput cell-based screening microscope. The obtained images were processed automatically for aggregates within a defined dimension of 1-6 microm. Greater than 32% decrease in mutant alpha-synuclein aggregation was observed within 48 h subsequent to curcumin addition. Our data suggest that curcumin inhibits AS oligomerization into higher molecular weight aggregates and therefore should be further explored as a potential therapeutic compound for PD and related disorders.

  3. Alpha-synuclein in cutaneous small nerve fibers

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    Siepmann T

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Timo Siepmann,1 Ben Min-Woo Illigens,2 Kristian Barlinn1 1Department of Neurology, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany; 2Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: Despite progression in the development of pharmacological therapy, treatment of alpha synucleinopathies, such as Parkinson’s disease (PD and some atypical parkinsonism syndromes, is still challenging. To date, our knowledge of the mechanisms whereby the pathological form of alpha-synuclein causes structural and functional damage to the nervous system is limited and, consequently, there is a lack of specific diagnostic tools to evaluate pathology in these patients and differentiate PD from other neurodegenerative proteinopathies. Recent studies indicated that alpha-synuclein deposition in cutaneous small nerve fibers assessed by skin biopsies might be a valid disease marker of PD and facilitate early differentiation of PD from atypical parkinsonism syndromes. This observation is relevant since early diagnosis may enable timely treatment and improve quality of life. However, challenges include the necessity of standardizing immunohistochemical analysis techniques and the identification of potential distinct patterns of intraneural alpha-synuclein deposition among synucleinopathies. In this perspective, we explore the scientific and clinical opportunities arising from alpha-synuclein assessment using skin biopsies. These include elucidation of the peripheral nervous system pathology of PD and other synucleinopathies, identification of novel targets to study response to neuroprotective treatment, and improvement of clinical management. Furthermore, we discuss future challenges in exploring the diagnostic value of skin biopsy assessment for alpha-synuclein deposition and implementing the technique in clinical practice. Keywords: Parkinson’s disease, diagnosis, skin

  4. Alpha-synuclein suppression by targeted small interfering RNA in the primate substantia nigra.

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    Alison L McCormack

    Full Text Available The protein alpha-synuclein is involved in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders. Its toxic potential appears to be enhanced by increased protein expression, providing a compelling rationale for therapeutic strategies aimed at reducing neuronal alpha-synuclein burden. Here, feasibility and safety of alpha-synuclein suppression were evaluated by treating monkeys with small interfering RNA (siRNA directed against alpha-synuclein. The siRNA molecule was chemically modified to prevent degradation by exo- and endonucleases and directly infused into the left substantia nigra. Results compared levels of alpha-synuclein mRNA and protein in the infused (left vs. untreated (right hemisphere and revealed a significant 40-50% suppression of alpha-synuclein expression. These findings could not be attributable to non-specific effects of siRNA infusion since treatment of a separate set of animals with luciferase-targeting siRNA produced no changes in alpha-synuclein. Infusion with alpha-synuclein siRNA, while lowering alpha-synuclein expression, had no overt adverse consequences. In particular, it did not cause tissue inflammation and did not change (i the number and phenotype of nigral dopaminergic neurons, and (ii the concentrations of striatal dopamine and its metabolites. The data represent the first evidence of successful anti-alpha-synuclein intervention in the primate substantia nigra and support further development of RNA interference-based therapeutics.

  5. Alpha-synuclein levels in blood plasma decline with healthy aging.

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    Koehler, Niklas K U; Stransky, Elke; Meyer, Mirjam; Gaertner, Susanne; Shing, Mona; Schnaidt, Martina; Celej, Maria S; Jovin, Thomas M; Leyhe, Thomas; Laske, Christoph; Batra, Anil; Buchkremer, Gerhard; Fallgatter, Andreas J; Wernet, Dorothee; Richartz-Salzburger, Elke

    2015-01-01

    There is unequivocal evidence that alpha-synuclein plays a pivotal pathophysiological role in neurodegenerative diseases, and in particular in synucleinopathies. These disorders present with a variable extent of cognitive impairment and alpha-synuclein is being explored as a biomarker in CSF, blood serum and plasma. Considering key events of aging that include proteostasis, alpha-synuclein may not only be useful as a marker for differential diagnosis but also for aging per se. To explore this hypothesis, we developed a highly specific ELISA to measure alpha-synuclein. In healthy males plasma alpha-synuclein levels correlated strongly with age, revealing much lower concentrations in older (avg. 58.1 years) compared to younger (avg. 27.6 years) individuals. This difference between the age groups was enhanced after acidification of the plasmas (phealthy aging. Thus, alpha-synuclein may be a novel biomarker of aging, a factor that should be considered when analyzing its presence in biological specimens.

  6. Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation of Alpha-synuclein Demonstrates its Oligomerization with Dopaminergic Phenotype in Mice

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    Waijiao Cai

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Alpha-synuclein (αSyn is encoded by the first causal gene identified in Parkinson's disease (PD and is the main component of Lewy bodies, a pathological hallmark of PD. aSyn-based animal models have contributed to our understanding of PD pathophysiology and to the development of therapeutics. Overexpression of human wildtype αSyn by viral vectors in rodents recapitulates the loss of dopaminergic neurons from the substantia nigra, another defining pathological feature of the disease. The development of a rat model exhibiting bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC of αSyn by recombinant adeno-associated virus facilitates detection of the toxic αSyn oligomers species. We report here neurochemical, neuropathological and behavioral characterization of BiFC of αSyn in mice. Overexpression and oligomerization of αSyn through BiFC is detected by conjugated fluorescence. Reduced striatal dopamine and loss of nigral dopaminergic neurons are accompanied neuroinflammation and abnormal motor activities. Our mouse model may provide a valuable tool to study the role of αSyn in PD and to explore therapeutic approaches. Keywords: Parkinson's disease, Alpha-synuclein, Mouse model, Oligomers, Neuroinflammation

  7. Alpha-synuclein levels in blood plasma decline with healthy aging.

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    Niklas K U Koehler

    Full Text Available There is unequivocal evidence that alpha-synuclein plays a pivotal pathophysiological role in neurodegenerative diseases, and in particular in synucleinopathies. These disorders present with a variable extent of cognitive impairment and alpha-synuclein is being explored as a biomarker in CSF, blood serum and plasma. Considering key events of aging that include proteostasis, alpha-synuclein may not only be useful as a marker for differential diagnosis but also for aging per se. To explore this hypothesis, we developed a highly specific ELISA to measure alpha-synuclein. In healthy males plasma alpha-synuclein levels correlated strongly with age, revealing much lower concentrations in older (avg. 58.1 years compared to younger (avg. 27.6 years individuals. This difference between the age groups was enhanced after acidification of the plasmas (p<0.0001, possibly reflecting a decrease of alpha-synuclein-antibody complexes or chaperone activity in older individuals. Our results support the concept that alpha-synuclein homeostasis may be impaired early on, possibly due to disturbance of the proteostasis network, a key component of healthy aging. Thus, alpha-synuclein may be a novel biomarker of aging, a factor that should be considered when analyzing its presence in biological specimens.

  8. Alpha-Synuclein: From Early Synaptic Dysfunction to Neurodegeneration

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    Veronica Ghiglieri

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades, many experimental and clinical studies have provided solid evidence that alpha-synuclein (α-syn, a small, natively unfolded protein, is closely related to Parkinson’s disease (PD pathology. To provide an overview on the different roles of this protein, here we propose a synopsis of seminal and recent studies that explored the many aspects of α-syn. Ranging from the physiological functions to its neurodegenerative potential, the relationship with the possible pathogenesis of PD will be discussed. Close attention will be paid on early cellular and molecular alterations associated with the presence of α-syn aggregates.

  9. Alpha-Synuclein Toxicity in the Early Secretory Pathway: How it Drives Neurodegeneration in Parkinsons Disease

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    Ting eWang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Alpha-synuclein is a predominant player in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s Disease. However, despite extensive study for two decades, its physiological and pathological mechanisms remain poorly understood. Alpha-synuclein forms a perplexing web of interactions with lipids, trafficking machinery, and other regulatory factors. One emerging consensus is that synaptic vesicles are likely the functional site for alpha-synuclein, where it appears to facilitate vesicle docking and fusion. On the other hand, the disfunctions of alpha-synuclein are more dispersed and numerous; when mutated or over-expressed, alpha-synuclein affects several membrane trafficking and stress pathways, including exocytosis, ER-to-Golgi transport, ER stress, Golgi homeostasis, endocytosis, autophagy, oxidative stress and others. Here we examine recent developments in alpha-synuclein’s toxicity in the early secretory pathway placed in the context of emerging themes from other affected pathways to help illuminate its underlying pathogenic mechanisms in neurodegeneration.

  10. Interaction between viologen-phosphorus dendrimers and {alpha}-synuclein

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    Milowska, Katarzyna, E-mail: milowska@biol.uni.lodz.pl [Department of General Biophysics, Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, University of Lodz, Pomorska 141/143, 90-236 Lodz (Poland); Grochowina, Justyna [Department of General Biophysics, Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, University of Lodz, Pomorska 141/143, 90-236 Lodz (Poland); Katir, Nadia [Laboratoire de Chimie de Coordination CNRS, 205 route de Narbonne, 31077 Toulouse (France); El Kadib, Abdelkrim [Institute of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology (INANOTECH)-MAScIR (Moroccan Foundation for Advanced Science, Innovation and Research), ENSET, Avenue de I' Armee Royale, Madinat El Irfane, 10100 Rabat (Morocco); Majoral, Jean-Pierre [Laboratoire de Chimie de Coordination CNRS, 205 route de Narbonne, 31077 Toulouse (France); Bryszewska, Maria; Gabryelak, Teresa [Department of General Biophysics, Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, University of Lodz, Pomorska 141/143, 90-236 Lodz (Poland)

    2013-02-15

    In this study the interaction between viologen-phosphorus dendrimers and {alpha}-synuclein (ASN) was examined. Polycationic viologen-phosphorus dendrimers (two positive charges per viologen unit) are novel compounds with relatively unknown properties. The influence of these viologen dendrimers on ASN was tested using fluorimetric and circular dichroism methods. ASN contains four tyrosine residues; therefore, the influence of dendrimers on protein molecular conformation by measuring the changes in the ASN fluorescence in the presence of dendrimers was evaluated. The interaction of dendrimers with free L-tyrosine was also monitored. Results show that viologen-phosphorus dendrimers interact with ASN; they quenched the fluorescence of ASN as well as free tyrosine by dynamic and static ways. However, the quenching was not accompanied by modifications in the ASN secondary structure. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interaction between viologen-phosphorus dendrimers and {alpha}-synuclein (ASN) was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Viologen-phosphorus dendrimers can quench the fluorescence of tyrosine in ASN. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dendrimers caused red-shift in maximum of fluorescence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Viologen-phosphorus dendrimers did not change the secondary structure of ASN.

  11. Modification of C Terminus Provides New Insights into the Mechanism of alpha-Synuclein Aggregation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Afitska, Kseniia; Fučíková, A.; Shvadchak, Volodymyr V.; Yushchenko, Dmytro A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 113, č. 10 (2017), s. 2182-2191 ISSN 0006-3495 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : alpha-synuclein * aggregation * kinetics Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics OBOR OECD: Biophysics Impact factor: 3.656, year: 2016

  12. C. elegans model identifies genetic modifiers of alpha-synuclein inclusion formation during aging.

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    Tjakko J van Ham

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Inclusions in the brain containing alpha-synuclein are the pathological hallmark of Parkinson's disease, but how these inclusions are formed and how this links to disease is poorly understood. We have developed a C. elegans model that makes it possible to monitor, in living animals, the formation of alpha-synuclein inclusions. In worms of old age, inclusions contain aggregated alpha- synuclein, resembling a critical pathological feature. We used genome-wide RNA interference to identify processes involved in inclusion formation, and identified 80 genes that, when knocked down, resulted in a premature increase in the number of inclusions. Quality control and vesicle-trafficking genes expressed in the ER/Golgi complex and vesicular compartments were overrepresented, indicating a specific role for these processes in alpha-synuclein inclusion formation. Suppressors include aging-associated genes, such as sir-2.1/SIRT1 and lagr-1/LASS2. Altogether, our data suggest a link between alpha-synuclein inclusion formation and cellular aging, likely through an endomembrane-related mechanism. The processes and genes identified here present a framework for further study of the disease mechanism and provide candidate susceptibility genes and drug targets for Parkinson's disease and other alpha-synuclein related disorders.

  13. Alpha-synuclein gene deletion decreases brain palmitate uptake and alters the palmitate metabolism in the absence of alpha-synuclein palmitate binding

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    Golovko, Mikhail Y; Færgeman, Nils J.; Cole, Nelson B

    2005-01-01

    Alpha-synuclein is an abundant protein in the central nervous system that is associated with a number of neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson's disease. Its physiological function is poorly understood, although recently it was proposed to function as a fatty acid binding protein. To b......, alpha-synuclein has effects on 16:0 uptake and metabolism similar to those of an FABP, but unlike FABP, it does not directly bind 16:0; hence, the mechanism underlying these effects is different from that of a classical FABP....

  14. Impaired baroreflex function in mice overexpressing alpha-synuclein

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    Sheila eFleming

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction, such as orthostatic hypotension consequent to baroreflex failure and cardiac sympathetic denervation, is frequently observed in the synucleinopathy Parkinson’s disease (PD. In the present study, the baroreceptor reflex was assessed in mice overexpressing human wildtype alpha-synuclein (Thy1-aSyn, a genetic mouse model of synucleinopathy. The beat-to-beat change in heart rate, computed from R-R interval, in relation to blood pressure was measured in anesthetized and conscious mice equipped with arterial blood pressure telemetry transducers during transient bouts of hypertension and hypotension. Compared to wildtype, tachycardia following nitroprusside-induced hypotension was significantly reduced in Thy1-aSyn mice. Thy1-aSyn mice also showed an abnormal cardiovascular response (i.e., diminished tachycardia to muscarinic blockade with atropine. We conclude that Thy1-aSyn mice have impaired basal and dynamic range of sympathetic and parasympathetic-mediated changes in heart rate and will be a useful model for long-term study of cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction associated with PD.

  15. 17-AAG induces cytoplasmic alpha-synuclein aggregate clearance by induction of autophagy.

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    Riedel, Michael; Goldbaum, Olaf; Schwarz, Lisa; Schmitt, Sebastian; Richter-Landsberg, Christiane

    2010-01-18

    The accumulation and aggregation of alpha-synuclein in nerve cells and glia are characteristic features of a number of neurodegenerative diseases termed synucleinopathies. alpha-Synuclein is a highly soluble protein which in a nucleation dependent process is capable of self-aggregation. The causes underlying aggregate formation are not yet understood, impairment of the proteolytic degradation systems might be involved. In the present study the possible aggregate clearing effects of the geldanamycin analogue 17-AAG (17-(Allylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin) was investigated. Towards this, an oligodendroglial cell line (OLN-93 cells), stably expressing human alpha-synuclein (A53T mutation) was used. In these cells small punctate aggregates, not staining with thioflavine S, representing prefibrillary aggregates, occur characteristically. Our data demonstrate that 17-AAG attenuated the formation of alpha-synuclein aggregates by stimulating macroautophagy. By blocking the lysosomal compartment with NH(4)Cl the aggregate clearing effects of 17-AAG were abolished and alpha-synuclein deposits were enlarged. Analysis of LC3-II immunoreactivity, which is an indicator of autophagosome formation, further revealed that 17-AAG led to the recruitment of LC3-II and to the formation of LC3 positive puncta. This effect was also observed in cultured oligodendrocytes derived from the brains of newborn rats. Inhibition of macroautophagy by 3-methyladenine prevented 17-AAG induced occurrence of LC3 positive puncta as well as the removal of alpha-synuclein aggregates in OLN-A53T cells. Our data demonstrate for the first time that 17-AAG not only causes the upregulation of heat shock proteins, but also is an effective inducer of the autophagic pathway by which alpha-synuclein can be removed. Hence geldanamycin derivatives may provide a means to modulate autophagy in neural cells, thereby ameliorating pathogenic aggregate formation and protecting the cells during disease and aging.

  16. Analysis of alpha-synuclein in malignant melanoma - development of a SRM quantification assay.

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    Charlotte Welinder

    Full Text Available Globally, malignant melanoma shows a steady increase in the incidence among cancer diseases. Malignant melanoma represents a cancer type where currently no biomarker or diagnostics is available to identify disease stage, progression of disease or personalized medicine treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the tissue expression of alpha-synuclein, a protein implicated in several disease processes, in metastatic tissues from malignant melanoma patients. A targeted Selected Reaction Monitoring (SRM assay was developed and utilized together with stable isotope labeling for the relative quantification of two target peptides of alpha-synuclein. Analysis of alpha-synuclein protein was then performed in ten metastatic tissue samples from the Lund Melanoma Biobank. The calibration curve using peak area ratio (heavy/light versus concentration ratios showed linear regression over three orders of magnitude, for both of the selected target peptide sequences. In support of the measurements of specific protein expression levels, we also observed significant correlation between the protein and mRNA levels of alpha-synuclein in these tissues. Investigating levels of tissue alpha-synuclein may add novel aspect to biomarker development in melanoma, help to understand disease mechanisms and ultimately contribute to discriminate melanoma patients with different prognosis.

  17. Changes in interfacial properties of alpha-synuclein preceding its aggregation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paleček, Emil; Ostatná, Veronika; Masařík, Michal; Bertoncini, C.W.; Jovin, T.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 133, - (2008), s. 76-84 ISSN 0003-2654 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KAN400310651; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06035 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : alpha-synuclein * Parkinson's disease Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.761, year: 2008

  18. Sensitive electrochemical detection of native and aggregated alpha-synuclein protein involved in Parkinson's disease

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Masařík, Michal; Stobiecka, A.; Kizek, René; Jelen, František; Pechan, Zdeněk; Hoyer, W.; Jovin, T.; Subramaniam, V.; Paleček, Emil

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 16, 13-14 (2004), s. 1172-1181 ISSN 1040-0397 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/03/0566 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5004920 Keywords : electrochemistry of proteins * alpha-synuclein aggregation * adsorptive transfer stripping Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.038, year: 2004

  19. Dermal phospho-alpha-synuclein deposits confirm REM sleep behaviour disorder as prodromal Parkinson's disease

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    Doppler, Kathrin; Jentschke, Hanna-Maria; Schulmeyer, Lena; Vadasz, David; Janzen, Annette; Luster, Markus; Höffken, Helmut; Mayer, Geert; Brumberg, Joachim; Booij, Jan; Musacchio, Thomas; Klebe, Stephan; Sittig-Wiegand, Elisabeth; Volkmann, Jens; Sommer, Claudia; Oertel, Wolfgang H.

    2017-01-01

    Phosphorylated alpha-synuclein (p-alpha-syn) deposits, one of the neuropathological hallmarks of Parkinson's disease (PD), have recently been detected in dermal nerve fibres in PD patients with good specificity and sensitivity. Here, we studied whether p-alpha-syn may serve as a biomarker in

  20. Explorations of the application of cyanine dyes for quantitative alpha-synuclein detection

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    Volkova, Kateryna D; Kovalska, V B; Segers-Nolten, G M J; Veldhuis, G.; Subramaniam, V; Yarmoluk, S M

    We examined the practical aspects of using fluorescent mono (T-284) and trimethinecyanine (SH-516) dyes for detecting and quantifying fibrillar alpha-synuclein (ASN). We studied the interaction of cyanine dyes with fibrillar proteins using fluorescence spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. The

  1. Polychlorinated biphenyls alter expression of alpha-synuclein, synaptophysin and parkin in the rat brain

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    Malkiewicz, Katarzyna; Mohammed, Roma; Folkesson, Ronnie

    2006-01-01

    Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)-induced changes in synaptic transmission are one of the effects of their neurotoxicity but the mechanism remains unknown. We assessed the in vivo effects of the PCBs mixture, Aroclor 1254 on the expression of neuronal proteins that are involved in the synaptic...... function and/or are associated with neurodegeneration. Wistar rats were treated orally with repeated doses of Aroclor 1254 and the levels of soluble alpha-synuclein, parkin, synaptophysin and amyloid precursor protein (APP) in the brain were determined by Western blotting. The results showed that Aroclor...... did not cause changes in the expression and processing of APP but at a dose 100 microg/g/day repeated for 6 days caused a decrease in the expression of alpha-synuclein in the cerebellum, cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus of the animals sacrificed 2 days after treatment. The decrease in alpha...

  2. The temporal expression pattern of alpha-synuclein modulates olfactory neurogenesis in transgenic mice.

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    Sebastian R Schreglmann

    Full Text Available Adult neurogenesis mirrors the brain´s endogenous capacity to generate new neurons throughout life. In the subventricular zone/ olfactory bulb system adult neurogenesis is linked to physiological olfactory function and has been shown to be impaired in murine models of neuronal alpha-Synuclein overexpression. We analyzed the degree and temporo-spatial dynamics of adult olfactory bulb neurogenesis in transgenic mice expressing human wild-type alpha-Synuclein (WTS under the murine Thy1 (mThy1 promoter, a model known to have a particularly high tg expression associated with impaired olfaction.Survival of newly generated neurons (NeuN-positive in the olfactory bulb was unchanged in mThy1 transgenic animals. Due to decreased dopaminergic differentiation a reduction in new dopaminergic neurons within the olfactory bulb glomerular layer was present. This is in contrast to our previously published data on transgenic animals that express WTS under the control of the human platelet-derived growth factor β (PDGF promoter, that display a widespread decrease in survival of newly generated neurons in regions of adult neurogenesis, resulting in a much more pronounced neurogenesis deficit. Temporal and quantitative expression analysis using immunofluorescence co-localization analysis and Western blots revealed that in comparison to PDGF transgenic animals, in mThy1 transgenic animals WTS is expressed from later stages of neuronal maturation only but at significantly higher levels both in the olfactory bulb and cortex.The dissociation between higher absolute expression levels of alpha-Synuclein but less severe impact on adult olfactory neurogenesis in mThy1 transgenic mice highlights the importance of temporal expression characteristics of alpha-Synuclein on the maturation of newborn neurons.

  3. The L444P Gba1 mutation enhances alpha-synuclein induced loss of nigral dopaminergic neurons in mice

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    Migdalska-Richards, Anna; Wegrzynowicz, Michal; Rusconi, Raffaella; Deangeli, Giulio; Di Monte, Donato A; Spillantini, Maria G; Schapira, Anthony H V

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Mutations in glucocerebrosidase 1 (GBA1) represent the most prevalent risk factor for Parkinson’s disease. The molecular mechanisms underlying the link between GBA1 mutations and Parkinson’s disease are incompletely understood. We analysed two aged (24-month-old) Gba1 mouse models, one carrying a knock-out mutation and the other a L444P knock-in mutation. A significant reduction of glucocerebrosidase activity was associated with increased total alpha-synuclein accumulation in both these models. Gba1 mutations alone did not alter the number of nigral dopaminergic neurons nor striatal dopamine levels. We then investigated the effect of overexpression of human alpha-synuclein in the substantia nigra of aged (18 to 21-month-old) L444P Gba1 mice. Following intraparenchymal injections of human alpha-synuclein carrying viral vectors, pathological accumulation of phosphorylated alpha-synuclein occurred within the transduced neurons. Stereological counts of nigral dopaminergic neurons revealed a significantly greater cell loss in Gba1-mutant than wild-type mice. These results indicate that Gba1 deficiency enhances neuronal vulnerability to neurodegenerative processes triggered by increased alpha-synuclein expression. PMID:28969384

  4. Genetic variants of the alpha-synuclein gene SNCA are associated with multiple system atrophy.

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    Ammar Al-Chalabi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Multiple system atrophy (MSA is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by parkinsonism, cerebellar ataxia and autonomic dysfunction. Pathogenic mechanisms remain obscure but the neuropathological hallmark is the presence of alpha-synuclein-immunoreactive glial cytoplasmic inclusions. Genetic variants of the alpha-synuclein gene, SNCA, are thus strong candidates for genetic association with MSA. One follow-up to a genome-wide association of Parkinson's disease has identified association of a SNP in SNCA with MSA. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: We evaluated 32 SNPs in the SNCA gene in a European population of 239 cases and 617 controls recruited as part of the Neuroprotection and Natural History in Parkinson Plus Syndromes (NNIPPS study. We used 161 independently collected samples for replication. Two SNCA SNPs showed association with MSA: rs3822086 (P = 0.0044, and rs3775444 (P = 0.012, although only the first survived correction for multiple testing. In the MSA-C subgroup the association strengthened despite more than halving the number of cases: rs3822086 P = 0.0024, OR 2.153, (95% CI 1.3-3.6; rs3775444 P = 0.0017, OR 4.386 (95% CI 1.6-11.7. A 7-SNP haplotype incorporating three SNPs either side of rs3822086 strengthened the association with MSA-C further (best haplotype, P = 8.7 x 10(-4. The association with rs3822086 was replicated in the independent samples (P = 0.035. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We report a genetic association between MSA and alpha-synuclein which has replicated in independent samples. The strongest association is with the cerebellar subtype of MSA. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00211224.

  5. Inducible alpha-synuclein overexpression affects human Neural Stem Cells behavior

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    Conti, Luciano; Zasso, Jacopo; Cutarelli, Alessandro; Ahmed, Mastad

    2018-01-01

    Converging evidence suggest that levels of alpha-Synuclein (aSyn) expression play a critical role in Parkinson's disease (PD). Several mutations of the SNCA gene, encoding for aSyn have been associated to either the familial or the sporadic forms of PD. Nonetheless, the mechanism underlying wild type aSyn-mediated neurotoxicity in neuronal cells as well as its specific driving role in PD pathogenesis has yet to be fully clarified. In this view, the development of proper in vitro cellular syst...

  6. Co-ordinate transcriptional regulation of dopamine synthesis genes by alpha-synuclein in human neuroblastoma cell lines.

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    Baptista, Melisa J; O'Farrell, Casey; Daya, Sneha; Ahmad, Rili; Miller, David W; Hardy, John; Farrer, Matthew J; Cookson, Mark R

    2003-05-01

    Abnormal accumulation of alpha-synuclein in Lewy bodies is a neuropathological hallmark of both sporadic and familial Parkinson's disease (PD). Although mutations in alpha-synuclein have been identified in autosomal dominant PD, the mechanism by which dopaminergic cell death occurs remains unknown. We investigated transcriptional changes in neuroblastoma cell lines transfected with either normal or mutant (A30P or A53T) alpha-synuclein using microarrays, with confirmation of selected genes by quantitative RT-PCR. Gene products whose expression was found to be significantly altered included members of diverse functional groups such as stress response, transcription regulators, apoptosis-inducing molecules, transcription factors and membrane-bound proteins. We also found evidence of altered expression of dihydropteridine reductase, which indirectly regulates the synthesis of dopamine. Because of the importance of dopamine in PD, we investigated the expression of all the known genes in dopamine synthesis. We found co-ordinated downregulation of mRNA for GTP cyclohydrolase, sepiapterin reductase (SR), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and aromatic acid decarboxylase by wild-type but not mutant alpha-synuclein. These were confirmed at the protein level for SR and TH. Reduced expression of the orphan nuclear receptor Nurr1 was also noted, suggesting that the co-ordinate regulation of dopamine synthesis is regulated through this transcription factor.

  7. Accumulation of phosphorylated alpha-synuclein (p129S) and retinal pathology in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by accumulation of misfolded alpha-synuclein within the CNS. Although non-motor clinical phenotypes of PD such as visual dysfunction have become increasingly apparent, retinal pathology associated with PD is not well under...

  8. Alpha-synuclein gene ablation increases docosahexaenoic acid incorporation and turnover in brain phospholipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golovko, Mikhail Y; Rosenberger, Thad A; Feddersen, Søren

    2007-01-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that ablation of alpha-synuclein (Snca) reduces arachidonate (20:4n-6) turnover in brain phospholipids through modulation of an endoplasmic reticulum-localized acyl-CoA synthetase (Acsl). The effect of Snca ablation on docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) metabolism is unknown...... and turnover in ethanolamine glycerophospholipid, phosphatidylserine, and phosphatidylinositol pools. Increased 22:6n-3-CoA mass was not the result of altered Acsl activity, which was unaffected by the absence of Snca. While Snca bound 22:6n-3, Kd = 1.0 +/- 0.5 micromol/L, it did not bind 22:6n-3-Co...

  9. Clearing Extracellular Alpha-Synuclein from Cerebrospinal Fluid: A New Therapeutic Strategy in Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Zambrano, Huber S.; Tomás-Zapico, Cristina; García, Benjamin Fernández

    2018-01-01

    This concept article aims to show the rationale of targeting extracellular α-Synuclein (α-Syn) from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) as a new strategy to remove this protein from the brain in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Misfolding and intracellular aggregation of α-synuclein into Lewy bodies are thought to be crucial in the pathogenesis of PD. Recent research has shown that small amounts of monomeric and oligomeric α-synuclein are released from neuronal cells by exocytosis and that this extracellular alpha-synuclein contributes to neurodegeneration, progressive spreading of alpha-synuclein pathology, and neuroinflammation. In PD, extracellular oligomeric-α-synuclein moves in constant equilibrium between the interstitial fluid (ISF) and the CSF. Thus, we expect that continuous depletion of oligomeric-α-synuclein in the CSF will produce a steady clearance of the protein in the ISF, preventing transmission and deposition in the brain. PMID:29570693

  10. Pancreatic mitochondrial complex I exhibits aberrant hyperactivity in diabetes

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    Jinzi Wu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that NADH/NAD+ redox balance is heavily perturbed in diabetes, and the NADH/NAD+ redox imbalance is a major source of oxidative stress in diabetic tissues. In mitochondria, complex I is the only site for NADH oxidation and NAD+ regeneration and is also a major site for production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS. Yet how complex I responds to the NADH/NAD+ redox imbalance and any potential consequences of such response in diabetic pancreas have not been investigated. We report here that pancreatic mitochondrial complex I showed aberrant hyperactivity in either type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Further studies focusing on streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetes indicate that complex I hyperactivity could be attenuated by metformin. Moreover, complex I hyperactivity was accompanied by increased activities of complexes II to IV, but not complex V, suggesting that overflow of NADH via complex I in diabetes could be diverted to ROS production. Indeed in diabetic pancreas, ROS production and oxidative stress increased and mitochondrial ATP production decreased, which can be attributed to impaired pancreatic mitochondrial membrane potential that is responsible for increased cell death. Additionally, cellular defense systems such as glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, sirtuin 3, and NQO1 were found to be compromised in diabetic pancreas. Our findings point to the direction that complex I aberrant hyperactivity in pancreas could be a major source of oxidative stress and β cell failure in diabetes. Therefore, inhibiting pancreatic complex I hyperactivity and attenuating its ROS production by various means in diabetes might serve as a promising approach for anti-diabetic therapies.

  11. Features of alpha-synuclein that could explain the progression and irreversibility of Parkinson's disease

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    Scarlet eGallegos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Alpha-synuclein is a presynaptic protein expressed throughout the central nervous system, and it is the main component of Lewy bodies, one of the histopathological features of Parkinson’s disease (PD which is a progressive and irreversible neurodegenerative disorder. The conformational flexibility of α-synuclein allows it to adopt different conformations, i.e. bound to membranes or form aggregates, the oligomers are believed to be the more toxic species. In this review, we will focus on two major features of α-synuclein, transmission and toxicity that could help to understand the pathological characteristics of PD. One important feature of α-synuclein is its ability to be transmitted from neuron to neuron using mechanisms such as endocytosis, plasma membrane penetration or through exosomes, thus propagating the Lewy body pathology to different brain regions thereby contributing to the progressiveness of PD. The second feature of α-synuclein is that it confers cytotoxicity to recipient cells, principally when it is in an oligomeric state. This form causes mitochondrial dysfunction, endoplasmic reticulum stress, oxidative stress, proteasome impairment, disruption of plasma membrane and pore formation, and lead to apoptosis pathway activation and consequent cell death. The complexity of α-synuclein oligomerization and formation of toxic species could be a major factor for the irreversibility of PD and could also explain the lack of successful therapies to halt the disease.

  12. Exogenous Alpha-Synuclein Alters Pre- and Post-Synaptic Activity by Fragmenting Lipid Rafts

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    Marco Emanuele

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Alpha-synuclein (αSyn interferes with multiple steps of synaptic activity at pre-and post-synaptic terminals, however the mechanism/s by which αSyn alters neurotransmitter release and synaptic potentiation is unclear. By atomic force microscopy we show that human αSyn, when incubated with reconstituted membrane bilayer, induces lipid rafts' fragmentation. As a consequence, ion channels and receptors are displaced from lipid rafts with consequent changes in their activity. The enhanced calcium entry leads to acute mobilization of synaptic vesicles, and exhaustion of neurotransmission at later stages. At the post-synaptic terminal, an acute increase in glutamatergic transmission, with increased density of PSD-95 puncta, is followed by disruption of the interaction between N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR and PSD-95 with ensuing decrease of long term potentiation. While cholesterol loading prevents the acute effect of αSyn at the presynapse; inhibition of casein kinase 2, which appears activated by reduction of cholesterol, restores the correct localization and clustering of NMDARs.

  13. Inducible alpha-synuclein expression affects human Neural Stem Cell behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zasso, Jacopo; Mastad, Ahmed; Cutarelli, Alessandro; Conti, Luciano

    2018-04-19

    Converging evidence suggest that levels of alpha-Synuclein (aSyn) expression play a critical role in Parkinson's disease (PD). Several mutations of the SNCA gene, encoding for aSyn have been associated to either the familial or the sporadic forms of PD. Nonetheless, the mechanism underlying wild type aSyn-mediated neurotoxicity in neuronal cells as well as its specific driving role in PD pathogenesis has yet to be fully clarified. In this view, the development of proper in vitro cellular systems is a crucial step. Here we present a novel human Tet-on hNSC cell line, in which aSyn timing and level of expression can be tightly experimentally tuned. Induction of aSyn in self-renewing hNSCs leads to progressive formation of aSyn aggregates and impairs their proliferation and cell survival. Furthermore, aSyn induction during the neuronal differentiation process results in reduced neuronal differentiation and increased number astrocytes and undifferentiated cells in culture. Finally, acute aSyn induction in hNSC-derived dopaminergic neuronal cultures results in cell toxicity. This novel conditional in vitro cell model system may be a valuable tool for dissecting of aSyn pathogenic effects in hNSCs and neurons and in developing new potential therapeutic strategies.

  14. Alpha-synuclein mutations impair axonal regeneration in models of Parkinson´s disease

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    Lars eTönges

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The dopaminergic (DAergic nigrostriatal tract has an intrinsic regenerative capacity which can be impaired in Parkinson’s disease (PD. Alpha-synuclein (aSyn is a major pathogenic component in PD but its impact on DAergic axonal regeneration is largely unknown. In this study, we expressed pathogenic variants of human aSyn by means of recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors in experimental paradigms of DAergic regeneration. In a scratch lesion model in vitro, both aSyn(A30P and aSyn(A53T significantly reduced DAergic neurite regeneration and induced loss of TH-immunopositive cells while aSyn(WT showed only minor cellular neurotoxic effects. The striatal density of TH-immunopositive axons in the striatal 6-OHDA lesion mouse model was attenuated only by aSyn(A30P. However, striatal expression levels of the regeneration marker GAP-43 in TH-immunopositive fibers were reduced by both aSyn(A30P and aSyn(A53T, but not by aSyn(WT which was associated with an activation of the ROCK signaling pathway. Nigral DAergic cell loss was only mildly enhanced by additional overexpression of aSyn variants. Our findings indicate that mutations of aSyn have a strong impact on the regenerative capacity of DAergic neurons, which may contribute to their pathogenic effects.

  15. Propagated but Topologically Distributed Forebrain Neurons Expressing Alpha-Synuclein in Aged Macaques.

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    Katsuo Kimura

    Full Text Available In neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease (PD, alpha-synuclein (α-syn accumulates to induce cell death and/or form a cytoplasmic inclusion called Lewy body (LB. This α-syn-related pathology is termed synucleinopathy. It remains unclear how α-syn accumulation expands during the progress of synucleinopathy in the human brain. In our study, we investigated the patterns of distribution and propagation of forebrain neurons expressing α-syn in aged macaques. It was found that the occurrence of α-syn-positive neurons proceeded topologically based on the midbrain dopamine pathways arising from the substantia nigra and the ventral tegmental area where they were primarily observed. In the nigrostriatal or mesolimbic dopamine pathway, the age-dependent increase in α-syn-positive neurons was evident in the striatum or the nucleus accumbens, respectively. Concerning the nigrostriatal pathway, a mediolateral or rostrocaudal gradient was seen in the substantia nigra or the striatum, respectively, and a compensatory increase in dopamine transporter occurred in the striatum regardless of the decreased dopamine level. In the mesocortical dopamine pathway, α-syn-positive neurons appeared in the prefrontal and then motor areas of the frontal lobe. Given that neither LB formation nor clinical phenotype manifestation was detected in any of the monkeys examined in the present study, aged macaques may be useful as a potential presymptomatic model for PD and LB-related neuropsychiatric disorders.

  16. Mitochondrial Dysfunction: The Road to Alpha-Synuclein Oligomerization in PD

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    A. R. Esteves

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available While the etiology of Parkinson's disease remains largely elusive, there is accumulating evidence suggesting that mitochondrial dysfunction occurs prior to the onset of symptoms in Parkinson's disease. Mitochondria are remarkably primed to play a vital role in neuronal cell survival since they are key regulators of energy metabolism (as ATP producers, of intracellular calcium homeostasis, of NAD+/NADH ratio, and of endogenous reactive oxygen species production and programmed cell death. In this paper, we focus on mitochondrial dysfunction-mediated alpha-synuclein aggregation. We highlight some of the findings that provide proof of evidence for a mitochondrial metabolism control in Parkinson's disease, namely, mitochondrial regulation of microtubule-dependent cellular traffic and autophagic lysosomal pathway. The knowledge that microtubule alterations may lead to autophagic deficiency and may compromise the cellular degradation mechanisms that culminate in the progressive accumulation of aberrant protein aggregates shields new insights to the way we address Parkinson's disease. In line with this knowledge, an innovative window for new therapeutic strategies aimed to restore microtubule network may be unlocked.

  17. A Focus on the Beneficial Effects of Alpha Synuclein and a Re-Appraisal of Synucleinopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryskalin, Larisa; Busceti, Carla L; Limanaqi, Fiona; Biagioni, Francesca; Gambardella, Stefano; Fornai, Francesco

    2018-01-01

    Alpha synuclein (α-syn) belongs to a class of proteins which are commonly considered to play a detrimental role in neuronal survival. This assumption is based on the occurrence of a severe neuronal degeneration in patients carrying a multiplication of the α-syn gene (SNCA) and in a variety of experimental models, where overexpression of α-syn leads to cell death and neurological impairment. In these conditions, a higher amount of normally structured α-syn produces a damage, which is even worse compared with that produced by α-syn owning an abnormal structure (as occurring following point gene mutations). In line with this, knocking out the expression of α-syn is reported to protect from specific neurotoxins such as 1-methyl, 4-phenyl 1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). In the present review we briefly discuss these well-known detrimental effects but we focus on findings showing that, in specific conditions α-syn is beneficial for cell survival. This occurs during methamphetamine intoxication which is counteracted by endogenous α-syn. Similarly, the dysfunction of the chaperone cysteine-string protein- alpha leads to cell pathology which is counteracted by over-expressing α-syn. In line with this, an increased expression of α-syn protects against oxidative damage produced by dopamine. Remarkably, when the lack of α-syn is combined with a depletion of β- and γ- synucleins, alterations in brain structure and function occur. This review tries to balance the evidence showing a beneficial effect with the bulk of data reporting a detrimental effect of endogenous α-syn. The specific role of α-syn as a chaperone protein is discussed to explain such a dual effect. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. Nitrated alpha-synuclein immunity accelerates degeneration of nigral dopaminergic neurons.

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    Eric J Benner

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The neuropathology of Parkinson's disease (PD includes loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, nitrated alpha-synuclein (N-alpha-Syn enriched intraneuronal inclusions or Lewy bodies and neuroinflammation. While the contribution of innate microglial inflammatory activities to disease are known, evidence for how adaptive immune mechanisms may affect the course of PD remains obscure. We reasoned that PD-associated oxidative protein modifications create novel antigenic epitopes capable of peripheral adaptive T cell responses that could affect nigrostriatal degeneration.Nitrotyrosine (NT-modified alpha-Syn was detected readily in cervical lymph nodes (CLN from 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP intoxicated mice. Antigen-presenting cells within the CLN showed increased surface expression of major histocompatibility complex class II, initiating the molecular machinery necessary for efficient antigen presentation. MPTP-treated mice produced antibodies to native and nitrated alpha-Syn. Mice immunized with the NT-modified C-terminal tail fragment of alpha-Syn, but not native protein, generated robust T cell proliferative and pro-inflammatory secretory responses specific only for the modified antigen. T cells generated against the nitrated epitope do not respond to the unmodified protein. Mice deficient in T and B lymphocytes were resistant to MPTP-induced neurodegeneration. Transfer of T cells from mice immunized with N-alpha-Syn led to a robust neuroinflammatory response with accelerated dopaminergic cell loss.These data show that NT modifications within alpha-Syn, can bypass or break immunological tolerance and activate peripheral leukocytes in draining lymphoid tissue. A novel mechanism for disease is made in that NT modifications in alpha-Syn induce adaptive immune responses that exacerbate PD pathobiology. These results have implications for both the pathogenesis and treatment of this disabling neurodegenerative disease.

  19. Mice with deleted multimerin 1 and alpha-synuclein genes have impaired platelet adhesion and impaired thrombus formation that is corrected by multimerin 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reheman, Adili; Tasneem, Subia; Ni, Heyu; Hayward, Catherine P M

    2010-05-01

    Multimerin 1 is a stored platelet and endothelial cell adhesive protein that shows significant conservation. In vitro, multimerin 1 supports platelet adhesion and it also binds to collagen and enhances von Willebrand factor-dependent platelet adhesion to collagen. As selective, multimerin 1 deficient mice have not been generated, we investigated multimerin 1 effects on platelet adhesion using a subpopulation of C57BL/6J mice with tandem deletion of the genes for multimerin 1 and alpha-synuclein, a protein that inhibits alpha-granule release in vitro. We postulated that multimerin 1/alpha-synuclein deficient mice might show impaired platelet adhesive function from multimerin 1 deficiency and increased alpha-granule release from alpha-synuclein deficiency. Platelet function was assessed by intravital microscopy, after ferric chloride injury, using untreated and human multimerin 1-transfused multimerin 1/alpha-synuclein deficient mice, and by in vitro assays of adhesion, aggregation and thrombin-induced P-selectin release. Multimerin 1/alpha-synuclein deficient mice showed impaired platelet adhesion and their defective thrombus formation at sites of vessel injury improved with multimerin 1 transfusion. Although multimerin 1/alpha-synuclein deficient platelets showed increased P-selectin release at low thrombin concentrations, they also showed impaired adhesion to collagen, and attenuated aggregation with thrombin, that improved with added multimerin 1. Our data suggest that multimerin 1 supports platelet adhesive functions and thrombus formation, which will be important to verify by generating and testing selective multimerin 1 deficient mice. Copyright (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. A Swedish family with de novo alpha-synuclein A53T mutation: evidence for early cortical dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puschmann, Andreas; Ross, Owen A; Vilariño-Güell, Carles

    2009-01-01

    A de novo alpha-synuclein A53T (p.Ala53 Th; c.209G > A) mutation has been identified in a Swedish family with autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease (PD). Two affected individuals had early-onset (before 31 and 40 years), severe levodopa-responsive PD with prominent dysphasia, dysarthria, and cog......A de novo alpha-synuclein A53T (p.Ala53 Th; c.209G > A) mutation has been identified in a Swedish family with autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease (PD). Two affected individuals had early-onset (before 31 and 40 years), severe levodopa-responsive PD with prominent dysphasia, dysarthria......) and the Greek-American Family H kindreds. One unaffected family member carried the mutation haplotype without the c.209A mutation, strongly suggesting its de novo occurrence within this family. Furthermore, a novel mutation c.488G > A (p.Arg163His; R163H) in the presenilin-2 (PSEN2) gene was detected...

  1. The role of alpha-synuclein in melanin synthesis in melanoma and dopaminergic neuronal cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianhong Pan

    Full Text Available The relatively high co-occurrence of Parkinson's disease (PD and melanoma has been established by a large number of epidemiological studies. However, a clear biological explanation for this finding is still lacking. Ultra-violet radiation (UVR-induced skin melanin synthesis is a defense mechanism against UVR-induced damage relevant to the initiation of melanoma, whereas, increased neuromelanin (NM, the melanin synthesized in dopaminergic neurons, may enhance the susceptibility to oxidative stress-induced neuronal injury relevant to PD. SNCA is a PD-causing gene coding for alpha-Synuclein (α-Syn that expresses not only in brain, but also in skin as well as in tumors, such as melanoma. The findings that α-Syn can interact with tyrosinase (TYR and inhibit tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, both of which are enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of melanin and dopamine (DA, led us to propose that α-Syn may participate in the regulation of melanin synthesis. In this study, by applying ultraviolet B (UVB light, a physiologically relevant stimulus of melanogenesis, we detected melanin synthesis in A375 and SK-MEL-28 melanoma cells and in SH-SY5Y and PC12 dopaminergic neuronal cells and determined effects of α-Syn on melanin synthesis. Our results showed that UVB light exposure increased melanin synthesis in all 4 cell lines. However, we found that α-Syn expression reduced UVB light-induced increase of melanin synthesis and that melanin content was lower when melanoma cells were expressed with α-Syn, indicating that α-Syn may have inhibitory effects on melanin synthesis in melanoma cells. Different from melanoma cells, the melanin content was higher in α-Syn-over-expressed dopaminergic neuronal SH-SY5Y and PC12 cells, cellular models of PD, than that in non-α-Syn-expressed control cells. We concluded that α-Syn could be one of the points responsible for the positive association between PD and melanoma via its differential roles in melanin synthesis in

  2. Alpha-synuclein, epigenetics, mitochondria, metabolism, calcium traffic, & circadian dysfunction in Parkinson's disease. An integrated strategy for management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipson, Oliver T

    2017-11-01

    The motor deficits which characterise the sporadic form of Parkinson's disease arise from age-related loss of a subset of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra. Although motor symptoms respond to dopamine replacement therapies, the underlying disease process remains. This review details some features of the progressive molecular pathology and proposes deployment of a combination of nutrients: R-lipoic acid, acetyl-l-carnitine, ubiquinol, melatonin (or receptor agonists) and vitamin D3, with the collective potential to slow progression of these features. The main nutrient targets include impaired mitochondria and the associated oxidative/nitrosative stress, calcium stress and impaired gene transcription induced by pathogenic forms of alpha- synuclein. Benefits may be achieved via nutrient influence on epigenetic signaling pathways governing transcription factors for mitochondrial biogenesis, antioxidant defences and the autophagy-lysosomal pathway, via regulation of the metabolic energy sensor AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the mammalian target of rapamycin mTOR. Nutrients also benefit expression of the transcription factor for neuronal survival (NR4A2), trophic factors GDNF and BDNF, and age-related calcium signals. In addition a number of non-motor related dysfunctions in circadian control, clock genes and associated metabolic, endocrine and sleep-wake activity are briefly addressed, as are late-stage complications in respect of cognitive decline and osteoporosis. Analysis of the network of nutrient effects reveals how beneficial synergies may counter the accumulation and promote clearance of pathogenic alpha-synuclein. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterization of cognitive deficits in rats overexpressing human alpha-synuclein in the ventral tegmental area and medial septum using recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Hélène; Jewett, Michael; Landeck, Natalie; Nilsson, Nathalie; Schagerlöf, Ulrika; Leanza, Giampiero; Kirik, Deniz

    2013-01-01

    Intraneuronal inclusions containing alpha-synuclein (a-syn) constitute one of the pathological hallmarks of Parkinson's disease (PD) and are accompanied by severe neurodegeneration of A9 dopaminergic neurons located in the substantia nigra. Although to a lesser extent, A10 dopaminergic neurons are also affected. Neurodegeneration of other neuronal populations, such as the cholinergic, serotonergic and noradrenergic cell groups, has also been documented in PD patients. Studies in human post-mortem PD brains and in rodent models suggest that deficits in cholinergic and dopaminergic systems may be associated with the cognitive impairment seen in this disease. Here, we investigated the consequences of targeted overexpression of a-syn in the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic and septohippocampal cholinergic pathways. Rats were injected with recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors encoding for either human wild-type a-syn or green fluorescent protein (GFP) in the ventral tegmental area and the medial septum/vertical limb of the diagonal band of Broca, two regions rich in dopaminergic and cholinergic neurons, respectively. Histopathological analysis showed widespread insoluble a-syn positive inclusions in all major projections areas of the targeted nuclei, including the hippocampus, neocortex, nucleus accumbens and anteromedial striatum. In addition, the rats overexpressing human a-syn displayed an abnormal locomotor response to apomorphine injection and exhibited spatial learning and memory deficits in the Morris water maze task, in the absence of obvious spontaneous locomotor impairment. As losses in dopaminergic and cholinergic immunoreactivity in both the GFP and a-syn expressing animals were mild-to-moderate and did not differ from each other, the behavioral impairments seen in the a-syn overexpressing animals appear to be determined by the long term persisting neuropathology in the surviving neurons rather than by neurodegeneration.

  4. Dose-dependent striatal changes in dopaminergic terminals and alpha-synuclein reactivity in a porcine model of progressive Parkinson’s disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Slot; Glud, Andreas Nørgaard; Møller, Arne

    2011-01-01

    to discover effective compounds halting PD progression have so far failed in clinical trials, perhaps because current animal models do not imitate the neuropathological progression of PD well enough. We recently established a progressive large animal PD model in Göttingen minipigs based on chronic infusion......Parkinson disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder, resulting from a progressive dopaminergic neuron loss in the substantia nigra (SN). Alpha-synuclein positive neuronal inclusion bodies and progressive loss of dopaminergic striatal terminals is also well described in PD. Attempts...... the SN were paraffin embedded and immunohistochemically stained for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and alpha-synuclein. Stereological examination of the SN showed progressive nigral neuron loss with increased MPTP dosages. Occasional neuronal staining confined to the cytoplasm and cell membrane was observed...

  5. Alpha-synuclein A53T mutation is not frequent on a sample of Brazilian Parkinson’s disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela S. Longo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD involves both genetic susceptibility and environmental factors, with focus on the mutation in the alpha-synuclein gene (SNCA.Objective To analyse the polymorphism SNCA-A53T in patients with familial PD (FPD and sporadic PD (SPD.Method A total of 294 individuals were studied, regardless of sex and with mixed ethnicity. The study group with 154 patients with PD, and the control group included 140 individuals without PD. The genotyping of SNCA-A53T was performed by PCR/RFLP. Significance level was p < 0.05.Results Among all patients, 37 (24% had FPD and 117 (75.9% had SPD. The absence of SNCA-A53T mutation was observed in all individuals.Conclusion SPD is notably observed in patients. However, the SNCA-A53T mutation was absent in all individuals, which does not differ controls from patients. This fact should be confirmed in a Brazilian study case with a more numerous and older population.

  6. Alpha-synuclein is present in dental calculus but not altered in Parkinson's disease patients in comparison to controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Sabrina; Goldberg-Bockhorn, Eva; Schwarz, Silke; Rotter, Nicole; Kassubek, Jan; Del Tredici, Kelly; Pinkhardt, Elmar; Otto, Markus; Ludolph, Albert C; Oeckl, Patrick

    2018-06-01

    In autopsy cases staged for sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD), the neuropathology is characterized by a preclinical phase that targets the enteric nervous system of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Therefore, the ENS might be a source of potential (presymptomatic) PD biomarkers. In this clinically based study, we examined the alpha-synuclein (αSyn) concentration in an easily accessible protein storage medium of the GIT, dental calculus, in 21/50 patients with PD and 28/50 age- and gender-matched controls using ELISA. αSyn was detectable in dental calculus and the median concentration in the control patients was 8.6 pg/mg calculus (interquartile range 2.6-13.1 pg/mg). αSyn concentrations were significantly influenced by blood contamination and samples with a hemoglobin concentration of > 4000 ng/mL were excluded. There was no significant difference of αSyn concentrations in the dental calculus of PD patients (5.76 pg/mg, interquartile range 2.91-9.74 pg/mg) compared to those in controls (p = 0.40). The total αSyn concentration in dental calculus is not a suitable biomarker for sporadic PD. Disease-related variants such as oligomeric or phosphorylated αSyn in calculus might prove to be more specific.

