WorldWideScience

Sample records for alpha spectra

  1. Numerical analysis of alpha spectra using two different codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurtado, S.; Jimenez-Ramos, M.C.; Villa, M.; Vioque, I.; Manjon, G.; Garcia-Tenorio, R.

    2008-01-01

    This work presents an intercomparison between commercial software for alpha-particle spectrometry, Genie 2000, and the new free available software, Winalpha, developed by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). In order to compare both codes, different environmental spectra containing plutonium, uranium, thorium and polonium have been analyzed, together with IAEA test alpha spectra. A statistical study was performed in order to evaluate the precision and accuracy in the analyses, and to enhance the confidence in using the software on alpha spectrometric studies

  2. Study of the peak shape in alpha spectra measured by liquid scintillation

    CERN Document Server

    Vera-Tome, F; Martin-Sanchez, A

    2002-01-01

    Liquid-scintillation counting allows the measurement of alpha and beta activities jointly or only of the alpha-emitting nuclides in a sample. Although the resolution of the alpha spectra is poorer than that attained with semiconductor detectors, it is still an attractive alternative. We describe here attempts to fit a peak shape to experimental liquid-scintillation alpha spectra and discuss the parameters affecting this shape, such as the PSA (pulse-shape analyser) level, vial type, shaking the sample, etc. Spectral analysis has been applied for complex alpha spectra.

  3. A method to reproduce alpha-particle spectra measured with semiconductor detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timón, A Fernández; Vargas, M Jurado; Sánchez, A Martín

    2010-01-01

    A method is proposed to reproduce alpha-particle spectra measured with silicon detectors, combining analytical and computer simulation techniques. The procedure includes the use of the Monte Carlo method to simulate the tracks of alpha-particles within the source and in the detector entrance window. The alpha-particle spectrum is finally obtained by the convolution of this simulated distribution and the theoretical distributions representing the contributions of the alpha-particle spectrometer to the spectrum. Experimental spectra from (233)U and (241)Am sources were compared with the predictions given by the proposed procedure, showing good agreement. The proposed method can be an important aid for the analysis and deconvolution of complex alpha-particle spectra. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Graphics based PC analysis of alpha spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, T.C.

    1991-01-01

    New personal computer (PC) software performs interactive analysis of alpha spectra using EGA graphics. Spectra are collected with a commercial MCA board and analyzed using the software described here. The operator is required to approve each peak integration area before analysis proceeds. Sample analysis can use detector efficiencies or spike yields or both. Background corrections are made and upper limit values are calculated when specified. Nuclide identification uses a library of up to 64 nuclides with up to 8 alpha lines for each nuclide. Any one of 32 subset libraries can be used in an analysis. Analysis time is short and is limited by interaction with the operator, not by calculation time. Utilities include nuclide library editing, library subset editing, energy calibration, efficiency calibration, and background update

  5. Calculated /alpha/-induced thick target neutron yields and spectra, with comparison to measured data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, W.B.; Bozoian, M.; Perry, R.T.

    1988-01-01

    One component of the neutron source associated with the decay of actinide nuclides in many environments is due to the interaction of decay /alpha/ particles in (/alpha/,n) reactions on low Z nuclides. Measurements of (/alpha/,n) thick target neutron yields and associated neutron spectra have been made for only a few combinations of /alpha/ energy and target nuclide or mixtures of actinide and target nuclides. Calculations of thick target neutron yields and spectra with the SOURCES code require /alpha/-energy-dependent cross sections for (/alpha/,n) reactions, as well as branching fractions leading to the energetically possible levels of the product nuclides. A library of these data has been accumulated for target nuclides of Z /le/ 15 using that available from measurements and from recent GNASH code calculations. SOURCES, assuming neutrons to be emitted isotopically in the center-of-mass system, uses libraries of /alpha/ stopping cross sections, (/alpha/,n) reaction cross reactions, product nuclide level branching fractions, and actinide decay /alpha/ spectra to calculate thick target (/alpha/,n) yields and neutron spectra for homogeneous combinations of nuclides. The code also calculates the thick target yield and angle intergrated neutron spectrum produced by /alpha/-particle beams on targets of homogeneous mixtures of nuclides. Illustrative calculated results are given and comparisons are made with measured thick target yields and spectra. 50 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  6. A improved method for the analysis of alpha spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Equillor, Hugo E.

    2004-01-01

    In this work we describe a methodology, developed in the last years, for the analysis of alpha emitters spectra, obtained with implanted ion detectors, that tend to solve some of the problems that shows this type of spectra. This is an improved methodology respect to that described in a previous publication. The method is based on the application of a mathematical function that allows to model the tail of an alpha peak, to evaluate the part of the peak that is not seen in the cases of partial superposition with another peak. Also, a calculation program that works in a semiautomatic way, with the possibility of interactive intervention of the analyst, has been developed simultaneously and is described in detail. (author)

  7. Geal: A general program for the analysis of alpha spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Torano, E.; Acena Barrenechea, M.L.

    1978-01-01

    A computing program for analysis and representation of alpha spectra obtained with surface barrier detectors is described. Several methods for fitting spectra are studied. A monoenergetic line or a doublet previously fitted has been used as a standard for the analyses of all kind of spectra. Some examples of application as well as a list of the program are shown. The program has been written in Fortran V language. (author)

  8. A new approach to the analysis of alpha spectra based on neural network techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeza, A.; Miranda, J. [LARUEX, Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory, Dept. Applied Physics, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Extremadura, Avda. Universidad s/n, 10003 Caceres (Spain); Guillen, J., E-mail: fguillen@unex.es [LARUEX, Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory, Dept. Applied Physics, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Extremadura, Avda. Universidad s/n, 10003 Caceres (Spain); Corbacho, J.A. [LARUEX, Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory, Dept. Applied Physics, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Extremadura, Avda. Universidad s/n, 10003 Caceres (Spain); Perez, R. [Dept. Technology of Computers and Communications, Polytechnics School, University of Extremadura, Avda. Universidad s/n, 10003 Caceres (Spain)

    2011-10-01

    The analysis of alpha spectra requires good radiochemical procedures in order to obtain well differentiated alpha peaks in the spectrum, and the easiest way to analyze them is by directly summing the counts obtained in the Regions of Interest (ROIs). However, the low-energy tails of the alpha peaks frequently make this simple approach unworkable because some peaks partially overlap. Many fitting procedures have been proposed to solve this problem, most of them based on semi-empirical mathematical functions that emulate the shape of a theoretical alpha peak. The main drawback of these methods is that the great number of fitting parameters used means that their physical meaning is obscure or completely lacking. We propose another approach-the application of an artificial neural network. Instead of fitting the experimental data to a mathematical function, the fit is carried out by an artificial neural network (ANN) that has previously been trained to model the shape of an alpha peak using as training patterns several polonium spectra obtained from actual samples analyzed in our laboratory. In this sense, the ANN is able to learn the shape of an actual alpha peak. We have designed such an ANN as a feed-forward multi-layer perceptron with supervised training based on a back-propagation algorithm. The fitting procedure is based on the experimental observables that are characteristic of alpha peaks-the number of counts of the maximum and several peak widths at different heights. Polonium isotope spectra were selected because the alpha peaks corresponding to {sup 208}Po, {sup 209}Po, and {sup 210}Po are monoenergetic and well separated. The uncertainties introduced by this fitting procedure were less than the counting uncertainties. This new approach was applied to the problem of resolving overlapping peaks. Firstly, a theoretical study was carried out by artificially overlapping alpha peaks from actual samples in order to test the ability of the ANN to resolve each peak

  9. A new approach to the analysis of alpha spectra based on neural network techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeza, A.; Miranda, J.; Guillen, J.; Corbacho, J.A.; Perez, R.

    2011-01-01

    The analysis of alpha spectra requires good radiochemical procedures in order to obtain well differentiated alpha peaks in the spectrum, and the easiest way to analyze them is by directly summing the counts obtained in the Regions of Interest (ROIs). However, the low-energy tails of the alpha peaks frequently make this simple approach unworkable because some peaks partially overlap. Many fitting procedures have been proposed to solve this problem, most of them based on semi-empirical mathematical functions that emulate the shape of a theoretical alpha peak. The main drawback of these methods is that the great number of fitting parameters used means that their physical meaning is obscure or completely lacking. We propose another approach-the application of an artificial neural network. Instead of fitting the experimental data to a mathematical function, the fit is carried out by an artificial neural network (ANN) that has previously been trained to model the shape of an alpha peak using as training patterns several polonium spectra obtained from actual samples analyzed in our laboratory. In this sense, the ANN is able to learn the shape of an actual alpha peak. We have designed such an ANN as a feed-forward multi-layer perceptron with supervised training based on a back-propagation algorithm. The fitting procedure is based on the experimental observables that are characteristic of alpha peaks-the number of counts of the maximum and several peak widths at different heights. Polonium isotope spectra were selected because the alpha peaks corresponding to 208 Po, 209 Po, and 210 Po are monoenergetic and well separated. The uncertainties introduced by this fitting procedure were less than the counting uncertainties. This new approach was applied to the problem of resolving overlapping peaks. Firstly, a theoretical study was carried out by artificially overlapping alpha peaks from actual samples in order to test the ability of the ANN to resolve each peak. Then, the ANN

  10. A new approach to the analysis of alpha spectra based on neural network techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza, A.; Miranda, J.; Guillén, J.; Corbacho, J. A.; Pérez, R.

    2011-10-01

    The analysis of alpha spectra requires good radiochemical procedures in order to obtain well differentiated alpha peaks in the spectrum, and the easiest way to analyze them is by directly summing the counts obtained in the Regions of Interest (ROIs). However, the low-energy tails of the alpha peaks frequently make this simple approach unworkable because some peaks partially overlap. Many fitting procedures have been proposed to solve this problem, most of them based on semi-empirical mathematical functions that emulate the shape of a theoretical alpha peak. The main drawback of these methods is that the great number of fitting parameters used means that their physical meaning is obscure or completely lacking. We propose another approach—the application of an artificial neural network. Instead of fitting the experimental data to a mathematical function, the fit is carried out by an artificial neural network (ANN) that has previously been trained to model the shape of an alpha peak using as training patterns several polonium spectra obtained from actual samples analyzed in our laboratory. In this sense, the ANN is able to learn the shape of an actual alpha peak. We have designed such an ANN as a feed-forward multi-layer perceptron with supervised training based on a back-propagation algorithm. The fitting procedure is based on the experimental observables that are characteristic of alpha peaks—the number of counts of the maximum and several peak widths at different heights. Polonium isotope spectra were selected because the alpha peaks corresponding to 208Po, 209Po, and 210Po are monoenergetic and well separated. The uncertainties introduced by this fitting procedure were less than the counting uncertainties. This new approach was applied to the problem of resolving overlapping peaks. Firstly, a theoretical study was carried out by artificially overlapping alpha peaks from actual samples in order to test the ability of the ANN to resolve each peak. Then, the ANN

  11. Proton and alpha evaporation spectra in low energy 12 C and 16 O ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The spectra are compared with the statistical model calculations. The shapes of the calculated spectra are in agreement with experimental data except for the alpha spectrum in the 12C+93Nb reaction at 40 MeV. The observed evaporation bump is at ∼ 2 MeV lower energy compared to the calculated one. This discrepancy ...

  12. Proton and alpha evaporation spectra in low energy 12C and 16O ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    75 MeV. The spectra are compared with the statistical model calculations. The shapes of the calculated spectra are in agreement with experimental data except for the alpha spectrum in the 12C+93Nb reaction at 40 MeV. The observed evaporation bump is at ~2. MeV lower energy compared to the calculated one.

  13. ALFITeX. A new code for the deconvolution of complex alpha-particle spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caro Marroyo, B.; Martin Sanchez, A.; Jurado Vargas, M.

    2013-01-01

    A new code for the deconvolution of complex alpha-particle spectra has been developed. The ALFITeX code is written in Visual Basic for Microsoft Office Excel 2010 spreadsheets, incorporating several features aimed at making it a fast, robust and useful tool with a user-friendly interface. The deconvolution procedure is based on the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm, with the curve fitting the experimental data being the mathematical function formed by the convolution of a Gaussian with two left-handed exponentials in the low-energy-tail region. The code also includes the capability of fitting a possible constant background contribution. The application of the singular value decomposition method for matrix inversion permits the fit of any kind of alpha-particle spectra, even those presenting singularities or an ill-conditioned curvature matrix. ALFITeX has been checked with its application to the deconvolution and the calculation of the alpha-particle emission probabilities of 239 Pu, 241 Am and 235 U. (author)

  14. Numerical methods to analyze alpha spectra and application to the study of neptunium 237 and neptunium 236

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Torano, E.

    1990-01-01

    A set of numerical methods to analize alpha spectra measured with semiconductor detectors are presented. The methods can be divided in two groups, the first being based in the X 2 minimization ands the second in the use of the Fourier Transform. The methods based in the minimization of X 2 can, in turn, be divided according to the model used to fit the spectra. Some of them use a monoenergetic line for the intercomparison with the other peaks in the same spectrum. The others take into account the analytical function developed to represent an alpha line. Both allow the determination of positions and areas of the components, as well as the uncertainties of the results. The Fast Fourier Transform is applied to the second group of methods, which include the smoothing of experimental data, and the deconvolution of spectra. Examples are given of the application of these methods to real spectra. The alpha spectra of 237 Np and 236 Np are studied by using some of the methods described in this work. (Author)

  15. NEWFIT, a computer program for the analysis of alpha, X-ray and gamma-ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, R.B.; Gyger, F.; Jost, D.T.; Gunten, H.R. von; Kraehenbuehl, U.

    1988-01-01

    The computer program NEWFIT has been developed for analysis of gamma-ray, X-ray and alpha spectra. The general shape used for the analysis of activity peaks is a Gaussian function. An exponential tail can be added for use in alpha spectra analysis. The algorithms to analyze the peak shapes and the program operation are presented. Special features include the ability to create realistic peak shapes based on the systematic deviations of the real peaks from the theoretical Gaussian shape, as well as the option to constrain the calculated areas of peaks from a given emitting nuclide to their relative branching ratios. The program is available from the authors. (orig.)

  16. cap alpha. -spectra hyperfine structure resolution by silicon planar detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eremin, V K; Verbitskaya, E M; Strokan, N B; Sukhanov, V L; Malyarenko, A M

    1986-10-01

    The lines with 13 keV step from the main one is ..cap alpha..-spectra of nuclei with an odd number of nucleons take place. Silicon planar detectors n-Si with the operation surface of 10 mm/sup 2/ are developed for resolution of this hyperfine structure. The mechanism of losses in detectors for short-range-path particles is analyzed. The results of measurements from detectors with 10 keV resolution are presented.

  17. Alpha particle spectra in coincidence with normal and superdeformed states in {sup 150}Tb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viesti, G.; Lunardon, M.; Bazzacco, D. [dell`Universita, Padova (Italy)]|[INFN, Padova (Italy)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The study of correlations between particle evaporation from highly excited compound nuclei at large angular momenta and the states in the final evaporation residues (ER) is a field of investigation which has been opened, in the last years, with the advent of the new large {gamma}-ray arrays. It is now possible to correlate the evaporation spectra to various bands with shapes ranging from spherical to superdeformed (SD) in the same final nucleus. It is generally accepted that the particle evaporation from the compound nucleus is chaotic and that only in the near-yrast {gamma} cascade, where the feeding of different classes of states takes place, the ordered motion is restored. The sensitivity of the particle spectra on the feeding of specific states in the residual nuclei can be taken as an indication that additional degrees of freedom might be important in the evaporation process or that particular regions of the phase space open to the decay populate preferentially some selected structures in the final cold nucleus. This latter point is important for the understanding of the feeding mechanism of SD states. Several experiments performed so far did not find a clear dependence of the shapes of the particle spectra on the excited states having different deformations in the ER. For example, the proton spectra in coincidence with transitions in the SD bands of {sup 133}Nd and {sup 152}Dy nuclei were found to be similar to those in coincidence with transitions in the normal deformed (ND) bands. Alpha particles have been proposed since long as a sensitive probe of the deformation of the emitting nucleus. Results are presented here of an experiment in which the authors have measured the energy spectra of alpha particles associated with different classes of states (ND and SD) in the {sup 150}Tb nucleus populated in the reaction {sup 37}Cl({sup 120}Sn, {alpha}3n{gamma}){sup 150}Tb.

  18. Correlation among the spectral parameters for qualitative analysis of Alpha Liquid Scintillation Spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhade, Sonali P.D.; Reddy, P.J.; Kolekar, R.V.; Singh, Rajvir; Pradeepkumar, K.S.

    2014-01-01

    The potential use of alpha LSC technique is nowadays recognized widely. However the energy resolution of α particle is poor with liquid scintillators. Moreover, α peak positions are influenced by the level of quenching in the samples. To overcome this problem, a thorough study of all concerned parameters that affect spectral information was carried out. The parameters such as peak's centroid, quenching, % resolution, energy of α particle were investigated and the correlation between them was evaluated. In the present work, the qualitative analysis of α spectrum was carried out. Correlations between the energy of α particle and various parameters affecting the peaks of the collected spectra with respect to quenching were established. These correlations will be useful for the deconvolution studies of composite samples containing different alpha radionuclides

  19. Measurement of gamma-ray multiplicity spectra and the alpha value for {sup 235}U resonances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigor` ev, Yu V [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Georgiev, G P; Stanchik, Kh [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation)

    1997-06-01

    Gamma spectra from 1 to 12 multiplicity were measured on th 500 m flight path of the IBR-30 reactor using a 16-section 32 L NaI(Tl) crystal scintillation detector able to hold 2 metallic samples of 90% {sup 235}U and 10% {sup 238}U 0.00137 atoms/b and 0.00411 atoms/b thick. Multiplicity spectra were obtained for resolved resonances in the E = 1-150 eV energy region. They were used to determine the value of {alpha} = {sigma}{sub {gamma}}/{sigma}{sub f} for 165 resonances of {sup 235}U. (author). 6 refs, 7 figs, 1 tab.

  20. Probing HeII Reionization at z>3.5 with Resolved HeII Lyman Alpha Forest Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worseck, Gabor

    2017-08-01

    The advent of GALEX and COS have revolutionized our view of HeII reionization, the final major phase transition of the intergalactic medium. COS spectra of the HeII Lyman alpha forest have confirmed with high confidence the high HeII transmission that signifies the completion of HeII reionization at z 2.7. However, the handful of z>3.5 quasars observed to date show a set of HeII transmission 'spikes' and larger regions with non-zero transmission that suggest HeII reionization was well underway by z=4. This is in striking conflict with predictions from state-of-the-art radiative transfer simulations of a HeII reionization driven by bright quasars. Explaining these measurements may require either faint quasars or more exotic sources of hard photons at z>4, with concomitant implications for HI reionization. However, many of the observed spikes are unresolved in G140L spectra and are significantly impacted by Poisson noise. Current data cannot reliably probe the ionization state of helium at z>3.5.We request 41 orbits to obtain science-grade G130M spectra of the two UV-brightest HeII-transmitting QSOs at z>3.5 to confirm and resolve their HeII transmission spikes as an unequivocal test of early HeII reionization. These spectra are complemented by recently obtained data from 8m telescopes: (1) Echelle spectra of the coeval HI Lya forest to map the underlying density field that modulates the HeII absorption, and (2) Our dedicated survey for foreground QSOs that may source the HeII transmission. Our recent HST programs revealed the only two viable targets to resolve the z>3.5 HeII Lyman alpha forest, and to conclusively solve this riddle.

  1. Alpha spectral analysis via artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kangas, L.J.; Hashem, S.; Keller, P.E.; Kouzes, R.T.; Troyer, G.L.

    1994-10-01

    An artificial neural network system that assigns quality factors to alpha particle energy spectra is discussed. The alpha energy spectra are used to detect plutonium contamination in the work environment. The quality factors represent the levels of spectral degradation caused by miscalibration and foreign matter affecting the instruments. A set of spectra was labeled with a quality factor by an expert and used in training the artificial neural network expert system. The investigation shows that the expert knowledge of alpha spectra quality factors can be transferred to an ANN system

  2. Shape of intrinsic alpha pulse height spectra in lanthanide halide scintillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolszczak, W.; Dorenbos, P.

    2017-06-01

    Internal contamination with actinium-227 and its daughters is a serious drawback in low-background applications of lanthanide-based scintillators. In this work we showed the important role of nuclear γ de-excitations on the shape of the internal alpha spectrum measured in scintillators. We calculated with Bateman equations the activities of contamination isotopes and the time evolution of actinium-227 and its progenies. Next, we measured the intrinsic background spectra of LaBr3(Ce), LaBr3(Ce,Sr) and CeBr3 with a digital spectroscopy technique, and we analyzed them with a pulse shape discrimination method (PSD) and a time-amplitude analysis. Finally, we simulated the α background spectrum with Geant4 tool-kit, consequently taking into account complex α-γ-electron events, the α / β ratio dependence on the α energy, and the electron/γ nonproportionality. We found that α-γ mixed events have higher light yield than expected for alpha particles alone, which leads to overestimation of the α / β ratio when it is measured with internal 227Th and 223Ra isotopes. The time-amplitude analysis showed that the α peaks of 219Rn and 215Po in LaBr3(Ce) and LaBr3(Ce,Sr) are not symmetric. We compared the simulation results with the measured data and provided further evidence of the important role of mixed α-γ-electron events for understanding the shape of the internal α spectrum in scintillators.

  3. Non-linearity issues and multiple ionization satellites in the PIXE portion of spectra from the Mars alpha particle X-ray spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, John L., E-mail: icampbel@uoguelph.ca; Heirwegh, Christopher M.; Ganly, Brianna

    2016-09-15

    Spectra from the laboratory and flight versions of the Curiosity rover’s alpha particle X-ray spectrometer were fitted with an in-house version of GUPIX, revealing departures from linear behavior of the energy-channel relationships in the low X-ray energy region where alpha particle PIXE is the dominant excitation mechanism. The apparent energy shifts for the lightest elements present were attributed in part to multiple ionization satellites and in part to issues within the detector and/or the pulse processing chain. No specific issue was identified, but the second of these options was considered to be the more probable. Approximate corrections were derived and then applied within the GUAPX code which is designed specifically for quantitative evaluation of APXS spectra. The quality of fit was significantly improved. The peak areas of the light elements Na, Mg, Al and Si were changed by only a few percent in most spectra. The changes for elements with higher atomic number were generally smaller, with a few exceptions. Overall, the percentage peak area changes are much smaller than the overall uncertainties in derived concentrations, which are largely attributable to the effects of rock heterogeneity. The magnitude of the satellite contributions suggests the need to incorporate these routinely in accelerator-based PIXE using helium beams.

  4. Alpha spectrometry of thick sources. I. Application to alpha emitters determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acena, M.L.; Garcia-Torano, E.; Rivero, M.C.

    1977-01-01

    A method for determining alpha emitters by silicon surface barrier detector spectroscopy using thick sources is studied. Two types of spectra have been obtained. They have different shapes of line according to the procedure used for preparing the sources. For both spectra a computing least square programme has been developed. In this way it is possible to calculate line intensities with accuracy better than 20 percent. (author) [es

  5. Least-squares resolution of gamma-ray spectra in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanipe, L.G.; Seale, S.K.; Liggett, W.S.

    1977-08-01

    The use of ALPHA-M, a least squares computer program for analyzing NaI (Tl) gamma spectra of environmental samples, is evaluated. Included is a comprehensive set of program instructions, listings, and flowcharts. Two other programs, GEN4 and SIMSPEC, are also described. GEN4 is used to create standard libraries for ALPHA-M, and SIMSPEC is used to simulate spectra for ALPHA-M analysis. Tests to evaluate the standard libraries selected for use in analyzing environmental samples are provided. An evaluation of the results of sample analyses is discussed

  6. Multifractal spectra in shear flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, L. R.; Deane, Anil E.

    1989-01-01

    Numerical simulations of three-dimensional homogeneous shear flow and fully developed channel flow, are used to calculate the associated multifractal spectra of the energy dissipation field. Only weak parameterization of the results with the nondimensional shear is found, and this only if the flow has reached its asymptotic development state. Multifractal spectra of these flows coincide with those from experiments only at the range alpha less than 1.

  7. Alpha particle studies during JET DT experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The 1997 DT experiment (DTE1) at the Joint European Torus included studies of the behaviour of alpha particles in high temperature plasmas. Clear alpha particle heating was observed in a series of otherwise similar 10MW hot-ion H-modes by scanning the DT mixture from 0%T to 93%T. Maxima in central temperature and energy content were obtained which corresponded with the maximum in fusion yield. Alfven Eigenmodes (AEs) have been detected in JET, driven by NBI or ICRH fast ions. However, in agreement with theory, no AE activity was observed in DT plasmas which could be attributed to alpha particle drive, except in the afterglow of some Optimised Shear pulses. Ion Cyclotron Emission (ICE) was detected at harmonics of the alpha particle cyclotron frequency at the outer edge of the plasma. The ICE is interpreted as being close to magnetoacoustic cyclotron instability, driven by inverted alpha distributions at the plasma edge. The high-energy neutral particle spectra showed features, which are ascribed to a mixture of alphas, neutralised by helium-like impurities, and deuterons, born from elastic collisions with alpha particles and neutralised by hydrogen-like impurities. The results of all these studies are consistent with classical alpha particle trapping and slowing-down. Future DT experiments will aim to increase alpha particle pressure, so interactions with plasma instabilities can be studied. The measurement of knock-on neutral triton spectra offers a clean way to determine confined alpha densities in these future experiments. (author)

  8. Alpha particle studies during JET DT experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The 1997 DT experiment (DTE1) at the Joint European Torus included studies of the behaviour of alpha particles in high temperature plasmas. Clear alpha particle heating was observed in a series of otherwise similar 10MW hot-ion H-modes by scanning the DT mixture from 0%T to 93%T. Maxima in central temperature and energy content were obtained which corresponded with the maximum in fusion yield. Alfven Eigenmodes (AEs) have been detected in JET, driven by NBI or ICRH fast ions. However, in agreement with theory, no AE activity was observed in DT plasmas which could be attributed to alpha particle drive, except in the afterglow of some Optimised Shear pulses. Ion Cyclotron Emission (ICE) was detected at harmonics of the alpha particle cyclotron frequency at the outer edge of the plasma. The ICE is interpreted as being close to magnetoacoustic cyclotron instability, driven by inverted alpha distributions at the plasma edge. The high-energy neutral particle spectra showed features, which are ascribed to a mixture of alphas, neutralised by helium-like impurities, and deuterons, born from elastic collisions with alpha particles and neutralised by hydrogen-like impurities. The results of all these studies are consistent with classical alpha particle trapping and slowing-down. Future DT experiments will aim to increase alpha particle pressure, so interactions with plasma instabilities can be studied. The measurement of knock-on neutral triton spectra offers a clean way to determine confined alpha densities in these future experiments. (author)

  9. Liquid scintillation alpha spectrometry techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKlveen, J.W.; McDowell, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    Accurate, quantitative determinations of alpha emitting nuclides by conventional plate counting methods are difficult, because of sample self-absorption problems in counting and because of non-reproducible losses in conventional sample separation methods. Liquid scintillation alpha spectrometry offers an attractive alternative with no sample self-absorption or geometry problems and with 100% counting efficiency. Sample preparation may include extraction of the alpha emitter of interest by a specific organic phase-soluble compound directly into the liquid scintillation counting medium. Detection electronics use energy and pulse-shape discrimination, to yield alpha spectra without beta and gamma background interference. Specific procedures have been developed for gross alpha, uranium, plutonium, thorium and colonium assay. Possibilities for a large number of other applications exist. Accuracy and reproducibility are typically in the 1% range. Backgrounds of the order of 0.01 cpm are readily achievable. The paper will present an overview of liquid scintillation alpha counting techniques and some of the results achieved for specific applications. (orig.)

  10. Test chamber for alpha spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Robert P.

    1977-01-01

    Alpha emitters for low-level radiochemical analysis by measurement of alpha spectra are positioned precisely with respect to the location of a surface-barrier detector by means of a chamber having a removable threaded planchet holder. A pedestal on the planchet holder holds a specimen in fixed engagement close to the detector. Insertion of the planchet holder establishes an O-ring seal that permits the chamber to be pumped to a desired vacuum. The detector is protected against accidental contact and resulting damage.

  11. ELM: an Algorithm to Estimate the Alpha Abundance from Low-resolution Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Yude; Zhao, Gang; Pan, Jingchang; Bharat Kumar, Yerra

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated a novel methodology using the extreme learning machine (ELM) algorithm to determine the α abundance of stars. Applying two methods based on the ELM algorithm—ELM+spectra and ELM+Lick indices—to the stellar spectra from the ELODIE database, we measured the α abundance with a precision better than 0.065 dex. By applying these two methods to the spectra with different signal-to-noise ratios (S/Ns) and different resolutions, we found that ELM+spectra is more robust against degraded resolution and ELM+Lick indices is more robust against variation in S/N. To further validate the performance of ELM, we applied ELM+spectra and ELM+Lick indices to SDSS spectra and estimated α abundances with a precision around 0.10 dex, which is comparable to the results given by the SEGUE Stellar Parameter Pipeline. We further applied ELM to the spectra of stars in Galactic globular clusters (M15, M13, M71) and open clusters (NGC 2420, M67, NGC 6791), and results show good agreement with previous studies (within 1σ). A comparison of the ELM with other widely used methods including support vector machine, Gaussian process regression, artificial neural networks, and linear least-squares regression shows that ELM is efficient with computational resources and more accurate than other methods.

