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Sample records for alpha-fetoproteins

  1. [Alpha Fetoprotein-producing Lung Adenocarcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komori, Kazuyuki; Tabata, Toshiharu; Sato, Kimiaki; Katsumata, Hiroshi; Minowa, Muneo; Kondo, Takashi

    2015-11-01

    We report a case of alpha fetoprotein (AFP) -producing lung adenocarcinoma. A 53-year-old man was referred to our hospital due to right pneumothorax. Computed tomography showed right moderate pneumothorax, a solid tumor in the upper lobe (S3) and mediastinal lymph node swelling. The serum AFP level was as high as 223.0 ng/ml. Frozen examination revealed a low-differentiated adenocarcinoma. Based on the pathological and immunohistochemical findings, the tumor was diagnosed as AFP-producing lung adenocarcinoma.

  2. Clinical significance of human alpha-fetoprotein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yachnin, S.

    1978-01-01

    Deviations from the normal of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) concentrations in fetal serum, amniotic fluid, maternal serum and adult human serum can be explained by understanding the normal physiology and the pathophysiology of AFP synthesis and metabolism. AFP is the prototype of oncofetal markers. Emphasis is given to the usefulness of elevated serum AFP levels in the diagnosis and management of primary hepatomas and tumors of germ cell origin. The ability to detect neural tube defects early in gestation by monitoring maternal serum and amniotic fluid AFP concentrations is discussed.

  3. User acceptability of an alpha-fetoprotein screening programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Finn Stener

    1995-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine user acceptability among women who were classified as false positives or test negatives in an alpha-fetoprotein screening programme. The study was performed as a questionnaire study over a one-year period from October 1, 1988 to September 30, 1989 at...... Hvidovre University Hospital, Copenhagen, and the county hospitals of Sønderjylland, Denmark. The participating subjects were 4104 pregnant women who had had an alpha-fetoprotein test and had completed 30 weeks of gestation, when the questionnaire was delivered. Main outcome measures were degree and...... duration of anxiety, influence on daily life and whether the woman wanted the alpha-fetoprotein test again in a new pregnancy. Three thousand, three hundred and thirty-one questionnaires were analyzed. The participation rate was 81.2%. For 219 women (6.6%), the first alpha-fetoprotein test was abnormal...

  4. Maternal serum alpha fetoprotein in monozygotic and dizygotic twin pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, H; Buckland, C M; Campbell, A G; Thompson, B; Farr, V

    1984-01-01

    Maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) values in the second trimester have been related to pregnancy outcome for 100 normal twin pairs, 42 monozygous (MZ) and 58 dizygous (DZ), liveborn after 28 weeks gestation. The median MSAFP value was 1.9 multiples of the median value (MOM) for uncomplicated singleton pregnancies. Both very low and very high MSAFP values were associated with twins of low birthweight. MSAFP values were higher in MZ than DZ twin pregnancies particularly those with dizygotes of like-sex. This effect was even more marked when only dichorionic like-sex twin pairs were compared. PMID:6209699

  5. Maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein and fetal triploidy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pircon, R A; Towers, C V; Porto, M; Gocke, S E; Garite, T J

    1989-10-01

    Fetal triploidy is commonly found in early pregnancy. The majority of these pregnancies spontaneously abort in the first trimester. Occasionally, the pregnancy progresses to the second and third trimesters. We reviewed the maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP), amniotic fluid alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), amniotic fluid acetylcholinesterase (ACHE), fetal pathology, and placental pathology in sex second-trimester pregnancies complicated by fetal triploidy. Four of these patients had MSAFP values greater than 7.5 multiples of the median (MoM). Five of six pregnancies had MSAFP values greater than 2.25 MoM. All five of these patients had a partial mole. Four patients had amniotic fluid AFP values greater than 2.0 MoM. Two fetuses had associated neural tube defects. These were the only patients with positive amniotic fluid ACHE. None of the other patients had fetuses with anomalies that are known to be associated with an elevated MSAFP. The elevated MSAFP appeared to be related to the presence of a partial mole. Two of the five cases with an MSAFP greater than 2.25 MoM did not have sonographic evidence of a significant anomaly. Therefore, karyotyping can be of benefit in evaluating patients with elevated MSAFP. PMID:2480590

  6. Hereditary persistence of alpha-fetoprotein (HPAFP) : review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwert, A. C.; Giltay, J. C.; Lentjes, E. G. W. M.; Lock, M. T. W. T.

    2010-01-01

    Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) serum levels are raised in several clinical conditions, ranging from non-pathological conditions to malignancies. Hereditary persistence of alpha-fetoprotein (HPAFP) is a rare benign disorder with elevated AFP levels. HPAFP is described as a benign autosomal dominantly inheri

  7. Abnormal maternal serum alpha fetoprotein and pregnancy outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarzour, S J; Gabert, H A; Diket, A L; St Amant, M; Miller, J M

    1998-01-01

    The objective was to assess the occurrence of miscarriages, low birth weight, and karyotype abnormalities found with low and elevated maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) among women who had genetic amniocentesis performed. A retrospective study of 2,159 women who had MSAFP analysis prior to amniocentesis was conducted. Pregnancy outcomes were obtained from record review and physicians follow-up. Limits of MSAFP used in analysis were MOM) (lower levels) and >2.0 MOM (upper levels). Autosomal trisomy was found in 1.6% with low, 0.9% normal, and 0.6% with elevated MSAFP values. Sex chromosome abnormalities were present only in patients with normal MSAFP, [45X (n = 6), 47XXY (n = 2), 69XXX]. Of five open neural tube defects, four had elevated MSAFP and one had a normal value. Omphalocele was identified in four patients, two with normal and two with elevated MSAFP. Gastroschisis was found in one low and one elevated MSAFP. Amniotic fluid alpha-fetoprotein (AFAFP) values did not correlate with MSAFP values. Patients with low MSAFP levels had a greater prevalence of abnormal karyotype (19 of 249, prevalence = 0.076) than patients with an elevated MSAFP level (2 or 166, prevalence = 0.012 OR (odds ratio) = 0.20 (P value = 0.024) when unadjusted for maternal age, and OR = 0.09 (P value = 0.001) when adjusted for maternal age. Spontaneous abortion occurred more often in patients with elevated (4 of 166, or 4%) than normal or low (20 of 1948, or 1%) values of MSAFP (odds ratio 4.32, P = 0.020 when adjusted for maternal age). Birth weight below 2,500 g was present less frequently with low or normal MSAFP (136 of 1,760, or 7.7%) than in elevated MSAFP (21 of 144 or 14.6%) (odds ratio 2.04, P = 0.005, unadjusted; and odds ratio = 2.32, P = 0.003, adjusted for maternal age). Female fetuses were present more often with low MSAFP (136 of 249, or 55%) than elevated levels 43% (71 of 164, or 43%; P = 0.024). We conclude that patients undergoing genetic amniocentesis with MSAFP

  8. Anxiety in women with low maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein screening results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelo, D N; Hopmann, M R; Barsel-Bowers, G; Goldstein, A

    1991-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure anxiety in pregnant women who had low maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) screening test levels, received genetic counselling and chose to undergo amniocentesis for fetal chromosome analysis. Their anxiety levels were compared with the levels in women undergoing amniocentesis because of advanced maternal age. The results indicate a higher level of anxiety in women with low alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels.

  9. Alpha-fetoprotein-producing rectum adenocarcinoma:A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kai Qin; Qiang Fu; Renliang Wu; Xianglin Yuan

    2013-01-01

    A case with an Alpha-fetoprotein-producing (AFP-producing) carcinoma originating from the rectum was de-scribed. A 41-year-old man, who underwent a pal iative surgery for rectal carcinoma, was diagnosed with occupying liver lesions and a remarkable AFP elevation (3484.61 ng/mL), and the AFP declined obviously 10 days after the pal iative surgery. So we carried out a biopsy of the liver lesions. The histopathology was reported as low dif erentiation adenocarcinoma. The immunohistochemistry of the tumor cells via liver biopsy showed:Vil in, CDX-2 was positive, Glypican-3 was partial positive, CK7, CK20, AFP, Hepatocyte were al negative. The initial histopathology was reported as an AFP-producing rectum adeno-carcinoma with liver metastasis, which was a rare disease. So far, only 17 reports, none has been reported in China. Then, we summarize the characteristic of the disease:diagnosed with hepatic metastasis, raised serum AFP and a poor outcome, in addition to primary symptoms. This kind of disease is highly malignant.

  10. Diagnostic value of alpha-fetoprotein in liver cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine diagnostic value of alpha-fetoproteins (alpha-FP) in liver cancer. Design: Prospective study. Place and duration of study: Department of clinical oncology services Hospital Lahore, during the period from February 1998 to February 2001. Subjects and Methods: Among 200 persons studied, 100 presented with liver mass, jaundice and other symptoms directing toward liver pathology, later confirmed histopathologically, as suffering from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) while the other 100 healthy subject came to the department for blood donation and were HBs Ag pasitive on blood screening. All these subjects under went blood test for alpha-FP. This tumor marker was analyzed by using enzyme immunoassay-based kit. Results: The alpha-FP positivity was statistically evaluated. In HCC this test was statistically significant with p value of <0.001. In this study sensitivity of alpha-FP was 72% specificity 89%, positive predictive value 86.7% and negative predictive value of 76.1%. Conclusion: This study showed that alpha-FP was a useful diagnostic tool in the diagnosis of HCC. (author)

  11. Alpha-fetoprotein-producing primary lung carcinoma: A case report

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    Tokusashi Yoshihiko

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP-producing lung adenocarcinoma is a rare type of lung cancer, with its characteristics not yet fully clarified. We recently encountered a case of this type of lung cancer. The patient was a 69-year-old man who consulted an internist with the chief complaint of epigastric pain. Chest X-ray and CT revealed a lobulated mass measuring 70 mm in diameter in the right lower lung field and a metastasis in the right hilar lymph nodes. Of the tumor markers, the serum AFP was elevated (4620 ng/ml, and the serum carcinoembryonic antigen and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 were also slightly elevated. Transbronchial lung biopsy revealed the diagnosis of lung cancer. Under thoracoscopic assistance, right lower lobectomy + mediastinal lymph node dissection was carried out. Immunostaining showed the tumor cells to be AFP-positive. The tumor was thus diagnosed as an AFP-producing lung adenocarcinoma. The patient followed an uneventful clinical course after the surgery, with serum AFP decreasing to the normal range by about 2 weeks after the surgery. As of this writing, no sign of tumor recurrence has been noted. This case is presented here with a review of the literature.

  12. Combined serum hepatoma-speciifc alpha-fetoprotein and circulating alpha-fetoprotein-mRNA in diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Wu; Deng-Fu Yao; Yong-Mei Yuan; Ji-Wei Fan; Xiu-Feng Lu; Xiao-Hua Li; Li-Wei Qiu; Lei Zong; Xin-Hua Wu

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors worldwide, its prognosis is poor, and early detection is of utmost importance. Although alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a useful marker for detecting and monitoring HCC development, the false-negative or false-positive rates with AFP alone may be as high as 30%-40%for patients with small HCCs. To enhance the speciifcity and accuracy of AFP measurements for HCC, we analyzed AFP expression states in livers, detected the hepatoma-speciifc AFP (HS-AFP) fraction and AFP-mRNA from peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and explored their clinical implications for HCC diagnosis. METHODS:AFP expression and hepatocyte distributions in liver specimens were investigated by an immunohistoche-mical assay. Total RNAs were extracted from circulating blood, synthesized to cDNA through random primers and reverse transcriptase, and fragments of the AFP gene were ampliifed by a nested-PCR assay. The HS-AFP fraction was separated by lectin-afifnity chromatography and its level was detected by radioimmunoassay. RESULTS: The incidence of AFP was 73.3% in HCC tissues and its expression in HCCs with moderate or low differentiation was signiifcantly stronger than that of HCCs with high differentiation (P CONCLUSIONS: Different AFP expression is present in different parts of HCC tissues. HS-AFP and AFP-mRNA fragments improve sensitivity and speciifcity, and both are useful markers to diagnose HCC or monitor metastasis and relapse.

  13. Autism Spectrum Disorders and Maternal Serum alpha-Fetoprotein Levels During Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Morsi; Grove, Jakob; Hougaard, David M;

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Numerous studies have been trying to disentangle the complex pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In our study, we explored the potential role of maternal serum (MS) alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in the prediction and the pathophysiology of ASD. Methods: A total of 112 patients...

  14. ALPHA-FETOPROTEIN IN FETAL SERUM, AMNIOTIC-FLUID, AND MATERNAL SERUM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANLITH, JMM; BEEKHUIS, [No Value; VANLOON, AJ; MANTINGH, A; DEWOLF, BTHM; BREED, ASPM

    1991-01-01

    In order to gain more insight into the association between alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and fetal chromosomal disorders, especially Down's syndrome, we measured AFP in fetal serum, amniotic fluid, and maternal serum at cordocentesis. We compared the concentration and gradient of AFP in these three compar

  15. ORIGIN OF RAISED MATERNAL SERUM ALPHA-FETOPROTEIN LEVELS IN 2ND-TRIMESTER OLIGOHYDRAMNIOS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LOS, FJ; BEEKHUIS, [No Value; MARRINK, J; HAGENAARS, AM; REUSS, A; SACHS, ES; JAHODA, MGJ; WLADIMIROFF, JW

    1992-01-01

    Concanavalin A (Con A) subtyping of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) revealed higher concentrations of AFP non-reactive with Con A in sera of 12 pregnant women with second-trimester oligohydramnios and raised total serum AFP levels than in sera of 42 pregnant women with raised total serum AFP levels and a no

  16. FIRST-TRIMESTER MATERNAL SERUM ALPHA-FETOPROTEIN AS A MARKER FOR FETAL CHROMOSOMAL DISORDERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANLITH, JMM

    1994-01-01

    We evaluated first-trimester maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MS-AFP) as a marker for fetal chromosomal disorders. The multicentre study was performed under the auspices of the Dutch Working Party on Prenatal Diagnosis. MS-AFP was measured in 2404 normal pregnancies and 72 chromosomally abnormal pr

  17. Fifty years of discovery of alpha-fetoprotein as the first tumor marker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikulina Dina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alpha-fetoprotein represents the most prominent oncobiomarker, widely used in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma for monitoring of tumor progression, presence of metastasis, assessment of cancer prognosis and successful antitumor therapeutic measures. Yuri Semenovich Tatarinov is a Russian scientist who first published antigen specific for human hepatocellular carcinoma in 1963. To commemorate the 50th anniversary of the discovery of alpha-fetoprotein, 9th International Scientific- Practical Conference entitled “Achievements of fundamental science and translational medicine capabilities in solving actual problems of practical public health”, was held from May 6-8th, 2013 in Astrakhan, Russia. The conference was held in memory of historical scientific work of Yuri Semenovich Tatarinov. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175056

  18. Dexamethasone inhibits alpha-fetoprotein gene transcription in neonatal rat liver and isolated nuclei.

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, D. P.; Cote, G J; Massari, R J; Chiu, J F

    1985-01-01

    The effect of dexamethasone on rat alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) expression has been further examined. Quantitation of serum AFP levels from newborns treated with dexamethasone showed a dose-response relationship between the quantity of dexamethasone administered and the reduction in AFP serum level. RNA blots, utilizing cloned AFP cDNA as probe, showed a marked reduction in AFP mRNA in dexamethasone treated livers. The extent of AFP mRNA depletion was correlated with dexamethasone dosage. The effe...

  19. Electrophoresis and electro-affinity transfer with specific antibodies to alpha-fetoprotein for detection of circulating immune complexes of alpha-fetoprotein.

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    Taketa,Kazuhisa

    1984-08-01

    Full Text Available A combination of agarose gel electrophoresis and a newly developed technique of electro-affinity transfer was applied to the detection of circulating immune complexes of human alpha-fetoprotein (AFP and anti-AFP. After electrophoretic transfer to nitrocellulose membrane, to which affinity-purified polyclonal horse antibodies to human AFP were bound, the membranes were treated with or without rabbit immunoglobulins to human AFP, followed by overlaying with horseradish peroxidase-labeled goat anti-rabbit IgG for color development. Artificial complexes formed in vitro from human AFP and rabbit anti-AFP were clearly separated from free AFP by the agarose electrophoresis. The complexes were stained 20-40% as dark as the equivalent amount of free AFP by treatment with rabbit anti-AFP, and 10-20% as dark without the antibody treatment over a wide range of antigen-antibody ratios.

  20. The progressive elevation of alpha fetoprotein for the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with liver cirrhosis

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    Flores-Estrada Diana

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common cause of primary liver neoplasms and is one of the main causes of death in patients with liver cirrhosis. High Alpha fetoprotein serum levels have been found in 60–70% of patients with Hepatocellular carcinoma; nevertheless, there are other causes that increase this protein. Alpha fetoprotein levels ≥200 and 400 ng/mL in patients with an identifiable liver mass by imaging techniques are diagnostic of hepatocellular carcinoma with high specificity. Methods We analysed the sensitivity and specificity of the progressive increase of the levels of alpha fetoprotein for the detection of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with liver cirrhosis. Seventy-four patients with cirrhosis without hepatocellular carcinoma and 193 with hepatic lesions diagnosed by biopsy and shown by image scans were included. Sensitivity and specificity of transversal determination of alpha fetoprotein ≥ 200 and 400 ng/mL and monthly progressive elevation of alpha fetoprotein were analysed. Areas under the ROC curves were compared. Positive and negative predictive values adjusted to a 5 and 10% prevalence were calculated. Results For an elevation of alpha fetoprotein ≥ 200 and 400 ng/mL the specificity is of 100% in both cases, with a sensitivity of 36.3 and 20.2%, respectively. For an alpha fetoprotein elevation rate ≥7 ng/mL/month, sensitivity was of 71.4% and specificity of 100%. The area under the ROC curve of the progressive elevation was significantly greater than that of the transversal determination of alpha fetoprotein. The positive and negative predictive values modified to a 10% prevalence are of: 98.8% and 96.92%, respectively; while for a prevalence of 5% they were of 97.4% and 98.52%, respectively. Conclusion The progressive elevation of alpha fetoprotein ≥7 ng/mL/month in patients with liver cirrhosis is useful for the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients that do not reach

  1. Prussian blue modified amperometric FIA biosensor: one-step immunoassay for alpha-fetoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Jian-Guo; Miao, Yu-Qing; Chen, Jian-Rong

    2004-03-15

    The aim of this study was to develop a rapid method to measure alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in human serum by use of one-step sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based immunobiosensor with disposable screen-printed carbon electrode technology. Prussian blue (PB) was deposited using cyclic voltammetry (CV) on the surface of electrode to catalyze H202 from the reaction of glucose oxidase. It took only about 30 min to complete the whole experimental procedure through flow injection analysis (FIA). A detection range obtained is in the range from 5 to 500 ng/ml AFP. This detection seems to be quick, reliable and practical. PMID:15128097

  2. Dosage of alpha-fetoprotein for radioimmunoassay in maternal blood. Its obstetrical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandolfo, J.; Jaumandreu, C.A. (Clinica Ginecotocologica ' ' A' ' (Uruguay)); Aguirre de Garcia, B.; Robles, A.M.; Touya, E. (Centro de Medicina Nuclear y Centro de Nefrologia (Uruguay))

    1981-08-01

    Leigthon, Gordon and col. showed that the determination of serum levels of alpha-fetoprotein was useful as a method for the detection of fetal malformations of the neural tube. Due to its important clinical significance, the study of this simple test in women in different stages of pregnancy has been started. A total of 34 patients from the obstetrical external service were studied, with pregnancy stages between 10 and 40 weeks. Having established the incidence and implications of false positive and principally of false negative results, it has been concluded that this technique should be imposed as routine in the evolutive control of pregnancy.

  3. Alpha fetoprotein antagonizes apoptosis induced by paclitaxel in hepatoma cells in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Mingyue Zhu; Wei Li; Yan Lu; Xu Dong; Yi Chen; Bo Lin; Xieju Xie; Junli Guo; Mengsen Li

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell resistance to the effects of paclitaxel has not been adequately addressed. In this study, we found that paclitaxel significantly inhibited the viability of HLE, Bel 7402 and L-02 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. HLE cells and L-02 cells resisted the cytotoxicity of paclitaxel when transfected with pcDNA3.1-afp vectors. However, Bel 7402 cell sensitivity to paclitaxel was increased when transfected with alpha fetoprotein (AFP)-siRNA. Bel 7402 cell...

  4. Alpha fetoprotein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetal alpha globulin; AFP ... Greater than normal levels of AFP may be due to: Cancer in testes , ovaries, biliary (liver secretion) tract, stomach, or pancreas Cirrhosis of the liver Liver cancer ...

  5. [The clinical significance of PIVKA-II determination in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma: a comparative study with alpha-fetoprotein].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakon, M; Monden, M; Goto, M; Kanai, T; Umeshita, K; Endo, W; Mori, T

    1990-05-01

    The changes in the plasma level of PIVKA-II (Protein Induced by Vitamin K Absence or Antagonist-II) following the treatment or progress of the disease was studied in 60 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. The positivity rate determined by the changes in PIVKA-II was 58.4 percent (35/60 cases) and was about the same as those reported so far, all of which were obtained by a single determination of PIVKA-II. Plasma PIVKA-II was elevated in 61.9 percent (13/21 cases) of alpha-fetoprotein negative patients and it was almost identical with the overall positivity rate. In parallel with serum alpha-fetoprotein, the plasma level of PIVKA-II was decreased after the surgery or transcatheter arterial embolization and was increased when the recurrence or progress of the disease was observed. Furthermore, the nonspecific elevation of PIVKA-II due to the associated liver cirrhosis or chronic hepatitis was infrequent compared with that of alpha-fetoprotein. In 18 cases positive with both PIVKA-II and alpha-fetoprotein, a close correlation (R = 0.91) was observed between the changes of these markers during the progress or treatment of the disease. Thus, it was suggested that determination of PIVKA-II in blood might be useful not only in the diagnosis but in monitoring the progress or the effectiveness of treatments in hepatocellular carcinoma.

  6. CONCANAVALIN-A VARIANTS OF ALPHA-FETOPROTEIN IN FIRST TRIMESTER FETUSES WITH TRISOMY-21 AND WITH NORMAL KARYOTYPES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LOS, FJ; JANSE, HC; BRANDENBURG, H; DEVRIJ, RW; DEBRUIJN, HWA

    1995-01-01

    Total alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) concentrations and proportions of AFP non-reactive with the lectin concanavalin A (Con A) were studied in extracellular fluid of 22 first-trimester fetuses. Total AFP concentrations were significantly lower in fetuses with Down's syndrome than in those with Mendelian-in

  7. The immunosuppression role of alpha-fetoprotein in human hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Wenbo; Bai, Bing; Bai, Zhongtian; Li, Yan; Yue, Ping; Li, Xun; Qiao, Liang

    2016-06-01

    Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third most common cause of cancer-related death. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is perhaps the best-defined tumor marker for HCC, and as such, it is widely used in clinical settings as an adjuvant diagnostic and prognostic tool. Up to 70% of HCC cases exhibit elevated serum level of AFP, but its pathophysiological functions in HCC are poorly defined. It is now known that AFP is not just a fetal form of carrier protein and a tumor marker, it is also critically involved in the regulation of several important cellular functions, such as cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and immune regulation. In this mini-review, we summarize the recent development of AFP in hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:27448785

  8. Alpha-fetoprotein-L3 and Golgi protein 73 may serve as candidate biomarkers for diagnosing alpha-fetoprotein-negative hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang ZG

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Zhiguo Zhang,1 Yanying Zhang,2 Yeying Wang,1 Lingling Xu,3 Wanju Xu3 1Department of Clinical Laboratory, Zhangqiu Maternity and Child Care Hospital, Zhangqiu, 2Department of Clinical Laboratory, Zaozhuang City Wangkai Infection Hospital, Zaozhuang, 3Department of Clinical Laboratory, Qianfoshan Hospital, Jinan, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Currently, there is no reliable biomarker for use in diagnosing alpha-fetoprotein (AFP-negative hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Such a biomarker would aid in making an early diagnosis of AFP-negative HCC, ensuring the timely initiation of treatment. This study examined AFP-L3 and Golgi protein 73 (GP73 as candidate biomarkers for AFP-negative HCC. The affinity adsorption method and enzyme-linked immunoassays were separately used to determine serum levels of AFP-L3 and GP73 in 50 patients with AFP-negative HCC, 30 non-HCC patients, and 50 healthy subjects. Fifty percent of patients with AFP-negative HCC tested positive for AFP-L3, while 3.33% of non-HCC patients and 2.00% of healthy subjects were AFP-L3 positive. Patients with AFP-negative HCC had significantly higher serum levels of AFP-L3 compared to non-HCC patients and healthy individuals; however, there was no significant difference in the AFP-L3 levels of non-HCC patients and healthy subjects. Sixty-six percent of patients with AFP-negative HCC tested positive for GP73, while 10% of non-HCC patients and 0% of healthy subjects were GP73-positive. Patients with AFP-negative HCC had significantly higher serum levels of GP73 compared to non-HCC patients and healthy subjects, but there was no significant difference between the GP73 levels of non-HCC patients and healthy individuals. Moreover, 20 patients with AFP-negative HCC were both AFP-L3- and GP73-positive, while no non-HCC patients or healthy subjects tested positive for both markers. Either AFP-L3 or GP73 may be used as a biomarker for diagnosing AFP-negative HCC, while their combined use

  9. Ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor with heterologous elements of gastrointestinal type associated with elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein level: an unusual case and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Horta, Mariana; Cunha, Teresa Margarida; Marques, Rita Canas; Félix, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Here we describe the case of a 19-year-old woman with a poorly differentiated ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor and an elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein level. The patient presented with diffuse abdominal pain and bloating. Physical examination, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a right ovarian tumor that was histopathologically diagnosed as a poorly differentiated Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor with heterologous elements. Her alpha-fetoprotein serum level was undetectable after t...

  10. Alpha-fetoprotein, the major fetal serum protein, is not essential for embryonic development but is required for female fertility

    OpenAIRE

    Gabant, Philippe; Forrester, Lesley; Nichols, Jennifer; Van Reeth, Thierry; De Mees, Christelle; Pajack, Bernard; Watt, Alistair; Smitz, Johan; Alexandre, Henri; Szpirer, Claude; Szpirer, Josiane

    2002-01-01

    The alpha-fetoprotein gene (Afp) is a member of a multigenic family that comprises the related genes encoding albumin, alpha-albumin, and vitamin D binding protein. The biological role of this major embryonic serum protein is unknown although numerous speculations have been made. We have used gene targeting to show that AFP is not required for embryonic development. AFP null embryos develop normally, and individually transplanted homozygous embryos can develop in an AFP-deficient microenviron...

  11. Elevated Serum Levels of Alpha-Fetoprotein in Patients with Infantile Hemangioma Are Not Derived from within the Tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Itinteang, Tinte; Chibnall, Alice M.; Marsh, Reginald; Jonathan C. Dunne; de Jong, Sophie; Davis, Paul F.; Leadbitter, Philip; Tan, Swee T.

    2016-01-01

    Aims The embryonic-like stem cell origin of infantile hemangioma (IH) and the observed elevated serum levels of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in patients with hepatic IH led us to investigate if this tumor was the source of AFP. Materials and methods We measured serial serum levels of AFP in patients with problematic proliferating IH treated with surgical excision or propranolol treatment. We also investigated the expression of AFP in extrahepatic IH samples using immunohistochemical sta...

  12. Female Mice Deficient in Alpha-Fetoprotein Show Female-Typical Neural Responses to Conspecific-Derived Pheromones

    OpenAIRE

    Olivier Brock; Matthieu Keller; Quentin Douhard; Julie Bakker

    2012-01-01

    The neural mechanisms controlling sexual behavior are sexually differentiated by the perinatal actions of sex steroid hormones. We recently observed using female mice deficient in alpha-fetoprotein (AFP-KO) and which lack the protective actions of AFP against maternal estradiol, that exposure to prenatal estradiol completely defeminized the potential to show lordosis behavior in adulthood. Furthermore, AFP-KO females failed to show any male-directed mate preferences following treatment with e...

  13. Telomerase Inhibition Decreases Alpha-Fetoprotein Expression and Secretion by Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Lines: In Vitro and In Vivo Study

    OpenAIRE

    Roula Tahtouh; Anne-Sophie Azzi; Nada Alaaeddine; Soulaima Chamat; Hasnaa Bouharoun-Tayoun; Layal Wardi; Issam Raad; Riad Sarkis; Najibe Abou Antoun; George Hilal

    2015-01-01

    Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a diagnostic marker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A direct relationship between poor prognosis and the concentration of serum AFP has been observed. Telomerase, an enzyme that stabilizes the telomere length, is expressed by 90% of HCC. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of telomerase inhibition on AFP secretion and the involvement of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. Proliferation and viability tests were performed using tetrazolium salt. A...

  14. Fabrication of protein microarrays for alpha fetoprotein detection by using a rapid photo-immobilization process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirasa Yodmongkol

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, protein microarrays based on sandwich immunoassays are generated to quantify the amount of alpha fetoprotein (AFP in blood serum. For chip generation a mixture of capture antibody and a photoactive copolymer consisting of N,N-dimethylacrylamide (DMAA, methacryloyloxy benzophenone (MaBP, and Na-4-styrenesulfonate (SSNa was spotted onto unmodified polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA substrates. Subsequently to printing of the microarray, the polymer and protein were photochemically cross-linked and the forming, biofunctionalized hydrogels simultaneously bound to the chip surface by short UV- irradiation. The obtained biochip was incubated with AFP antigen, followed by biotinylated AFP antibody and streptavidin-Cy5 and the fluorescence signal read-out. The developed microarray biochip covers the range of AFP in serum samples such as maternal serum in the range of 5 and 100 ng/ml. The chip production process is based on a fast and simple immobilization process, which can be applied to conventional plastic surfaces. Therefore, this protein microarray production process is a promising method to fabricate biochips for AFP screening processes.

  15. Serial Changes in Alpha-Fetoprotein Levels During Therapy for Chronic Hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altug Senol

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP has been widely used as a diagnostic marker for hepatocellular carcinoma. Some patients with hepatitis C show high AFP values, but no evidence of hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of this study is to assess the influence of antiviral treatment on the serum AFP in patients with chronic hepatitis C without hepatocellular carcinoma. Material and Method: Thirty seven chronic hepatitis C patients (20 females and 17 males were included in the study. All patients were given a combined treatment of pegylated or conventional interferon (IFN and ribavirin. Serum AFP was measured at baseline and on months 3-6-12 of the therapy. Results: Compared to the pretreatment levels of ALT (88,59 ± 57,22 IU, those at 3, 6 and 12 months were statistically lower (p0,05, to 4,34 ± 4,64 (p>0,05 and to 2,63 ± 2,17 (p10 ng/ml. In these patients, mean serum AFP levels were decreased from pretreatment level of 15,09 ± 5,92 ng/ml to 11,39±3,30, to 6,97±2,53 (p

  16. Alpha fetoprotein antagonizes apoptosis induced by paclitaxel in hepatoma cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mingyue; Li, Wei; Lu, Yan; Dong, Xu; Chen, Yi; Lin, Bo; Xie, Xieju; Guo, Junli; Li, Mengsen

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell resistance to the effects of paclitaxel has not been adequately addressed. In this study, we found that paclitaxel significantly inhibited the viability of HLE, Bel 7402 and L-02 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. HLE cells and L-02 cells resisted the cytotoxicity of paclitaxel when transfected with pcDNA3.1-afp vectors. However, Bel 7402 cell sensitivity to paclitaxel was increased when transfected with alpha fetoprotein (AFP)-siRNA. Bel 7402 cell resistance to paclitaxel was associated with the expression of the "stemness" markers CD44 and CD133. Paclitaxel significantly inhibited growth and promoted apoptosis in HLE cells and L-02 cells by inducing fragmentation of caspase-3 and inhibiting the expression of Ras and Survivin, but pcDNA3.1-afp vectors prevented these effects. However, paclitaxel could not significantly promote the cleavage of caspase-3 or suppress the expression of Ras and Survivin in Bel 7402 cells. Silenced expression of AFP may be synergistic with paclitaxel to restrain proliferation and induce apoptosis, enhance cleavage of caspase-3, and suppress the expression of Ras and Survivin. Taken together, AFP may be an important molecule acting against paclitaxel-inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in HCC cells via repressing the activity of caspase-3 and stimulating the expression of Ras and Survivin. Targeted inhibition of AFP expression after treatment with paclitaxel is an available strategy for the therapy of patients with HCC. PMID:27255186

  17. Alpha-fetoprotein expression is a potential prognostic marker in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dénes G(o)r(o)g; János Reg(o)ly-Mérei; Sándor Paku; László Kopper; Péter Nagy

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To characterize the alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) positive and negative hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) samples.METHODS: Thirty-seven paraffin-embedded human HCC samples were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for the following antigens: AFP, β-catenin, p53, CD44, MSH-2,MLH-1, and HNF-4. The tumors were divided into two groups based on the AFP expression. The immunophenotypic data and important clinical parameters were studied between the two groups.RESULTS: Twenty-one of the thirty-seven examined HCCs were AFP positive. Seven with nuclear p53 staining were AFP positive, while seven tumors with nuclear β-catenin staining were AFP negative. CD44 staining and high histological tumor grade were more frequent among the AFP-positive HCCs. The other immunophenotypical and dinical parameters did not show statistically significant difference in their distribution between the AFP positive and negative samples.CONCLUSION: AFP expression in HCC correlates with unfavorable prognostic factors, while nuclear β-catenin positivity is more common among the AFP-negative liver tumors. This observation supports the microarray data onin vivo human tumors.

  18. Alpha-fetoprotein-targeted reporter gene expression imaging in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwang Il; Chung, Hye Kyung; Park, Ju Hui; Lee, Yong Jin; Kang, Joo Hyun

    2016-07-21

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers in Eastern Asia, and its incidence is increasing globally. Numerous experimental models have been developed to better our understanding of the pathogenic mechanism of HCC and to evaluate novel therapeutic approaches. Molecular imaging is a convenient and up-to-date biomedical tool that enables the visualization, characterization and quantification of biologic processes in a living subject. Molecular imaging based on reporter gene expression, in particular, can elucidate tumor-specific events or processes by acquiring images of a reporter gene's expression driven by tumor-specific enhancers/promoters. In this review, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of various experimental HCC mouse models and we present in vivo images of tumor-specific reporter gene expression driven by an alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) enhancer/promoter system in a mouse model of HCC. The current mouse models of HCC development are established by xenograft, carcinogen induction and genetic engineering, representing the spectrum of tumor-inducing factors and tumor locations. The imaging analysis approach of reporter genes driven by AFP enhancer/promoter is presented for these different HCC mouse models. Such molecular imaging can provide longitudinal information about carcinogenesis and tumor progression. We expect that clinical application of AFP-targeted reporter gene expression imaging systems will be useful for the detection of AFP-expressing HCC tumors and screening of increased/decreased AFP levels due to disease or drug treatment. PMID:27468205

  19. Contribution of alpha-fetoprotein in liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrière, Bérénice; Maulat, Charlotte; Suc, Bertrand; Muscari, Fabrice

    2016-01-01

    Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is the main tumor biomarker available for the management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Although it is neither a good screening test nor an accurate diagnostic tool for HCC, it seems to be a possible prognostic marker. However, its contribution in liver transplantation for HCC has not been fully determined, although its use to predict recurrence after liver transplantation has been underlined by international societies. In an era of organ shortages, it could also have a key role in the selection of patients eligible for liver transplantation. Yet unanswered questions remain. First, the cut-off value of serum AFP above which liver transplantation should not be performed is still a subject of debate. We show that a concentration of 1000 ng/mL could be an exclusion criterion, whereas values of liver transplantation. These recent tools have associated AFP values with morphological criteria, thus refining pre-existing criteria, such as Milan, University of California, San Francisco, or “up-to-seven”. We provide a review of the different criteria submitted within the past years. Finally, AFP can be used to monitor recurrence after transplantation, although there is little evidence to support this claim. Future challenges will be to draft new international guidelines to implement the use of AFP as a selection tool, and to determine a clear cut-off value above which liver transplantation should not be performed.

  20. Alpha-fetoprotein-producing early gastric cancer of the remnant stomach: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Yutaka; Sato, Kouhei; Kodama, Masashi; Nanjyo, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    A 67-year-old man initially underwent a distal gastrectomy for early gastric cancer (T1, N0, M0; Stage IA) in March 1995. During the follow-up period, an elevation of the serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) level (98.8 ng/ml) and a liver tumor (S4) were detected. A left hepatectomy was performed in December 1996. Immunohistochemically, AFP-positive cells were present in both the primary gastric tumor and metastasized liver tumor. The serum AFP level normalized immediately, but it elevated again to 22.4 ng/ml. An endoscopic examination revealed a protruding lesion in the remnant stomach. A total resection of the remnant stomach was performed in February 2005. The tumor was evaluated T1, N0, M0; Stage IA, with positive staining for AFP. The patient has survived without any sign of recurrence for more than 11 years after the first diagnosis of cancer. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of a long-term survival of AFP-producing gastric cancer with successfully resected metachronous liver metastasis and gastric remnant carcinoma. PMID:17952534

  1. Serum alpha-fetoprotein response can predict prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma patients undergoing radiofrequency ablation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aims: To evaluate the clinical inference of serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) response in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients undergoing percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Materials and methods: Three hundred and thirteen previously untreated HCC patients were enrolled in the study. The optimal AFP response was defined as >20% decrease from baseline after 1 month of RFA for those with a baseline AFP level of ≥100 ng/ml. The impact of AFP response on prognosis was analysed and prognostic factors were assessed. Results: After a median follow-up of 26.7 ± 19.1 months, 49 patients died and 264 patients were alive. The cumulative 5 year survival rates were 75.3 and 57.4% in patients with an initial AFP of 1.1 (p = 0.009), non-optimal AFP response (p = 0.023), and creatinine >1.5 mg/dl (p = 0.021) were independent risk factors predictive of poor overall survival. Besides, the cumulative 5 year recurrence rates were 83.4 and 100% in optimal and non-optimal AFP responders, respectively (p 5/mm3 (p = 0.048), tumour size >2 cm (p = 0.027), and non-optimal AFP response (p < 0.001) were independent risk factors associated with tumour recurrence after RFA. Conclusions: Serum AFP response may be a useful marker for predicting prognosis in HCC patients undergoing RFA.

  2. Clinical Value of Hepatoma-Specific Alpha-Fetoprotein in the Diagnosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Runzhou Ni; Mingbing Xiao; Fei Jin; Cuihua Lu; Jiefei Huang; Xianyong Meng

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the clinical value of hepatoma-specific alpha-fetoprotein (HS-AFP) in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).METHODS A method of vertical slab polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with discontinuous buffer system was developed to separate AFP subtypes. After separation, the AFP subtypes were transferred to nitrocellulose and reacted first with rabbit anti-human AFP and then with goat anti-rabbit IgG-HRP. Finally, AFP subtypes were visualized by reacting with 3,3'-diaminobenzidine tetrahydrochloride. A HS-AFP band was determined in 82 cases with HCC and 95 cases with benign liver diseases.The correlations between the positive rates of HS-AFP and serum AFP concentration, tumor size as well as portal vein metastasis were analyzed.RESULTS Serum AFP in the cases with various liver diseases was separated into one to several bands. The fastest band on electrophoresis (FAFP) was found in all patients, while the band at the cathodal site (HSAFP) was detected predominantly in HCC but rarely in benign liver diseases. The positive rate of HS-AFP in HCC was 74.4%, which was significantly higher than that in benign liver diseases (9.1%, 7.3% and 10.0% in liver cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis and acute hepatitis respectively). HSAFP was detected in 3 out of 9 HCC cases with AFP<50 μg/L , but in none of 22 cases of benign liver diseases with the same AFP concentration. HS-AFP correlated with serum AFP concentration and tumor size to some extent, but not with portal vein metastasis.CONCLUSION HS-AFP increases the sensitivity of diagnosing HCC in patients with negative AFP, and is useful in distinguishing high AFP due to HCC from that caused by benign liver diseases.

  3. Contribution of alpha-fetoprotein in liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrière, Bérénice; Maulat, Charlotte; Suc, Bertrand; Muscari, Fabrice

    2016-07-28

    Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is the main tumor biomarker available for the management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Although it is neither a good screening test nor an accurate diagnostic tool for HCC, it seems to be a possible prognostic marker. However, its contribution in liver transplantation for HCC has not been fully determined, although its use to predict recurrence after liver transplantation has been underlined by international societies. In an era of organ shortages, it could also have a key role in the selection of patients eligible for liver transplantation. Yet unanswered questions remain. First, the cut-off value of serum AFP above which liver transplantation should not be performed is still a subject of debate. We show that a concentration of 1000 ng/mL could be an exclusion criterion, whereas values of AFP could also prove useful. However, evidence is lacking regarding the values that should be used. Today, the real input of AFP seems to be its integration into new criteria to select patients eligible for a liver transplantation. These recent tools have associated AFP values with morphological criteria, thus refining pre-existing criteria, such as Milan, University of California, San Francisco, or "up-to-seven". We provide a review of the different criteria submitted within the past years. Finally, AFP can be used to monitor recurrence after transplantation, although there is little evidence to support this claim. Future challenges will be to draft new international guidelines to implement the use of AFP as a selection tool, and to determine a clear cut-off value above which liver transplantation should not be performed. PMID:27478538

  4. The intracellular mechanism of alpha-fetoprotein promoting the proliferation of NIH 3T3 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    AIM The existence and properties of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) receptor on the surface of NIH 3T3 cells and the effects of AFP on cellular signal transduction pathway were investigated. METHODS The effect of AFP on the proliferation of NIH 3T3 cells was measured by incorporation of 3H-TdR. Receptor-binding assay of 125I-AFP was performed to detect the properties of AFP receptor in NIH 3T3 cells. The influences of AFP on the [cAMP]i and the activities of protein kinase A (PKA) were determined. Western blot was used to detect the change of K-ras P21 protein expression. RESULTS The proliferation of NIH 3T3 cells treated with 0-80 mg/L of AFP was significantly enhanced. The Scatchard analysis indicated that there were two classes of binding sites with KD of 2.722×10-9M (Bmax=12810 sites per cell) and 8.931× 10-SM (Bmax=l19700 sites per cell) respectively. In the presence of AFP (20 mg/L), the content of cAMP and activities of PKA were significantly elevated . The level of K-ras P21 protein was upregulated by AFP at the concentration of 20 mg/L. The monoclonal antibody against AFP could reverse the effects of AFP on the cAMP content, PKA activity and the expression of K-ras p21 gene. CONCLUSION The effect of AFP on the cell proliferation was achieved by binding its receptor to trigger the signal transduction pathway of cAMP-PKA and alter the expression of K- ras p21 gene.

  5. Elevated serum alpha fetoprotein levels promote pathological progression of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Li; Shan-Shan Wang; Hui Liu; Ning Li; Michael A McNutt; Gang Li; Hui-Guo Ding

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the biological role of alpha fetoprotein (AFP) and its clinical significance in carcinogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).METHODS: Clinical analysis of HCC patients and immunohistochemical examination were conducted to eva-luate the relationship between serum AFP level and patient mortality. Confocal microscopy, Western blotting, dimethylthiahzolyl-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide, Cell Counting Kit-8 assays and flow cytometry were performed to explore the possible mechanism.RESULTS: Among the 160 HCC patients enrolled in this study, 130 patients survived 2 years (81.25%), with a survival rate of 86.8% in AFP 250 μg/L group, demonstrating a higher mortality rate in HCC patients with higher AFP levels. Surgical treatment was beneficial only in patients with low AFP levels. The mortality rate of HCC patients with high AFP levels who were treated surgically was apparently higher than those treated with conservative management. The results of immunohistochemistry showed that AFP and AFP receptor were merely expressed in tissues of HCC patients with positive serum AFP. Consistently, in vitro analysis showed that AFP and AFPS were expressed in HepG2 but not in HLE cells. AFP showed a capability to promote cell growth, and this was more apparent in HepG2 cells, in which the proliferation was increased by 3.5 folds. Cell cycle analysis showed that the percentage of HepG2 cells in S phase after exposure to AFP was modestly increased.CONCLUSION: HCC patients with higher AFP levels show a higher mortality rate, which appears to be attributable to the growth promoting properties of AFP.

  6. Quantum-dot-based homogeneous time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay of alpha-fetoprotein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Meijun; Wu Yingsong; Lin Guanfeng; Hou Jingyuan; Li Ming [Institute of Antibody Engineering, School of Biotechnology, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, 510515 (China); Liu Tiancai, E-mail: liutc@smu.edu.cn [Institute of Antibody Engineering, School of Biotechnology, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, 510515 (China)

    2012-09-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer QDs-based homogeneous time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay was developed to detect AFP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The conjugates were prepared with QDs-doped microspheres and anti-AFP McAb. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The conjugates were prepared with LTCs and another anti-AFP McAb. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Excess amounts of conjugates were used for detecting AFP without rinsing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The wedding of QPs and LTCs was suitable for HTRFIA to detect AFP. - Abstract: Quantum dots (QDs) with novel photoproperties are not widely used in clinic diagnosis, and homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence assays possess many advantages over current methods for alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) detection. A novel QD-based homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence assay was developed and used for detection of AFP, a primary marker for many cancers and diseases. QD-doped carboxyl-modified polystyrene microparticles (QPs) were prepared by doping oil-soluble QDs possessing a 605 nm emission peak. The antibody conjugates (QPs-E014) were prepared from QPs and an anti-AFP monoclonal antibody, and luminescent terbium chelates (LTCs) were prepared and conjugated to a second anti-AFP monoclonal antibody (LTCs-E010). In a double-antibodies sandwich structure, QPs-E014 and LTCs-E010 were used for detection of AFP, serving as energy acceptor and donor, respectively, with an AFP bridge. The results demonstrated that the luminescence lifetime of these QPs was sufficiently long for use in a time-resolved fluoroassay, with the efficiency of time-resolved Foerster resonance transfer (TR-FRET) at 67.3% and the spatial distance of the donor to acceptor calculated to be 66.1 Angstrom-Sign . Signals from TR-FRET were found to be proportional to AFP concentrations. The resulting standard curve was log Y = 3.65786 + 0.43863{center_dot}log X (R = 0.996) with Y the QPs fluorescence intensity and X the AFP concentration; the calculated sensitivity was 0

  7. Gastric Composite Tumor of Alpha Fetoprotein-Producing Carcinoma/Hepatoid Adenocarcinoma and Endocrine Carcinoma with Reference to Cellular Phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Suzuki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alpha-fetoprotein-producing carcinoma (AFPC/hepatoid adenocarcinoma (HAC and neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC are uncommon in the stomach. Composite tumors consisting of these carcinomas and their histologic phenotypes are not well known. Between 2002 and 2007, to estimate the prevalence of composite tumors consisting of tubular adenocarcinoma, AFPC/HAC and NEC, we reviewed specimens obtained from 294 consecutive patients treated surgically for gastric cancer. We examined histological phenotype of tumors of AFPC or NEC containing the composite tumor by evaluating immunohistochemical expressions of MUC2, MUC5AC, MUC6, CDX2, and SOX2. Immunohistochemically, AFPC/HAC dominantly showed the intestinal or mixed phenotype, and NEC frequently showed the gastric phenotype. In the composite tumor, the tubular and hepatoid components showed the gastric phenotype, and the neuroendocrine component showed the mixed type. The unique composite tumor predominantly showed the gastric phenotype, and the hepatoid and neuroendocrine components were considered to be differentiated from the tubular component.

  8. CRB2 mutations produce a phenotype resembling congenital nephrosis, Finnish type, with cerebral ventriculomegaly and raised alpha-fetoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavotinek, Anne; Kaylor, Julie; Pierce, Heather; Cahr, Michelle; DeWard, Stephanie J; Schneidman-Duhovny, Dina; Alsadah, Adnan; Salem, Fadi; Schmajuk, Gabriela; Mehta, Lakshmi

    2015-01-01

    We report five fetuses and a child from three families who shared a phenotype comprising cerebral ventriculomegaly and echogenic kidneys with histopathological findings of congenital nephrosis. The presenting features were greatly elevated maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) or amniotic fluid alpha-fetoprotein (AFAFP) levels or abnormalities visualized on ultrasound scan during the second trimester of pregnancy. Exome sequencing revealed deleterious sequence variants in Crumbs, Drosophila, Homolog of, 2 (CRB2) consistent with autosomal-recessive inheritance. Two fetuses with cerebral ventriculomegaly and renal microcysts were compound heterozygotes for p.Asn800Lys and p.Trp759Ter, one fetus with renal microcysts was a compound heterozygote for p.Glu643Ala and p.Asn800Lys, and one child with cerebral ventriculomegaly, periventricular heterotopias, echogenic kidneys, and renal failure was homozygous for p.Arg633Trp in CRB2. Examination of the kidneys in one fetus showed tubular cysts at the corticomedullary junction and diffuse effacement of the epithelial foot processes and microvillous transformation of the renal podocytes, findings that were similar to those reported in congenital nephrotic syndrome, Finnish type, that is caused by mutations in nephrin (NPHS1). Loss of function for crb2b and nphs1 in Danio rerio were previously shown to result in loss of the slit diaphragms of the podocytes, leading to the hypothesis that nephrosis develops from an inability to develop a functional glomerular barrier. We conclude that the phenotype associated with CRB2 mutations is pleiotropic and that the condition is an important consideration in the evaluation of high MSAFP/AFAFP where a renal cause is suspected.

  9. Effect of serum alpha-fetoprotein and uric acid levels on pregnancy outcome in late pregnancy women with hypertensive disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian-Feng Tan; Yu-Xiu Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects of serum alpha-fetoprotein and uric acid levels on pregnancy outcome in late pregnancy women with hypertensive disorder.Methods: One hundred and twenty-six cases of hypertensive disorder complicating pregnancy were rolled into the observation group, and 80 healthy pregnant women were rolled into the as control group. The relationship between serum alpha-fetoprotein and uric acid levels and adverse pregnancy outcomes were compared between the two groups.Results: Compared with the control group, the serum levels of AFP and serum uric acid were significantly higher in the observation group, and the differences were statistically significant (P<0.01). In the observation group, with the increase of blood pressure, the serum AFP and uric acid levels were increased, which in the moderate sub-group and severe sub-group were significantly higher than those in mild sub-group, and the severe sub-group was significantly higher than that in the moderate sub-group (allP<0.05). The rate of preterm birth, premature rupture rate, placental abruption rate, fetal distress rate and cesarean section rate in the pregnant women with abnormal serum AFP and uric acid level were significantly higher than that of the normal serum AFP and uric acid group (P<0.05).Conclusions:The serum AFP and uric acid levels in the late pregnancy women with hypertensive disorder are significantly higher than those of the normal pregnant women, and are elevated remarkably as the blood pressure rising. When the serum AFP and uric acid levels are abnormal, the adverse outcomes of pregnancy and cesarean section rate increase significantly. Monitoring of serum AFP and uric acid levels is of importance.

  10. Characteristics of magnetic labeling on liver tumors with anti-alpha-fetoprotein-mediated Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang KW

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Kai-Wen Huang,1 Jen-Jie Chieh,2 Herng-Er Horng,2 Chin-Yih Hong,3 Hong-Chang Yang41Department of Surgery and Hepatitis Research Center, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, 2Institute of Electro-optical Science and Technology, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, 3Graduate Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, 4Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, TaiwanAbstract: For preoperative and intraoperative detection of tumor distribution, numerous multimodal contrast agents, such as magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs with several examination indicators, are currently in development. However, complex materials, configuration, and cost are required for multimodal contrast agents, accompanied by a high possibility of toxicity and low popularity in clinics. Nevertheless, the magnetic labeling of MNPs using bioprobes should be feasible not only in preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, but also in intraoperative examination based on other magnetic properties. In this study, anti-alpha-fetoprotein (AFP-mediated Fe3O4 MNPs, injected into mice with liver tumors, were used to examine the characteristics of magnetic labeling. Using MRI and scanning superconducting-quantum-interference-device biosusceptometry (SSB, based on alternating current (AC susceptibility, the magnetic labeling occurred significantly on the first day post-injection of anti-AFP magnetic fluid (MF, and then decreased over time. However, for both MF without antibodies and an anti-carcinoembryonic antigen MF, no magnetic labeling occured on the first day of their respective post-injection. The favorable agreement indicates that magnetic labeling possesses two magnetic characteristics: distortion of the imaging field and AC susceptibility. In addition, the results of the biopsy tests, anti-AFP staining, and Prussian blue staining show the same dynamics as those of magnetic methodologies and prove that bound MNPs on

  11. Characterization of Alpha-fetoprotein Levels in Three Dolphin Species: Development of Sensitive Immunoassays for Analysis of the Pregnancy-associated Variations

    OpenAIRE

    Morita, Yuka; Hiramatsu, Naoshi; Fujita, Toshiaki; AMANO, Haruna; KATSUMATA, Etsuko; Arai, Kazutoshi; IWASAKI, Toshihide; Todo, Takashi; HARA, Akihiko

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A single radial immunodiffusion (SRID) assay and a chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA) were initially developed for alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) of the striped dolphin. Utilizing these developed assays, we investigated pregnancy-associated changes in the levels of AFP in the sera of fetuses and pregnant females of three dolphin species; samples were either collected from captive individuals or obtained as fishery by-products. The concentrations of AFP in the fetal serum ranged from 419.0 ...

  12. In vivo screening of hepatocellular carcinoma using AC susceptibility of anti-alpha fetoprotein-activated magnetic nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Jie Chieh

    Full Text Available With antibody-mediated magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs applied in cancer examinations, patients must pay at least twice for MNP reagents in immunomagnetic reduction (IMR of in vitro screening and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of in vivo tests. This is because the high maintenance costs and complex analysis of MRI have limited the possibility of in vivo screening. Therefore, this study proposes novel methods for in vivo screening of tumors by examining the AC susceptibility of bound MNPs using scanning superconducting-quantum-interference-device (SQUID biosusceptometry (SSB, thereby demonstrating high portability and improved economy. The favorable agreement between in vivo tests using SSB and MRI demonstrated the feasibility of in vivo screening using SSB for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC targeted by anti-alpha fetoprotein (AFP-mediated MNPs. The magnetic labeling was also proved by in vitro tests using SSB and biopsy assays. Therefore, patients receiving bioprobe-mediated MNPs only once can undergo in vivo screening using SSB in the future.

  13. A highly sensitive biosensor for tumor maker alpha fetoprotein based on poly(ethylene glycol) doped conducting polymer PEDOT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Min; Song, Zhiling; Wu, Yumin; Guo, Bing; Fan, Xiaojian; Luo, Xiliang

    2016-05-15

    Biocompatible polymers, such as poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), are of great significance in the development of bio-interfaces and biosensors, as they possess excellent biocompatibility and are easy for modification. A novel highly biocompatible polymer composite was synthesized herein through electrochemical polymerization of the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and a PEG derivative, 4-arm PEG terminated with thiol groups. The electrodeposited conducting polymer composite of PEG doped PEDOT (PEDOT/PEG) exhibited flake-like nanostructure, large surface area and outstanding stability. In order to further immobilize antibodies, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were introduced to the PEDOT/PEG composite surface through their unique interaction with the thiol groups. AuNPs modified PEDOT/PEG provided a desirable support for the immobilization of various biomolecules such as antibodies for alpha fetoprotein (AFP), a vital tumor biomarker for liver cancer. The fabricated AFP biosensor demonstrated favorable selectivity, high sensitivity, and ultralow detection limit. Furthermore, owing to the presence of PEG polymers that are highly hydrophilic, such AuNPs/PEDOT/PEG based AFP biosensor also exhibited good anti-fouling ability, and it was capable of assaying target AFP in 10% (V/V) human serum samples, indicating highly feasible potential for clinical diagnosis. PMID:26774088

  14. Developmental alterations in the alpha-fetoprotein sugar chain in maternal serum analyzed by lectin affinity electrophoresis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawahara N

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Our purpose was to investigate developmental alterations of human alpha-fetoprotein (AFP oligosaccharides in maternal serum by lectin affinity electrophoresis and to compare the AFP glycoforms in maternal serum with those in umbilical cord serum and amniotic fluid. AFP glycoforms were separated by affinity electrophoresis with concanavalin A (Con A, lentil lectin (LCA, erythroagglutinating phytohemagglutinin (E-PHA and Allomyrina dichotoma lectin (allo A and detected by sensitive antibody affinity blotting. In maternal serum, increased proportions of Con A-nonreactive AFP (AFP-C1, LCA strongly-reactive AFP (AFP-L3 and E-PHA-reactive AFP (AFP-P4 and AFP-P5 decreased gradually during the early gestational weeks. Allo A-nonreactive AFP (AFP-A1 and asialo-AFP were found only in amniotic fluids during early gestational weeks. The percentages of these glycoforms at full term were almost the same among those body fluids. Since the glycoforms of maternal serum AFP were close to those of umbilical cord serum AFP, lectin-affinity electrophoretic analysis of maternal serum AFP may be useful for evaluating the developmental state of fetus by examining the nature of AFP sugar chain.

  15. Des-gamma carboxy prothrombin (PIVKA-II) and alpha-fetoprotein producing gastric cancer with multiple liver metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yoshihisa; Inoue, Tohru

    2003-04-01

    We describe the case of an 87-year-old woman who presented to Tokyo Kousei Nenkin Hospital because of appetite loss and general fatigue. Multiple liver masses and Borrmann type 2 gastric tumor were detected. A clinical diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma and gastric cancer was made based on the patient's high levels of serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP; 490 200 ng/mL) and protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II (PIVKA-II, 2284 mAU/mL). The patient's general condition worsened gradually and she died 42 days after admission. Autopsy revealed that the predominant histological structure of the gastric tumor was trabecular or sheet-like, although a tubular structure was also found. Venous invasion was prominent. Immunohistochemically, the tumor tissue was positive for AFP and a few tumor cells were positive for PIVKA-II. The histological appearance and immunohistochemical features of the hepatic tumors resembled that of the gastric tumor. This case was pathologically diagnosed as AFP- and PIVKA-II-producing gastric carcinoma with multiple liver metastases. When tumors are found in the stomach and liver and serum PIVKA-II level is abnormally high, the possibility of PIVKA-II-producing gastric cancer with liver metastasis should be considered, especially when hepatitis virus markers are negative and liver cirrhosis is not present.

  16. Label-free alpha fetoprotein immunosensor established by the facile synthesis of a palladium-graphene nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, TingTing; Liao, JinFeng; Li, YiSong; Peng, JinRong; Li, WenTing; Chu, BingYang; Li, He; Wei, YuQuan; Qian, ZhiYong

    2014-11-15

    In this study, we established a sensitive label-free immunosensor by palladium-reduced graphene oxide (Pd-rGO), which was prepared by one-pot synthesis under the reduction of extra-injected CO gas. The Pd-rGO nanocomposite structure has been confirmed by TEM, SEM, X-ray diffraction, and UV-vis spectroscopy. The Pd-rGO nanocomposite exhibited excellent stability in aqueous dispersion. The Pd-rGO-based label-free electrochemical immunosensor was used for detection of the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) biomarker alpha fetoprotein (AFP). The immunosensor determination was based on the fact that due to the formation of antigen-antibody immunocomplex, the decreased response amperometric currents of H2O2 were directly proportional to the concentrations of AFP. The limit of detection of this immunosensor for AFP detection is 5 pg/mL, and is linear from 0.01 to 12 ng/mL. The proposed immunosensor has been used to determine AFP in clinical serum samples with satisfactory results. This suggests the sensor may have great potential utility in the clinic. PMID:24906081

  17. Alpha-Fetoprotein and Novel Tumor Biomarkers as Predictors of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Recurrence after Surgery: A Brilliant Star Raises Again

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quirino Lai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, des-γ-carboxy prothrombin (DCP, and lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive fraction of AFP (AFP-L3 have been developed with the intent to detect hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC and for the surveillance of at-risk patients. However, at present, none of these tests can be recommended to survey cirrhotic patients at risk for HCC development because of their suboptimal ability for routine clinical practice in HCC diagnosis. Starting from these considerations, these markers have been therefore routinely and successfully used as predictors of survival and HCC recurrence in patients treated with curative intent. All these markers have been largely used as predictors in patients treated with hepatic resection or locoregional therapies, mainly in Eastern countries. In recent studies, AFP has been proposed as predictor of recurrence after liver transplantation and as selector of patients in the waiting list. Use of AFP modification during the waiting list for LT is still under investigation, potentially representing a very interesting tool for patient selection. The development of a new predictive model combining radiological and biological features based on biological markers is strongly required. New genetic markers are continuously discovered, but they are not already fully available in the clinical practice.

  18. A highly sensitive biosensor for tumor maker alpha fetoprotein based on poly(ethylene glycol) doped conducting polymer PEDOT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Min; Song, Zhiling; Wu, Yumin; Guo, Bing; Fan, Xiaojian; Luo, Xiliang

    2016-05-15

    Biocompatible polymers, such as poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), are of great significance in the development of bio-interfaces and biosensors, as they possess excellent biocompatibility and are easy for modification. A novel highly biocompatible polymer composite was synthesized herein through electrochemical polymerization of the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and a PEG derivative, 4-arm PEG terminated with thiol groups. The electrodeposited conducting polymer composite of PEG doped PEDOT (PEDOT/PEG) exhibited flake-like nanostructure, large surface area and outstanding stability. In order to further immobilize antibodies, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were introduced to the PEDOT/PEG composite surface through their unique interaction with the thiol groups. AuNPs modified PEDOT/PEG provided a desirable support for the immobilization of various biomolecules such as antibodies for alpha fetoprotein (AFP), a vital tumor biomarker for liver cancer. The fabricated AFP biosensor demonstrated favorable selectivity, high sensitivity, and ultralow detection limit. Furthermore, owing to the presence of PEG polymers that are highly hydrophilic, such AuNPs/PEDOT/PEG based AFP biosensor also exhibited good anti-fouling ability, and it was capable of assaying target AFP in 10% (V/V) human serum samples, indicating highly feasible potential for clinical diagnosis.

  19. Relationship between Expression of the Human Alpha-Fetoprotein Gene and DNA Methylation Status of the Promoter Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lijun Chen; Wei Wang; Qiuyue Jin; Ruimin Wang; Wenliang Hu

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE DNA methylation has been regarded as an important epigenetic signature reflecting the transcription state of DNA in cells. This study was to conducted to assess the relationship between human alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) gene expression and the DNA methylation status of the promoter region in three different cells, namely two human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines and normal human fibroblasts.METHODS Transcription of the AFP gene was verified by RT-PCR. After bisulphate treatment of DNA, the methods of MSP and BSP were used to analyze the methylation density and status within single DNA strands of two closely spaced CpG dinucleotides of the promoter region in the different cells.RESULTS RT-PCR analysis indicated that the expression of the AFP gene in HepG2 cells was significantly higher than in SMMC-7721 cells,and that the AFP gene was not expressed in normal human fibroblasts.By MSP and BSP we observed that the promoter region was demethylated in the AFP-high-expressing cell lines, and that the sites of -2,494 bp and -2,431 bp in the AFP genomic sequence can be used as detection sites for early tumorous diagnosis.CONCLUSION These results indicate that the DNA methylation state of the promoter region has a negative correlation with AFP gene expression.

  20. Characteristics of magnetic labeling on liver tumors with anti-alpha-fetoprotein-mediated Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kai-Wen; Chieh, Jen-Jie; Horng, Herng-Er; Hong, Chin-Yih; Yang, Hong-Chang

    2012-01-01

    For preoperative and intraoperative detection of tumor distribution, numerous multimodal contrast agents, such as magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) with several examination indicators, are currently in development. However, complex materials, configuration, and cost are required for multimodal contrast agents, accompanied by a high possibility of toxicity and low popularity in clinics. Nevertheless, the magnetic labeling of MNPs using bioprobes should be feasible not only in preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), but also in intraoperative examination based on other magnetic properties. In this study, anti-alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)-mediated Fe(3)O(4) MNPs, injected into mice with liver tumors, were used to examine the characteristics of magnetic labeling. Using MRI and scanning superconducting-quantum-interference-device biosusceptometry (SSB), based on alternating current (AC) susceptibility, the magnetic labeling occurred significantly on the first day post-injection of anti-AFP magnetic fluid (MF), and then decreased over time. However, for both MF without antibodies and an anti-carcinoembryonic antigen MF, no magnetic labeling occured on the first day of their respective post-injection. The favorable agreement indicates that magnetic labeling possesses two magnetic characteristics: distortion of the imaging field and AC susceptibility. In addition, the results of the biopsy tests, anti-AFP staining, and Prussian blue staining show the same dynamics as those of magnetic methodologies and prove that bound MNPs on tumor tissue are rotatable by an AC magnetic field to express AC susceptibility. Therefore, with the simple configuration of antibody-mediated MNPs, magnetic labeling is also feasible for intraoperative examinations using SSB with high mobility and sensitivity. PMID:22787394

  1. Alpha-Fetoprotein Detection of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Leads to a Standardized Analysis of Dynamic AFP to Improve Screening Based Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Thomas G; Dimitropoulou, Polyxeni; Turner, Rebecca M; Jenks, Sara J; Cusack, Pearce; Hey, Shiying; Blunsum, Andrew; Kelly, Sarah; Sturgeon, Catharine; Hayes, Peter C; Bird, Sheila M

    2016-01-01

    Detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) through screening can improve outcomes. However, HCC surveillance remains costly, cumbersome and suboptimal. We tested whether and how serum Alpha-Fetoprotein (AFP) should be used in HCC surveillance. Record linkage, dedicated pathways for management and AFP data-storage identified i) consecutive highly characterised cases of HCC diagnosed in 2009-14 and ii) a cohort of ongoing HCC-free patients undergoing regular HCC surveillance from 2009. These two well-defined Scottish patient cohorts enabled us to test the utility of AFP surveillance. Of 304 cases of HCC diagnosed over 6 years, 42% (129) were identified by a dedicated HCC surveillance programme. Of these 129, 47% (61) had a detectable lesion first identified by screening ultrasound (US) but 38% (49) were prompted by elevated AFP. Despite pre-HCC diagnosis AFP >20kU/L being associated with poor outcome, 'AFP-detected' tumours were offered potentially curative management as frequently as 'US-detected' HCCs; and had comparable survival. Linearity of serial log10-transformed AFPs in HCC cases and in the screening 'HCC-free' cohort (n = 1509) provided indicators of high-risk AFP behaviour in HCC cases. An algorithm was devised in static mode, then tested dynamically. A case/control series in hepatitis C related disease demonstrated highly significant detection (pAFP in HCC surveillance. We show proof-of-principle that an automated and further refine-able algorithmic interpretation of AFP can identify patients at higher risk of HCC. This approach could provide a cost-effective, user-friendly and much needed addition to US surveillance. PMID:27308823

  2. Female mice deficient in alpha-fetoprotein show female-typical neural responses to conspecific-derived pheromones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Brock

    Full Text Available The neural mechanisms controlling sexual behavior are sexually differentiated by the perinatal actions of sex steroid hormones. We recently observed using female mice deficient in alpha-fetoprotein (AFP-KO and which lack the protective actions of AFP against maternal estradiol, that exposure to prenatal estradiol completely defeminized the potential to show lordosis behavior in adulthood. Furthermore, AFP-KO females failed to show any male-directed mate preferences following treatment with estradiol and progesterone, indicating a reduced sexual motivation to seek out the male. In the present study, we asked whether neural responses to male- and female-derived odors are also affected in AFP-KO female mice. Therefore, we compared patterns of Fos, the protein product of the immediate early gene, c-fos, commonly used as a marker of neuronal activation, between wild-type (WT and AFP-KO female mice following exposure to male or estrous female urine. We also tested WT males to confirm the previously observed sex differences in neural responses to male urinary odors. Interestingly, AFP-KO females showed normal, female-like Fos responses, i.e. exposure to urinary odors from male but not estrous female mice induced equivalent levels of Fos protein in the accessory olfactory pathways (e.g. the medial part of the preoptic nucleus, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the amygdala, and the lateral part of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus as well as in the main olfactory pathways (e.g. the piriform cortex and the anterior cortical amygdaloid nucleus, as WT females. By contrast, WT males did not show any significant induction of Fos protein in these brain areas upon exposure to either male or estrous female urinary odors. These results thus suggest that prenatal estradiol is not involved in the sexual differentiation of neural Fos responses to male-derived odors.

  3. Diagnostic Performance of Alpha-Fetoprotein, Protein Induced by Vitamin K Absence, Osteopontin, Dickkopf-1 and Its Combinations for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Eun Sun Jang; Sook-Hyang Jeong; Jin-Wook Kim; Yun Suk Choi; Philippe Leissner; Christian Brechot

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aims Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is the most widely used serum biomarker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), despite its limitations. As complementary biomarkers, protein induced by vitamin K absence (PIVKA-II), osteopontin (OPN), and Dickkopf-1 (DKK-1) have been proposed. This study aimed to perform a head-to-head comparison of the diagnostic performance of AFP, PIVKA-II, OPN and DKK-1 as single or in combination to seek the best biomarker or panel, and to investigate the clinical f...

  4. Prolonged Survival in a Case of Chemotherapy-Sensitive Gastric Cancer That Produced Alpha-Fetoprotein and Protein Induced by Vitamin K Antagonist-II

    OpenAIRE

    Ogasawara, Naotaka; Takahashi, Emiko; Matsumoto, Tomoko; Amaike, Manami; Nohara, Mako; Nagao, Kazuhiro; Ebi, Masahide; Funaki, Yasushi; Sasaki, Makoto; Kasugai, Kunio

    2015-01-01

    The number of reported cases of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)-producing gastric cancer has gradually increased, with a reported prevalence of 1.3–1.5% of all gastric cancer cases. However, reports of gastric cancer accompanied by elevated serum levels of both AFP and protein induced by vitamin K antagonist-II (PIVKA-II) are rare. The prognosis of AFP- and PIVKA-II-producing gastric cancer has been reported to be very poor because the tumor cells were considered to have a high malignant potential an...

  5. [Level of prolactin, gonadotrophin, testosterone, and alpha fetoprotein in serum of blood donors with antibodies to hepatitis c virus (anti-HCV)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzeszowska, G; Jagiełło-Wójtowicz, E; Krawczuk, G; Baran, E; Bielec, D; Fijałka-Rymar, M; Surmaczyńska, B

    1993-01-01

    The study was aimed at the determination of serum levels of the investigated hormones (prolactin, gonadotrophins, testosterone and alpha-fetoprotein) in blood donors with antibodies to hepatitis C virus. The observed group consisted of 50 men of age between 22 and 47 years. The blood serum concentrations of hormones were determined by RIA method using the ready made reagent kits. No characteristic changes were observed in the serum hormones levels except for prolactin. Mean value of serum prolactin concentration was higher in blood donors than those in the control group. PMID:7688903

  6. Telomerase inhibition decreases alpha-fetoprotein expression and secretion by hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines: in vitro and in vivo study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roula Tahtouh

    Full Text Available Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP is a diagnostic marker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. A direct relationship between poor prognosis and the concentration of serum AFP has been observed. Telomerase, an enzyme that stabilizes the telomere length, is expressed by 90% of HCC. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of telomerase inhibition on AFP secretion and the involvement of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. Proliferation and viability tests were performed using tetrazolium salt. Apoptosis was determined through the Annexin V assay using flow cytometry. The concentrations of AFP were measured using ELISA kits. The AFP mRNA expression was evaluated using RT-PCR, and cell migration was evaluated using a Boyden chamber assay. The in vivo effect of costunolide on AFP production was tested in NSG mice. Telomerase inhibition by costunolide and BIBR 1532 at 5 and 10 μM decreased AFP mRNA expression and protein secretion by HepG2/C3A cells. The same pattern was obtained with cells treated with hTERT siRNA. This treatment exhibited no apoptotic effect. The AFP mRNA expression and protein secretion by PLC/PRF/5 was decreased after treatment with BIBR1532 at 10 μM. In contrast, no effect was obtained for PLC/PRF/5 cells treated with costunolide at 5 or 10 μM. Inhibition of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway decreased the AFP concentration. In contrast, the MAPK/ERK pathway appeared to not be involved in HepG2/C3A cells, whereas ERK inhibition decreased the AFP concentration in PLC/PRF/5 cells. Modulation of the AFP concentration was also obtained after the inhibition or activation of PKC. Costunolide (30 mg/kg significantly decreased the AFP serum concentration of NSG mice bearing HepG2/C3A cells. Both the inhibition of telomerase and the inhibition of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway decreased the AFP production of HepG2/C3A and PLC/PRF/5 cells, suggesting a relationship between telomerase and AFP expression through the PI3K

  7. Hepatitis B Virus X Protein Driven Alpha Fetoprotein Expression to Promote Malignant Behaviors of Normal Liver Cells and Hepatoma Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mingyue; Lu, Yan; Li, Wei; Guo, Junli; Dong, Xu; Lin, Bo; Chen, Yi; Xie, Xieju; Li, Mengsen

    2016-01-01

    Background: The infection of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is closely associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC), HBV-X protein(HBx) is able to induce expression of alpha-fetoprotein(AFP) in normal liver cells, and AFP harbors a function to promote malignant transformation of normal liver cells, but the role AFP playing in malignant behaviors of HCC cells is still unclear. Methods: Fifty-six liver tissue samples were collected from the clinical patients through hepatectomy(include normal liver tissues, HBV-related hepatitis liver tissues and HBV-related HCC tissues), and diagnosis of these tissues by pathology section, expression of AFP, Ras and CXCR4 were evidenced by immunohisochemical staining and Western blotting; The proliferation of human normal liver cells line L-02 cells and human hepatoma cells line, HLE cells(non AFP-producing) were performed by MTT method; Repaired capacity of L-02 and HLE cells were compared by wound healing assay; Migration and invasion of these cells were analyzed by Transwell chamber assay; HBx expressed vectors(pcDNA3.1-HBx) were constructed and transfected into L-02 and HLE cells, effects of pcDNA3.1-HBx on the malignant behaviors were also detected by MTT, Transwell chamber assay and the expression of AFP, Ras and CXCR4 were evidenced by Western blotting. Results: we found that expression of AFP, Ras and CXCR4 in HBV-related HCC and lymph nodes metastasis tissues were significantly elevated compared with HBV-related HCC, non metastasis tissues and HBV-related hepatitis tissues; Expression of AFP, Ras and CXCR4 in HBV-related hepatitis tissues were significantly enhanced compared with normal liver tissues; The growth ratio, migratory and invasive ability, expression of AFP, Ras and CXCR4 of the cells were outstanding promoted while L-02 and HLE cells were transfected with pcDNA3.1-HBx vectors. The proliferation ratio, migration and invasion ability, and expression of Ras and CXCR4 were significantly inhibited while

  8. Telomerase inhibition decreases alpha-fetoprotein expression and secretion by hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines: in vitro and in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahtouh, Roula; Azzi, Anne-Sophie; Alaaeddine, Nada; Chamat, Soulaima; Bouharoun-Tayoun, Hasnaa; Wardi, Layal; Raad, Issam; Sarkis, Riad; Antoun, Najibe Abou; Hilal, George

    2015-01-01

    Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a diagnostic marker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A direct relationship between poor prognosis and the concentration of serum AFP has been observed. Telomerase, an enzyme that stabilizes the telomere length, is expressed by 90% of HCC. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of telomerase inhibition on AFP secretion and the involvement of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. Proliferation and viability tests were performed using tetrazolium salt. Apoptosis was determined through the Annexin V assay using flow cytometry. The concentrations of AFP were measured using ELISA kits. The AFP mRNA expression was evaluated using RT-PCR, and cell migration was evaluated using a Boyden chamber assay. The in vivo effect of costunolide on AFP production was tested in NSG mice. Telomerase inhibition by costunolide and BIBR 1532 at 5 and 10 μM decreased AFP mRNA expression and protein secretion by HepG2/C3A cells. The same pattern was obtained with cells treated with hTERT siRNA. This treatment exhibited no apoptotic effect. The AFP mRNA expression and protein secretion by PLC/PRF/5 was decreased after treatment with BIBR1532 at 10 μM. In contrast, no effect was obtained for PLC/PRF/5 cells treated with costunolide at 5 or 10 μM. Inhibition of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway decreased the AFP concentration. In contrast, the MAPK/ERK pathway appeared to not be involved in HepG2/C3A cells, whereas ERK inhibition decreased the AFP concentration in PLC/PRF/5 cells. Modulation of the AFP concentration was also obtained after the inhibition or activation of PKC. Costunolide (30 mg/kg) significantly decreased the AFP serum concentration of NSG mice bearing HepG2/C3A cells. Both the inhibition of telomerase and the inhibition of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway decreased the AFP production of HepG2/C3A and PLC/PRF/5 cells, suggesting a relationship between telomerase and AFP expression through the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. PMID:25822740

  9. Clinical value of combined measurement of serum alpha-fetoprotein, alpha-L-fucosidase and ferritin levels in the diagnosis of primary liver cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the clinical value of combined measurement of serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), alpha-L-fucosidase (AFU) and ferritin (SF) levels in the diagnosis of primary liver cancer. Methods: Serum AFP, AFU (with RIA) and SF (with biochemical method) were determined in 52 patients with primary liver cancer and 40 controls. Results: The positive rates of AFP, AFU and SF in patient with liver cancer were 82.7%, 86.6% and 76.9%, respectively. Positive rates with combined measurement of AFP plus AFU, AFP plus SF, and AFP plus AFU, SF were 94.2%, 90.4% and 98.1% respectively. Conclusion: Combined measurement of AFP, AFU and SF can significantly increase the positive rate in the diagnosis of primary liver cancer. (authors)

  10. Nanosilver-penetrated polyion graphene complex membrane for mediator-free amperometric immunoassay of alpha-fetoprotein using nanosilver-coated silica nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → We fabricate a polyion graphene complex membrane-based immunosensing platform for sensitive electrochemical immunoassay of alpha-fetoprotein. → Nanosilver-coated silica nanocomposites as bionanolabels. → Graphene nanosheets, single-stranded DNA and silver nanoparticles as matrices. → Direct electron transfer without electron mediator. → Analysis of real samples and method comparison. - Abstract: A facile and sensitive mediator-free electrochemical immunosensor for detection of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) was designed by using nanosilver-coated silica nanoparticles (Ag-SiO2) as bionanolabels. To construct such an electrochemical immunosensor, silver ions/single-stranded DNA/graphene nanosheets were initially immobilized on a gold electrode in turn, then silver ions were in situ reduced to silver nanoparticles with the aid of NaBH4, and anti-AFP antibodies conjugated to silver nanoparticles were used. In the presence of AFP analyte, the sandwiched immunocomplex was formed on the electrode surface by using horseradish peroxidase-anti-AFP conjugate-labeled Ag-SiO2 (HRP-anti-AFP-Ag-SiO2) as secondary antibodies. Compared with pure silver nanoparticles, Ag-SiO2 nanocomposites could provide a large room for the immobilization of HRP-anti-AFP, and improve the electrochemical responses of the immunosensor. Meanwhile, the presence of highly conductive graphene nanosheets and silver nanoparticles provided a good pathway for electron transfer. Under optimal conditions, the immunosensor exhibited good electrochemical responses toward AFP ranging from 0.3 to 200 ng/mL with a detection limit (LOD) of 0.05 ng/mL (at 3σ) in pH 6.0 PBS-H2O2 system. Intra- and inter-assay displayed good precisions with coefficient of variation below 9.5%. In addition, the method was evaluated with 23 clinical serum samples, receiving good correlation with results from commercially available electrochemiluminescent analyzer.