  7. Passive immunization reduces behavioral and neuropathological deficits in an alpha-synuclein transgenic model of Lewy body disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masliah, Eliezer; Rockenstein, Edward; Mante, Michael; Crews, Leslie; Spencer, Brian; Adame, Anthony; Patrick, Christina; Trejo, Margarita; Ubhi, Kiren; Rohn, Troy T; Mueller-Steiner, Sarah; Seubert, Peter; Barbour, Robin; McConlogue, Lisa; Buttini, Manuel; Games, Dora; Schenk, Dale

    2011-04-29

    Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson's Disease (PD) are common causes of motor and cognitive deficits and are associated with the abnormal accumulation of alpha-synuclein (α-syn). This study investigated whether passive immunization with a novel monoclonal α-syn antibody (9E4) against the C-terminus (CT) of α-syn was able to cross into the CNS and ameliorate the deficits associated with α-syn accumulation. In this study we demonstrate that 9E4 was effective at reducing behavioral deficits in the water maze, moreover, immunization with 9E4 reduced the accumulation of calpain-cleaved α-syn in axons and synapses and the associated neurodegenerative deficits. In vivo studies demonstrated that 9E4 traffics into the CNS, binds to cells that display α-syn accumulation and promotes α-syn clearance via the lysosomal pathway. These results suggest that passive immunization with monoclonal antibodies against the CT of α-syn may be of therapeutic relevance in patients with PD and DLB.

  8. An alpha-synuclein MRM assay with diagnostic potential for Parkinson's disease and monitoring disease progression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Li [Department of Pathology, University of Washington, Seattle WA USA; Stewart, Tessandra [Department of Pathology, University of Washington, Seattle WA USA; Shi, Min [Department of Pathology, University of Washington, Seattle WA USA; Pottiez, Gwenael [Department of Pathology, University of Washington, Seattle WA USA; Dator, Romel [Department of Pathology, University of Washington, Seattle WA USA; Wu, Rui [Department of Pathology, University of Washington, Seattle WA USA; Department of Pathology, No. 3 Hospital of Beijing University, Beijing China; Aro, Patrick [Department of Pathology, University of Washington, Seattle WA USA; Schuster, Robert J. [Department of Pathology, University of Washington, Seattle WA USA; Ginghina, Carmen [Department of Pathology, University of Washington, Seattle WA USA; Pan, Catherine [Department of Pathology, University of Washington, Seattle WA USA; Gao, Yuqian [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Qian, Weijun [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Zabetian, Cyrus P. [Parkinson' s Disease Research and Geriatric Research, Education and Clinical Center, Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle WA USA; Department of Neurology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle WA USA; Hu, Shu-Ching [Department of Neurology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle WA USA; Quinn, Joseph F. [Department of Neurology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland OR USA; Zhang, Jing [Department of Pathology, University of Washington, Seattle WA USA; Department of Pathology, Peking University Health Science Centre and Third Hospital, Beijing 100083 China

    2017-04-19

    Aim: The alpha-synuclein (α-syn) level in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), as measured by immunoassays, is promising as a Parkinson’s disease (PD) biomarker. However, the levels of total α-syn are inconsistent among studies with large cohorts and different measurement platforms. Total α-syn level also does not correlate with disease severity or progression. Here, we developed a highly sensitive Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM) method to measure absolute CSF α-syn peptide concentrations without prior enrichment or fractionation, aiming to discover new candidate biomarkers. Results: Six peptides covering 73% of protein sequence were reliably identified, and two were consistently quantified in cross-sectional and longitudinal cohorts. Absolute concentration of α-syn in human CSF was determined to be 2.1ng/mL. A unique α-syn peptide, TVEGAGSIAAATGFVK (81-96), displayed excellent correlation with previous immunoassay results in two independent PD cohorts (p < 0.001), correlated with disease severity, and its changes significantly tracked the disease progression longitudinally. Conclusions: An MRM assay to quantify human CSF α-syn was developed and optimized. Sixty clinical samples from cross-sectional and longitudinal PD cohorts were analyzed with this approach. Although further larger-scale validation is needed, the results suggest that α-syn peptide could serve as a promising biomarker in PD diagnosis and progression.

  9. A53T-alpha-synuclein overexpression impairs dopamine signaling and striatal synaptic plasticity in old mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Kurz

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD, the second most frequent neurodegenerative disorder at old age, can be caused by elevated expression or the A53T missense mutation of the presynaptic protein alpha-synuclein (SNCA. PD is characterized pathologically by the preferential vulnerability of the dopaminergic nigrostriatal projection neurons.Here, we used two mouse lines overexpressing human A53T-SNCA and studied striatal dysfunction in the absence of neurodegeneration to understand early disease mechanisms. To characterize the progression, we employed young adult as well as old mice. Analysis of striatal neurotransmitter content demonstrated that dopamine (DA levels correlated directly with the level of expression of SNCA, an observation also made in SNCA-deficient (knockout, KO mice. However, the elevated DA levels in the striatum of old A53T-SNCA overexpressing mice may not be transmitted appropriately, in view of three observations. First, a transcriptional downregulation of the extraneural DA degradation enzyme catechol-ortho-methytransferase (COMT was found. Second, an upregulation of DA receptors was detected by immunoblots and autoradiography. Third, extensive transcriptome studies via microarrays and quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qPCR of altered transcript levels of the DA-inducible genes Atf2, Cb1, Freq, Homer1 and Pde7b indicated a progressive and genotype-dependent reduction in the postsynaptic DA response. As a functional consequence, long term depression (LTD was absent in corticostriatal slices from old transgenic mice.Taken together, the dysfunctional neurotransmission and impaired synaptic plasticity seen in the A53T-SNCA overexpressing mice reflect early changes within the basal ganglia prior to frank neurodegeneration. As a model of preclinical stages of PD, such insights may help to develop neuroprotective therapeutic approaches.

  10. Significant Changes in Plasma Alpha-Synuclein and Beta-Synuclein Levels in Male Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilaiwan Sriwimol

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Alpha-synuclein (α-synuclein and beta-synuclein (β-synuclein are presynaptic proteins playing important roles in neuronal plasticity and synaptic vesicle regulation. To evaluate the association of these two proteins and autism spectrum disorder (ASD, we investigated the plasma α-synuclein and β-synuclein levels in 39 male children with ASD (2 subgroups: 25 autism and 14 pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS comparing with 29 sex- and age-matched controls by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. We first determined the levels of these two proteins in the ASD subgroups and found that there were no significant differences in both plasma α-synuclein and β-synuclein levels in the autism and PDD-NOS groups. Thus, we could combine the 2 subgroups into one ASD group. Interestingly, the mean plasma α-synuclein level was significantly lower (P<0.001 in the ASD children (10.82±6.46 ng/mL than in the controls (29.47±18.62 ng/mL, while the mean plasma β-synuclein level in the ASD children (1344.19±160.26 ng/mL was significantly higher (P<0.05 than in the controls (1219.16±177.10 ng/mL. This is the first study examining the associations between α-synuclein and β-synuclein and male ASD patients. We found that alterations in the plasma α-synuclein and β-synuclein levels might be implicated in the association between synaptic abnormalities and ASD pathogenesis.

  11. Defining the Role of Alpha-Synuclein in Enteric Dysfunction in Parkinsons Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    gastrointestinal pathology Gastrointestinal motility was evaluated monthly in rats following treatment by measuring fecal water content (A) and total...fecal output (B). A) Both PFF (black bars, n = 15) and monomer ( grey bars; n = 15) treated animals exhibited a significant decrease in fecal water ...assay. AAV-α-syn treatment (black circles) was associated with significant slowing of colonic motility as compared to AAV-GFP treated animals (n=6

  12. Rasagiline ameliorates olfactory deficits in an alpha-synuclein mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Géraldine H Petit

    Full Text Available Impaired olfaction is an early pre-motor symptom of Parkinson's disease. The neuropathology underlying olfactory dysfunction in Parkinson's disease is unknown, however α-synuclein accumulation/aggregation and altered neurogenesis might play a role. We characterized olfactory deficits in a transgenic mouse model of Parkinson's disease expressing human wild-type α-synuclein under the control of the mouse α-synuclein promoter. Preliminary clinical observations suggest that rasagiline, a monoamine oxidase-B inhibitor, improves olfaction in Parkinson's disease. We therefore examined whether rasagiline ameliorates olfactory deficits in this Parkinson's disease model and investigated the role of olfactory bulb neurogenesis. α-Synuclein mice were progressively impaired in their ability to detect odors, to discriminate between odors, and exhibited alterations in short-term olfactory memory. Rasagiline treatment rescued odor detection and odor discrimination abilities. However, rasagiline did not affect short-term olfactory memory. Finally, olfactory changes were not coupled to alterations in olfactory bulb neurogenesis. We conclude that rasagiline reverses select olfactory deficits in a transgenic mouse model of Parkinson's disease. The findings correlate with preliminary clinical observations suggesting that rasagiline ameliorates olfactory deficits in Parkinson's disease.

  13. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder children exhibit an impaired accommodative response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo, Beatriz; Vera, Jesús; Molina, Rubén; García, José Antonio; Ouadi, Miriam; Muñoz-Hoyos, Antonio; Jiménez, Raimundo

    2018-05-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common paediatric neurobehavioural disorders causing multiple functional impairments in children. Based on the relationship between the neural system that controls attention and ocular dynamics, the present study compares the magnitude and variability of accommodation between a group of non-medicated ADHD children and an age-matched control group. The magnitude and variability of the accommodative response were objectively measured in 36 children using the WAM-5500 autorefractometer for 90 consecutive seconds at three static viewing distances (500, 40, and 20 cm). Participants were divided into ADHD (n = 18) or control (n = 18) groups based on clinically validated criteria. Children with ADHD exhibited higher lags of accommodation (p = 0.024), increasing at closer viewing distances, in comparison to the control group. Marginal statistical differences were found for the variability of accommodation (p = 0.066), with the ADHD group showing a trend towards higher variability. Our analysis showed that the magnitude and variability of accommodation did not vary over time between groups (p > 0.05). Our data suggest that children with ADHD have a less accurate accommodative response. These results provide a new ocular index that could help to clarify the relationship between accommodative response and attentional deficits, which could have a direct impact on the academic, cognitive, and visual performance of ADHD children.

  14. Steroid sulfatase-deficient mice exhibit endophenotypes relevant to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Trent, Simon; Dennehy, Alison; Richardson, Heather; Ojarikre, Obah A.; Burgoyne, Paul S.; Humby, Trevor; Davies, William

    2012-01-01

    Summary Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental condition characterised by inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity; it is frequently co-morbid with anxiety and conduct disorders, sleep perturbation and abnormal consummatory behaviours. Recent studies have implicated the neurosteroid-modulating enzyme steroid sulfatase (STS) as a modulator of ADHD-related endophenotypes. The effects of steroid sulfatase deficiency on homecage activity, feeding/drinking...

  15. Predictors of Reading Comprehension among Struggling Readers Who Exhibit Differing Levels of Inattention and Hyperactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Elizabeth; Barnes, Marcia; Fall, Anna-Mari; Roberts, Greg

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of inference making, decoding, memory, and vocabulary on reading comprehension among 7th- through 12th-grade struggling readers with varying levels of inattention and hyperactivity. We categorized a group of 414 struggling readers into 3 groups based on results from factor mixture modeling:…

  16. In parkinsonian substantia nigra, alpha-synuclein is modified by acrolein, a lipid-peroxidation product, and accumulates in the dopamine neurons with inhibition of proteasome activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamoto-Nagai, M; Maruyama, W; Hashizume, Y; Yoshida, M; Osawa, T; Riederer, P; Naoi, M

    2007-01-01

    alpha-Synuclein (alphaSYN) plays a central role in the neural degeneration of Parkinson's disease (PD) through its conformational change. In PD, alphaSYN, released from the membrane, accumulates in the cytoplasm and forms Lewy body. However, the mechanism behind the translocation and conformational change of alphaSYN leading to the cell death has not been well elucidated. This paper reports that in the dopamine neurons of the substantia nigra containing neuromelanin from PD patients, alphaSYN was modified with acrolein (ACR), an aldehyde product of lipid peroxidation. Histopathological observation confirmed the co-localization of protein immunoreactive to anti-alphaSYN and ACR antibody. By Western blot analyses of samples precipitated with either anti-alphaSYN or anti-ACR antibody, increase in ACR-modified alphaSYN was confirmed in PD brain. Modification of recombinant alphaSYN by ACR enhanced its oligomerization, and at higher ACR concentrations alphaSYN was fragmented and polymerized forming a smear pattern in SDS-PAGE. ACR reduced 20S proteasome activity through the direct modification of the proteasome proteins and the production of polymerized ACR-modified proteins, which inhibited proteasome activity in vitro. These results suggest that ACR may initiate vicious cycle of modification and aggregation of proteins, including alphaSYN, and impaired proteolysis system, to cause neuronal death in PD.

  17. Deuterium isotope shifts for backbone {sup 1}H, {sup 15}N and {sup 13}C nuclei in intrinsically disordered protein {alpha}-synuclein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maltsev, Alexander S.; Ying Jinfa; Bax, Ad, E-mail: bax@nih.gov [National Institutes of Health, Laboratory of Chemical Physics, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are abundant in nature and characterization of their potential structural propensities remains a widely pursued but challenging task. Analysis of NMR secondary chemical shifts plays an important role in such studies, but the output of such analyses depends on the accuracy of reference random coil chemical shifts. Although uniform perdeuteration of IDPs can dramatically increase spectral resolution, a feature particularly important for the poorly dispersed IDP spectra, the impact of deuterium isotope shifts on random coil values has not yet been fully characterized. Very precise {sup 2}H isotope shift measurements for {sup 13}C{sup {alpha}}, {sup 13}C{sup {beta}}, {sup 13}C Prime , {sup 15}N, and {sup 1}H{sup N} have been obtained by using a mixed sample of protonated and uniformly perdeuterated {alpha}-synuclein, a protein with chemical shifts exceptionally close to random coil values. Decomposition of these isotope shifts into one-bond, two-bond and three-bond effects as well as intra- and sequential residue contributions shows that such an analysis, which ignores conformational dependence, is meaningful but does not fully describe the total isotope shift to within the precision of the measurements. Random coil {sup 2}H isotope shifts provide an important starting point for analysis of such shifts in structural terms in folded proteins, where they are known to depend strongly on local geometry.

  18. LARGE ANIMAL PARKINSONS DISEASE MODELS USING VIRAL VECTORS AND INOCULATION OF PREFORMED FIBRILS TO MEDIATE ALPHA-SYNUCLEIN OVEREXPRESSION AND MISFOLDING IN THE GOTTINGEN MINIPIG CNS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glud, Andreas Nørgaard; Landau, A.M.; Johnsen, Erik Lisbjerg

    2015-01-01

    Animal models towards understanding and treating Parkinson’s disease (PD) are important translational steps toward clinical applications. The Göttingen minipig(GM), fits progressional neurological models due to an relative low adult weight between 20-40 kg, and has a large gyrencephalic brain (6x...... such as antiaggreganttreatment, induced pluripotent stem cells or immunotherapy and development of novel radioligands for early diagnosis and assess disease progression....... x 4 cm) that can be examined at sufficient resolution using both conventional clinical scanning modalities and preclinical testing of deep brain stimulation, stem cell grafting and other neuromodulatory devices. Aim: Using inoculating of human or pig alpha-synuclein(aSYN) fibrils or overexpressing a......SYN using Lenti virus(LV) and Adeno Assosiated Virus(AAV) vectors in the nigrostriatal system, we hope to create a new porcine model for PD. Methods: Using conventional human-intended stereotaxic neurosurgery methods, we apply aSYN in the catecholamine nigrostriatal system of 13 GM. The changes...

  19. The Anticholinesterase Phenserine and Its Enantiomer Posiphen as 5′Untranslated-Region-Directed Translation Blockers of the Parkinson’s Alpha Synuclein Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohan Mikkilineni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is compelling support for limiting expression of alpha-synuclein (α-syn in the brains of Parkinson’s disease (PD patients. An increase of SNCA gene copy number can genetically cause familial PD where increased dose of this pathogenic protein correlates with severity of symptoms (triplication of the SNCA gene causes dementia in PD patients. Gene promoter polymorphisms were shown to increase α-synuclein expression as a risk for PD. Cholinesterase inhibitors can clinically slow cognitive decline in the later stages of PD etiology similar to their widespread use in Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Pertinent to this, we identified that the well-tolerated anticholinesterase, phenserine, blocked neural SNCA mRNA translation and tested for targeting via its 5′untranslated region (5′UTR in a manner similar to its action to limit the expression of the AD-specific amyloid precursor protein (APP. Posiphen, its better-tolerated (+ enantiomer (devoid of anticholinesterase action, repressed neural α-synuclein translation. Primary metabolic analogs of posiphen were, likewise, characterized using primary fetal neurons grown ex vivo from the brains of Parkinson’s transgenic mice expressing the human SNCA gene.

  20. The different faces of the p. A53T alpha-synuclein mutation: A screening of Greek patients with parkinsonism and/or dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breza, Marianthi; Koutsis, Georgios; Karadima, Georgia; Potagas, Constantin; Kartanou, Chrisoula; Papageorgiou, Sokratis G; Paraskevas, George P; Kapaki, Elisabeth; Stefanis, Leonidas; Panas, Marios

    2018-04-13

    The p. A53T mutation in the alpha-synuclein (SNCA) gene is a rare cause of autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease (PD). Although generally rare, it is particularly common in the Greek population due to a founder effect. A53T-positive PD patients often develop dementia during disease course and may very rarely present with dementia. We screened for the p. A53T SNCA mutation a total of 347 cases of Greek origin with parkinsonism and/or dementia, collected over 15 years at the Neurogenetics Unit, Eginition Hospital, University of Athens. Cases were classified into: "pure parkinsonism", "pure dementia" and "parkinsonism plus dementia". In total, 4 p. A53T SNCA mutation carriers were identified. All had autosomal dominant family history and early onset. Screening of the "pure parkinsonism" category revealed 2 cases with typical PD. The other two mutation carriers were identified in the "parkinsonism plus dementia" category. One had a diagnosis of PD dementia and the other of behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia. Screening of patients with "pure dementia" failed to identify any further A53T-positive cases. Our results confirm that the p. A53T SNCA mutation is relatively common in Greek patients with PD or PD plus dementia, particularly in cases with early onset and/or autosomal dominant family history. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of independent screens on differentially vulnerable motor neurons reveals alpha-synuclein as a common modifier in motor neuron diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Rachel A; Kaifer, Kevin A; Osman, Erkan Y; Carella, Francesco; Tiberi, Ariana; Ross, Jolill; Pennetta, Giuseppa; Lorson, Christian L; Murray, Lyndsay M

    2017-03-01

    The term "motor neuron disease" encompasses a spectrum of disorders in which motor neurons are the primary pathological target. However, in both patients and animal models of these diseases, not all motor neurons are equally vulnerable, in that while some motor neurons are lost very early in disease, others remain comparatively intact, even at late stages. This creates a valuable system to investigate the factors that regulate motor neuron vulnerability. In this study, we aim to use this experimental paradigm to identify potential transcriptional modifiers. We have compared the transcriptome of motor neurons from healthy wild-type mice, which are differentially vulnerable in the childhood motor neuron disease Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA), and have identified 910 transcriptional changes. We have compared this data set with published microarray data sets on other differentially vulnerable motor neurons. These neurons were differentially vulnerable in the adult onset motor neuron disease Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), but the screen was performed on the equivalent population of neurons from neurologically normal human, rat and mouse. This cross species comparison has generated a refined list of differentially expressed genes, including CELF5, Col5a2, PGEMN1, SNCA, Stmn1 and HOXa5, alongside a further enrichment for synaptic and axonal transcripts. As an in vivo validation, we demonstrate that the manipulation of a significant number of these transcripts can modify the neurodegenerative phenotype observed in a Drosophila line carrying an ALS causing mutation. Finally, we demonstrate that vector-mediated expression of alpha-synuclein (SNCA), a transcript decreased in selectively vulnerable motor neurons in all four screens, can extend life span, increase weight and decrease neuromuscular junction pathology in a mouse model of SMA. In summary, we have combined multiple data sets to identify transcripts, which are strong candidates for being phenotypic modifiers

  2. Evidence for Intramolecular Antiparallel Beta-Sheet Structure in Alpha-Synuclein Fibrils from a Combination of Two-Dimensional Infrared Spectroscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeters, Steven J.; Iyer, Aditya; Pletikapić, Galja; Kogan, Vladimir; Subramaniam, Vinod; Woutersen, Sander

    2017-01-01

    The aggregation of the intrinsically disordered protein alpha-synuclein (αS) into amyloid fibrils is thought to play a central role in the pathology of Parkinson’s disease. Using a combination of techniques (AFM, UV-CD, XRD, and amide-I 1D- and 2D-IR spectroscopy) we show that the structure of αS fibrils varies as a function of ionic strength: fibrils aggregated in low ionic-strength buffers ([NaCl] ≤ 25 mM) have a significantly different structure than fibrils grown in higher ionic-strength buffers. The observations for fibrils aggregated in low-salt buffers are consistent with an extended conformation of αS molecules, forming hydrogen-bonded intermolecular β-sheets that are loosely packed in a parallel fashion. For fibrils aggregated in high-salt buffers (including those prepared in buffers with a physiological salt concentration) the measurements are consistent with αS molecules in a more tightly-packed, antiparallel intramolecular conformation, and suggest a structure characterized by two twisting stacks of approximately five hydrogen-bonded intermolecular β-sheets each. We find evidence that the high-frequency peak in the amide-I spectrum of αS fibrils involves a normal mode that differs fundamentally from the canonical high-frequency antiparallel β-sheet mode. The high sensitivity of the fibril structure to the ionic strength might form the basis of differences in αS-related pathologies.

  3. Microglia acquire distinct activation profiles depending on the degree of alpha-synuclein neuropathology in a rAAV based model of Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesa Sanchez-Guajardo

    Full Text Available Post-mortem analysis of brains from Parkinson's disease (PD patients strongly supports microglia activation and adaptive immunity as factors contributing to disease progression. Such responses may be triggered by alpha-synuclein (alpha-syn, which is known to be the main constituent of the aggregated proteins found in Lewy bodies in the brains of PD patients. To investigate this we used a recombinant viral vector to express human alpha-syn in rat midbrain at levels that induced neuronal pathology either in the absence or the presence of dopaminergic cell death, thereby mimicking early or late stages of the disease. Microglia activation was assessed by stereological quantification of Mac1+ cells, as well as the expression patterns of CD68 and MCH II. In our study, when alpha-syn induced neuronal pathology but not cell death, a fast transient increase in microglia cell numbers resulted in the long-term induction of MHC II+ microglia, denoting antigen-presenting ability. On the other hand, when alpha-syn induced both neuronal pathology and cell death, there was a delayed increase in microglia cell numbers, which correlated with long-lasting CD68 expression and a morphology reminiscent of peripheral macrophages. In addition T-lymphocyte infiltration, as judged by the presence of CD4+ and CD8+ cells, showed distinct kinetics depending on the degree of neurodegeneration, and was significantly higher when cell death occurred. We have thus for the first time shown that the microglial response differs depending on whether alpha-syn expression results on cell death or not, suggesting that microglia may play different roles during disease progression. Furthermore, our data suggest that the microglial response is modulated by early events related to alpha-syn expression in substantia nigra and persists at the long term.

  4. Exhibition

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    A Look of Hope Islam Mahmoud Sweity From 19 to 30 June 2017 CERN Meyrin, Main Building Islam Mahmoud Sweity Islam Mahmoud Sweity was born in 1997 at Beit Awwa, Palestine. She is currently following a course to get an Art diploma of Painting at the college of Fine Arts at An-Najah National University under the supervision of Esmat Al As'aad. Her portraits, landscapes and still life paintings are full of life and shining colours. Charged of emotional empathy they catch the attention of the viewer and are reminding us that life is beautiful and worth living in spite of all difficulties we have to go through. She participated in many exhibitions and has exposed her drawings in 2015 at CERN and in France in the framework of the exhibition "The Origin“, and in 2017 in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Palestina and Jordan. In this exhibition the oil paintings made in the past year will be presented. For more information : staff.association@cern.ch | T&eacu...

  5. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    Encounters Hanne Blitz From February 1st to 12th 2016 CERN Meyrin, Main Building What is our reaction to a first encounter with a tourist attraction? Contemporary Dutch painter Hanne Blitz captures visitors' responses to art and architecture, sweeping vistas and symbolic memorials. Encounters, a series of oil paintings curated specially for this CERN exhibition, depicts tourists visiting cultural highlights around the world. A thought-provoking journey not to be missed, and a tip of the hat to CERN's large Hadron Collider.

  6. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Sintropie Flavio Pellegrini From 13 to 24 March 2017 CERN Meyrin, Main Building Energia imprigionata - Flavio Pellegrini. The exhibition is composed by eleven wood artworks with the expression of movement as theme. The artworks are the result of harmonics math applied to sculpture. The powerful black colour is dominated by the light source, generating reflexes and modulations. The result is a continuous variation of perspective visions. The works generate, at a first approach, an emotion of mystery and incomprehension, only a deeper contemplation lets one discover entangling and mutative details, evidencing the elegance of the lines and letting the meaning emerge. For more information : staff.association@cern.ch | Tél: 022 766 37 38

  7. Long-term air pollution exposure is associated with neuroinflammation, an altered innate immune response, disruption of the blood-brain barrier, ultrafine particulate deposition, and accumulation of amyloid beta-42 and alpha-synuclein in children and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Solt, Anna C; Henríquez-Roldán, Carlos; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Nuse, Bryan; Herritt, Lou; Villarreal-Calderón, Rafael; Osnaya, Norma; Stone, Ida; García, Raquel; Brooks, Diane M; González-Maciel, Angelica; Reynoso-Robles, Rafael; Delgado-Chávez, Ricardo; Reed, William

    2008-02-01

    Air pollution is a serious environmental problem. We investigated whether residency in cities with high air pollution is associated with neuroinflammation/neurodegeneration in healthy children and young adults who died suddenly. We measured mRNA cyclooxygenase-2, interleukin-1beta, and CD14 in target brain regions from low (n = 12) or highly exposed residents (n = 35) aged 25.1 +/- 1.5 years. Upregulation of cyclooxygenase-2, interleukin-1beta, and CD14 in olfactory bulb, frontal cortex, substantia nigrae and vagus nerves; disruption of the blood-brain barrier; endothelial activation, oxidative stress, and inflammatory cell trafficking were seen in highly exposed subjects. Amyloid beta42 (Abeta42) immunoreactivity was observed in 58.8% of apolipoprotein E (APOE) 3/3 < 25 y, and 100% of the APOE 4 subjects, whereas alpha-synuclein was seen in 23.5% of < 25 y subjects. Particulate material (PM) was seen in olfactory bulb neurons, and PM < 100 nm were observed in intraluminal erythrocytes from lung, frontal, and trigeminal ganglia capillaries. Exposure to air pollution causes neuroinflammation, an altered brain innate immune response, and accumulation of Abeta42 and alpha-synuclein starting in childhood. Exposure to air pollution should be considered a risk factor for Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, and carriers of the APOE 4 allele could have a higher risk of developing Alzheimer's disease if they reside in a polluted environment.

  8. Towards a Non-Human Primate Model of Alpha-Synucleinopathy for Development of Therapeutics for Parkinson's Disease: Optimization of AAV1/2 Delivery Parameters to Drive Sustained Expression of Alpha Synuclein and Dopaminergic Degeneration in Macaque.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James B Koprich

    Full Text Available Recent failures in clinical trials for disease modification in Parkinson's disease have highlighted the need for a non-human primate model of the synucleinopathy underpinning dopaminergic neuron degeneration. The present study was defined to begin the development of such a model in cynomolgus macaque. We have validated surgical and vector parameters to define a means to provide a robust over-expression of alpha-synuclein which is associated with Lewy-like pathology and robust degeneration of the nigrostriatal pathway. Thus, an AAV1/2 vector incorporating strong transcription and transduction regulatory elements was used to deliver the gene for the human A53T mutation of alpha-synuclein. When injected into 4 sites within each substantia nigra (7 μl per site, 1.7 x 1012 gp/ml, this vector provided expression lasting at least 4 months, and a 50% loss of nigral dopaminergic neurons and a 60% reduction in striatal dopamine. Further studies will be required to develop this methodology into a validated model of value as a drug development platform.

  9. Alpha synuclein in Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Christine Lund; Romero-Ramos, Marina; Halliday, Glenda M

    2014-01-01

    The perception of Parkinson’s disease (PD) as a disease centered on dopaminergic striatonigral neurodegeneration has changed fundamentally since 1997 when the first mutation in the SNCA gene (PARK1) encoding a-synuclein was discovered (Polymeropoulos et al. 1997). This discovery formed the basis...

  10. Diacylglycerol kinase β knockout mice exhibit attention-deficit behavior and an abnormal response on methylphenidate-induced hyperactivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsue Ishisaka

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diacylglycerol kinase (DGK is an enzyme that phosphorylates diacylglycerol to produce phosphatidic acid. DGKβ is one of the subtypes of the DGK family and regulates many intracellular signaling pathways in the central nervous system. Previously, we demonstrated that DGKβ knockout (KO mice showed various dysfunctions of higher brain function, such as cognitive impairment (with lower spine density, hyperactivity, reduced anxiety, and careless behavior. In the present study, we conducted further tests on DGKβ KO mice in order to investigate the function of DGKβ in the central nervous system, especially in the pathophysiology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: DGKβ KO mice showed attention-deficit behavior in the object-based attention test and it was ameliorated by methylphenidate (MPH, 30 mg/kg, i.p.. In the open field test, DGKβ KO mice displayed a decreased response to the locomotor stimulating effects of MPH (30 mg/kg, i.p., but showed a similar response to an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801 (0.3 mg/kg, i.p., when compared to WT mice. Examination of the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK, which is involved in regulation of locomotor activity, indicated that ERK1/2 activation induced by MPH treatment was defective in the striatum of DGKβ KO mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that DGKβ KO mice showed attention-deficit and hyperactive phenotype, similar to ADHD. Furthermore, the hyporesponsiveness of DGKβ KO mice to MPH was due to dysregulation of ERK phosphorylation, and that DGKβ has a pivotal involvement in ERK regulation in the striatum.

  11. Female mucopolysaccharidosis IIIA mice exhibit hyperactivity and a reduced sense of danger in the open field test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Langford-Smith

    Full Text Available Reliable behavioural tests in animal models of neurodegenerative diseases allow us to study the natural history of disease and evaluate the efficacy of novel therapies. Mucopolysaccharidosis IIIA (MPS IIIA or Sanfilippo A, is a severe, neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency in the heparan sulphate catabolising enzyme, sulfamidase. Undegraded heparan sulphate accumulates, resulting in lysosomal enlargement and cellular dysfunction. Patients suffer a progressive loss of motor and cognitive function with severe behavioural manifestations and premature death. There is currently no treatment. A spontaneously occurring mouse model of the disease has been described, that has approximately 3% of normal enzyme activity levels. Behavioural phenotyping of the MPS IIIA mouse has been previously reported, but the results are conflicting and variable, even after full backcrossing to the C57BL/6 background. Therefore we have independently backcrossed the MPS IIIA model onto the C57BL/6J background and evaluated the behaviour of male and female MPS IIIA mice at 4, 6 and 8 months of age using the open field test, elevated plus maze, inverted screen and horizontal bar crossing at the same circadian time point. Using a 60 minute open field, we have demonstrated that female MPS IIIA mice are hyperactive, have a longer path length, display rapid exploratory behaviour and spend less time immobile than WT mice. Female MPS IIIA mice also display a reduced sense of danger and spend more time in the centre of the open field. There were no significant differences found between male WT and MPS IIIA mice and no differences in neuromuscular strength were seen with either sex. The altered natural history of behaviour that we observe in the MPS IIIA mouse will allow more accurate evaluation of novel therapeutics for MPS IIIA and potentially other neurodegenerative disorders.

  12. Female mucopolysaccharidosis IIIA mice exhibit hyperactivity and a reduced sense of danger in the open field test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford-Smith, Alex; Langford-Smith, Kia J; Jones, Simon A; Wynn, Robert F; Wraith, J E; Wilkinson, Fiona L; Bigger, Brian W

    2011-01-01

    Reliable behavioural tests in animal models of neurodegenerative diseases allow us to study the natural history of disease and evaluate the efficacy of novel therapies. Mucopolysaccharidosis IIIA (MPS IIIA or Sanfilippo A), is a severe, neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency in the heparan sulphate catabolising enzyme, sulfamidase. Undegraded heparan sulphate accumulates, resulting in lysosomal enlargement and cellular dysfunction. Patients suffer a progressive loss of motor and cognitive function with severe behavioural manifestations and premature death. There is currently no treatment. A spontaneously occurring mouse model of the disease has been described, that has approximately 3% of normal enzyme activity levels. Behavioural phenotyping of the MPS IIIA mouse has been previously reported, but the results are conflicting and variable, even after full backcrossing to the C57BL/6 background. Therefore we have independently backcrossed the MPS IIIA model onto the C57BL/6J background and evaluated the behaviour of male and female MPS IIIA mice at 4, 6 and 8 months of age using the open field test, elevated plus maze, inverted screen and horizontal bar crossing at the same circadian time point. Using a 60 minute open field, we have demonstrated that female MPS IIIA mice are hyperactive, have a longer path length, display rapid exploratory behaviour and spend less time immobile than WT mice. Female MPS IIIA mice also display a reduced sense of danger and spend more time in the centre of the open field. There were no significant differences found between male WT and MPS IIIA mice and no differences in neuromuscular strength were seen with either sex. The altered natural history of behaviour that we observe in the MPS IIIA mouse will allow more accurate evaluation of novel therapeutics for MPS IIIA and potentially other neurodegenerative disorders.

  13. The G209A mutation in the alpha-synuclein gene in Brazilian families with Parkinson's disease Mutação G209A no gene da alfa-sinucleína em famílias brasileiras com doença de Parkinson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio A.G. Teive

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available A missense G209A mutation of the alpha-synuclein gene was recently described in a large Contursi kindred with Parkinson's disease (PD. The objective of this study is to determine if the mutation G209A of the alpha-synuclein gene was present in 10 Brazilian families with PD. PD patients were recruited from movement disorders clinics of Brazil. A family history with two or more affected in relatives was the inclusion criterion for this study. The alpha-synuclein G209A mutation assay was made using polymerase chain reaction and the restriction enzyme Tsp45I. Ten patients from 10 unrelated families were studied. The mean age of PD onset was 42.7 years old. We did not find the G209A mutation in our 10 families with PD. Our results suggest that alpha-synuclein mutation G209A is uncommon in Brazilian PD families.Recentemente foi detectada mutação missense G209A no gene da alfa-sinucleína em uma grande família com doença de Parkinson (DP de Contursi, Itália. Este estudo tem o objetivo de determinar se a mutação G209A está presente em 10 famílias brasileiras com DP. Pacientes com DP foram recrutados em clínicas de distúrbio do movimento no Brasil. O critério de inclusão no estudo foi à presença de dois ou mais familiares acometidos pela DP. A mutação G209A do gene da alfa-sinucleína foi pesquisada usando a técnica de reação em cadeia de polimerase e a enzima de restrição Tsp45I. Foram estudados 10 pacientes de famílias não-relacionadas. A idade média do início dos sintomas da DP foi 42,7 anos. Não encontramos a mutação estudada neste grupo de pacientes. Nossos resultados sugerem que a mutação G209A é incomum em famílias brasileiras com DP.

  14. Site-specific perturbations of alpha-synuclein fibril structure by the Parkinson's disease associated mutations A53T and E46K.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisel R Lemkau

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is pathologically characterized by the presence of Lewy bodies (LBs in dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra. These intracellular inclusions are largely composed of misfolded α-synuclein (AS, a neuronal protein that is abundant in the vertebrate brain. Point mutations in AS are associated with rare, early-onset forms of PD, although aggregation of the wild-type (WT protein is observed in the more common sporadic forms of the disease. Here, we employed multidimensional solid-state NMR experiments to assess A53T and E46K mutant fibrils, in comparison to our recent description of WT AS fibrils. We made de novo chemical shift assignments for the mutants, and used these chemical shifts to empirically determine secondary structures. We observe significant perturbations in secondary structure throughout the fibril core for the E46K fibril, while the A53T fibril exhibits more localized perturbations near the mutation site. Overall, these results demonstrate that the secondary structure of A53T has some small differences from the WT and the secondary structure of E46K has significant differences, which may alter the overall structural arrangement of the fibrils.

  15. Assays for alpha-synuclein aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giehm, Lise; Lorenzen, Nikolai; Otzen, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Over the last few decades, protein aggregation gone from being an irritating side product in the test tube to becoming a subject of great interest. This has been stimulated by the realization that a large and growing number of diseases is associated with the formation and accumulation of proteins...

  16. Children, Hyperactivity and Low Frustration Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaughnessy, Michael F.; Scott, Patricia Carol

    This paper addresses issues regarding the hyperactive child, the impulsive child, and the low frustration tolerance child. It points out the subjectivity involved in identifying children as hyperactive, and outlines various forms of hyperactivity: the child who is in constant movement, the child who manages control in school but exhibits whirlwind…

  17. Neuropathology in mice expressing mouse alpha-synuclein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus Rieker

    Full Text Available α-Synuclein (αSN in human is tightly linked both neuropathologically and genetically to Parkinson's disease (PD and related disorders. Disease-causing properties in vivo of the wildtype mouse ortholog (mαSN, which carries a threonine at position 53 like the A53T human mutant version that is genetically linked to PD, were never reported. To this end we generated mouse lines that express mαSN in central neurons at levels reaching up to six-fold compared to endogenous mαSN. Unlike transgenic mice expressing human wildtype or mutant forms of αSN, these mαSN transgenic mice showed pronounced ubiquitin immunopathology in spinal cord and brainstem. Isoelectric separation of mαSN species revealed multiple isoforms including two Ser129-phosphorylated species in the most severely affected brain regions. Neuronal Ser129-phosphorylated αSN occurred in granular and small fibrillar aggregates and pathological staining patterns in neurites occasionally revealed a striking ladder of small alternating segments staining either for Ser129-phosphorylated αSN or ubiquitin but not both. Axonal degeneration in long white matter tracts of the spinal cord, with breakdown of myelin sheaths and degeneration of neuromuscular junctions with loss of integrity of the presynaptic neurofilament network in mαSN transgenic mice, was similar to what we have reported for mice expressing human αSN wildtype or mutant forms. In hippocampal neurons, the mαSN protein accumulated and was phosphorylated but these neurons showed no ubiquitin immunopathology. In contrast to the early-onset motor abnormalities and muscle weakness observed in mice expressing human αSN, mαSN transgenic mice displayed only end-stage phenotypic alterations that manifested alongside with neuropathology. Altogether these findings show that increased levels of wildtype mαSN does not induce early-onset behavior changes, but drives end-stage pathophysiological changes in murine neurons that are strikingly similar to those evoked by expression of human wildtype or mutant forms.

  18. Structural and functional characterization of two alpha-synuclein strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousset, Luc; Pieri, Laura; Ruiz-Arlandis, Gemma; Gath, Julia; Jensen, Poul Henning; Habenstein, Birgit; Madiona, Karine; Olieric, Vincent; Böckmann, Anja; Meier, Beat H.; Melki, Ronald

    2013-10-01

    α-synuclein aggregation is implicated in a variety of diseases including Parkinson’s disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, pure autonomic failure and multiple system atrophy. The association of protein aggregates made of a single protein with a variety of clinical phenotypes has been explained for prion diseases by the existence of different strains that propagate through the infection pathway. Here we structurally and functionally characterize two polymorphs of α-synuclein. We present evidence that the two forms indeed fulfil the molecular criteria to be identified as two strains of α-synuclein. Specifically, we show that the two strains have different structures, levels of toxicity, and in vitro and in vivo seeding and propagation properties. Such strain differences may account for differences in disease progression in different individuals/cell types and/or types of synucleinopathies.

  19. Differential expression of alpha-synuclein in hippocampal neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsutoshi Taguchi

    Full Text Available α-Synuclein is the major pathological component of synucleinopathies including Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies. Recent studies have demonstrated that α-synuclein also plays important roles in the release of synaptic vesicles and synaptic membrane recycling in healthy neurons. However, the precise relationship between the pathogenicity and physiological functions of α-synuclein remains to be elucidated. To address this issue, we investigated the subcellular localization of α-synuclein in normal and pathological conditions using primary mouse hippocampal neuronal cultures. While some neurons expressed high levels of α-synuclein in presynaptic boutons and cell bodies, other neurons either did not or only very weakly expressed the protein. These α-synuclein-negative cells were identified as inhibitory neurons by immunostaining with specific antibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD, parvalbumin, and somatostatin. In contrast, α-synuclein-positive synapses were colocalized with the excitatory synapse marker vesicular glutamate transporter-1. This expression profile of α-synuclein was conserved in the hippocampus in vivo. In addition, we found that while presynaptic α-synuclein colocalizes with synapsin, a marker of presynaptic vesicles, it is not essential for activity-dependent membrane recycling induced by high potassium treatment. Exogenous supply of preformed fibrils generated by recombinant α-synuclein was shown to promote the formation of Lewy body (LB -like intracellular aggregates involving endogenous α-synuclein. GAD-positive neurons did not form LB-like aggregates following treatment with preformed fibrils, however, exogenous expression of human α-synuclein allowed intracellular aggregate formation in these cells. These results suggest the presence of a different mechanism for regulation of the expression of α-synuclein between excitatory and inhibitory neurons. Furthermore, α-synuclein expression levels may determine the efficiency of intracellular aggregate formation in different neuronal subtypes.

  20. Brain region-dependent differential expression of alpha-synuclein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Katsutoshi; Watanabe, Yoshihisa; Tsujimura, Atsushi; Tanaka, Masaki

    2016-04-15

    α-Synuclein, the major constituent of Lewy bodies (LBs), is normally expressed in presynapses and is involved in synaptic function. Abnormal intracellular aggregation of α-synuclein is observed as LBs and Lewy neurites in neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease (PD) or dementia with Lewy bodies. Accumulated evidence suggests that abundant intracellular expression of α-synuclein is one of the risk factors for pathological aggregation. Recently, we reported differential expression patterns of α-synuclein between excitatory and inhibitory hippocampal neurons. Here we further investigated the precise expression profile in the adult mouse brain with special reference to vulnerable regions along the progression of idiopathic PD. The results show that α-synuclein was highly expressed in the neuronal cell bodies of some early PD-affected brain regions, such as the olfactory bulb, dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, and substantia nigra pars compacta. Synaptic expression of α-synuclein was mostly accompanied by expression of vesicular glutamate transporter-1, an excitatory presynaptic marker. In contrast, expression of α-synuclein in the GABAergic inhibitory synapses was different among brain regions. α-Synuclein was clearly expressed in inhibitory synapses in the external plexiform layer of the olfactory bulb, globus pallidus, and substantia nigra pars reticulata, but not in the cerebral cortex, subthalamic nucleus, or thalamus. These results suggest that some neurons in early PD-affected human brain regions express high levels of perikaryal α-synuclein, as happens in the mouse brain. Additionally, synaptic profiles expressing α-synuclein are different in various brain regions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Antibodies against alpha-synuclein reduce oligomerization in living cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Näsström

    Full Text Available Recent research implicates soluble aggregated forms of α-synuclein as neurotoxic species with a central role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease and related disorders. The pathway by which α-synuclein aggregates is believed to follow a step-wise pattern, in which dimers and smaller oligomers are initially formed. Here, we used H4 neuroglioma cells expressing α-synuclein fused to hemi:GFP constructs to study the effects of α-synuclein monoclonal antibodies on the early stages of aggregation, as quantified by Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation assay. Widefield and confocal microscopy revealed that cells treated for 48 h with monoclonal antibodies internalized antibodies to various degrees. C-terminal and oligomer-selective α-synuclein antibodies reduced the extent of α-synuclein dimerization/oligomerization, as indicated by decreased GFP fluorescence signal. Furthermore, ELISA measurements on lysates and conditioned media from antibody treated cells displayed lower α-synuclein levels compared to untreated cells, suggesting increased protein turnover. Taken together, our results propose that extracellular administration of monoclonal antibodies can modify or inhibit early steps in the aggregation process of α-synuclein, thus providing further support for passive immunization against diseases with α-synuclein pathology.

  2. Mechanisms of alpha-Synuclein Aggregation and Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    Alegre, J., Gomez-Esteban, J.C., Lezcano, E., Ros, R., Ampuero, I., Vidal, L., Hoenicka, J., Rodriguez, O., Atares , B., Llorens, V., Tortosa, E.G...192 (2005) 244–250 245chromosome 17. The tau isoforms prevalent in the sarkosyl- insoluble fraction, and the physical characteristics of the tau...Similarities between a-synuclein, tau, and b-amyloid. Tau and a-synuclein share many physical and biochemical properties (Dickson, 1999; Lee et al., 2004

  3. Technology Exhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1979-09-15

    Linked to the 25th Anniversary celebrations, an exhibition of some of CERN's technological achievements was opened on 22 June. Set up in a new 600 m{sup 2} Exhibition Hall on the CERN site, the exhibition is divided into eight technology areas — magnets, vacuum, computers and data handling, survey and alignment, radiation protection, beam monitoring and handling, detectors, and workshop techniques.

  4. Immersive Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiam, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    The immersive exhibition is a specialized exhibition genre in museums, which creates the illusion of time and place by representing key characteristics of a reference world and by integrating the visitor in this three-dimensionally reconstructed world (Mortensen 2010). A successful representation...... of the reference world depends on three criteria: whether the exhibition is staged as a coherent whole with all the displayed objects supporting the representation, whether the visitor is integrated as a component of the exhibition, and whether the content and message of the exhibition become dramatized...

  5. Exhibit Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Marianne Foss

    Science museums define the objectives of their exhibitions in terms of visitor learning outcomes. Yet, exhibit designers lack theoretical and empirical research findings on which to base the creation of such educational environments. Here, this shortcoming is addressed through the development...... of tools and processes to guide the design of educational science exhibits. The guiding paradigm for this development is design-based research, which is characterised by an iterative cycle of design, enactment, and analysis. In the design phase, an educational intervention is planned and carried out based...... on the generation of theoretical ideas for exhibit design is offered in a fourth and parallel research undertaking, namely the application of the notion of cultural border-crossing to a hypothetical case of exhibit design....

  6. Human Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Rikke

    light on the staging of exhibitions, the daily life of the exhibitees, the wider connections between shows across Europe and the thinking of the time on matters of race, science, gender and sexuality. A window onto contemporary racial understandings, the book presents interviews with the descendants...... of displayed people, connecting the attitudes and science of the past with both our (continued) modern fascination with ‘the exotic’, and contemporary language and popular culture. As such, it will be of interest to scholars of sociology, anthropology and history working in the areas of gender and sexuality...

  7. Inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity-disorder, autism spectrum disorder, and intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, Maryellen Brunson; Hasty Mills, Amber M; Murphy, Laura E

    2017-11-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and Intellectual Disability (ID) are common co-occurring neurodevelopmental disorders; however, limited research exists regarding the presentation and severity of overlapping symptomology, particularly inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity, when a child is diagnosed with one of more of these neurodevelopmental disorders. As difficulties with inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity are symptoms frequently associated with these disorders, the current study aims to determine the differences in the severity of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity in children diagnosed with ADHD, ASD, ID, and co-occurring diagnosis of ADHD/ID, ASD/ADHD, and ASD/ID. Participants in the current study included 113 children between the ages of 6 and 11 who were diagnosed with ADHD, ASD, ID, ADHD/ID, ASD/ADHD, or ASD/ID. Two MANOVA analyses were used to compare these groups witih respsect to symptom (i.e., inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity) severity. Results indicated that the majority of diagnostic groups experienced elevated levels of both inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. However, results yielded differences in inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity severity. In addition, differences in measure sensitivity across behavioral instruments was found. Children with neurodevelopmental disorders often exhibit inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity, particularly those with ADHD, ASD, ASD/ADHD, and ADHD/ID; therefore, differential diagnosis may be complicated due to similarities in ADHD symptom severity. However, intellectual abilities may be an important consideration for practitioners in the differential diagnosis process as children with ID and ASD/ID exhibited significantly less inattention and hyperactive/impulsive behaviors. Additionally, the use of multiple behavior rating measures in conjunction with other assessment procedures may help practitioners determine the most

  8. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001551.htm Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a problem caused by ...

  9. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime O. Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is considered as among the most common yet serious brain disorders significant number of children are subjected to; the seriousness of which manifests in the ability of the disorder to continue to show up even after the childhood years, during the period of adolescence as well as adulthood. Considering the findings delivered by Brain Imaging Studies conducted on youth, it is revealed that people suffering from ADHD experiences del...

  10. Britain exhibition at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Bertin; CERN PhotoLab

    1969-01-01

    The United Kingdom inaugurated the Industrial Exhibitions in 1968, and it wasn't till 1971 that other countries staged exhibitions at CERN. This photo was taken in 1969, at the second British exhibition, where 16 companies were present.

  11. Hyperactivity: is candy causal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krummel, D A; Seligson, F H; Guthrie, H A

    1996-01-01

    Adverse behavioral responses to ingestion of any kind of candy have been reported repeatedly in the lay press. Parents and teachers alike attribute excessive motor activity and other disruptive behaviors to candy consumption. However, anecdotal observations of this kind need to be tested scientifically before conclusions can be drawn, and criteria for interpreting diet behavior studies must be rigorous. Ingredients in nonchocolate candy (sugar, artificial food colors), components in chocolate candy (sugar, artificial food colors in coatings, caffeine), and chocolate itself have been investigated for any adverse effects on behavior. Feingold theorized that food additives (artificial colors and flavors) and natural salicylates caused hyperactivity in children and elimination of these components would result in dramatic improvement in behavior. Numerous double-blind studies of the Feingold hypothesis have led to the rejection of the idea that this elimination diet has any benefit beyond the normal placebo effect. Although sugar is widely believed by the public to cause hyperactive behavior, this has not been scientifically substantiated. Twelve double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of sugar challenges failed to provide any evidence that sugar ingestion leads to untoward behavior in children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder or in normal children. Likewise, none of the studies testing candy or chocolate found any negative effect of these foods on behavior. For children with behavioral problems, diet-oriented treatment does not appear to be appropriate. Rather, clinicians treating these children recommend a multidisciplinary approach. The goal of diet treatment is to ensure a balanced diet with adequate energy and nutrients for optimal growth.

  12. Alpha-synuclein cell-to-cell transfer and seeding in grafted dopaminergic neurons in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Angot

    Full Text Available Several people with Parkinson's disease have been treated with intrastriatal grafts of fetal dopaminergic neurons. Following autopsy, 10-22 years after surgery, some of the grafted neurons contained Lewy bodies similar to those observed in the host brain. Numerous studies have attempted to explain these findings in cell and animal models. In cell culture, α-synuclein has been found to transfer from one cell to another, via mechanisms that include exosomal transport and endocytosis, and in certain cases seed aggregation in the recipient cell. In animal models, transfer of α-synuclein from host brain cells to grafted neurons has been shown, but the reported frequency of the event has been relatively low and little is known about the underlying mechanisms as well as the fate of the transferred α-synuclein. We now demonstrate frequent transfer of α-synuclein from a rat brain engineered to overexpress human α-synuclein to grafted dopaminergic neurons. Further, we show that this model can be used to explore mechanisms underlying cell-to-cell transfer of α-synuclein. Thus, we present evidence both for the involvement of endocytosis in α-synuclein uptake in vivo, and for seeding of aggregation of endogenous α-synuclein in the recipient neuron by the transferred α-synuclein. Finally, we show that, at least in a subset of the studied cells, the transmitted α-synuclein is sensitive to proteinase K. Our new model system could be used to test compounds that inhibit cell-to-cell transfer of α-synuclein and therefore might retard progression of Parkinson neuropathology.

  13. Effects of Trehalose on Thermodynamic Properties of Alpha-synuclein Revealed through Synchrotron Radiation Circular Dichroism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Ruzza

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Many neurodegenerative diseases, including Huntington’s, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases, are characterized by protein misfolding and aggregation. The capability of trehalose to interfere with protein misfolding and aggregation has been recently evaluated by several research groups. In the present work, we studied, by means of synchrotron radiation circular dichroism (SRCD spectroscopy, the dose-effect of trehalose on α-synuclein conformation and/or stability to probe the capability of this osmolyte to interfere with α-synuclein’s aggregation. Our study indicated that a low trehalose concentration stabilized α-synuclein folding much better than at high concentration by blocking in vitro α-synuclein’s polymerisation. These results suggested that trehalose could be associated with other drugs leading to a new approach for treating Parkinson’s and other brain-related diseases.

  14. Alpha-synuclein aggregates activate calcium pump SERCA leading to calcium dysregulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betzer, Cristine; Lassen, Louise Berkhoudt; Olsen, Anders

    2018-01-01

    Aggregation of α-synuclein is a hallmark of Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies. We here investigate the relationship between cytosolic Ca2+and α-synuclein aggregation. Analyses of cell lines and primary culture models of α-synuclein cytopathology reveal an early phase with reduced ...