  12. ELM: AN ALGORITHM TO ESTIMATE THE ALPHA ABUNDANCE FROM LOW-RESOLUTION SPECTRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bu, Yude; Zhao, Gang; Kumar, Yerra Bharat; Pan, Jingchang

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated a novel methodology using the extreme learning machine (ELM) algorithm to determine the α abundance of stars. Applying two methods based on the ELM algorithm—ELM+spectra and ELM+Lick indices—to the stellar spectra from the ELODIE database, we measured the α abundance with a precision better than 0.065 dex. By applying these two methods to the spectra with different signal-to-noise ratios (S/Ns) and different resolutions, we found that ELM+spectra is more robust against degraded resolution and ELM+Lick indices is more robust against variation in S/N. To further validate the performance of ELM, we applied ELM+spectra and ELM+Lick indices to SDSS spectra and estimated α abundances with a precision around 0.10 dex, which is comparable to the results given by the SEGUE Stellar Parameter Pipeline. We further applied ELM to the spectra of stars in Galactic globular clusters (M15, M13, M71) and open clusters (NGC 2420, M67, NGC 6791), and results show good agreement with previous studies (within 1σ). A comparison of the ELM with other widely used methods including support vector machine, Gaussian process regression, artificial neural networks, and linear least-squares regression shows that ELM is efficient with computational resources and more accurate than other methods

  13. ELM: AN ALGORITHM TO ESTIMATE THE ALPHA ABUNDANCE FROM LOW-RESOLUTION SPECTRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bu, Yude [School of Mathematics and Statistics, Shandong University, Weihai, 264209, Shandong (China); Zhao, Gang; Kumar, Yerra Bharat [Key Laboratory for Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100012 (China); Pan, Jingchang, E-mail: ydbu@bao.ac.cn, E-mail: gzhao@nao.cas.cn [School of Mechanical, Electrical and Information Engineering, Shandong University, Weihai, 264209, Shandong (China)

    2016-01-20

    We have investigated a novel methodology using the extreme learning machine (ELM) algorithm to determine the α abundance of stars. Applying two methods based on the ELM algorithm—ELM+spectra and ELM+Lick indices—to the stellar spectra from the ELODIE database, we measured the α abundance with a precision better than 0.065 dex. By applying these two methods to the spectra with different signal-to-noise ratios (S/Ns) and different resolutions, we found that ELM+spectra is more robust against degraded resolution and ELM+Lick indices is more robust against variation in S/N. To further validate the performance of ELM, we applied ELM+spectra and ELM+Lick indices to SDSS spectra and estimated α abundances with a precision around 0.10 dex, which is comparable to the results given by the SEGUE Stellar Parameter Pipeline. We further applied ELM to the spectra of stars in Galactic globular clusters (M15, M13, M71) and open clusters (NGC 2420, M67, NGC 6791), and results show good agreement with previous studies (within 1σ). A comparison of the ELM with other widely used methods including support vector machine, Gaussian process regression, artificial neural networks, and linear least-squares regression shows that ELM is efficient with computational resources and more accurate than other methods.

  14. Measurement of 233U/234U ratios in contaminated groundwater using alpha spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, Jennifer J.; Payne, Timothy E.; Wilsher, Kerry L.; Thiruvoth, Sangeeth; Child, David P.; Johansen, Mathew P.; Hotchkis, Michael A.C.

    2016-01-01

    The uranium isotope 233 U is not usually observed in alpha spectra from environmental samples due to its low natural and fallout abundance. It may be present in samples from sites in the vicinity of nuclear operations such as reactors or fuel reprocessing facilities, radioactive waste disposal sites or sites affected by clandestine nuclear operations. On an alpha spectrum, the two most abundant alpha emissions of 233 U (4.784 MeV, 13.2%; and 4.824 MeV, 84.3%) will overlap with the 234 U doublet peak (4.722 MeV, 28.4%; and 4.775 MeV, 71.4%), if present, resulting in a combined 233+234 U multiplet. A technique for quantifying both 233 U and 234 U from alpha spectra was investigated. A series of groundwater samples were measured both by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) to determine 233 U/ 234 U atom and activity ratios and by alpha spectrometry in order to establish a reliable 233 U estimation technique using alpha spectra. The Genie™ 2000 Alpha Analysis and Interactive Peak Fitting (IPF) software packages were used and it was found that IPF with identification of three peaks ( 234 U minor, combined 234 U major and 233 U minor, and 233 U major) followed by interference correction on the combined peak and a weighted average activity calculation gave satisfactory agreement with the AMS data across the 233 U/ 234 U activity ratio range (0.1–20) and 233 U activity range (2–300 mBq) investigated. Correlation between the AMS 233 U and alpha spectrometry 233 U was r 2  = 0.996 (n = 10). - Highlights: • Describes a technique for deconvoluting the combined 233 U and 234 U multiplet in alpha spectra. • Enables 233 U and 234 U activities and 233 U/ 234 U ratios to be quantified without requiring additional analysis and measurement. • Applicable to an environmental matrix (groundwater) using standard alpha spectrometry counting equipment, operation and set-up.

  15. Spectra of neutrons and fusion charged products produced in a dense laser plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burtsev, V.A.; Dyatlov, V.D.; Krzhizhanovskij, R.E.; Levkovskij, A.A.

    1977-01-01

    The possibility of laser-produced plasma diagnostics has been investigated by measuring spectra of neutrons and alpha particles produced in the T(d,n) 4 He reaction. Using the Monte Carlo method the spectra have been calculated for nine states of the deuterium-tritium plasma with the temperature of 1;5 and 10 keV and the density of 0.2; 1 and 10 g/cm 3 respectively. The initial radius of the target was assumed to be 0.01 cm at the density of 0.2 g/cm 3 . It is shown that the neutron and alpha spectra can serve as plasma diagnostics parameters in laser fusion

  16. Spin-polarized x-ray emission of 3d transition-metal ions : A comparison via K alpha and K beta detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Xin; deGroot, F.M.F.; Cramer, SP

    1997-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that spin-polarized x-ray-excitation spectra can be obtained using K alpha emission as well as K beta lines. A spin-polarized analysis of K alpha x-ray emission and the excitation spectra by K alpha detection on a Ni compound is reported. A systematic analysis of the

  17. Determination of crystal oscillatory spectra by internal friction data spectroscopic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaykin, Yu.A.

    1998-01-01

    Technique for relaxation spectra determination on the basis of internal friction averaging over relaxation frequencies is developed. It is shown that mathematically the problem is reduced to solution of the first type Fredholm integral equation. Impurity oscillatory spectra in alpha-iron, molybdenum and Fe-Cr-Ni alloy are obtained. (author)

  18. Confined trapped-alpha behavior in TFTR deuterium-tritium plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medley, S.S.; Budny, R.V.; Redi, M.H.; Roquemore, A.L.; White, R.B.; Petrov, M.P.; Gorelenkov, N.N.

    1997-10-01

    Confined trapped-alpha energy spectra and differential radial density profiles in TFTR D-T plasmas are obtained with the Pellet Charge-eXchange (PCX) diagnostic which measures high energy (E α = 0.5--3.5 MeV), trapped alphas (v parallel /v = - 0.048) at a single time slice (Δt ∼ 1 msec) with a spatial resolution of Δr ∼ 5 cm. Tritons produced in D-D plasmas and RF-driven ion tails (H, 3 He or T) were also observed and energetic tritium ion tail measurements will be discussed. PCX alpha and triton energy spectra extending up to their birth energies were measured in the core of MHD-quiescent discharges where the expected classical slowing down and pitch angle scattering effects are not complicated by stochastic ripple diffusion and sawtooth activity. Both the shape of the measured alpha and triton energy distributions and their density ratios are in good agreement with TRANSP predictions, indicating that the PCX measurements are consistent with classical thermalization of the fusion-generated alphas and tritons. From calculations, these results set an upper limit on possible anomalous radial diffusion for trapped alphas of D α ≤ 0.01 m 2 s -1 . Outside the core, where the trapped alphas are influenced by stochastic ripple diffusion effects, the PCX measurements are consistent with the functional dependence of the Goldston-White-Boozer stochastic ripple threshold on the alpha energy and the q-profile. In the presence of strong sawtooth activity, the PCX diagnostic observes significant redistribution of the alpha signal radial profile wherein alphas are depleted in the core and redistributed to well outside the q = 1 radius, but apparently not beyond the energy-dependent stochastic ripple loss boundary

  19. Alpha particle analysis using PEARLS spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKlveen, J.W.; Klingler, G.W.; McDowell, W.J.; Case, G.N.

    1984-01-01

    Alpha particle assay by conventional plate-counting methods is difficult because chemical separation, tracer techniques, and/or self-absorption losses in the final sample may cause either non-reproducible results or create unacceptable errors. PEARLS (Photon-Electron Rejecting Alpha Liquid Scintillation) Spectrometry is an attractive alternative since radionuclides may be extracted into a scintillator in which there would be no self-absorption or geometry problems and in which up to 100% chemical recovery and counting efficiency is possible. Sample preparation may include extraction of the alpha emitter of interest by a specific organic-phase-soluble compound directly into the liquid scintillator. Detection electronics use energy and pulse-shape discrimination to provide discrete alpha spectra and virtual absence of beta and gamma backgrounds. Backgrounds on the order of 0.01 cpm are readily achievable. Accuracy and reproducibility are typically in the 100 +-1% range. Specific procedures have been developed for gross alpha, uranium, plutonium, thorium, and polonium assay. This paper will review liquid scintillation alpha counting methods and reference some of the specific applications. 8 refs., 1 fig

  20. Evolution of organic aerosol mass spectra upon heating: implications for OA phase and partitioning behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    UC Davis; Cappa, Christopher D.; Wilson, Kevin R.

    2010-10-28

    Vacuum Ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization mass spectrometry has been used to measure the evolution of chemical composition for two distinct organic aerosol types as they are passed through a thermodenuder at different temperatures. The two organic aerosol types considered are primary lubricating oil (LO) aerosol and secondary aerosol from the alpha-pinene + O3 reaction (alphaP). The evolution of the VUV mass spectra for the two aerosol types with temperature are observed to differ dramatically. For LO particles, the spectra exhibit distinct changes with temperature in which the lower m/z peaks, corresponding to compounds with higher vapor pressures, disappear more rapidly than the high m/z peaks. In contrast, the alphaP aerosol spectrum is essentially unchanged by temperature even though the particles experience significant mass loss due to evaporation. The variations in the LO spectra are found to be quantitatively in agreement with expectations from absorptive partitioning theory whereas the alphaP spectra suggest that the evaporation of alphaP derived aerosol appears to not be governed by partitioning theory. We postulate that this difference arises from the alphaP particles existing as in a glassy state instead of having the expected liquid-like behavior. To reconcile these observations with decades of aerosol growth measurements, which indicate that OA formation is described by equilibrium partitioning, we present a conceptual model wherein the secondary OA is formed and then rapidly converted from an absorbing form to a non-absorbing form. The results suggest that although OA growth may be describable by equilibrium partitioning theory, the properties of organic aerosol once formed may differ significantly from the properties determined in the equilibrium framework.

  1. Part 1: determination of radioactive disequilibrium in uranium ores by alpha-spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killeen, P.G.; Carmichael, C.M.

    1976-01-01

    An α-spectrometric method of detecting the presence of disequilibrium in the 238 U decay series has been developed. A silicon semi-conductor detector and a 1024 channel pulse height analyzer were used to obtain alpha particle energy spectra of uraniferous rocks and minerals. 'Infinitely thick' sources were used to avoid the problems involved in preparation of 'infinitely thin' sources. The method involves the generation of theoretical energy distributions for infinitely thick sources. Complete theoretical spectra were computed for comparison with experimentally obtained alpha particle energy spectra of rocks and minerals. The presence and extent of disequilibrium in the 238 U decay series in a rock is determined from the residual spectrum obtained by subtracting a fitted theoretical spectrum from the measured spectrum of a rock. (author)

  2. Determination of 239Pu/240Pu isotopic ratio by high resolution alpha-particle spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoudry, F.; Burger, P.

    1983-05-01

    The development of passivated ion-implanted silicon detectors and of very thin alpha-particle sources improves the resolution of alpha-particle spectra and allows to separate energy pics up to now unseparate. The 239 Pu/ 240 Pu isotopic ratio of a mixture has been measured using the alpha spectrometry deconvolution code DEMO [fr

  3. Carbon stars with alpha-C:H emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbault, Florence; Goebel, John H.

    1989-01-01

    Many carbon stars in the IRS low resolution spectra (LRS) catalog were found which display emission spectra that compare favorable with the absorption spectrum of alpha-C:H. These stars have largely been classified as 4X in the LRS which has led to their interpretation by others in terms of displaying a mixture of the UIRF's 8.6 micron band and SiC at 11.5 microns. It was also found that many of these stars have a spectral upturn at 20+ microns which resembles the MgS band seen in carbon stars and planetary nebulae. It was concluded that this group of carbon stars will evolve into planetary nebulae like NGC 7027 and IC 418. In the presence of hard ultraviolet radiation the UIRF's will light up and be displayed as narrow emission bands on top of the broad alpha-C:H emission bands.

  4. Measurement of differential (n,x{alpha}) cross section using 4{pi} gridded ionization chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanami, Toshiya; Baba, Mamoru; Matsuyama, Shigeo; Kiyosumi, Takehide; Nauchi, Yasushi; Saito, Keiichiro; Hirakawa, Naohiro [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Kawano, Toshihiko

    1997-03-01

    We carried out the measurements of high resolution {alpha} emission spectra of {sup 58}Ni and {sup nat}Ni between 4.5 and 6.5 MeV, and {sup 12}C(n,x{alpha}) cross section using a 4{pi} gridded ionization chamber. In Ni measurement, overall energy resolution was improved to around 200 keV by optimizing a sample thickness and a neutron source width. Measured alpha spectra showed separate peaks corresponding to the ground and low-lying excited states of the residual nucleus ({sup 55}Fe). These results were compared with another direct measurement and statistical model calculations. In {sup 12}C measurement, GIC was applied for (n,x{alpha}) reactions of light nuclei. This application is difficult to (n,x{alpha}) cross sections of light nuclei, because of the influences of large recoil energy and multi-body break-up. We developed new methods which eliminate the effects of recoil nuclei and multi-body break-up and applied them to {sup 12}C(n,x{alpha}) reaction at En=14.1 MeV. In our experiment, the {sup 12}C(n,{alpha}{sub 0}){sup 9}Be angular differential cross section and {sup 12}C(n,n`3{alpha}) cross section were obtained. (author)

  5. Alpha spectroscopy by the Φ25 mm×0.1 mm YAlO{sub 3}:Ce scintillation detector under atmospheric conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvasnicka, Jiri [Radiation Detection Systems, Unit 10, 186 Pulteney Street, Adelaide SA 5000 (Australia); Urban, Tomas, E-mail: tomas.urban@fjfi.cvut.cz [Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Brehova 78/7, 115 19 Prague, Czech Republic (Czech Republic); Tous, Jan; Smejkal, Jan; Blazek, Karel [Crytur Ltd, Palackeho 175, 511 01 Turnov (Czech Republic); Nikl, Martin [Institute of Physics AS CR, Cukrovarnicka 10, 162 53 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2017-06-01

    The YAlO{sub 3}:Ce scintillation crystal has excellent mechanical properties and is not affected if used in chemically aggressive environments. The detector with the diameter of Φ25.4 mm and thickness of 0.1 mm was coupled with the PMT, associated electronics and the MCA in order to study its alpha spectroscopy properties. The measured alpha spectra of the surface calibration sources of {sup 241}Am and {sup 230}Th were compared with results of a Monte Carlo simulation. The experiment and the simulation were carried out for three distances between the detector and the surface alpha source in order to assess the effect of the distance on the detected energy of alpha radiation. Finally, the detector was used for the monitoring of radon ({sup 222}Rn) decay products (radon daughters) in the air. It was concluded that the detector is suitable for the in-situ alpha spectroscopy monitoring under ambient atmospheric conditions. Nevertheless, in order to identify radionuclides and their activity from the measured alpha spectra a computer code would need to be developed. - Highlights: • Thin YAP: Ce scintillator crystal is proposed to be used for alpha spectrometry. • Experimental alpha spectra were compared with Monte Carlo simulated spectra. • The proposed detector assembly is suitable for the monitoring of radon decay products in air. • The results give a good potential for a quantitative analysis of the spectrum.

  6. Comparison of (alpha, n) thick-target neutron yields and spectra from ORIGEN-S and SOURCES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, T.H.; Wilson, W.B.; Perry, R.T.; Charlton, W.S.

    1998-01-01

    Both ORIGEN-S and SOURCES generate thick-target neutron yields and energy spectra from (α,n) reactions in homogeneous materials. SOURCES calculates yield and spectra for any material containing α-emitting and (α,n) target elements by simulating reaction physics, using α-emission energy spectra, elemental stopping cross sections, (α,n) cross sections for target nuclei, and branching fractions to produce-nuclide energy levels. This methodology results in accurate yield and spectra. ORIGEN-S has two options for calculating yields and spectra. The UO 2 option (default) estimates yields and spectra assuming the input α-emitters to be infinitely dilute in UO 2 . The borosilicate-glass option estimates yields from the total input material composition and generates spectra purportedly representative of spectra generated by 238 Pu, 241 Am, 242 Cm, and 244 Cm infinitely dilute in borosilicate glass, even if none of these four α-emitters are present in the input material composition. Because yields from the borosilicate-glass option in ORIGEN-S are based on entire input material composition and are reasonably accurate, the same is often assumed to be true for spectra. The input/output functionality of the borosilicate-glass option, along with ambiguity in ORIGEN-S documentation, gives the incorrect impression that spectra representative of input compositions are generated. This impression is reinforced by wide usage of the SCALE code system and its ORIGEN-S module and their sponsorship by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission

  7. Matrix Characterization of Plutonium Residues by Alpha-Particle Self-Interrogation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prettyman, T.H.; Foster, L.A.; Staples, P.

    1998-01-01

    Legacy plutonium residues often have inadequate item descriptions. Nondestructive characterization can help segregate these items for reprocessing or provide information needed for disposal or storage. Alpha particle-induced gamma-ray spectra contain a wealth of information that can be used for matrix characterization. We demonstrate how this information can be used for item identification. Gamma-ray spectra were recorded at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility from a variety of legacy, plutonium-processing residues and product materials. The comparison and analysis of these spectra are presented

  8. Spectroscopic study on the interaction of Bacillus subtilis {alpha}-amylase with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omidyan, R., E-mail: r.omidyan@sci.ui.ac.i [Department of Chemistry, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Chemistry, Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences (IASBS), Zanjan 45137-66731 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kazemi, S.H. [Department of Chemistry, Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences (IASBS), Zanjan 45137-66731 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bordbar, A.K. [Department of Chemistry, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zaynalpour, S. [Department of Chemistry, Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences (IASBS), Zanjan 45137-66731 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    The interaction between {alpha}-amylase from Bacillus subtilis and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) has been investigated at various temperature conditions using fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopic methods. Fluorescence data revealed that the fluorescence quenching of {alpha}-amylase by CTAB is the result of complex formation between CTAB and {alpha}-amylase. The thermodynamic analysis on the binding interaction data shows that the interactions are strongly exothermic ({Delta}H{sup o}=-17.92 kJ mol{sup -1}) accompanied with increase in entropy ({Delta}S{sup o} between 109 to 135 J mol{sup -1} K{sup -1}). Thus the binding of CTAB to {alpha}-amylase is both enthalpic and entropic driven, which represent the predominate role of both electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions in complex formation process. The values of 2.17x10{sup -3} M{sup -1} and 1.30 have been obtained from associative binding constant (K{sub a}) and stoichiometry of binding number (n), from analysis of fluorescence data, respectively. Circular dichroism spectra showed the substantial conformational changes in secondary structure of {alpha}-amylase due to binding of CTAB, which represents the complete destruction of both secondary and tertiary structure of {alpha}-amylase by CTAB. - Research highlights: {yields} The Fluorescence quenching effect of {alpha}-amylase by CTAB is a consequence of formation {alpha}-amylase-CTAB complex. {yields} The {alpha}-helical analyzing from the CD spectra in the various concentration of CTAB shows strongly deformation of {alpha}-amylase. {yields} Thermodynamic analysis of quenching verify that the interactions are both enthalpy and entropic driven.

  9. NEBULAR ATTENUATION IN H{alpha}-SELECTED STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT z = 0.8 FROM THE NewH{alpha} SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momcheva, Ivelina G. [Astronomy Department, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Lee, Janice C.; Ouchi, Masami [Carnegie Observatories, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Ly, Chun [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Salim, Samir [Astronomy Department, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Dale, Daniel A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Finn, Rose [Physics Department, Siena College, Loudonville, NY 12211 (United States); Ono, Yoshiaki, E-mail: ivelina.momcheva@yale.edu [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2013-02-01

    We present measurements of the dust attenuation of H{alpha}-selected emission-line galaxies at z = 0.8 from the NewH{alpha} narrowband survey. The analysis is based on deep follow-up spectroscopy with Magellan/IMACS, which captures the strong rest-frame optical emission lines from [O II] {lambda}3727 to [O III] {lambda}5007. The spectroscopic sample used in this analysis consists of 341 confirmed H{alpha} emitters. We place constraints on the active galactic nucleus (AGN) fraction using diagnostics that can be applied at intermediate redshift. We find that at least 5% of the objects in our spectroscopic sample can be classified as AGNs and 2% are composite, i.e., powered by a combination of star formation and AGN activity. We measure the dust attenuation for individual objects from the ratios of the higher order Balmer lines. The H{beta} and H{gamma} pair of lines is detected with S/N > 5 in 55 individual objects and the H{beta} and H{delta} pair is detected in 50 individual objects. We also create stacked spectra to probe the attenuation in objects without individual detections. The median attenuation at H{alpha} based on the objects with individually detected lines is A(H{alpha}) = 0.9 {+-} 1.0 mag, in good agreement with the attenuation found in local samples of star-forming galaxies. We find that the z = 0.8 galaxies occupy a similar locus of attenuation as a function of magnitude, mass, and star formation rate (SFR) as a comparison sample drawn from the SDSS DR4. Both the results from the individual z = 0.8 galaxies and from the stacked spectra show consistency with the mass-attenuation and SFR-attenuation relations found in the local universe, indicating that these relations are also applicable at intermediate redshift.

  10. Neutron spectra of /sup 242/Cm-Be and /sup 244/Cm-Be neutron sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, A; Nagarajan, P S [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Div. of Radiation Protection

    1977-02-15

    Neutron spectra of /sup 242/Cm-Be(..cap alpha..,n) and /sup 244/Cm-Be(..cap alpha..,n) sources have been calculated including the spontaneous fission contribution which is negligible for /sup 242/Cm and amounts to about 4% for /sup 244/Cm. The agreement of the present work with experimental results is poor.

  11. High throughput octal alpha/gamma spectrometer for low level bioassay estimations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhasin, B.D.; Shirke, S.H.; Suri, M.M.; Vaidya, P.P.; Ghodgaonkar, M.D.

    1995-01-01

    The present paper describes the development of a high throughput octal alpha spectrometry system specially developed for the estimation of low levels of actinides in bioassay and environmental samples. The system processes simultaneously the outputs coming from eight independent detectors. It can be configured to simultaneously record low level alpha and gamma spectra. The high throughput is achieved by using a prioritised multiplexer router. The prioritised multiplexing and routing coupled with fast 8K ADC (conversion time 20 μsec) allow simultaneous acquisition of multiple spectra without any significant loss in counts. The dual (8K, 24bit) port memory facilitates easy online viewing of spectrum buildup. A menu driven user friendly software makes the operating system convenient to use. A specially developed software provides built-in routines for processing the spectra and estimating the isotopic activity. The interactive mode of software provides easy identification of isotopes compatible with the separation chemistry of different actinides. (author). 6 refs., 2 figs

  12. The matter power spectrum from the Ly alpha forest : an optical depth estimate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaroubi, S; Nusser, A; Haehnelt, M; Kim, TS; Viel, M.

    2006-01-01

    We measure the matter power spectrum from 31 Ly alpha spectra spanning the redshift range of 1.6-3.6. The optical depth, tau, for Ly alpha absorption of the intergalactic medium is obtained from the flux using the inversion method of Nusser & Haehnelt. The optical depth is converted to density by

  13. Continuous particle spectra and their angular distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sastry, Ch.V.; Jain, R.K.; Rama Rao, J.; Ernst, J.; Machner, H.

    1996-01-01

    The angular distribution of continuous particle spectra in pre-equilibrium reactions is still an unsolved problem, particularly so at forward angles. In the present work, the angular distributions of alpha particles emitted in (α, α',x) reactions in the target elements gold and rhodium have been studied in detail. Alpha particle beams of energy 60 MeV from the Variable Energy Cyclotron of Calcutta were used in these experiments. The theoretical calculations were done using an extended exciton model of Kalbach incorporated into the Computer Code PRECO-D2. The formalism used in the exciton model was modified to include division of pre equilibrium cross section into multi-step direct (MSD) and multi-step compound (MSC) components. These MSD and MSC cross sections were used to calculate the angular distributions in terms of Legendre polynomials whose coefficients are given by simple phenomenological relations. Even with a reasonable set of parameters, the agreement between theory and experiment was far from satisfactory at forward angles. Similar conclusion was also drawn in the case of continuous particle spectra of deuterons in (d, d'x) reactions at 25 MeV in various targets. (author). 10 refs., 2 figs

  14. The As-76 interlaboratory experiment on the alpha spectrometric determination of Pu-238. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortels, G.; Spannagel, G.; Beyrich, W.

    1979-12-01

    The AS-76 interlaboratory program furnished 828 alpha spectra. A selection of these spectra was evaluated in more detail by use of information supplied by the laboratories and by application of a common procedure of evaluation. (orig.) 891 HP/orig. 892 MKO [de

  15. Continuous monitoring for airborne alpha emitters in a dusty environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiler, F.A.; Newton, G.J.; Guilmette, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    Disposal of radioactive wastes in underground facilities requires continuous monitoring for airborne radioactive materials, both on the surface and underground. In addition to a natural background of nonradioactive and radioactive aerosols, there may be a sizeable dust contribution from ongoing work such as mining and vehicular traffic. In the monitoring of alpha-emitting radionuclides, these aerosols may lead to self-absorption in the source and a deterioration of the energy spectrum of the detected alpha particles. In this paper, the influence of a realistic background aerosol on the performance of an alpha monitoring system is evaluated theoretically. It is shown that depositing alpha emitters and background aerosol on a surface for counting leads rapidly to a considerable loss of counts, a deterioration of the alpha spectra, an eventual saturation of the count rates, and interference from the natural background of Rn daughters

  16. Research on the reactions {sup 9}Be ({sup 3}He, 3 {alpha}) and {sup 10}B (d, 3 {alpha}); Contribution a l'etude experimentale des reactions {sup 9}Be ({sup 3}He, 3 {alpha}) et {sup 10}B (d, 3 {alpha})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thouvenin, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1967-06-15

    For studying these reactions, the detection of the final particles emitted in coincidence in the directions {theta}{sub 1} and {theta}{sub 2}, together with the bi-parametric analysis of the corresponding pulses are used. This method enables us to obtain the orthogonal Dalitz diagrams (E{sub 1}, E{sub 2}). An examination of the spectra obtained shows that the sequential mechanism appears to predominate. The contribution of the purely statistical process is less than 15 per cent of the total spectrum. In the case of {sup 10}B (d, 3 {alpha}), for E{sub d} = 1.5 MeV, 2,66 MeV and 3 MeV, the width of the peak of the first particles emitted, with respect to {sup 8}Be excitations close to 11 MeV, is found to be equal to 2.6 {+-} 0.6 MeV, much less than the width of the 2. excited state observed by {alpha} - {alpha} scattering. The coincidence spectra and the free spectra give an excitation energy of E{sub x} = 2.68 {+-} 0.07 MeV for the first excited state of {sup 8}Be. Some remarks are made concerning the anomalies observed for E{sub d} = 5 MeV and 9 MeV. The excited levels of {sup 8}Be at 13.91 MeV and 7.56 MeV which have been described in the past are not observed. (author) [French] La detection de deux des particules finales emises en cofncidence dans les directions {theta}{sub 1} et {theta}{sub 2}, et l'analyse biparametrique des impulsions correspondantes sont utilisees pour etudier ces reactions. Cette methode nous permet d'obtenir des diagrammes de Dalitz orthogonaux (E{sub 1}, E{sub 2}). L'examen des spectres obtenus montre que le mecanisme sequentiel semble predominant. La contribution du processus purement statistique est inferieure a 15 pour cent du spectre total. Dans le cas de {sup 10}B (d, 3 {alpha}), pour E{sub d} = 1,5 MeV, 2,66 MeV et 3 MeV, la largeur du pic des premieres particules emises relatives a des excitations de {sup 8}Be voisines de 11 MeV, est trouvee egale a 2,6 {+-} 0,6 MeV, tres inferieure a la largeur du 2. etat excite observee a l

  17. Alpha and conversion electron spectroscopy of {sup 238,239}Pu and {sup 241}Am and alpha-conversion electron coincidence measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dion, Michael P., E-mail: michael.dion@pnnl.gov; Miller, Brian W.; Warren, Glen A.

    2016-09-11

    A technique to determine the isotopic constituents of a mixed actinide sample has been proposed by a coincident alpha-conversion electron measurement. This presents a unique signature to allow the unfolding of isotopes that possess overlapping alpha particle energy and reduce backgrounds of an unseparated sample. The work presented here are results of conversion electron spectroscopy of {sup 241}Am, {sup 238}Pu and {sup 239}Pu using a dual-stage peltier-cooled 25 mm{sup 2} silicon drift detector and alpha spectroscopy with a passivated ion implanted planar silicon detector. The conversion electron spectra were evaluated from 20–55 keV based on fits to the dominant conversion electron emissions, which allowed the relative conversion electron emission intensities to be determined. These measurements provide crucial singles spectral information and calibration to aid in the coincident measurement approach. Furthermore, an alpha-conversion electron spectrometer was assembled using the silicon based detectors described and results of a coincident spectrum analysis is reported for {sup 241}Am.