  11. Nanosilver-penetrated polyion graphene complex membrane for mediator-free amperometric immunoassay of alpha-fetoprotein using nanosilver-coated silica nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang Juan [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection Technology for Food Safety, Department of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108 (China); Tang Dianping, E-mail: dianping.tang@fzu.edu.c [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection Technology for Food Safety, Department of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108 (China); Su Biling; Li Qunfang; Qiu Bin [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection Technology for Food Safety, Department of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108 (China); Chen Guonan, E-mail: gnchen@fzu.edu.c [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection Technology for Food Safety, Department of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108 (China)

    2011-04-15

    Research highlights: {yields} We fabricate a polyion graphene complex membrane-based immunosensing platform for sensitive electrochemical immunoassay of alpha-fetoprotein. {yields} Nanosilver-coated silica nanocomposites as bionanolabels. {yields} Graphene nanosheets, single-stranded DNA and silver nanoparticles as matrices. {yields} Direct electron transfer without electron mediator. {yields} Analysis of real samples and method comparison. - Abstract: A facile and sensitive mediator-free electrochemical immunosensor for detection of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) was designed by using nanosilver-coated silica nanoparticles (Ag-SiO{sub 2}) as bionanolabels. To construct such an electrochemical immunosensor, silver ions/single-stranded DNA/graphene nanosheets were initially immobilized on a gold electrode in turn, then silver ions were in situ reduced to silver nanoparticles with the aid of NaBH{sub 4}, and anti-AFP antibodies conjugated to silver nanoparticles were used. In the presence of AFP analyte, the sandwiched immunocomplex was formed on the electrode surface by using horseradish peroxidase-anti-AFP conjugate-labeled Ag-SiO{sub 2} (HRP-anti-AFP-Ag-SiO{sub 2}) as secondary antibodies. Compared with pure silver nanoparticles, Ag-SiO{sub 2} nanocomposites could provide a large room for the immobilization of HRP-anti-AFP, and improve the electrochemical responses of the immunosensor. Meanwhile, the presence of highly conductive graphene nanosheets and silver nanoparticles provided a good pathway for electron transfer. Under optimal conditions, the immunosensor exhibited good electrochemical responses toward AFP ranging from 0.3 to 200 ng/mL with a detection limit (LOD) of 0.05 ng/mL (at 3{sigma}) in pH 6.0 PBS-H{sub 2}O{sub 2} system. Intra- and inter-assay displayed good precisions with coefficient of variation below 9.5%. In addition, the method was evaluated with 23 clinical serum samples, receiving good correlation with results from commercially available

  12. The diagnostic value of combined detection of alpha-fetoprotein, AFP, lentil lectin-reactive alpha-fetoprotein(AFP-L3) and alpha L fucosidase (AFU) level for the patients with primary liver cancer in early stage%联合检测血清AFP、AFP异质体和AFU对早期肝癌诊断价值的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王杰; 赵业民; 陈增银; 史光军

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the diagnostic value of combined detection of serum alpha-fetoprotein ( AFP), lentil lectin-reactive alpha-fetoprotein( AFP-L3 ) and alpha L fucosidase ( AFU ) level for the patients with primary liver cancer in early stage. Methods The serum level of AFP, AFP-L3 and AFU were detected in 56 patients with primary liver cancer (PLC), 158 patients with benign liver disease, 40 patients with other malignant tumor without PLC and 40 healthy persons.Results The positive rate of AFP, AFP-L3 and AFU in the group of PLC were signiifcantly higher than that of in the group of benign liver diseases and in the group of other malignant tumor without PLC ( P<0.01 ). Combined detection have a complementary function for the diagnosis of patients PLC in early stage and the sensitivity rate was 94.60%. The sensitivity in the group of combined detection is higher than that of in the group of single detection ( P<0.05 ). Conclusion The sensitivity rate of single detection for AFP, AFP-L3 and AFU for the diagnosis of PLC in the early stage is similar and combined detection could signiifcantly improve the sensitivity rate for the diagnosis of PLC in the early stage and decrease the misdiagnosis rate. The combined detection of AFP, AFP-L3 and AFU can be used as a newly routine detection method for the high population of the patients with PLC in the early stage especially.%目的:探讨血清甲胎蛋白(alpha-fetoprotein ,AFP)、扁豆凝集素亲和型甲胎蛋白异质体(lentil lectin-reactive alpha-fetoprotein, AFP-L3)、α-L-岩藻糖苷酶(alpha L fucosidase, AFU)水平联合检测对原发性肝癌(primary liver cancer, PLC)的诊断价值。方法对56例PLC、158例良性肝病患者、40例非PLC恶性肿瘤患者以及40例健康查体者进行AFP、AFP-L3和AFU进行联合检测。结果 PLC组的AFP、AFP-L3、AFU的阳性率明显高于良性肝病和非PLC恶性肿瘤组( P<0.01),PLC患者血清AFP、AFP-L3、AFU三者之间无相关性,联

  13. Diagnostic sensitivity of serum carcinoembryonic antigen, carbohydrate antigen 19-9, alpha-fetoprotein, and beta-human chorionic gonadotropin in esophageal carcinoma (receiver operating characteristic curve analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhawna Bagaria

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Esophageal carcinomas are very lethal disease relatively unresponsive to therapy. The continued development of new and more effective chemotherapeutic agents and regimens offers hope that in the future, this carcinoma may be amenable to either more effective palliative treatment or possibly increased cure. We, therefore, aimed to evaluate the marker with best diagnostic sensitivity in esophageal carcinoma. Materials and Methods: Serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, and beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-HCG levels were assessed in healthy subjects (n = 50 and patients (n = 50 initially diagnosed of esophageal carcinoma by endoscopic examination and biopsy before receiving any therapy. The data were analyzed using SPSS software version 10.0 (SPSS Inc. USA and MedCalc to estimate mean ± standard deviation, the significance of the observed differences (P value, for calculating sensitivity and for plotting receiver operating characteristic curves. Results: Sensitivity of CEA, CA19-9, AFP, and β-HCG detected in esophagus cancer was 38%, 18%, 10%, and 26% respectively. Conclusion: From the above studied markers, CEA has the highest sensitivity followed by β-HCG, CA19-9 and AFP. Although the sensitivity of tumor markers in esophagus cancer is low, they may be useful additional parameter in the prediction of neoplasms involved at the early stage of tumor growth.

  14. Expression of alpha-fetoprotein messenger RNA in BEL-7404 human hepatoma cells and effect of L-4-oxalysine on the expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    AIM To investigate alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) mRNA expression in BEL-7404 human hepatoma cells and the effect of L-4-oxalysine (OXL) on the expression.METHODS BEl-7404 human hepatoma cells were maintained in RPMI 1640 media. Human AFP cDNA probe was labelled with digoxigenin-11-dUTP by the random primer labelling method. The expression of AFP mRNA in Bel-7404 cells was determined by an in situ hybridization technique with digoxigenin-labelled human AFP cDNA probe. The positive intensities of AFP mRNA in cells were analyzed by microspectrophotometer and expressed as absorbance at 470nm. For the experiment with OXL, cells were incubated with various concentrations of the agent for 72h.RESULTS Essentially all the hepatoma cells contained AFP mRNA in the cytoplasm, although in various amounts. The specificity of the hybridization reaction was confirmed by control experiments in which the use of RNase-treated BEL-7404 cells, non-AFP-producing cells (HL-60 human leukemia cells) or a nonspecific cDNA probe resulted in negative hybridization. When the cells were treated with OXL (25, 50mg/L), the content of AFP mRNA in the cytoplasm was decreased with the inhibition percentages of 34.3% and 70.1%, respectively (P<0.05).CONCLUSION AFP mRNA was expressed in BEL-7404 human hepatoma cells and OXL suppressed AFP mRNA expression in the cells.

  15. A novel electrochemical immunosensor using β-cyclodextrins functionalized silver supported adamantine-modified glucose oxidase as labels for ultrasensitive detection of alpha-fetoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jian; Ma, Hongmin; Lv, Xiaohui; Yan, Tao; Li, Na; Cao, Wei; Wei, Qin

    2015-09-17

    In this work, a novel sandwich-type electrochemical immunosensor based on host-guest interaction was fabricated for the detection of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). Due to the large specific surface area of multiwalled carbon nanotubes and the unique supramolecular recognition ability of β-cyclodextrins, ferrocenecarboxylic acid (Fc) was incorporated into this sensor platform by host-guest interaction to generate an electrochemical signal. And β-cyclodextrins functionalized silver supported adamantine-modified glucose oxidase (GOD-CD-Ag), was used as a label to improve the analytical performance of the immunosensor by the dual amplification strategy. The obtained GOD-CD-Ag conjugates could convert glucose into gluconic acid with the formation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). And then silver nanoparticles could in situ catalyze the reduction of the generated H2O2, dramatically improving the oxidation reaction of Fc. The developed immunosensor shows a wide linear calibration range from 0.001 to 5.0 ng/mL with a low detection limit (0.2 pg/mL) for the detection of AFP. The method, with ideal reproducibility and selectivity, has a wide application prospect in clinical research.

  16. Rapid and sensitive lateral flow immunoassay method for determining alpha fetoprotein in serum using europium (III) chelate microparticles-based lateral flow test strips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Rong-Liang; Xu, Xu-Ping; Liu, Tian-Cai; Zhou, Jian-Wei; Wang, Xian-Guo; Ren, Zhi-Qi; Hao, Fen; Wu, Ying-Song

    2015-09-01

    Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), a primary marker for many diseases including various cancers, is important in clinical tumor diagnosis and antenatal screening. Most immunoassays provide high sensitivity and accuracy for determining AFP, but they are expensive, often complex, time-consuming procedures. A simple and rapid point-of-care system that integrates Eu (III) chelate microparticles with lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) has been developed to determine AFP in serum with an assay time of 15 min. The approach is based on a sandwich immunoassay performed on lateral flow test strips. A fluorescence strip reader was used to measure the fluorescence peak heights of the test line (HT) and the control line (HC); the HT/HC ratio was used for quantitation. The Eu (III) chelate microparticles-based LFIA assay exhibited a wide linear range (1.0-1000 IU mL(-1)) for AFP with a low limit of detection (0.1 IU mL(-1)) based on 5ul of serum. Satisfactory specificity and accuracy were demonstrated and the intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation (CV) for AFP were both chelate microparticles-based LFIA system provided a rapid, sensitive and reliable method for determining AFP in serum, indicating that it would be suitable for development in point-of-care testing.

  17. Facile fabrication of a silicon nanowire sensor by two size reduction steps for detection of alpha-fetoprotein biomarker of liver cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binh Pham, Van; ThanhTung Pham, Xuan; Nhat Khoa Phan, Thanh; Thanh Tuyen Le, Thi; Chien Dang, Mau

    2015-12-01

    We present a facile technique that only uses conventional micro-techniques and two size-reduction steps to fabricate wafer-scale silicon nanowire (SiNW) with widths of 200 nm. Initially, conventional lithography was used to pattern SiNW with 2 μm width. Then the nanowire width was decreased to 200 nm by two size-reduction steps with isotropic wet etching. The fabricated SiNW was further investigated when used with nanowire field-effect sensors. The electrical characteristics of the fabricated SiNW devices were characterized and pH sensitivity was investigated. Then a simple and effective surface modification process was carried out to modify SiNW for subsequent binding of a desired receptor. The complete SiNW-based biosensor was then used to detect alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), one of the medically approved biomarkers for liver cancer diagnosis. Electrical measurements showed that the developed SiNW biosensor could detect AFP with concentrations of about 100 ng mL-1. This concentration is lower than the necessary AFP concentration for liver cancer diagnosis.

  18. First-trimester maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein as a marker for fetal chromosomal disorders. Dutch Working Party on Prenatal Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lith, J M

    1994-10-01

    We evaluated first-trimester maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MS-AFP) as a marker for fetal chromosomal disorders. The multicentre study was performed under the auspices of the Dutch Working Party on Prenatal Diagnosis. MS-AFP was measured in 2404 normal pregnancies and 72 chromosomally abnormal pregnancies. The median multiple of the normal median (MOM) in 32 Down's syndrome pregnancies was 0.83 with a 95 per cent confidence interval ranging from 0.60 to 1.04. The difference between the distributions of first-trimester MS-AFP in normal and Down's syndrome pregnancies was statistically significant (t-test: t = 2.34, P MOM = 1.26; seven cases with sex chromosome abnormalities, MOM = 1.07; 22 cases with a chromosomal mosaic pattern in chorionic villi, MOM = 1.08). We conclude that first-trimester MS-AFP can discriminate between normal and Down's syndrome pregnancies, but is not an effective marker. First-trimester MS-AFP has no value as a marker for other fetal chromosomal disorders. PMID:7534926

  19. Mechanism of Cancer Growth Suppression of Alpha-Fetoprotein Derived Growth Inhibitory Peptides (GIP): Comparison of GIP-34 versus GIP-8 (AFPep). Updates and Prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizejewski, Gerald J. [Division of Translational Medicine, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Empire State Plaza, Albany, NY 12201 (United States)

    2011-06-20

    The Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) derived Growth Inhibitory Peptide (GIP) is a 34-amino acid segment of the full-length human AFP molecule that inhibits tumor growth and metastasis. The GIP-34 and its carboxy-terminal 8-mer segment, termed GIP-8, were found to be effective as anti-cancer therapeutic peptides against nine different human cancer types. Following the uptake of GIP-34 and GIP-8 into the cell cytoplasm, each follows slightly different signal transduction cascades en route to inhibitory pathways of tumor cell growth and proliferation. The parallel mechanisms of action of GIP-34 versus GIP-8 are demonstrated to involve interference of signaling transduction cascades that ultimately result in: (1) cell cycle S-phase/G2-phase arrest; (2) prevention of cyclin inhibitor degradation; (3) protection of p53 from inactivation by phosphorylation; and (4) blockage of K{sup +} ion channels opened by estradiol and epidermal growth factor (EGF). The overall mechanisms of action of both peptides are discussed in light of their differing modes of cell attachment and uptake fortified by RNA microarray analysis and electrophysiologic measurements of cell membrane conductance and resistance. As a chemotherapeutic adjunct, the GIPs could potentially aid in alleviating the negative side effects of: (1) tamoxifen resistance, uterine hyperplasia/cancer, and blood clotting; (2) Herceptin antibody resistance and cardiac (arrest) arrhythmias; and (3) doxorubicin's bystander cell toxicity.

  20. Effect of increasing maximal aerobic exercise on serum gonadal hormones and alpha-fetoprotein in the luteal phase of professional female soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otağ, Aynur; Hazar, Muhsin; Otağ, İlhan; Beyleroğlu, Malik

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] The performance of female athletes during their menstrual period has attracted the attention of researchers for many years. It is known that the menstrual period changes with exercise. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is an oncofetal protein. In this study, the effect of maximal aerobic exercise in the luteal phase on some hormones and AFP in female athletes was researched. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve volunteers and healthy female footballers with normal menstrual cycles volunteered for this study as subjects. All the participants performed a shuttle run test. Blood samples were taken before, after, and one hour after exercise. Serum AFP, estrogen, progesterone, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH) values were measured using an auto analyzer and original kits. Heart rate measurements were performed before and after the exercise. [Results] AFP activity had significantly decreased after 1 h of recovery from the exercise in the female soccer players, and estrogen and LH activity had significantly increased immediately after the exercise. Progesterone activity had significantly decreased immediately after the exercise. FSH values had significantly increased immediately after the exercise. [Conclusion] The results of the present study show there were significant decreases in the values of AFP, which is a cancer parameter, 1 hour after the exercise. This result may be valuable in future physiotherapy studies on the relationship between exercise and cancer. PMID:27134362

  1. Mechanism of Cancer Growth Suppression of Alpha-Fetoprotein Derived Growth Inhibitory Peptides (GIP): Comparison of GIP-34 versus GIP-8 (AFPep). Updates and Prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) derived Growth Inhibitory Peptide (GIP) is a 34-amino acid segment of the full-length human AFP molecule that inhibits tumor growth and metastasis. The GIP-34 and its carboxy-terminal 8-mer segment, termed GIP-8, were found to be effective as anti-cancer therapeutic peptides against nine different human cancer types. Following the uptake of GIP-34 and GIP-8 into the cell cytoplasm, each follows slightly different signal transduction cascades en route to inhibitory pathways of tumor cell growth and proliferation. The parallel mechanisms of action of GIP-34 versus GIP-8 are demonstrated to involve interference of signaling transduction cascades that ultimately result in: (1) cell cycle S-phase/G2-phase arrest; (2) prevention of cyclin inhibitor degradation; (3) protection of p53 from inactivation by phosphorylation; and (4) blockage of K+ ion channels opened by estradiol and epidermal growth factor (EGF). The overall mechanisms of action of both peptides are discussed in light of their differing modes of cell attachment and uptake fortified by RNA microarray analysis and electrophysiologic measurements of cell membrane conductance and resistance. As a chemotherapeutic adjunct, the GIPs could potentially aid in alleviating the negative side effects of: (1) tamoxifen resistance, uterine hyperplasia/cancer, and blood clotting; (2) Herceptin antibody resistance and cardiac (arrest) arrhythmias; and (3) doxorubicin's bystander cell toxicity

  2. Amperometric immunosensor for {alpha}-fetoprotein antigen in human serum based on co-immobilizing dinuclear copper complex and gold nanoparticle doped chitosan film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan Ning; Meng Linghua; Wang Feng [State Key Laboratory Base of Novel Functional Materials and Preparation science, Faculty of Material Science and Chemical Engineering of Ninbo University, Ningbo, 315211 (China)], E-mail: ganning@nbu.edu.cn

    2009-09-01

    A sensitive amperometric immunosensor for {alpha}-fetoprotein (AFP), a tumor marker for the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), was constructed, The immunosensor is prepared by co-immobilizing [Cu{sub 2}(phen){sub 2}Cl{sub 2}] ({mu}-Cl){sub 2} (CuL), nano-Au/Chitosan(Chit) composite, horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and AFP antibody(anti-AFP) on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). Firstly, CuL was irreversibly absorb on GCE electrode through {pi}-{pi} stacking interaction; then nano-Au/Chit composite was immobilized onto the electrode because of its excellent membrane-forming ability, finally HRP and anti-AFP was adsorbed onto the surface of the gold nanoparticles to construct GCE | CuL/nanoAu-chit/HRP/anti-AFP immunosensor. The preparation procedure of the electrode was characterized by electrochemical and spectroscopy method. The results showed that this immunosensor exhibited an excellent electrocatalytic response to the reduction of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) without the aid of an electron mediator, offers a high-sensitivity (1710 nA {center_dot} ng{sup -1} {center_dot} ml{sup -1}) for the detection of AFP and has good correlation for detection of AFP in the range of 0.2 to 120.0 ng/ml with a detection limit of 0.05 ng/ml. The biosensor showed high selectivity as well as good stability and reproductivity.

  3. Hepatoid carcinoma of the pancreas producing protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist II (PIVKA-II) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsueda, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Yasuo; Notohara, Kenji

    2006-10-01

    We describe a rare case of hepatoid carcinoma of the pancreas with production of protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist II (PIVKA-II) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). The patient was a 49-year-old woman admitted because of high serum levels of PIVKA-II (1.63 AU/ml) and AFP (623 ng/ml) and abnormal ultrasonographic findings of the pancreas, found incidentally at medical checkup. Both ultrasonography and computed tomography showed swelling of the pancreas with small areas of low density, but no hepatic lesions. The serum levels of carcinoembryonic antigen and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 were not increased. A PIVKA-II and AFP-producing pancreatic cancer was strongly suspected, and total pancreatectomy was performed. Pathological examination showed that the tumor cells were arranged in trabecular and solid patterns with bile production, and were immunohistochemically positive for PIVKA-II and AFP, resembling hepatocellular carcinoma cells. The tumor was diagnosed as hepatoid carcinoma of the pancreas, and the patient has survived 48 months after initial diagnosis. It is important that hepatoid carcinoma be considered as a possible malignant tumor of the pancreas, and simultaneous measurement of the serum levels of AFP and PIVKA-II will enable earlier diagnosis. This is the first report describing hepatoid carcinoma of the pancreas producing PIVKA-II.

  4. Prolonged Survival in a Case of Chemotherapy-Sensitive Gastric Cancer That Produced Alpha-Fetoprotein and Protein Induced by Vitamin K Antagonist-II

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    Naotaka Ogasawara

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The number of reported cases of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP-producing gastric cancer has gradually increased, with a reported prevalence of 1.3-1.5% of all gastric cancer cases. However, reports of gastric cancer accompanied by elevated serum levels of both AFP and protein induced by vitamin K antagonist-II (PIVKA-II are rare. The prognosis of AFP- and PIVKA-II-producing gastric cancer has been reported to be very poor because the tumor cells were considered to have a high malignant potential and the cancer progressed rapidly. We described a case of gastric cancer producing AFP and PIVKA-II in which chemotherapy was effective and resulted in prolonged survival, and these two tumor markers were useful for monitoring the treatment response. Routine health screening using upper abdominal ultrasonography revealed hepatic tumors in an apparently healthy 65-year-old man. Whole-body computed tomography (CT revealed multiple hepatic tumors, and an esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD revealed a Bormann type 3 tumor in the lower stomach. A biopsy specimen confirmed that the tumor was immunohistochemically positive for AFP, PIVKA-II, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. After chemotherapy, the gastric tumor appeared as a small elevated lesion on EGD, and CT revealed a remarkable reduction in the size of the metastatic liver tumors. The patient is still alive, 35 months after the initial chemotherapy.

  5. Prolonged Survival in a Case of Chemotherapy-Sensitive Gastric Cancer That Produced Alpha-Fetoprotein and Protein Induced by Vitamin K Antagonist-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasawara, Naotaka; Takahashi, Emiko; Matsumoto, Tomoko; Amaike, Manami; Nohara, Mako; Nagao, Kazuhiro; Ebi, Masahide; Funaki, Yasushi; Sasaki, Makoto; Kasugai, Kunio

    2015-01-01

    The number of reported cases of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)-producing gastric cancer has gradually increased, with a reported prevalence of 1.3-1.5% of all gastric cancer cases. However, reports of gastric cancer accompanied by elevated serum levels of both AFP and protein induced by vitamin K antagonist-II (PIVKA-II) are rare. The prognosis of AFP- and PIVKA-II-producing gastric cancer has been reported to be very poor because the tumor cells were considered to have a high malignant potential and the cancer progressed rapidly. We described a case of gastric cancer producing AFP and PIVKA-II in which chemotherapy was effective and resulted in prolonged survival, and these two tumor markers were useful for monitoring the treatment response. Routine health screening using upper abdominal ultrasonography revealed hepatic tumors in an apparently healthy 65-year-old man. Whole-body computed tomography (CT) revealed multiple hepatic tumors, and an esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) revealed a Bormann type 3 tumor in the lower stomach. A biopsy specimen confirmed that the tumor was immunohistochemically positive for AFP, PIVKA-II, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. After chemotherapy, the gastric tumor appeared as a small elevated lesion on EGD, and CT revealed a remarkable reduction in the size of the metastatic liver tumors. The patient is still alive, 35 months after the initial chemotherapy. PMID:26034473

  6. Sandwich immunoassay for alpha-fetoprotein in human sera using gold nanoparticle and magnetic bead labels along with resonance Rayleigh scattering readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe a sensitive sandwich immunoassay for alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). It is making use of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) and magnetic beads (MBs) as labels, and of resonance Rayleigh scattering for detection. Two antibodies were labeled with GNPs and MBs, respectively, and MB-antigen-GNP complexes were formed in the presence of antigens. The MB labels also serve as solid phase carriers that can be used to magnetically separate the immuno complex. The GNP labels are used as optical probes, and Rayleigh scattering was used to determine the concentration of free GNPs-antibody after separation of the MB-antigen-GNP complexes. The concentration of AFP is related to the intensity of light scattered by free GNPs in the 13.6 pM to 436 pM concentration range, and the limit of detection is 13.6 pM. The method was applied to the determination of AFP in sera of cancer patients, and the results agree well with those obtained by conventional ELISA. (author)

  7. A fluorescent molecularly-imprinted polymer gate with temperature and pH as inputs for detection of alpha-fetoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karfa, Paramita; Roy, Ekta; Patra, Santanu; Kumar, Deepak; Madhuri, Rashmi; Sharma, Prashant K

    2016-04-15

    In this work, we have reported a new approach on the use of stimuli-responsive molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) for trace level sensing of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), which is a well know cancer biomarker. The stimuli-responsive MIP is composed of three components, a thermo-responsive monomer, a pH responsive component (tyrosine derivative) and a highly fluorescent vinyl silane modified carbon dot. The synthesized AFP-imprinted polymer possesses excellent selectivity towards their template molecule and dual-stimuli responsive behavior. Along with this, the imprinted polymer was also explored as 'OR' logic gate with two stimuli (pH and temperature) as inputs. However, the non-imprinted polymers did not have such 'OR' gate property, which confirms the role of template binding. The imprinted polymer was also used for estimation of AFP in the concentration range of 3.96-80.0 ng mL(-1), with limit of detection (LOD) 0.42 ng mL(-1). The role of proposed sensor was successfully exploited for analysis of AFP in real human blood plasma, serum and urine sample.

  8. Highly sensitive electrochemical immunosensor for the detection of alpha fetoprotein based on PdNi nanoparticles and N-doped graphene nanoribbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Ma, Hongmin; Cao, Wei; Wu, Dan; Yan, Tao; Du, Bin; Wei, Qin

    2015-12-15

    An ultrasensitive sandwich-type electrochemical immunosensor was designed for the quantitative detection of alpha fetoprotein (AFP). The β-cyclodextrins functionalized graphene sheets (CD-GS) were used as the sensing matrix for immobilizing adamantine-1-carboxylic acid functionalized primary anti-AFP (ADA-Ab1) and enhanced the electron transfer. PdNi alloy nanoparticles decorated N-doped graphene nanoribbons (PdNi/N-GNRs) were used as labels of secondary anti-AFP (Ab2), and PdNi alloy nanoparticles (PdNi NPs) exhibited high catalytic performance towards the reduction of H2O2. Meanwhile, with good dispersion, large specific surface area and good catalytic performance, N-doped graphene nanoribbons (N-GNRs) significantly amplified the electrochemical signal. Under the optimal conditions, the electrochemical immunosensor exhibited a wide linear range of 0.0001-16 ng/mL with a low detection limit of 0.03 pg/mL. Additionally, the proposed immunosensor showed high specificity, good reproducibility and long-term stability, which have promising application in bioassay analysis.

  9. Application of Latex particles in detecting alpha- fetoprotein (AFP)%乳胶粒子法检测甲胎蛋白的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈浩全; 曾嫚妮

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the application value of Latex method in detection of alpha - fetoprotein ( AFP). Methods:Repetitive determination tests within and between batches were done on serum specimens, then the determination results were compared and analyzed by Latex method and electrochemiluminescence assay. Results; The results had no significant difference between Latex method and electrochemiluminescence assay, the recoveries were 95.5% for Latex method and 96.7% for electrochemiluminescence assay. Conclusion; Though electrochemiluminescence assay had high sensitivity and precision, it was not suitable for the wide use due to its high cost in instrument and reagent. Latex method had good correlation with electrochemiluminescence assay, which can be applied widely for its rapidness, stable results and low cost.%目的:评价Latex法检测甲胎蛋白(AFP)的临床应用价值.方法:对血清标本做批内批间重复性测定试验及Latex法与电化学发光法进行对比测定.结果:Latex法与电化学发光法检测AFP结果无显著差异,Latex法与电化学发光法平均回收率分别为95.5%和96.7%.结论:电化学发光法灵敏度、精密度高,但其仪器、试剂价格高,不适于全面推广;Latex法与电化学发光法检测AFP结果无显著差异,相关性好,快速、结果稳定,试剂便宜在全自动生化仪上检测,可广泛应用.

  10. Utility-based criteria for selecting patients with hepatocellular carcinoma for liver transplantation: A multicenter cohort study using the alpha-fetoprotein model as a survival predictor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Alessandro; Farinati, Fabio; Burra, Patrizia; Trevisani, Franco; Giannini, Edoardo G; Ciccarese, Francesca; Piscaglia, Fabio; Rapaccini, Gian Lodovico; Di Marco, Mariella; Caturelli, Eugenio; Zoli, Marco; Borzio, Franco; Cabibbo, Giuseppe; Felder, Martina; Sacco, Rodolfo; Morisco, Filomena; Missale, Gabriele; Foschi, Francesco Giuseppe; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Svegliati Baroni, Gianluca; Virdone, Roberto; Chiaramonte, Maria; Spolverato, Gaya; Cillo, Umberto

    2015-10-01

    The lifetime utility of liver transplantation (LT) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is still controversial. The aim of this study was to ascertain when LT is cost-effective for HCC patients, with a view to proposing new transplant selection criteria. The study involved a real cohort of potentially transplantable Italian HCC patients (n = 2419 selected from the Italian Liver Cancer group database) who received nontransplant therapies. A non-LT survival analysis was conducted, the direct costs of therapies were calculated, and a Markov model was used to compute the cost utility of LT over non-LT therapies in Italian and US cost scenarios. Post-LT survival was calculated using the alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) model on the basis of AFP values and radiological size and number of nodules. The primary endpoint was the net health benefit (NHB), defined as LT survival benefit in quality-adjusted life years minus incremental costs (US $)/willingness to pay. The calculated median cost of non-LT therapies per patient was US $53,042 in Italy and US $62,827 in the United States. On Monte Carlo simulation, the NHB of LT was always positive for AFP model values ≤ 3 and always negative for values > 7 in both countries. A multivariate model showed that nontumor variables (patient's age, Child-Turcotte-Pugh [CTP] class, and alternative therapies) had the potential to shift the AFP model threshold of LT cost-ineffectiveness from 3 to 7. LT proved always cost-effective for HCC patients with AFP model values ≤ 3, whereas the cost-ineffectiveness threshold ranged between 3 and 7 using nontumor variables.

  11. Higher Ratio of Serum Alpha-Fetoprotein Could Predict Outcomes in Patients with Hepatitis B Virus-Associated Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Normal Alanine Aminotransferase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Il Kim

    Full Text Available The role of serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP levels in the surveillance and diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the value of serially measured serum AFP levels in HCC progression or recurrence after initial treatment.A total of 722 consecutive patients newly diagnosed with HCC and treated at the National Cancer Center, Korea, between January 2004 and December 2009 were enrolled. The AFP ratios between 4-8 weeks post-treatment and those at the time of HCC progression or recurrence were obtained. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to correlate the post-treatment AFP ratios with the presence of HCC progression or recurrence.The etiology of HCC was related to chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV infection in 562 patients (77.8%, chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection in 74 (10.2%, and non-viral cause in 86 (11.9%. There was a significant decrease in serum AFP levels from the baseline to 4 to 8 weeks after treatment (median AFP, 319.6 ng/mL vs. 49.6 ng/mL; p 1.0 was an independently associated with HCC progression or recurrence. Among the different causes of HCC analyzed, this association was significant only for HCC related to chronic hepatitis B (p< 0.001 and non-viral causes (p<0.05, and limited only to patients who had normal alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels.Serial measurements of serum AFP ratios could be helpful in detecting progression or recurrence in treated patients with HBV-HCC and normal ALT.

  12. Magnetic immunoassay coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for simultaneous quantification of alpha-fetoprotein and carcinoembryonic antigen in human serum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xing; Chen, Beibei; He, Man; Zhang, Yiwen; Xiao, Guangyang; Hu, Bin, E-mail: binhu@whu.edu.cn

    2015-04-01

    The absolute quantification of glycoproteins in complex biological samples is a challenge and of great significance. Herein, 4-mercaptophenylboronic acid functionalized magnetic beads were prepared to selectively capture glycoproteins, while antibody conjugated gold and silver nanoparticles were synthesized as element tags to label two different glycoproteins. Based on that, a new approach of magnetic immunoassay-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was established for simultaneous quantitative analysis of glycoproteins. Taking biomarkers of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) as two model glycoproteins, experimental parameters involved in the immunoassay procedure were carefully optimized and analytical performance of the proposed method was evaluated. The limits of detection (LODs) for AFP and CEA were 0.086 μg L{sup −1} and 0.054 μg L{sup −1} with the relative standard deviations (RSDs, n = 7, c = 5 μg L{sup −1}) of 6.5% and 6.2% for AFP and CEA, respectively. Linear range for both AFP and CEA was 0.2–50 μg L{sup −1}. To validate the applicability of the proposed method, human serum samples were analyzed, and the obtained results were in good agreement with that obtained by the clinical chemiluminescence immunoassay. The developed method exhibited good selectivity and sensitivity for the simultaneous determination of AFP and CEA, and extended the applicability of metal nanoparticle tags based on ICP-MS methodology in multiple glycoprotein quantifications. - Highlights: • 4-Mercaptophenylboronic acid functionalized magnetic beads were prepared and characterized. • ICP-MS based magnetic immunoassay approach was developed for quantification of glycoproteins. • AFP and CEA were quantified simultaneously with Au and Ag NPs as element tags. • The developed method exhibited good selectivity and sensitivity for target glycoproteins.

  13. Propensity Score Matching Analysis of Changes in Alpha-Fetoprotein Levels after Combined Radiotherapy and Transarterial Chemoembolization for Hepatocellular Carcinoma with Portal Vein Tumor Thrombus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Jeong

    Full Text Available To investigate the value of changes in alpha-fetoprotein (AFP levels for the prediction of radiologic response and survival outcomes in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC patients with portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT who received combined treatment of 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT and transarterial chemoembolization (TACE.A database of 154 HCC patients with PVTT and elevated AFP levels (>20 ng/mL treated with 3D-CRT and TACE as an initial treatment between August 2002 and August 2008 was retrospectively reviewed. AFP levels were determined 1 month after radiotherapy, and AFP response was defined as an AFP level reduction of >20% from the initial level. Radiologic response, overall survival (OS, and progression-free survival (PFS rates were compared between AFP responders and non-responders. Propensity-score based matching analysis was performed to minimize the effect of potential confounding bias.The median follow-up period was 11.1 months (range, 3.1-82.7 months. In the propensity-score matching cohort (92 pairs, a best radiologic response of CR or PR occurred in more AFP responders than AFP non-responders (41.3% vs. 10.9%, p < 0.001. OS and PFS were also longer in AFP responders than in non-responders (median OS 13.2 months vs. 5.6 months, p < 0.001; median PFS 8.7 months vs. 3.5 months, p < 0.001.AFP response is a significant predictive factor for radiologic response. Furthermore, AFP response is significant for OS and PFS outcomes. AFP evaluation after combined radiotherapy and TACE appears to be a useful predictor of clinical outcomes in HCC patients with PVTT.

  14. Alpha-fetoprotein, identified as a novel marker for the antioxidant effect of placental extract, exhibits synergistic antioxidant activity in the presence of estradiol.

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    Hye Yeon Choi

    Full Text Available Placenta, as a reservoir of nutrients, has been widely used in medical and cosmetic materials. Here, we focused on the antioxidant properties of placental extract and attempted to isolate and identify the main antioxidant factors. Porcine placental extracts were prepared through homogenization or acid hydrolysis, and their antioxidant activity was investigated in the human keratinocyte HaCaT cell line. Treatment with homogenized placental extract (H-PE increased the cell viability of H2O2-treated HaCaT cells more than two-fold. H-PE treatment suppressed H2O2-induced apoptotic and necrotic cell death and decreased intracellular ROS levels in H2O2-treated HaCaT cells. The antioxidant factors in H-PE were found to be thermo-unstable and were thus expected to include proteins. The candidate antioxidant proteins were fractionated with cation-exchange, anion-exchange, and size-exclusion chromatography, and the antioxidant properties of the chromatographic fractions were investigated. We obtained specific antioxidant fractions that suppressed ROS generation and ROS-induced DNA strand breaks. From silver staining and MALDI-TOF analyses, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP precursor was identified as a main marker for the antioxidant effect of H-PE. Purified AFP or ectopically expressed AFP exhibited synergistic antioxidant activity in the presence of estradiol. Taken together, our data suggest that AFP, a serum glycoprotein produced at high levels during fetal development, is a novel marker protein for the antioxidant effect of the placenta that exhibits synergistic antioxidant activity in the presence of estradiol.

  15. Clinical Utility of Alpha Fetoprotein and HCCR-1, Alone or in Combination, in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis, Liver Cirrhosis and Hepatocellular Carcinoma

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    Peng Jirun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Serum alpha fetoprotein (AFP is the most widely used tumor marker in detecting patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. However, it has been indicated that HCCR-1 (human cervical cancer oncogene 1 might be supplementary to AFP in the detection. We conducted a prospective study in 120 normal and 524 liver disease patients to evaluate the significance of simultaneous measurement of 2 tumor markers (AFP and HCCR-1 in the diagnosis of HCC through the cohort study in Korea and China. We also performed immunohistochemical studies using 25 normal subjects (N, 32 liver cirrhosis (LC and 116 HCC tissues. The sensitivities of AFP (20 ng/mL and HCCR-1 (10 ng/mL in HCC were 55.8% (164/294 and 44.2% (130/294, respectively. When AFP was combined with HCCR-1, sensitivities increased to 4.2% (N, 12.7% (chronic hepatitis; CH, 50.0% (LC, and 77.2% (HCC, respectively. Although there was no significant difference in the diagnostic rate for HCC between AFP and HCCR-1, many cases for AFP-negative HCC were positive for HCCR-1 and vice versa. Moreover, the combined use of AFP and HCCR-1 improved the diagnostic rate to 70.8% in small HCC (< 2 cm and 81.6% in large HCC (≥ 2 cm, respectively. AFP and HCCR-1 are independent markers. Our result suggests that the HCCR-1 could be an useful biomarker for HCC while the diagnostic rate could be significantly improved in the combined use of HCCR-1 and AFP.

  16. In vitro radionuclide therapy and in vivo scintigraphic imaging of alpha fetoprotein producing hepatocellular carcinoma by targeted sodium iodide symporter gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kwang Il; Lee, Yong Jin; Lee, Tae Sup; Song, Inho; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Lim, Sang Moo; Kang, Joo Hyun [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, June Key [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    This study aimed to develop a gene expression targeting method for specific imaging and therapy of alpha fetoprotein (AFP) producing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, using an adenovirus vector containing the human sodium/iodide symporter (hNIS) gene driven by an AFP enhancer/promoter. The recombinant adenovirus vector, AdAFPhNIS (containing the hNIS gene driven by human AFP enhancer/promoter) was prepared. After in vitro infection by the adenovirus, hNIS gene expression in AFP producing cells and in AFP nonproducing cells was investigated using {sup 125}I uptake assay and semi quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The killing effect of {sup 131}I vitro clonogenic assay. In addition, tumor bearing mice were intravenously injected with the adenovirus, and scintigraphic images were obtained. The expression of hNIS was efficiently demonstrated by {sup 125}I uptake assay in AFP producing cells, but not in AFP nonproducing cells. AFP producing HCC targeted gene expression was confirmed at the mRNA level. Furthermore, in vitro clonogenic assay showed that hNIS gene expression induced by AdAFPhNIS infection in AFP producing cells caused more sensitivity to {sup 131}I than that in AFP nonproducing cells. Injected intravenously in HuH-7 tumor xenografts mice by adenovirus, the functional hNIS gene expression was confirmed in tumor by in vivo scintigraphic imaging. An AFP producing HCC was targeted with an adenovirus vector containing the hNIS gene using the AFP enhancer/promoter in vitro and in vivo. These findings demonstrate that AFP producing HCC specific molecular imaging and radionuclide gene therapy are feasible using this recombinant adenovirus vector system.

  17. Diagnostic Performance of Alpha-Fetoprotein, Protein Induced by Vitamin K Absence, Osteopontin, Dickkopf-1 and Its Combinations for Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Sun Jang

    Full Text Available Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP is the most widely used serum biomarker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, despite its limitations. As complementary biomarkers, protein induced by vitamin K absence (PIVKA-II, osteopontin (OPN, and Dickkopf-1 (DKK-1 have been proposed. This study aimed to perform a head-to-head comparison of the diagnostic performance of AFP, PIVKA-II, OPN and DKK-1 as single or in combination to seek the best biomarker or panel, and to investigate the clinical factors affecting their performance.Using 401 stored plasma samples obtained from 208 HCC patients and 193 liver cirrhosis control patients, plasma AFP, PIVKA-II, OPN and DKK-1 levels were measured by ELISA, and receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were performed for each biomarker and for every combination of two to four markers.Of the four biomarkers, AFP showed the highest area under the curve (0.786. The sensitivity and specificity for each single biomarker was 62% and 90.2% (AFP>20 ng/mL, 51.0% and 91.2% (PIVKA-II>10 ng/mL, 46.2% and 80.3% (OPN>100 ng/mL, and 50.0% and 80.8% (DKK-1>500 pg/mL, respectively. Among the combinations of two biomarkers, AFP>20 ng/mL or DKK-1>500 pg/mL showed the best diagnostic performance (sensitivity 78.4%, specificity 72.5%. Triple or quadruple combination did not improve the diagnostic performance further. The patient's age, etiology and tumor invasiveness of HCC affected the performance of each marker.AFP was the most useful single biomarker for HCC diagnosis, and the combined measurement of AFP and DKK-1 could maximize the diagnostic yield. Clinical decision should be based on the consideration of various factors affecting the diagnostic performance of each biomarker. Efforts to seek novel HCC biomarkers should be continued.

  18. Magnetic immunoassay coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for simultaneous quantification of alpha-fetoprotein and carcinoembryonic antigen in human serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The absolute quantification of glycoproteins in complex biological samples is a challenge and of great significance. Herein, 4-mercaptophenylboronic acid functionalized magnetic beads were prepared to selectively capture glycoproteins, while antibody conjugated gold and silver nanoparticles were synthesized as element tags to label two different glycoproteins. Based on that, a new approach of magnetic immunoassay-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was established for simultaneous quantitative analysis of glycoproteins. Taking biomarkers of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) as two model glycoproteins, experimental parameters involved in the immunoassay procedure were carefully optimized and analytical performance of the proposed method was evaluated. The limits of detection (LODs) for AFP and CEA were 0.086 μg L−1 and 0.054 μg L−1 with the relative standard deviations (RSDs, n = 7, c = 5 μg L−1) of 6.5% and 6.2% for AFP and CEA, respectively. Linear range for both AFP and CEA was 0.2–50 μg L−1. To validate the applicability of the proposed method, human serum samples were analyzed, and the obtained results were in good agreement with that obtained by the clinical chemiluminescence immunoassay. The developed method exhibited good selectivity and sensitivity for the simultaneous determination of AFP and CEA, and extended the applicability of metal nanoparticle tags based on ICP-MS methodology in multiple glycoprotein quantifications. - Highlights: • 4-Mercaptophenylboronic acid functionalized magnetic beads were prepared and characterized. • ICP-MS based magnetic immunoassay approach was developed for quantification of glycoproteins. • AFP and CEA were quantified simultaneously with Au and Ag NPs as element tags. • The developed method exhibited good selectivity and sensitivity for target glycoproteins

  19. Interrelationships among biological activity, disulfide bonds, secondary structure, and metal ion binding for a chemically synthesized 34-amino-acid peptide derived from alpha-fetoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacColl, R; Eisele, L E; Stack, R F; Hauer, C; Vakharia, D D; Benno, A; Kelly, W C; Mizejewski, G J

    2001-10-01

    A 34-amino-acid peptide has been chemically synthesized based on a sequence from human alpha-fetoprotein. The purified peptide is active in anti-growth assays when freshly prepared in pH 7.4 buffer at 0.20 g/l, but this peptide slowly becomes inactive. This functional change is proven by mass spectrometry to be triggered by the formation of an intrapeptide disulfide bond between the two cysteine residues on the peptide. Interpeptide cross-linking does not occur. The active and inactive forms of the peptide have almost identical secondary structures as shown by circular dichroism (CD). Zinc ions bind to the active peptide and completely prevents formation of the inactive form. Cobalt(II) ions also bind to the peptide, and the UV-Vis absorption spectrum of the cobalt-peptide complex shows that: (1) a near-UV sulfur-to-metal-ion charge-transfer band had a molar extinction coefficient consistent with two thiolate bonds to Co(II); (2) the lowest-energy visible d-d transition maximum at 659 nm, also, demonstrated that the two cysteine residues are ligands for the metal ion; (3) the d-d molar extinction coefficient showed that the metal ion-ligand complex was in a distorted tetrahedral symmetry. The peptide has two cysteines, and it is speculated that the other two metal ion ligands might be the two histidines. The Zn(II)- and Co(II)-peptide complexes had similar peptide conformations as indicated by their ultraviolet CD spectra, which differed very slightly from that of the free peptide. Surprisingly, the cobalt ions acted in the reverse of the zinc ions in that, instead of stabilizing anti-growth form of the peptide, they catalyzed its loss. Metal ion control of peptide function is a saliently interesting concept. Calcium ions, in the conditions studied, apparently do not bind to the peptide. Trifluoroethanol and temperature (60 degrees C) affected the secondary structure of the peptide, and the peptide was found capable of assuming various conformations in solution

  20. Cytological alteration of cultured rat liver cells by 3'-methyl-4-dimethylaminoazobenzene with special reference to chromosome changes, changes of growth patterns at a colony level and alpha-fetoprotein production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokiwa,Takayoshi

    1980-06-01

    Full Text Available A near diploid clone derived from a rat liver cell line was continuously treated with various concentrations of 3'-methyl-4-dimethylaminoazobenzene (3'-Me-DAB in culture. By treatment with 2.8 micrograms/ml, cells with 41 chromosomes formed a mode and which then shifted to 39. The chromosome numbers of cells treated with 5.4 micrograms/ml were widely distributed at early stages, but later the mode shifted to hypotetraploid region. Untreated control cells were confirmed as near diploid. Increased plating efficiency by 3'-Me-DAB as well as the appearance of large sized colonies was obtained. The production of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP by the cells was slightly enhanced by treatment with 3'-Me-DAB. The cells treated with and without 3'-Me-DAB did not produce any tumor in rats 6 months after their intraperitoneal injection.

  1. Clinical evaluation of serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II (PIVKA-II) levels in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma following interventional radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minakuchi, K; Murata, K; Kaminoh, T; Takada, K; Takashima, S; Nakamura, K; Onoyama, Y

    1993-01-01

    Fourteen patients with unrespectable HCC were treated with various interventional radiology (IVR) procedures. The initial therapeutic response was determined using computed tomography (CT) findings, and determinations of serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and protein induced by Vitamin K absence or antagonist-II (PIVKA-II) levels. When CT studies of the initial response to IVR were compared with changes in the serum AFP and PIVKA-II levels, the AFP level was found to correlate more closely than the PIVKA-II levels. The PIVKA-II level correlated more closely than the AFP level in cases with poor response to IVR. Both of these tumor markers should be measured in combination with the diagnostic imagings for follow-up studies of IVR.

  2. AFP、APF-L3、GP73、AFP-mRNA联合检测在肝细胞癌诊断中的应用价值%The application value of combined detection for serum alpha-fetoprotein, alpha-fetoprotein-L3, Golgi protein 73 and AFP-mRNA in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永勤; 陈浩; 耿坤静; 杜博勋; 裘银久

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the application value of combined detection for alpha fetoprotein (AFP), alpha-fetoprotein-L3 ( AFP-L3 ) , Golgi protein 73 ( GP73 ) and AFP-mRNA in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma ( HCC). Methods Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ( ELISA) was used to detect the serum levels of GP73 in 73 cases of HCC,41 cases of liver cirrhosis,36 cases of chronic hepatitis B and 25 healthy subjects. AFP was detected by chemiluminescent immunoassay, and AFP-L3 was determined by adsorption centrifuging. AFP-mRNA was tested by fluorescent quantitative RT-PCR. Results There were significant differences in the levels of AFP, AFP-L3, GP73, AFP-mRNA between HCC group and cirrhosis group, normal control group ( P <0.01). The areas evaluated according to ROC curves were 0.691 ( AFP) ,0.859 ( APF-L3), 0.816 (GP73),0.762 (AFP-mRNA) respectively in HCC group,and the sensitivities were 54. 79% ,76. 71% , 80.82% ,53. 42%, respectively, and specificities were 79. 41% ,95. 10% ,82. 35% ,99. 02% , respectively. The areas under ROC curves for the four tumor-related markers were 0.958 by combined detection. The sensitivity of combined detection was significantly increased, which reached 95. 8% , and its specificity was 95. 0% in the diagnosis of HCC. Conclusion The combination detection for AFP, AFP-L3 ,GP73 and AFP-mRNA can obviously enhance the sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of HCC,which is superior to individual detection of AFP, AFP-L3.GP73 or AFP-mRNA.%目的 探讨甲胎蛋白(AFP)、甲胎蛋白异质体( AFP-L3)、高尔基体蛋白(GP73)及AFP-mR-NA联合检测在HCC诊断中的价值.方法 收集175例血清、其中肝细胞癌患者73例(HCC组)、肝硬化患者41例(肝硬化组)、慢乙肝患者36例(慢性肝炎组)、正常人25例(正常人组),采用酶联免疫法检测GP73,用化学发光法检测AFP,用亲和吸附离心法检测AFP-L3,采用荧光定量逆转录聚合酶链反应(RTPCR)法检测患者AFP

  3. Effects of curcumin in pediatric epithelial liver tumors: inhibition of tumor growth and alpha-fetoprotein in vitro and in vivo involving the NFkappaB- and the beta-catenin pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortel, Nicola; Armeanu-Ebinger, Sorin; Schmid, Evi; Kirchner, Bettina; Frank, Jan; Kocher, Alexa; Schiborr, Christina; Warmann, Steven; Fuchs, Jörg; Ellerkamp, Verena

    2015-01-01

    In children with hepatocellular carcinoma (pHCC) the 5-year overall survival rate is poor. Effects of cytostatic therapies such as cisplatin and doxorubicin are limited due to chemoresistance and tumor relapse. In adult HCC, several antitumor properties are described for the use of curcumin. Curcumin is one of the best-investigated phytochemicals in complementary oncology without relevant side effects. Its use is limited by low bioavailability. Little is known about the influence of curcumin on pediatric epithelial hepatic malignancies. We investigated the effects of curcumin in combination with cisplatin on two pediatric epithelial liver tumor cell lines. As mechanisms of action inhibition of NFkappaB, beta-catenin, and decrease of cyclin D were identified. Using a mouse xenograft model we could show a significant decrease of alpha-fetoprotein after combination therapy of oral micellar curcumin and cisplatin. Significant concentrations of curcuminoids were found in blood samples, organ lysates, and tumor tissue after oral micellar curcumin administration. Micellar curcumin in combination with cisplatin can be a promising strategy for treatment of pediatric HCC. PMID:26515460

  4. Electrochemical immunosensor for alpha-fetoprotein determination based on ZnSe quantum dots/Azure I/gold nanoparticles/poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) modified Pt electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel amperometric enzyme immunosensor with amplified sensitivity for the determination of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) was constructed with layer-by-layer assembly of ZnSe quantum dots (ZnSe QDs)/Azure I/gold nanoparticles (nanoAu)/poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) on Pt electrode. Firstly, citrate coated nanoAu was immobilized on the PEDOT polymer film, which was electrochemically synthesized in ionic liquid electrolyte of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([bmim][BF4]). Then, Azure I was immobilized on nanoAu/PEDOT composite matrix as a redox probe and was used to immobilize ZnSe QDs. Subsequently, AFP antibody (anti-AFP) was adsorbed onto the surface of ZnSe layer. Finally, horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was employed to block sites against nonspecific binding and amplify the current signal of the antigen–antibody reaction. The modification processes were characterized by cyclic voltammetry, scanning electron microscopy. The factors influenced the performances of the proposed immunosensors were studied in detail. Because of the synergism between Azure I and nanoAu/PEDOT to facilitate electron-transfer process, and the small diameter of ZnSe QDs favorable for stabilization of biological activity to a large extent, the immunosensor displayed a high sensitivity, fast analytical time, a relatively low detection limit of 1.1 fg/mL at 3 times of signal-to-noise ratio (S/N = 3), and a especially broad linear response to AFP in a ranges from 5 × 10−5 to 250 ng/mL. Moreover, the selectivity, repeatability, and stability of the proposed immunosensor were acceptable

  5. 血清AFP、CEA、AFU、GGT-Ⅱ联合检测诊断原发性肝癌的临床价值%Clinical value of combined measurement of serum alpha-fetoprotein, carcinoembryonic antigen, alpha-L-fucosidase, gamma-glutamyltransferase isoenzymes for diagnosis of primary liver cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁珠; 殷芳; 刘海; 尤丽英; 杨晋辉; 郑盛

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical value of combined measurement of four serum tumor markers (alpha-fe-toprotein, carcinoembryonic antigen, alpha-L-fucosidase, gamma-glutamyltransferase isoenzymes) for diagnosis of primary liver cancer. Methods 160 patients with primary liver cancer and 120 healthy subjects were measured the serum levels of alpha-fetoprotein, carcinoembryonic antigen, alpha-L-fucosidase, gamma-glutamyltransferase isoenzymes was detected by using not continuous PAGE. The results were analyzed by SPSS 15.0 software. Results The serum levels of alpha-fetoprotein, carcinoembryonic antigen, alpha-L-fucosidase were significantly higher in the primary liver cancer patients than those in the control group (P < 0.01). The positive rate of single marker of alpha-fetoprotein, carcinoembryonic antigen, alpha-L-fucosidase, gamma-glutamyltransferase isoenzymes was 68.00%, 28.00%, 84.00% and 77.00% respectively, and there were statistical significances during carcinoembryonic antigen, alpha-L-fucosidase, gamma-glutamyltransferase isoenzymes (all P < 0.05). The positive rate of the combined measured of two markers: alpha-fe-toprotein/carcinoembryonic antigen, alpha-fetoprotein/alpha-L-fucosidase and alpha-fetoprotein/gamma-glutamyltrans-ferase isoenzymes were 75.00%, 84.00% and 89.00% respectively, and there were statistical significances during the positive rates of the combined measured of alpha-fetoprotein/alpha-L-fucosidase, alpha-fetoprotein/gamma-glutamyl-transferase isoenzymes compared with alpha-fetoprotein (all P < 0.05). But the positive rate of combined measurement of four markers was 96.00% and there was evidently statistical significance compared with the alpha-fetoprotein result (P < 0.01). Conclusion The combined measurement of alpha-fetoprotein, carcinoembryonic antigen, alpha-L-fucosidase, gamma-glutamyltransferase isoenzymes can be used as an accessory tool in diagnosis of primary liver cancer.%目的 探讨血清甲胎蛋白、癌胚抗原、

  6. 血清CA125、甲胎蛋白及胎盘生长因子在胎盘早剥预测中的初步研究%A preliminary study of serum CA125, alpha - fetoprotein, and placental growth factor for prediction of placental abruption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘世凯; 宋莉莉; 陈铎

    2012-01-01

    目的:检测胎盘早剥、重度子痫前期及正常妊娠孕妇的血清CA125、甲胎蛋白和胎盘生长因子水平,探讨其与胎盘早剥的关系,为胎盘早剥的预测及早期诊断提供理论依据.方法:采用微粒酶免疫分析法( MEIA)和双抗体夹心ELISA法检测孕妇血清CA125、甲胎蛋白和胎盘生长因子水平.结果:胎盘早剥组CA125和甲胎蛋白明显高于其他两组,胎盘生长因子明显低于其他两组(P<0.05).结论:检测外周血CA125、甲胎蛋白和胎盘生长因子水平对于预测胎盘早剥具有一定的临床价值.%Objective: To detect the levels of serum CA125, alpha-fetoprotein, and placental growth factor in the pregnant women with placental abruption, the pregnant women with severe preeclampsia, and the normal pregnant women, explore their relationships with placental abruption, provide a theoretical basis for prediction and early diagnosis of placental abruption. Methods: Micropartical enzyme immu-noassay and double - antibody sandwich ELISA were used to detect the levels of serum CA125, alpha - fetoprotein, and placental growth factor. Resnlts: The levels of serum CA123 and alpha - fetoprotein in placental abruption group were significantly higher than those in the other two groups, the level of placental growth factor in placental abruption group was significantly lower than those in the other two groups (P <0.05) . Conclusion: Detecting the levels of CA125, alpha - fetoprotein, and placental growth factor in peripheral blood has a certain clinical value for predicting placental abruption.

  7. 慢性乙型肝炎免疫清除期甲胎蛋白与HBV DNA清除的相关性研究%Correlation between serum alpha-fetoprotein level and HBV DNA clearance in immune clearance phase of patients with chronic hepatitis B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞晓鹰; 徐洪涛; 杨秀珍; 咸建春; 沈美龙

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨乙型肝炎免疫清除期,甲胎蛋白(AFP)与HBV DNA清除之间的相关性。方法收集处于免疫清除期发病2周内AFP升高5倍以上患者共58例,分为非抗病毒治疗组(下称观察组)31例和核苷(酸)类似物抗病毒治疗组(下称阳性对照组)27例,另取同期住院AFP阴性首次发病的慢性乙型肝炎核苷(酸)类似物抗病毒患者30例作为阴性对照组。分析影响HBV DNA清除率的相关因素。结果阳性对照组及阴性对照组患者均行抗病毒治疗,HBV DNA定量与各临床数据之间均无相关性,观察组HBV DNA定量与各指标之间的关系结果显示,AFP与HBV DNA清除具有显著相关性(r=0.8420,P=0.018),以下依次为ALT(r=0.7888,P=0.027)和总胆红素(TBil)(r=0.7816,P=0.032)。HBsAg(r=0.0480,P=0.413)和HBeAg(r=0.3356,P=0.191)与HBV DNA清除无显著相关性。结论对乙型肝炎免疫清除期AFP升高5倍以上患者,可先进行密切病情观察,根据病情需要进行抗病毒治疗。%Objectives To investigate the relationship between serum alpha-fetoprotein level and HBV DNA clearance in immune clearance phase of patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Methods Total of 58 cases with CHB, who were in immune clearance phase and the serum alpha-fetoprotein level>5 upper limits of normal in two weeks since disease onset were enrolled. Among which 31 cases received non-antiviral therapy as experimental group, and 27 cases received antiviral therapy as positive control group. While other 30 cases with CHB who were in immune clearance phase and the serum alpha-fetoprotein level were normal in two weeks since disease onset, were enrolled as negative control group. And the correlation factors of HBV DNA clearance were analyzed, respectively. Results There were no signiifcant correlation between HBV DNA clearance and other data in patients who received antiviral therapy in positive and negative

  8. Clinical application of alpha-fetoprotein variant to screening benign and mlaignant liver dis-eases%甲胎蛋白异质体在鉴别良恶性肝病中的临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶绍能; 周建国; 程光华; 戴云海; 张新路; 阮昊

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨小扁豆凝集素结合型甲胎蛋白异质体( AFP-L3)在良恶性肝病鉴别诊断中的临床价值。方法:应用装有耦联了小扁豆凝集素( LCA)的微量离心柱分离131例肝病患者的AFP-L3,用化学发光免疫检测血清AFP和AFP-L3含量,计算AFP-L3占AFP总量的百分比( AFP-L3%)。结果:与肝硬化( LC)和慢性肝炎( CH)组相比,肝癌( HCC)组中患者血清AFP、AFP-L3与AFP-L3%均升高,经Kruskal-Wallis 秩和检验有统计学意义(χ2=31.457,41.983,413.77;P=0.000,0.000,0.000)。AFP、AFP-L3和AFP-L3%相应ROC曲线下面积(AUC)分别为0.628、0.718和0.795,其差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。以AFP-L3%≥6.90%判断为阳性,AFP-L3%诊断肝细胞癌敏感性和特异性分别为66.7%和82.4%。结论:AFP-L3对肝细胞癌诊断准确度明显高于AFP,微量离心柱法检测AFP-L3在良恶性肝脏病变鉴别诊断中具有重要临床价值。%Objective:To verify the clinical value of applying the isoform of alpha -fetoprotein variant(AFP-L3) to screening benign and malignant liver diseases.Methods:AFP-L3 was isolated 131 patients with liver disease using the micro-spin column coupled with lens culinaris agglutinin ( LCA) .Chemi-luminescent immunoassay was performed to determine the content of serum AFP and AFP-L3,and AFP-L3% was calculated.Results:The serum levels of AFP and AFP-L3 as well as AFP-L3% were significantly higher in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) compared to patients with liver cirrhosis (LC) and chronic hepatitis (CH),and Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of the variance showed statistical difference (χ2 =31.457,41.983,41.377;P=0.000,respectively).The area under the ROC curve (AUC) of AFP,AFP-L3 and AFP-L3 % was 0.628,0.718 and 0.795,respectively,and the differ-ences were significant (P<0.05).Sensitivity and specificity by AFP-L3 %(≥6.90% cut-off value) for diagnosis of HCC were66 .7

  9. Evaluation of a second trimester triple marker screening test for fetal status using alpha-fetoprotein (aFP), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and unconjugated estriol (uE{sub 3})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mi, Seong Young; Kim, Jong Ho; Choi, Seung Hun [Chung Ang Gil Hospital, Inchon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    Our purpose was to assess the utility of maternal serum triple-marker screening test using alpha-fetoprotein (aFP), human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) and unconjugated Estriol (uE{sub 3}) for fetal chromosomal abnormalities. 1,767 venous blood samples (4ml) between 15 and 20 week's gestation for maternal serum screening from January to October 1996, were tested with Kodak Amerix-M triple marker radioimmunoassay kits. Risk analysis was achieved with interpretive software such as Alpha (LMS, Kodak Clinical Diagnostics). Marker levels are transformed into multiples of median (MOM), which represent an interpretation of (weight regressed) patient marker levels relative to regressed median levels for stated gestation. By multivariate anaysis, the three MOM values are combined to generate a liklihood ratio. Calculation of a patient, risk is the product of liklihood ratio and age-related risk. Risk assessment is weight for maternal age. The median values of aFP, hCG and uE{sub 3} were well correlated with gestational age, respectively (r=0.94, p=0.003; r=-0.97, p=0.029; r=0.99, p<0.001, respectively). The median value of hCG were correlated withmateral age (r=0.13, p=0.04) but those of aFP and eU{sub 3} weren't (r=-0.17, p=0.22; r=0.36, p=0.09, respectively). The values of aFP, CG and uE{sub 3} between pregnancy younger than 35 years-old (n=87) and older than that (n=1640) were 51.67{+-}27.44, vs 54.65{+-}126.36, 46.45{+-}30.08 vs 51.33{+-}38.50 and 8.01{+-}11.01 vs 6.68{+-}7.23, respectively but all of them failed to show significant differences. A second-trimester risk for trisomy 21 > or = 1:270 was considered screen positive. Patients were screen positive for trisomy 21 if aFP < or 0.7 multiples of median (MOM), hCG> or 2.1 MOM and E{sub 3} < or 0.7 MOM. Patients were screen positive for neural tube defect if aFP >2.5 MOM. The initial screen-positive rate for both Down' syndrome and neural tube defect were 1.46% (26/1767); 0.73% (13/1767) with each other

  10. 孕中期异常甲胎蛋白与不良妊娠结局的相关性%The association between second - trimester maternal serum abnormal alpha - fetoprotein and adverse pregnancy outcome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴满武; 俞信忠; 杨志浩; 张涛; 罗婷婷

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨孕中期甲胎蛋白(AFP)与不良妊娠结局的相关性,为妊娠管理提供建议.方法 对孕中期14 008例孕妇进行唐氏筛查.研究组:①AFP MoM>2.0孕妇338例.②AFP MoM<0.5孕妇224例.依据AFP MoM值不同分组.对照组:AFP MoM值都在正常范围内的孕妇318例.回顾分析妊娠结局资料.结果 ①AFP MoM>2.0的孕妇发生出生缺陷(ρ<0.01)的机会明显比正常孕妇高.②AFP MoM> 3.5的孕妇发生出生缺陷(P<0.001)和早产(P<0.05)的机会明显比正常孕妇高.③AFP MoM> 5.0的孕妇发生出生缺陷(P<0.001)、早产(P<0.01)和胎儿窘迫(P<0.05)的机会明显比正常孕妇高.④AFP MoM<0.5和<0.25的孕妇均未发现与不良妊娠结局相关.结论 异常水平的标志物除了能够提供开放性神经管缺损风险外,还能提供不良妊娠结局的风险信息,而这些信息对产前遗传咨询和妊娠管理是非常重要.%Objective; Aim of this study is to determine the association between risk of adverse pregnancy outcome and abnormal maternal serum alpha - fetoprotein in second trimester screening. Abnormal levels of maternal serum markers provide information which is important for counseling and pregnancy management. Methods: A total of 14 008 pregnant women underwent maternal serum Down' s syndrome screening. Study groups include:①338 cases were found to have a serum AFP of > 2.0 multiples of the median ( MoM). ②cases serum were found to have a serum AFP 2.0 MoM have higher occurrence of birth defects (P 3. 5 MoM have higher occurrence of birth defects ( P 5.0 MoM have higher occurrence of birth defects (P < 0. 001) and preterm labor ( P < 0. 01) and fetal stress ( P < 0. 05). ④Pregnant women with a serum AFP of < 0. 5 M < 0. 25 MoM were found to have no association with adverse outcomes. Conclusion: Abnormal levels of maternal serum markers can provide risk information of adverse outcomes in addition to the risks for open neural tube defects

  11. Diagnosis value of alpha-fetoprotein heterogeneity in primary hepatic carcinoma%甲胎蛋白异质体在原发性肝癌中的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈俊; 王利健; 骆剑明; 吴荣辉; 楼跃民; 朱笑频

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨甲胎蛋白异质体在肝脏良恶性疾病诊断中的意义.方法:采用微量离心柱法对240例肝病患者(原发性肝癌70例,肝癌术后10例,肝硬化63例,慢性肝炎97例),采用化学发光法检测AFP及AFP-L3水平,计算AFP-L3和AFP比例.结果:原发性肝癌组患者血清中的AFP,AFP-L3%阳性率显著高于肝癌术后组,肝硬化组和慢性肝炎组.AFP-L3%的灵敏度为86.96%,特异性为88.30%,Youden指数为0.75.AFP的灵敏度为75.68%,特异性为85.54%,Youden指数为0.61.从Youden指数可以知道AFP-L3%是比AFP更好的诊断肝癌的指标.原发性肝癌组患者血清中的AFP、AFP-L3%含量显著高于肝癌术后组、肝硬化组和慢性肝炎组(F值分别为74.45、54.85,P值均<0.01).诊断为原发性肝癌病人中,当AFP> 400 ng/ml时,AFP-L3%的阳性率为95.23%.AFP-L3%与AFP水平无相关性.结论:AFP-L3%对于肝癌的诊断有较高的灵敏性和特异性;是比AFP更好的诊断指标;可以作为诊断肝癌的独立指标.%Objective: To explore the significance of alpha - fetoprotein heterogeneity (AFP - L3) in differential diagnosis of malignant liver disease. Methods: Serum samples were collected from 240 patients, 70 cases with hep-atocellular carcinoma, 10 cases with postoperative liver cancer, 63 cases with cirrhosis, 97 cases with chronic hepatitis. AFP - L3 was isolated by microspincolumn with lens culinaris agglutinin. The levels of AFP and AFP - L3 were detected by chemiluminescence method. Results: The ratios of AFP and AFP - 13% in hepatocellular carcinoma group were significantly higher those in hepatectomy group, liver cirrhosis and chronic hepatitis group (χ2 values were 87. 30, 142.22, P <0. 01 ). For AFP - L3% , sensitivity was 86. 96% , specificity was 88. 30% , and the Youden index was 0. 75, while for AFP, sensitivity was 75. 68% , specificity was 85. 54% , Youden index was 0. 61. From the Youden index, it can be seen the AFP - L3

  12. The Value of Combined Serum Alpha-fetoprotein Heteroplasmon-L3 Concentration and AFP-L3/Alpha-fetoprotein Ratio Detection in the Early Diagnosis of Primary Liver Cancer%联合检测血清甲胎蛋白异质体浓度与甲胎蛋白异质体百分含量在原发性肝癌诊断中的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄彩云; 韩素桂; 贾红莲

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the value of combined serum alpha-fetoprotein inform (AFP-L3) and AFP-L3/AFP as biomarkers in the early diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).Methods A total of 137 patients from the People's Hospital of Tangshan of Hebei Union University were included in our study.They were treated in hospital from March to November 201 1.All the patients were at the age of 28 to 77 years old,and 98 of them were men,and 39 were women.According to the pathological diagnosis,patients were divided into two groups.HCC group had 92 patients,and benign liver disease group had 45 patients including 37 with liver cirrhosis and 8 with chronic hepatitis.ELISA method was used to test the serum AFP-L3 level.At the same time,microcentrifugal column method was adopted to separate AFP-L3 from the patients' serum,and electrochemical luminescence method was used to detect the separated AFP-L3 and total AFP levels.Then,we calculated the ratio of AFP-L3/AFP.We also calculated the statistical indexes of AFP-L3 level and AFP-L3/AFP ratio in the diagnosis of HCC,such as sensitivity,specificity and Youden index.The above indexes of combined AFP-L3 level and AFP-L3/AFP ratio were also detected to evaluated its diagnostic value.Results HCC group AFP-L3 level (109.04 ± 62.51) ng/mL was significantly higher than that of the benign liver disease group [(25.96 ± 49.43) ng/mL; t=8.28,P < 0.001].HCC group serum AFP-L3/AFP ratio (17.35% ± 14.48%) was significantly higher than that of the benign liver disease group (5.62% ± 6.38%,t=6.545,P < 0.000 1).With serum AFP-L3 level > 38.0 ng/mL as a critical value of primary liver cancer diagnosis,the sensitivity was 83.69%,and the specificity was 88.88%.For AFP-L3/AFP ratio > 10% as a critical value in primary liver cancer diagnosis,the sensitivity was 83.69%,and the specificity was 95.55%.When serum AFP-L3 level > 38.0 ng/mL and AFP-L3/AFP ratio > 7.5% were combined in primary liver cancer diagnosis

  13. 血清甲胎蛋白、a-L-岩藻糖苷酶、al-抗胰蛋白酶在原发性肝癌诊断中的应用%The application of serum alpha fetoprotein,a-L-fucosidase and alphao-antitrypsin detection in diagnosis of primary hepatic carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    权翠侠; 王庆国; 滕晓梅

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨甲胎蛋白(alpha fetoprotein,AFP)、a-L-岩藻糖苷酶(a-L-fucosidase,AFU)、al-抗胰蛋白酶(alphao-antitrypsin,AAT)在原发性肝癌(PHC)患者诊断中的应用价值.方法 选择126例原发性肝癌患者、397例良性肝病患者以及206名健康对照者,应用化学发光法测定AFP,新型CNPF(2-氯-4-硝基苯-a-L-岩藻吡喃糖苷)连续监测法测定AFU,速率散射比浊法测定AAT.结果 原发性肝癌组AFP、AFU、APT与良性肝痛组及健康对照组差异有显著性(P<0.01),单独检测对PHC诊断的阳性率分别为73.8%、85.7%、84.1%,三者联合检测可将PHC诊断阳性率提高到96%.结论 血清AFU、AAT、与AFP互为补充,联合检测可提高对PHC的诊断率.

  14. Diagnosis of abnormalities of fetal nervous system by using MRI imaging and detection of serum alpha-fetoprotein%MRI联合血清甲胎蛋白检测诊断胎儿神经系统异常的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张韶琼; 金松; 凌奕

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the value of MRI imaging and detection of serum alpha-fetoprotein in diagnosis of abnormalities of fetal nervous system. Methods Thirty pregnant women with normal nervous system and 30 pregnant women with abnormal nervous system by ultrasound and MRI in the Affiliated Hospital of Hainan Medical College from Juanurary 2011 o May 2012 were collected for AFP test. The pregnant women with abnormal nerous system by ultrasound were reexamined by using MRI. e results were compared. Results The levels of AFP in normal and abnormal fetus of nervous sstem were statistically differnet (P>0.05) The accurate diagbnosis rate, false positive rate and false negative rates of ultrasound and MRI in diagnosis of prenatal fetus were statistically different (x2=3.41-6.23, P< 0.05). There was no statistical difference in the rates of accurate diagnosis by MRI and MRI incombination with detection of alpha-fetoprotein.Conclusion MRI imaging technology is superior to ultrasound in diagnosis of fetus with abnormal nervous system as it can provide accuarte brain of the clinical application of fetal ultrasound is more advantages, and it can provide more accurate information of brain parenchyma and reduce misdiagnosis rate.and abortion rate%目的 显示MRI在诊断胎儿神经系统异常中的优势,及探讨MRI联合AFP在胎儿神经系统异常的价值.方法 对2011年1月~2012年5月在我院门诊及住院行产前胎儿B超及宫内MRI检查的孕妇,其中B超显示神经系统正常的有30例,B超提示神经系统异常的30例,两者均行血清AFP检查,B超提示异常的孕妇行MRI检查,对妊娠结局进行随访.比较分析B超、磁共振及磁共振联合血清甲胎蛋白检测对胎儿神经系统畸形诊断准确性.结果 (1)血清甲胎蛋白在正常胎儿与胎儿神经系统畸形的结果比较差异有统计学意义(P>0.05);(2)产前胎儿超声与核磁共振诊断准确率、假阳性率、假阴性比

  15. 三种肿瘤标志物联合检测在原发性肝细胞癌中的应用价值%Value of combined detection of α-L-fucosidase,sialie acid and alpha-fetoprotein for diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王娟; 刘寓; 李莲

    2011-01-01

    Aim To detect the serum concentrations of Alpha-fetoprotein(AFP),α-L-fucosidase(AFU)and sialic acid (SA)for diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma.Methods The levels of AFP,AFU and SA in 47 confirmed primary hepatocellular carninoma cases,45 cirrhosis cases and 42 healthy controls were determined with chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay.Results The diagnostic rate could enhanced by 97.87% through combined detection of the levels of AFP, AFU and SA.Conclusion The positive rate of diagnosis of primary hepatocellular carcinoma can obviously enhanced by joint detection of AFP, AFU and SA, and it is suitable for clinical application.%目的 探讨联合检测患者血清中的甲胎蛋白(AFP)、α-L-岩藻糖苷酶(AFU)以及唾液酸(SA)时原发性肝细胞癌(PHC)诊断的应用价值.方法 采用化学发光酶免疫法、速率法和分光光度法,分别检测原发性肝细胞癌患者、肝硬化和健康对照者的AFP、AFU和SA等三种肿瘤标志物的血清含量,并进行统计学分析.结果 AFP、AFU、SA 三者联合检测、可以将诊断率提高到97.87%.结论 三种肿瘤标志物AFP、α-L-AFU、SA多指标联合检测可显著提高原发性肝细胞癌(PHC)诊断阳性率,适宜于临床实验室推广应用.

  16. Feto portador de síndrome de turner e tetralogia de fallot associadas à elevação de alfafetoproteína materna Fetal turner syndrome and tetralogy of fallot associated with elevated maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Vieira Neto

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available A síndrome de Turner fetal e suas complicações, a hidropisia e o higroma cístico, podem produzir alteração dos marcadores bioquímicos de soro materno inicialmente utilizados no rastreamento de síndrome de Down e de defeitos de tubo neural (DTN. Os autores relatam o caso de uma gestante de 37 anos, que foi rastreada para síndrome de Down e DTN no início do 2º trimestre. Foi constatado aumento da alfafetoproteína de soro materno (MSAFP e o rastreamento foi considerado positivo para DTN. Foi realizado exame ultra-sonográfico tridimensional, que não demonstrou nenhuma anormalidade fetal ou placentária, caracterizando o caso como elevação idiopática de MSAFP. No 3º trimestre, a gravidez evoluiu com acentuada oligoidrâmnia e alteração do fluxo uteroplacentário, obrigando à instituição de terapia com corticosteróides e parto cesáreo na 34ª semana gestacional. O concepto do sexo feminino foi encaminhado à UTI neonatal, onde foram diagnosticadas tetralogia de Fallot e síndrome de Turner. Esse caso incentivou os autores a rever a literatura sobre marcadores bioquímicos de soro materno na síndrome de Turner e nas malformações cardíacas congênitas. Ao final, propõe-se um protocolo para elevação idiopática de MSAFP.Turner syndrome and its complications, hydrops and cystic hygroma, can produce alterations in maternal serum biochemical markers used in screening for Down's syndrome and neural tube defects (NTD. The authors report the case of a 37-year-old pregnant woman, screened for Down's syndrome and NTD in the second trimester of pregnancy. The maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP level was increased and the test was considered screen positive for NTD. A three-dimensional ultrasound investigation was performed, but no fetal or placental anomalies were found, indicating a case of unexplained increased msafp. In the third trimester severe oligohydramnios and disturbances in uteroplacental arterial circulation

  17. 血清甲胎蛋白异质体3测定在原发性肝癌早期筛查中作用%Value of serum alpha-fetoprotein detection in early screening of primary liver cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周云龙; 廖志军; 邓国孙; 丁罡

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the value of serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP-L3) in early screening of primary liver cancer. Methods Lentil lectin coupled with ( LCA) micro-centrifuge column was separated to obtain AFP-L3 from 116 cases of chronic liver disease and primary liver cancer .AFP before separation and AFP-L3 after separation were detected with chemoluminescence , and their levels were then calculated .Results Statistical differences could be seen in the average value of AFP-L3 between the patients with pri-mary liver cancer and patients with chronic liver disease (P<0.01).Conclusion The level detected with micro-centrifuge column was of importance in early screening of primary liver cancer .%目的:探讨血清甲胎蛋白异质体3(AFP-L3)在原发性肝癌早期筛查中的作用。方法以装有耦联小扁豆凝集素(LCA)的微量离心柱分离慢性肝病、原发性肝癌共116例患者AFP-L3,用化学发光方法检测分离前后AFP-L3,计算AFP-L3在AFP中的含量比例。结果原发性肝癌组AFP-L3含量比例均值[(36.89±2.13)%],与慢性肝病组[(7.45±2.32)%]相比差异有统计学意义( P<0.01)。结论微量离心柱法测定AFP-L3的含量在原发性肝癌的早期筛查中具有重要意义。

  18. RIA of alpha-fetoprotein in serum and amniotic fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An own modification of the double antibody radioimmunoassay for AFP using 125I-labelled AFP as a tracer, rabbit anti-AFP obtained from SEVAC, Prague and precipitating antibodies prepared by the authors is described. The AFP levels measured in the serum and the amniotic fluid using the method were in agreement with those obtained by the means of the AFPK RIA kit by SORIN in the Institute for the Care of Mother and Child in Prague. The AFP concentrations found in the cord serum and the amniotic fluid were confirmed also by the rocket electroimmunoassay according to Laurell. The described AFP RIA seems suitable for the clinical application in prenatal screening for congenital malformations, in difficult pregnancies, in hepatology and the diagnosis and the evaluation of therapy of some human malignancies. (author)

  19. Prognostic value of the content of lentil lectin-rcactive alpha-fetoprotein-L3 in early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma%甲胎蛋白异质体3含量对早期肝癌的预后价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯凯; 马宽生; 高峻; 刘念洲; 王曙光

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨甲胎蛋白异质体3(lentil lectin-reactive alpha-fetoprotein-L3,AFP-L3)的含量对早期肝癌的预后价值.方法 97例早期肝癌患者根据术前AFP和AFP-13的含量分为:(1)AFP阳性、AFP-L3阴性组(29例):AFP>20 μg/L & AFP-13<15%;(2)AFP-L3、AFP均低含量组(16例):15%≤AFP-L3≤50% & 20 μg/L≤AFP≤200 μg/L;(3)AFP-L3、AFP均高含量组(13例):AFP-L3>50% & AFP>200 μg/L;(4)AFP-L3高含量、AFP低含量组(24例):AFP-13>50%& 20 μg/L≤AFP≤200 μg/L;(5)AFP-L3低含量、AFP高含量组(15例):15%≤AFP-L3≤50% & AFP>200 μg/L.对各组患者的肿瘤分化程度、术后1、2、3年生存率和无瘤生存率进行分析.结果 AFP-13阴性患者的肿瘤分化程度、术后3年生存率和无瘤牛存率明显优于AFP-L3阳性患者(χ2=21.051,10.043,4.450,6.977,25.566,P<0.05).AFP-L3高含量组患者的肿瘤分化程度、术后1、2、3年生存率和无瘤生存率明显低于低含量组(χ2=7.938,3.488,9.085,P<0.05).结论 AFP-L3含量的增高提示肿瘤恶性程度高,预后不良,尤其是AFP水平低时.手术前后检测AFP-L3含量对于患者预后的评价具有指导意义.%Objective To explore the prognostic value of the content of lentil lectin-reactive alphafetoprotein-L3(AFP-L3)in early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC).Methods According to the content of alpha.fetoprotein(AFP)and AFP-L3 before the treatment,97 patients with early-stage HCC were divided into group A(AFP>20 μg/L & AFP-L3<15%,n=29),group B(15%≤AFP-13≤50% & 20 μg/L≤AFP≤200 μg/L,n=16),group C(AFP-13>50%& AFP>200 μg/L,n=13),group D(AFP-L3>50% & 20 μg/L≤AFP≤200 μg/L,n=24)and group E(15%≤AFP-L3≤50%& AFP>200 μg/L,n=15).The degree of tumor differentiation,the 1-,2-,3-year survival rates and tumor-free survival rates of the patients were analyzed.Results The degree of tumor differentiation.3-year survival rate and tumor-free survival rate of patients in group A were significantly higher than

  20. The diagnostic value of des-gamma-carboxyprothrombin and alpha-fetoprotein in primary hepatocellular carcinoma%去γ-羧基凝血酶原、甲胎蛋白在原发性肝细胞癌中的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高明军; 陈洪; 陆枫林; 朱家沂

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨肿瘤标志物去γ-羧基凝血酶原(des-γ-carboxy prothrombin,DCP)、甲胎蛋白(alpha-fetoprotein,AFP)联合检测对原发性肝细胞癌(hepatocellular carcinoma,HCC)的诊断价值.方法:172例研究对象分为正常对照组25例、慢性肝炎组20例、肝硬化组51例及HCC组76例,酶联免疫法(ELISA)测定血清DCP浓度,电化学发光免疫法(ECLIA)测定血清AFP浓度,应用Logistic回归、ROC曲线对DCP、AFP、两者联合检测结果进行分析评价.结果:(1)正常对照组、慢性肝炎组、肝硬化组及HCC组DCP平均浓度分别为(17.72±9.59)、(26.12±12.64)、(37.45±18.26)和(806.71±639.79) mAU/mL,DCP浓度在4组间呈递增趋势(P<0.05),且HCC组DCP浓度显著高于其他3组(P<0.01).正常对照组、慢性肝炎组、肝硬化组及HCC组AFP平均浓度分别为(7.93±5.42)、(14.59±11.91)、(16.29±14.10)和(547.47±544.98) ng/mL,HCC组AFP浓度明显高于其他3组(P<0.01).(2)DCP、AFP单独诊断HCC的ROC曲线下面积(AUROC)分别为0.891、0.813,DCP综合诊断效能优于AFP (P< 0.05);通过Logistic回归模型形成的联合预测因子(combining predictors,Comb)为分析指标,DCP、AFP联合检测时AUROC为0.932,优于DCP或AFP单独检测(P<0.05).(3)通过ROC曲线确定DCP、AFP及Comb诊断HCC的最佳界定值分别为73.35 mAU/mL、35.38 ng/mL、0.28,此时具有较高的灵敏度和特异度.结论:DCP对我国HCC患者具有较好的诊断价值,运用Logistic回归、ROC曲线及诊断界定值综合分析DCP、AFP对HCC进行诊断,大大提高了诊断效能.%Objective This study aimed to investigate the diagnostic values of the combined detection of the serum levels of des-gamma-carboxyprothrombin (DCP) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in patients' with hepatocellular carcinoma. Methods Serum levels of DCP and AFP were measured in 76 patients with HCC, 51 patients with liver cirrhosis, 20 chronic hepatitis patients and 25 healthy subjects using enzyme-linked immunosorbent

  1. The alpha-fetoprotein enhancer region activates the albumin and alpha-fetoprotein promoters during liver development

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Lin; Long, Lingyun; Green, Michael A.; Spear, Brett T.

    2009-01-01

    The four members of the albumin gene family encode the serum transport proteins albumin, α-fetoprotein, α-albumin, and vitamin D-binding protein. These genes are transcribed primarily in the liver with each having a different pattern of developmental expression. The tight linkage of these genes, particularly that of albumin, α-fetoprotein and α-albumin, and their liver-specific expression, has led to the suggestion that these genes share common regulatory elements. To directly examine whether...