  15. In vivo silencing of alpha-synuclein using naked siRNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charisse Klaus

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overexpression of α-synuclein (SNCA in families with multiplication mutations causes parkinsonism and subsequent dementia, characterized by diffuse Lewy Body disease post-mortem. Genetic variability in SNCA contributes to risk of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD, possibly as a result of overexpression. SNCA downregulation is therefore a valid therapeutic target for PD. Results We have identified human and murine-specific siRNA molecules which reduce SNCA in vitro. As a proof of concept, we demonstrate that direct infusion of chemically modified (naked, murine-specific siRNA into the hippocampus significantly reduces SNCA levels. Reduction of SNCA in the hippocampus and cortex persists for a minimum of 1 week post-infusion with recovery nearing control levels by 3 weeks post-infusion. Conclusion We have developed naked gene-specific siRNAs that silence expression of SNCA in vivo. This approach may prove beneficial toward our understanding of the endogenous functional equilibrium of SNCA, its role in disease, and eventually as a therapeutic strategy for α-synucleinopathies resulting from SNCA overexpression.

  16. In vivo silencing of alpha-synuclein using naked siRNA

    OpenAIRE

    Charisse Klaus; Toudjarska Ivanka; Kent Caroline; Hinkle Kelly; Ogholikhan Sina; He Zhen; Braithwaite Adam; Lincoln Sarah; Zehr Cynthia; Hope Andrew; Bumcrot David; Melrose Heather; Lewis Jada; Braich Ravi; Pandey Rajendra K

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Overexpression of α-synuclein (SNCA) in families with multiplication mutations causes parkinsonism and subsequent dementia, characterized by diffuse Lewy Body disease post-mortem. Genetic variability in SNCA contributes to risk of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD), possibly as a result of overexpression. SNCA downregulation is therefore a valid therapeutic target for PD. Results We have identified human and murine-specific siRNA molecules which reduce SNCA in vitro. As a...

  17. In vivo silencing of alpha-synuclein using naked siRNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jada; Melrose, Heather; Bumcrot, David; Hope, Andrew; Zehr, Cynthia; Lincoln, Sarah; Braithwaite, Adam; He, Zhen; Ogholikhan, Sina; Hinkle, Kelly; Kent, Caroline; Toudjarska, Ivanka; Charisse, Klaus; Braich, Ravi; Pandey, Rajendra K; Heckman, Michael; Maraganore, Demetrius M; Crook, Julia; Farrer, Matthew J

    2008-01-01

    Background Overexpression of α-synuclein (SNCA) in families with multiplication mutations causes parkinsonism and subsequent dementia, characterized by diffuse Lewy Body disease post-mortem. Genetic variability in SNCA contributes to risk of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD), possibly as a result of overexpression. SNCA downregulation is therefore a valid therapeutic target for PD. Results We have identified human and murine-specific siRNA molecules which reduce SNCA in vitro. As a proof of concept, we demonstrate that direct infusion of chemically modified (naked), murine-specific siRNA into the hippocampus significantly reduces SNCA levels. Reduction of SNCA in the hippocampus and cortex persists for a minimum of 1 week post-infusion with recovery nearing control levels by 3 weeks post-infusion. Conclusion We have developed naked gene-specific siRNAs that silence expression of SNCA in vivo. This approach may prove beneficial toward our understanding of the endogenous functional equilibrium of SNCA, its role in disease, and eventually as a therapeutic strategy for α-synucleinopathies resulting from SNCA overexpression. PMID:18976489

  18. The Neuroprotective Role of Protein Quality Control in Halting the Development of Alpha-Synuclein Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Destiny-Love Manecka

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Synucleinopathies are a family of neurodegenerative disorders that comprises Parkinson’s disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and multiple system atrophy. Each of these disorders is characterized by devastating motor, cognitive, and autonomic consequences. Current treatments for synucleinopathies are not curative and are limited to improvement of quality of life for affected individuals. Although the underlying causes of these diseases are unknown, a shared pathological hallmark is the presence of proteinaceous inclusions containing the α-synuclein (α-syn protein in brain tissue. In the past few years, it has been proposed that these inclusions arise from the self-templated, prion-like spreading of misfolded and aggregated forms of α-syn throughout the brain, leading to neuronal dysfunction and death. In this review, we describe how impaired protein homeostasis is a prominent factor in the α-syn aggregation cascade, with alterations in protein quality control (PQC pathways observed in the brains of patients. We discuss how PQC modulates α-syn accumulation, misfolding and aggregation primarily through chaperoning activity, proteasomal degradation, and lysosome-mediated degradation. Finally, we provide an overview of experimental data indicating that targeting PQC pathways is a promising avenue to explore in the design of novel neuroprotective approaches that could impede the spreading of α-syn pathology and thus provide a curative treatment for synucleinopathies.

  19. Rapid Self-assembly of alpha-Synuclein Observed by In Situ Atomic Force Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoyer, Wolfgang; Cherny, Dmitry; Subramaniam, Vinod; Jovin, Thomas M.

    2004-01-01

    Self-assembly of α-synuclein resulting in protein aggregates of diverse morphology has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders known as synucleinopathies. Apart from its biomedical relevance, this aggregation process is representative of the

  20. NMR of alpha-synuclein-polyamine complexes elucidates the mechanism and kinetics of induced aggregation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernández, Claudio O.; Hoyer, Wolfgang; Zweckstetter, Markus; Jares-Erijman, Elizabeth A.; Subramaniam, Vinod; Griesinger, Christian; Jovin, Thomas M.

    2004-01-01

    The aggregation of α-synuclein is characteristic of Parkinson's disease (PD) and other neurodegenerative synucleinopathies. The 140-aa protein is natively unstructured; thus, ligands binding to the monomeric form are of therapeutic interest. Biogenic polyamines promote the aggregation of α-synuclein

  1. Explorations of the application of cyanine dyes for quantitative alpha-synuclein detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volkova, K.D.; Kovalska, V.B.; Segers-Nolten, Gezina M.J.; Veldhuis, G.; Veldhuis, G.J.; Subramaniam, Vinod; Yarmoluk, S.M.

    2009-01-01

    We examined the practical aspects of using fluorescent mono (T-284) and trimethinecyanine (SH-516) dyes for detecting and quantifying fibrillar α-synuclein (ASN). We studied the interaction of cyanine dyes with fibrillar proteins using fluorescence spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. The

  2. Parkinson's disease induced pluripotent stem cells with triplication of the alpha-synuclein locus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Devine, M.J.; Ryten, M.; Vodička, Petr; Thomson, A.J.; Burdon, T.; Houlden, H.; Cavaleri, F.; Nagano, M.; Drummond, N.J.; Taanman, J.W.; Schapira, A.H.; Gwinn, K.; Hardy, J.; Lewis, P.A.; Kunath, T.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 440 (2011), s. 1-1 ISSN 2041-1723 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : gene duplication * dementia * association Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 7.396, year: 2011

  3. An Efficient Procedure for Removal and Inactivation of Alpha-Synuclein Assemblies from Laboratory Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousset, Luc; Brundin, Patrik; Böckmann, Anja; Meier, Beat; Melki, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    Preformed α-synuclein fibrils seed the aggregation of soluble α-synuclein in cultured cells and in vivo. This, and other findings, has kindled the idea that α-synuclein fibrils possess prion-like properties. As α-synuclein fibrils should not be considered as innocuous, there is a need for decontamination and inactivation procedures for laboratory benches and non-disposable laboratory material. We assessed the effectiveness of different procedures designed to disassemble α-synuclein fibrils and reduce their infectivity. We examined different commercially available detergents to remove α-synuclein assemblies adsorbed on materials that are not disposable and that are most found in laboratories (e.g. plastic, glass, aluminum or stainless steel surfaces). We show that methods designed to decrease PrP prion infectivity neither effectively remove α-synuclein assemblies adsorbed to different materials commonly used in the laboratory nor disassemble the fibrillar form of the protein with efficiency. In contrast, both commercial detergents and SDS detached α-synuclein assemblies from contaminated surfaces and disassembled the fibrils. We describe three cleaning procedures that effectively remove and disassemble α-synuclein seeds. The methods rely on the use of detergents that are compatible with most non-disposable tools in a laboratory. The procedures are easy to implement and significantly decrease any potential risks associated to handling α-synuclein assemblies.

  4. Role of Different Alpha-Synuclein Strains in Synucleinopathies, Similarities with other Neurodegenerative Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Melki, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Misfolded protein aggregates are the hallmark of several neurodegenerative diseases in humans. The main protein constituent of these aggregates and the regions within the brain that are affected differ from one neurodegenerative disorder to another. A plethora of reports suggest that distinct diseases have in common the ability of protein aggregates to spread and amplify within the central nervous system. This review summarizes briefly what is known about the nature of the protein ag...

  5. KLK6 proteolysis is implicated in the turnover and uptake of extracellular alpha-synuclein species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pampalakis, Georgios; Sykioti, Vasia-Samantha; Ximerakis, Methodios; Stefanakou-Kalakou, Ioanna; Melki, Ronald; Vekrellis, Kostas; Sotiropoulou, Georgia

    2017-02-28

    KLK6 is a serine protease highly expressed in the nervous system. In synucleinopathies, including Parkinson disease, the levels of KLK6 inversely correlate with α-synuclein in CSF. Recently, we suggested that recombinant KLK6 mediates the degradation of extracellular α-synuclein directly and via a proteolytic cascade that involves unidentified metalloproteinase(s). Here, we show that recombinant and naturally secreted KLK6 can readily cleave α-synuclein fibrils that have the potential for cell-to-cell propagation in "a prion-like mechanism". Importantly, KLK6-deficient primary cortical neurons have increased ability for α-synuclein fibril uptake. We also demonstrate that KLK6 activates proMMP2, which in turn can cleave α-synuclein. The repertoire of proteases activated by KLK6 in a neuronal environment was analyzed by degradomic profiling, which also identified ADAMTS19 and showed that KLK6 has a limited number of substrates indicating specific biological functions such as the regulation of α-synuclein turnover. We generated adenoviral vectors for KLK6 delivery and demonstrated that the levels of extracellular α-synuclein can be reduced by neuronally secreted KLK6. Our findings open the possibility to exploit KLK6 as a novel therapeutic target for Parkinson disease and other synucleinopathies.

  6. Long-term polarization of microglia upon alpha-synuclein overexpression in nonhuman primates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barkholt, Pernille; Sanchez-Guajardo, Vanesa Maria; Kirik, Denis

    2012-01-01

    We have previously shown that persistent ﰇ-sy- nuclein overexpression in ventral midbrain of marmoset leads to a distinctive neurodegenerative process and motor defects. The neurodegeneration was confined to caudate putamen dopaminergic fibers in animals overexpressing wild-type (wt) ﰇ-synuclein....

  7. Parkinson's disease: acid-glucocerebrosidase activity and alpha-synuclein clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanz, Judith; Saftig, Paul

    2016-10-01

    The role of mutations in the gene GBA1 encoding the lysosomal hydrolase β-glucocerebrosidase for the development of synucleinopathies, such as Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies, was only very recently uncovered. The knowledge obtained from the study of carriers or patients suffering from Gaucher disease (a common lysosomal storage disorder because of GBA1 mutations) is of particular importance for understanding the role of the enzyme and its catabolic pathway in the development of synucleinopathies. Decreased activity of β-glucocerebrosidase leads to lysosomal dysfunction and the accumulation of its substrate glucosylceramide and related lipid derivatives. Glucosylceramide is suggested to stabilize toxic oligomeric forms of α-synuclein that negatively influence the activity of β-glucocerebrosidase and to partially block export of newly synthesized β-glucocerebrosidase from the endoplasmic reticulum to late endocytic compartments, amplifying the pathological effects of α-synuclein and ultimately resulting in neuronal cell death. This pathogenic molecular feedback loop and most likely other factors (such as impaired endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation, activation of the unfolded protein response and dysregulation of calcium homeostasis induced by misfolded GC mutants) are involved in shifting the cellular homeostasis from monomeric α-synuclein towards oligomeric neurotoxic and aggregated forms, which contribute to Parkinson's disease progression. From a therapeutic point of view, strategies aiming to increase either the expression, stability or delivery of the β-glucocerebrosidase to lysosomes are likely to decrease the α-synuclein burden and may be useful for an in depth evaluation at the organismal level. Lysosomes are critical for protein and lipid homeostasis. Recent research revealed that dysfunction of this organelle contributes to the development of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Mutations in the lysosomal hydrolase β-glucocerebrosidase (GBA1) are a major risk factor for the development of PD and the molecular events linked to the reduced activity of GBA1 and the pathological accumulation of lipids and α-synuclein are just at the beginning to be understood. New therapeutic concepts in regards to how to increase the expression, stability, or delivery of β-glucocerebrosidase to lysosomes are currently developed. This article is part of a special issue on Parkinson disease. © 2016 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  8. The regulation of catalase activity by PPAR gamma is affected by alpha-synuclein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yakunin, Eugenia; Kisos, Haya; Kulik, Willem; Grigoletto, Jessica; Wanders, Ronald J. A.; Sharon, Ronit

    2014-01-01

    Objective: While evidence for oxidative injury is frequently detected in brains of humans affected by Parkinson's disease (PD) and in relevant animal models, there is uncertainty regarding its cause. We tested the potential role of catalase in the oxidative injury that characterizes PD. Methods:

  9. Alpha-synuclein induces lysosomal rupture and cathepsin dependent reactive oxygen species following endocytosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Freeman

    Full Text Available α-synuclein dysregulation is a critical aspect of Parkinson's disease pathology. Recent studies have observed that α-synuclein aggregates are cytotoxic to cells in culture and that this toxicity can be spread between cells. However, the molecular mechanisms governing this cytotoxicity and spread are poorly characterized. Recent studies of viruses and bacteria, which achieve their cytoplasmic entry by rupturing intracellular vesicles, have utilized the redistribution of galectin proteins as a tool to measure vesicle rupture by these organisms. Using this approach, we demonstrate that α-synuclein aggregates can induce the rupture of lysosomes following their endocytosis in neuronal cell lines. This rupture can be induced by the addition of α-synuclein aggregates directly into cells as well as by cell-to-cell transfer of α-synuclein. We also observe that lysosomal rupture by α-synuclein induces a cathepsin B dependent increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS in target cells. Finally, we observe that α-synuclein aggregates can induce inflammasome activation in THP-1 cells. Lysosomal rupture is known to induce mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation, both of which are well established aspects of Parkinson's disease, thus connecting these aspects of Parkinson's disease to the propagation of α-synuclein pathology in cells.

  10. Alpha-synuclein oligomers - neurotoxic molecules in Parkinson’s disease and other Lewy body disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Ingelsson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Adverse intra- and extracellular effects of toxic α-synuclein are believed to be central to the pathogenesis in Parkinson’s disease and other disorders with Lewy body pathology in the nervous system. One of the physiological roles of α-synuclein relates to the regulation of neurotransmitter release at the presynapse, although it is still unclear whether this mechanism depends on the action of monomers or smaller oligomers. As for the pathogenicity, accumulating evidence suggest that prefibrillar species, rather than the deposits per se, are responsible for the toxicity in affected cells. In particular, larger oligomers or protofibrils of α-synuclein have been shown to impair protein degradation as well as the function of several organelles, such as the mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum. Accumulating evidence further suggest that oligomers/protofibrils may have a toxic effect on the synapse, which may lead to disrupted electrophysiological properties. In addition, recent data indicate that oligomeric α-synuclein species can spread between cells, either as free-floating proteins or via extracellular vesicles, and thereby act as seeds to propagate disease between interconnected brain regions. Taken together, several lines of evidence suggest that α-synuclein have neurotoxic properties and therefore should be an appropriate molecular target for therapeutic intervention in Parkinson’s disease and other disorders with Lewy pathology. In this context, immunotherapy with monoclonal antibodies against α-synuclein oligomers/protofibrils should be a particularly attractive treatment option.

  11. Multiple system atrophy: genetic risks and alpha-synuclein mutations [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather T Whittaker

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Multiple system atrophy (MSA is one of the few neurodegenerative disorders where we have a significant understanding of the clinical and pathological manifestations but where the aetiology remains almost completely unknown. Research to overcome this hurdle is gaining momentum through international research collaboration and a series of genetic and molecular discoveries in the last few years, which have advanced our knowledge of this rare synucleinopathy. In MSA, the discovery of α-synuclein pathology and glial cytoplasmic inclusions remain the most significant findings. Families with certain types of α-synuclein mutations develop diseases that mimic MSA, and the spectrum of clinical and pathological features in these families suggests a spectrum of severity, from late-onset Parkinson’s disease to MSA. Nonetheless, controversies persist, such as the role of common α-synuclein variants in MSA and whether this disorder shares a common mechanism of spreading pathology with other protein misfolding neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we review these issues, specifically focusing on α-synuclein mutations.

  12. Mutant alpha-synuclein causes age-dependent neuropathology in monkey brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weili; Wang, Guohao; Wang, Chuan-En; Guo, Xiangyu; Yin, Peng; Gao, Jinquan; Tu, Zhuchi; Wang, Zhengbo; Wu, Jing; Hu, Xintian; Li, Shihua; Li, Xiao-Jiang

    2015-05-27

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is an age-dependent neurodegenerative disease that often occurs in those over age 60. Although rodents and small animals have been used widely to model PD and investigate its pathology, their short life span makes it difficult to assess the aging-related pathology that is likely to occur in PD patient brains. Here, we used brain tissues from rhesus monkeys at 2-3, 7-8, and >15 years of age to examine the expression of Parkin, PINK1, and α-synuclein, which are known to cause PD via loss- or gain-of-function mechanisms. We found that α-synuclein is increased in the older monkey brains, whereas Parkin and PINK1 are decreased or remain unchanged. Because of the gain of toxicity of α-synuclein, we performed stereotaxic injection of lentiviral vectors expressing mutant α-synuclein (A53T) into the substantia nigra of monkeys and found that aging also increases the accumulation of A53T in neurites and its associated neuropathology. A53T also causes more extensive reactive astrocytes and axonal degeneration in monkey brain than in mouse brain. Using monkey brain tissues, we found that A53T interacts with neurofascin, an adhesion molecule involved in axon subcellular targeting and neurite outgrowth. Aged monkey brain tissues show an increased interaction of neurofascin with A53T. Overexpression of A53T causes neuritic toxicity in cultured neuronal cells, which can be attenuated by transfected neurofascin. These findings from nonhuman primate brains reveal age-dependent pathological and molecular changes that could contribute to the age-dependent neuropathology in PD. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/358345-14$15.00/0.

  13. Digital collections and exhibits

    CERN Document Server

    Denzer, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Today's libraries are taking advantage of cutting-edge technologies such as flat panel displays using touch, sound, and hands-free motions to design amazing exhibits using everything from simple computer hardware to advanced technologies such as the Microsoft Kinect. Libraries of all types are striving to add new interactive experiences for their patrons through exciting digital exhibits, both online and off. Digital Collections and Exhibits takes away the mystery of designing stunning digital exhibits to spotlight library trea

  14. Exhibiting Epistemic Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tybjerg, Karin

    2017-01-01

    of exhibiting epistemic objects that utilize their knowledge-generating potential and allow them to continue to stimulate curiosity and generate knowledge in the exhibition. The epistemic potential of the objects can then be made to work together with the function of the exhibition as a knowledge-generating set...

  15. Discrimination? - Exhibition of posters

    OpenAIRE

    Jakimovska, Jana

    2017-01-01

    Participation in the exhibition with the students form the Art Academy. The exhibition consisted of 15 posters tackling the subjects of hate speech and discrimination. The exhibition happened thanks to the invitation of the Faculty of Law at UGD, and it was a part of a larger event of launching books on the aforementioned subjects.

  16. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Marguerite; Nigg, Joel T.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last two decades, there have been numerous technical and methodological advances available to clinicians and researchers to better understand attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its etiology. Despite the growing body of literature investigating the disorder’s pathophysiology, ADHD remains a complex psychiatric disorder to characterize. This chapter will briefly review the literature on ADHD, with a focus on its history, the current genetic insights, neurophysiologic theories, and the use of neuroimaging to further understand the etiology. We address some of the major concerns that remain unclear about ADHD, including subtype instability, heterogeneity, and the underlying neural correlates that define the disorder. We highlight that the field of ADHD is rapidly evolving; the descriptions provided here will hopefully provide a sturdy foundation for which to build and improve our understanding of the disorder. PMID:24214656

  17. Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as methylphenidate (Ritalin) or dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine), which are stimulants that decrease impulsivity and hyperactivity and increase attention. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved the generic versions ...

  18. Exhibition; Image display agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normazlin Ismail

    2008-01-01

    This article touches on the role of Malaysian Nuclear Agency as nuclear research institutions to promote, develop and encourage the peaceful uses of nuclear technology in its agricultural, medical, manufacturing, industrial, health and environment for the development of the country running successfully. Maturity of Malaysian Nuclear Agency in dealing with nuclear technology that are very competitive and globalization cannot be denied. On this basis Malaysian Nuclear Agency was given the responsibility to strengthen the nuclear technology in Malaysia. One way is through an exhibition featuring the research, discoveries and new technology products of the nuclear technology. Through this exhibition is to promote the nuclear technology and introduce the image of the agency in the public eye. This article also states a number of exhibits entered by the Malaysian Nuclear Agency and achievements during the last exhibition. Authors hope that the exhibition can be intensified further in the future.

  19. Focusing on ADHD - Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... September 2014 Print this issue Focusing on ADHD Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder En español Send us your comments ... might be signs of a developmental disorder called attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, or ADHD. ADHD is a common ...

  20. Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tube DysfunctionStrep ThroatAnemiaHyperthyroidismOpioid AddictionDiabetesCroup Home Diseases and Conditions Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Condition Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ( ...

  1. Adult Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Overview Adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental health disorder that includes a combination of persistent problems, such as difficulty paying attention, ...

  2. [Hereditary factors in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fliers, E.A.; Franke, B.

    2005-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by concentration problems, hyperactivity and impulsivity. Disturbances in dopamine and/or noradrenalin neurotransmission are probably the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of ADHD. Around 80% of

  3. Council Chamber exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    To complete the revamp of CERN’s Council Chamber, a new exhibition is being installed just in time for the June Council meetings.   Panels will showcase highlights of CERN’s history, using some of the content prepared for the exhibitions marking 50 years of the PS, which were displayed in the main building last November. The previous photo exhibition in the Council Chamber stopped at the 1970s. To avoid the new panels becoming quickly out of date, photos are grouped together around specific infrastructures, rather than following a classic time-line. “We have put the focus on the accelerators – the world-class facilities that CERN has been offering researchers over the years, from the well-known large colliders to the lesser-known smaller facilities,” says Emma Sanders, who worked on the content. The new exhibition will be featured in a future issue of the Bulletin with photos and an interview with Fabienne Marcastel, designer of the exhibit...

  4. EXHIBITION: Accelerated Particles

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    An exhibition of plastic arts and two evenings of performances by sound and visual artists as part of CERN's 50th anniversary celebrations. Fifty candles for CERN, an international laboratory renowned for fundamental research, is a cause for celebration. Since March this year, Geneva and neighbouring parts of France have been the venues for a wealth of small and large-scale events, which will continue until November. Given CERN's location in the commune of Meyrin, the ForuMeyrin is hosting exhibitions of plastic arts and performances entitled: Accelerated Particles. Several works will be exhibited and performed in two 'salons'. Salon des matières: An exhibition of plastic arts From Tues 12 October to Wed 3 November 2004 Tuesdays to Fridays: 16:00 to 19:00 Saturdays: 14:00 to 18:00 Exhibition open late on performance nights, entrance free Salon des particules: Musical and visual performances Tues 12 and Mon 25 October from 20:00 to 23:00 Preview evening for both events: Tues 12 October from 18:...

  5. Lead and Hyperactivity: Lead Levels Among Hyperactive Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Oliver J.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    In the study it is shown that within a group of 84 hyperactive children (4 to 11 years old) those for whom an organic etiology is present have lead burdens lower than in those for whom no apparent cause could be found. (Author/SBH)

  6. EXHIBITION: Accelerated Particles

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    http://www.cern.ch/cern50/ An exhibition of plastic arts and two evenings of performances by sound and visual artists as part of CERN's fiftieth anniversary celebrations. The fiftieth anniversary of a world famous organization like CERN, an international laboratory specializing in fundamental research, is a cause for celebration. Since March this year, Geneva and neighbouring parts of France have been the venues for a wealth of small and large-scale events, which will continue until November. Given CERN's location in the commune of Meyrin, the ForuMeyrin is hosting two "salons" consisting of an exhibition of plastic arts and evenings of music and visual arts performances with the collective title of "Accelerated Particles". Several works will be exhibited and performed. Salon des matières: An exhibition of plastic arts Until Wednesday 3 November 2004. Tuesdays to Fridays: 4.00 p.m. to 7.00 p.m. Saturdays: 2.00 p.m. to 6.00 p.m. Doors open late on the evening of the performances. Salon des ...

  7. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-04-10

    This podcast discusses Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, or ADHD, the most common behavioral disorder in children. Learn about symptoms, risk factors, and treatment.  Created: 4/10/2014 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD).   Date Released: 5/7/2014.

  8. Hyperactivity, Learning Disabilities, and Alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Sandra; Sherry, Lee

    1984-01-01

    A review of research on the effects of alcohol consumption by pregnant women supports the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's warning about the possible negative effects (learning disabilities, hyperactivity, short attention span, and emotional liability) of children. (Author/CL)

  9. International Space Station exhibit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) exhibit in StenniSphere at John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., gives visitors an up-close look at the largest international peacetime project in history. Step inside a module of the ISS and glimpse how astronauts will live and work in space. Currently, 16 countries contribute resources and hardware to the ISS. When complete, the orbiting research facility will be larger than a football field.

  10. Upcycling CERN Exhibitions

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Summer is coming - and with it, a new Microcosm exhibition showcasing CERN (see here). But while the new exhibit is preparing to enchant visitors, many have been asking about the site's former content. Will it simply be out with the old and in with the new? Not as such!   The plasma ball from Microcosm is now on display at the LHCb site. As Microcosm's new content is moving in, its old content is moving up. From LHCb to IdeaSquare, former Microcosm displays and objects are being installed across the CERN site. "Microcosm featured many elements that were well suited to life outside of the exhibition," says Emma Sanders, Microcosm project leader in the EDU group. "We didn't want this popular content to go to waste, and so set out to find them new homes across CERN." The LHCb experiment has received a number of Microcosm favourites, including the Rutherford experiment, the cosmic ray display and the Thomson experiment. "We&...

  11. Online Exhibits & Concept Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douma, M.

    2009-12-01

    Presenting the complexity of geosciences to the public via the Internet poses a number of challenges. For example, utilizing various - and sometimes redundant - Web 2.0 tools can quickly devour limited time. Do you tweet? Do you write press releases? Do you create an exhibit or concept map? The presentation will provide participants with a context for utilizing Web 2.0 tools by briefly highlighting methods of online scientific communication across several dimensions. It will address issues of: * breadth and depth (e.g. from narrow topics to well-rounded views), * presentation methods (e.g. from text to multimedia, from momentary to enduring), * sources and audiences (e.g. for experts or for the public, content developed by producers to that developed by users), * content display (e.g. from linear to non-linear, from instructive to entertaining), * barriers to entry (e.g. from an incumbent advantage to neophyte accessible, from amateur to professional), * cost and reach (e.g. from cheap to expensive), and * impact (e.g. the amount learned, from anonymity to brand awareness). Against this backdrop, the presentation will provide an overview of two methods of online information dissemination, exhibits and concept maps, using the WebExhibits online museum (www.webexhibits.org) and SpicyNodes information visualization tool (www.spicynodes.org) as examples, with tips on how geoscientists can use either to communicate their science. Richly interactive online exhibits can serve to engage a large audience, appeal to visitors with multiple learning styles, prompt exploration and discovery, and present a topic’s breadth and depth. WebExhibits, which was among the first online museums, delivers interactive information, virtual experiments, and hands-on activities to the public. While large, multidisciplinary exhibits on topics like “Color Vision and Art” or “Calendars Through the Ages” require teams of scholars, user interface experts, professional writers and editors

  12. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and video games: a comparative study of hyperactive and control children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioulac, Stéphanie; Arfi, Lisa; Bouvard, Manuel P

    2008-03-01

    This study describes and compares the behavior of hyperactive and control children playing video games. The sample consisted of 29 ADHD children and 21 controls aged between 6 and 16 years playing video games. We used the Child Behavior Checklist and the Problem Videogame Playing scale (PVP scale). This instrument gives objective measures of problem use, which can be considered as an indication of addictive videogame playing. We designed a questionnaire for the parents, eliciting qualitative information about their child's videogame playing. There were no significant differences concerning frequency or duration of play between ADHD children and controls but differences were observed on the PVP scale. None of the controls scored above four whereas 10 hyperactive children answered affirmatively to five or more questions. These children presented a greater intensity of the disorder than the other ADHD children. While no differences concerning video game use were found, ADHD children exhibited more problems associated with videogame playing. It seems that a subgroup of ADHD children could be vulnerable to developing dependence upon video games.

  13. Mobile exhibition in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1960-04-15

    Since January this year, a mobile atomic energy exhibition has been touring the principal cities of Mexico. In organizing this exhibition, the National Nuclear Energy Commission of Mexico was assisted by the International Atomic Energy Agency which has placed its second mobile radioisotope laboratory at the disposal of the Mexican authorities. In many States of the Republic, the visit of the mobile laboratory has given a powerful impetus to atomic training and research. Universities have made use of the laboratory for the training of young scientists in the basic isotope techniques. As a sequel to the work initiated with its aid, some universities are planning to start regular training courses in this field. The laboratory, which is a gift to the Agency from the United States, has been put to its first assignment in Mexico. It will shortly be sent to Argentina for a period of six months for use in training courses. IAEA's first mobile radioisotope unit, also donated by the United States, has been used for training purposes in Austria, the Federal Republic of Germany, Greece and Yugoslavia, and has now been sent to the Far East

  14. Mobile exhibition in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1960-01-01

    Since January this year, a mobile atomic energy exhibition has been touring the principal cities of Mexico. In organizing this exhibition, the National Nuclear Energy Commission of Mexico was assisted by the International Atomic Energy Agency which has placed its second mobile radioisotope laboratory at the disposal of the Mexican authorities. In many States of the Republic, the visit of the mobile laboratory has given a powerful impetus to atomic training and research. Universities have made use of the laboratory for the training of young scientists in the basic isotope techniques. As a sequel to the work initiated with its aid, some universities are planning to start regular training courses in this field. The laboratory, which is a gift to the Agency from the United States, has been put to its first assignment in Mexico. It will shortly be sent to Argentina for a period of six months for use in training courses. IAEA's first mobile radioisotope unit, also donated by the United States, has been used for training purposes in Austria, the Federal Republic of Germany, Greece and Yugoslavia, and has now been sent to the Far East

  15. Anniversary Exhibition. Nechvolodov.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - -

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available On the 10th of August, 2005 in Tartu (the second biggest educational and cultural city in Estonia Stanislav Nechvolodov's exhibition was opened to show the 5-year cycle of his work, traditional for the author and his admirers. At the opening ceremony Nechvolodov said that the exhibition was the last one and appointed on his 70th anniversary.The architectural and building society in Irkutsk remembers Stanislav Nechvolodov as an architect working on dwelling and civil buildings in 1960-70s. Below are some extracts from the Estonian press.«Postimees» newspaper, December 1993. The interview «Expressionistic naturalist, conservative Nechvolodov» by journalist Eric Linnumyagi. He asks about all the details and describes the troubles experienced by Nechvolodov during the perestroika period in Estonia, for example: the Tartu University refused to install the sculpture of Socrat, the art school refused to engage him as an instructor, the sculpture of Socrat moved to Vrotzlav, Poland, and Nechvolodov moved to Poland to read lectures there.«Tartu» newspaper, November 2000. Mats Oun, artist, says in the article «Nechvolodov: a man of Renaissance»: «Nechvolodov works in Estonia, his works are placed in many local and foreign museums. Regardless some insignificant faults, he deserves a high estimation, and his manysided open exhibition can be an example for other artists. He is a man of Renaissance».

  16. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, D C

    1990-09-01

    The attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder is a common chronic disorder of childhood. No precise definition or approach to treatment is universally accepted; however, an extensive literature exists on which to base a rational approach to management. Symptomatic treatment with stimulant medication in selected patients is effective and safe, but not curative. Successful outcome depends on multimodality therapy, involving parents, teachers, and other professionals. Associated conditions, including learning disorders and emotional disturbance, must be identified and dealt with.

  17. The history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichl, Susanne; Lange, Katharina M.; Tucha, Lara; Tucha, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    The contemporary concept of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as defined in the DSM-IV-TR (American Psychiatric Association 2000) is relatively new. Excessive hyperactive, inattentive, and impulsive children have been described in the literature since the nineteenth century. Some of the early depictions and etiological theories of hyperactivity were similar to current descriptions of ADHD. Detailed studies of the behavior of hyperactive children and increasing knowledge of brain function have changed the concepts of the fundamental behavioral and neuropathological deficits underlying the disorder. This article presents an overview of the conceptual history of modern-day ADHD. PMID:21258430

  18. Cortisol Response to Stress in Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corominas-Roso, Margarida; Palomar, Gloria; Ferrer, Roser; Real, Alberto; Nogueira, Mariana; Corrales, Montserrat; Casas, Miguel; Ramos-Quiroga, Josep Antoni

    2015-03-17

    Differences in the cortisol response have been reported between children exhibiting the inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive subtypes of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. However, there is no such information about adults. The aim of the present study was to determine the possible differences between the combined and inattentive subtypes in the cortisol response to stress. Ninety-six adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, 38 inattentive and 58 combined, without any medical or psychiatric comorbidities and 25 healthy controls were included. The Trier Social Stress Test was used to assess physiological stress responses. Clinical data and subjective stress levels, including the Perceived Stress Scale, were also recorded. No significant differences in the cortisol response to the Trier Social Stress Test were found between patients and controls. However, albeit there were no basal differences, lower cortisol levels at 15 (P=.015), 30 (P=.015), and 45 minutes (P=.045) were observed in the combined compared with the inattentive subtype after the stress induction; these differences disappeared 60 minutes after the stress. In contrast, the subjective stress responses showed significant differences between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder patients and controls (Pattention deficit hyperactivity disorder subtypes. In turn, subjective stress measures, such as the Perceived Stress Scale, positively correlated with the whole cortisol stress response (Pattention deficit hyperactivity disorder adults exhibited a normal cortisol response to stress when challenged. Nevertheless, the inattentive patients displayed a higher level of cortisol after stress compared with the combined patients. Despite the differences in the cortisol response, adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder reported high levels of subjective stress in their every-day life. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  19. Utricular paresis and semicircular canal hyperactivity: a distinct otolith syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeli, Simon I; Snapp, Hillary; Velandia, Sandra; Morgenstein, Kari

    2015-04-01

    Although combined utricular and canal paresis has been described previously, this is the first report of canal hyperactivity associated with utricular hypofunction. Unsteadiness and swaying were the most common symptoms, and patients with shorter duration of symptoms also had positional vertigo. We propose that this syndrome is a variant of utricular dysfunction and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of peripheral vestibular disorders. To describe a syndrome of instability associated with utricular dysfunction and hyperactive caloric responses. The study comprised 11 consecutive patients exhibiting abnormalities of the eccentric subjective visual vertical test (e-SVV) and high responses during the caloric test of the videonystagmography (VNG). We carried out a review of symptoms, physical examination, and vestibular tests. There was no gender predilection or obvious etiology. The patients' main complaint included instability with linear symptoms (i.e., tilting, rocking, and swaying), with positional vertigo as a secondary symptom. Oculomotor testing, visual fixation index, and brain MRI were normal, excluding a central nervous system disorder. VNG was essentially normal except for hyperactive responses during the caloric testing in all patients. Abnormal e-SVV was found in 10 patients unilaterally and bilaterally in 1 patient. Abnormal oVEMP was found in seven of seven patients, further supporting a utricular site of lesion.

  20. Efficiency of the Prefrontal Cortex during Working Memory in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Margaret A.; Hinshaw, Stephen; D'Esposito, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Previous research has demonstrated that during task conditions requiring an increase in inhibitory function or working memory, children and adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) exhibit greater and more varied prefrontal cortical(PFC) activation compared to age-matched control participants. This pattern may reflect…

  1. A Meta-Analysis of Working Memory Impairments in Children with Attention-Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinussen, Rhonda; Hayden, Jill; Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah; Tannock, Rosemary

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine the empirical evidence for deficits in working memory (WM) processes in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: Exploratory meta-analytic procedures were used to investigate whether children with ADHD exhibit WM impairments. Twenty-six empirical research studies published from…

  2. Cultural Variations in Mothers' Attributions: Influence of Child Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Janet W. T.; Johnston, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    The attributions made by Chinese immigrant (n = 28) and Euro-Canadian (n = 27) mothers of 5- to 9-year-old boys regarding the causes of child prosocial and problem behaviors exhibited by children with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were investigated. Mothers' attributions were elicited using audio-taped scenarios of…

  3. Handwriting Capacity in Children Newly Diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brossard-Racine, Marie; Majnemer, Annette; Shevell, Michael; Snider, Laurie; Belanger, Stacey Ageranioti

    2011-01-01

    Preliminary evidence suggests that children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) may exhibit handwriting difficulties. However, the exact nature of these difficulties and the extent to which they may relate to motor or behavioural difficulties remains unclear. The aim of this study was to describe handwriting capacity in children…

  4. Faststats: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)* Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data ... attention deficit disorder (ADD)” is used rather than “attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)” in some data sources. More data Tables ...

  5. Medication Treatment for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Joseph B.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Hughes, Elizabeth M.

    2011-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has become the most commonly diagnosed psychiatric disorder among school-age children. For more than half a century, physicians have prescribed medications to help manage behaviors such as hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention. Today, there is a growing consensus that ADHD is a biologically…

  6. OBSERVATIONS OF HYPERACTIVE BEHAVIOR DURING VIGILANCE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ALBERTS, E; VANDERMEERE, J

    A sustained attention deficit implies a deficit originating in the course of a task. A series of studies previously indicated that task inefficiency in hyperactive children is independent of task duration. The present study shows that differences in body activity between hyperactive and control

  7. The relationship between hyperactivity dyslexia disorder and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hyperactivity and dyslexia disorder, which was discovered at begining of the the twentieth century, also affects academic life negatively. In this study, the relationship between hyperactivity/dyslexia disorder and emotional intelligence and success has been analysed. In this study, the first-year students of primary schools in ...

  8. Gamma aminobutyric acid transporter subtype 1 gene knockout mice: a new model for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Yang; Guoqiang Cai; Youqing Cai; Jian Fei; Guoxiang Liu

    2013-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by hyperactivity,impaired sustained attention,impulsivity,and is usually accompanied by varying degrees of learning difficulties and lack of motor coordination.However,the pathophysiology and etiology of ADHD remain inconclusive so far.Our previous studies have demonstrated that the gamma aminobutyric acid transporter subtype 1 (GAT1) gene knockout (ko) mouse (gat1-/-)is hyperactive and exhibited impaired memory performance in the Morris water maze.In the current study,we found that the gat1-/-mice showed low levels of attentional focusing and increased impulsivity.In addition,the gat1-/-mice displayed ataxia characterized by defects in motor coordination and balance skills.The hyperactivity in the ko mice was reduced by both methylphenidate and amphetamine.Collectively,these results suggest that GAT1 ko mouse is a new animal model for ADHD studying and GAT1 may be a new target to treat ADHD.

  9. Wild-type male offspring of fmr-1+/- mothers exhibit characteristics of the fragile X phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupan, Bojana; Toth, Miklos

    2008-10-01

    Fragile X syndrome is an X-linked disorder caused by the inactivation of the FMR-1 gene with symptoms ranging from impaired cognitive functions to seizures, anxiety, sensory abnormalities, and hyperactivity. Males are more severely affected than heterozygote (H) females, who, as carriers, have a 50% chance of transmitting the mutated allele in each pregnancy. fmr-1 knockout (KO) mice reproduce fragile X symptoms, including hyperactivity, seizures, and abnormal sensory processing. In contrast to the expectation that wild-type (WT) males born to H (fmr-1(+/-)) mothers (H>WT) are behaviorally normal and indistinguishable from WT males born to WT mothers (WT>WT); here, we show that H>WT offspring are more active than WT>WT offspring and that their hyperactivity is similar to male KO mice born to H or KO (fmr-1(-/-)) mothers (H>KO/KO>KO). H>WT mice, however, do not exhibit seizures or abnormal sensory processing. Consistent with their hyperactivity, the effect of the D2 agonist quinpirole is reduced in H>WT as well as in H>KO and KO>KO mice compared to WT>WT offspring, suggesting a diminished feedback inhibition of dopamine release. Our data indicate that some aspects of hyperactivity and associated dopaminergic changes in 'fragile X' mice are a maternal fmr-1 genotype rather than an offspring fmr-1 genotype effect.

  10. Behavioural characterisation of rats exposed neonatally to bisphenol-A: responses to a novel environment and to methylphenidate challenge in a putative model of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiguchi, M.; Fujita, S.; Oki, H.; Shimizu, N.; Cools, A.R.; Koshikawa, N.

    2008-01-01

    Neonatal exposure of rats to bisphenol-A, an endocrine disruptor, has recently been proposed as a possible animal model of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), because such rats exhibit motor hyperactivity. To strengthen the face validity of this animal model, the present study

  11. Optimal stimulation as theoretical basis of hyperactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zentall, Sydney

    1975-07-01

    Current theory and practice in the clinical and educational management of hyperactive children recommend reduction of environmental stimulation, assuming hyperactive and distractable behaviors to be due to overstimulation. This paper reviews research suggesting that hyperactive behavior may result from a homeostatic mechanism that functions to increase stimulation for a child experienceing insufficient sensory stimulation. It is suggested that the effectiveness of drug and behavior therapies, as well as evidence from the field of sensory deprivation, further support the theory of a homeostatic mechanism that attempts to optimize sensory input.

  12. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

    Energie sombre, matière noire J.-J. Dalmais - J. Maréchal Du 11 au 27 novembre 2014, CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal A l’image des particules atomiques qui ont tissé des liens pour créer la matière, deux artistes haut bugistes croisent leurs regards et conjuguent leurs expressions singulières pour faire naître une vision commune de l’univers, produit des forces primordiales. Les sculptures de Jean-Jacques Dalmais et les peintures de Jacki Maréchal se rencontrent pour la première fois et se racontent par un enrichissement mutuel la belle histoire de la Vie. Dialogue magique des œuvres en mouvement qui questionnent en écho l’énergie sombre et la matière noire. Cette harmonieuse confluence de jeux de miroir et de résonnance illumine de poésie et de sobriété l’espace expos&...

  13. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Gaïa Manuella Cany Du 10 au 28 avril 2017 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal Oiseau - Manuella Cany. Tableaux abstraits inspirés de vues satellites ou photos prises du ciel. Certains sont à la frontière du figuratif alors que d'autres permettent de laisser libre cours à son imagination. Aux détails infinis, ces tableaux sont faits pour être vus de loin et de près grâce à une attention toute particulière apportée aux effets de matières et aux couleurs le long de volutes tantôt nuancées tantôt contrastées.   Pour plus d’informations : staff.association@cern.ch | Tél: 022 766 37 38

  14. Exhibition

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association

    2018-01-01

    En dehors des frontières Maxence Piquet Du 2 au 11 mai 2018 | CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal Exposition de peinture d'un artiste autodidacte Maxence Piquet (signature artiste M-P), avec différentes techniques (acrylique, huile, fusain, collage...) et sur différents supports. Un art souvent brut et parfois provoquant, avec des touches expressionnistes et cubistes principale origine de son art. Des œuvres souvent vivent et colorées... Cette exposition est la première en dehors d ses frontières Lorraine et a pour but de faire voyager son art au regard du plus grand nombre . Pour plus d’informations et demandes d’accès : staff.association@cern.ch | Tél: 022 766 37 38

  15. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    The Elementary Particles of Painting Alfonso Fratteggiani Bianchi and Ermanno Imbergamo From September 26 to October 7, 2016 CERN Meyrin, Main Building With intentions similar to those of CERN physicists, the artist Alfonso Fratteggiani Bianchi investigates the color pigment, studying its interaction with light and with the support on which it is deposited. He creates monochrome paintings by spreading the color pigment in the pure state on stones, without using glue or any other type of adhesive. With intentions similar to artists, the physicist Ermanno Imbergamo investigates the use of luminescent wavelength shifters, materials commonly used in Particle Physics, for art. He creates other monochrome artworks, which disclose further aspects of interaction among light, color pigments and support. For more information: staff.association@cern.ch | Tel: 022 767 28 19

  16. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    COLORATION Sandra Duchêne From September 5 to 16, 2016 CERN Meyrin, Main Building La recherche de l’Universel. Après tout ! C’est de l’Amour ! What else to say ? …La couleur, l’ENERGIE de la vie…

  17. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

      Parallels vision Astronomical subjects which evoke extrasensory kinetic visions Alberto Di Fabio From 8 to 10 October, CERN Meyrin, Main Building In the framework of Italy@cern, the Staff Association presents Alberto Di Fabio. Di Fabio’s work is inspired by the fundamental laws of the physical world, as well as organic elements and their interrelation. His paintings and works on paper merge the worlds of art and science, depicting natural forms and biological structures in vivid colour and imaginative detail. For all additional information: staff.association@cern.ch | Tel: 022 767 28 19

  18. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Le Point Isabelle Gailland Du 20 février au 3 mars 2017 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal La Diagonale - Isabelle Gailland. Au départ, un toujours même point minuscule posé au centre de ce que la toile est un espace. Une réplique d'autres points, condensés, alignés, isolés, disséminés construiront dans leur extension, la ligne. Ces lignes, croisées, courbées, déviées, prolongées, seront la structure contenant et séparant la matière des couleurs. La rotation de chaque toile en cours d'exécution va offrir un accès illimité à la non-forme et à la forme. Le point final sera l'ouverture sur différents points de vue de ce que le point et la ligne sont devenus une représentation pour l'œil et l'im...

  19. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2018-01-01

    La danse mécanique Daria Grigoryeva Du 22 mai au 1er juin 2018 | CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal La danse mécanique est une métaphore large. La mécanique établit les règles et les limites, les frontières dans lesquelles la vie et la créativité peuvent se développer. La musique est « mathématique », une poupée mécanique se tourne toujours dans la même direction, selon les règles prescrites par la nature les fleurs fleurissent au printemps. Même s'ils ne le voulaient pas. La participation à la "danse mécanique" est prédéterminée et inévitable. Il ne reste plus qu'à comprendre comment le faire "magnifiquement". En tout, il y a une signification cachée et un...

  20. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Still Life Jérémy Bajulaz Du 25 septembre au 6 octobre 2017 CERN Meyrin, Main Building (Aubergine - Jérémy Bajulaz) Né en 1991 en Haute-Savoie, France. Diplômé de l'Ecole Emile Cohl à Lyon, Jérémy Bajulaz intègre en 2014 le programme d'artiste en résidence au Centre Genevois de Gravure Contemporaine. C'est là que son travail prendra corps, autour de la lumière et de ses vibrations aux travers de sujets comme le portrait et la nature morte, dans le souci de l'observation; le regard prenant une place importante dans le processus créatif. Lauréat 2017 du VII Premio AAAC, son travail a été présenté dans de nombreuses expositions collectives, en 2015 au Bâtiment d’Art Contemporain de Genève, en 2016 au 89e Salon de Lyon et du ...

  1. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Œuvres recentes Fabienne Wyler Du 6 au 17 février 2017 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal L'escalier du diable B - aquarelle, encre de Chine XLV - Fabienne Wyler. En relation avec certains procédés d’écriture contemporaine (par ex. Webern ou certaines musiques conçues par ordinateur), les compositions picturales de Fabienne Wyler s’élaborent à partir de « modules » (groupes de quadrangles) qu’elle reproduit en leur faisant subir toutes sortes de transformations et de déplacements : étirements, renversements, rotations, effet miroir, transpositions, déphasages, superpositions, etc., et ceci à toutes les échelles. Au fil des œuvres sont apparues des séries intitulées, Bifurcations, Intermittences, Attracteurs étranges, Polyrythmies. Ces titres ont un lien &e...

  2. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Les vibrantes Patrick Robbe-Grillet Du 30 octobre au 10 novembre 2017 CERN Meyrin, Main Building Patrick Robbe-Grillet - Feux d'artifices Qui est Patrick Robbe-Grillet ? Artiste Franco-Suisse, né en 1968 à Genève. En recherche du sentiment de paix, autodidacte, après un séjour en Chine en 2000, puis au Japon en 2002, suivi d’un long questionnement, il trouve sa voie dans la peinture, élément libérateur de sa créativité et expression de sa sensibilité à fleur de peau. « La Chine m’a enseigné les courbes, les nuances. Le Japon, la ligne droite, la rigueur. » Vous avez su rendre visible l'invisible ! - commentaire de Monsieur Fawaz Gruosi Pour plus d’informations et demandes d’accès : staff.association@cern.ch | Tél : 022 766 37 38

  3. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    La couleur des jours oriSio Du 2 au 12 mai 2017 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal oriSio - Motus Suite à un fort intérêt pour la Chine et une curiosité pour un médium très ancien, la laque ! Je réinterprète cet art à travers un style abstrait. Je présente ici des laques sur aluminium, travaillés au plasma et ensuite colorés à l’aide de pigments pour l’essentiel. Mes œuvres je les veux brutes, déchirées, évanescentes, gondolées, voire trouées mais avec une belle approche de profondeur de la couleur.   Pour plus d’informations : staff.association@cern.ch | Tél: 022 766 37 38

  4. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    Jan Hladky, physicien de l'Institut de Physique de l'Académie des Sciences de la République tchèque, et membre de la collaboration Alice, expose ses œuvres au Bâtiment principal du 20 avril au 6 mai. Son exposition est dédiée aux victimes du séisme de Sendai. Des copies de ses œuvres seront mises en vente et les sommes récoltées seront versées au profit des victimes.

  5. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    La mosaïque ou quand détruire permet de construire Lauren Decamps Du 28 novembre au 9 décembre 2016 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal Paysage d'Amsterdam - Lauren Decamps On ne doit jamais rien détruire qu'on ne soit sûr de pouvoir remplacer aussi avantageusement " écrivait Plutarque dans ses Œuvres morales du 1er siècle après JC. L'artiste mosaïste Lauren Decamps adhère à cette idée et tente à sa manière de donner une nouvelle vie à ses matériaux en les taillant puis les réassemblant, créant ainsi des œuvres abstraites et figuratives.

  6. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Firmament des toiles Joëlle Lalagüe Du 6 au 16 juin 2017 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal Phylaë Voyage - Joëlle Lalagüe. Each picture is an invitation for a cosmic trip. This is a whispering of soul, which comes from origins. A symphony of the world, some notes of love, a harmony for us to fly to infinity. Pour plus d’informations et demandes d'accès : staff.association@cern.ch | Tél: 022 766 37 38

  7. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2018-01-01

    Univers Du 9 au 20 avril 2018 | CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal Stéphanie Cousin Obsédée par les rêves, les mondes surréalistes et insolites, je m’empare de formes provenant des mes propres travaux photographiques ou d’images que je modifie et mixe. Je fais évoluer mes univers oniriques de femmes-animaux ainsi que mes espaces et natures imaginaires. Avec ma démarche artistique, je cherche à mettre en images nos rêves et nos cauchemars, l’irréel et le surréel, le mystique et les affres de notre inconscient. Je cherche à représenter tout ce qui sommeille au plus profond de nous-même à l’aide de symboles, parfois en utilisant des images de cultures ancestrales. Photographie-collage, je cherche à ajouter quelques notes à la définition de la photographie du 21iè...

  8. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Harmonie Nathalie Lenoir Du 4 au 15 septembre 2017 CERN Meyrin, Bâtiment principal Peindre est un langage. Le tracé du pinceau sur le lin en est l'expression. A qui appartient un tableau en définitive ? A celui qui l'a peint ? A celui qui le regarde ? A celui qui l'emporte ? La peinture est une émotion partagée... Laissez-vous projeter de l'autre côté de la toile, prenez un moment pour rêver, en harmonie avec les éléments, parce-que la peinture parle à votre âme… Pour plus d’informations et demandes d’accès : staff.association@cern.ch | Tél : 022 766 37 38

  9. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2018-01-01

    Cosmos KOLI Du 15 au 26 janvier 2018 CERN Meyrin, Main Building (Nébuleuse d'Orion- KOLI) KOLI, Artiste confirmé, diplômé de l’Académie de Beaux Arts de Tirana, depuis 26 ans en Suisse, où il a participé à maintes expositions collectives et organisé 10 expositions privées avec  beaucoup de succès, s’exprime actuellement dans un bonheur de couleur et de matières qui côtoient des hautes sphères… le cosmos ! Gagnant d’un premier prix lors d’une exposition collective organisée par le consulat Italien, il s’est installé au bord du lac dans le canton de Vaud où il vit depuis maintenant déjà 13 ans. www.kolicreation.com Pour plus d’informations et demandes d’accès : staff.association@cern.ch | T&eacut...

  10. Exhibition at the AAA library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Sonnesgade 11 The exhibition at the AAA library presents selected work produced by students prior to the exhibition of installations in project and praxis constructing an archive at Sonnesgade 11. The exhibition at Sonnesgade 11 was the culmination of collaboration with SLETH architects and studio...