  18. Copper L X-ray spectra measured by a high resolution ion-induced X-ray spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Ryohei; Hamaguchi, Dai; Kageyama, Hiroyoshi [Kyoto Inst. of Tech. (Japan); and others

    1997-03-01

    High resolution L X-ray emission spectra of Cu have been measured by 0.75 MeV/u H, He, and F, 0.73 MeV/u Ar, 0.64 MeV/u Si, and 0.073 MeV/u Si ion impacts with a crystal spectrometer. The X-ray transition energies in the Cu target for L{iota}, L{eta}, L{alpha}{sub 1,2}, L{beta}{sub 1}, and L{beta}{sub 3,4} diagram lines induced by light ion impacts are determined, which are in good agreement with those given in the reference. The difference in L X-ray emission spectra produced by H, He, F, Si, and Ar ions are considered and the L{alpha}{sub 1,2} and L{beta}{sub 1} emission spectra are compared with the calculated ones based on the multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock method. (author)

  19. The effect of toroidal field ripple on confined alphas in TFTR D-T plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duong, H.H.; Medley, S.S.

    1996-05-01

    The Pellet Charge Exchange (PCX) diagnostic on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) presently measures trapped alpha distribution functions with very small pitch angle (v parallel /v ∼ 0.05) at the midplane. The measured PCX alpha signal exhibits a depletion region near the outboard region. Results of the alpha energy spectra and radial profile suggest stochastic ripple diffusion is the cause of the depletion. Comparison of the ripple stochastization boundary with Goldston-White-Boozer theory also shows the correct functional dependence on alpha energy and q-profile

  20. Alpha and conversion electron spectroscopy of 238,239Pu and 241Am and alpha-conversion electron coincidence measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dion, Michael P.; Miller, Brian W.; Warren, Glen A.

    2016-09-01

    A technique to determine the isotopics of a mixed actinide sample has been proposed by measuring the coincidence of the alpha particle during radioactive decay with the conversion electron (or Auger) emitted during the relaxation of the daughter isotope. This presents a unique signature to allow the deconvolution of isotopes that possess overlapping alpha particle energy. The work presented here are results of conversion electron spectroscopy of 241Am, 238Pu and 239Pu using a dual-stage peltier-cooled 25 mm2 silicon drift detector. A passivated ion implanted planar silicon detector provided measurements of alpha spectroscopy. The conversion electron spectra were evaluated from 20–55 keV based on fits to the dominant conversion electron emissions, which allowed the relative conversion electron emission intensities to be determined. These measurements provide crucial singles spectral information to aid in the coincident measurement approach.

  1. Investigation of anisotropy in EPR spectra of radiation defects in irradiated beryllium ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polyakov, A I; Ryabikin, Yu A; Zashkvara, O V; Bitenbaev, M I; Petukhov, Yu V [Inst. of Physics and Technology, Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2004-07-01

    Full text: In this work results of analysis of anisotropy and hyperfine structure in EPR spectra of paramagnetic defects in irradiated samples of beryllium ceramics are presented. To explain peculiarities in a shape and parameters of the EPR spectrum hyperfine structure in beryllium ceramics, we have analyzed several versions of model representations for the radiation-induced paramagnetic defects uniformly distributed in a sample as well as for cluster defects which hyperfine structure is determined by interactions between electrons and nuclei of impurity atoms (S=1/2) and which are characterized by anisotropy in the g factors. Calculations of a shape of the uniformly widened EPR spectra are carried out by the model of random interactions between electron spins. The EPR spectra, widened at the expense of anisotropy in the g factors, are calculated by the following equation: g({delta})=[2({omega}-{omega}{sub 0})+{alpha}]{sup -1/2}, where {omega}{sub 0}={gamma}H{sub 0}, {alpha} is the quantify proportional to the anisotropy shift. To describe wings of spectral lines, where the equation doesn't work, we use the Gaussian function. To determine the frequency of precession of electron spins packages with local concentration N{sub loc}, the following expression is used: {omega}={omega}{sub 0}+1/2{alpha}(3cos{sup 2}{theta}-1), where {theta} is an angle between the symmetry axis and the direction of the external magnetic field. It is shown that the best agreement between the calculated and experimental EPR spectra is observed with the following computational model: paramagnetic radiation defects are distributed uniformly over a ceramics sample, and the g factors of its EPR spectra have the anisotropy typical for dipole-dipole interaction in powder samples. By results of the data we obtained, it's clear that in future we'll need in more detailed information than that published in scientific journals about formation of the paramagnetic defect EPR spectra structure in

  2. Research on the reactions {sup 9}Be ({sup 3}He, 3 {alpha}) and {sup 10}B (d, 3 {alpha}); Contribution a l'etude experimentale des reactions {sup 9}Be ({sup 3}He, 3 {alpha}) et {sup 10}B (d, 3 {alpha})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thouvenin, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1967-06-15

    For studying these reactions, the detection of the final particles emitted in coincidence in the directions {theta}{sub 1} and {theta}{sub 2}, together with the bi-parametric analysis of the corresponding pulses are used. This method enables us to obtain the orthogonal Dalitz diagrams (E{sub 1}, E{sub 2}). An examination of the spectra obtained shows that the sequential mechanism appears to predominate. The contribution of the purely statistical process is less than 15 per cent of the total spectrum. In the case of {sup 10}B (d, 3 {alpha}), for E{sub d} = 1.5 MeV, 2,66 MeV and 3 MeV, the width of the peak of the first particles emitted, with respect to {sup 8}Be excitations close to 11 MeV, is found to be equal to 2.6 {+-} 0.6 MeV, much less than the width of the 2. excited state observed by {alpha} - {alpha} scattering. The coincidence spectra and the free spectra give an excitation energy of E{sub x} = 2.68 {+-} 0.07 MeV for the first excited state of {sup 8}Be. Some remarks are made concerning the anomalies observed for E{sub d} = 5 MeV and 9 MeV. The excited levels of {sup 8}Be at 13.91 MeV and 7.56 MeV which have been described in the past are not observed. (author) [French] La detection de deux des particules finales emises en cofncidence dans les directions {theta}{sub 1} et {theta}{sub 2}, et l'analyse biparametrique des impulsions correspondantes sont utilisees pour etudier ces reactions. Cette methode nous permet d'obtenir des diagrammes de Dalitz orthogonaux (E{sub 1}, E{sub 2}). L'examen des spectres obtenus montre que le mecanisme sequentiel semble predominant. La contribution du processus purement statistique est inferieure a 15 pour cent du spectre total. Dans le cas de {sup 10}B (d, 3 {alpha}), pour E{sub d} = 1,5 MeV, 2,66 MeV et 3 MeV, la largeur du pic des premieres particules emises relatives a des excitations de {sup 8}Be voisines de 11 MeV, est trouvee egale a 2,6 {+-} 0,6 MeV, tres inferieure a la largeur du 2. etat excite

  3. A comparative study of ICH validated novel spectrophotometric techniques for resolving completely overlapping spectra of quaternary mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nouruddin W.; Abdelwahab, Nada S.; Abdelkawy, M.; Emam, Aml A.

    2016-02-01

    A pharmaceutically marketed mixture of Yohimbine, Alpha-tocopheryl acetate, Niacin, and Caffeine co-formulated as a promising therapy for erectile dysfunction. Simultaneous determination of the aforementioned pharmaceutical formulation without prior separation steps was applied using mean centering of ratio spectra and triple divisor spectrophotometric methods. Mean centering of ratio spectra method depended on using the mean centered ratio spectra in three successive steps which eliminated the derivative steps and so the signal to noise ratio was improved. The absorption spectra of the prepared solutions were measured in the wavelength range of 215-300 nm in the concentration ranges of 1-15, 3-15, 1-20, and 3-15 μg mL- 1 for Yohimbine, Alpha-tocopheryl acetate, Niacin, and Caffeine, respectively. The amplitudes of the mean centered third ratio spectra were measured at 250 nm and 268 nm for Yohimbine and Alpha-tocopheryl acetate, respectively and at peak to peak 272-273 and 262-263 nm for Niacin and Caffeine, respectively. In triple divisor method each drug in the quaternary mixture was determined by dividing the spectrum of the quaternary mixture by a standard spectrum of a mixture containing equal concentrations of the other three drugs. First derivative of these ratio spectra was obtained where determination could be achieved without any interference from the other three drugs. Amplitudes of 1-15, 3-15, 1-15, and 3-15 μg mL- 1 were used for selective determination of Yohimbine, Alpha-tocopheryl acetate, Niacin, and Caffeine, respectively. Laboratory prepared mixtures were analyzed by the developed novel methods to investigate their selectivity also, Super Act® capsules were successfully analyzed to ensure absence of interference from additives. The developed methods were validated according to the ICH guidelines. The proposed methods were statistically compared with each other and with the reported methods; using student t-test, F-test, and one way ANOVA

  4. Double differential cross-sections of (n,{alpha}) reactions in aluminium and nickel at 14.77 MeV neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalremruata, B.; Dhole, S.D. [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune-411007 (India); Ganesan, S. [Reactor Physics Design Division, BARC, Mumbai-400085 (India); Bhoraskar, V.N. [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune-411007 (India)], E-mail: vnb@physics.unipune.ernet.in

    2009-04-15

    The double differential cross-sections (DDX) for the emission of alpha particles from {sup 27}Al(n,{alpha}){sup 24}Na and Ni(n,{alpha}) reactions induced by 14.77 MeV neutrons were estimated from the alpha particle spectra recorded at 30 deg., 50 deg., 90 deg., 110 deg. angles for aluminium, and at 20 deg., 45 deg., 90 deg., 110 deg. for natural nickel. The results indicate that the alpha particles below and around the most probable energies ({approx}6.3 MeV from aluminium and {approx}8 MeV from natural nickel) are emitted predominantly through the compound nucleus formation process, and the higher energy alpha particles are emitted through the pre-equilibrium or the direct reaction. In general, the measured double-differential cross-sections are in agreement with the theoretical cross-sections estimated using Talys-1.0 and Preco2007 computer programs. The present value of the level density parameter for {sup 24}Na is close to the literature value and, therefore, these results reveal consistency in the alpha particle spectra recorded with a single silicon surface barrier detector at different scattering angles.

  5. A Simple Spreadsheet Program to Simulate and Analyze the Far-UV Circular Dichroism Spectra of Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abriata, Luciano A.

    2011-01-01

    A simple algorithm was implemented in a spreadsheet program to simulate the circular dichroism spectra of proteins from their secondary structure content and to fit [alpha]-helix, [beta]-sheet, and random coil contents from experimental far-UV circular dichroism spectra. The physical basis of the method is briefly reviewed within the context of…

  6. Relation between Kitaev magnetism and structure in $\\alpha$-RuCl$_3$

    OpenAIRE

    Glamazda, A.; Lemmens, P.; Do, S. -H.; Kwon, Y. S.; Choi, K. -Y.

    2017-01-01

    Raman scattering has been employed to investigate lattice and magnetic excitations of the honeycomb Kitaev material $\\alpha$-RuCl$_3$ and its Heisenberg counterpart CrCl$_3$. Our phonon Raman spectra give evidence for a first-order structural transition from a monoclinic to a rhombohedral structure for both compounds. Significantly, only $\\alpha$-RuCl$_3$ features a large thermal hysteresis, consistent with the formation of a wide phase of coexistence. In the related temperature interval of $...

  7. A lower limit on the surface C-12/C-13 ratio in Alpha Orionis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, T. N., III; Fink, U.; Larson, H. P.; Thompson, R. I.

    1976-01-01

    The second overtone CO bands near 1.6 microns were analyzed in Alpha Ori using synthetic spectra. No firm identification of (C-13)O was made, which allowed a lower limit of 20 to be set on the C-12/C-13 ratio. A rather low microturbulent velocity of 2 km/s was found to match the spectrum of Alpha Ori best.

  8. Application of multi-step direct reaction theory to 14 MeV neutron reaction, 3 (n,. cap alpha. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumabe, I.; Matoba, M.; Fukuda, K. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Ikegami, H.; Muraoka, M [eds.

    1980-01-01

    Multi-step direct-reaction theory proposed by Tamura et al. has been applied to continuous spectra of the 14 MeV (n, ..cap alpha..) reaction with some modifications. Calculated results reproduce well the experimental energy and angular distributions of the 14 MeV (n, ..cap alpha..) reactions.

  9. Bacterial expression and one-step purification of an isotope-labeled heterotrimeric G-protein {alpha}-subunit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdulaev, Najmoutin G. [University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute, Center for Advanced Research in Biotechnology (United States); Zhang Cheng; Dinh, Andy [University of Texas Health Science Center, Center for Membrane Biology, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (United States); Ngo, Tony; Bryan, Philip N. [University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute, Center for Advanced Research in Biotechnology (United States); Brabazon, Danielle M. [Loyola College in Maryland, Department of Chemistry (United States); Marino, John P. [University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute, Center for Advanced Research in Biotechnology (United States)], E-mail: marino@carb.nist.gov; Ridge, Kevin D. [University of Texas Health Science Center, Center for Membrane Biology, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (United States)

    2005-05-15

    Heterologous expression systems are often employed to generate sufficient quantities of isotope-labeled proteins for high-resolution NMR studies. Recently, the interaction between the prodomain region of subtilisin and an active, mutant form of the mature enzyme has been exploited to develop a cleavable affinity tag fusion system for one-step generation and purification of full-length soluble proteins obtained by inducible prokaryotic expression. As a first step towards applying high-resolution NMR methods to study heterotrimeric G-protein {alpha}-subunit (G{sub {alpha}}) conformation and dynamics, the utility of this subtilisin prodomain fusion system for expressing and purifying an isotope-labeled G{sub {alpha}} chimera ({approx}40 kDa polypeptide) has been tested. The results show that a prodomain fused G{sub {alpha}} chimera can be expressed to levels approaching 6-8 mg/l in minimal media and that the processed, mature protein exhibits properties similar to those of G{sub {alpha}} isolated from natural sources. To assay for the functional integrity of the purified G{sub {alpha}} chimera at NMR concentrations and probe for changes in the structure and dynamics of G{sub {alpha}} that result from activation, {sup 15}N-HSQC spectra of the GDP/Mg{sup 2+} bound form of G{sub {alpha}} obtained in the absence and presence of aluminum fluoride, a well known activator of the GDP bound state, have been acquired. Comparisons of the {sup 15}N-HSQC spectra reveals a number of changes in chemical shifts of the {sup 1}HN, {sup 15}N crosspeaks that are discussed with respect to expected changes in the protein conformation associated with G{sub {alpha}} activation.

  10. The interaction of fast alpha particles with pellet ablation clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McChesney, J.M.; Parks, P.B.; Fisher, R.K.; Olson, R.E.

    1997-01-01

    The energy spectra of energetic confined alpha particles are being measured using the pellet charge exchange method [R. K. Fisher, J. S. Leffler, A. M. Howald, and P. B. Parks, Fusion Technol. 13, 536 (1988)]. The technique uses the dense ablation cloud surrounding an injected impurity pellet to neutralize a fraction of the incident alpha particles, allowing them to escape from the plasma where their energy spectrum can be measured using a neutral particle analyzer. The signal calculations given in the above-mentioned reference disregarded the effects of the alpha particles' helical Larmor orbits, which causes the alphas to make multiple passes through the cloud. Other effects such as electron ionization by plasma and ablation cloud electrons and the effect of the charge state composition of the cloud, were also neglected. This report considers these issues, reformulates the signal level calculation, and uses a Monte-Carlo approach to calculate the neutralization fractions. The possible effects of energy loss and pitch angle scattering of the alphas are also considered. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  11. Effects of a high-pressure treatment on the wheat alpha-amylase inhibitor and its relationship to elimination of allergenicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, S [Food Science Center, Niigata University, Ikarashi, Niigata, 950-2181 (Japan); Takanohashi, K; Nishiumi, T [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, Ikarashi, Niigata, 950-2181 (Japan); Hara, T [Department of Applied Biological Chemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, Niigata University, Ikarashi, Niigata, 950-2181 (Japan); Odani, S [Department of Living Science and Technology, Faculty of Education and Human Science, Ikarashi, Niigata, 950-2181 (Japan); Suzuki, A, E-mail: shuyama@agr.niigata-u.ac.j [Department of Health and Nutrition, Faculty of Medical Science for Health, Teikyo Heisei University, Ikebukuro, Tokyo, 170-0013 (Japan)

    2010-03-01

    In this study, the effects of high-pressure treatment on structure and allergeincity of alpha amylase inhibitor (a-AI) were investigated. The pressure-induced structural changes of {alpha}-AI were estimated by fluorescence spectra and by fourth derivative UV-spectroscopy for probed tyrosine residues and by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. The changes in the tertiary structure detected by fluorescence spectra and by fourth derivative UV-spectroscopy under high pressure were indicated at over 300 MPa. Measurements of CD spectroscopy suggested that the effects of a high-pressure treatment on changes in the secondary structure of {alpha}-AI were little. From our results, pressure-induced changes of the {alpha}-AI structure were not apparent. On the other hands, the IgE-specific binding activities of pressurized {alpha}-AI to sera from allergic patients against wheat, which is estimated by observations of dot-blotting, were decreased by high-pressure treatment. It is known that the pressure-induced elimination of allergenicity is related to the tertiary structural changes of allergen molecules. This study are suspected that the epitopes of {alpha}-AI do not contain tyrosine residues, and thus the decrease of IgE-specific binding activities is probably caused by the tertiary structural changes of these parts of {alpha}-AI.

  12. Suma-alpha software description. Study of its applications to detection problems and environmental radioactivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasco, C.; Perez, C.

    2010-01-01

    Software named suma-espectros has been developed by TECNASA/CIEMAT for adding counts automatically from the alpha spectra, energy to energy, with the purpose of: evaluating real background of alpha spectrometers, studying its temporal variations, increasing the possibilities of isotopes detection -where it has been impossible to detect due elapsed time of the measurement- and implementing other applications. The programme is written in Visual-Basic and it can export data to Excel spreadsheets for later treatment. The software has established by default a channels range for adding the counts energy by energy but it can be adapted to the analysis of different isotopes and backgrounds simply changing a text file that is incorporated to the programme. The description of the programme management is described for whoever can realise its applications immediately. This software has the advantage of emitting an add-spectrum in cnf format that is used by alpha analyst (Genie 2K) for de convoluting spectra or doing calculations. (Author) 3 refs.

  13. Automated multispectra alpha spectrometer and data reduction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hochel, R.C.

    1975-12-01

    A complete hardware and software package for the accumulation and rapid analysis of multiple alpha pulse height spectra has been developed. The system utilizes a 4096-channel analyzer capable of accepting up to sixteen inputs from solid-state surface barrier detectors via mixer-router modules. The analyzer is interfaced to a desk-top programmable calculator and thermal line printer. A chained software package including spectrum printout, peak analysis, plutonium-238 and plutonium-239 data reduction, and automatic energy calibration routines was written. With the chained program a complete printout, peak analysis, and plutonium data reduction of a 512-channel alpha spectrum are obtained in about three minutes with an accuracy within five percent of hand analyses

  14. Large Band Gap of alpha-RuCl3 Probed by Photoemission and Inverse Photoemission Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinn, Soobin; Kim, Choong Hyun; Sandilands, Luke; Lee, Kyungdong; Won, Choongjae; Oh, Ji Seop; Han, Moonsup; Chang, Young Jun; Hur, Namjung; Sato, Hitoshi; Park, Byeong-Gyu; Kim, Changyoung; Kim, Hyeong-Do; Noh, Tae Won

    The Kitaev honeycomb lattice model has attracted great attention because of its possibility to stabilize a quantum spin liquid ground state. Recently, it was proposed that alpha-RuCl3 is its material realization and the first 4 d relativistic Mott insulator from an optical spectrum and LDA + U + SO calculations. Here, we present photoemission and inverse photoemission spectra of alpha-RuCl3. The observed band gap is about 1.8 eV, which suggests that the previously assigned optical gap of 0.3 eV is misinterpreted, and that the strong peak at about 1.2 eV in the optical spectrum may be associated with an actual optical gap. Assuming a strong excitonic effect of 0.6 eV in the optical spectrum, all the structures except for the peak at 0.3 eV are consistent with our electronic spectra. When compared with LDA + U + SO calculations, the value of U should be considerably larger than the previous one, which implies that the spin-orbit coupling is not a necessary ingredient for the insulating mechanism of alpha-RuCl3. We also present angle-resolved photoemission spectra to be compared with LDA + U + SO and LDA +DMFT calculations.

  15. Lithium abundances in high- and low-alpha halo stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, P. E.; Schuster, W. J.

    2012-01-01

    A previous study of F and G main-sequence stars in the solar neighborhood has revealed the existence of two distinct halo populations with a clear separation in [alpha /Fe] for the metallicity range -1.4 < [Fe/H] < -0.7. The kinematics of the stars and models of galaxy formation suggest that the ......A previous study of F and G main-sequence stars in the solar neighborhood has revealed the existence of two distinct halo populations with a clear separation in [alpha /Fe] for the metallicity range -1.4 ... that the ``high-alpha '' stars were formed in situ in the inner parts of the Galaxy, whereas the ``low-alpha '' ones have been accreted from satellite galaxies. In order to see if there is any systematic difference in the lithium abundances of high- and low-alpha stars, equivalent widths of the iLi 6707.8 Å line...... have been measured from VLT/UVES and NOT/FIES spectra and used to derive Li abundances. Furthermore, stellar masses are determined from evolutionary tracks in the log T_eff - log g diagram. For stars with masses 0.7 lithium abundance...

  16. Nano Size Crystals of Geothite, alpha-FeOOH: Synthesis and Thermal Transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen,A.; Jensen, T.; Bahl, C.; DiMasi, E.

    2007-01-01

    An aqueous suspension of amorphous iron(III) hydroxide was kept at room temperature (298 K) for 23 years. During this period of time the pH of the liquid phase changed from 4.3 to 2.85, and nano size crystals of goethite, {alpha}-FeOOH crystallized from the amorphous iron(III) hydroxide. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigations, Moessbauer spectra, and powder X-ray diffraction using Co K{alpha} radiation showed that the only iron containing crystalline phase present in the recovered product was {alpha}-FeOOH. The size of these nano particles range from 10 to 100 nm measured by TEM. The thermal decomposition of {alpha}-FeOOH was investigated by time-resolved in situ synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction and the data showed that the sample of {alpha}-FeOOH transformed to {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the temperature range 444--584 K. A quantitative phase analysis shows the increase in scattered X-ray intensity from {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} to follow the decrease of intensity from {alpha}-FeOOH in agreement with the topotactic phase transition.

  17. Alpha particles (citations from the International Aerospace Abstracts data base). Report for 1974-July 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauk, S.C.

    1979-09-01

    This bibliography of citations to the international literature covers various aspects of alpha particles as applied to controlled fusion devices, solar activity, and geomagnetically trapped particles. Included are articles concerning Tokamak devices, plasma heating and control, plasma-particle interactions, solar particles, solar wind, solar flares, energy spectra, and magnetohydrodynamic stability. Articles concerning effects of alpha particles on different kinds of devices are also included

  18. Radial-velocity variations in Alpha Ori, Alpha Sco, and Alpha Her

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.A.; Patten, B.M.; Goldberg, L.

    1989-01-01

    Radial-velocity observations of Alpha Ori, Alpha Sco A, and Alpha Her A are used to study radial-velocity periodicities in M supergiants. The data refer to several metallic lines in the H-alpha region and to H-alpha itself. It is shown that Alpha Ori and Alpha Sco A have cycle lengths of about 1 yr and semiamplitudes of 2 km/s. It is suggested that many semiregular red supergiant varibles such as Alpha Ori may be heading toward chaos. All three stars show short-term stochastic flucutations with an amplitude of 1-2 km/s. It is found that the long-term variability of H-alpha velocities may be a consequence of intermittent failed ejections. 58 refs

  19. Spectral Irradiance Calibration in the Infrared 11: Comparison of (alpha) Boo and 1 Ceres with a Laboratory Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witteborn, Fred C.; Cohen, Martin; Bregman, Jess D.; Wooden, Diane; Heere, Karen; Shirley, Eric L.

    1998-01-01

    Infrared spectra of two celestial objects frequently used as flux standards are calibrated against an absolute laboratory flux standard at a spectral resolving power of 100 to 200. The spectrum of the K1.5III star, alpha Boo, is measured from 3 microns to 30 microns and that of the C-type asteroid, 1 Ceres, from 5 microns to 30 microns. While these 'standard' spectra do not have the apparent precision of those based on calculated models, they do not require the assumptions involved in theoretical models of stars and asteroids. Specifically they provide a model-independent means of calibrating celestial flux in the spectral range from 12 microns to 30 microns where accurate absolute photometry is not available. The agreement found between the spectral shapes of alpha Boo and Ceres based on laboratory standards, and those based on observed ratios to alpha CMa (Sirius) and alpha Lyr (Vega), flux calibrated by theoretical modeling of these hot stars strengthens our confidence in the applicability of the stellar models as primary irradiance standards.

  20. A SUCCESSFUL BROADBAND SURVEY FOR GIANT Ly{alpha} NEBULAE. II. SPECTROSCOPIC CONFIRMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prescott, Moire K. M. [Department of Physics, University of California, Broida Hall, Mail Code 9530, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, Buell T., E-mail: mkpresco@physics.ucsb.edu [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Using a systematic broadband search technique, we have carried out a survey for large Ly{alpha} nebulae (or Ly{alpha} {sup b}lobs{sup )} at 2 {approx}< z {approx}< 3 within 8.5 deg{sup 2} of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey Booetes field, corresponding to a total survey comoving volume of Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 8} h {sup -3} {sub 70} Mpc{sup 3}. Here, we present our spectroscopic observations of candidate giant Ly{alpha} nebulae. Of 26 candidates targeted, 5 were confirmed to have Ly{alpha} emission at 1.7 {approx}< z {approx}< 2.7, 4 of which were new discoveries. The confirmed Ly{alpha} nebulae span a range of Ly{alpha} equivalent widths, colors, sizes, and line ratios, and most show spatially extended continuum emission. The remaining candidates did not reveal any strong emission lines, but instead exhibit featureless, diffuse, blue continuum spectra. Their nature remains mysterious, but we speculate that some of these might be Ly{alpha} nebulae lying within the redshift desert (i.e., 1.2 {approx}< z {approx}< 1.6). Our spectroscopic follow-up confirms the power of using deep broadband imaging to search for the bright end of the Ly{alpha} nebula population across enormous comoving volumes.

  1. The Ca II resonance lines in M dwarf stars without H-alpha emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giampapa, M.S.; Cram, L.E.; Wild, W.J. (National Solar Observatory, Tucson, AZ (USA) Sydney Univ. (Australia) Arizona Univ., Tucson (USA))

    1989-10-01

    Spectra of the Ca II H and K lines in a sample of 31 M dwarf stars without H-alpha emission are used to calculate chromospheric K line radiative losses, F(k), and to study the joint response of Ca II K and H-alpha to chromospheric heating in dwarf M stars. It is suggested that the poor correlation found in the equivalent width - log F(K) diagram may be due either to radial segregation of the H-alpha and K line forming regions or to lateral inhomogeneities in the chromospheres. The results confirm the existence of dM stars with weak H-alpha absorption and K line emission only slightly weaker than that of the dMe stars, and show that dM stars with weak H-alpha but kinematics and metallicities representative of the young disk population belong to a class characterized by a comparatively high degree of chromospheric activity. 32 refs.

  2. Design and construction of a system for determining Radon-222 through Alpha spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonifacio, J.; Iturbe, J.L.

    1992-02-01

    The study of the present work consists on designing a system to measure gas 222 Rn, using a surface barrier detector, in order to obtaining a more accuracy measure of this isotope by means of an alpha particle spectra and thus to try to avoid the influence of the radioactivity of the isotope descendants of short half life, which are also emitting of alpha particles, since by other methods its should make a series of corrections to obtain the real value of the radon activity. (Author)

  3. The influence of salt aerosol on alpha radiation detection by WIPP continuous air monitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartlett, W.T.; Walker, B.A. [Environmental Evaluation Group, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) alpha continuous air monitor (CAM) performance was evaluated to determine if CAMs could detect accidental releases of transuranic radioactivity from the underground repository. Anomalous alpha spectra and poor background subtraction were observed and attributed to salt deposits on the CAM sampling filters. Microscopic examination of salt laden sampling filters revealed that aerosol particles were forming dendritic structures on the surface of the sampling filters. Alpha CAM detection efficiency decreased exponentially as salt deposits increased on the sampling filters, suggesting that sampling-filter salt was performing like a fibrous filter rather than a membrane filter. Aerosol particles appeared to penetrate the sampling-filter salt deposits and alpha particle energy was reduced. These findings indicate that alpha CAMs may not be able to detect acute releases of radioactivity, and consequently CAMs are not used as part of the WIPP dynamic confinement system. 12 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Theoretical study on photon-phonon coupling at (001)-(2 x 1) surfaces of Ge and {alpha}-Sn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Sanchez, F.L. [Escuela de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma ' ' Benito Juarez' ' de Oaxaca, Av. Universidad S/N, Ex-Hacienda de Cinco Senores, Ciudad Universitaria, Oaxaca de Juarez, Oax., 68120 (Mexico); Perez-Rodriguez, F. [Instituto de Fisica, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Apdo. Post. J-48, Puebla, Pue. 72570 (Mexico)

    2011-06-15

    We present a study of the far-infrared reflectance anisotropy spectra for (001) surfaces of Ge and {alpha}-Sn in the (2 x 1) asymmetric dimer geometry, which exhibit a resonance structure associated with the excitation of surface phonon modes. We have employed a theoretical formalism, based on the adiabatic bond-charge model (ABCM), for computing the far-infrared reflectance anisotropy spectra. In comparison with previous theoretical results for silicon and diamond surfaces, the resonance structure in the reflectance anisotropy spectrum for Ge(001)-(2 x 1) turns out to be similar to that observed in the spectrum for the Si(001)-(2 x 1) surface, whereas the spectrum for {alpha}-Sn(001)-(2 x 1) surface is noticeably different from the others. We have established a trend of far-infrared reflectance anisotropy spectra for IV(001) surfaces: the weaker dimer strength, the stronger resonances of low-frequency surface phonons. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Gamma power is phase-locked to posterior alpha activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Osipova

    Full Text Available Neuronal oscillations in various frequency bands have been reported in numerous studies in both humans and animals. While it is obvious that these oscillations play an important role in cognitive processing, it remains unclear how oscillations in various frequency bands interact. In this study we have investigated phase to power locking in MEG activity of healthy human subjects at rest with their eyes closed. To examine cross-frequency coupling, we have computed coherence between the time course of the power in a given frequency band and the signal itself within every channel. The time-course of the power was calculated using a sliding tapered time window followed by a Fourier transform. Our findings show that high-frequency gamma power (30-70 Hz is phase-locked to alpha oscillations (8-13 Hz in the ongoing MEG signals. The topography of the coupling was similar to the topography of the alpha power and was strongest over occipital areas. Interestingly, gamma activity per se was not evident in the power spectra and only became detectable when studied in relation to the alpha phase. Intracranial data from an epileptic subject confirmed these findings albeit there was slowing in both the alpha and gamma band. A tentative explanation for this phenomenon is that the visual system is inhibited during most of the alpha cycle whereas a burst of gamma activity at a specific alpha phase (e.g. at troughs reflects a window of excitability.