  2. Diagnostic Value of Des-gamma Carboxyprothrombin(DCP), Lectin-bound AFP(AFP-L3) and Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) Expression in Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma%DCP、AFP-L3和AFP在原发性肝细胞癌诊断中的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付水; 齐娟飞; 朱海燕; 祁志荣; 陈红艳

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the alone and joint diagnostic value of des-gamma carboxyprothrombin (DCP) , lectin-bound AFP(AFP-13) and alpha-fetoprotein(AFP) in primary hepatocellular carcinoma, and provide a novel method for diagnosis for PHC and screening for high risk population. Methods The levels of serum DCP,AFP-L3 and AFP were measured in 53 patients with hepa-tocellular carcinoma, 51 cases of cirrhosis, 60 cases of chronic hepatitis, 52 normal healthy subjects established as control group, and analyse the result statistically. Results The levels of serum DCP,AFP-L3 and AFP were significantly higher in the hepatocellular carcinoma than those in other groups. The diagnostic sensitivities of DCP,AFP-I3 and AFP to hepatocellular carcinoma were 77.36% , 69.81% and 60.38% respectively, the specificity were 89.57% , 88.34% and 77.91% , individually. The joint detection could improve sensitivity up to 94.34%. Conclusion DCP was a high sensitivity and specificity marker for diagnosis of PHC. The combined assay of serum tumor markers possess more value in the diagnosis of PHC, especially in AFP negative patients.%目的:探讨血清中脱γ一羧基凝血酶原(DCP)、甲胎蛋白异质体(AFP-L3)和甲胎蛋白(AFP)对原发性肝细胞癌(PHC)单独和联合诊断的意义,为PHC诊治提供一种新方法,以及对高危人群作筛选.方法:采集 53 例PHC、51 例肝硬化、60 例慢性肝炎和 52 例健康对照者的血清分别检测 DCP、AFP-L3 和 AFP,并对其统计分析.结果:PHC患者的 DCP、AFP-L3 和 AFP 均显著高于肝硬化、慢性肝炎和健康对照者,DCP、AFP-L3 和 AFP在PHC组中的灵敏度分别为 77.36 %、69.8 1% 和60.38 %,特异性分别为89.57 %、88.34 % 和 77.91 %.三者联检时,其诊断的敏感度可提高至 94.34 %.结论:DCP 对PHC诊断具有较好的敏感度和特异性,联检DCP、AFP-L3和AFP可有效提高PHC尤其是AFP阴性PHC的诊断效率,对PHC的早期诊治具有一定指导意义.

  3. 联合检测甲胎蛋白、α-岩藻糖苷酶、β2-微球蛋白及透明质酸对诊断原发性肝癌的意义%Significance of combined detection of alpha fetoprotein, alpha fucosidase, beta 2-microglobulin and hyaluronic acid in the diagnosis of primary liver cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶宏

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨联合检测甲胎蛋白(AFP)、α-岩藻糖苷酶(AFU)、β2-微球蛋白(β2-m)及透明质酸(HA)对诊断原发性肝癌的意义.方法 选取2012年3月~ 2014年3月在我院治疗的原发性肝癌患者60例、其他消化系癌症患者50例、肝硬化患者50例及正常健康人60例,检测所有患者血清AFP、AFU、β2-m及HA水平.结果 原发性肝癌组患者血清AFU、AFP、β2-m、HA水平及阳性检出率明显高于其他消化系癌症组、肝硬化组及正常对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).原发性肝癌组患者血清AFU、AFP、β2-m、HA四项联合检测的敏感性、诊断符合率均优于单项检测,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 联合检测AFU、AFP、β2-m、HA四种肿瘤标志物能提高早期原发性肝癌的敏感性和诊断率,为临床早期诊治提供可靠参考.%Objective To investigate the significance of combined detection of alpha fetoprotein (AFP), alpha fucosidase (AFU), beta 2-microglobulin (β2-m) and hyaluronic acid (HA) in the diagnosis of primary liver cancer. Methods 60 patients with primary liver cancer, 50 cases of other digestive system cancer, 50 patients with hepatic cirrhosis and 60 normal people from 2012 March to 2014 March in our hospital were selected,and serum AFP, AFU, β2-m and HA levels of all patients were detected.Results The levels and positive rates of serum AFP, AFU, β2-m and HA of patients with primary liver cancer were significantly higher than those of patients with other digestive system cancer, liver cirrhosis and normal people, the difference was statiscally significant (P<0.05). The sensitivity and diagnostic accordance rate of combined detection of serum AFU, AFU, β2-m and HA in patients with primary liver cancer were better than those of the single detection, the difference was statiscally significant (P<0.05). Conclusion Combined detection of AFP, AFU, β2-m and HA four tumor markers can improve the sensitivity and diagnosis rate of

  4. 采用ROC曲线评价a-L-岩藻糖苷酶,5-核苷酸酶,甲胎蛋白在肝癌诊断、预后预测中的价值%Study on using ROC curve evaluation ofα-L-fucosidase,5'-nucleo tidase and alpha fetoprotein diagnostic and predictive value in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘慧敏; 刘平

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨 a-L-岩藻糖苷酶(AFU)、5-核苷酸酶(5’-NT)、甲胎蛋白(AFP)检测对原发性肝癌(PHC)的诊断价值。方法肝癌患者(肝癌组)40例,手术后6个月,根据肝癌是否复发,分为复发组和非复发组。另入选健康体检者(对照组)60例,测定3组 AFU、5’-NT、AFP 水平,应用受试者工作曲线(ROC)评估三者对肝癌的诊断和预测价值。结果 AFU、5’-NT 和 AFP 在肝癌组和对照组间比较差异均有统计学意义。AFU、5’-NT 和 AFP 3种指标单独检测时,ROC 曲线下面积分别为0.904,0.870,0.866。手术前以及手术后复发组 AFU 浓度均高于非复发组。手术前以及手术后复发组5’-NT 浓度与非复发组相比差异无统计学意义。手术后复发组 AFP 血清浓度高于非复发组,手术前复发组 AFP 血清浓度与非复发组相比差异无统计学意义。结论通过 ROC 曲线评价,检测 AFU 和5’-NT两种指标可用于对 PHC 的诊断,AFU 可以用于肝癌预后的预测。%Objective To explore the diagnosis value of α-L-fucosidase (AFU),5'-nucleo tidase (5 ’-NT)and alpha fetoprotein (AFP)detection in patients with primary hepatic carcinoma(PHC).Methods The study involved 40 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma as experimental group and 60 cases of physical examination as control group, using ROC curve to make a comparative analysis.The patients with hepatocellular carcinoma who experienced surgical treatment were followed up for average six months.The patients were divided into relapse group and non-recurrent group,to AFU,5-NT,AFP levels were detected to assess the predictive value.Results The level of AFU,5’-NT and AFP in PHC group were higher than those in control group (P <0.05).The area under the ROC curve for the three indexes were 0.904,0.870 and 0.866,respectively.The concentrations of AFU in preoperative and postoperative detection were significantly higher than those of non-recurrent group.However,5 - NT

  5. Value of early alpha fetoprotein detection in predicting prognosis of patients with drug-induced liver injury%早期甲胎蛋白测定对药物性肝损害患者转归的预测价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈琰; 汤紫荣; 曹艳菊; 屈昌民; 梁淑文; 房慧; 胡瑾华

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical significance of early alpha fetoprotein (AFP) detection in predicting prognosis of patients with drug-induced liver injury (DILI).Methods Clinical data of 160 DILI patients who were admitted to 302th Hospital of Chinese People's Liberation Army from July 2011 to July 2014 were retrospectively analyzed.According to the levels of AFP within 1 week after admittion,the patients were divided into high AFP group (AFP≥20 μg/L,80 cases) and normal group (AFP <20 μg/L,80 cases).The AFP and liver function were measured.Results There were no statistical differences in sex,average age,alanine aminotransferase(ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) between high AFP group and normal group (P > 0.05).However,high AFP group showed higher level of AFP,total bilirubin and total hospitalization days compared with those in normal group[82(45,153) ng/L vs 9(3,20) ng/L,(173 ±25) μmol/L vs (70 ± 15) μmol/L,(22.3 ± 1.8) d vs (11.6 ± 1.2) d] (P < 0.01).In high AFP group the incidence of severe case was 22.5 % (18/80),statistically higher than that in normal group [1.3 % (1/80)] (P < 0.01).Conclusions High level of AFP in early stage indicates severe inflammation and poor prognosis,which may be used as an important marker for assessing the liver injury and predicting the prognosis in patients with DILI.%目的 探讨早期甲胎蛋白水平测定对药物性肝损害(DILI)转归的预测价值.方法 纳入2011年7月至2014年7月解放军第三○二医院诊断为DILI的住院患者160例,根据入院后1周内初次甲胎蛋白检测值将其分为甲胎蛋白增高组(甲胎蛋白≥20 μg/L)和甲胎蛋白正常组(甲胎蛋白<20μg/L),每组80例.对2组患者进行生存预后分析.结果 甲胎蛋白增高组和甲胎蛋白正常组年龄、性别、丙氨酸转氨酶、碱性磷酸酶比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);甲胎蛋白、总胆红素及住院时间比较,差异有统计学意义[82(45,153) ng/L比9

  6. 甲胎蛋白对耐药基因MDR1表达及肝癌细胞化疗敏感性的影响%Influence of alpha-fetoprotein on the expression of drug-resistance gene MDR1 and chemotherapeutic sensitivity in hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴超; 杨健; 张金玲; 金涛; 何前进; 李常海

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the influence of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) on the expression of drug-resistance gene MDR1 and chemotherapeutic sensitivity in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells.Methods A HCC cell line SMMC-7721/AFP, which was stably transfected with AFP gene, was established.mRNA and protein expressions of AFP and MDR1 were detected by real-time PCR and Western Blot,respectively.The sensitivity of SMMC-7721/AFP and SMMC-7721/EGFP cells with or without MDR1 silencing by siRNA to doxorubicin was tested by MTT assay.Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of MDR1 genes-coded protein Pgp in 60 cases of HCC tissues, and the relationship between Pgp expression and serum AFP levels was analyzed.Results AFP mRNA and protein could be detected in SMMC-7721/AFP cells, but not in control cells, indicating that the AFP stably transfected cell line was successfully established.MDR1 mRNA and protein levels were higher in SMMC-7721/AFP cells than those in SMMC-7721/EGFP cells.MDR1 mRNA level in SMMC-7721/AFP cells was (52.7 ± 1.5) times as high as that in SMMC-7721/EGFP cells (P < 0.05).The resistance to doxorubicin was increased by (12.8 ± 1.1) times after AFP transfection (P < 0.05).The chemosensitivity to doxorubicin was increased after the expression of MDR1 was knocked down by siRNA.The expression of Pgp in HCC tissues was positively correlated with the serum AFP levels.Conclusion AFP could induce drug-resistance to doxorubicin in HCC cells by increasing the expression of MDR1.%目的 探讨甲胎蛋白(AFP)对耐药基因MDR1表达和肝癌细胞化疗敏感性的影响.方法 建立稳定表达AFP的肝癌细胞系SMMC-7721/AFP,分别通过Real-time PCR和蛋白印迹检测转染前后AFP和MDR1的表达.MTT法测定SMMC-7721/AFP和SMMC-7721/EGFP细胞对阿霉素的化疗敏感性.siRNA沉默SMMC-7721/AFP细胞中MDR1的表达,观察细胞对阿霉素化疗敏感性的变化.采用免疫组织化学染色法检测60例肝癌组织中MDR1编码蛋

  7. Diagnostic value of alpha fetoprotein (AFP),α-L-fucosidase(AFU) and carbohydrate antigen 199 (CA199)combined detection in early stage orimary hepatocellular carcinoma (PHC)%AFP、AFU、CA199联合检测对早期原发性肝癌的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓爱红; 彭燕华; 周少雄; 沈永坚; 肖海萍; 何彩云; 林经良

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨肿瘤标志物甲胎蛋白(AFP)、α-L-岩藻糖苷酶(AFU)、糖类抗原199(CA199)对早期原发性肝癌(primary carcinoma of the liver,PHC)联合检测的诊断价值。方法:选取2013年1月到2014年5月佛山市第二人民医院肝科门诊初诊患者,通过病史、症状和查体拟诊为疑似PHC患者,再采用诊断金标准将疑似患者(研究对象)确诊分为PHC(48例)和非PHC(76例),所有研究对象均检测血清AFP、AFU和CA199,检测AFP和CA199采用化学发光法,检测AFU采用全自动生化仪器法,采用循证检验医学的方法统计各诊断价值性能指标。结果:PHC组患者AFP、AFU和CA199水平较非PHC组非常显著升高(P<0.01)。单一指标AFP、AFU和CA199检测PHC的诊断灵敏度分别为74.3%、51.4%、51.4%。单一指标AFP、AFU和CA199检测PHC的诊断特异性分别为82.4%、94.1%、94.1%。3指标并联灵敏度最高,为86.4%,其漏检率为13.6%。3指标串联和AFU/CA199串联特异性最高,约为96.5%,其误诊率为3.5%。结论:3指标并联是最佳PHC筛查联合指标,AFU和CA199串联是最佳PHC确诊联合指标。%Objective:To investigate the diagnostic value of the alpha fetoprotein (AFP), α-L- fucosidase(AFU), carbohydrate antigen 199 (CA199) and their combinations in Early Stage Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma (PHC). Methods:Selected the Hepatological outpatients at their first visit to the second people’s hospital of Foshan from January,2013 to May,2014.Suspicious PHC patients were diagnosed by medical history, symptoms and physical check,and suspicious PHC patients were classified into PHC patients(n=48) and non-PHC patients(n=76) following the diagnosed gold criteria.The concentration of AFP and CA199 was determined by Chemiluminescence method.The concentration of AFU were determined by full automatic biochemical instrument.The assessed parameters of diagnostic value were measured using the evidence-based laboratory

  8. Construction of lentiviral vectors carrying small interference RNA of alpha-fetoprotein gene and its efficiency of target gene silencing%携带甲胎蛋白基因小干扰RNA慢病毒载体的构建及其对靶基因的沉默效率

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程木华; 李建芳; 张峰; 曾凤伟; 谢良骏

    2012-01-01

    Objective To construct lentiviral vectors carrying small interference RNA (siRNA) of alpha-fetoprotein(AFP) followed by transfection into hepatocellular carcinoma cells and to assess the efficiency of AFP gene silencing.Methods The AFP-specific positive siRNA and non-specific negative siRNA were designed and constructed prior to insertion to the recombinant lentiviral vectors carrying green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene.This was followed by transfection into human hepatocellular carcinoma cells HepG2 and subsequent screening of cell strains with GFP expression,and were assigned into lentivirustransfected positive siRNA group and lentivirus-transfected negative siRNA group respectively.Furthermore,liposome-transfected positive siRNA group,liposome-transfected negative siRNA group,siRNA group which treated with AFP siRNA but without transfection reagent,and blank control group were established simultaneously.The efficiency of transfection was assessed under fluorescent microscope,and the relative expression of AFP mRNA and protein in HepG2 cells was determined via fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting assay.In addition,the inhibition rate of AFP gene expression was compared among all groups.Results Lentiviral vectors were associated with effective transfection of siRNA into HepG2 cells.The siRNA transfected with lentivirus yielded considerably higher inhibition rate of AFP mRNA than that with liposomes,as evidenced by fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (92.1%vs 74.3%,P<0.05).Immunoblotting assay showed that higher inhibition rate of AFP protein was in favor of siRNA transfected with lentivirus,but not with liposomes (88.2% vs 63.7%,P<0.05).Conclusion AFP siRNA transfected with lentivirus is associated with more effective inhibition of AFP expression in HepG2 cells.%目的 构建携带甲胎蛋白(AFP)基因小干扰RNA(siRNA)的慢病毒载体并转染肝癌细胞,评价其

  9. The clinical significance of alpha-fetoprotein, human chorionic gonadotropin and unconjugated estriol in perinatal screening%甲胎蛋白、人绒毛膜促性腺激素及非结合雌三醇在产前筛查中的临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞春玉; 吴学礼

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨甲胎蛋白、人绒毛膜促性腺激素及非结合雌三醇在产前筛查中的临床意义。方法:选取我院2014年12月至2015年6月孕周为15~20周的妊娠孕妇血清标本2070例,予以产前甲胎蛋白、人绒毛膜促性腺激素及非结合雌三醇的检测,并且结合孕妇的年龄、孕周、体质量等因素,运用配套的仪器产前筛查风险软件统计唐氏综合症、18–三体综合征及神经管缺陷的风险比例,予以高危孕妇做详细确诊,并依据随访与诊断结果比较高危组与低危组甲胎蛋白、人绒毛膜促性腺激素、非结合雌三醇水平,及出生缺陷阳性确诊率,产前筛查孕妇的年龄分布与出生缺陷的筛查阳性率。结果:高危组甲胎蛋白水平显著高于低危组[(28.74±1.35) vs.(6.93±1.20)μg/L],人绒毛膜促性腺激素水平显著高于低危组[(2.43±0.37) vs.(1.76±0.25) ng/L],非结合雌三醇水平明显低于低危组[(5.35±1.23) vs.(7.26±1.14)μg/L],两组比较差异明显(P35岁孕妇(26.24%);高危组孕妇出生缺陷总确诊阳性率(7.14%)明显高于低危孕妇(0.21%),两组比较差异显著。结论:甲胎蛋白、人绒毛膜促性腺激素及非结合雌三醇产前筛查能够有效筛查出生缺陷的概率,达到优生,值得推广运用。%Objective: To investigate the clinical signiifcance of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) and unconjugated estriol (uE3) in perinatal screening.Methods: Selected 2 070 serum samples in pregnant women with gestational age of 15~20 weeks from December 2014 to June 2015 in our hospital, detected AFP, HCG and uE3 in prenatal testing, and combining with the age, gestational age, body weight and other factors, counted the riskratio of Down syndrome, trisomy 18 and the proportion of risk of neural tube defects by supporting instrument risk prenatal screening sotfware to diagnose in detail for high-risk women, and compared

  10. 甲胎蛋白与异常凝血酶原在鉴别诊断肝细胞癌中的价值%Alpha-fetoprotein and des-gamma-carboxyprothrombin in the differential diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma from other liver tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪文斌; 肖年军; 罗英; 刘哲; 张宁; 孔哲; 卢实春

    2016-01-01

    目的 评估术前血清甲胎蛋白(AFP)与异常凝血酶原(DCP)在肝脏肿瘤患者中鉴别肝细胞癌的价值.方法 选取2015年1月1日至2015年5月1日解放军总医院肝胆外科收治的影像学检查证实为肝脏肿瘤的患者141例.检测患者术前血清甲胎蛋白及异常凝血酶原浓度.以病理结果或临床诊断标准(射频消融及介入栓塞治疗患者)为金标准,绘制受试者工作特征曲线并分析AFP及DCP在肝脏肿瘤患者中鉴别肝细胞癌的价值.结果 141例肝脏肿瘤患者中肝细胞癌98例,非肝细胞癌43例(包括肝内胆管细胞癌16例、肝血管瘤12例、转移性肝癌10例、局灶性结节增生3例、炎性假瘤2例).肝细胞癌组患者术前甲胎蛋白显著高于非肝细胞癌组患者[80.0(3.9~1 375.0) μg/L比2.1(1.6 ~3.2) μg/L,Z=6.98,P<0.01];肝细胞癌组患者术前异常凝血酶原显著高于非肝细胞癌组患者[141.5(24.0~978.0) AU/L比19.0(14.0 ~ 25.5) AU/L,Z=5.18,P<0.01].AFP及DCP在肝脏肿瘤患者诊断肝细胞癌的受试者工作曲线下面积(AUROC)分别为0.87(95% CI:0.81 ~0.93)及0.78(95% CI:0.69 ~0.86)(截断值分别为3.6 μg/L及35 AU/L),二者差异无统计学意义(Z=1.72,P=0.085).以20 μg/L为AFP的临界值,其诊断肝细胞癌的灵敏度为56.1%,特异度为95.4%;以40 AU/L为DCP的临界值,其灵敏度为69.4%,特异度为83.7%.在肝细胞癌患者,AFP与DCP两者检测结果相关(x2=9.12,P<0.01),相关系数r=0.292.二者联合检测(平行试验)诊断肝细胞癌的灵敏度为79.6%,特异度为81.4%.结论 DCP是肝细胞癌的有效肿瘤标志物.在肝脏肿瘤患者,DCP与AFP鉴别肝细胞癌患者能力类似;联合DCP与AFP检测有助于提高诊断灵敏度,减少漏诊.尽管肝细胞癌的诊断主要依据影像学检查,但在肿瘤影像学表现不典型时,肿瘤标志物有助于肝细胞癌的诊断.%Objective To compare the clinical utility of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and

  11. 南昌地区妊娠14~20周妇女血清甲胎蛋白和游离绒毛膜促性腺激素的MOM值测定及临床应用%Detection and clinical application of MOM values of serum alpha-fetoprotein and free human chorionic gonadotropin in pregnant women during 14~20 gestational weeks in Nanchang region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖华; 刘艳秋; 刘淮

    2011-01-01

    目的:运用计算出的AFP及F-βHCG的MOM值与目前采用的MOM值对孕妇进行胎儿神经管缺陷畸形及唐氏综合征筛查,期待能更有效地筛查出南昌地区胎儿神经管缺陷及唐氏综合征高危孕妇.方法:依据2005~2007年到江西省妇幼保健院产前诊断门诊就诊的孕妇各孕周AFP、F-βHCG的中位数,计算出AFP、F-βHCG的MOM值,用计算出的MOM值(研究组)和目前采用的MOM值(对照组)分别对2008年来该院产前诊断门诊就诊的孕妇进行胎儿神经管缺陷畸形及唐氏综合征筛查,对筛查出的高危孕妇进行羊水检测和随访,比较两种MOM值对胎儿神经管缺陷畸形和唐氏综合征筛查的阳性率、假阴性率及假阳性率.结果:神经管缺陷畸形、唐氏综合征阳性率研究组高于对照组,具有统计学意义(P<0.01);假阴性率研究组与对照组比较,结果无统计学意义;假阳性率研究组较对照组降低,结果具有统计学意义,(神经管缺陷畸形P<0.05,唐氏综合征P<0.01).结论:应用本地区MOM值进行神经管缺陷畸形及唐氏综合征筛查,能更有效地筛查出本地区的神经管缺陷畸形及唐氏综合征胎儿.%Objective: To screen fetal neural tube defect and Down's syndrome by calculated MOM values and values currently used of serum alpha - fetoprotein (AFP) and free β human chorionic gonadotropin (F - β HCG) in pregnant women, in order to screen out the high risk pregnant women of fetal neural tube defect and Down's syndrome in Nanchang region.Methods: The MOM values of AFP and F - β HCG were calculated according to the medians of AFP and F - β HCG in pregnant women of different gostational weeks who visited the prenatal diagnosis outpatient of the hospital from 2005 to 2007, then the calculated MOM values ( study group) and the MOM values currently used ( control group) were used to screen fetal neural tube defect and Down's syndrome among the pregnant women who visited the prenatal

  12. The diagnostic value of alpha-fetoprotein, α-L-fucosidase,gamma-glutamyltransferase, alkaline phosphatase and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 in the diagnosis of primary hepatocellular carcinoma%甲胎蛋白、α-L-岩藻糖苷酶、γ-谷氨酰转移酶、碱性磷酸酶及糖类抗原19-9联合检测在原发性肝癌中的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘倩雄

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the diagnostic value of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP),α-L-fucosidase(AFU),gamma-glutamyltransferase(GGT),alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and carbohydrate antigen 19-9(CA19-9) in the diagnosis of primary hepatocellular carcinoma(PHC).Methods Seventy-eight PHC patients as PHC group,76 patients with other liver diseases as other liver diseases group and 60 healthy volunteers as control group.The level of serum AFP,AFU,GGT,ALP,CA19-9 and positive rate in each group were compared.Results The level of AFP,AFU,GGT,ALP,CA19-9 in PHC group were (276.3 ±72.6)μg/L,(63.1 ± 11.7) U/L,(268.5 ±57.2) U/L,(293.4 ±61.7) U/L and (56.9 ± 12.5) μg/L,in other liver diseases group were (81.6 ± 12.1) μg/L,(28.3 ±7.3) U/L,(54.9 ±7.8) U/L,(116.5 ± 23.8) U/L and (27.8 7.1) μ g/L,in control group were (13.8 ± 2.7) μ g/L,(12.6 ± 3.9) U/L,(12.3 ± 3.2) U/L,(47.2 ± 11.3) U/L and (12.9 ± 3.4) μ g/L.The level of above index in PHC group and other liver diseases group were significantly higher than those in control group,while the level of above index in PHC group were significantly higher than those in other liver diseases group (P < 0.01 or < 0.05).The positive rate of AFP,AFU,GGT,ALP,CA19-9 in PHC group were 62.8%(49/78),79.5%(62/78),83.3% (65/78),85.9% (67/78),66.7% (52/78),and significantly higher than those in other liver diseases group[31.6%(24/76),32.9%(25/76),27.6%(21/76),22.4%(17/76),15.8 %(12/76)].The positive rate of AFP in control group was 0,the positive rate of AFU,GGT,ALP,CA19-9 in control group were 1.7% (1/60),3.3% (2/60),1.7% (1/60),8.3% (5/60),which significantly lower than those in other two groups.The positive rate of combined detection in PHC group was 100.0%(78/78),which significantly higher than that in other liver diseases group [40.8%(31/76)] and control group[8.3%(5/60)](P< 0.01).Conclusion The combined detection of AFP,AFU,GGT,ALP,CA19-9 in PHC diagnosis has a higher sensitivity,and thus to make

  13. Heat shock protein 70 chaperoned alpha-fetoprotein in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line BEL-7402

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Ping Wang; Qiao-Xia Wang; Hai-Yan Li; Rui-Fen Chen

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the interaction between heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and α-fetoprotein (AFP) in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell line BEL7402.METHODS: The expression and localization of HSP70 and AFP in human HCC cell line BEL-7402 were determined by immunocytochemistry and indirect immunofluorescence cytochemical staining. The interaction between HSP70 and AFP in HCC cells was analyzed by immunoprecipitation and Western blot.RESULTS: Immunocytochemical staining detection showed that HCC cell BEL-7402 expressed a high level of HSP70 and AFP synchronously. Both were stained in cell plasma.AFP existed in the immunoprecipitate of anti-HSP70 mAb,while there was HSP70 in the immunoprecipitate of antiAFP mAb.CONCLUSION: HSP70 chaperones AFP in human HCCcell BEL-7402. The interaction between HSP70 and AFP in human HCC cell can be a new route to study the pathogenesis and immunotherapy of HCC.

  14. Antitumor immunity induced by DNA vaccine encoding alpha-fetoprotein/heat shock protein 70

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Ping Wang; Guo-Zhen Liu; Ai-Li Song; Hai-Yan Li; Yu Liu

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To construct a DNA vaccine encoding human alphafetoprotein (hAFP)/heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), and to study its ability to induce specific CTL response and its protective effect against AFP-expressing tumor.METHODS: A DNA vaccine was constructed by combining hAFP gene with HSP70 gene. SP2/0 cells were stably transfected with pBBS212-hAFP and pBBS212-hAFP/HSP70eukaryotic expression vectors. Mice were primed and boosted with DNA vaccine hAFP/HSP70 by intramuscular injection, whereas plasmid with hAFP or HSP70 was used as controls. ELISPOT and ELISA were used to detect IFN-γ-producing splenocytes and the level of serum anti-AFP antibody from immunized mice respectively. In vivo tumor challenge was measured to assess the immune effect of the DNA vaccine.RESULTS: By DNA vaccine immunization, the results of ELISPOT and ELISA showed that the number of IFN-γ-producing splenocytes and the level of serum anti-AFP antibody were significantly higher in rhAFP/HSP70 group than in hAFP and empty plasmid groups (95.50±10.90IFN-γ spots/106 cells vs 23.60±11.80 IFN-γ spots/106 cells,7.17±4.24 IFN-γ spots/106 cells, P<0.01; 126.50±8.22 μg/mL vs 51.72±3.40 μg/mL, 5.83±3.79 μg/mL, P<0.01). The tumor volume in rhAFP/HSP70 group was significantly smaller than that in pBBS212-hAFP and empty plasmid groups (37.41±7.34 mm3 vs381.13±15.48 mm3, 817.51±16.25 mm3,P<0.01).CONCLUSION: Sequential immunization with a recombinant DNA vaccine encoding AFP and heat shock protein70 could generate effective AFP-specific T cell responses and induce definite antitumor effects on AFP-producing tumors, which may be suitable for some clinical testing as a vaccine for HCC.

  15. Pregnant women's attitudes for accepting or declining a serum-alpha-fetoprotein test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandén, M L; Bjurulf, P

    1988-01-01

    This study analyzes attitudes which influence women in their decisions to accept or decline a serum-Alpha-FetoProtein (se-AFP) test. The survey covers all women who have visited antenatal clinics offering the se-AFP test in a given area during a specified period. All in all, the pregnant women answered four questionnaires: three before and one after delivery. 19% of the women declined the se-AFP test. During pregnancy, the women who did not take the se-AFP test said that the reason was anxiety about the results of the test. Many of the women who took the test said that they wanted assurance that the child was healthy. This entails obvious ethical problems when the test is positive. The test-routine does not have a major influence in the decision-making process. A change in routines to shorten the waiting time, and a different cut-off line might influence some of the declining women to accept the test.

  16. Effects of alpha fetoprotein on escape of Bel 7402 cells from attack of lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Involvement of AFP against apoptosis of tumor cell has been implicated in its evasion of immune surveillance. However, the molecular events of immune escape mechanisms are still unknown. The major observations reported here relate to a possible mechanism by which heptoloma Bel 7402 cells escape immune surveillance in vitro. Western blotting and a well-characterized cofocal scanning image were performed to analyze the expression of Fas/FasL and caspase-3 in co-cultured Bel 7402 and Jurkat cells. After co-culture with Jurkat cells, up-regulated Fas and reduced FasL expression could be observed. Treatment with AFP could remarkably inhibit the elevated Fas and, whereas, induce the FasL expression in co-cultured Bel 7402 cells. Cells co-culture could induce the expression of caspase-3 in both cells line. The elevated caspase-3 in Bel 7402 cells was abolished following the treatment of AFP. The expression of caspase-3 was elevated in co-cultured Jurkat cells treated with AFP. No detectable change on the expression of survivin was examined in both cells line. Monoclonal antibody against AFP treatment alone did not obviously influence the growth of cells, as well as the expression of Fas/FasL and caspase-3. However, the effect of AFP could be blocked by antibody. our results provide evidence that AFP could promote the escape of liver cancer cells from immune surveillance through blocking the caspase signal pathway of tumor cells and triggering the Fas/FasL interaction between tumor cells and lymphocytes

  17. [Alpha fetoprotein and neonatal jaundice. Contribution to the study of a physiopathologic mechanism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourne, C E; Brettes, J P; Guez, G; Ritter, J; Gandar, R

    1977-01-01

    The increase in the maternal plasma A.F.P. level is due to an hypoxia of the foetus. The prospective study of 851 single pregnancies shows that there is a significant rise in the A.F.P. levels during the last days of the pregnancy if the babies are going to exhibit a so-called physiological jaundice at birth: the decrease of the A.F.P. levels in these cases is four times slower than in normal cases. The prospective study of another group of 404 pregnancies gave the same results for the A.F.P. level of the blood of the umbilical cord. Statistical analysis showed that the pathological conditions capable of increasing the A.F.P. levels are related to neo-natal jaundice. The neo-natal jaundice may be due to a factor of foetal hypoxia capable of inducing an over stimulation of the foetal erythropoiesis. The results of this mechanism would be a quantitative disequilibrium between an increased hemolysis and a reduced bilirubine fixation capacity during the neo-natal period.

  18. Downregulation of alpha-fetoprotein siRNA inhibits proliferation of SMMC-7721 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun-Shan Wang; Xiao-Li Ma; Tong-Gang Qi; Xiang-Dong Liu; Yue-Sheng Meng; Guang-Ju Guan

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To study the function of α-fetoprotein (AFP) in SMMC-7721 hepatoma cells.METHODS: A hairpin siRNA expressing plasmid pSilencer3.0-H1-afp was constructed and transfected into SMMC-7721 cells with Lipofectamine 2000. The expression of AFP was monitored by real-time RT-PCR and immunoassays, its effect on SMMC-7721 cell proliferation and cell death was detected by MTT and fluorescenceactivated cell sorter (FACS).RESULTS: The AFP-siRNA expressing plasmid downregulated the expression of AFP obviously (about 34%), and inhibited SMMC-7721 cell proliferation, but did not induce apoptosis.CONCLUSION: Downregulation of AFP siRNA inhibits proliferation of SMMC-7721 cells, but cannot cause apoptosis.

  19. An Ultrasensitive Electrochemical Immunosensor for Alpha-Fetoprotein Using an Envision Complex-Antibody Copolymer as a Sensitive Label

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zheng

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel strategy is presented for sensitive detection of alfa-fetoprotein (AFP, using a horseradish peroxidase (HRP-functionalized Envision antibody complex (EVC as the label. The Envision-AFP signal antibody copolymer (EVC-AFP Ab2 was composed of a dextran amine skeleton anchoring more than 100 molecules of HRP and 15 molecules of secondary antibody, and acted as a signal tag in the immunosensor. The sensor was constructed using the following steps: First, gold electrode (GE was modified with nano-gold (AuNPs by electro-deposition in HAuCl4 solution. The high affinity of the AuNPs surface facilitates direct formation of a self-assembled thiolated protein G layer. Next, the coated GE was incubated in a solution of AFP capture antibody (AFP Ab1; these antibodies attach to the thiolated protein G layer through their non-antigenic regions, leaving the antigen binding sites for binding of target analyte. Following a sandwich immunoreaction, an EVC-AFP Ab2-AFP-AFP Ab1 immunocomplex was formed on the electrode surface, allowing large amounts of HRP on the complex to produce an amplified electrocatalytic current of hydroquinone (HQ in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2. Highly amplified detection was achieved, with a detection limit of 2 pg/mL and a linear range of 0.005–0.2 ng/mL for AFP in 10 μL undiluted serum; this is near or below the normal levels of most cancer biomarker proteins in human serum. Measurements of AFP in the serum of cancer patients correlated strongly with standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. These easily fabricated EVC-modified immunosensors show excellent promise for future fabrication of bioelectronic arrays. By varying the target biomolecules, this technique may be easily extended for use with other immunoassays, and thus represents a versatile design route.

  20. Association of liver inflammation with alpha-fetoprotein and treatment response in hepatitis C virus genotype 4 patients

    OpenAIRE

    Samar Samir Youssef; Sameh Mohamed Seif

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) or liver inflammation resulting from infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the cause of chronic liver disease and leads to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The burden of chronic HCV-related liver disease in Egypt continues to rise and the interaction of liver inflammation with biomarkers and response to therapy is scarcely discussed. Moreover, serum alanine transaminase (ALT) is considered as a moderately accurate test for indicating liver infl...

  1. Primary intracranial germ cell tumor with abnormal high value of alpha-fetoprotein after the radiation therapy. Report of case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hokin, Kiyohiro; Abe, Hiroshi; Aida, Toshimitsu; Mabuchi, Shouji; Tsuru, Mitsuo; Nakamura, Nishio (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1983-02-01

    A 7-year-old boy was admitted to Hokkaido University Hospital complaining of headache and vomiting. On admission he was slightly confused and presented Parinaud's sign. CT scan revealed abnormal high density mass with contrast enhancement effect at the pineal region and obstructive hydrocephalus. Laboratory studies showed the normal value of human chorionic gonadotropin and no trace of alphafetoprotein. Germinoma was most suspected based on the findings of CT scan and laboratory studies. The radiation therapy was carried out for a month and CT scan taken after the radiation therapy revealed marked reduction of the size of the tumor at the pineal region, and he was discharged. But he was re-admitted 3 months after the discharge complaining of headache and vomitting again. CT scan showed the recurrence of the tumor and laboratory studies showed abnormal high value of A.F.P. After the ventriculoperitoneal shunt, the sub-occipital craniectomy was performed by the Stein's approach, and the tumor was removed. Pathologically the tumor was a typical yolk sac tumor. This case is a very interesting case because it suggests an alternation of the element of the germ cell tumor by the radiation therapy. At first admission, germinoma was the main element of the tumor judging from the effectiveness of the radiation therapy and laboratory studies. But the main element of the tumor seemed to have changed to yolk sac tumor after the radiation therapy. The relation between the tumor markers and the types of the germ cell tumor and histopathological characters of the intracranial germ cell tumor were discussed.

  2. Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency resulting in a hitherto unseen presentation of hepatocellular carcinoma: Polycythemia but with normal alpha fetoprotein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David Ryan Owen; Ramachandran Sivakumar; Eui-Sik Suh; Murugiah Seevaratnam

    2006-01-01

    Polycythemia is a known paraneopastic manifestation of hepatoma, but only in the presence of alpha-fetopro (AFP). We present a case of polycythemia in the absence of AFP, and suggest concurrent alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency as the cause for breaking this rule. We also suggest a reason for the apparent constant conjunction between polycythemia and AFP in hepatoma.

  3. 32例产甲胎蛋白胃癌回顾性分析%Retrospective analysis of 32 alpha-fetoprotein-producing gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田蓝天; 姚珂; 吴傲; 李龙; 张志程; 裴铁民; 刘连新

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the clinicopathologic characteristics, treatments and prognostic factors of AFPGC. Methods: 468 gastric cancer medical files preserved at the medicalrecord library were retrospectively reviewed. There were 67 patients with elevated serum level of AFP among these patients who were made a definite diagnosis of gastric cancer and subsequently received surgery and systemic combined therapy at the First Affiliated Hospital of Haerbin Medical University (FAHHMU) between January 2001 and January 2007. Having excluded some diseases as hepatocirrhosisjiver tumor, germ cell tumor which can increase the level of serum AFP, 32 (6.8%) patients were made the definite diagnosis of AFPGC. The diagnostic, therapeutic and follow up files were reviewed. Finally, these follow-up results and correlative laboratory data were taken into statistical treatment. Results: There were 32 AFPGC which accounting for 6.8% of the gastric cancer of the corresponding time period. Compared with the negative group, there was a significantly higher incidence of lymph node and liver metastasis in AFPGC group (P = 0.025 and 0.011, respectively). Clinically, AFPGC was not sensitive to the commonly used chemotherapy regimens and it couldn't suppress the progression of AFPGC. 20 of the AFPGC patients died of tumor liver metastatis and the mean postoperative servial time of the cohort was 35.7 months. Conclusion; AFPGC has more aggressive behavior than that of AFP-negative gastric cancer. Patients with AFPGC are proned to proceed liver metastatis and the prognosis is very poor. Radical correction is the preferred way to deal with AFPGC and the postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy is necessary.%目的:探讨产甲眙蛋白胃癌(α-fetoprotein-producing gastric carcinoma,AFPGC)的临床病理学特征、治疗及预后影响因素.方法:回顾分析2001年1月-2007年1月在哈尔滨医科大学附属第一医院确诊并完成治疗的468例胃癌患者住院病案资料,发现血清AFP升高患者67例,排除肝硬化、肝脏肿瘤、生殖系统肿瘤等因素后,最终确诊为AFPGC患者32例.调阅该32例患者的临床诊疗及随访资料,统计处理相关实验室及随访数据结果.结果:AFPGC患者占同期胃癌患者的6.8%(32/468).与非AFPGC患者相比,AFPGC具有更高的淋巴结转移率(P=0.025)和肝脏转移率(P=0.011).目前常用化疗方案不能有效控制疾病进展,32例AFPGC患者中20例最终死于肝转移,平均生存时间35.7个月.结论:AFPGC具有高度侵袭性,易发生肝转移,预后差.治疗首选胃癌根治术,术后进行辅助化疗.

  4. AFP-L3在肝细胞癌诊断中的临床价值%Diagnostic role of alpha-fetoprotein variants in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩鹏; 褚瑞海; 张彩彩; 郭欣

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨血清中AFP-L3含量对肝细胞癌诊断的临床意义.方法 利用微量离心柱法分离得到AFP-L3,采用化学发光法分别检测总AFP与AFP-L3含量,进而计算AFP-L3与总AFP的比值.结果 肝细胞癌患者血清中AFP及AFP-L3的水平均显著高于其他各组,而不同AFP浓度的肝细胞癌患者组AFP-L3的阳性率无明显差异.结论 AFP-L3作为肿瘤标志物对肝细胞癌的早期诊断及良、恶性肝病的鉴别有一定的临床价值.

  5. A resected case of metachronous liver metastasis from lung cancer producing alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist II (PIVKA-II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshiro, Yukio; Takada, Yasutsugu; Enomoto, Tsuyoshi; Fukao, Katashi; Ishikawa, Shigemi; Iijima, Tatsuo

    2004-01-01

    A resected case of huge liver metastasis of hepatoid adenocarcinoma of the lung is described. A 77-year-old man who presented a solitary huge liver tumor was admitted to our hospital. He had undergone right lower lobectomy of the lung for lung cancer one year before. The view of imaging studies was not a typical one of hepatocellular carcinoma. Serum levels of AFP and PIVKA-II were 334,500ng/mL and 3,890mAU/mL, respectively, and the proportion of AFP L3 was 97.9%. It was thought that they were strongly diagnostic for hepatocellular carcinoma. Extended right lobectomy of the liver was performed. Microscopically, it was poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma and diagnosed as liver metastasis from the formerly resected lung cancer. The tumor was composed of cells with both sheet-like growth and tubule formation. The neoplastic cells, in the sheet-like growth resembled hepatocellular carcinoma cells. By immunohistochemical staining with anti-AFP and anti-PIVKA-II antibodies, cancer cells of both the primary and metastatic lesions were positive. The patient eventually died of multiple liver and bone metastasis 6 months after the operation.

  6. 甲胎蛋白与肝癌免疫的研究进展%Advanced progress in alpha-fetoprotein and hepatocarcinoma immunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵倩; 王小平; 胥冰; 蔺焕萍; 张克佩

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocarcinoma is one of the most prevalent gastroenterological cancers in the world with less effective therapy .Excepting for its diagnosis in liver cancer , AFP has become the target for liver cancer immunotherapy .Although AFP′s immunogenicity is weak and can promote the immune escapes by inhibiting the function of dendritic cells , natural killer cells and T lymphocytes , AFP has drawn more attention in liver cancer immunotherapy .By in vitro modification , the immunogenicity and immune effect of AFP could be enhanced.The important role of AFP in development , progression and immunity of liver cancer can lay a better foundation in hepato-carcinoma immunotherapy .%肝癌是常见的消化道恶性肿瘤,目前没有较好的治疗措施。甲胎蛋白在肝癌细胞中高表达,除了用于肝癌诊断外,其作为肿瘤相关抗原已成为肝癌免疫治疗的靶点。虽然甲胎蛋白免疫原性较弱,并通过抑制树突状细胞,自然杀伤细胞以及T淋巴细胞功能促进肝癌细胞免疫逃逸,但其在肝癌免疫治疗中的作用也日益受到重视,通过体外修饰增强其免疫原性促进免疫应答,从而提高杀伤肝癌细胞免疫效应。甲胎蛋白在肝癌发生、发展及免疫中的作用为研究其在肝癌中的免疫治疗奠定了良好的基础。

  7. Heterogeneity of human alpha-fetoprotein (HAFP) as revealed by agarose gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing in urea-acrylamide gels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lester, E. P.; Miller, J. B.; Yachnin, S.

    1977-01-01

    HAFP was purified from five patients with hepatoma, one with gastric cancer, and one with an embryonal cell tumor, as well as from fetal liver and a monkey tumor cell line grown in tissue culture. The pattern of microheterogeneity of purified HAFP was defined for each HAFP isolate, and was demonstrated to be present in native sera, using crossed immunoelectrophoresis in agarose gels and isoelectric focusing in polyacrylamide gels containing 8 M urea. Three, and in one case four, species were seen in agarose, and were further resolved to reveal 6 major species with isoelectric focusing which could be correlated with the agarose gel variants. We have demonstrated a relationship between the immunosuppressive potency of certain HAFP preparations and the proportion of specific HAFP isomers which they contain as shown by these techniques. We have desialylated each of our preparations and demonstrated that this does not alter immunosuppressive potency but leaves residual complex microheterogeneity. Desialylated HAFP isolates contain six major HAFP isomers by isoelectric focusing, indicating that HAFP heterogeneity is based upon multiple charge differences in the HAFP molecule, apart from sialic acid content. The nature of these charge differences remain to be determined. We postulate that these charge differences modulate the immunosuppressive potency of HAFP.

  8. Clinical evaluation of three tumor markers in hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosis: alpha-fetoprotein-L3, des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin and alpha-fetoprotein%甲胎蛋白异质体3、异常凝血酶原、甲胎蛋白检测肝细胞癌的对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邝妙欢; 欧阳文婷; 林建华; 吴兴平

    2010-01-01

    目的 分析3种肿瘤标志物甲胎蛋白异质体(AFP-L3)、异常凝血酶原(DCP)、甲胎蛋白(AFP)单独或联合检测肝细胞癌(HCC)的临床意义.方法 分别用电化学发光法检测AFP,ELISA法检测AFP-L3、DCP,利用受试者工作特征曲线(ROC曲线)分析3种标志物单独和联合检测肝细胞癌(随机组和AFP阴性组)的敏感性、特异性、曲线下面积、阳性预测值和阴性预测值.比较肝细胞癌组与健康对照组和疾病对照组的AFP-L3、DCP、AFP水平的差异.分析治疗前AFP阴性肝细胞癌病例联合检测AFP-L3、DCP的意义.结果 ①单独检测肝细胞癌病例的3种肿瘤标志物.AFP-L3的敏感性、特异性分别是48.7%、97.7%;DCP的敏感性、特异性分别是42.5%、98.4%;AFP的敏感性、特异性分别是68.7%、94.6%.联合检测AFP-L3、DCP和AFP,敏感性、特异性分别是87.5%、92.2%.②肝细胞癌随机组的AFP-L3、DCP、AFP水平与健康对照组和疾病组比较差异有高度统计学意义(P<0.01).⑨AFP阴性肝细胞癌组的AFP和AFP-L3水平与肝良性疾病组比较差异无统计学意义.但DCP水平差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 AFP-L3、DCP与AFP单独检测时AFP的敏感性最高,而DCP的特异性最高,是区分肝硬化与AFP阴性的肝细胞癌血清学的良好指标.AFP-L3、DCP与AFP的联合检测能提高肝细胞癌血清学检测的敏感性和特异性,在肝细胞癌诊断方面比目前大多数传统的组合方法更优胜、更准确.

  9. Diagnostic value of combined detection of soluble human leukocyte antigen-G, alpha fetoprotein and alpha fetoprotein-L3 in primary hepatocellular carcinoma%甲胎蛋白异质体联合检测对原发性肝癌的诊断价值血清可溶性人类白细胞抗原G和甲胎蛋白

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨收平; 李海英; 张丽

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨可溶性人类白细胞抗原 G(HLA-G)在原发性肝癌(PHC)患者血清中的表达水平及其与甲胎蛋白(AFP)、甲胎蛋白异质体(AFP-L3)联合检测对 PHC 诊断价值。方法选择45例 PHC 患者、34例肝硬化患者和43例健康体检者。采用酶联免疫吸附法(ELISA)测定 HLA-G 水平,应用预装有耦联小扁豆凝集素(LCA)的琼脂糖微量离心柱分离 AFP-L3,采用化学发光法测定 AFP 和 AFP-L3,并计算 AFP-L3/AFP 值(AFP-L3%),以 AFP>20μg/L,AFP-L3%>10%为阳性判断标准。并对3组 HLA-G、AFP、AFP-L3水平进行统计学分析。结果 PHC组、肝硬化组 HLA-G、AFP、AFP-L3水平与健康组比较差异有统计学意义(P 20 μg/L and AFP-L3% > 10% .Statistical analysis was used for HLA-G,AFP,AFP-L3 in three groups.Results There were significant significance in HLA-G,AFP and AFP-L3 levels among PHC group,liver cirrhosis group and health group (P <0.01 ),and between PHC group and liver cirrhosis group (P < 0.01 ).As for PHC diagnosis,the sensitivity of AFP was 48.9%,and the specificity 58.4%;the sensitivity of AFP-L3 66.7%,and the specificity 64.9%;the sensitivity of HLA-G was 80.0%,and the specificity 75.3%.Compared with AFP and AFP-L3,HLA-G was more sensitive and specific in the diagnosis of PHC (P <0.05).The combined detection of three markers in the diagnosis of HCC showed the sensitivity 91.1%,and specificity 84.4%.Compared the sensitivity of combined detection with single usage of HLA-G,AFP or AFP-L3,the difference was statistically significant (P <0.05).Conclusion The combined detection of HLA-G,AFP and AFP-L3 has important clinical significance for the early diagnosis and treatment of HCC.

  10. Immunotherapy of hepatocellular carcinoma with dendritic cells vaccine targeting to alpha-fetoprotein%以AFP为靶点的肝癌树突状细胞免疫治疗的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张利旺; 张红梅; 贾军; 任军

    2005-01-01

    目的探讨AFP作为肝癌基因治疗和免疫治疗靶点的可行性以及AFP基因转染的树突状细胞(AFP-DC)疫苗对表达AFP肝细胞癌的免疫治疗作用.方法构建AFP-cDNA 真核表达载体,体外转染DC,制备AFP-DC瘤苗,诱导针对表达AFP的肝癌细胞株HepG2的特异性免疫反应,MTT法检测效应细胞对靶细胞的杀伤率.结果 AFP-DC瘤苗能够分泌AFP抗原,培养上清中AFP含量为0.8805 IU/ml,与空载体组和空白对照组相比,差异显著(P<0.05).免疫荧光检测可见AFP-DC胞浆及胞膜有AFP抗原分子表达;活化的CTL能够对表达AFP肝癌细胞起特异性杀伤作用,杀伤效率可达84.05%,与空载体组和空白对照组比较,差异显著(P<0.05).结论 AFP作为靶点治疗肝癌具有可行性,AFP可作为肝癌靶向治疗的新的突破点;AFP-DC疫苗可以作为表达AFP肝癌的一种免疫治疗手段,为DC瘤苗的临床应用奠定了基础.

  11. 离心管法甲胎蛋白异质体检测的临床应用探讨%Study on clinical application of lectin-reactive alpha-fetoprotein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐正才; 郑晓燕; 徐春仙; 祝进

    2009-01-01

    目的:探讨离心管法分离甲胎蛋白异质体AFP-L3对鉴别肝癌、肝硬化、慢性肝炎的诊断价值.方法:采用微量离心法分离AFP-L3,然后再采用化学发光的方法检测AFP、AFP-L3,并计算AFP-3%.结果:以AFP-13%>10%作为阳性的判断标准,肝癌组敏感性为92.8%,特异性为95.0%,AFP-L3含量与血清AFP浓度及原发性肝癌病灶大小无关.结论:AFP-L3结合AFP检测对肝癌,尤其是小肝癌(400 ng/ml的限制.

  12. 小扁豆凝集素结合型甲胎异质体在肝癌诊断中的意义%Significance of Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive alpha-fetoprotein in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卓传尚; 柳丽娟; 吴秋芳

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨小扁豆凝集素结合型甲胎蛋白异质体(AFP-L3)在良恶性肝病鉴别诊断的临床价值.方法 应用装有耦联了小扁豆凝集素(LCA)的微量离心柱分离185例肝病患者的AFP-L3,用时间分辨荧光免疫检测血清AFP和AFP-L3含量,计算AFP-L3%.结果 肝细胞癌患者的AFP-L3%明显高于其他肝病患者(χ2=29.329,P<0.001);AFP、AFP-L3%检测肝细胞癌在ROC曲线下的面积AUC分别为0.407和0.841;以AFP-L3%≥12.6%作为诊断标准,AFP-L3诊断肝细胞癌敏感性和特异性分别为83.3%和86.3%.结论 AFP-L3对肝细胞癌诊断准确度明显高于AFP,微量离心柱法检测AFP-L3在良恶性肝脏病变鉴别诊断中具有重要临床价值.

  13. The value of the indirect immunoradiometric assay of serum alpha - fetoprotein in detecting liver regeneration and neoplastic transformation in chronic liver disease. Part of a coordinated programme on in vitro assay techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the concentration of alphafetoprotein AFP in different liver diseases and above all in liver cancer the immunoradiometric assay was utilized. The results of AFP studies were compared with regeneration index, blastic T lymphocytes transformation as well as other morphological and biochemical data. The results of the investigations indicated that: 38% of chronic benign hepatopathies displayed the values of serum AFP in normal ranges, 54% were in the range of 41 - 200ng/ml, and 8% showed 200 and more ng/ml. The most important conclusion from the work performed was that the elevation of serum AFP level in the evaluation of chronic hepatopathies, especially in cirrhoses, appears as an index of malignancy

  14. Clinical Value of Combined Measurement of Serum Alpha- Fetoprotein, Alpha- L- Fucosidase and Ferritin Levels in the Diagnosis of Primary Liver Cancer%AFP、AFU、SF联检对原发性肝癌的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱民; 柴小红; 靳颖; 董雪梅

    2005-01-01

    目的:探讨血清甲胎蛋白(AFP)、α-L-岩藻糖苷酶(AFU)和铁蛋白(SF)联检对提高原发性肝癌阳性检出率的意义.方法:检测52例原发性肝癌患者和40例正常对照组血清AFP、AFU、SF的含量.结果:AFP、AFU、SF三项指标对原发性肝癌患者的阳性率分别为82.7%、86.5%、76.9%.AFP+AFU、AFP+SF、AFP+AFU+SF联检阳性率分别为94.2%、90.4%、98.1%.结论:血清AFP、AFU、SF联检可提高对原发性肝癌的诊断阳性率.

  15. Alpha-fetoprotein triggers hepatoma cells escaping from immune surveillance through altering the expression of Fas/FasL and tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis-inducing ligand and its receptor of lymphocytes and liver cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng-Sen Li; Qiu-Ling Ma; Qian Chen; Xin-Hua Liu; Ping-Feng Li; Guo-Guang Du; Gang Li

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the mechanism of α-fetoprotein (AFP)in escaping from the host immune surveillance of hepatocellular carcinoma.METHODS: AFP purified from human umbilical blood was administrated into the cultured human lymphoma Jurkat T cell line or hepatoma cell line, Bel7402 in vitro. The expression of tumor necrosis factor related apoptosisinducing ligand (TRAIL) and its receptor (TRAILR) mRNA were analyzed by Northern blot and Western blot wasused to detect the expression of Fas and Fas ligand (FasL)protein.RESULTS: AFP (20 mg/L) could promote the expression of FasL and TRAIL, and inhibit the expression of Fas and TRAILR of Bel7402 cells. For Jurkat cell line, AFP could suppress the expression of FasL and TRAIL, and stimulate the expression of Fas and TRAILR. AFP also could synergize with Bel7402 cells to inhibit the expression of FasL protein and TRAIL mRNA in Jurkat cells. The monoclonal antibody against AFP (anti-AFP) could abolish these functions of AFP.CONCLUSION: AFP is able to promote the expression of FasL and TRAIL in hepatoma cells and enhance the expression of Fas and TRAILR in lymphocytes. These could elicit the escape of hepatocellular carcinoma cells from the host's lymphocytes immune surveillance.

  16. Retrospective study of the diagnostic value of quantitative alpha-fetoprotein in infants with terato-mas%婴儿畸胎瘤甲胎蛋白量化检测的临床意义探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何小庆; 王珊; 刘苗; 阮味维

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨婴儿期畸胎瘤血清甲胎蛋白(alpha-fetoprotein,AFP)定量检测值与同月龄儿正常参考值上限的比值对成熟型、未成熟型及恶性畸胎瘤的辅助鉴别意义。方法回顾性分析1991年10月至2010年5月我们收治的166例畸胎瘤患儿临床资料。化学发光法定量检测血清AFP含量,将患儿检测值与正常同月龄儿参考值上限的比值作为血清AFP比值,结合成熟型、未成熟型及恶性畸胎瘤的病理诊断,分析血清AFP比值在鉴别3种不同类型畸胎瘤中的规律及其临床意义。结果①131例成熟型畸胎瘤血清AFP比值最大16.34(绝对值670 ng/mL);13例未成熟型畸胎瘤血清AFP比值差异明显,7例Ⅰ级未成熟型畸胎瘤,最小AFP比值1.25,最大39.27;5例Ⅱ级未成熟型畸胎瘤,最小AFP比值1.23,最大139.51,其中2例比值大于83.17;1例Ⅲ级未成熟型畸胎瘤,AFP超出检测值上限;22例恶性畸胎瘤最小AFP比值83.17(绝对值499 ng/mL),13例超出检测上限;②未成熟型畸胎瘤血清AFP阳性率(12例,92.31%)和恶性畸胎瘤血清AFP阳性率(22例,100%)均高于成熟型畸胎瘤(58例,44.28%)(P<0.05),未成熟型畸胎瘤与恶性畸胎瘤血清AFP阳性率无明显差异(P>0.05);<9月龄婴儿血清AFP阳性率(33例,84.62%)高于9月龄婴儿(59例,46.46%)(P<0.05);性腺内畸胎瘤血清AFP阳性率(20例,76.92%)高于性腺外(72例,51.43%)(P<0.05)。结论婴儿期畸胎瘤AFP阳性率受年龄、发病部位及肿瘤病理类型等因素的影响。血清AFP比值在不同类型畸胎瘤有相应变化规律,可用于术前辅助判断畸胎瘤良恶性及制定手术方案,对动态随访治疗效果有重要意义,结合病理检查对于术后是否化疗有决定作用。%Objetive To explored the differential diagnostic value of quantitative Serum alpha-fetopro-tein (AFP)in infants compared with the upper limit of normal reference values in mature,immature and malig-nant teratomas. Methods The clinical data of 1 66 infants with teratomas underwent in this institute from Oc-tober 1 991 to May 201 0 were retrospectively analyzed. The value of serum AFP was defined as the ratios of chemiluminescent immunoassay measurement of AFP compared with upper limit of normal reference values.Analyze different value of serum AFP change rules in differential diagnostic the mature,immature and malig-nant teratomas with relation to the pathological diagnosis. Results ①The maximum value of serum AFP was 1 6.34(absolute value 670 ng/mL)in 1 31 cases of mature teratomas. The serum AFP value was significant difference in immature teratomas. The minimum serum AFP value was 1.25 and the maximum was 39.27 in 7 of 1 3 immature teratomas grade Ⅰ,while the minimum AFP value was 1.23 and the maximum was 1 39.51 in 5 of 1 3 immature teratomas gradeⅡ,2 of 1 3 were more than 83.1 7. Whose AFP value was higher than the up-per limit of the detection ranges was gradeⅢin 1 of 1 3 immature teratomas. The minimum serum AFP value in 22 was 83.1 7(absolute value 499 ng/mL)and higher than the upper limit of the detection ranges in 1 3 of 22 malignant teratomas;②The positive rate of serum AFP in immature teratomas(1 2,92.31%)and malignant teratomas(22,1 00%)was significantly higher than mature teratomas(58,44.28%)(P0.05 ). Compared to the less than 9-month-old infants(33,84.62%),the positive rate of serum AFP was higher than the older than 9 months of age (59,46.46%)(P <0.05 ).The positive rate of serum AFP in gonadal teratomas (20, 76.92%)higher than extragonadal teratoma(72,51.43%)(P<0.05). Conclusion The positive rate of AFP was affected by age,tumor localization,histopathologic and other factors. The value of serum AFP differs in different histopathologic teratomas. Our results indicated that the variation rules of serum AFP value have im-portant significance in helping preoperative diagnosis teratomas of benign and malignant,and as a preoperative surgical guidance.

  17. Construction and Identification of Expression Vector of siRNA Specific for Alpha-Fetoprotein%甲胎蛋白特异性小干扰RNA表达载体的构建及鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郏雁飞; 胡安拉; 汪运山; 周芳; 马晓丽; 苏占涛

    2007-01-01

    目的:构建特异性抑制甲胎蛋白(AFP)的小干扰RNA(siRNA)表达载体,为进一步研究AFP基因功能及AFP相关肿瘤的基因治疗奠定基础.方法:设计并合成AFP特异性的短链寡核苷酸,退火形成双链DNA片段,通过与RNAi-ReadypSIREN-DNR-DsRed-Express Donor Vector连接、转化大肠杆菌、扩增、纯化得到所需质粒,用琼脂糖凝胶电泳及基因测序鉴定其分子量及插入片段的序列.结果:琼脂糖凝胶电泳证实纯化后的质粒大小约为6 740 bp,测序证实插入序列与合成的寡核苷酸序列完全符合.结论:构建了AFP特异性的siRNA表达质粒pSIREN-DNR-DsRed-Express Donor Vector-AFP.

  18. Birth Defects Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... quad screen tests the levels of 4 proteins AFP (alpha-fetoprotein), hCG, estriol, and inhibin-A. Generally, ... of the proteins for which an amniocentesis tests. AFP AFP stands for alpha-fetoprotein, a protein the ...

  19. AFP — EDRN Public Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    AFP is a major plasma protein produced by the yolk sac and the liver during fetal life. Alpha-fetoprotein expression in adults is often associated with hepatoma or teratoma. However, hereditary persistance of alpha-fetoprotein may also be found in individuals with no obvious pathology. The protein is thought to be the fetal counterpart of serum albumin, and the alpha-fetoprotein and albumin genes are present in tandem in the same transcriptional orientation on chromosome 4. Alpha-fetoprotein is found in monomeric as well as dimeric and trimeric forms, and binds copper, nickel, fatty acids and bilirubin.

  20. 肝切除を施行した肝細胞癌患者におけるalpha-fetoprotein(AFP)とprotein induced by vitamin K deficiency or antagonist-II(PIVKA-II)の重要性における検討

    OpenAIRE

    山元, 謙太郎

    2010-01-01

    報告番号: 甲26042 ; 学位授与年月日: 2010-03-24 ; 学位の種別: 課程博士 ; 学位の種類: 博士(医学) ; 学位記番号: 博医第3521号 ; 研究科・専攻: 医学系研究科外科学専攻

  1. Application value of joint detection of alpha-fetoprotein(AFP) variant and AFP in early diagnosis of primary hepato-cellular carcinoma%甲胎蛋白异质体和甲胎蛋白联合检测的临床价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国芳; 徐美珍; 张欢妍; 唐国建

    2015-01-01

    目的:开展甲胎蛋白异质体和甲胎蛋白联合检测,以早期发现和诊断肝细胞癌( HCC),鉴别良恶性肝脏肿瘤。方法检测肝细胞癌( HCC)30例,慢性肝病78例患者血清中AFP-L3和AFP的含量,血清 AFP-L3分离检测采用亲和微量离心纯化柱法,血清中获取的AFP-L3,AFP采用微粒子化学发光免疫法检测,计算AFP-L3占AFP的比率即AFP-L3%。结果30例HCC患者AFP的值为8.8~1524.1 ng/ml,其中AFP-L3%的阳性率为80%,而78例慢性肝病患者中AFP的值为3.2~580.1 ng/ml,AFP-L3%的阳性率为14.1%。 HCC组AFP异质体的阳性率与慢性肝病组有显著差异(P﹤0.01)。结论联合检测甲胎蛋白异质体和甲胎蛋白对HCC,慢性肝炎和肝硬化的患者鉴别诊断,有着重要的临床价值。%Objective To early detect and diagnose hepatocellular carcinoma ( HCC) and to identify benign and malignant tumors of liver with joint detection of AFP variant and AFP .Methods AFP-L3 and AFP content in serum of 30 cases of HCC and 78 cases of chronic liver disease were detected .Affinity micro centrifugal purification column was used to separate and de-termine serum AFP-13.Level of AFP-L3 and AFP extracted from the serum was detected by a chemiluminescence immunoassay method using microparticle .The ratio between AFP-L3 and AFP was calculated as AFP-L3%.Results In the 30 patients of HCC,the level of AFP fluctuated between 8.8 ng/ml and 1524.1 ng/ml,among which the positive rate of AFP-L3 was 80%. Whereas in the 78 patients of chronic liver disease ,the level of AFP fluctuated between 3.2 ng/ml and 580.1 ng/ml,among which the positive rate of AFP-L3 was 14.1%.Conclusion The positive rate of AFP variant in HCC group and chronic liver disease group shows significant difference (P﹤0.01).Joint detection of AFP variant and AFP is very important in differential diagnosis of patients with HCC ,chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis .Therefore, it has important clinical value .

  2. 甲胎蛋白异质体3及其比值对原发性肝癌和肝硬化的鉴别诊断价值研究%Value of Serum Alpha-fetoprotein Invariant AFP-L3 Assay in the Differential Diagnosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何建伟; 曹薇薇; 李静; 何建国; 程江

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of serum alphafetoprotein variant ( AFP - L3 ) assay in the differential diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma ( HCC ) and cirrhostic diseases. Methods AFP - L3 was separated from sera of AFP -positive patients ( 45 HCC patients and 60 cirrhotic patients ) by micro - spin columns coupled with lens culinaris agglutinin ( LCA ). AFP was detected using electrochemiluminescence analysis to determine the amount of AFP - L3 and AFP - L3% ( the ratio of AFP - L3 to total AFP ). Results The AFP - L3% in HCC patients was significantly higher than that in patients with cirrhosis diseases ( F - 57. 433 , P = 0. 000 ). The area under curve of Receiver Operating Characteristic of AFP - 13 % was the highest ( 0. 916 ). The sensitivity and specificity of AFP - L3 for HCC patients was 92. 5 % and 84. 6 % respectively, with AFP -13% ≥15% being the optimal diagnostic threshold. Conclusion AFP - L3 ( % ) is more sensitive than the amounts of AFP and AFP - L3 in the diagnosis of HCC, and shows certain value in the differential diagnosis of HCC and cirrhosis diseases.%目的 探讨甲胎蛋白异质体3(AFP-L3)及其比值对原发性肝癌(HCC)和肝硬化的鉴别诊断价值及诊断界值.方法 应用AFP-L3快速分离微量离心柱分离40例HCC患者和65例肝硬化患者的AFP-L3,电化学发光免疫分析夹心法检测血清AFP水平,计算AFP-L3比值,即AFP-L3绝对值占血清AFP总量的百分比.结果 HCC患者AFP-L3比值大于肝硬化患者,差异有统计学意义(F=57.433,P=0.000);AFP -L3比值诊断HCC的受试者工作特征曲线(ROC曲线)下面积最大,为0.916;AFP-L3比值≥15%时诊断HCC的敏感度和特异度之和最大,为177.1%.结论 AFP-L3比值对HCC的诊断效能优于AFP和AFP-L3,对肝硬化和HCC的鉴别诊断具有重要临床意义.

  3. The application of lentil lectin-reactive alpha-fetoprotein ratio in the differential diagnosis of primary liver cancer%甲胎蛋白异质体比率在原发性肝癌鉴别诊断中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晓玲; 王晶晶; 赵巧玉; 黄梁镔

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the application of lentil lectin‐reactive alpha‐fetoprotein ratio (AFP‐L3% ) applied in the dif‐ferential diagnosis between hepatitis B infection of primary liver cancer and benign liver disease .Methods We included 108 cases of chronic HBV infection ,including 50 cases of primary liver cancer ,42 cases of cirrhosis ,16 cases of chronic hepatitis .Chemilumines‐cence detection was used to detect alpha‐fetoprotein (AFP) and AFP‐L3 content ,AFP‐L3 and the ratio of AFP (AFP‐L3% ) was calculated .Results AFP≥400 ng/mL as primary liver cancer diagnostic threshold ,the sensitivity and specificity were 36% ,84% , when used AFP‐L3% ≥ 10% as primary liver cancer diagnostic threshold ,the sensitivity and specificity were 62% ,83% . Conclusion AFP‐L3% is a better clinical indicator to distinguish between primary liver cancer and benign liver disease .AFP‐L3%can be used as a clinical indicator to differential diagnosis between HBV infection of primary liver cancer and benign liver disease .%目的:探讨甲胎蛋白异质体比率(A FP‐L3%)在乙型肝炎感染原发性肝癌和良性肝病鉴别诊断中的应用。方法慢性乙型肝炎病毒(HBV)感染108例,其中原发性肝癌50例、肝硬化42例、慢性肝炎16例。运用化学发光法检测甲胎蛋白(AFP)及AFP‐L3水平,计算AFP‐L3%。结果以AFP≥400 ng/mL作为原发性肝癌诊断阈值时,灵敏度及特异度分别为36%、84%;以AFP‐L3%≥10%作为原发性肝癌诊断阈值时,灵敏度及特异度分别为62%、83%。结论 AFP‐L3%更能区分原发性肝癌和良性肝病。临床上可结合A FP‐L3%作为鉴别诊断 HBV感染原发性肝癌和良性肝病的指标。

  4. Significance of Combineddetecting Serum α-L-fucosidase (AFU), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) andγ-glutamyl peptidase (GGT) for Earlydiagnosis ofhepatocellular Carcinoma (PHC)%AFP、AFU、GGT联合检测在原发性肝癌诊断中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安哲; 李伟; 屈梦

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨血清α-L-岩藻糖苷酶(AFU)、甲胎蛋白(AFP)和γ-谷氨酰转肽酶(GGT)联合检测对提高原发性肝癌(PHC)阳性检出率的意义.方法 对50例原发性肝癌患者、30例肝硬化(LC)患者及30例健康人以AFP的检测为主体,配合GGT、AFU进行检测,优化组合,分析联检的结果.结果 AFP、AFU、GGT三项指标对PHC的阳性检出率分别为74%,82%,70%,AFP+AFU+GGT检测总阳性率达到98.85%,PHC组AFU、AFP与LC组和正常对照组均差异有显著性(P<0.05),LC组AFU、AFP、GGT与正常对照组比较差异有显著性(P<0.05).结论 应用AFU、AFP、GGT联合检测与AFP单项检测相比,PHC的诊断率明显提高.

  5. 血清α-L-岩藻糖苷酶与甲胎蛋白和糖类抗原19-9在原发性肝癌诊断中的作用%Serum α-L-fucosidase and alpha-fetoprotein and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 in the diagnosis of primary liver cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊利华; 陈春琴; 张春峰; 方叶青

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨血清α-L-岩藻糖苷酶(AFU)、甲胎蛋白(AFP)和糖类抗原19-9(CA19-9)在原发性肝癌(PHC)诊断中的作用.方法 分别测定PHC患者48例、肝硬化患者28例、乙型肝炎患者74例、其他肿瘤患者38例和正常人136例AFU、AFP和CA19-9含量.结果 AFU、AFP和CA19-9在PHC患者中的敏感性分别为79.2%、68.6%和62.5%,在AFP阴性的PHC患者中,AFU、CA19-9的敏感性分别为62.5%和75.0%,3项联合检测诊断PHC的敏感性为87.5%.结论 AFU、AFP、CA19-9 3项联合检测对提高原发性肝癌的诊断率有十分重要意义.

  6. Diagnostic value of ornithine carbamoyltransferase/alanine aminotransferase and alpha fetoprotein in hepatocellular carcinoma%鸟氨酸氨甲酰基转移酶/丙氨酸氨基转移酶和甲胎蛋白联合检测在肝细胞癌中的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁彬; 程大也; 孔虹; 解芳

    2008-01-01

    目的:研究鸟氨酸氨甲酰基转移酶/丙氨酸氨基转移酶(OCT/ALT)比值和甲胎蛋白(AFP)联合检测对肝细胞癌的诊断价值.方法:测定61例肝细胞癌、49例慢性肝炎、45例肝硬化和51名健康体检者血清OCT/ALT比值和AFP水平,应用受试者工作特征曲线(ROC)进行评价.结果:肝细胞癌组血清OCT/ALT和AFP水平高于对照组、肝炎组和肝硬化组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).血清OCT/ALT和AFP的ROC曲线下面积分别为0.808和0.758.OCT/ALT的最优截断点约为3.2,灵敏度和特异度为68.3%和90.3%.AFP的最优截断点约为400ng/ml,灵敏度和特异度分别为60.7%和80.0%.结论:通过ROC曲线评价,在肝细胞癌的诊断中,血清0CT/ALT和AFP联合检测优于两项指标的单独检测.

  7. The value of Golgi protein 73 detection combined with alpha-fetoprotein,α-L-fucosidase,α-antitrypsin in the diagnosis of primary liver cancer%高尔基体蛋白73联合甲胎蛋白、α-L 岩藻糖苷酶、α-抗胰蛋白酶检测对原发性肝癌的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄华; 梁红梅; 胥慧; 周庭雄; 王建蔚

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the diagnostic value of the golgi protein 73 (GP73) combined with alpha‐fetoprotein (AFP) ,α‐L‐fucosidase (AFU) andα‐antitrypsin(α‐AT) detection in primary hepatic carcinoma(PHC) .Methods 100 patients with PHC ,100 patients with hepatitis and cirrhosis ,and 100 healthy people hospitalized in the hospital from October 2011 to May 2013 were en‐rolled in the study .Serum AFP levels were detected by using Beckman DxI800 chemiluminescent analyzer ,serum AFU ,α‐AT levels were detected by using Beckman DxC800 automatic biochemical analyzer ,and GP73 levels were measured by using enzyme‐linked immunosorbent GP73 quantitative detection kits .Results In patients with PHC and patients with hepatitis and cirrhosis ,serum GP73 ,AFP ,AFU ,α‐AT levels were significantly higher than healthy people(P<0 .05) .In patients with PHC ,GP73 ,AFP ,AFU ,α‐AT levels were significantly higher than those in patients with hepatitis and cirrhosis(P<0 .05) .The sensitivities of single serum GP73 ,AFP ,AFU ,α‐AT detection were 75% ,72% ,23% ,67% respectively and specificity were 95% ,95% ,100% ,97% respective‐ly .The sensitivity and specificity of the 4 tumor markers′combined detection were 99% and 100% .The sensitivity of combined de‐tection was significantly different from single detection(P<0 .05) .Conclusion GP73 ,AFP ,AFU ,α‐AT may improve the diagnostic efficiency of primary liver cancer .%目的:研究高尔基体蛋白73(GP73)联合甲胎蛋白(AFP)、α‐L岩藻糖苷酶(AFU)、α‐抗胰蛋白酶(α‐AT)检测对原发性肝癌诊断的价值。方法选取2011年10月至2013年5月在该院住院及就诊的原发性肝癌、肝炎和肝硬化患者及健康体检者各100例作为研究对象,使用Beckman DxI800化学发光分析仪检测血清AFP水平;用Beckman DxC800全自动生化分析仪检测血清AFU、α‐AT水平;用GP73酶联免疫定量检测试剂盒测定 GP73水平。结果原发性肝癌患者、肝炎和肝硬化患者血清GP73、AFP、AFU、α‐AT水平明显高于健康者(P<0.05)。原发性肝癌患者血清GP73、AFP、AFU、α‐AT 水平明显高于肝炎和肝硬化患者(P<0.05);血清GP73、AFP、AFU、α‐AT水平单一检测时的灵敏度分别为75%、72%、23%、67%,特异度分别为95%、95%、100%、97%。4种肿瘤标志物联合检测的灵敏度和特异度分别为99%和100%。联合检测的灵敏度与单项检测比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论 GP73联合AFP、AFU、α‐AT检测可以提高原发性肝癌的诊断效能。

  8. Neuropathology in classical and variant ataxia-telangiectasia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, M.M.M.; Martin, J.J.; Deuren, M. van; Ceuterick-de Groote, C.; Weemaes, C.M.R.; Kremer, B.; Taylor, M.A.; Willemsen, M.A.A.P.; Lammens, M.M.Y.

    2012-01-01

    Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is classically characterized by progressive neurodegeneration, oculocutaneous telangiectasia, immunodeficiency and elevated alpha-fetoprotein levels. Some patients, classified as variant A-T, exhibit a milder clinical course. In the latter patients extrapyramidal symptoms

  9. Stages of Adult Primary Liver Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tumor markers . An increased level of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in the blood may be a sign of ... conditions, including cirrhosis and hepatitis, may also increase AFP levels. Sometimes the AFP level is normal even ...

  10. Stages of Childhood Liver Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... β-hCG) or a protein called alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). Other cancers and certain noncancer conditions, including cirrhosis and hepatitis , can also increase AFP levels. Complete blood count (CBC) : A procedure in ...

  11. Risks of Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer is present in the body. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is the most widely used tumor marker for ... and other types of cancer, may also increase AFP levels. Specific tumor markers that may lead to ...

  12. Tests for Liver Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... has come back after treatment Alpha-fetoprotein blood (AFP) test AFP is normally present at high levels in the ... liver disease, liver cancer, or other cancers. If AFP levels are very high in someone with a ...

  13. How Is Testicular Cancer Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... proteins called tumor markers , such as alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). When these tumor ... that there is a testicular tumor. Rises in AFP or HCG can also help doctors tell which ...

  14. Spina Bifida (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by taking certain prenatal tests . The alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) test is a blood test done between the ... weeks of pregnancy. This test measures how much AFP, which the fetus produces, has passed in the ...

  15. General Information about Testicular Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are used to detect testicular cancer: Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). Beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG). Tumor marker ... places in the body, and blood levels of AFP, β-hCG, and LDH). Type of cancer. Size ...

  16. Treatment Option Overview (Adult Primary Liver Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tumor markers . An increased level of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in the blood may be a sign of ... conditions, including cirrhosis and hepatitis, may also increase AFP levels. Sometimes the AFP level is normal even ...

  17. Treatment Options for Adult Primary Liver Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tumor markers . An increased level of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in the blood may be a sign of ... conditions, including cirrhosis and hepatitis, may also increase AFP levels. Sometimes the AFP level is normal even ...

  18. Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer is present in the body. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is the most widely used tumor marker for ... and other types of cancer, may also increase AFP levels. Specific tumor markers that may lead to ...

  19. General Information about Adult Primary Liver Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tumor markers . An increased level of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in the blood may be a sign of ... conditions, including cirrhosis and hepatitis, may also increase AFP levels. Sometimes the AFP level is normal even ...

  20. General Information about Childhood Liver Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... β-hCG) or a protein called alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). Other cancers and certain noncancer conditions, including cirrhosis and hepatitis , can also increase AFP levels. Complete blood count (CBC) : A procedure in ...

  1. Cyst and tumor of liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008081 Construction of the alpha-fetoprotein enhancer controlled gene therapy vector specific for hepatocellular carcinoma and identification of its activity. MA Xiaojuan(马晓娟), et al. Dept Nucl Med, West China Hosp, Sichuan Univ, Chengdu 610041. World Chin J Digestol 2007;15(33):3474-3478. Objective To construct a gene-modified hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)-specific luciferase expression vector regulated by alpha fetoprotein (AFP) p

  2. Effective treatment for malignant mediastinal teratoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, D; Holford, C P; Begent, R. H.; Newlands, E S; Rustin, G J; Makey, A R; Bagshawe, K D

    1983-01-01

    Primary malignant mediastinal teratoma is a rare tumour previously regarded as inevitably fatal. In a series of eight male patients with a mean age of 24 years five remain alive and well. All patients showed raised serum concentrations of human chorionic gonadotrophin or alpha fetoprotein. The patients were treated with intermittent combination chemotherapy that included cisplatin. Six patients responded to chemotherapy with a fall in human chorionic gonadotrophin or alpha fetoprotein to near...

  3. Immobilization of antibodies and enzyme-labeled antibodies by radiation polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immobilization of antibodies and enzyme-labeled antibodies by radiation polymerization at low temperatures was studied. The antibody activity of antibody was not affected by irradiation at an irradiation dose of below 8 MR and low temperatures. Immobilization of peroxidase-labeled anti-rabbit IgG goat IgG, anti-peroxidase, peroxidase, and anti-alpha-fetoprotein was carried out with hydrophilic and hydrophobic monomers. The activity of the immobilized enzyme-labeled antibody membranes varied with the thickness of the membranes and increased with decreasing membrane thickness. The activity of the immobilized antibody particles was varied by particle size. Immobilized anti-alpha-fetoprotein particles and membranes can be used for the assay of alpha-fetoprotein by the antigen-antibody reaction, such as a solid-phase sandwich method with high sensitivity

  4. Autism Spectrum Disorder Risk in Relation to Maternal Mid-Pregnancy Serum Hormone and Protein Markers from Prenatal Screening in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windham, Gayle C.; Lyall, Kristen; Anderson, Meredith; Kharrazi, Martin

    2016-01-01

    We examined prenatal screening markers and offspring autism spectrum disorder (ASD) using California statewide data on singleton births in 1996 and 2002. Second trimester levels of unconjugated estriol (uE3), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) were compared between mothers of children with ASD…

  5. Amniocentesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... baby’s amniotic fluid for proteins like alpha fetoprotein (AFP). Measuring the amount of AFP can check if your baby has neural tube ... baby that becomes the brain and spinal cord. AFP levels are often higher if your baby has ...

  6. Spina Bifida

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or concerns you have about this prenatal testing. AFP - AFP stands for alpha-fetoprotein (sounds like: al-fa– ... a simple blood test that measures how much AFP has passed into the mother’s bloodstream from the ...

  7. Solitary pancreas metastasis from AFP-producing gastric cancer: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsume, Toshiyuki; Watanabe, Yoshiji; Maruyama, Takashi; Tanaka, Hajime; Shimizu, Takanori; Saito, Tsuyoshi; Kobayashi, Yutaka; Tohnosu, Noriyuki; Uehara, Toshitaka; Shimizu, Shin-ichiro; Ochiai, Takenori

    2005-01-01

    We herein present a case of resected pancreatic metachronous metastasis arising from alpha-fetoprotein-producing gastric cancer. A 75-year-old man underwent distal gastrectomy for alpha-fetoprotein-producing gastric cancer in November 1999. The staging group of TNM classification was Stage IIIA. The serum AFP level normalized after surgical resection. During the follow-up period, it increased to 42ng/mL in January 2002, and up to 550ng/mL in July 2002: Abdominal computed tomography disclosed a 4-cm mass in the tail of the pancreas and under the diagnosis of pancreas metastasis, distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy was performed. Following this, serum alpha-fetoprotein declined to 61ng/mL, and the postoperative course was uneventful. But it elevated again to 200ng/mL in August, and to 3500ng/mL in September 2002. Computed tomography revealed multiple liver metastases. He was treated with TS-1, but hepatic lesions continued to grow and he died in March 2003. To our knowledge, this case is the first report of resection of solitary pancreas metastasis of alpha-fetoprotein-producing gastric cancer. PMID:16001678

  8. Identification of Serum Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 and Prolactin as Potential Tumor Markers in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Who-Whong; Ang, Soo Fan; Kumar, Rajneesh; Heah, Charmain; Utama, Andi; Tania, Navessa Padma; Li, Huihua; Tan, Sze Huey; Poo, Desmond; Choo, Su Pin; Chow, Wan Cheng; Tan, Chee Kiat; Toh, Han Chong

    2013-01-01

    Early diagnosis of hepatocellullar carcinoma (HCC) remains a challenge. The current practice of serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) measurement is inadequate. Here we utilized a proteomic approach to identify novel serum biomarkers for distinguishing HCC patients from non-cancer controls. We profiled the

  9. Fetal ductus venosus flow velocity waveforms and maternal serum AFP before and after first-trimester transabdominal chorionic villus sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A. Brezinka (Christoph); A.M. Hagenaars (A.); J.W. Wladimiroff (Juriy); F.J. Los

    1995-01-01

    textabstractDoppler flow velocity waveform recording in the fetal ductus venosus and umbilical artery as well as maternal blood sampling for serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) was performed before and after transabdominal chorion villus sampling (TACVS) in 36 women of advanced maternal age (≥ 36 years)

  10. [Tumor markers for hepatocellular carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateishi, Ryosuke; Enooku, Kenichiro; Shiina, Shuichiro; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2012-05-01

    Three tumor markers for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are available in Japan: alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonists-II (PIVKA-II), and Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive fraction of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP-L3). Although AFP has drawbacks in its specificity, it is widely utilized in treatment evaluation and prognosis prediction. PIVKA-II is a unique marker that does not correlate with AFP value and can predict microvascular invasion. AFP-L3 is a highly specific marker and strong predictor of poor prognosis. These three markers are indispensable in every aspect of clinical practice of hepatocellular carcinoma including surveillance, diagnosis, treatment evaluation, and prognosis prediction.