  11. Hyperactivity, drugs and attention deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzi, M; Hartley, L

    1984-09-01

    Thirty-two hyperactive children who were under imipramine or methylphenidate medication took part in the experiment. The children were asked to learn a set of paired associate pictures containing a salient, central, figure and a secondary figure below. Free recall of all pictures was scored both immediately and seven days later. The children were subdivided into four groups according to the classical state-dependent learning paradigm. Group 1 was withdrawn from medication on both trials, groups 2 and 3 were withdrawn from medication on the first or second trial and group 4 received medication on both trials. No drug effects were found in immediate total recall. Delayed free recall was improved when original learning was under the drug state. This result was related to the proposal that arousing words are better remembered in delayed recall. Delayed recall of the secondary stimuli was particularly improved by the drugs during learning. Drug state dependency of the children's memory was also shown.

  12. Perception in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuermaier, Anselm B.M.; Hüpen, Philippa; De Vries, Stefanie M.; Müller, Morgana; Kok, Francien M.; Koerts, Janneke; Heutink, Joost; Tucha, Lara; Gerlach, Manfred; Tucha, Oliver

    A large body of research demonstrated that individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suffer from various neuropsychological deficits. In contrast, less is known and only divergent evidence exists on perceptual functions of individuals with ADHD. This is problematic as

  13. Behavioral management of the hyperactive child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, M E

    1980-09-01

    This paper provides a general outline of the principles of behavioral management of the hyperactive child. The use of stimulant medications and special considerations in school are briefly discussed and then suggestions for initial parent counseling, family assessment, and the analysis of specific behavior problems are reviewed. Techniques of behavioral management are presented for the younger hyperactive child (3 to 7 years) and for the older hyperactive child (8 to 13 years). Among management techniques discussed are positive reinforcement, extinction procedures, and punishment through isolation. The problems involved in the use of corporal punishment are outlined as well as specific guidelines for parents as to when and how corporal punishment can be used effectively. A step-by-step summary of how to employ a token economy to manage both home and school behavior problems in older hyperactive children is presented.

  14. ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER. A CLINICAL LECTURE

    OpenAIRE

    A. S. Kotov; M. N. Borisova; M. V. Panteleeva; Yu. V. Matyuk; A. V. Shatalin

    2015-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a serious problem to pediatric neurologists. The prevalence of ADHD in developed countries ranges from 1 to 20 %. ADHD is characterized by a triad of symptoms: inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity (the International Statistical Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, codes it as F90) and it is the most common conduct disorder in children. The etiology of ADHD remains disсutable to the present day; there are a few basic concepts of t...

  15. The mechanisms of sirtuin 2-mediated exacerbation of alpha-synuclein toxicity in models of Parkinson disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirtuin genes have been associated with aging and are known to affect multiple cellular pathways. Sirtuin 2 was previously shown to modulate proteotoxicity associated with age-associated neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer and Parkinson disease (PD). However, the precise molecular mechanis...

  16. Validation of a quantitative cerebrospinal fluid alpha-synuclein assay in a European-wide interlaboratory study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, N.; Persson, S.; Alcolea, D.

    2015-01-01

    (one lot) were provided centrally and data reported back to one laboratory for data analysis. Our study showed that although factors such as preanalytical sample handling and lot-to-lot variability were minimized by our study design, we identified high variation in absolute values of CSF aSyn even when...... the same samples and same lots of assays were applied. We further demonstrate that although absolute concentrations differ between laboratories the quantitative results are comparable. With further standardization this assay may become an attractive tool for comparing aSyn measurements in diverse settings...... assay (ELISA) for the quantification of aSyn in CSF, we carried out a round robin trial with 18 participating laboratories trained in CSF ELISA analyses within the BIOMARKAPD project in the EU Joint Program -Neurodegenerative Disease Research. CSF samples (homogeneous aliquots from pools) and ELISA kits...

  17. Alpha-Synuclein Pathology in Sensory Nerve Terminals of the Upper Aerodigestive Tract of Parkinson’s Disease Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Liancai; Chen, Jingming; Sobotka, Stanislaw; Nyirenda, Themba; Benson, Brian; Gupta, Fiona; Sanders, Ira; Adler, Charles H.; Caviness, John N.; Shill, Holly A.; Sabbagh, Marwan; Samanta, Johan E.; Sue, Lucia I.; Beach, Thomas G.

    2015-01-01

    Dysphagia is common in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and causes significant morbidity and mortality. PD dysphagia has usually been explained as dysfunction of central motor control, much like other motor symptoms that are characteristic of the disease. However, PD dysphagia does not correlate with severity of motor symptoms nor does it respond to motor therapies. It is known that PD patients have sensory deficits in the pharynx, and that impaired sensation may contribute to dysphagia. However, the underlying cause of the pharyngeal sensory deficits in PD is not known. We hypothesized that PD dysphagia with sensory deficits may be due to degeneration of the sensory nerve terminals in the upper aerodigestive tract (UAT). We have previously shown that Lewy-type synucleinopathy (LTS) is present in the main pharyngeal sensory nerves of PD patients, but not in controls. In this study, the sensory terminals in UAT mucosa were studied to discern the presence and distribution of LTS. Whole-mount specimens (tongue-pharynx-larynx-upper esophagus) were obtained from 10 deceased human subjects with clinically diagnosed and neuropathologically confirmed PD (five with dysphagia and five without) and four age-matched healthy controls. Samples were taken from six sites and immunostained for phosphorylated α-synuclein (PAS). The results showed the presence of PAS-immunoreactive (PAS-ir) axons in all the PD subjects and in none of the controls. Notably, PD patients with dysphagia had more PAS-ir axons in the regions that are critical for initiating the swallowing reflex. These findings suggest that Lewy pathology affects mucosal sensory axons in specific regions of the UAT and may be related to PD dysphagia. PMID:26041249

  18. Alpha-Synuclein Pathology in Sensory Nerve Terminals of the Upper Aerodigestive Tract of Parkinson's Disease Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Liancai; Chen, Jingming; Sobotka, Stanislaw; Nyirenda, Themba; Benson, Brian; Gupta, Fiona; Sanders, Ira; Adler, Charles H; Caviness, John N; Shill, Holly A; Sabbagh, Marwan; Samanta, Johan E; Sue, Lucia I; Beach, Thomas G

    2015-08-01

    Dysphagia is common in Parkinson's disease (PD) and causes significant morbidity and mortality. PD dysphagia has usually been explained as dysfunction of central motor control, much like other motor symptoms that are characteristic of the disease. However, PD dysphagia does not correlate with severity of motor symptoms nor does it respond to motor therapies. It is known that PD patients have sensory deficits in the pharynx, and that impaired sensation may contribute to dysphagia. However, the underlying cause of the pharyngeal sensory deficits in PD is not known. We hypothesized that PD dysphagia with sensory deficits may be due to degeneration of the sensory nerve terminals in the upper aerodigestive tract (UAT). We have previously shown that Lewy-type synucleinopathy (LTS) is present in the main pharyngeal sensory nerves of PD patients, but not in controls. In this study, the sensory terminals in UAT mucosa were studied to discern the presence and distribution of LTS. Whole-mount specimens (tongue-pharynx-larynx-upper esophagus) were obtained from 10 deceased human subjects with clinically diagnosed and neuropathologically confirmed PD (five with dysphagia and five without) and four age-matched healthy controls. Samples were taken from six sites and immunostained for phosphorylated α-synuclein (PAS). The results showed the presence of PAS-immunoreactive (PAS-ir) axons in all the PD subjects and in none of the controls. Notably, PD patients with dysphagia had more PAS-ir axons in the regions that are critical for initiating the swallowing reflex. These findings suggest that Lewy pathology affects mucosal sensory axons in specific regions of the UAT and may be related to PD dysphagia.

  19. Reducing C-terminal-truncated alpha-synuclein by immunotherapy attenuates neurodegeneration and propagation in Parkinson's disease-like models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Games, Dora; Valera, Elvira; Spencer, Brian; Rockenstein, Edward; Mante, Michael; Adame, Anthony; Patrick, Christina; Ubhi, Kiren; Nuber, Silke; Sacayon, Patricia; Zago, Wagner; Seubert, Peter; Barbour, Robin; Schenk, Dale; Masliah, Eliezer

    2014-07-09

    Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) are common neurodegenerative disorders of the aging population, characterized by progressive and abnormal accumulation of α-synuclein (α-syn). Recent studies have shown that C-terminus (CT) truncation and propagation of α-syn play a role in the pathogenesis of PD/DLB. Therefore, we explored the effect of passive immunization against the CT of α-syn in the mThy1-α-syn transgenic (tg) mouse model, which resembles the striato-nigral and motor deficits of PD. Mice were immunized with the new monoclonal antibodies 1H7, 5C1, or 5D12, all directed against the CT of α-syn. CT α-syn antibodies attenuated synaptic and axonal pathology, reduced the accumulation of CT-truncated α-syn (CT-α-syn) in axons, rescued the loss of tyrosine hydroxylase fibers in striatum, and improved motor and memory deficits. Among them, 1H7 and 5C1 were most effective at decreasing levels of CT-α-syn and higher-molecular-weight aggregates. Furthermore, in vitro studies showed that preincubation of recombinant α-syn with 1H7 and 5C1 prevented CT cleavage of α-syn. In a cell-based system, CT antibodies reduced cell-to-cell propagation of full-length α-syn, but not of the CT-α-syn that lacked the 118-126 aa recognition site needed for antibody binding. Furthermore, the results obtained after lentiviral expression of α-syn suggest that antibodies might be blocking the extracellular truncation of α-syn by calpain-1. Together, these results demonstrate that antibodies against the CT of α-syn reduce levels of CT-truncated fragments of the protein and its propagation, thus ameliorating PD-like pathology and improving behavioral and motor functions in a mouse model of this disease. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/349441-14$15.00/0.

  20. Structural variation of alpha-synuclein with temperature by a coarse-grained approach with knowledge-based interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Mirau

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite enormous efforts, our understanding the structure and dynamics of α-synuclein (ASN, a disordered protein (that plays a key role in neurodegenerative disease is far from complete. In order to better understand sequence-structure-property relationships in α-SYNUCLEIN we have developed a coarse-grained model using knowledge-based residue-residue interactions and used it to study the structure of free ASN as a function of temperature (T with a large-scale Monte Carlo simulation. Snapshots of the simulation and contour contact maps show changes in structure formation due to self-assembly as a function of temperature. Variations in the residue mobility profiles reveal clear distinction among three segments along the protein sequence. The N-terminal (1-60 and C-terminal (96-140 regions contain the least mobile residues, which are separated by the higher mobility non-amyloid component (NAC (61-95. Our analysis of the intra-protein contact profile shows a higher frequency of residue aggregation (clumping in the N-terminal region relative to that in the C-terminal region, with little or no aggregation in the NAC region. The radius of gyration (Rg of ASN decays monotonically with decreasing the temperature, consistent with the finding of Allison et al. (JACS, 2009. Our analysis of the structure function provides an insight into the mass (N distribution of ASN, and the dimensionality (D of the structure as a function of temperature. We find that the globular structure with D ≈ 3 at low T, a random coil, D ≈ 2 at high T and in between (2 ≤ D ≤ 3 at the intermediate temperatures. The magnitudes of D are in agreement with experimental estimates (J. Biological Chem 2002.

  1. Late-stage alpha-synuclein accumulation in TNWT-61 mouse model of Parkinson's disease detected by diffusion kurtosis imaging

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Khairnar, A.; Rudá-Kučerová, J.; Dražanová, Eva; Szabó, N.; Latta, P.; Arab, A.; Hutter-Paier, B.; Havas, D.; Windisch, M.; Šulcová, A.; Starčuk jr., Zenon; Király, A.; Rektorová, I.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 136, č. 6 (2016), s. 1259-1269 ISSN 0022-3042 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : diffusion kurtosis imaging * diffusion kurtosis imaging * Parkinson's disease * TBSS * TNWT-61 * transgenic mice Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 4.083, year: 2016

  2. Application of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry for study on fibrillar and oligomeric aggregates of alpha-synuclein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Severinovskaya, O. V.; Kovalska, V B; Losytskyy, M Yu; Cherepanov, V. V.; Subramaniam, V.; Yarmoluk, S M

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To study the α-synuclein (ASN) aggregates of different structural origin, namely amyloid fibrils and spherical oligomers, in comparison with a native protein. Methods. MALDI TOF mass spectrometry and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Results. The mass spectra of native and fibrillar ASN have

  3. 5-HT2A Receptor Binding in the Frontal Cortex of Parkinson's Disease Patients and Alpha-Synuclein Overexpressing Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Nadja Bredo; Olesen, Mikkel Vestergaard; Brudek, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    The receptor is highly involved in aspects of cognition and executive function and seen to be affected in neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s disease and related to the disease pathology. Even though Parkinson’s disease (PD) is primarily a motor disorder, reports of impaired executive...

  4. Non-uniform self-assembly: On the anisotropic architecture of alpha-synuclein supra-fibrillar aggregates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Semerdzhiev, S. A.; Shvadchak, Volodymyr V.; Subramaniam, V.; Claessens, M. M. A. E.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, Aug 9 (2017), č. článku 7699. ISSN 2045-2322 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : liquid crystal spherulites * Parkinson's disease * Alzheimer's disease Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics OBOR OECD: Biophysics Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016 https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-017-06532-1

  5. Alpha-synuclein sequesters Dnmt1 from the nucleus: a novel mechanism for epigenetic alterations in Lewy body diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desplats, Paula; Spencer, Brian; Coffee, Elizabeth; Patel, Pruthul; Michael, Sarah; Patrick, Christina; Adame, Anthony; Rockenstein, Edward; Masliah, Eliezer

    2011-03-18

    DNA methylation is a major epigenetic modification that regulates gene expression. Dnmt1, the maintenance DNA methylation enzyme, is abundantly expressed in the adult brain and is mainly located in the nuclear compartment, where it has access to chromatin. Hypomethylation of CpG islands at intron 1 of the SNCA gene has recently been reported to result in overexpression of α-synuclein in Parkinson disease (PD) and related disorders. We therefore investigated the mechanisms underlying altered DNA methylation in PD and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). We present evidence of reduction of nuclear Dnmt1 levels in human postmortem brain samples from PD and DLB patients as well as in the brains of α-synuclein transgenic mice models. Furthermore, sequestration of Dnmt1 in the cytoplasm results in global DNA hypomethylation in human and mouse brains, involving CpG islands upstream of SNCA, SEPW1, and PRKAR2A genes. We report that association of Dnmt1 and α-synuclein might mediate aberrant subcellular localization of Dnmt1. Nuclear Dnmt1 levels were partially rescued by overexpression of Dnmt1 in neuronal cell cultures and in α-synuclein transgenic mice brains. Our results underscore a novel mechanism for epigenetic dysregulation in Lewy body diseases, which might underlie the decrease in DNA methylation reported for PD and DLB.

  6. Early and progressive microstructural brain changes in mice overexpressing human alpha-Synuclein detected by diffusion kurtosis imaging

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Khairnar, A.; Rudá-Kučerová, J.; Szabó, N.; Dražanová, Eva; Arab, A.; Hutter-Paier, B.; Neddens, J.; Latta, P.; Starčuk jr., Zenon; Rektorová, I.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 61, MAR (2017), s. 197-208 ISSN 0889-1591 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015062; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : MRI * diffusion kurtosis imaging * substantia nigra * sriatum * thalamus * TNWT-61 * parkinson's disease * transgenic mice * animal model Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers OBOR OECD: 1.7 Other natural sciences Impact factor: 5.964, year: 2016

  7. Drp-1 dependent mitochondrial fragmentation and protective autophagy in dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells overexpressing alpha-synuclein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Jimena Hebe; Alaimo, Agustina; Gorojod, Roxana Mayra; Porte Alcon, Soledad; Fuentes, Federico; Coluccio Leskow, Federico; Kotler, Mónica Lidia

    2018-04-01

    Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative movement disorder caused by the loss of dopaminergic neurons from substantia nigra. It is characterized by the accumulation of aggregated α-synuclein as the major component of the Lewy bodies. Additional common features of this disease are the mitochondrial dysfunction and the activation/inhibition of autophagy both events associated to the intracellular accumulation of α-synuclein. The mechanism by which these events contribute to neural degeneration remains unknown. In the present work we investigated the effect of α-synuclein on mitochondrial dynamics and autophagy/mitophagy in SH-SY5Y cells, an in vitro model of Parkinson disease. We demonstrated that overexpression of wild type α-synuclein causes moderated toxicity, ROS generation and mitochondrial dysfunction. In addition, α-synuclein induces the mitochondrial fragmentation on a Drp-1-dependent fashion. Overexpression of the fusion protein Opa-1 prevented both mitochondrial fragmentation and cytotoxicity. On the other hand, cells expressing α-synuclein showed activated autophagy and particularly mitophagy. Employing a genetic strategy we demonstrated that autophagy is triggered in order to protect cells from α-synuclein-induced cell death. Our results clarify the role of Opa-1 and Drp-1 in mitochondrial dynamics and cell survival, a controversial α-synuclein research issue. The findings presented point to the relevance of mitochondrial homeostasis and autophagy in the pathogenesis of PD. Better understanding of the molecular interaction between these processes could give rise to novel therapeutic methods for PD prevention and amelioration. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Pressure effects on .alpha.-synuclein amyloid fibrils: an experimental investigation on their dissociation and reversible nature

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Piccirilli, F.; Plotegher, N.; Spinozzi, F.; Bubacco, L.; Mariani, P.; Beltramini, M.; Tessari, I.; Militello, V.; Perucchi, A.; Amenitsch, H.; Baldassarri Jr., E.; Steinhart, Miloš; Lupi, S.; Ortore, M. G.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 627, 1 August (2017), s. 46-55 ISSN 0003-9861 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : amyloid * high-pressure * SAXS Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 3.165, year: 2016

  9. Structural Variation of Alpha-synuclein with Temperature by a Coarse-grained Approach with Knowledge-based Interactions (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Alzheimer disease. ASN1,3 has been extensively studied as an intrinsically disordered (unstructured) protein with a monomeric conformation compa- rable to a...changes in these physical quantities occur by avoiding the low and high temperature extremes. Typical snapshots from the simulations as a function of...mobile as the residue-residue interactions become less impor- tant and the protein assumes a self- avoiding walk (SAW) or random coil conformation (vida

  10. SMG1 identified as a regulator of Parkinson's disease-associated alpha-synuclein through siRNA screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne Henderson-Smith

    Full Text Available Synucleinopathies are a broad class of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the presence of intracellular protein aggregates containing α-synuclein protein. The aggregated α-synuclein protein is hyperphosphorylated on serine 129 (S129 compared to the unaggregated form of the protein. While the precise functional consequences of S129 hyperphosphorylation are still being clarified, numerous in vitro and in vivo studies suggest that S129 phosphorylation is an early event in α-synuclein dysfunction and aggregation. Identifying the kinases and phosphatases that regulate this critical phosphorylation event may ultimately prove beneficial by allowing pharmacological mitigation of synuclein dysfunction and toxicity in Parkinson's disease and other synucleinopathies. We report here the development of a high-content, fluorescence-based assay to quantitate levels of total and S129 phosphorylated α-synuclein protein. We have applied this assay to conduct high-throughput loss-of-function screens with siRNA libraries targeting 711 known and predicted human kinases and 206 phosphatases. Specifically, knockdown of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase related kinase SMG1 resulted in significant increases in the expression of pS129 phosphorylated α-synuclein (p-syn. Moreover, SMG1 protein levels were significantly reduced in brain regions with high p-syn levels in both dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB and Parkinson's disease with dementia (PDD. These findings suggest that SMG1 may play an important role in increased α-synuclein pathology during the course of PDD, DLB, and possibly other synucleinopathies.

  11. Photobiomodulation Suppresses Alpha-Synuclein-Induced Toxicity in an AAV-Based Rat Genetic Model of Parkinson's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abid Oueslati

    Full Text Available Converging lines of evidence indicate that near-infrared light treatment, also known as photobiomodulation (PBM, may exert beneficial effects and protect against cellular toxicity and degeneration in several animal models of human pathologies, including neurodegenerative disorders. In the present study, we report that chronic PMB treatment mitigates dopaminergic loss induced by unilateral overexpression of human α-synuclein (α-syn in the substantia nigra of an AAV-based rat genetic model of Parkinson's disease (PD. In this model, daily exposure of both sides of the rat's head to 808-nm near-infrared light for 28 consecutive days alleviated α-syn-induced motor impairment, as assessed using the cylinder test. This treatment also significantly reduced dopaminergic neuronal loss in the injected substantia nigra and preserved dopaminergic fibers in the ipsilateral striatum. These beneficial effects were sustained for at least 6 weeks after discontinuing the treatment. Together, our data point to PBM as a possible therapeutic strategy for the treatment of PD and other related synucleinopathies.

  12. Mutation of Elfn1 in mice causes seizures and hyperactivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackie Dolan

    Full Text Available A growing number of proteins with extracellular leucine-rich repeats (eLRRs have been implicated in directing neuronal connectivity. We previously identified a novel family of eLRR proteins in mammals: the Elfns are transmembrane proteins with 6 LRRs, a fibronectin type-3 domain and a long cytoplasmic tail. The recent discovery that Elfn1 protein, expressed postsynaptically, can direct the elaboration of specific electrochemical properties of synapses between particular cell types in the hippocampus strongly reinforces this hypothesis. Here, we present analyses of an Elfn1 mutant mouse line and demonstrate a functional requirement for this gene in vivo. We first carried out detailed expression analysis of Elfn1 using a β-galactosidase reporter gene in the knockout line. Elfn1 is expressed in distinct subsets of interneurons of the hippocampus and cortex, and also in discrete subsets of cells in the habenula, septum, globus pallidus, dorsal subiculum, amygdala and several other regions. Elfn1 is expressed in diverse cell types, including local GABAergic interneurons as well as long-range projecting GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons. Elfn1 protein localises to axons of excitatory neurons in the habenula, and long-range GABAergic neurons of the globus pallidus, suggesting the possibility of additional roles for Elfn1 in axons or presynaptically. While gross anatomical analyses did not reveal any obvious neuroanatomical abnormalities, behavioural analyses clearly illustrate functional effects of Elfn1 mutation. Elfn1 mutant mice exhibit seizures, subtle motor abnormalities, reduced thigmotaxis and hyperactivity. The hyperactivity is paradoxically reversible by treatment with the stimulant amphetamine, consistent with phenotypes observed in animals with habenular lesions. These analyses reveal a requirement for Elfn1 in brain function and are suggestive of possible relevance to the etiology and pathophysiology of epilepsy and attention

  13. The World of Virtual Exhibitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Eiselt

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available EXTENDED ABSTRACTSpecial collections of the National and University Library (NUK hide a lot of items of precious value. The Slovenian cultural heritage is stored on paper or on other media as a part of the library’s Manuscripts, Incunabula and Rare Books Collection, Old Prints Collection, Maps and Pictorial Collection, Music Collection, Ephemera Collection, Serials Collection, and Slovenian Diaspora Publications Collection. Only a small part of the treasures is temporary revealed to the public on special exhibitions. The idea of virtual exhibitions of library treasures was born in 2005. The library aimed to exhibit precious items of special collections of high historical or artistic value. In 2008 the first two virtual exhibitions were created in-house offering access to the rich collections of old postcards of Ljubljana at the beginning of 20th century kept in the Maps and Pictorial Collection of NUK. They were soon followed by other virtual exhibitions. At the beginning they were organised in the same way as physical exhibitions, afterwards different programs were used for creation of special effects (for ex. 3D wall. About two years ago it was decided that the creation of virtual exhibitions will be simplified. Files of digitised and borndigital library materials in jpg format are imported to MS PowerPoint 2010. Each jpg file is now formatted by adding a frame, a description … to the slides which are saved as jpg files. The last step is the import of jpg files into Cooliris application used for NUK web exhibitions. In the paper the virtual exhibition design and creation, the technical point of view and criteria for the selection of exhibition content are explained following the example of the virtual exhibitions the Old Postcards of Ljubljana, Photo Ateliers in Slovenia, a collection of photographs Four Seasons by Fran Krašovec and photos of Post-Earthquake Ljubljana in 1895.

  14. Sleep disturbances in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruyt, Karen; Gozal, David

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we advocate the need for better understanding and treatment of children exhibiting inattentive, hyperactive, impulsive behaviors, by in-depth questioning on sleepiness, sleep-disordered breathing or problematic behaviors at bedtime, during the night and upon awakening, as well as night-to-night sleep duration variability. The relationships between sleep and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are complex and are routinely overlooked by practitioners. Motricity and somnolence, the most consistent complaints and objectively measured sleep problems in children with ADHD, may develop as a consequence of multidirectional and multifactorial pathways. Therefore, subjectively perceived or reported restless sleep should be evaluated with specific attention to restless legs syndrome or periodic limb movement disorder, and awakenings should be queried with regard to parasomnias, dyssomnias and sleep-disordered breathing. Sleep hygiene logs detailing sleep onset and offset quantitatively, as well as qualitatively, are required. More studies in children with ADHD are needed to reveal the 24-h phenotype, or its sleep comorbidities. PMID:21469929

  15. Is Positive Bias in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder a Function of Low Competence or Disorder Status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watabe, Yuko; Owens, Julie S.; Serrano, Verenea; Evans, Steven W.

    2018-01-01

    Previous literature suggests that children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) exhibit a positive bias (PB), defined as an over-estimation of one's own ability as compared with actual ability. However, it is possible that the larger discrepancy (i.e., PB) in children with ADHD is accounted for by lower competence levels rather…

  16. Mothers' Reflections on the Role of the Educational Psychologist in Supporting Their Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohangi, K.; Archer, K.

    2015-01-01

    The characteristically disruptive conduct exhibited both at school and home by children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) appears to be particularly emotionally difficult for the children's mothers, who often turn to educational professionals for guidance. With a view to improving best practice in assistance to mothers…

  17. Dansk standardisering af attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder-ratingskalaen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lotte; Jørgensen, Siv Lykke; Dalsgaard, Søren

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. The diagnostic classification is based on developmental anamnesis, objective examination, neuropsychological tests, observation of the child, and evaluation of the symptoms...

  18. Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Data and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Note: Javascript is disabled or ... claims to understand diagnosis and treatment patterns for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). On this page you can ...

  19. Children and Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Renew CHADD Annual Conference Children and Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (CHADD), is a national nonprofit organization ... ADHD community. © 2017 by Children and Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (CHADD). All Rights Reserved. Press Privacy ...

  20. Persistence of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder into adulthood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Persistence of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder into adulthood: A study conducted on parents of children diagnosed with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. ... 10, No 1 (2007) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  1. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Tuberous Sclerosis Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Privacy Policy Sitemap Learn Engage Donate About TSC Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and TSC What is ADHD? Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common neurobehavioral disorder. It is ...

  2. Photowalk Exhibition opens at Microcosm

    CERN Document Server

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    The winning photographs from the 2010 Global Particle Physics Photowalk competition will go on display at Microcosm from 11 February to 2 April. The exhibition is part of a global photography event taking place over three continents, with Photowalk exhibitions opening simultaneously at Fermilab in the US, KEK in Japan and here at CERN.   DESY wire chamber - First place people's choice; second place global jury competition. Photographer: Hans-Peter Hildebrandt  If you were one of the 1,300 photography lovers who voted in last year’s Photowalk competition, this exhibition is your chance to see the winning entries in print. The exhibition will take place in the downstairs gallery of Microcosm, overlooking the garden. 15 photographs will be on display, with each of the laboratories that participated in Photowalk represented by their 3 winning entries. Among them will be the “people’s choice” sunburst photo of a particle detector at DESY (Photo 1), and...

  3. Globe exhibit wins international acclaim

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    The Globe’s “Universe of Particles” exhibition has recently received four prestigious awards for its avant-garde design. This external praise is great encouragement for the CERN exhibitions currently on the drawing board.   The Universe of Particles exhibition has won 4 awards for its avant-garde design. Back in 2008, the design company Atelier Brückner was presented with a challenge: to design the layout of a new permanent exhibition for CERN, one that would epitomize both the Organization and its research. The brief was concise but complex: the exhibit had to be symbolic of the Organization, use modern technology, engage and immerse visitors, and, preferably, use touch-screen technology. With the help of IArt, an interactive technology firm, and based on the content provided by CERN’s Education Group, Atelier Brückner developed the “Universe of Particles” exhibit as it is today. Its principal concept centred on the s...

  4. Greenhouse Earth: A Traveling Exhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, W.H.; Caesar, S.

    1992-09-01

    The Franklin Institute Science Museum provided an exhibit entitled the Greenhouse Earth: A Traveling Exhibition. This 3500 square-foot exhibit on global climate change was developed in collaboration with the Association of Science-Technology Centers. The exhibit opened at The Franklin Institute on February 14, 1992, welcoming 291,000 visitors over its three-month stay. During its three-year tour, Greenhouse Earth will travel to ten US cities, reaching two million visitors. Greenhouse Earth aims to deepen public understanding of the scientific issues of global warming and the conservation measures that can be taken to slow its effects. The exhibit features hands-on exhibitry, interactive computer programs and videos, a theater production, a ''demonstration cart,'' guided tours, and lectures. supplemental educational programs at the Institute included a teachers preview, a symposium on climate change, and a ''satellite field trip.'' The development of Greenhouse Earth included front-end and formative evaluation procedures. Evaluation includes interviews with visitors, prototypes, and summative surveys for participating museums. During its stay in Philadelphia, Greenhouse Earth was covered by the local and national press, with reviews in print and broadcast media. Greenhouse Earth is the first large-scale museum exhibit to address global climate change

  5. A Divided Attention Experiment with Pervasively Hyperactive Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meere, Jaap; Sergeant, Joseph

    1987-01-01

    Task performance of 12 pervasive hyperactives and controls (ages 8-13) was studied in a divided attention reaction time experiment. Hyperactives were slower than controls, had more variable reaction times, and made more frequent errors. Task inefficiency in hyperactives could not be explained by a divided attention deficiency or impulsive…

  6. Mice lacking collapsin response mediator protein 1 manifest hyperactivity, impaired learning and memory, and impaired prepulse inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoya eYamashita

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Collapsin response mediator protein 1 (CRMP1 is one of the CRMP family members that are involved in various aspects of neuronal development such as axonal guidance and neuronal migration. Here we provide evidence that crmp1-/- mice exhibited behavioral abnormalities related to schizophrenia. The crmp1-/- mice exhibited hyperactivity and/or impaired emotional behavioral phenotype. These mice also exhibited impaired context-dependent memory and long-term memory retention. Furthermore, crmp1-/- mice exhibited decreased prepulse inhibition, and this phenotype was rescued by administration of chlorpromazine, a typical antipsychotic drug. In addition, in vivo microdialysis revealed that the methamphetamine-induced release of dopamine in prefrontal cortex was exaggerated in crmp1-/- mice, suggesting that enhanced mesocortical dopaminergic transmission contributes to their hyperactivity phenotype. These observations suggest that impairment of CRMP1 function may be involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. We propose that crmp1-/- mouse may model endophenotypes present in this neuropsychiatric disorder.

  7. [Parenting styles and their relationship with hyperactivity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raya Trenas, Antonio Félix; Herreruzo Cabrera, Javier; Pino Osuna, María José

    2008-11-01

    The present study aims to determine the relationship among factors that make up the parenting styles according to the PCRI (Parent-Child Relationship Inventory) and hyperactivity reported by parents through the BASC (Behaviour Assessment System for Children). We selected a sample of 32 children between 3 and 14 years old (23 male and 9 female) with risk scores in hyperactivity and another similar group with low scores in hyperactivity. After administering both instruments to the parents, we carried out a binomial logistic regression analysis which resulted in a prediction model for 84.4% of the sample, made up of the PCRI factors: fathers' involvement, communication and role orientation, mothers' parental support, and both parents' limit-setting and autonomy. Moreover, our analysis of the variance produced significant differences in the support perceived by the fathers and mothers of both groups. Lastly, the utility of results to propose intervention strategies within the family based on an authoritative style is discussed.

  8. Exhibition - Mathematics, A Beautiful Elsewhere

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    From 21 October 2011 to 18 March 2012, the Fondation Cartier pour l’art contemporain will present the exhibition Mathematics: A Beautiful Elsewhere, an exhibition developed in association with the Institut des Hautes Études Scientifiques (IHÉS) and under the patronage of UNESCO. For this unprecedented event, the foundation invited mathematicians to work with artists with whom it has previously worked to create an exhibition that allows visitors to see, hear, do, interpret and think about mathematics. By bringing mathematics into its premises, the Fondation Cartier is itself undergoing the “sudden change of scenery” described by mathematician Alexandre Grothendieck. More information is available here. Fondation Cartier pour l’art contemporain 261, boulevard Raspail 75014 Paris http://fondation.cartier.com Private Visit For professors, researchers and all the staff of Mathematics departments...

  9. Stimulation seeking and hyperactivity in children with ADHD. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antrop, I; Roeyers, H; Van Oost, P; Buysse, A

    2000-02-01

    Thirty hyperactive and 30 non-hyperactive children were confronted with a delay, consisting of a waiting situation of 15 minutes, either with or without extra stimulation provided by the presentation of a videotape. The behaviour of the child during the waiting period was videotaped and later coded by two naive observers. In line with theories that emphasise the stimulation-seeking function of hyperactive behaviours, such as the optimal stimulation account and the delay aversion theory, a group by stimulation effect was hypothesised. For two categories of activity this was found, with ADHD children displaying more activity than non-ADHD children in the no-stimulation but not in the stimulation condition. These data provide support for the stimulation-seeking function of certain features of ADHD hyperactivity.

  10. Learning from Exhibitions: Chuck Close.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark M.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the artwork of Chuck Close, who is well known for his over-sized portraits of fellow artists and anonymous sitters, and the exhibition of his work that premiered at New York's Museum of Modern Art before traveling to other cities in the United States. (CMK)

  11. Cardiovascular considerations of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder medications: a report of the European Network on Hyperactivity Disorders work group, European Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Guidelines Group on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder drug safety meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Robert M; Rosenthal, Eric; Hulpke-Wette, Martin; Graham, John G I; Sergeant, Joseph

    2012-02-01

    Regulatory decisions regarding attention deficit hyperactivity disorder drug licensing and labelling, along with recent statements from professional associations, raise questions of practice regarding the evaluation and treatment of patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. To address these issues for the European community, the European Network for Hyperkinetic Disorders, through its European Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Guidelines Group, organised a meeting between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder specialists, paediatric cardiovascular specialists, and representatives of the major market authorisation holders for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder medications. This manuscript represents their consensus on cardiovascular aspects of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder medications. Although sudden death has been identified in multiple young individuals on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder medication causing regulatory concern, when analysed for exposure using currently available data, sudden death does not appear to exceed that of the general population. There is no current evidence to suggest an incremental benefit to electrocardiography assessment of the general attention deficit hyperactivity disorder patient. Congenital heart disease patients have an increased prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and can benefit from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder therapies, including medication. The attention deficit hyperactivity disorder specialist is the appropriate individual to evaluate benefit and risk and recommend therapy in all patients, although discussion with a heart specialist is reasonable for congenital heart disease patients. For attention deficit hyperactivity disorder patients with suspected heart disease or risk factor/s for sudden death, assessment by a heart specialist is recommended, as would also be the case for a non-attention deficit hyperactivity disorder patient. The

  12. Stigma in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, Kathi; Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Lara

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a frequently diagnosed disorder in child- and adulthood with a high impact affecting multiple facets of social life. Therefore, patients suffering from ADHD are at high risk to be confronted with stigma, prejudices, and discrimination. A review of

  13. The relationship between hyperactivity dyslexia disorder and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF.MIREKU

    and memory disorder, learning disabilities in some subjects ( reading, writting, ... Although attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity (ADHD) shows ... make approriate decisions about these children both in education division and school ... The first diagnose of learning disability are listening, reasoning, speaking, reading,.

  14. ADHD Diet: Do Food Additives Cause Hyperactivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 3 fatty acids found in certain types of fish, flaxseed and other foods. With David C. Agerter, M.D Food colours and hyperactivity. NHS Choices. http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/food-additive-intolerance/Pages/Introduction.aspx. Accessed Sept. 18, 2017. ...

  15. hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptomatology and psychiatric co ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), this study aimed to establish the prevalence of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) ADHD in a cohort of South African adolescents who had been diagnosed with the disorder in ...

  16. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Parent's Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Anna M.

    1996-01-01

    A parent and educator who has spent the past 10 years struggling to help her own ADHD (attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder) child offers suggestions for managing the challenges facing such children and enhancing the quality of their lives. Since drug regimens have limitations, parents need to read appropriate literature and receive…

  17. Did goethe describe attention deficit hyperactivity disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonazza, Sara; Scaglione, Cesa; Poppi, Massimo; Rizzo, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    As early as 1846, the typical symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were described by Heinrich Hoffmann (1809-1894). However, in Goethe's masterpiece Faust (1832), the character of Euphorion strongly suggests ADHD diagnosis. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Mobile Technologies in Museum Exhibitions

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Medić; Nataša Pavlović

    2014-01-01

    In order to be up–to–date and give visitors a memorable and unique experience, museums are including usage of digital technologies in their exhibitions. Even though museums in Serbia are very important part of tourism offer, they still have traditional settings that are poorly interpreted. The majority of them have a scientific and historical review which is unattractive for various target groups of visitors and for museums it’s important to continually try out new ways in interpretation of t...

  19. A New Exhibition in Microcosm

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    Sebastien Pelletier explains states of matter to an enthusiastic group of youngsters during the opening of a new exhibition in Microcosm last week. The Fun with Physics workshop will be offered to all 13-14 year olds in school groups visiting CERN this year. The new Microcosm contents have been developed in collaboration with the local teaching community, and cover particles and the forces that act between them.

  20. Comorbidity of Learning Disorders and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in a Sample of Omani Schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watfa S. Al-Mamari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The estimated worldwide prevalence of learning disorders (LDs is approximately 2‒10% among school-aged children. LDs have variable clinical features and are often associated with other disorders. This study aimed to examine the comorbidity of LDs and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD among a sample of schoolchildren in Oman. Methods: This study was conducted between January 2014 and January 2015 at the Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman. The Learning Disabilities Diagnostic Inventory (LDDI and the 28- item version of the Conners’ Teacher Rating Scale was completed by classroom teachers to determine the existence of LD and ADHD symptoms in 321 children in grades 1‒4 who had been referred to a learning support unit for LDs from elementary schools in Muscat. Results: The mean age of the students was 8.5 years. Among the cohort, 30% were reported to have symptoms of ADHD, including conduct problems (24%, hyperactivity (24% and inattentivepassive behaviours (41%. Male students reportedly exhibited greater conduct problems and hyperactivity than females. However, there were no gender differences noted between LDDI scores. Conclusion: This study suggests that Omani schoolchildren with LDs are likely to exhibit signs of ADHD. The early identification of this disorder is essential considering the chronic nature of ADHD. For interventional purposes, multidisciplinary teams are recommended, including general and special educators, clinical psychologists, school counsellors, developmental or experienced general paediatricians and child psychiatrists.

  1. "Big Science" exhibition at Balexert

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    CERN is going out to meet those members of the general public who were unable to attend the recent Open Day. The Laboratory will be taking its "Big Science" exhibition from the Globe of Science and Innovation to the Balexert shopping centre from 19 to 31 May 2008. The exhibition, which shows the LHC and its experiments through the eyes of a photographer, features around thirty spectacular photographs measuring 4.5 metres high and 2.5 metres wide. Welcomed and guided around the exhibition by CERN volunteers, shoppers at Balexert will also have the opportunity to discover LHC components on display and watch films. "Fun with Physics" workshops will be held at certain times of the day. Main hall of the Balexert shopping centre, ground floor, from 9.00 a.m. to 7.00 p.m. Monday to Friday and from 10 a.m. to 6 p.m. on the two Saturdays. Call for volunteers All members of the CERN personnel are invited to enrol as volunteers to help welcom...

  2. Mobile Technologies in Museum Exhibitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Medić

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to be up–to–date and give visitors a memorable and unique experience, museums are including usage of digital technologies in their exhibitions. Even though museums in Serbia are very important part of tourism offer, they still have traditional settings that are poorly interpreted. The majority of them have a scientific and historical review which is unattractive for various target groups of visitors and for museums it’s important to continually try out new ways in interpretation of their settings. Because technology continues to rapidly change the way we communicate, cultural institutions should adapt to new ways of communication with their visitors. This paper examines mobile technologies that can be used in museums to give visitors a different experience and transfer the knowledge innovatively. In that way it will be presented the modern concept of presentation of museum exhibitions, focusing on usage of mobile devices through mobile applications and QR codes. The paper provides the broad understanding of usage mobile technologies in museum exhibitions with its advantages and limitations. The research results can help the museums management to improve interpretation and communication with visitors and enrich the visitor experience.

  3. Statistical Evidence Suggests that Inattention Drives Hyperactivity/Impulsivity in Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova, Elena; Groot, Perry; Claassen, Tom; van Hulzen, Kimm J.; Glennon, Jeffrey C.; Franke, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Background Numerous factor analytic studies consistently support a distinction between two symptom domains of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. Both dimensions show high internal consistency and moderate to strong correlations with each other. However, it is not clear what drives this strong correlation. The aim of this paper is to address this issue. Method We applied a sophisticated approach for causal discovery on three independent data sets of scores of the two ADHD dimensions in NeuroIMAGE (total N = 675), ADHD-200 (N = 245), and IMpACT (N = 164), assessed by different raters and instruments, and further used information on gender or a genetic risk haplotype. Results In all data sets we found strong statistical evidence for the same pattern: the clear dependence between hyperactivity/impulsivity symptom level and an established genetic factor (either gender or risk haplotype) vanishes when one conditions upon inattention symptom level. Under reasonable assumptions, e.g., that phenotypes do not cause genotypes, a causal model that is consistent with this pattern contains a causal path from inattention to hyperactivity/impulsivity. Conclusions The robust dependency cancellation observed in three different data sets suggests that inattention is a driving factor for hyperactivity/impulsivity. This causal hypothesis can be further validated in intervention studies. Our model suggests that interventions that affect inattention will also have an effect on the level of hyperactivity/impulsivity. On the other hand, interventions that affect hyperactivity/impulsivity would not change the level of inattention. This causal model may explain earlier findings on heritable factors causing ADHD reported in the study of twins with learning difficulties. PMID:27768717

  4. Contemporary Developments in Cinema Exhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Hanson, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    he work offered for this PhD by Published Works charts the history of cinema exhibition in Britain from the late 1950s to the present. At the start of this period, cinemagoing as a form of public entertainment entered a long period of decline that was only arrested with the development and growth of multiplex cinemas in the 1980s and 1990s. Despite these changes, the feature film itself remained a culturally and commercially valuable artefact, though increasingly this meant the Hollywood fil...

  5. Collaborative virtual environments art exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolinsky, Margaret; Anstey, Josephine; Pape, Dave E.; Aguilera, Julieta C.; Kostis, Helen-Nicole; Tsoupikova, Daria

    2005-03-01

    This panel presentation will exhibit artwork developed in CAVEs and discuss how art methodologies enhance the science of VR through collaboration, interaction and aesthetics. Artists and scientists work alongside one another to expand scientific research and artistic expression and are motivated by exhibiting collaborative virtual environments. Looking towards the arts, such as painting and sculpture, computer graphics captures a visual tradition. Virtual reality expands this tradition to not only what we face, but to what surrounds us and even what responds to our body and its gestures. Art making that once was isolated to the static frame and an optimal point of view is now out and about, in fully immersive mode within CAVEs. Art knowledge is a guide to how the aesthetics of 2D and 3D worlds affect, transform, and influence the social, intellectual and physical condition of the human body through attention to psychology, spiritual thinking, education, and cognition. The psychological interacts with the physical in the virtual in such a way that each facilitates, enhances and extends the other, culminating in a "go together" world. Attention to sharing art experience across high-speed networks introduces a dimension of liveliness and aliveness when we "become virtual" in real time with others.

  6. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and tuberous sclerosis complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agati, Elisa; Moavero, Romina; Cerminara, Caterina; Curatolo, Paolo

    2009-10-01

    The neurobiological basis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in tuberous sclerosis complex is still largely unknown. Cortical tubers may disrupt several brain networks that control different types of attention. Frontal lobe dysfunction due to seizures or epileptiform electroencephalographic discharges may perturb the development of brain systems that underpin attentional and hyperactive functions during a critical early stage of brain maturation. Comorbidity of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with mental retardation and autism spectrum disorders is frequent in children with tuberous sclerosis. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may also reflect a direct effect of the abnormal genetic program. Treatment of children with tuberous sclerosis complex with combined symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and epilepsy may represent a challenge for clinicians, because antiepileptic therapy and drugs used to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may aggravate the clinical picture of each other.

  7. Enrico Fermi exhibition at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    A touring exhibition celebrating the centenary of Enrico Fermi's birth in 1901 will be on display at CERN (Main Building, Mezzanine) from 12-27 September. You are cordially invited to the opening celebration on Thursday 12 September at 16:00 (Main Building, Council Chamber), which will include speechs from: Luciano Maiani Welcome and Introduction Arnaldo Stefanini Celebrating Fermi's Centenary in Documents and Pictures Antonino Zichichi The New 'Centro Enrico Fermi' at Via Panisperna Ugo Amaldi Fermi at Via Panisperna and the birth of Nuclear Medicine Jack Steinberger Fermi in Chicago Valentin Telegdi A Close-up of Fermi and the screening of a documentary video about Fermi: Scienziati a Pisa: Enrico Fermi (Scientists at Pisa: Enrico Fermi) created by Francesco Andreotti for La Limonaia from early film, photographs and sound recordings (In Italian, with English subtitles - c. 30 mins). This will be followed by an aperitif on the Mezz...

  8. Crows spontaneously exhibit analogical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Anna; Zorina, Zoya; Obozova, Tanya; Wasserman, Edward

    2015-01-19

    Analogical reasoning is vital to advanced cognition and behavioral adaptation. Many theorists deem analogical thinking to be uniquely human and to be foundational to categorization, creative problem solving, and scientific discovery. Comparative psychologists have long been interested in the species generality of analogical reasoning, but they initially found it difficult to obtain empirical support for such thinking in nonhuman animals (for pioneering efforts, see [2, 3]). Researchers have since mustered considerable evidence and argument that relational matching-to-sample (RMTS) effectively captures the essence of analogy, in which the relevant logical arguments are presented visually. In RMTS, choice of test pair BB would be correct if the sample pair were AA, whereas choice of test pair EF would be correct if the sample pair were CD. Critically, no items in the correct test pair physically match items in the sample pair, thus demanding that only relational sameness or differentness is available to support accurate choice responding. Initial evidence suggested that only humans and apes can successfully learn RMTS with pairs of sample and test items; however, monkeys have subsequently done so. Here, we report that crows too exhibit relational matching behavior. Even more importantly, crows spontaneously display relational responding without ever having been trained on RMTS; they had only been trained on identity matching-to-sample (IMTS). Such robust and uninstructed relational matching behavior represents the most convincing evidence yet of analogical reasoning in a nonprimate species, as apes alone have spontaneously exhibited RMTS behavior after only IMTS training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Young Adult Outcome of Hyperactive Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive functioning of 149 hyperactive (H group and 72 control children (CC group in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, followed for at least 13 years to young adulthood (mean 20 years, range 19-25, was evaluated by interviews with participants, employer ratings, and high school records, and reported by researchers from Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston; Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee; and University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester.

  10. Increase or Decrease of fMRI Activity in Adult Attention Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder: Does It Depend on Task Difficulty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biehl, Stefanie C; Merz, Christian J; Dresler, Thomas; Heupel, Julia; Reichert, Susanne; Jacob, Christian P; Deckert, Jürgen; Herrmann, Martin J

    2016-05-27

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder has been shown to affect working memory, and fMRI studies in children and adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder report hypoactivation in task-related attentional networks. However, studies with adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder patients addressing this issue as well as the effects of clinically valid methylphenidate treatment are scarce. This study contributes to closing this gap. Thirty-five adult patients were randomized to 6 weeks of double-blind placebo or methylphenidate treatment. Patients completed an fMRI n-back working memory task both before and after the assigned treatment, and matched healthy controls were tested and compared to the untreated patients. There were no whole-brain differences between any of the groups. However, when specified regions of interest were investigated, the patient group showed enhanced BOLD responses in dorsal and ventral areas before treatment. This increase was correlated with performance across all participants and with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in the patient group. Furthermore, we found an effect of treatment in the right superior frontal gyrus, with methylphenidate-treated patients exhibiting increased activation, which was absent in the placebo-treated patients. Our results indicate distinct activation differences between untreated adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder patients and matched healthy controls during a working memory task. These differences might reflect compensatory efforts by the patients, who are performing at the same level as the healthy controls. We furthermore found a positive effect of methylphenidate on the activation of a frontal region of interest. These observations contribute to a more thorough understanding of adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and provide impulses for the evaluation of therapy-related changes. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf

  11. Medical Comorbidities in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irem Yalug

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is one of the most common developmental disorders of childhood with a reported world-wide prevalence of 8 to 12 %. In studies conducted in our country the prevalence rates in community were reported to vary between 8.6 to 8.1 % while clinical prevalence rates were reported to vary between 8.6 to 29.44 %. Fifty to eighty percent of cases were reported to continue into adolescence while thirty to fifty percent may continue into adulthood. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is known to accompany subtle physical anomalies, allergic and neurologic disorders, obesity and eating disorders, traumatic injuries, risky sexual behavior, sleep disorders, substance and alcohol use, axis I and II disorders, occupational, legal and academic problems and increased treatment expenditures. Though the effects of this disorder continue throughout life, create burdens to the society along with its treatment as well as disabling the affected patients through their lives, and receive increasing attention in recent years, reviews focusing on problems associated with it are lacking. Therefore, this study aimed to summarize the results of previous studies conducted about medical comorbidities in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

  12. EU Climate Change Exhibition Held

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>On April 25, the CPAFFC, the China-EU Association (CEUA) and the Delegation of the European Commission to China jointly held the opening ceremony for the EU Exhibition on Climate Change in the CPAFFC. He Luli, former vice chairperson of the NPC Standing Committee and honorary president of the CEUA, Jose Manuel Barroso, president of the European Commission, and Li Jianping, vice president of the CPAFFC, attended the opening ceremony and made speeches. Honorary President He Luli highly praised the achievements made by China and the EU in their longtime cooperation of mutual benefits in various fields including environmental protection. She said, for many years China and EU have both committed to the development of all-round strategic partnership and establishment of a multi-level mechanism of political dialogue. She expressed, with increasing enthusiasm the CEUA would continue to actively carry out nongovernmental exchanges between China and the EU, and promote cooperation between the two sides in the fields of economy, society, environmental protection, science and technology, culture, etc.

  13. A review of the pathophysiology, etiology, and treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Alok; Couture, Justin

    2014-02-01

    To review the pathophysiology, etiology, and treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A literature search was conducted in PubMed and EMBASE using the terms attention deficit hyperactive disorder, ADHD, pathophysiology, etiology, and neurobiology. Limits applied were the following: published in the past 10 years (January 2003 to August 2013), humans, review, meta-analysis, and English language. These yielded 63 articles in PubMed and 74 in EMBASE. After removing duplicate/irrelevant articles, 86 articles and their relevant reference citations were reviewed. ADHD is a neurological disorder that affects children, but symptoms may persist into adulthood. Individuals suffering from this disorder exhibit hyperactivity, inattention, impulsivity, and problems in social interaction and academic performance. Medications used to treat ADHD such as methylphenidate, amphetamine, and atomoxetine indicate a dopamine/norepinephrine deficit as the neurochemical basis of ADHD, but the etiology is more complex. Moreover, these agents have poor adverse effect profiles and a multitude of drug interactions. Because these drugs are also dispensed to adults who may have concomitant conditions or medications, a pharmacist needs to be aware of these adverse events and drug interactions. This review, therefore, focuses on the pathophysiology, etiology, and treatment of ADHD and details the adverse effects and drug interaction profiles of the drugs used to treat it. Published research shows the benefit of drug therapy for ADHD in children, but given the poor adverse effect and drug interaction profiles, these must be dispensed with caution.

  14. Functional Connectivity of Child and Adolescent Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Patients: Correlation with IQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bo-Yong; Hong, Jisu; Lee, Seung-Hak; Park, Hyunjin

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a pervasive neuropsychological disorder that affects both children and adolescents. Child and adolescent ADHD patients exhibit different behavioral symptoms such as hyperactivity and impulsivity, but not much connectivity research exists to help explain these differences. We analyzed openly accessible resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) data on 112 patients (28 child ADHD, 28 adolescent ADHD, 28 child normal control (NC), and 28 adolescent NC). We used group independent component analysis (ICA) and weighted degree values to identify interaction effects of age (child and adolescent) and symptom (ADHD and NC) in brain networks. The frontoparietal network showed significant interaction effects ( p = 0.0068). The frontoparietal network is known to be related to hyperactive and impulsive behaviors. Intelligence quotient (IQ) is an important factor in ADHD, and we predicted IQ scores using the results of our connectivity analysis. IQ was predicted using degree centrality values of networks with significant interaction effects of age and symptom. Actual and predicted IQ scores demonstrated significant correlation values, with an error of about 10%. Our study might provide imaging biomarkers for future ADHD and intelligence studies.