  6. Measurement of a 2D fast-ion velocity distribution function by tomographic inversion of fast-ion D-alpha spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salewski, Mirko; Geiger, B.; Jacobsen, Asger Schou

    2014-01-01

    We present the first measurement of a local fast-ion 2D velocity distribution function f(v‖, v⊥). To this end, we heated a plasma in ASDEX Upgrade by neutral beam injection and measured spectra of fast-ion Dα (FIDA) light from the plasma centre in three views simultaneously. The measured spectra ...... can measure spectra in up to seven views simultaneously in the next ASDEX Upgrade campaign which would further improve measurements of f(v‖, v⊥) by tomographic inversion.......We present the first measurement of a local fast-ion 2D velocity distribution function f(v‖, v⊥). To this end, we heated a plasma in ASDEX Upgrade by neutral beam injection and measured spectra of fast-ion Dα (FIDA) light from the plasma centre in three views simultaneously. The measured spectra...... agree very well with synthetic spectra calculated from a TRANSP/NUBEAM simulation. Based on the measured FIDA spectra alone, we infer f(v‖, v⊥) by tomographic inversion. Salient features of our measurement of f(v‖, v⊥) agree reasonably well with the simulation: the measured as well as the simulated f...

  7. Neutron and gamma-ray spectra of 239PuBe and 241AmBe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega-Carrillo, H.R.; Manzanares-Acuna, Eduardo; Becerra-Ferreiro, A.M.; Carrillo-Nunez, Aureliano

    2002-01-01

    Neutron and gamma-ray spectra of 239 PuBe and 241 AmBe were measured and their dosimetric features were calculated. Neutron spectra were measured using a multisphere neutron spectrometer with a 6 LiI(Eu) scintillator. The 239 PuBe neutron spectrum was measured in an open environment, while the 241 AmBe neutron spectrum was measured in a closed environment. Gamma-ray spectra were measured using a NaI(Tl) scintillator using the same experimental conditions for both sources. The effect of measuring conditions for the 241 AmBe neutron spectrum indicates the presence of epithermal and thermal neutrons. The low-resolution neutron spectra obtained with the multisphere spectrometer allows one to calculate the dosimetric features of neutron sources. At 100 cm both sources produce approximately the same count rate as that of the 4.4 MeV gamma-ray per unit of alpha emitter activity

  8. Lattice dynamics of {alpha} boron and of boron carbide; Proprietes vibrationnelles du bore {alpha} et du carbure de bore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vast, N

    1999-07-01

    The atomic structure and the lattice dynamics of {alpha} boron and of B{sub 4}C boron carbide have been studied by Density Functional Theory (D.F.T.) and Density Functional Perturbation Theory (D.F.P.T.). The bulk moduli of the unit-cell and of the icosahedron have been investigated, and the equation of state at zero temperature has been determined. In {alpha} boron, Raman diffusion and infrared absorption have been studied under pressure, and the theoretical and experimental Grueneisen coefficients have been compared. In boron carbide, inspection of the theoretical and experimental vibrational spectra has led to the determination of the atomic structure of B{sub 4}C. Finally, the effects of isotopic disorder have been modeled by an exact method beyond the mean-field approximation, and the effects onto the Raman lines has been investigated. The method has been applied to isotopic alloys of diamond and germanium. (author)

  9. Theoretically predicted soft x-ray emission and absorption spectra of graphitic-structured BC2N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Yasuji

    Theoretical B K, C K and N K x-ray emission/absorption spectra of three possible graphitic-structured BC2N clusters are predicted based on the B2p-, C2p-, and N2p- density-of-states (DOS) calculated by discrete variational (DV)-X[alpha] molecular orbital calculations. Several prominent differences in DOS spectral features among BC2Ns, h-BN, and graphite are confirmed from comparison of calculated B2p-, C2p-, and N2p-DOS spectra. These variations in the spectra allow BC2N structures to be positively identified by high-resolution x-ray emission/absorption spectroscopy in the B K, C K, and N K regions.

  10. Alpha spectrometry of thick sources. II. Application to the study of radioactive equilibria in uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acena Barrenechea, M.L.; Tormo Ferrero, M.J.

    1977-01-01

    A method for determining nuclide activities in 4n + 2 uranium series using alpha spectrometry of thick sources is described. This method has been applied to several uranium ores, showing different states of radioactive equilibria. The spectra from samples prepared by cold compression show some anomalies, due to the evolution and later decay of 219 Rn and daughters. This phenomenon must be taken in consideration when computing spectra line intensities. (author) [es

  11. Neutron spectra of /sup 239/Pu-Be neutron sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, A; Nagarajan, P S [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Div. of Radiation Protection

    1977-01-01

    Neutron spectra of /sup 239/Pu-Be(..cap alpha..,n) sources have been calculated by using the most recent data on the differential cross sections and angular distributions. The contribution from the multibody break-up reaction /sup 9/Be(..cap alpha..,..cap alpha..n)/sup 8/Be has also been incorporated. Modifications to the primary spectrum due to the secondary interactions in the source such as elastic scattering with beryllium, oxygen and plutonium and the /sup 9/Be(n,2n) and /sup 239/Pu(n,f) reaction have been calculated for different strengths and geometries. The present calculation has shown that the spectrum changes considerably because of these events within the source by way of smearing of peaks and filling up of valleys and raising the low energy part of the spectrum. Increase in H/D value leads to channeling of extra neutrons into the equatorial plane at the cost of the neutrons along the axial direction. The present calculations show that inclusion of secondary interactions to the extent considered in this work does not account completely for the increased intensity in the lower energy end of the measured spectrum.

  12. The influence of salt aerosol on alpha radiation detection by WIPP continuous air monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, W.T.; Walker, B.A.

    1996-01-01

    Alpha continuous air monitors (CAMs) will be used at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to measure airborne transuranic radioactivity that might be present in air exhaust or in work-place areas. WIPP CAMs are important to health and safety because they are used to alert workers to airborne radioactivity, to actuate air-effluent filtration systems, and to detect airborne radioactivity so that the radioactivity can be confined in a limited area. In 1993, the Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) reported that CAM operational performance was affected by salt aerosol, and subsequently, the WIPP CAM design and usage were modified. In this report, operational data and current theories on aerosol collection were reviewed to determine CAM quantitative performance limitations. Since 1993, the overall CAM performance appears to have improved, but anomalous alpha spectra are present when sampling-filter salt deposits are at normal to high levels. This report shows that sampling-filter salt deposits directly affect radon-thoron daughter alpha spectra and overall monitor efficiency. Previously it was assumed that aerosol was mechanically collected on the surface of CAM sampling filters, but this review suggests that electrostatic and other particle collection mechanisms are more important than previously thought. The mechanism of sampling-filter particle collection is critical to measurement of acute releases of radioactivity. 41 refs

  13. A high-resolution neutron spectra unfolding method using the Genetic Algorithm technique

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, B

    2002-01-01

    The Bonner sphere spectrometers (BSS) are commonly used to determine the neutron spectra within various nuclear facilities. Sophisticated mathematical tools are used to unfold the neutron energy distribution from the output data of the BSS. This paper highlights a novel high-resolution neutron spectra-unfolding method using the Genetic Algorithm (GA) technique. The GA imitates the biological evolution process prevailing in the nature to solve complex optimisation problems. The GA method was utilised to evaluate the neutron energy distribution, average energy, fluence and equivalent dose rates at important work places of a DIDO class research reactor and a high-energy superconducting heavy ion cyclotron. The spectrometer was calibrated with a sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am/Be (alpha,n) neutron standard source. The results of the GA method agreed satisfactorily with the results obtained by using the well-known BUNKI neutron spectra unfolding code.

  14. The Atomic Physics of Fe K alpha: Toward Accurate Abundance Diagnostics for Supernova Remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brickhouse, Nancy

    2009-09-01

    We propose to conduct a case study of Fe XVI K alpha emission produced during the transient ionization of a supernova remnant. This study includes critical evaluation of the existing data for electron impact inner-shell ionization and fluorescence yields, including tests conducted using a variety of theoretical atomic physics methods. Standard and newly developed atomic codes will be used. Once error estimates for the atomic data are complete, we will propagate these errors using the APEC code to simulate spectra and determine the overall accuracy of iron abundances determined from X-ray spectra.

  15. The new Athena alpha particle X-ray spectrometer for the Mars Exploration Rovers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, R.; Gellert, R.; Brückner, J.; Klingelhöfer, G.; Dreibus, G.; Yen, A.; Squyres, S. W.

    2003-11-01

    The new alpha particle X-ray spectrometer (APXS) is part of the Athena payload of the two Mars Exploration Rovers (MER). The APXS sensor head is attached to the turret of the instrument deployment device (IDD) of the rover. The APXS is a very light-weight instrument for determining the major and minor elemental composition of Martian soils, rocks, and other geological materials at the MER landing sites. The sensor head has simply to be docked by the IDD on the surface of the selected sample. X-ray radiation, excited by alpha particles and X rays of the radioactive sources, is recorded by a high-resolution X-ray detector. The X-ray spectra show elements starting from sodium up to yttrium, depending on their concentrations. The backscattered alpha spectra, measured by a ring of detectors, provide additional data on carbon and oxygen. By means of a proper calibration, the elemental concentrations are derived. Together with data from the two other Athena instruments mounted on the IDD, the samples under investigation can be fully characterized. Key APXS objectives are the determination of the chemistry of crustal rocks and soils and the examination of water-related deposits, sediments, or evaporates. Using the rock abrasion tool attached to the IDD, issues of weathering can be addressed by measuring natural and abraded surfaces of rocks.

  16. Detection of 12 micron Mg I and OH lines in stellar spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, D. E.; Deming, D.; Wiedemann, G. R.; Keady, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Infrared lines of Mg I and OH have been detected in stellar spectra near 12.3 microns. The Mg I 7i-6h transition was seen in Alpha Ori and Alpha Tau, and the R2e(23.5) and R1f(24.5) transitions of OH were seen in Alpha Ori. All lines appear in absorption, in contrast to the solar spectrum where the Mg I line shows a prominent emission core. The lack of emission in these low surface gravity stars is due to a greatly reduced volume recombination rate for the high-n states of Mg I, which is not fully compensated by the increased chromospheric scale height. The OH equivalent widths are sensitive to the temperature structure of the upper photosphere of Alpha Ori, and they indicate that the photosphere near tau 5000 of about 10 to the -5th is approximately 100 K hotter than is given by flux constant models. The OH measurements agree more closely with the 1981 semiemprical model of Basri, Linsky, and Eriksson (1981), which is based on Ca II and Mg II ultraviolet features.

  17. Facile hydrothermal synthesis of alpha manganese sesquioxide ({alpha}-Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanodumb-bells: Structural, magnetic, optical and photocatalytic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gnanam, S., E-mail: gnanam.nanoscience@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Presidency College, Chennai 600005, Tamilnadu (India); Rajendran, V. [Department of Physics, Presidency College, Chennai 600005, Tamilnadu (India)

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {alpha}-Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles sizes of 35-42 nm have been prepared by hydrothermal process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Shapes of {alpha}-Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3}: Dumb-bell, Cauliflower, spherical with rod, spherical with wires. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The strong UV emission can be attributed to high purity and perfect crystallinity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photocatalytic activity of {alpha}-Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} was studied by degradation of Remazol red B dye. - Abstract: Nanometer scale cubic bixbyite {alpha}-Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} has been synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method, at a temperature of 450 Degree-Sign C in the presence of various surfactants. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis shows that the average crystallite size of the sample is {approx}35-42 nm. The shapes of the {alpha}-Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles include: Dumb-bell-like (anionic surfactant), Cauliflower-like (nonionic surfactant), spherical with rods (cationic surfactant) and spherical with wires (surface modifier). The shapes of {alpha}-Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles depend on the type of surfactant used in the synthesis. The magnetic property of the anionic surfactant assisted sample was primarily studied, using the vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The optical absorption spectra confirmed the effectiveness of the selected capping agents, as the anionic capped {alpha}-Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} colloids absorbed at shorter wavelength than the other agents, indicating a much smaller crystallite size. The property of strong UV emissions may be attributed to the high purity and perfect crystallinity of the as-prepared {alpha}-Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The surfactants-assisted catalyst was tested for its photocatalytic activity towards the photodegradation of the harmful organic dye Remazol Red B, using a multilamp photo reactor. Possible formation mechanisms have also been proposed for the as-synthesized anionic surfactant assisted samples.

  18. Radio spectra of pulsars. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izekova, V.A.; Kuzmin, A.D.; Malofeev, V.M.; Shitov, Yu.P.

    1981-01-01

    The results of flux pulsar radioemission measurements at meter wavelength, made at Pushchino Radio Astronomical Observatory of the Lebedev Physical Institute, are presented. Flux densities at 102, 85, 61 and 39 MHz have been measured for 85, 29, 37 and 23 pulsars correspondingly. Some of them were performed at all frequencies simultaneously. On the basis of these data and high frequencies data obtained by other authors, spectra of 52 pulsars were plotted. In practically all investigated pulsars we have detected a turn-over frequency at which the flux density of pulsar radioemission attained its maximum. Its mean value is vsub(m) = 130 +- 80 MHz. Averaged on many pulsars, the spectral index is negative in the 39-61 MHz frequency range (anti ALPHA 39 sub(-) 61 = -1.4 +- 0.4) and passes through zero at frequencies of about 100 MHz, becoming positive in the 100-400 MHz frequency range. It was noticed that the spectral index in the 100-400 MHz interval depends upon such pulsar periods as α 100 sub(-) 400 = 0.7 log p + 0.9. Using the spectra, more precise radio luminosities of pulsars have been computed. (orig.)

  19. Solid state nuclear track detectors in the measurement of alpha to fission branching ratios of heavy actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, A.K.; Sharma, R.C.; Padalkar, S.K.; Kalsi, P.C.; Iyer, R.H.

    1992-01-01

    A sequential etching procedure for revelation of alpha and fission tracks in CR-39 was developed and optimized. Using this technique alpha and fission tracks can be differentiated unambiguously because of significant differences in their sizes and etching times. This registration and revelation procedure for alpha and fission tracks may be used for the studies of half lives, alpha to fission branching ratios and identification of radionuclides based on their decay schemes. It has the added advantage that both alpha decay and fission events can be studied using one detector and hence uncertainties related to efficiency, registration geometry, registration times, amount of radionuclides etc can be eliminated or minimized. The effects of neutron, gamma and alpha radiations on the alpha and fission fragment tracks registration and revelation properties of CR-39 detectors [CR-39, CR-39 (DOP)] were also studied. The IR spectra were also studied to find out the nature of chemical changes produced by these radiations on CR-39. (author). 32 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  20. Secondary charged particle spectra and kerma calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coyne, J.J.; Gerstenberg, H.M.; Hennen, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    The calculation of kerma factors from known cross sections is not as simple as is often implied. The kerma factors are strongly influenced by the reaction mechanism assumed. An important example of this dependence on the reaction mechanism is the contribution of the 12 C(n,n')3α reaction to the total kerma in carbon. First, a short review will be given of the ENDF/B-V carbon cross sections which were used in the calculation of carbon kerma factors. Using the reaction channels implied in the ENDF/B-V evaluation, the contribution of various reactions to the total kerma factors in carbon will be given. A detailed analysis of the reaction mechanisms which could contribute to the (n,n')3α reaction in carbon has been carried out. First their contribution to kerma, independent of cross section, will be calculated and then the initial spectra of alpha particles produced by the various reaction mechanisms will be given. A discussion of possible ways of experimentally distinguishing the reaction mechanisms will be made by comparing their different initial spectra and their variation in kerma with neutron energy. Finally, the event-size spectra for tissue-equivalent proportional counters will be presented, giving only the contributions from the (n,n')3α reaction and its various possible reaction channels. 3 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs

  1. Correction of diagnostic x-ray spectra measured with CdTe and CdZnTe detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, M [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Medical School; Kanamori, H; Toragaito, T; Taniguchi, A

    1996-07-01

    We modified the formula of stripping procedure presented by E. Di. Castor et al. We added the Compton scattering and separated K{sub {alpha}} radiation of Cd and Te (23 and 27keV, respectively). Using the new stripping procedure diagnostic x-ray spectra (object 4mm-Al) of tube voltage 50kV to 100kV for CdTe and CdZnTe detectors are corrected with comparison of those spectra for the Ge detector. The corrected spectra for CdTe and CdZnTe detectors coincide with those for Ge detector at lower tube voltage than 70kV. But the corrected spectra at higher tube voltage than 70kV do not coincide with those for Ge detector. The reason is incomplete correction for full energy peak efficiencies of real CdTe and CdZnTe detectors. (J.P.N.)

  2. Alpha-bungarotoxin binding to target cell in a developing visual system by carboxylated nanodiamond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, K-K; Chen, P-Y; Lee, Tony J F; Chao, J-I [Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Tzu Chi University, Hualien 970, Taiwan (China); Chen, M-F [Neuro-Medical Scientific Center, Tzu Chi General Hospital, Hualien 970, Taiwan (China); Cheng, C-L [Department of Physics, National Dong Hwa University, Hualien 974, Taiwan (China); Chang, C-C [Department of Biological Science and Technology, National Chiao Tung University, Hsin-Chu 300, Taiwan (China); Ho, Y-P [Department of Chemistry, National Dong Hwa University, Hualien 974, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: chaoji@mail.tcu.edu.tw

    2008-05-21

    Biological molecules conjugating with nanoparticles are valuable for applications including bio-imaging, bio-detection, and bio-sensing. Nanometer-sized diamond particles have excellent electronic and chemical properties for bio-conjugation. In this study, we manipulated the carboxyl group produced on the surface of nanodiamond (carboxylated nanodiamond, cND) for conjugating with alpha-bungarotoxin ({alpha}-BTX), a neurotoxin derived from Bungarus multicinctus with specific blockade of alpha7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ({alpha}7-nAChR). The electrostatic binding of cND-{alpha}-BTX was mediated by the negative charge of the cND and the positive charge of the {alpha}-BTX in physiological pH conditions. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel analysis and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI/TOF-MS) spectra displayed that {alpha}-BTX proteins were conjugated with cND particles via non-covalent bindings. The green fluorescence of the cND particles combining with the red fluorescence of tetramethylrhodamine-labeled {alpha}-BTX presented a yellow color at the same location, which indicated that {alpha}-BTX proteins were conjugated with cND particles. Xenopus laevis's oocytes expressed the human {alpha}7-nAChR proteins by microinjection with {alpha}7-nAChR mRNA. The cND-{alpha}-BTX complexes were bound to {alpha}7-nAChR locating on the cell membrane of oocytes and human lung A549 cancer cells analyzed by laser scanning confocal microscopy. The choline-evoked {alpha}7-nAChR-mediated inward currents of the oocytes were blocked by cND-{alpha}-BTX complexes in a concentration-dependent manner using two-electrode voltage-clamp recording. Furthermore, the fluorescence intensity of cND-{alpha}-BTX binding on A549 cells could be quantified by flow cytometry. These results indicate that cND-conjugated {alpha}-BTX still preserves its biological activity in blocking the function of {alpha}7-nAChR, and provide a visual

  3. Electrodeposition of Zn-doped {alpha}-nickel hydroxide with flower-like nanostructure for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You Zheng [Department of Precision Instruments and Mechanology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Shen Kui; Wu Zhicheng [Institute for Advanced Materials and Technology, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Wang Xiaofeng [Department of Precision Instruments and Mechanology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Kong Xianghua, E-mail: kongxh@ustb.edu.cn [Institute for Advanced Materials and Technology, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2012-08-01

    Zn-doped {alpha}-nickel hydroxide materials with flower-like nanostructures are synthesized by electrochemical deposition method. The samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (SEM) and electrochemical measurements. XRD spectra indicate nickel hydroxide doped with Zn is {alpha}-Ni(OH){sub 2} with excellent crystallization. The SEM observation shows that the formation of Zn-doped Ni(OH){sub 2} includes two steps: a honeycomb-like film forms on the substrate first, then flower-like particles forms on the films. The nickel hydroxide doped with 5% Zn can maintain a maximum specific capacitance of 860 F g{sup -1}, suggesting its potential application in electrochemical capacitors.

  4. Mining the HST Treasury: The ASTRAL Reference Spectra for Evolved M Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, K. G.; Ayres, T.; Harper, G.; Kober, G.; Wahlgren, G. M.

    2012-01-01

    The "Advanced Spectral Library (ASTRAL) Project: Cool Stars" (PI = T. Ayres) is an HST Cycle 18 Treasury Program designed to collect a definitive set of representative, high-resolution (R greater than 100,000) and high signal/noise (S/N greater than 100) UV spectra of eight F-M evolved cool stars. These extremely high-quality STIS UV echelle spectra are available from the HST archive and through the University of Colorado (http://casa.colorado.edu/ayres/ASTRAL/) portal and will enable investigations of a broad range of problems -- stellar, interstellar. and beyond -- for many years. In this current paper, we concentrate on producing a roadrnap to the very rich spectra of the two evolved M stars in the sample, the M3.4 giant Gamma Crucis (GaCrux) and the M2Iab supergiant Alpha Orionis (Betelgeuse) and illustrate the huge increase in coverage and quality that these spectra provide over that previously available from IUE and earlier HST observations. These roadmaps will facilitate the study of the spectra, outer atmospheres, and winds of not only these stars. but also numerous other cool, low-gravity stars and make a very interesting comparison to the already-available atlases of the K2III giant Arcturus.

  5. Tuning of tunneling current noise spectra singularities by localized states charging

    OpenAIRE

    Mantsevich, V. N.; Maslova, N. S.

    2008-01-01

    We report the results of theoretical investigations of tunneling current noise spectra in a wide range of applied bias voltage. Localized states of individual impurity atoms play an important role in tunneling current noise formation. It was found that switching "on" and "off" of Coulomb interaction of conduction electrons with two charged localized states results in power law singularity of low-frequency tunneling current noise spectrum ($1/f^{\\alpha}$) and also results on high frequency com...

  6. Fabrication, characterization and simulation of 4H-SiC Schottky diode alpha particle detectors for pyroprocessing actinide monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Timothy Richard

    Pyroprocessing is a method of using high-temperature molten salts and electric fields to separate and collect fuel isotopes of used nuclear fuel. It has been has been tested in the U.S. at Idaho National Laboratory as a key step in closing the nuclear fuel cycle. One technical problem with the pyroprocessing method is a lack of knowledge regarding the actinide concentrations in the salt bath during operation, since on-line techniques for measuring these concentrations are not presently available. 4H-SiC Schottky diode detectors can potentially fulfill this need. Such detectors would operate in contact with the molten salt, and measure concentrations via alpha-particle spectroscopy. This work seeks to fabricate and characterize 4H-SiC Schottky diode detectors at high temperature, model the alpha particle spectrum expected in a molten salt, and model the operation of the detectors to confirm the physics of operation is as expected. In this work, 4H-SiC Schottky diode detectors were fabricated at OSU Nanotech West. After fabrication, these detectors were characterized using both I-V curves and Am-241 alpha-particle energy spectra. All measurements were made as a function of temperature, from room temperature up to 500°C. The average energy required to create an electron-hole pair was observed to decrease with an increase of temperature, due to a decrease of both the 4H-SiC bandgap and non-linear energy loss terms. Furthermore, the FWHM of the spectra was observed to be dependent on the leakage current at a certain temperature, and not dependent on the temperature itself. Secondly, the alpha particle energy spectrum in the pyroprocessing environment was modeled using SRIM. The molten salt was modeled in 3 different geometries, with or without a protective cover material on top of the detector. Due to the loss of alpha-particle energy in the molten salt itself, a high-energy alpha emitter may completely cover the spectrum from a lower-energy alpha emitter. Each of the

  7. Measurement of {alpha} particle energy loss in biological tissue below 2 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stella, S. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Pavia (Italy); Bortolussi, S. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Pavia (Italy)], E-mail: silva.bortolussi@pv.infn.it; Bruschi, P.; Portella, C. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Altieri, S. [Department of Nuclear and Theoretical Physics, University of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN), Pavia (Italy)

    2009-09-01

    The energy loss of {alpha} particles crossing biological tissue at energies between 0.8 and 2.2 MeV has been measured. This energy range is very important for boron neutron capture therapy, based on the {sup 10}B(n,{alpha}){sup 7}Li reaction, which emits {alpha} particles with energies of 1.78 and 1.47 MeV. One of the methods used for the measurement of the boron concentration in tissue is based on the deconvolution of the {alpha} spectra obtained from neutron irradiation of thin (70 {mu}m) tissue samples. For this technique, a knowledge of the behaviour of the energy loss of the particles in the irradiated tissue is of critical importance. In particular, the curve of the residual energy as a function of the distance travelled in the tissue must be known. In this paper, the results of an experiment carried out with an {sup 241}Am source and a series of cryostatic sections of rat-lung tissue are presented. The experimental measurements are compared with the results of Monte Carlo calculations performed with the MCNPX code.

  8. Neutron and gamma-ray spectra of {sup 239}PuBe and {sup 241}AmBe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega-Carrillo, H.R. E-mail: rvega@cantera.reduaz.mx; Manzanares-Acuna, Eduardo; Becerra-Ferreiro, A.M.; Carrillo-Nunez, Aureliano

    2002-08-01

    Neutron and gamma-ray spectra of {sup 239}PuBe and {sup 241}AmBe were measured and their dosimetric features were calculated. Neutron spectra were measured using a multisphere neutron spectrometer with a {sup 6}LiI(Eu) scintillator. The {sup 239}PuBe neutron spectrum was measured in an open environment, while the {sup 241}AmBe neutron spectrum was measured in a closed environment. Gamma-ray spectra were measured using a NaI(Tl) scintillator using the same experimental conditions for both sources. The effect of measuring conditions for the {sup 241}AmBe neutron spectrum indicates the presence of epithermal and thermal neutrons. The low-resolution neutron spectra obtained with the multisphere spectrometer allows one to calculate the dosimetric features of neutron sources. At 100 cm both sources produce approximately the same count rate as that of the 4.4 MeV gamma-ray per unit of alpha emitter activity.

  9. Analysis of alpha spectrum instrumental errors accounting for the low energy part of semiconductor detector response function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurbich, A.F.

    1981-01-01

    A technique for processing of instrumental spectrum of charged particles permitting to take account of a low-energy part of spectrometer line shape, to improve accuracy and to estimate detection efficiency is stated on the example of 226 Ra alpha spectrum. The results obtained show that relative intensities of alpha lines within the limits of statistical errors coincide with the known values, line ''tails'' constituting to 3% of total area of the line. Taking account of ''the line tail'' results in shift of centers of peak gravity by 10-20 keV. So low-energy part of the alpha spectrometer line, which is usually not taken account during spectra processing, markedly affect the results [ru

  10. Distribution of alpha3, alpha5 and alpha(v) integrin subunits in mature and immature human oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capmany, G; Mart, M; Santaló, J; Bolton, V N

    1998-10-01

    The distribution of three integrin subunits, alpha3, alpha5 and alpha(v), in immature and mature human oocytes has been examined using immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. The results demonstrate that both alpha5 and alpha(v) are present at the germinal vesicle stage, while alpha3 was only detected in oocytes after germinal vesicle breakdown, in metaphase I and II stage oocytes. The cortical concentration of integrin subunits alpha3 and alpha5 is consistent with their localization in the oolemma. In contrast, the homogeneous distribution of alpha(v) throughout the oocyte suggests the existence of cytoplasmic reservoirs of this protein in the oocyte.

  11. Lenses in the forest: cross correlation of the Lyman-alpha flux with cosmic microwave background lensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallinotto, Alberto; Das, Sudeep; Spergel, David N; Viel, Matteo

    2009-08-28

    We present a theoretical estimate for a new observable: the cross correlation between the Lyman-alpha flux fluctuations in quasar spectra and the convergence of the cosmic microwave background as measured along the same line of sight. As a first step toward the assessment of its detectability, we estimate the signal-to-noise ratio using linear theory. Although the signal-to-noise is small for a single line of sight and peaks at somewhat smaller redshifts than those probed by the Lyman-alpha forest, we estimate a total signal-to-noise of 9 for cross correlating quasar spectra of SDSS-III with Planck and 20 for cross correlating with a future polarization based cosmic microwave background experiment. The detection of this effect would be a direct measure of the neutral hydrogen-matter cross correlation and could provide important information on the growth of structures at large scales in a redshift range which is still poorly probed.