  11. An autopsy case of hepatoid carcinoma of the ovary with PIVKA-II production: immunohistochemical study and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senzaki, H; Kiyozuka, Y; Mizuoka, H; Yamamoto, D; Ueda, S; Izumi, H; Tsubura, A

    1999-02-01

    A case of hepatoid carcinoma of the ovary in a 61-year-old Japanese woman, who showed high serum levels of alpha-fetoprotein and CA125, is reported. Grossly, the left ovarian tumor, which measured 12 x 9 cm, was solid and multinodular. Histologically, the tumor resembled hepatocellular carcinoma by its architectural and cytological features. Liver cell differentiation was indicated functionally by the immunohistochemical detection of alpha-fetoprotein and protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist II (PIVKA-II) and by positive bile production, and the hepatocellular differentiation was structurally in accord with keratin 7, 8 and 18 expression. CA125 expression, commonly present in ovarian surface epithelial carcinomas, suggested that this neoplasm originated from ovarian common epithelial cells. There are only nine such cases in the literature. A review of these cases reveals that hepatoid carcinoma of the ovary occurs exclusively in postmenopausal women (mean age, 62.7 years) and that the prognosis is poor.

  12. Abnormal plasma prothrombin (PIVKA-II) levels in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Y

    1989-05-01

    The concentration of abnormal prothrombin, or the protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist II (PIVKA-II) in 102 patients with hepatic disorders was measured by an enzyme immunoassay method. The concentration of PIVKA-II in the plasma was elevated in 11 out of 18 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and also in a patient with hepatoblastoma. There was no correlation between serum alpha-fetoprotein and plasma PIVKA-II levels. The PIVKA-II level was normal in 11 patients who had metastatic carcinoma or cholangiocellular carcinoma. Moreover, benign diseases of the liver did not cause an elevation in PIVKA-II. PIVKA-II might be an useful marker of hepatocellular carcinoma because, like alpha-fetoprotein, its level changes in close relation to the effects of treatment.

  13. [Biphasic pulmonary blastoma with germ cell differentiation: a challenge in diagnosis and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Alexandra; Vieira, Claúdia; Sousa, Nuno; Begonha, Rosa; Afonso, Mariana; Amaro, Teresina; Maurício, Joaquina

    2011-12-01

    Serviço de Oncologia Médica. Instituto Português de Oncologia Francisco Gentil. Porto. Portugal. A 27-year-old man, smoker, presented with three months history of fever. A left pulmonary mass inseparable from the heart was identified and serum alpha-fetoprotein was 4160 ng/ml. The morphologic aspects and immunohistochemistry of the biopsy specimen, in conjunction with the clinical findings were compatible with a diagnosis of pulmonary blastoma with germ cell differentiation. The tumour was considered unresectable. The patient was submitted to two cycles of primary chemotherapy with bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin. Despite a reduction in serum alpha-fetoprotein, the tumor did not regress. Second line chemotherapy (with paclitaxel, ifosfamide and cisplatin) was instituted, but progressive disease was identified after 2 cycles. Six months after the diagnosis cerebral metastases were found and the patient died. This case illustrates a rare situation of difficult diagnosis and treatment.

  14. Performance of Protein Induced by Vitamin K Absence or Antagonist-II (PIVKA-II) for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Screening in Chinese Population

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Rentao; Ding, Shitao; Tan, Wenting; Tan, Shun; Tan, Zhaoxia; Xiang, Shiqing; Zhou, Yi; Mao, Qing; Deng, Guohong

    2015-01-01

    Background: Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) has long been used as an effective biomarker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) screening; however, not all HCC patients can be detected with an elevated AFP level, especially in early HCC patients. Protein Induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II (PIVKA-II) is another serum biomarker linked to HCC; however, sensitivity and specificity remain controversial and data in Chinese groups is even rarer. Objectives: To evaluate the performance of PIVKA-II alo...

  15. Advances in the management of metastatic non-seminomatous germ cell tumours during the cisplatin era: a single-institution experience.

    OpenAIRE

    Gerl, A; Clemm, C.; Schmeller, N.; Hartenstein, R.; Lamerz, R.; Wilmanns, W.

    1996-01-01

    Long-term outcome was reviewed in 266 consecutive patients with metastatic non-seminomatous germ cell tumours treated at a single institution. The overall 3 year survival was 77%, and 3 year progression-free survival was 71%. Multivariate analysis identified the following clinical features as independent prognostic factors: the presence of liver, bone or brain metastasis, serum human chorionic gonadotropin > or = 10000 U l-1 and/or alpha-fetoprotein > or = 1000 ng ml-1, a mediastinal mass > 5...

  16. AFP-L3 — EDRN Public Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    AFP-L3, also known as lectin-bound AFP, is an isoform of AFP, a major plasma protein produced by the yolk sac and the liver during fetal life. Alpha-fetoprotein expression in adults is often associated with hepatoma or teratoma. The L3 isoform is specific to malignant tumors and its detected presence may serve to identify patients who could benefit from monitoring for the development of HCC in high risk populations (i.e. chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis).

  17. Multiple Ectopic Hepatocellular Carcinomas Arising in the Abdominal Cavity

    OpenAIRE

    Miyake, Toru; Hoshino, Seiichiro; Yoshida, Yoichiro; AISU, NAOYA; Tanimura, Syu; Hisano, Satoshi; Kuno, Nobuaki; Sohda, Tetsuro; Sakisaka, Shotaro; Yamashita, Yuichi

    2012-01-01

    Ectopic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a very rare clinical entity that is defined as HCC arising from extrahepatic liver tissue. This report presents a case of ectopic multiple HCC arising in the abdominal cavity. A 42-year-old otherwise healthy male presented with liver dysfunction at a general health checkup. Both HCV antibody and hepatitis B surface antigen were negative. Laboratory examination showed elevations in serum alpha-fetoprotein and PIVKA-II. Ultrasonography and computed tomo...

  18. Posterior midline cervical fetal cystic hygroma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oak S

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available Posterior midline cervical cystic hygromas (PMC are frequently found associated with chromosomal aberrations and usually do not survive. The present report illustrates diagnosis of this condition by sonography in an 18 weeks old fetus and an amniocentesis revealed 45 x0 karyotype and increased concentration of alpha-fetoproteins. Pregnancy was terminated in view of Turner′s syndrome. The etiology and natural history of the condition is reviewed.

  19. Echography of congenital malformations of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A descriptive and prospective study was conducted in 173 pregnant women attended at the Provincial Department of Clinical Genetics of Santiago de Cuba, from January, 2000 to December, 2004, to identify congenital malformations of the central nervous system detected by means of echography. The most frequent malformation was the hydrocephaly, followed by the fusion defects of the spine, associated with the hydrocephaly and the absence of cranial cavity. There was a prevalence of altered alpha fetoprotein and of elevated amniotic fluid

  20. Intrahepatic recurrence after percutaneous radiofrequency ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma: Analysis of the pattern and risk factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young-sun [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Hanyang University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Rhim, Hyunchul [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine (Korea, Republic of) and Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Hanyang University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: forest@smc.samsung.co.kr; Cho, On Koo [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Hanyang University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Koh, Byung Hee [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Hanyang University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yongsoo [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Hanyang University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-09-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the pattern and risks for intrahepatic recurrence after percutaneous radiofrequency (RF) ablation for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Materials and methods: We studied 62 patients with 72 HCCs ({<=}4 cm) who were treated with percutaneous RF ablation. The mean follow-up period was 19.1 months (6.0-49.1). We assessed the incidence and cumulative disease-free survival of local tumor progression (LTP) and intrahepatic distant recurrence (IDR). To analyze the risk factors, we examined the following, for the LTP: (1) tumor diameter, (2) contact with vessels, (3) degree of approximation to hepatic hilum, (4) contact with hepatic capsule, (5) presence of ablative safety margin, (6) degree of benign periablational enhancement and (7) serum alpha-fetoprotein; for the IDR: (1) severity of hepatic disease, (2) presence of HBsAg, (3) serum alpha-fetoprotein, (4) whether RF ablation was the initial treatment and (5) multiplicity of tumor for IDR. Results: The incidence of overall recurrence, LTP and IDR was 62.9%, 26.4% and 53.2%, respectively. The cumulative disease-free survival rates were 52%, 82% and 56% at 1 year, 26%, 63% and 30% at 2 years, respectively. Univariate analysis showed that the significant risk factors for LTP were: a tumor with a diameter >3 cm, contact of HCC with a vessel and an insufficient safety margin (p < 0.05). A multivariate stepwise Cox hazard model showed that the measurement of a tumor diameter >3 cm and insufficient safety margin were independent factors. Only the increased serum alpha-fetoprotein was a significant risk factor for IDR (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Intrahepatic recurrence after percutaneous RF ablation is common. Large HCC (>3 cm) with high serum alpha-fetoprotein should be treated more aggressively because of higher risk for recurrence.

  1. Immature teratoma with microscopic yolk sac tumor: A case of diagnostic challenge on histology

    OpenAIRE

    Sonali R Saraf; Madhu Chaturvedi; Manisha Khare; Alka Kalgutkar

    2016-01-01

    An adolescent girl with raised alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels presented with a left-sided large solid ovarian mass. Microscopically, the tumor was composed of a variety of immature and mature tissues derived from the three germ layers having very sparse (single focus of) immature neuroepithelium. Few areas also showed the presence of a reticular pattern of yolk sac tumor (YST). Hence, the tumor was diagnosed as immature teratoma with microscopic foci of yolk sac elements. After 6 months of ci...

  2. Identification of Serum Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 and Prolactin as Potential Tumor Markers in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Who-Whong Wang; Soo Fan Ang; Rajneesh Kumar; Charmain Heah; Andi Utama; Navessa Padma Tania; Huihua Li; Sze Huey Tan; Desmond Poo; Su Pin Choo; Wan Cheng Chow; Chee Kiat Tan; Han Chong Toh

    2013-01-01

    Early diagnosis of hepatocellullar carcinoma (HCC) remains a challenge. The current practice of serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) measurement is inadequate. Here we utilized a proteomic approach to identify novel serum biomarkers for distinguishing HCC patients from non-cancer controls. We profiled the serum proteins in a group of 58 resectable HCC patients and 11 non-HCC chronic hepatitis B (HBV) carrier samples from the Singapore General Hospital (SGH) using the RayBio® L-Series 507 Antibody Ar...

  3. Prenatal sonographic detection of nasopharyngeal teratoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sağol, S; Itil, I M; Ozsaran, A; Oztekin, K; Ozbek, S S

    1999-10-01

    We present the case of a 34-year-old pregnant woman who had an elevated maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein level and sonographic findings of a semisolid mass protruding from the fetus's oral cavity. The large, heterogeneous mass filled the oropharynx and nasopharynx. Abnormal Doppler waveforms were detected in the umbilical artery of the fetus, who died in utero. Postmortem examination revealed a nasopharyngeal teratoma. PMID:10477890

  4. A case report of hepatocellular carcinoma in common hepatic duct

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Chi Sung; Park, In Ae; Choi, Sang Woon; Chung, Jung Kee [YongDeungPo City Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-08-15

    We experienced a rare case of intraductal (common hepatic duct) hepatocellular carcinoma. Review of the literature disclosed 30 cases or less in which common duct involvement was a predominant clinical feature. Well demarcated, ovoid filling defect mass in CHD without parenchymal tumor mass was noted in ultrasound, PTC and CT study. The liver was cirrhotic, but {alpha}-fetoprotein level was normal. Differential diagnosis especially with Klatskin tumor is important and thought to be possible.

  5. Risk assessment adjusted for gestational age in maternal serum screening for Down's syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Gardosi, J.; Mongelli, M.

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate the relation between errors in calculation of gestational age and assessment of risk of Down's syndrome and to analyse the implications for screening programmes. DESIGN--Retrospective analysis of dating of gestational age by menstrual history v ultrasound scan. Computer program with maternal age and concentrations of alpha fetoprotein and free beta human chorionic gonadotrophin to calculate risk for a range of expected dates of delivery. Computer simulated prospectiv...

  6. Expression of AFP and Rev-Erb A/Rev-Erb B and N-CoR in fetal rat liver, liver injury and liver regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Meier, Volker; Tron, Kyrylo; Batusic, Danko; Elmaouhoub, Abderrahim; Ramadori, Giuliano

    2006-01-01

    Background Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) expression can resume in the adult liver under pathophysiological conditions. Orphan nuclear receptors were supposed to regulate AFP gene expression, in vitro. We were interested to study the expression of AFP and orphan nuclear receptors, in vivo. Results The expression of AFP gene and orphan nuclear receptors in the liver was examined in different rat models: (a) fetal liver (b) liver regeneration [partial hepatectomy (PH) with and without 2-acetyl-aminofl...

  7. Late diagnosis iniencephaly with spina bifida

    OpenAIRE

    Dilek Marangoz Chapman

    2015-01-01

    Herein a rare case of iniencephaly combined with spina bifida is reported, which was diagnosed late because the G6P5 mother had not attended hospital for first trimester anomaly scans and alpha-fetoprotein measurement. A woman aged 33 years who was 38 weeks pregnant presented for ante-natal follow-up. Her clinical results were normal but abnormalities including polyhydramnios, retroflexion of the head with absence of neck, acrania, and severe growth retardation were observed in the fetus. The...

  8. Sorafenib in Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Nationwide Retrospective Study of Efficacy and Tolerability

    OpenAIRE

    Anne Helene Køstner; Morten Sorensen; René Krøjgaard Olesen; Henning Grønbæk; Ulrik Lassen; Morten Ladekarl

    2013-01-01

    Background. Advanced HCC is a clinical challenge with limited treatment options. The multikinase inhibitor sorafenib is the first and only agent showing a survival benefit in these patients. In this study we evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of sorafenib in an unselected patient population. Furthermore we explore the role of alpha-fetoprotein ( α FP) as a potential biomarker for treatment efficacy and correlation to survival. Methods. Seventy-six patients with advanced HCC, not eligible ...

  9. A novel embryological theory of autism causation involving endogenous biochemicals capable of initiating cellular gene transcription: a possible link between twelve autism risk factors and the autism 'epidemic'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Chiara R

    2011-05-01

    Human alpha-fetoprotein is a pregnancy-associated protein with an undetermined physiological role. As human alpha-fetoprotein binds retinoids and inhibits estrogen-dependent cancer cell proliferation, and because retinoic acid (a retinol metabolite) and estradiol (an estrogen) can both initiate cellular gene transcription, it is hypothesized here that alpha-fetoprotein functions during critical gestational periods to prevent retinoic acid and maternal estradiol from inappropriately stimulating gene expression in developing brain regions which are sensitive to these chemicals. Prenatal/maternal factors linked to increased autism risk include valproic acid, thalidomide, alcohol, rubella, cytomegalovirus, depression, schizophrenia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, autoimmune disease, stress, allergic reaction, and hypothyroidism. It will be shown how each of these risk factors may initiate expression of genes which are sensitive to retinoic acid and/or estradiol - whether by direct promotion or by reducing production of alpha-fetoprotein. It is thus hypothesized here that autism is not a genetic disorder, but is rather an epigenetic disruption in brain development caused by gestational exposure to chemicals and/or conditions which either inhibit alpha-fetoprotein production or directly promote retinoic acid-sensitive or estradiol-sensitive gene expression. This causation model leads to potential chemical explanations for autistic brain morphology, the distinct symptomatology of Asperger's syndrome, and the differences between high-functioning and low-functioning autism with regard to mental retardation, physical malformation, and sex ratio. It will be discussed how folic acid may cause autism under the retinoic acid/estradiol model, and the history of prenatal folic acid supplementation will be shown to coincide with the history of what is popularly known as the autism epidemic. It is thus hypothesized here that prenatal folic acid supplementation has contributed to the

  10. Primary retroperitoneal teratomas in children: A single institution experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggarwal S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aims to highlight the clinical features, investigations and treatment outcome of retroperitoneal teratomas (RPT in children. Materials and Methods: A total of eight patients (six males and two females, age range between 6 months−10 years of RPT admitted in the department of Paediatric Surgery, PGIMS, Rohtak, between 1996−2008, were studied. The patients were investigated with hematology, x-ray, ultrasound, and computerised tomography (CT of abdomen and serum alpha-fetoprotein levels in pre and postoperative period. All patients underwent complete surgical resection. In one patient, the tumour had malignant component (yolk sac and was given postoperative chemotherapy. Postoperative follow-up included serum alpha-fetoprotein in addition to clinical examination and radiological assessment to detect recurrences. Results: The tumours were located on both sides in almost equal proportion (four on right, three on left, and one bilateral]. All tumours could be excised completely preserving the kidneys in all patients. But in one patient injury to inferior vena cava (IVC occurred which was repaired successfully. Majority (7 out of 8 were histological benign, and in one yolk sac tumour was malignant component which needed chemotherapy. All children were on follow-up and one patient with malignancy lost to follow-up after three cycles of chemotherapy. In rest there was no tumour recurrence. Conclusion: RPT are rare paediatric neoplasms. As majority are benign, a complete excision preserving the kidneys, is usually curative. Serum alpha-fetoprotein is a reliable method of assessing recurrence. Malignancy in the tumour may warrant further chemotherapy.

  11. 肝細胞癌診断におけるPIVKA-IIならびに各種腫瘍マーカー測定の臨床的意義とその糖鎖変異に関する研究

    OpenAIRE

    小黒, 仁; Oguro, Makoto

    1992-01-01

    The plasma concentrations of PIVKA-II in samples from 155 patients with HCC and 298 with other liver diseases were determined. The serum concentrations and fucosylation index of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), sialyl stage-specific embryonic antigen-1 (SLX), CA-50, and Dupan-2 were also determined in 60 patients with HCC, 70 with nonneoplastic liver diseases and 25 with carcinoma metastatic to the liver. In 16 HCC patients with positive reactions of both PIVKA-II and AFP longitudinal series of their...

  12. Spontaneous Regression of Hepatocellular Carcinoma due to Disruption of the Feeding Artery

    OpenAIRE

    Okano, Akihiro; Ohana, Masaya; Kusumi, Fusako; Nabeshima, Motoshige

    2013-01-01

    We present an unusual case of spontaneous regression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A 77-year-old man with alcoholic liver cirrhosis presented with a 50-mm tumor in the Couinaud's segment 8 (S8) of the liver, a 15-mm tumor in the S8-7 and 10-mm tumors in the other segments (S4, S6). The tumors were diagnosed as HCC by typical imaging findings and elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, 1,825.0 ng/ml) and protein induced by vitamin K absence II (PIVKA II, 3,043 mAU/ml). One month later, AFP...

  13. 3) 肝細胞癌の血清学的診断(シンポジウム 腫瘍抗原の臨床診断への応用, 第452回新潟医学会)

    OpenAIRE

    鈴木, 康史; 板谷, 啓司; 青柳, 豊; 小黒, 仁; 横田, 剛; 斉藤, 敦; 五十嵐, 健太郎; 上村, 朝輝; 朝倉, 均; Suzuki, Yasufumi; Itaya, Keiji; Aoyagi, Yutaka; Oguro, Makoto; Igarashi, Kentarou; Saitou, Atsushi

    1990-01-01

    The serum concentration and degree of fucosylation (Fucosylation index) of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) were determined in serum samples from 322 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and 155 with benign liver diseases (BLD). The serum concentration of PIVKA-II, sialyl SSEA (SLX) and CA-50 were also determined 60 with HCC and 60 with BLD. When the serum AFP concentration was below 1000ng/ml, there was no demarcation line between HCC and BLD. However, the fucosylation index of AFP proved use...

  14. Alfa-fetoprotein secreting ovarian sex cord-stromal tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusum D Jashnani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors are relatively infrequent neoplasms that account for approximately 8% of all primary ovarian tumors. They are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms composed of cells derived from gonadal sex cords (granulosa and Sertoli cells, specialized gonadal stroma (theca and Leydig cells, and fibroblasts. They may show androgenic or estrogenic manifestations. We report such a tumor associated with markedly raised serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP levels in a young female presenting with a mass and defeminising symptoms. Serum AFP levels returned to normal on removal of tumor.

  15. Randomised controlled trial of genetic amniocentesis in 4606 low-risk women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tabor, A; Philip, J; Madsen, Mette;

    1986-01-01

    2.3). In the study group, increased levels of maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein before amniocentesis, perforation of the placenta during amniocentesis, and withdrawal of discoloured amniotic fluid were associated with an increased risk of spontaneous abortion. In the first six weeks after...... amniocentesis/ultrasound scan, amniotic fluid leakage occurred more often in the study group but there was no difference in the rate of vaginal bleeding. Frequency of postural malformations in the infants in the two groups was the same. In the study group, respiratory distress syndrome was diagnosed more often...

  16. Evaluation of tumor markers for the detection of hepatocellular carcinoma in Yangon General Hospital, Myanmar.

    OpenAIRE

    Taketa K; Okada S.; Win N; Hlaing NK; Wind KM

    2002-01-01

    Levels of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), its glycoforms AFP-L3 and AFP-P4, and proteins induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II (PIVKA-II) were determined in sera obtained from patients in Yangon General Hospital (20 with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), 29 with chronic liver diseases, including 3 with chronic hepatitis and 26 with cirrhosis of the liver, and 9 with other hepatobiliary diseases). Forty-five percent of the patients with HCC had serum AFP levels above 10,000 ng/ml, indicating th...

  17. Image diagnosis of liver cancer by nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terui, Shoji (National Cancer Center, Tokyo (Japan))

    1984-01-01

    Scintigraphies with sup(99m)Tc-phytate and /sup 67/Ga-citrate are valuable in the diagnosis of liver cancer, and subtraction scintigraphy is useful in a higher degree of diagnostic accuracy and preliminary diagnosis of the liver. In determining therapeutic procedures, it is necessary to study findings in the normal lobe of the liver according to the location of tumors. Serological screening of ..cap alpha..-fetoprotein and thyroxine-binding globulin is considered useful in the early diagnosis of liver cancer.

  18. Hepatocellular carcinoma with extensive hepatic artery injury: transcatheter arterial chemoembolization through collaterals after coil embolizatoin of gastric arteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gab Choul; Yoon, Hyun Ki; Hwang, Jae Cheol; Lee, Duck Hee; Song, Ho Young; Suh, Dong Jin; Lee, Yung Sang; Chung, Young Hwa; Sung, Gyu Bo [Ulsan Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Ki Young [Catholic Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-09-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization(TACE) after coil embolization of the gastroduodenal artery in hepatocellular carcinoma cases with multiple collateral arteries caused by proper hepatic artery injury. Between March 1997 and November 1998, a prospective trial of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) was performed through collaterals from the gastroduodenal artery of 31 hepatocellular carcinoma patients with extensive proper hepatic artery injury due to repeated TACE. Among this number, 16 (group A) underwent TACE after coil embolization of the right gastric and gastroduodenal artery. The other 15 patients (group B) underwent TACE without coil embolization. The two groups had the same TNM stage and Clild-Pugh status. During the follow-up period, group A underwent additional TACE 3.3 times, and group B 2.8 times. The therapeutic effect of TACE was evaluated with computed tomography and by measuring alpha-fetoprotein levels. Complications were evaluated by means of gastrofibroscopy, laboratory data, and evaluation of the patients' clinical symptoms. The results obtained after six months and one year were compared within and between each group. At six months follow-up, CT findings had improved or were unchanged in 11 patients(69 %) in group A, and four patients(27 %) in group B(p = 0.032). In ten patients in each group, the level of alpha-fetoprotein was above 200 ng/ml. Its level was decreased in five patients(50 %) and three patients(30 %), respectively. The six-month survival rate was 81 % (13/16) in group A and 67% (10/15) in group B (p 0.43), while the one-year survival figures for these two groups were 50 % (8/16) and 20 % (3/15), respectively(p = 0.135). In group A, the CT findings were steady in five out of eight patients(63 %), while in groupB, CT findings showed that tumors with increased alpha-fetoprotein levels had increased in size and/or number. In group A, it was found that in two (33 %) of six

  19. Mixed ovarian germ cell tumor composed of immature teratoma, yolk sac tumor and embryonal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Zhou, Feng; Qian, Zhida; Qing, Jiale; Zhao, Mengdam; Huang, Lili

    2014-11-01

    We report the case of a 19-year-old woman experiencing lower abdominal distension and pain. Laboratory tests indicated elevated serum levels of Alpha-Fetoprotein (AFP) and human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG). A large mass was detected in the abdomen by physical examination and by transvaginal ultrasonography. Exploratory laparotomy was performed, and a smooth-surfaced, spherical, solid tumor was found on the left ovary, measuring 11.5 x 9.9 x 6.9 cm. Histological evaluation revealed that the tumor consisted of a combination of immature teratoma, Yolk Sac Tumor, and embryonal carcinoma; this is a very rare combination in mixed germ cell tumors. PMID:25518772

  20. One to Watch: A Germ Cell Tumor Arising in an Undescended Testicle in Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Grainne H; Boyle, Michael; Lynch, Sally Ann; Ryan, Stephanie; McDermott, Michael; Capra, Michael

    2016-08-01

    A male preterm infant was born with dysmorphic features consistent with Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RTS). An undescended right testicle was noted on examination. At 5 months of age he developed a palpable right-sided abdominal mass and an elevated alpha-fetoprotein. Histology revealed a malignant germ cell neoplasm arising within the undescended testis. This is the first reported case of a germ cell tumor occurring in a pediatric patient with RTS. Urologic abnormalities occur in approximately 52% of RTS patients, of which cryptorchidism is the commonest. Given the frequency of undescended testes in this population, closer screening may be warranted.

  1. A unique scrotal extratesticular epidermod cyst attached to the seminal vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sağlam, Hasan Salih; Kumsar, Sükrü; Köse, Osman; Adsan, Oztuğ

    2013-01-01

    A 46-year-old man was admitted with a scrotal long standing painless mass. The workup included physical examination, alpha-fetoprotein (αFP) and beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) analyses, scrotal ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging and urethrocystoscopy. Surgical exploration revealed a separate mass between the testes extending superiorly with a thin stalk. It was dissected easily to the anterior aspect of the seminal vesicles and removed from the junction to the seminal vesicles. Pathology reported an epidermoid cyst. To our knowledge this is the first case of a scrotal extratesticular epidermoid cyst attached to the seminal vesicles.

  2. Congenital facial teratoma in a neonate: Surgical management and outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kekre, Geeta; Gupta, Abhaya; Kothari, Paras; Dikshit, Vishesh; Patil, Prashant; Deshmukh, Shahji; Kulkarni, Apoorva; Deshpande, Aditi

    2016-01-01

    Teratomas are among the most common tumors of childhood, but craniofacial teratomas are rare. They can be diagnosed antenatally. Craniofacial teratomas may cause airway obstruction in the newborn. We present a case of a newborn male child who was diagnosed to have a facial tumor in the 8th month of gestation. He was delivered normally and had no respiratory or feeding difficulties. He was also found to have a cleft palate. Serum alpha fetoprotein levels were normal. He underwent excision on day of life 9. At 11 months follow-up, he is well with no evidence of recurrence and good functional outcome.

  3. Pulmonary hepatoid adenocarcinoma: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motooka, Yamato; Yoshimoto, Kentaro; Semba, Takashi; Ikeda, Koei; Mori, Takeshi; Honda, Yumi; Iyama, Ken-Ichi; Suzuki, Makoto

    2016-12-01

    Hepatoid adenocarcinoma (HAC) is a rare neoplasm with aberrant hepatocellular differentiation. HAC occurs in extrahepatic organs such as the gastrointestinal tract, testes, ovaries, and lungs and frequently produces alpha-fetoprotein. A 69-year-old patient was diagnosed clinically with T2aN0M0, stage IB, non-small cell lung carcinoma. Because the tumor showed tight adhesion to the chest wall, we performed left upper lobectomy, combined resection of the 3rd and 4th ribs, and lymph node dissection. Pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of HAC of the lung (pathological T2aN0M0, stage IB), and four courses of cisplatin and gemcitabine were administered as adjuvant chemotherapy. Genetic analysis of the epidermal growth factor receptor showed wild type. Preoperative serum alpha-fetoprotein level, a useful marker of disease progression, was elevated to 4497 ng/ml, decreasing within the normal range by about 3 months postoperatively. The patient remains alive without recurrence as of 51 months after surgery. PMID:26943677

  4. ROLE OF ALPHA FETO PROTIEN AS A MARKER IN DIAGNOSIS OF PREMATURE RUPTURE OF MEMBRANES IN RURAL POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pahula

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM : In India, especially in rural population multiple factors adversely affect the incidence of premature rupture of membrane. The purpose of this study is to test the amniotic fluid Alpha feto protein as a reliable mar ker for the detection of PPROM and to test its efficacy for the purpose in the rural India. STUDY DESIGN : This study was conducted in the Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, NIMS Medical College & Hospital, Jaipur, Rajasthan. This was a cross sectional study during period of one year with sample size of 100 patients . METHOD S : Patients who were at ≥24 weeks of gestation with the complains of leaking per vaginum. Sample for Alpha - fetoprotein (AFP estimation was collected by instilling 5 ml of distilled wa ter into vagina, irrespective of pooling of amniotic fluid and sent to the biochemistry lab for the analysis and for the estimation of alpha fetoprotein by using Electroluminescence enzyme immunoassay method. RESULT: The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value are 92%, 98%, 92% and 98% respectively. CONCLUSION: The AFP can be used as reliable marker to avoid unnecessary obstretic interventions for diagnosis of PROM.

  5. Growth potential of human hepatocarcinoma cells in the liver of neonatal immunocompetent mice and its relation to immunological tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ze Wang; Zengliang Bai; Hui Zhang; Tianxiao Huan; Juan Li; Xiumin Du; Jingping Zhang

    2009-01-01

    To determine the pathological behavior of human hepatocarcinoma cells in the liver microenvironment of neonatal non-immunode-ficient mice, three human hepatocarcinoma cell lines (Be7402, HepG2, and SK-Hep-1), traced by Dil, were transplanted into the intrahepatic or subcutaneous tissue of neonatal and adult Kunming mice. Histopathological observations showed that cells in the adult liver induced a severe immune response as early as the second day after the implantation, while the subcutaneous neoplasm underwent extensive necrosis by the end of the study. Only the cells injected into the neonatal liver underwent a delayed immunologic rejection in the organ mieroenvironment. These cells retained recognizable tumor features over the first seven days, and displayed an intrahepatic inva-sive pattern. The expression of tumor markers including alpha-fetoprotein and survivin was maintained. The quantitative ELISA for the expression patterns of IL-2 and IL-10 also confirmed that the intrahepatic immunity was non-susceptive during this period. The high serum alpha-fetoprotein level was inversely correlated with the change in immune response. Our study provided a bio-system for the research of immune responses to xenografts in the liver.

  6. Protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II production is a strong predictive marker for extrahepatic metastases in early hepatocellular carcinoma: a prospective evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinicians often experience extrahepatic metastases associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), even if no evidence of intrahepatic recurrence after treatment is observed. We investigated the pretreatment predictors of extrahepatic metastases in HCC patients. Patients diagnosed with HCC without evidence of extrahepatic metastases were prospectively enrolled. We evaluated the correlation between extrahepatic metastases and pretreatment clinical variables, including serum tumor markers. A total of 354 patients were included. Seventy-six patients (21%) had extrahepatic metastases during the observation period (median, 25.3 months; range, 0.6-51.3 months). Cox regression multivariate analysis showed that serum protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II (PIVKA-II) production levels, the intrahepatic tumor stage, platelet count, and portal vein thrombosis were independent risk factors for extrahepatic metastases. Patients with a PIVKA-II production ≥ 300 mAU/mL had a 2.7-fold (95% confidence interval; 1.5-4.8; P < 0.001) and 3.7-fold (95% confidence interval; 2.0-6.6; P < 0.001) increased risk for extrahepatic metastases after adjustment for stage, platelet count, alpha-fetoprotein ≥ 400 ng/mL, and portal vein thrombosis according to the AJCC and BCLC staging systems, respectively. PIVKA-II production levels might be a good candidate predictive marker for extrahepatic HCC metastases, especially in patients with smaller and/or fewer tumors in the liver with in stages regardless of serum alpha-fetoprotein

  7. Analyses of prognostic indices of chronic liver failure caused by hepatitis virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Mao Li; Lin Ma; Yue-Bo Yang; Zhong-Jie Shi; Shui-Sheng Zhou

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the related indices about the prognosesof chronic liver failure caused by hepatitis virus.METHODS: Retrospectively reviewed 320 cases of chronic liver failure caused by hepatitis viruses. An improved group and an ineffective group (IG) were made to compare and analyze their clinical manifestations, laboratory examination indices and complications. Logistic regression was also carried out. RESULTS: There were significant differences (P<0.05) between the improved group and the IG upon such indices as age, bilirubin, prothrombin time, albumin, alpha fetoprotein, the size of liver and complications (P<0.05). The regression formula was as follows: P = 1/(1+e-y)(y= 1.7262-0.0948X1+2.9846X2+0.6992X3+ 1.6019X4+2.0398X5). (Note: X1-Prothrombin activity; X2-digestive tract hemorrhage; X3-hepatic encephalopathy; X4-hepatorenal syndrome; X5-pulmonary infection.).CONCLUSION: Laboratory examination such as bilirubin, prothrombin time and alpha fetoprotein can be regarded as indices of the prognoses of chronic liver failure caused by hepatitis. Moreover, the regression equation can evaluate prognoses more comprehensively and direct our treatments.

  8. Hepatitis B and alcohol affect survival of hepatocellular carcinoma patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linda L. Wong; Whitney M. Limm; Naoky Tsai; Richard Severino

    2005-01-01

    AIM: In the USA, Hawaii has the highest incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and a diverse population.It is an ideal place to characterize HCC in the context of ethnicity/risk factors.METHODS: A total of 262 cases of HCC (1992-2003) were retrospectively reviewed for demographics, ethnicity, birthplace, viral hepatitis, alcohol use, diabetes, smoking and risk factors for viral hepatitis such as intravenous drug abuse (IVDA), transfusions, tattoos and vertical transmission. Tumor stage, Child's class, Cancer of the Liver Italian Program (CLIP) score, α-fetoprotein level, treatment and survival were recorded.RESULTS: Gender, age, viral hepatitis, alcohol, IVDA, and diabetes differed significantly in Asians, non-Asians and Pacific Islanders. There were also specific differences within Asian subgroups. Alpha-fetoprotein, smoking, transfusions, stage and resectability did not differ between groups. Asians were more likely to have hepatitis B, while non-Asians were more likely to have hepatitis C. Factors that decreased survival included hepatitis B, alcohol, elevated alpha-fetoprotein, CLIP >2 and increased Child's class. When Asians were combined with Pacific Islanders, median survival (1.52 years vs 3.54 years), 1- and 3-year survival was significantly worse than those for non-Asians. After Cox regression analysis for hepatitis B and alcohol, there was no difference in survival by ethnicity.CONCLUSION: Various ethnicities have different risk factors for HCC. Hepatitis B, alcohol, and α-fetoprotein are more important factors for survival than ethnicity.

  9. Triple test role in identifying chromosomal disorders in the second trimester of pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artenie Vlad

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The triple test plays a very important role in identifying chromosomal disorders, in the prenatal screening of the second pregnancy trimester. The scope of our research resides in investigating the level of human chorionic gonadotropin, alpha-fetoprotein and unconjugated estriol (markers that make-up the triple test, in the serum sampled and analysed from a group of 135 pregnant women. The observation of the above mentioned markers is made in order to identify the pregnancies that present a higher risk for the appearance of chromosomal disorders. We also, decided to associate the values gathered for human chorionic gonadotropin, alpha-fetoprotein and unconjugated estriol, with the maternal age. The interpretation of the data was made using the PRISCA 4.0 software, considering by default the gestational age, smoking, in vitro fertilization, diabetic status, medical history of the mother. We must say that the patients were pregnant in the second trimester, period specific for triple test survey and are not the same patients included in the double test survey. Following the conducted biochemical analyses normal values were obtained, values that fit the ranges specified in the specific literature, but also values that were outside the normal ranges, indentifying in this way pregnancies with high risk for 21 and 18 trisomy.

  10. ROM Plus®: accurate point-of-care detection of ruptured fetal membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McQuivey RW

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ross W McQuivey,1 Jon E Block2 1Clinical Affairs, Clinical Innovations, Salt Lake City, UT, 2Independent Clinical Consultant, San Francisco, CA, USAAbstract: Accurate and timely diagnosis of rupture of fetal membranes is imperative to inform and guide gestational age-specific interventions to optimize perinatal outcomes and reduce the risk of serious complications, including preterm delivery and infections. The ROM Plus is a rapid, point-of-care, qualitative immunochromatographic diagnostic test that uses a unique monoclonal/polyclonal antibody approach to detect two different proteins found in amniotic fluid at high concentrations: alpha-fetoprotein and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1. Clinical study results have uniformly demonstrated high diagnostic accuracy and performance characteristics with this point-of-care test that exceeds conventional clinical testing with external laboratory evaluation. The description, indications for use, procedural steps, and laboratory and clinical characterization of this assay are presented in this article.Keywords: ROM Plus®, premature rupture of membranes, point-of-care immunoassay, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1, IGFBP-1, placental protein 12, PP12, alpha-fetoprotein, AFP

  11. Effective treatment for malignant mediastinal teratoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, D; Holford, C P; Begent, R H; Newlands, E S; Rustin, G J; Makey, A R; Bagshawe, K D

    1983-12-01

    Primary malignant mediastinal teratoma is a rare tumour previously regarded as inevitably fatal. In a series of eight male patients with a mean age of 24 years five remain alive and well. All patients showed raised serum concentrations of human chorionic gonadotrophin or alpha fetoprotein. The patients were treated with intermittent combination chemotherapy that included cisplatin. Six patients responded to chemotherapy with a fall in human chorionic gonadotrophin or alpha fetoprotein to near normal levels and they then had radical excision of the remaining tumour. Living malignant tumour was found in four of the specimens and these patients received postoperative chemotherapy. One patient died after eight months and the remaining five patients are alive and well 13-136 months after the start of treatment. The two patients who did not undergo surgery died at one month and 15 months. Intermittent combination chemotherapy and carefully timed radical excision of these tumours would appear to have produced better results than have been reported in other series.

  12. 异常凝血酶原和肝细胞癌%Des-gamma-carboxy-prothrombin and Hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁联文; 唐伟; 幕内·雅敏

    2002-01-01

    目前肝细胞癌(hepatocellular carcinoma,HCC)的诊断主要有影像学诊断和血清肿瘤标志物的检测.异常凝血酶原(des-gamma-carboxy-prothrombin,DCP)又被称为PIVKA-Ⅱ(protein induced by vita-min K absence or antagonist-Ⅱ),与AFP(alpha-fetoprotein)和AFP-L3(alpha-fetoprotein L3 fraction)一样被认为是一种很有价值的肝细胞癌血清肿瘤标志物.在HCC的检测诊断上,它们之间无明显相关关系,而表现为一定的互补性,结合影像学诊断,动态观测HCC高危(肝炎、肝硬化)人群,这些血清肿瘤标志物有助于HCC的早期发现,同时对HCC的手术疗效的评价、预后的估评有着一定的指导意义.

  13. Fucosylation Is a Promising Target for Cancer Diagnosis and Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichiro Shinzaki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oligosaccharides, sequences of carbohydrates conjugated to proteins and lipids, are arguably the most abundant and structurally diverse class of molecules. Fucosylation is one of the most important oligosaccharide modifications involved in cancer and inflammation. Recent advances in glycomics have identified several types of glyco-biomarkers containing fucosylation that are linked to certain types of cancer. Fucosylated alpha-fetoprotein (AFP is widely used in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma because it is more specific than alpha-fetoprotein. High levels of fucosylated haptoglobin have also been found in sera of patients with various carcinomas. We have recently established a simple lectin-antibody ELISA to measure fucosylated haptoglobin and to investigate its clinical use. Cellular fucosylation is dependent upon fucosyltransferase activity and the level of its donor substrate, guanosine diphosphate (GDP-fucose. GDP-mannose-4,6-dehydratase (GMDS is a key enzyme involved in the synthesis of GDP-fucose. Mutations of GMDS found in colon cancer cells induced a malignant phenotype, leading to rapid growth in athymic mice resistant to natural killer cells. This review describes the role of fucosylated haptoglobin as a cancer biomarker, and discusses the possible biological role of fucosylation in cancer development.

  14. Successful treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma with percutaneous ethanol injection therapy and local hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hiroto; Ostapenko, Valentina V; Miyano, Motoshige; Nishide, Takahiro; Sonobe, Miyahiko; Toda, Keigorou; Nishide, Iwao; Mune, Masatoshi; Yukawa, Susumu

    2002-01-01

    The patient K.I., a 72-year-old male, was admitted to Nishide Hospital in July 1999 for hemodialysis treatment of end-stage chronic renal failure. At the time of his admission, an ultrasound examination of the patient's liver revealed a large mass in the S5-S8 segment. A hepatocellular carcinoma was suspected from the characteristic mosaic pattern seen with ultrasound and the elevation of alpha-fetoprotein in the serum. The patient's condition was considered to be medically inoperable, due to the patient's adaptation to hemodialysis. Furthermore, transcatheter arterial embolization was not indicated due to the patient's history of hypersensitivity to roentgen-contrast materials. An attempt to palliate the malignancy was made with a combination of local hyperthermia and percutaneous ethanol injection therapy. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed that the tumor structure had changed after 10 days of percutaneous ethanol injection therapy and that 2 months later the tumor size had decreased by about 50%. Moreover, the alpha-fetoprotein level had returned to normal by that time. In addition, this treatment did not cause any disturbance in the liver function. The patient tolerated treatment well. A combined treatment of local hyperthermia with percutaneous ethanol injection therapy appears to be useful in the management of hepatocellular carcinomas, especially in cases in which more aggressive treatment is not acceptable.

  15. Late diagnosis iniencephaly with spina bifida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Marangoz Chapman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Herein a rare case of iniencephaly combined with spina bifida is reported, which was diagnosed late because the G6P5 mother had not attended hospital for first trimester anomaly scans and alpha-fetoprotein measurement. A woman aged 33 years who was 38 weeks pregnant presented for ante-natal follow-up. Her clinical results were normal but abnormalities including polyhydramnios, retroflexion of the head with absence of neck, acrania, and severe growth retardation were observed in the fetus. The infant was delivered through Cesarean section and died shortly after birth. The results of a gross examination revealed acrania, iniencephaly, spina bifida, and an imperforated anus. Iniencephaly is a rare and fatal neural tube defect characterized by extreme retroflexion of the head and severs distortion of the spine. This case report underlines the importance of first trimester anomaly scans and alpha-fetoprotein measurement. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(5.000: 1543-1545

  16. Salvage therapy in patients with germ cell tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einhorn, Lawrence H

    2015-01-01

    Testicular cancer is the most curable metastatic solid tumor. Initial chemotherapy is evidence based with risk stratification into three prognostic categories: good, intermediate, and advanced disease. Guidelines for disease management following progression after initial cisplatin combination chemotherapy are less clear. Options include salvage surgery for patients with anatomically confined relapse, standard-dose cisplatin combination chemotherapy, or high-dose chemotherapy with carboplatin plus etoposide with peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. Proper interpretation of a presumed relapse can be complicated. Growing masses on imaging studies might reflect a growing teratoma. Persistent elevations of serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) or alpha fetoprotein (AFP) are only an indication for salvage therapy if there is a definitive rise in the tumor marker. Elevated and rising serum hCG as the only evidence of recurrence can be because of cross reactivity with luteinizing hormone or usage of marijuana rather than progressive cancer. Elevated liver function tests can cause rising serum AFP. PMID:25993183

  17. Integrated MEMS/NEMS Resonant Cantilevers for Ultrasensitive Biological Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxin Li

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the recent researches implemented in Chinese Academy of Sciences, with achievements on integrated resonant microcantilever sensors. In the resonant cantilevers, the self-sensing elements and resonance exciting elements are both top-down integrated with silicon micromachining techniques. Quite a lot of effort is focused on optimization of the resonance mode and sensing structure for improvement of sensitivity. On the other hand, to enable the micro-cantilevers specifically sensitive to bio/chemical molecules, sensing materials are developed and modified on the cantilever surface with a self-assembled monolayer (SAM based bottom-up construction and surface functionalization. To improve the selectivity of the sensors and depress environmental noise, multiple and localized surface modifications are developed. The achieved volume production capability and satisfactory detecting resolution to trace-level biological antigen of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP give the micro-cantilever sensors a great promise for rapid and high-resoluble detection.

  18. Optimization of AFP-radioimmunoassay using Antibody Capture Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a substance produced by the unborn baby. When the neural tube is not properly formed large amounts of AFP pass into the amniotic fluid and reach the mother's blood. By measuring AFP in the mother's blood and amniotic fluid, it is possible to tell whether or not there is a chance that the unborn baby has a neural tube defect. AFP also used as a tumor marker for hepatocellular carcinoma. There are many different techniques for measuring AFP in blood, but the most accurate one is the immunoassay technique. The immunoassays can be classified on the basis of methodology into three classes; (1) the antibody capture assays, (2) the antigen capture assay, (3)the two-antibody sandwich assays. In this present study, the antibody capture assay in which the antigen is attached to a solid support, and labeled antibody is allowed to bind, will be optimized

  19. Quantitative Proteomics Analysis of Tissue Interstitial Fluid for Identification of Novel Serum Candidate Diagnostic Marker for Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Xing, Baocai; Guo, Lihai; Liu, Zhilei; Mu, Jinsong; Sun, Longqin; Wei, Handong; Zhao, Xiaohang; Qian, Xiaohong; Jiang, Ying; He, Fuchu

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common malignant cancer in the world. The sensitivity of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is still inadequate for HCC diagnosis. Tissue interstitial fluid (TIF), as the liquid microenvironment of cancer cells, was used for biomarker discovery in this study. Paired tumor and nontumor TIF samples from 6 HBV-HCC patients were analyzed by a proteomic technique named iTRAQ (isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation). Totally, 241 up-regulated proteins (ratio ≥ 1.3, p AFP) and specificity of 66%. This result demonstrated the potential of S100A9 as a candidate HCC diagnostic biomarker. And TIF was a kind of promising material to identify candidate tumor biomarkers that could be detected in serum. PMID:27216119

  20. [Complete Resection of Non-seminomatous Germ Cell Tumor with Plastron Approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Jun; Oizumi, Hiroyuki; Kato, Hirohisa; Endoh, Makoto; Watarai, Hikaru; Hamada, Akira; Suzuki, Katsuyuki; Nakahashi, Kenta; Sasage, Takayuki; Sadahiro, Mitsuaki

    2016-07-01

    A 17-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for the abnormal chest shadow. Chest computed tomography(CT) demonstrated mediastinal tumor, measuring 13 cm in diameter with high serum level of alpha fetoprotein (AFP) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). The lesions were diagnosed as mixed germ cell tumors including a non-seminomatous malignant component by CT guided needle biopsy. After 5 courses of chemotherapy, the serum AFP and hCG were decreased almost normal level but the tumor size was not changed. Because it seemed to be difficult to get sufficient operating field with standard median sternotomy and patient wanted to treat funnel chest, we selected tumor resection with plastron approach. The tumor was completely resected with a good operation field by this procedure. PMID:27365059

  1. Circulating Osteopontin and Prediction of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Development in a Large European Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duarte-Salles, Talita; Misra, Sandeep; Stepien, Magdalena;

    2016-01-01

    was conducted within the EPIC cohort. During a mean follow-up of 4.8 years, 100 HCC cases were identified. Each case was matched to two controls and OPN levels were measured in baseline plasma samples. Viral hepatitis, liver function and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) tests were also conducted. Conditional...... subjects who developed HCC (AUC=0.86). For cases diagnosed within two years, the combination of OPN and AFP was best able to predict HCC risk (AUC=0.88). The best predictive model for HCC in this low-risk population is OPN in combination with liver function tests. Within two years of diagnosis, the...... combination of OPN and AFP best predicted HCC development, suggesting that measuring OPN and AFP could identify high-risk groups independently of a liver disease diagnosis....

  2. Serum ferritin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serum ferritin (SF) concentration as determined by the immunoradiometric method allows the direct measurement of a fraction of the body ferritin pool. In normal subjects, SF is an excellent index of body iron stores. In certain conditions associated with increased ferritin synthesis (such as liver disease, inflammation, malignancy, chronic disorders, ineffective erythropoiesis, or during ferrotherapy), SF may not accurately reflect body iron stores. In hyposideremic anemias SF concentration permits to differentiate those due to iron deficiency from those due to chronic disorders. With a good assay quality, subnormal SF levels are incontrovertible in the diagnosis of iron deficiency. SF determination has been investigated as possible tumor marker. When performed in combination with the alpha-fetoprotein assay, SF enhances the specificity of serodiagnosis of hepatoma. SF results must be interpreted bearing in mind the possible participation of circumstances that i) modify the body iron stores and ii) lead to increased ferritin synthesis. (author)

  3. Clinical evaluation of radioassays for calcitonin, CEA-S, AFP and ferritin as tumor markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinical usefulness of the radioassays for serum calcitonin, isometric species of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA-S), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and ferritin as the specific tumor markers was evaluated. The calcitonin assay was found to be extremely useful in detecting the cases of familial medullary carcinoma of the thyroid and in monitoring the patients after surgery. The CEA-S assay was proved more specific in titers and positivity for malignancies, especially GI tract carcinomas than CEA assay. The diagnosis of hepatoma could be performed precisely with a combination of 67Ga scintigraphy and assays of CEA and AFP. The serum ferritin levels in malignancies overlapped widely with those of non-malignancies. However, the estimation of ferritin-iron ratio was thought to be a useful means for screening patients with suspicious lesions. (author)

  4. The 12th quality control survey for radioisotope in vitro tests in Japan, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    The results of the 12th quality control nationwide survey is presented. Of 670 selected facilities, 405 (60.4%) participated in this survey. Myoglobin and trypsin were added as new items to be examined. The other conventional items were as follows: alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), aldosterone, {beta}{sub 2}-microglobulin, carbohydrate angigen 15-3, C-peptide, digoxin, elastase 1, free triiodothyronine, growth hormone, immunoglobulin E, prostatic acid phosphatase, pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor, progesterone, prolactin, thyroglobulin, triiodothyronine (T{sub 3}), T{sub 3} uptake, tissue polypeptide antigen, thyroid stimulating hormone, and testosterone. There was a great coefficient of variation (CV) between kits in AFP, aldosterone, progesterone, and prolactin. These results were analogous to those in the previous surveys. For T{sub 3}, there was a great difference between CV by radioimmunoassay and by non-isotopic method. Both myoglobin and trypsin had a great difference between kits. (N.K.).

  5. An Overview of Biomarkers and Molecular Signatures in HCC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seon-Hee Yim

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is the third most common cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Although most HCCs seem to originate from the accumulation of genetic abnormalities induced by various risk factors, underlying mechanisms of hepatocarcinogenesis remain unclear. Long-term survival of HCC patients is also poor, partly due to HCC recurrence. Although serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP level is a useful marker for the detection and monitoring of HCC, AFP levels may remain normal in the patients even with advanced HCC. To identify useful biomarkers for HCC, many studies have been conducted on molecular events such as genetic and epigenetic alterations, and gene expression. This review summarizes recent studies of potential molecular markers for diagnosis and monitoring metastasis or recurrence of HCC.

  6. An Overview of Biomarkers and Molecular Signatures in HCC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yim, Seon-Hee [Integrated Research Center for Genome Polymorphism, The Catholic University of Korea School of Medicine, 505 Banpo-dong, Seocho-gu, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Yeun-Jun, E-mail: yejun@catholic.ac.kr [Integrated Research Center for Genome Polymorphism, The Catholic University of Korea School of Medicine, 505 Banpo-dong, Seocho-gu, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Microbiology, The Catholic University of Korea School of Medicine, 505 Banpo-dong, Seocho-gu, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-07

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third most common cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Although most HCCs seem to originate from the accumulation of genetic abnormalities induced by various risk factors, underlying mechanisms of hepatocarcinogenesis remain unclear. Long-term survival of HCC patients is also poor, partly due to HCC recurrence. Although serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) level is a useful marker for the detection and monitoring of HCC, AFP levels may remain normal in the patients even with advanced HCC. To identify useful biomarkers for HCC, many studies have been conducted on molecular events such as genetic and epigenetic alterations, and gene expression. This review summarizes recent studies of potential molecular markers for diagnosis and monitoring metastasis or recurrence of HCC.

  7. Budd-Chiari syndrome as an initial presentation of hepatocellular carcinoma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bălăceanu, Lavinia Alice; Diaconu, Camelia Cristina; Aron, Gheorghiţa

    2014-06-01

    We report the case of a 84-year-old admitted with symptoms of congestive heart failure. Ultrasonography revealed a hyperechoic nodule in the left lobe of the liver, with a peripheral hypoechoic rim, multiple irregular hypoechoic nodules in both hepatic lobes, portal vein, inferior vena cava, and right atrium thrombosis. On ultrasonographic and alpha-fetoprotein criteria the case was interpreted as hepatocellular carcinoma with Budd-Chiari syndrome. The particularity of the case is the initial presentation of the hepatocellular carcinoma as Budd-Chiari syndrome. The inferior vena cava and right atrium thrombosis, as a cause of secondary Budd-Chiari syndrome in a patient with hepatocellular carcinoma, has been rarely reported.

  8. Liver Rapid Reference Set Application: Hemken - Abbott (2015) — EDRN Public Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim for this testing is to find a small panel of biomarkers (n=2-5) that can be tested on the Abbott ARCHITECT automated immunoassay platform for the early detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This panel of biomarkers should perform significantly better than alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) alone based on multivariate statistical analysis. This testing of the EDRN reference set will help expedite the selection of a small panel of ARCHITECT biomarkers for the early detection of HCC. The panel of ARCHITECT biomarkers Abbott plans to test include: AFP, protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II (PIVKA-II), golgi protein 73 (GP73), hepatocellular growth factor (HGF), dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) and DPP4/seprase (surface expressed protease) heterodimer hybrid. PIVKA-II is abnormal des-carboxylated prothrombin (DCP) present in vitamin K deficiency.

  9. Mediastinal Yolk Sac Tumor Producing Protein Induced by Vitamin K Absence or Antagonist-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akutsu, Noriyuki; Adachi, Yasushi; Isosaka, Mai; Mita, Hiroaki; Takagi, Hideyasu; Sasaki, Shigeru; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Arimura, Yoshiaki; Ishii, Yoshifumi; Masumori, Naoya; Endo, Takao; Shinomura, Yasuhisa

    2015-01-01

    Extragonadal yolk sac tumors (YSTs) are rare. We herein report the case of a 66-year-old man with mediastinal, lung and liver tumors. The largest mass was located in the liver and contained a high concentration of protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II (PIVKA-II) and alpha-fetoprotein. Therefore, the lesion was difficult to distinguish from hepatocellular carcinoma. Finally, YST was diagnosed based on the results of a liver biopsy. Although chemotherapy was effective, the patient died of respiratory failure. The autopsy revealed primary mediastinal YST. In the current report, we describe this case of PIVKA-II-producing YST and review previous cases of PIVKA-II-producing tumors other than hepatoma.

  10. Gastric adenocarcinoma with features of endodermal sinus tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Malvinderjit Singh; Mukul Arya; Sury Anand; Nan Sandar

    2007-01-01

    Extragonadal germ cell tumors are rare. The most common sites for EGGCTs are in midline locations such as the mediastinum, retroperitoneum and pineal gland.These tumors rarely present in the stomach. We describe here a case where a middle aged man presented with typical symptoms of gastric cancer. After extensive workup, which included blood work, CT abdomen scan,upper endoscopy, and endoscopic ultrasound, the patient was diagnosed with gastric cancer. However,due to very high blood levels of alpha-fetoprotein, the specimen was sent for special histochemical staining,which demonstrated that the tumor had features of both adenocarcinoma and endodermal sinus tumor. This is a very aggressive tumor with a very poor prognosis.

  11. Mediastinal Yolk Sac Tumor Producing Protein Induced by Vitamin K Absence or Antagonist-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akutsu, Noriyuki; Adachi, Yasushi; Isosaka, Mai; Mita, Hiroaki; Takagi, Hideyasu; Sasaki, Shigeru; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Arimura, Yoshiaki; Ishii, Yoshifumi; Masumori, Naoya; Endo, Takao; Shinomura, Yasuhisa

    2015-01-01

    Extragonadal yolk sac tumors (YSTs) are rare. We herein report the case of a 66-year-old man with mediastinal, lung and liver tumors. The largest mass was located in the liver and contained a high concentration of protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II (PIVKA-II) and alpha-fetoprotein. Therefore, the lesion was difficult to distinguish from hepatocellular carcinoma. Finally, YST was diagnosed based on the results of a liver biopsy. Although chemotherapy was effective, the patient died of respiratory failure. The autopsy revealed primary mediastinal YST. In the current report, we describe this case of PIVKA-II-producing YST and review previous cases of PIVKA-II-producing tumors other than hepatoma. PMID:26073245

  12. A review on laboratory liver function tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruthi Kulkarni

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory liver tests are broadly defined as tests useful in the evaluation and treatment of patients with hepatic dysfunction. The liver carries out metabolism of carbohydrate, protein and fats. Some of the enzymes and the end products of the metabolic pathway which are very sensitive for the abnormality occurred may be considered as biochemical marker of liver dysfunction. Some of the biochemical markers such as serum bilirubin, alanine amino transferase, aspartate amino transferase, ratio of aminotransferases, alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyl transferase, 5´ nucleotidase, ceruloplasmin, alpha-fetoprotein are considered in this article. An isolated or conjugated alteration of biochemical markers of liver damage in patients can challenge the clinicians during the diagnosis of disease related to liver directly or with some other organs. The term “liver chemistry tests” is a frequently used but poorly defined phrase that encompasses the numerous serum chemistries that can be assayed to assess hepatic function and/or injury.

  13. Regression of hepatocellular carcinoma during vitamin K administration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kazuhiro Nouso; Nobuaki Okano; Masahiro Nakagawa; Motowo Mizuno; Yasuyuki Araki; Yasushi Shiratori; Shuji Uematsu; Kunihiro Shiraga; Ryoichi Okamoto; Ryo Harada; Shoko Takayama; Wakako Kawai; Shigeru Kimura; Toru Ueki

    2005-01-01

    An 85-year-old man with HCV infection and diabetes mellitus was diagnosed as having hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, 13 cm in diameter) based on high serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP),AFP-L3,and des-γ-carboxy prothrombin levels as well as typical enhancement pattern on contrast-enhanced CT. The patient did not receive any interventional treatments because of advanced age and the advanced stage of HCC.He chose to take vitamin K,which was reported to suppress the growth of HCC in vitro. Three months after starting vitamin K, all three tumor markers were normalized and HCC was markedly regressed, showing no enhancement in the early arterial phase on CT. Here we present the report describing the regression of HCC during the administration of vitamin K.

  14. A murine model for the assessment of placental and fetal development in teratogenicity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hau, J; Basse, A; Wolstrup, C

    1987-01-01

    During normal pregnancy in the mouse, maternal serum levels of the analogues to human schwangerschaftsprotein-1 and alpha-fetoprotein correlate significantly with the growth of the placenta and fetus respectively. This relationship has been utilized in the analysis of the effect of sodium selenite on placental and fetal growth in mice. Moderate doses of sodium selenite did not affect the growth of the placenta and fetus significantly, whereas high doses of selenite resulted in a large percentage of abortions. The protein markers were found to be useful in the prediction of placental and fetal growth, and they are suggested to be of general use in the study of the impact of teratogenic substances, since they reflect the status of the fetoplacental mass during gestation.

  15. [Sclerosing hepatocarcinoma not associated with hypercalcemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, R; Sebastián, J J; García, S; Fuentes, J; Navarro, M; Alvarez, R; Artigas, J M; Herrero, A

    1997-09-01

    The sclerosing hepatocellular carcinoma is an unusual subtype of hepatocellular carcinoma characterized by an intense fibrous stroma in which the tubular structures are embedded. Histological diagnosis is difficult, and misinterpretation as cholangiocarcinoma or metastatic adenocarcinomas may occur. It usually presents on non-cirrhotic livers. Metastases located outside of the liver are frequent as well as hypercalcemia and low levels of serum phosphate. We report a case of this rare histopathologic subtype of hepatocellular carcinoma in a 35-year-old woman, asymptomatic and with no previous history of chronic liver disease. It was detected by a routine gynaecological ultrasonography. An important increase of serum alpha-fetoprotein was noted. Extension studies showed bilateral lung metastases. Several palliative therapies were tried out, including epirrubicin, with partial response. Twenty months after the diagnosis the patient's situation is nearly terminal.

  16. Primary hepatocellular carcinoma in extrahepatic bile duct

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Seok Tae; Ham, Soo Youn; Park, Cheol Min; Kim, Jung Hyuk; Cha, In Ho; Chung, Kyoo Byung; Suh, Woon Hyuck; Lee, Chang Hong [College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-03-15

    Obstructive jaundice due to hepatocellular carcinoma in an extrahepatic bile duct, without a mass lesion in the liver parenchyma, is extremely rare. We experienced two cases of primary hepatocellular carcinoma arising from an extrahepatic bile duct: one in a 53-year-old man whose {alpha} -fetoprotein value was 800 ng/ml, and another in a 39-year-old woman, in whom the mass lesion was found to be attached to an extrahepatic bile duct. These tumors had a well-marginated sausage-like shape on CT and US, and the contrast media passed freely along their margins on both PTC and ERCP. Recurrences of these tumors were observed in the extrahepatic bile duct 6 and 2 months after surgery, respectively.

  17. Effect of embryonic development on the chicken egg yolk plasma proteome after 12 days of incubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Réhault-Godbert, Sophie; Mann, Karlheinz; Bourin, Marie; Brionne, Aurélien; Nys, Yves

    2014-03-26

    To better appreciate the dynamics of yolk proteins during embryonic development, we analyzed the protein quantitative changes occurring in the yolk plasma at the day of lay and after 12 days of incubation, by comparing unfertilized and fertilized chicken eggs. Of the 127 identified proteins, 69 showed relative abundance differences among conditions. Alpha-fetoprotein and two uncharacterized proteins (F1NHB8 and F1NMM2) were identified for the first time in the egg. After 12 days of incubation, five proteins (vitronectin, α-fetoprotein, similar to thrombin, apolipoprotein B, and apovitellenin-1) showed a major increase in relative abundance, whereas 15 proteins showed a significant decrease in the yolks of fertilized eggs. In unfertilized/table eggs, we observed an accumulation of proteins likely to originate from other egg compartments during incubation. This study provides basic knowledge on the utilization of egg yolk proteins by the embryo and gives some insight into how storage can affect egg quality.

  18. Labeling of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells by hexamethylene diamine modified fluorescent carbon dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wei; Dong, Yan; Wang, Ying; Zhou, Shiqi; Ge, Xin; Sui, Lili; Wang, Jingwen

    2013-12-01

    Fluorescent carbon dots (CDs) were synthesized by a solvothermal method with glucose as carbon source and surface-modified with 1,6-hexamethylene diamine. In this hybrid CDs, the modification played important role for improving the fluorescent performance by introducing nitrogenous compound to passivate CD's surface, making the CDs emit strong fluorescence. The as-prepared CDs were linked with mouse anti-human Alpha fetoprotein (AFP) antibody and goat anti-mouse immunoglobulin (IgG) to directly and indirectly label fixed human hepatocellular carcinoma cells, respectively. The cytotoxicity of these CDs were also tested using the human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. No apparent cytotoxicity was observed, which suggested the potential application of the as-prepared CDs in bioimaging.

  19. Relapse surveillance in AFP-positive hepatoblastoma: re-evaluating the role of imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas, Yesenia; Vasudevan, Sanjeev A.; Nuchtern, Jed G. [Baylor College of Medicine, Pediatric Surgery Division, Michael E. DeBakey Department of Surgery, Texas Children' s Hospital, Houston, TX (United States); Guillerman, R.P. [Baylor College of Medicine, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Texas Children' s Hospital, Houston, TX (United States); Zhang, Wei [Texas Children' s Hospital, Surgical Outcomes Center, Houston, TX (United States); Thompson, Patrick A. [Baylor College of Medicine, Hematology-Oncology Division, Department of Pediatrics, Texas Children' s Cancer Center, Texas Children' s Hospital, Houston, TX (United States); University of North Carolina, Hematology-Oncology Division, Department of Pediatrics, North Carolina Children' s Hospital, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Children with hepatoblastoma routinely undergo repetitive surveillance imaging, with CT scans for several years after therapy, increasing the risk of radiation-induced cancer. The purpose of this study was to determine the utility of surveillance CT scans compared to serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels for the detection of hepatoblastoma relapse. This was a retrospective study of all children diagnosed with AFP-positive hepatoblastoma from 2001 to 2011 at a single institution. Twenty-six children with hepatoblastoma were identified, with a mean age at diagnosis of 2 years 4 months (range 3 months to 11 years). Mean AFP level at diagnosis was 132,732 ng/ml (range 172.8-572,613 ng/ml). Five of the 26 children had hepatoblastoma relapse. A total of 105 imaging exams were performed following completion of therapy; 88 (84%) CT, 8 (8%) MRI, 5 (5%) US and 4 (4%) FDG PET/CT exams. A total of 288 alpha-fetoprotein levels were drawn, with a mean of 11 per child. The AFP level was elevated in all recurrences and no relapses were detected by imaging before AFP elevation. Two false-positive AFP levels and 15 false-positive imaging exams were detected. AFP elevation was found to be significantly more specific than PET/CT and CT imaging at detecting relapse. We recommend using serial serum AFP levels as the preferred method of surveillance in children with AFP-positive hepatoblastoma, reserving imaging for the early postoperative period, for children at high risk of relapse, and for determination of the anatomical site of clinically suspected recurrence. Given the small size of this preliminary study, validation in a larger patient population is warranted. (orig.)

  20. The 14th quality control survey for radioisotope in vitro tests in Japan, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    This report presents the results of the 14th quality control nationwide survey. Of 490 facilities performing RI in vitro tests as of December 1992, 261 (53.3%) participated in the present 1992 survey. Free testosterone and renin were added to the following conventional 37 test items: adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), growth hormone (GH), somatomedin C, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodothyronine (T[sub 3]), free T[sub 3], thyroxine (T[sub 4]), free T[sub 4], T[sub 3] uptake, thyroglobulin, T[sub 3] binding globulin (TBG), parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcitonin, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, gastrin, testosterone, estradiol, progesterone, 17[alpha]-hydroxyprogesterone, aldosterone, cortisol, immunoglobulin E (IgE), digoxin, [alpha]-fetoprotein, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA), CA125, CA19-9, CA15-3, prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP), [beta][sub 2]-microglobulin, and ferritin. Measurement data for each kit were analyzed by a mean value of measurements, standard deviation, and coefficient of variation (CV). Both 'within kit variation' between facilities and 'between kit variation' showed a CV of 20% or less for GH, somatomedin C, TSH, T[sub 3], T[sub 4], T[sub 3] uptake, TBG, cortisol, IgE, CA125, PAP, and [beta][sub 2]-microglobulin, revealing satisfactory results. There was a great 'within kit variation' between facilities in ACTH, free T[sub 4], and calcitonin; and there was a great 'between kit variation' in ACTH, LH, free T[sub 4], thyroglobulin, PTH, calcitonin, and [alpha]-fetoprotein. (N.K.).

  1. The in Vitro Assessment of Biochemical Factors in Hepatocyte like Cells Derived from Umbilical Cord Blood Stem Cells

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    A KHoramroodi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Umbilical cord blood (UCB is a source of Hematopoietic Stem Cells (HSC and progenitor cells that can reconstitute the hematopoietic system in patients with malignant and nonmalignant disorders. Mesenchymal stem cell-derived from umbilical cord blood (UCB have been differentiated to some kind of cells, such as osteobblast, adipoblast and chondroblast in Vitro. This study examined the differentiation of Umbilical Cord Blood (UCB derived stem cells to functional hepatocytes. Materials & Methods: The present study was an experimental study which was carried out in the Payam-e-Noor University of Tehran in cooperation with Hamedan University of Medical Sciences in 2008. Umbilical cord blood (UCB was obtained from Fatemieh hospital (Hamadan, Iran. Stem cells were isolated from the cord blood by combining density gradient centrifugation with plastic adherence. When the isolated cells reached 80% confluence, they differentiated to hepatocyte like cells. The medium which was used was consists of DMEM and 10% Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS supplemented with 20 ng/mL Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF, 10 ng/mL basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF and 20 ng/mL Oncostatin M (OSM.The medium was changed every 3 days and stored for Albumin (ALB, Alpha Fetoprotein (AFP, Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP, and urea assay. Finally PAS stain was done to study Glycogen storage in the differentiated cell. Results: Measurement of biochemical factors in different days showed that concentration of albumin (ALB, alpha fetoprotein (AFP, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and Urea gradually increased. Also, PAS staining showed the storage of glycogen in these cells. Conclusion: Stem cell-derived from human umbilical cord blood (HUCB is a new source of cell types for cell transplantation therapy of hepatic diseases and under certain conditions these cells can differentiate into liver cells.

  2. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by St Michael's House, Dublin 9

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Abdel Aziz, Mohamed T

    2011-05-05

    Abstract Background The present study was conducted to evaluate the tumor suppressive effects of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in an experimental hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) model in rats and to investigate the possible role of Wnt signaling in hepato-carcinogenesis. Methods Ninety rats were included in the study and were divided equally into: Control group, rats which received MSCs only, rats which received MSCs vehicle only, HCC group induced by diethylnitroseamine (DENA) and CCl 4 , rats which received MSCs after HCC induction, rats which received MSCs before HCC induction. Histopathological examination and gene expression of Wnt signaling target genes by real time, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in rat liver tissue, in addition to serum levels of ALT, AST and alpha fetoprotein were performed in all groups. Results Histopathological examination of liver tissue from animals which received DENA-CCl4 only, revealed the presence of anaplastic carcinoma cells and macro-regenerative nodules type II with foci of large and small cell dysplasia. Administration of MSCs into rats after induction of experimental HCC improved the histopathological picture which showed minimal liver cell damage, reversible changes, areas of cell drop out filled with stem cells. Gene expression in rat liver tissue demonstrated that MSCs downregulated β-catenin, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), cyclin D and survivin genes expression in liver tissues after HCC induction. Amelioration of the liver status after administration of MSCs has been inferred by the significant decrease of ALT, AST and Alpha fetoprotein serum levels. Administration of MSCs before HCC induction did not show any tumor suppressive or protective effect. Conclusions Administration of MSCs in chemically induced HCC has tumor suppressive effects as evidenced by down regulation of Wnt signaling target genes concerned with antiapoptosis, mitogenesis, cell proliferation

  3. [Therapy-Related Acute Myeloid Leukemia Following Etoposide Based Chemotherapy in Germ Cell Tumor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Yoshinaga; Oae, Masashi; Shiraishi, Yusuke; Soda, Takeshi; Kanamaru, Hiroshi; Arima, Nobuyoshi

    2016-05-01

    A 27-year-old man visited our hospital with painless swelling of the left scrotum. Hematologic studies showed the following levels of lactate dehydrogenase, 3,171 IU/l ; alpha-fetoprotein, 2.2 ng/ml ; and β- human chorionic gonadotropin, 0.4 ng/ml, and abdominal computed tomography revealed a mass of 10×8 ×4 cm in the left testis, and that of 3.5×3.0×5.0 cm in the left renal hilar lymph node, without any other metastasis. Left high inguinal orchiectomy was performed, and histopathological examination revealed mixed form with seminoma and teratoma. He was diagnosed to have a left germ cell tumor with left renal hilar lymph node metastases, pT1, N3, M0, stage II C, indicating poor prognosis with IGCCC. The patient received four cycles of chemotherapy, COMPE regimen (CDDP, VCR, MTX, PEP, VP-16 [etoposide]). After lactate dehydrogenase, alpha-fetoprotein, and β -human chorionic gonadotropin all normalized, retroperitoneal lymph node dissection was performed. Histopathological examination revealed only a mature teratoma. Two and half years later, hematologic studies showed blast transformation. Bone marrow biopsy revealed acute myeloblastic lymphoma (M2). The patient received one cycle of AraC and daunorubicin, one cycle of high dose AraC, and three cycles of AraC and mitoxantrone. After chemotherapy, he has maintained a disease-free status for 11 years. In this case, etoposide, a topoisomerase II inhibitor, was the presumed cause of therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia. After administering chemotherapeutic agents especially etoposide, it is important to check blood count periodically for a long time. PMID:27320120

  4. Expansion of phenotype and genotypic data in CRB2-related syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, Ryan E; Tan, Wen-Hann; Innes, A Micheil; Parboosingh, Jillian S; Schneidman-Duhovny, Dina; Rajkovic, Aleksandar; Pappas, John; Altschwager, Pablo; DeWard, Stephanie; Fulton, Anne; Gray, Kathryn J; Krall, Max; Mehta, Lakshmi; Rodan, Lance H; Saller, Devereux N; Steele, Deanna; Stein, Deborah; Yatsenko, Svetlana A; Bernier, François P; Slavotinek, Anne M

    2016-10-01

    Sequence variants in CRB2 cause a syndrome with greatly elevated maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein and amniotic fluid alpha-fetoprotein levels, cerebral ventriculomegaly and renal findings similar to Finnish congenital nephrosis. All reported patients have been homozygotes or compound heterozygotes for sequence variants in the Crumbs, Drosophila, Homolog of, 2 (CRB2) genes. Variants affecting CRB2 function have also been identified in four families with steroid resistant nephrotic syndrome, but without any other known systemic findings. We ascertained five, previously unreported individuals with biallelic variants in CRB2 that were predicted to affect function. We compiled the clinical features of reported cases and reviewed available literature for cases with features suggestive of CRB2-related syndrome in order to better understand the phenotypic and genotypic manifestations. Phenotypic analyses showed that ventriculomegaly was a common clinical manifestation (9/11 confirmed cases), in contrast to the original reports, in which patients were ascertained due to renal disease. Two children had minor eye findings and one was diagnosed with a B-cell lymphoma. Further genetic analysis identified one family with two affected siblings who were both heterozygous for a variant in NPHS2 predicted to affect function and separate families with sequence variants in NPHS4 and BBS7 in addition to the CRB2 variants. Our report expands the clinical phenotype of CRB2-related syndrome and establishes ventriculomegaly and hydrocephalus as frequent manifestations. We found additional sequence variants in genes involved in kidney development and ciliopathies in patients with CRB2-related syndrome, suggesting that these variants may modify the phenotype. PMID:27004616

  5. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Level as A Predictor of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Liver Cirrhosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benyamin Lukito

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP has been used for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC diagnosis and screening, however, AFP has poor specificity. The extensive hypervascularity associated with HCC could be driven in part by the pro-angiogenic factor known as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. Furthermore, invasiveness of certain HCC lesions has recently been linked to high levels of VEGF. Therefore, circulating VEGF levels of patients with liver cirrhosis (LC and HCC were investigated and analysed. METHODS: An analytical cross sectional study was designed. Diagnosis of HCC and LC was performed using clinical criteria and findings obtained from B-mode ultrasonography (USG, computed tomography (CT angiography, or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Blood were collected intravenously from all subjects. Obtained serum and plasma were stored in -80°C for following analyses: hepatitis B surface antigen (HBSAg, hepatitis C virus (HCV, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, total bilirubin, albumin, VEGF and AFP. RESULTS: Levels of VEGF and AFP were significantly higher in HCC group compared with LC group with p=3.05x10-6 and p=8.74x10-5, respectively. There was a significant positive correlation (p=0.029, r=0.309 between VEGF level and tumor size in HCC group. The area under curve (AUC for VEGF level in HCC and LC groups was 0.771. In the level of median 435.6 pg/mL VEGF, the sensitivity was 50% and specificity was 86%. In the level of 199.99 pg/mL VEGF the sensitivity was 74% and specificity was 76%. CONCLUSIONS: The present findings suggested that VEGF level could be a useful marker for the presence of HCC in patients with LC. KEYWORDS: hepatocellular carcinoma, HCC, liver cirrhosis, LC, vascular endothelial growth factor, VEGF, alpha-fetoprotein, AFP.

  6. Treatment of malignant liver tumors by radiofrequency ablation combined with low-frequency ultrasound radiation with microbubbles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai Junhua

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To explore the therapeutic efficacy and safety of malignant liver tumor treatment by radiofrequency ablation (RA combined with low frequency ultrasound radiation with microbubbles (LFURM. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 25 patients with malignant hepatic tumors treated by RA/LFURM in the Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery of Kunming General Hospital affiliated to Chengdu Military District, PLA from January 2010 to June 2011. Ultrasound guided RA was performed, which was followed one week later by LFURM. Basal contrast ultrasound, liver function tests, and serum alpha fetoprotein (AFP were obtained, and repeated 3 and 6 months after treatment. T-test and chi-square were used to compare parametric and non-parametric variables respectively. RESULTS: In 17 cases, gross tumor volume was significantly reduced 6 months after treatment while mean tumor showed a reduction of 50% compared to pre-treatment values. In 7 cases gross tumor volumes reduction was partial, but surrounding tumor tissue showed blood flow signals. One patient had no reduction in gross tumor volume. Levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, total bilirubin (TBIL, alpha fetoprotein (AFP decreased significantly 6 months after treatment (all p<0.05. No tumor recurrence was seen during the 6 month follow-up. Quality of life scores (QOL were good in 21 patients (84%, improved in 2 patients (8%, unchanged in 1 patient (4% and got worst in 1 patient (4%. Karnofsky scores (KPS improved in 19 patients (76%, remained unchanged in 5 patients (2% and got worst in 1 patient (4%. Both QOL and KPS changes were statistically significant (P<0.05. CONCLUSION: RA/LFURM treatment of liver tumors is efficient and safe, and can reduce the gross tumor volumes and protect liver function.

  7. Sensitive electrochemical immunosensor based on three-dimensional nanostructure gold electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong G

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Guangxian Zhong,1,2,* Ruilong Lan,3,* Wenxin Zhang,1,4 Feihuan Fu,5 Yiming Sun,1,4 Huaping Peng,1,4 Tianbin Chen,3 Yishan Cai,6 Ailin Liu,1,4 Jianhua Lin,2 Xinhua Lin1,4 1Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Faculty of Pharmacy, Fujian Medical University, 2Department of Orthopaedics, 3The Centralab, First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, 4Nano Medical Technology Research Institute, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, 5Department of Endocrinology, The County Hospital of Anxi, Anxi, 6Fujian International Travel Healthcare Center, Fujian Entry-Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau, Fuzhou, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: A sensitive electrochemical immunosensor was developed for detection of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP based on a three-dimensional nanostructure gold electrode using a facile, rapid, “green” square-wave oxidation-reduction cycle technique. The resulting three-dimensional gold nanocomposites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and cyclic voltammetry. A “sandwich-type” detection strategy using an electrochemical immunosensor was employed. Under optimal conditions, a good linear relationship between the current response signal and the AFP concentrations was observed in the range of 10–50 ng/mL with a detection limit of 3 pg/mL. This new immunosensor showed a fast amperometric response and high sensitivity and selectivity. It was successfully used to determine AFP in a human serum sample with a relative standard deviation of <5% (n=5. The proposed immunosensor represents a significant step toward practical application in clinical diagnosis and monitoring of prognosis. Keywords: electrochemical immunosensors, three-dimensional nanostructure gold electrode, square-wave oxidation-reduction cycle, alpha-fetoprotein 

  8. Efficacy of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Suppression of Hepatocarcinorigenesis in Rats: Possible Role of Wnt Signaling

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Abdel Aziz, Mohamed T

    2011-05-05

    Abstract Background The present study was conducted to evaluate the tumor suppressive effects of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in an experimental hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) model in rats and to investigate the possible role of Wnt signaling in hepato-carcinogenesis. Methods Ninety rats were included in the study and were divided equally into: Control group, rats which received MSCs only, rats which received MSCs vehicle only, HCC group induced by diethylnitroseamine (DENA) and CCl 4 , rats which received MSCs after HCC induction, rats which received MSCs before HCC induction. Histopathological examination and gene expression of Wnt signaling target genes by real time, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in rat liver tissue, in addition to serum levels of ALT, AST and alpha fetoprotein were performed in all groups. Results Histopathological examination of liver tissue from animals which received DENA-CCl4 only, revealed the presence of anaplastic carcinoma cells and macro-regenerative nodules type II with foci of large and small cell dysplasia. Administration of MSCs into rats after induction of experimental HCC improved the histopathological picture which showed minimal liver cell damage, reversible changes, areas of cell drop out filled with stem cells. Gene expression in rat liver tissue demonstrated that MSCs downregulated β-catenin, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), cyclin D and survivin genes expression in liver tissues after HCC induction. Amelioration of the liver status after administration of MSCs has been inferred by the significant decrease of ALT, AST and Alpha fetoprotein serum levels. Administration of MSCs before HCC induction did not show any tumor suppressive or protective effect. Conclusions Administration of MSCs in chemically induced HCC has tumor suppressive effects as evidenced by down regulation of Wnt signaling target genes concerned with antiapoptosis, mitogenesis, cell proliferation

  9. Sorafenib for Egyptian patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma; single center experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: According to the results of a number of phase 3 randomized studies, sorafenib is the only approved systemic therapy for advanced HCC; however the issue of high eco- Sorafenib nomic cost remains challenging; thus we have conducted this retrospective analysis of our HCC patients treated with sorafenib. Methods: HCC Shams University Hospitals, in the period between 2010 and 2012 were reviewed. Eligible patients were those who had received sorafenib for advanced HCC not eligible for or progressed after surgery or locoregional therapy. We investigated the impact of baseline clinico pathological factors (age, gender, child status, performance score, BCLC tumor stage, cause of chronic liver disease, median baseline alpha fetoprotein level and previous treatment received for HCC) on overall survival (OS) in an adjusted Cox regression model. Results: 41 patients were included in the analysis fulfilling the inclusion criteria. At a median follow up period of 13 months, the median PFS for the whole group was 4 months; the median OS for the whole group is 6.25 months. Multivariate analysis identified three baseline characteristics that were prognostic indicators for overall survival: ECOG performance status (median OS for ECOG 1 = 7.01 months and for ECOG 2 = 3.03 months), Child-Pugh status (median OS for child A = 12.04 months and for child B = 5.23 months), and median baseline levels of alpha-fetoprotein. Conclusions: In limited resource countries like Egypt, we suggest that the use of sorafenib for the treatment of advanced HCC cases should be restricted to a highly selected subgroup of patients with good performance and child A.