  15. Functional connectivity of child and adolescent attention deficit hyperactivity disorder patients: correlation with IQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-yong Park

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a pervasive neuropsychological disorder that affects both children and adolescents. Child and adolescent ADHD patients exhibit different behavioral symptoms such as hyperactivity and impulsivity, but not much connectivity research exists to help explain these differences. We analyzed openly accessible resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI data on 112 patients (28 child ADHD, 28 adolescent ADHD, 28 child normal control, and 28 adolescent normal control. We used group independent component analysis (ICA and weighted degree values to identify interaction effects of age (child and adolescent and symptom (ADHD and NC in brain networks. The frontoparietal network showed significant interaction effects (p = 0.0068. The frontoparietal network is known to be related to hyperactive and impulsive behaviors. Intelligence quotient (IQ is an important factor in ADHD, and we predicted IQ scores using the results of our connectivity analysis. IQ was predicted using degree centrality values of networks with significant interaction effects of age and symptom. Actual and predicted IQ scores demonstrated significant correlation values, with an error of about 10%. Our study might provide imaging biomarkers for future ADHD and intelligence studies.

  16. The Effects of Classroom Interventions on Off-Task and Disruptive Classroom Behavior in Children with Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder : A Meta-Analytic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaastra, Geraldina F; Groen, Yvonne; Tucha, Lara; Tucha, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often exhibit problem behavior in class, which teachers often struggle to manage due to a lack of knowledge and skills to use classroom management strategies. The aim of this meta-analytic review was to determine the effectiveness of

  17. Inattention and hyperactivity and the achievement gap among urban minority youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Charles E

    2011-10-01

    To outline the prevalence and disparities of inattention and hyperactivity among school-aged urban minority youth, causal pathways through which inattention and hyperactivity adversely affects academic achievement, and proven or promising approaches for schools to address these problems. Literature review. Approximately 4.6 million (8.4%) of American youth aged 6-17 have received a diagnosis of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and almost two thirds of these youth are reportedly under treatment with prescription medications. Urban minority youth are not only more likely to be affected but also less likely to receive accurate diagnosis and treatment. Causal pathways through which ADHD may affect academic achievement include sensory perceptions, cognition, school connectedness, absenteeism, and dropping out. In one study, youth with diagnosed ADHD were 2.7 times as likely to drop out (10.0% vs. 22.9%). A similar odds ratio for not graduating from high school was found in another prospective study, with an 8-year follow-up period (odds ratio = 2.4). There are many children who are below the clinical diagnostic threshold for ADHD but who exhibit signs and symptoms that interfere with learning. Evidence-based programs emphasizing functional academic and social outcomes are available. Inattention and hyperactivity are highly and disproportionately prevalent among school-aged urban minority youth, have a negative impact on academic achievement through their effects on sensory perceptions, cognition, school connectedness, absenteeism, and dropping out, and effective practices are available for schools to address these problems. This prevalent and complex syndrome has very powerful effects on academic achievement and educational attainment, and should be a high priority in efforts to help close the achievement gap. © 2011, American School Health Association.

  18. White matter microstructure and developmental improvement of hyperactive/impulsive symptoms in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francx, W.; Zwiers, M.P.; Mennes, M.; Oosterlaan, J.; Heslenfeld, D.J.; Hoekstra, P.; Hartman, C.A.; Franke, C.; Faraone, S.V.; O'Dwyer, L.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2015-01-01

    Background A developmental improvement of symptoms in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is frequently reported, but the underlying neurobiological substrate has not been identified. The aim of this study was to determine whether white matter microstructure is related to developmental

  19. Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): The Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Signs Treating ADHD Reprints For More Information Share Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): The Basics Download PDF Download ePub Order ... daily life, it could be a sign of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). ADHD is a disorder that makes it ...

  20. The Relationship between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Child Temperament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Marie; McClowry, Sandra Graham; Castellanos, Francisco X.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined empirical and theoretical differences and similarities between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and child temperament in 32 ADHD children aged 6-11 years, and a comparison group of 23 children with similar sociodemographic characteristics. Children were assessed for ADHD symptoms (hyperactivity, impulsivity, and…

  1. Hyper-Activity in Children Having Behavior Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, A. T.

    2009-01-01

    Frequently, child guidance clinics, pediatricians, teachers, and others have brought to their attention children who manifest hyper-activity as an outstanding feature and of such a degree as to be regarded outside the bounds of normal conduct. The literature on this subject, except for hyper-activity in infancy, has mostly to do with the…

  2. Fathering and Mothering of Preschool Boys with Hyperactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keown, Louise

    2011-01-01

    This study examined links between paternal and maternal parenting factors and preschool hyperactivity in a community sample. Forty-one hyperactive and 38 comparison boys (aged 47-62 months) and their fathers and mothers were assessed on a range of interview, parent questionnaire, and observational measures of parenting and child behavior. Results…

  3. Neurocognitive psychotherapy for adult attention deficit hyperactive disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Susmita Halder; Akash Kumar Mahato

    2009-01-01

    Previously thought as a childhood disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is reported to be spreading at an increasing rate and affecting 4% to 5% of the adult population. It is characterized by persistent problems of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. We present the case of an adult ADHD patient intervened with neurocognitive psychotherapy.

  4. Neurocognitive psychotherapy for adult attention deficit hyperactive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susmita Halder

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Previously thought as a childhood disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is reported to be spreading at an increasing rate and affecting 4% to 5% of the adult population. It is characterized by persistent problems of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. We present the case of an adult ADHD patient intervened with neurocognitive psychotherapy.

  5. Color Effects on the Impulsivity and Activity of Hyperactive Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zentall, Sydney S.; Dwyer, Anne M.

    1989-01-01

    Administered to hyperactive second and third graders either black/white form of Matching Familiar Figures Test and one month later a colored version, or the reverse color order in a repeated crossover design. Found addition of nonrelevant color to this task normalized activity of hyperactive children such that group differences were observed only…

  6. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder | du Plessis | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is a common neurobehavioural disorder that compromises the core symptoms of developmentally inappropriate levels of inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. Many patients are still not diagnosed, or do not receive appropriate sustained treatment, in spite of a general greater ...

  7. Working Memory and Motor Activity: A Comparison Across Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, and Healthy Control Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Sarah E; Matt Alderson, R; Patros, Connor H G; Tarle, Stephanie J; Arrington, Elaine F; Grant, DeMond M

    2018-05-01

    Converging findings from recent research suggest a functional relationship between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-related hyperactivity and demands on working memory (WM) in both children and adults. Excessive motor activity such as restlessness and fidgeting are not pathognomonic symptoms of ADHD, however, and are often associated with other diagnoses such as generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Further, previous research indicates that anticipatory processing associated with anxiety can directly interfere with storage and rehearsal processes of WM. The topographical similarity of excessive motor activity seen in both ADHD and anxiety disorders, as well as similar WM deficits, may indicate a common relationship between WM deficits and increased motor activity. The relationship between objectively measured motor activity (actigraphy) and PH and visuospatial WM demands in adults with ADHD (n = 21), adults with GAD (n = 21), and healthy control adults (n = 20) was examined. Although all groups exhibited significant increases in activity from control to WM conditions, the ADHD group exhibited a disproportionate increase in activity, while activity exhibited by the GAD and healthy control groups was not different. Findings indicate that ADHD-related hyperactivity is uniquely related to WM demands, and appear to suggest that adults with GAD are no more active relative to healthy control adults during a cognitively demanding laboratory task. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Development of the Nursing Outcome (NOC) label: hyperactivity level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Carol L; Wasson, Dianne; Anderson, Mary Ann; Brighton, Veronica; Dixon, Lois

    2005-01-01

    Hyperactivity, a persistent, severe pattern of inattention or impulsivity, places children at risk for impaired functioning in many developmental areas. This behavior is characterized by short attention span, low frustration tolerance, impulsivity, distractibility, and increased physical activity. Responses from multiple sources in the child's environment must be monitored to manage childhood hyperactivity. Success at school, in peer relationships, and parent-child interactions is frequently affected by hyperactivity. Using a focus group approach, a Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC) label, definition, and indicators were developed for Hyperactivity Level. Review of the literature allowed for a content analysis approach and conceptualization of hyperactivity at several levels. Twenty three (23) measurable indicators were formulated and refined into conceptually and clinically coherent outcomes. Clinical relevance and utility were presented through a case study approach.

  9. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, S.

    2013-01-01

    The proposed revision of the diagnostic criteria in DSM-5 for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) will not fundamentally change the concept of ADHD. This is mainly due to the fact that, DSM-5 will retain the exact DSM-IV wording of all 18 symptoms, but will add new examples that make...... the criteria more appropriate for children, adolescents and adults. The age of onset will also be changed from 7 to 12 years, the subtyping of the disorder will change, and pervasive developmental disorders will no longer be an exclusion criterion. Although the main concept is unchanged, the suggested changes...

  10. [DMS-5 - attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banaschewski, Tobias; Döpfner, Manfred

    2014-07-01

    Modifications to the DSM-5 criteria for the diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders are described and discussed. The main modifications concern the onset of the disorder, the reduction on the number of criteria fulfilled for a diagnosis in patients aged 17 years or older, and the elimination of autism spectrum disorders as an exclusion criterion for this diagnosis. These changes are mainly welcomed. However, the demanded increase in the age for the latest onset of the disorder may prove to be problematic.

  11. Attentional blink in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador-Campos, Juan A; Aznar-Casanova, J Antonio; Bezerra, Izabela; Torro-Alves, Nelson; Sánchez, Manuel M

    2015-01-01

    To explore the temporal mechanism of attention in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and controls using a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task in which two letters (T1 and T2) were presented in close temporal proximity among distractors (attentional blink [AB]). Thirty children aged between 9 and 13 years (12 with ADHD combined type and 18 controls) took part in the study. Both groups performed two kinds of RSVP task. In the single task, participants simply had to identify a target letter (T1), whereas in the dual task, they had to identify a target letter (T1) and a probe letter (T2). The ADHD and control groups were equivalent in their single-task performance. However, in the dual-task condition, there were significant between-group differences in the rate of detection of the probe letter (T2) at lag + 1 and lag + 4. The ADHD group exhibited a larger overall AB compared with controls. Our findings provide support for a link between ADHD and attentional blink.

  12. Attentional blink in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A. Amador-Campos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To explore the temporal mechanism of attention in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and controls using a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP task in which two letters (T1 and T2 were presented in close temporal proximity among distractors (attentional blink [AB].Method:Thirty children aged between 9 and 13 years (12 with ADHD combined type and 18 controls took part in the study. Both groups performed two kinds of RSVP task. In the single task, participants simply had to identify a target letter (T1, whereas in the dual task, they had to identify a target letter (T1 and a probe letter (T2.Results:The ADHD and control groups were equivalent in their single-task performance. However, in the dual-task condition, there were significant between-group differences in the rate of detection of the probe letter (T2 at lag + 1 and lag + 4. The ADHD group exhibited a larger overall AB compared with controls.Conclusion:Our findings provide support for a link between ADHD and attentional blink.

  13. ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER. A CLINICAL LECTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kotov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a serious problem to pediatric neurologists. The prevalence of ADHD in developed countries ranges from 1 to 20 %. ADHD is characterized by a triad of symptoms: inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity (the International Statistical Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, codes it as F90 and it is the most common conduct disorder in children. The etiology of ADHD remains disсutable to the present day; there are a few basic concepts of the origin of this disorder. Its manifestations may be a reason for family conflicts, poor peer relationships, social and school maladjustment, learning problems, lower academic performance, accidents and injuries, smoking, psychoactive substance abuse (toxicomania, narcomania, delinquencies, deviant social behavior, thus having a negative impact on all spheres of a patient’s life. The manifestations of ADHD may continue in adulthood, resulting in work and family life problems, low self-evaluation, alcohol and psychoactive substance abuse, and other unfavorable consequences. The authors describe the etiology, pathogenesis, diagnostic principles (diagnostic scales and tests, differential diagnosis (by setting out a large group of different diseases, the manifestations of which can mimic ADHD, treatment, and prognosis of the disorder. Within its therapeutic correction framework, the authors present the definition and general principles of Montessori therapy, including recommendations for parents and relatives to deal with children with ADHD. 

  14. Current pharmacotherapy of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, D S

    2013-10-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurobehavioral developmental disorder in children and adults characterized by a persistent pattern of impulsiveness, inattention and hyperactivity. It affects about 3-10% of children and 2-5% of adolescents and adults and occurs about four times more commonly in boys than girls. The cause of ADHD is unknown, but it has strong genetic and environment components. The first-line treatment options for ADHD include behavioral therapy, pharmacotherapy with stimulants or both. Methylphenidate and amphetamine salts are the stimulant drugs of choice for ADHD treatment. Amphetamines act by increasing presynaptic release of dopamine and other biogenic amines in the brain. Methylphenidate inhibits the reuptake of dopamine and norepinephrine and therefore its pharmacology is identical to that of amphetamines. Lisdex-amfetamine is a prodrug of dextroamphetamine with low feasibility for abuse. Atomoxetine, a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, is an alternative, non-stimulant drug for ADHD but it is less efficacious than stimulants. Stimulants are generally safe but are associated with adverse effects including headache, insomnia, anorexia and weight loss. There is increased awareness about serious cardiovascular and psychiatric adverse events with ADHD drugs including concern for growth suppression in children. Stimulants have a high potential for abuse and dependence, and should be handled safely to prevent misuse and abuse. Copyright 2013 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  15. Mice lacking Brinp2 or Brinp3, or both, exhibit behaviours consistent with neurodevelopmental disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susie Ruth Berkowicz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brinps 1 – 3, and Astrotactins (Astn 1 and 2, are members of the Membrane Attack Complex / Perforin (MACPF superfamily that are predominantly expressed in the mammalian brain during development. Genetic variation at the human BRINP2/ASTN1 and BRINP1/ASTN2 loci has been implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders. We, and others, have previously shown that Brinp1-/- mice exhibit behaviour reminiscent of autism spectrum disorder (ASD and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD.Method: We created Brinp2-/- mice and Brinp3-/- mice via the Cre-mediated LoxP system to investigate the effect of gene deletion on anatomy and behaviour. Additionally, Brinp2-/-Brinp3-/- double knock-out mice were generated by interbreeding Brinp2-/- and Brinp3-/- mice. Genomic validation was carried out for each knock-out line, followed by histological, weight and behavioural examination. Brinp1-/-Brinp2-/-Brinp3-/- triple knock-out mice were also generated by crossing Brinp2/3 double knock-out mice with previously generated Brinp1-/- mice, and examined by weight and histological analysis.Results: Brinp2-/- and Brinp3-/- mice differ in their behaviour: Brinp2-/- mice are hyperactive, whereas Brinp3-/- mice exhibit marked changes in anxiety-response on the elevated plus maze. Brinp3-/- mice also show evidence of altered sociability. Both Brinp2-/- and Brinp3-/- mice have normal short-term memory, olfactory responses, pre-pulse inhibition and motor learning. The double knock-out mice show behaviours of Brinp2-/- and Brinp3-/- mice, without evidence of new or exacerbated phenotypes. Conclusion: Brinp3 is important in moderation of anxiety, with potential relevance to anxiety disorders. Brinp2 dysfunction resulting in hyperactivity may be relevant to the association of ADHD with chromosome locus 1q25.2. Brinp2-/- and Brinp3-/- genes do not compensate in the mammalian brain and likely have distinct molecular or cell-type specific functions.

  16. Hyperactivity: nature of the syndrome and its natural history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aman, M G

    1984-03-01

    The composition of hyperactivity as a syndrome is discussed from a historical perspective, and the principal events leading to the recent emphasis on attentional characteristics of hyperactive children are summarized. Some of the major challenges to the legitimacy of hyperactivity as a valid syndrome are set forth, and after critical examination of the most influential work, it is concluded that hyperactivity has not been disproved. This is followed by a survey of the large follow-up literature dealing with the natural history of children diagnosed as hyperactive. It is noted that the manifestations of the syndrome appear to change with age but there is little indication that problems simply remit with maturity. The evidence indicates that hyperactivity, as diagnosed in the past, is often a serious disorder with long-term and far-reaching consequences for the children and their families. Multivariate studies are also discussed, as they have important implications for differential outcome. Different symptoms such as aggression, overactivity, and learning disability appear to contain unique information about current and future status, and therefore it appears useful to retain these distinctions rather than view such children as part of an undifferentiated group. It is unknown whether the recent guidelines for diagnosing Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity will alter or refine the outlook for children so identified, but this is an active area of research at present.

  17. Unraveling the nature of hyperactivity in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Kyoko; Vitaliano, Gordana; Polcari, Ann; Teicher, Martin H

    2010-04-01

    Seated hyperactivity is a defining feature of the combined and predominantly hyperactive-impulsive subtypes of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but its underlying nature is unknown. To determine whether hyperactivity is a consequence of an impaired ability to inhibit activity to low levels or to maintain positional stability. Case-control study. Academic research center and school. Sixty-two boys 9 to 12 years of age (of 73 screened), recruited from the community by advertisement, who met DSM-IV criteria for ADHD combined subtype on structured interview. Sixty-two controls were selected by matching for age and sex from a community sample of 1168 subjects in 3 participating school districts. Pupils with Conners' Teacher Rating Scores Revised within +/-1 SD of the mean for age were eligible for randomized matching. Intervention Infrared motion analysis of head-marker movements (50 Hz) during performance of a 15-minute cognitive control task. Subjects with ADHD were tested at least 18 hours following their last dose of methylphenidate and again 120 minutes after a 0.4-mg/kg probe dose. Inhibitory control (spike and basal amplitude) and head-marker stability (approximate entropy, Lyapunov, and spectral exponents). Inhibitory control measures were 2-fold higher in subjects with ADHD (d' = 0.63-0.95). Group differences in head-marker stability were even greater (d' = 2.20-4.71; receiver operating characteristic area = 0.956-1.0). Methylphenidate restored inhibitory ability to control levels but only partially corrected stability deficits, which still distinguished subjects with ADHD from controls (receiver operating characteristic area = 0.722-0.995). Children with ADHD have a deficient ability to inhibit activity to low levels and unstable control of head-marker position characterized by deterministic chaos (sensitivity to initial conditions). These deficits differed in degree of correctability by methylphenidate, suggesting that they may be mediated by

  18. Poor response inhibition: at the nexus between substance abuse and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groman, Stephanie M; James, Alex S; Jentsch, J David

    2009-05-01

    The co-morbidity between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and substance abuse and dependence disorders may have multiple causes and consequences. In this review, we will describe neurobehavioral, genetic and animal model studies that support the notion that a common, genetically determined failure of response inhibition function is an endophenotype for both disorders. Through an impairment in the ability to cognitively control pre-potent behaviors, subjects can exhibit a collection of ADHD-like traits (impulsivity and hyperactivity), as well as susceptibility for the initiation of drug taking and its ultimate progression to an inflexible, uncontrollable form. At the neural level, dysfunction within circuitry that includes the ventrolateral frontal and cingulate cortices, as well as in associated basal ganglia zones, contributes to a common pattern of behavioral impairment, explaining aspects of co-morbidity. Animal models of substance abuse/dependence and ADHD that exhibit deficits in response inhibition have substantiated the role of this endophenotype in both disorders and their co-morbidity and should provide a testing ground for interventions targeting it. New directions for research that will further explore this hypothesis and begin to reveal the underlying biological mechanisms will be proposed.

  19. Artefacts and the performance of an exhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie

    2008-01-01

    The article explores the role of mediating artefacts in children's encounters with a museum of natural history. Using actor network theory it explores how a specific artefact shapes the way users relate to exhibited objects and how the artefact guides users' movements in the exhibition....... The mediated performance of an exhibition is explored through an empirical case....

  20. Effect of atomoxetine on hyperactivity in an animal model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Su Jin; Kim, Chang Ju; Lee, Yeon Jung; Hong, Minha; Han, Juhee; Bahn, Geon Ho

    2014-01-01

    Hyperactivity related behaviors as well as inattention and impulsivity are regarded as the nuclear symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). To investigate the therapeutic effects of atomoxetine on the motor activity in relation to the expression of the dopamine (DA) D2 receptor based on the hypothesis that DA system hypofunction causes ADHD symptoms, which would correlate with extensive D2 receptor overproduction and a lack of DA synthesis in specific brain regions: prefrontal cortex (PFC), striatum, and hypothalamus. Young male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), animal models of ADHD, were randomly divided into four groups according to the daily dosage of atomoxetine and treated for 21 consecutive days. The animals were assessed using an open-field test, and the DA D2 receptor expression was examined. The motor activity improved continuously in the group treated with atomoxetine at a dose of 1 mg/Kg/day than in the groups treated with atomoxetine at a dose of 0.25 mg/Kg/day or 0.5 mg/Kg/day. With respect to DA D2 receptor immunohistochemistry, we observed significantly increased DA D2 receptor expression in the PFC, striatum, and hypothalamus of the SHRs as compared to the WKY rats. Treatment with atomoxetine significantly decreased DA D2 expression in the PFC, striatum, and hypothalamus of the SHRs, in a dose-dependent manner. Hyperactivity in young SHRs can be improved by treatment with atomoxetine via the DA D2 pathway.

  1. Effect of atomoxetine on hyperactivity in an animal model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Jin Moon

    Full Text Available Hyperactivity related behaviors as well as inattention and impulsivity are regarded as the nuclear symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD.To investigate the therapeutic effects of atomoxetine on the motor activity in relation to the expression of the dopamine (DA D2 receptor based on the hypothesis that DA system hypofunction causes ADHD symptoms, which would correlate with extensive D2 receptor overproduction and a lack of DA synthesis in specific brain regions: prefrontal cortex (PFC, striatum, and hypothalamus.Young male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR, animal models of ADHD, were randomly divided into four groups according to the daily dosage of atomoxetine and treated for 21 consecutive days. The animals were assessed using an open-field test, and the DA D2 receptor expression was examined.The motor activity improved continuously in the group treated with atomoxetine at a dose of 1 mg/Kg/day than in the groups treated with atomoxetine at a dose of 0.25 mg/Kg/day or 0.5 mg/Kg/day. With respect to DA D2 receptor immunohistochemistry, we observed significantly increased DA D2 receptor expression in the PFC, striatum, and hypothalamus of the SHRs as compared to the WKY rats. Treatment with atomoxetine significantly decreased DA D2 expression in the PFC, striatum, and hypothalamus of the SHRs, in a dose-dependent manner.Hyperactivity in young SHRs can be improved by treatment with atomoxetine via the DA D2 pathway.

  2. Female Mucopolysaccharidosis IIIA Mice Exhibit Hyperactivity and a Reduced Sense of Danger in the Open Field Test

    OpenAIRE

    Langford-Smith, Alex; Langford-Smith, Kia J.; Jones, Simon A.; Wynn, Robert F.; Wraith, J. E.; Wilkinson, Fiona L.; Bigger, Brian W.

    2011-01-01

    Reliable behavioural tests in animal models of neurodegenerative diseases allow us to study the natural history of disease and evaluate the efficacy of novel therapies. Mucopolysaccharidosis IIIA (MPS IIIA or Sanfilippo A), is a severe, neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorder caused by a deficiency in the heparan sulphate catabolising enzyme, sulfamidase. Undegraded heparan sulphate accumulates, resulting in lysosomal enlargement and cellular dysfunction. Patients suffer a progressive lo...

  3. Affordances and distributed cognition in museum exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiam, Marianne; May, Michael; Marandino, Martha

    2014-01-01

    consistent framework. Here, we invoke the notions of affordance and distributed cognition to explain in a coherent way how visitors interact with exhibits and exhibit spaces and make meaning from those interactions, and we exemplify our points using observations of twelve visitors to exhibits at a natural...... history museum. We show how differences in exhibit characteristics give rise to differences in the interpretive strategies used by visitors in their meaning-making process, and conclude by discussing how the notions of affordance and distributed cognition can be used in an exhibit design perspective....

  4. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder during adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnin, E; Maurs, C

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), although considered a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental condition, is nevertheless a frequent and disabling condition in adults. A proportion of such patients are not diagnosed during childhood or adolescence, as diagnosis of the syndrome is rather complex, especially when other psychiatric, neurological or other neurodevelopmental conditions are also associated, yet comorbidities and consequences of ADHD are frequently observed in adults and older populations. As ADHD patients present to memory clinics with attentional and executive disorders, neuropsychological examinations of undiagnosed ADHD patients may reveal atypical cognitive profiles that can complicate the usual diagnostic procedure and increase the risk of delayed diagnosis or misdiagnosis. Thus, explorations of cognitive and/or behavioral disorders in adult populations should systematically screen for this neurodevelopmental condition. Accurate diagnosis could lead to non-pharmaceutical and/or pharmaceutical treatments to improve symptoms and quality of life for adult ADHD patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Symptoms and Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Note: Javascript is disabled ... for developmental level: Often fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork, ...

  6. The Assessment of Hyperactivity in Preschool Populations: A Multidisciplinary Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Michael S.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The variety of methods available for the assessment of hyperactivity in preschool populations is reviewed. Specific procedures for assessment are presented from a multidisciplinary perspective, integrating biophysical, behavioral, cognitive, and ecological models. (Author/JDD)

  7. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Strategies for the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purvis, Johnny R.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This article discusses classroom strategies used with students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), methods for controlling the ADHD child's behavior, and the need for consistency and collaboration between the school and home. (Author/JDD)

  8. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptom self-report among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptom self-report among medical students in Eldoret, Kenya. ... checklist to approximate a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, text revision (DSM-IV-TR) ADHD diagnosis ...

  9. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptom self-report among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of self-reported attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms among medical students in Eldoret ... divided into two parts. ... representatives prior to the start of whole-class activities and.

  10. The origins and consequences of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by developmentally inappropriate levels of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity, and is the most common neurodevelopmental disorder of childhood. This highly prevalent disorder is estimated to affect about 5% of school-age children worldwide, with a substantial degree of persistence over time. Although the specific cause of ADHD is still largely unknown, despite a long history of research, it is believed to involve multip...

  11. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Adolescents With Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Karen L; Lam, David; Tsui, Sarah; Ngan, Mary; Tsang, Brian; Lam, Siu M

    2016-04-01

    We examined attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in adolescents with epilepsy and the association with seizure-related and sociodemographic variables. Strengths and Weakness of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms and Normal Behaviors rating scale was administered to 122 children with epilepsy and 50 children with asthma, aged 10 to 18 years attending mainstream schools. Twenty-nine (23.7%) adolescents with epilepsy compared with five (10%) with asthma had attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (P = 0.037). Adolescents with epilepsy had a significantly higher score in the inattention subscale when compared with those with asthma (-0.25 ± 1.2 vs -0.64 ± 1.07, P = 0.049). Combined subtype was most frequent in the epilepsy group. Oppositional defiant disorders were more prevalent in those having attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Psychiatric assistance had only been provided to one third of our patients with epilepsy and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder at the time of study. There was a negative correlation between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder scores and age of seizure onset. A positive correlation was observed between the number of antiepileptic drugs and the inattentive subscale score. The impact of various correlates on individual subtypes was not identical. Independent risk factors associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder were medical comorbidities (odds ratio = 12.82, 95% confidence interval 4.44, 37.03, P Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is overrepresented in adolescents with epilepsy; screening for its symptoms should be an integral part of management in adolescents with epilepsy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): review for primary care clinicians

    OpenAIRE

    Ougrin, Dennis; Chatterton, Sandie; Banarsee, Ricky

    2010-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterised by impulsivity, hyperactivity and inattention. Up to 5% of primary school age children have ADHD. Both genes and environment play a role in the aetiology of ADHD. If left untreated, children with ADHD demonstrate a range of poor long-term psychosocial outcomes. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) may be used to screen children for a range of psychiatric disorders, including ADHD.1

  13. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and drug addiction rehabilitation patients

    OpenAIRE

    Camargo, Carlos Henrique Ferreira; Dornelles, Tarcísio Fanha; Barszcz, Karin; Martins, Eduardo Antunes

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by a persistent pattern of inattention or hyperactivity. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between ADHD and drug dependence. Methods The presence and severity of ADHD and substance use were evaluated through questionnaires in 80 adult patients in therapeutic communities. Results No difference in drug use or dependence prevalence between ADHD and non-ADHD patients was found. However, ADHD p...

  14. Hyperactivity in boys with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): the association between deficient behavioral inhibition, attentional processes, and objectively measured activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderson, R Matt; Rapport, Mark D; Kasper, Lisa J; Sarver, Dustin E; Kofler, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary models of ADHD hypothesize that hyperactivity reflects a byproduct of inhibition deficits. The current study investigated the relationship between children's motor activity and behavioral inhibition by experimentally manipulating demands placed on the limited-resource inhibition system. Twenty-two boys (ADHD = 11, TD = 11) between the ages of 8 and 12 years completed a conventional stop-signal task, two choice-task variants (no-tone, ignore-tone), and control tasks while their motor activity was measured objectively by actigraphs placed on their nondominant wrist and ankles. All children exhibited significantly higher activity rates under all three experimental tasks relative to control conditions, and children with ADHD moved significantly more than typically developing children across conditions. No differences in activity level were observed between the inhibition and noninhibition experimental tasks for either group, indicating that activity level was primarily associated with basic attentional rather than behavioral inhibition processes.

  15. Investigating Design Research Landscapes through Exhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Li; Hansen, Flemming Tvede; Mäkelä, Maarit

    2013-01-01

    What characterizes a design research exhibition compared to a traditional design and art exhibition? How do you show the very materialities of the design experiments as a means for communicating knowledge of research and of practice? How do you present, review and utilize such an exhibition......? With those questions in mind, the intention and challenge for the Nordes 2013 Design Research Exhibition was to expand on current notions of staging research enquires in design research conference contexts. Artefacts, installations, performances, and other materialities that relate to the theme...... of the conference - Experiments in Design Research – were displayed as tools to express and communicate different design research enquires. Through this paper we will describe the Nordes exhibition as a specific case that renders questions visible in relation to how to utilize a design research exhibition...

  16. Chemogenetic activation of dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area, but not substantia nigra, induces hyperactivity in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhoudt, Linde; Omrani, Azar; Luijendijk, Mieneke C M; Wolterink-Donselaar, Inge G; Wijbrans, Ellen C; van der Plasse, Geoffrey; Adan, Roger A H

    2016-01-01

    Hyperactivity is a core symptom in various psychiatric disorders, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, schizophrenia, bipolar disorders, and anorexia nervosa. Although hyperactivity has been linked to dopaminergic  signalling, the causal relationship between midbrain dopamine neuronal

  17. Superconductive microstrip exhibiting negative differential resistivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebener, R.P.; Gallus, D.E.

    1975-01-01

    A device capable of exhibiting negative differential electrical resistivity over a range of values of current and voltage is formed by vapor-depositing a thin layer of a material capable of exhibiting superconductivity on an insulating substrate, establishing electrical connections at opposite ends of the deposited strip, and cooling the alloy into its superconducting range. The device will exhibit negative differential resistivity when biased in the current-induced resistive state

  18. Hyperactivity and Dust Composition of Comet 103P/Hartley 2 During the EPOXI Encounter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harker, David E.; Woodward, Charles E.; Kelley, Michael S. P.; Wooden, Diane H.

    2018-05-01

    Short-period comet 103P/Hartley 2 (103P) was the flyby target of the Deep Impact eXtended Investigation on 2010 November 4 UT. This comet has a small hyperactive nucleus, i.e., it has a high water production rate for its surface area. The underlying cause of the hyperactivity is unknown; the relative abundances of volatiles in the coma of 103P are not unusual. However, the dust properties of this comet have not been fully explored. We present four epochs of mid-infrared spectra and images of comet 103P observed from Gemini-South +T-ReCS on 2010 November 5, 7, 21 and December 13 UT, near and after the spacecraft encounter. Comet 103P exhibited a weak 10 μm emission feature ≃1.14 ± 0.01 above the underlying local 10 μm continuum. Thermal dust grain modeling of the spectra shows the grain composition (mineralogy) was dominated by amorphous carbon and amorphous pyroxene with evidence for Mg-rich crystalline olivine. The grain size has a peak grain radius range of a peak ∼ 0.5–0.9 μm. On average, the crystalline silicate mass fraction is ≃0.24, fairly typical of other short-period comets. In contrast, the silicate-to-carbon ratio of ≃0.48–0.64 is lower compared to other short-period comets, which indicates that the flux measured in the 10 μm region of 103P was dominated by amorphous carbon grains. We conclude that the hyperactivity in comet 103P is not revealing dust properties similar to the small grains seen with the Deep Impact experiment on comet 9P/Tempel 1 or from comet C/1995 O1 (Hale–Bopp).

  19. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder dimensionality: the reliable 'g' and the elusive 's' dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Flávia; Martel, Michelle M; Cogo-Moreira, Hugo; Maia, Carlos Renato Moreira; Pan, Pedro Mario; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão

    2016-01-01

    The best structural model for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms remains a matter of debate. The objective of this study is to test the fit and factor reliability of competing models of the dimensional structure of ADHD symptoms in a sample of randomly selected and high-risk children and pre-adolescents from Brazil. Our sample comprised 2512 children aged 6-12 years from 57 schools in Brazil. The ADHD symptoms were assessed using parent report on the development and well-being assessment (DAWBA). Fit indexes from confirmatory factor analysis were used to test unidimensional, correlated, and bifactor models of ADHD, the latter including "g" ADHD and "s" symptom domain factors. Reliability of all models was measured with omega coefficients. A bifactor model with one general factor and three specific factors (inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity) exhibited the best fit to the data, according to fit indices, as well as the most consistent factor loadings. However, based on omega reliability statistics, the specific inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity dimensions provided very little reliable information after accounting for the reliable general ADHD factor. Our study presents some psychometric evidence that ADHD specific ("s") factors might be unreliable after taking common ("g" factor) variance into account. These results are in accordance with the lack of longitudinal stability among subtypes, the absence of dimension-specific molecular genetic findings and non-specific effects of treatment strategies. Therefore, researchers and clinicians might most effectively rely on the "g" ADHD to characterize ADHD dimensional phenotype, based on currently available symptom items.

  20. Imaging functional and structural brain connectomics in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Miao; Shu, Ni; Cao, Qingjiu; Wang, Yufeng; He, Yong

    2014-12-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neurodevelopment disorders in childhood. Clinically, the core symptoms of this disorder include inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Previous studies have documented that these behavior deficits in ADHD children are associated with not only regional brain abnormalities but also changes in functional and structural connectivity among regions. In the past several years, our understanding of how ADHD affects the brain's connectivity has been greatly advanced by mapping topological alterations of large-scale brain networks (i.e., connectomes) using noninvasive neurophysiological and neuroimaging techniques (e.g., electroencephalograph, functional MRI, and diffusion MRI) in combination with graph theoretical approaches. In this review, we summarize the recent progresses of functional and structural brain connectomics in ADHD, focusing on graphic analysis of large-scale brain systems. Convergent evidence suggests that children with ADHD had abnormal small-world properties in both functional and structural brain networks characterized by higher local clustering and lower global integrity, suggesting a disorder-related shift of network topology toward regular configurations. Moreover, ADHD children showed the redistribution of regional nodes and connectivity involving the default-mode, attention, and sensorimotor systems. Importantly, these ADHD-associated alterations significantly correlated with behavior disturbances (e.g., inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms) and exhibited differential patterns between clinical subtypes. Together, these connectome-based studies highlight brain network dysfunction in ADHD, thus opening up a new window into our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of this disorder. These works might also have important implications on the development of imaging-based biomarkers for clinical diagnosis and treatment evaluation in ADHD.

  1. Duration-dependence of the effect of treadmill exercise on hyperactivity in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Eun-Sang; Kim, Chang-Ju; Park, Jun Heon; Bahn, Geon Ho

    2014-04-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurobehavioral disorder, and its symptoms are hyperactivity and deficits in learning and memory. Physical exercise increases dopamine synthesis and neuronal activity in various brain regions. In the present study, we investigate the duration-dependence of the treadmill exercise on hyperactivity in relation with dopamine expression in ADHD. Spontaneously hypertensive rats were used for the ADHD rats and Wistar-Kyoto rats were used for the control rats. The rats in the exercise groups were forced to run on a treadmill for 10 min, 30 min, and 60 min once daily for 28 consecutive days. For this experiment, open field test and immunohistochemistry for tyrosine hydroxylase were conducted. The present results revealed that ADHD rats showed hyperactivity, and tyrosine hydroxylase expression in the striatum and substantia nigra were decreased in ADHD rats. Treadmill exercise alleviated hyperactivity and also increased TH expression in ADHD rats. Treadmill exercise for 30 min per day showed most potent suppressing effect on hyperactivity, and this dose of treadmill exercise also most potently inhibited tyrosine hydroxylase expression. The present study suggests that treadmill exercise for 30 min once a day is the most effective therapeutic intervention for ADHD patients.

  2. [Classification of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Typically Developing Children Based on Electroencephalogram Principal Component Analysis and k-Nearest Neighbor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiaojiao; Guo, Qian; Li, Wenjie; Wang, Suhong; Zou, Ling

    2016-04-01

    This paper aims to assist the individual clinical diagnosis of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder using electroencephalogram signal detection method.Firstly,in our experiments,we obtained and studied the electroencephalogram signals from fourteen attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder children and sixteen typically developing children during the classic interference control task of Simon-spatial Stroop,and we completed electroencephalogram data preprocessing including filtering,segmentation,removal of artifacts and so on.Secondly,we selected the subset electroencephalogram electrodes using principal component analysis(PCA)method,and we collected the common channels of the optimal electrodes which occurrence rates were more than 90%in each kind of stimulation.We then extracted the latency(200~450ms)mean amplitude features of the common electrodes.Finally,we used the k-nearest neighbor(KNN)classifier based on Euclidean distance and the support vector machine(SVM)classifier based on radial basis kernel function to classify.From the experiment,at the same kind of interference control task,the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder children showed lower correct response rates and longer reaction time.The N2 emerged in prefrontal cortex while P2 presented in the inferior parietal area when all kinds of stimuli demonstrated.Meanwhile,the children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder exhibited markedly reduced N2 and P2amplitude compared to typically developing children.KNN resulted in better classification accuracy than SVM classifier,and the best classification rate was 89.29%in StI task.The results showed that the electroencephalogram signals were different in the brain regions of prefrontal cortex and inferior parietal cortex between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and typically developing children during the interference control task,which provided a scientific basis for the clinical diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity

  3. A Heuristic for Improving Transmedia Exhibition Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selvadurai, Vashanth; Rosenstand, Claus Andreas Foss

    2017-01-01

    in the scientific field of designing transmedia experience in an exhibition context that links the pre- and post-activities to the actual visit (during-activities). The result of this study is a preliminary heuristic for establishing a relation between the platform and content complexity in transmedia exhibitions....

  4. Memory and Mourning: An Exhibit History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, Scott G.

    2005-01-01

    Mounted by the Strong Museum in Rochester, New York, in 1993, and traveling nationally thereafter, the exhibit Memory and Mourning provided historical and contemporary perspectives to help museum guests explore their own reactions to loss and grief. In the process the exhibit's development team encountered a range of philosophical, historical,…

  5. Let's play game exhibitions : A curator's perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, Jesse; Glas, M.A.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/330981447; van Vught, J.F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413532682

    2017-01-01

    The Netherlands Institute for Sound and Vision is home to The Experience, a museum exhibiting the history of media in the Netherlands. For ten months in 2016 and 2017, The Experience hosted a temporary exhibition entitled Let’s YouTube . During the Let’s YouTube game month, we programmed a ten-day

  6. Science Fiction Exhibits as STEM Gateways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robie, Samantha

    Women continue to hold less than a quarter of all STEM jobs in the United States, prompting many museums to develop programs and exhibits with the express goal of interesting young girls in scientific fields. At the same time, a number of recent museum exhibits have harnessed the popularity of pop culture and science fiction in order to interest general audiences in STEM subject matter, as well as using the exhibits as springboards to expand or shift mission goals and focus. Because science fiction appears to be successful at raising interest in STEM fields, it may be an effective way to garner the interest of young girls in STEM in particular. This research seeks to describe the ways in which museums are currently using science fiction exhibits to interest young girls in STEM fields and careers. Research focused on four institutions across the country hosting three separate exhibits, and included staff interviews and content analysis of exhibit descriptions, promotional materials, a summative evaluation and supplementary exhibit productions. In some ways, science fiction exhibits do serve young girls, primarily through the inclusion of female role models, staff awareness, and prototype testing to ensure interactives are attractive to girls as well as to boys. However, STEM appears to be underutilized, which may be partly due to a concern within the field that the outcome of targeting a specific gender could be construed as "stereotyping".

  7. The Culture of Exhibitions and Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Doumas

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article reflects on temporary exhibitions from a theoretical as well as practical perspective. Regarded as a particularly effective mass-communication medium, exhibitions have a dual nature: they are scholarly undertakings, bringing off a curator’s vision and, simultaneously, they are projects with economic implications that need to be well managed and administered. The role of conservation in the making of temporary exhibitions, either in-house or touring, is here discussed in relation to how work is planned and prioritized as well as how time is managed and staff is allocated. Reference to weaknesses that lessen the crucial input of conservation in the decision-making process is also made. Much of the debate, which focuses on art exhibitions, concerns practicalities encountered in a private museum that extend from the very early stages of selecting objects for display to the mounting of an exhibition.

  8. Holland at CERN – Industrial exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    Sponsored by EVD, an agency of the Dutch Ministry of the Economy From 8 to 11 November 2010 Industrial Exhibition Administration Building Bldg. 61 9-00 - 17-30 Twenty seven companies will present their latest technology at the industrial exhibition "Holland at CERN". Dutch industry will exhibit products and technologies which are related to the field of particle physics. Individual interviews will take place directly at the stands in the Main Building. The firms will contact relevant users/technicians but any user wishing to make contact with a particular firm is welcome to use the contact details which are available from each departmental secretariat or at the following URL: http://gs-dep.web.cern.ch/gs-dep/groups/sem/ls/Industrial_Exhibitions.htm#Industrial_exhibitions You will find the list of exhibitors below. LIST OF EXHIBITORS: Schelde Exotech Vernooy BV Triumph Group INCAA Computers DeMaCo Holland bv TNO Science & Industry Janssen Precision Engi...

  9. Specificity and kinetics of alpha-synuclein binding to model membranes determined with fluorescent excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvadchak, Volodymyr V; Falomir-Lockhart, Lisandro J; Yushchenko, Dmytro A; Jovin, Thomas M

    2011-04-15

    Parkinson disease is characterized cytopathologically by the deposition in the midbrain of aggregates composed primarily of the presynaptic neuronal protein α-synuclein (AS). Neurotoxicity is currently attributed to oligomeric microaggregates subjected to oxidative modification and promoting mitochondrial and proteasomal dysfunction. Unphysiological binding to membranes of these and other organelles is presumably involved. In this study, we performed a systematic determination of the influence of charge, phase, curvature, defects, and lipid unsaturation on AS binding to model membranes using a new sensitive solvatochromic fluorescent probe. The interaction of AS with vesicular membranes is fast and reversible. The protein dissociates from neutral membranes upon thermal transition to the liquid disordered phase and transfers to vesicles with higher affinity. The binding of AS to neutral and negatively charged membranes occurs by apparently different mechanisms. Interaction with neutral bilayers requires the presence of membrane defects; binding increases with membrane curvature and rigidity and decreases in the presence of cholesterol. The association with negatively charged membranes is much stronger and much less sensitive to membrane curvature, phase, and cholesterol content. The presence of unsaturated lipids increases binding in all cases. These findings provide insight into the relation between membrane physical properties and AS binding affinity and dynamics that presumably define protein localization in vivo and, thereby, the role of AS in the physiopathology of Parkinson disease.

  10. Reciprocal signals between microglia and neurons regulate alpha-synuclein secretion by exophagy through a neuronal cJU-N-Nterminal kinase-signaling axis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dan Ploug; Ejlerskov, Patrick; Rasmussen, Izabela

    2016-01-01

    implicate stress kinases of the JNK family in the regulation of exophagy and release of alpha-SNC following endogenous or exogenous stimulation. In a wider scope, our results imply that microglia not only inflict bystander damage to neurons in late phases of inflammatory brain disease but may also be active...

  11. Double-stranded DNA Stimulates the Fibrillation of alpha-Synuclein in vitro and is Associated with the Mature Fibrils: An Electron Microscopy Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cherny, Dmitry; Hoyer, Wolfgang; Subramaniam, Vinod; Jovin, Thomas M.

    2004-01-01

    Filamentous aggregates formed by α-synuclein are a prominent and presumably key etiological factor in Parkinson's and other neurodegenerative diseases characterized by motor disorders. Numerous studies have demonstrated that various environmental and intracellular factors affect the fibrillation

  12. Altered regional homogeneity patterns in adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xunheng; Jiao, Yun; Tang, Tianyu; Wang, Hui; Lu, Zuhong

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Investigating the discriminative brain map for patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) based on feature selection and classifier; and identifying patients with ADHD based on the discriminative model. Materials and methods: A dataset of resting state fMRI contains 23 patients with ADHD and 23 healthy subjects were analyzed. Regional homogeneity (ReHo) was extracted from resting state fMRI signals and used as model inputs. Raw ReHo features were ranked and selected in a loop according to their p values. Selected features were trained and tested by support vector machines (SVM) in a cross validation procedure. Cross validation was repeated in feature selection loop to produce optimized model. Results: Optimized discriminative map indicated that the ADHD brains exhibit more increased activities than normal controls in bilateral occipital lobes and left front lobe. The altered brain regions included portions of basal ganglia, insula, precuneus, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), thalamus, and cerebellum. Correlation coefficients indicated significant positive correlation of inattentive scores with bilateral cuneus and precuneus, and significant negative correlation of hyperactive/impulsive scores with bilateral insula and claustrum. Additionally, the optimized model produced total accuracy of 80% and sensitivity of 87%. Conclusion: ADHD brain regions were more activated than normal controls during resting state. Linear support vector classifier can provide useful discriminative information of altered ReHo patterns for ADHD; and feature selection can improve the performances of classification

  13. Altered regional homogeneity patterns in adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xunheng [School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Key Laboratory of Child Development and Learning Science (Ministry of Education), Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Jiao, Yun, E-mail: yunjiao@seu.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Imaging and Functional Imaging, Department of Radiology, Zhongda Hospital, Medical School of Southeast University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Tang, Tianyu; Wang, Hui; Lu, Zuhong [School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Key Laboratory of Child Development and Learning Science (Ministry of Education), Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: Investigating the discriminative brain map for patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) based on feature selection and classifier; and identifying patients with ADHD based on the discriminative model. Materials and methods: A dataset of resting state fMRI contains 23 patients with ADHD and 23 healthy subjects were analyzed. Regional homogeneity (ReHo) was extracted from resting state fMRI signals and used as model inputs. Raw ReHo features were ranked and selected in a loop according to their p values. Selected features were trained and tested by support vector machines (SVM) in a cross validation procedure. Cross validation was repeated in feature selection loop to produce optimized model. Results: Optimized discriminative map indicated that the ADHD brains exhibit more increased activities than normal controls in bilateral occipital lobes and left front lobe. The altered brain regions included portions of basal ganglia, insula, precuneus, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), thalamus, and cerebellum. Correlation coefficients indicated significant positive correlation of inattentive scores with bilateral cuneus and precuneus, and significant negative correlation of hyperactive/impulsive scores with bilateral insula and claustrum. Additionally, the optimized model produced total accuracy of 80% and sensitivity of 87%. Conclusion: ADHD brain regions were more activated than normal controls during resting state. Linear support vector classifier can provide useful discriminative information of altered ReHo patterns for ADHD; and feature selection can improve the performances of classification.

  14. Influence of gender on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in Europe--ADORE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nøvik, Torunn Stene; Hervas, Amaia; Ralston, Stephen J; Dalsgaard, Søren; Rodrigues Pereira, Rob; Lorenzo, Maria J

    2006-12-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in girls in Europe is poorly understood; it is not known whether they exhibit similar symptom patterns or co-existing problems and receive the same type of treatment as boys. To examine gender differences for referral patterns, social demographic factors, ADHD core symptomatology, co-existing health problems, psychosocial functioning and treatment. Baseline data from the ADHD Observational Research in Europe (ADORE) study, a 24-month, naturalistic, longitudinal observational study in 10 European countries of children (aged 6-18 years) with hyperactive/inattentive/impulsive symptoms but no previous diagnosis of ADHD, were analysed by gender. Data from 1,478 children were analysed: 231 girls (15.7%) and 1,222 boys (84.3%) (gender data missing for 25 patients). Gender ratios (girl:boy) varied by country, ranging from 1:3 to 1:16. Comparisons showed few gender effects in core ADHD symptomatology and clinical correlates of ADHD. Compared with boys, girls had significantly more parent-rated emotional symptoms and prosocial behaviour and were more likely to be the victim of bullying and less likely to be the bully. Girls and boys had similar levels of co-existing psychiatric and physical health problems, and received the same type of treatment. Fewer girls than boys are referred for ADHD treatment, but they have a similar pattern of impairment and receive similar treatment.

  15. A multidimensional approach of impulsivity in adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Régis; Dauvilliers, Yves; Jaussent, Isabelle; Billieux, Joël; Bayard, Sophie

    2015-06-30

    We aimed to compare adult patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and matched controls on four dimensions of impulsivity (urgency, lack of premeditation, lack of perseverance, and sensation seeking) and to examine the association between impulsivity and ADHD symptoms. The study was conducted on 219 participants: 72 adult ADHD patients and 147 aged and gender matched controls. All participants completed questionnaires measuring the various facets of impulsivity (UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale), ADHD and depressive symptoms severity. Patients were also assessed for ADHD subtypes, mood disorders, and addictive behaviors. ADHD patients exhibited higher urgency, lower premeditation and lower perseverance in comparison to controls. Lack of perseverance showed the strongest association with ADHD (area under curve=0.95). Patients with combined inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive subtypes reported more frequently substance abuse problems and had higher scores on urgency and sensation seeking dimensions of impulsivity than those with predominantly inattentive subtype. We report for the first time a multidimensional evaluation of impulsivity in adult ADHD patients. The UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale may constitute a useful screening tool for ADHD in adults and may help to further understanding the psychological mechanisms underlying the differences between the ADHD subgroups. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Hyperactivity and learning deficits in transgenic mice bearing a human mutant thyroid hormone beta1 receptor gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, M P; Wong, R; Goldstein, G; Weintraub, B; Cheng, S Y; Crawley, J N

    1998-01-01

    Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) is a human syndrome mapped to the thyroid receptor beta (TRbeta) gene on chromosome 3, representing a mutation of the ligand-binding domain of the TRbeta gene. The syndrome is characterized by reduced tissue responsiveness to thyroid hormone and elevated serum levels of thyroid hormones. A common behavioral phenotype associated with RTH is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). To test the hypothesis that RTH produces attention deficits and/or hyperactivity, transgenic mice expressing a mutant TRbeta gene were generated. The present experiment tested RTH transgenic mice from the PV kindred on behavioral tasks relevant to the primary features of ADHD: hyperactivity, sustained attention (vigilance), learning, and impulsivity. Male transgenic mice showed elevated locomotor activity in an open field compared to male wild-type littermate controls. Both male and female transgenic mice exhibited impaired learning of an autoshaping task, compared to wild-type controls. On a vigilance task in an operant chamber, there were no differences between transgenics and controls on the proportion of hits, response latency, or duration of stimulus tolerated. On an operant go/no-go task measuring sustained attention and impulsivity, there were no differences between controls and transgenics. These results indicate that transgenic mice bearing a mutant human TRbeta gene demonstrate several behavioral characteristics of ADHD and may serve a valuable heuristic role in elucidating possible candidate genes in converging pathways for other causes of ADHD.

  17. Hyperactivity and Learning Deficits in Transgenic Mice Bearing a Human Mutant Thyroid Hormone β1 Receptor Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Michael P.; Wong, Rosemary; Goldstein, Gregory; Weintraub, Bruce; Cheng, Sheue-yann; Crawley, Jacqueline N.