  12. The Ar{sup 17+} Ly{sub {alpha}2}/Ly{sub {alpha}1} ratio in Alcator C-Mod tokamak plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, J E; Reinke, M L; Ince-Cushman, A C; Podpaly, Y A [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, MIT, Cambridge, MA (United States); Ashbourn, J M A [Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Gu, M F [SSL, University of California Berkeley, CA (United States); Bitter, M; Hill, K [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States); Rachlew, E, E-mail: rice@psfc.mit.edu [KTH, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2011-08-28

    High-quality spectra of hydrogen-like Ar{sup 17+} have been obtained from Alcator C-Mod tokamak plasmas using a spatially imaging high-resolution x-ray spectrometer system in an extensive study of the underlying high-n satellite lines. The ratio of Ly{sub {alpha}2} (1S{sub 1/2}-2P{sub 1/2}) to Ly{sub {alpha}1} (1S{sub 1/2}-2P{sub 3/2}) was found to be {approx}0.52 regardless of plasma parameters, which is somewhat greater than the ratio of the statistical weights of the upper n = 2 levels, 0.5. This difference is mainly due to the effects of collisional excitation of fine-structure sub-levels. For the observations presented here, electron densities were in an extended range from 3x10{sup 19} to 4x10{sup 20} m{sup -3} with electron and ion temperatures between 1 and 4 keV. Experimental results are compared to calculations from COLRAD, a collisional-radiative modelling code, and good agreement is shown.

  13. The determination of $\\alpha_s$ by the ALPHA collaboration

    CERN Document Server

    Bruno, Mattia

    2016-01-01

    We review the ALPHA collaboration strategy for obtaining the QCD coupling at high scale. In the three-flavor effective theory it avoids the use of perturbation theory at $\\alpha > 0.2$ and at the same time has the physical scales small compared to the cutoff $1/a$ in all stages of the computation. The result $\\Lambda_\\overline{MS}^{(3)}=332(14)$~MeV is translated to $\\alpha_\\overline{MS}(m_Z)=0.1179(10)(2)$ by use of (high order) perturbative relations between the effective theory couplings at the charm and beauty quark "thresholds". The error of this perturbative step is discussed and estimated as $0.0002$.

  14. Role of quenching on alpha/beta separation in liquid scintillation counting for several high capacity cocktails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujol, L.; Sanchez-Cabeza, J.-A.

    1997-01-01

    The optimization of alpha/beta separation in liquid scintillation using pulse shape analysis is convenient for the simultaneous determination of alpha and beta emitters in natural water and other samples. In this work, alpha/beta separation was studied for different scintillant/vial combinations and it was observed that both the optimum pulse shape discrimination level and the total interference value (that is, the summed relative interference between alpha and beta spectra) were dependent on the sample quenching and independent of the scintillant/vial combination. These results provide a simple method for modifying the counting configuration, such as a change in the cocktail, vial or sample characteristics, without the need to perform exhaustive parameter optimizations. Also, it was observed that, for our counting conditions, the combination of Ultima Gold AB scintillation cocktail with Zinsser low diffusion vials presented the lowest total interference, namely 0.94 ± 0.28%, which is insignificant for the counting of environmental samples. (Author)

  15. Single particle inclusive spectra resulting from the collision of relativistic protons, deuterons, alpha particles, and carbon ions with nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papp, J.

    1975-05-01

    The yields of positive and negative particles resulting from the collision of 1.05 GeV/nucleon and 2.1 GeV/nucleon protons, deuterons, alpha particles, and 1.05 GeV/nucleon carbon nuclei with various targets have been measured. Single particle inclusive cross sections for production of π + , π - , p, d, 3 H, 3 He, and 4 He at 2.5 0 (lab) were obtained. How the results bear on the concepts of limiting fragmentation and scaling, the structure of the alpha particle and deuteron, and the possibility of ''coherent'' production of pions by heavy ions are discussed. (U.S.)

  16. Low temperature synthesis of nano alpha-alumina powder by two-step hydrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Ting; Guo, Xiaode; Zhang, Xiang; Wang, Zhixiang; Shi, Jinqiu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The nano α-Al 2 O 3 with good dispersion was prepared by two-step hydrolysis. • α-Al 2 O 3 powders were added as seed particles in the hydrolysis. • This article indicated that the glucose could impel the γ-Al 2 O 3 transformed to α-Al 2 O 3 directly. • This article indicated that the addictive of α-Al 2 O 3 seed could improve the phase transformation rate of γ-Al 2 O 3 to α-Al 2 O 3 . • In this article, the pure α-Al 2 O 3 could be obtained by calcining at 1000 °C for 1.5 h. - Abstract: The ultral fine alpha-alumina powder has been successfully synthesized via two-step hydrolysis of aluminum isopropoxide. Glucose and polyvinyl pyrrolidone were used as surfactants during the appropriate processing step. The alpha-alumina powder was used as seed particles. Several synthesis parameters, such as the amount of seeds, surfactants, and calcination temperature, were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), Thermogravimetry-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The experimental results showed that glucose greatly lower the phase transformation temperature of alpha-alumina by impelling the gamma-alumina transformed to alpha-alumina directly, and the seed could improve the phase transformation rate of alpha-alumina, the polyvinylpyrrolidone have an effect on preventing excessive grain growth and agglomeration of alpha-alumina powder. Comparatively well dispersed alpha-alumina powder with particle size less than 50 nm can be synthesized through this method after calcinations at 1000 °C for 2 h.

  17. Differentiation of the mRNA transcripts originating from the alpha 1- and alpha 2-globin loci in normals and alpha-thalassemics.

    OpenAIRE

    Liebhaber, S A; Kan, Y W

    1981-01-01

    The alpha-globin polypeptide is encoded by two adjacent genes, alpha 1 and alpha 2. In the normal diploid state (alpha alpha/alpha alpha) all four alpha-globin genes are expressed. Loss or dysfunction of one or more of these genes leads to deficient alpha-globin production and results in alpha-thalassemia. We present a technique to differentially assess the steady-state levels of the alpha 1- and alpha-2-globin messenger RNA (mRNA) transcripts and thus delineate the relative level of expressi...

  18. Brain-wide slowing of spontaneous alpha rhythms in mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar eGarcés

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The neurophysiological changes associated with Alzheimer’s Disease (AD and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI include an increase in low frequency activity, as measured with electroencephalography or magnetoencephalography (MEG. A relevant property of spectral measures is the alpha peak, which corresponds to the dominant alpha rhythm. Here we studied the spatial distribution of MEG resting state alpha peak frequency and amplitude values in a sample of 27 MCI patients and 24 age-matched healthy controls. Power spectra were reconstructed in source space with linearly constrained minimum variance beamformer. Then, 88 Regions of Interest (ROIs were defined and an alpha peak per ROI and subject was identified. Statistical analyses were performed at every ROI, accounting for age, sex and educational level. Peak frequency was significantly decreased (p< 0.05 in MCIs in many posterior ROIs. The average peak frequency over all ROIs was 9.68±0.71 Hz for controls and 9.05±0.90 Hz for MCIs and the average normalized amplitude was (2.57±0.59•10-2 for controls and (2.70±0.49•10-2 for MCIs. Age and gender were also found to play a role in the alpha peak, since its frequency was higher in females than in males in posterior ROIs and correlated negatively with age in frontal ROIs. Furthermore, we examined the dependence of peak parameters with hippocampal volume, which is a commonly used marker of early structural AD-related damage. Peak frequency was positively correlated with hippocampal volume in many posterior ROIs. Overall, these findings indicate a pathological alpha slowing in MCI.

  19. Alpha particle cluster states in (fp)-shell nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merchant, A.C.

    1987-07-01

    Alpha particle cluster structure is known experimentally to persist throughout the mass range 16 ≤ A ≤ 20, and has been very successfully described in this region in terms of the Buck-Dover-Vary local potential cluster model. It is argued that an analogous cluster structure should be present in nuclei at the beginning of the (fp) - shell, and the available experimental data are examined to determine likely alpha particle cluster state candidates in the mass range 40 ≤ A ≤ 44. Calculations of the cluster state spectra and mean square cluster-core separation distances (which may be readily used to evaluate E2 electromagnetic transition rates) for sup(40)Ca, sup(42)Ca, sup(42)Sc, sup(43)Sc, sup(43)Ti and sup(44)Ti using the above mentioned model are presented, and compared with experimental measurements where possible. The agreement between theory and experiment is generally good (although inferior to that obtained in the (sd)-shell) and points to the desirability of an extension and improvement of the measurements of the properties of the excited states in these nuclei. (author)

  20. Dust Attenuation and H(alpha) Star Formation Rates of Z Approx. 0.5 Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Chun; Malkan, Matthew A.; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Ota, Kazuaki; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Iye, Masanori; Currie, Thayne

    2012-01-01

    Using deep narrow-band and broad-band imaging, we identify 401 z approximately 0.40 and 249 z approximately 0.49 H-alpha line-emitting galaxies in the Subaru Deep Field. Compared to other H-alpha surveys at similar redshifts, our samples are unique since they probe lower H-alpha luminosities, are augmented with multi-wavelength (rest-frame 1000AA--1.5 microns) coverage, and a large fraction (20%) of our samples has already been spectroscopically confirmed. Our spectra allow us to measure the Balmer decrement for nearly 60 galaxies with H-beta detected above 5-sigma. The Balmer decrements indicate an average extinction of A(H-alpha)=0.7(uparrow){+1.4}_{-0.7} mag. We find that the Balmer decrement systematically increases with higher H-alpha luminosities and with larger stellar masses, in agreement with previous studies with sparser samples. We find that the SFRs estimated from modeling the spectral energy distribution (SED) is reliable---we derived an "intrinsic" H-alpha luminosity which is then reddened assuming the color excess from SED modeling. The SED-predicted H-alpha luminosity agrees with H-alpha narrow-band measurements over 3 dex (rms of 0.25 dex). We then use the SED SFRs to test different statistically-based dust corrections for H-alpha and find that adopting one magnitude of extinction is inappropriate: galaxies with lower luminosities are less reddened. We find that the luminosity-dependent dust correction of Hopkins et al. yields consistent results over 3 dex (rms of 0.3 dex). Our comparisons are only possible by assuming that stellar reddening is roughly half of nebular reddening. The strong correspondence argue that with SED modeling, we can derive reliable intrinsic SFRs even in the absence of H-alpha measurements at z approximately 0.5.

  1. Results obtained in a spectrometry using junction detectors (1962); Resultats en spectrometrie {alpha} a l'aide de ''detecteurs jonction'' (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaumevieille, H; Fontenille, J; Lottgequeue, J P; Longequeue, N; Rabour, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    Junction detectors have been used for studying {alpha} spectra obtained by nuclear reactions (p, {alpha}), the protons being produced by an electrostatic accelerator (E{sub p} varying from 100 to 600 keV). Difficulties have been encountered arising from parasitic noise from the accelerator and from the distance (60 metres) between detectors and electronic equipment. Resolution of the counter has been found to be 0.6 per cent with {alpha} from {sup 210}Po and 1.2 pour cent with {alpha} (5.8 MeV) from the reaction {sup 11}B (p, {alpha}{sub 0}). (authors) [French] Des detecteurs a jonction ont ete utilises pour l'etude de spectres {alpha} obtenus par reactions nucleaires (p, {alpha}), les protons etant acceleres par un accelerateur electrostatique (E{sub p} variant de 100 a 600 keV). Des difficultes ont ete recontrees dues aux parasites provenant de l'accelerateur et a la distance des cables (60 metres) entre detecteurs et appareils de mesure. Le pouvoir de resolution de l'ensemble a ete de 0, 6 pour cent avec les {alpha} du {sup 210}Po et de 1,2 pour cent avec les {alpha} (5,8 MeV) de la reaction {sup 11}B (p, {alpha}{sub 0}). (auteurs)

  2. Alternative splicing of T cell receptor (TCR) alpha chain transcripts containing V alpha 1 or V alpha 14 elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahotka, C; Hansen-Hagge, T E; Bartram, C R

    1995-10-01

    Human acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell lines represent valuable tools to investigate distinct steps of the complex regulatory pathways underlying T cell receptor recombination and expression. A case in point are V delta 2D delta 3 and subsequent V delta 2D delta 3J alpha rearrangements observed in human leukemic pre-B cells as well as in normal lymphopoiesis. The functional expression of these unusual (VD) delta (JC) alpha hybrids is almost exclusively prevented by alternative splicing events. In this report we show that alternative splicing at cryptic splice donor sites within V elements is not a unique feature of hybrid TCR delta/alpha transcripts. Among seven V alpha families analyzed by RT-PCR, alternatively spliced products were observed in TCR alpha recombinations containing V alpha 1 or V alpha 14 elements. In contrast to normal peripheral blood cells and thymocytes, the leukemia cell line JM expressing functional V alpha 1J alpha 3C alpha transcripts lacked evidence of aberrant TCR alpha RNA species.

  3. Alpha-ray spectrometry at high temperature by using a compound semiconductor detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jang Ho; Kim, Han Soo

    2013-11-01

    The use of conventional radiation detectors in harsh environments is limited by radiation damage to detector materials and by temperature constraints. We fabricated a wide-band gap semiconductor radiation detector based on silicon carbide. All the detector components were considered for an application in a high temperature environment like a nuclear reactor core. The radiation response, especially to alpha particles, was measured using an (241)Am source at variable operating voltages at room temperature in the air. The temperature on detector was controlled from 30°C to 250°C. The alpha-particle spectra were measured at zero bias operation. Even though the detector is operated at high temperature, the energy resolution as a function of temperature is almost constant within 3.5% deviation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. THE SEGUE STELLAR PARAMETER PIPELINE. V. ESTIMATION OF ALPHA-ELEMENT ABUNDANCE RATIOS FROM LOW-RESOLUTION SDSS/SEGUE STELLAR SPECTRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Sun; Beers, Timothy C.; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Lai, David K.; Rockosi, Constance M.; Morrison, Heather L.; Johnson, Jennifer A.; An, Deokkeun; Sivarani, Thirupathi; Yanny, Brian

    2011-01-01

    We present a method for the determination of [α/Fe] ratios from low-resolution (R = 2000) SDSS/SEGUE stellar spectra. By means of a star-by-star comparison with degraded spectra from the ELODIE spectral library and with a set of moderately high-resolution (R = 15, 000) and medium-resolution (R = 6000) spectra of SDSS/SEGUE stars, we demonstrate that we are able to measure [α/Fe] from SDSS/SEGUE spectra (with S/N>20/1) to a precision of better than 0.1 dex, for stars with atmospheric parameters in the range T eff = [4500, 7000] K, log g = [1.5, 5.0], and [Fe/H] = [-1.4, +0.3], over the range [α/Fe] = [-0.1, +0.6]. For stars with [Fe/H] 25/1). Over the full temperature range considered, the lowest metallicity star for which a confident estimate of [α/Fe] can be obtained from our approach is [Fe/H] ∼-2.5; preliminary tests indicate that a metallicity limit as low as [Fe/H] ∼-3.0 may apply to cooler stars. As a further validation of this approach, weighted averages of [α/Fe] obtained for SEGUE spectra of likely member stars of Galactic globular clusters (M15, M13, and M71) and open clusters (NGC 2420, M67, and NGC 6791) exhibit good agreement with the values of [α/Fe] from previous studies. The results of the comparison with NGC 6791 imply that the metallicity range for the method may extend to ∼+0.5.

  5. ALPHA/AMPU, Radionuclide Radioactivity from Alpha Spectrometer Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sill, D.S.

    1990-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: The two computer programs, ALPHA and AMPU, take raw data obtained from alpha spectrometry and from these calculate activities and uncertainties of the radionuclides present in the sample. ALPHA determines activities of any alpha emitter in a sample that has been directly precipitated with NdF 3 . AMPU determines the Pu-239, Pu-238,and Am-241 activities using Pu-236 and Am-243 tracers. 2 - Method of solution: These programs propagate all random and systematic uncertainties, found anywhere in the experimental process, to the final result. The result is rounded and is in decimal agreement with the uncertainty. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: In ALPHA, a chemical yield of 98% is assumed

  6. Resting alpha activity predicts learning ability in alpha neurofeedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenya eNan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Individuals differ in their ability to learn how to regulate the alpha activity by neurofeedback. This study aimed to investigate whether the resting alpha activity is related to the learning ability of alpha enhancement in neurofeedback and could be used as a predictor. A total of 25 subjects performed 20 sessions of individualized alpha neurofeedback in order to learn how to enhance activity in the alpha frequency band. The learning ability was assessed by three indices respectively: the training parameter changes between two periods, within a short period and across the whole training time. It was found that the resting alpha amplitude measured before training had significant positive correlations with all learning indices and could be used as a predictor for the learning ability prediction. This finding would help the researchers in not only predicting the training efficacy in individuals but also gaining further insight into the mechanisms of alpha neurofeedback.

  7. Beta spectra. II-Positron spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grau, A.; Garcia-Torano, E.

    1981-01-01

    Using the Fermi theory of beta decay, the beta spectra for 30 positron emitters have been computed, introducing a correction factor for unique forbidden transitions. The spectra are ploted vs. energy, once normalised, and tabulated with the related Fermi functions. The average and median energies are calculated. (author)

  8. Derivatives of 16alpha-hydroxy-dehydroepiandrosterone with an additional 7-oxo or 7-hydroxy substituent: synthesis and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouzar, Vladimír; Cerný, Ivan; Hill, Martin; Bicíková, Marie; Hampl, Richard

    2005-10-01

    Derivatives of 16alpha-hydroxy-dehydroepiandrosterone, which have an additional oxygen substituent at position 7 (oxo or hydroxy group), were synthesized. Firstly, 17,17-dimethoxyandrost-5-ene-3beta,16alpha-diyl diacetate was prepared and then oxidized with a complex of chromium(VI) oxide and 2,5-dimethylpyrazole to the respective 7-oxo derivative. This key intermediate was both deprotected or reduced by l-Selectride or sodium borohydride in the presence of cerium(III) chloride and then deprotected to give 7-oxo, 7alpha-hydroxy and 7beta-hydroxy derivatives of 16alpha-hydroxy-dehydroepiandrosterone. The target compounds were characterized by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra and in the form of O-methyloxime-trimethylsilyl derivatives, by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry methods.

  9. Time variations of magnetospheric intensities of outer zone protons, alpha particles and ions (Z greater than or equal to 2). Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, B. A.

    1973-01-01

    A comprehensive study of the temporal behavior of trapped protons, alpha particles and ions (Z 2) in outer zone of the earth's magnetosphere has been made. These observations were made by the Injun V satellite during the first 21 months of operation, August 1968 to May 1970. Rapid increases in the observed number of particles followed by slower exponential decay characterize the data. Comparisons are made with the temporal behavior of interplanetary particles of the same energy observed by Explorer 35. Increases in the trapped fluxes generally correspond to enhanced interplanetary activity. The energy spectra of protons and alpha particles at L = 3 have similar shapes when compared on an energy per charge basis while the respective polar cap spectra have similar shape on an energy per nucleon basis. Apparent inward trans-L motion of energetic protons is observed. These particles are diffused inward by a process involving fluctuating electric fields. The loss of trapped low altitude protons, alpha particles and ions (Z 2) is controlled by coulombic energy loss in the atmosphere.

  10. Helium burning: a further measurement of the beta-delayed alpha-particle emission of 16 Na

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gai, Moshe

    1997-01-01

    The 12 C (α,γ) 16 O is a key (but still unknown) reaction in helium burning. Several attempts to constrain the p-wave S-factor at Helium burning temperatures (200 M K) using the beta-delayed alpha-particle emission of 16 N have been made. However, some discrepancy exists between the spectra measured at Settle and that of TRIUMF. We have improved our previous study of the beta-delayed alpha-particle emission of 16 N by improving our statistical sample (by more than a factor of 5), improving the energy resolution of the experiment (by 20%), and in understanding our line shape, deduced from measured quantities. Our newly measured spectrum of the beta-delayed alpha-particle emission of 16 N is consistent with the Seattle ('95) data, as well as an earlier experiment performed at Mains ('71) and is not consistent with the TRIUMF ('94) data. (author)

  11. BETA SPECTRA. I. Negatrons spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grau Malonda, A.; Garcia-Torano, E.

    1978-01-01

    Using the Fermi theory of beta decay, the beta spectra for 62 negatrons emitters have been computed introducing a correction factor for unique forbidden transitions. These spectra are plotted vs. energy, once normal i sed, and tabulated with the related Fermi functions. The average and median energies are calculated. (Author)

  12. Molecular basis for nondeletion alpha-thalassemia in American blacks. Alpha 2(116GAG----UAG).

    OpenAIRE

    Liebhaber, S A; Coleman, M B; Adams, J G; Cash, F E; Steinberg, M H

    1987-01-01

    An American black woman was found to have the phenotype of moderately severe alpha-thalassemia normally associated with the loss of two to three alpha-globin genes despite an alpha-globin gene map that demonstrated the loss of only a single alpha-globin gene (-alpha/alpha alpha). Several individuals in her kindred with normal alpha-globin gene mapping studies (alpha alpha/alpha alpha) had mild alpha-thalassemia hematologic values consistent with the loss of one to two alpha-globin genes. Thes...

  13. One-dimensional power spectrum and neutrino mass in the spectra of BOSS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borde, Arnaud

    2014-01-01

    The framework of the studies presented in this thesis is the one-dimensional power spectrum of the transmitted flux in the Lyman-alpha forests. The Lyman-alpha forest is an absorption pattern seen in the spectra of high redshift quasars corresponding to the absorption of the quasar light by the hydrogen clouds along the line of sight. It is a powerful cosmological tool as it probes relatively small scales, of the order of a few Mpc. It is also sensible to small non-linear effects such as the one induced by massive neutrinos. First, we have developed two independent methods to measure the one-dimensional power spectrum of the transmitted flux in the Lyman-alpha forest. The first method is based on a Fourier transform, and the second on a maximum likelihood estimator. The two methods are independent and have different systematic uncertainties. The determination of the noise level in the data spectra was subject to a novel treatment, because of its significant impact on the derived power spectrum. We applied the two methods to 13,821 quasar spectra from SDSS-III/BOSS DR9 selected from a larger sample of over 60,000 spectra on the basis of their high quality, large signal-to-noise ratio, and good spectral resolution. The power spectra measured using either approach are in good agreement over all twelve redshift bins from =2.2 to =4.4, and scales from 0.001 (km/s)"-"1 to 0.02 (km/s)"-"1. We carefully determined the methodological and instrumental systematic uncertainties of our measurements. Then, we present a suite of cosmological N-body simulations with cold dark matter, baryons and neutrinos aiming at modeling the low-density regions of the IGM as probed by the Lyman-alpha forests at high redshift. The simulations are designed to match the requirements imposed by the quality of BOSS and eBOSS data. They are made using either 768"3 or 192"3 particles of each type, spanning volumes ranging from (25 Mpc/h)"3 for high-resolution simulations to (100 Mpc/h)"3 for large

  14. X-ray absorption spectra and emission spectra of plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Yonglun; Yang Li; Wang Minsheng; Li Jiaming

    2002-01-01

    The author reports a theoretical method to calculate the resolved absorption spectra and emission spectra (optically thin) of hot dense plasmas. Due to its fully relativistic treatment incorporated with the quantum defect theory, it calculates the absorption spectra and emission spectra for single element or multi-element plasmas with little computational efforts. The calculated absorption spectra of LTE gold plasmas agree well with the experimental ones. It also calculates the optical thin emission spectra of LTE gold plasmas, which is helpful to diagnose the plasmas of relevant ICF plasmas. It can also provide the relevant parameters such as population density of various ionic stages, precise radiative properties for ICF studies

  15. Data needs for the track structure of alpha particles and electrons in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagnamenta, A.

    1983-01-01

    We have made calculations of the ionization spectra for alpha particle and electron tracks in water. We have also computed the number of ions created per micrometre of track length, the energy distribution of the secondaries, and the energy expended per ion pair created. Our aim is less toward theoretical derivations than to obtain a numerically accurate description of the track structure at all energies in a form suitable for biomedical applications. 13 references

  16. Particle unstable excited states in /sup 9/Be influence of beta recoil and width on delayed particle spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Nyman, G H; Jonson, B; Kratz, K L; Larsson, P O; Mattsson, S; Ziegert, W

    1981-01-01

    The light nucleus /sup 9/Be has been studied through the emission of beta-delayed neutrons and alpha particles from /sup 9/Li. The activity is produced at the ISOLDE facility in fragmentation reactions induced either by 600 MeV proton or 910 MeV /sup 3/He beams from the CERN Synchro-cyclotron. After mass separation neutron spectra are recorded using /sup 3/He-filled proportional counters, while surface barrier detectors are used for the spectroscopy of alpha particles. Effects on the spectrum shape induced by recoil and polarization phenomena as well as large widths of the intermediate states are discussed. (14 refs).

  17. Predictability of depression severity based on posterior alpha oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, H; Popov, T; Jylänki, P; Bi, K; Yao, Z; Lu, Q; Jensen, O; van Gerven, M A J

    2016-04-01

    We aimed to integrate neural data and an advanced machine learning technique to predict individual major depressive disorder (MDD) patient severity. MEG data was acquired from 22 MDD patients and 22 healthy controls (HC) resting awake with eyes closed. Individual power spectra were calculated by a Fourier transform. Sources were reconstructed via beamforming technique. Bayesian linear regression was applied to predict depression severity based on the spatial distribution of oscillatory power. In MDD patients, decreased theta (4-8 Hz) and alpha (8-14 Hz) power was observed in fronto-central and posterior areas respectively, whereas increased beta (14-30 Hz) power was observed in fronto-central regions. In particular, posterior alpha power was negatively related to depression severity. The Bayesian linear regression model showed significant depression severity prediction performance based on the spatial distribution of both alpha (r=0.68, p=0.0005) and beta power (r=0.56, p=0.007) respectively. Our findings point to a specific alteration of oscillatory brain activity in MDD patients during rest as characterized from MEG data in terms of spectral and spatial distribution. The proposed model yielded a quantitative and objective estimation for the depression severity, which in turn has a potential for diagnosis and monitoring of the recovery process. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Study of some continuous spectra produced by nuclear reactions with light nuclei; Etude de quelques spectres continus produits par reactions nucleaires avec des noyaux legers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquez, L

    1966-07-01

    The continuous spectra coming from several nuclear reactions with light nuclei were measured. The spectra can be explained by a two-step reaction mechanism; however, the reactions produced by {sup 6}Li are different. A mechanism was proposed to explain their spectra based on the following assumptions: {sup 6}Li makes a nuclear molecule with the target which subsequently breaks up in such a way that an {alpha} particle comes out with the kinetic energy that it has in the molecule. The calculated spectra and those measured are in good agreement. (author) [French] Nous avons mesure les spectres continus produits dans plusieurs reactions nucleaires avec des noyaux legers. A l'exception des spectres produits par {sup 6}Li, on a trouve qu'on pouvait expliquer ces spectres par le mecanisme des reactions en deux etapes. Nous avons propose un mecanisme pour expliquer les spectres produits par {sup 6}Li. On suppose que {sup 6}Li forme une molecule nucleaire avec la cible qui eclate ensuite de facon telle qu'une particule alpha de la molecule sort avec l'energie cinetique de son mouvement propre dans la molecule. Les spectres calcules avec ces hypotheses et les spectres mesures sont en bon accord. (auteur)

  19. Anti-pp,. cap alpha cap alpha. and p. cap alpha. elastic scattering at high energies and Chou-Yang conjecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleem, M.; Fazal-e-Aleem; Rifique, M.

    1987-03-01

    The recent experimental measurements for anti-pp and ..cap alpha cap alpha.. elastic scattering at high energies have shown that the Chou-Yang conjecture regarding the relationship between the electromagnetic and the hadronic form factor of a particle is only an approximation. A new ansatz has been proposed to obtain hadronic form factors of proton and the ..cap alpha..-particle. These form factors have been used to explain the various characteristics of anti-pp, ..cap alpha cap alpha.. and p..cap alpha.. elastic scattering at high energies.

  20. An open-flow pulse ionization chamber for alpha spectrometry of large-area samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, L.; Roos, B.; Samuelsson, C.

    1992-01-01

    The presented open-flow pulse ionization chamber was developed to make alpha spectrometry on large-area surfaces easy. One side of the chamber is left open, where the sample is to be placed. The sample acts as a chamber wall and therby defeins the detector volume. The sample area can be as large as 400 cm 2 . To prevent air from entering the volume there is a constant gas flow through the detector, coming in at the bottom of the chamber and leaking at the sides of the sample. The method results in good energy resolution and has considerable applicability in the retrospective radon research. Alpha spectra obtained in the retrospective measurements descend from 210 Po, built up in the sample from the radon daughters recoiled into a glass surface. (au)

  1. Contribution to the study of alpha-alpha interaction; Contribution a l'etude de l'interaction alpha - alpha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darriulai, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-03-01

    Two sets of measurements of the {alpha}-{alpha} elastic scattering differential cross section are presented. The first set - angular distributions from 50 up to 120 MeV - shows two new resonances, 6{sup +} and 8{sup +}, at 25 and 57 MeV. Complex phase shifts are extracted from the data and a phenomenological potential is given. A description of the 3 {alpha}-particle 0{sup +} states in C{sup 12} is made with this interaction potential. The second set - excitation curves between 20 and 50 MeV - allows investigation of the Be{sup 8} level structure within this energy range - It identifies the 16.6 and 16.9 MeV states as 2{sup +}, but the rise of inelastic processes at higher energies makes further identification of spins and parities more and more difficult. (author) [French] Deux series de mesures de la section efficace differentielle de diffusion {alpha}-{alpha} sont presentees. La premiere - distributions angulaires entre 50 et 120 MeV - fait apparaitre deux nouvelles resonances, 6{sup +} et 8{sup +}, a 25 et 57 MeV d'excitation. Des dephasages complexes en sont extraits et un potentiel phenomenologique est presente. Une etude des etats 0{sup +} a parentage (3{alpha}) de {sup 12}C est faite a partir de ce potentiel. La seconde - courbes d'excitation s'etendant de 20 a 50 MeV - met en evidence la structure de {sup 8}Be dans cette region. Elle montre que les niveaux a 16,6 et 16,9 MeV sont des 2{sup +} mais l'importance des processus inelastiques rend difficile l'identification des niveaux d'excitation plus elevee. (auteur)

  2. Spontaneous Slow Fluctuation of EEG Alpha Rhythm Reflects Activity in Deep-Brain Structures: A Simultaneous EEG-fMRI Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei Omata

    Full Text Available The emergence of the occipital alpha rhythm on brain electroencephalogram (EEG is associated with brain activity in the cerebral neocortex and deep brain structures. To further understand the mechanisms of alpha rhythm power fluctuation, we performed simultaneous EEGs and functional magnetic resonance imaging recordings in human subjects during a resting state and explored the dynamic relationship between alpha power fluctuation and blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD signals of the brain. Based on the frequency characteristics of the alpha power time series (APTS during 20-minute EEG recordings, we divided the APTS into two components: fast fluctuation (0.04-0.167 Hz and slow fluctuation (0-0.04 Hz. Analysis of the correlation between the MRI signal and each component revealed that the slow fluctuation component of alpha power was positively correlated with BOLD signal changes in the brain stem and the medial part of the thalamus and anterior cingulate cortex, while the fast fluctuation component was correlated with the lateral part of the thalamus and the anterior cingulate cortex, but not the brain stem. In summary, these data suggest that different subcortical structures contribute to slow and fast modulations of alpha spectra on brain EEG.