  10. The value of combined detection of AFP, plasma prothrombin activity and serum ferritin in the prognostic of severe chronic hepatitis B%甲胎蛋白、血浆凝血酶原活动度与血清铁蛋白联合检测对慢性重型乙型肝炎预后的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李四海; 袁明娟

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze the joint determination of alpha - fetoprotein, plasma prothrombin activity and serum ferritin in patients with chronic severe hepatitis B for the significance prognosis.Methods Eighty chronic severe hepatitis B patients, who were divided into improved group and death group according to clinical outcomes, were observed and compared in alpha - fetoprotein (AFP), prothrombin activity (PTA) and serum ferritin (SF) with retrospective analysis.Results The AFP of the improved group at admission were higher than that of death group, and prothrombin activity and serum ferritin showed no difference between the two groups.AFP and serum ferritin showed a downward trend in the improved group while the prothrombin activity showed an upward trend; death group has been at a low level of AFP, and serum ferritin and prothrombin activity rose.Conclusion Dynamic joint detection of AFP, prothrombin activity and serum ferritin can be better used in clinical prognosis of severe hepatitis.%目的 分析慢性重型乙型肝炎患者,联合测定甲胎蛋白(AFP)、血浆凝血酶原活动度(PTA)与血清铁蛋白(SF)对于其预后的意义.方法 回顾性分析80例慢性重型乙型肝炎,并根据临床转归分为好转组、死亡组,观察并比较AFP、PTA与SF的变化情况.结果 好转组入院时AFP明显高于死亡组,而PTA和SF 2组无区别,治疗后好转组AFP、SF显著下降,而PTA显著上升;死亡组中AFP一直处于低水平,而PTA和SF显著上升.结论 动态联合检测AFP、PTA与SF临床上能更好地用于慢性乙型重症肝炎预后的判断.

  11. Complete response for advanced liver cancer during sorafenib therapy: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romano Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is the fifth most common neoplasia in the world. In the past, treatment of advanced HCC with conventional antineoplastic drugs did not result in satisfactory outcomes: recently, in this patient population the oral multikinase inhibitor sorafenib has been able to induce a statistically significant improvement of overall survival. Similarly to other anti-angiogenic drugs employed in other tumour types, also sorafenib seldom induces the dimensional tumour shrinking usually observed with conventional cytotoxic drugs: data gathered from studies carried out with sorafenib and other competitors under development do not report any complete response in HCV-induced HCC. Case presentation An 84-year old man with a long-lasting history of chronic HCV hepatitis was referred to our Institution for an ultrasonography investigation of a focal hepatic lesion. To better characterize the liver disease and clearly define the diagnosis of the focal hepatic lesion, the patient was hospitalized in our department. Laboratory and instrumental investigations confirmed the clinical picture of HCV-related liver cirrhosis and identified a hepatic lesion of about 6 cm featuring infiltrating HCC with thrombosis of the portal trunk. Due to the advanced stage of the disease, therapy with sorafenib 400 mg bid was started. Right from one month after the treatment was started, a reduction of alpha-fetoprotein level was observed which, by the third month, turned down within the normal limits. In addition the CT scan showed 50% reduction of the neoplastic lesion along with canalization of the portal trunk. At the sixth month the normalization of the alpha-fetoprotein level at the lower limit of normality was confirmed and the MRI showed complete disappearance of the neoplasia. In addition a reduction of a metallo-proteinase serum level was obserdved. At the twelfth month a further MRI confirmed complete response had been maintained

  12. Microchip-based ELISA strategy for the detection of low-level disease biomarker in serum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Yun; Wang Huixiang; Huang Jingyu; Yang Jie; Liu Baohong [Department of Chemistry, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Yang Pengyuan, E-mail: pyyang@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2009-09-14

    A simple and sensitive method has been proposed to determine a trace level of {alpha}-fetoprotein (AFP), hepatocellular carcinoma biomarker, using poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) microfluidic chips coupled with electrochemical detection system. The PMMA microchannels have been modified with poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) containing abundant NH{sub 2} groups to covalently immobilize AFP monoclonal antibody. Afterward, the antigen AFP and horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated AFP antibody can sequentially bind through antigen-antibody specific interaction. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and confocal fluorescence microscope (CFFM) were utilized to characterize the surface topography and protein immobilization after modification. Coupled with three-electrode electrochemical detection system, the immunochip can perform the detection limit of AFP down to 1 pg mL{sup -1}, and achieve a detectable linear concentration range of 1-500 pg mL{sup -1} by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The on-chip immunoassay platform can not only provide rapid and sensitive detection for target proteins but also be resistant to non-specific adsorption of proteins, which contributes to the detection of low-level protein in real sample. Finally, AFP existing in healthy human serum was detected to demonstrate the utility of the immunochip. The result shows that the proposed approach is feasible and has the potential application in clinical analysis and diagnosis.

  13. Risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma may impair the performance of biomarkers: a comparison of AFP, DCP, and AFP-L3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, Michael L; Hernandez, Jose C; Su, Grace L; Lok, Anna S; Marrero, Jorge A

    2007-01-01

    Current surveillance strategies for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are applied uniformly in patients with cirrhosis, regardless of their cancer risk. The aim of this study was to compare the performance characteristics of the biomarkers alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), des-gamma carboxyprothrombin (DCP), and lectin-bound AFP (AFP-L3) in the diagnosis of HCC, and to determine the effect of risk factors for HCC on test performance. Eighty-four patients with HCC and 169 patients with cirrhosis were enrolled and their serum analyzed for total AFP, AFP-L3 and DCP. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed to determine the performance characteristics. DCP was significantly better than total AFP or AFP-L3 in differentiating HCC from cirrhosis, with a sensitivity of 86% and specificity of 93%. When subjects were divided into two groups by their risk for HCC, all 3 markers had a lower sensitivity and area under the ROC curve in the high-risk group compared to the low-risk group. In conclusion, DCP has the best performance characteristics of all 3 serum markers for the diagnosis of HCC. Serum biomarkers may be less sensitive and specific in the highest risk patients. PMID:17522429

  14. Relevance of circulating nucleosomes and oncological biomarkers for predicting response to transarterial chemoembolization therapy in liver cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) therapy is an effective locoregional treatment in hepatocellular cancer (HCC) patients. For early modification of therapy, markers predicting therapy response are urgently required. Here, sera of 50 prospectively and consecutively included HCC patients undergoing 71 TACE therapies were taken before and 3 h, 6 h and 24 h after TACE application to analyze concentrations of circulating nucleosomes, cytokeratin-19 fragments (CYFRA 21-1), alpha fetoprotein (AFP), C-reactive protein (CRP) and several liver biomarkers, and to compare these with radiological response to therapy. While nucleosomes, CYFRA 21-1, CRP and some liver biomarkers increased already 24 h after TACE, percental changes of nucleosome concentrations before and 24 h after TACE and pre- and posttherapeutic values of AFP, gamma-glutamyl-transferase (GGT) and alkaline phosphatase (AP) significantly indicated the later therapy response (39 progression versus 32 no progression). In multivariate analysis, nucleosomes (24 h), AP (24 h) and TACE number were independent predictive markers. The risk score of this combination model achieved an AUC of 81.8% in receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and a sensitivity for prediction of non-response to therapy of 41% at 97% specificity, and of 72% at 78% specificity. Circulating nucleosomes and liver markers are valuable tools for early estimation of the efficacy of TACE therapy in HCC patients

  15. Dual signal amplification of glucose oxidase-functionalized nanocomposites as a trace label for ultrasensitive simultaneous multiplexed electrochemical detection of tumor markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Guosong; Yan, Feng; Ju, Huangxian

    2009-12-01

    A novel tracer, glucose oxidase-functionalized nanocomposite, was designed to label the signal antibodies for ultrasensitive multiplexed measurement of tumor markers using a disposable immunosensor array. The immunosensor array was constructed by coating layer-by-layer colloidal Prussian blue (PB), gold nanoparticles, and capture antibodies on screen-printed carbon electrodes. The preparation of glucose oxidase-functionalized nanocomposites and the labeling of antibody were performed by one-pot assembly of glucose oxidase and antibody on gold nanoparticles attached carbon nanotubes. The PB immobilized on immunosensor surface acted as a mediator to catalyze the reduction of H2O2 produced in the enzymatic cycle. Both the high-content glucose oxidase and carbon nanotubes in the tracer amplified the detectable signal for the sandwich-type immunoassay. Using carcinoembryonic antigen and alpha-fetoprotein as model analytes, the simultaneous multiplexed immunoassay method using the immunosensor array and the designed tracer showed linear ranges of 3 orders of magnitude with the detection limits down to 1.4 and 2.2 pg/mL, respectively. The assay results of serum samples with the proposed method were in an acceptable agreement with the reference values. The dual signal amplification of glucose oxidase-functionalized nanocomposites provided a promising ultrasensitive simultaneous multiplexed immunoassay approach for clinical applications. PMID:19863072

  16. Retroperitoneal liposarcoma associated with small plaque parapsoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polichetti Paolo

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extremely rare cases of paraneoplastic syndromes or ectopic production of proteins associated with liposarcoma are reported in literature. Production of Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor, alpha-fetoprotein, paraneoplastic pemphigus and leucocytosis, Acrokeratosis paraneoplastica (Bazex's syndrome are reported. The present report describes a case of retroperitoneal liposarcoma associated with small plaque parapsoriasis. Our search in the English literature of such a kind of association did not reveal any case reported. Case presentation A 74 year male patient was admitted to our hospital because of the presence of an abdominal mass in right iliac fossa. He also complained of a two-year history of psoriasiform eruptions. The CT scan showed a retroperitoneal pelvic mass. Therefore surgical resection of the tumor was performed. After surgery, the skin eruptions disappeared completely in seven days and so a diagnosis of parapsoriasis syndrome was done. Conclusion Parallel disappearing of skin eruptions after surgery, typical clinical picture and not specific histology of the cutaneous lesions suggest the diagnosis of small plaque parapsoriasis. Therefore we propose to add Small Plaque Parapsoriasis to the list of paraneoplastic syndromes associated to liposarcoma.

  17. Accurate Prediction of Advanced Liver Fibrosis Using the Decision Tree Learning Algorithm in Chronic Hepatitis C Egyptian Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somaya Hashem

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Respectively with the prevalence of chronic hepatitis C in the world, using noninvasive methods as an alternative method in staging chronic liver diseases for avoiding the drawbacks of biopsy is significantly increasing. The aim of this study is to combine the serum biomarkers and clinical information to develop a classification model that can predict advanced liver fibrosis. Methods. 39,567 patients with chronic hepatitis C were included and randomly divided into two separate sets. Liver fibrosis was assessed via METAVIR score; patients were categorized as mild to moderate (F0–F2 or advanced (F3-F4 fibrosis stages. Two models were developed using alternating decision tree algorithm. Model 1 uses six parameters, while model 2 uses four, which are similar to FIB-4 features except alpha-fetoprotein instead of alanine aminotransferase. Sensitivity and receiver operating characteristic curve were performed to evaluate the performance of the proposed models. Results. The best model achieved 86.2% negative predictive value and 0.78 ROC with 84.8% accuracy which is better than FIB-4. Conclusions. The risk of advanced liver fibrosis, due to chronic hepatitis C, could be predicted with high accuracy using decision tree learning algorithm that could be used to reduce the need to assess the liver biopsy.

  18. Integrative functional genomic analysis unveils the differing dysregulated metabolic processes across hepatocellular carcinoma stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Vignesh; Ganesan, Kumaresan

    2016-08-15

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a highly heterogeneous disease and the development of targeted therapeutics is still at an early stage. The 'omics' based genome-wide profiling comprising the transcriptome, miRNome and proteome are highly useful in identifying the deregulated molecular processes involved in hepatocarcinogenesis. One of the end products and processes of the central dogma being the metabolites and metabolic processes mediate the cellular functions. In recent years, metabolomics based investigations have revealed the major deregulated metabolic processes involved in carcinogenesis. However, the integrative analysis of the holistic metabolic processes with genomics is at an early stage. Since the gene-sets are highly useful in assessing the biological processes and pathways, we made an attempt to infer the deregulated cellular metabolic processes involved in HCC by employing metabolism associated gene-set enrichment analysis. Further, the metabolic process enrichment scores were integrated with the transcriptome profiles of HCC. Integrative analysis shows three distinct metabolic deregulations: i) hepatocyte function related molecular processes involving lipid/fatty acid/bile acid synthesis, ii) inflammatory processes with cytokine, sphingolipid & chondriotin sulphate metabolism and iii) enriched nucleotide metabolic process involving purine/pyrimidine & glucose mediated catabolic process, in hepatocarcinogenesis. The three distinct metabolic processes were found to occur both in tumor and liver cancer cell line profiles. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of the metabolic processes along with clinical sample information has identified two major clusters based on AFP (alpha-fetoprotein) and metastasis. The study reveals the three major regulatory processes involved in HCC stages. PMID:27107678

  19. A comparative study of four serological tumor markers for the detection of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton, Shawn R; Beason, Kevin L; Bryant, Sabrina; Johnson, James T; Jackson, Margaret; Wilson, Cynthia; Holifield, Kay; Vincent, Charlton; Hall, Margot

    2003-01-01

    Breast cancer is currently the third most common cause of cancer in the world. Circulating tumor antigens are often used as a minimally invasive tool for noting breast cancer progression. The objective of this study was to compare four tumor antigens (CA 15-3, CA 27.29, alpha-fetoprotein [AFP], and carcinoembryonic antigen [CEA]) for their diagnostic efficacy in breast cancer patients. It was hypothesized that CA 15-3 would proved to be superior to CA 27.29, CEA, and AFP in assay performance. Tumor marker assays were performed according to the manufacturers' directions. Assays used in this study were CA 15-3 and CA 27.29 (Fujirebio Diagnostics/Centocor Inc.), AFP (Abbott Inc.), and CEA (Hybritech Inc.). A total of 554 patient samples were obtained from an area hospital, plus 200 healthy adult samples which were used for the determination of normal reference intervals. The patients included patients with no disease (184), with non-malignant disease (11), with breast cancer (87), and with other types of cancer (272). Diagnostic percent sensitivities for each marker were: CA 15-3 (63%), CA 27.29 (39%), CEA (22%), and AFP (22%). Diagnostic specificities for each marker were comparable, ranging from 80-88%. Analytical parameters were evaluated for the assays and compared favorably. We concluded that CA 15-3 was the best tumor antigen for use as a diagnostic aid and monitoring agent.

  20. Screening for fetal and genetic abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, J L

    1991-09-01

    Screening for genetic abnormalities is an integral part of obstetrics. Prior to initiating screening, however, several prerequisites must be met: (i) capacity to alter clinical management, (ii) cost effectiveness, (iii) reliable means (usually assays) of assessment, and (iv) capacity to handle problems. In all pregnancies one should determine in systematic fashion whether family history places a pregnant woman at increased risk over the background risk of 2-3% congenital anomalies. All women over age 35 years at delivery should be offered prenatal cytogenetic testing, and women of all ages should be offered maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein screening for neural tube defects. Screening ostensibly normal populations is appropriate in certain ethnic groups to determine heterozygosity for selected disorders: Blacks for sickle-cell anaemia, Mediterranean people for beta-thalassaemia, Southeast Asians and Filipinos for alpha-thalassaemia, Ashkenazi Jews and perhaps French-Canadians for Tay-Sachs disease. Cystic fibrosis screening (delta F508 mutations) is not currently recommended for the general populations, but should be offered to relatives of an individual having delta F508 cystic fibrosis. Irrespective of the extent of screening programmes for Mendelian traits, the mutant allele will remain in the general population because by far the greatest genetic load lies in clinically normal heterozygotes, affected contributing far less to the load despite the obvious clinical effect. PMID:1720071

  1. Recent advances in application of biosensors in tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Anwarul; Nurunnabi, Md; Morshed, Mahboob; Paul, Arghya; Polini, Alessandro; Kuila, Tapas; Al Hariri, Moustafa; Lee, Yong-kyu; Jaffa, Ayad A

    2014-01-01

    Biosensors research is a fast growing field in which tens of thousands of papers have been published over the years, and the industry is now worth billions of dollars. The biosensor products have found their applications in numerous industries including food and beverages, agricultural, environmental, medical diagnostics, and pharmaceutical industries and many more. Even though numerous biosensors have been developed for detection of proteins, peptides, enzymes, and numerous other biomolecules for diverse applications, their applications in tissue engineering have remained limited. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in application of novel biosensors in cell culture and tissue engineering, for example, real-time detection of small molecules such as glucose, lactose, and H2O2 as well as serum proteins of large molecular size, such as albumin and alpha-fetoprotein, and inflammatory cytokines, such as IFN-g and TNF-α. In this review, we provide an overview of the recent advancements in biosensors for tissue engineering applications. PMID:25165697

  2. A sensitive photoelectrochemical biosensor for AFP detection based on ZnO inverse opal electrodes with signal amplification of CdS-QDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ru; Jiang, Yandong; Xia, Lei; Zhang, Tianxiang; Xu, Lin; Zhang, Shuang; Liu, Dali; Song, Hongwei

    2015-12-15

    In this work, ZnO inverse opals structure (IOs) based photoelectrochemical (PEC) electrode was fabricated for alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) detection. Then, the uniform CdS quantum dots (QDs) were hydrothermally synthesized, which allowed the binding of AFP and glucose oxidase (GOD) on CdS QDs, forming the AFP-CdS-GOD composite. The competitive immunosensor of AFP and the AFP-CdS-GOD composite with anti-AFP antibodies (Ab) immobilized on FTO (fluorine-doped tin oxide) /ZnO IOs electrode was successfully applied to the detection of AFP. GOD could catalyze glucose to produce hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) acting as an electron donor to scavenge photogenerated holes in the valence band of CdS QDs, reducing the recombination of electrons and holes of CdS QDs. Also the effective energy level matching between the conduction bands of CdS QDs and ZnO widened the range of light absorption, allowing for electron injection from excited CdS QDs to ZnO upon visible light irradiation, which enhanced the photocurrent. The results show that the immunosensor of AFP possesses a large linear detection range of 0.1-500 ng/ml with a detection limit of 0.01 ng/ml. It also exhibits excellent anti-interference property and acceptable stability. This work provides a promising method for achieving excellent photoelectrochemical biosensor detection of other proteins. PMID:26164013

  3. Chromatin remodeling agent trichostatin A: a key-factor in the hepatic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells derived of adult bone marrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinken Mathieu

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The capability of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC derived of adult bone marrow to undergo in vitro hepatic differentiation was investigated. Results Exposure of hMSC to a cocktail of hepatogenic factors [(fibroblast growth factor-4 (FGF-4, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF, insulin-transferrin-sodium-selenite (ITS and dexamethasone] failed to induce hepatic differentiation. Sequential exposure to these factors (FGF-4, followed by HGF, followed by HGF+ITS+dexamethasone, however, resembling the order of secretion during liver embryogenesis, induced both glycogen-storage and cytokeratin (CK18 expression. Additional exposure of the cells to trichostatin A (TSA considerably improved endodermal differentiation, as evidenced by acquisition of an epithelial morphology, chronological expression of hepatic proteins, including hepatocyte-nuclear factor (HNF-3β, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, CK18, albumin (ALB, HNF1α, multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP2 and CCAAT-enhancer binding protein (C/EBPα, and functional maturation, i.e. upregulated ALB secretion, urea production and inducible cytochrome P450 (CYP-dependent activity. Conclusion hMSC are able to undergo mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition. TSA is hereby essential to promote differentiation of hMSC towards functional hepatocyte-like cells.

  4. Hepatic intra-arterial infusion of yttrium-90 microspheres in the treatment of recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma after liver transplantation: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Louis Rivera; Huan Giap; William Miller; Jonathan Fisher; Donald J Hillebrand; Christopher Marsh; Randolph L Schaffer

    2006-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurs with a reported frequency of 12%-18% after liver transplantation.Recurrence is associated witha mortality rate exceeding 75%. Approximately one-third of recurrences develop in the transplanted liver and are therefore amenable to local therapy. A variety of treatment modalities have been reported including resection, transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), radiofrequency ablation (RFA),ethanol ablation, cryoablation, and external beam irradiation. Goals of treatment are tumor control and the minimization of toxic effect to functional parenchyma.Efficacy of treatment is mitigated by the need for ongoing immunosuppression. Yttrium-90 microspheres have been used as a treatment modality both for primary HCC and for pre-transplant management of HCC with promising results. Twenty-two months after liver transplantation for hepatitis C cirrhosis complicated by HCC, a 42-year old man developed recurrence of HCC in his transplant allograft. Treatment of multiple right lobe lesions with anatomic resection and adjuvant chemotherapy was unsuccessful. Multifocal recurrence in the remaining liver allograft was treated with hepatic intra-arterial infusion of yttrium-90 microspheres (SIR-Spheres, Sirtex Medical Inc., Lake Forest, IL, USA). Efficacy was demonstrated by tumor necrosis on imaging and a decrease in alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) level. There were no adverse consequences of initial treatment.

  5. Natural history of hepatitis-related hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David Yiu-Kuen But; Ching-Lung Lai; Man-Fung Yuen

    2008-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an important cause of cancer death in the world. It has great regional differences in the pathology and epidemiology. The variation is greatly influenced by the aetiologies of the disease. Hepatitis B and C infection are the most important risk factors. HCC incidence rates are higher but in decreasing trend in developing countries. However, the figures in the developed countries are contrary. Successful hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination programs, better food hygiene, increased global hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence and population migration are the possible explanations. A number of clinical and pathogenic differences exist between HBV- and HCV-related HCC. HBV infection leads to the development of HCC through direct and indirect pathways as it has the ability to integrate into the host genome affecting cellular signaling and growth control. HCV causes HCC mainly through indirect pathways: chronic inflammation, cell deaths and proliferation. As a result, HCC is almost exclusively found in cirrhotic HCV patients while HCC is sometimes found in HBV patients without significant liver cirrhosis. Due to the different severities of liver cirrhosis and HCC extent, therapeutic strategies from resection, liver transplantation to symptoms palliation are available. Poorly differentiated histology, lack of fibrous capsule, large tumour size, early vascular invasion and elevated serum levels of alpha fetoprotein (AFP) are the features for more aggressive disease. Combined with markers of liver reserve and performance status, accurate scoring systems and models have been developed to predict patients' survival and match best treatment option.

  6. Prognostic models for acute liver failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Bo Du; Xiao-Ping Pan; Lan-Juan Li

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute liver failure (ALF) remains a dramatic and unpredictable disease with high morbidity and mortality. Early and accurate prognostic assessment of patients with ALF is critically important for optimum clinical pathway. DATA SOURCES: Five English-language medical databases, MEDLINE, ScienceDirect, OVID, Springer Link and Wiley Interscience were searched for articles on"acute liver failure","prognosis", and related topics. RESULTS: Multi-variable prognostic models including the King's College Hospital criteria and the model for end-stage liver disease score have been widely used in determination of the prognosis of ALF, but the results are far from satisfactory. Other prognostic indicators including serum Gc-globulin, arterial blood lactate, serum phosphate, arterial blood ammonia, and serum alpha-fetoprotein are promising but await further assessement. CONCLUSIONS: A reliable prognostic model to be developed in the future should not only have predictive value for poor outcome but also help to predict the survival of patients without a liver transplantation. Further studies are necessary to assess the prognostic accuracy of any new models.

  7. Morphological Changes of Hepatocarcinoma Cell Line HepG2 Transfected by Recombinant Adenovirus Carrying Melittin Gene and α-fetoprotein Promotor%含rAFP的蜂毒素基因重组腺病毒转染的HepG2细胞形态学变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈永安; 张亚妮; 顾伟; 李柏; 董惠娟; 凌昌全

    2010-01-01

    目的 通过构建含有重组AFP(recombinant alpha-fetoprotein,rAFP)启动子的携蜂毒素(melittin,Mel)基因的重组腺病毒(adenovirus,Ad),观察感染Ad-rAFP-Mel的HepG2细胞形态学变化.方法 采用倒置显微镜、苏木精-伊红(hematoxylin-eosin,HE)染色、Hoechst 33258染色、透射电镜观察Ad-rAFP-Mel作用过的肝癌细胞死亡情况、细胞器的结构变化等形态学变化.结果 倒置显微镜下观察结果显示,随着病毒感染复数的增加和时间的延长,活细胞数量减少;HE染色显示坏死与凋亡并存;Hoechst 33258 染色显示确有凋亡存在;透射电镜证实Ad-rAFP-Mel作用于肝癌细胞后,肝癌细胞凋亡和坏死兼而有之.结论 Ad-rAFP-Mel能够抑制 HepG2 细胞的生长,细胞死亡呈现坏死与凋亡兼有的特征.

  8. Streptavidin-functionalized capillary immune microreactor for highly efficient chemiluminescent immunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Zhanjun [State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, Department of Chemistry, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); College of Chemistry and Engineering, Yangzhou University, 88 South University Avenue, Yangzhou 225002 (China); Zong Chen [State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, Department of Chemistry, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Ju Huangxian, E-mail: hxju@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, Department of Chemistry, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Yan Feng, E-mail: yanfeng2007@sohu.com [Jiangsu Institute of Cancer Prevention and Cure, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2011-11-07

    Highlights: {yields} A novel capillary immune microreactor was proposed for highly efficient flow-through chemiluminescent immunoassay. {yields} The microreactor was prepared by functionalizing capillary inner wall with streptavidin for capture of biotinylated antibody. {yields} The proposed immunoassay method showed wide dynamic range, good reproducibility, stability and practicality. {yields} The microreactor was low-cost and disposable, and possessed several advantages over the conventional immunoreactors. - Abstract: A streptavidin functionalized capillary immune microreactor was designed for highly efficient flow-through chemiluminescent (CL) immunoassay. The functionalized capillary could be used as both a support for highly efficient immobilization of antibody and a flow cell for flow-through immunoassay. The functionalized inner wall and the capture process were characterized using scanning electron microscopy. Compared to conventional packed tube or thin-layer cell immunoreactor, the proposed microreactor showed remarkable properties such as lower cost, simpler fabrication, better practicality and wider dynamic range for fast CL immunoassay with good reproducibility and stability. Using {alpha}-fetoprotein as model analyte, the highly efficient CL flow-through immunoassay system showed a linear range of 3 orders of magnitude from 0.5 to 200 ng mL{sup -1} and a low detection limit of 0.1 ng mL{sup -1}. The capillary immune microreactor could make up the shortcoming of conventional CL immunoreactors and provided a promising alternative for highly efficient flow-injection immunoassay.

  9. Cuba's Salgen: a provincial informatics network for genetic services to pregnant women and newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Vázquez, Miguel; Pérez, Rubén; Valero, Damicel; Santiago, Darío G

    2014-01-01

    The Sancti Spíritus Provincial Medical Genetics Network has been using the Salgen IT platform since 2009 for health care, administrative and research activities concerning pregnant mothers and newborns. The network uses the national Infomed backbone to provide real-time connection between community-based polyclinics in primary health care and the Provincial Medical Genetics Reference Center. The platform has records for 23,025 pregnant women and sequential clinical data on genetic risk assessment in early pregnancy, first trimester ultrasound, sickle cell anemia screening, alpha-fetoprotein levels, cytogenetic antenatal diagnosis, second trimester ultrasound, delivery and newborn characteristics, neonatal metabolic screening, and infant clinical assessment. The system makes health care results immediately available and provides health alerts to enable timely preventive care for pregnant women. It also provides guidelines for processes and practices, and streamlines administrative and monitoring activities through statistical reports. The database generates indicators for assessing fetal growth and applies international standards for antenatal ultrasound quality control. Salgen provides a new source of information for medical research and knowledge management, and its use in this case fulfills Cuba's criteria for an integrated health services network. PMID:25208122

  10. Adult Type Granulosa Cell Tumor: A Very Rare Case of Sex-Cord Tumor of the Testis with Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimosthenis Miliaras

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Granulosa cell tumor (GST is a sex-cord/stromal neoplasm of the gonads, more commonly arising in the ovaries, while approximately 80 cases have been reported in the testes. Out of these, 30 cases were of the adult type, while the remainder 50 cases were of the juvenile type. The latter mostly concerned infants and followed a benign course. However, the adult type testicular GCTs may be potentially malignant as it also happens in female patients with such neoplasms. We present a case of an adult type GCT located at the left testis. The patient was subjected to total orchiectomy and received no further treatment. Histology showed typical GCT histomorphology with Call-Exner bodies in some places. The immunoprofile of the tumor was CD99 (+, calretinin (+, inhibin (+, alpha smooth muscle actin (+, vimentin (+, ER (−, PR (−, keratin AE1/AE3 (−, alpha fetoprotein (−, CD117 (−, and placental alkaline phosphatase (−. Two years after surgery, the patient is alive and well with no signs of recurrence.

  11. Squamous Cell Carcinoma Antigen: A Novel Tumor Marker for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serum Squamous Cell Carcinoma Antigen (SCC-Ag) by ELISA technique and Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) by IRMA technique were measured in 65 patients with hepatic focal lesion. 49 patients suffered from proved hepatocellular carcinoma and 16 patients were having cirrhosis and 20 normal controls. Median levels of serum AFP and SCC-Ag in HCC patients was significantly higher when compared with both cirrhotic patients and controls. On using receiver operator characteristic curve to improve sensitivity and specificity of AFP and SCC-Ag for detection of HCC, the best chosen cut-off values were 40 IU/mL for AFP and 2.55 ng/L for SCC-Ag, these yielded a sensitivity of 67.2% and 61.2% respectively and specificity 100%. The diagnostic sensitivity of them increased to 87.7% when they was combiendly calculated. It was found that the combined use of AFP and SCC-Ag is useful in screening patients with hepatic focal lesion to increase the chance of early diagnosis of HCC patients.

  12. Liver stiffness measured by magnetic resonance elastography as a risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma: a preliminary case-control study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motosugi, Utaroh; Ichikawa, Tomoaki; Koshiishi, Tsuyota; Sano, Katsuhiro; Morisaka, Hiroyuki; Ichikawa, Shintaro; Araki, Tsutomu [University of Yamanashi, Department of Radiology, Yamanashi-ken (Japan); Enomoto, Nobuyuki [University of Yamanashi, 1st Department of Internal Medicine, Yamanashi (Japan); Matsuda, Masanori; Fujii, Hideki [University of Yamanashi, 1st Department of Surgery, Yamanashi (Japan)

    2013-01-15

    To examine if liver stiffness measured by magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) is a risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with chronic liver disease. By reviewing the records of magnetic resonance (MR) examinations performed at our institution, we selected 301 patients with chronic liver disease who did not have a previous medical history of HCC. All patients underwent MRE and gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging. HCC was identified on MR images in 66 of the 301 patients, who were matched to controls from the remaining patients without HCC according to age. MRE images were obtained by visualising elastic waves generated in the liver by pneumatic vibration transferred via a cylindrical passive driver. Risk factors of HCC development were determined by the odds ratio with logistic regression analysis; gender and liver stiffness by MRE and serum levels of aspartate transferase, alanine transferase, alpha-fetoprotein, and protein induced by vitamin K absence-II. Multivariate analysis revealed that only liver stiffness by MRE was a significant risk factor for HCC with an odds ratio (95 % confidence interval) of 1.38 (1.05-1.84). Liver stiffness measured by MRE is an independent risk factor for HCC in patients with chronic liver disease. (orig.)

  13. Hepatocellular carcinoma screening and surveillance in 2293 chronic hepatitis B patients in an endemic area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungtrakul, Teerapat; Mahidol, Chulabhorn; Chun-on, Pattra; Laohapand, Charlie; Siripongsakun, Surachate; Worakitsitisatorn, Akeanong; Vidhayakorn, Sirachat; Boonchuay, Wariya; Dechma, Jiraporn; Sornsamdang, Gaidganok; Soonklang, Kamonwan; Sriprayoon, Tassanee; Tanwandee, Tawesak; Auewarakul, Chirayu U

    2016-01-01

    AIM To determine the role of screening and surveillance of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in treatment-naïve chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients. METHODS We recruited 2293 CHB patients (both males and females; aged 20-65 years). All patients were screened and underwent surveillance using abdominal ultrasonography (AUS) and serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) assay every 6 mo. The diagnosis, staging and treatment of HCC followed the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases practice guidelines and the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer guidelines. The exclusion criteria included: decompensated cirrhosis; a history of any cancer in the last 5 years; previous antiviral treatment for CHB; concurrent infection with hepatitis C virus or human immunodeficiency virus; a Karnofsky Performance Status score 5 cm. For HCC screening and surveillance, AUS had a sensitivity and specificity of 94% and 82%, respectively, whereas the sensitivity and specificity of AFP at a cut-off value of ≥ 20 μg/L were 41% and 98%, respectively. Combined use of AUS and AFP assay did not improve effectiveness. CONCLUSION Implementation of active screening and surveillance using AUS to detect early-stage HCC in naïve CHB patients aged ≥ 40 years in an endemic area is of benefit. PMID:27678364

  14. Fluid shear stress modulation of hepatocyte-like cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, Hassan; Alhaque, Sharmin; Szkolnicka, Dagmara; Flint, Oliver; Hay, David C

    2016-07-01

    Freshly isolated human adult hepatocytes are considered to be the gold standard tool for in vitro studies. However, primary hepatocyte scarcity, cell cycle arrest and the rapid loss of cell phenotype limit their widespread deployment. Human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells provide renewable sources of hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs). Despite the use of various differentiation methodologies, HLCs like primary human hepatocytes exhibit unstable phenotype in culture. It has been shown that the functional capacity can be improved by adding back elements of human physiology, such as cell co-culture or through the use of natural and/or synthetic surfaces. In this study, the effect of fluid shear stress on HLC performance was investigated. We studied two important liver functions, cytochrome P450 drug metabolism and serum protein secretion, in static cultures and those exposed to fluid shear stress. Our study demonstrates that fluid shear stress improved Cyp1A2 activity by approximately fivefold. This was paralleled by an approximate ninefold increase in sensitivity to a drug, primarily metabolised by Cyp2D6. In addition to metabolic capacity, fluid shear stress also improved hepatocyte phenotype with an approximate fourfold reduction in the secretion of a foetal marker, alpha-fetoprotein. We believe these studies highlight the importance of introducing physiologic cues in cell-based models to improve somatic cell phenotype. PMID:26979076

  15. [Biomarkers for neoplasmas in digestive organs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Yoshiaki; Arai, Kuniyoshi; Katayanagi, Soh; Takahashi, Keiichi; Yamaguchi, Tatsurou; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Miyamoto, Hidenori

    2004-07-01

    This review is concerned with the usefulness and the problem of biomarkers for cancer of digestive organs. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a most popular and useful tumor marker for cancer of digestive organs. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) antigen and CYFRA have been reported as a useful tumor marker for esophageal cancer. CEA and CA 19-9 are a good prognostic factor in gastric cancer patients. The post-operative increase of serum CEA can be a predictive marker for the patients of colorectal cancer. Development of a radioimmunoassay for highly sensitive detection of tumor markers, they are considered to be useful for monitoring after treatment. But are not useful for the early diagnosis. The diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is based mainly on serological markers, such as alpha-fetoprotein and PIVKA-II. The two are useful complementary markers of HCC because they do not correlate with each other. But the problem of the false-positive rate for the patients with chronic hepatitis or liver cirrhosis is still remained. A typical marker of pancreatic and bile duct cancer is carbohydrate antigen, but the sensitivity of these markers is only 50%. Recent molecular biological analysis may be used as effective biomarkers in the diagnosis, prognosis, therapy, and risk assessment of digestive cancer.

  16. High-performance fluorescence-encoded magnetic microbeads as microfluidic protein chip supports for AFP detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiaoqun; Yan, Huan; Yang, Jiumin; Wu, Yudong; Zhang, Jian; Yao, Yingyi; Liu, Ping; Wang, Huiquan; Hu, Zhidong; Chang, Jin

    2016-10-01

    Fluorescence-encoded magnetic microbeads (FEMMs), with the fluorescence encoding ability of quantum dots (QDs) and magnetic enrichment and separation functions of Fe3O4 nanoparticles, have been widely used for multiple biomolecular detection as microfluidic protein chip supports. However, the preparation of FEMMs with long-term fluorescent encoding and immunodetection stability is still a challenge. In this work, we designed a novel high-temperature chemical swelling strategy. The QDs and Fe3O4 nanoparticles were effectively packaged into microbeads via the thermal motion of the polymer chains and the hydrophobic interaction between the nanoparticles and microbeads. The FEMMs obtained a highly uniform fluorescent property and long-term encoding and immunodetection stability and could be quickly magnetically separated and enriched. Then, the QD-encoded magnetic microbeads were applied to alpha fetoprotein (AFP) detection via sandwich immunoreaction. The properties of the encoded microspheres were characterized using a self-designed detecting apparatus, and the target molecular concentration in the sample was also quantified. The results suggested that the high-performance FEMMs have great potential in the field of biomolecular detection. PMID:27639146

  17. Experience of a Single Center in NTBC Use in Management of Hereditary Tyrosinemia Type I in Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Alobaidy

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hereditary Tyrosinemia type I (HTI is a metabolic disease caused by deficiency of fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase enzyme. Objectives: This study reports beside its clinical and biochemical presentation, the outcome of NTBC [2- (2-nitro-4-trifloro-methylbenzoyl-1, 3-cyclohexanedion] treatment of the disease and evaluates its biochemical markers in 16 pediatric Libyan patients. Patients and Methods: The diagnosis was based on presence of high tyrosine levels in blood and succinylacetone in urine. Results: The consanguinity rate was 81.2%, the median age at onset, at diagnosis and at starting treatment were 4.5, 8, and 9.5 months respectively. At presentation hepatomegaly, jaundice, rickets and high gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT were observed in 87.5% of patients. All patients had extremely high alpha fetoprotein (AFP and high alkaline phosphatase (ALP levels. Fifteen patients were treated with NTBC, normalization of PT (Prothrombine time was achieved in average in 14 days. The other biochemical parameters of liver function (transaminases, GGT, ALP, bilirubin and albumin took longer to improve and several months to be normalized. Survival rate with NTBC was 86.6%. Patients who started treatment in a median of 3 months post onset observed a fast drop of AFP in 90.6% of patients (P = 0.003. Abnormal liver function and rickets were the common presentations, GGT was an early cholestatic sensitive test. ALP was constantly high even in asymptomatic patients. Conclusions: In HT1 a faster dropping of AFP is a marker of good prognosis.

  18. Differentiating Hepatocellular Carcinoma from Hepatitis C Using Metabolite Profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siwei Wei

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC accounts for most liver cancer cases worldwide. Contraction of the hepatitis C virus (HCV is considered a major risk factor for liver cancer. In order to identify the risk of cancer, metabolic profiling of serum samples from patients with HCC (n=40 and HCV (n=22 was performed by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Multivariate statistical analysis showed a distinct separation of the two patient cohorts, indicating a distinct metabolic difference between HCC and HCV patient groups based on signals from lipids and other individual metabolites. Univariate analysis showed that three metabolites (choline, valine and creatinine were significantly altered in HCC. A PLS-DA model based on these three metabolites showed a sensitivity of 80%, specificity of 71% and an area under the receiver operating curve of 0.83, outperforming the clinical marker alpha-fetoprotein (AFP. The robustness of the model was tested using Monte-Carlo cross validation (MCCV. This study showed that metabolite profiling could provide an alternative approach for HCC screening in HCV patients, many of whom have high risk for developing liver cancer.

  19. Yolk sac tumor in a patient with transverse testicular ectopia

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    Zhu Yi-Ping

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Transverse testicular ectopia (TTE is a rare anomaly in which both testes descend through a single inguinal canal. We report a case of yolk sac tumor in the ectopic testis of a patient with TTE. A 24-year-old man presented to our hospital with a left inguinal-mass, right cryptorchidism and elevated alpha-fetoprotein (AFP. A left herniotomy 3 years earlier demonstrated both testes in the left scrotum, one above another positionally. Four months ago, a left scrotal mass appeared and radical orchiectomy of both testes revealed testicular yolk sac tumor of the ectopic testis. An enlarging left inguinal-mass appeared 2 months ago and he was referred to our hospital. Laboratory data showed an elevation of AFP (245.5 ng/ml and a 46 XY karyotype. He underwent bilateral retroperitoneal lymph node dissection and simultaneous left inguinal mass dissection. Histopathologic examination revealed a diagnosis of recurrent yolk sac tumor in the left inguinal mass. The retroperitoneal lymph node was not enlarged and, on histopathology, was not involved. The patient has now been followed up for 8 months without evidence of biochemical or radiological recurrence.

  20. A novel electrochemiluminescent immunosensor based on the quenching effect of aminated graphene on nitrogen-doped carbon quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Jing; Han, Tongqian; Ma, Hongmin; Yan, Tao; Pang, Xuehui [Key Laboratory of Chemical Sensing & Analysis in Universities of Shandong, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China); Li, Yueyun [School of Chemical Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255049 (China); Wei, Qin, E-mail: sdjndxwq@163.com [Key Laboratory of Chemical Sensing & Analysis in Universities of Shandong, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China)

    2015-08-19

    Nitrogen-doped carbon quantum dots (N-CQDs) with an average diameter of 2 nm were synthesized by carbonization of diethylene triamine pentacetate acid (DTPA). The simple prepared N-CQDs showed excellent electrochemiluminescence (ECL) property and were used as luminophors to fabricate a sandwich-type ECL immunosensor. Aminated graphene (NH{sub 2}-G) was also synthesized and used as a label of secondary antibody. The labeled NH{sub 2}-G could effectively quench the ECL of N-CQDs modified on electrodes due to ECL resonance energy transfer (ERET). Immunological recognition which induced ECL quenching enabled the quantitative determination of biomarkers. Alpha fetoprotein (AFP) was selected as a model analyte to investigate the analytical performance of the proposed immunosensor. Under optimal conditions, a good linear relationship between ECL intensity and the logarithm of AFP concentration was obtained in the range of 0.01–100 ng mL{sup −1} with the detection limit of 3.3 pg mL{sup −1}. The proposed ECL immunosensor showed good stability, acceptable selectivity and reproducibility. - Highlights: • ECL behavior of N-CQDs was investigated. • NH{sub 2}-G for quenching N-CQDs emission was investigated. • The linearly range of the immunosensor for AFP was 0.01 ng/mL–100 ng/mL.

  1. Mixed Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma and Adenocarcinoma with Spindle Cell and Clear Cell Features in the Extrahepatic Bile Duct

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    John Wysocki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinomas, spindle cell carcinomas, and clear cell carcinomas are all rare tumors in the biliary tract. We present the first case, to our knowledge, of an extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma composed of all three types. A 65-year-old man with prior cholecystectomy presented with painless jaundice, vomiting, and weight loss. CA19-9 and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP were elevated. Cholangioscopy revealed a friable mass extending from the middle of the common bile duct to the common hepatic duct. A bile duct excision was performed. Gross examination revealed a 3.6 cm intraluminal polypoid tumor. Microscopically, the tumor had foci of conventional adenocarcinoma (CK7-positive and CA19-9-postive surrounded by malignant-appearing spindle cells that were positive for cytokeratins and vimentin. Additionally, there were separate areas of large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC. Foci of clear cell carcinoma merged into both the LCNEC and the adenocarcinoma. Tumor invaded through the bile duct wall with extensive perineural and vascular invasion. Circumferential margins were positive. The patient’s poor performance status precluded adjuvant therapy and he died with recurrent and metastatic disease 5 months after surgery. This is consistent with the reported poor survival rates of biliary mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinomas.

  2. The mesenchymal transcription factor SNAI-1 instructs human liver specification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Orit; Valdes, Victor Julian; Ezhkova, Elena; Gouon-Evans, Valerie

    2016-07-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) are processes required for embryo organogenesis. Liver develops from the epithelial foregut endoderm from which the liver progenitors, hepatoblasts, are specified. The migrating hepatoblasts acquire a mesenchymal phenotype to form the liver bud. In mid-gestation, hepatoblasts mature into epithelial structures: the hepatocyte cords and biliary ducts. While EMT has been associated with liver bud formation, nothing is known about its contribution to hepatic specification. We previously established an efficient protocol from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) to generate hepatic cells (Hep cells) resembling the hepatoblasts expressing alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and albumin (ALB). Here we show that Hep cells express both epithelial (EpCAM and E-cadherin) and mesenchymal (vimentin and SNAI-1) markers. Similar epithelial and mesenchymal hepatoblasts were identified in human and mouse fetal livers, suggesting a conserved interspecies phenotype. Knock-down experiments demonstrated the importance of SNAI-1 in Hep cell hepatic specification. Moreover, ChIP assays revealed direct binding of SNAI-1 in the promoters of AFP and ALB genes consistent with its transcriptional activator function in hepatic specification. Altogether, our hESC-derived Hep cell cultures reveal the dual mesenchymal and epithelial phenotype of hepatoblast-like cells and support the unexpected transcriptional activator role of SNAI-1 in hepatic specification. PMID:27240252

  3. A dual-readout chemiluminescent-gold lateral flow test for multiplex and ultrasensitive detection of disease biomarkers in real samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiping; Sun, Jiashu; Xianyu, Yunlei; Yin, Binfeng; Niu, Yajing; Wang, Songbai; Cao, Fengjing; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Wang, Yu; Jiang, Xingyu

    2016-08-18

    Even though the gold lateral flow test (GLFT) is low-cost and allows for point-of-care testing (POCT), its intrinsic limitations including low sensitivity and incapability of quantification significantly hinder the clinical application of GLFT for assaying disease biomarkers. To improve the performance of the GLFT without sacrificing its simplicity, we develop a chemiluminescent-gold lateral flow test (C-mode GLFT) for quantitative and multiplex detection of disease biomarkers with an ultrahigh sensitivity at a picomolar level. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and antibody (Ab) are simultaneously labeled onto the surface of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to achieve a dual-readout (chemiluminescent and visual, C&V-mode GLFT). A red color appears at the test line caused by the accumulation of captured AuNPs in the presence of targets, while HRP on the surface of AuNPs catalyzes the chemiluminescence reaction of luminol to amplify the signal. C-mode GLFT is successfully used for detecting tumor biomarkers (alpha fetoprotein, AFP, and carcino embryonic antigen, CEA) and bacterial infection biomarkers (procalcitonin, PCT) in serum samples as well as whole blood. The excellent features of C-mode GLFT such as straightforward operation, ultrahigh sensitivity and quantitative detection, make it a promising platform for POCT of a variety of disease biomarkers in real samples. PMID:27375054

  4. Serum YKL-40 independently predicts outcome after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization of hepatocellular carcinoma.

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    Cheng-Bao Zhu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE is the most widely used treatment option for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Elevated serum YKL-40 level has been shown to predict poor prognosis in HCC patients undergoing resection. This study was designed to validate the prognostic significance of serum YKL-40 in patients with HCC undergoing TACE treatment. METHODS: Serum YKL-40 level was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Overall survival (OS was evaluated with the Kaplan-Meier method and compared by the log-rank test. Multivariate study with Cox proportional hazard model was used to evaluate independent prognostic variables of OS. RESULTS: The median pretreatment serum YKL-40 in HCC patients with was significantly higher than that in healthy controls (P<0.001. The YKL-40 could predict survival precisely either in a dichotomized or continuous fashion (P<0.001 and P = 0.001, respectively. Multivariate Cox regression analysis indicated that serum YKL-40 was an independent prognostic factor for OS in HCC patients (P = 0.001. In further stratified analyses, YKL-40 could discriminate the outcomes of patients with low and high alpha-fetoprotein (AFP level (P = 0.006 and 0.016, respectively. Furthermore, the combination of serum YKL-40 and AFP had more capacity to predict patients' outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Serum YKL-40 was demonstrated to be an independent prognostic biomarker in HCC patients treated with TACE. Our results need confirmation in an independent study.

  5. Diagnosis of. Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Patients with Liver Cir­rhosis Using Liver Function Assays

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    Itoshima,Tatsuya

    1984-04-01

    Full Text Available Sex, age and 21 routine liver function assays were analyzed by stepwise selection and the best-of-all-possible-combinations method to identify a small group of assays valuable in establishing which liver cirrhosis (LC patients have a high risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, when alpha-fetoprotein (AFP is not elevated. Data was obtained from 115 HCC and 122 LC patients on admission. Tumor size correlated with AFP (0.73, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, 0.47, leucine aminopeptidase (LAP, 0.42, lactic dehydrogenase (LDH, 0.42, and the glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT/glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT ratio (GOT/GPT, 0.41. The mean of the correct diagnosis rates (CDR of HCC and LC utilizing AFP as the sole parameter (89% was markedly higher than those of the other parameters. The best-of-all-possible-combinations method presented a more powerful combination than stepwise selection. The best combination of 7 parameters (LAP, GOT/GPT, choline esterase, one-hour erythrocyte sedimentation rate, age, albumin/globulin ratio, and total bilirubin presented a mean CDR of 80%, HCC CDR of 77%, and false positive rate of 18%. LC patients statistically diagnosed as having HCC by these 7 parameters are proposed as high risk patients. Fourteen (78% of 18 HCC patients who were AFP-negative were statistically diagnosed. This analysis can be applied to LC patients to distinguish those that should be followed closely by imaging diagnostic techniques.

  6. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 polymorphism is associated with liver cirrhosis in hepatocarcinoma.

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    Ming-Jen Sheu

    Full Text Available Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4 polymorphisms are positively correlated with tumor progression in numerous malignant tumors. However, the association between FGFR4 genetic variants and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC has not yet been determined. In this study, we investigated the potential associations of FGFR4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs with HCC susceptibility and its clinicopathological characteristics.Four SNPs in FGFR4 (rs1966265, rs351855, rs2011077, and rs7708357 were analyzed among 884 participants, including 595 controls and 289 patients with HCC. The samples were further analyzed to clarify the associations between these gene polymorphisms and the risk of HCC, and the impact of these SNPs on the susceptibility and clinicopathological characteristics of HCC. After adjusting for other covariants, HCC patients who carrying at least one A genotype (GA and AA at rs351855 were observed to have a higher risk of liver cirrhosis compared with those carrying the wild-type genotype (GG (OR: 2.113, 95% CI: 1.188-3.831. Moreover, the patients with at least one A genotype were particularly showed a high level of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP.Our findings suggest that genetic polymorphism in FGFR4 rs351855 may be associated with the risk of HCC coupled with liver cirrhosis and may markedly increase the AFP level in Taiwanese patients with HCC. In addition, this is the first study that evaluated the risk factors associated with FGFR4 polymorphism variants in Taiwanese patients with HCC.

  7. A Comparison between Three-Dimensional Visualization Guided Hepatectomy and Ultrasonography Guided Radiofrequency Ablation in the Treatment of Small Hepatocellular Carcinoma within the Milan Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Tian-Pei; Fang, Chi-Hua; Yang, Jian; Xiang, Nan; Chen, Qing-Shan; Zhong, Shi-Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Background. Treatment selection for small hepatocellular carcinoma (sHCC) is controversial. We aimed to compare the outcomes of medical imaging three-dimensional visualization system (MI-3DVS) guided surgical resection (SR) and ultrasonography guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for sHCC. Methods. In total, 194 patients who underwent SR or RFA in our hospital between January 2006 and May 2010 were retrospectively enrolled. Overall survival (OS), recurrence-free survival (RFS), and postoperative complications were compared. Cox regression was used to estimate the benefits of MI-3DVS-guided SR on OS and RFS. Results. Ninety-two patients underwent SR and 102 underwent RFA. The SR group experienced more complications (41.3% versus 19.6%) and longer hospital stay (18.04 ± 7.11 versus 13.06 ± 5.59) (both p 60 years. Independent predictors of OS and RFS, respectively, were intervention (HR, 2.769 and 1.933), tumor number (HR, 5.128 and 3.903), and serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) (HR, 1.871 and 1.474) (all p AFP are independent predictors for both survival and recurrence. PMID:27294142

  8. The Predictive Power of Serum α-Fetoprotein and Des-γ-Carboxy Prothrombin for Survival Varies by Tumor Size in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsugawa, Daisuke; Fukumoto, Takumi; Kido, Masahiro; Takebe, Atsushi; Tanaka, Motofumi; Kuramitsu, Kaori; Matsumoto, Ippei; Ajiki, Tetsuo; Koyama, Tatsuki; Ku, Yonson

    2016-01-01

    Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and des-γ-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) are frequently used as tumor markers in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The authors hypothesized different patient populations with varying tumor sizes would influence the predictive power of tumor markers for survival in HCC patients. The authors investigated the influence of tumor size on predictive powers of AFP and DCP. 181 patients underwent hepatectomy for HCC from 2003 to 2008 at Kobe University Hospital. Tumor markers were measured before and at 1 month post-hepatectomy. The Cox proportional-hazards model revealed that preoperative serum AFP was associated with survival; its effects depended on tumor size. Hazard ratios (HRs) for preoperative AFP were maximum for medium-sized HCC, and for DCP, HRs were maximum in small-sized tumors. Post-hepatectomy, both tumor markers were associated with survival, revealing significant interactions with tumor size. HRs for postoperative AFP were greater than 1 for relatively wide range tumors (3-11 cm). HRs for postoperative DCP increased with tumor size, with a strong prognostic predictive power for tumors >5 cm. The predictive power of serum tumor markers varied by tumor size in HCC patients. By selecting the appropriate tumor marker, its predictive power can be improved. PMID:27363395

  9. Resectable hepatoblastoma with tumor thrombus extending into the right atrium after chemotherapy: A case report

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    Kosuke Endo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Hepatoblastoma with intraatrial tumor thrombus is relatively rare. We report a case of hepatoblastoma with tumor thrombus extending into the right atrium, which responded well to chemotherapy and was resected using extracorporeal circulation. A 4-year-old girl was referred to our hospital because of abdominal distention and tenderness. A computed tomography (CT scan showed a large tumor occupying the left 3 segments of the liver with tumor thrombus extending into the right atrium. There was also a small intrahepatic metastasis in the right lobe of the liver. She was diagnosed with hepatoblastoma on the basis of the results of open biopsy. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy with an intense CDDP-based regimen was performed. The tumor responded well to chemotherapy, and intrahepatic metastasis became undetectable on CT scan, although the tumor thrombus remained in the right atrium. After 7 courses of chemotherapy, we performed resection using extracorporeal circulation. The postoperative course was uneventful, and adjuvant chemotherapy was started 10 days after the operation. Her serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP level decreased to the normal range, and she was free of disease for 1 year after the operation. Tumor resection using extracorporeal circulation can be performed safely and is justified in patients with intraatrial tumor thrombus.

  10. Prognostic Factors for Tumor Recurrence after a 12-Year, Single-Center Experience of Liver Transplantations in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma

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    Matteo Cescon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Factors affecting outcomes after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC have been extensively studied, but some of them have only recently been discovered or reassessed. Methods. We analyzed classical and more recently emerging variables with a hypothetical impact on recurrence-free survival (RFS in a single-center series of 283 patients transplanted for HCC between 1997 and 2009. Results. Five-year patient survival and RFS were 75% and 86%, respectively. Thirty-four (12% patients had HCC recurrence. Elevated preoperative alpha-fetoprotein (AFP levels, preoperative treatments of HCC, unfulfilled Milan and up-to-seven criteria at final histology, poor tumor differentiation, and tumor microvascular invasion negatively affected RFS by univariate analysis. Milan and up-to-seven criteria applied preoperatively, and the use of m-TOR inhibitors did not reach statistical significance. Cox's proportional hazard model showed that only elevated AFP levels (Odds Ratio=2.88; 95% C.I.=1.43–5.80; =.003, preoperative tumor treatments (Odds Ratio=4.84; 95% C.I.=1.42–16.42; =.01, and microvascular invasion (Odds Ratio=4.82; 95% C.I.=1.87–12.41; =.001 were predictors of lower RFS. Conclusions. Biological aggressiveness and preoperative tumor treatment, rather than traditional and expanded dimensional criteria, conditioned the outcomes in patients transplanted for HCC.

  11. Guide for diagnosis and treatment of hepatocellularcarcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is ranked as the 5thcommon type of cancer worldwide and is considered asthe 3rd common reason for cancer-related deaths. HCCoften occurs on top of a cirrhotic liver. The prognosis is determined by several factors; tumour extension,alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) concentration, histologicsubtype of the tumour, degree of liver dysfunction,and the patient's performance status. HCC prognosisis strongly correlated with diagnostic delay. To date,no ideal screening modality has been developed.Analysis of recent studies showed that AFP assessmentlacks adequate sensitivity and specificity for effectivesurveillance and diagnosis. Many tumour markershave been tested in clinical trials without progressingto routine use in clinical practice. Thus, surveillance isstill based on ultrasound (US) examination every 6 mo.Imaging studies for diagnosis of HCC can fall into oneof two main categories: routine non-invasive studiessuch as US, computed tomography (CT), and magneticresonance imaging, and more specialized invasivetechniques including CT during hepatic arteriographyand CT arterial portography in addition to the conventionalhepatic angiography. This article provides an overviewand spotlight on the different diagnostic modalities andtreatment options of HCC.

  12. The long noncoding RNAs PVT1 and uc002mbe.2 in sera provide a new supplementary method for hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jinyu; Han, Junqing; Zhang, Jian; Li, Guanzhen; Liu, Hui; Cui, Xianping; Xu, Yantian; Li, Tao; Liu, Juan; Wang, Chuanxi

    2016-08-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary malignancy of the liver in adults worldwide. Several studies have demonstrated that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in the development of various types of cancer, including HCC. These findings prompted us to examine the detectability of lncRNAs in blood samples from patients with HCC. In this study, we explored the expression levels of 31 cancer-related lncRNAs in sera from 71 HCC patients and 64 healthy individuals by reverse transcription and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). We found that 25 lncRNAs could be detected in the serum and that 7 had significantly different expression levels. A 2-lncRNA signature (PVT1 and uc002mbe.2) identified by stepwise regression showed potential as a diagnostic marker for HCC. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.764 (95% CI: 0.684-0.833). The sensitivity and specificity values of this serum 2-lncRNA signature for distinguishing HCC patients from the healthy group were 60.56% and 90.62%, respectively. The diagnostic ability of the combination of the serum 2-lncRNA signature with alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) was much greater than that of AFP alone. The expression levels of the 2 lncRNAs were associated with clinical parameters including tumor size, Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage, and serum bilirubin. PMID:27495068

  13. Surface modification of a gold-coated microcantilever and application in biomarker detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binh Pham, Van; Nhat Khoa Phan, Thanh; Nguyen, Thanh Trung; Pham, Xuan Thanh Tung; Thanh Tuyen Le, Thi; Chien Dang, Mau

    2015-12-01

    Biosensors have been rapidly developed recently. Biological receptors, such as antibodies, must be immobilized on these sensors’ surfaces to make the sensor capable of capturing a target analyte. In this research we studied how to modify a gold-coated surface of a microcantilever, a sensor with high potential in biological and medical applications. Thiol chemistry was adapted to create a cysteamine layer on a gold surface, and subsequently glutaraldehyde was used as a cross-linking agent to react with amine groups in receptors. In order to evaluate the efficiency of immobilizing protein on an Au surface and also whether the protein retains its biological activity, horseradish peroxidase enzyme (HRP) with its activity to catalyze a reaction between 2,2‧-azino-bis [3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid] (ABTS) and {{{H}}}2{{{{O}}}2}- was used as a testing protein. The result showed that HRP was immobilized successfully on cysteamine and glutaraldehyde layers and retained its activity. The cantilever’s tip deflection was also measured, and results showed that each layer created surface stress and made the cantilever bend—in particular, the cysteamine layer induced bending as high as 6 μm. An antibody of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) was immobilized on the cantilever surface, and the measurement deflection showed that the sensor responded to solution containing AFP with concentration from 100 to 500 ng ml-1.

  14. Peri-Transplant Change in AFP Level: a Useful Predictor of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Recurrence Following Liver Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Tae; Lee, Kwang-Woong; Yi, Nam-Joon; Choi, Young Rok; Kim, Hyeyoung; Suh, Suk-Won; Jeong, Jae Hong; Lee, Jeong-Moo; Suh, Kyung-Suk

    2016-07-01

    Pretransplant alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a useful tumor marker predicting recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Little is known, however, about the relationship between changes in AFP concentration and prognosis. This study investigated the clinical significance of change in peri-transplant AFP level as a predictor of HCC recurrence. Data from 125 HCC patients with elevated pretransplant AFP level who underwent liver transplantation (LT) between February 2000 and December 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with AFP normalization within 1 month after LT were classified into the rapid normalization group (n = 97), with all other patients classified into the non-rapid normalization group (n = 28). Tumor recurrence was observed in 17 of the 97 patients (17.5%) with rapid normalization; of these, 11 patients had high AFP levels and six had normal levels at recurrence. In contrast, tumor recurrence was observed in 24 of the 28 patients (85.7%) without rapid normalization, with all 24 having high AFP levels at recurrence. Multivariate analysis showed that non-rapid normalization (harzard ratio [HR], 4.41, P AFP level at 1 month is a useful clinical marker for HCC recurrence. Therefore, an adjuvant strategy and/or intensive screening are needed for patients who do not show rapid normalization. PMID:27366001

  15. Safety of implanting sustained-release 5-fluorouracil into hepatic cross-section and omentum majus after primary liver cancer resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiangtao; Zhang, Junjie; Wang, Chenyu; Yao, Kunhou; Hua, Long; Zhang, Liping; Ren, Xuequn

    2016-09-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the short-term safety of implanting sustained-release 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) into hepatic cross-section and omentum majus after primary liver cancer resection and its impact on related indexes of liver. Forty patients were selected and divided into an implantation group (n = 20) and a control group (n = 20). On the first day after admission, first week after surgery, and first month after surgery, fasting venous blood was extracted from patients for measuring hematological indexes. The reduction rate of alpha fetoprotein (AFP) on the first week and first month after surgery was calculated, and moreover, drainage volume of the abdominal cavity drainage tube, length of stay after surgery, and wound healing condition were recorded. We found that levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate amino transferase, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, total bilirubin, albumin, and white blood cells measured on the first week and first month after surgery, length of stay, and wound healing of patients in the two groups had no significant difference (P >0.05). Drainage volume and reduction rate of AFP of two groups were significantly different on the first week and first month after surgery (P <0.05). Implanting sustained-release 5-FU into hepatic cross-section and omentum majus after primary liver cancer resection is proved to be safe as it has little impact on related indexes. PMID:27207445

  16. 3种血清肿瘤标志物检测在原发性肝癌诊断中价值%Value of three serum tumor markers to the diagnosis of primary hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莉; 贾志凌; 刘畅; 柴丽娜

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the diagnostic value of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP),lectin-reactive alpha-fetoprotein (AFP L3) and Golgi protein 73 (GP73) to the diagnosis of primary hepatocellular carcinoma.Methods Serum AFP was detected by using electrochemiluminescence assay in 102 patients with primary hepatocellular carcinoma,79 patients with benign liver diseases and 31 healthy volunteers.AFP-L3 was detected by using affinitive centrifugal tube in patients with positive AFP (>20 μg/L).GP73 was quantitatively analyzed by using ELISA.Results The sensitivities of AFP,AFP-L3 and GP73 were 51.96%,75.50% and 77.45%,and the specificities were 50.63%,93.67% and 71.95% respectively in the diagnosis of primary hepatocellular carcinoma.The sensitivity and specificity of the combined detection of three markers were 95.10% and 93.67% in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma.The positive rate of AFP-L3 was 96.23% in patients with AFP>400 ng/mL,obviously higher than that in those with AFP≤400 ng/mL (53.06%) (P<0.05),and there was no significant difference in the positive rate of GP73 between them (75.47% vs 75.51%) (P>0.05).Conclusion The combined detection of AFP,AFP-L3 and GP73 can improve the sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of primary hepatocellular carcinoma.GP73 is superior to AFP in the early diagnosis of primary hepatocellular carcinoma.%目的 探讨血清甲胎蛋白(alpha-fetoprotein,AFP)、甲胎蛋白异质体(lectin-reactive alpha-fetoprotein,AFP-L3)及高尔基体糖蛋白73(Golgi protein 73,GP73)检测诊断原发性肝癌的价值.方法 102例原发性肝癌患者(肝癌组),79例良性肝病患者(良性肝病组)和体检健康者31例(对照组),采用电化学发光法检测3组AFP,AFP阳性者(>20μg/L)采用亲和吸附离心管法检测AFP-L3,采用酶联免疫法检测GP73.结果 AFP、AFP-L3和GP73对原发性肝癌诊断的灵敏度分别为51.96%、75.50%、77.45%,特异性分别为50.63%、93

  17. Optimal surveillance program for hepatocellular carcinoma- getting ready, but not yet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Grace; Lai-Hung; Wong

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC) secondary to chronic viral hepatitis is a major health problem in AsianPacific regions due to the endemics of chronic hepatitis B and C virus infection. HCC surveillance has been recommended to patients who are at risk to develop HCC. Unfortunately, a significant proportion of patients still died in long run due to tumor recurrence. The key components of an optimal surveillance program include an accurate tumor biomarker and optimal surveillance interval. Serum alpha-fetoprotein(AFP), despite of being the most widely used biomarker for HCC surveillance, it was criticized as neither sensitive nor specific. Other HCC biomarkers, including lectin-reactive AFP(AFP-L3), des-gamma carboxyprothrombin, are still under investigations. Recent study showed cancerassociated genome-wide hypomethylation and copy number aberrations by plasma DNA bisulfite sequencing to be accurate with both sensitivity and specificity close to 90% in detecting HCC in a case-control study. Concerning the optimal surveillance interval, we believe one size does not fit all patients. Accurate risk prediction to assist prognostication with well-validated HCC risk scores would be useful to decide the need for HCC surveillance. These key components of an optimal HCC surveillance program should be further validated at a surveillance setting.

  18. Predictive value of mid-trimester amniotic fluid high-sensitive C-reactive protein, ferritin, and lactate dehydrogenase for fetal growth restriction

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    Borna Sedigheh

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fetal growth restriction (FGR is surprisingly common with placental dysfunction occurring in about 3% of pregnancies and despite advances in obstetric care, FGR remains a major problem in developed countries. Aim: The purpose of this study is to find out the predictive value of amniotic fluid high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, ferritin, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH for FGR. Materials and Methods: This prospective strategy of this study has been conducted on pregnant women who underwent genetic amniocentesis between 15th and 20th weeks of gestation. All patients were followed up on until delivery. Patients with abnormal karyotype and iatrogenic preterm delivery for fetal and maternal indications were excluded. The samples were immediately sent to laboratory for cytogenetic and biochemical examination. Non-parametric tests and receiver-operator characteristic curve analysis were used for statistical purpose. Results: A significant correlation between incremental amniotic fluid alpha fetoprotein (αFPr and LDH levels and FGR at gestational weeks 15th-20th was found out. We also found an optimum cut-off value> 140 IU/L for the amniotic fluid LDH concentration with a sensitivity of 87.5% and a specificity of 82.4% for the prediction of FGR. Conclusion: Once the LDH value is confirmed, it could serve as a prediction factor for FGR at the time of genetic amniocentesis at gestational weeks 15-20.

  19. Hepatocytic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells in cocultures with fetal liver cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Claudia Lange; Helge Bruns; Dietrich Kluth; Axel R Zander; Henning C Fiegel

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the hepatocytic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in co-cultures with fetal liver cells (FLC) and the possibility to expand differentiated hepatocytic cells.METHODS: MSCs were marked with green fluorescent protein (GFP) by retroviral gene transduction. Clonal marked MSCs were either cultured under liver stimulating conditions using fibronectin-coated culture dishes and medium supplemented with stem cell factor (SCF),hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), and fibroblast growth factor 4 (FGF-4) alone, or in presence of freshly isolated FLC. Cells in co-cultures were harvested, and GFP+ or GFP- cells were separated using fluorescence activated cell sorting. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the liver specific markers cytokeratin-18 (CK-18), albumin,and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) was performed in different cell populations.RESULTS: Under the specified culture conditions, rat MSCs co-cultured with FLC expressed albumin, CK-18,and AFP-RNA over two weeks. At wk 3, MSCs lost hepatooytic gene expression, probably due to overgrowth of the cocultured FLC. FLC also showed a stable liver specific gene expression in the co-cultures and a very high growth potential.CONCLUSION: The rat MSCs from bone marrow can differentiate hepatocytic cells in the presence of FLC in vitro and the presence of MSCs in co-cultures also prorides a beneficial environment for expansion and differentiation of FLC.

  20. Combined treatment of vitamin K2 and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor ameliorates hepatic dysplastic nodule in a patient with liver cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hitoshi Yoshiji; Kosuke Kaji; Masahito Uemura; Junichi Yamao; Masao Fujimoto; Akira Mitoro; Masahisa Toyohara; Motoyuki Yoshida; Hiroshi Fukui; Ryuichi Noguchi; Masaharu Yamazaki; Yasuhide Ikenaka; Masayoshi Sawai; Masatoshi Ishikawa; Hideto Kawaratani; Tsuyoshi Mashitani; Mitsuteru Kitade

    2007-01-01

    Although it is well known that the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an ominous complication in patients with liver cirrhosis, there has been no approved drug to prevent the development of HCC to date. We previously reported that the combined treatment of vitamin K2 (VK) and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor(ACE-I) significantly suppressed the experimental hepatocarcinogenesis. A 66-year-old Japanese woman with hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related liver cirrhosis developed a dysplastic nodule in the liver detected by enhanced computed tomography along with elevation of the tumor markers, namely, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)and lectin-reactive demarcation (AFP-L3), suggesting the presence of latent HCC. After oral administration of VK and ACE-I, the serum levels of both AFP and AFP-L3 gradually decreased without any marked alteration of the serum aminotransferase activity. After one-year treatment, not only the serum levels of AFP and AFP-L3 returned to the normal ranges, but also the dysplastic nodule disappeared. Since both VK and ACE-I are widely used without serious side effects, this combined regimen may become a new strategy for chemoprevention against HCC.

  1. Non-invasive monitoring of carcinogenesis in N-nitrosodiethylamine induced liver cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ju Hui; Kang, Joo Hyun; Lee, Yong Jin; Lee, Tae Sup; Kim, Kwang Il; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, Sang Moo [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Young Seo [Kyungwon University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    Molecular imaging based on reporter gene expression allows tissue-specific events or processes to be measured using the bioluminescence imaging (BLI) reporter gene expression vector controlled by specific enhancer/promoters. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), which is a tumor marker, is a serum glycoprotein that is expressed normally by fetal liver and yolk-sac cells, as well as in trace amounts in the fetal gastrointestinal tract. The serum concentration of AFP decreases rapidly after birth and its expression is repressed in adults. Approximately 80% of HCC patients show an increase in the AFP level. Therefore, AFP has been used for many years as a diagnostic and prognostic serum marker for HCC and transgenic system for AFP was proposed as a valuable tool for elucidation of mechanism of transcriptional regulation during liver development and hepatocarcinogenesis. In this study, firefly luciferase (fLuc) expressing transgenic mice controlled by the AFP enhancer/ promoter (enh/promoter) were produced to screen for the development of AFP-producing liver cancer. These models are expected to be useful for monitoring agents or drugs that modulate the AFP level as well as for measuring the specific signaling events important for liver cancer development

  2. Hepatoma-derived growth factor/nucleolin axis as a novel oncogenic pathway in liver carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, San-Cher; Hu, Tsung-Hui; Huang, Chao-Cheng; Kung, Mei-Lang; Chu, Tian-Huei; Yi, Li-Na; Huang, Shih-Tsung; Chan, Hoi-Hung; Chuang, Jiin-Haur; Liu, Li-Feng; Wu, Han-Chung; Wu, Deng-Chyang; Chang, Min-Chi; Tai, Ming-Hong

    2015-06-30

    Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF) overexpression is involved in liver fibrosis and carcinogenesis. However, the receptor(s) and signaling for HDGF remain unclear. By using affinity chromatography and proteomic techniques, nucleolin (NCL) was identified and validated as a HDGF-interacting membrane protein in hepatoma cells. Exogenous HDGF elicited the membrane NCL accumulation within 0.5 hour by protein stabilization and transcriptional NCL upregulation within 24 hours. Blockade of surface NCL by antibodies neutralization potently suppressed HDGF uptake and HDGF-stimulated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling in hepatoma cells. By using rescectd hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues, immunohistochemical analysis revealed NCL overexpression was correlated with tumour grades, vascular invasion, serum alpha-fetoprotein levels and the poor survival in HCC patients. Multivariate analysis showed NCL was an independent prognostic factor for survival outcome of HCC patients after surgery. To delineate the role of NCL in liver carcinogenesis, ectopic NCL overexpression promoted the oncogenic behaviours and induced PI3K/Akt activation in hepatoma cells. Conversely, NCL knockdown by RNA interference attenuated the oncogenic behaviours and PI3K/Akt signaling, which could be partially rescued by exogenous HDGF supply. In summary, this study provides the first evidence that surface NCL transmits the oncogenic signaling of HDGF and facilitates a novel diagnostic and therapeutic target for HCC. PMID:25938538

  3. 甲胎蛋白异质体3对肝细胞癌的预测作用——附18例分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈敏; 王永忠; 杭双荣; 申红玉; 濮翔科

    2009-01-01

    目的:探讨甲胎蛋白异质体3(lentil lectin-reactive alpha-fetoprotein-L3,AFP-L3)对肝癌的预测作用.方法:抽取18例经影像学(B超、CT等)诊断未发现肝癌的肝硬化患者的静脉血5 mL,采用国产微量离心柱法分离AFP-L3,用化学发光免疫法检测血标本中的甲胎蛋白和AFP-L3含量,以AFP-L3超过10%作为阳性判断标准.结果:18例肝硬化患者的AFP-L3分别为14%~75%,出院后分别接受3~18个月的随访,其中17例在出院后3~18个月内被诊断为肝癌.结论:AFP-L3阳性的肝硬化患者进展为肝癌的几率高,提示应对AFP-L3阳性的肝硬化患者进行密切随访,以便早期发现肝癌.

  4. Role of AFP mRNA expression in peripheral blood as a predictor for postsurgical recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Ding; Xiu-Shou Ling; Lian-Yue Yang; Geng-Wen Huang; Jian-Qing Yang; He-Li Liu; Wei Wang; Ji-Xiang Peng; Jie-Quan Yang; Yi-Ming Tao

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To identify the role of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) mRNA expression in peripheral blood one week after surgery as a predictor for recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).METHODS: Published studies fulfilling the selection criteria were identified by searching several databases online. After a methodology assessment using a quality scale designed by European Lung Cancer Working Party, data in each research were aggregated by means of metaanalysis.RESULTS: Altogether 368 cases were included in the 9 selected studies, which fulfilled the selection criteria. The quality scores ranged from 35% to 84% with a median score of 55%. The 'design' subscore had the lowest median value (38%). By aggregating the data, a high χ2value (77.576) was presented. The fail-safe number was 136 and 64 for P = 0.05 and 0.01, respectively. CONCLUSION: AFP mRNA expression in peripheral blood 1 wk after surgery correlated with the recurrence of HCC and was a good predictor for tumor recurrence.

  5. Safety of implanting sustained-release 5-fluorouracil into hepatic cross-section and omentum majus after primary liver cancer resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiangtao; Zhang, Junjie; Wang, Chenyu; Yao, Kunhou; Hua, Long; Zhang, Liping; Ren, Xuequn

    2016-09-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the short-term safety of implanting sustained-release 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) into hepatic cross-section and omentum majus after primary liver cancer resection and its impact on related indexes of liver. Forty patients were selected and divided into an implantation group (n = 20) and a control group (n = 20). On the first day after admission, first week after surgery, and first month after surgery, fasting venous blood was extracted from patients for measuring hematological indexes. The reduction rate of alpha fetoprotein (AFP) on the first week and first month after surgery was calculated, and moreover, drainage volume of the abdominal cavity drainage tube, length of stay after surgery, and wound healing condition were recorded. We found that levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate amino transferase, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, total bilirubin, albumin, and white blood cells measured on the first week and first month after surgery, length of stay, and wound healing of patients in the two groups had no significant difference (P >0.05). Drainage volume and reduction rate of AFP of two groups were significantly different on the first week and first month after surgery (P <0.05). Implanting sustained-release 5-FU into hepatic cross-section and omentum majus after primary liver cancer resection is proved to be safe as it has little impact on related indexes.

  6. Relevance of circulating nucleosomes and oncological biomarkers for predicting response to transarterial chemoembolization therapy in liver cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durner Jürgen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE therapy is an effective locoregional treatment in hepatocellular cancer (HCC patients. For early modification of therapy, markers predicting therapy response are urgently required. Methods Here, sera of 50 prospectively and consecutively included HCC patients undergoing 71 TACE therapies were taken before and 3 h, 6 h and 24 h after TACE application to analyze concentrations of circulating nucleosomes, cytokeratin-19 fragments (CYFRA 21-1, alpha fetoprotein (AFP, C-reactive protein (CRP and several liver biomarkers, and to compare these with radiological response to therapy. Results While nucleosomes, CYFRA 21-1, CRP and some liver biomarkers increased already 24 h after TACE, percental changes of nucleosome concentrations before and 24 h after TACE and pre- and posttherapeutic values of AFP, gamma-glutamyl-transferase (GGT and alkaline phosphatase (AP significantly indicated the later therapy response (39 progression versus 32 no progression. In multivariate analysis, nucleosomes (24 h, AP (24 h and TACE number were independent predictive markers. The risk score of this combination model achieved an AUC of 81.8% in receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves and a sensitivity for prediction of non-response to therapy of 41% at 97% specificity, and of 72% at 78% specificity. Conclusion Circulating nucleosomes and liver markers are valuable tools for early estimation of the efficacy of TACE therapy in HCC patients.

  7. CT findings of exophytic hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Jin; Cho, June Sik; Kim, Hyung Lyul; Lee, Chung Keun; Kim, Dae Hong; Rhee, Byung Chull [Chungnam National University College of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-11-15

    We retrospectively evaluated the characteristic computed tomographic(CT) findings in nine patients with exohepatic hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC) pathologically prove by surgery(n=2) or percutaneous needle biopsy(n=7). The CT findings of exphepatic HCC were correlated with clinical findings and compared with those of usual HCC. Lesions were in the left lobe(n=7) and right lobe(n=2) of the liver. All lesions showed a well-marginated hypodense mass with capsular enhancement on enhanced CT scan. The patterns of capsular enhancement were complete in five and partial in four case. The portal vein thrombosis was seen only in one case. There was no difference between exohepatic HCC and usual HCC in clinical findings such as increased {alpha}-fetoprotein({alpha}-FP), positive hepatitis B surface antigen(HBsAg), and underlying liver cirrhosis. In conclusion, the CT findings of exohepatic HCC were a well-defined hyperdense mass with complete or partial capsular enhancement and these findings may be useful in differentiation from the tumors of adjacent organs.

  8. Prenatal diagnosis of Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome in a pregnancy with low maternal serum oestriol and a sex-reversed fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bick, D P; McCorkle, D; Stanley, W S; Stern, H J; Staszak, P; Berkovitz, G D; Meyers, C M; Kelley, R I

    1999-01-01

    A cytogenetically normal male fetus was subsequently found to have female external genitalia, a cardiac malformation and mid-trimester intra-uterine growth retardation by ultrasound examination. The maternal serum oestriol level was low. The combination of low oestriol and sonographic findings suggested Smith Lemli Opitz syndrome (SLO), which was confirmed by a markedly increased amniotic fluid level of 7-dehydrocholesterol. We review the differential diagnosis of apparent sex reversal in a fetus and low maternal serum oestriol level. To further examine the specificity of low maternal oestriol level as a marker for SLO a follow-up study of 12141 pregnancies screened for Down syndrome using three biochemical markers: alpha-fetoprotein, beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin and oestriol was performed. 26 pregnancies had an oestriol level that was 0.25 MoM or less. SLO was not diagnosed clinically in any of the liveborn children ascertained through a low maternal oestriol level. Nine of the pregnancies ended in spontaneous miscarriage. Although the frequency of SLO in pregnancies with low maternal oestriol levels or sex-reversed fetuses is unknown, the diagnosis of SLO should, nevertheless, be considered in both clinical settings. PMID:10073912

  9. Multiple marker screening test: identification of fetal cystic hygroma, hydrops, and sex chromosome aneuploidy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenstrom, K D; Boots, L R; Cosper, P C

    1996-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine if the multiple marker screening test (maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein, unconjugated estriol, human chorionic gonadotrophin, and maternal age) detects fetal Turner syndrome or just cystic hygroma/hydrops. Multiple marker screening tests from 4 groups were compared: 1) Turner syndrome with hydrops/ hygroma group (n = 10) = fetuses with cystic hygroma/hydrops and a 45X karyotype, 2) Turner syndrome without hydrops/hygroma (n = 9) = sonographically unremarkable fetal Turner syndrome or Turner mosaic, 3) hydrops group (n = 8) = all cases of fetal cystic hygroma/hydrops excluding Turner syndrome, 4) sex chromosome aneuploidy group (n = 16) = other sonographically normal fetal sex chromosome aneuploidies. Positive screening tests (Down syndrome risk > or = 1:190 or MSAFP > or = 2.5 MOM) were found in 60% (6/10) of the Turner syndrome with hydrops/hygroma group, but only 11% (1/9) of the Turner syndrome without hydrops/hygroma group (P = .04). The incidence of positive screening tests in the Hydrops group was 75% (6/8), while it was only 12.5% (2/16) in the other sex chromosome aneuploidy group. We conclude that the multiple marker screening test identifies fetuses with cystic hygroma/hydrops, and may do so independently of the etiology of the hydrops. PMID:8796763

  10. 8th quality control survey for radioisotope in vitro tests in Japan, 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-10-01

    This paper presents results of the 8th quality control survey, carried out in 480 facilities throughout Japan, for radioimmunoassay of the following 32 items: adrenocorticotropic hormone, ..cap alpha..-fetoprotein, aldosterone, ..beta../sub 2/-microglobulin, carbohydrate antigen 19 - 9, carcinoembryonic antigen, cortisol, C-peptide, digoxin, elastase 1, estradiol, ferritin, free triiodothyronine, free thyroxin, follicle stimulating hormone, gastrin, growth hormone, glucagon, immunoglobulin E, insulin, luteinizing hormone, prostatic acid phosphatase, progesterone, prolactin, parathyroid hormone, squamous cell carcinoma associated antigen, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, triiodothyronine uptake, thyroxin binding globulin, testosterone, thyroglobulin, tissue polypeptide antigen, and thyroid stimulaing hormone. Overall, 'between-assay' variation was in good agreement with 'within-kit' variation, suggesting the equal technical skills of the kit users among the facilities. A great discrepancy observed in the present assay results was, therefore, considered due to 'between-kit' variation. An international criteria for titers and the development of kits having antibodies with small cross reactivity are emphasized with the aim of improving differences in kits. (Namekawa, K.).