    1998-01-01

    Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) is a human syndrome mapped to the thyroid receptor β (TRβ) gene on chromosome 3, representing a mutation of the ligandbinding domain of the TRβ gene. The syndrome is characterized by reduced tissue responsiveness to thyroid hormone and elevated serum levels of thyroid hormones. A common behavioral phenotype associated with RTH is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). To test the hypothesis that RTH produces attention deficits and/or hyperactivity, transgenic mice expressing a mutant TRβ gene were generated. The present experiment tested RTH transgenic mice from the PV kindred on behavioral tasks relevant to the primary features of ADHD: hyperactivity, sustained attention (vigilance), learning, and impulsivity. Male transgenic mice showed elevated locomotor activity in an open field compared to male wild-type littermate controls. Both male and female transgenic mice exhibited impaired learning of an autoshaping task, compared to wild-type controls. On a vigilance task in an operant chamber, there were no differences between transgenics and controls on the proportion of hits, response latency, or duration of stimulus tolerated. On an operant go/no-go task measuring sustained attention and impulsivity, there were no differences between controls and transgenics. These results indicate that transgenic mice bearing a mutant human TRβ gene demonstrate several behavioral characteristics of ADHD and may serve a valuable heuristic role in elucidating possible candidate genes in converging pathways for other causes of ADHD. PMID:10454355

  18. Delayed sleep timing and symptoms in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a controlled actigraphy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Karen L; May, Roberta S; Besing, Rachel C; Tankersly, Amelia P; Fargason, Rachel E

    2013-05-01

    Patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often exhibit disrupted sleep and circadian rhythms. Determination of whether sleep disturbance and/or circadian disruption are differentially associated with symptom severity is necessary to guide development of future treatment strategies. Therefore, we measured sleep and ADHD symptoms in participants aged 19-65 who met the DSM-IV-TR (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision) criteria for ADHD and insomnia without psychiatric comorbidities by monitoring actigraphy and daily sleep logs for 2 wks, as well as the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), the ADHD Rating Scale (ADHD-RS), and a clinic-designed sleep behavior questionnaire. Principal components analysis identified correlated circadian- and sleep-related variables in all participants with ADHD who completed the study (n = 24). The identified components were entered into a backwards stepwise linear regression analysis, which indicated that delayed sleep timing and increased sleepiness (ESS) (but not sleep duration or sleep efficiency) significantly predicted greater severity of both hyperactive-impulsive and inattentive ADHD symptoms (p sleep quality (PSQI scores; p sleep" compared with 57.2% and 50% of inattentive and symptom-controlled participants, respectively (p sleep timing and daytime sleepiness, suggesting that treatment interventions aimed at advancing circadian phase may improve daytime sleepiness. In addition, ADHD adults with combined hyperactive-impulsive and inattentive symptoms have decreased sleep quality as well as the delayed sleep timing of predominately inattentive subtypes.

  19. [Methylphenidate use in dogs with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A case report of a Weimaraner bitch].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piturru, P

    2014-04-16

    A 10-month-old Weimaraner bitch was presented at the practice exhibiting agitation, hyperactivity, inability to learn and attention deficit. The diagnostic findings were excessive, long-lasting acoustic and locomotory activity with unexpected inappropriate reactions. Hematological and biochemical blood analyses did not demonstrate abnormal findings. The first attempts at behavioral therapy and fluoxetine application were unsatisfactory. Therefore, a test was conducted with medication for central nervous system stimulation to confirm a diagnosis of hyperkinesis. Following the diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, the therapy was continued with behavioral modifications, with special consideration of rehabituation and resocialization as well as the use of methylphenidate. During the course of the therapy the bitch developed hyperactivity again when on heat. After changing the dosage of methylphenidate and additionally using dog appeasing pheromone, the behavior of the bitch became normal after 8 days. Two months later endoscopic ovarioectomy was performed. Twelve months after the initial use of methylphenidate the medication could be discontinued completely and the dog's behavior was normal. The methylphenidate dosage used during this therapy was much higher than recommended in the literature.

  20. Developmental psychopathology: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petermann Franz

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD, formerly regarded as a typical childhood disorder, is now known as a developmental disorder persisting over the lifespan. Starting in preschool-age, symptoms vary depending on the age group affected. Method According to the variability of ADHD-symptoms and the heterogeneity of comorbid psychiatric disorders, a broad review of recent studies was performed. These findings were summarized in a developmental psychopathological model, documenting relevant facts on a timeline. Results Based on a genetic disposition and a neuropsychological deregulation, there is evidence for factors which persist across the lifespan, change age-dependently, or show validity in a specific developmental phase. Qualitative changes can be found for children in preschool-age and adults. Conclusion These differences have implications for clinical practice as they can be used for prevention, diagnostic proceedings, and therapeutic intervention as well as for planning future studies. The present article is a translated and modified version of the German article "Entwicklungspsychopathologie der ADHS", published in Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie, Psychologie und Psychotherapie, 56, 2008, S. 265-274.

  1. Developmental psychopathology: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Sören; Petermann, Franz

    2009-09-17

    Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), formerly regarded as a typical childhood disorder, is now known as a developmental disorder persisting over the lifespan. Starting in preschool-age, symptoms vary depending on the age group affected. According to the variability of ADHD-symptoms and the heterogeneity of comorbid psychiatric disorders, a broad review of recent studies was performed. These findings were summarized in a developmental psychopathological model, documenting relevant facts on a timeline. Based on a genetic disposition and a neuropsychological deregulation, there is evidence for factors which persist across the lifespan, change age-dependently, or show validity in a specific developmental phase. Qualitative changes can be found for children in preschool-age and adults. These differences have implications for clinical practice as they can be used for prevention, diagnostic proceedings, and therapeutic intervention as well as for planning future studies. The present article is a translated and modified version of the German article "Entwicklungspsychopathologie der ADHS", published in Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie, Psychologie und Psychotherapie, 56, 2008, S. 265-274.

  2. A mini-exhibition with maximum content

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2011-01-01

    The University of Budapest has been hosting a CERN mini-exhibition since 8 May. While smaller than the main travelling exhibition it has a number of major advantages: its compact design alleviates transport difficulties and makes it easier to find suitable venues in the Member States. Its content can be updated almost instantaneously and it will become even more interactive and high-tech as time goes by.   The exhibition on display in Budapest. The purpose of CERN's new mini-exhibition is to be more interactive and easier to install. Due to its size, the main travelling exhibition cannot be moved around quickly, which is why it stays in the same country for 4 to 6 months. But this means a long waiting list for the other Member States. To solve this problem, the Education Group has designed a new exhibition, which is smaller and thus easier to install. Smaller maybe, but no less rich in content, as the new exhibition conveys exactly the same messages as its larger counterpart. However, in the slimm...

  3. Social skills training for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children aged 5 to 18 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storebø, Ole Jakob; Skoog, Maria; Damm, Dorte

    2011-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children is associated with hyperactivity and impulsitivity, attention problems, and difficulties with social interactions. Pharmacological treatment may alleviate symptoms of ADHD but seldom solves difficulties with social interactions. Social...

  4. Living with symptoms of Attention DeficitHyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauge Berring, Lene; Bjerrum, Merete Bender; Pedersen, Preben Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) relates to four dimensions of behavior: inattentiveness, restlessness, impulsiveness and hyperactivity. Symptoms affect multiple areas of daily life such as academic performance and social functioning. Despite the negative effects of ADHD, people...

  5. Subclinical symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are associated with specific creative processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, N.; Nevicka, B.; Baas, M.

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by distractibility, hyperactivity, and impulsive behavior. Although ADHD generally associates with a range of cognitive impairments, evidence suggests that people with ADHD may be more creative than people

  6. Cadherin-13 gene is associated with hyperactive/impulsive symptoms in attention/deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salatino-Oliveira, Angélica; Genro, Julia Pasqualini; Polanczyk, Guilherme; Zeni, Cristian; Schmitz, Marcelo; Kieling, Christian; Anselmi, Luciana; Menezes, Ana Maria Baptista; Barros, Fernando Cde; Polina, Evelise Regina; Mota, Nina R; Grevet, Eugênio Horácio; Bau, Claiton Henrique Dotto; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Hutz, Mara Helena

    2015-04-01

    Several efforts have been made to find new genetic risk variants which explain the high heritability of ADHD. At the genome level, genes involved in neurodevelopmental pathways were pointed as candidates. CDH13 and CTNNA2 genes are within GWAS top hits in ADHD and there are emerging notions about their contribution to ADHD pathophysiology. The main goal of this study is to test the association between SNPs in CDH13 and CTNNA2 genes and ADHD across the life cycle in subjects with ADHD. This study included 1,136 unrelated ADHD cases and 946 individuals without ADHD. No significant association between CDH13 and CTNNA2 was observed between cases and controls across different samples (P ≥ 0.096 for all comparisons). No allele was significantly more transmitted than expected from parents to ADHD probands. The CDH13 rs11150556 CC genotype was associated with more hyperactive/impulsive symptoms in youths with ADHD (children/adolescents clinical sample: F = 7.666, P = 0.006, FDR P-value = 0.032; Pelotas Birth Cohort sample: F = 6.711, P = 0.011, FDR P-value = 0.032). Although there are many open questions regarding the role of neurodevelopmental genes in ADHD symptoms, the present study suggests that CDH13 is associated with hyperactive/impulsive symptoms in youths with ADHD. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Drosophila mutants of the autism candidate gene neurobeachin (rugose) exhibit neuro-developmental disorders, aberrant synaptic properties, altered locomotion, impaired adult social behavior and activity patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Wise, Alexandra; Tenezaca, Luis; Fernandez, Robert W.; Schatoff, Emma; Flores, Julian; Ueda, Atsushi; Zhong, Xiaotian; Wu, Chun-Fang; Simon, Anne F.; Venkatesh, Tadmiri

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder in humans characterized by complex behavioral deficits, including intellectual disability, impaired social interactions and hyperactivity. ASD exhibits a strong genetic component with underlying multi-gene interactions. Candidate gene studies have shown that the neurobeachin gene is disrupted in human patients with idiopathic autism (Castermans et al., 2003). The gene for neurobeachin (NBEA) spans the common fragile site FRA 13A ...

  8. Maternal Anxiety and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roohallah Mirzaaghas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim:  According to the previous studies, anxiety along with some other psychiatric disorders is common among mothers of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Since maternal anxiety affects mother-child interactions, early treatment plays an important role in the prognosis of ADHD in children. This study aimed to determine the relationship between maternal anxiety and hyperactivity in children. Methods: This study was conducted on 112 mothers of ADHD children (aged 6-12 years, selected via convenience sampling from October to December 2012. The subjects lived in districts 2 and 6 of Tehran and were referred to consultation centers. Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 42 (DASS-42 and Swanson, Nolan and Pelham (SNAP-IV questionnaires were completed by the subjects. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used for the analysis of the relationship between variables. Results: A positive correlation was found between maternal anxiety and children’s hyperactivity (P=0.05. In fact, high levels of maternal anxiety are accounted for various child-rearing problems such as children’s hyperactivity. Conclusion: High levels of maternal anxiety lead to child rearing problems, which in turn cause various disorders such as hyperactivity in children.

  9. France at CERN – Industrial exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    FP Department

    2012-01-01

    Industrial Exhibition Administration Building Bldg 61 – 1st Floor Tuesday 27 March: 9 a.m. – 5.30 p.m. Wednesday 28 March: 9 a.m. – 2 p.m.   About thirty French companies are presenting their latest technological advances during the industrial exhibition "France at CERN", featuring products and technologies specifically related to CERN activities. Individual B2B meetings can be organized with the sales and technical representatives of participating firms and will take place at either the companies’ exhibition stands or in conference rooms in the Main Building. Individuals wishing to make contact with one or more companies must use the contact details available from each secretariat of department or by using this link. B2B meetings will be coordinated by UBIFRANCE. You will also find the list of exhibiting and participating companies online here. This event is sponsored by the French subsidiary of RS Components, the most important distri...

  10. High Quality Virtual Reality for Architectural Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreutzberg, Anette

    2016-01-01

    This paper will summarise the findings from creating and implementing a visually high quality Virtual Reality (VR) experiment as part of an international architecture exhibition. It was the aim to represent the architectural spatial qualities as well as the atmosphere created from combining natural...... and artificial lighting in a prominent not yet built project. The outcome is twofold: Findings concerning the integration of VR in an exhibition space and findings concerning the experience of the virtual space itself. In the exhibition, an important aspect was the unmanned exhibition space, requiring the VR...... experience to be self-explanatory. Observations of different visitor reactions to the unmanned VR experience compared with visitor reactions at guided tours with personal instructions are evaluated. Data on perception of realism, spatial quality and light in the VR model were collected with qualitative...

  11. Medan Convention & Exhibition Center (Arsitektur Ekspresionisme)

    OpenAIRE

    Iskandar, Nurul Auni

    2015-01-01

    Medan is one of the third largest city in Indonesia, which is currently being developed, and a city with lots of activities. In the city of Medan has a high investment opportunities for a convention, because of its strategic position in Southeast Asia and also supported by the facility and the potential for tourism in North Sumatra, Medan city has the potential for industrial MICE (Meeting, Incentive, Conference, Exhibition). The construction of Medan Convention & Exhibition Cente...

  12. The presentation of energy topics at exhibitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moergeli, H.P.

    1984-01-01

    The author examines the problems confronting an electricity supply company when trying to communicate its energy policy to the general public at exhibitions and fairs. The company has to convey a message of reliable power supplies, increasing demand, the advantages of nuclear energy, the safe storage of radioactive waste and the need for new generating plants. The author describes some of the displays being used to attract the public to the Bern Power Stations stand at the Bern Exhibition 1984. (R.S.)

  13. An Astrobiology Microbes Exhibit and Education Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Marilyn M.; Allen, Jaclyn S.; Stocco, Karen; Tobola, Kay; Olendzenski, Lorraine

    2001-01-01

    Telling the story of NASA-sponsored scientific research to the public in exhibits is best done by partnerships of scientists and museum professionals. Likewise, preparing classroom activities and training teachers to use them should be done by teams of teachers and scientists. Here we describe how we used such partnerships to develop a new astrobiology augmentation to the Microbes! traveling exhibit and a companion education module. "Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract."

  14. A mouse model of the schizophrenia-associated 1q21.1 microdeletion syndrome exhibits altered mesolimbic dopamine transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jacob; Fejgin, Kim; Sotty, Florence

    2017-01-01

    on schizophrenia-related assays. Df(h1q21)/+ mice displayed increased hyperactivity in response to amphetamine challenge and increased sensitivity to the disruptive effects of amphetamine and phencyclidine hydrochloride (PCP) on prepulse inhibition. Probing of the direct dopamine (DA) pathway using the DA D1...... and basic functions such as reflexes, ASR, thermal pain sensitivity, and motor performance were unaltered. Similarly, anxiety related measures, baseline prepulse inhibition, and seizure threshold were unaltered. In addition to the central nervous system-related phenotypes, Df(h1q21)/+ mice exhibited reduced...

  15. A biomedical application of PIXE. Studies of track elements in human hair, in control and hyperactive children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakir, N.S.

    1987-07-01

    Hair samples from hyperactive and control children have been analyzed for their trace elemental contents by PIXE. The main elements examined are S, K, Ca, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Br, Hg and Pb. The significant difference between the elements in control population and in patients suffering from pathological conditions are examined. Investigations of the possible linear and multiple correlations between elements in each population are made. The work indicates that some elements do exhibit variation with pathological state. (author). 5 refs, 5 figs, 6 tabs

  16. Smoking during pregnancy and hyperactivity-inattention in the offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, Carsten; Linnet, Karen Markussen; Henriksen, Tine Brink

    2008-01-01

    -pregnancy and pregnancy smoking habits and followed the children to school age where teachers and parents rated hyperactivity and inattention symptoms. RESULTS: Children, whose mothers smoked during pregnancy, had an increased prevalence of a high hyperactivity-inattention score compared with children of nonsmokers......BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to smoking has been associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in a number of epidemiological studies. However, mothers with the ADHD phenotype may 'treat' their problem by smoking and therefore be more likely to smoke even in a society where...... smoking is not acceptable. This will cause genetic confounding if ADHD has a heritable component, especially in populations with low prevalence rates of smoking since this reason for smoking is expected to be proportionally more frequent in a population with few 'normal' smokers. We compared...

  17. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Preschool-Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Mini; Pergjika, Alba

    2017-07-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder marked by age-inappropriate deficits in attention or hyperactivity/impulsivity that interfere with functioning or development. It is highly correlated with other disorders, such as oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, and mood symptoms. The etiology is multifactorial, and neuroimaging findings are nonspecific. Although assessment tools exist, there is variability among them, and historically, parent-teacher agreement has not been consistent. Treatment algorithm for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in preschoolers includes behavioral interventions first followed by psychopharmacologic treatment when behavioral therapies fail. Other nonpharmacologic and nonbehavioral interventions are discussed including the role of exercise and nutrition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Does mindfulness meditation improve attention in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modesto-Lowe, Vania; Farahmand, Pantea; Chaplin, Margaret; Sarro, Lauren

    2015-12-22

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) manifests by high levels of inattention, impulsiveness and hyperactivity. ADHD starts in childhood and results in impairments that continue into adulthood. While hyperactivity declines over time, inattention and executive function difficulties persist, leading to functional deficits. Adolescents and adults with ADHD have pervasive impairment in interpersonal and family relationships. They may develop addiction, delinquent behavior and comorbid psychiatric disorders. Despite advances in diagnosis and treatment, persistent residual symptoms are common, highlighting the need for novel treatment strategies. Mindfulness training, derived from Eastern meditation practices, may improve self-regulation of attention. It may also be a useful strategy to augment standard ADHD treatments and may be used as a potential tool to reduce impairments in patients with residual symptoms of ADHD. Clinically, this would manifest by an increased ability to suppress task-unrelated thoughts and distractions resulting in improved attention, completion of tasks and potential improvement in occupational and social function.

  19. Turning energy around: an interactive exhibition experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Kellberg

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A transition from the fossil-fuel driven to a sustainable energy system is an enormous global challenge: climate change and finite resources require countries all over the world to change their way of producing, transporting and using energy. The Energiewende (energy transition will require major changes in the current energy supply system in Germany – but also worldwide. These changes will not only affect the technical sector but will also include ecological questions, social issues and political matters. Whether any transition is going to favour large scale solutions or decentralised technologies depends on local situations and global interconnections, and above all on a democratic process. Hence energy transition succeeds or fails with the acceptance and participation of society. To deal with this overwhelmingly complex topic and its multi-layered dependencies, the Deutsches Museum has designed an exhibition providing visitors with background knowledge about the necessities and challenges of energy transition, unpicking the links between the different technical, economic and social challenges. The exhibition accomplishes the task with an engaging and facilitating approach while taking into account the highly emotive aspects of energy transition as a societal issue. This paper presents the concept of the travelling exhibition energie.wenden, relating it to the Deutsches Museum´s tradition of exhibitions as well as to the challenge of how to deal with socio-scientific topics in scientific exhibitions.

  20. CERN exhibition a big hit in Bulgaria

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The first CERN exhibition in Bulgaria attracted many visitors. In the first ever CERN exhibition to be held in Bulgaria, over 1,400 visitors, many of them students and young physicists, visited the 10-day event in Sofia. The CERN mini-exhibition took place at the National Earth and Mankind Museum between 8 and 17 November. Permanently staffed by young physicists from Sofia University, there were exhibits on display about research activities at CERN, as well as four additional posters describing Bulgaria's participation. The inauguration took place on the morning of 8 November in the presence of the Vice-Minister for Science and Education, Mrs. Vanya Dobreva, and some 200 guests. A series of short speeches were followed by a visit to the exhibition. CERN's representative at the event, Ray Lewis, was then asked by Professor Matey Mateev, President of the Union of Physicists in Bulgaria, to say a few words on behalf of the Organization. Numerous journalists were also present at the inauguration. A painting enti...

  1. Education or business? - exhibition of human corpses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Wróbel

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Exhibition "BODY WORLDS" which are presented exhibits of human remains are presented all over the world and are a major problem for the modern man, as presented on the preparations of the human not only serve scientific research, are not transferred to the medical schools to educate future doctors, but they were made available to the general public in the form of commercial and ambiguous. The aim of this study was to assess the ethical commercialization of human corpses "BODY WORLDS" exhibitions. Individual approach to the problems presented the dignity and value of human remains after death, of course, strongly related to the professed worldview. In the exhibits can be seen in both the scientific interest anatomical structures, as well as desecrated human remains or beautiful by its functional perfection of the body, understood also in terms of art. The question of ethics determines the right to decide for themselves, on the other hand, allows you to protect bodily integrity even after death. "BODY WORLDS" exhibition goes for the moral and ethical boundaries. In terms of people Gunther von Hagens for plastination of human remains which became a very profitable business, and its current activities defined as "plastination business" should be firmly said about the lack of moral principles.

  2. Management of a hyperactive teen and cardiac safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowinski, Heather; Karpawich, Peter P

    2014-02-01

    Since the earliest descriptions of the condition, controversy has prevailed as to the existence of as well as appropriate management of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Often diagnosed in childhood, symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder can continue into adolescence and adulthood, requiring lifelong therapy. Effective therapeutic interventions include stimulant medications with all their respective potential side effects, including the cardiovascular system. However, although initial studies raised concerns for an increase in serious adverse cardiovascular effects among children receiving these drugs, more recent and extensive reports have failed to substantiate those findings among young patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The exploration of the exhibition informatization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiankang

    2017-06-01

    The construction and management of exhibition informatization is the main task and choke point during the process of Chinese exhibition industry’s transformation and promotion. There are three key points expected to realize a breakthrough during the construction of Chinese exhibition informatization, and the three aspects respectively are adopting service outsourcing to construct and maintain the database, adopting advanced chest card technology to collect various kinds of information, developing statistics analysis to maintain good cutomer relations. The success of Chinese exhibition informatization mainly calls for mature suppliers who can provide construction and maintenance of database, the proven technology, a sense of data security, advanced chest card technology, the ability of data mining and analysis and the ability to improve the exhibition service basing on the commercial information got from the data analysis. Several data security measures are expected to apply during the process of system developing, including the measures of the terminal data security, the internet data security, the media data security, the storage data security and the application data security. The informatization of this process is based on the chest card designing. At present, there are several types of chest card technology: bar code chest card; two-dimension code card; magnetic stripe chest card; smart-chip chest card. The information got from the exhibition data will help the organizers to make relevant service strategies, quantify the accumulated indexes of the customers, and improve the level of the customer’s satisfaction and loyalty, what’s more, the information can also provide more additional services like the commercial trips, VIP ceremonial reception.

  4. Exhibits in libraries a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Mary E

    2005-01-01

    "Ccomprehensive...detailed"--Booklist; "thoroughly reseached...highly recommended"--Journal of Access Services. Library exhibits are more than entertainment for patrons. They can inspire and educate, stimulate an interest that can be explored in a book, or attract visitors who otherwise wouldn't stop by. Displays are also an opportunity for a library to put its creative foot forward or help patrons navigate the facility itself. This comprehensive "how-to" includes everything a librarian or staff member needs to know to put on an exhibit, from hatching ideas to evaluating the end result. Illustrations and photographs show practical methods of planning, labeling and displaying.

  5. Hyperactivity in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Impairing Deficit or Compensatory Behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarver, Dustin E; Rapport, Mark D; Kofler, Michael J; Raiker, Joseph S; Friedman, Lauren M

    2015-10-01

    Excess gross motor activity (hyperactivity) is considered a core diagnostic feature of childhood ADHD that impedes learning. This view has been challenged, however, by recent models that conceptualize excess motor activity as a compensatory mechanism that facilitates neurocognitive functioning in children with ADHD. The current study investigated competing model predictions regarding activity level's relation with working memory (WM) performance and attention in boys aged 8-12 years (M = 9.64, SD = 1.26) with ADHD (n = 29) and typically developing children (TD; n = 23). Children's phonological WM and attentive behavior were objectively assessed during four counterbalanced WM tasks administered across four separate sessions. These data were then sequenced hierarchically based on behavioral observations of each child's gross motor activity during each task. Analysis of the relations among intra-individual changes in observed activity level, attention, and performance revealed that higher rates of activity level predicted significantly better, but not normalized WM performance for children with ADHD. Conversely, higher rates of activity level predicted somewhat lower WM performance for TD children. Variations in movement did not predict changes in attention for either group. At the individual level, children with ADHD and TD children were more likely to be classified as reliably Improved and Deteriorated, respectively, when comparing their WM performance at their highest versus lowest observed activity level. These findings appear most consistent with models ascribing a functional role to hyperactivity in ADHD, with implications for selecting behavioral treatment targets to avoid overcorrecting gross motor activity during academic tasks that rely on phonological WM.

  6. How do exhibition visitors describe aesthetic qualities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bente Dahl; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2007-01-01

    In this investigation, visitors to an art and design exhibition have used an interactive computer program to express the qualities they consider important for an art or design object (artefact). They have then used the program with their individually selected qualities to assess the artefacts. In...

  7. CERN exhibition wins yet another design prize

    CERN Multimedia

    Joannah Caborn Wengler

    2012-01-01

    The “Universe of Particles” exhibition in CERN’s Globe wins the silver design prize from the German direct business communications association FAMAB.   Not only do tens of thousands of people visit the “Universe of Particles” exhibition each year, but juries for design prizes are crossing its threshold more and more frequently too. In 2011 alone it claimed 8 awards, including winning outright the 2011 Annual Multimedia award, the iF Communication Design for Corporate Architecture award and the Modern Decoration Media award (the Bulletin already reported on some of these in July 2011). The FAMAB award is the latest to join the prestigious list. The jury of FAMAB’s “ADAM 2011” award was particularly impressed by the hands-on nature of the exhibition, which encourages visitors to get interested in science. They also appreciated the way that the space in the Globe is not just a container for the exhibits, but itself ...

  8. 49 CFR 250.2 - Required exhibits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... carried; and identification of the ten most important industries served. (6) As Exhibit 6, statement as to... application for the financing has been made, evidencing that they have declined the financing unless guaranteed by the Secretary or specifying the terms upon which they will undertake the financing without such...

  9. CCPIT Machinery Exhibition Succeeded in Kuala Lumpur

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ From August 18 to 20, 2005, China Council for the Promotion of International Trade(CCPIT) held China Machinery and Electronics Trade Exhibition, CME 2005 in Kuala Lumpur, the capital of Malaysia on behalf of China, a good job has been done.

  10. CCPIT Machinery Exhibition Succeeded in Kuala Lumpur

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

      From August 18 to 20, 2005, China Council for the Promotion of International Trade(CCPIT) held China Machinery and Electronics Trade Exhibition, CME 2005 in Kuala Lumpur, the capital of Malaysia on behalf of China, a good job has been done.……

  11. Comic Strips to Accompany Science Museum Exhibits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Beom Sun; Park, Eun-mi; Kim, Sang-Hee; Cho, Sook-kyoung; Chung, Min Suk

    2016-01-01

    Science museums make the effort to create exhibits with amusing explanations. However, existing explanation signs with lengthy text are not appealing, and as such, visitors do not pay attention to them. In contrast, conspicuous comic strips composed of simple drawings and humors can attract science museum visitors. This study attempted to reveal…

  12. 18 CFR 50.7 - Applications: exhibits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... systems, including the special protective systems' automatic switching or load shedding system; and (ii... transfer capability (NITC); system protection; and system stability. (3) A stability analysis including... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applications: exhibits...

  13. Teacher Attitudes towards Students Who Exhibit ADHD-Type Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulholland, Sarah M.; Cumming, Therese M.; Jung, Jae Yup

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, its diagnosis and its treatment have been controversial since the 1970s (Kean, 2012), with opinions differing with respect to the diagnostic process, whether it in fact exists, or if it is an excuse for poor parenting and teaching (Maras, Redmayne, Hall, Braithwaite, & Prior, 1997). There are currently…

  14. Wildland firefighters and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles G. Palmer; Steven Gaskill; Joe Domitrovich; Marcy McNamara; Brian Knutson; Alysha Spear

    2011-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common disorders of childhood, affecting 3 to 7 percent of the population (American Psychiatric Association 2000). Research has indicated that the prevalence rate of ADHD in adult populations is approximately 4.4 percent and that the majority of those cases go untreated (Kessler et al. 2006). To date,...

  15. Hippocampus and amygdala morphology in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plessen, Kerstin J; Bansal, Ravi; Zhu, Hongtu

    2006-01-01

    CONTEXT: Limbic structures are implicated in the genesis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by the presence of mood and cognitive disturbances in affected individuals and by elevated rates of mood disorders in family members of probands with ADHD. OBJECTIVE: To study the morphology...

  16. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Functional Defecation Disorders in Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuizenga-Wessel, Sophie; Koppen, Ilan J. N.; Vriesman, Mana H.; Di Lorenzo, Carlo; van Dijk, Marieke; Beelen, Maureen L. R.; Groeneweg, Michael; Stoffelsen, Reino J.; Benninga, Marc A.

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children presenting with functional defecation disorders (FDDs) and to assess the prevalence of FDDs in children with ADHD. Methods: A cross-sectional cohort study was carried out

  17. Exploring five common assumptions on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batstra, Laura; Nieweg, Edo H.; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    The number of children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and treated with medication is steadily increasing. The aim of this paper was to critically discuss five debatable assumptions on ADHD that may explain these trends to some extent. These are that ADHD (i) causes

  18. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and substance abuse - A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Søren; Madsen, Anders G.; Bikic, Aida

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the history of the studies of mental health problems and substance use disorder (SUD) and the neurobiology and etiology of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and SUD. Additionally, we review the literature on the associations between ADHD and SUD...

  19. Nurse evaluation of hyperactivity in anorexia nervosa : A comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Elburg, Annemarie A.; Hoek, Hans W.; Kas, Martien J.H.; van Engeland, Herman

    2007-01-01

    Up to 80% of patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) manifest elevated levels of physical activity or hyperactivity. A variety of methods have been used to evaluate activity levels, mostly questionnaires but also expensive and invasive methods such as actometry or other measurements of energy

  20. Language Impairment in the Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Sean M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a ubiquitous designation that affects the identification, assessment, treatment, and study of pediatric language impairments (LIs). Method: Current literature is reviewed in 4 areas: (a) the capacity of psycholinguistic, neuropsychological, and socioemotional behavioral indices to…

  1. School Experiences of Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Judith; Daniels, Lesley

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on a qualitative study of the school experiences of adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the context of quantitative research on teacher attitudes and practices, adolescent self-appraisals, and social and family relationships. Twelve adolescents with ADHD participated in in-depth, semistructured…

  2. Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Participating in Recess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Matthew D.; Justice, Michael J.; Rosko, Kelly M.

    2014-01-01

    The participation of a student with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in recess can often be both challenging and rewarding for the student and teacher. This paper will address common characteristics of children with ADHD and present basic solutions to improve the experience of these children in the recess setting. Initially, the…

  3. The Role of Drugs, Diet, and Food Additives in Hyperactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harshbarger, Mary E.

    A variety of causes have been suggested for hyperactivity: anoxia and other adverse birth conditions, genetic factors, delayed maturation, maternal smoking and drinking during pregnancy, interaction of temperament and environment, lead poisoning, radiation stress, allergy and food additives, and deprivation of required stimulation. Treatments…

  4. Brain differences between persistent and remitted attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattfeld, Aaron T; Gabrieli, John D E; Biederman, Joseph; Spencer, Thomas; Brown, Ariel; Kotte, Amelia; Kagan, Elana; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan

    2014-09-01

    Previous resting state studies examining the brain basis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder have not distinguished between patients who persist versus those who remit from the diagnosis as adults. To characterize the neurobiological differences and similarities of persistence and remittance, we performed resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging in individuals who had been longitudinally and uniformly characterized as having or not having attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in childhood and again in adulthood (16 years after baseline assessment). Intrinsic functional brain organization was measured in patients who had a persistent diagnosis in childhood and adulthood (n = 13), in patients who met diagnosis in childhood but not in adulthood (n = 22), and in control participants who never had attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (n = 17). A positive functional correlation between posterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortices, major components of the default-mode network, was reduced only in patients whose diagnosis persisted into adulthood. A negative functional correlation between medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices was reduced in both persistent and remitted patients. The neurobiological dissociation between the persistence and remittance of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder may provide a framework for the relation between the clinical diagnosis, which indicates the need for treatment, and additional deficits that are common, such as executive dysfunctions. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Parents Psychopathology of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margari, Francesco; Craig, Francesco; Petruzzelli, Maria Giuseppina; Lamanna, Annalinda; Matera, Emilia; Margari, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a disorder with extremely complex etiology, not yet well defined but certainly multi-factorial. This study investigated the possible etiopathogenetic role of ADHD symptoms and psychopathology disorders in parents of children with ADHD. We present a case-control study of parents of 50 children…

  6. Classroom Discipline with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Edward A.; Kirby, Sandra H.

    1994-01-01

    Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often discipline problems, but their disruptive behavior is usually not willful or intentional. After describing the educational history of one person with ADHD, the article makes suggestions for disciplining children with ADHD in the classroom. (SM)

  7. Emotion Regulation and Heterogeneity in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musser, Erica D.; Galloway-Long, Hilary S.; Frick, Paul J.; Nigg, Joel T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: How best to capture heterogeneity in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using biomarkers has been elusive. This study evaluated whether emotion reactivity and regulation provide a means to achieve this. Method: Participants were classified into three groups: children with ADHD plus low prosocial behavior (hypothesized to be…

  8. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and social dysfunctioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijmeijer, Judith S.; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Mulligan, Aisling; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with functional impairments in different areas of daily life. One such area is social functioning. The purpose of this paper is to critically review research on social dysfunctioning in children with ADHD. Children with ADHD often have

  9. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and social dysfunctioning.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijmeijer, J.S.; Minderaa, R.B.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Mulligan, A.; Hartman, C.A.; Hoekstra, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with functional impairments in different areas of daily life. One such area is social functioning. The purpose of this paper is to critically review research on social dysfunctioning in children with ADHD. Children with ADHD often have

  10. DSM-5 Further Inflates Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batstra, Laura; Frances, Allen

    Since the publication of DSM-IV in 1994, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) prevalence and medication use unexpectedly increased significantly. In this article, we explore the DSM-5 proposals for ADHD that are likely to further increase its prevalence. We also address the possible

  11. Personality profiles in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perroud, Nader; Hasler, Roland; Golay, Nicolas; Zimmermann, Julien; Prada, Paco; Nicastro, Rosetta; Aubry, Jean-Michel; Ardu, Stefano; Herrmann, François R; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon; Baud, Patrick

    2016-06-14

    Previous studies suggested that the presence of ADHD in children and young adolescents may affect the development of personality. Whether or not the persistence of ADHD in adult life is associated with distinct personality patterns is still matter for debate. To address this issue, we compared the profiles of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) that assesses personality dimensions in 119 adults ADHD and 403 controls. ANCOVA were used to examine group differences (controls vs. ADHD and ADHD inattentive type vs. ADHD combined + hyperactive/impulsive types) in Temperaments and Characters. Partial correlation coefficients were used to assess correlation between TCI and expression and severity of symptoms of ADHD. High novelty seeking (NS), harm avoidance (HA) and self-transcendence (ST) scores as well as low self-directedness (SD) and cooperativeness (C) scores were associated with ADHD diagnosis. Low SD was the strongest personality trait associated with adult ADHD. Cases with the ADHD inattentive type showed higher HA and lower SD scores compared to the combined and hyperactive/impulsive types. High HA scores correlated with inattention symptoms whereas high NS and ST scores were related to hyperactive symptoms. Finally low SD and high NS were associated with increased ADHD severity. Distinct temperaments were associated with inattentive versus hyperactive/impulsive symptoms supporting the heterogeneous nature of the disorder.

  12. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms mediate early-onset smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizink, A.C.; Van Lier, P.A.C.; Crijnen, A.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims: Symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have often been associated with early-onset smoking. We hypothesize that reductions in ADHD symptoms due to an intervention have a mediating effect on early-onset smoking. Methods: In a universal, school-based, randomized

  13. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms Mediate Early-Onset Smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizink, A.C.; Lier, P.A.C. van; Crijnen, A.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims: Symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have often been associated with early-onset smoking. We hypothesize that reductions in ADHD symptoms due to an intervention have a mediating effect on early-onset smoking. Methods: In a universal, school-based, randomized

  14. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms mediate early-onset smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. Huizink (Anja); P.A.C. van Lier (Pol); A.A.M. Crijnen (Alfons)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground/Aims: Symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have often been associated with early-onset smoking. We hypothesize that reductions in ADHD symptoms due to an intervention have a mediating effect on early-onset smoking. Methods: In a universal, school-based,

  15. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Executive Function Impairment: An Overview.

    OpenAIRE

    Carruthers, Lindsey.

    2016-01-01

    As with any cognitive ability, attention is vulnerable to dysfunction. The most common attentional problem is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This brief overview will highlight the symptoms and deficits associated with ADHD, its prevalence in today’s society, the association between executive function impairment and ADHD using Barkley’s (1997) work, and the personal and societal effects of the disorder.

  16. Source Discrimination in Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuermaier, Anselm B. M.; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Aschenbrenner, Steffen; Weisbrod, Matthias; Lange, Klaus W.; Tucha, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The context of memory experiences is referred to as source memory and can be distinguished from the content of episodic item memory. Source memory represents a crucial part of biographic events and elaborate memory experiences. Whereas individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity

  17. Test Anxiety and College Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jason M.; Lindstrom, Will; Foels, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    Test anxiety was examined in college students with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Results indicated that, relative to college students without ADHD, college students with ADHD reported higher total test anxiety as well as specific aspects of test anxiety, including worry (i.e., cognitive aspects of test anxiety) and…

  18. Adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Benefit from Massage Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany M.; Quintino, Olga; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Koslovsky, Gabrielle

    1998-01-01

    Twenty-eight adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder were provided either massage therapy or relaxation therapy for 10 consecutive school days. The massage therapy group, but not the relaxation therapy group, self-rated as happier, and observers rated them as fidgeting less following the sessions. Teachers reported more time on…

  19. Distinct Response Time Distributions in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querne, Laurent; Berquin, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To address the issue of response time (RT) profiles in hyperactive-impulsive (ADHD-HI), inattentive (ADHD-IA), and combined (ADHD-C) subtypes of ADHD. We hypothesized that children with ADHD-HI should respond more rapidly than children without ADHD and children with ADHD-IA and ADHD-C should respond more slowly than children without…

  20. Very Low Birth Weight and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meere, Jaap; Börger, Norbert A.; Potgieter, Stephanus Theron; Pirila, Silja; De Cock, Paul

    2009-01-01

    It is well recognized that reaction time performance of term-born children with a normal birth weight (NBW > 2500 g) who fulfill the DSM-IV criteria for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the primary school age is sensitive for the presentation rate of stimuli. They have been found

  1. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and bipolar mood disorder in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and bipolar mood disorder in children and adolescents. L Scribante. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/sajpsychiatry.v15i2.205 · AJOL African Journals ...

  2. Sleep disorders in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medina Permatawati

    2018-03-01

    Conclusion The proportion of sleep disorder in children with ADHD is relatively high, with the majority having a disorder of initiating and maintaining sleep. Children with combined type ADHD experience a higher amount of sleep disorder than those with either the inattention or hyperactive-impulsive types of ADHD. Children with poor sleep hygiene have significantly more severe sleep disorders.

  3. Stimulant Medication and the Hyperactive Adolescent: Myths and Facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clampit, M. K.; Pirkle, Jane B.

    1983-01-01

    Reviews literature that describes the rational and nonrational factors sustaining the myth that stimulant medication is ineffective for hyperactive adolescents. Discusses methodological problems and factors--such as increasing size, misbehavior and misattribution, and perceived relationship to drug abuse--that influence treatment decisions. (JAC)

  4. Experimental Training of Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscalkiene, Viktorija

    2009-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) negatively affects the cognitive and psychomotoric spheres of the pupil's social behavior and social adaptation. The review of many studies states that pupils with AD/HD achieve worse learning results because of insufficiently functioning cognitive processes, such as attention, (work) memory,…

  5. Adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: Why should we pay ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder, with a chronic, costly and debilitating course if untreated. Limited access to diagnosis and treatment for adults with ADHD contributes to the cost of the disorder and the burden of disease. Aim: This study aims to identify ...

  6. Community survey of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood neuro-developmental condition with early onset. ADHD affects children worldwide. However, there is a variation in the prevalence across different countries. In Nigeria, there is paucity of information on the prevalence. To provide the ...

  7. Self-reported Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder symptoms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of self-reported attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms among university students in Eldoret, Kenya. Design: A cross-sectional descriptive study of all students who gave consent to participate in the study. Setting: Moi University's Town Campus, comprising the ...

  8. Adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: A database analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic, costly and debilitating disorder. In South Africa (SA), access to funding for care and treatment of ADHD is limited, and research is lacking. Aim: This study aimed to establish the current situation with regard to the psychiatric management of and ...

  9. Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder among school children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To estimate the prevalence and determinants of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms among school children in Kinshasa, an African urban setting. Methods: The 18-items of the Disruptive Behaviour Disorder rating scale (DBD), which is based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for ...

  10. The medical management of attention-deficit / hyperactivity disorder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focuses specifically on the medical management of attention-deficit / hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and the options currently available in South Africa. References are made to current thinking on the etiology of this disorder and the pharmacological principles involved in its treatment. This review will not try to ...

  11. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults: diagnostic imperatives

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At present, no biological or psychological tests with sufficient sensitivity or specificity can replace the meticulous process of distilling the clinical characteristics of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ( ADHD) in adulthood. The level of diagnostic confidence can be enhanced via a semi-structured interview, confirming the ...

  12. Interference control in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mourik, R.; Papanikolau, A.; van Gelicum-Bijlhout, J.; van Oostenbruggen, J.; Veugelers, D.; Post-Uiterweer, A.; Sergeant, J.A.; Oosterlaan, J.

    2009-01-01

    The view that Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is associated with a diminished ability to control interfference is controversial and based exclusively on results of (verbal)-visual interference tasks, primarily the Stroop Color Word task. The present study compares medication-naïve

  13. Structural basis for hyperactivity of cN-II mutants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hnízda, Aleš; Škerlová, Jana; Šinalová, Martina; Pachl, Petr; Man, Petr; Novák, Petr; Fábry, Milan; Řezáčová, Pavlína; Veverka, Václav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 1 (2015), s. 4 ISSN 1211-5894. [Discussions in Structural Molecular Biology. Annual Meeting of the Czech Society for Structural Biology /13./. 19.03.2015-21.03.2015, Nové Hrady] Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:68378050 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : cN-II mutants * enzyme hyperactivity Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  14. Travelling CERN Exhibition ''When Energy Becomes Matter''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The European Laboratory for Nuclear Research (CERN) and the H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics together with the Institute of Physics of the Jagiellonian University and the University of Mining and Metallurgy, and under the auspices of the Polish National Atomic Energy Agency organized in the Museum of Nature in Cracow from October 16 till December 16, 2000 the exhibition ''When Energy Becomes Matter''. The Office of the ''Festival Cracow 2000'' was the main sponsor of that event. The exhibition was a part of the F estival Cracow 2000'' called ''Festival of Youngsters Cracow 2000''. Invitations, posters and information leaflets were sent to more than 3000 schools in southern Poland. The exhibition was divided into four specially designed quadrants. In the first the visitor was informed what kind of scales are in use to describe the Universe and the atom. The second introduced elementary particles via the cosmic ray demonstrations. Particle acceleration was demonstrated with the help of a TV set. The third segment was devoted to the Large Hadron Collider and its experiments: CMS, ATLAS, ALICE and LHCb. The last segment was an attempt to explain what are quarks, leptons and intermediate bosons. In addition it was also explained what is antimatter and why symmetry is broken in Nature. In one of the rooms we arranged the cinema where five movies was continuously presented. Thanks to the Cracow TV it was possible to prepare Polish translations of the films: B ack to creation , P owers of ten , L HC - time machine , S tars underground , and G eneva event . Another attraction of the exhibition was the Internet room equipped with the help of Polish Telecommunication. The exhibition was open seven days per week from 10 to 17 h. During the working days every 20 minutes a new group of about 25-30 people was visiting the exhibition. Each group was guided by students and PhD students from our Institute, Jagiellonian University and University of Mining

  15. LHC INAUGURATION, LHC Fest highlights: exhibition time!

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    David Gross, one of the twenty-one Nobel Laureates who have participated in the project.Tuesday 21 October 2008 Accelerating Nobels Colliding Charm, Atomic Cuisine, The Good Anomaly, A Quark Somewhere on the White Paper, Wire Proliferation, A Tale of Two Liquids … these are just some of the titles given to artworks by Physics Nobel Laureates who agreed to make drawings of their prize-winning discoveries (more or less reluctantly) during a special photo session. Science photographer Volker Steger made portraits of Physics Nobel Laureates and before the photo sessions he asked them to make a drawing of their most important discovery. The result is "Accelerating Nobels", an exhibition that combines unusual portraits of and original drawings by twenty-one Nobel laureates in physics whose work is closely related to CERN and the LHC. This exhibition will be one of the highlights of the LHC celebrations on 21 October in the SM18 hall b...

  16. Exhibition: Women and Sciences by Fiami

    CERN Multimedia

    Globe Info

    2011-01-01

    The 19-panel exhibition is on display at CERN's Microcosm from Monday to Saturday from 10.00 a.m. to 5.00 p.m.   Marie Curie won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry one hundred years ago. She is the only woman ever to win two Nobel Prizes, which is a testament to her remarkable work. But throughout history, women have played a role in science either in their own right or alongside other scientists. In this special exhibition, the comic-strip artist Fiami takes a look back at the relationship between women and science through his portraits of Mileva Einstein, Marie-Anne Lavoisier and, of course, Marie Curie. Fiami has recently published an entire album devoted to Marie Curie. Texts in French All ages - Entrance free Femmes et Sciences is on display at Microcosm: From Wednesday 21 September 2011 to Tuesday 20 December 2011.

  17. Kuala Namu Convention And Exhibition Centre

    OpenAIRE

    Gustriana, Trisna

    2017-01-01

    Aerotropolis area development that is expected to accommodate the development of business and commercial appeal and this is the chance for the designer to be able to take advantage of the situation and condition of land as well as possible. So that the revolutionary changes but is able to embrace all stakeholders is the solution needed to development Aerotropolis. Kuala Namu's Convention and Exhibition Center is expected to be a solution for regional development of Kuala Namu a...

  18. 22nd Annual Logistics Conference and Exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-20

    Bill” Kenwell, Vice President, Sales and Marketing, Maersk 5:30pm-7:30pm Reception in Exhibit Hall Wednesday, April 19, 2006 7:00am-5:30pm...some commercial sales of our products, services and platforms. We provide surface, air, and undersea applications on more than 460 programs for US...diagnostic system & process • Seamless B2B integration with maintenance systems Enabled By… EOATM Overview Sensor Data Maintenance Logs Repair Data Expert

  19. The Factory of the Future, Group Exhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Dean, Lionel T.

    2016-01-01

    3D Printing, The factory of the future, Lieu du Design (centre for Design), Paris This exhibition dedicated entirely to 3D printing technology was billed as “the first in France wholly devoted to exploring the interdisciplinary and multifaceted topic of 3D printing technology and its undeniable influence on everything from industry, to economics, to creative and social issues, demonstrated to the public through achievements in the fields of 3D design, 3D printed architecture, 3D printed fa...

  20. Brazilian air traffic controllers exhibit excessive sleepiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas, Valdenilson Ribeiro; de Almeida, Cláudia Ângela Vilela; Martins, Hugo André de Lima; Alves, Carlos Frederico de Oliveira; Alves, Marcos José Pinheiro Cândido; Carneiro, Severino Marcos de Oliveira; Ribas, Valéria Ribeiro; de Vasconcelos, Carlos Augusto Carvalho; Sougey, Everton Botelho; de Castro, Raul Manhães

    2011-01-01

    Excessive sleepiness (ES) is an increased tendency to initiate involuntary sleep for naps at inappropriate times. The objective of this study was to assess ES in air traffic controllers (ATCo). 45 flight protection professionals were evaluated, comprising 30 ATCo, subdivided into ATCo with ten or more years in the profession (ATCo≥10, n=15) and ATCo with less than ten years in the profession (ATCoair traffic controllers exhibit excessive sleepiness.

  1. Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command exhibit entrance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    StenniSphere at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., invites visitors to discover why America comes to Stennis Space Center before going into space. Designed to entertain while educating, StenniSphere includes informative displays and exhibits from NASA and other agencies located at Stennis, such as this one from the Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command. Visitors can 'travel' three-dimensionally under the sea and check on the weather back home in the Weather Center.

  2. Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command exhibit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Designed to entertain while educating, StenniSphere at the John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., includes informative displays and exhibits from NASA and other agencies located at Stennis, such as this one from the Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command. Visitors can 'travel' three-dimensionally under the sea and check on the weather back home in the Weather Center. StenniSphere is open free of charge from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily.

  3. Exhibition: Linus Pauling and the Twentieth Century

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    On April 28 the exhibit Linus Pauling and the Twentieth Century organised by UNIDIR (United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research) and SGI (Soka Gakkai International) as well as with the contributions of CERN and the University of Geneva, opened at the United Nations Office of Geneva. Linus Pauling is the only person to date to have won two unshared Nobel Prizes: Chemistry in 1954 and Peace in 1962. The first was awarded for his landmark research on the nature of the chemical bond and its application in understanding the structure of complex substances. The second one acknowledged his courageous protest against atmospheric nuclear testing and his championship of international peace. The exhibit, for audience of all ages, traces seven decades of Linus Pauling's life and influence on the 20th century. Before starting its European tour at the UNESCO headquarters in Paris, the exhibit opened in 1998 in San Francisco and then travelled within the United-States and to Japan with an attendance of more than one...

  4. Exhibition: Linus Pauling and the Twentieth Century

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    On April 28 the exhibit Linus Pauling and the Twentieth Century organised by UNIDIR (United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research) and SGI (Soka Gakkai International) as well as with the contributions of CERN and the University of Geneva, opens at the United Nations Office of Geneva. Linus Pauling is the only person to date to have won two unshared Nobel Prizes: Chemistry in 1954 and Peace in 1962. The first was awarded for his landmark research on the nature of the chemical bond and its application in understanding the structure of complex substances. The second one acknowledged his courageous protest against atmospheric nuclear testing and his championship of international peace. The exhibit, for all ages' audiences, traces seven decades of Linus Pauling's life and influence on the 20th century. Before starting its European tour at the UNESCO headquarters in Paris, the exhibit opened in 1998 in San Francisco and then travelled within the United-States and to Japan with an attendance of more than one m...

  5. Bumblebees exhibit the memory spacing effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Nicholas R. T.; Song, Jeremy; Nieh, James C.

    2009-10-01

    Associative learning is key to how bees recognize and return to rewarding floral resources. It thus plays a major role in pollinator floral constancy and plant gene flow. Honeybees are the primary model for pollinator associative learning, but bumblebees play an important ecological role in a wider range of habitats, and their associative learning abilities are less well understood. We assayed learning with the proboscis extension reflex (PER), using a novel method for restraining bees (capsules) designed to improve bumblebee learning. We present the first results demonstrating that bumblebees exhibit the memory spacing effect. They improve their associative learning of odor and nectar reward by exhibiting increased memory acquisition, a component of long-term memory formation, when the time interval between rewarding trials is increased. Bombus impatiens forager memory acquisition (average discrimination index values) improved by 129% and 65% at inter-trial intervals (ITI) of 5 and 3 min, respectively, as compared to an ITI of 1 min. Memory acquisition rate also increased with increasing ITI. Encapsulation significantly increases olfactory memory acquisition. Ten times more foragers exhibited at least one PER response during training in capsules as compared to traditional PER harnesses. Thus, a novel conditioning assay, encapsulation, enabled us to improve bumblebee-learning acquisition and demonstrate that spaced learning results in better memory consolidation. Such spaced learning likely plays a role in forming long-term memories of rewarding floral resources.

  6. Exhibition: Dialogue between Science and religion

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Can the theory of the Big Bang reached by physicists and the concept of creation beloved of religion ever be reconciled? The two approaches have at least one point in common: they do not provide a final answer to the mysteries of the birth of the Universe. And this means that dialogue is alays possible between the two. It is to show the potential of such an exchange that Geneva's Société Evangélique organization is opening an exhibition under the title 'Big Bang and Creation', at the Planète Charmilles shopping centre, to run from 19 to 30 March. View of the 'Big Bang and Creation' exhibition. The exhibition is divided into three sections, showing the views of the scientist and those of the believer without setting them up in opposition to one another. In the first section, under a representation of the vault of heaven, the visitor will discover the different ideas explaining the birth of the Universe: Genesis and the Big Bang, and the different dominant theories ...

  7. Art exhibit focuses on African astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-07-01

    Connections between Africans and astronomy are the focus of a new exhibition in the National Museum of African Art in Washington, D. C. "African Cosmos: Stellar Arts," which includes artwork, cultural items, and scientific displays from ancient to contemporary times, is the first major exhibit "that brings together arts and science focused on Africa's contribution to keen observations of the heavens over time," curator Christine Mullen Kreamer said at a 20 June news briefing. Among the exhibit's nearly 100 objects are an ancient Egyptian mummy board that includes a representation of the sky goddess Nut, sculptures by the Dogon people of Mali depicting figures in relation to the cosmos, a video that uses data from two square degrees of the Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Evolution Survey, and a nearly floor-to-ceiling "Rainbow Serpent" constructed of plastic containers by Benin artist Hazoume. An untitled acrylic painting (Figure 1) by South African Gavin Jantjes evokes a myth of the Khoi San people of southern Africa, as it portrays a girl throwing evening fire embers into the night sky, where they remained as the Milky Way.