  3. A sequential extraction procedure to determine Ra and U isotopes by alpha-particle spectrometry in selective leachates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguado, J.L.; Bolivar, J.P.; San-Miguel, E.G.; Garcia-Tenorio, R.

    2003-01-01

    A radiochemical sequential extraction procedure has been developed in our laboratory to determine 226 Ra and 234,238 U by alpha spectrometry in environmental samples. This method has been validated for both radionuclides by comparing in selected samples the values obtained through its application with the results obtained by applying alternative procedures. Recoveries obtained, counting periods applied and background levels found in the alpha spectra give suitable detection limits to allow the Ra and U determination in operational forms defined in riverbed contaminated sediments. Results obtained in these speciation studies show that 226 Ra and 234,238 U contamination tend to be associated to precipitated forms of the sediments. (author)

  4. Investigation of the Pygmy Dipole Resonance in (alpha, alpha 'gamma) coincidence experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savran, D.; Babilon, M.; van den Berg, A. M.; Harakeh, M. N.; Hasper, J.; Wortche, H. J.; Zilges, A.

    2007-01-01

    We report on first results from experiments using the (alpha, alpha'gamma) reaction at E alpha = 136 MeV to investigate bound electric dipole (El) excitations building the so-called Pygmy Dipole Resonance (PDR) in the semi-magic nucleus Ce-140. The method of (alpha, alpha'gamma) allows the

  5. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of uranium for alpha spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez V, M. L.; Rios M, C.; Ramirez O, J.; Davila R, J. I.; Mireles G, F.

    2015-09-01

    The uranium determination through radiometric techniques as alpha spectrometry requires for its proper analysis, preparation methods of the source to analyze and procedures for the deposit of this on a surface or substrate. Given the characteristics of alpha particles (small penetration distance and great loss of energy during their journey or its interaction with the matter), is important to ensure that the prepared sources are thin, to avoid problems of self-absorption. The routine methods used for this are the cathodic electro deposition and the direct evaporation, among others. In this paper the use of technique of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) for the preparation of uranium sources is investigated; because by this, is possible to obtain thin films (much thinner than those resulting from electro deposition or evaporation) on a substrate and comprises reacting a precursor with a gas, which in turn serves as a carrier of the reaction products to achieve deposition. Preliminary results of the chemical vapor deposition of uranium are presented, synthesizing and using as precursor molecule the uranyl acetylacetonate, using oxygen as carrier gas for the deposition reaction on a glass substrate. The uranium films obtained were found suitable for alpha spectrometry. The variables taken into account were the precursor sublimation temperatures and deposition temperature, the reaction time and the type and flow of carrier gas. Of the investigated conditions, two depositions with encouraging results that can serve as reference for further work to improve the technique presented here were selected. Alpha spectra obtained for these depositions and the characterization of the representative samples by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction are also presented. (Author)

  6. Increased virulence and competitive advantage of a/alpha over a/a or alpha/alpha offspring conserves the mating system of Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, Shawn R; Wu, Wei; Radke, Joshua B; Zhao, Rui; Soll, David R

    2005-04-01

    The majority of Candida albicans strains in nature are a/alpha and must undergo homozygosis to a/a or alpha/alpha to mate. Here we have used a mouse model for systemic infection to test the hypothesis that a/alpha strains predominate in nature because they have a competitive advantage over a/a and alpha/alpha offspring in colonizing hosts. Single-strain injection experiments revealed that a/alpha strains were far more virulent than either their a/a or alpha/alpha offspring. When equal numbers of parent a/alpha and offspring a/a or alpha/alpha cells were co-injected, a/alpha always exhibited a competitive advantage at the time of extreme host morbidity or death. When equal numbers of an engineered a/a/alpha2 strain and its isogenic a/a parent strain were co-injected, the a/a/alpha2 strain exhibited a competitive advantage at the time of host morbidity or death, suggesting that the genotype of the mating-type (MTL) locus, not associated genes on chromosome 5, provides a competitive advantage. We therefore propose that heterozygosity at the MTL locus not only represses white-opaque switching and genes involved in the mating process, but also affects virulence, providing a competitive advantage to the a/alpha genotype that conserves the mating system of C. albicans in nature.

  7. New evidence from the Lyman-alpha forest concerning the formation of galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, A M

    1986-12-17

    A new type of survey for galaxies with z > 2 is described. The idea is to search for the spectroscopic imprint that the H1 disc of a foreground galaxy leaves on radiation emitted by a background QSO; namely, a Lyman-..cap alpha.. absorption line broadened by radiation damping. A continuing survey has revealed the presence of 15 damped L..cap alpha.. lines with redshifts between 1.8 and 2.8 in the spectra of 68 QSOs. In comparison, no more than three discs with the properties of nearby galaxies should have been detected. Furthermore, the mean column density of the 15 absorbers, = 1.4 x 10/sup 21/cm/sup -2/, is much larger than expected for the outskirts of H1 discs. The statistical and physical evidence accumulated suggests that the damped L..cap alpha.. systems are a distinct population of absorbers with properties reminiscent of H1 discs. It is concluded that the progenitors of the baryon content of nearby galaxies have been detected. The implications for theories of galaxy formations of the discovery of this damped population of absorbers are explained.

  8. THE LYMAN ALPHA REFERENCE SAMPLE: EXTENDED LYMAN ALPHA HALOS PRODUCED AT LOW DUST CONTENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, Matthew [Universite de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France); Oestlin, Goeran; Duval, Florent; Guaita, Lucia; Melinder, Jens; Sandberg, Andreas [Department of Astronomy, Oskar Klein Centre, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Centre, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Schaerer, Daniel [CNRS, IRAP, 14, avenue Edouard Belin, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Verhamme, Anne; Orlitova, Ivana [Geneva Observatory, University of Geneva, 51 Chemin des Maillettes, CH-1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Mas-Hesse, J. Miguel; Oti-Floranes, Hector [Centro de Astrobiologia (CSIC-INTA), Departamento de Astrofisica, POB 78, 28691 Villanueva de la Canada (Spain); Adamo, Angela [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Atek, Hakim [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Observatoire, CH-1290 Sauverny (Switzerland); Cannon, John M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macalester College, 1600 Grand Avenue, Saint Paul, MN 55105 (United States); Herenz, E. Christian [Leibniz-Institut fuer Astrophysik (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Kunth, Daniel [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095 CNRS and UPMC, 98 bis Bd Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Laursen, Peter, E-mail: matthew@astro.su.se [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2013-03-10

    We report on new imaging observations of the Lyman alpha emission line (Ly{alpha}), performed with the Hubble Space Telescope, that comprise the backbone of the Lyman alpha Reference Sample. We present images of 14 starburst galaxies at redshifts 0.028 < z < 0.18 in continuum-subtracted Ly{alpha}, H{alpha}, and the far ultraviolet continuum. We show that Ly{alpha} is emitted on scales that systematically exceed those of the massive stellar population and recombination nebulae: as measured by the Petrosian 20% radius, R{sub P20}, Ly{alpha} radii are larger than those of H{alpha} by factors ranging from 1 to 3.6, with an average of 2.4. The average ratio of Ly{alpha}-to-FUV radii is 2.9. This suggests that much of the Ly{alpha} light is pushed to large radii by resonance scattering. Defining the Relative Petrosian Extension of Ly{alpha} compared to H{alpha}, {xi}{sub Ly{alpha}} = R {sup Ly{alpha}}{sub P20}/R {sup H{alpha}}{sub P20}, we find {xi}{sub Ly{alpha}} to be uncorrelated with total Ly{alpha} luminosity. However, {xi}{sub Ly{alpha}} is strongly correlated with quantities that scale with dust content, in the sense that a low dust abundance is a necessary requirement (although not the only one) in order to spread Ly{alpha} photons throughout the interstellar medium and drive a large extended Ly{alpha} halo.

  9. Comparison of the radiochemical separation procedures od plutonium applied for its determination in the environmental samples using alpha spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komosa, A.; Michalik, S.

    2006-01-01

    Alpha spectrometry of the plutonium isotopes can be performed only after the perfect plutonium separation from other components of the matrix. So, till now numerous procedures have been elaborated and tested. The communication presents comparison of the plutonium content determination in soil, bones, eggshells and in the reference materials obtained by alpha spectrometry combined with two different separation procedures. The samples were mineralized in the concentrated HCl or HF prior to plutonium electrodeposition or coprecipitation with NdF 3 . Some other details were also tested in various variants. Quality of the spectra is discussed in terms of all these pre-treatment methods

  10. Microwave-plasma interactions studied via mode diagnostics in ALPHA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friesen, T., E-mail: tim.friesen@cern.ch [University of Calgary, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Canada); Andresen, G. B. [Aarhus University, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Denmark); Ashkezari, M. D. [Simon Fraser University, Department of Physics (Canada); Baquero-Ruiz, M. [University of California, Department of Physics (United States); Bertsche, W. [Swansea University, Department of Physics (United Kingdom); Bowe, P. D. [Aarhus University, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Denmark); Butler, E. [CERN, Physics Department (Switzerland); Cesar, C. L. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Fisica (Brazil); Chapman, S. [University of California, Department of Physics (United States); Charlton, M.; Eriksson, S. [Swansea University, Department of Physics (United Kingdom); Fajans, J. [University of California, Department of Physics (United States); Fujiwara, M. C. [University of Calgary, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Canada); Gill, D. R. [TRIUMF (Canada); Gutierrez, A. [University of British Columbia, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Canada); Hangst, J. S. [Aarhus University, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Denmark); Hardy, W. N. [University of British Columbia, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Canada); Hayano, R. S. [University of Tokyo, Department of Physics (Japan); Hayden, M. E. [Simon Fraser University, Department of Physics (Canada); Humphries, A. J. [Swansea University, Department of Physics (United Kingdom); Collaboration: ALPHA Collaboration; and others

    2012-12-15

    The goal of the ALPHA experiment is the production, trapping and spectroscopy of antihydrogen. A direct comparison of the ground state hyperfine spectra in hydrogen and antihydrogen has the potential to be a high-precision test of CPT symmetry. We present a novel method for measuring the strength of a microwave field for hyperfine spectroscopy in a Penning trap. This method incorporates a non-destructive plasma diagnostic system based on electrostatic modes within an electron plasma. We also show how this technique can be used to measure the cyclotron resonance of the electron plasma, which can potentially serve as a non-destructive measurement of plasma temperature.

  11. Synthesis and antimicrobial evaluation of new 3-alkyl/aryl-2-[((alpha,alpha-diphenyl-alpha-hydroxy)acetyl)hydrazono]-5-methyl-4-thiazolidinones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güzeldemirci, Nuray Ulusoy; Ilhan, Eser; Küçükbasmaci, Omer; Satana, Dilek

    2010-01-01

    New 4-thiazolidinone derivatives of benzilic acid (alpha,alpha-diphenyl-alpha-hydroxyacetic acid) have been synthesized and evaluated for antibacterial and antifungal activities. The reaction of 1- (alpha,alpha-diphenyl-alpha-hydroxy)acetyl-4-alkyl/arylthiosemicarbazides with ethyl 2-bromopropionate gave 3-alkyl/aryl-2-[((alpha,alpha-diphenyl-alpha-hydroxy)acetyl)hydrazono]-5-methyl-4-thiazolidinone derivatives. Their antibacterial and antifungal activities were evaluated against S. aureus ATCC 29213, P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853, E. coli ATCC 25922, C. albicans ATCC 10231, C. parapsilosis ATCC 22019, C. krusei ATCC 6258, T. mentagrophytes var. erinacei NCPF 375, M. gypseum NCPF 580 and T. tonsurans NCPF 245. 3e, 3f, 3g and 3h showed the highest antibacterial activity. Particularly 3a and 3e showed the highest antifungal activities against C. parapsilosis ATCC 22019, T. tonsurans NCPF 245 and M. gypseum NCPF 580.

  12. Lyman Alpha Control

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, Daniel Stefaniak

    2015-01-01

    This document gives an overview of how to operate the Lyman Alpha Control application written in LabVIEW along with things to watch out for. Overview of the LabVIEW code itself as well as the physical wiring of and connections from/to the NI PCI-6229 DAQ box is also included. The Lyman Alpha Control application is the interface between the ALPHA sequencer and the HighFinesse Wavelength Meter as well as the Lyman Alpha laser setup. The application measures the wavelength of the output light from the Lyman Alpha cavity through the Wavelength Meter. The application can use the Wavelength Meter’s PID capabilities to stabilize the Lyman Alpha laser output as well as switch between up to three frequencies.

  13. Neutron flux density and secondary-particle energy spectra at the 184-inch synchrocyclotron medical facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.R.; Schimmerling, W.; Henson, A.M.; Kanstein, L.L.; McCaslin, J.B.; Stephens, L.D.; Thomas, R.H.; Ozawa, J.; Yeater, F.W.

    1978-07-01

    Helium ions, with an energy of 920 MeV, produced by the 184-inch synchrocyclotron of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory are now being used in a pilot series to determine their efficacy in the treatment of tumors of large volume. The techniques for production of the large uniform radiation fields required for these treatments involve the use of beam-limiting collimators and energy degraders. Interaction of the primary beam with these beam components produces secondary charged particles and neutrons. The sources of neutron production in the beam transport system of the alpha-particle beam have been identified and their magnitudes have been determined. Measurements with activation detectors and pulse counters of differing energy responses have been used to determine secondary particle spectra at various locations on the patient table. These spectra are compared to a calculation of neutron production based on best estimates derived from published cross sections. Agreement between the calculated spectra and those derived from experimental measurements is obtained (at the 10 to 20% level) when the presence of charged particles is taken into account. The adsorbed dose in soft tissue is not very sensitive to the shape of the incident neutron energy spectrum, and the values obtained from unfolding the experimental measurements agree with the values obtained from the calculated spectra within the estimated uncertainty of +-25%. These values are about 3 x 10 -3 rad on the beam axis and about 1 x 10 -3 rad at 20 cm or more from the beam axis, per rad deposited by the incident alpha-particle beam. Estimates of upper limit dose to the lens of the eye and red bone marrow are approximately 10 rad and approximately 1 rad, respectively, for a typical treatment plan. The absorbed dose to the lens of the eye is thus well below the threshold value for cataractogenesis estimated for fission neutrons. An upper limit for the risk of leukemia is estimated to be approximately 0.04%

  14. Damped Lyman-alpha absorption by disk galaxies with large redshifts. III. Intermediate-resolution spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turnshek, D.A.; Wolfe, A.M.; Lanzetta, K.M.; Briggs, F.H.; Cohen, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    New intermediate-resolution spectroscopy for six members of a sample of 68 moderate- to high-redshift QSOs is presented. Evidence is reported which indicates that seven strong absorption features in the QSO spectra are due to damped Ly-alpha absorption. A standard curve-of-growth analysis on five of the damped systems is performed, and relevant properties are tabulated and discussed. Six of the seven damped Ly-alpha systems have H I column densities of 2 x 10 to the 20th/sq cm or larger, while the remaining system has an H I column density of about 10 to the 20th/sq cm. It is suggested that damped Ly-alpha systems arise when a sight line intercepts a high-redshift protogalaxy disk containing a quiescent cloud component characterized by high column density and low effective velocity dispersion. At the same time, the sight line usually intercepts a broader turbulent component, which is identified as the halo, characterized by much lower column density and higher effective velocity dispersion. 42 refs

  15. The sub-bandgap energy loss satellites in the RIXS spectra of beryllium compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuusik, I., E-mail: ivar@fi.tartu.ee [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Riia 142, 51014 Tartu (Estonia); Kaeaembre, T. [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Riia 142, 51014 Tartu (Estonia); Kooser, K. [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Riia 142, 51014 Tartu (Estonia); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, Turku (Finland); Pustovarov, V.; Ivanov, V. [Ural State Technical University-UPI, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Kukk, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, Turku (Finland); Kikas, A. [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Riia 142, 51014 Tartu (Estonia)

    2011-07-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Be 1s RIXS spectra have been measured in Be containing crystals phenakite and chrysoberyl. {yields} A strong energy loss sideband to the elastic scattering peak similar to BeO is found in both minerals. {yields} Additionally the Si 2p RIXS spectra of phenakite also show a strong energy loss sideband to the elastic scattering peak. {yields} The energy loss shoulder appears to result from lattice relaxation in the absorption site. - Abstract: Resonant X-ray inelastic scattering spectra have been measured in BeO, phenakite (Be{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}) and chrysoberyl (BeAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}) with the excitation energy near the beryllium K edge. The RIXS spectra excited in the vicinity of the Be 1s core resonance show two principal features: the scattering on a valence excitation (which at higher excitation energies verges into the characteristic K{sub {alpha}} emission), and a remarkably strong energy loss sideband to the elastic scattering peak. The energy loss shoulder appears to result from lattice relaxation in the absorption site. The comparison of the RIXS spectra of phenakite, chrysoberyl and BeO shows that the strength of the low energy sideband differs greatly; it is strongest in BeO and weakest in phenakite. The Si 2p RIXS spectra of phenakite also display a similar strong sub-bandgap energy loss tail. To gain further insight to this process, transitions in a system with a single vibrational mode have been modelled. The phonon relaxation has been simulated empirically by 'smearing' the photoabsortion-populated vibrational levels with lower levels. This simple model is able to qualitatively explain this wide energy loss shoulder.

  16. Surface structure of alpha-Fe sub 2 O sub 3 nanocrystal observed by O K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, J; Ibrahim, K; Abbas, M I; Ju, X

    2003-01-01

    X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra is used as a probe of surface structure of alpha-Fe sub 2 O sub 3 nanocrystal, prepared by sol-gel method. We present O K-edge XANES of alpha-Fe sub 2 O sub 3 in nanocrystal and bulk by total electron yield at the photoemission station of Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The spectrum of alpha-Fe sub 2 O sub 3 shows a splitting of the pre-edge structure, which is interpreted as two subsets of Fe 3d t sub 2 sub g and e sub g orbitals in oxygen octahedral (O sub h) crystal field, and is also sensitive to long-range order effects. However, no distinguishable splitting of the pre-edge peak of nanocrystal alpha-Fe sub 2 O sub 3 is observed. This suggests that there exists the distorted octahedral coordination around Fe sites and also the long-range disorder due to the surface as compared with bulk alpha-Fe sub 2 O sub 3.

  17. Alpha - Skew Pi - Armendariz Rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Areej M Abduldaim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article we introduce a new concept called Alpha-skew Pi-Armendariz rings (Alpha - S Pi - ARas a generalization of the notion of Alpha-skew Armendariz rings.Another important goal behind studying this class of rings is to employ it in order to design a modern algorithm of an identification scheme according to the evolution of using modern algebra in the applications of the field of cryptography.We investigate general properties of this concept and give examples for illustration. Furthermore, this paperstudy the relationship between this concept and some previous notions related to Alpha-skew Armendariz rings. It clearly presents that every weak Alpha-skew Armendariz ring is Alpha-skew Pi-Armendariz (Alpha-S Pi-AR. Also, thisarticle showsthat the concepts of Alpha-skew Armendariz rings and Alpha-skew Pi- Armendariz rings are equivalent in case R is 2-primal and semiprime ring.Moreover, this paper proves for a semicommutative Alpha-compatible ringR that if R[x;Alpha] is nil-Armendariz, thenR is an Alpha-S Pi-AR. In addition, if R is an Alpha - S Pi -AR, 2-primal and semiprime ring, then N(R[x;Alpha]=N(R[x;Alpha]. Finally, we look forwardthat Alpha-skew Pi-Armendariz rings (Alpha-S Pi-ARbe more effect (due to their properties in the field of cryptography than Pi-Armendariz rings, weak Armendariz rings and others.For these properties and characterizations of the introduced concept Alpha-S Pi-AR, we aspire to design a novel algorithm of an identification scheme.

  18. The tree-alpha Faddeev calculation on 12C bound states with a Pauli correct alpha-alpha potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamada, Hiroyuki; Oryu, Shinsho

    1986-01-01

    The three-alpha model of 12 C is investigated by the Faddeev formalism with the UIM alpha-alpha potential, in which the Pauli effect between two-alpha system was taken into account adequately. The potential can reproduce the on- and off-shell effects of the alpha-alpha interaction by the rank-4 separable type for the S-wave, the rank-3 one for the D-wave, and the rank-2 one for the G-wave, in which two of the ranks in the S-wave, and one in the D-wave are prepared to eliminate the Pauli forbidden states. We obtained three even states J π = 0 + , 2 + , 4 + , and two odd states 1 - , 3 - , below the alpha- 8 Be(0 + g.s) threshold energy. The even parity states gain larger binding energies than those which have been obtained by former Faddeev calculation with the rank-1 Kukulin and Neudatchin (KN) potential. On the other hand, for the odd parity states, we obtained smaller binding energies than the former one. It is found that our Faddeev calculation with the UIM potential does not miss any important low-lying levels of 12 C, in which any spurious states do not appear. (author)

  19. Recovering the systemic redshift of galaxies from their Lyman-alpha line profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhamme, A.; Garel, T.; Ventou, E.; Contini, T.; Bouché, N.; Herenz, E. C.; Richard, J.; Bacon, R.; Schmidt, K. B.; Maseda, M.; Marino, R. A.; Brinchmann, J.; Cantalupo, S.; Caruana, J.; Clément, B.; Diener, C.; Drake, A. B.; Hashimoto, T.; Inami, H.; Kerutt, J.; Kollatschny, W.; Leclercq, F.; Patrício, V.; Schaye, J.; Wisotzki, L.; Zabl, J.

    2018-04-01

    The Lyman alpha (Lyα) line of Hydrogen is a prominent feature in the spectra of star-forming galaxies, usually redshifted by a few hundreds of km s-1 compared to the systemic redshift. This large offset hampers follow-up surveys, galaxy pair statistics and correlations with quasar absorption lines when only Lyα is available. We propose diagnostics that can be used to recover the systemic redshift directly from the properties of the Lyα line profile. We use spectroscopic observations of Lyman-Alpha Emitters (LAEs) for which a precise measurement of the systemic redshift is available. Our sample contains 13 sources detected between z ≈ 3 and z ≈ 6 as part of various Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) Guaranteed Time Observations (GTO). We also include a compilation of spectroscopic Lyα data from the literature spanning a wide redshift range (z ≈ 0 - 8). First, restricting our analysis to double-peaked Lyα spectra, we find a tight correlation between the velocity offset of the red peak with respect to the systemic redshift, V_peak^red, and the separation of the peaks. Secondly, we find a correlation between V_peak^red and the full width at half maximum of the Lyα line. Fitting formulas, to estimate systemic redshifts of galaxies with an accuracy of ≤100 km s-1 when only the Lyα emission line is available, are given for the two methods.

  20. Computed secondary-particle energy spectra following nonelastic neutron interactions with 12C for En between 15 and 60 MeV: Comparisons of results from two calculational methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickens, J.K.

    1991-04-01

    The organic scintillation detector response code SCINFUL has been used to compute secondary-particle energy spectra, dσ/dE, following nonelastic neutron interactions with 12 C for incident neutron energies between 15 and 60 MeV. The resulting spectra are compared with published similar spectra computed by Brenner and Prael who used an intranuclear cascade code, including alpha clustering, a particle pickup mechanism, and a theoretical approach to sequential decay via intermediate particle-unstable states. The similarities of and the differences between the results of the two approaches are discussed. 16 refs., 44 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Synthesis of tritiated 1-alpha-methadol and 1-alpha-acetylmethadol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thang, D.C.; Nam, N.H.; Pontikis, R. (Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM), Hopital Fernand Widal, 75 - Paris (France)); Pichat, L. (CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Service des Molecules Marquees)

    1982-04-01

    dl-Methadone was resolved by crystallization of its ammonium d- ..cap alpha.. -bromocamphor-..pi..-sulfonate salt to give d-methadone. The latter in ethyl acetate solution was reduced with tritium gas to 1-..cap alpha..-methadol /sup 3/H in presence of Adams platinum oxide at normal temperature and pressure. Acetylation of 1-..cap alpha..-carbinol hydrochloride by means of acetyl chloride afforded 1-..cap alpha..-acetylmethadol /sup 3/H, specific activity: 20 Ci/mMole. The positions and extent of tritium labelling were determined by /sup 3/H NMR spectroscopy.

  2. Selected aspects in the structure of beta-delayed particle spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honkanen, J.; Aeystoe, J.; Eskola, K.

    1986-01-01

    Some weak beta-delayed particle emitters in the T z =-3/2, -1, -1/2, +1/2 and +5/2 series are reviewed. Selected features of the delayed particle emission are discussed in terms of experimental delayed particle data and (p,γ), (p,p') and (p,n) reaction data. Experimental beta transition strengths are compared with the existing complete shell-model calculations for the sd-shell nuclei. The effect of the Gamow-Teller giant resonance on the structure of the delayed particle spectra is considered. The correlation between the widths of two decay channels, protons and alpha particles, and the preceeding beta decay is studied in the case of the 40 Sc decay. (orig.)

  3. 2-D and 3-D phosphotungstate-based TM-Ln heterometallic derivatives constructed from dimeric [Ln({alpha}-PW{sub 11}O{sub 39}){sub 2}]{sup 11-} fragments and copper-organic complex linkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shang, Sensen [Institute of Molecular and Crystal Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan 475004 (China); Zhao, Junwei, E-mail: zhaojunwei@henu.edu.cn [Institute of Molecular and Crystal Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan 475004 (China); State Key Laboratory of Structural Chemistry, Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Chen, Lijuan [Institute of Molecular and Crystal Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan 475004 (China); Basic Experiment Teaching Center, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan 475004 (China); Li, Yuye; Zhang, Jingli; Li, Yanzhou [Institute of Molecular and Crystal Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan 475004 (China); Niu, Jingyang, E-mail: jyniu@henu.edu.cn [Institute of Molecular and Crystal Engineering, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan 475004 (China)

    2012-12-15

    Three organic-inorganic hybrid TM-Ln heterometallic phosphotungstates [Cu(dap){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)][Cu(dap){sub 2}]{sub 3.5}[La({alpha}-HPW{sub 11}O{sub 39}){sub 2}]{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O (1) [Cu(dap){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)]{sub 0.5}[Cu(dap){sub 2}]{sub 4}[Nd({alpha}-HPW{sub 11}O{sub 39}){sub 2}]{center_dot}4H{sub 2}O (2) and [Cu(dap){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)]{sub 2}[Cu(dap){sub 2}]{sub 3.5}[Eu({alpha}-PW{sub 11}O{sub 39}){sub 2}]{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O (3) (dap=1,2-diaminopropane) have been hydrothermally synthesized and structurally characterized by elemental analyses, IR spectra, optical diffuse reflectance spectra, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), thermogravimetric (TG) analyses and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Their common features are that 1-3 all consist of asymmetric sandwich-type subunits [Ln({alpha}-PW{sub 11}O{sub 39}){sub 2}]{sup 11-} and [Cu(dap){sub 2}]{sup 2+} bridges. Both 1 and 2 display the 2-D (4,4)-topological sheets whereas 3 exhibits the 3-D 5-connected (4{sup 6}{center_dot}6{sup 4}) topological framework. The magnetic properties of 2 and 3 and the luminescence performance of 3 have been measured. - Graphical Abstract: Three TM-Ln heterometallic phosphotungstates 1-3 have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, IR spectra, optical diffuse reflectance spectra, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analyses magnetic susceptibility and luminescent properties. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cu{sup II}-Ln{sup III} heterometallic polyoxometalates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 2-D and 3-D organic-inorganic hybrid phosphotungstates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 2-D and 3-D structures consisting of Cu{sup II}-Ln{sup III} heterometals.

  4. Hippocampal 3alpha,5alpha-THP may alter depressive behavior of pregnant and lactating rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Cheryl A; Walf, Alicia A

    2004-07-01

    The 5alpha-reduced metabolite of progesterone (P), 5alpha-pregnan-3alpha-ol-20-one (3alpha,5alpha-THP), may mediate progestins' effects to reduce depressive behavior of female rats in part through actions in the hippocampus. To investigate, forced swim test behavior and plasma and hippocampal progestin levels were assessed in groups of rats expected to differ in their 3alpha,5alpha-THP levels due to endogenous differences (pregnant and postpartum), administration of a 5alpha-reductase inhibitor (finasteride; 50 mg/kg sc), and/or gestational stress [prenatal stress (PNS)], an animal model of depression. Pregnant rats had higher plasma and hippocampal 3alpha,5alpha-THP levels and less depressive behavior (decreased immobility, increased struggling and swimming) in the forced swim test than did postpartum rats. Finasteride, compared to vehicle-administration, reduced plasma and hippocampal 3alpha,5alpha-THP levels and increased depressive behavior (increased immobility, decreased struggling and swimming). PNS was associated with lower hippocampal, but not plasma, 3alpha,5alpha-THP levels and increased swimming compared to that observed in control rats. Together, these data suggest that 3alpha,5alpha-THP in the hippocampus may mediate antidepressive behavior of female rats.