  11. The 13th quality control survey for radioisotopes in vitro tests in Japan, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-11-01

    This paper presents the results of the 13th quality control nationwide survey. Of 568 hospitals performing RI in vitro tests as of December 1991, 280 (49.3%) participated in this survey. The following 37 items were examined: ACTH, 17[alpha]-hydroxyprogesterone, [alpha]-fetoprotein, aldosterone, [beta]2-microglobulin, CA 125, CA 15-3, CA 19-9, calcitonin, CEA, cortisol, C-peptide, digoxin, esteradiol, ferritin, free triiodothyronine (T[sub 3]), free thyroxine (T[sub 4]), FSH, gastrin, GH, glucagon, IgE, insulin, LH, PAP, progesterone, prolactin, PTH, somatomedin C, T[sub 3], T[sub 4], T[sub 3] uptake, TBG, testosterone, thyroglobulin, tissue polypeptide antigen, and TSH. Reliability and safety of measurement values were evaluated based on protein components of serum samples, spontaneous reliability test, time-dependent reliability test, repeated freezing-dissolution test, and serial change test after freezing. 'Within kit variation' between facilities was great especially for ACTH, CA 15-3, CA 19-9, free T[sub 4], calcitonin, gastrin, and testosterone, and was favorable for [beta][sub 2]-microglobulin, CA 125, digoxin, cortisol, IgE, T[sub 3], T[sub 4], T[sub 3] uptake, and TBG. It was noted that there was a great difference in measurement values of free T[sub 3] and free-T[sub 4] between RIA kits and non-isotopic kits. (N.K.).

  12. The 10th quality control survey for radioisotope in vitro tests in Japan, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-10-01

    This report presents the results of the 10th quality control nationwide survey. Of 780 selected facilities, 471 (60.4%) participated in this survey. Items examined were as follows: alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), aldosterone; beta microglobulin, carbohydrate antigen (CA) 15-3, C peptide, digoxin, elastase 1, free triiodothyronine (FT{sub 3}), gastrin, growth hormone, human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), immunoglobulin E, prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP), pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor, progesterone, prolactine, thyroglobulin, triiodothyronine (T{sub 3}), triiodothyronine uptake (T{sub 3} U), tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and testosterone. 'Within kit variation' between facilities showed a coefficient of variation (CV) of more than 15% for AFP, FT , gastrin, HCG, progesterone, prolactine II, thyroglobulin, and TSH; and 'between kit variation' showed a CV of more than 15% for AFP, aldosterone, gastrin, IgE, PAP, progesterone, prolactin II, thyroglobuline, TSH, and testosterone. In comparing annual changes in CV, the following items were improved: aldosterone, C-peptide, gastrin, TPA, and TSH for 'within kit variation'; andaldosterone, C-peptide, gastrin, T{sub 3}, T{sub 3} U, TSH, and testosterone for 'between kit variation'. (N.K.).

  13. Six cases of malignant germ-cell tumors (grade 4). Comparison with germinoma (grade 2, 3) on CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuramoto, M.; Machida, T.; Maehara, T. (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1981-08-01

    The CT patterns of six malignant germ-cell tumors other than germinomas (one embryonal carcinoma, one choriocarcinoma, one yolk sac tumor, and three immature teratomas) were compared with those of 12 germinomas (ten suprasellar, one pineal, and one basal ganglia). The effects of irradiation and the changes in the concentration of serum ..cap alpha..-fetoprotein (AFP) and human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) were compared by means of serial studies. 1. Pre-contrast CT Four of the six (67%) malignant germ-cell tumors showed isodense masses with irregular margins that contained calcified dots and small necrotic cavities. All 12 germinomas showed round, high-density masses with smooth margins without necrotic cavities. The suprasellar germinomas showed no calcification on CT. 2. Post-contrast CT Both malignant germ-cell tumors and germinomas showed a strong enhancement after contrast administration. 3. Change in size after irradiation Malignant germ-cell tumors did not show a decrease in size after radiotherapy (20 - 40 Gy), although the necrotic cavities enlarged in three out of four tumors. Germinomas were highly radiosensitive and showed a remarkable change in size on follow-up CT after irradiation. 4. Serum AFP and HCG The concentrations of serum AFP and/or HCG before therapy were abnormally high in five malignant germ-cell tumors. In three out of four patients, the concentration of serum AFP was normalized, but in one patient the concentration of AFP increased even after irradiation.

  14. Dracocephalum: Novel Anticancer Plant Acting on Liver Cancer Cell Mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Talari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss. (Labiatae is a native Iranian medicinal plant which has been used in combination with Peganum harmala L. as a remedy for many forms of human cancer especially leukemia and gastrointestinal malignancies. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is the third leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. In this investigation HCC was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of diethylnitrosamine (DEN in corn oil at 200 mg/kg body weight to rats. Two weeks after DEN administration, cancer development was promoted with dietary 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF (0.02%, w/w for 2 weeks. Serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP concentration, serum alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP activities were also determined for confirmation of hepatocellular carcinoma induction. Then rat hepatocytes were isolated with collagen perfusion technique and tumoral hepatocytes were sorted by flow cytometry. Finally isolated mitochondria obtained from both tumoral and nontumoral hepatocytes were used for any probable toxic effect of Dracocephalum kotschyi ethanolic extract. Our results showed that D. kotschyi extract (250 µg/mL induced reactive oxygen species (ROS formation, mitochondrial membrane permeabilization (MMP, and mitochondrial swelling and cytochrome c release only in tumoral but not nontumoral hepatocyte. These findings propose Dracocephalum kotschyi as a promising candidate for future anticancer research.

  15. Primary clear cell ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas: A case report and clinicopathologic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashpal Modi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a very rare, interesting case of a carcinoma of the pancreas with predominantly abundant clear cell morphology. According to the WHO classification, primary clear cell carcinoma of the pancreas is classified as a rare "miscellaneous" carcinoma. The tumor was observed in the distal body and tail of the pancreas of a 74-year-old woman. The histopathology of tumor cells showed well-defined cell membranes, clear cytoplasm, and prominent cell boundaries. Immunohistochemical (IHC staining showed positive reactions to antibodies against vimentin, cytokeratin 7 (CK-7, mucicarmine (MUC-1, periodic acid-Schiff (PAS, periodic acid-Schiff with diastase (PASD, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, and Carbohydrate Antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9. On the other hand, IHC staining was negative for alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, cytokeratin 20 (CK-20, HMB45, chromogranin, and synaptophysin. The patient was subsequently diagnosed with a primary solid-type pancreatic clear cell carcinoma with hepatic metastasis. Herein, we report this rare case and include a review of the current literature of this tumor.

  16. Percutaneous Radiofrequency Ablation for Hepatic Malignancies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGZhijian; WUMengchao; 等

    2002-01-01

    Objective To study the therapeutic efficay of percutaneous radiofrequency ablation(PRFA)for hepatic malignancies and to definr its indications and its criteria of the curative effect.Methods In 100 patients with histologically of clinically confirmed hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC)or liver metastases we performed PRFA under ultrasound guidance using Le Veen multipolar array meedle electrode and RF 2000 generator.All patients were followed to identify complications and to assess treatment response.Results PRFA was performed in 76 patients with HCC and in 24 with liver metastases.The Alpha-fetoprotein(AFP)levles of the AFP positive HCC patients with inoperable small HCCs decreased to normal in 75.0%(21/28)and decreased markedly in 21.4%(6/28).Complete necrosis of small hepatic malignancies,documented by magnetic resonance imaging(MRI)was achieved in 85.9%(61/71).If the tumor shows iso-or hyper-intensity on Ti-weighted images,and relative hypointensity on T2-weighted images,and no enhanced intensity on dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging,it is considered completely coagulated.Conclusion PRFA is a novel local thermal palliative therapy for small hepatic malignancies that is minimally invasive,safe and effective.In patients with large lesions it can be combined with transarterial chemoembolization(TACE).Critera for curative treatment are normalization of serum AFP and /or MRI or CT scan findings showing complete necrosis.

  17. Maternal and fetal tyrosinemia type I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Segarra, N; Roche, S; Imbard, A; Benoist, J F; Grenèche, M O; Davit-Spraul, A; Ogier de Baulny, H

    2010-12-01

    A 22 year-old woman with tyrosinemia type I (HT1) married her first cousin who is heterozygous for the same FAH mutation for which the patient is homozygous. During her pregnancy she was treated with diet (prescribed tyrosine intake 300 mg/day), and nitisinone (60 mg/day). Median plasma tyrosine levels were 560 μmol/L (range: 375-838, n = 21) and nitisinone 51 μmol/L (range: 41-57, n = 3) during pregnancy. She gave birth to a clinically healthy girl affected with tyrosinemia type 1. Birth was normal (birth weight 2615 g) and the baby had normal liver function, normal plasma alpha-fetoprotein concentrations, low urinary excretion of phenolic acids and no detectable succinylacetone. At birth, the baby had hypertyrosinemia (860 μmol/L in blood cord) and nitisinone levels of 14 μmol/L. Following molecular confirmation of the diagnosis of HT1 specific treatment began on day 15 by which time she had detectable urinary succinylacetone. PMID:23250512

  18. Hepatocellular carcinoma after kidney transplantation: analysis of Hong Kong Renal Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Chi Yuen; Lam, Man Fai; Chow, Kai Ming; Lee, William; Cheng, Yuk Lun; Yuen, Sze Kit; Wong, Ping Nam; Mo, Ka Leung; Leung, Kay Tai; Wong, Sze Ho; Ho, Yiu Wing; Chau, Ka Foon

    2014-07-01

    Kidney transplant recipients have increased risk of cancers when compared with the general population. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is extremely important in Asia where hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is endemic. The aim is to study the epidemiological and clinical aspects of all de novo HCC in our kidney transplant recipients. Moreover, various preventive strategies which may help to optimize the outcome will also be discussed. A retrospective review of all patients who developed HCC after kidney transplantation between May 1972 and December 2011 in Hong Kong, based on the data from Hong Kong Renal Registry. After a follow-up period of 40,246 person-years, 20 patients (males 15: females 5) developed HCC. The annual incidence was 49.7/100,000 persons per year. Among them, 16 were HBV carriers, 2 were hepatitis C (HCV) carriers and 2 had HBV and HCV co-infection. Presence of HBV infection was associated with 78-fold higher risk for HCC development. Majority (85%) were asymptomatic when HCC was diagnosed by ultrasound or alpha-fetoprotein surveillance. All patients diagnosed by surveillance received active treatment while 2/3 of symptomatic patients could only receive symptomatic care and died rapidly. In conclusion, HBV infection is the major etiological factor for HCC development in kidney transplant recipients in HBV endemic areas. Regular HCC surveillance appeared to be able to detect early stage cancers which are amenable to treatment and offer the best hope of cure.

  19. Measurement of tumor volumes of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by computed tomography (CT). Correlation with several tumor markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoneshima, Manabu; Sawabu, Norio; Toya, Daishu

    1984-09-01

    Tumor volumes of HCC were measured by CT using planimeter and the clinical value of this measurement was evaluated by comparing several tumor markers. Tumor volumes measured by CT roughly agreed with those measured by angiography. In some cases, volumes from ultrasonography were smaller than those from CT and angiography. Tumor volumes measured by CT correlated significantly with the levels of ..cap alpha..-fetoprotein (AFP) but didn't relate to the presence of hepatoma specific ..gamma..-GTP isoenzyme (novel ..gamma..-GTP) nor to the values and positivities of LAI assay. In small HCCs (<=30 cm/sup 3/), the presence of novel ..gamma..-GTP and the levels of AFP were significantly lower than for larger tumors of HCC, but LAI assay wasn't lower. The non-tumorous volumes and the ratio of the non-tumorous volume to the whole liver volume didn't relate to the tests of liver function except for the presence of ascites.

  20. Rectal hepatoid carcinoma with liver metastases in a patient affected by ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giacomo Borgonovo; Francesco Razzetta; Michela Assalino; Emanuela Varaldo; Maria Puglisi; Paola Ceppa

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hepatoid tumors (HTs) are rare extra-hepatic neoplasms with the histological features, biochemical proifle and, sometimes, even clinical course of hepatocellular carcinoma. We present a case of rectal hepatoid adenocarcinoma with metachronous liver metastases. METHODS: Four months after total procto-colectomy for a rectal adenocarcinoma (Astler-Coller C2), a 42-year-old man with ulcerative colitis showed hypoechoic masses in the hepatic parenchyma by abdominal ultrasonography. Carcinoembryonic antigen was normal, but alpha-fetoprotein was 32 000 μg/L. Fine-needle biopsy revealed that liver masses were positive for hepatocellular carcinoma. The patient underwent left hepatectomy and alcoholisation of a small deep nodule in segment 8. RESULTS:  Immunohistochemistry and albumin mRNA in situ hybridization suggested that the nodules were metastases of a HT. The patient was well during the ifrst 6 months and refused any adjuvant chemotherapy. He died from liver failure 19 months after initial diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: HT is a rare colon cancer. The preoperative diagnosis of this tumor requires a high degree of suspicion, the availability of a panel of immunohistochemical markers, and a certain amount of luck. The prognosis is poor despite an aggressive and multimodal therapeutic strategy. So far, none of the hypotheses proposed about the origin and the biology of these tumors is convincing.

  1. Mini-Array of Multiple Tumor-Associated Antigens to Enhance Autoantibody Detection for Immunodiagnosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-Ying

    2009-01-01

    Liver cancer, especially hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), is particularly prevalent in Africa and Asia. HCC affects the Hispanic population of the United States at a rate double that of the white population. The majority of people with HCC will die within 1 year of its detection. This high case-fatality rate can in part be attributed to lack of diagnostic methods that allow early detection. How to establish a methodology to identify the high-risk individuals for HCC remains to be investigated. The multi-factorial and multi-step nature in the molecular pathogenesis of human cancers must be taken into account in both the design and interpretation of studies to identify markers which will be useful for early detection of cancer. Our recent studies demonstrated that a mini-array of multiple tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) might enhance autoantibody detection for diagnosis of HCC, especially for the alpha fetoprotein (AFP)-negative cases. It also suggested that different types of cancer might require different panels of TAAs to achieve the sensitivity and specificity required to make immunodiagnosis a feasible adjunct to tumor diagnosis. PMID:17289549

  2. Immature teratoma with microscopic yolk sac tumor: A case of diagnostic challenge on histology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonali R Saraf

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An adolescent girl with raised alpha-fetoprotein (AFP levels presented with a left-sided large solid ovarian mass. Microscopically, the tumor was composed of a variety of immature and mature tissues derived from the three germ layers having very sparse (single focus of immature neuroepithelium. Few areas also showed the presence of a reticular pattern of yolk sac tumor (YST. Hence, the tumor was diagnosed as immature teratoma with microscopic foci of yolk sac elements. After 6 months of cisplatin-based chemotherapy, she developed a recurrence which was composed of mature teratoma on histology. In this case, the single focus of immature neuroepithelium caused a difficulty in labeling this tumor as an immature teratoma which otherwise resembled a mature teratoma. The raised AFP levels suggested the presence of yolk sac element, the classical form of which was seen at microscopy in only a few areas. As compared to the markedly elevated serum AFP levels, the classical yolk sac tumorous area was very limited thus advocating the view that differentiated glands with subnuclear vacuoles similar to immature endoderm represent well-differentiated forms of YST.[1

  3. Tumor germinal no seminomatoso del mediastino con invasión pulmonar Mediastinal non seminomatous germ cell tumor with pulmonary compromise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucrecia Cúneo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Los tumores germinales extragonadales representan entre el 1 y 2.5% de los tumores de células germinales (TCG, siendo el mediastino la segunda localización en frecuencia luego de las gónadas. Se presenta el caso de un paciente masculino de 29 años de edad que consulta por tos irritativa de cinco meses de evolución. Se realizaron radiografía, tomografía computada (TC y resonancia magnética (RM de tórax y ecografía testicular. Los hallazgos por imágenes, sumados a la presencia de marcadores tumorales elevados (alfa-fetoproteína y gonadotrofina coriónica humana, confirmaron el diagnóstico de TCG extragonadal, avalado posteriormente por la cirugía y la anatomía patológica.The prevalence of extragonadal germ cell tumors is only 1- 2.5% of all germ cell tumors. The mediastinum is the second most common site affected. We present the case of a 29 years old male pacient, with a persistent cough dating back to five months. We performed chest X-R, thorax CT and MRI and testicular US. The findings of this images besides the presence of elevated levels of alpha-fetoprotein and beta-human gonadotropin confirm the diagnosis of extragonadal germ cell tumor.

  4. Malignancy markers in the cerebrospinal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskiniemi, M

    1988-10-01

    The specificity and sensitivity of malignancy marker determinations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are often insufficient. Even at the subclinical stage of the disease the marker should be present. The effect of therapy should be monitored and relapses noted. Thus high standards of methodology are required. There are many substances that may indicate a malignant process in the central nervous system. However, there are many pitfalls in their determination. Malignant cells may occur in CSF via processes involving leptomeningeal structures such as metastases and leukaemia, but primary brain tumours seldom show cells in CSF. Human chorionic gonadotrophin and alpha-fetoprotein determinations assist in the early detection of cerebral germ cell tumours and of relapses, even in the subclinical stage. Desmosterol may aid in the diagnosis of medulloblastomas and malignant gliomas and in monitoring therapy. Putrescine levels are elevated in CSF of patients with medulloblastoma and correlate with the clinical state, and serial analyses may reveal relapses. Fibronectin, when determined in CSF at the time of diagnosis, appears to be of great significance for the prognosis of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Ferritin and beta-2-microglobulin may help in some well-defined conditions. Brain-specific proteins and antibodies to them are non-specific markers whereas tumour-specific antigens and growth factors may be more significant. PMID:3058481

  5. Protein corona composition of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with various physico-chemical properties and coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakulkhu, Usawadee; Mahmoudi, Morteza; Maurizi, Lionel; Salaklang, Jatuporn; Hofmann, Heinrich

    2014-01-01

    Because of their biocompatibility and unique magnetic properties, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles NPs (SPIONs) are recognized as some of the most prominent agents for theranostic applications. Thus, understanding the interaction of SPIONs with biological systems is important for their safe design and efficient applications. In this study, SPIONs were coated with 2 different polymers: polyvinyl alcohol polymer (PVA) and dextran. The obtained NPs with different surface charges (positive, neutral, and negative) were used as a model study of the effect of surface charges and surface polymer materials on protein adsorption using a magnetic separator. We found that the PVA-coated SPIONs with negative and neutral surface charge adsorbed more serum proteins than the dextran-coated SPIONs, which resulted in higher blood circulation time for PVA-coated NPs than the dextran-coated ones. Highly abundant proteins such as serum albumin, serotransferrin, prothrombin, alpha-fetoprotein, and kininogen-1 were commonly found on both PVA- and dextran-coated SPIONs. By increasing the ionic strength, soft- and hard-corona proteins were observed on 3 types of PVA-SPIONs. However, the tightly bound proteins were observed only on negatively charged PVA-coated SPIONs after the strong protein elution. PMID:24846348

  6. Occult Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis Presenting with Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma, a Thickened Pituitary Stalk and Diabetes Insipidus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Etiologies of a thickened stalk include inflammatory, neoplastic, and idiopathic origins, and the underlying diagnosis may remain occult. We report a patient with a thickened pituitary stalk (TPS) and papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) whose diagnosis remained obscure until a skin lesion appeared. The patient presented with PTC, status postthyroidectomy, and I131 therapy. PTC molecular testing revealed BRAF mutant (V600E, GTC>GAG). She had a 5-year history of polyuria/polydipsia. Overnight dehydration study confirmed diabetes insipidus (DI). MRI revealed TPS with loss of the posterior pituitary bright spot. Evaluation showed hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and low IGF-1. Chest X-ray and ACE levels were normal. Radiographs to evaluate for extrapituitary sites of Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (LCH) were unremarkable. Germinoma studies were negative: normal serum and CSF beta-hCG, alpha-fetoprotein, and CEA. Three years later, the patient developed vulvar labial lesions followed by inguinal region skin lesions, biopsy of which revealed LCH. Reanalysis of thyroid pathology was consistent with concurrent LCH, PTC, and Hashimoto's thyroiditis within the thyroid. This case illustrates that one must be vigilant for extrapituitary manifestations of systemic diseases to diagnose the etiology of TPS. An activating mutation of the protooncogene BRAF is a potential unifying etiology of both PTC and LCH. PMID:27656301

  7. [A case of a nonseminomatous germ cell tumor responding to MEA therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Yasuharu; Minami, Takafumi; Itami, Yoshitaka; Kobayashi, Yasuyuki; Shimizu, Nobutaka; Yamamoto, Yutaka; Hayashi, Taiji; Nozawa, Masahiro; Yoshimura, Kazuhiro; Ishii, Tokumi; Uemura, Hirotugu

    2013-10-01

    We experienced a case of testicular cancer that was successfully treated by salvage chemotherapy comprised of methotrexate, actinomycin D and etoposide (MEA). A 25-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with a diagnosis of stage III B2 (JUA classification) testicular cancer. The patient had multiple lung metastases, and underwent a left orchiectomy. A histopathological examination revealed a choriocarcinoma, embryonal carcinoma, mature teratoma, and a yolk sac tumor. Tumor marker levels were elevated ; human chorionic gonadotropin β was 46 mIU/ml and alpha fetoprotein was 437 ng/ml. Although he was treated post-operatively with two courses of bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin therapy, four courses of high-dose carboplatin, etoposide and iphosphamide (VIP) therapy, and two courses of CPT-11+ cisplatin therapy, tumor maker levels remained elevated and lung metastases were stable. Accordingly, he received three courses of MEA therapy. MEA therapy is regimen used to treat gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. After MEA therapy, levels of the tumor markers normalized. He then underwent a partial resection of lung and enucleation of lung metastasis by the video assisted thoracoscopic surgery method. Histopathological examination of the lung metastasis revealed only necrotic tissue. Tumor recurrence has not been observed in the 14 months since the MEA therapy. PMID:24262714

  8. The preoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio predicts the outcomes of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and cirrhosis after hepatectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yunpeng Hua; Fei Ji; Shunjun Fu; Shunli Shen; Shaoqiang Li; Lijian Liang; Baogan Peng

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to investigate the prognostic value of the preoperative peripheral neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in patients with hepatocel ular cancer (HCC) and cirrhosis after hepa-tectomy. Methods This retrospective study included 321 patients with HCC who underwent resection. The NLR was calculated using the neutrophil and lymphocyte counts in routine preoperative blood tests. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to select the most appropriate NLR cutof value. The preoperative NLR, patient demographics, and clinical and pathological data, including disease-free survival (DFS) and overal survival (OS), were analyzed. Results The NLR was correlated with alpha-fetoprotein levels (χ2 = 5.876, P = 0.015), tumor size (χ2 = 32.046, P Conclusion As a simple, ef ective independent predictor for patients with HCC, the preoperative NLR plays an important role in accurately predicting the postoperative outcomes of patients with HCC and cir-rhosis, but not those of patients without cirrhosis.

  9. α-L-岩藻糖苷酶对原发性肝癌诊断价值的探讨%Study on the diagnostic value of α-L-fucosidase on primary hepatic carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵平; 王江滨; 张爱国; 王广

    2003-01-01

    探讨α-L-岩藻糖苷酶(alph-L-fucosidase AFU)对原发性肝癌的诊断价值.分别采用放免法和显色多肽基质法对93例原发性肝癌、45例恶性肿瘤、98例良性肝病、46名孕产妇及20例正常健康人的血清甲胎蛋白(alpha-fetoprotein AFP)水平和AFU活性进行联合检测.原发性肝癌组血清AFP水平及AFU活性明显高于其它各疾病组.AFU和AFP对原发性肝癌诊断的敏感性分别为76.3%和74.2%,在AFP阴性肝癌患者中AFU阳性率为75.0%.AFU、AFP两者联合检测诊断原发性肝癌的敏感性可提高到93.5%.

  10. 多项肿瘤标志物检测对原发性肝癌的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈俊平

    2012-01-01

      目的:探讨肿瘤标志物甲胎蛋白(alpha-fetoprotein,AFP)、癌胚抗原(CEA)、糖类抗原(CA199)、α-L-岩藻糖苷酶(alpha-L-fucosidase, AFU)联合检测在原发性肝癌(primary hepatocellular carcinoma,PHC)的诊断价值.方法:应用全自动生化分析仪法和酶法测定108例PHC患者、100例良性肝病患者、100例正常对照组血清AFP、CEA、CAl99、AFU的含量,并分析对PHC的诊断价值.结果:PHC组患者的血清AFP、CEA、CA199、AFU水平均高于其他两组,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);在PHC诊断中联合检测阳性率与单项检测比较,联合检测阳性率明显增高,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:血清AFP、CEA、CAl99、AFU联合检测可提高PHC诊断的敏感性,对PHC的早期诊断具有重要的临床价值.

  11. 肝细胞癌肿瘤标记物研究新进展%New advances in HCC-specific markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎涛; 蔡建强; 毕新宇

    2008-01-01

    Early diagnosis and correct treatment is essential to promote hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) prognosis. For the low sensitivity and specialty of alpha-fetoprotein(AFP) which is used widely in clin-ic, new HCC markers with higher sensitivity and specialty are urgent to be found. The detection of new mark-ers, such as AFP, AFP-L3, des-gamma carboxyprothrombin, α- L- fucosidase, interleukin 6, Golgi protein73 and some differential proteins may change the status in quo of early diagnosis and treatment of HCC.%肝细胞癌(HCC)早期明确诊断及正确治疗是改善预后的关键.目前检测HCC应用最广泛的甲胎蛋白其敏感性及特异性相对较低,因此迫切需要找到更高敏感性和特异性的HCC肿瘤标志物.甲胎蛋白和其异质体(AFP-L3)、异常凝血酶原(DCP)、白细胞介素-6(IL-6)、高尔基体蛋白73(GP-73)、L-岩藻糖苷酶(AFU)的联合检测以及某些差异性蛋白的发现,有希望使HCC得到早期诊断和改变治疗现状.

  12. Role of Percutaneous Microwave Ablation in Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

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    Ahmed Tharwat Sayed *, Sahar M El Fiky*,

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is one of the most common malignancies worldwide with an annual occurrence of one million new cases. An etiologic association between HBV infection and the development of HCC has been established. Hepatitis C virus is also proving an important predisposing factor for this malignancy, the use of minimally invasive Percutaneous ablative technique (e.g. Radiofrequency (RF and Microwave ablation (MW has gained great momentum and because of the drawbacks of RF ablation, several groups have successfully proved the efficacious nature of Microwave ablation in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. Aim of the Work: The aim of this work is to highlight the role, the principles and the applications of percutaneous Microwave Ablation in Hepatocellular carcinoma. Methods: The studied group included 30 patients (25 men and 5 women with hepatocellular carcinoma. All patients underwent microwave ablation for the hepatocellular carcinoma. Results: The results of the procedures will be assessed as regarding sizeand enhancement of the lesion (s on triphasic CT abdomen before the procedure and at the follow up at one month as well as the Alpha fetoprotein levels. Conclusion: MWA technique represents a safe, fast and efficacious way to perform hepatic ablation in patients with HCC. Initial results are encouraging; however, longer follow-up is needed for further classification of our results.

  13. Clinicopathological significance of loss of heterozygosity and microsatellite instability in hepatocellular carcinoma in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-Hui Zhang; Wen-Ming Cong; Zhi-Hong Xian; Meng-Chao Wu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To determine the features of microsatellite alterations and their association with clinicopathological characteristics of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and microsatellite instability (MSI) of 55 microsatellite loci were detected with PCR-based microsatellite polymorphism analyses in tumors and corresponding noncancerous liver tissues of 56 surgically resected HCCs using the MegaBACE 500 automatic DNA analysis system.RESULTS: LOH was found in 44 of 56 HCCs (78.6%) at one or several loci. Frequencies of LOH on 1p, 4q, 8p,16q, and 17p were 69.6% (39/56), 71.4% (40/56), 66.1% (37/56), 66.1% (37/56), and 64.3% (36/56), respectively. MSI was found in 18 of 56 HCCs (32.1%) at one or several loci. Ten of fifty-six (17.9%) HCCs had MSI-H. Serum HBV infection, alpha-fetoprotein concentration, tumor size, cirrhosis, histological grade, tumor capsule, as well as tumor intrahepatic metastasis, might be correlated with LOH on certain chromosome regions. CONCLUSION: Frequent microsatellite alterations exist in HCC. LOH, which represents a tumor suppressor gene pathway, plays a more important role in hepatocarcinogenesis. MSI, which represents a mismatch repair genepathway, is a rare event during liver carcinogenesis. Furthermore, LOH on certain chromosome regions may be correlated with clinicopathological characteristics in HCC.

  14. A sensitive photoelectrochemical biosensor for AFP detection based on ZnO inverse opal electrodes with signal amplification of CdS-QDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ru; Jiang, Yandong; Xia, Lei; Zhang, Tianxiang; Xu, Lin; Zhang, Shuang; Liu, Dali; Song, Hongwei

    2015-12-15

    In this work, ZnO inverse opals structure (IOs) based photoelectrochemical (PEC) electrode was fabricated for alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) detection. Then, the uniform CdS quantum dots (QDs) were hydrothermally synthesized, which allowed the binding of AFP and glucose oxidase (GOD) on CdS QDs, forming the AFP-CdS-GOD composite. The competitive immunosensor of AFP and the AFP-CdS-GOD composite with anti-AFP antibodies (Ab) immobilized on FTO (fluorine-doped tin oxide) /ZnO IOs electrode was successfully applied to the detection of AFP. GOD could catalyze glucose to produce hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) acting as an electron donor to scavenge photogenerated holes in the valence band of CdS QDs, reducing the recombination of electrons and holes of CdS QDs. Also the effective energy level matching between the conduction bands of CdS QDs and ZnO widened the range of light absorption, allowing for electron injection from excited CdS QDs to ZnO upon visible light irradiation, which enhanced the photocurrent. The results show that the immunosensor of AFP possesses a large linear detection range of 0.1-500 ng/ml with a detection limit of 0.01 ng/ml. It also exhibits excellent anti-interference property and acceptable stability. This work provides a promising method for achieving excellent photoelectrochemical biosensor detection of other proteins.

  15. Risk Assessment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Using Transient Elastography Vs. Liver Biopsy in Chronic Hepatitis B Patients Receiving Antiviral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yeon Seok; Kim, Mi Na; Kim, Seung Up; Kim, Sang Gyune; Um, Soon Ho; Han, Kwang-Hyub; Kim, Young Seok

    2016-03-01

    Liver stiffness (LS) assessed using transient elastography (TE) can assess the risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We evaluated whether TE, when compared with histological data as a reference standard, can predict the risk of HCC development in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients starting antiviral therapy.Observational cohort database of 381 patients with CHB who underwent liver biopsy (LB) and TE were reviewed. All patients underwent surveillance for HCC development using ultrasonography and alpha-fetoprotein.During the median follow-up period of 48.1 (interquartile range 30.3-69.3) months, HCC developed in 34 (8.9%) patients. In patients with HCC development, age, proportion of diabetes mellitus, histological fibrosis stage, and LS value were significantly higher than those in patients without (all P 13 kPa; log-rank test, P 0.05).TE predicted HCC development independently in patients with CHB starting antiviral therapy. However, further investigation is needed to determine whether the current surveillance strategy can be optimized based on the LS value at the time of starting antiviral therapy. PMID:27015173

  16. Clinical and pathologic factors associated with survival in young adult patients with fibrolamellar hepatocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fibrolamellar Carcinoma (FLC), a subtype of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), is a rare primary hepatic malignancy. Several aspects of the clinic features and epidemiology of FLC remain unclear because most of the literature on FLC consists of case reports and small cases series with limited information on factors that affect survival. We did a retrospective analysis of the clinical and histological characteristics of FLC. We also determined the rate of cellular proliferation in biopsies of these tumors. We assessed whether these variables were associated with survival. We found 15 patients with FLC out of 174 patients with HCC (8.6%). Between patients with these neoplasms, we found statistically significant survival, age at onset, level of alpha fetoprotein, and an earlier stage of the disease. The 1, 3 and 5 year survival in patients with FLC was of 66, 40 and 26% respectively. The factors associated with a higher survival in patients with FLC were age more than 23 years, feasibility of surgical resection, free surgical borders, absence of thrombosis or invasion to hepatic vessels and the absence of alterations in liver enzymes. The size of the tumor, gender, cellular proliferation and atypia did not affect the prognosis. We concluded that FLC patients diagnosed before 23 years of age have worse prognosis than those diagnosed after age 23. Other factors associated with worse prognosis in this study are: lack of surgical treatment, presence of positive surgical margins, vascular invasion, and altered hepatic enzymes

  17. Liver Full Reference Set Application: Hiro Yamada - Wako (2011) — EDRN Public Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wako has received new 510(k) clearance for Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive fraction of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP-L3) and Des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) tests on an innovative μTASWako i30 analyzer from FDA. The AFP-L3 and DCP assayed on an older platform LiBASys have been cleared with indication of use for risk assessment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patient at risk for the liver malignancy. Wako believes that early detection of HCC is critical for improving HCC patient outcome. Therefore, Wako is currently seeking collaborative opportunities to retrospectively measure clinical samples using the AFP-L3 and DCP for further determining of effectiveness of the HCC biomarkers in early detection which are collected prospectively during HCC surveillance. The Reference Sample Set in the EDRN biorepository are well characterized and studied. Access to these samples would allow Wako to quickly determine the clinical effectiveness of AFP-L3 and DCP in detecting early HCC

  18. Three dimensional culture of HepG2 liver cells on a rat decellularized liver matrix for pharmacological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Kamal H; Park, Kyung M; Ghim, Jinn H; Yang, Se R; Woo, Heung M

    2016-02-01

    Three-dimensional in vitro tumor models are needed to obtain more information about drug behavior in tumors. The aim of this study is to establish a new model for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using decellularized rat livers. After generating the rat liver scaffolds, HepG2 liver cancer cells were perfused via the portal vein and placed in a bioreactor for 10 days. Histology was performed to analyze cell distribution within the scaffolds. Function and tumor-related gene expression were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We evaluated the function of HepG2 cells grown on scaffolds in the presence of a well-known anti-cancer drug to investigate the potential application of our system for drug screening. The scaffolds were devoid of cellular materials and preserved extracellular matrix components. HepG2 cells grew well on the scaffolds. The PCR results showed that the cells maintained function and invasion ability at significantly higher levels than cells grown on two-dimensional (2-D) dishes or spheroids on Matrigel. Unlike the 2-D cultures, albumin secretion and alpha-fetoprotein expression in three-dimensional cultures were less susceptible to lower concentrations of the drug. Cells grown in scaffolds seemed to respond to the drug in an analogous manner to its known activity in vivo. These findings strengthen the potential use of rat liver scaffolds for screening HCC drugs.

  19. Novel electrochemical redox-active species: one-step synthesis of polyaniline derivative-Au/Pd and its application for multiplexed immunoassay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liyuan; Feng, Feng; Ma, Zhanfang

    2015-11-01

    Electrochemical redox-active species play crucial role in electrochemically multiplexed immunoassays. A one-pot method for synthesizing four kinds of new electrochemical redox-active species was reported using HAuCl4 and Na2PdCl4 as dual oxidating agents and aniline derivatives as monomers. The synthesized polyaniline derivative-Au/Pd composites, namely poly(N-methyl-o-benzenediamine)-Au/Pd, poly(N-phenyl-o-phenylenediamine)-Au/Pd, poly(N-phenyl-p-phenylenediamine)-Au/Pd and poly(3,3’,5,5’-tetramethylbenzidine)-Au/Pd, exhibited electrochemical redox activity at -0.65 V, -0.3 V, 0.12 V, and 0.5 V, respectively. Meanwhile, these composites showed high H2O2 electrocatalytic activity because of the presence of Au/Pd. The as-prepared composites were used as electrochemical immunoprobes in simultaneous detection of four tumor biomarkers (carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA199), carbohydrate antigen 72-4 (CA724), and alpha fetoprotein (AFP)). This immunoassay shed light on potential applications in simultaneous gastric cancer (related biomarkers: CEA, CA199, CA724) and liver cancer diagnosis (related biomarkers: CEA, CA199, AFP). The present strategy to the synthesize redox species could be easily extended to other polymers such as polypyrrole derivatives and polythiophene derivatives. This would be of great significance in the electrochemical detection of more analytes.

  20. Isolated eyeball metastasis of non-seminomatous germ cell testicular tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojanić Nebojša

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Testicular tumors most frequently metastasize to regional lymph nodes. Non-seminomatous tumor metastasis of testicle (NSGCTT to the eyeball is rare. Case report. We presented a 24-year old man, referred to the ophthalmologist due to acute pain and abrupt loss of sight in the left eye accompanied by its enlargement. Orbital and endocranial computerized tomography (CT was carried out, indicating the tumor in the left eye. His previous medical history provided the information that the right testicle was painlessly enlarged for 8 months. Ultrasonography showed a completely tumorously altered testis. Abdominal and chest CT failed to reveal any secondary deposits in visceral organs and lymph glands. Tumor markers (AFP - alpha-fetoproteins, beta hCG - human choronic gonadotropin beta were elevated. Right radical orchiactomy was performed (showed NSGCTT, followed by polychemotherapy with cisplatinum 100 mg/m2, etoposide 120 mg/m2, bleomycin 15 mg/m2 (PEB ´ 4, resulting in normalization of tumor marker values and significant regression of the left eyeball. Next, the left eye enucleation and ocular prosthesis implantation was carried out. Pathohistological evaluation indicated fibrosis and necrosis only. In a 5-year follow-up period, the patient was free of recurrence. Conclusion. Isolated hematogenous metastasis of the NSGCTT to the eye is rare. In our case, the left eye was the only metastatic localization. After chemotherapy and eye enucleation the patient was in a 4- year follow-up period free of the recurrence.

  1. Aggressive Recurrence of Primary Hepatic Epithelioid Haemangioendothelioma after Liver Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qusay A. Abdoh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available HEHE is a rare neoplasm of vascular origin that occurs in the liver; UNOS reported a favorable outcome after liver transplantation in 110 patients with 1-year and 5-year survival of 80% and 64%. Case Report. A 40-year-old lady presented with a three-month history of right upper abdominal pain with nausea, vomiting, and significant loss of weight associated with scleral icterus and progressive abdominal distension. Examination revealed jaundice, hepatomegaly, and ascites. Serum bilirubin was 26.5 mg/dL and ALP was 552 CT. Abdomen and pelvis showed diffuse infiltrative neoplastic process of the liver with a mass effect and stretching of the hepatic and portal veins, in addition to bile duct dilatation. Viral hepatitis markers were negative and serum alpha fetoprotein was within reference range. Liver biopsy was consistent with HEHE, with positive endothelial markers (CD31, CD34, and factor VIII-related antigen. She underwent living related liver transplantation on June 2013 and was discharged after 20 days with normal liver enzymes. Four months later, she presented with diffuse disease recurrence. Liver biopsy confirmed disease recurrence; she received supportive treatment and unfortunately she died 2 weeks later. Conclusion. HEHE can have rapid and aggressive recurrence after liver transplantation.

  2. The comparison of grey-scale ultrasonic and clinical features of hepatoblastoma and hepatocellular carcinoma in children: a retrospective study for ten years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Yan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatoblastoma (HBL and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC are respectively the first and the second most common pediatric malignant liver tumors. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the combined use of the ultrasound examination and the assessment of the patients' clinical features for differentiating HBL from HCC in children. Methods Thirty cases of the confirmed HBL and 12 cases of the confirmed HCC in children under the age of 15 years were enrolled into our study. They were divided into the HBL group and the HCC group according to the histological types of the tumors. The ultrasonic features and the clinical manifestations of the two groups were retrospectively analyzed, with an emphasis on the following parameters: onset age, gender (male/female ratio, positive epatitis-B-surface-antigen (HBV, alpha-fetoprotein increase, and echo features including septa, calcification and liquefaction within the tumors. Results Compared with the children with HCC, the children with HBL had a significantly younger onset age (8.2 years vs. 3.9 years, P Conclusion Ultrasonic features combined with clinical manifestations are valuable for differentiating HBL from HCC in children.

  3. Serum sphingolipidomic analyses reveal an upregulation of C16-ceramide and sphingosine-1-phosphate in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammatikos, Georgios; Schoell, Niklas; Ferreirós, Nerea; Bon, Dimitra; Herrmann, Eva; Farnik, Harald; Köberle, Verena; Piiper, Albrecht; Zeuzem, Stefan; Kronenberger, Bernd; Waidmann, Oliver; Pfeilschifter, Josef

    2016-04-01

    We have recently shown that major alterations of serum sphingolipid metabolites in chronic liver disease associate significantly with the stage of liver fibrosis in corresponding patients. In the current study we assessed via mass spectrometry serum concentrations of sphingolipid metabolites in a series of 122 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) compared to an age- and sex-matched series of 127 patients with cirrhosis. We observed a highly significant upregulation of long and very long chain ceramides (C16-C24) in the serum of patients with HCC as compared to patients with cirrhosis (P < 0.001). Accordingly, dihydro-ceramides, synthetic precursors of ceramides and notably sphingosine, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and sphinganine-1-phosphate (SA1P) were upregulated in patients with HCC (P < 0.001). Especially the diagnostic accuracy of C16-ceramide and S1P, assessed by receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis, showed a higher area under the curve (AUC) value as compared to alpha fetoprotein (AFP) (0.999 and 0.985 versus 0.823, P < 0.001 respectively). In conclusion, serum levels of sphingolipid metabolites show a significant upregulation in patients with HCC as compared to patients with cirrhosis. Particularly C16-ceramide and S1P may serve as novel diagnostic markers for the identification of HCC in patients with liver diseases. Our data justify further investigations on the role of sphingolipids in HCC. PMID:26933996

  4. Engineered measles virus Edmonston strain used as a novel oncolytic viral system against human hepatoblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hepatoblastoma (HB) is the most common primary, malignant pediatric liver tumor in children. The treatment results for affected children have markedly improved in recent decades. However, the prognosis for high-risk patients who have extrahepatic extensions, invasion of the large hepatic veins, distant metastases and very high alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) serum levels remains poor. There is an urgent need for the development of novel therapeutic approaches. An attenuated strain of measles virus, derived from the Edmonston vaccine lineage, was genetically engineered to produce carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). We investigated the antitumor potential of this novel viral agent against human HB both in vitro and in vivo. Infection of the Hep2G and HUH6 HB cell lines, at multiplicities of infection (MOIs) ranging from 0.01 to 1, resulted in a significant cytopathic effect consisting of extensive syncytia formation and massive cell death at 72–96 h after infection. Both of the HB lines overexpressed the measles virus receptor CD46 and supported robust viral replication, which correlated with CEA production. The efficacy of this approach in vivo was examined in murine Hep2G xenograft models. Flow cytometry assays indicated an apoptotic mechanism of cell death. Intratumoral administration of MV-CEA resulted in statistically significant delay of tumor growth and prolongation of survival. The engineered measles virus Edmonston strain MV-CEA has potent therapeutic efficacy against HB cell lines and xenografts. Trackable measles virus derivatives merit further exploration in HB treatment

  5. Rising plasma nociceptin level during development of HCC:A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrea Horvath; Aniko Folhoffer; Peter Laszlo Lakatos; Judit Halász; Gyorgy Illyés; Zsuzsa Schaff; Monika Beatrix Hantos; Kornelia Tekes; Ferenc Szalay

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Although liver cirrhosis is a predisposing factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), relatively few reports are available on HCC in primary biliary cirrhosis. High plasma nociceptin (N/OFQ) level has been shown in Wilson disease and in patients with acute and chronic pain.METHODS: We report a follow-up case of HCC, whichdeveloped in a patient with primary biliary cirrhosis. The tumor appeared 18 years after the diagnosis of PBC and led to death within two years. Alfa fetoprotein and serum nociceptin levels were monitored before and during the development of HCC.Nociceptin content was also measured in the tumor tissue.RESULTS: The importance and the curiosity of the presented case was the novel finding of the progressive elevation of plasma nociceptin level up to 17-fold (172 pg/mL) above the baseline (9.2±1.8 pg/mL), parallel with the elevation of alpha fetoprotein (from 13 ng/mL up to 3 480 ng/mL) during tumor development. Nociceptin content was more than 15-fold higher in the neoplastic tissue (0.16 pg/mg) than that in the tumorfree liver tissue samples (0.01 pg/mg) taken during the autopsy.CONCLUSION: Results are in concordance with our previousobservation that a very high plasma nociceptin level may be considered as an indicator for hepatocellular carcinoma.

  6. Evaluation of tumor markers for the detection of hepatocellular carcinoma in Yangon General Hospital, Myanmar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taketa K

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Levels of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, its glycoforms AFP-L3 and AFP-P4, and proteins induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II (PIVKA-II were determined in sera obtained from patients in Yangon General Hospital (20 with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, 29 with chronic liver diseases, including 3 with chronic hepatitis and 26 with cirrhosis of the liver, and 9 with other hepatobiliary diseases. Forty-five percent of the patients with HCC had serum AFP levels above 10,000 ng/ml, indicating that nearly half of the HCC patients were at an advanced stage of the disease. Thus, the AFP sensitivity was as high as 70% with 100% specificity for a cutoff level of 200 ng/ml. The sensitivity of AFP-L3 was 75% and a specificity 90% for a cutoff level of 15%. AFP-P4 showed a higher sensitivity of 80% and a similar specificity of 86% for a cutoff level of 12%. Combined evaluation of AFP-L3 and/or AFP-P4 increased the sensitivity to 90% with the same specificity of 86%, indicating that AFP-L3 and AFP-P4 are useful as adjuncts for diagnosis of HCC in the present population. PIVKA-II had a high sensitivity of 90%, although the specificity was lower than 45%, probably due to the low cutoff level, as some cholestatic patients were included in the control group.

  7. Clinicopathological risk factors for recurrence within one year after initial hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Michihiro; Shimizu, Tetsunosuke; Hirokawa, Fumitoshi; Inoue, Yoshihiro; Komeda, Koji; Asakuma, Mitsuhiro; Miyamoto, Yoshiharu; Takeshita, Atsushi; Shibayama, Yuro; Tanigawa, Nobuhiko

    2011-05-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) shows a high rate of recurrence after hepatectomy; predictive factors for early recurrence would help determine optimal therapeutic and management strategies. Among 163 patients with HCC undergoing hepatectomy with curative intent, 46 patients developed recurrence within 1 year. Clinicopathological data were retrospectively analyzed to identify predictive parameters for early recurrence. Survival rates in cases of recurrence within 1 year were worse than those of no recurrence within 1 year or recurrence after 1 year. Protein induced by vitamin K absence/antagonist II (PIVKA-II) greater than 150, positive fucosylated alpha-fetoprotein (L3-AFP), and deviancy from Milan criteria (MC) on preoperative imaging were associated with high risk of early recurrence and total number of these three risk factors predicted the survival. With multivariate analysis, (1) preoperatively, positive factors of two or more among three items of PIVKA-II, L3-AFP, and deviancy from MC; (2) and postoperatively, pathological cancer spread (microscopic vascular invasion and/or intrahepatic metastasis) both represented risks for early recurrence. A combination of three preoperative factors, PIVKA-II, L3-AFP, and MC status, in conjunction with the postoperative factor of cancer spread status represents a significant indicator for recurrence within 1 year. Improving the prognosis of patients with HCC would depend on how to adequately treat those at high risk of early recurrence.

  8. The prognosis in cases of hepatocellular carcinoma after hepatectomy: young patients versus older patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Soo; Lee, Seunghwan; Choi, Jin-Yong; Cho, Wontae; Choi, Gyu-Seoung; Park, Jae Berm; Kwon, Choon Hyuck David; Kim, Sung Joo; Joh, Jae-Won

    2015-01-01

    Backgrounds/Aims Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is uncommon in young adults and the prognosis of these patients is still unclear. In this retrospective study, we compared the clinicopathological characteristics and outcomes of young patients with HCC with those of older patients with HCC. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the clinicopathological characteristics of a total of 1,124 patients with HCC who underwent hepatectomy at our institution between 2006 and 2010. Patients ≤40 years of age at the time of HCC diagnosis were classified in the younger group. Results One hundred and three patients (9.2%) were classified in the younger group. whereas, 1021 patients were classified in the older group. The incidences of hepatitis B virus infection, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels, and indocyanine green retention test were all higher in younger patients than in older patients (pPIVKA-II) and alkaline phosphatase, portal vein tumor thrombosis, and intrahepatic metastasis were all predisposing factors for tumor recurrence after hepatectomy. Conclusions Although the AFP levels were higher in younger patients with HCC than in older patients with HCC, disease-free survival and overall survival after liver resection were not significantly different between the two groups. PMID:26693234

  9. Spontaneous Regression of Hepatocellular Carcinoma due to Disruption of the Feeding Artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiro Okano

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We present an unusual case of spontaneous regression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. A 77-year-old man with alcoholic liver cirrhosis presented with a 50-mm tumor in the Couinaud's segment 8 (S8 of the liver, a 15-mm tumor in the S8-7 and 10-mm tumors in the other segments (S4, S6. The tumors were diagnosed as HCC by typical imaging findings and elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, 1,825.0 ng/ml and protein induced by vitamin K absence II (PIVKA II, 3,043 mAU/ml. One month later, AFP and PIVKA II decreased to 51.1 ng/ml and 411 mAU/ml, respectively, and the 50-mm tumor in the S8 became small and completely necrotic on angiography and computed tomography arteriography without any treatment. On the other hand, the 15-mm tumor in the S8-7 decreased in size to 10 mm and received blood supply from the right posterior superior arteries (A7. The other 10-mm tumors remained. Ischemia of the tumors due to disruption of the feeding artery (A8 might have induced tumor regression in the present case.

  10. Solitary AFP- and PIVKA-II-producing hepatoid gastric cancer with giant lymph node metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iso, Yukihiro; Sawada, Tokihiko; Shimoda, Mitsugi; Rokkaku, Kyu; Ohkura, Yasuo; Kubota, Keiichi

    2005-01-01

    A 61-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of abdominal pain and an abdominal mass. The patient had anemia and elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) (9630ng/mL) and PIVKA-II (91mAU/mL) levels. Roentgenographic examination revealed an extra-gastric tumor in the upper abdomen, and gastroscopy revealed Bormann type 2 gastric cancer in the lower portion of the stomach. The preoperative diagnosis was synchronous gastric cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and surgery was performed. The extra-gastric tumor appeared to be an extra-hepatically growing HCC because the tumor was fed by vessels ramifying from the umbilical portion of the liver. Distal gastrectomy with resection of the extra-gastric tumor was performed, and histological examination of the resected specimen revealed that the gastric cancer was an AFP-producing hepatoid gastric adenocarcinoma and that the extra-gastric tumor was a lymph node metastasis. AFP-producing hepatoid gastric adenocarcinoma tends to metastasize to the regional lymph nodes and form a giant tumor. A giant tumor in the upper abdomen associated with gastric cancer may therefore be a clinical manifestation of AFP-producing hepatoid gastric adenocarcinoma.

  11. Protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II production is a strong predictive marker for extrahepatic metastases in early hepatocellular carcinoma: a prospective evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Jung-Hwan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinicians often experience extrahepatic metastases associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, even if no evidence of intrahepatic recurrence after treatment is observed. We investigated the pretreatment predictors of extrahepatic metastases in HCC patients. Methods Patients diagnosed with HCC without evidence of extrahepatic metastases were prospectively enrolled. We evaluated the correlation between extrahepatic metastases and pretreatment clinical variables, including serum tumor markers. Results A total of 354 patients were included. Seventy-six patients (21% had extrahepatic metastases during the observation period (median, 25.3 months; range, 0.6-51.3 months. Cox regression multivariate analysis showed that serum protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II (PIVKA-II production levels, the intrahepatic tumor stage, platelet count, and portal vein thrombosis were independent risk factors for extrahepatic metastases. Patients with a PIVKA-II production ≥ 300 mAU/mL had a 2.7-fold (95% confidence interval; 1.5-4.8; P Conclusion PIVKA-II production levels might be a good candidate predictive marker for extrahepatic HCC metastases, especially in patients with smaller and/or fewer tumors in the liver with in stages regardless of serum alpha-fetoprotein.

  12. Evaluation of serum PIVKA-II and MIF as diagnostic markers for HCV/HBV induced hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, Mahmoud M; Saad, Mohamed F; Mahmoud, Amal A; Edries, Awatief A; Abdel-Moneim, Ahmed S

    2014-12-01

    Viral hepatitis is the most significant predisposing factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Liver cancer grows silently with mild or no symptoms until the disease is advanced and with little hope of cure. Early recognition of the onset of HCC would help to select more effective therapies for patients leading to a better prognosis and life span. The current study aims to evaluate two diagnostic and prognostic markers - Prothrombin induced by vitamin K absence-II (PIVKA-II) and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in the serum of patients with HCC and those with a high risk of developing hepatic cancers. Serum samples from hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatitis C and normal subjects were subjected to quantitative determinations of different parameters including alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), PIVKA-II and MIF. Significant differences between the various groups were recorded. PIVKA-II and AFP showed a higher specificity and sensitivity compared to MIF, and there was considerable correlation between AFP and both PIVKA and MIF. It is concluded that analysis of PIVKA-II and AFP can serve as useful non-invasive markers for the early detection of HCC with good sensitivity and specificity.

  13. A novel c.5308_5311delGAGA mutation in Senataxin in a Cypriot family with an autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamba-Papanicolaou Eleni

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Senataxin (chromosome 9q34 was recently identified as the causative gene for an autosomal recessive form of Ataxia (ARCA, termed as Ataxia with Oculomotor Apraxia, type 2 (AOA2 and characterized by generalized incoordination, cerebellar atrophy, peripheral neuropathy, "oculomotor apraxia" and increased alpha-fetoprotein (AFP. Here, we report a novel Senataxin mutation in a Cypriot ARCA family. Methods We studied several Cypriot autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia (ARCA families for linkage to known ARCA gene loci. We linked one family (909 to the SETX locus on chromosome 9q34 and screened the proband for mutations by direct sequencing. Results Sequence analysis revealed a novel c.5308_5311delGAGA mutation in exon 11 of the SETX gene. The mutation has not been detected in 204 control chromosomes from the Cypriot population, the remaining Cypriot ARCA families and 37 Cypriot sporadic cerebellar ataxia patients. Conclusion We identified a novel SETX homozygous c.5308_5311delGAGA mutation that co-segregates with ARCA with cerebellar atrophy and raised AFP.

  14. [A case report of surgical treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma with a Hugely swollen lymph node that showed high FDG uptake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatano, Hisanori; Masuike, Yasunori; Noda, Takehiro; Tanida, Tsukasa; Oshima, Kazuteru; Komori, Takamichi; Imamura, Hiroshi; Morita, Shunji; Iwazawa, Takashi; Akagi, Kenzo; Yasumoto, Taku; Adachi, Shiro; Dono, Keizo

    2014-11-01

    A 74-year-old man with chronic hepatitis C was diagnosed with liver tumors. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) and ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (EOB-MRI) revealed hepatocellular carcinomas(HCC) in segments 8 (S8)and 5/8 (S5/8), and detected a lymph node (LN) swelling of 75 mm diameter in the posterior aspect of the pancreatic head. Fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) was positive for the swollen LN (SUVmax 12.3), but negative for the intrahepatic HCCs. The alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II (PIVKA-II) values were elevated, and soluble interleukin- 2 receptor levels were also increased (1,440 U/mL). Based on a diagnosis of HCCs with either LN metastasis, or with malignant lymphoma, partial hepatectomy (S8 and S5/8), lymphadenectomy (#13LN), and cholecystectomy were performed. Histopathological examination indicated well differentiated HCC in S5/8, and moderately to poorly differentiated HCC in S8, while poorly differentiated HCC was detected in the LN. Therefore, the final diagnosis was HCCs with metastasis to #13LN originating from the HCC in S8. At present, the patient is alive without further extrahepatic recurrence. The extent of FDG accumulation is related to the degree of differentiation of the HCC; furthermore, there are discrepancies between the FDG uptake in intrahepatic and extrahepatic lesions. PMID:25731447

  15. [A case of HCC with portal vein thrombosis treated with multidisciplinary treatment combined with preoperative SBRT and radical resection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marubashi, Shigeru; Gotoh, Kunihito; Akita, Hirofumi; Takahashi, Hidenori; Sugimura, Keijiro; Miyoshi, Norikatsu; Motoori, Masaaki; Kishi, Kentaro; Noura, Shingo; Ohue, Masayuki; Fujiwara, Yoshiyuki; Yano, Masahiko; Ishikawa, Osamu; Sakon, Masato

    2014-11-01

    A 70s man with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT) (Vp-HCC) in the main trunk (Vp4) was referred to our hospital. He was negative for hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV), and his liver function was well preserved. The main tumor was in the right lobe and exceeded 10 cm in diameter. There were no intrahepatic metastases to the left lobe. The patient underwent stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) (48 Gy/4 fractions) to the area of the PVTT. Six days after SBRT, the patient underwent right lobectomy for removal of PVTT. The postoperative course was uneventful, and low-dose 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin(FP)intra-arterial chemotherapy was administered for 3 months. Histopathological findings for the tumor indicated a poorly differentiated HCC, vp4, with moderate to severe tumor necrosis or degeneration in the area that received SBRT. Tumor markers (alpha-fetoprotein [AFP], proteins induced by vitamin K absence [PIVKA-II]) decreased within the normal range, and there was no apparent HCC recurrence 6 months after the hepatectomy. Multidisciplinary treatment combined with preoperative SBRT and radical resection for Vp-HCC was feasible and effective in this case. PMID:25731445

  16. Significant biomarkers for the management of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Yasuteru; Kimura, Osamu; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2015-06-01

    Surveillance of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is important for early detection. Imaging tests including computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography with or without various kinds of contrast medium are important options for detecting HCC. In addition to the imaging tests, various kinds of biomarkers including alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), lectin-bound AFP (AFP-L3) and protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist II (PIVKA-II) have been widely used to detect HCC and analyze treatment response. Recently, various kinds of novel biomarkers (proteins and miRNA) have been found to predict the malignancy potential of HCC and treatment response to specific therapies. Moreover, various combinations of well-established biomarkers and novel biomarkers have been tested to improve sensitivity and specificity. In practical terms, biomarkers that can be analyzed using peripheral blood samples might be more useful than immunohistochemical techniques. It has been reported that quantification of cytokines in peripheral blood and the analysis of peripheral immune subsets could be good biomarkers for managing HCC. Here, we describe the usefulness of and update well-established and novel biomarkers for the management of HCC. PMID:25855582

  17. Evaluation of serum PIVKA-II and MIF as diagnostic markers for HCV/HBV induced hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, Mahmoud M; Saad, Mohamed F; Mahmoud, Amal A; Edries, Awatief A; Abdel-Moneim, Ahmed S

    2014-12-01

    Viral hepatitis is the most significant predisposing factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Liver cancer grows silently with mild or no symptoms until the disease is advanced and with little hope of cure. Early recognition of the onset of HCC would help to select more effective therapies for patients leading to a better prognosis and life span. The current study aims to evaluate two diagnostic and prognostic markers - Prothrombin induced by vitamin K absence-II (PIVKA-II) and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in the serum of patients with HCC and those with a high risk of developing hepatic cancers. Serum samples from hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatitis C and normal subjects were subjected to quantitative determinations of different parameters including alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), PIVKA-II and MIF. Significant differences between the various groups were recorded. PIVKA-II and AFP showed a higher specificity and sensitivity compared to MIF, and there was considerable correlation between AFP and both PIVKA and MIF. It is concluded that analysis of PIVKA-II and AFP can serve as useful non-invasive markers for the early detection of HCC with good sensitivity and specificity. PMID:25448465

  18. The proteomic analysis of human neonatal umbilical cord serum by mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-juan SONG; Ping ZHANG; Xue-jiang GUO; Lian-ming LIAO; Zuo-min ZHOU; Jia-hao SHA; Yu-gui CUI; Hui JI; Jia-yin LIU

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the proteome composition and function of human neonatal arterial umbilical cord.Methods: Serum proteomic analyses were performed on samples from both males and females by using a combination of techniques: (1) removal of six high-abundance proteins, (2) tryptic digestion of low-abundance proteins, (3) separation of peptide mixtures by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), and (4) peptide identification using electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS).Results: A total of 837 non-redundant proteins were identified, with 213 male-specific and 239 female-specific proteins. Among them, 319 proteins were identified by at least 2 distinct peptides. The subcellular localization, function, and pathway involvement for each of the identified proteins were analyzed. A comparison of this neonatal proteome to that of adult serum proteome revealed novel bioma-rkers, such as alpha-fetoprotein and periostin that were specific to newborn infants.Conclusion: These data will contribute to a better understanding of the composition of umbilical cord serum and aid the discovery of novel biomarkers for the prenatal diagnosis of fetal abnormalities.

  19. The ultrasonographic diagnosis of fetal encephalocele at 13th gestational week

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šorak Marija

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Encephalocele presents a rare anomaly of central nervous system, developed as a consequence of neural tube closing defect during early embrional development, and it is described by a baggy formation which prolaborates through the pores of the scull, filled with brain tissue, cerebrospinal liquor and entwined with meninges. According to literature search, until this day, the earliest it can be ultrasonically detected is the 13th gestation week, with the appliance of three-dimensional ultrasound. Case report. We presented 25 years old patient, ultrasonically diagnosed with occipital fetal encephalocela at the 13th gestation week. A gestation sack was located in the right uteral corn of the two-corned uterus with one cervix. The diagnosis was confirmed also by trippled value of alpha-fetoprotein in maternal serum: 75,98 IU/mL. Conclusion. Ultrasonic examination is the method of choice for prenatal detection of a fetal anomaly. It is possible to diagnose encephalocele if it prominates above the limits of the scull.

  20. A clear cell adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder with hepatoid differentiation: case report and review of literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chengsheng; Zhang, Wei; Mu, Dianbin; Shi, Xuetao; Zhao, Lei

    2016-01-01

    An 80-year-old male was referred to our department for a gallbladder mass. He denied any history of alcohol consumption or cholecystitis and smoking. Hepatitis B surface antigen test and antihepatitis C antibody test were found to be negative. Serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) and carcinoembryonic antigen were elevated (CA19-9 was 59.92 U/mL and carcinoembryonic antigen was 12.64 ng/mL), whereas alpha-fetoprotein was below the normal limit (2.46 ng/mL). Computed tomography scan revealed a solid mass with measurements of 4.6×5.6×7.1 cm, which nearly filled the whole gallbladder space. Radical cholecystectomy, including segments IV B and V of the liver and lymphadenectomy, was performed. The neoplasm in gallbladder was completely resected, and the patient obtained a negative margin. Histological and immunohistochemical profile suggested a clear cell adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder with hepatoid differentiation. After reviewing the literature, we reported that this case is the first identified case of cell adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder with extensive hepatoid differentiation. However, clinical features of clear cell adenocarcinoma with hepatoid differentiation remain unclear due to the extremely rare incidence. There was no indication of adjuvant chemotherapy and no literature has been reported on the application of chemotherapy. This case showed a promising clinical outcome after curative resection, which indicated that surgical treatment could be potentially considered for suitable patients.

  1. Multiplexed electrochemical immunoassay of biomarkers using chitosan nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xia; Ma, Zhanfang

    2014-05-15

    In this work, a novel and sensitive multiplexed immunoassay protocol for simultaneous electrochemical determination of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) was designed using functionalized chitosan composites. The immunosensing platform was prepared via immobilizing capture anti-AFP and anti-CEA on chitosan-Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) through EDC/NHS linking. The signal tags were fabricated by immobilizing electroactive redox probes - Prussian blue (PB) and ferrocenecarboxylic acid (Fc) on chitosan (CHIT), following by absorbing AuNPs to immobilize labeled anti-AFP and anti-CEA, respectively. A sandwich-type immunoassay format was employed for the simultaneous detection of AFP and CEA. The assay was based on the electrochemical oxidation/reduction of the redox species in signal tags, which has a relationship with the concentration of analytes. Experimental results revealed that the multiplexed electrochemical immunoassay enabled the simultaneous monitoring of AFP and CEA with a wide range of 0.05-100 ng mL(-1) for both AFP and CEA. The detection limits (LOD) was 0.03 ng mL(-1) for AFP and 0.02 ng mL(-1) for CEA (S/N=3). The assay results of serum samples with the proposed method were in a good agreement with the reference values from standard ELISA method. And the negligible cross-reactivity between the two analytes makes it possesses potential promise in clinical diagnosis. PMID:24413402

  2. Electrochemical immunosensor for simultaneous detection of multiplex cancer biomarkers based on graphene nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xia; Jia, Xinle; Han, Jingman; Ma, Jie; Ma, Zhanfang

    2013-12-15

    In this work, a sandwich-format electrochemical immunosensor for simultaneous determination of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) was fabricated using biofunctional carboxyl graphene nanosheets (CGS) as immunosensing probes, which were fabricated by means of immobilization of toluidine blue (TB) and labeled anti-CEA (Ab2,1), Prussian blue (PB) and anti-AFP (Ab2,2) successively on CGS. The capture anti-CEA (Ab1,1) and anti-AFP (Ab1,2) were immobilized onto the chitosan-Au nanoparticles (CHIT-AuNPs) modified electrode through 1-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-3-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride and N-hydroxy succinimide (EDC/NHS). Experimental results revealed that this sandwich-type immunoassay enabled simultaneous detection of CEA and AFP with linear range of 0.5-60 ng mL(-1) for both analytes. The detection limit was 0.1 ng mL(-1) for CEA and 0.05 ng mL(-1) for AFP (S/N=3). The assay results of serum samples with the proposed method were in a good agreement with the reference values from the standard ELISA method. And the negligible cross-reactivity between the two analytes allows it to possess potential promise in clinical diagnosis. PMID:23891798

  3. Intrascrotal lipoblastoma: report of a case and the review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yada, Keigo; Ishibashi, Hiroki; Mori, Hiroki; Shimada, Mitsuo

    2016-12-01

    Intrascrotal lipoblastoma is a rare pediatric benign soft tissue neoplasm, and only 11 cases have been reported. The accurate preoperative diagnosis is difficult because of its rarelity and the similarity with the other soft tissue tumors. Among them, accurate preoperative diagnosis had been made in only one case. Thus, almost all of the cases had required inguinal mass excision (and orchidectomy in one case). In this paper, we discuss the accurate preoperative diagnosis of intrascrotal lipoblastoma and subsequent simple tumorectomy via minimal invasive scrotal skin incision, in 1-year-old boy. On physical examination, intrascrotal extra-testicular lobulated mass was palpated on the right scrotum. An ultrasonography revealed the well-circumscribed, iso-echoic, scant blood-flow, and lobulated tumors with each lobules of 1 to 4 cm in diameter, and the tumor located outside of the tunica vaginalis testis. The serum values of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (b-hCG) were within normal limit. The preoperative diagnosis of intrascrotal lipoblastoma was made, and the mass was excised via minimal scrotal incision. The right testicle and epididymis were normal. The lesion consisted of the distinct two lobulated tumors, and microscopic examination confirmed the diagnosis of intrascrotal lipoblastoma. The postoperative course was uneventful without evidence of recurrence. A rare intrascrotal lipoblastoma is seldom made accurate preoperative diagnosis; however, the accurate preoperative suspicion of this tumor leads to the minimal invasive tumorectomy via scrotal skin incision and favorable postoperative recovery without recurrence. PMID:27059472

  4. Predictive Factors of Downstaging of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Beyond the Milan Criteria Treated with Intra-arterial Therapies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bova, Valentina; Miraglia, Roberto, E-mail: rmiraglia@ismett.edu; Maruzzelli, Luigi [Mediterranean Institute for Transplantation and Advanced Specialized Therapies, (ISMETT), Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Italy); Vizzini, Giovanni Battista [Mediterranean Institute for Transplantation and Advanced Specialized Therapies, (ISMETT), Department of Hepatology (Italy); Luca, Angelo [Mediterranean Institute for Transplantation and Advanced Specialized Therapies, (ISMETT), Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Italy)

    2013-04-15

    This study was designed to analyze the clinical results in patients suitable for liver transplantation with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who exceeded Milan criteria, which underwent intra-arterial therapies (IAT), to determine predictive factors of successful downstaging. A total of 277 consecutive patients with cirrhosis and HCC were treated by IAT (transarterial oily chemoembolization, transarterial chemoembolization, transarterial embolization) in a single center. Eighty patients exceed the Milan criteria. Patients with infiltrative HCC, hypovascular HCC, and portal vein thrombosis were excluded, with a final study population of 48 patients. Tumor response to IAT was evaluated with CT and/or MRI according to modified RECIST criteria. Successful downstaging was defined as a reduction in the number and size of viable tumors to within the Milan criteria, and serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) <100 ng/mL, for at least 6 months. Nineteen patients (39 %) had their tumors successfully downstaged; 29 patients (61 %) did not. Multivariate analysis showed that AFP level <100 ng/mL and 3-year calculated survival probability using the Metroticket calculator were the only independent predictors of successful downstaging (p < 0.023 and p < 0.049 respectively). Biological characteristics of HCC as AFP levels <100 ng/mL and high 3-year calculated survival probability may predict a good response to downstage after IAT.

  5. Spontaneous regression of a large hepatocellular carcinoma: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alqutub, Adel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The prognosis of untreated advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is grim with a median survival of less than 6 months. Spontaneous regression of HCC has been defined as the disappearance of the hepatic lesions in the absence of any specific therapy. The spontaneous regression of a very large HCC is very rare and limited data is available in the English literature. We describe spontaneous regression of hepatocellular carcinoma in a 65-year-old male who presented to our clinic with vague abdominal pain and weight loss of two months duration. He was found to have multiple hepatic lesions with elevation of serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP level to 6,500 µg/L (normal <20 µg/L. Computed tomography revealed advanced HCC replacing almost 80% of the right hepatic lobe. Without any intervention the patient showed gradual improvement over a period of few months. Follow-up CT scan revealed disappearance of hepatic lesions with progressive decline of AFP levels to normal. Various mechanisms have been postulated to explain this rare phenomenon, but the exact mechanism remains a mystery.

  6. No association exists between E-cadherin gene polymorphism and tumor recurrence in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma after transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Dong Li; Shu-Sen Zheng; Li-Ming Wu; Hai-Yang Xie; Xiao Xu; Lin Zhou; Ting-Bo Liang; Wei-Lin Wang; Yan Shen; Min Zhang

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: E-cadherin is an epithelial cell adhesion molecule, and decreased E-cadherin expression in liver cancer is associated with poor prognosis. A -160 C→A polymorphism in the promoter region of E-cadherin has been reported to decrease gene transcription. This allelic variation may be a potential genetic marker for identifying those individuals at higher risk for invasive/metastatic disease. METHODS: The effect of E-cadherin gene polymorphism on risk of tumor recurrence was studied in 93 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after liver transplantation, and determined whether this polymorphism is a biomarker for the risk of tumor recurrence. RESULTS: The genotype frequencies in the patients with recurrence were C/C: 0.667, C/A: 0.311, and A/A:0.022, and in the patients without recurrence C/C:0.604, C/A: 0.271 and A/A: 0.125. No signiifcant difference was found between the two groups (P=0.171). Between -160 C→A polymorphism and the clinicopathological data, there were no statistically signiifcant differences in the distribution of the parameters as to age, gender, portal vein tumor thrombi, preoperative alpha-fetoprotein level, tumor size, or histopathological grading (P>0.05). CONCLUSION:The results of this study show no association exists between the E-cadherin genotype and the risk of tumor recurrence in Chinese patients with HCC.

  7. Inhibition of tumor growth and metastasis with antisense oligonucleotides(Cantide) targeting hTERT in an in situ human hepatocellular carcinoma model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ru-xian LIN; Chao-wei TUO; Qiu-jun L(u); Wei ZHANG; Sheng-qi WANG

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the in vivo antitumor effects of Cantide and the combined effect with 5-fluorouracil. Methods: An in situ human hepatocellular carcinoma model was established in mice livers orthotopically. Drugs were administered intravenously and tumor sizes were monitored with calipers. Plasma alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) were detected by radiation immunoassay. Morphology of tumors was evaluated by hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining of histological sections. Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) protein levels were detected by Western blotting. Results: Cantide significantly inhibit in situ human hepatocellular compared to the saline group in a dose-dependent manner, which included injectthe tumor in liver. Cantide was also found to prevent tumor recurrence in the liver and metastasis in the lung, showing a dose-dependent response. When Cantide was administered by iv combined with 5-fluorouracil, it resulted in a significant reduction in tumor growth compared to either agent alone treatment group. After the treatment with Cantide alone or combined with 5-fluorouracil, plasma AFP concentration decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion: These results demonstrated that Cantide was an effective antitumor antisense oligonucleotide in vivo and has the potential to be developed into a clinical anti-cancer drug.

  8. Sandwich-type electrochemical immunosensor for the detection of AFP based on Pd octahedral and APTES-M-CeO₂-GS as signal labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yicheng; Li, Yan; Li, Na; Zhang, Yong; Yan, Tao; Ma, Hongmin; Wei, Qin

    2016-05-15

    In the present work, an ultrasensitive sandwich-type electrochemical immunosensor based on a novel signal amplification strategy was designed for quantitative detection of alpha fetoprotein (AFP). Au nanoparticles with biocompatibility were electrodeposited on the surface of glassy carbon electrode (GCE) which can effectively capture and immobilize primary anti-AFP (Ab1) to significantly amplify the electrochemical signal. Graphene Oxide and CeO2 mesoporous nanocomposite functionalized by the 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane supported Pd octahedral nanoparticles (Pd/APTES-M-CeO2-GS) were utilized as labels of detection anti-AFP (Ab2). Pd octahedral nanoparticles presented good catalytic activity towards the reduction of H2O2. Due to the large specific surface area and good adsorption properties of APTES-CeO2-GS nanocomposite, large amount of Pd octahedral nanoparticles could be immobilized, which could amplify the electrochemical signal and improve the sensitivity of the immunosensor. Under optimal conditions, the immunosensor exhibited wide linear range from 0.1 pg/mL to 50 ng/mL with a low detection limit of 0.033 pg/mL (S/N=3) for AFP detection. In addition, high sensitivity, excellent selectivity, good reproducibility and stability were obtained for the immunosensor, which has a promising application for quantitative detection of other tumor markers in clinical diagnosis. PMID:26745795

  9. Intracranial Metastasis in a Patient with Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinobu Tawada

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A 76-year-old man was referred to our hospital with visual disturbance, weakness of the left upper and lower limbs, and gait disturbance. He had previously received transarterial chemoembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC 3 and 10 years ago. When he had received radiofrequency ablation for HCC recurrence 2 years ago, total gastrectomy was also performed for his gastric cancer. Subsequently, sorafenib had been administrated for concomitant lung metastatic tumors. On admission, MRI revealed an intra-axial tumor with perifocal edema. The level of carcinoembryonic antigen, but not alpha-fetoprotein, markedly increased. The tumor was successfully removed by craniotomy and pathological examination revealed that it was composed of adenocarcinoma, which was consistent with the primary gastric cancer. After surgery, his neurological disturbances rapidly resolved. Additional gamma-knife treatment was also performed for another small brain metastasis detected after craniotomy. Subsequently, sorafenib administration was discontinued and S-1 was administered postoperatively. Successful treatment of intracranial metastasis of gastric cancer is important and meaningful, even in patients with multiple primary malignancies.

  10. Significant biomarkers for the management of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Yasuteru; Kimura, Osamu; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2015-06-01

    Surveillance of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is important for early detection. Imaging tests including computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography with or without various kinds of contrast medium are important options for detecting HCC. In addition to the imaging tests, various kinds of biomarkers including alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), lectin-bound AFP (AFP-L3) and protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist II (PIVKA-II) have been widely used to detect HCC and analyze treatment response. Recently, various kinds of novel biomarkers (proteins and miRNA) have been found to predict the malignancy potential of HCC and treatment response to specific therapies. Moreover, various combinations of well-established biomarkers and novel biomarkers have been tested to improve sensitivity and specificity. In practical terms, biomarkers that can be analyzed using peripheral blood samples might be more useful than immunohistochemical techniques. It has been reported that quantification of cytokines in peripheral blood and the analysis of peripheral immune subsets could be good biomarkers for managing HCC. Here, we describe the usefulness of and update well-established and novel biomarkers for the management of HCC.

  11. Surgical resection of a solitary para-aortic lymph node metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junji Ueda; Hiroshi Yoshida; Yasuhiro Mamada; Nobuhiko Taniai; Sho Mineta; Masato Yoshioka; Youichi Kawano

    2012-01-01

    Lymph node (LN) metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are considered uncommon.We describe the surgical resection of a solitary para-aortic LN metastasis from HCC.A 65-year-old Japanese man with B-type liver cirrhosis was admitted for the evaluation of a liver tumor.He had already undergone radiofrequency ablation,transcatheter arterial chemoemboliza tion,and percutaneous ethanol injection therapy for HCC.Despite treatment,viable regions remained in segments 4 and 8.We performed a right paramedian sectionectomy with partial resection of the left paramedian section of the liver.Six months later,serum concentrations of alpha-fetoprotein (189 ng/mL) and PIVKA-2 (507 mAU/mL) increased.Enhanced computed tomography of the abdomen revealed a tumor (20 mm in diameter) on the right side of the abdominal aorta.Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography revealed an increased standard uptake value.There was no evidence of recurrence in other regions.Esophagogastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy revealed no malignant tumor in the gastrointestinal tract.Para-aortic LN metastasis from HCC was thus diagnosed.We performed lymphadenectomy.Histopathological examination revealed that the tumor was largely necrotic,with poorly differentiated HCC on its surface,which confirmed the suspected diagnosis.After 6 mo tumor marker levels were normal,with no evidence of recurrence.Our experience suggests that a solitary para-aortic LN metastasis from HCC can be treated surgically.

  12. Plasma abnormal prothrombin (PIVKA-II): a new and reliable marker for the detection of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takikawa, Y; Suzuki, K; Yamazaki, K; Goto, T; Madarame, T; Miura, Y; Yoshida, T; Kashiwabara, T; Sato, S

    1992-01-01

    We evaluated the clinical usefulness of a protein induced by vitamin K absence, antagonist-prothrombin (PIVKA-II), in detecting hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) specifically in patients with liver cirrhosis, and the possible correlation between levels of PIVKA-II and pathological features of HCC. Plasma levels of PIVKA-II and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) were measured in 628 patients with various diseases, including 253 with liver cirrhosis and 116 with HCC. PIVKA-II was detected (greater than or equal to 0.1 arbitrary unit/mL) in 54.3% of HCC and the concentration showed a positive correlation with the tumour size. As a screening test for the detection of HCC, PIVKA-II produced values comparable with those of AFP with a sensitivity, specificity and validity of 52.8, 98.8 and 51.6% respectively. Sixteen of 45 patients (37%) with HCC who had low AFP (less than 100 ng/mL) levels were positive for PIVKA-II. No apparent relationship, however, could be found between the levels of PIVKA-II and the aetiology or pathological findings of HCC. These results suggest that PIVKA-II can be a reliable marker for detecting HCC in patients with liver cirrhosis.

  13. Long-term outcome of chronic hepatitis C patients with sustained virological response to peginterferon plus ribavirin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    María Trapero-Marugán; Jorge Mendoza; María Chaparro; Leticia González-Moreno; José Andrés Moreno-Monteagudo

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To assess the clinical, biochemical and virological long-term outcome in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients with a sustained virological response (SVR) after peginterferon (PEG-IFN) plus ribavirin combination therapy. METHODS: One hundred and fifty three patients with a SVR after treatment with PEG-IFN plus ribavirin were included in a 5-year follow-up study in a single Spanish center, based on standard clinical practice. Clinical anamnesis, biochemical analysis, hepatitis C virus RNA and alpha-fetoprotein measurement, ultrasonography and transient elastography were performed annually. RESULTS: The mean follow-up period of the 153 patients was 76 ± 13 mo after they obtained a SVR. Five patients (3.26%) presented with cirrhosis before treatment and 116 (75.8%) had genotype 1. No patient showed evidence of hepatic decompensation. One patient (0.65%) developed a hepatocellular carcinoma at month 30 after achieving SVR. There were no virological relapses during this follow-up period. Persistently elevated alanine aminotransferase was found in only one patient (0.65%). At the end of the 5-year follow-up, the mean value of transient elastography was 7 ± 4.3 kPa (F1). There were no deaths and no other tumors. CONCLUSION: The long-term outcome of 153 CHC patients with SVR to PEG-IFN plus ribavirin was good. No evidence of a virological relapse was seen. One patient (0.65%) developed a hepatocellular carcinoma.