  8. White matter microstructure and developmental improvement of hyperactive/impulsive symptoms in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francx, W.C.L.; Zwiers, M.P.; Mennes, M.J.J.; Oosterlaan, J.; Heslenfeld, D.J.; Hoekstra, P.J.; Hartman, C.A.; Franke, B.; Faraone, S.V; O'Dwyer, L.G.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2015-01-01

    Background A developmental improvement of symptoms in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is frequently reported, but the underlying neurobiological substrate has not been identified. The aim of this study was to determine whether white matter microstructure is related to developmental

  9. White matter microstructure and developmental improvement of hyperactive/impulsive symptoms in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francx, Winke; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Mennes, Maarten; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Heslenfeld, Dirk; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Franke, Barbara; Faraone, Stephen V.; O'Dwyer, Laurence; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: A developmental improvement of symptoms in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is frequently reported, but the underlying neurobiological substrate has not been identified. The aim of this study was to determine whether white matter microstructure is related to developmental

  10. Oral and intravenous caffeine for treatment of children with post-sedation paradoxical hyperactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Joan T; Towbin, Richard B; Bartko, MaryBeth; Baskin, Kevin M; Cahill, Anne Marie; Kaye, Robin D

    2004-12-01

    Paradoxical hyperactivity (PH) is a known complication of sedation in children, especially with barbiturates such as pentobarbital. The accompanying inconsolable irritability and agitation, similar to behaviors reported in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), is uncomfortable for the child and anxiety-provoking for parents and health-care workers. Our objective was to describe our experience with oral (PO) and intravenous (IV) caffeine as a treatment for sedation-induced PH. From January 2000 to April 2003, 19,894 children were sedated in our institution for radiology procedures. Of these, 360 children were diagnosed with PH. A total of 229 children exhibiting symptoms of PH after sedative administration were treated with PO caffeine ( n=88; 43 boys, 45 girls; mean age 4.5 years, mean weight 18.7 kg) or IV caffeine ( n=131; 73 boys, 58 girls; mean age 4.8 years, mean weight 20.1 kg) or both ( n=10; 8 boys, 2 girls; mean age 5.0 years, mean weight 19.9 kg). A positive effect was defined as a decrease in agitation, crying, or hyperactivity within 40 min of caffeine administration. A control group ( n=45) was obtained from those 141 children who experienced post-sedation PH but were not treated with caffeine, and matched for age and sex with samples of children treated with IV caffeine ( n=45) and PO caffeine ( n=45). Children treated intravenously received the equivalent of 20 mg/kg caffeine citrate (to a maximum of 200 mg). Of those treated with IV caffeine, 82/131 (63%) showed a positive effect, and returned to baseline behavioral status after an average of 33 min (SD=23 min). The untreated control group required a significantly longer time to recover ( Pcaffeine. Children treated orally received approximately 1.0-2.5 mg/kg caffeine in Mountain Dew (Pepsi-Cola Company), and 36/88 (41%) showed a positive effect and returned to baseline behavioral status after an average of 42 min (SD=27 min). Of the 10 children treated with both PO and IV

  11. Library exhibits and programs boost science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusenbery, Paul B.; Curtis, Lisa

    2012-05-01

    Science museums let visitors explore and discover, but for many families there are barriers—such as cost or distance—that prevent them from visiting museums and experiencing hands-on science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) learning. Now educators are reaching underserved audiences by developing STEM exhibits and programs for public libraries. With more than 16,000 outlets in the United States, public libraries serve almost every community in the country. Nationwide, they receive about 1.5 billion visits per year, and they offer their services for free.

  12. Identification of a Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3[beta] Inhibitor that Attenuates Hyperactivity in CLOCK Mutant Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozikowski, Alan P.; Gunosewoyo, Hendra; Guo, Songpo; Gaisina, Irina N.; Walter, Richard L.; Ketcherside, Ariel; McClung, Colleen A.; Mesecar, Andrew D.; Caldarone, Barbara (Psychogenics); (Purdue); (UIC); (UTSMC)

    2012-05-02

    Bipolar disorder is characterized by a cycle of mania and depression, which affects approximately 5 million people in the United States. Current treatment regimes include the so-called 'mood-stabilizing drugs', such as lithium and valproate that are relatively dated drugs with various known side effects. Glycogen synthase kinase-3{beta} (GSK-3{beta}) plays a central role in regulating circadian rhythms, and lithium is known to be a direct inhibitor of GSK-3{beta}. We designed a series of second generation benzofuran-3-yl-(indol-3-yl)maleimides containing a piperidine ring that possess IC{sub 50} values in the range of 4 to 680 nM against human GSK-3{beta}. One of these compounds exhibits reasonable kinase selectivity and promising preliminary absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) data. The administration of this compound at doses of 10 to 25 mg kg{sup -1} resulted in the attenuation of hyperactivity in amphetamine/chlordiazepoxide-induced manic-like mice together with enhancement of prepulse inhibition, similar to the effects found for valproate (400 mg kg{sup -1}) and the antipsychotic haloperidol (1 mg kg{sup -1}). We also tested this compound in mice carrying a mutation in the central transcriptional activator of molecular rhythms, the CLOCK gene, and found that the same compound attenuates locomotor hyperactivity in response to novelty. This study further demonstrates the use of inhibitors of GSK-3{beta} in the treatment of manic episodes of bipolar/mood disorders, thus further validating GSK-3{beta} as a relevant therapeutic target in the identification of new therapies for bipolar patients.

  13. [Psychiatric comorbidity related to children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder at schools in Sfax, Tunisia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khemakhem, K; Ayedi, H; Moalla, Y; Yaich, S; Hadjkacem, I; Walha, A; Damak, J; Ghribi, F

    2015-02-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent behavioral disorder particularly noticed among school children. It is often associated with other psychological troubles at the origin of an additional difficulty that has to be overcome. Our research's aim was to study the comorbidity of school-aged children diagnosed with ADHD in Sfax, Tunisia. A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out from 1st April 2008 to 1st October 2008. Five hundred and thirteen pupils aged between 6 and 12, from primary arbitrarily chosen schools from Sfax were subjected to this study. Measurements were carried out in two steps: parents and teachers of each child filled in separately Conners questionnaire, then children with a score in subscales inattention, hyperactivity impulsivity higher than 70 were selected for psychiatric interview that was intended to confirm or to invalidate the ADHD diagnosis and the possible comorbid diagnosis. The diagnoses were made according to DSM-IV-TR. We have noticed that 109 pupils exhibited at least one pathological score on the Conners questionnaire. After interviewing these 109 pupils, the results have shown that 51 among them fulfilled criteria of ADHD. Prevalence of ADHD was found to be 9.94 %. About 72.54 % of children with ADHD had one or more comorbid disorder: learning disabilities (23.52 % of cases), anxiety disorder (31.37 % of cases), oppositional defiant disorder in (15.68 % of cases), mood disorder (3.92 % of cases), enuresis (13.72 % of cases) and slight mental retardation (1.95 % of cases). We can say that this study has shown that ADHD school children's psychiatric comorbidity is similar to any other previous study. Copyright © 2013 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Expression of a hyperactive androgen receptor leads to androgen-independent growth of prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Chen-Lin; Cai, Changmeng; Giwa, Ahmed; Bivins, Aaronica; Chen, Shao-Yong; Sabry, Dina; Govardhan, Kumara; Shemshedini, Lirim

    2008-07-01

    Cellular changes that affect the androgen receptor (AR) can cause prostate cancer to transition from androgen dependent to androgen independent, which is usually lethal. One common change in prostate tumors is overexpression of the AR, which has been shown to lead to androgen-independent growth of prostate cancer cells. This led us to hypothesize that expression of a hyperactive AR would be sufficient for androgen-independent growth of prostate cancer cells. To test this hypothesis, stable lune cancer prostate (LNCaP) cell lines were generated, which express a virion phosphoprotein (VP)16-AR hybrid protein that contains full-length AR fused to the strong viral transcriptional activation domain VP16. This fusion protein elicited as much as a 20-fold stronger transcriptional activity than the natural AR. Stable expression of VP16-AR in LNCaP cells yielded androgen-independent cell proliferation, while under the same growth conditions the parental LNCaP cells exhibited only androgen-dependent growth. These results show that expression of a hyperactive AR is sufficient for androgen-independent growth of prostate cancer cells. To study the molecular basis of this enhanced growth, we measured the expression of soluble guanylyl cyclase-alpha1 (sGCalpha1), a subunit of the sGC, an androgen-regulated gene that has been shown to be involved in prostate cancer cell growth. Interestingly, the expression of sGCalpha1 is androgen independent in VP16-AR-expressing cells, in contrast to its androgen-induced expression in control LNCaP cells. RNA(I)-dependent inhibition of sGCalpha1 expression resulted in significantly reduced proliferation of VP16-AR cells, implicating an important role for sGCalpha1 in the androgen-independent growth of these cells.

  15. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and intellectual giftedness: a study of symptom frequency and minor physical anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Minahim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the presence of symptoms of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in intellectually gifted adults and children. Methods: Two cross-sectional studies were performed in children and adults whose intelligence quotient (IQ had been previously evaluated using Raven’s Progressive Matrices (RPM test. Seventy-seven adults displaying IQ scores above the 98th percentile were assessed using the Adult Self-Report Scale (ASRS-18 for signs of ADHD and a modified Waldrop scale for minor physical anomalies (MPAs. Thirty-nine children (grades 1-5 exhibiting IQ scores above the 99th percentile, as well as an equally matched control group, were assessed for ADHD by teachers using the Swanson, Nolan and Pelham IV Rating Scale (SNAP-IV as used in the NIMH Collaborative Multisite Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (MTA-SNAP-IV. Results: In gifted adults, the frequency of ADHD-positive cases was 37.8%, and the total MPA score was significantly associated with ADHD (p < 0.001. In children, the ADHD-positive case frequency was 15.38% in the gifted group and 7.69% in the control group (odds ratio [OR] = 2.18, p = 0.288. Conclusions: The high frequency of ADHD symptoms observed, both in gifted adults and in gifted (and non-gifted children, further supports the validity of this diagnosis in this population. Furthermore, the significant association between MPAs and ADHD suggests that a neurodevelopmental condition underlies these symptoms.

  16. Are names of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder more 'hyperactive'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoval, Gal; Manor, Iris; Nahshoni, Eitan; Weizman, Abraham; Zalsman, Gil

    2012-01-01

    The role of the meaning of given names has been noted in psychotherapy as well as in everyday life. This study aimed to investigate the possible association between the nature of given names of children and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis. A total of 134 given names of children and adolescent patients diagnosed as having ADHD were compared with those of an age- and gender-matched randomly chosen control group from the general population. The first names of the two cohorts were compared with regard to the following: the literal meaning of their names, whether the name constitutes a verb, the prevalence of each name and their length (number of syllables). The meaning of first names of children and adolescents with ADHD combined type were rated by referees as expressing significantly more activity and containing less syllables than the names of controls. In addition, the prevalence of their names was significantly lower than that of names used in the general population. All findings remained significant following Bonferroni adjustment. Our findings demonstrate an intriguing relationship between children's given names and ADHD diagnosis. Given names may serve as a possible predictor of later diagnosis of ADHD. Clinicians should be more attentive to given names in the context of child psychiatric evaluation and therapy. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Radiation-related information at science exhibitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannai, Tadaaki [Inst. for Environmental Sciences, Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan)

    1999-09-01

    The aim of the present report was to promote an efficient utilization of science museums providing with educational information concerning radiations. Investigations were made on radiation-related materials exhibited at 38 museums including PR event sites between April 1996 and July 1998 mainly located on Kanto and Tohoku area in Japan. The investigation concerned as to whether the displays on radiation-related material (cosmic rays, X-rays, etc) existed or not, and as to the background of the display as well. As the result, 14 locations had no relevant displays, 10 of them not having things about atomic energy at all. The locations belonging to electricity company mostly had displays related to radiations and atomic energy power generation. A spark chamber was exhibited at 9 locations and a cloud chamber at 3 locations, but only one location among them displayed both. Displays on the actual use of X-radiation were found at 4 locations. Needs to prepare further improved displays exist at the sites visited. (S. Ohno)

  18. CERN Inspires Art in Major New Exhibition

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    Signatures of the Invisible, an exhibition inspired by CERN, opened at the Atlantis Gallery in London on Thursday, 1 March before going on a world tour. The fruit of a close collaboration between CERN and the London Institute, the exhibition brings together works from many leading European contemporary artists. White wooden boxes on a grey floor... the lids opened, unveiling brilliant white light from a bunch of optical fibres carefully stuck together in the shape of a square. Another holds a treasure of lead glass surrounded by enigmatic black mirrors. What's it all about? Signatures of the Invisible, that's what, a joint project organised by the London Institute, one of the world's largest college of art, and our Laboratory. Damien Foresy from the EST workshop putting finishing touches to the spinning tops of French artist Jérôme Basserode. Monica Sand's boxes are just one of the many works based around materials used in particle detection at CERN that was admired at the opening o...

  19. Children's drawings exhibited in the Globe

    CERN Multimedia

    Elizabeth Roe

    2010-01-01

    "Draw Me A Physicist" has been a success. Members of the public visiting the exhibition in the Globe of Science and Innovation have praised the scientific and creative balance the children of neighbouring France and the Canton of Geneva have obtained through their visit to CERN.   The Draw Me a Physicist exhibition in the Globe For a six-month period 9 to 11-year olds from the Pays de Gex, Meyrin, Satigny and Vernier have been able to enjoy a balance between science and art, through drawing and defining their interpretations of a physicist. In May, eight pairs of drawings from each participating class were selected by the schools to be displayed on the second floor of the Globe. Since the images have been put up, the viewers have enjoyed the contrast between the "before" pictures of vibrant Albert Einsteins to the "after" pictures of casual people sitting in an office. The large room in the Globe has been transformed from a hollow shell int...

  20. Exhibiting the Human/Exhibiting the Cyborg: “Who Am I?”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia C. Vackimes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The role of the museum in shaping our relationship to science and technology, particularly cyborgization, is illuminated by a close examination of the Who Am I permanent exhibition in the Wellcome Wing of the Science Museum of London. This innovative exhibition raises real questions both about the human-technology-science relationship but also about museography. In the context of the history and current practices of museums engaging contemporary technological developments the evidence suggest that even as the Who am I? exhibit did break somewhat from previous approaches, especially the didactic presentation of the socially useful, it has not changed the feld as a whole.

  1. Attention deficit hyperactivity symptoms in children with autistic disorder: a cross-sectional descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnsil, Chawanun; Sriapai, Payupol

    2011-02-01

    (1) to examine the co-occurrence of attention deficit and hyperactivity symptoms in children with autistic disorder, and (2) to study the correlation between attention deficit hyperactivity symptoms and the severity of autistic disorder. This was a clinical based study. The authors used Childhood Autistic Rating scale (CARs) to evaluate the severity of autistic disorder Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham Teacher and Parent Rating Scale, Version IV (SNAP-IV) was used to measure attention deficit and hyperactive symptoms in children with autism. Thirty (n=30) children enrolled in this study. All participants displayed attention deficit symptoms and 18 participants demonstrated hyperactivity as well. Nonparametric correlation showed a high positive correlation (Spa = 0.90, p = 0.00) between the severity of autistic disorder and hyperactivity and not the attention deficit symptoms (Spa = 0.29, p = 0.16). The authors finding shows a high comorbid rate of attention deficit and hyperactive symptoms among the participants.

  2. [Clinical and neurophysiological heterogeneity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chutko, L S; Yakovenko, E A; Surushkina, S Yu; Anisimova, T I; Kropotov, Yu D

    To determine clinical/neurophysiological characteristics of different forms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and the efficacy of treatment with cerebrolysin. Sixty children, aged 9 to 12 years, with ADHD were examined using clinical and electroencephalographic methods. Idiopathic and residual-organic forms were compared. The study shows significantly higher levels of impulsivity and hyperactivity in children with residual-organic form of the disease. There were significant differences in the amplitude component of engaging in action (P3 Go) and the amplitude of the action suppression component (P3 NOGO) in patients with different forms of ADHD. The high clinical efficacy (improvement in 70.0% of patients with idiopathic form of ADHD and 86.7% of patients with residual-organic form of the disease) was found.

  3. Dansk standardisering af attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder-ratingskalaen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lotte; Jørgensen, Siv Lykke; Dalsgaard, Søren

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. The diagnostic classification is based on developmental anamnesis, objective examination, neuropsychological tests, observation of the child, and evaluation of the symptoms...... from rating scales. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The internationally known ADHD rating scale (ADHD-RS) has been translated into Danish and representative norm data from teachers and parents were collected. A total of 1,718 ADHR-RS questionnaires were distributed to 859 anonymous school children, aged 6......-17 years, and a total of 1,477 ADHD-RS questionnaires were returned. Analyses were made on 781 children, 420 boys and 361 girls. RESULTS: The average participation rate was 99.5% for teachers and 72.4% for parents. The factor structure was supported and internal consistency was high. The normative scores...

  4. Intervention for executive functions in attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Menezes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate if an executive functions (EF intervention could promote these skills in individuals with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Eighteen children and adolescents, 7-13 years old, divided into experimental (EG, N = 8 and control (CG, N = 10 groups, were assessed in the Block Design and Vocabulary subtests of the WISC III and seven tests of EF. Parents answered two scales, measuring EF and inattention and hyperactivity signs. EG children participated in a program to promote EF in twice-weekly group sessions of one hour each. After 8 months of intervention, groups were assessed again. ANCOVA, controlling for age, intelligence quotient and pretest performance, revealed gains in attention/inhibition and auditory working memory measures for the EG. No effect was found for scales or measures of more complex EF. Results are not conclusive, but they illustrate some promising data about EF interventions in children and adolescents with ADHD.

  5. Quaternary naltrexone reverses radiogenic and morphine-induced locomotor hyperactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickley, G.A.; Stevens, K.E.; Galbraith, J.A.; White, G.A.; Gibbs, G.L.

    1984-04-01

    The present study attempted to determine the relative role of the peripheral and central nervous system in the production of morphine-induced or radiation-induced locomotor hyperactivity of the mouse. Toward this end, we used a quaternary derivative of an opiate antagonist (naltrexone methobromide), which presumably does not cross the blood-brain barrier. Quaternary naltrexone was used to challenge the stereotypic locomotor response observed in these mice after either an i.p. injection of morphine or exposure to 1500 rads /sup 60/Co. The quaternary derivative of naltrexone reversed the locomotor hyperactivity normally observed in the C57BL/6J mouse after an injection of morphine. It also significantly attenuated radiation-induced locomotion. The data reported here support the hypothesis of endorphin involvement in radiation-induced and radiogenic behaviors. However, these conclusions are contingent upon further research which more fully evaluates naltrexone methobromide's capacity to cross the blood-brain barrier.

  6. Shape-Memory PVDF Exhibiting Switchable Piezoelectricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeher, Robin; Raidt, Thomas; Novak, Nikola; Katzenberg, Frank; Tiller, Joerg C

    2015-12-01

    In this study, a material is designed which combines the properties of shape-memory and electroactive polymers. This is achieved by covalent cross-linking of polyvinylidene fluoride. The resulting polymer network exhibits excellent shape-memory properties with a storable strain of 200%, and fixity as well as recovery values of 100%. Programming upon rolling induces the transformation from the nonelectroactive α-phase to the piezoelectric β-phase. The highest β-phase content is found to be 83% for a programming strain of 200% affording a d33 value of -30 pm V(-1). This is in good accordance with literature known values for piezoelectric properties. Thermal triggering this material does not only result in a shape change but also renders the material nonelectroactive. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Applied Gamification in Self-guided Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Peter; Selvadurai, Vashanth; Krishnasamy, Rameshnath Kala

    2018-01-01

    This paper contributes to the current understanding of applied digital gamification by providing insights from two design cases from the Danish aqua zoo, the North Sea Oceanarium, concerned with self-facilitated exhibitions. Grounded in a short review of the current state of art, we provide two...... empirical case examples, concerning a mobile augmented reality design and an Instagram service. Analyzing the design process behind these cases, we identify some of the challenges arising from applying gamification in practice, and whether these insights verify, extents or contradicts current examples...... of applied gamification research. Specifically, the cases provide insights to the challenge of on-boarding visitors into participating and using the designed products during their visit. In both cases, providing certain incentives for using the app or participating in the Instagram challenge, seemed...

  8. Exhibiting health and medicine as culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whiteley, Louise; Tybjerg, Karin; Pedersen, Bente Vinge

    2017-01-01

    -being of their visitors, we instead focus on how museums should communicate about health and medicine. Methods: The paper describes three examples of exhibitions at Medical Museion that attempt to display medicine as culture, and draws out three of the key strategies they employ. Results: The three key strategies are: (1......Introduction: This paper discusses the potential role of medical museums in public engagement with health and medicine, based on the work of Medical Museion at the University of Copenhagen. Rather than asking whether cultural venues such as museums can directly improve the well......: There is increasing emphasis on the need for health communication to recognize people’s multiple, lived cultures. We argue that we should also recognize that medical research and practice is itself a form of culture, and as such is multiple and historically shifting. This paper demonstrates that museums are an ideal...

  9. The coordination office at SIREME 2008 exhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grotz, Claudia; Cassin, Fabrice; Evrard, Aurelien; Froeding, Veronique; Galaup, Serge; Kaelble, Laure; Persem, Melanie; Regnier, Yannick; )

    2008-01-01

    The French-German office for Renewable energies (OFAEnR) organised several presentations at the occasion of the SIREME International exhibition of renewable energies and energy management. This document brings together these presentations (slides) dealing with: 1 - The new German Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG) and its impact on wind energy (Claudia Grotz); 2 - Consequences of the July 10, 2006 wind energy tariff bylaw cancelling (Fabrice Cassin); 3 - Wind energy trajectory in France and Germany: a political perspective (Aurelien Evrard); 4 - The wind energy development areas (Veronique Froeding); 5 - A commitment at the heart of our business: renewable energy sources (Serge Galaup); 6 - The wind energy coordination office (Laure Kaelble); 7 - New challenges of the German wind energy market (Melanie Persem); 8 - An industry - a qualification standard (Yannick Regnier)

  10. The Road Transport world exhibition in Paris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Following the agreement between French and German professionals of automobile and industrial vehicle, the Road Transport world exhibition will take place alternatively in Paris and Hanover. The 1995 meeting has taken place in Paris (September 15-21) and about 20 countries were represented. Road transport is the principal way of goods transportation in France and represent 88% of the traffic explained in tons gross and 70% in tons km. The petroleum dependence of the transportation sector is becoming a worrying problem as the gasoline and diesel fuels taxes will be discussed in the 1996 financial laws project. According to the last ''Worldwide energetic perspectives'' report published by the IEA, in 2010 the transportation sector could absorb more than 60% of the worldwide petroleum consumption. This increase represents a challenge to the petroleum industry to increase the energetic efficiency of the vehicle fuels and the production of diesel fuels, and conversely to reduce the pollution effluents. (J.S.). 4 tabs

  11. Application of an imaging system to a museum exhibition for developing interactive exhibitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Kimiyoshi; Inoue, Yuka; Takiguchi, Takahiro; Tsumura, Norimichi; Nakaguchi, Toshiya; Miyake, Yoichi

    2009-10-01

    In the National Museum of Japanese History, 215,759 artifacts are stored and used for research and exhibitions. In museums, due to the limitation of space in the galleries, a guidance system is required to satisfy visitors' needs and to enhance their understanding of the artifacts. We introduce one exhibition using imaging technology to improve visitors' understanding of a kimono (traditional Japanese clothing) exhibition. In the imaging technology introduced, one data projector, one display with touch panel interface, and magnifiers were used as exhibition tools together with a real kimono. The validity of this exhibition method was confirmed by results from a visitors' interview survey. Second, to further develop the interactive guidance system, an augmented reality system that consisted of cooperation between the projector and a digital video camera was also examined. A white paper board in the observer's hand was used as a projection screen and also as an interface to control the images projected on the board. The basic performance of the proposed system was confirmed; however continuous development was necessary for applying the system to actual exhibitions.

  12. Review of literature of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder with comorbid eating disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Nazar,Bruno Palazzo; Pinna,Camilla Moreira de Sousa; Coutinho,Gabriel; Segenreich,Daniel; Duchesne,Monica; Appolinario,José Carlos; Mattos,Paulo

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: According to studies of prevalence, up to 70% of adults with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder have at least one psychiatric comorbidity, which leads to diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties as well as more severe functional impairment. There is a paucity of data on the comorbidity of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and eating disorders. The objective of this study was to review the literature regarding the attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder/eating disorders...

  13. No objectively measured sleep disturbances in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergwerff, Catharina E; Luman, Marjolein; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2016-10-01

    The main goal of this study was to gain more insight into sleep disturbances in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, using objective measures of sleep quality and quantity. The evidence for sleep problems in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder thus far is inconsistent, which might be explained by confounding influences of comorbid internalizing and externalizing problems and low socio-economic status. We therefore investigated the mediating and moderating role of these factors in the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and sleep problems. To control for the effects of stimulant medication use, all participants were tested free of medication. Sixty-three children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and 61 typically developing children, aged 6-13 years, participated. Sleep was monitored for one to three school nights using actigraphy. Parent and teacher questionnaires assessed symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, internalizing behaviour, oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder. Results showed no differences between the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and typically developing group in any sleep parameter. Within the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder group, severity of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms was not related to sleep quality or quantity. Moderation analyses in the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder group showed an interaction effect between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and internalizing and externalizing behaviour on total sleep time, time in bed and average sleep bout duration. The results of our study suggest that having attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is not a risk factor for sleep problems. Internalizing and externalizing behaviour moderate the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and sleep, indicating a complex interplay between psychiatric symptoms and sleep.

  14. The Role of Inhibitory Control and Executive Functioning in Hyperactivity/ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    Berlin, Lisa

    2003-01-01

    This thesis examined inhibition, executive functioning and their possible relation to childhood problems of hyperactivity and inattention, in its clinical form referred to as Attention Deficit Hyper-activity Disorder (ADHD). Concurrent as well as longitudinal relations were of interest, and both clinical and non-clinical samples were studied. Study I demonstrated concurrent relations between executive inhibition and both hyperactivity and conduct problems in preschool. However, the relation ...

  15. Reading and listening comprehension and their relation to inattention and hyperactivity

    OpenAIRE

    Cain, Kate; Bignell, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Background: Children with diagnoses of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently have reading problems. To date, it is not clear whether poor reading is associated with both inattention and hyperactivity and also whether poor reading comprehension is the result of poor word reading skills or more general language comprehension weaknesses. Aims: We report two studies to examine how reading and listening comprehension skills are related to inattention and hyperactivity/impulsiv...

  16. Dissociation of working memory impairments and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattfeld, Aaron T.; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Biederman, Joseph; Spencer, Thomas; Brown, Ariel; Fried, Ronna; Gabrieli, John D.E.

    2015-01-01

    Prevailing neuropsychological models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) propose that ADHD arises from deficits in executive functions such as working memory, but accumulating clinical evidence suggests a dissociation between ADHD and executive dysfunctions. This study examined whether ADHD and working memory capacity are behaviorally and neurobiologically separable using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants diagnosed with ADHD in childhood who subsequently remitted or persisted in their diagnosis as adults were characterized at follow-up in adulthood as either impaired or unimpaired in spatial working memory relative to controls who never had ADHD. ADHD participants with impaired spatial working memory performed worse than controls and ADHD participants with unimpaired working memory during an n-back working memory task while being scanned. Both controls and ADHD participants with unimpaired working memory exhibited significant linearly increasing activation in the inferior frontal junction, precuneus, lingual gyrus, and cerebellum as a function of working-memory load, and these activations did not differ significantly between these groups. ADHD participants with impaired working memory exhibited significant hypoactivation in the same regions, which was significantly different than both control participants and ADHD participants with unimpaired working memory. These findings support both a behavioral and neurobiological dissociation between ADHD and working memory capacity. PMID:26900567

  17. Neurofibromatosis type 1 and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a case study and literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Carmen Sílvia; Chaim-Avancini, Tiffany M; Silva, Maria Aparecida; Louzã, Mario Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    Background The cognitive profile of children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been well characterized, but few studies have evaluated the cognitive abilities of adults with NF1 and ADHD. Objectives We investigated 1) the cognitive profile of an adult patient with NF1 and inattention problems, 2) changes in his cognition after 14 months of follow-up, and 3) whether the patient exhibited comorbid NF1 and ADHD or secondary ADHD-like symptoms. Methods We administered neuropsychological tests of executive function, attention, verbal and visual memory, visuospatial function, and language during two evaluations separated by 14 months. Results We found no changes in sustained attention, language, or verbal memory. Visual memory, verbal learning, selective attention inhibitory control, and problem solving declined over time, whereas visual search, psychomotor speed, visuospatial function, and mental flexibility improved. Conclusion Our patient exhibited a cognitive profile characteristic of both NF1 and ADHD, leading to the hypothesis that the patient had comorbid ADHD instead of secondary ADHD-like symptoms. More studies are necessary to characterize the cognition of patients with NF1 and ADHD. PMID:25848279

  18. Dissociation of working memory impairments and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron T. Mattfeld

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Prevailing neuropsychological models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD propose that ADHD arises from deficits in executive functions such as working memory, but accumulating clinical evidence suggests a dissociation between ADHD and executive dysfunctions. This study examined whether ADHD and working memory capacity are behaviorally and neurobiologically separable using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Participants diagnosed with ADHD in childhood who subsequently remitted or persisted in their diagnosis as adults were characterized at follow-up in adulthood as either impaired or unimpaired in spatial working memory relative to controls who never had ADHD. ADHD participants with impaired spatial working memory performed worse than controls and ADHD participants with unimpaired working memory during an n-back working memory task while being scanned. Both controls and ADHD participants with unimpaired working memory exhibited significant linearly increasing activation in the inferior frontal junction, precuneus, lingual gyrus, and cerebellum as a function of working-memory load, and these activations did not differ significantly between these groups. ADHD participants with impaired working memory exhibited significant hypoactivation in the same regions, which was significantly different than both control participants and ADHD participants with unimpaired working memory. These findings support both a behavioral and neurobiological dissociation between ADHD and working memory capacity.

  19. Dissociation of working memory impairments and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattfeld, Aaron T; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Biederman, Joseph; Spencer, Thomas; Brown, Ariel; Fried, Ronna; Gabrieli, John D E

    2016-01-01

    Prevailing neuropsychological models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) propose that ADHD arises from deficits in executive functions such as working memory, but accumulating clinical evidence suggests a dissociation between ADHD and executive dysfunctions. This study examined whether ADHD and working memory capacity are behaviorally and neurobiologically separable using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants diagnosed with ADHD in childhood who subsequently remitted or persisted in their diagnosis as adults were characterized at follow-up in adulthood as either impaired or unimpaired in spatial working memory relative to controls who never had ADHD. ADHD participants with impaired spatial working memory performed worse than controls and ADHD participants with unimpaired working memory during an n-back working memory task while being scanned. Both controls and ADHD participants with unimpaired working memory exhibited significant linearly increasing activation in the inferior frontal junction, precuneus, lingual gyrus, and cerebellum as a function of working-memory load, and these activations did not differ significantly between these groups. ADHD participants with impaired working memory exhibited significant hypoactivation in the same regions, which was significantly different than both control participants and ADHD participants with unimpaired working memory. These findings support both a behavioral and neurobiological dissociation between ADHD and working memory capacity.

  20. Local functional connectivity suggests functional immaturity in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos-Vidal, Luis; Martínez-García, Magdalena; Pretus, Clara; Garcia-Garcia, David; Martínez, Kenia; Janssen, Joost; Vilarroya, Oscar; Castellanos, Francisco X; Desco, Manuel; Sepulcre, Jorge; Carmona, Susanna

    2018-06-01

    Previous studies have associated Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) with a maturational lag of brain functional networks. Functional connectivity of the human brain changes from primarily local to more distant connectivity patterns during typical development. Under the maturational lag hypothesis, we expect children with ADHD to exhibit increased local connectivity and decreased distant connectivity compared with neurotypically developing (ND) children. We applied a graph-theory method to compute local and distant connectivity levels and cross-sectionally compared them in a sample of 120 children with ADHD and 120 age-matched ND children (age range = 7-17 years). In addition, we measured if potential group differences in local and distant connectivity were stable across the age range considered. Finally, we assessed the clinical relevance of observed group differences by correlating the connectivity levels and ADHD symptoms severity separately for each group. Children with ADHD exhibited more local connectivity than age-matched ND children in multiple brain regions, mainly overlapping with default mode, fronto-parietal and ventral attentional functional networks (p attentional networks, the severity of clinical symptoms is related to atypical functional connectivity within somatomotor areas. Additionally, our findings are in line with the view of ADHD as a disorder of deviated maturational trajectories, mainly affecting somatomotor areas, rather than delays that normalize with age. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Rydén, Eleonore

    2010-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a developmental disorder, i.e., it is by definition present from childhood. The main features characterizing ADHD are the difficulties to regulate attention, activity level, and impulses. The hallmark of bipolar disorder is episodic mood alterations with restitution between episodes. Although debut in childhood may occur, bipolar disorder typically debuts in late adolescence or early adulthood. The overarching aim with this ...

  2. Attentional blink in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Amador-Campos,Juan A.; Aznar-Casanova,J. Antonio; Bezerra,Izabela; Torro-Alves,Nelson; Sánchez,Manuel M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the temporal mechanism of attention in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and controls using a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task in which two letters (T1 and T2) were presented in close temporal proximity among distractors (attentional blink [AB]). Method: Thirty children aged between 9 and 13 years (12 with ADHD combined type and 18 controls) took part in the study. Both groups performed two kinds of RSVP task. In the single task, p...

  3. Aeromedical decision making in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, David J P; Navathe, Pooshan D; Drane, A Michael

    2011-05-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is a problematic diagnosis in the context of aeromedical certification. Certain characteristics of the disorder such as impaired attention potentially affect the safe conduct of flying. Pharmacological treatment with stimulants also has issues surrounding short half-lives and effects on the recognition of fatigue. This article gives a broad overview of the issues involved and provides certification guidelines as adopted in the Australian Civil Aviation Safety Authority which may be helpful if adopted by other certification bodies.

  4. Motor performance of pupils with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    OpenAIRE

    Otipková, Zuzana

    2012-01-01

    Title: Motor performance of pupils with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Objectives: The aim of the work was to determine the level of fine and gross motor skills of upper extremities of the pupils with diagnosis ADHD at schools specialized on these pupils and compare it with the fine and gross motor skills of upper extremities of children without this diagnosis at common elementary school. Further work objective was to determine the level of gross motor skills of lower limbs ...

  5. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children undergoing peritoneal dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefichaijan, Parsa; Sharafkhah, Mojtaba; Vazirian, Shams; Seyedzadeh, Abolhasan; Rafeie, Mohammad; Salehi, Bahman; Amiri, Mohammad; Ebrahimimonfared, Mohsen

    2015-03-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common childhood psychiatric disorder. This disorder is more prevalent in some chronic disease. The aim of this study was to investigate ADHD in children with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and to compare the results with those of healthy children. This case-control study was conducted for six months (December 22, 2013 to June 21, 2014) on five to 16-year-old children, visiting the Pediatric Dialysis Unit of Amirkabir Hospital, Arak, Iran, and Taleghani Hospital, Kermanshah, Iran. A total of 100 children with ESRD who had undergone CAPD for at least six months and 100 healthy children were included in this study as case and control groups, respectively. ADHD was diagnosed by Conner's Parent Rating Scale-48 (CPRS-48) and DSM-IV-TR criteria, and was confirmed through consultation by psychologist. Data were analyzed by Binomial test in SPSS 18. The ADHD inattentive type was observed in 16 cases (16%) with CAPD and five controls (5%) (P = 0.01). Moreover, ADHD hyperactive-impulsive type was observed in 27 cases (27%) with CAPD and seven controls (9%) (P = 0.002). Despite these significant differences, no children were diagnosed with ADHD combined type among all subjects. Inattentive type and hyperactive-impulsive type of ADHD are more prevalent in children with ESRD undergoing CAPD. Therefore screening methods for ADHD is necessary in these patients.

  6. [Neuropsychological subtypes of the inattention and hyperactivity syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etchepareborda, M C

    1999-02-01

    One of the commonest neurological development disorders is the syndrome of inattention with hyperactivity, ADHD. The complex neurobiological network which intervenes in paying attention permits us to maintain a basal state of alertness, to focalize and maintain attention for long periods, select the stimulus-signal required and analyze its components, and also to simultaneously carry out processes of input-output and performance (tutorial, controlling). Damage to the various systems participating in 'paying attention' leads to a syndrome of inattention, with or without hyperactivity. The distinction into clinical sub-types (combined, mainly lacking attention or mainly hyperactive and impulsive) gives a primary differentiation of the syndrome. However, from the neuropsychological point of view, some degree of heterogeneity within the groups which defines academic behaviour and conduct may also be recognized. This type of study permits a more specific neuro-cognitive and pharmacological approach. Some clinical characteristics of the syndrome of inattention improve with different drugs, such as the state of alterness (methylphenidate), impulsivity (pipamperone) and selective attention (tiapride). However, this treatment is symptomatic and in most cases is useful to accompany the ultimate biological development of the neocortical control mechanisms. A neuro-cognitive approach which permits acquisition of habits of control, functional strategies, sequential planning of activities and per- and post-functional surveillance is fundamental. The EFE programme for training executive functions is directed towards working with the damaged processing mechanisms in each neuropsychological subtype.

  7. DNA Electrochemistry Shows DNMT1 Methyltransferase Hyperactivity in Colorectal Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furst, Ariel L; Barton, Jacqueline K

    2015-07-23

    DNMT1, the most abundant human methyltransferase, is responsible for translating the correct methylation pattern during DNA replication, and aberrant methylation by DNMT1 has been linked to tumorigenesis. We have developed a sensitive signal-on electrochemical assay for the measurement of DNMT1 activity in crude tissue lysates. We have further analyzed ten tumor sets and have found a direct correlation between DNMT1 hyperactivity and tumorous tissue. In the majority of samples analyzed, the tumorous tissue has significantly higher DNMT1 activity than the healthy adjacent tissue. No such correlation is observed in measurements of DNMT1 expression by qPCR, DNMT1 protein abundance by western blotting, or DNMT1 activity using a radiometric DNA labeling assay. DNMT1 hyperactivity can result from both protein overexpression and enzyme hyperactivity. DNMT1 activity measured electrochemically provides a direct measure of activity in cell lysates and, as a result, provides a sensitive and early indication of cancerous transformation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Psychiatric comorbidities of adults with early- and late-onset attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Ju; Yang, Li-Kuang; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2016-06-01

    We evaluated the psychiatric comorbidities in adults who were diagnosed with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental disorders, 5th edition attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder as a function of recalled symptom onset before and after the age of 7 years and whether the childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms were associated with psychiatric comorbidities. In all, 214 adults who were diagnosed with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental disorders, 5th edition attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and 174 non-attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder controls (aged 17-40 years) received psychiatric interviews to confirm their previous and current attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder status and other psychiatric diagnoses. Demographics and risks of lifetime psychiatric disorders were compared among three groups: (1) attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, onset attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, onset between 7 and 12 years (late-onset) and (3) non-attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder controls. We also tested the effects of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms on the risk of later psychiatric comorbidities by Cox regression analyses. Regardless of the age of onset, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder was significantly associated with a wide range of psychiatric comorbidities. There were similar comorbid patterns between early- and late-onset attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Regardless of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder diagnosis, increased severity of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms was associated with higher risks of oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, dysthymia and sleep disorder but not major depression, which was associated with the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder diagnosis. Our findings suggest that elevating the threshold of age of onset to 12 years in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental disorders, 5th edition would not

  9. Giant piezoelectricity on Si for hyperactive MEMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, S H; Park, J; Kim, D M; Aksyuk, V A; Das, R R; Bu, S D; Felker, D A; Lettieri, J; Vaithyanathan, V; Bharadwaja, S S N; Bassiri-Gharb, N; Chen, Y B; Sun, H P; Folkman, C M; Jang, H W; Kreft, D J; Streiffer, S K; Ramesh, R; Pan, X Q; Trolier-McKinstry, S; Schlom, D G; Rzchowski, M S; Blick, R H; Eom, C B

    2011-11-18

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) incorporating active piezoelectric layers offer integrated actuation, sensing, and transduction. The broad implementation of such active MEMS has long been constrained by the inability to integrate materials with giant piezoelectric response, such as Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O(3)-PbTiO(3) (PMN-PT). We synthesized high-quality PMN-PT epitaxial thin films on vicinal (001) Si wafers with the use of an epitaxial (001) SrTiO(3) template layer with superior piezoelectric coefficients (e(31,f) = -27 ± 3 coulombs per square meter) and figures of merit for piezoelectric energy-harvesting systems. We have incorporated these heterostructures into microcantilevers that are actuated with extremely low drive voltage due to thin-film piezoelectric properties that rival bulk PMN-PT single crystals. These epitaxial heterostructures exhibit very large electromechanical coupling for ultrasound medical imaging, microfluidic control, mechanical sensing, and energy harvesting.

  10. Exhibition of Stochastic Resonance in Vestibular Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvan-Garza, R. C.; Clark, T. K.; Merfeld, D. M.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Oman, C. M.; Mulavara, A. P.

    2016-01-01

    Astronauts experience sensorimotor changes during spaceflight, particularly during G-transitions. Post flight sensorimotor changes include spatial disorientation, along with postural and gait instability that may degrade operational capabilities of the astronauts and endanger the crew. A sensorimotor countermeasure that mitigates these effects would improve crewmember safety and decrease risk. The goal of this research is to investigate the potential use of stochastic vestibular stimulation (SVS) as a technology to improve sensorimotor function. We hypothesize that low levels of SVS will improve sensorimotor perception through the phenomenon of stochastic resonance (SR), when the response of a nonlinear system to a weak input signal is enhanced by the application of a particular nonzero level of noise. This study aims to advance the development of SVS as a potential countermeasure by 1) demonstrating the exhibition of stochastic resonance in vestibular perception, a vital component of sensorimotor function, 2) investigating the repeatability of SR exhibition, and 3) determining the relative contribution of the semicircular canals (SCC) and otolith (OTO) organs to vestibular perceptual SR. A constant current stimulator was used to deliver bilateral bipolar SVS via electrodes placed on each of the mastoid processes, as previously done. Vestibular perceptual motion recognition thresholds were measured using a 6-degree of freedom MOOG platform and a 150 trial 3-down/1-up staircase procedure. In the first test session, we measured vestibular perceptual thresholds in upright roll-tilt at 0.2 Hz (SCC+OTO) with SVS ranging from 0-700 µA. In a second test session a week later, we re-measured roll-tilt thresholds with 0, optimal (from test session 1), and 1500 µA SVS levels. A subset of these subjects, plus naive subjects, participated in two additional test sessions in which we measured thresholds in supine roll-rotation at 0.2 Hz (SCC) and upright y-translation at 1 Hz

  11. Multiple Intelligences Profiles of Children with Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder in Comparison with Nonattention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Najafi, Mostafa; Akouchekian, Shahla; Ghaderi, Alireza; Mahaki, Behzad; Rezaei, Mariam

    2017-01-01

    Background: Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common psychological problem during childhood. This study aimed to evaluate multiple intelligences profiles of children with ADHD in comparison with non-ADHD. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive analytical study was done on 50 children of 6–13 years old in two groups of with and without ADHD. Children with ADHD were referred to Clinics of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Isfahan University of Medical Scie...

  12. VIRTUAL EXHIBITION AND FRUITION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL FINDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Manferdini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available During the last two decades, since digital technologies have become more sophisticated in acquiring real data and building faithful copies of them, their improvements have suggested interesting applications in the field of valorisation of Historical, Cultural and Artistic Heritage, with significant consequences in the share and widespread of knowledge. But although several technologies and methodologies for 3d digitization have recently been developed and improved, the lack of a standard procedure and the costs connected to their use still doesn't encourage the systematic digital acquisition of wide collections and heritage. The aim of this paper is to show the state of the art of a project whose aim is to provide a methodology and a procedure to create digital reproductions of artefacts for Institutions called to preserve, manage and enhance the fruition of archaeological finds inside museums or through digital exhibitions. Our project’s aim is to find the most suitable procedure to digitally acquire archaeo logical artefacts that usually have small dimensions and have very complex and detailed surfaces. Within our methodology, particular attention has been paid to the use of widely shared and open-source visualization systems that enhance the involvement of the user by emphasizing three-dimensional characteristics of artefacts through virtual reality.

  13. Antisocial violent offenders with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder demonstrate akathisia-like hyperactivity in three-channel actometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuisku, Katinka; Virkkunen, Matti; Holi, Matti; Lauerma, Hannu; Naukkarinen, Hannu; Rimon, Ranan; Wahlbeck, Kristian

    2003-01-01

    Actometry enables quantitative and qualitative analysis of various hyperactivity disorders. Antisocial violent offenders have demonstrated diurnal increases in motor activity that may be related to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) that often precedes antisocial development. Motor restlessness in ADHD has common features with neuroleptic-induced akathisia. In this study, three-channel actometry was used to compare 15 antisocial violent offenders who had a history of ADHD with 15 healthy control subjects and 10 akathisia patients. The Barnes Akathisia Rating Scale (BARS) was used for clinical evaluation of akathisia symptoms. Ankle movement indices and the ankle-waist ratio differentiated the antisocial patients from the healthy controls significantly, with no overlap, and the same parameters expectedly differentiated the akathisia patients from the healthy controls. The repetitive, rhythmic pattern of akathisia was found in 13 of the 15 antisocial patients. Nine of the antisocial patients scored 2 or 3 (mild to moderate akathisia) on the BARS. Thus, the motor hyperactivity of antisocial ADHD patients has common features with mild akathisia. This may be due to a common hypodopaminergic etiology of ADHD and akathisia.

  14. Relationships between behavioral symptoms of non-medicated Chinese children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and parenting stress: Comparison of different subtypes and comorbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Jiang, Wen-Qing; Du, Ya-Song; Coghill, David

    2016-06-01

    To identify the characteristics of behavior problems among children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and their relation with parenting stress. The Conners Parent Symptom Questionnaire (PSQ) and Parenting Stress Index (PSI) were used to assess the symptoms and parenting stress of 132 non-medicated children with ADHD as compared with 88 healthy controls. Every PSQ factor of ADHD children was higher than in the control group; children with the combined subtype of ADHD had the highest scores in conduct and learning problems, impulsivity/hyperactivity, and overall hyperactivity index; the PSI total stress, child domain, and parent domain scores were all higher in the ADHD group than in the control group; children with the combined subtype of ADHD had the highest score in the competence subscale of the parent domain, whereas the PSI total stress score of parents of children with ADHD and comorbid oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) was higher than that of parents of children with only ADHD. The PSI total stress score was positively correlated with all PSQ factor scores. The PSQ factors of conduct problems and learning problems were found to be significant predictors in a regression analysis. The children with ADHD exhibited abnormal parenting stress compared with healthy controls, which was much more pronounced when the children had comorbid ODD. Furthermore, parenting stress was related with the severity of ADHD symptoms, suggesting that children with the combined subtype of ADHD require particular attention in the future. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  15. Validity and reliability of the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder self-report scale (ASRS-v1.1) in a clinical sample with eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlucci, Samantha; Ivanova, Iryna; Bissada, Hany; Tasca, Giorgio A

    2017-08-01

    Individuals with eating disorders (EDs) commonly experience comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The shared features of EDs and ADHD, such as inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity, may exacerbate ED symptomatology and pose challenges to treatment. It is important to screen patients with EDs for symptoms of ADHD to optimize their treatment outcomes. However, the psychometrics of common measures of ADHD have not yet been examined within an ED population. An example of such a measure is the ADHD self-report scale (ASRS-v1.1) symptom checklist, which identifies the presence of ADHD symptoms. This study reports a psychometric study of the ASRS-v1.1 in a clinical sample of 500 adults with an ED. A confirmatory factor analysis indicated the ASRS-v1.1 maintained its two-factor structure of inattention and impulsivity/hyperactivity. The item loadings demonstrated path invariance across ED diagnostic groups indicating construct validity. Further, the subscales exhibited good internal consistency and they were significantly correlated with other measures of impulsivity indicating convergent validity. The ED sample had significantly higher mean scores than published nonclinical norms indicating predictive validity, but the ASRS-v1.1 scores were not significantly different among ED diagnostic groups. Results suggest the ASRS-v1.1 is a valid and reliable screening tool for identifying symptoms of ADHD among adults seeking treatment for ED. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptom severity and sleep problems in adult participants of the Netherlands sleep registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, Suzan W.N.; Bijlenga, Denise; Benjamins, Jeroen S.; Beekman, Aartjan T.F.; Kooij, J. J.Sandra; Van Someren, Eus J W

    2017-01-01

    Background We examined whether current overall attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), inattention, or hyperactivity symptom severities are associated with the current presence and persistent history of sleep problems. Methods N = 942 participants of the Netherlands Sleep Registry filled

  17. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptom severity and sleep problems in adult participants of the Netherlands sleep registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, Suzan W N; Bijlenga, Denise; Benjamins, Jeroen S; Beekman, Aartjan T F; Kooij, J J Sandra; Van Someren, Eus J W

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We examined whether current overall attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), inattention, or hyperactivity symptom severities are associated with the current presence and persistent history of sleep problems. METHODS: N = 942 participants of the Netherlands Sleep Registry filled

  18. A feasibility study on the effectiveness of a full-body videogame intervention for decreasing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerdmeester, J.W.; Cima, M.; Granic, I.; Hashemian, Y.; Gotsis, M.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The current study assessed the feasibility and effectiveness of a full-body-driven intervention videogame targeted at decreasing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, specifically inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity, and motor deficiency. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The

  19. 77 FR 31420 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... also determine that the exhibition or display of the exhibit objects at The Museum of Modern Art, New...: Game Plan'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the United States, are of cultural...

  20. Hyperactivity and Hypermotivation Associated With Increased Striatal mGluR1 Signaling in a Shank2 Rat Model of Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meera E. Modi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the SHANK family of genes have been consistently identified in genetic and genomic screens of autism spectrum disorder (ASD. The functional overlap of SHANK with several other ASD-associated genes suggests synaptic dysfunction as a convergent mechanism of pathophysiology in ASD. Although many ASD-related mutations result in alterations to synaptic function, the nature of those dysfunctions and the consequential behavioral manifestations are highly variable when expressed in genetic mouse models. To investigate the phylogenetic conservation of phenotypes resultant of Shank2 loss-of-function in a translationally relevant animal model, we generated and characterized a novel transgenic rat with a targeted mutation of the Shank2 gene, enabling an evaluation of gene-associated phenotypes, the elucidation of complex behavioral phenotypes, and the characterization of potential translational biomarkers. The Shank2 loss-of-function mutation resulted in a notable phenotype of hyperactivity encompassing hypermotivation, increased locomotion, and repetitive behaviors. Mutant rats also expressed deficits in social behavior throughout development and in the acquisition of operant tasks. The hyperactive phenotype was associated with an upregulation of mGluR1 expression, increased dendritic branching, and enhanced long-term depression (LTD in the striatum but opposing morphological and cellular alterations in the hippocampus (HP. Administration of the mGluR1 antagonist JNJ16259685 selectively normalized the expression of striatally mediated repetitive behaviors and physiology but had no effect on social deficits. Finally, Shank2 mutant animals also exhibited alterations in electroencephalography (EEG spectral power and event-related potentials, which may serve as translatable EEG biomarkers of synaptopathic alterations. Our results show a novel hypermotivation phenotype that is unique to the rat model of Shank2 dysfunction, in addition to the

  1. Blockade of dopamine D1-family receptors attenuates the mania-like hyperactive, risk-preferring, and high motivation behavioral profile of mice with low dopamine transporter levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milienne-Petiot, Morgane; Groenink, Lucianne; Minassian, Arpi; Young, Jared W

    2017-10-01

    Patients with bipolar disorder mania exhibit poor cognition, impulsivity, risk-taking, and goal-directed activity that negatively impact their quality of life. To date, existing treatments for bipolar disorder do not adequately remediate cognitive dysfunction. Reducing dopamine transporter expression recreates many bipolar disorder mania-relevant behaviors (i.e. hyperactivity and risk-taking). The current study investigated whether dopamine D 1 -family receptor blockade would attenuate the risk-taking, hypermotivation, and hyperactivity of dopamine transporter knockdown mice. Dopamine transporter knockdown and wild-type littermate mice were tested in mouse versions of the Iowa Gambling Task (risk-taking), Progressive Ratio Breakpoint Test (effortful motivation), and Behavioral Pattern Monitor (activity). Prior to testing, the mice were treated with the dopamine D 1 -family receptor antagonist SCH 23390 hydrochloride (0.03, 0.1, or 0.3 mg/kg), or vehicle. Dopamine transporter knockdown mice exhibited hyperactivity and hyperexploration, hypermotivation, and risk-taking preference compared with wild-type littermates. SCH 23390 hydrochloride treatment decreased premature responding in dopamine transporter knockdown mice and attenuated their hypermotivation. SCH 23390 hydrochloride flattened the safe/risk preference, while reducing activity and exploratory levels of both genotypes similarly. Dopamine transporter knockdown mice exhibited mania-relevant behavior compared to wild-type mice. Systemic dopamine D 1 -family receptor antagonism attenuated these behaviors in dopamine transporter knockdown, but not all effects were specific to only the knockdown mice. The normalization of behavior via blockade of dopamine D 1 -family receptors supports the hypothesis that D 1 and/or D 5 receptors could contribute to the mania-relevant behaviors of dopamine transporter knockdown mice.

  2. Disrupted functional connectivity of cerebellar default network areas in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucyi, Aaron; Hove, Michael J.; Biederman, Joseph; Van Dijk, Koene R.A.; Valera, Eve M.