  5. Alpha-particle energy spectra measured at forward angles in heavy-ion-induced reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borcea, C.; Cierlic, E.; Kalpakchieva, R.; Oganessian, Yu.Ts.; Penionzhkevich, Yu.E.

    1980-01-01

    Energy spectra have been measured for α-particles emitted in the bombardment of 159 Tb, 181 Ta, 197 Au, and 232 Th nuclei by 20 Ne, 22 Ne, and 40 Ar projectiles. The reaction products emitted in the angular range (0+-2)deg relative to the beam direction were analyzed using a magnetic spectrometer and detected by means of a semiconductor ΔE-E telescope. It was found that in all cases the experimentally measured maximum α-particle energy almost amounts to the maximum possible value calculated from the reaction energy balance for a two-body exit channel. A correlation was found between the measured absolute cross section in different target-projectile combinations and the α-particle binding energy in the target nuclei. On the basis of the obtained results a conclusion has been drawn that the α-particles are emitted in the early stage of the reaction

  6. Spectral study of the luminescence produced by the excitation of noble gases by alpha-rays; Etude spectrale de la luminescence due a l'excitation des gaz rares par les rayons alpha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, L [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-07-01

    Luminescence spectra of the noble gases He, A, Kr and Xe are studied under excitation by {alpha} rays. It is shown that the energy is transferred from excited levels of these gases to Hg and N{sub 2} impurities for impurity concentrations respectively less than 10{sup 6} and 10{sup 4}. These results confirm previous measurements concerning the period of luminescence and its variations versus nitrogen concentration in noble gases. (author) [French] On etudie les spectres de luminescence des gaz rares, He, A, Kr et Xe excites par une source intense de rayons {alpha}. Le transfert d'energie des etats excites des gaz rares sur les impuretes mercure et azote pour des concentrations respectives de ces impuretes inferieures a 1 ppm et 100 ppm est demontre. Ces resultats confirment les mesures anterieures concernant la duree de luminescence et ses variations avec la concentration d'azote dans les gaz rares. (auteur)

  7. Evaluation of Reduced Power Spectra from Three-Dimensional k-Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saur, J.; von Papen, M.

    2014-12-01

    We present a new tool to evaluate one dimensional reduced power spectral densities (PSD) from arbitrary energy distributions in kk-space. This enables us to calculate the power spectra as they are measured in spacecraft frame for any given measurement geometry assuming Taylor's frozen-in approximation. It is possible to seperately calculate the diagonal elements of the spectral tensor and also to insert additional, non-turbulent energy in kk-space (e.g. mirror mode waves). Given a critically balanced turbulent cascade with k∥˜kα⊥k_\\|sim k_perp^alpha, we explore the implications on the spectral form of the PSD and the functional dependence of the spectral index κkappa on the field-to-flow angle θtheta between plasma flow and background magnetic field. We show that critically balanced turbulence develops a θtheta-independent cascade with the spectral slope of the perpendicular cascade κ(θ=90∘)kappa(theta{=}90^circ). This happens at frequencies f>fmaxf>f_mathrm{max}, where fmax(L,α,θ)f_mathrm{max}(L,alpha,theta) is a function of outer scale LL, critical balance exponent αalpha and field-to-flow angle θtheta. We also discuss potential damping terms acting on the kk-space distribution of energy and their effect on the PSD. Further, we show that the functional dependence κ(θ)kappa(theta) as found by textit{Horbury et al.} (2008) and textit{Chen et al.} (2010) can be explained with a damped critically balanced turbulence model.

  8. The heavy quarkonium spectrum at order $m\\alpha_{s}^{5}\\ln\\alpha_{s}$

    CERN Document Server

    Brambilla, Nora; Soto, Joan; Vairo, Antonio

    1999-01-01

    We compute the complete leading-log terms of the next-to-next-to-next-to-leading-order corrections to potential NRQCD. As a by-product we obtain the leading logs at $O(m\\alpha_s^5)$ in the heavy quarkonium spectrum. These leading logs, when $\\Lambda_{QCD} \\ll m\\alpha_s^2$, give the complete $O(m\\alpha_s^5 \\ln \\alpha_s)$ corrections to the heavy quarkonium spectrum.

  9. GAS MOTION STUDY OF Ly{alpha} EMITTERS AT z {approx} 2 USING FUV AND OPTICAL SPECTRAL LINES {sup ,}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Takuya; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Nakajima, Kimihiko [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Ouchi, Masami; Ono, Yoshiaki [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Rauch, Michael; Janice Lee [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Okamura, Sadanori, E-mail: thashimoto@astron.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Advanced Sciences, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Hosei University, 3-7-2 Kajino-cho, Koganei-shi, Tokyo 184-8584 (Japan)

    2013-03-01

    We present the results of Magellan/MMIRS and Keck/NIRSPEC spectroscopy for five Ly{alpha} emitters (LAEs) at z {approx_equal} 2.2 for which high-resolution FUV spectra from Magellan/MagE are available. We detect nebular emission lines including H{alpha} on the individual basis and low-ionization interstellar (LIS) absorption lines in a stacked FUV spectrum, and measure average offset velocities of the Ly{alpha} line, {Delta}v {sub Ly{alpha}}, and LIS absorption lines, {Delta}v {sub abs}, with respect to the systemic velocity defined by the nebular lines. For a sample of eight z {approx} 2-3 LAEs without active galactic nucleus from our study and the literature, we obtain {Delta}v {sub Ly{alpha}} = 175 {+-} 35 km s{sup -1}, which is significantly smaller than that of Lyman-break Galaxies (LBGs), {Delta}v {sub Ly{alpha}} {approx_equal} 400 km s{sup -1}. The stacked FUV spectrum gives {Delta}v {sub abs} = -179 {+-} 73 km s{sup -1}, comparable to that of LBGs. These positive {Delta}v {sub Ly{alpha}} and negative {Delta}v {sub abs} suggest that LAEs also have outflows. In contrast to LBGs, however, the LAEs' {Delta}v {sub Ly{alpha}} is as small as |{Delta}v {sub abs}|, suggesting low neutral hydrogen column densities. Such a low column density with a small number of resonant scattering may cause the observed strong Ly{alpha} emission of LAEs. We find an anti-correlation between Ly{alpha} equivalent width (EW) and {Delta}v {sub Ly{alpha}} in a compilation of LAE and LBG samples. Although its physical origin is not clear, this anti-correlation result appears to challenge the hypothesis that a strong outflow, by means of a reduced number of resonant scattering, produces a large EW. If LAEs at z > 6 have similarly small {Delta}v {sub Ly{alpha}} values, constraints on the reionization history derived from the Ly{alpha} transmissivity may need to be revised.

  10. Crystalline anhydrous {alpha},{alpha}-trehalose (polymorph {beta}) and crystalline dihydrate {alpha},{alpha}-trehalose: A calorimetric study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Susana S. [Centro de Quimica Estrutural, Complexo Interdisciplinar, Instituto Superior Tecnico, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)]. E-mail: susanapinto@ist.utl.pt; Diogo, Herminio P. [Centro de Quimica Estrutural, Complexo Interdisciplinar, Instituto Superior Tecnico, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)]. E-mail: hdiogo@ist.utl.pt; Moura-Ramos, Joaquim J. [Centro de Quimica-Fisica Molecular, Complexo Interdisciplinar, Instituto Superior Tecnico, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)]. E-mail: mouraramos@ist.utl.pt

    2006-09-15

    The mean values of the standard massic energy of combustion of crystalline anhydrous {alpha},{alpha}-trehalose (C{sub 12}H{sub 22}O{sub 11}, polymorph {beta}) and crystalline dihydrate {alpha},{alpha}-trehalose (C{sub 12}H{sub 26}O{sub 13}) measured by static-bomb combustion calorimetry in oxygen, at the temperature T=298.15K, are {delta}{sub c}u{sup o}=-(16434.05+/-4.50)J.g{sup -1} and {delta}{sub c}u{sup o}=-(14816.05+/-3.52)J.g{sup -1}, respectively. The standard (p{sup o}=0.1MPa) molar enthalpy of formation of these compounds were derived from the corresponding standard molar enthalpies of combustion, respectively, {delta}{sub f}H{sub m}{sup o} (C{sub 12}H{sub 22}O{sub 11},cr)=-(2240.9+/-3.9)kJ.mol{sup -1}, and {delta}{sub f}H{sub m}{sup o} (C{sub 12}H{sub 26}O{sub 13},cr)=-(2832.6+/-3.6)kJ.mol{sup -1}. The values of the standard enthalpies of formation obtained in this work, together with data on enthalpies of solution at infinite dilution ({delta}{sub sol}H{sup {approx}}) for crystalline dihydrate and amorphous anhydrous trehalose, allow a better insight on the thermodynamic description of the trehalose system which can provide, together with the future research on the subject, a contribution for understanding the metabolism in several organisms, as well as the phase transition between the different polymorphs.

  11. Energy dependence of event shapes and of $\\alpha_s$ at LEP 2

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P; Adye, T; Adzic, P; Albrecht, Z; Alderweireld, T; Alekseev, G D; Alemany, R; Allmendinger, T; Allport, P P; Almehed, S; Amaldi, Ugo; Amapane, N; Amato, S; Anassontzis, E G; Andersson, P; Andreazza, A; Andringa, S; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Bambade, P; Barão, F; Barbiellini, Guido; Barbier, R; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Barker, G; Baroncelli, A; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Behrmann, A; Beillière, P; Belokopytov, Yu A; Belous, K S; Benekos, N C; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Bérat, C; Berggren, M; Bertini, D; Bertrand, D; Besançon, M; Bianchi, F; Bigi, M; Bilenky, S M; Bizouard, M A; Bloch, D; Blom, H M; Bonesini, M; Bonivento, W; Boonekamp, M; Booth, P S L; Borgland, A W; Borisov, G; Bosio, C; Botner, O; Boudinov, E; Bouquet, B; Bourdarios, C; Bowcock, T J V; Boyko, I; Bozovic, I; Bozzo, M; Branchini, P; Brenke, T; Brenner, R A; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buran, T; Burgsmüller, T; Buschbeck, Brigitte; Buschmann, P; Cabrera, S; Caccia, M; Calvi, M; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Carena, F; Carroll, L; Caso, Carlo; Castillo-Gimenez, M V; Cattai, A; Cavallo, F R; Chabaud, V; Chapkin, M M; Charpentier, P; Chaussard, L; Checchia, P; Chelkov, G A; Chierici, R; Chliapnikov, P V; Chochula, P; Chorowicz, V; Chudoba, J; Cieslik, K; Collins, P; Contri, R; Cortina, E; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Cowell, J H; Crawley, H B; Crennell, D J; Crépé, S; Crosetti, G; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Czellar, S; Davenport, Martyn; Da Silva, W; Deghorain, A; Della Ricca, G; Delpierre, P A; Demaria, N; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Clercq, C; De Lotto, B; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; Dijkstra, H; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Dolbeau, J; Doroba, K; Dracos, M; Drees, J; Dris, M; Duperrin, A; Durand, J D; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ekspong, Gösta; Ellert, M; Elsing, M; Engel, J P; Erzen, B; Espirito-Santo, M C; Falk, E; Fanourakis, G K; Fassouliotis, D; Fayot, J; Feindt, Michael; Fenyuk, A; Ferrari, P; Ferrer, A; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Ferro, F; Fichet, S; Firestone, A; Flagmeyer, U; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fontanelli, F; Franek, B J; Frodesen, A G; Frühwirth, R; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Galloni, A; Gamba, D; Gamblin, S; Gandelman, M; García, C; Gaspar, C; Gaspar, M; Gasparini, U; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gelé, D; Ghodbane, N; Gil, I; Glege, F; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gómez-Ceballos, G; Gonçalves, P; González-Caballero, I; Gopal, Gian P; Gorn, L; Górski, M; Guz, Yu; Gracco, Valerio; Grahl, J; Graziani, E; Green, C; Grimm, H J; Gris, P; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Günther, M; Guy, J; Hahn, F; Hahn, S; Haider, S; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hansen, J; Harris, F J; Hedberg, V; Heising, S; Hernández, J J; Herquet, P; Herr, H; Hessing, T L; Heuser, J M; Higón, E; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Hoorelbeke, S; Houlden, M A; Hrubec, Josef; Huet, K; Hughes, G J; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jacobsson, R; Jalocha, P; Janik, R; Jarlskog, C; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jean-Marie, B; Johansson, E K; Jönsson, P E; Joram, C; Juillot, P; Kapusta, F; Karafasoulis, K; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Keränen, R; Kersevan, Borut P; Khomenko, B A; Khovanskii, N N; Kiiskinen, A P; King, B J; Kinvig, A; Kjaer, N J; Klapp, O; Klein, H; Kluit, P M; Kokkinias, P; Koratzinos, M; Kostyukhin, V; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Krammer, Manfred; Kriznic, E; Krstic, J; Krumshtein, Z; Kubinec, P; Kurowska, J; Kurvinen, K L; Lamsa, J; Lane, D W; Langefeld, P; Lapin, V; Laugier, J P; Lauhakangas, R; Leder, Gerhard; Ledroit, F; Lefébure, V; Leinonen, L; Leisos, A; Leitner, R; Lemonne, J; Lenzen, Georg; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Lethuillier, M; Libby, J; Liko, D; Lipniacka, A; Lippi, I; Lörstad, B; Loken, J G; Lopes, J H; López, J M; López-Fernandez, R; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J N; Mahon, J R; Maio, A; Malek, A; Malmgren, T G M; Maltezos, S; Malychev, V; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Marco, R P; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Martínez-Rivero, C; Martínez-Vidal, F; Martí i García, S; Mastroyiannopoulos, N; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Matthiae, Giorgio; Masik, J; Mazzucato, F; Mazzucato, M; McCubbin, M L; McKay, R; McNulty, R; McPherson, G; Meroni, C; Meyer, W T; Migliore, E; Mirabito, L; Mitaroff, Winfried A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Moch, M; Møller, R; Mönig, K; Monge, M R; Moreau, X; Morettini, P; Morton, G A; Müller, U; Münich, K; Mulders, M; Mulet-Marquis, C; Muresan, R; Murray, W J; Muryn, B; Myatt, Gerald; Myklebust, T; Naraghi, F; Nassiakou, M; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Navas, S; Nawrocki, K; Negri, P; Némécek, S; Neufeld, N; Neumeister, N; Nicolaidou, R; Nielsen, B S; Nikolenko, M; Nomokonov, V P; Normand, Ainsley; Nygren, A; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, Risto; Orazi, G; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Paganoni, M; Paiano, S; Pain, R; Paiva, R; Palacios, J; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Papageorgiou, K; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Parzefall, U; Passeri, A; Passon, O; Pegoraro, M; Peralta, L; Pernicka, Manfred; Perrotta, A; Petridou, C; Petrolini, A; Phillips, H T; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Piotto, E; Podobnik, T; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Poropat, P; Pozdnyakov, V; Privitera, P; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, Antonio; Radojicic, D; Ragazzi, S; Rahmani, H; Ratoff, P N; Read, A L; Rebecchi, P; Redaelli, N G; Regler, Meinhard; Reid, D; Reinhardt, R; Renton, P B; Resvanis, L K; Richard, F; Rídky, J; Rinaudo, G; Røhne, O M; Romero, A; Ronchese, P; Rosenberg, E I; Rosinsky, P; Roudeau, Patrick; Rovelli, T; Royon, C; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ruiz, A; Saarikko, H; Sacquin, Yu; Sadovskii, A; Sajot, G; Salt, J; Sampsonidis, D; Sannino, M; Schneider, H; Schwemling, P; Schwering, B; Schwickerath, U; Schyns, M A E; Scuri, F; Seager, P; Sedykh, Yu; Segar, A M; Sekulin, R L; Shellard, R C; Sheridan, A; Siebel, M; Simard, L C; Simonetto, F; Sissakian, A N; Smadja, G; Smirnov, N; Smirnova, O G; Smith, G R; Sopczak, André; Sosnowski, R; Spassoff, Tz; Spiriti, E; Sponholz, P; Squarcia, S; Stanescu, C; Stanic, S; Stevenson, K; Stocchi, A; Strub, R; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Tegenfeldt, F; Terranova, F; Thomas, J; Timmermans, J; Tinti, N; Tkatchev, L G; Todorova-Nová, S; Tomaradze, A G; Tomé, B; Tonazzo, A; Tortora, L; Tranströmer, G; Treille, D; Tristram, G; Trochimczuk, M; Troncon, C; Tsirou, A L; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tzamarias, S; Ullaland, O; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; Vallazza, E; Van der Velde, C; van Apeldoorn, G W; van Dam, P; Van Doninck, W K; Van Eldik, J; Van Lysebetten, A; Van Vulpen, I B; Vassilopoulos, N; Vegni, G; Ventura, L; Venus, W A; Verbeure, F; Verlato, M; Vertogradov, L S; Verzi, V; Vilanova, D; Vitale, L; Vlasov, E; Vodopyanov, A S; Vollmer, C F; Voulgaris, G; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Walck, C; Weiser, C; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wilkinson, G R; Winter, M; Witek, M; Wolf, G; Yi, J; Yushchenko, O P; Zaitsev, A; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, Piotr; Zavrtanik, D; Zevgolatakos, E; Zimin, N I; Zucchelli, G C; Zumerle, G

    1999-01-01

    Infrared and collinear safe event shape distributions and their mean values are determined using the data taken at ve di erent centre of mass energies above $M_Z$ with the DELPHI detector at LEP. From the event shapes, the strong coupling $\\alpha_s$ is extracted in $O(\\alpha^2_s)$, NLLA and a combined scheme using hadronisation corrections evaluated with fragmentation model generators as well as using an analytical power ansatz. Comparing these measurements to those obtained at MZ, the energy dependence (running) of $\\alpha_s$ is accessible. The logarithmic energy slope of the inverse strong coupling is measured to be $d\\alpha_{s}^{-1}/d log(E_{cm}) = 1.39 \\pm 0.34(stat) \\pm 0.17(syst)$, in good agreement with the QCD expectation of 1.27.

  12. Alpha Blockers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... quickly, but their effects last only a few hours. Long-acting medications take longer to work, but their effects last longer. Which alpha blocker is best for you depends on your health and the condition being treated. Alpha blockers are ...

  13. Determination of the optical absorption spectra of thin layers from their photoacoustic spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bychto, Leszek; Maliński, Mirosław; Patryn, Aleksy; Tivanov, Mikhail; Gremenok, Valery

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents a new method for computations of the optical absorption coefficient spectra from the normalized photoacoustic amplitude spectra of thin semiconductor samples deposited on the optically transparent and thermally thick substrates. This method was tested on CuIn(Te0.7Se0.3)2 thin films. From the normalized photoacoustic amplitude spectra, the optical absorption coefficient spectra were computed with the new formula as also with the numerical iterative method. From these spectra, the value of the energy gap of the thin film material and the type of the optical transitions were determined. From the experimental optical transmission spectra, the optical absorption coefficient spectra were computed too, and compared with the optical absorption coefficient spectra obtained from photoacoustic spectra.

  14. Are the brightest Lyman Alpha Emitters at z=5.7 primeval galaxies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidman, Christopher; Jones, Heath; Meisenheimer, Klaus; Pompei, Emanuela; Tapken, Christian; Vanzi, Leonardo; Westra, Eduard

    2008-03-01

    Wide-field, narrow-band surveys have proven to be effective at finding very high redshift galaxies that emit brightly in the Lyman alpha line, the so-called Lyman alpha emitters (LAEs). It was through this technique that the most distant spectroscopically confirmed galaxy, a galaxy at z=6.96, was discovered. Considerable effort is currently being spent on discovering these galaxies at ever higher redshifts by extending this technique into the near-IR. In contrast to this effort, there has been relatively little work on understanding these galaxies. In particular, how do LAEs relate to other high redshift galaxies, such as the galaxies discovered through broad band drop out techniques, and, perhaps, more importantly, what role do LAEs play in re-ionising the universe. We recently discovered two extremely luminous LAEs at z=5.7. These LAEs are among the brightest LAEs ever discovered at this redshift. In a recent paper by Mao et al. the brightest LAEs are associated to the most massive halos. We propose to use the IRAC 3.6 micron imager on Spitzer to measure the rest-frame optical flux of the these LAEs. With additional data from the near-IR (rest-frame UV) and very deep optical spectra around the Lyman alpha line, we propose to make a detailed study of the spectral energy distribution from the Lyman alpha line to the rest frame optical of these exceptional LAEs. These data will enable us to estimate the age and mass of the stellar burst that produces the Lyman alpha line, to estimate the contribution from an older stellar population, if any, and to estimate the fraction of Lyman continuum photons that can escape the galaxy and are thus available to reionise the universe.

  15. Uranium analysis in Cypriot groundwaters by total alpha-radiometry and alpha-spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efstathiou, Maria; Kiliari, Tasoula; Pashalidis, Ioannis

    2011-01-01

    Two different alpha-radiometric methods (e.g. alpha-spectroscopy and alpha-particle counting) have been applied to the determination of uranium in Cypriot groundwater samples after separation of the radionuclides by cation exchange using Chelex-100 and its electrodeposition on stainless steel planchettes. The data obtained were compared to show the advantages and disadvantages of the two radiometric methods, determine the alpha-radioactivity concentration and the radiation dose associated with the use of the studied groundwaters. Calibration of the methods was performed by means of uranium standard solutions and the corresponding data were used to evaluate linear range, detector efficiency, detection limits, value of the information obtained, and time of analysis of the methods. Comparison of the data obtained from calibration and natural sample measurements has shown that alpha-particle counting with a simple alpha-radiometer (equipped with a semiconductor detector) may offer only an activity value and not detailed information about the isotopic composition but it is the fastest method and the method of choice if only a screening method for the alpha-radioactivity measurement is required. Based on the alpha-radioactivity data, the corresponding radiation dose was estimated for situations where the groundwaters are used for drinking water purposes.

  16. The instrumental blank of the Mars Science Laboratory alpha particle X-ray spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J.L., E-mail: icampbel@uoguelph.ca [Guelph-Waterloo Physics Institute, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada)

    2012-10-01

    The alpha particle X-ray spectrometers on the Mars exploration rovers Spirit and Opportunity accomplished extensive elemental analysis of the Martian surface through a combination of XRF and PIXE. An advanced APXS is now part of the Mars Science Laboratory's Curiosity rover. APXS spectra contain contributions which enhance elemental peak areas but which do not arise from these elements within the sample under study, thereby introducing error into derived concentrations. A detailed examination of these effects in the MSL APXS enables us to test two schemes for making the necessary corrections.

  17. Matrix isolation and low temperature solid state FTIR spectroscopic study of alpha-furil

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Susy; Gómez-Zavaglia, Andrea; Fausto, Rui

    2006-01-01

    Alpha-furil [C(4)H(3)O-C(=O)-C(=O)-C(4)H(3)O] has been isolated in argon and xenon matrices and studied by FTIR spectroscopy, supported by DFT(B3LYP)/6-311++G(d,p) calculations. The obtained spectra were fully assigned and revealed the presence in the matrices of three different conformers, all of them exhibiting skewed conformations around the intercarbonyl bond with the two C(4)H(3)O-C(=O) fragments nearly planar. The three conformers differ in the orientation of the furan rings relative to...

  18. Circadian variation of EEG power spectra in NREM and REM sleep in humans: dissociation from body temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijk, D. J.

    1999-01-01

    In humans, EEG power spectra in REM and NREM sleep, as well as characteristics of sleep spindles such as their duration, amplitude, frequency and incidence, vary with circadian phase. Recently it has been hypothesized that circadian variations in EEG spectra in humans are caused by variations in brain or body temperature and may not represent phenomena relevant to sleep regulatory processes. To test this directly, a further analysis of EEG power spectra - collected in a forced desynchrony protocol in which sleep episodes were scheduled to a 28-h period while the rhythms of body temperature and plasma melatonin were oscillating at their near 24-h period - was carried out. EEG power spectra were computed for NREM and REM sleep occurring between 90-120 and 270-300 degrees of the circadian melatonin rhythm, i.e. just after the clearance of melatonin from plasma in the 'morning' and just after the 'evening' increase in melatonin secretion. Average body temperatures during scheduled sleep at these two circadian phases were identical (36.72 degrees C). Despite identical body temperatures, the power spectra in NREM sleep were very different at these two circadian phases. EEG activity in the low frequency spindle range was significantly and markedly enhanced after the evening increase in plasma melatonin as compared to the morning phase. For REM sleep, significant differences in power spectra during these two circadian phases, in particular in the alpha range, were also observed. The results confirm that EEG power spectra in NREM and REM sleep vary with circadian phase, suggesting that the direct contribution of temperature to the circadian variation in EEG power spectra is absent or only minor, and are at variance with the hypothesis that circadian variations in EEG power spectra are caused by variations in temperature.

  19. An electrostatic plunger device and the analysis of recoil-distance spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchie van Voorthuysen, E.H. du; Smith, Ph.B.

    1975-01-01

    In the electrostatic plunger apparatus, a large stopper foil is drawn towards the target electrostatically. The attracting field is controlled in a feedback loop by the capacity, so that the distance is stabilized during the measurement. Formulae for line-shape analysis of γ-ray spectra from recoil-distance lifetime measurements (RDM) are given. A measurement of the life-time of the 1759 keV level in 26 Al is reported yielding (3.4+-0.6)ps, in agreement with results from Doppler-shift attenuation, but in disagreement with other RDM results. In addition, accurate stopping-power measurements are reported for 2-9MeV alpha particles in Al, Ni, Cu, Au and Mylar. (Auth.)

  20. Influence of fast alpha diffusion and thermal alpha buildup on tokamak reactor performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uckan, N.A.; Tolliver, J.S.; Houlberg, W.A.; Attenberger, S.E.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of fast alpha diffusion and thermal alpha accumulation on the confinement capability of a candidate Engineering Test Reactor plasma (Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Reactor) in achieving ignition and steady-state driven operation has been assessed using both global and 1-1/2-dimensional transport models. Estimates are made of the threshold for radial diffusion of fast alphas and thermal alpha buildup. It is shown that a relatively low level of radial transport, when combined with large gradients in the fast alpha density, leads to a significant radial flow with a deleterious effect on plasma performance. Similarly, modest levels of thermal alpha concentration significantly influence the ignition and steady-state burn capability

  1. Derivation of the radial profile of ion temperature from the measured energy spectra of charge-exchanged neutrals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, K; Hiraki, N; Toi, K; Itoh, S

    1980-01-01

    In the TRIAM-1 tokamak the energy spectra of charge-exchanged neutrals are observed by scanning the neutral energy analyzer vertically. The measured ion temperature obtained from the only energy spectrum observed in the peripheral region is much higher than that predicted by the neoclassical transport theory because of reflection (backscattering) of neutrals at the wall. The actual ion temperature profile is derived from all observed energy spectra by the numerical code in which a wall-reflection effect of neutrals and an impermeability of plasma are taken into account. The reflection coefficient is adjusted so that the calculated ion temperature profile should be the best fit for the ion temperatures measured by the Doppler broadening of the visible lines He II 4686 A and H-alpha at the relevant radial positions.

  2. [Age-related change in the alpha-tocopherolquinone/alpha-tocopherol ratio in the rat erythrocyte membrane].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagawa, K; Takeda, H; Matsumiya, T; Takasaki, M

    1999-05-01

    alpha-Tocopherol (alpha-Toc), a lipophilic phenolic antioxidant that is localized mainly in the biomembrane, protects cells against oxidation-associated cytotoxicity by prevention of membrane lipid peroxidation, maintenance of the redox balance intracellular thiols and stabilization of the membrane structure. We investigated the age-related changes in redox dynamics of alpha-Toc in plasma and erythrocyte membrane of an elderly (66 weeks old) and young group (10 weeks old). Total, alpha-, beta + gamma-, delta-Toc and alpha-tocopherolquinone (alpha-TocQ) in plasma and erythrocyte membrane were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a series of multiple coulometric working electrodes (CWE). Rat venous blood sample was divided into plasma and erythrocyte layers by centrifugation, and then erythrocyte membrane sample was prepared according to the method of Dodge et al. under a stream of nitrogen. In plasma, total and alpha-Toc concentrations were increased, and beta + gamma-, delta-Toc and alpha-TocQ concentrations were decreased age-dependently. In the erythrocyte membrane, total, alpha-TocQ concentrations and three fractions of tocopherols decreased age-dependently. Also, a decrease in the alpha-TocQ/alpha-Toc ratio in erythrocyte membrane was observed in the elderly group. These findings suggest that the alpha-Toc uptake in erythrocyte membrane and utilization rate of alpha-Toc in erythrocyte membrane decline age-dependently. This decline may promote membrane lipid peroxidation. alpha-Toc redox dynamics in erythrocyte membrane were useful to investigate the pathophysiology of aging mechanisms related to oxidative stress.

  3. Validation of fast-ion D-alpha spectrum measurements during EAST neutral-beam heated plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, J., E-mail: juan.huang@ipp.ac.cn; Wu, C. R.; Hou, Y. M.; Chang, J. F.; Ding, S. Y.; Chen, Y. J.; Jin, Z.; Xu, Z.; Gao, W.; Wang, J. F.; Lyu, B.; Zang, Q.; Zhong, G. Q.; Hu, L.; Wan, B. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, 230031 Hefei, Anhui (China); Heidbrink, W. W.; Stagner, L.; Zhu, Y. B. [University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Hellermann, M. G. von [Diagnostic Team, ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2016-11-15

    To investigate the fast ion behavior, a fast ion D-alpha (FIDA) diagnostic system has been installed on EAST. Fast ion features can be inferred from the Doppler shifted spectrum of Balmer-alpha light from energetic hydrogenic atoms. This paper will focus on the validation of FIDA measurements performed using MHD-quiescent discharges in 2015 campaign. Two codes have been applied to calculate the D{sub α} spectrum: one is a Monte Carlo code, Fortran 90 version FIDASIM, and the other is an analytical code, Simulation of Spectra (SOS). The predicted SOS fast-ion spectrum agrees well with the measurement; however, the level of fast-ion part from FIDASIM is lower. The discrepancy is possibly due to the difference between FIDASIM and SOS velocity distribution function. The details will be presented in the paper to primarily address comparisons of predicted and observed spectrum shapes/amplitudes.