  14. Risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma may impair the performance of biomarkers: a comparison of AFP, DCP, and AFP-L3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, Michael L; Hernandez, Jose C; Su, Grace L; Lok, Anna S; Marrero, Jorge A

    2007-01-01

    Current surveillance strategies for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are applied uniformly in patients with cirrhosis, regardless of their cancer risk. The aim of this study was to compare the performance characteristics of the biomarkers alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), des-gamma carboxyprothrombin (DCP), and lectin-bound AFP (AFP-L3) in the diagnosis of HCC, and to determine the effect of risk factors for HCC on test performance. Eighty-four patients with HCC and 169 patients with cirrhosis were enrolled and their serum analyzed for total AFP, AFP-L3 and DCP. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed to determine the performance characteristics. DCP was significantly better than total AFP or AFP-L3 in differentiating HCC from cirrhosis, with a sensitivity of 86% and specificity of 93%. When subjects were divided into two groups by their risk for HCC, all 3 markers had a lower sensitivity and area under the ROC curve in the high-risk group compared to the low-risk group. In conclusion, DCP has the best performance characteristics of all 3 serum markers for the diagnosis of HCC. Serum biomarkers may be less sensitive and specific in the highest risk patients.

  15. Rapid Regression of Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma Associated with Elevation of Des-Gamma-Carboxy Prothrombin after Short-Term Treatment with Sorafenib – A Report of Two Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahide Nakazawa

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sorafenib is the first molecular-targeted agent that is effective for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, with prolongation of survival. However, a complete response is very rare, and rapid regression of HCC after short-term treatment with sorafenib has not been reported previously. Case Reports: We describe 2 patients with advanced multiple HCC who received sorafenib for short periods of 1 or 2 weeks, respectively. Longer treatment was precluded by the development of hepatic failure as an adverse event of sorafenib. Results: HCC rapidly regressed, and both patients had a partial response (PR, despite short-term treatment. Furthermore, an early elevation of des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (DCP was temporarily seen in both patients, with no elevation of alpha-fetoprotein. Conclusions: Sorafenib can induce rapid regression of advanced HCC even after short-term treatment, and the initial response of HCC was identical in both patients. Since early elevation of DCP was observed in our patients with PR, DCP might be a predictive biomarker of anti-tumor response. Further studies are required to clarify the mechanisms underlying the effectiveness of sorafenib, including the alteration of DCP.

  16. Reduced inflammation and improved airway expression using helper-dependent adenoviral vectors with a K18 promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toietta, Gabriele; Koehler, David R; Finegold, Milton J; Lee, Brendan; Hu, Jim; Beaudet, Arthur L

    2003-05-01

    Efforts have been made to deliver transgenes to the airway epithelia of laboratory animals and humans to develop gene therapy for cystic fibrosis. These investigations have been disappointing due to combinations of transient and low-level gene expression, acute toxicity, and inflammation. We have developed new helper-dependent adenoviral vectors to deliver an epithelial cell-specific keratin 18 expression cassette driving the beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) or human alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) reporter genes. Following intranasal administration to mice, we found that the reporter genes were widely expressed in airway epithelial and submucosal cells, and secreted human AFP was also detectable in serum. In contrast to a first-generation adenoviral vector, inflammation was negligible at doses providing efficient transduction, and expression lasted longer than typically reported-up to 28 days with beta-gal and up to 15 weeks with human AFP. These results suggest that delivery to the airway of helper-dependent adenoviral vectors utilizing a tissue-specific promoter could be a significant advance in the development of gene therapy for cystic fibrosis. PMID:12718908

  17. High-performance fluorescence-encoded magnetic microbeads as microfluidic protein chip supports for AFP detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiaoqun; Yan, Huan; Yang, Jiumin; Wu, Yudong; Zhang, Jian; Yao, Yingyi; Liu, Ping; Wang, Huiquan; Hu, Zhidong; Chang, Jin

    2016-10-01

    Fluorescence-encoded magnetic microbeads (FEMMs), with the fluorescence encoding ability of quantum dots (QDs) and magnetic enrichment and separation functions of Fe3O4 nanoparticles, have been widely used for multiple biomolecular detection as microfluidic protein chip supports. However, the preparation of FEMMs with long-term fluorescent encoding and immunodetection stability is still a challenge. In this work, we designed a novel high-temperature chemical swelling strategy. The QDs and Fe3O4 nanoparticles were effectively packaged into microbeads via the thermal motion of the polymer chains and the hydrophobic interaction between the nanoparticles and microbeads. The FEMMs obtained a highly uniform fluorescent property and long-term encoding and immunodetection stability and could be quickly magnetically separated and enriched. Then, the QD-encoded magnetic microbeads were applied to alpha fetoprotein (AFP) detection via sandwich immunoreaction. The properties of the encoded microspheres were characterized using a self-designed detecting apparatus, and the target molecular concentration in the sample was also quantified. The results suggested that the high-performance FEMMs have great potential in the field of biomolecular detection.

  18. Protective effect of diphenyl diselenide on acute liver damage induced by 2-nitropropane in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Lysandro P; Borges, Vanessa Corralo; Moro, Angelica Venturini; Nogueira, Cristina Wayne; Rocha, Joao Batista Teixeira; Zeni, Gilson

    2005-05-15

    The effect of diphenyl diselenide, (PhSe)2, administration on 2-nitropropane (2-NP)-induced hepatic damage was examined in male rats. Rats were pre-treated with a single dose of diphenyl diselenide (10, 50 or 100 micromol/kg). Afterward, they received only one dose of 2-NP (100 mg/kg body weight dissolved in olive oil). The parameters that indicate tissue damage such as plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), creatinine and urea were determined. Since toxicity induced by 2-NP is related to oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation was also evaluated. Diphenyl diselenide (100 micromol/kg) significantly reduced plasma ALT, gamma-GGT, AFP levels when compared to 2-NP group. Treatment with diphenyl diselenide, at all doses, effectively protects the increase of lipid peroxidation when compared to 2-NP group. Histological examination revealed that 2-NP treatment causes a moderate swelling and degenerative alterations on hepatocytes and diphenyl diselenide (100 micromol/kg) protects against these alterations. Diphenyl diselenide (50 and 100 micromol/kg) significantly decreased the urea level. This study evidences the protective effect of diphenyl diselenide by 2-NP-induced acute hepatic damage. PMID:15804453

  19. Genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation in hepatoblastoma tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ximao; Liu, Baihui; Zheng, Shan; Dong, Kuiran; Dong, Rui

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation has a crucial role in cancer biology. In the present study, a genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation in hepatoblastoma (HB) tissues was performed to verify differential methylation levels between HB and normal tissues. As alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) has a critical role in HB, AFP methylation levels were also detected using pyrosequencing. Normal and HB liver tissue samples (frozen tissue) were obtained from patients with HB. Genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation in these tissues was performed using an Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip, and the results were confirmed with reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip demonstrated distinctively less methylation in HB tissues than in non-tumor tissues. In addition, methylation enrichment was observed in positions near the transcription start site of AFP, which exhibited lower methylation levels in HB tissues than in non-tumor liver tissues. Lastly, a significant negative correlation was observed between AFP messenger RNA expression and DNA methylation percentage, using linear Pearson's R correlation coefficients. The present results demonstrate differential methylation levels between HB and normal tissues, and imply that aberrant methylation of AFP in HB could reflect HB development. Expansion of these findings could provide useful insight into HB biology.

  20. Extrahepatic intraductal ectopic hepatocellularcarcinoma:bileductifllingdefect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Moritz Schmelzle; Wolfram T. Knoefel; Claus F. Eisenberger; Hanno Matthaei; Nadja Lehwald; Andreas Raffel; Roy Y. Tustas; Natalia Pomjanski; Petra Reinecke; Marcus Schmitt; Jan Schulte am Esch

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obstructive jaundice caused by an intraductal hepatocellular carcinoma is a rare initial symptom. We report a rare case of an extrahepatic icteric type hepatocellular carcinoma. METHODS: A 75-year-old patient was admitted to our hospital because of obstructive jaundice 3 months after resection of multilocular hepatocellular carcinoma. A postoperative bile leakage was treated by placement of a decompressing stent in the common bile duct. Endoscopic retrograde choledochoscopy showed extended blood clots iflling the bile duct system and computed tomography revealed a local swelling in the common extrahepatic bile duct. The level of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) was only slightly elevated but that of CA19-9 was dramatically increased. Cholangiography showed an intraductal iflling defect typical of a cholangiocellular carcinoma. RESULTS: Bile duct brushing cytology showed no cholangiocellular carcinoma but hepatocellular carcinoma cells in the extrahepatic bile duct. An extrahepatic bile duct resection was performed. Histological examination conifrmed the diagnosis of extrahepatic intraductal growth of hepatocellular carcinoma. CONCLUSION: Ectopic hepatocellular carcinoma is a rare but important differentially diagnosed of extrahepatic bile duct iflling defect.

  1. Protein corona composition of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with various physico-chemical properties and coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakulkhu, Usawadee; Mahmoudi, Morteza; Maurizi, Lionel; Salaklang, Jatuporn; Hofmann, Heinrich

    2014-01-01

    Because of their biocompatibility and unique magnetic properties, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles NPs (SPIONs) are recognized as some of the most prominent agents for theranostic applications. Thus, understanding the interaction of SPIONs with biological systems is important for their safe design and efficient applications. In this study, SPIONs were coated with 2 different polymers: polyvinyl alcohol polymer (PVA) and dextran. The obtained NPs with different surface charges (positive, neutral, and negative) were used as a model study of the effect of surface charges and surface polymer materials on protein adsorption using a magnetic separator. We found that the PVA-coated SPIONs with negative and neutral surface charge adsorbed more serum proteins than the dextran-coated SPIONs, which resulted in higher blood circulation time for PVA-coated NPs than the dextran-coated ones. Highly abundant proteins such as serum albumin, serotransferrin, prothrombin, alpha-fetoprotein, and kininogen-1 were commonly found on both PVA- and dextran-coated SPIONs. By increasing the ionic strength, soft- and hard-corona proteins were observed on 3 types of PVA-SPIONs. However, the tightly bound proteins were observed only on negatively charged PVA-coated SPIONs after the strong protein elution.

  2. Tuning the EDTA-induced self-assembly and plasmonic spectral properties of gold nanorods: application in surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Self-assembly of cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide-protected colloidal gold nanorods with different aspect ratios has been studied by adding the ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA). Both the assembly strength and assembly configuration fashion of the gold nanorods could be tuned by changing the aspect ratio. For gold nanorods with small aspect ratio, side-by-side assembly takes the major role in the aggregation. In this case, the blue shift of the longitudinal absorption and the increase of the transverse absorption lead to the great uplift of the middle spectrum dip as the EDTA is increased. For gold nanorods with large aspect ratio, end-to-end assembly takes the major role in the aggregation. In this case, the longitudinal absorption peak fades down rapidly and a tailing absorption peak at longer wavelength uplifts greatly as the EDTA is increased. The surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity of the assembled gold nanorods has been studied using alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) as the Raman active probe. It has been found that both the side-by-side assembly and end-to-end assembly of the gold nanorods could effectively improve the Raman signal of the AFP. And the gold nanorod substrate with side-by-side assembly has higher SERS activity. Graphical Abstract: Side-by-side assembly of gold nanorods leads to the middle spectrum dip of LSPR uplift greatly as the EDTA is increased, which also effectively improves the SERS activity

  3. Lectin-based glycoproteomics to explore and analyze hepatocellular carcinoma-related glycoprotein markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhi; Zhou, Jian; Qiu, Shuang-Jian; Liu, Yin-Kun; Fan, Jia

    2009-09-01

    More and more new diagnostic biomarkers of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have been found in association with advances in the standardization of 2-DE coupled with MS analysis. However, the diagnosis of HCC is still detected in the late stages of the disease, when treatment options are limited and prognosis is poor. The glycosylation of proteins is known to change in tumor cells during the development of HCC as the result of alterations in the levels of glycosyltransferases, such as increased fucosylation of Golgi Protein 73 and alpha-fetoprotein. These structural changes can influence the function or physiochemical properties of a protein, resulting in abnormal cancer cell behavior. Therefore, identification of HCC-related glycoprotein markers and analysis of glycan structural alterations might assist in the early detection of HCC. Here, we summarize lectin-based glycoproteomic strategies for the discovery of relevant biomarkers of HCC. The carbohydrate-binding specificities of different lectins offer a biological affinity approach that complements existing MS capabilities. These strategies involve the enrichment of glycoproteins or glycopeptides by lectins, followed by releasing carbohydrates with peptide-N-glycosidase F or reductive beta-elimination. The obtained glycopeptides are then identified by automated MS/MS and structural analysis of glycans is performed through modern methods such as quadrupole IT-TOF, MALDI-TOF/TOF and lectin microarray. These strategies will lead to faster and more clinically adaptable tests with greater sensitivity and specificity.

  4. Summary, the 20th quality control survey for radioisotopes in vitro tests in Japan, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    For advancement of radioisotope in vitro tests such as radioimmunoassay and immunoradiometric assay, the Subcommittee for Radioisotope in vitro Test in Medical and Pharmaceutical Committee of Japan Radioisotope Association has conducted the yearly quality control survey for the test facilities in Japan since 1978. This is the summary of the 20th survey in 1998 where non-radioisotope tests like enzyme-immunoassay were involved as well. The survey was done for 143 facilities: 20 national and public university hospitals, 18 private university hospitals, 8 national hospitals, 13 public hospitals, 21 private hospitals, 41 hygienic laboratories and 22 manufacturers of reagents. Facilities examined intra- and between day-reproducibility, freeze-thaw effect and time change of the measured values on the same samples. Assays were for: growth hormone (h), somatomedin C, follicle stimulating h, luteinizing h, prolactin, thyroid stimulating h, triiodothyronines, thyroxines, thyroxine binding protein, calcitonin, insulin, C-peptide, glucagons, gastrin, testosterones, estradiol, progesterone, gonadotropin, 17{alpha}-hydroxyprogesterone, aldosterone, cortisol, dehydroepiandorosterone sulfate, renin, IgE, digoxin, {alpha}-fetoprotein, carcinoembryonic antigen, tissue polypeptide antigen, CA (125, 19-9 and 15-3), prostatic acid phosphatase, prostate specific antigen, {beta}2-microglobulin, ferritin, and neuron specific enolase. There was no great difference between this and last survey results although tendency of improvement was recognized. There were problems to be solved from the standpoint of clinical practice. (K.H.)

  5. Summary. The 19th quality control survey for radioisotope in vitro tests in Japan, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shishiba, Yoshimasa; Shimizu, Taeko [Toranomon Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Ichihara, Kiyoshi; Kousaka, Tadako; Kobayashi, Hisae; Tsushima, Toshio; Hoshino, Minoru; Mori, Mikio

    1998-11-01

    This summary concerns results of the survey in the title performed by the Subcommittee for Radioisotope in vitro Test in the Medical and Pharmaceutical Committee, Japan Radioisotope Association. The survey was conducted in 161 facilities in Japan including public and private hospitals, health institutes and reagent manufacturers. Samples were sent to the facilities and subjected to examinations of intra- and inter-day reproducibility, freeze-thawing effects and periodical changes of the measured values. Methods employed were RIA, IRMA, EIA, ELISA, LPIA, PAMIA, FIA, FPIA, NIA, LAT, CLIA and ECLIA. Results were analyzed by variation coefficients in the kit and between the kits. Samples were for: growth hormone, somatomedin C, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, prolactin, thyroid stimulating hormone, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, thyroxine binding globulin, calcitonin, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, gastrin, testosterone, estradiol, progesterone, {beta}human chorionic gonadotropin, 17{alpha}-hydroxyprogesterone, aldosterone, cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone, renin, immunogloblin E, digoxin, {alpha}-fetoprotein, carcinoembryonic antigen, tissue polypeptide antigen, CA125, CA19-9, CA15-3, prostatic acid phosphatase, prostate specific antigen, {beta}{sub 2}-microgloblin and ferritin. Results were found rather unsatistactory for some products in the clinical practice, necessary for improvement of detection for some tests and needed for some kits for solving the problems of difference between kits and of matrix effect. (K.H)

  6. A rare cause of acute abdomen: tumor rupture of nonpalpable testis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldız, Turan; İlçe, Zekeriya; Gündüz, Yasemin; Çakırsoy, Gözde Çakar

    2016-01-01

    Undescended testicle is the most common congenital anomaly among males. Testicular tumor develops in 3–5% of the boys with a complaint of undescended testicle. The clinical presentation of malignant intra-abdominal testicular tumors ranges from asymptomatic cases to acute abdomen. In this study, we present a child with testicular tumor rupture which is observed very rarely. A 16-year-old boy presented 24 hours after the sudden onset of right lower quadrant pain, nausea, vomiting and fever. On physical examination, extensive tenderness in the abdomen and abdominal guarding were found. The right testicle was not palpable. The serum white blood cell count was elevated. Ultrasonography and abdominal computerized tomography scan demonstrated a perforated, hyperdense mass with free fluid in the abdomen. The preoperative alpha fetoprotein level was found to be increased. We performed surgery with laparoscopy and a perforated right intraabdominal testicle was found in the right iliac fossa. The mass was excised. Histopathological examination revealed a yolk sac tumor. Ruptured nonpalpable testicular tumors are very rare. To our knowledge, this is the first adolescent case reported so far. Testicular tumor rupture should be considered in patients with nonpalpable testicle and acute abdomen. Laparoscopy may be performed in differential diagnosis and treatment of these patients.

  7. Recent Advances in Application of Biosensors in Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwarul Hasan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biosensors research is a fast growing field in which tens of thousands of papers have been published over the years, and the industry is now worth billions of dollars. The biosensor products have found their applications in numerous industries including food and beverages, agricultural, environmental, medical diagnostics, and pharmaceutical industries and many more. Even though numerous biosensors have been developed for detection of proteins, peptides, enzymes, and numerous other biomolecules for diverse applications, their applications in tissue engineering have remained limited. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in application of novel biosensors in cell culture and tissue engineering, for example, real-time detection of small molecules such as glucose, lactose, and H2O2 as well as serum proteins of large molecular size, such as albumin and alpha-fetoprotein, and inflammatory cytokines, such as IFN-g and TNF-α. In this review, we provide an overview of the recent advancements in biosensors for tissue engineering applications.

  8. Immunoregulatory effects of AFP domains on monocyte-derived dendritic cell function

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    Wibowo Gunawan A

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP is a tumor-associated glycoprotein that functions in regulation of both ontogenic and oncogenic growth. Recent study showed that AFP can induce apoptosis or impair monocyte-derived dendritic cell (MDDC function. However, it is still unclear which AFP domain (D-AFP plays major role in this function. Results As expected monocytes cultured in the presence of Granulocyte Macrophage-Colony Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF and Interleukin-4 (IL-4 developed into MDDC. Up-regulation of HLA-DR and CD11c as well as loss of CD14 molecules could be observed. Full length AFP (FL-AFP, domain 2 AFP (D2-AFP and D3-AFP, but not D1-AFP, significantly inhibited the expression of HLA-DRhigh/CD11chigh and CD80+/CD86high molecules. In contrast, CD83 expression was substantially down-regulated in all samples. Expression of CD40 was significantly suppressed by FL-AFP but not by any D-AFPs. Finally, both FL-AFP and D-AFP impaired the MDDC ability to secrete IL-12 (p70. Conclusions D2- and D3- but not D1-AFP extensively suppresses the MDDC function. All the recombinant AFP proteins impaired the ability of MDDC to secrete IL-12.

  9. Fetal liver hepatic progenitors are supportive stromal cells for hematopoietic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Song; Lodish, Harvey F

    2010-04-27

    Previously we showed that the ~2% of fetal liver cells reactive with an anti-CD3epsilon monoclonal antibody support ex vivo expansion of both fetal liver and bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs); these cells express two proteins important for HSC ex vivo expansion, IGF2, and angiopoietin-like 3. Here we show that these cells do not express any CD3 protein and are not T cells; rather, we purified these HSC-supportive stromal cells based on the surface phenotype of SCF(+)DLK(+). Competitive repopulating experiments show that SCF(+)DLK(+) cells support the maintenance of HSCs in ex vivo culture. These are the principal fetal liver cells that express not only angiopoietin-like 3 and IGF2, but also SCF and thrombopoietin, two other growth factors important for HSC expansion. They are also the principal fetal liver cells that express CXCL12, a factor required for HSC homing, and also alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), indicating that they are fetal hepatic stem or progenitor cells. Immunocytochemistry shows that >93% of the SCF(+) cells express DLK and Angptl3, and a portion of SCF(+) cells also expresses CXCL12. Thus SCF(+)DLK(+) cells are a highly homogenous population that express a complete set of factors for HSC expansion and are likely the primary stromal cells that support HSC expansion in the fetal liver.

  10. Post-treatment intracranial hemorrhage of brain metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma

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    Kim, Kyung Su; Kim, Kyu Bo; Chie, Eui Kyu; Kim, Yoon Jun; Yoon, Jung Hwan; Lee, Hyo Suk; Ha, Sung W. [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    To evaluate the incidence and risk factors of post-treatment intracranial hemorrhage of brain metastases from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Medical records of 81 patients who have been diagnosed of brain metastases from HCC and underwent surgery, radiosurgery and/or whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) between January 2000 and December 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Intracranial hemorrhage was present in 64 patients (79%) at the time of diagnosis. Median value of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) level was 1,700 ng/mL. The Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status for 20 patients was greater than 2. Fifty-seven patients underwent WBRT and the others were treated with surgery and/or radiosurgery without WBRT. During follow-up, 12 events of intracranial hemorrhage after treatment were identified. Three-month post-treatment hemorrhage rate was 16.1%. Multivariate analyses revealed that ECOG performance status, AFP, and WBRT were associated with post-treatment hemorrhage (p = 0.013, 0.013, and 0.003, respectively). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that 3-month post-treatment hemorrhage rate of new lesion was higher in patients treated without WBRT, although statistical significance was not reached. (18.6% vs. 4.6%; p = 0.104). Ten of 12 patients with post-treatment hemorrhage died with neurologic cause. WBRT should be considered to prevent post-treatment hemorrhage in the treatment of brain metastases from HCC.

  11. Chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay based on magnetic nanoparticles for detection of hepatoceUular carcinoma marker glypican-3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian-Yun Zhang; Hui Chen; Zhen Lin; Jin-Ming Lin

    2011-01-01

    Glypican-3 (GPC3) is reported as a great promising tumor marker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) diagnosis. Highly sensitive and accurate analysis of serum GPC3 (sGPC3), in combination with or instead of traditional HCC marker alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), is essential for early diagnosis of I-ICC. Biomaterial-functionalized magnetic particles have been utilized as solid supports with good biological compatibility for sensitive immunoassay. Here, the magnetic nanoparticles (MnPs) and magnetic microparticles (MmPs) with carboxyl groups were further modified with streptavidin, and applied for the development of chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA). After comparing between MnPs- and MmPs-based CLEIA, MnPs-based CLEIA was proved to be a better method with less assay time, greater sensitivity, better linearity and longer chemiluminescence platform. MnPs-based CLEIA was applied for detection of sGPC3 in normal liver, hepatocirrhosis, secondary liver cancer and HCC serum samples. The results indicated that sGPC3 was effective in diagnosis of HCC with high performance.

  12. Multiple Ectopic Hepatocellular Carcinomas Arising in the Abdominal Cavity

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    Toru Miyake

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is a very rare clinical entity that is defined as HCC arising from extrahepatic liver tissue. This report presents a case of ectopic multiple HCC arising in the abdominal cavity. A 42-year-old otherwise healthy male presented with liver dysfunction at a general health checkup. Both HCV antibody and hepatitis B surface antigen were negative. Laboratory examination showed elevations in serum alpha-fetoprotein and PIVKA-II. Ultrasonography and computed tomography revealed multiple nodular lesions in the abdominal cavity with ascites without a possible primary tumor. Exploratory laparoscopy was performed, which revealed bloody ascites and multiple brown nodular tumors measuring approximately 10 mm in size that were disseminated on the perineum and mesentery. A postoperative PET-CT scan was performed but it did not reveal any evidence of a tumor in the liver. The tumors resected from the peritoneum were diagnosed as HCC. The present case of HCC was thought to have possibly developed from ectopic liver on the peritoneum or mesentery.

  13. Liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma:is zero recurrence theoretically possible?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sabine Irtan; Louise Barbier; Claire Francoz; Federica Dondéro; François Durand; Jacques Belghiti

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurrence remains a key issue after liver transplantation. This study aimed to determine a subgroup of HCC patients within the Milan criteria who could achieve a theoretical goal of zero re-currence rates after liver transplantation. METHODS: Between 1999 and 2009, 179 patients who re-ceived liver transplantation for HCC within the Milan criteria were retrospectively included. Analysis of the factors associ-ated with HCC recurrence was performed to determine the subgroup of patients at the lowest risk of recurrence. RESULTS: Seventy-two percent of the patients received a bridging therapy, including 54 liver resections. Eleven (6.1%) patients recurred within a delay of 19±22 months and ulti-mately died. Factors associated with recurrence were serum alpha-fetoprotein level >400 ng/mL, satellite nodules, poor differentiation, microvascular invasion and cholangiocarci-noma component. Recurrence rates decreased from 6.1% to 3.1% in patients without any of these factors. CONCLUSIONS: Among HCC patients within the Milan cri-teria, selecting patients with factors based on histology would allow tending towards zero recurrence, and prior histological assessment by liver biopsy or resection may be essential to rule out poorly differentiated tumors, microvascular invasion, and cholangiocarcinoma component.

  14. Multiplex electrochemiluminescence immunoassay of two tumor markers using multicolor quantum dots as labels and graphene as conducting bridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhiyong; Hao, Tingting; Du, Shuping; Chen, Beibei; Wang, Zebo; Li, Xing; Wang, Sui

    2013-06-15

    A multiplex electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunoassay for simultaneous determination of two different tumor markers, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), using multicolor quantum dots as labels and graphene as conducting bridge was developed. Herein, a typical sandwich immune complex was constructed on the glass carbon electrode, with QDs525 and QDs625 labeled on secondary anti-AFP and anti-CEA antibodies, respectively, thus to obtain distinguishable ECL signals. Because most of those QDs labeled on secondary antibodies were beyond the space domain of the ECL reaction, graphene was used as a conducting bridge to promote the electron transfer between QDs and the electrode, leading to about 30-fold enhancement of the ECL intensity. Experimental results revealed that the multiplex electrochemiluminescence immunoassay enabled the simultaneous monitoring of AFP and CEA in a single run with a working range of 0.001-0.1 pg/mL. The detection limit (LOD) for both analytes at 0.4 fg/mL was very low. No obvious cross-reactivity was found. Precision, recovery and stability were satisfactory. This novel multiplex ECL immunoassay provided a simple, sensitive, specific and reliable alternative for the simultaneous detection of tumor markers in clinical laboratory. PMID:23399472

  15. Immunosuppressive activity of human amniotic fluid of normal and abnormal pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shohat, B; Faktor, J M

    1988-01-01

    Twenty specimens of amniotic fluid (AF) obtained between week 16 and 18 of gestation from normal pregnant women and six specimens from pregnant women in which trisomia of chromosome 21 was found were tested for immunosuppressive activity. Incubation of normal human donor lymphocytes with 0.2-1 mL of AF from normal pregnant women for one hour at 37 degrees C was sufficient for induction of significant inhibition of the ability of these cells to induce a local xenogeneic graft-versus-host reaction (GVHR) as well as inhibition of E and E-active rosette formation, the GVHR being the most sensitive test. On the other hand, amniotic fluid obtained from the six pregnant women in which trisomia of chromosome 21 was found showed no inhibitory activity in either the E or E-active rosette formation, nor in the local xenogeneic graft-versus-host reaction. AF from all the women tested was found to have no effect on phenotype expression of the lymphocytes, as tested by the monoclonal antibodies OKT4+ and OKT8+, nor on B-lymphocytes, as tested by surface immunoglobulins. No correlation was found between the alpha-fetoprotein levels in the sera of those women and the immunosuppressive activity. These findings indicate that genetic defects of the conceptus are not limited to the embryo but may affect the composition of immunosuppressive components present in normal amniotic fluid.

  16. A Meta-Analysis of Arsenic Trioxide Combined with Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization for Treatment of Primary Hepatic Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling He

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary hepatic carcinoma (PHC is one of the most common malignant tumours in the world. More and more research has shown that As2O3 combined with TACE has a good curative effect in treating PHC. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy and safety of As2O3 combined with TACE in treating PHC. The CNKI, VIP, Wanfang, PubMed, and Cochrane databases were searched from their inception until December 2015. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs comparing As2O3 combined with TACE versus TACE alone in treating PHC were identified. Stata SE 12.0 was used for data analysis. 17 RCTs with 1055 patients were included. Meta-analysis showed that, compared with TACE alone, As2O3 combined with TACE showed significant effects in improving the clinical efficacy rate (P<0.01, decreasing the value of alpha-fetoprotein (P<0.01, increasing the one-year survival rate (P<0.01, and improving the quality of life of PHC patients (P<0.01. Fifteen studies had mentioned adverse events, but no serious adverse effects were reported in any of the included trials. In conclusion, As2O3 combined with TACE therapy appears to be potentially effective in treating PHC and is generally safe. However, further studies with rigorous designs trials and multiregional cooperation trials are needed.

  17. A rare case of combined placental site trophoblastic tumour with mature cystic teratoma and mixed germ cell tumour in the testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leow, Wei Qiang; Loh, Hwai Liang Alwin; Lee, Lui Shiong; Goh, Chin Hong Ronald

    2015-08-01

    A 20-year-old male presented with persistent right testicular pain. Following ultrasound detection of testicular nodules and biopsy for intraoperative consultation which yielded germ cell tumour, he underwent radical orchidectomy. A predominantly whitish cyst and a lobulated, variegated nodule were identified. Histology showed a mature cystic teratoma with a focus of infiltrative epithelioid cells containing eosinophilic cytoplasm and pleomorphic nuclei, invading ectatic vessel wall associated with fibrinoid change. These cells were positive for cytokeratin, human placental lactogen and inhibin, while negative for Melan-A, p63 and alpha-fetoprotein, consistent with placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT). The variegated nodule was a mixed germ cell tumour composed of embryonal carcinoma and immature teratoma. Aside from choriocarcinoma, primary trophoblastic tumors such as PSTT, which are derived from intermediate trophoblasts, are extremely rare in the testis. Aside from a case of pure testicular PSTT, 2 other cases have been described in association with germ cell tumour, of which one is a mature teratoma with PSTT that demonstrated gain of chromosome 12p. The other presented with PSTT in retroperitoneal recurrence of a testicular mixed germ cell tumour. We discussed the features of this tumour in the testis and important differentials in its diagnosis.

  18. A Precocious Cerebellar Ataxia and Frequent Fever Episodes in a 16-Month-Old Infant Revealing Ataxia-Telangiectasia Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Nespoli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ataxia-telangiectasia (AT is the most frequent progressive cerebellar ataxia in infancy and childhood. Immunodeficiency which includes both cellular and humoral arms has variable severity. Since the clinical presentation is extremely variable, a high clinical suspicion will allow an early diagnosis. Serum alpha-fetoprotein is elevated in 80–85% of patients and therefore could be used as a screening tool. Here, we present a case of a 5-year-old female infant who was admitted to our department at the age of 16 months because of gait disorders and febrile episodes that had begun at 5 months after the cessation of breastfeeding. Serum alfa-fetoprotein level was elevated. Other investigations showed leukocytopenia with lymphopenia, reduced IgG2 and IgA levels, and low titers of specific postimmunization antibodies against tetanus toxoid and Haemophilus B polysaccharide. Peripheral lymphocytes subsets showed reduction of T cells with a marked predominance of T cells with a memory phenotype and a corresponding reduction of naïve T cells; NK cells were very increased (41% with normal activity. The characterization of the ATM gene mutations revealed 2 specific mutations (c.5692C > T/c.7630-2A > C compatible with AT diagnosis. It was concluded that AT syndrome should be considered in children with precocious signs of cerebellar ataxia and recurrent fever episodes.

  19. Phenotypic changes of human cells in human-rat liver during partial hepatectomy-induced regeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Sun; Dong Xiao; Hong-An Li; Jin-Fang Jiang; Qing Li; Ruo-Shuang Zhang; Xi-Gu Chen

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To examine the human hepatic parenchymal and stromal components in rat liver and the phenotypic changes of human cells in liver of human-rat chimera (HRC) generated by in utero transplantation of human cells during partial hepatectomy (PHx)-induced liver regeneration. METHODS: Human hepatic parenchymal and stromal components and phenotypic changes of human cells during liver regeneration were examined by flow cytometry, in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: ISH analysis demonstrated human Alupositive cells in hepatic parenchyma and stroma of recipient liver. Functional human hepatocytes generated in this model potentially constituted human hepatic functional units with the presence of donor-derived human endothelial and biliary duct cells in host liver. Alpha fetoprotein (AFP)+, CD34+ and CD45+ cells were observed in the chimeric liver on day 10 after PHxinduced liver regeneration and then disappeared in PHx group, but not in non-PHx group, suggesting that dynamic phenotypic changes of human cells expressing AFP, CD34 and CD45 cells may occur during the chimeric liver regeneration. Additionally, immunostaining for human proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) showed that the number of PCNA-positive cells in the chimeric liver of PHx group was markedly increased, as compared to that of control group, indicating that donor-derived human cells are actively proliferated during PHx-induced regeneration of HRC liver.

  20. Tuning the EDTA-induced self-assembly and plasmonic spectral properties of gold nanorods: application in surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jian-jun [Xi’an Jiaotong University, The Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering of Ministry of Education, Institute of Biomedical Analytical Technology and Instrumentation, School of Life Science and Technology (China); Zhang, Ning; Wang, Jingyuan [The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University, Department of Clinical Laboratory (China); Yang, Chun-yu; Zhu, Jian, E-mail: nanoptzj@163.com; Zhao, Jun-wu, E-mail: nanoptzhao@163.com [Xi’an Jiaotong University, The Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering of Ministry of Education, Institute of Biomedical Analytical Technology and Instrumentation, School of Life Science and Technology (China)

    2016-02-15

    Self-assembly of cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide-protected colloidal gold nanorods with different aspect ratios has been studied by adding the ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA). Both the assembly strength and assembly configuration fashion of the gold nanorods could be tuned by changing the aspect ratio. For gold nanorods with small aspect ratio, side-by-side assembly takes the major role in the aggregation. In this case, the blue shift of the longitudinal absorption and the increase of the transverse absorption lead to the great uplift of the middle spectrum dip as the EDTA is increased. For gold nanorods with large aspect ratio, end-to-end assembly takes the major role in the aggregation. In this case, the longitudinal absorption peak fades down rapidly and a tailing absorption peak at longer wavelength uplifts greatly as the EDTA is increased. The surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity of the assembled gold nanorods has been studied using alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) as the Raman active probe. It has been found that both the side-by-side assembly and end-to-end assembly of the gold nanorods could effectively improve the Raman signal of the AFP. And the gold nanorod substrate with side-by-side assembly has higher SERS activity. Graphical Abstract: Side-by-side assembly of gold nanorods leads to the middle spectrum dip of LSPR uplift greatly as the EDTA is increased, which also effectively improves the SERS activity.

  1. Triploidy in a fetus following amniocentesis referred for maternal serum screening test at second trimester

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    Bagherizadeh E

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Amniocentesis was carried out at 17 weeks gestation in a 27-year-old woman, following an abnormal maternal serum screening (MSS test. MSS test was carried out primarily to estimate the risk of trisomy for chromosome 21. The maternal serum markers used were alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG, and unconjugated estriol (uE3, together with maternal age. The fetus was identified as screen-positive for Edward′s syndrome (trisomy 18, with low uE3, normal AFP and hCG levels. The calculated risk for trisomy 18 was more than 1:50. To identify any possible chromosomal abnormality, cytogenetic investigation was carried out on the amniotic fluid sample. The fetus′s karyotype showed triploidy with 69, XXX chromosome complement in all the metaphase spreads obtained from three different cultures, using GTG banding technique. Upon termination of the fetus, gross abnormalities indicative of triploidy were present in the fetus.

  2. The Singapore Liver Cancer Recurrence (SLICER Score for relapse prediction in patients with surgically resected hepatocellular carcinoma.

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    Soo Fan Ang

    Full Text Available Surgery is the primary curative option in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Current prognostic models for HCC are developed on datasets of primarily patients with advanced cancer, and may be less relevant to resectable HCC. We developed a postoperative nomogram, the Singapore Liver Cancer Recurrence (SLICER Score, to predict outcomes of HCC patients who have undergone surgical resection.Records for 544 consecutive patients undergoing first-line curative surgery for HCC in one institution from 1992-2007 were reviewed, with 405 local patients selected for analysis. Freedom from relapse (FFR was the primary outcome measure. An outcome-blinded modeling strategy including clustering, data reduction and transformation was used. We compared the performance of SLICER in estimating FFR with other HCC prognostic models using concordance-indices and likelihood analysis.A nomogram predicting FFR was developed, incorporating non-neoplastic liver cirrhosis, multifocality, preoperative alpha-fetoprotein level, Child-Pugh score, vascular invasion, tumor size, surgical margin and symptoms at presentation. Our nomogram outperformed other HCC prognostic models in predicting FFR by means of log-likelihood ratio statistics with good calibration demonstrated at 3 and 5 years post-resection and a concordance index of 0.69. Using decision curve analysis, SLICER also demonstrated superior net benefit at higher threshold probabilities.The SLICER score enables well-calibrated individualized predictions of relapse following curative HCC resection, and may represent a novel tool for biomarker research and individual counseling.

  3. Screening and optimizing the lung cancer related tumor markers from multi-tumor marker protein chip%肿瘤标志物蛋白芯片中肺癌相关指标的筛选优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵顺林; 胡卫东; 徐闻博; 刘越; 吴洲清

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To screen and optimize the lung cancer related tumor markers from multi-tumor marker protein chip. Methods: With the multi-tumor marker protein chip,the sera of 311 patients with lung cancer were detected for multi-tumor markers including carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA),alpha fetoprotein(AFP),carbohydrate antigen 199(CA199),cancer antigen 153(CA153),cancer antigen 125(CA125),prostate specific antigen(PSA),free-PSA,and ferritin. Lung cancer related parameters were analyzed by Kappa test and cost-effectiveness analysis. Results:There were four kinds of tumor markers which were apparently increased in the serum among the 311 lung cancer patients;CEA(41.5%) ,CA153(15.2%) ,CA199(20.9%),and CA125(37.0%). Five tumor marker combinations were found to be strongly consistent with the results of multi -tumor marker protein chip by Kappa test,and the combination of CEA with CA125 was proved to be the best by cost-effectiveness analysis. Conclusion:The combined detection of sera CEA and CA125 is helpful to diagnose lung cancer, which is consistent with the positive rate of diagnosis by using multi-tumor marker protein chip and the two combination test can cut down the cost of diagnosis of lung cancer.%目的:分析多种肿瘤标志物(Tumor marker,TM)与肺癌的相关性,筛选相关指标,为建立检测肺癌的小型蛋白芯片提供依据.方法:使用TM蛋白芯片系统,检测311例肺癌患者血清中多种TM:癌抗原125(Cancer antigen 125,CA125)、癌抗原153(Cancer antigen 153,CA153)、糖链抗原199 (Carbohydrate antigen,CA199)、癌胚抗原(Carcinoembryonic antigen,CEA)、甲胎蛋白(Alpha fetoprotein,AFP)、铁蛋白(Ferritin,FER)、游离型前列腺特异性抗原(Free prostate specific antigen,free-PSA)及前列腺特异性抗原(Prostate specific antigen,PSA)的水平.筛选出肺癌中阳性率高的的指标,采用Kappa检验比较其与TM蛋白芯片系统检测结果的一致性,寻找最佳联检组合.结果:311例肺癌

  4. Diagnosis value of combined detection of AFP,AFP-L3,DKK1 in primary hepatic carcinoma%AFP、AFP-L3、DKK1联合检测对原发性肝癌的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薄维波; 秦继宝

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the clinical significance of the single detection or the combination detection of 3 kinds of tumor marker alpha-fetoprotein(AFP),alpha-fetoprotein-L3(AFP-L3)and DKK1 for the diagnosis of primary hepatic carcinoma(PHC). Methods AFP,AFP-L3 and DKK1 in the PHC group,benign hepatic diseases group and control group were detected by adopting the ECLIA,affinity adsorption chromatography and ELISA methods respectively.The ratio of AFP-L3 in AFP was calculated.Re-sults In the single detection,the sensitivity of AFP,AFP-L3 and DKK1 was 60.9%,76.8% and 69.6% respectively and the speci-ficity was 88.7%,91.5% and 95.8% respectively.In the combination detection,the sensitivity and specificity were 91.3% and 87.3% respectively,the differences between the single detection and the combination detection had statistical significance (P <0. 05).Conclusion The combined examination of serum AFP,AFP-L3 and DKK1 can elevate the sensitivity and specificity,which is much better and more accurate for diagnosing PHC than most of traditional combination detection at present.%目的:分析3种肿瘤标志物甲胎蛋白(AFP)、甲胎蛋白异质体(AFP-L3)、分泌型蛋白Dickkopf-1(DKK1)单独或联合检测原发性肝癌(PHC)的临床意义。方法采用电化学发光法检测 PHC 组、良性肝病组和健康对照组血清 AFP 水平;采用亲和吸附层析法检测 AFP-L3水平,计算 AFP-L3在 AFP 中比例;采用 ELISA 试剂盒检测血清标本中 DKK1水平。结果单独检测 PHC 患者的3种肿瘤标志物,AFP、AFP-L3、DKK1灵敏度分别为60.9%、76.8%、69.6%,特异度分别为88.7%、91.5%、95.8%。3项指标联合检测的灵敏度是91.3%,特异度是87.3%,与单项指标检测相比差异有统计学意义(P <0.05)。结论AFP 、AFP-L3、DKK1的联合检测能提高 PHC 血清学检测的灵敏度和特异度,在 PHC 诊断方面比目前大多数传统的组合方法更准确。

  5. Contribuição da quimioembolização de hepatocarcinomas em pacientes cirróticos na espera pelo transplante hepático Contribution of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization of hepatocellular carcinomas in cirrhotic patients awaiting liver transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Francisco Langer

    2005-02-01

    using mitomycin C and lipiodol. A prospective evaluation of the following factors was performed: a serum levels of alpha-fetoprotein; b tumor size; c maintenance of the viability criteria for hepatic transplantation; d degree of liver dysfunction. RESULTS: The mean serum levels of alpha-fetoprotein were reduced by 43% during the first 13 months. The mean tumor size, as measured by the long axis, after a mean follow-up period of 13.5 months was 3.2 cm, which is considered stable for the period according to the World Health Organization criteria. The mean survival rate was 14 months. CONCLUSION: In this trial, pre-transplantation use of chemoembolization in combination with an adequately chosen therapy showed few complications and contra-indications as well as a considerable anti-tumor efficacy. Despite the fact that the adopted therapy increased survival rates in comparison to historical evolution data in hepatocellular carcinoma, this increase had not the same dimension if the median waiting time for transplantation is taken into consideration. Therefore, other strategies need to be associated to either make survival rate longer or to reduce transplantation waiting time.

  6. Clinical significance of vascular endothelial growth factor in hepatitis C related hepatocellular carcinoma in Egyptian patients

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    Atta MM

    2016-06-01

    parameters were also investigated. Results: Plasma VEGF levels in the HCC group were significantly higher than those of the non-HCC group, and both groups had significantly higher plasma VEGF levels than did the control group. Liver tissue VEGF expression was significantly higher in the HCC group than in the non-HCC group and positively correlated with plasma VEGF in the HCC group. The plasma VEGF levels were positively correlated with patients' age, aspartate aminotransferase levels, serum alpha-fetoprotein levels, the presence of portal vein thrombosis, and the number of hepatic focal lesions in the HCC group. However, plasma VEGF levels were not significantly correlated with the Child-Pugh score, alanine aminotransferase levels, the size of focal lesions, and Okuda stage. Using both the VEGF and alpha-fetoprotein levels to detect HCC maximizes the sensitivity and specificity. Conclusion: Plasma levels of VEGF may be a useful diagnostic and prognostic marker for HCC in patients who have been diagnosed with CHC. Keywords: VEGF, hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatitis C virus 

  7. Early Pregnancy Eugenic Screening Intervention of Birth Defects%孕期优生筛查对出生缺陷干预效果的影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹文霓; 王丽娟; 张盈; 吴玉璘

    2012-01-01

      Objective To investigate the maternal serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A, alpha-fetoprotein, beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin. Combination of B-ultrasound, amniotic fluid detection means for screening and diagnosis of Jiangsu province in an area of target diseases Down's syndrome, neural tube defects. Methods This screening using time-resolved fluorescence method for the determination of PAPPA the pregnant women, serum, AFP,β-HCG level, combined with a variety of related factors, risk assessment. Results 1807 cases of second trimester pregnant women receiving prenatal screening were screened in pregnancy high-risk 21-trisomy 18-body, neural tube defects in 110 cases, the positive rate of 6.09%; and screening of high risk pregnant women the positive rate increased with increasing maternal age. 110 cases of screening-positive pregnant women, 84 cases of pregnant women receiving amniotic fluid chromosome, check out chromosomal abnormalities in two cases, 21 of them-three-body one cases;18-one cases of trisomy;B ultrasound trance administered defect in one case (one cases of spina bifida), hydrocephalus one case, two cases of congenital heart disease. Underwent induction of labor, labor induction rate of 100%. Conclusion Take the detection of maternal serum pregnancy-related protein, alpha-fetoprotein, beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin level, combined with B ultrasound, amniotic fluid detection means screening for Down syndrome, neural tube defects, birth defects, to reduce its birth rate is important.%  目的 探讨检测孕妇血清中妊娠相关蛋白A(PAPPA)、甲胎蛋白(AFP)、绒毛膜促性腺激素(β-HCG)水平,结合B超检查、羊水检测等手段,对江苏省苏北某地区目标疾病唐氏综合征、神经管缺陷进行筛查

  8. Diagnostic application and comparative analysis of serum Neuropeptide Y and Osteopontin in hepatocellular carcinoma%血清神经肽Y和骨桥蛋白在肝细胞肝癌诊断中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕秀芳; 赵奉波; 巩秀; 孙长江

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨神经肽Y(Neuropeptide Y,NPY)和骨桥蛋白(Osteopontin,OPN)在肝细胞肝癌(hepatocellular carcinoma,HCC)诊断中潜在的应用价值.方法:收集各类受试者血清,其中慢性乙型肝炎(chronic hepatitis B,CHB)65例、肝硬化(liver cirrhosis,LC)74例、HCC患者53例、健康志愿者68例作为正常对照(health control,HC).以酶联免疫法检测受试者血清中NPY、OPN和α-甲胎蛋白(alpha-fetoprotein,AFP)含量,分析NPY、OPN在HCC诊断中的应用价值并与AFP进行比较.结果:HCC患者血清NPY显著高于HC组、CHB组及LC组(F=59.63,P<0.0001);HCC患者血清OPN显著高于HC组、CHB组及LC组(F=36.00,P<0.0001);与HC组相比,受试者工作曲线(ROC)下面积分别为NPY=0.924±0.025,OPN=0.864±0.036;NPY对HCC诊断灵敏度和特异度分别为79.28%、98.53%;OPN对HCC诊断灵敏度和特异度分别为83.02%、82.35%,与AFP相比,NPY特异性最强,OPN灵敏度最高.结论:血清NPY和OPN是潜在的HCC诊断标志物,与AFP联合诊断对HCC的诊断价值更高.%Objective:To explore the diagnostic value of Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and Osteopontin (OPN) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods:Serum of 65 patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), 74 patients with liver cirrhosis (LC), 53 patients with HCC, and 68 health people as control (HC) were collected. Serum levels of NPY, OPN, and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) were detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The value of them in the diagnosis of HCC was analyzed by receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC). Results:Serum NPY (F=59.63, P<0.0001) and OPN (F=36.00, P<0.0001) levels were significantly higher in HCC patients than in HC, CHB and LC. Area under ROC curve of NPY is 0.924 ±0.025 and OPN is 0.864 ±0.036. The specificity and sensitivity of NPY are 79.28% and 98.53%, OPN are 83.02%、82.35%. Compared with AFP, the specificity of NPY is the strongest and the sensitivity of OPN is the highest. Conclusion:Serum NPY and OPN

  9. Expression of AFP in gastric carcinoma and its relationship with VEGF%AFP在胃癌中的表达意义及其与VEGF的关系

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    弥海宁; 赵晓宁; 杨言苹

    2011-01-01

    Objective : To investigate the clinicopathological features of alpha - fetoprotein producing gastric carcinoma and reltion with vascular endothelial growth factor.Methods : Two hundred and sixty - two cases of gastric carcinoma were divided into AFP - positive group and AFP - negative group.The expressions of AFP and VECF of all patients sample were examined by immunohistochemical method .Sex , age , tumor site , diameter , gross type , differentiation , liver and lymph node metastasis , TNM stage and prognose were compared between the two groups.Results : The rates of liver metastasis,number of metastasis lymph nodes , stage Ⅳ carcinoma in AFP - positive group were significantly higher than those in AFP - negative group( P <0.01) .The positive rate of VEGF in AFP - positive tumors was 90.5% , significantly higher than that in AFP - negative tumors 67 .2% ( P < 0.05 ) .1 ,3 ,5year - survival rates in AFP - positive group( 58.7% ,13.1% ,5.9% ) were significantly lower than those in AFP - negative group( 92.1% ,58.3% ,32.5% ) ( P <0.05) .Condusion : Alpha - fetoprotein producing gastric carcinoma has significantly higher malignant behavior and poorer prognosis, which may be related to liver and lymph node metastasis.Examining the AFP and VEGF of gastric carcinoma can be regarded as the objectivity prognostic indiciar.%目的:探讨AFPGC生物学特性及其与VEGF的关系.方法: 将262例胃癌患者分成AFP阳性和阴性两组.采用免疫组化方法检测胃癌组织中AFP及VEGF的表达,比较两组患者的性别、年龄及胃癌生长部位、大小、大体类型、分化程度、肝脏转移、淋巴结转移、临床分期以及生存率.结果:AFP阳性组肝脏转移、多个淋巴结转移发生率及临床IV期胃癌比例均明显高于AFP阴性组(P<0.01);AFP阳性组的胃癌组织中VEGF阳性表达率为90.5%,明显高于AFP阴性者的67.2% (P<0.05),AFP阳性组的1、3、5年生存率分别为58.7%、13.1%、5.9%,

  10. Characterization of HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B in western Brazilian Amazonia

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    Flamir da Silva Victoria

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted with 55 patients native from western Brazilian Amazonia, who were HBV-DNA positive after seroconversion of HBeAg. It is a descriptive case study, with the patients separated into two groups: with hepatitis and without hepatitis on histological examination. The aim of the present study was to describe the clinical and molecular characteristics of patients who are chronic carriers of HBsAg. The prevalence of hepatitis was 63.64%, with a predominance of males (41.82% and a mean age of 42.5 years, occurring mostly in natives of the southeast sub-region (32.73%. Time was a variable proportional to the course of the disease and the most frequent symptoms were: dyspepsia, asthenia and loss of libido with the majority of the patients having history of prior contact with HBV or positive family history. Splenomegalia was the most frequent sign (40%. Among the tests, platelet count, serum albumin and prothrombin activity were significant in the diagnosis of hepatitis. Alpha-fetoprotein was greater in patients with hepatitis, and hepatocellular carcinoma was detected in 3.63% of the patients with hepatic cirrhosis. Three types of HBV genotypes were diagnosed: A, D and F in the samples amplified for gene S. Genotype A (AA was observed in 54.54% of the cases with hepatitis, in contrast to other studies showing the predominance of genotype F in this region. We observed mutations in 36.36%, with a predominance of the mutations in the core promoter region (31.81%, due to the greater prevalence of genotype A in this study.

  11. Computer-aided assessment of hepatic contour abnormalities as an imaging biomarker for the prediction of hepatocellular carcinoma development in patients with chronic hepatitis C

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    Goshima, Satoshi [Department of Radiology, Gifu University Hospital, 1-1 Yanagido, 501-1194 Gifu (Japan); Kanematsu, Masayuki, E-mail: masa_gif@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Radiology, Gifu University Hospital, 1-1 Yanagido, 501-1194 Gifu (Japan); Kondo, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Haruo; Noda, Yoshifumi [Department of Radiology, Gifu University Hospital, 1-1 Yanagido, 501-1194 Gifu (Japan); Fujita, Hiroshi [Department of Intelligent Image Information Division of Regeneration and Advanced Medical Sciences, Graduate School of Medicine, Gifu University, Gifu (Japan); Bae, Kyongtae T. [Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Hepatic contour was quantified and converted to hepatic fibrosis index (HFI). • HFI was a significant risk factor for HCC with an odds ratio of 26.4. • HFI may be an important imaging biomarker for managing cirrhotic patients. - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate whether a hepatic fibrosis index (HFI), quantified on the basis of hepatic contour abnormality, is a risk factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Materials and methods: Our institutional review board approved this retrospective study and written informed consent was waved. During a 14-month period, consecutive 98 patients with chronic hepatitis C who had no medical history of HCC treatment (56 men and 42 women; mean age, 70.7 years; range, 48–91 years) were included in this study. Gadoxetic acid-enhanced hepatocyte specific phase was used to detect and analyze hepatic contour abnormality. Hepatic contour abnormality was quantified and converted to HFI using in-house proto-type software. We compared HFI between patients with (n = 54) and without HCC (n = 44). Serum levels of albumin, total bilirubin, aspartate transferase, alanine transferase, percent prothrombin time, platelet count, alpha-fetoprotein, protein induced by vitamin K absence-II, and HFI were tested as possible risk factors for the development of HCC by determining the odds ratio with logistic regression analysis. Results: HFIs were significantly higher in patients with HCC (0.58 ± 0.86) than those without (0.36 ± 0.11) (P < 0.001). Logistic analysis revealed that only HFI was a significant risk factor for HCC development with an odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of 26.4 (9.0–77.8) using a cutoff value of 0.395. Conclusion: The hepatic fibrosis index, generated using a computer-aided assessment of hepatic contour abnormality, may be a useful imaging biomarker for the prediction of HCC development in patients with chronic hepatitis C.

  12. Survival and hepatitis status among Asian Americans with hepatocellular carcinoma treated without liver transplantation

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    Hassan Manal M

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV are established causes of HCC. HCC patients are often diagnosed late and receive palliative therapies, however, the survival of Asian American patients with HCC treated without transplantation has not been well studied. We reviewed our institution's experience to determine predictors and rates of survival in Asian American HCC patients treated without transplantation. Methods We identified Asian American patients with HCC referred to M. D. Anderson Cancer Center. Patients were tested for HBV and HCV. Survival curves were generated by Kaplan-Meier method. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression was used to test the relationship between prognostic factors and survival. Results Of 82 Asian American HCC patients, most had advanced disease (65% and received treatment (68%; however, only 11% had surgical resection. 94% had positive anti-HBc and 61% had positive HBsAg. 20% had positive anti-HCV. There were no significant changes in the rates of HBV and HCV over time. Male gender, high alpha-fetoprotein levels, and stage IV disease were associated with shorter survival Overall median survival was 9.2 months (95% CI 6.5–11.9, and the survival of HCV and HBV patients was not statistically different. Conclusion The survival rate of Asian American patients with advanced HCC, for whom transplantation was not available, was low. Timely hepatitis screening and interventions by primary care physicians may be the most logical solution to reduce the burden of hepatitis-associated HCC among Asian Americans.

  13. Precore/basal core promoter mutants and hepatitis B viral DNA levels as predictors for liver deaths and hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Myron J Tong; Lawrence M Blatt; Jia-Horng Kao; Jason Tzuying Cheng; William G Corey

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To conduct a retrospective study in 400 chronic hepatitis B patients in order to identify hepatitis B viral factors associated with complications of liver disease or development of hepatocellular carcinoma.METHODS: The mean follow-up time was 83.6 ± 39.6mo. Alpha-fetoprotein test and abdominal ultrasound were used for cancer surveillance. Hepatitis B basal core promoter mutants, precore mutants, genotypes,hepatitis B viral DNA (HBV DNA) level and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) were measured. Univariate analysis and logistic regression were used to assess odds ratios for viral factors related to liver deaths and hepatocellular carcinoma development.RESULTS: During follow-up, 38 patients had liver deaths not related to hepatocellular carcinoma. On multivariate analysis, older age [odds ratio: 95.74 (12.13-891.31);P < 0.0001], male sex [odds ratio: 7.61 (2.20-47.95);P = 0.006], and higher log10 HBV DNA [odds ratio:4.69 (1.16-20.43); P < 0.0001] were independently predictive for these liver related deaths. Also, 31 patients developed hepatocellular carcinoma. Multivariate analysis showed that older age [odds ratio: 26.51 (2.36-381.47);P = 0.007], presence of precore mutants [odds ratio:4.23 (1.53-19.58); P = 0.02] and presence of basal core promoter mutants [odds ratio: 2.93 (1.24-7.57); P =0.02] were independent predictors for progression to hepatocellular carcinoma.CONCLUSION: Our results show that high levels of baseline serum HBV DNA are associated with nonhepatocellular carcinoma-related deaths of liver failure,while genetic mutations in the basal core promoter and precore regions are predictive for development of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  14. Impact of different biochemical markers in serum of patients with benign and malignant liver diseases

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    Nadia I. Zakhary

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The only hope for effective treatment of liver cancer lies in early detection or screening for populations who are at high risk for developing liver cancer. This study was designed to study the levels of a collection of biochemical markers in the sera of patients suffering from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC and its predisposing diseases. The ultimate aim is to investigate their diagnostic impact in the early detection of HCC and discriminate from benign liver diseases. The study was carried out on 217 individuals divided into the following groups: Group 1: Normal controls, Group 2: Schistosomal patients (Schist, Group 3: Hepatitis B patients (HBV, Group 4: Hepatitis C patients (HCV, Group 5: Cirrhotic patients (Cirr, and Group 6: Hepatocellular carcinoma patients (HCC. The last group was further subdivided into the following subgroups: a – HCC alone; b – HCC on top of schistosomiasis; c – HCC on top of HBV; d – Hepato-cellular carcinoma on top of HCV; e – HCC on top of cirrhosis. Their sera were subjected to a quantitative determination of the tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, epidermal growth factor and its receptor (EGF and EGFR, glutathione-S-transferase alpha (GST-α, iron, ferritin, transferrin, alpha-1-antitrypsin (α1AT and alpha-fetoprotein (αFP. The results of this study indicate that it is advisable to determine a panel of markers composed of αFP, TNF-α and GST-α to confirm diagnosis of HCC and distinguish it from other benign liver diseases.

  15. Prediction of microvascular invasion of hepatocellular carcinomas with gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging: Impact of intra-tumoral fat detected on chemical-shift images

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    Min, Ji Hye [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Kon, E-mail: jmyr@dreamwiz.com [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Sanghyeok [Department of Radiology, Guri Hospital, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Guri (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Woo Kyoung; Choi, Dongil; Lee, Won Jae [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Intra-tumoral fat detected with MR imaging may suggest lower risk for MVI of HCC. • Alfa-fetoprotein, tumor size, and fat component were associated with MVI of HCC. • Chemical shift MRI should be considered for the evaluation of HCC. - Abstract: Purpose: To investigate the impact of intra-tumoral fat detected by chemical-shift MR imaging in predicting the MVI of HCC. Materials and methods: Gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging of 365 surgically proven HCCs from 365 patients (306 men, 59 women; mean age, 55.6 years) were evaluated. HCCs were classified into two groups, fat-containing and non-fat-containing, based on the presence of fat on chemical-shift images. Fat-containing HCCs were subdivided into diffuse or focal fatty change groups. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify clinical and MR findings associated with MVI. Results: Based on MR imaging, 66 tumors were classified as fat-containing HCCs and 299 as non-fat-containing HCCs. Among the 66 fat-containing HCCs, 38 (57.6%) showed diffuse fatty changes and 28 (42.4%) showed focal fatty changes. MVI was present in 18 (27.3%) fat-containing HCCs and in 117 (39.1%) non-fat-containing HCCs (P = 0.07). Univariate analysis revealed that serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and tumor size were significantly associated with MVI (P < 0.001). A multiple logistic regression analysis showed that log AFP (odds ratio 1.178, P = 0.0016), tumor size (odds ratio 1.809, P < 0.001), and intra-tumoral fat (odds ratio 0.515, P = 0.0387) were independent variables associated with MVI. Conclusion: Intra-tumoral fat detected with MR imaging may suggest lower risk for MVI of HCC and, therefore, a possibly more favorable prognosis, but the clinical value of this finding is uncertain.

  16. Long-Term Outcomes of Sacrococcygeal Germ Cell Tumors in Infancy and Childhood

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    Rangsan Niramis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this study was to evaluate long-term outcomes of sacrococcygeal germ cell tumors (SC-GCTs over a 15-year period. Materials and Methods. A retrospective review was conducted of all pediatric patients treated for SC-GCTs at our hospital from 1998 to 2012. Results. Fifty-seven patients were treated for SC-GCTs with the most common in Altman’s classification type I. Age at surgery ranged from one day to 5.6 years. Tumor resection and coccygectomy were primarily performed in about 84% of the cases. Pathology revealed mature, immature, malignant sacrococcygeal teratomas (SCTs, and endodermal sinus tumors (ESTs in 41 (72%, 4 (77%, 6 (10.5%, and 6 (10.5%, respectively. Recurrence of discase occurred in 3 of 41 patients with mature teratomas (7.3%; 2 recurrences with mature teratomas and one recurrence with EST. Five of 6 malignant SCTs and 3 of 6 ESTs responded well to the treatment. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP level was elevated in both malignant teratomas and ESTs. No immediate patient death was noted in any of the 57 cases, but 4 patients with malignant tumors and distant metastasis succumbed at home within 2 years of the initial treatment. Conclusion. Benign SCTs have a significant recurrence rate of approximately 7%. Close follow-up with serial AFP level monitoring should be done for 5 years after initial tumor resection and coccygectomy. The survival rate for malignant SC-GCTs with distant metastasis was unfavorable in the present study.

  17. Glo1 genetic amplification as a potential therapeutic target in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shirong; Liang, Xiaodong; Zheng, Xiaoliang; Huang, Haixiu; Chen, Xufeng; Wu, Kan; Wang, Bing; Ma, Shenglin

    2014-01-01

    Glyoxalase 1 (Glo1) gene aberrations is associated with tumorigenesis and progression in numerous cancers. In this study, we explored the role of Glo1 genetic amplification and expression in Chinese patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and Glo1 genetic amplification as potential therapeutic target for HCC. We used fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis and qRT-PCR to examine Glo1 genetic aberrations and Glo1 mRNA expression in paired tumor samples obtained from HCC patients. Glo1 genetic amplification was identified in a subset of HCC patient (6%, 3/50), and up-regulation of Glo1 expression was found in 48% (24/50) of tumor tissues compared with adjacent non-tumorous tissues. Statistic analysis showed that Glo1-upregulation significantly correlated with high serum level of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). Interfering Glo1 expression with shRNA knocking-down led to significant inhibition of cell growth and induced apoptosis in primarily cultured HCC cells carrying genetic amplified Glo1 gene, while no inhibitory effects on cell proliferation were observed in HCC cells with normal copies of Glo1 gene. Glo1 knockdown also inhibited tumor growth and induced apoptosis in xenograft tumors established from primarily cultured HCC cells with Glo1 gene amplification. In addition, Glo1 knocking-down with shRNA interfering caused cellular accumulation of methylglyoxal, a Glo1 cytotoxic substrate. Our data suggested Glo1 pathway activation is required for cell proliferation and cell survival of HCC cells carrying Glo1 genetic amplification. Intervention of Glo1 activation could be a potential therapeutic option for patients with HCC carrying Glo1 gene amplification. PMID:24966916

  18. Post-radiation survival time in hepatocellular carcinoma based on predictors for CT-determined, transarterial embolization and various other parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ting-Kai Leung; Chi-Ming Lee; Li-Kuo Shen; Hsi-Chi Chen; Yu-Cheng Kuo; Jeng-Fong Chiou

    2005-01-01

    AIM: In this retrospective study of unresectable helatocellular carcinoma (HCC), we have investigated the efficacy of CTderived parameters, laboratory measurements, clinical assessment and associated transarterial embolization (TAE) as predictors of post-radiotherapy survival time.METHODS: Sixty-six patients diagnosed with unresectable HCC that had undergone radiotherapy at two medical university hospitals in Taipei were enrolled in the study.Using multivariant analysis, pre-treatment parameters including tumor number and CT confirmation of PVT and ascites were compared. Multivariant analysis was also used for comparison of the mean pretreatment values for laboratory measurements, including alpha-fetoprotein,direct/total bilirubin and GOT/GPT levels, and clinical history of chronic hepatitis across the three survival-time categories. The χ2 was used to test the significance of the relationship between survival time and TAE procedure.The Pvalues for the above tests were deemed statisticallysignificant where P<0.05.RESULTS: Portal vein thrombosis (P = 0.032) and ascites (P<0.05) were negative predictors of post-radiation survival time. Low-grade liver cirrhosis (A or B), lower tumor volume and low levels of AFT, GOT/GPT, and total bilirubin were predictors of longer post-radiation survival time (P<0.05).CONCLUSION: The CT and clinical and laboratory assessment provide a reference for, and enable estimation of, probable survival times in HCC patients after radiotherapy. Tumor volume, severity of liver cirrhosis,status with respect to portal vein thrombosis and ascites and AFT, GOT/GPT and total bilirubin values were significant predictors of survival in this study.

  19. Tumors of the liver; a ten year study in Children Medical Center

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    Farahmand F

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to review the frequency, histopathology and outcome in children with tumors of the liver. Methods: Included in this retrospective/descriptive study were 30 children treated for liver tumors from 1375-1384 (ca. 1996-2005, at Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Tehran, Iran. We included the clinical, radiologic, and pathologic data of our patients, focusing on the frequency, etiology and outcome. Results: Patient ages ranged from three months to 12 years (median 3.8 years, with 18 males (60% and 12 females (40%. Of these, 17 patients had hepatoblastoma (55.66%, including 13 males and four females, with an age range of six months to five years. Four cases (13.33% had neuroblastoma. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC was found in three cases (10%, all of whom were carriers of hepatitis B. Two cases (6.66% were diagnosed with mesenchymal hamartoma, two cases (6.66% with hemangioendothelioma and two cases (6.66% with rhabdomyosarcoma and leiomyosarcoma of the biliary tract. Abdominal swelling and hepatomegaly were seen in all of patients. Jaundice was observed in two cases. Serum alpha-fetoprotein levels greater than 500 ng/ml were seen in 17 cases (56.66%. All patients were receiving specific treatment. The three-year survival rate was 65% for hepatoblastoma and 2% for HCC Conclusion: With the introduction of specific treatment, the survival rate for children with tumors of the liver has significantly increased. Further improvement can be achieved using diagnostic biopsy for hepatoblastoma, although it may result in complications, and preoperative chemotherapy followed by complete surgical excision (per International Society of Pediatric Oncology guidelines, yielding an outstanding survival rate of 80%.

  20. Effect of Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization Combined with Argon-Helium Cryosurgery System on the Changes of NK Cells and T Cell Subsets in Peripheral Blood of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Manping; Wang, Xiaoyi; Bin, Huang

    2015-12-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most aggressive tumors in humans. T lymphocytes and natural killer (NK) cells are the body's first line of defense to prevent tumor cell growth. Previous studies have demonstrated that transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) combined with argon-helium cryosurgery system (AHCS) can effectively treat liver cancer. However, the mechanism of the treatment is unclear yet. In the current study, we investigated the effects of TACE combined with AHCS on the changes of T cell subsets and NK cells in peripheral blood of HCC. Our data show that alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels in peripheral blood were significantly up-regulated in HCC patients before treatment when compared with healthy people and reduced after TACE combined with AHCS treatment (P < 0.01). In addition, we found that CD4+ cells and NK cells decreased (P < 0.05) and CD8+ cells increased (P < 0.05) in HCC patients when compared with healthy people. After treatment, the CD4+ cells, CD4+/CD8+ ratio, and NK cells were dramatically increased in HCC patients (P < 0.05). In contrast, CD8+ cells were significantly decreased (P < 0.05). TACE combined with AHCS treatment significantly prolonged 1-year survival rate of HCC patients and did not show significant side effects. Taken together, our data indicate that TACE combined with AHCS treatment improves patients' immune system. It is a feasible and effective therapeutic method for HCC patients. PMID:27259326

  1. A new multiparameter integrated MELD model for prognosis of HBV-related acute-on-chronic liver failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yue; Xu, Yun; Li, Mingming; Xie, Ya; Gong, Guozhong

    2016-08-01

    Hepatitis B virus related acute-on-chronic liver failure (HBV-ACLF) is one of the most deadly diseases. Many models have been proposed to evaluate the prognosis of it. However, these models are still controversial. In this study, we aimed to incorporate some characters into model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) to establish a new reliable and feasible model for the prognosis of HBV-ACLF.A total of 530 HBV-ACLF patients who had received antiviral therapy were enrolled into a retrospective study and divided into the training cohort (300) and validation cohort (230). Logistic regression analysis was used to establish a model to predict the 3-month mortality from the patients in the training cohort, and then, the new model was evaluated in the validation cohort.Except for MELD score, 4 other independent factors, namely degree of hepatic encephalopathy (HE), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), white blood cell (WBC) count, and age, were important for the new model called HBV-ACLF MELD (HAM) model: R = 0.174 × MELD + 1.106 × HE - (0.003 × AFP) + (0.237 × WBC) + (0.103 × Age) - 11.388. The areas under receiver-operating characteristic curve of HAM in the training and validation cohort were 0.894 and 0.868, respectively, which were significantly higher than those of other 7 models. With the best cut-off value of -1.191, HAM achieved higher sensitivity and negative predictive value.We developed a new model that has a great prognostic value of the 3-month mortality of patients with HBV-ACLF. PMID:27559979

  2. microRNA-497 inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis by targeting YAP1 in human hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Yu, Zhaoxiang; Xian, Yao; Lin, Xiaobo

    2016-02-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) function as oncogenes or tumor suppressors in human cancers by targeting mRNAs for degradation and/or translational repression. miR-497 has been proposed as a tumor suppressive miRNA and its deregulation is observed in human cancers. However, the prognostic value of miR-497 and its underlying molecular pathways involved in the initiation and development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are poorly investigated. In the present study, we found that the mean level of miR-497 in HCC tissues was lower than that in adjacent nontumor tissues. Clinical data indicated that low expression of miR-497 was prominently associated with adverse prognostic features of HCC including high serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) level, large tumor size, high Edmondson-Steiner grading and advanced tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage. Furthermore, miR-497 was an independent prognostic factor for indicating both 5-year overall survival and disease-free survival of HCC patients. Gain- and loss-of-function studies showed that miR-497 reduced cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in HCC cells. Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1) was identified as a direct target of miR-497 in HCC. An inverse correlation between YAP1 and miR-497 expression was observed in HCC tissues. Notably, YAP1 knockdown abrogated the effects of miR-497 deletion on HCC cells with decreased cell proliferation and increased apoptosis. In conclusion, we report that miR-497 is a potent prognostic indicator and may suppress tumor growth of HCC by targeting YAP1. PMID:27239437

  3. Testicular parenchymal abnormalities in Klinefelter syndrome: a question of cancer? Examination of 40 consecutive patients

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    Giacomo Accardo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Klinefelter syndrome (KS is a hypergonadotropic hypogonadism characterized by a 47, XXY karyotype. The risk of testicular cancer in KS is of interest in relation to theories about testicular cancer etiology generally; nevertheless it seems to be low. We evaluated the need for imaging and serum tumor markers for testicular cancer screening in KS. Participants were 40 consecutive KS patients, enrolled from December 2009 to January 2013. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, and beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin subunit (β-HCG serum levels assays and testicular ultrasound (US with color Doppler, were carried out at study entry, after 6 months and every year for 3 years. Abdominal magnetic resonance (MR was performed in KS when testicular US showed micro-calcifications, testicular nodules and cysts. Nearly 62% of the KS had regular testicular echotexture, 37.5% showed an irregular echotexture and 17.5% had micro-calcifications and cysts. Eighty seven percent of KS had a regular vascular pattern, 12.5% varicocele, 12.5% nodules 1 cm. MR ruled out the diagnosis of cancer in all KS with testicular micro calcifications, nodules and cysts. No significant variations in LDH, AFP, and β-HCG levels and in US pattern have been detected during follow-up. We compared serum tumor markers and US pattern between KS with and without cryptorchidism and no statistical differences were found. We did not find testicular cancer in KS, and testicular US, tumor markers and MR were, in selected cases, useful tools for correctly discriminating benign from malignant lesions.

  4. Antibody Arrays Identify Potential Diagnostic Markers of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

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    Brian J. Peter

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is the third leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Effective treatment of HCC patients is hampered by the lack of sensitive and specific diagnostic markers of HCC. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, the currently used HCC marker, misses 30%–50% of HCC patients, who therefore remain undiagnosed and untreated. In order to identify novel diagnostic markers that can be used individually or in combination with AFP, we used an antibody array platform to detect the levels of candidate proteins in the plasma of HCC patients (n = 48 and patients with chronic hepatitis B or C viral infections (n = 19 (both of which are the major risk factors of HCC. We identified 7 proteins that significantly differentiate HCC patients from hepatitis patients (p < 0.05 (AFP, CTNNB, CSF1, SELL, IGFBP6, IL6R, and VCAM1.Importantly, we also identified 8 proteins that significantly differentiate HCC patients with ‘normal’ levels of AFP (<20 ng/ml from hepatitis patients (p < 0.05 (IL1RN, IFNG, CDKN1A, RETN, CXCL14, CTNNB, FGF2, and SELL. These markers are potentially important complementary markers to AFP. Using an independent immunoassay method in an independent group of 23 HCC patients and 22 hepatitis patients, we validated that plasma levels of CTNNB were significantly higher in the HCC group (p = 0.020. In conclusion, we used an antibody array platform to identify potential circulating diagnostic markers of HCC, some of which may be valuable when used in combination with AFP. The clinical utility of these newly identified HCC diagnostic markers needs to be systematically evaluated.

  5. Elevated Preoperative Serum Gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase Predicts Poor Prognosis for Hepatocellular Carcinoma after Liver Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Shun-Jun; Zhao, Qiang; Ji, Fei; Chen, Mao-Gen; Wu, Lin-Wei; Ren, Qing-Qi; Guo, Zhi-Yong; He, Xiao-Shun

    2016-01-01

    Gamma-glutamyltransferase (γ-GGT) is a membrane-bound enzyme that is involved in biotransformation, nucleic acid metabolism, and tumourigenesis. Elevated serum γ-GGT levels are related to an increased cancer risk and worse prognosis in many cancers. In the present study, we evaluated the prognostic value of preoperative serum γ-GGT in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who underwent liver transplantation (LT). A total of 130 HCC patients after LT were included in the study. The optimal cut-off value of γ-GGT was 128U/L by receiver operating characteristic analysis, with a sensitivity and specificity of 60.0% and 72.9%, respectively. Elevated preoperative serum γ-GGT was significantly associated with high alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), large tumor size, and macro- and micro-vascular invasion. The 1-, 3-, 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) rates of HCC patients in the γ-GGT > 128U/L group were poorer than those in the γ-GGT ≤ 128U/L group. Stratification analysis revealed that γ-GGT exhibited a greater predictive value for DFS and OS in HCC patients beyond the Milan criteria and no macro-vascular invasion. In conclusion, elevated preoperative serum γ-GGT was significantly associated with advanced tumor stage and aggressive tumor behaviors, and serum γ-GGT can be considered as a prognostic factor for HCC patients after LT, especially for patients beyond the Milan criteria or without macro-vascular invasion. PMID:27381639

  6. The Comparative Study on Ultrastructure and Immunohistochemistry in AFP Negative and Positive Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑美蓉; 阮幼冰; 杨木兰; 官阳; 武忠弼

    2004-01-01

    To comparatively investigate ultrastructural characteristics and expressions of AFP(alpha-fetoprotein) and Tn (Thomsen-Friedenreich-related antigen) protein in AFP negative (AFP-)and AFP positive (AFP+) primary hepatocellular carcinoma. Fourty-three cases of AFP- and AFP+ hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues and five cases of normal liver tissues were divided into three groups: control group (normal liver tissue, n=5); AFP+ HCC group (the serum AFP level was higher than 10 ng/ml, n = 22); AFP- HCC group (the serum AFP level was lower than 10 ng/ml, n=21). The ultrastructural morphology was studied by transmission electron microscopy, the expressions of AFP and Tn protein were detected by immunohistochemistry and cell image analysis. 1. The immunohistochemical study showed that (1) the expression intensity and positive rate of Tn protein in AFP- HCC group were markedly higher than that in AFP+ HCC group (P<0.01); (2) The expression intensity of AFP in AFP- HCC group was lower than that in AFP+ HCC group (P<0.01 ). 2. The transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that some AFP- HCC cells linked closely with each other, others dispersed loosely just as cultured cells, the remarkable morphologic features in AFP- HCC cells were simple organelles, But they were abundant in the free polyribosomes. In AFP+ HCC group, all the HCC cells linked closely together and were rich organelles in their cytoplasm, especially the rough endoplasmic reticula. In addition, mitochondria and Golgi complex were obviously observed. (1) The AFP and Tn protein had discrepancy distribution in AFP- and AFP+ HCC tissues, Tn protein may be one of the early diagnostic indicators in AFP- HCC; (2) The synthetic locations of the AFP and Tn protein were different in hepatocarcinoma cells by ultrastructural observation.

  7. Risk Factors for Fatal Recurrence of Liver Transplant Recipients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma in the First Year

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinicopathological risk factors for fatal recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in orthotopic liver transplant recipients in the first year. Methods: From April 2002 to October 2005, 303 recipients who received orthotopic liver transplantation for HCC were reviewed. Of These patients, those who demonstrated diffuse intra-hepatic or multiple systemic recurrent lesions and died within 1 y after surgery were investigated (fatal recurrence group, 48 cases). The remaining patients were designated as the control group, and the two groups were compared for clinicopathologic risk factors by logistic regression analysis. Results: Among the 303 patients reviewed, 48 patients were enrolled in the fatal recurrence group (15.84%). Multivariate analysis between the fatal recurrence group and control group showed that the presence of vascular invasion, tumor size greater than 6.5 cm, and pre-operative serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) level greater than 1000 μg/L were the risk factors in the fatal recurrence group. 85.71% of the patients who had all the three risk factors, 37.84% of those who had two risk factors, 13.64% of those who had one risk factors, and 6.71% of those who had none risk factors died because of recurrence within 1 y after transplantation. Conclusion: Three distinct risk factors attributed to fatal recurrence of liver transplant recipients for HCC are vascular invasion, tumor size ≥6.5 cm, and pre-operative serum AFP level ≥1000 μg/L. The high risk HCC patients with two or more risk factors should not to be the candidates for liver transplantation.

  8. A novel diagnostic marker, p28(GANK) distinguishes hepatocellular carcinoma from potential mimics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu X; Tan L; Liu S; Li H; Chen L; Qin J; Wu M; Wang H

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE. To investigate the sensitivity, specificity, and spatial distribution of the product of p28 gene (p28(GANK) protein) in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and nonhepatocellular carcinomas in relation to immunostaining with Cytokeratin 18 (CK18), alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), and Hepatocyte paraffin 1 (HepPar1). METHOD. In this retrospective study, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues from 24 HCCs, five intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas (ICC), five combined hepatocellular cholangiocarcinomas (C-HCC-CC) and mine metastatic hepatic carcinomas (MHC) were immunostained for p28(GANK) as well as CK18, AFP and HepPar1. Only cases with more intensified staining in carcinoma contrast to the adjacent liver tissues were accepted as positive. RESULT. In HCC, p28(GANK) was expressed restrictively in hepatocytes of both para-lesion and carcinoma liver tissues, while absent in the bile duct epithelial cells, Kupffer cells, and other interstitial cells. The positive staining of p28(GANK) was noted in 16 (66.7%) specimens of HCC and three (60.0%) specimens of C-HCC-CC, and no specific lesion staining was found in all tested specimens of ICC and MHC. Sensitivity and specificity for hepatocyte-originated carcinoma were, respectively, 65.5% and 100% for p28(GANK), 79.3% and 85.2% for CK18, 20.7% and 100% for AFP, 79.3% and 92.0% for HepPar1. CONCLUSION. The hepatocytic staining for p28(GANK) is clearly useful in differentiating hepatocyte-originated carcinoma from non-HCC. p28(GANK) may be used as an ancillary marker for the diagnosis of HCC.

  9. Spectral luminescence analysis of amniotic fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slobozhanina, Ekaterina I.; Kozlova, Nataly M.; Kasko, Leonid P.; Mamontova, Marina V.; Chernitsky, Eugene A.

    1997-12-01

    It is shown that the amniotic fluid has intensive ultra-violet luminescence caused by proteins. Along with it amniotic fluid radiated in the field of 380 - 650 nm with maxima at 430 - 450 nm and 520 - 560 nm. The first peak of luminescence ((lambda) exc equals 350 nm; (lambda) em equals 430 - 440 nm) is caused (most probably) by the presence in amniotic fluid of some hormones, NADH2 and NADPH2. A more long-wave component ((lambda) exc equals 460 nm; (lambda) em equals 520 - 560 nm) is most likely connected with the presence in amniotic fluid pigments (bilirubin connected with protein and other). It is shown that intensity and maximum of ultra-violet luminescence spectra of amniotic fluid in normality and at pathology are identical. However both emission spectra and excitation spectra of long-wave ((lambda) greater than 450 nm) luminescence of amniotic fluid from pregnant women with such prenatal abnormal developments of a fetus as anencephaly and spina bifida are too long-wave region in comparison with the norm. Results of research testify that spectral luminescent analysis of amniotic fluid can be used for screening of malformations of the neural tube. It is very difficult for a practical obstetrician to reveal pregnant women with a high risk of congenital malformations of the fetus. Apart from ultrasonic examination, cytogenetic examination of amniotic fluid and defumination of concentrations of alpha-fetoprotein and acetylcholin-esterases in the amniotic fluid and blood plasma are the most widely used diagnostic approaches. However, biochemical and cytogenetic diagnostic methods are time-consuming. In the present work spectral luminescence properties of the amniotic fluid are investigated to determine spectral parameters that can be used to reveal pregnant women with a high risk of congenital malformations of their offsprings.