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is increasingly understood as a disorder of spontaneous brain-network interactions. The default mode network (DMN), implicated in ADHD-linked behaviors including mind-wandering and attentional fluctuations, has been shown to exhibit abnormal spontaneous functional connectivity (FC) within-network and with other networks (salience, dorsal attention and frontoparietal) in ADHD. Although the cerebellum has been implicated in the pathophysiology of ADHD, it remains unknown whether cerebellar areas of the DMN (CerDMN) exhibit altered FC with cortical networks in ADHD. Here, 23 adults with ADHD and 23 age-, IQ-, and sex-matched controls underwent resting state fMRI. The mean time series of CerDMN areas was extracted, and FC with the whole brain was calculated. Whole-brain between-group differences in FC were assessed. Additionally, relationships between inattention and individual differences in FC were assessed for between-group interactions. In ADHD, CerDMN areas showed positive FC (in contrast to average FC in the negative direction in controls) with widespread regions of salience, dorsal attention and sensorimotor networks. ADHD individuals also exhibited higher FC (more positive correlation) of CerDMN areas with frontoparietal and visual network regions. Within the control group, but not in ADHD, participants with higher inattention had higher FC between CerDMN and regions in the visual and dorsal attention networks. This work provides novel evidence of impaired CerDMN coupling with cortical networks in ADHD and highlights a role of the cerebro-cerebellar interactions in cognitive function. These data provide support for the potential targeting of CerDMN areas for therapeutic interventions in ADHD. PMID:26109476

  3. Disrupted functional connectivity of cerebellar default network areas in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucyi, Aaron; Hove, Michael J; Biederman, Joseph; Van Dijk, Koene R A; Valera, Eve M

    2015-09-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is increasingly understood as a disorder of spontaneous brain-network interactions. The default mode network (DMN), implicated in ADHD-linked behaviors including mind-wandering and attentional fluctuations, has been shown to exhibit abnormal spontaneous functional connectivity (FC) within-network and with other networks (salience, dorsal attention and frontoparietal) in ADHD. Although the cerebellum has been implicated in the pathophysiology of ADHD, it remains unknown whether cerebellar areas of the DMN (CerDMN) exhibit altered FC with cortical networks in ADHD. Here, 23 adults with ADHD and 23 age-, IQ-, and sex-matched controls underwent resting state fMRI. The mean time series of CerDMN areas was extracted, and FC with the whole brain was calculated. Whole-brain between-group differences in FC were assessed. Additionally, relationships between inattention and individual differences in FC were assessed for between-group interactions. In ADHD, CerDMN areas showed positive FC (in contrast to average FC in the negative direction in controls) with widespread regions of salience, dorsal attention and sensorimotor networks. ADHD individuals also exhibited higher FC (more positive correlation) of CerDMN areas with frontoparietal and visual network regions. Within the control group, but not in ADHD, participants with higher inattention had higher FC between CerDMN and regions in the visual and dorsal attention networks. This work provides novel evidence of impaired CerDMN coupling with cortical networks in ADHD and highlights a role of cerebro-cerebellar interactions in cognitive function. These data provide support for the potential targeting of CerDMN areas for therapeutic interventions in ADHD. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Drosophila mutants of the autism candidate gene neurobeachin (rugose) exhibit neuro-developmental disorders, aberrant synaptic properties, altered locomotion, and impaired adult social behavior and activity patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Alexandria; Tenezaca, Luis; Fernandez, Robert W; Schatoff, Emma; Flores, Julian; Ueda, Atsushi; Zhong, Xiaotian; Wu, Chun-Fang; Simon, Anne F; Venkatesh, Tadmiri

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder in humans characterized by complex behavioral deficits, including intellectual disability, impaired social interactions, and hyperactivity. ASD exhibits a strong genetic component with underlying multigene interactions. Candidate gene studies have shown that the neurobeachin (NBEA) gene is disrupted in human patients with idiopathic autism ( Castermans et al., 2003 ). The NBEA gene spans the common fragile site FRA 13A and encodes a signal scaffold protein ( Savelyeva et al., 2006 ). In mice, NBEA has been shown to be involved in the trafficking and function of a specific subset of synaptic vesicles. ( Medrihan et al., 2009 ; Savelyeva et al., 2006 ). Rugose (rg) is the Drosophila homolog of the mammalian and human NBEA. Our previous genetic and molecular analyses have shown that rg encodes an A kinase anchor protein (DAKAP 550), which interacts with components of the epidermal growth factor receptor or EGFR and Notch-mediated signaling pathways, facilitating cross talk between these and other pathways ( Shamloula et al., 2002 ). We now present functional data from studies on the larval neuromuscular junction that reveal abnormal synaptic architecture and physiology. In addition, adult rg loss-of-function mutants exhibit defective social interactions, impaired habituation, aberrant locomotion, and hyperactivity. These results demonstrate that Drosophila NBEA (rg) mutants exhibit phenotypic characteristics reminiscent of human ASD and thus could serve as a genetic model for studying ASDs.

  5. Maternal Positive Parenting Style Is Associated with Better Functioning in Hyperactive/Inattentive Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Dione M.; Flory, Janine D.; Miller, Carlin J.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2011-01-01

    Many preschoolers are highly inattentive, impulsive, and hyperactive; but only some are impaired in their functioning. Yet factors leading to functional impairment, above and beyond the severity of inattentive and hyperactive symptoms, have not been systematically examined. This study examined a model suggesting that after controlling for…

  6. Reading and listening comprehension and their relation to inattention and hyperactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Kate; Bignell, Simon

    2014-03-01

    Children with diagnoses of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently have reading problems. To date, it is not clear whether poor reading is associated with both inattention and hyperactivity and also whether poor reading comprehension is the result of poor word reading skills or more general language comprehension weaknesses. We report two studies to examine how reading and listening comprehension skills are related to inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. Separate groups of 7- to 11-year-olds participated in each study. In both studies, we used teacher ratings of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity to identify three groups at risk of ADHD: poor attention, high hyperactivity, poor attention and high hyperactivity, and also same-age controls. In Study 1, we explored how inattention and hyperactivity predicted reading after controlling for non-verbal IQ and vocabulary. In Study 2, we compared listening and reading comprehension in these groups. Poor attention was related to poor reading comprehension, although the relation was partially mediated by word reading skill (Study 1). Groups with high hyperactivity had weak listening comprehension relative to reading comprehension (Study 2). These results indicate that the reading comprehension problems of children with attention difficulties are related to poor word reading and that listening comprehension is particularly vulnerable in children at risk of ADHD. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  7. Reading and Listening Comprehension and Their Relation to Inattention and Hyperactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Kate; Bignell, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Background: Children with diagnoses of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently have reading problems. To date, it is not clear whether poor reading is associated with both inattention and hyperactivity and also whether poor reading comprehension is the result of poor word reading skills or more general language comprehension…

  8. Methylphenidate for children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storebø, Ole Jakob; Ramstad, Erica; Krogh, Helle B

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most commonly diagnosed and treated psychiatric disorders in childhood. Typically, children with ADHD find it difficult to pay attention, they are hyperactive and impulsive.Methylphenidate is the drug most often prescribed...

  9. Peer Popularity and Peer Communication Patterns: Hyperactive versus Active but Normal Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Cheryl A.; Young, Richard David

    1981-01-01

    Classroom peer perceptions of 18 teacher-nominated hyperactive and 18 teacher-nominated active but normal elementary school-age boys were compared. Results indicated that hyperactives were significantly different from actives on all sociometric measures in that they were perceived more negatively. (Author/SB)

  10. Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Function in Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Motohisa; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This study with 30 children showing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) found a normal diurnal saliva cortisol rhythm in only 43.3 percent of the subjects and a dexamethasone suppression in 46.7 percent, with both these abnormalities more frequent in the severely than the mildly hyperactive group. Results suggest abnormalities in…

  11. Classroom Behavior and Family Climate in Students with Learning Disabilities and Hyperactive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margalit, Malka; Almougy, Katrina

    1991-01-01

    Questioning of teachers and mothers of 84 Israeli students (ages 7-10) classified as either hyperactive, learning disabled, both, or neither, found higher distractibility and hostility among hyperactive children whose families were also reported as less supportive. Learning-disabled students were characterized by dependent interpersonal relations…

  12. Factor Structure of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms for Children Age 3 to 5 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGoey, Kara E.; Schreiber, James; Venesky, Lindsey; Westwood, Wendy; McGuirk, Lindsay; Schaffner, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) distinguishes two dimensions of symptoms, inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity for ages 3 to adulthood. Currently, no separate classification for preschool-age children exists, whereas preliminary research suggests that the two-factor structure of ADHD may not match the…

  13. Altered brain structural networks in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder children revealed by cortical thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tian; Chen, Yanni; Li, Chenxi; Li, Youjun; Wang, Jue

    2017-07-04

    This study investigated the cortical thickness and topological features of human brain anatomical networks related to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Data were collected from 40 attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder children and 40 normal control children. Interregional correlation matrices were established by calculating the correlations of cortical thickness between all pairs of cortical regions (68 regions) of the whole brain. Further thresholds were applied to create binary matrices to construct a series of undirected and unweighted graphs, and global, local, and nodal efficiencies were computed as a function of the network cost. These experimental results revealed abnormal cortical thickness and correlations in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and showed that the brain structural networks of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder subjects had inefficient small-world topological features. Furthermore, their topological properties were altered abnormally. In particular, decreased global efficiency combined with increased local efficiency in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder children led to a disorder-related shift of the network topological structure toward regular networks. In addition, nodal efficiency, cortical thickness, and correlation analyses revealed that several brain regions were altered in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder patients. These findings are in accordance with a hypothesis of dysfunctional integration and segregation of the brain in patients with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and provide further evidence of brain dysfunction in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder patients by observing cortical thickness on magnetic resonance imaging.

  14. A Meta-Analysis of Behavioral Parent Training for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pei-chin; Niew, Wern-ing; Yang, Hao-jan; Chen, Vincent Chin-hung; Lin, Keh-chung

    2012-01-01

    This meta-analysis examined the effect of behavioral parent training on child and parental outcomes for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Meta-analytic procedures were used to estimate the effect of behavioral parent training on children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Variables moderating the intervention…

  15. An Experimental Evaluation of Hyperactivity and Food Additives. 1977-Phase I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, J. Preston

    Reported are findings of a study involving 46 families in which the effect of the Feingold (additive free) diet on hyperactivity in preschool and elementary age children was investigated. Eleven sections cover the following project components: introduction (definition of hyperactivity and the B. Feingold hypothesis), methodology, demographic…

  16. The Relation between 3-Year-Old Children's Skills and Their Hyperactivity, Inattention, and Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman-Weieneth, Julie L.; Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Youngwirth, Sara D.; Goldstein, Lauren H.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the relation between 3-year-old children's (N = 280) symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and aggression and their cognitive, motor, and preacademic skills. When the authors controlled for other types of attention and behavior problems, maternal ratings of hyperactivity and teacher ratings of inattention were uniquely and…

  17. Students Diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Collaborative Strategies for School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shillingford-Butler, M. Ann; Theodore, Lea

    2013-01-01

    The school setting can be a difficult place for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The core symptoms of ADHD, which include inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity, make meeting the curriculum demands of the classroom challenging. That ADHD negatively impacts not only academic performance but also social and…

  18. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Rasch Analysis of the SWAN Rating Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Deidra J.; Levy, Florence; Martin, Neilson C.; Hay, David A.

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been estimated at 3-7% in the population. Children with this disorder are often characterized by symptoms of inattention and/or impulsivity and hyperactivity, which can significantly impact on many aspects of their behaviour and performance. This study investigated the…

  19. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Sensory Modulation Disorder: A Comparison of Behavior and Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lucy Jane; Nielsen, Darci M.; Schoen, Sarah A.

    2012-01-01

    Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are impulsive, inattentive and hyperactive, while children with sensory modulation disorder (SMD), one subtype of Sensory Processing Disorder, have difficulty responding adaptively to daily sensory experiences. ADHD and SMD are often difficult to distinguish. To differentiate these…

  20. Use of Digital Console Game for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Tsung-Yen; Lee, I-Ching; Chen, Wen-Chih

    2010-01-01

    ADHD or ADD (Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder) is one of the most frequently diagnosed mental and behavioral disorders of children. Children with ADHD are characterized by poor attention and distractibility and/or hyperactive and impulsive behaviors. Although there is no "cure" for ADHD, there are accepted treatments that…

  1. The Cumulative Effect of Hyperactivity and Peer Relationships on Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kaprea F.

    2014-01-01

    The impact of hyperactivity and peer relationships on academic achievement has long been highlighted in the professional literature. This study highlights how much variation in reading comprehension scores, an indicator of academic achievement, are accounted for by hyperactivity, conduct problems, and peer problems. The participants included 129…

  2. Mother-Child Dyadic Synchrony Is Associated with Better Functioning in Hyperactive/Inattentive Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Dione M.; Gopin, Chaya B.; Grossman, Bella R.; Campbell, Susan B.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Hyperactive/inattentive (HI) behaviors are common in preschoolers, but they result in functional impairment and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnoses in only some children. We examined whether the quality of mother-child interaction accounts for variance in level of functioning among preschool children with elevated…

  3. Integral intervention in a child with epilepsy and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Ernesto Martínez González

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available For several years, studies have investigated the appearance and prevalence of symptoms typical of Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder in children with epilepsy. Traditional intervention methods to treat Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder symptoms include pharmacology and psychological therapy in children and parents. The present study assessed cognitive processes in a child with epilepsy and Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder symptoms after one year of neuropsychological rehabilitation and cognitive-behavioural family therapy. The results show an improvement in cognitive processes such as attention, short-term and long-term verbal and non-verbal memory, and executive function. There was also a slight improvement among parents in their perception of hyperactivity and impulsivity symptoms. This study suggests that comprehensive intervention is a promising approach in children with epilepsy and Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder symptoms. Future studies should include a larger sample of patients with cognitive impairment and similar brain lesions.

  4. Parental happiness and strain among young adult parents diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Rhiannon A

    2018-03-01

    This study used data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) to examine whether young adult parents diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder experience less parental happiness and/or more parental strain than their counterparts not diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Results from logistic regression models indicated that young adult parents ever diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder have significantly greater odds of feeling overwhelmed as parents and significantly lower odds of feeling close to their children or happy in their role as parents compared to those never diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Potential implications of these results for scholars as well as health professionals treating adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder patients with children are discussed.

  5. Contributing factors in the manifestation of aggression in preschoolers with hyperactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stormont-Spurgin, M; Zentall, S S

    1995-03-01

    This study examined family characteristics of preschoolers with hyperactivity. We assessed child-rearing practices, maternal depression, marital conflict, and social support. Sixty-three preschool boys were placed in a hyperactivity-aggressive, hyperactive, aggressive or comparison group based on behavioral ratings. Parents were given questionnaires, mothers were interviewed, and children were administered the Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-Educational Battery and were observed playing. Compared to preschoolers with hyperactivity, preschoolers with hyperactivity plus aggression had families with (a) more restrictive fathers, (b) siblings who retaliated aggressively, and (c) mothers who reported more physical aggression directed to their partners and more verbal aggression received. Follow-forward aggression ratings were predicted by initial child manageability and maternal depression, perceived support, and low income.

  6. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children with benign epilepsy and their siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett-Back, Odeya; Keren, Amit; Zelnik, Nathanel

    2011-03-01

    This prospective study explores the prevalence and characteristics of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children with benign epilepsy, compared with its prevalence in their siblings. Among 40 patients with benign epilepsy, 28 (70%) were diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: 19 with the inattentive type, one with the hyperactive type, and eight with the combined type. In the control group of 12 siblings, only two (16.7%) were diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (Pattentional difficulties was evident in children whose seizures were more resistant and required more than one antiepileptic drug for seizure control. Children with more epileptiform features in their electroencephalograms were also more subject to signs of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Larger scale studies are required to validate our findings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Identifying potentially marker symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor B. Arias

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background For the diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5 proposes that adherence to six symptoms in either group (inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity will lead to the diagnosis of one of three presentations of the disorder. Underlying this diagnostic algorithm is the assumption that the 18 symptoms have equal relevance for the diagnosis of ADHD, all are equally severe, and all have the same power to detect the presence of the disorder in all its degrees of severity, without considering the possibility of using marker symptoms. However, several studies have suggested that ADHD symptoms differ in both their power to discriminate the presence of the disorder and the degree of severity they represent. The aim of the present study was to replicate the results of previous research by evaluating the discriminative capacity and relative severity of ADHD symptoms, as well as to extend the investigation of this topic to Spanish-speaking Latin American samples. Methods The properties of ADHD symptoms rated by the parents of 474 Chilean children were analyzed. Symptom parameters were estimated using the graded response model. Results The results suggest that symptoms of ADHD differ substantially in both the accuracy with which they reflect the presence of the disorder, and their relative severity. Symptoms “easily distracted by extraneous stimuli” and “have difficulty sustaining attention in tasks” (inattention and “is on the go, acting as if driven by motor” (hyperactivity/impulsivity were the most informative, and those with relatively lower severity thresholds. Discussion The fact that symptoms differ substantially in the probability of being observed conditionally to the trait level suggests the need to refine the diagnostic process by weighting the severity of the symptom, and even to assess the possibility of defining ADHD marker symptoms, as has

  8. Homeopathy for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder or hyperkinetic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulter, M K; Dean, M E

    2007-10-17

    Homeopathy is one form of complementary/alternative medicine which is promoted as being a safe and effective form of treatment for children and adults. Within the UK homeopathy use is estimated at 1.9% of the adult population (Thomas 2004), and around 11% for children under 16 years (Simpson 2001). There has been increased interest in homeopathy's potential as a non-pharmacological intervention for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder as an alternative to the use of stimulant medications such as Ritalin. Homeopathy is a system of medicine based on the principle of treating "like with like" using various dilutions of natural or man-made substances. Homeopathy focuses on the unique characteristics of each patient's experience and symptomatology and uses this information to determine the appropriate prescription for each patient. To assess the safety and effectiveness of homeopathy as a treatment for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. We searched a wide set of databases from their inception to March 2006 including: CENTRAL, MEDLINE, AMED, BIOSIS, CISCOM, CINAHL, Dissertation Abstracts, ECH (European Committee for Homeopathy thesis database), EMBASE, ERIC, HomInform (Glasgow Homeopathic Hospital Library), LILACS, PsycINFO, Science Citation Index, SIGLE, GIRI - International congress on ultra-low doses, Liga Medicorum Homeopathica Internationalis. We contacted experts in the field about ongoing or current research. All studies where individualised, clinical or formula homeopathy had been used to treat participants with ADHD or HKD who were randomly or quasi-randomly allocated to either true treatment or a control were selected. Control groups could include wait-list, no treatment, medication, placebo homeopathy, educational or behavioural interventions. Data from four eligible studies (total n = 168) were extracted and entered into RevMan. Results were synthesised and estimates of the effect sizes were calculated and presented as appropriate (using

  9. Behavior modification therapy in hyperactive children. Research and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolraich, M L

    1979-09-01

    One hundred fifty-seven studies employing behavior modification in the management of hyperactive and disruptive children were reviewed. The studies were analyzed against standards of scientific validity. The review found: (1) behavior modification was effective in alleviating problem behaviors; (2) token programs were the most commonly used; (3) both positive reinforcement and punishment were effective; positive reinforcement, however, had the advantage of improving self-esteem; (4) behavioral problems occurring in the home most likely require a home-based program; (5) behavior modification and stimulant medication can be used simultaneously, often with additive effects; and (6) long-term benefits beyond one year have not been assessed.

  10. An analysis of challenging behavior, comorbid psychopathology, and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Fragile X Syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Newman, Isabel

    2015-03-01

    The present study sought to investigate the relationship between challenging behavior, comorbid psychopathology, and Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD\\/HD) in Fragile X Syndrome (FRAX). Additionally, this study sought to examine how such disorders are predicted by gender, presence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and presence of intellectual disability (ID). A total of 47 children and adolescents with FRAX were assessed. Results revealed high levels of challenging behavior and AD\\/HD symptoms within the sample, with some participants exhibiting symptoms of comorbid psychopathology. Further analysis revealed that challenging behavior and comorbid psychopathology were positively correlated, with stereotypy correlating most strongly with comorbid psychopathology. In addition, ASD was found to predict challenging behavior, and gender was found to predict AD\\/HD symptoms. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  11. The Speed of Visual Attention and Motor-Response Decisions in Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cross-Villasana, Fernando; Finke, Kathrin; Hennig-Fast, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Adults with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) exhibit slowed reaction times (RTs) in various attention tasks. The exact origins of this slowing, however, have not been yet established. Potential candidates are early sensory processes mediating the deployment...... of focal-attention, stimulus-response translation processes deciding upon the appropriate motor-response, and motor processes generating the response. Methods: We combined mental chronometry (RT) measures of adult ADHD (n = 15) and healthy control (n = 15) participants with their lateralized event...... (sLRP) and response events (rLRP) were used to index the times taken for response selection and production, respectively. To assess the clinical relevance of ERPs, a correlation analysis between neural measures and subjective current and retrospective ADHD symptom ratings was performed. Results: ADHD...

  12. Mice lacking the synaptic adhesion molecule Neph2/Kirrel3 display moderate hyperactivity and defective novel object preference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Yeon eChoi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Synaptic adhesion molecules regulate diverse aspects of neuronal synapse development, including synapse specificity, formation, and maturation. Neph2, also known as Kirrel3, is an immunoglobulin superfamily adhesion molecule implicated in intellectual disability, neurocognitive delay associated with Jacobsen syndrome, and autism spectrum disorders. We here report mice lacking Neph2 (Neph2–/– mice display moderate hyperactivity in a familiar but not novel environment and novel object recognition deficit with normal performances in Morris water maze spatial learning and memory, contextual fear conditioning and extinction, and pattern separation tests. These mice show normal levels of anxiety-like behaviors, social interaction, and repetitive behaviors. At the synapse level, Neph2–/– dentate gyrus granule cells exhibit unaltered dendritic spine density and spontaneous excitatory synaptic transmission. These results suggest that Neph2 is important for normal locomotor activity and object recognition memory.

  13. Effects of a working memory training program in preschoolers with symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capodieci, Agnese; Gola, Maria Laura; Cornoldi, Cesare; Re, Anna Maria

    2018-02-01

    Preschoolers with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been found to exhibit impairments on neuropsychological measures of working memory (WM). As WM is an important predictor of future learning abilities, early intervention could help to prevent severe problems. The purpose of this research was to ascertain the efficacy of an intervention for training WM in 5-year-old children with symptoms of ADHD. Thirty-four children with symptoms of ADHD were randomly divided into two groups: One was assigned to the WM training condition, and the other continued normal class activities. The training was provided at school in small groups that also included typically developing children. The trained group showed a significant improvement in tasks measuring their WM and other controlled processes at conclusion of study, whereas no significant improvement was found in the control group. We concluded that early intervention on WM may be effective in children with symptoms of ADHD.

  14. 77 FR 31909 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... exhibition ``50th Anniversary Remembrance of the Tragedy at Orly,'' imported from abroad by the High Museum of Art for temporary exhibition within the United States, is of cultural significance. The object is... exhibition or display of the exhibit object at the High Museum of Art in Atlanta, Georgia from on or about...

  15. Temporary and Travelling Exhibitions. Museums and Monuments, X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daifuku, Hiroshi; And Others

    The permanent exhibition, the most typical form of museum exhibition, has failed to attract repeated visitation, since visitors quickly become familiar with the objects shown. The temporary exhibition evolved as a result for the need of repeated visitation. The temporary exhibition, set up for a period of one to six months, introduces fresh…

  16. Designing immersion exhibits as border-crossing environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Marianne Foss

    2010-01-01

    be applied to achieve an understanding of the immersion exhibit form. The argument proceeds by demonstrating how the characteristics of immersion exhibits, and visitors to them, classify them as microcultures, and examining the implications of this for exhibit design using a hypothetical immersion exhibit...

  17. Specificity of Reward Sensitivity and Parasympathetic-Based Regulation among Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity and Disruptive Behavior Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum, Rachel B; Musser, Erica D; Raiker, Joseph S; Coles, Erika K; Gnagy, Elizabeth M; Pelham, William E

    2018-07-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with disruptionsin reward sensitivity and regulatory processes. However, it is unclear whether thesedisruptions are better explained by comorbid disruptive behavior disorder (DBD)symptomology. This study sought to examine this question using multiple levels ofanalysis (i.e., behavior, autonomic reactivity). One hundred seventeen children (aged 6 to 12 years; 72.6% male; 69 with ADHD) completed theBalloon-Analogue Risk Task (BART) to assess external reward sensitivity behaviorally.Sympathetic-based internal reward sensitivity and parasympathetic-based regulationwere indexed via cardiac pre-ejection period (PEP) and respiratory sinus arrhythmia(RSA), respectively. Children with ADHD exhibited reduced internal reward sensitivity (i.e.,lengthened PEP; F(1,112)=4.01, p=0.047) compared to healthy controls and werecharacterized by greater parasympathetic-based dysregulation (i.e., reduced RSAaugmentation F(1,112)=10.12, p=0.002). However, follow-up analyses indicated theADHD effect was better accounted for by comorbid DBD diagnoses; that is, childrenwith ADHD and comorbid ODD were characterized by reduced internal rewardsensitivity (i.e., lengthened PEP; t=2.47, p=0.046) and by parasympathetic-baseddysregulation (i.e., reduced RSA augmentation; t=3.51, p=0.002) in response to rewardwhen compared to typically developing youth. Furthermore, children with ADHD and comorbid CD exhibited greater behaviorally-based external reward sensitivity (i.e.,more total pops; F(3,110)= 5.96, p=0.001) compared to children with ADHD only (t=3.87, p=0.001) and children with ADHD and ODD (t=3.56, p=0.003). Results suggest that disruptions in sensitivity to reward may be betteraccounted for, in part, by comorbid DBD.Key Words: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autonomic nervous system,disruptive behavior disorders, reward sensitivityPowered.

  18. Multi-dimensional correlates of Internet addiction symptoms in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Wen-Jiun; Liu, Tai-Ling; Yang, Pinchen; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Hu, Huei-Fan

    2015-01-30

    This study examined the associations of the severity of Internet addiction symptoms with reinforcement sensitivity, family factors, Internet activities, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms among adolescents in Taiwan diagnosed with ADHD. A total of 287 adolescents diagnosed with ADHD and aged between 11 and 18 years participated in this study. Their levels of Internet addiction symptoms, ADHD symptoms, reinforcement sensitivity, family factors, and various Internet activities in which the participants engaged were assessed. The correlates of the severities of Internet addiction symptoms were determined using multiple regression analyses. The results indicated that low satisfaction with family relationships was the strongest factor predicting severe Internet addiction symptoms, followed by using instant messaging, watching movies, high Behavioral Approach System (BAS) fun seeking, and high Behavioral Inhibition System scores. Meanwhile, low paternal occupational SES, low BAS drive, and online gaming were also significantly associated with severe Internet addiction symptoms. Multiple factors are significantly associated with the severity of Internet addiction symptoms among adolescents with ADHD. Clinicians, educational professionals, and parents of adolescents with ADHD should monitor the Internet use of adolescents who exhibit the factors identified in this study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Swim stress exaggerates the hyperactive mesocortical dopamine system in a rodent model of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakasato, Akane; Nakatani, Yasushi; Seki, Yoshinari; Tsujino, Naohisa; Umino, Masahiro; Arita, Hideho

    2008-02-08

    Several clinical reports have suggested that there is a hyperactivation of the dopaminergic system in people with autism. Using rats exposed prenatally to valproic acid (VPA) as an animal model of autism, we measured dopamine (DA) levels in samples collected from the frontal cortex (FC) using in vivo microdialysis and HPLC. The basal DA level in FC was significantly higher in VPA-exposed rats relative to controls. Since the mesocortical DA system is known to be sensitive to physical and psychological stressors, we measured DA levels in FC before, during, and after a 60-min forced swim test (FST). There were further gradual increases in FC DA levels during the FST in the VPA-exposed rats, but not in the control rats. Behavioral analysis during the last 10 min of the FST revealed a significant decrease in active, escape-oriented behavior and an increase in immobility, which is thought to reflect the development of depressive behavior that disengages the animal from active forms of coping with stressful stimuli. These results suggest that this rodent model of autism exhibits a hyperactive mesocortical DA system, which is exaggerated by swim stress. This abnormality may be responsible for depressive and withdrawal behavior observed in autism.

  20. Differences in Executive Functioning in Children with Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rosa Elosúa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the interest in Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD and its relation to deficits in working memory (WM and more specifically the different executive functions (EFs has grown, to the point of confirming that these are quite frequent in this disorder. The aim of this study was precisely to explore differences in executive functioning of WM in fourth grade Primary school children with and without ADHD (26 and 29 children, respectively, introducing rigorous control measures in the tests used. Four EFs were analyzed: divided attention, updating, attentional shifting and inhibition, measured through four tasks, the dual-task paradigm (digits and box-crossing, the N-Back task, the Trail Making Test and the Stroop task, respectively. The results showed that participants with ADHD, compared to children with typical development (TD, exhibited a smaller verbal memory span as well as deficits in the attentional shifting and updating functions. However, a similar performance for the EF of inhibition was found for both groups of participants. Finally, an unexpected result was obtained with regard to the role of divided attention, as children with ADHD were less impaired when performing the double task than participants in the TD group.

  1. Differences in Executive Functioning in Children with Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elosúa, M Rosa; Del Olmo, Sandra; Contreras, María José

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the interest in Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and its relation to deficits in working memory (WM) and more specifically the different executive functions (EFs) has grown, to the point of confirming that these are quite frequent in this disorder. The aim of this study was precisely to explore differences in executive functioning of WM in fourth grade Primary school children with and without ADHD (26 and 29 children, respectively), introducing rigorous control measures in the tests used. Four EFs were analyzed: divided attention, updating, attentional shifting and inhibition, measured through four tasks, the dual-task paradigm (digits and box-crossing), the N-Back task, the Trail Making Test and the Stroop task, respectively. The results showed that participants with ADHD, compared to children with typical development (TD), exhibited a smaller verbal memory span as well as deficits in the attentional shifting and updating functions. However, a similar performance for the EF of inhibition was found for both groups of participants. Finally, an unexpected result was obtained with regard to the role of divided attention, as children with ADHD were less impaired when performing the double task than participants in the TD group.

  2. Evaluating reading and metacognitive deficits in children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Jesús Ma; Puente, Aníbal; Jiménez, Virginia; Arrebillaga, Lorena

    2011-05-01

    The reading achievement of children and adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has scarcely been explored in research conducted in the Spanish language and when it has, the results have been contradictory. The focus of the present research is to analyze participants' reading competency and metacognitive strategies as they carry out reading comprehension tasks. The sample was comprised of 187 Argentine schoolchildren aged 9 to 13 years old. 94 constituted the control group and the clinical group consisted of 93 schoolchildren diagnosed with ADHD. The metacognitive assessment was made up of two metacognitive tests, the Reading Awareness Scale (ESCOLA; acronym in Spanish) and a Spanish adaptation of Metacognitive Awareness of Reading Strategies Inventory (MARSI), and one test of reading comprehension, the Evaluation of Reading Processes for Secondary Education Students (PROLEC-SE; acronym in Spanish). Students with ADHD had lower achievement on tests o reading comprehension compared to the control group. Nevertheless, our results suggest their difficulties did not stem from readin comprehension problems, but rather from alterations in their Executive Functions, because when subjects' reading comprehensio was equalized, students with ADHD still exhibited a lower level of Metacognition, particularly when it came to planning.

  3. Creating Virtual Exhibitions for Educational and Cultural Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela DUMITRESCU

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents different tools and mechanisms to implement a virtual exhibition in different cultural areas, such as museums and libraries. Quality characteristics of virtual exhibitions are identified and described. The possibility to create native mobile applications for virtual exhibitions presentation is analyzed. The functional flow of creating a virtual exhibition is presented and discussed. The Seals - History Treasure exhibition is presented and significant historical documents are revealed.

  4. White matter microstructure and developmental improvement of hyperactive/impulsive symptoms in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francx, Winke; Zwiers, Marcel P; Mennes, Maarten; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Heslenfeld, Dirk; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Hartman, Catharina A; Franke, Barbara; Faraone, Stephen V; O'Dwyer, Laurence; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2015-12-01

    A developmental improvement of symptoms in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is frequently reported, but the underlying neurobiological substrate has not been identified. The aim of this study was to determine whether white matter microstructure is related to developmental improvement of ADHD symptoms. A cross-sectional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis was embedded in a prospective follow-up of an adolescent cohort of ADHD and control subjects (NeuroIMAGE). Mean age at baseline was 11.9 years, mean interval of follow-up was 5.9 years. About 75.3% of the original cohort was retained successfully. Data of 101 participants with ADHD combined type at baseline and 40 healthy controls were analysed. ADHD symptoms were measured with semistructured, investigator-based interviews and Conners' questionnaires, on the basis of DSM-IV criteria. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) indices of white matter microstructure were measured using whole brain diffusion tensor imaging at follow-up only. In a dimensional analysis FA and MD were related to change in ADHD symptoms. To link this analysis to DSM-IV diagnoses, a post hoc categorical group analysis was conducted comparing participants with persistent (n = 59) versus remittent (n = 42) ADHD and controls. Over time, participants with ADHD showed improvement mainly in hyperactive/impulsive symptoms. This improvement was associated with lower FA and higher MD values in the left corticospinal tract at follow-up. Findings of the dimensional and the categorical analysis strongly converged. Changes in inattentive symptoms over time were minimal and not related to white matter microstructure. The corticospinal tract is important in the control of voluntary movements, suggesting the importance of the motor system in the persistence of hyperactive/impulsive symptoms. © 2015 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  5. Toward a theory of childhood learning disorders, hyperactivity, and aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawson, Anthony R

    2012-01-01

    Learning disorders are often associated with persistent hyperactivity and aggression and are part of a spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders. A potential clue to understanding these linked phenomena is that physical exercise and passive forms of stimulation are calming, enhance cognitive functions and learning, and are recommended as complementary treatments for these problems. The theory is proposed that hyperactivity and aggression are intense stimulation-seeking behaviors (SSBs) driven by increased brain retinergic activity, and the stimulation thus obtained activates opposing nitrergic systems which inhibit retinergic activity, induce a state of calm, and enhance cognition and learning. In persons with cognitive deficits and associated behavioral disorders, the retinergic system may be chronically overactivated and the nitrergic system chronically underactivated due to environmental exposures occurring pre- and/or postnatally that affect retinoid metabolism or expression. For such individuals, the intensity of stimulation generated by SSB may be insufficient to activate the inhibitory nitrergic system. A multidisciplinary research program is needed to test the model and, in particular, to determine the extent to which applied physical treatments can activate the nitrergic system directly, providing the necessary level of intensity of sensory stimulation to substitute for that obtained in maladaptive and harmful ways by SSB, thereby reducing SSB and enhancing cognitive skills and performance.

  6. Functional imaging of neurocognitive dysfunction in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, I.; Tost, H.; Ruf, M.; Ende, G.

    2005-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurobiological disorder of early childhood onset. Defining symptoms are chronic impairments of attention, impulse control and motor hyperactivity that frequently persist until adulthood. Miscellaneous causes of the disorder have been discussed. Accumulating evidence from imaging- and molecular genetic studies strengthened the theory of ADHS being a predominantly inherited disorder of neurobiological origin. In the last 15 years, non-invasive brain imaging methods were successfully implemented in pediatric research. Functional magnetic resonance imaging studies gave major insight into the neurobiological correlates of executive malfunction, inhibitory deficits and psychomotoric soft signs. These findings are in good accordance with brain morphometric data indicating a significant volumetric decrease of major components of striato-thalamo-cortical feedback loops, primarily influencing prefrontal executive functioning (e.g. basal ganglia). Empirical evidence points to a broad array of associated behavioral disturbances like deficient visuomotor abilities and oculomotor dysfunctions. This paper reviews the current empirical evidence derived from prior imaging studies. Special emphasis is given to the relevance of oculomotor dysfunctions in clinical and research settings, as well as their assessment in the MR environment. (orig.) [de

  7. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and drug addiction rehabilitation patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Ferreira Camargo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is characterized by a persistent pattern of inattention or hyperactivity. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between ADHD and drug dependence. Methods The presence and severity of ADHD and substance use were evaluated through questionnaires in 80 adult patients in therapeutic communities. Results No difference in drug use or dependence prevalence between ADHD and non-ADHD patients was found. However, ADHD patients had lower ages on admission (p = 0.004 and at first contact with cocaine (p = 0.033. In ADHD patients, there was a negative correlation between the age at first use of cannabis and the subsequent severity of cannabis use (p = 0.017 and cocaine use (p = 0.033. Conclusions Though there was no difference in prevalence of drug use among groups, results show that ADHD in patients in therapeutic communities may cause different addiction patterns, such as earlier use of cocaine and admission, and a more severe use of cocaine correlated to earlier contact with cannabis.

  8. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and drug addiction rehabilitation patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Carlos Henrique Ferreira; Dornelles, Tarcísio Fanha; Barszcz, Karin; Martins, Eduardo Antunes

    2016-12-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by a persistent pattern of inattention or hyperactivity. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between ADHD and drug dependence. The presence and severity of ADHD and substance use were evaluated through questionnaires in 80 adult patients in therapeutic communities. No difference in drug use or dependence prevalence between ADHD and non-ADHD patients was found. However, ADHD patients had lower ages on admission (p = 0.004) and at first contact with cocaine (p = 0.033). In ADHD patients, there was a negative correlation between the age at first use of cannabis and the subsequent severity of cannabis use (p = 0.017) and cocaine use (p = 0.033). Though there was no difference in prevalence of drug use among groups, results show that ADHD in patients in therapeutic communities may cause different addiction patterns, such as earlier use of cocaine and admission, and a more severe use of cocaine correlated to earlier contact with cannabis.

  9. Socio-emotional intervention in attention deficit hyperactive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Jesús Cardoso-Moreno

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a common neuro-behavioural disorder with onset in childhood. These children have impaired emotional self-control, self-regulation of drive and motivation. Numerous studies have reported cognitive disabilities in memory, executive functions, spatial abilities and language skills. The main objective of this work is to determine whether a socio-emotional intervention programme could improve executive functions in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. The sample of this study consisted of 25 children (8 female and 17 male aged between 8 and 12 years, diagnosed with ADHD and who were not taking any psychopharmacological treatment at the time of the study, and had not taken medication previously. Executive functioning was assessed through the Zoo Map test and Tower of Hanoi puzzle in pre-/post-test design. A socio-emotional intervention programme was implemented. The training consisted of 8 one-hour weekly sessions, on an individual basis. Results indicate that such a programme does lead to improved performance in the execution of tasks that evaluate executive functions. After the intervention, the children took less time to resolve the Zoo Map test. Results for the Hanoi Tower puzzle were also improved after intervention. The children needed a lower number of movements to complete the task.

  10. Socio-emotional intervention in attention deficit hyperactive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Jesús Cardoso-Moreno

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a common neuro-behavioural disorder with onset in childhood. These children have impaired emotional self-control, self-regulation of drive and motivation. Numerous studies have reported cognitive disabilities in memory, executive functions, spatial abilities and language skills. The main objective of this work is to determine whether a socio-emotional intervention programme could improve executive functions in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. The sample of this study consisted of 25 children (8 female and 17 male aged between 8 and 12 years, diagnosed with ADHD and who were not taking any psychopharmacological treatment at the time of the study, and had not taken medication previously. Executive functioning was assessed through the Zoo Map test and Tower of Hanoi puzzle in pre-/post-test design. A socio-emotional intervention programme was implemented. The training consisted of 8 one-hour weekly sessions, on an individual basis. Results indicate that such a programme does lead to improved performance in the execution of tasks that evaluate executive functions. After the intervention, the children took less time to resolve the Zoo Map test. Results for the Hanoi Tower puzzle were also improved after intervention. The children needed a lower number of movements to complete the task.

  11. [Heritability and genetic comorbidity of attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puddu, Giannina; Rothhammer, Paula; Carrasco, Ximena; Aboitiz, Francisco; Rothhammer, Francisco

    2017-03-01

    This review aims to summarize information about the genetic etiology of attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity (ADHD), with particular reference to the contributions of our research group. We also discuss the genetic comorbidity estimated from genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP´s) between ADHD and major psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia (E), major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder (BD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A high genetic comorbidity was found between E and BD (46%), a moderate comorbidity between MDD and E, MDD and BD and MDD and ADHD (18%, 22% and 10% respectively) and a low comorbidity between E and ASD (2.5%). Furthermore, we show evidence concerning the genetic determination of psychiatric diseases, which is significantly lower when it is estimated from genome-wide SNP´s rather than using traditional quantitative genetic methodology (ADHD = E = 23%, BD = 25%, MDD = 21% and ASD = 17%). From an evolutionary perspective, we suggest that behavioral traits such as hyperactivity, inattention and impulsivity, which play a role in ADHD and perhaps also other hereditary traits which are part of major psychiatric disorders, could have had a high adaptive value during the early stages of the evolution of Homo sapiens. However, they became progressively less adaptive and definitively disadvantageous, to the extreme that they are involved in frequently diagnosed major psychiatric disorders.

  12. Decreased Callosal Thickness in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luders, Eileen; Narr, Katherine L.; Hamilton, Liberty S.; Phillips, Owen R.; Thompson, Paul M.; Valle, Jessica S.; Del'Homme, Melissa; Strickland, Tony; McCracken, James T.; Toga, Arthur W.; Levitt, Jennifer G.

    2009-01-01

    Background Neuroimaging studies of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have revealed structural abnormalities in the brains of affected individuals. One of the most replicated alterations is a significantly smaller corpus callosum (CC), for which conflicting reports exist with respect to the affected callosal segments. Methods We applied novel surface-based geometrical modeling methods to establish the presence, direction, and exact location of callosal alterations in ADHD at high spatial resolution. For this purpose, we calculated the thickness of the CC at 100 equidistant midsagittal points in an age-matched male sample of 19 individuals with ADHD and 19 typically developing control subjects. Results In close agreement with many prior observations, the CC was shown to be significantly thinner in ADHD subjects in anterior and, particularly, posterior callosal sections. Covarying for intelligence did not significantly alter the observed ADHD effects. However, group differences were no longer present in anterior sections when covarying for brain volume and after excluding ADHD subjects comorbid for oppositional defiant disorder. Conclusions Decreased callosal thickness may be associated with fewer fibers or a decrease in the myelination of fibers connecting the parietal and prefrontal cortices. This might affect interhemispheric communication channels that are necessary to sustain attention or motor control, thus contributing to symptoms of hyperactivity and impulsivity, or inattention, observed in ADHD. Future studies are necessary to determine whether callosal abnormalities reflect maturational delays or persist into adulthood. PMID:18842255

  13. [Attentional impairment in children with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbes, Zeineb; Bouden, Asma; Amado, Isabelle; Chantal Bourdel, Marie; Tabbane, Karim; Béchir Halayem, Mohamed

    2009-10-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heterogeneous disorder currently defined by clinical history and behavioral report of impairment. The Attention Network test (ANT) gives measures of different aspects of the complex process of attention. We ask if children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) will show a characteristic pattern of deficits on this test. The sample included 40 children (M=9 years) who performed the "Attention network test". Children with an ADHD diagnosis (N=20) were compared to a control group (N=20). The group of children with ADHD showed slower reaction times in all conditions (mean RT=866 ms; SD=234,063). Children with ADHD showed a significant impairment in their executive control system compared to healthy subjects, with slower reaction times in incongruent conditions and lower accuracy scores (RT=1064 ms; F(1.38) p=0.02). Our results showed that spatial orienting and alerting in ADHD was no different than controls (p=0,68). ADHD group showed a greater variable response (p=0,0001). The present study showed that impairment in executive control system and variability measures are the characteristic pattern of deficits in children with ADHD.

  14. Addressing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkis, Elias

    2014-09-01

    Although generally considered a childhood disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can persist into adulthood and impede achievement in the workplace. Core ADHD symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity can be associated with poor organization, time management, and interpersonal relationships. Employment levels, earning power, and productivity are reduced among individuals with ADHD compared with those without ADHD. Furthermore, the costs of employing individuals with ADHD are higher because of work absences and lost productivity. The primary care provider plays an integral role in managing ADHD symptoms and providing the necessary resources that will help individuals with ADHD succeed in the workplace. Pharmacotherapy can reduce ADHD symptoms and improve functioning; however, it is also important to consider how positive traits associated with ADHD, such as creative thinking, can be used in the workplace. Workplace accommodations and behavioral therapies, such as coaching, can also enhance time management and organizational skills. This review describes how ADHD symptoms affect workplace behaviors, the effect of ADHD on employment and workplace performance, and the management of ADHD in working adults.

  15. [Concordances between autism spectrum disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulas, F; Roca, P

    2018-03-01

    The current literature acknowledges an overlap of genetic, clinical and neuropsychological aspects between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), suggesting that there may be a common pattern that covers features ranging from the common genetic and structural aetiology to shared patterns of symptoms. To review the current advances in these common aspects. Several studies have pointed out preschool attentional difficulties as the basis of both disorders. From the genetic perspective, it is estimated that 50-72% of the genetic factors overlap between the two disorders. They also share a decrease in the volume of the corpus callosum and left frontal grey matter, as well as functional alterations such as dorsolateral prefrontal, striato-thalamic and superior parietal hypoactivation. Results are also found regarding executive functioning, with differential profiles for the two conditions, and also concerning the relationship between the repetitive and impulsive behaviours in the early stages of ASD and ensuing problems of hyperactivity. This new conception of the ASD-ADHD continuum, with a common neurodevelopmental basis and associated clinical features, could be of great use in clinical practice. It is suggested that this association should be taken into account when it comes to deciding on the treatment.

  16. Generation of mice lacking DUF1220 protein domains: effects on fecundity and hyperactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeney, JG; O’Bleness, MS; Anderson, N; Davis, JM; Arevalo, N; Busquet, N; Chick, W; Rozman, J; Hölter, SM; Garrett, L; Horsch, M; Beckers, J; Wurst, W; Klingenspor, M; Restrepo, D

    2014-01-01

    Sequences encoding DUF1220 protein domains show the most extreme human lineage-specific copy number increase of any coding region in the genome and have been linked to human brain evolution. In addition, DUF1220 copy number (dosage) has been implicated in influencing brain size within the human species, both in normal populations and in individuals associated with brain size pathologies (1q21-associated microcephaly and macrocephaly). More recently, increasing dosage of a subtype of DUF1220 has been linked with increasing severity of the primary symptoms of autism. Despite these intriguing associations, a function for these domains has not been described. As a first step in addressing this question we have developed the first transgenic model of DUF1220 function by removing the single DUF1220 domain (the ancestral form) encoded in the mouse genome. In a hypothesis generating exercise, these mice were evaluated by 197 different phenotype measurements. While resulting DUF1220-minus (KO) mice show no obvious anatomical peculiarities, they exhibit a significantly reduced fecundity (χ2= 19.1, df = 2, p = 7.0 × 10−5). Further extensive phenotypic analyses suggest hyperactivity (p < 0.05) of DUF1220 mice and changes in gene expression levels of brain associated with distinct neurological functions and disease. Other changes that met statistical significance include an increase in plasma glucose concentration (as measured by Area Under the Curve, AUC 0-30 and AUC 30-120) in male mutants, fasting glucose levels, reduce sodium levels in male mutants, increased levels of the liver functional indicator ALAT/GPT in males, levels of alkaline phosphatase (also an indicator of liver function), mean R and SR amplitude by electrocardiography, elevated IgG3 levels, a reduced ratio of CD4:CD8 cells, and a reduced frequency of T cells; though it should be noted that many of these differences are quite small and require further examination. The linking of DUF1220 loss to a

  17. Generation of mice lacking DUF1220 protein domains: effects on fecundity and hyperactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeney, J G; O'Bleness, M S; Anderson, N; Davis, J M; Arevalo, N; Busquet, N; Chick, W; Rozman, J; Hölter, S M; Garrett, L; Horsch, M; Beckers, J; Wurst, W; Klingenspor, M; Restrepo, D; de Angelis, M Hrabě; Sikela, J M

    2015-02-01

    Sequences encoding DUF1220 protein domains show the most extreme human lineage-specific copy number increase of any coding region in the genome and have been linked to human brain evolution. In addition, DUF1220 copy number (dosage) has been implicated in influencing brain size within the human species, both in normal populations and in individuals associated with brain size pathologies (1q21-associated microcephaly and macrocephaly). More recently, increasing dosage of a subtype of DUF1220 has been linked with increasing severity of the primary symptoms of autism. Despite these intriguing associations, a function for these domains has not been described. As a first step in addressing this question, we have developed the first transgenic model of DUF1220 function by removing the single DUF1220 domain (the ancestral form) encoded in the mouse genome. In a hypothesis generating exercise, these mice were evaluated by 197 different phenotype measurements. While resulting DUF1220-minus (KO) mice show no obvious anatomical peculiarities, they exhibit a significantly reduced fecundity (χ(2) = 19.1, df = 2, p = 7.0 × 10(-5)). Further extensive phenotypic analyses suggest hyperactivity (p < 0.05) of DUF1220 mice and changes in gene expression levels of brain associated with distinct neurological functions and disease. Other changes that met statistical significance include an increase in plasma glucose concentration (as measured by area under the curve, AUC 0-30 and AUC 30-120) in male mutants, fasting glucose levels, reduce sodium levels in male mutants, increased levels of the liver functional indicator ALAT/GPT in males, levels of alkaline phosphatase (also an indicator of liver function), mean R and SR amplitude by electrocardiography, elevated IgG3 levels, a reduced ratio of CD4:CD8 cells, and a reduced frequency of T cells; though it should be noted that many of these differences are quite small and require further examination. The linking of DUF1220 loss to a

  18. A Comparative Study on the Visual Perceptions of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmetoglu, Emine; Aral, Neriman; Butun Ayhan, Aynur

    This study was conducted in order to (a) compare the visual perceptions of seven-year-old children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder with those of normally developing children of the same age and development level and (b) determine whether the visual perceptions of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder vary with respect to gender, having received preschool education and parents` educational level. A total of 60 children, 30 with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and 30 with normal development, were assigned to the study. Data about children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and their families was collected by using a General Information Form and the visual perception of children was examined through the Frostig Developmental Test of Visual Perception. The Mann-Whitney U-test and Kruskal-Wallis variance analysis was used to determine whether there was a difference of between the visual perceptions of children with normal development and those diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and to discover whether the variables of gender, preschool education and parents` educational status affected the visual perceptions of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The results showed that there was a statistically meaningful difference between the visual perceptions of the two groups and that the visual perceptions of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder were affected meaningfully by gender, preschool education and parents` educational status.

  19. A content-oriented model for science exhibit engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiam, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Recently, science museums have begun to review their educational purposes and redesign their pedagogies. At the most basic level, this entails accounting for the performance of individual exhibits, and indeed, in some cases, research indicates shortcomings in exhibit design: While often successful......: as a means to operationalize the link between exhibit features and visitor activities; and as a template to transform scientists’ practices in the research context into visitors’ activities in the exhibit context. The resulting model of science exhibit engineering is presented and exemplified, and its...... implications for science exhibit design are discussed at three levels: the design product, the design process, and the design methodology....

  20. The nucleus accumbens 5-HTR4-CART pathway ties anorexia to hyperactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean, A; Laurent, L; Bockaert, J; Charnay, Y; Dusticier, N; Nieoullon, A; Barrot, M; Neve, R; Compan, V

    2012-01-01

    In mental diseases, the brain does not systematically adjust motor activity to feeding. Probably, the most outlined example is the association between hyperactivity and anorexia in Anorexia nervosa. The neural underpinnings of this ‘paradox', however, are poorly elucidated. Although anorexia and hyperactivity prevail over self-preservation, both symptoms rarely exist independently, suggesting commonalities in neural pathways, most likely in the reward system. We previously discovered an addictive molecular facet of anorexia, involving production, in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), of the same transcripts stimulated in response to cocaine and amphetamine (CART) upon stimulation of the 5-HT4 receptors (5-HTR4) or MDMA (ecstasy). Here, we tested whether this pathway predisposes not only to anorexia but also to hyperactivity. Following food restriction, mice are expected to overeat. However, selecting hyperactive and addiction-related animal models, we observed that mice lacking 5-HTR1B self-imposed food restriction after deprivation and still displayed anorexia and hyperactivity after ecstasy. Decryption of the mechanisms showed a gain-of-function of 5-HTR4 in the absence of 5-HTR1B, associated with CART surplus in the NAc and not in other brain areas. NAc-5-HTR4 overexpression upregulated NAc-CART, provoked anorexia and hyperactivity. NAc-5-HTR4 knockdown or blockade reduced ecstasy-induced hyperactivity. Finally, NAc-CART knockdown suppressed hyperactivity upon stimulation of the NAc-5-HTR4. Additionally, inactivating NAc-5-HTR4 suppressed ecstasy's preference, strengthening the rewarding facet of anorexia. In conclusion, the NAc-5-HTR4/CART pathway establishes a ‘tight-junction' between anorexia and hyperactivity, suggesting the existence of a primary functional unit susceptible to limit overeating associated with resting following homeostasis rules. PMID:23233022