  10. Assessment of the role of interleukin-6 in diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Folly, Runia Fouad; El-Kabarity, Rania Hamdy; Arafa, Naglaa A

    2010-01-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a promising tumor marker for hepatocellular carcinoma; HCC. IL-6 may help to identify a subset of HCC patients with low alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) level, and may serve as complementary tumor marker, however, this has to be clarified. This study assesses the value of measuring serum level of interleukin-6 in patients with chronic liver disease and HCC, and evaluates its sensitivity and specificity in comparison to AFP in early diagnosis of HCC. Seventy five patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) with or without HCC and 25 healthy controls were included. Patients were divided into Group I: 25 patients with CLD but no evidence of HCC. Group II: 25 patients with HCC on top of post-viral hepatitic with elevation in AFP (> 200 ng); and Group III: 25 patients with HCC on top of post-viral hepatitic but without elevation in AFP (< 200 ng). Analysis of the mean serum IL-6 levels revealed a statistically significant difference between all groups (P < 0.01). A significant positive correlation was found between mean levels of IL- 6 & AFP in HCC (P < 0.05), the mean IL-6 levels in patients with Child classification C was higher than in those with Child A and B.After adjustment using multiple logistic regressions, only loss of weight and AFP were found to be significantly associated with HCC (P < 0.05). It is concluded that the diagnostic value of IL-6 increased when it is associated with AFP measurement. Combining the two markers can provide a new perspective in the diagnosis of HCC.

  11. Chemoembolization Decreases Drop-Off Risk of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients on the Liver Transplant List

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: The drop-off risk for patients awaiting liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is 22%. Transplant liver availability is expected to worsen, resulting in longer waiting times and increased drop-off rates. Our aim was to determine whether chemoembolization can decrease this risk. Patients and Methods: Eighty-seven consecutive HCC patients listed for liver transplant (Milan criteria) underwent statistical comparability adjustments using the propensity score (Wilcoxon, Fisher’s, and chi-square tests). Forty-three nonchemoembolization patients and 22 chemoembolization patients were comparable for Child-Pugh and Model for End-Stage Liver Disease scores, tumor size and number, alpha fetoprotein (AFP) levels, and cause of cirrhosis. We calculated the risk of dropping off the transplant list by assigning a transplant time to those who dropped off (equal probability with patients who were on the list longer than the patient in question). The significance level was obtained by calculating the simulation distribution of the difference compared with the permutations of chemoembolization versus nonchemoembolization assignment of the patients. Kaplan–Meier estimators (log-rank test) were used to determine survival rates. Results: Median follow-up was 187 ± 110 weeks (range 38 to 435, date of diagnosis). The chemoembolization group had an 80% drop-off risk decrease (15% nonchemoembolization versus 3% chemoembolization, p = 0.04). Although survival was better for the chemoembolization group, it did not reach statistical significance. Two-year survival for the nonchemoembolization and chemoembolization group was 57.3% ± 7.1% and 76.0% ± 7.9%, respectively (p = 0.078). Conclusions: Chemoembolization appears to result in a significant decrease in the risk of dropping off liver transplant list for patients with HCC and results in a tendency toward longer survival.

  12. AFP, PIVKAII, GP3, SCCA-1 and follisatin as surveillance biomarkers for hepatocellular cancer in non-alcoholic and alcoholic fatty liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incidence and mortality of hepatocellular cancer (HCC) complicating alcoholic and non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (ALD and NAFLD) is rising in western societies. Despite knowing the at risk populations for HCC development, the lack of sensitive and specific means of surveillance hampers disease detection at curable stages. The most widely used serum HCC marker is alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), while PIVKA-II, glypican-3 (GP3) and Squamous Cell Carcinoma Antigen -1 (SCCA-1) have been proposed as new biomarkers. Assessment of these HCC biomarkers has largely been performed in patients with viral hepatitis. We conducted a cross sectional study assessing the value of these serum proteins, as well a novel candidate biomarker -follistatin – in patients with HCC arising on a background of ALD or NAFLD. Pre-treatment serum samples from 50 patients with HCC arising on a background of ALD (n = 31) or NAFLD (n = 19) were assessed by specific ELISA assay for PIVKAII, Glypican-3, SCCA-1 and Follistatin. Results were compared and contrasted with a control patient group with biopsy proven steatohepatitis-related cirrhosis (n = 41). The diagnostic accuracy of each of the candidate biomarkers was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, reporting the area under the curve (AUC) and its 95% confidence interval (CI). Performance was compared to that of the established biomarker, AFP. Serum levels of all proteins were assessed by specific ELISA assays. GP3, SCCA-1 and follistatin had no HCC surveillance benefit in these patients. AFP and PIVKAII were superior to the other markers, particularly in combination. We conclude that while novel means of surveillance are urgently required, the combination of AFP and PIVKAII for HCC is an improvement on AFP alone in ALD/NAFLD patients. Furthermore, our data in this homogenous subset of patients- particularly that confirming no role for SCCA-1 – suggests that the choice of optimal biomarkers for HCC

  13. Women with epilepsy in reproductive age group: special issues and management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Shehanaaz; Thomas, Sanjeev V

    2013-08-01

    Women with epilepsy (WWE) have several gender based problems pertaining to social and biological domains. The stigma of epilepsy and its consequences appear to be more for women than men. They have more difficulty in getting married and sustaining a married life. The cyclical variations in the reproductive hormones can adversely impact the seizure pattern in WWE. Epileptiform discharges in the brain can influence the hypothalamic functions and lead to sexual dysfunction. The Antiepileptic drugs (AED) may alter their metabolic and hormone profile and contribute to this disorder. Most WWE tend to have uneventful pregnancies and healthy babies. Nevertheless, the risk of fetal malformations appears to be increased when AEDs are used during pregnancy. This risk is higher for those who are on polytherapy, or using valproate. Recent studies have also demonstrated that antenatal exposure to AEDs could lead to neurocognitive and developmental impairment, low IQ or language problems in exposed infants. Clinicians need to consider these special issues while initiating AED therapy in adolescent girls. All WWE need to have a detailed pre conception evaluation wherein the need to continue AEDs, the ideal AED and dosage are reassessed. The AED therapy would have to be individualized according to the clinical situations, obstetric background and family concerns. Folic acid should be prescribed to all women who could potentially become pregnant. Detailed screening for fetal malformations by estimation of serum alpha fetoprotein and fetal ultrasonography need to be carried out between 14 - 18 weeks of pregnancy. The dosage of AEDs may have to be escalated in the second half of pregnancy in selected patients. The family should be provided detailed counseling and information on how to cope with the pregnancy, childbirth, lactation, and contraception. PMID:24818330

  14. Hepatocellular carcinoma in hepatitis D: Does it differ from hepatitis B monoinfection?

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    Zaigham Abbas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Hepatitis D virus (HDV superinfection in patients with chronic hepatitis B leads to accelerated liver injury, early cirrhosis, and decompensation. It may be speculated that hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC may differ in these patients from hepatitis B virus (HBV monoinfection. The aim of this study was to compare clinical aspects of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients of hepatitis D with HBV monoinfection. Patients and Methods: A total of 92 consecutive HCC cases seropositive for antibody against HDV antigen (HDV group were compared with 92 HBsAg-positive and anti-HDV-negative cases (HBV group. Results: The features including sex, body mass index, presence of ascites, serum biochemistry, gross tumor appearance, child class, barcelona cancer liver clinic and okuda stages were not significantly different between the 2 groups. Decreased liver size was noticed more in cases of HDV compared with HBV group where the liver size was normal or increased (P=0.000. HDV patients had lower platelets (P=0.053 and larger varices on endoscopy (P=0.004. Multifocal tumors and elevated alpha-fetoprotein level >1000 IU/mL were more common in HBV group (P=0.040 and P= 0.061. TNM classification showed more stage III-IV disease in HBV group (P=0.000. Conclusion: Decreased liver size and indirect evidence of more severe portal hypertension and earlier TNM stage compared with HBV monoinfection indicate that HDV infection causes HCC in a different way, possibly indirectly by inducing inflammation and cirrhosis.

  15. Serum human chorionic gonadotropin is associated with angiogenesis in germ cell testicular tumors

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    Avilés-Salas Alejandro

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Germ cell testicular tumors have survival rate that diminishes with high tumor marker levels, such as human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG. hCG may regulate vascular neoformation through vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF. Our purpose was to determine the relationship between hCG serum levels, angiogenesis, and VEGF expression in germ cell testicular tumors. Methods We conducted a retrospective study of 101 patients. Serum levels of hCG, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, and lactate dehydrogenase were measured prior to surgery. Vascular density (VD and VEGF tissue expression were determined by immunohistochemistry and underwent double-blind analysis. Results Histologically, 46% were seminomas and 54%, non-seminomas. Median follow-up was 43 ± 27 months. Relapse was present in 7.5% and mortality in 11.5%. Factors associated with high VD included non-seminoma type (p = 0.016, AFP ≥ 14.7 ng/mL (p = 0.0001, and hCG ≥ 25 mIU/mL (p = 0.0001. In multivariate analysis, the only significant VD-associated factor was hCG level (p = 0.04. When hCG levels were stratified, concentrations ≥ 25 mIU/mL were related with increased neovascularization (p Conclusion This is the first study that relates increased serum hCG levels with vascularization in testicular germ cell tumors. Hence, its expression might play a role in tumor angiogenesis, independent of VEGF expression, and may explain its association with poor prognosis. hCG might represent a molecular target for therapy.

  16. Risk factors for immediate post-operative fatal recurrence after curative resection of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bong-Wan Kim; Young-Bae Kim; Hee-Jung Wang; Myung-Wook Kim

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the clinicopathological risk factors for immediate post-operative fatal recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which may have practical implication and contribute to establishing high risk patients for pre- or post-operative preventive measures against HCC recurrence.METHODS: From June 1994 to May 2004, 269 patients who received curative resection for HCC were reviewed.Of these patients, those who demonstrated diffuse intrahepatic or multiple systemic recurrent lesions within 6mo after surgery were investigated (fatal recurrence group). The remaining patients were designated as the control group, and the two groups were compared for clinicopathologic risk factors.RESULTS: Among the 269 patients reviewed, 30patients were enrolled in the fatal recurrence group.Among the latter, 20 patients showed diffuse intrahepatic recurrence type and 10 showed multiple systemic recurrence type. Multivariate analysis between the fatal recurrence group and control group showed that preoperative serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) level was greater than 1 000 μg/L (P=0.02; odds ratio= 2.98),tumor size greater than 6.5 cm (P=0.03; OR=2.98),and presence of microvascular invasion (P= 0.01;OR=4.89) were the risk factors in the fatal recurrence group. The 48.1% of the patients who had all the three risk factors and the 22% of those who had two risk factors experienced fatal recurrence within 6 mo after surgery.CONCLUSION: Three distinct risk factors for immediate post-operative fatal recurrence of HCC after curative resection are pre-operative serum AFP level>1 000 μg/L,tumor size>6.5 cm, and microvascular invasion. The high risk patients with two or more risk factors should be the candidates for various adjuvant clinical trials.

  17. Liver transplantation for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma at the Liver Cancer Institute of Fudan University, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Jian; HE Yi-feng; YANG Guo-huan; SONG Kang; YUAN Zhou; WANG Yu-qi; TANG Zhao-you; FAN Jia; WU Zhi-quan; QIU Shuang-jian; HUANG Xiao-wu; YU Yao; WANG Zheng; SUN Jian; XIAO Yong-sheng

    2005-01-01

    Background Selection of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) for orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) remains controversial. Since there is a trend to expand the transplant criteria for HCC patients, we reviewed the data of patients with HCC who had received OLT at our institute to determine their survival and prognostic factors.Methods A total of 67 patients with HCC who had undergone OLT from April 2001 through December 2003 were reviewed retrospectively. Selection OLT candidates with HCC was dependent on the anatomical characteristics and/or the severity of underlying liver cirrhosis. The 67 patients were followed up for more than 6 months after transplantation. Their survival rate was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate and multivariate analyses using the Cox proportional hazards regression model were performed to reveal the factors affecting the survival rate.Results No perioperative death occurred in this series. The 1- and 2-year cumulative survival rates were 90.0% and 65.6%, and the disease-free survival (DFS) rates were 77.5% and 62.5% respectively. Univariate analysis revealed the tumor size, portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT), serum alpha-fetoprotein level, bilobular distribution of tumors, pTNM stage and histological differentiation were statistically significant factors affecting the DFS (P<0.05). Multivariate analysis showed tumor size and PVTT were independent and statistically significant factors affecting the DFS (P=0.005 and 0.010, respectively). In this series, all but 2 received systemic chemotherapy, among them 13 had tumor recurrence within 8 months after OLT.Conclusions OLT is indicated for patients with HCC, even for some patients with end-stage liver disease who may survive longer without tumor recurrence. Adjuvant chemotherapy may decrease the recurrence of HCC after OLT.

  18. Prognostic significance of the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in primary liver cancer: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong-Chun Xue

    Full Text Available The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR is a useful biomarker that reflects systemic inflammation responses. However, the prognostic value of the NLR in patients with primary liver cancer (PLC remains controversial. We performed a meta-analysis of 26 studies (comprising 4,461 patients to evaluate the association between the pre-treatment NLR and clinical outcomes of overall survival (OS and disease-free survival (DFS in patients with PLC. The correlation between NLR and tumor characteristics or other inflammation-related parameters was also assessed. Data were synthesized using the random-effects model of DerSimonian and Laird, and the hazard ratio (HR or odds ratio (OR with 95% confidence interval (CI was used to estimate effect size. Our analysis indicated that a high NLR predicted poor OS (HR, 2.102; 95% CI: 1.741-2.538 and DFS (HR, 2.474; 95% CI: 1.855-3.300 for PLC. A high NLR was associated with the presence of tumor vascular invasion (OR: 1.889, 95% CI: 1.487-2.400; p<0.001 and an elevated alpha-fetoprotein level (OR: 1.536; 95% CI: 1.152-2.048; p = 0.003. Thus, we conclude that a high NLR indicates a poor prognosis for patients with PLC and may also be predictive for PLC invasion and metastasis. Subgroup analysis suggested that the predictive role of NLR in cholangiocarcinoma is limited, and a further large study to confirm these findings is warranted.

  19. Diagnosis and surgical treatments of hepatocellular carcinoma with tumor thrombosis in bile duct:Experience of 34 patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lun-Xiu Qin; Zeng-Chen Ma; Zhi-Quan Wu; Jia Fan; Xin-Da Zhou; Hui-Chuan Sun; Qing-Hai Ye; Lu Wang; Zhao-You Tang

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with bile duct tumor thrombosis (BDT) is a rare event. The prognosis of this type of patients is very dismal. The aim of this study was to share the experience in the diagnosis and treatment of HCC with BDT, to further improve the prognosis of these patients.METHODS: Thirty-four patients of HCC with BDT received surgical treatment in authors' institute from July 1987 to January 2003 were reviewed retrospectively. The experience in the diagnosis and treatment, and the outcome of this type of HCC patients were summarized.RESULTS: Thirty of the 34 patients (88.2%) were positive for alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) (>20 μg/L), and 12 patients (35.3%) were found having obstructive jaundice before operation, 18 cases were suspected of "obstruction of bile duct" preoperatively. The primary tumors were frequently located at the left medial (13 cases) or right anterior lobe (14 cases). Thirty-one patients received liver resections and removal of BDT, while the other 3 patients received removal of BDT combined with hepatic artery ligation and cannulation (HAL+HAI), or only removal of BDT because their liver function reservation and general condition could not tolerate the primary tumor resection. The 1-year survival rate was 71.4%(20/28). The longest disease-free survival was over 15 years. The intrahepatic tumor recurrence within 1 year after operation was found in 14 patients (14/28, 50.0%).CONCLUSION: Surgical removal of primary tumors and BDTis safe and beneficial to the HCC patients with BDT. Early detection, diagnosis, and surgical treatment are the key points to prolong the survival time of patients.

  20. The c-Met Inhibitor MSC2156119J Effectively Inhibits Tumor Growth in Liver Cancer Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bladt, Friedhelm, E-mail: Friedhelm.Bladt@merckgroup.com; Friese-Hamim, Manja; Ihling, Christian; Wilm, Claudia; Blaukat, Andree [EMD Serono, and Merck Serono Research and Development, Merck KGaA, Darmstadt 64293 (Germany)

    2014-08-19

    The mesenchymal-epithelial transition factor (c-Met) is a receptor tyrosine kinase with hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) as its only high-affinity ligand. Aberrant activation of c-Met is associated with many human malignancies, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We investigated the in vivo antitumor and antimetastatic efficacy of the c-Met inhibitor MSC2156119J (EMD 1214063) in patient-derived tumor explants. BALB/c nude mice were inoculated with MHCC97H cells or with tumor fragments of 10 patient-derived primary liver cancer explants selected according to c-Met/HGF expression levels. MSC2156119J (10, 30, and 100 mg/kg) and sorafenib (50 mg/kg) were administered orally as single-agent treatment or in combination, with vehicle as control. Tumor response, metastases formation, and alpha fetoprotein (AFP) levels were measured. MSC2156119J inhibited tumor growth and induced complete regression in mice bearing subcutaneous and orthotopic MHCC97H tumors. AFP levels were undetectable after 5 weeks of MSC2156119J treatment, and the number of metastatic lung foci was reduced. Primary liver explant models with strong c-Met/HGF activation showed increased responsiveness to MSC2156119J, with MSC2156119J showing similar or superior activity to sorafenib. Tumors characterized by low c-Met expression were less sensitive to MSC2156119J. MSC2156119J was better tolerated than sorafenib, and combination therapy did not improve efficacy. These findings indicate that selective c-Met/HGF inhibition with MSC2156119J is associated with marked regression of c-Met high-expressing tumors, supporting its clinical development as an antitumor treatment for HCC patients with active c-Met signaling.

  1. Biomarkers: evaluation of clinical utility in surveillance and early diagnosis for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Peipei; Tang, Qi; Feng, Xiaobin; Tang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer and the second most common cause of death from cancer worldwide. Strategies to surveil and diagnose HCC in an earlier stage are urgently needed since this is when curable interventions can be offered to achieve long-term disease-free survival. Over the past few decades, research has suggested measuring alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) concentration and performing abdominal ultrasound (US) as part of routine surveillance of HCC every 6 months for high-risk patients, and many HCC guidelines worldwide have also recommended these examinations. Over the past 5 years, however, the role of serum biomarkers in HCC surveillance and diagnosis has diminished due to advances in imaging modalities. AFP was excluded from the surveillance and/or diagnostic criteria in the HCC guidelines published by some Western countries. In Asian countries, serum biomarkers such as AFP, the Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive fraction of AFP (AFP-L3), and des-γ-carboxyprothrombin (DCP) are still recommended for HCC surveillance and are being used as an adjunctive diagnostic tool in accordance with HCC guidelines. Moreover, novel biomarkers including Dickkopf-1 (DKK1), midkine (MDK), and microRNA (miRNA) are being studied in this regard. China accounts for 50% of HCC cases worldwide, so identifying biomarkers of HCC is paramount. Recent studies have indicated the clinical utility of simultaneous measurement of AFP and DCP for the early detection of HCC in China. They are predominantly used for cases caused by HBV infection. Additional large-scale prospective studies should be conducted to establish the utility of these biomarkers. PMID:27438343

  2. Newer markers for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero, Jorge A; Lok, Anna S F

    2004-11-01

    The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is increasing worldwide; the overall survival of patients with HCC is grim because most patients are diagnosed late, when curative treatment is not possible. Cirrhosis is the strongest risk factor for the development of HCC. HCC surveillance with alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and ultrasonography has been recommended for persons with cirrhosis. However, AFP level is insensitive for the early detection of HCC, and ultrasonography is expensive and operator dependent. Clearly, there is a need for novel strategies for the early detection of HCC. The ideal biomarker assay for HCC would be sensitive, specific, noninvasive, reproducible, inexpensive, and acceptable to patients. The Early Detection Research Network of the National Cancer Institute has proposed 5 phases for biomarker validation: preclinical exploratory studies, clinical assay development for disease, retrospective longitudinal study to detect preclinical disease, prospective screening study, and cancer control studies. Several biomarkers, such as des-gamma carboxyprothrombin, lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive AFP, human hepatocyte growth factor, and insulin-like growth factor-1, are promising, but none of these markers has been validated for clinical use. Limitations of the current literature include inadequate sample size, heterogeneity in biomarker assay methods and result reporting, limited analysis of demographics and cause of liver disease as covariates in the expression of these markers, and a scarcity of longitudinal studies evaluating the ability of biomarkers to detect preclinical disease. There is an urgent need for novel biomarkers for the detection of early HCC; the National Cancer Institute proposal provides a framework for future validation studies. PMID:15508074

  3. Preliminary evidence for associations between second-trimester human chorionic gonadotropin and unconjugated oestriol levels with pregnancy outcome in Down syndrome pregnancies.

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    Benn, P A

    1998-04-01

    Fifty-six cases of Down syndrome were identified in a population of women who had undergone maternal serum triple marker screening [alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and unconjugated oestriol (uE3) analyses]. These affected pregnancies represented all known cases present in the population of 34,368 women screened. Using a 1:270 mid-trimester Down syndrome risk to define the screen-positive group, 42 affected pregnancies were screen-positive (medians: AFP = 0.79 MOM, hCG = 2.13 MOM, uE3 = 0.62 MOM, age 34.6 years) and 14 pregnancies were screen-negative (medians: AFP = 0.82 MOM, hCG = 1.57 MOM, uE3 = 0.92 MOM, age 24.2 years). Four affected pregnancies were associated with in utero death and each of these cases was associated with relatively extreme values of AFP, hCG, and uE3, including the three highest levels of hCG in the entire series of Down syndrome pregnancies. Twenty-nine (15 screen-positive and 14 screen-negative) affected pregnancies resulted in liveborns. Down syndrome pregnancies had a significantly shorter gestational term than controls, and Down syndrome babies were also lighter than controls, even after adjustment for sex and gestational age. In affected pregnancies, a low uE3 level appeared to be associated with a greater chance of a small-for-gestational age baby. No correlations could be demonstrated between AFP or hCG levels and gestational age-adjusted term weight. Based on this small series, it would appear that uE3 may be particularly useful in detecting those Down syndrome cases associated with small-for-gestational age fetuses. A very high hCG value may indicate a higher probability of fetal death. PMID:9602476

  4. Is maternal serum triple screening a better predictor of Down syndrome in female than in male fetuses?

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    Ghidini, A; Spong, C Y; Grier, R E; Walker, C N; Pezzullo, J C

    1998-02-01

    Among euploid gestations, female fetuses have been reported to have significantly lower maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) and higher human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) levels than male fetuses. Since in maternal serum triple screening, low MSAFP and high hCG MOM independently confer greater risk of a Down syndrome fetus, we investigated the hypothesis that maternal serum triple screening is more efficacious at detecting female than male Down syndrome fetuses. A database containing all karyotypes from amniocentesis performed between August 1994 and August 1996 was accessed. All trisomy 21 cases were identified. The male-to-female ratio among trisomy 21 fetuses detected at amniocentesis after abnormal maternal serum triple screening was compared with that among trisomy 21 fetuses detected at amniocentesis for advanced maternal age (AMA), which served as the control group. Statistical analysis utilized chi-square, Fisher's exact test, and Student's t-test. A P value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Forty-nine trisomy 21 fetuses were detected in the women who underwent amniocentesis because of abnormal triple screening and 311 were detected in the control group. The proportion of male fetuses among the triple screening group was not significantly different from that of the AMA group (55 per cent vs. 57 per cent; P=0.9). Our study had a power of 80 per cent to detect a difference of 25 per cent in the male-to-female ratio (alpha=0.05, beta=0.20). The reported differences in MSAFP and hCG levels between male and female euploid fetuses do not appear to affect the sex ratio among Down syndrome fetuses detected because of an abnormal maternal serum triple screening. PMID:9516012

  5. Combined Analysis of AFP and HCCR-1 as an Useful Serological Marker for Small Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Prospective Cohort Study

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    Guoxin Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is one of the most frequent malignant tumors in the world. The only serological marker widely used for the diagnosis of HCC is alpha-fetoprotein (AFP. Despite that AFP is widely used for the diagnosis of HCC, it has a limit as a serological marker due to its low sensitivity and specificity. The human cervical cancer proto-oncogene 1 (HCCR-1 was previously reported as a new biomarker for HCC. To further evaluate the HCCR-1 as a biomarker for HCC, we conducted the prospective cohort study. We evaluated the significance of simultaneous measurement of 2 tumor markers in the diagnosis of HCC in China, Japan and Korea. Two markers for HCC, AFP and HCCR-1, were measured in the sera obtained from 1,338 patients at the time of initial diagnosis of HCC. Of the 1338 HCC patients, 616 (46% and 686 (51.3% were sero-positive for AFP and HCCR-1, respectively. The positive rate for HCC was increased up to 74.1% in combined use of AFP and HCCR-1. Many cases (54% for AFP-negative HCC were positive for HCCR-1 and vice versa. More importantly, the diagnostic rate for small HCC (< 2 cm was significantly improved in the combined analysis of AFP and HCCR-1 to 56.9% although it was only 40.1% and 23.4% in the single analysis of HCCR-1 and AFP, respectively. Our result suggests that the HCCR-1 could be an useful biomarker for HCC while the diagnostic rate could be significantly improved in the combined use of HCCR-1 and AFP.

  6. Passage of bone-marrow-derived liver stem cells in a proliferating culture system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun-Feng Cai; Ji-Sheng Chen; Shu-Ying Su; Zuo-Jun Zhen; Huan-Wei Chen

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To explore the feasibility of passage of bonemarrow-derived liver stem cells (BDLSCs) in culture systems that contain cholestatic serum. METHODS: Whole bone marrow cells of rats were purified with conditioning selection media that contained 50 mL/L cholestatic serum. The selected BDLSCs were grown in a proliferating culture system and a differentiating culture system. The culture systems contained factors that stimulated the proliferation and differentiation of BDLSCs. Each passage of the proliferated stem cells was subjected to flow cytometry to detect stem cell markers. The morphology and phenotypic markers of BDLSCs were characterized using immunohistochemistry, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and electron microscopy. The metabolic functions of differentiated cells were also determined by glycogen staining and urea assay. RESULTS: The conditioning selection medium isolated BDLSCs directly from cultured bone marrow cells. The selected BDLSCs could be proliferated for six passages and maintained stable markers in our proliferating system. When the culture system was changed to a differentiating system, hepatocyte-like colony-forming units (H-CFUs) were formed. H-CFUs expressed markers of embryonic hepatocytes (alpha-fetoprotein, albumin and cytokeratin 8/18), biliary cells (cytokeratin 19), hepatocyte functional proteins (transthyretin and cytochrome P450-2b1), and hepatocyte nuclear factors 1α and -3β). They also had glycogen storage and urea synthesis functions, two of the critical features of hepatocytes. CONCLUSION: BDLSCs can be selected directly from bone marrow cells, and pure BDLSCs can be proliferated for six passages. The differentiated cells have hepatocyte-like phenotypes and functions. BDLSCs represent a new method to provide a readily available alternate source of cells for clinical hepatocyte therapy.

  7. A specific sorting signal is not required for the polarized secretion of newly synthesized proteins from cultured intestinal epithelial cells.

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    Rindler, M J; Traber, M G

    1988-08-01

    Caco-2 cells, derived from human colon, have the morphological, functional, and biochemical properties of small intestinal epithelial cells. After infection with enveloped viruses, influenza virions assembled at the apical plasma membrane while vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) particles appeared exclusively at the basolateral membrane, similar to the pattern observed in virus-infected Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK). When grown in Millicell filter chamber devices and labeled with [35S]methionine, Caco-2 monolayers released all of their radiolabeled secretory products preferentially into the basal chamber. Among the proteins identified were apolipoproteins AI and E, transferrin, and alpha-fetoprotein. No proteins were observed to be secreted preferentially from the apical cell surface. The lysosomal enzyme beta-hexosaminidase was also secreted primarily from the basolateral surface of the cells in the presence or absence of lysosomotropic drugs or tunicamycin, which inhibit the targetting of lysosomal enzymes to lysosomes. Neither of these drug treatments significantly affected the polarized secretion of other nonlysosomal proteins. In addition, growth hormone (GH), which is released in a nonpolar fashion from MDCK cells, was secreted exclusively from the basolateral membrane after transfection of Caco-2 cells with GH cDNA in a pSV2-based expression vector. Similar results were obtained in transient expression experiments and after selection of permanently transformed Caco-2 cells expressing GH. Since both beta-hexosaminidase and GH would be expected to lack sorting signals for polarized exocytosis in epithelial cells, these results indicate that in intestinal cells, proteins transported via the basolateral secretory pathway need not have specific sorting signals.

  8. Effects of tachyplesin on proliferation and differentiation of human hepatocellular carcinoma SMMC-7721 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao-Liang Ouyang; Qi-Fu Li; Xuan-Xian Peng; Qing-Rong Liu; Shui-Gen Hong

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the antitumor activities of tachyplesin on human hepatocellula r carcinoma (HCC) cells.METHODS: Tachyplesin, isolated from acid extracts of Chinese horseshoe crab (Tachypleus tridentatus) hemocytes, was used to treat the human HCC cell line SMMC-7721. Effects of tachyplesin on the proliferation of SMMC-7721 cells were measured with trypan blue dye exclusion test and HE staining. The morphology and ultrastructure of the cells were examined by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. The activities of γ-glutamyltransferase (γ-GT) and tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) were assayed with biochemical methods. The levels of alpha fetoprotein (α-FP), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), p21wAF1/CIP1 and c-myc were examined by immunocytochemistry. RESULTS: After treatment with tachyplesin 3.0 mg/L, the proliferation of SMMC-7721 cells was inhibited significantly, with the cell growth inhibitory rate amounted to 55.57 % and the maximum cell mitotic index declined by 43.68 %. The morphology and ultrastructure underwent restorational alteration. The activity of γ-GT declined while TAT activity increased obviously, and the levels of α-FP and PCNA decreased. Moreover, the expression of p21WAF1/CIP1 protein was upregulated and that of c-myc protein was down-regulated. CONCLUSION: Tachyplesin could effectively inhibit the proliferation of hepatocarcinoma cells, reverse the malignant morphological and ultrastructural characteristics, alter the levels of enzymes and antigens, regulate the expression of differentiation-associated oncogene and tumor suppressor gene, and induce hepatocarcinama cell differentiation.

  9. Vascular endothelial growth factor before and after locoregional treatment and its relation to treatment response in hepatocelluar carcinoma patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heba Sedrak; Noaman El-Garem; Mervat Naguib; Heba El-Zawahry; Mohamed Esmat; Lila Rashed

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels in hepatocel-lular carcinoma patients before and after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) and percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) and its relation to treatment response. Methods: A total of 40 patients with unrespectable hepatocelluar carcinoma were assessed clinically. Twenty patients were suitable to be treated by TACE, while other 20 patients were treated with PEI. Serum VEGF levels were measured before and 1 month after each procedure by ELISA. Response was assessed after 1 month according to Union Internationale Contre le Cancer evaluation criteria based on change in tumor size as measured by ultrasound. Results: There was no significant difference between TACE and PEI groups with regard to age, sex, tumor size, response to local therapy, or VEGF and alpha-fetoprotein before and after therapy. VEGF levels after TACE were significantly higher than before TACE [(298.1 ± 123.6) pg/mL vs. (205.8 ± 307.3) pg/mL;P=0.001]. Also, VEGF levels were significantly higher after PEI than before PEI [(333.8 ± 365.6) pg/mL vs. (245.3 ± 301.8) pg/mL;P=0.000]. Non-responders of both groups had significantly high VEGF levels than responder's, both before [(985.0 ± 113.2) pg/mL vs. (117.1 ± 75.3) pg/mL;P Conclusions: Both TACE and PEI were associated with an increase in serum VEGF in hepatocelluar carcinoma patients. Higher levels of VEGF before and after therapy were found in non-responders, suggesting that VEGF is a useful marker in predicting treatment response.

  10. Mesenchymal stem cells from the human umbilical cord ameliorate fulminant hepatic failure and increase survival in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-Feng Yang; Hong-Cui Cao; Qiao-Ling Pan; Jiong Yu; Jun Li; Lan-Juan Li

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Cell therapy has been promising for various diseases. We investigated whether transplantation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) has any therapeutic effects on D-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide (GalN/LPS)-induced fulminant hepatic failure in mice. METHODS:hUCMSCs isolated from human umbilical cord were cultured and transplanted via the tail vein into severe combined immune deifciency mice with GalN/LPS-induced fulminant hepatic failure. After transplantation, the localiza-tion and differentiation of hUCMSCs in the injured livers were investigated by immunohistochemical and genetic analy-ses. The recovery of the injured livers was evaluated histologi-cally. The survival rate of experimental animals was analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test. RESULTS:hUCMSCs expressed high levels of CD29, CD73, CD13, CD105 and CD90, but did not express CD31, CD79b, CD133, CD34, and CD45. Cultured hUCMSCs displayed adip-ogenic and osteogenic differentiation potential. Hematoxylin and eosin staining revealed that transplantation of hUCMSCs reduced hepatic necrosis and promoted liver regeneration. Transplantation of hUCMSCs prolonged the survival rate of mice with fulminant hepatic failure. Polymerase chain reaction for humanalu sequences showed the presence of human cells in mouse livers. Positive staining for human albumin, human alpha-fetoprotein and human cytokeratin 18 suggested the for-mation of hUCMSCs-derived hepatocyte-like cellsin vivo. CONCLUSIONS:hUCMSC was a potential candidate for stem cell based therapies. After transplantation, hUCMSCs partially repaired hepatic damage induced by GalN/LPS in mice. hUC-MSCs engrafted into the injured liver and differentiated into hepatocyte-like cells.

  11. An unhappy triad: Hemochromatosis, porphyria cutanea tarda and hepatocellular carcinoma-A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Martina T Mogl; Andreas Pascher; Sabine J Presser; Michael Schwabe; Peter Neuhaus; Natascha C Nuessler

    2007-01-01

    Liver fibrosis and cirrhosis are predisposing factors for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Hemosiderosis has also been described to trigger carcinogenesis. A significant iron overload, as found in hereditary hemochromatosis (HHC), is a risk factor for HCC and may also promote the symptoms of porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT). A 68-year old male patient presented to our clinic with a suspected HCC,elevated alpha-fetoprotein but normal liver function tests. He reported a 25 year-old history of vitiligo upon exposure to sunlight. The patient underwent an extended left hemihepatectomy, and the recovery was uneventful, with the exception of a persistent hyperbilirubinemia. Perfusion problems and extrahepatic cholestasis were ruled out by CT-scan with angiography and MR-cholangiopancreatography. However, MRI showed an iron overload. Histology confirmed the HCC (pT3, pN0, G3, R0) and revealed a portal fibrosis and hemosiderosis. Based on the skin lesions we suspected a PCT that was confirmed by laboratory tests showing elevated porphyrin, uroporphyrin, coproporphyrin and porphobilinogen. Concurrently, molecular diagnostics revealed homozygosity for the C282Y mutation within the hemochromatosis HFE gene. After phlebotomy and normalization of liver function tests the patient was discharged. This is the first case ever showing the unusual combination of HCC in a fibrotic liver with HHC and PCT. This diagnosis not only warrants oncological follow-up but also symptomatic therapy to normalize iron metabolism and thereby improve liver function and alleviate the symptoms of HHC and PCT. Thus progression of fibrosis may be prevented and liver regeneration supported.

  12. Safety of Long Term Treatment with Venom Fraction Isolated from the Scorpion Androctonus amoreuxi to Irradiated Rats Receiving Bone Marrow Transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scorpion Venom of Androctonus amoreuxi contains a strong bradykinin potentiating factor (BPF) that augments bradykinin effect through enhancing its release. Cytoprotective ability of BPF has been documented, but its stimulation to cellular proliferation and differentiation could induce possible carcinogenicity, so this study aims to assure its safe use. BPF and isologous bone marrow transplantation (BMT) has been investigated in irradiated rats. The examined parameters included serum alpha fetoprotein, carcinoembryonic antigen, β2-microglobulin, total cholesterol, triglycerides and bilirubin beside liver histopathology. A group of rats received isologous BMT (75 x 106 ±5 cells) performed 3 h post irradiation, another group received i.p. injection of 8 doses of BPF each of 1 μg/ g body wt (one dose/ week). Irradiation was performed at the dose level of 5 Gy. All animals were examined after an investigation period of 60 days. Either biological agent was performed solely or together with irradiation, as well as their combination. The results pointed out that irradiation induced a significant elevation in the level of serum β2-microglobulin (P< 0.05), cholesterol, triglycerides and bilirubin after a period of 60 days. Neither BPF repeated injection nor BMT solely or combined with irradiation induced any carcinogenicity as indicated by tumour markers and confirmed by histo-pathological examination. Both treatments with irradiation significantly depressed cholesterol, triglycerides and bilirubin compared to the irradiated group. Regeneration in liver cells is observed 60 days post irradiation and treatment with both agents as well as an increase in hepatic cells, nuclear size and maintained cytoplasm. Results clarify the safe use of BPF as a biological treatment comparable to BMT

  13. The Degree of Lipiodol Accumulation Can Be an Indicator of Successful Treatment for Unresectable Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) Patients - in the Case of Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization (TACE) and External Beam Radiotherapy (EBRT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ping; Zeng, Zhao-Chong; Wang, Bin-Liang; Zhang, Jian-Ying; Fan, Jia; Zhou, Jian; Hu, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) in combination with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) results in improved survival due to better local control in patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The purpose of this study was to investigate lipiodol accumulation, as it reflects tumor burden and is a potential prognostic factor, in HCC patients treated with TACE/EBRT. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively studied 147 patients with unresectable HCC treated with TACE and EBRT. Clinical features, adverse reactions, and prognostic factors were analyzed. All patients were treated with TACE 1-6 times in combination with EBRT (44-66 Gy) in dose of 2 Gy/fraction given once a day five times a week. Tumor status and laboratory findings were followed. The degree of lipiodol accumulation was assessed by computed tomography before EBRT, and was categorized as either complete/intense or low/moderate. Results: The response rate of tumor size after EBRT was 68.2%, median survival was 23.1 months, and overall survival rates were 86.6%, 49.2%, and 28.2% at 1, 2, and 3 years, respectively. Univariate analysis showed that lower hemoglobin levels, higher alkaline phosphatase levels, Child-Pugh B, negative alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) response after EBRT, poor treatment response after EBRT, tumor diameter >10 cm, and poor lipiodol accumulation were unfavorable prognostic factors. On multivariate analysis, higher hemoglobin levels, Child-Pugh A, decreased AFP levels after treatment, Helical Tomotherapy (HT) and intense lipiodol accumulation after TACE were significant favorable predictors. Conclusions: The degree of lipiodol accumulation before EBRT is a prognostic factor in patients with unresectable HCC. Increased AFP levels after EBRT are always associated with poor survival. HT is recommended as a potentially better EBRT modality than three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT). PMID:27471557

  14. Identification of IgM as a contaminant in lectin-FLISA assays for HCC detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mengjun; Comunale, Mary Ann; Herrera, Harmin; Betesh, Lucy; Kono, Yuko; Mehta, Anand

    2016-07-29

    Liver disease, in the form of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) accounts for > 700,000 deaths worldwide. A major reason for this is late diagnosis of HCC. The currently used biomarker, serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is elevated in 40-60% of those with HCC and other markers that can either compliment or replace AFP are desired. Our previous work has identified a number of proteins that contain altered glycans in HCC. Specifically, these altered glycans were increased levels of core and outer arm fucosylation. To determine the clinical usefulness of those identified glycoproteins, a plate based assay was developed that allowed for the detection of fucosylated glycoforms. While this method was applicable to a number of independent patient sets, it was unable to specifically detect fucosylated glycoforms in many patient samples. That is, some material was present in serum that led to non-specific signal in the lectin- fluorescence -linked immunosorbent assay (lectin-FLISA). To address this issue, a systematic process was undertaken to identify the material. This material was found to be increased levels of lectin reactive IgM. Removal of both IgG and IgM using a multi-step protein A/G incubation and filtration step removed the contaminating signal and allowed for the analysis of specific protein glycoforms. This assay was subsequently used on two sample sets, one that was shown previously to be unable to be tested via a lectin FLISA and in a larger independent sample set. The clinical usefulness of this assay in the early detection of HCC is discussed.

  15. The association of HMGB1 gene with the prognosis of HCC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianbiao Xiao

    Full Text Available High-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1 is an evolutionarily ancient and critical regulator of cell death and survival. HMGB1 is a chromatin-associated nuclear protein molecule that triggers extracellular damage. The expression of HMGB1 has been reported in many types of cancers, but the role of HMGB1 in hepato cellular carcinoma (HCC is unknown.The aim of this study was to analyze the roles of HMGB1 in HCC progression using HCC clinical samples. We also investigated the clinical outcomes of HCC samples with a special focus on HMBG1 expression. In an immunohistochemical study conducted on 208 cases of HCC, HMGB1 had high expression in 134 cases(64.4%.The HMGB1 expression level did not correlate with any clinicopathological parameters, except alpha fetoprotein (AFP (p = 0.041 and CLIP stage (p = 0.007. However, survival analysis showed that the group with HMBG1 overexpression had a significantly shorter overall survival time than the group with a down-regulated expression of HMBG1 (HR = 0.568, CI (0.398, 0.811, p = 0.002. Multivariate analysis showed that HMGB1 expression was a significant and independent prognostic parameter (HR = 0.562, CI (0.388, 0.815, p = 0.002 for HCC patients. The ability of proliferation, migration and invasion of HCC cells was suppressed with the disruption of endogenous HMGB1 using small interfering RNAs. On the other hand, the ability of proliferation, migration and invasion of HCC cells was strengthened when the expression endogenous HMGB1 was enhanced using HMGB1 DNA. HMGB1 expression may be a novel and independent predictor for the prognosis of HCC patients. The overexpression of HMGB1 in HCC could be a novel, effective, and supplementary biomarker for HCC, since it plays a vital role in the progression of HCC.

  16. Identification of Circulating Biomarker Candidates for Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC: An Integrated Prioritization Approach.

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    Faryal Mehwish Awan

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is the world's third most widespread cancer. Currently available circulating biomarkers for this silently progressing malignancy are not sufficiently specific and sensitive to meet all clinical needs. There is an imminent and pressing need for the identification of novel circulating biomarkers to increase disease-free survival rate. In order to facilitate the selection of the most promising circulating protein biomarkers, we attempted to define an objective method likely to have a significant impact on the analysis of vast data generated from cutting-edge technologies. Current study exploits data available in seven publicly accessible gene and protein databases, unveiling 731 liver-specific proteins through initial enrichment analysis. Verification of expression profiles followed by integration of proteomic datasets, enriched for the cancer secretome, filtered out 20 proteins including 6 previously characterized circulating HCC biomarkers. Finally, interactome analysis of these proteins with midkine (MDK, dickkopf-1 (DKK-1, current standard HCC biomarker alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, its interacting partners in conjunction with HCC-specific circulating and liver deregulated miRNAs target filtration highlighted seven novel statistically significant putative biomarkers including complement component 8, alpha (C8A, mannose binding lectin (MBL2, antithrombin III (SERPINC1, 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (HSD11B1, alcohol dehydrogenase 6 (ADH6, beta-ureidopropionase (UPB1 and cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily A, polypeptide 6 (CYP2A6. Our proposed methodology provides a swift assortment process for biomarker prioritization that eventually reduces the economic burden of experimental evaluation. Further dedicated validation studies of potential putative biomarkers on HCC patient blood samples are warranted. We hope that the use of such integrative secretome, interactome and miRNAs target filtration approach will

  17. Rapid Virological Response After Early Treatment with a Combined Therapy of Ledipasvir and Sofosbuvir in HCV Genotype 4 After Living Donor Liver Transplantation in a HCC Downstaged Patient: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obed, Aiman; Bashir, Abdalla; Jarrad, Anwar

    2016-09-20

    BACKGROUND Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 4 (GT-4) is widespread in the Middle East, where it is responsible for the majority of HCV infections. It shows moderate treatment response rates when compared to other genotypes in the current era of interferon-based regimens. However, in the era of direct acting antiviral (DAA) drugs, its response is at least as good as observed for HCV genotypes 1-3. CASE REPORT We present a case of a 44-year-old patient with HCV cirrhosis. Since 2007, he has been treated for HCV infection with multiple ineffective regimens of interferon (INF) and ribavirin. A liver biopsy in 2010 revealed stage 5-6/6 indicating cirrhosis, which was later complicated by the occurrence of portal vein thrombosis and a large hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) (maximum diameter 9 cm). The patient was successfully treated with sorafenib, transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE), and radiofrequency ablation. After four TACE procedures, the patient's AFP (alpha-fetoprotein) decreased remarkably and almost normalized. The HCC disappeared radiologically as shown by triple phase CT, MRI with contrast, and PET-CT. He successfully underwent a living donor liver transplantation. Four weeks post liver transplantation he started treatment with sorafenib, and switched from tacrolimus to Rapamune (sirolimus) as immunosuppressant therapy. Ten weeks after liver transplantation, HCV treatment was introduced along with ledipasvir and sofosbuvir due to his increasing liver enzyme levels. A rapid viral response was achieved after 14 days. In total, the patient received 12 weeks of this treatment. CONCLUSIONS This case study might be of significance in informing early management and personalized treatment of patients with recurrent HCV GT-4 infections after liver transplantation, even in complex clinical surroundings.

  18. Predicting prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma; comparison of staging system in pakistani cohort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the clinical, biochemical and radiological prognostic indicators and to compare the performance of six staging systems in patients of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Study Design:Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Gastroenterology, Doctors Hospital, Lahore, from October 2007 to December 2013. Methodology:Patients with HCC were included. Baseline clinical, hematological and radiological variables were noted. Patients were followed for 5 years or till death. Survival predictors were identified using Cox proportional hazard analysis and 6 prognostic staging systems were evaluated by determining homogeneity, discriminatory ability and monotonicity. Results: Of the 228 patients included, male to female ratio was 2.6/1 (165/63) and mean age was 56.5 ± 10.4 years. Majority of patients 189 (82.9%) were anti-HCV positive. Solitary HCC lesion was seen in 121 (53.1%) patients, 16 (7%) had 2 lesions while 73 (32%) had 3 or more lesions. Only 36 (15.8%) patients had palliative therapy for HCC. Survival rate was 45.2%, 25%, 12.3%, 7%, 2.2% and 1% for 6 months, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 years respectively. Male gender, portal vein thrombosis, serum albumin < 3.5 g/dl, tumor size =6 cm and alpha fetoprotein (AFP) =147 U/ml were bad prognostic indicators. OKUDA, GRETCH and early stages of CLIP had better homogeneity while CLIP showed superior discriminatory ability and monotonicity for predicting survival. Conclusion: Male gender, presence of portal vein thrombosis, low serum albumin, large tumor size and high AFP level are poor prognostic indicators in patients of HCC. CLIP has better performance in predicting mortality. (author)

  19. A long-term study of the effects of antiviral therapy on survival of patients with HBV-associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) following local tumor ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ultimate goal of antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Earlier we reported favorable effects of antiviral therapy on survival of HCC patients following curative tumor ablation (Int J Cancer online 14 April 2010; doi: 10.1002/ijc.25382). It was the first observation made in the United States. We now report 12 year follow-up of this patient group. CHB patients with no prior antiviral therapy with a single HCC (≤7 cm) were studied. All patients underwent local tumor ablation as their first option. Patients diagnosed before 1999 received no antiviral treatment while those diagnosed after 1999 received antiviral treatment. Survival between the treated and untreated groups was compared. Among 555 HCC patients seen at our clinic between 1991 and 2013, 25 subjects were eligible. Nine subjects (all male patients, median age 53 years [46–66]) did not receive antiviral therapy while 16 (14 male patients, median age 56 years [20–73]) received treatment. Between the two groups, there was no difference in their median tumor size and levels of alpha-fetoprotein and albumin. However, the survival was significantly different (P = 0.001): the median survival of the untreated was 16 months (3–36 months) while that of the treated was 80 months (15–152 months). Fourteen of 16 treated patients are alive to date with two longest survivors alive for ≥151 months. In conclusion, concomitant antiviral therapy for CHB patients with HCC reduces and prevents new/recurrent tumor and improves survival. This novel treatment strategy offers an alternative to liver transplantation in patients with HBV-associated HCC

  20. Lycopene Enriched Tomato Extract Inhibits Hypoxia, Angiogenesis, and Metastatic Markers in early Stage N-Nitrosodiethylamine Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Nisha; Gupta, Prachi; Singh, Baljinder; Koul, Ashwani

    2015-01-01

    Targeting altered pathways during initial stage of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development is viewed as an effective and promising strategy to control this disease. Present study investigated the potential effect of lycopene-enriched tomato extract (LycT) on hypoxia-induced factor (HIF)-1α, HOX, VEGF, CD31, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, and alpha fetoprotein (AFP)expression during initial stages of N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) induced HCC. Female Balb/c mice (8-10 wk) were assigned to 4 groups: control, NDEA (200 mg NDEA i.p./kg body weight, cumulative), LycT (5 mg lycopene orally/kg body weight; 3 times a week), and LycT + NDEA. LycT treatment began 2 wk before NDEA administration and continued until the end of the 10 wk study. The onset of HCC by NDEA was associated with significant alteration in serum biochemical markers [alanine transaminases (ALT), aspartate transaminases (AST), and alkaline phosphatases (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), urea, A/G ratio, and bilirubin] and in liver histopathology. LycT treatment significantly reduced the levels of these markers. LycT treatment to NDEA mice also led to significant reduction in protein levels of AFP, HIF-1α, VEGF, CD31, MMP-2, and MMP-9 in comparison with NDEA group alone. These parameters are important biomarkers of hypoxia, angiogenesis, and metastasis, which reflect the advanced disease stage. The study provides evidence that prophylactic dietary supplementation with LycT may counteract HCC progression and/or protect against disease onset. PMID:26474105

  1. Hepatocyte growth factor incorporated chitosan nanoparticles augment the differentiation of stem cell into hepatocytes for the recovery of liver cirrhosis in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Chellan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Short half-life and low levels of growth factors in the niche of injured microenvironment necessitates the exogenous and sustainable delivery of growth factors along with stem cells to augment the regeneration of injured tissues. Methods Here, recombinant human hepatocyte growth factor (HGF was incorporated into chitosan nanoparticles (CNP by ionic gelation method and studied for its morphological and physiological characteristics. Cirrhotic mice received either hematopoietic stem cells (HSC or mesenchymal stemcells (MSC with or without HGF incorporated chitosan nanoparticles (HGF-CNP and saline as control. Biochemical, histological, immunostaining and gene expression assays were carried out using serum and liver tissue samples. One way analysis of variance was used for statics application Results Serum levels of selected liver protein and enzymes were significantly increased in the combination of MSC and HGF-CNP (MSC+HGF-CNP treated group. Immunopositive staining for albumin (Alb and cytokeratin 18 (CK18, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR for Alb, alpha fetoprotein (AFP, CK18, cytokeratin 19 (CK19 ascertained that MSC-HGF-CNP treatment could be an effective combination to repopulate liver parenchymal cells in the liver cirrhosis. Zymogram and western blotting for matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 (MMP2 and MMP9 revealed that MMP2 actively involved in the fibrolysis of cirrhotic tissue. Immunostaining for alpha smooth muscle actin (αSMA and type I collagen showed decreased expression in the MSC+HGF-CNP treatment. These results indicated that HGF-CNP enhanced the differentiation of stem cells into hepatocytes and supported the reversal of fibrolysis of extracellular matrix (ECM. Conclusion Bone marrow stem cells were isolated, characterized and transplanted in mice model. Biodegradable biopolymeric nanoparticles were prepared with the pleotrophic protein molecule and it worked well for the

  2. Computer-aided assessment of hepatic contour abnormalities as an imaging biomarker for the prediction of hepatocellular carcinoma development in patients with chronic hepatitis C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Hepatic contour was quantified and converted to hepatic fibrosis index (HFI). • HFI was a significant risk factor for HCC with an odds ratio of 26.4. • HFI may be an important imaging biomarker for managing cirrhotic patients. - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate whether a hepatic fibrosis index (HFI), quantified on the basis of hepatic contour abnormality, is a risk factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Materials and methods: Our institutional review board approved this retrospective study and written informed consent was waved. During a 14-month period, consecutive 98 patients with chronic hepatitis C who had no medical history of HCC treatment (56 men and 42 women; mean age, 70.7 years; range, 48–91 years) were included in this study. Gadoxetic acid-enhanced hepatocyte specific phase was used to detect and analyze hepatic contour abnormality. Hepatic contour abnormality was quantified and converted to HFI using in-house proto-type software. We compared HFI between patients with (n = 54) and without HCC (n = 44). Serum levels of albumin, total bilirubin, aspartate transferase, alanine transferase, percent prothrombin time, platelet count, alpha-fetoprotein, protein induced by vitamin K absence-II, and HFI were tested as possible risk factors for the development of HCC by determining the odds ratio with logistic regression analysis. Results: HFIs were significantly higher in patients with HCC (0.58 ± 0.86) than those without (0.36 ± 0.11) (P < 0.001). Logistic analysis revealed that only HFI was a significant risk factor for HCC development with an odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of 26.4 (9.0–77.8) using a cutoff value of 0.395. Conclusion: The hepatic fibrosis index, generated using a computer-aided assessment of hepatic contour abnormality, may be a useful imaging biomarker for the prediction of HCC development in patients with chronic hepatitis C

  3. The Diagnosis Value of AFU and AFP Combined Detection for Primary Hepatic Carcinoma%AFU与AFP联合检测在诊断原发性肝癌中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢远勤

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the significance of serum α-L-fucosidase (AFU)and Alpha fetoprotein (AFP) in the diagnosis of primary hepatic carcinoma( PHC). Method: The activities of serum AFU and AFP were measured in 29 cases of PHC,28 eases of liver cirrhosis, 103 cases of others liver damage. Resuit: The activities in patients with PHC were significantly higher than any other groups. The diagnostic sensitivities of serum AFU and AFP in patients with PHC were 86.2% and 72.3%. AFP positive rate was 84.0% in negative of AFP for patients with PHC and the combined diagnostic sensitivity of AFU and AFU for PHC was 93.1%. Conclusion: The serum AFU and AFP is a useful marker for the diagnosis of PHC.%目的:探讨血清α-L-岩藻糖苷酶(AFU)及甲胎蛋白(AFU)对原发性肝癌(PHC)的诊断价值.方法:分别测定29例PHC患者、28例肝硬化患者、103例其他肝损伤疾病患者的AFU及AFP含量.结果:AFU与AFP在PHC中的诊断率分别为86.2%和72.3%,在AFP阴性的PHC患者中,AFU的阳性率为84%,两者联检的总阳性率为93.1%.结论:AFU与AFP联合检测对提高PHC的诊断率有重要价值.

  4. AFP与AFU和CAI9-9联合检测对原发性肝癌的诊断意义%Value of combined measurement of AFP,AFU and CAI9-9 in diagnosing primary hepatic carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许可银; 张弘; 朱郁飞

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨肿瘤标志物甲胎蛋白(alpha-fetoprotein,AFP)、α-L-岩藻糖苷酶(alpha-L-fucosidase,AFU)、糖类抗原(CAI9-9)联合检测在原发性肝癌(primary hepatocellular carcinoma,PHC)诊断中的应用价值.方法:应用电化学发光免疫分析法和全自动生化分析仪法测定70例PHC患者和50例正常对照组血清AFP、AFU、CA19-9的含量,并分析对PHC诊断的敏感性和特异性.结果:PHC组AFP、APU、CA19-9水平明显高于正常对照组,差异极有统计学意义(P<0.01);AFP、AFU、CA19-9单个肿癌标志物诊断PHC的敏感性分别为65.7%、87.1%、50.8%,特异性分别为92%、62%、78%;3种肿瘤标志物联合检测在PHC诊断中的敏感性和特异性分别为98.6%和98%,联合检测的敏感性与单项检测差异极有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论:AFP、AFU、CA19-9联合检测对PHC有一定的诊断价值,尤其可提高AFP阴性PHC的诊断率.

  5. Serological Biomarkers of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Egyptian Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarmad F. El-Tayeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is one of the most aggressive cancers worldwide. In Egypt, the disease is usually detected in an advanced stage at which no treatment may be effective including surgery. Early detection of the disease is thus an important goal allowing the patient to be treated before the enlargement of the tumor or its metastasis to distant organs. Tumor markers are serological agents which serum level may be useful in predicting the presence of the tumor at early stages. Alpha fetoprotein (AFP which is the golden marker for HCC is of low sensitivity, therefore, additional markers such as alpha-L-fucosidase (AFU, transforming growth factors alpha and beta (TGF-α and TGF-β and interleukin-8 (IL-8 are suggested to be simultaneously evaluated in order to enhance the detection of HCC. A total of 96 patients with different liver diseases such as HCC, hepatitis C virus (HCV, hepatitis B virus (HBV and cirrhotic patients are included in this study. Sixteen healthy volunteers are used as a control group. In patients with HCC each of AFP, AFU, TGF-α and TGF-β recorded significantly higher levels than the other patient groups and controls. HCC patients recorded significantly lower level of IL-8 compared to the other patient groups but significantly higher than the control. For AFP, AFU, TGF-α, TGF-β and IL-8, at the optimal cut-off values (obtained from the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves, the calculated sensitivities are 46%, 72.97%, 67.56%, 54.05% and 83.8%, respectively. The simultaneous evaluation using all of the suggested markers resulted in increasing the sensitivity up to 100%. It thus recommended that, if patients with cirrhosis, as high risk patients, are subjected to regular examination using these markers in addition to AFP, HCC may be detected by 100% sensitivity in an early stage and as a consequence an effective treatment can be achieved.

  6. Serum tumor markers for detection of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Zhou; Jia Liu; Feng Luo

    2006-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most frequent malignant tumors and is the second most common cause of cancer death in China. Therefore, it is very important to detect this disease and the recurrence at its earlier period. Serum tumor markers, as the effective method for detecting hepatocellular carcinoma for a long time, could be divided into 4 categories:oncofetal antigens and glycoprotein antigens; enzymes and isoenzymes; genes; and cytokines. Serum alpha fetoprotein (AFP) is the most widely used tumor marker in detecting patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, and has been proven to have capability of prefiguring the prognosis. However, it has been indicated that AFP-L3and DCP excel AFP in differentiating hepatocellular carcinoma from nonmalignant hepatopathy and detecting small hepatocellular carcinoma. Some tumor markers, such as human cervical cancer oncogene and human telomerase reverse transcriptase mRNA, have also been indicated to have higher accuracies than AFP. Furthermore, some other tumor markers, such as glypican-3, gamma-glutamyl transferase Ⅱ, alpha-Ⅰ-fucosidase, transforming growth factor-beta1, tumor-specific growth factor, have been indicated to be available supplementaries to AFP in the detection. AFP mRNA has been shown to correlate with the metastasis and recurrence of HCC, and it may be the most useful marker to prefigure the prognosis. Some other markers,such as gamma-glutamyl transferase mRNA, vascular endothelial growth factor, and interleukin-8, could also be used as available prognostic indicators, and the simultaneous determination of AFP and these markers may detect the recurrence of HCC at its earlier period.

  7. Surveillance for gastrointestinal malignancies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ashish K Tiwari; Heather S Laird-Fick; Ramesh K Wali; Hemant K Roy

    2012-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) malignancies are notorious for frequently progressing to advanced stages even in the absence of serious symptoms,thus leading to delayed diagnoses and dismal prognoses.Secondary prevention of GI malignancies through early detection and treatment of cancer-precursor/premalignant lesions,therefore,is recognized as an effective cancer prevention strategy.In order to efficiently detect these lesions,systemic application of screening tests (surveillance) is needed.However,most of the currently used non-invasive screening tests for GI malignancies (for example,serum markers such as alpha-fetoprotein for hepatocellular carcinoma,and fecal occult blood test,for colon cancer) are only modestly effective necessitating the use of highly invasive endoscopy-based procedures,such as esophagogastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy for screening purposes.Even for hepatocellular carcinoma where non-invasive imaging (ultrasonography) has become a standard screening tool,the need for repeated liver biopsies of suspicious liver nodules for histopathological confirmation can't be avoided.The invasive nature and high-cost associated with these screening tools hinders implementation of GI cancer screening programs.Moreover,only a small fraction of general population is truly predisposed to developing GI malignancies,and indeed needs surveillance.To spare the average-risk individuals from superfluous invasive procedures and achieve an economically viable model of cancer prevention,it's important to identify cohorts in general population that are at substantially high risk of developing GI malignancies (riskstratification),and select suitable screening tests for surveillance in these cohorts.We herein provide a brief overview of such high-risk cohorts for different GI malignancies,and the screening strategies that have commonly been employed for surveillance purpose in them.

  8. Ammonia metabolism capacity of HepG2 cells with high expression of human glutamine synthetase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nan-Hong Tang; Xiao-Qian Wang; Xiu-Jin Li; Yan-Ling Chen

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Currently, one of the tough problems for the application of bioartiifcial liver (BAL) is the shortage of suitable hepatocytes. There are reports on different types of BAL assistance developed with porcine hepatocytes and HepG2 C3A cells, but their defects are obvious. In recent years, some studies focus more on liver cells with features of human origin and improved detoxiifcation. In this study, a hepatocyte line with high expression of human glutamine synthetase (hGS) was raised and its capacity for ammonia metabolism was investigated. METHODS:hGS cDNA and alpha-fetoprotein transcription regulatory element (AFP-TRE) were cloned with the designed primers. The eukaryotic expression vectors, pLNChGS and pLNAFhGS, were constructed and transfected into PA317 cells. Recombinant retroviruses (Retro-hGS and Retro-AFhGS) were produced and then infected into HepG2 cells. G418-resistant cell clones, HepG2/pLNChGS and HepG2/pLNAFhGS, were selected and ampliifed. Then hGS mRNA was measured by semi-quantitative RT-PCR;hGS enzymatic activity and ammonia metabolism analysis in different concentration of NH4+were detected with a quantitative biochemistry kit. The cell proliferation was also detected by MTT chromatometry. RESULTS:The expression of hGS mRNA in HepG2/pLNChGS cells (8.306±0.336) and HepG2/pLNAFhGS cells (21.358±1.716) was much stronger than in control cells (P CONCLUSION:The constructed hepatocytes (HepG2 cells) with speciifc high-expression of hGS have a powerful ability to degrade ammonia in vitro, and provide necessary experimental data for the selection of biomaterials in BAL.

  9. Arterial embolization of massive hepatocellular carcinoma with lipiodol and gelatin sponge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L L Xie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE has been used to treat unresectable massive hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Lots of embolic agents have been applied in embolization because of it can decrease patient discomfort and side-effects. Aim: The aim was to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of TACE with lipiodol and gelatin sponge. Materials and Methods: A total of 109 patients with massive HCC (the size of tumor >10 cm and unresectable from January 2011 to August 2014 in our institution was divided into group A and group B based on the different embolitic agents. Before and about 1-month after each case of TACE, clinical and biological data such as tumor size, child-pugh stage, serum Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, complications, were recorded at the same time. Results: In group A, the diameter of the tumor reduced from 12.57 ± 1.26 cm to 9.04 ± 0.89 cm. No patient was complete response (CR, partial response (PR 36, stable disease (SD 7 and PD 6; in group B, the diameter of tumor decreased from 12.08 ± 1.42 cm to 8.43 ± 1.05 cm, CR 0, but PR 27, SD 18 and PD 15. RR in group A was significantly higher than in group B (P < 0.05.The change of child-pugh stage and AFP pre- and post-operative in group A can be found significantly better than in group B. Conclusions: TACE with lipiodol and gelatin sponge is a highly effective for massive HCC.

  10. HCC surveillance results in earlier HCC detection: results from an Indian cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, Anita; Murphy, Allison A; Agarwal, Chirdeep; Shivakumar, Bhavana; Kottilil, Shyam; Polis, Michael A; Subramanian, G Mani; Midha, Vandana; Goyal, Omesh; Desai, Srinivas; Sood, Ajit; Shah, Samir

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide, with an increased incidence in South Asia. In order to describe the effect of surveillance for HCC with biannual ultrasound and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) on diagnosis and survival in an Indian population a retrospective cohort-control study was performed at two liver clinics in India. The medical records of 3,258 patients with cirrhosis who received surveillance for HCC were reviewed, and 100 patients who developed HCC identified. Sixty-four cirrhotic patients diagnosed with HCC during the same time period without a history of surveillance were included and survival, BCLC stage at diagnosis, and treatment were compared. Patients who underwent surveillance were more likely to be diagnosed with potentially curable or treatable BCLC Stage 0/A disease and Stage B/C disease respectively, than late Stage D disease (χ2 = 0.0007). Patients diagnosed at an earlier stage of HCC lived significantly longer after diagnosis than patients diagnosed at a later stage (Stage 0/A: 15.6 ± 14.2 months vs. Stage B/C: 9.43 ± 19.7 months vs. Stage D: 5.59 ± 11.9 months; p = 0.0006). While treatment for HCC improved overall survival, only 28% of eligible patients received treatment, explaining the lack of survival benefit noted in the surveillance group. Surveillance for HCC led to detection of HCC at earlier stages. The impact of surveillance on improved mortality could not be evaluated given the limited number of patients who received treatment. HCC surveillance has the potential to improve survival in South Asian patients with cirrhosis only if improvements in access to appropriate treatment are made.

  11. Increased nociceptin/orphanin FQ plasma levels in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ferenc Szalay; Mónika B Hantos; Andrea Horvath; Peter L. Lakatos; Aniko Folhoffer; Kinga Dunkel; Dalma Hegedus; Kornélia Tekes

    2004-01-01

    AIM: The heptadecapeptide nociceptin alias orphanin FQ is the endogenous agonist of opioid receptor-like1 receptor.It is involved in modulation of pain and cognition. High blood level was reported in patients with acute and chronic pain,and in Wilson disease. An accidental observation led us to investigate nociceptin in hepatocellular carcinoma.METHODS: Plasma nociceptin level was measured by radioimmunoassay, aprotinin was used as protease inhibitor.Hepatocellular carcinoma was diagnosed by laboratory,ultrasound, other imaging, and confirmed by fine needle biopsy. Results were compared to healthy controls and patients with other chronic liver diseases.RESULTS: Although nociceptin levels were elevated in patients with Wilson disease (14.0±2.7 pg/mL, n=26),primary biliary cirrhosis (12.1±3.2 pg/mL, n=21) and liver cirrhosis (12.8±4.0 pg/mL, n=15) compared to the healthy controls (9.2±1.8 pg/mL, n=29, P<0.001 for each), in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma a ten-fold increase was found (105.9±14.4 pg/mL, n=29, P<0.0001). High plasma levels were found in each hepatocellular carcinoma patient including those with normal alpha fetoprotein and those with pain (104.9±14.9 pg/mL, n=12) and without (107.7±14.5pg/mL, n=6).CONCLUSION: A very high nociceptin plasma level seems to be an indicator for hepatocellular carcinoma. Further research is needed to clarify the mechanism and clinical significance of this novel finding.

  12. Impact of PIVKA-II in diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakhary, Nadia I; Khodeer, Sherif M; Shafik, Hanan E; Abdel Malak, Camelia A

    2013-11-01

    Liver cancer grows silently with mild or no symptoms until advanced. In the absence of an effective treatment for advanced stage of hepatic cancer hope lies in early detection, and screening for high-risk population. Among Egyptians viral hepatitis is the most common risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The current work was designed to determine the level of prothrombin induced by vitamin K absence-II (PIVKA-II) in sera of patients suffering from HCC and hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients being the most common predisposing factor for HCC. Our ultimate goal is diagnosis of HCC at its early stage. The current study was carried out on 83 individuals within three groups; Normal control, HCV and HCC groups. Patients were subdivided into cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic. Complete clinicopathological examination was carried out for each individual to confirm diagnosis. Individuals' sera were subjected to quantitative determination of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), PIVKA-II and other parameters. PIVKA-II proved to be superior to AFP for early detection of HCC patients being highly sensitive and specific. Furthermore it has the ability to discriminate between different histopathological grades of HCC and It has a powerful diagnostic validity to evaluate the thrombosis of portal vein and to differentiate between early and late stages of HCC. The direct relation between the level of PIVKA-II and the size of tumor makes it an attractive tool for early HCC diagnosis and surveillance. Using the best cut-off value of AFP (>28), showed a sensitivity of (44%) and specificity of (73.3%). While cut-off value of PIVKA-II (>53.7) showed 100% sensitivity and specificity.

  13. The 2008 Okuda lecture: Management of hepatocellular carcinoma: from surveillance to molecular targeted therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Masatoshi

    2010-03-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is responsible for approximately 600,000-700,000 deaths worldwide. It is highly prevalent in the Asia-Pacific region and Africa, and is increasing in Western countries. Alpha fetoprotein (AFP) alone is insufficient for HCC screening. A combination with other tumor markers, such as PIVKA-II and AFP-L3, and periodical ultrasound surveillance is necessary. Sensitivity of AFP in depicting HCC is highest, followed by PIVKA-II and AFP-L3, but the order of the specificity is inverse, AFP-L3, PIVKA-II, and AFP. Sonazoid-enhanced ultrasound (US) is extremely useful to characterize hepatic tumors equal to or more than multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT). Sonazoid-enhanced US with defect re-perfusion imaging is a breakthrough technique in the treatment of HCC. Defect re-perfusion imaging will markedly change the therapeutic strategy for liver cancer. Gd-EOB-DTPA-magnetic resonance imaging is a newly developed imaging technique in the detection and diagnosis of HCC. It is the most sensitive tool in the differentiation of early HCC from dysplastic nodules. Regarding the treatment strategy, there has been no established systemic chemotherapy for advanced HCC, except for Sorafenib. Empirically, intrahepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy using implanted reservoir port is known to be effective in response rate and overall survival for advanced HCC with vascular invasion. Sorafenib in combination with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization or adjuvant use after ablation or resection will significantly prolong the life expectancy if ongoing clinical trials provide positive results. In conclusion, it is expected that readers will gain deeper insight into the latest progress and updated diagnosis and treatment of HCC described in this review.

  14. NX-PVKA levels before and after hepatectomy of hepatocellular carcinoma as predictors of patient survival: a preliminary evaluation of an improved assay for PIVKA-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanashima, Atsushi; Abo, Takafumi; Taura, Naota; Shibata, Hideki; Ichikawa, Tatsuki; Takagi, Katsunori; Arai, Junichi; Oyama, Shousaburou; Nagayasu, Takeshi

    2013-06-01

    Although the protein-induced vitamin K absence or antagonist-II (PIVKA-II) is used as a prognostic marker in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a newly-improved assay, NX-PVKA (PIVKA-II measured using P-11 and P-16 antibodies) and NX-PVKA-R (ratio of PIVKA-II and NX-PVKA), are more accurate markers of PIVKA-II. We conducted a prospectively preliminary analysis of the relationship between NX-PVKA-R and clinicopathological parameters and prognosis in 22 patients with HCC who underwent hepatectomy and measured changes of this marker's levels after treatment. Median value of PIVKA-II (80 mAU/ml), NX-PVKA (60 mAU/ml), NX-PVKA-R (1.5) and NX-PVKA-D (difference of markers, 15 mAU/ml) were determined. Tumor relapse was observed in six patients, and the one year relapse-free survival rate was 88%. Correlation between PIVKA-II or alpha-fetoprotein levels and NX-PVKA, NX-PVKA-R or -D levels was significant (pPIVKA-II, NX-PVKA and NX-PVKA-R tended to be higher than in patients without pre-treatment, but this difference was not significant (p>0.10). For macroscopic findings, NX-PVKA-R for the confluent-nodular type was significantly higher than that for the simple-nodular type (p<0.05). The tumor-free survival rate in the group with a high NX-PVKA-R was significantly lower than that in the group with a low NX-PVKA-R group (p<0.05). In patients with tumor recurrence, postoperative NX-PVKA-R increased again. We conclude that a high value of NX-PVKA-R after hepatectomy for HCC reflects malignant potential and predicts early recurrence in patients with HCC.

  15. Impact of PIVKA-II in diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia I. Zakhary

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Liver cancer grows silently with mild or no symptoms until advanced. In the absence of an effective treatment for advanced stage of hepatic cancer hope lies in early detection, and screening for high-risk population. Among Egyptians viral hepatitis is the most common risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. The current work was designed to determine the level of prothrombin induced by vitamin K absence-II (PIVKA-II in sera of patients suffering from HCC and hepatitis C virus (HCV patients being the most common predisposing factor for HCC. Our ultimate goal is diagnosis of HCC at its early stage. The current study was carried out on 83 individuals within three groups; Normal control, HCV and HCC groups. Patients were subdivided into cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic. Complete clinicopathological examination was carried out for each individual to confirm diagnosis. Individuals’ sera were subjected to quantitative determination of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, PIVKA-II and other parameters. PIVKA-II proved to be superior to AFP for early detection of HCC patients being highly sensitive and specific. Furthermore it has the ability to discriminate between different histopathological grades of HCC and It has a powerful diagnostic validity to evaluate the thrombosis of portal vein and to differentiate between early and late stages of HCC. The direct relation between the level of PIVKA-II and the size of tumor makes it an attractive tool for early HCC diagnosis and surveillance. Using the best cut-off value of AFP (>28, showed a sensitivity of (44% and specificity of (73.3%. While cut-off value of PIVKA-II (>53.7 showed 100% sensitivity and specificity.

  16. Non-germ cell tumours arising in germ cell tumours (teratoma with malignant transformation) in men: CT and MR findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athanasiou, A. [Department of Radiology, Institut Gustave-Roussy, Villejuif (France); Department of Radiology, Institut Curie, Paris (France)], E-mail: alexandra.athanasiou@curie.net; Vanel, D. [Department of Radiology, Institut Gustave-Roussy, Villejuif (France); Department of Radiology, Istituti Ortopedici Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); El Mesbahi, O. [Department of Medicine, Institut Gustave-Roussy, Villejuif (France); Theodore, C. [Department of Medicine, Institut Gustave-Roussy, Villejuif (France); Department of Oncology, Hopital Foch, Suresnes (France); Fizazi, K. [Department of Medicine, Institut Gustave-Roussy, Villejuif (France)

    2009-02-15

    Purpose: To describe the imaging findings of germ cell tumours (GCT) containing non-germ cell malignant components (also designated teratoma with malignant transformation or TMT). Patients and methods: The records of 14 male patients with GCT and a non-germ cell histological component TMT were retrospectively reviewed. All patients had computed tomography (CT) and/or magnetic resonance (MR) studies before and after initial surgery and chemotherapy, as well as during follow-up. Imaging findings were correlated with the response to treatment and with overall survival. Pathological evaluation, immunohistochemistry, serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) were also taken into consideration. Sarcoma was identified in 10 out of 14 patients, with rhabdomyosarcoma ranking first (n = 4), followed by osteosarcoma (n = 2), fusiform cell sarcoma (n = 1), undifferentiated sarcoma (n = 1), neurosarcoma (n = 1) and myxoid sarcoma (n = 1). Other histological types of malignant transformation included adenocarcinoma (n = 3) and bronchoalveolar carcinoma (n = 1). Overall, 9 patients relapsed at a median time of 84 months (range 60-168). Results: Non-GCT malignant transformation was identified in the retroperitoneum (5), testis (3), mediastinum (3), peritoneum (2) and lungs (1). The CT and MR imaging findings before treatment and after relapse were evaluated with emphasis on imaging features that could possibly imply the presence of malignant transformation (heterogeneously enhancing soft-tissue masses, ossified masses with calcified lymph nodes, diffuse epiploic thickening associated with ascites and peritoneal nodules, pulmonary alveolar infiltration with septal thickening). All but 1 patient with TMT presented with nodal and distant metastases. The prognosis was poor: within a median follow-up of 59 months (range 3-180), 4 out of 14 patients were alive. Conclusion: TMT is rare and associated with poorer survival compared to GCT. Imaging can be useful

  17. The Use of Postoperative Serum HS-AFP and GGT Ⅱ for Judgment of the Prognosis for Hepatocellular Carcinoma patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Runzhou Ni; Lei Yang; Mingbing Xiao; Feng Li; Cuihua Lu

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the clinical value of hepatoma-specific alpha-fetoprotein (HS-AFP) and gamma-glutamyltransferase Ⅱ (GGT Ⅱ) for judgment of postoperative prognosis of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).METHODS HS-AFP was separated and determined using native polyacrylamide electrophoresis with a discontinuous buffer system and Western blots. GGT Ⅱ was separated with native polyacrylamide electrophoresis with a discontinuous buffer system and detected by enzyme staining. Forty cases with HCC underwent serial determination of HS-AFP and GGT Ⅱ before and after radical excision. The correlations were analyzed between the two indices and survival time.RESULTS In the 40 cases with HCC, before radical excision the positive rates of HS-AFP and GGT Ⅱ were 57.5% and 67.5% respectively, with the positive rate of combined HS-AFP and GGT Ⅱ reaching 80.0%. After operation, the recurrence and metastasis rate in the groups with positive HS-AFP and GGT Ⅱ were 90.9% and 58.8% respectively, while in the groups with negative HS-AFP and GGT Ⅱ the rates were 20.7% and 26.1% respectively. Recurrence and metastasis occurred in all cases with both postoperative positive HS-AFP and GGT Ⅱ but only in 9.5% of the cases in whom both postoperative HS-AFP and GGT Ⅱ were negative. Univariate analysis revealed that postoperative HS-AFP and GGT Ⅱ were related to the prognosis in HCC.CONCLUSION Postoperative serum HS-AFP and GGT Ⅱ are very useful in predicting the prognosis of HCC patients.

  18. Selection of patients of hepatocellular carcinoma beyond the Milan criteria for liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, See Ching; Fan, Sheung Tat

    2013-04-01

    The Milan criteria have been proven to be reliable and easily applicable in selection of patients with small unresectable hepatocellular carcinomas for liver transplantation. It has been repeatedly shown that patients who met these criteria had a 5-year survival of over 70% after transplantation. Such a result is remarkably good for an otherwise incurable malignancy. The main disadvantage of this set of criteria is that it is rather restrictive. Following it religiously denies transplantation to many patients who have tumor stage slightly more advanced. There have been many attempts to extend the criteria to include tumors with larger sizes (as in the UCSF criteria) or with a larger number (as in the Kyoto criteria). Alpha-fetoprotein and PIVKA-II, two biological markers in more aggressive tumors, have also been employed in the selection of patients, and biopsies have been used by the University of Toronto to determine tumor aggressiveness before deciding on transplantation. Patients with tumors beyond the Milan criteria yet not of a high grade have been accepted for transplantation and their survival is comparable to that of transplant recipients who were within the Milan criteria. Preoperative dual-tracer ((11)C-acetate and FDG) positron emission tomography has been used to determine tumor grade, and transarterial chemoembolization has been used to downstage tumors, rendering them meeting the Milan criteria. Patients with downstaged tumors have excellent survival after transplantation. Partial response to chemical treatment is a reflection of less aggressive tumor behavior. Careful selection of patients beyond the Milan criteria with the aid of serum tumor marker assay, positron emission tomography or tumor biopsy allows transplanting more patients without compromising survival. The use of liver grafts either from the deceased or from living donors could thus be justified. PMID:24570921

  19. [A case of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma successfully treated by liver resection after complete response induced by sorafenib administration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yongkook; Hosoda, Yohei; Kakita, Naruyasu; Yamada, Yukinori; Yamasaki, Masaru; Nishino, Masaya; Okano, Miho; Nagai, Kenichi; Yasui, Masayoshi; Tsujinaka, Toshimasa

    2014-11-01

    A 50-year-old man presented to our hospital with the chief complaint of right hypochondriac pain and a palpable tumor. Advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and chronic hepatitis B infection were diagnosed and treated by twice-repeated transcatheterarterial chemoembolization (TACE) followed by administration of entecavir. Two months after the last TACE, alpha-fetoprotein(AFP)and protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonistII (PIVKA-II) levels had elevated, and multiple small early enhancing nodules were detected on computed tomography(CT)scan. Based on his age and liver function (Child-Pugh score A5), a full dose of sorafenib (800 mg/day) was administered. The sorafenib dose was decreased after one month to 400mg/day because of hand-foot syndrome. Following sorafenib administration, the lesions shrank markedly, and complete response (CR) according to modified Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors(mRECIST)was achieved within 4 months. Six months after sorafenib treatment was begun, recurrent HCC was detected in segment 6, near the previously treated lesion. The decreased size of the main tumor and normalization of AFP levels allowed curative surgical resection. The patient was discharged 5 days after surgery and is currently treated with a half dose of sorafenib. Thirteen months after surgery, a small early enhancing lesion is visible on postoperative CT scan, but AFP and PIVKA-II levels are still keeping in a normal range. This case demonstrates that if sorafenib treatment is effective, then subsequent surgical treatment can be reconsidered in patients with advanced HCC responding to this combined therapy. PMID:25731444

  20. Histopathological Distribution of Ovarian Masses Occurring After Hysterectomy: A Five-Year Assay in Iranian Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalooei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Ovarian cancer, the third most important genital cancer and fifth cause of cancer-related death in women, is diagnosed at terminal stages in 70% of cases. Therefore, it is imperative to know the possible risk factors associated with ovarian cancer. Only a few studies have discussed the histopathological features of ovarian masses occurring after hysterectomy. Objectives The study aimed to investigate the five-year prevalence and histopathological distribution of ovarian masses after hysterectomy in Iranian patients and to determine the need for prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomy. Patients and Methods This descriptive cross-sectional study enrolled all patients with ovarian masses and a history of hysterectomy for benign conditions who were visiting the gynecology clinic of Baqiyatallah Hospital, Tehran, between May 2009 and May 2014. Demographic information, pathological features of ovarian masses, family history, the time between hysterectomy and ovarian mass surgery, and method of hysterectomy were recorded in a predesigned checklist. The level of tumor markers such as CA125 and alpha-fetoprotein (α-FP were measured. Results Of the 1052 patients with ovarian masses, 45patients (mean age, 53.11 ± 9.56 years who had undergone abdominal hysterectomy underwent analysis. The study participants had a mean age of 47.92 ± 1.58 years at the time of hysterectomy. The mean time interval between hysterectomy and diagnosis of ovarian mass was 5.38 ± 4.15 years. Based on pathological reports, serous cystadenoma was the most frequent (43.2% pathological diagnosis, followed by mucinous cystadenoma (17.5%. Conclusions A majority of ovarian masses, especially those diagnosed within a short duration after hysterectomy, are benign. Iranian patients with such ovarian masses when asymptomatic and associated with negative tumor markers could be followed up, and prophylactic oophorectomy may not be necessary.