  4. Levels of /sup 209/Tl and /sup 211/Pb populated in the /sup 210/Pb(t,. cap alpha. )/sup 209/Tl and /sup 210/Pb(t,d)/sup 211/Pb reactions. [J,. pi.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellegaard, C; Barnes, P D [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, Pa. (USA); Flynn, E R [Los Alamos Scientific Lab., N.Mex. (USA)

    1976-03-22

    The reactions /sup 210/Pb(t,..cap alpha..)/sup 209/Tl and /sup 210/Pb(t,d)/sup 211/Pb have been studied with 20 MeV tritons. Seven levels in /sup 209/Tl have been identified in the /sup 210/Pb(t,..cap alpha..)/sup 209/Tl reaction. Level spins have been suggested by comparing the observed spectrum with that of the corresponding reaction on /sup 208/Pb. Nineteen levels in /sup 211/Pb were identified in the /sup 210/Pb(t,d)/sup 211/Pb reaction. Angular distributions were measured and lsub(n) values and spectroscopic factors were extracted by DWBA calculations. In both cases the spectra are very similar to the spectra obtained with /sup 208/Pb as a target. The deviations from these simple spectra would appear to be amenable to a description in terms of a coupling of the extra particle or hole to the /sup 210/Pb core.

  5. Suma-alpha software description. Study of its applications to detection problems and environmental radioactivity measurements; Descripcion del Programa Suma-Alfas. Estudio de sus Aplicaciones a Problemas de Deteccion y Medida de la Radiactividad Ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasco, C.; Perez, C.

    2010-05-01

    Software named suma-espectros has been developed by TECNASA/CIEMAT for adding counts automatically from the alpha spectra, energy to energy, with the purpose of: evaluating real background of alpha spectrometers, studying its temporal variations, increasing the possibilities of isotopes detection -where it has been impossible to detect due elapsed time of the measurement- and implementing other applications. The programme is written in Visual-Basic and it can export data to Excel spreadsheets for later treatment. The software has established by default a channels range for adding the counts energy by energy but it can be adapted to the analysis of different isotopes and backgrounds simply changing a text file that is incorporated to the programme. The description of the programme management is described for whoever can realise its applications immediately. This software has the advantage of emitting an add-spectrum in cnf format that is used by alpha analyst (Genie 2K) for de convoluting spectra or doing calculations. (Author) 3 refs.

  6. Visible region MCD and MLD spectra of nitrosylferrohemoglobin and oxyhemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Linda L; Bominaar, Emile L; Peterson, Jim

    2002-09-20

    Magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) and magnetic linear dichroism (MLD) spectroscopies at various applied magnetic fields (0-6T) and temperatures (2.0-31K) have been used to investigate the electronic properties of the visible (Q(0-0), or alpha band) region of oxy- and nitrosylferrohemoglobin (HbNO). OxyHb, a d(6) (S=0) diamagnet, exhibits the expected pseudo-first derivative MCD and pseudo-second derivative MLD temperature-independent features centered at 574nm. HbNO, a d(7) (S=1/2) paramagnet, also exhibits a temperature-independent pseudo-first derivative MCD spectrum, but centered at 571nm. So far as we are aware, this behavior is unprecedented in the MCD spectra of paramagetic iron-porphyrins, which are expected to be dominated by temperature-dependent C(0) terms. The HbNO MCD spectrum does, however, demonstrate limited field-dependent saturation magnetization behavior and the MLD spectrum is currently below the detection limit. In addition, an MCD signal from reoxygenated venous blood is reported and compared with MCD signals from oxy- and HbNO derivatives. Finally, a combination of MCD and MLD spectroscopies has been used to estimate the orbital angular momentum (M(L)) value of the alpha band excited state of oxyHb as 4.2 (+/-0.7).

  7. The importance of including local correlation times in the calculation of inter-proton distances from NMR measurements: ignoring local correlation times leads to significant errors in the conformational analysis of the Glc alpha1-2Glc alpha linkage by NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackeen, Mukram; Almond, Andrew; Cumpstey, Ian; Enis, Seth C; Kupce, Eriks; Butters, Terry D; Fairbanks, Antony J; Dwek, Raymond A; Wormald, Mark R

    2006-06-07

    The experimental determination of oligosaccharide conformations has traditionally used cross-linkage 1H-1H NOE/ROEs. As relatively few NOEs are observed, to provide sufficient conformational constraints this method relies on: accurate quantification of NOE intensities (positive constraints); analysis of absent NOEs (negative constraints); and hence calculation of inter-proton distances using the two-spin approximation. We have compared the results obtained by using 1H 2D NOESY, ROESY and T-ROESY experiments at 500 and 700 MHz to determine the conformation of the terminal Glc alpha1-2Glc alpha linkage in a dodecasaccharide and a related tetrasaccharide. For the tetrasaccharide, the NOESY and ROESY spectra produced the same qualitative pattern of linkage cross-peaks but the quantitative pattern, the relative peak intensities, was different. For the dodecasaccharide, the NOESY and ROESY spectra at 500 MHz produced a different qualitative pattern of linkage cross-peaks, with fewer peaks in the NOESY spectrum. At 700 MHz, the NOESY and ROESY spectra of the dodecasaccharide produced the same qualitative pattern of peaks, but again the relative peak intensities were different. These differences are due to very significant differences in the local correlation times for different proton pairs across this glycosidic linkage. The local correlation time for each proton pair was measured using the ratio of the NOESY and T-ROESY cross-relaxation rates, leaving the NOESY and ROESY as independent data sets for calculating the inter-proton distances. The inter-proton distances calculated including the effects of differences in local correlation times give much more consistent results.

  8. Identification of a novel bile acid in swans, tree ducks, and geese: 3alpha,7alpha,15alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholan-24-oic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakiyama, Genta; Iida, Takashi; Goto, Takaaki; Mano, Nariyasu; Goto, Junichi; Nambara, Toshio; Hagey, Lee R; Schteingart, Claudio D; Hofmann, Alan F

    2006-07-01

    By HPLC, a taurine-conjugated bile acid with a retention time different from that of taurocholate was found to be present in the bile of the black-necked swan, Cygnus melanocoryphus. The bile acid was isolated and its structure, established by (1)H and (13)C NMR and mass spectrometry, was that of the taurine N-acyl amidate of 3alpha,7alpha,15alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholan-24-oic acid. The compound was shown to have chromatographic and spectroscopic properties that were identical to those of the taurine conjugate of authentic 3alpha,7alpha,15alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholan-24-oic acid, previously synthesized by us from ursodeoxycholic acid. By HPLC, the taurine conjugate of 3alpha,7alpha,15alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholan-24-oic acid was found to be present in 6 of 6 species in the subfamily Dendrocygninae (tree ducks) and in 10 of 13 species in the subfamily Anserinae (swans and geese) but not in other subfamilies in the Anatidae family. It was also not present in species from the other two families of the order Anseriformes. 3alpha,7alpha,15alpha-Trihydroxy-5beta-cholan-24-oic acid is a new primary bile acid that is present in the biliary bile acids of swans, tree ducks, and geese and may be termed 15alpha-hydroxy-chenodeoxycholic acid.

  9. Characteristic vector analysis of inflection ratio spectra: New technique for analysis of ocean color data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grew, G. W.

    1985-01-01

    Characteristic vector analysis applied to inflection ratio spectra is a new approach to analyzing spectral data. The technique applied to remote data collected with the multichannel ocean color sensor (MOCS), a passive sensor, simultaneously maps the distribution of two different phytopigments, chlorophyll alpha and phycoerythrin, the ocean. The data set presented is from a series of warm core ring missions conducted during 1982. The data compare favorably with a theoretical model and with data collected on the same mission by an active sensor, the airborne oceanographic lidar (AOL).

  10. Studies of α-spectra in 221Fr, 217At, 213Bi and 213Po decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chumin, V.G.; Fominykh, V.I.; Furyaev, T.A.; Gromov, K.Ya.; Jabber, J.K.; Kalyapkin, K.V.; Kudrya, S.A.; Tsupko-Sitnikov, V.V.

    1997-01-01

    The alpha-recoil phenomenon is used to gain data on the weak components of the α-spectra of the nuclides from the 225 Ac equilibrium chain. It is established that there is no experimental basis for introducing the 450 keV level of 213 Bi in the 217 At decay and the 868 keV level of 209 Tl in the 213 Bi decay. Excitation of the 759 keV level in the 217 At decay is confirmed. The intensities of the 221 Fr, 217 At and 213 Bi β - -decay are measured

  11. Design and construction of a system for determining Radon-222 through Alpha spectroscopy; Diseno y construccion de un sistema para determinar Radon-222 mediante Espectroscopia alfa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonifacio, J.; Iturbe, J.L

    1992-02-15

    The study of the present work consists on designing a system to measure gas {sup 222} Rn, using a surface barrier detector, in order to obtaining a more accuracy measure of this isotope by means of an alpha particle spectra and thus to try to avoid the influence of the radioactivity of the isotope descendants of short half life, which are also emitting of alpha particles, since by other methods its should make a series of corrections to obtain the real value of the radon activity. (Author)

  12. Buffett's Alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Kabiller, David; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    Berkshire Hathaway has realized a Sharpe ratio of 0.76, higher than any other stock or mutual fund with a history of more than 30 years, and Berkshire has a significant alpha to traditional risk factors. However, we find that the alpha becomes insignificant when controlling for exposures to Betting...

  13. Sterol synthesis. A novel reductive rearrangement of an alpha,beta-unsaturated steroidal epoxide; a new chemical synthesis of 5alpha-cholest-8(14)-en-3beta, 15alpha-diol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, E J; Schroepfer, G J

    1977-04-01

    Reduction of 3beta-benzoyloxy-14alpha,15alpha-epoxy-5alpha-cholest-7-ene with either lithium triethylboro-hydride or lithium aluminum hydride (4 molar excess) gave 5-alpha-cholest-8(14)-en-3beta,15alpha-diol in high yield. Reduction of the epoxy ester with lithium triethylborodeuteride or lithium aluminum deuteride (4 molar excess) gave [7alpha-2-H]-5alpha-cholest-8(14)-en-3beta,15alpha-diol. Reduction of 2beta-benzoyloxy-14alpha,15alpha-epoxy-5alpha-cholest-7-ene with a large excess (24 molar excess) of lithium aluminum hydride gave, in addition to the expected 5alpha-cholest-8(14)-en-3beta,15alpha-diol, a significant yield (33%) of 5alpha-cholest-8(14)-en-3beta-o1. Reduction of the epoxy ester with a large excess (24 molar excess) of lithium aluminum deuteride gave [7alpha-2H]-5alpha-cholest-8(14)-en-3beta,15alpha-diol and 5alpha-cholest-8(14)-en-3beta-o1 which contained two atoms of stably bound deuterium.

  14. Immunostimulatory effects of natural human interferon-alpha (huIFN-alpha) on carps Cyprinus carpio L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanuki, Hironobu; Chakraborty, Gunimala; Korenaga, Hiroki; Kono, Tomoya; Shivappa, R B; Sakai, Masahiro

    2009-10-15

    Human interferon-alpha (huIFN-alpha) is an important immunomodulatory substance used in the treatment and prevention of numerous infectious and immune-related diseases in animals. However, the immunostimulatory effects of huIFN-alpha in fish remain to be investigated. In the current study, the immune responses of the carp species Cyprinus carpio L. to treatment with huIFN-alpha were analyzed via measurement of superoxide anion production, phagocytic activity and the expression of cytokine genes including interleukin-1beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin 10. Low doses of huIFN-alpha were administered orally once a day for 3 days, and sampling was carried out at 1, 3 and 5 days post-treatment. Our results indicate that a low dose of huIFN-alpha significantly increased phagocytic activity and superoxide anion production in the carp kidney. The huIFN-alpha-treated fish also displayed a significant upregulation in cytokine gene expression. The current study demonstrates the stimulatory effects of huIFN-alpha on the carp immune system and highlights the immunomodulatory role of huIFN-alpha in fish.

  15. Drugs interacting with alpha adrenoceptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zwieten, P. A.

    1989-01-01

    Alpha adrenoceptors should be divided into various subtypes, comprising pre/postsynaptic and alpha 1/alpha 2-subpopulations, respectively. This classification implicates important functional differences between the various alpha-receptor subtypes, including certain differences in signal transduction

  16. Alpha-in-air monitor for continuous monitoring based on alpha to beta ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somayaji, K.S.; Venkataramani, R.; Swaminathan, N.; Pushparaja

    1997-01-01

    Measurement of long-lived alpha activity collected on a filter paper in continuous air monitoring of ambient working environment is difficult due to interference from much larger concentrations of short-lived alpha emitting daughter products of 222 Rn and 220 Rn. However, the ratio between the natural alpha and beta activity is approximately constant and this constancy of the ratio is used to discriminate against short-lived natural radioactivity in continuous air monitoring. Detection system was specially designed for the purpose of simultaneous counting of alpha and beta activity deposited on the filter paper during continuous monitoring. The activity ratios were calculated and plotted against the monitoring duration up to about six hours. Monitoring was carried out in three facilities with different ventilation conditions. Presence of any long-lived alpha contamination on the filter paper results in increase in the alpha to beta ratio. Long-lived 239 Pu contamination of about 16 DAC.h could be detected after about 45 minutes of commencement of the sampling. The experimental results using prototype units have shown that the approach of using alpha to beta activity ratio method to detect long-lived alpha activity in the presence of short-lived natural activity is satisfactory. (author)

  17. Determination of uranium and thorium isotopes by solid phase extraction and alpha spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuruc, J.; Kovacova, M.; Strisovska, J.; Galanda, D.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to test the modified method suitable for the separation of isotopes of uranium and thorium samples of rocks, including gold ore and gold concentrate using of extraction chromatography method, after digestion of the sample, concentrating, separate the isotopes of uranium and thorium isotopes to prepare sources for the measurement of alpha spectra. Samples of rocks, gold ore and gold concentrate were digered in microwave decomposition in the environment of hydrogen peroxide and concentrated nitric acid. For the separation of uranium and thorium the vacuum box with cartridges DGA Resin and Resin(R) UTEVA (Triskem International, France) was used. Both sorbents allow separation of uranium from thorium. The results confirmed that the both sorbents give the same results within expanded uncertainty. The mass activity of monitored uranium and thorium radioisotopes was determined by alpha spectrometry method. The yields of separation were determined using uranium-232 as a tracer radionuclide; the activity of 232 U was 0.1438 Bq. Alpha spectra were measured on the Alpha spectrometer EG and G ORTEC 576A with the software MAESTRO, MCA Emulator and Gamma Vision-32 for Windows, USA. Mass activities of radionuclides were converted to mass concentration of isotopes 238 U, 234 U, 232 Th, 230 Th and 228 Th. The highest concentration of 238 U was sampled in granodiorite (Tunnel S-XIV-2, southwards, mining of Cu ore, not working there since 1990), where m( 238 U) = (0.81 ± 0.09) mg kg -1 (DGA Resin) and m( 238 U) = (0.90 ± 0.09) mg kg -1 (UTEVA(R) Resin), as well as m( 232 Th) = (18.8 ± 1.7) mg kg -1 (DGA Resin) and m( 232 Th) = (17.8 ± 1.5) mg kg -1 (UTEVA(R) Resin). In other samples of rocks, gold ore and gold concentrates have specific masses of isotopes of uranium and thorium two-to ten-folds lower. It can be concluded that the rocks, gold ores and concentrates of gold from the 'Rozalia' mine contain lower concentrations of uranium several times against

  18. Fine structure of the magnetic spectrum of. cap alpha. -rays of ionium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenblum, S; Valadares, M; Vial, J

    1948-11-22

    Using as source of Io--Th an electrolytic deposit on Pt made in 1945 (27% Io), the authors studied the magnetic spectrum of the ..cap alpha..-radiation of Io from long-exposure photographs (4 to 21 days) submitted to a microscopic counting. From a simultaneously obtained ..cap alpha..-spectrum of ThC a ratio was obtained which permitted the assigning of a value of 4682 +- 10 keV to the energy of the most rapid group of Io. This group is separated from another, of a similar order of intensity, by 69 keV. A still slower group seems to exist at 170 keV from the first one (cf Ward, Proc Cambridge Phil Soc 35 322(1939)). There are indications that the groups are of a complex nature, which points to the possible existence either of a soft gamma spectrum or of a complicated beta spectrum. The presence of Ra accumulated since 1945 is visible on the spectra obtained; in a few years it will be possible to determine directly, by the method used, the half life of Ra.

  19. Screening alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase inhibitors from natural compounds by molecular docking in silico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhong, Chien-Hung; Riyaphan, Jirawat; Lin, Shih-Hung; Chia, Yi-Chen; Weng, Ching-Feng

    2015-01-01

    The alpha-glucosidase inhibitor is a common oral anti-diabetic drug used for controlling carbohydrates normally converted into simple sugars and absorbed by the intestines. However, some adverse clinical effects have been observed. The present study seeks an alternative drug that can regulate the hyperglycemia by down-regulating alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase activity by molecular docking approach to screen the hyperglycemia antagonist against alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase activities from the 47 natural compounds. The docking data showed that Curcumin, 16-hydroxy-cleroda-3,13-dine-16,15-olide (16-H), Docosanol, Tetracosanol, Antroquinonol, Berberine, Catechin, Quercetin, Actinodaphnine, and Rutin from 47 natural compounds had binding ability towards alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase as well. Curcumin had a better biding ability of alpha-amylase than the other natural compounds. Analyzed alpha-glucosidase activity reveals natural compound inhibitors (below 0.5 mM) are Curcumin, Actinodaphnine, 16-H, Quercetin, Berberine, and Catechin when compared to the commercial drug Acarbose (3 mM). A natural compound with alpha-amylase inhibitors (below 0.5 mM) includes Curcumin, Berberine, Docosanol, 16-H, Actinodaphnine/Tetracosanol, Catechin, and Quercetin when compared to Acarbose (1 mM). When taken together, the implication is that molecular docking is a fast and effective way to screen alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase inhibitors as lead compounds of natural sources isolated from medicinal plants. © 2015 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  20. Long-range alpha detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacArthur, D.W.; McAtee, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    Historically, alpha-particle and alpha-contamination detectors have been limited by the very short range of alpha particles in air and by relatively poor sensitivity even if the particles are intercepted. Alpha detectors have had to be operated in a vacuum or in close proximity to the source if reasonable efficiency is desired. Alpha particles interact with the ambient air, producing ionization in the air at the rate of ∼30,000 ion pairs per mega-electron-volt of alpha energy. These charges can be transported over significant distances (several meters) in a moving current of air generated by a small fan. An ion chamber located in front of the fan measures the current carried by the moving ions. The long-range alpha detector (LRAD) offers several advantages over more traditional alpha detectors. First and foremost, it can operate efficiently even if the contamination is not easily accessible. Second, ions generated by contamination in crevices and other unmonitorable locations can be detected if the airflow penetrates those areas. Third, all of the contamination on a large surface will generate ions that can be detected in a single detector; hence, the detector's sensitivity to distributed sources is not limited by the size of the probe. Finally, a simple ion chamber can detect very small electric currents, making this technique potentially quite sensitive

  1. Thermal annealing behavior of niobium-implanted {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} under reducing environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jianer, Zeng; Naramoto, Hiroshi; Aoki, Yasushi; Yamamoto, Shunya; Mingle, Gan; Takeshita, Hidefumi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    Thermal annealing behavior is studied in {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} implanted with {sup 93}Nb{sup +} using RBS/channeling technique and optical absorption spectrometry. The samples with <0001> and <112-bar0> orientations are implanted with 300 keV and 400 keV {sup 93}Nb{sup +} ions. Thermal annealing under reducing environment (Ar+3%H{sub 2}) is employed in the temperature range from 600 to 1000degC to explore unusual materials phase. The annealing up to 1000degC for an hour does not show any essential change in RBS/channeling spectra in two kinds of samples but the significant decrease in the visible region is observed in optical absorption spectra. After annealing at 1000degC for 10 hours, the recovery of the lattice damage is detected by RBS/channeling analysis especially in (112-bar0) sample. In the optical absorption spectra, new absorption envelope appears in the ultraviolet region. The results are related to the formation of niobium metal fine particles, and the sharp distribution is realized especially in (0001) sample. (author)

  2. Production, purification, and characterization of human alpha1 proteinase inhibitor from Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chill, Liat; Trinh, Loc; Azadi, Parastoo; Ishihara, Mayumi; Sonon, Roberto; Karnaukhova, Elena; Ophir, Yakir; Golding, Basil; Shiloach, Joseph

    2009-02-15

    Human alpha one proteinase inhibitor (alpha1-PI) was cloned and expressed in Aspergillus niger, filamentious fungus that can grow in defined media and can perform glycosylation. Submerged culture conditions were established using starch as carbon source, 30% dissolved oxygen concentration, pH 7.0 and 28 degrees C. Eight milligrams per liter of active alpha1-PI were secreted to the growth media in about 40 h. Controlling the protein proteolysis was found to be an important factor in the production. The effects of various carbon sources, pH and temperature on the production and stability of the protein were tested and the product was purified and characterized. Two molecular weights variants of the recombinant alpha1-PI were produced by the fungus; the difference is attributed to the glycosylated part of the molecule. The two glycoproteins were treated with PNGAse F and the released glycans were analyzed by HPAEC, MALDI/TOF-MS, NSI-MS(n), and GC-MS. The MALDI and NSI- full MS spectra of permethylated N-glycans revealed that the N-glycans of both variants contain a series of high-mannose type glycans with 5-20 hexose units. Monosaccharide analysis showed that these were composed of N-acetylglucos-amine, mannose, and galactose. Linkage analysis revealed that the galactosyl component was in the furanoic conformation, which was attaching in a terminal non-reducing position. The Galactofuranose-containing high-mannnose type N-glycans are typical structures, which recently have been found as part of several glycoproteins produced by Aspergillus niger.

  3. Treatment of alpha bearing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This report deals with the current state of the art of alpha waste treatment, which is an integral part of the overall nuclear waste management system. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) defines alpha bearing waste as 'waste containing one or more alpha emitting radionuclides, usually actinides, in quantities above acceptable limits'. The limits are established by national regulatory bodies. The limits above which wastes are considered as alpha contaminated refer to the concentrations of alpha emitters that need special consideration for occupational exposures and/or potential safety, health, or environmental impact during one or more steps from generation through disposal. Owing to the widespread use of waste segregation by source - that is, based upon the 'suspect origin' of the material - significant volumes of waste are being handled as alpha contaminated which, in fact, do not require such consideration by reason of risk or environmental concern. The quantification of de minimis concepts by national regulatory bodies could largely contribute to the safe reduction of waste volumes and associated costs. Other factors which could significantly contribute to the reduction of alpha waste arisings are an increased application of assaying and sorting, instrumentation and the use of feedback mechanisms to control or modify the processes which generate these wastes. Alpha bearing wastes are generated during fabrication and reprocessing of nuclear fuels, decommissioning of alpha contaminated facilities, and other activities. Most alpha wastes are contact handled, but a small portion may require shielding or remote handling because of high levels of neutron (n), beta (β), or gamma (γ) emissions associated with the waste material. This report describes the sources and characteristics of alpha wastes and strategies for alpha waste management. General descriptions of treatment processes for solid and liquid alpha wastes are included. 71 refs, 14 figs, 9 tabs

  4. New ALPHA-2 magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    On 21 June, members of the ALPHA collaboration celebrated the handover of the first solenoid designed for the ALPHA-2 experiment. The magnet has since been successfully installed and is working well.   Khalid Mansoor, Sumera Yamin and Jeffrey Hangst in front of the new ALPHA-2 solenoid. “This was the first of three identical solenoids that will be installed between now and September, as the rest of the ALPHA-2 device is installed and commissioned,” explains ALPHA spokesperson Jeffrey Hangst. “These magnets are designed to allow us to transfer particles - antiprotons, electrons and positrons - between various parts of the new ALPHA-2 device by controlling the transverse size of the particle bunch that is being transferred.” Sumera Yamin and Khalid Mansoor, two Pakistani scientists from the National Centre for Physics in Islamabad, came to CERN in February specifically to design and manufacture these magnets. “We had the chance to work on act...

  5. ALPHA-2: the sequel

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    While many experiments are methodically planning for intense works over the long shutdown, there is one experiment that is already working at full steam: ALPHA-2. Its final components arrived last month and will completely replace the previous ALPHA set-up. Unlike its predecessor, this next generation experiment has been specifically designed to measure the properties of antimatter.   The ALPHA team lower the new superconducting solenoid magnet into place. The ALPHA collaboration is working at full speed to complete the ALPHA-2 set-up for mid-November – this will give them a few weeks of running before the AD shutdown on 17 December. “We really want to get some experience with this device this year so that, if we need to make any changes, we will have time during the long shutdown in which to make them,” says Jeffrey Hangst, ALPHA spokesperson. “Rather than starting the 2014 run in the commissioning stage, we will be up and running from the get go.&...

  6. Technical Basis for the Use of Alpha Absorption Corrections on RCF Gross Alpha Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceffalo, G.M.

    1999-01-01

    This document provides the supporting data and rationale for making absorption corrections to gross alpha data to correct alpha data for loss due to absorption in the sample matrix. For some time there has been concern that the gross alpha data produced by the Environmental Restoration Contractor Radiological Counting Facility, particularly gross alpha analysis on soils, has been biased toward low results, as no correction for self-absorption was applied to the counting data. The process was investigated, and a new methodology for alpha self-absorption has been developed

  7. Derivation of the radial profile of ion temperature from the 'measured' energy spectra of charge-exchanged neutrals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, K; Hiraki, N; Toi, K; Itoh, S [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics

    1980-07-01

    In the TRIAM-1 tokamak the energy spectra of charge-exchanged neutrals are observed by scanning the neutral energy analyzer vertically. The ''measured'' ion temperature obtained from only energy spectrum observed in the peripheral region is much higher than that predicted by the neoclassical transport theory because of reflection (backscattering) of neutrals at the wall. The ''actual'' ion temperature profile is derived from all observed energy spectra by using the numerical code in which a wall-reflection effect of neutrals and an impermeability of plasma are taken into account. In this numerical analysis, the reflection coefficient is adjusted so that the above calculated ion temperature profile should be best fit for the ion temperatures measured by the Doppler broadening of the visible lines HeII 4686 A and H sub(..cap alpha..) at the relevant radial positions.

  8. Lyman alpha emission in nearby star-forming galaxies with the lowest metallicities and the highest [OIII]/[OII] ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izotov, Yuri

    2017-08-01

    The Lyman alpha line of hydrogen is the strongest emission line in galaxies and the tool of predilection for identifying and studying star-forming galaxies over a wide range of redshifts, especially in the early universe. However, it has become clear over the years that not all of the Lyman alpha radiation escapes, due to its resonant scattering on the interstellar and intergalactic medium, and absorption by dust. Although our knowledge of the high-z universe depends crucially on that line, we still do not have a complete understanding of the mechanisms behind the production, radiative transfer and escape of Lyman alpha in galaxies. We wish here to investigate these mechanisms by studying the properties of the ISM in a unique sample of 8 extreme star-forming galaxies (SFGs) that have the highest excitation in the SDSS spectral data base. These dwarf SFGs have considerably lower stellar masses and metallicities, and higher equivalent widths and [OIII]5007/[OII]3727 ratios compared to all nearby SFGs with Lyman alpha emission studied so far with COS. They are, however, very similar to the dwarf Lyman alpha emitters at redshifts 3-6, which are thought to be the main sources of reionization in the early Universe. By combining the HST/COS UV data with data in the optical range, and using photoionization and radiative transfer codes, we will be able to study the properties of the Lyman alpha in these unique objects, derive column densities of the neutral hydrogen N(HI) and compare them with N(HI) obtained from the HeI emission-line ratios in the optical spectra. We will derive Lyman alpha escape fractions and indirectly Lyman continuum escape fractions.

  9. Cloning, expression, and mapping of allergenic determinants of alphaS1-casein, a major cow's milk allergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulmeister, Ulrike; Hochwallner, Heidrun; Swoboda, Ines; Focke-Tejkl, Margarete; Geller, Beate; Nystrand, Mats; Härlin, Annika; Thalhamer, Josef; Scheiblhofer, Sandra; Keller, Walter; Niggemann, Bodo; Quirce, Santiago; Ebner, Christoph; Mari, Adriano; Pauli, Gabrielle; Herz, Udo; Valenta, Rudolf; Spitzauer, Susanne

    2009-06-01

    Milk is one of the first components introduced into human diet. It also represents one of the first allergen sources, which induces IgE-mediated allergies in childhood ranging from gastrointestinal, skin, and respiratory manifestations to severe life-threatening manifestations, such as anaphylaxis. Here we isolated a cDNA coding for a major cow's milk allergen, alphaS1-casein, from a bovine mammary gland cDNA library with allergic patients' IgE Abs. Recombinant alphaS1-casein was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified, and characterized by circular dichroism as a folded protein. IgE epitopes of alphaS1-casein were determined with recombinant fragments and synthetic peptides spanning the alphaS1-casein sequence using microarrayed components and sera from 66 cow's milk-sensitized patients. The allergenic activity of ralphaS1-casein and the alphaS1-casein-derived peptides was determined using rat basophil leukemia cells transfected with human FcepsilonRI, which had been loaded with the patients' serum IgE. Our results demonstrate that ralphaS1-casein as well as alphaS1-casein-derived peptides exhibit IgE reactivity, but mainly the intact ralphaS1-casein induced strong basophil degranulation. These results suggest that primarily intact alphaS1-casein or larger IgE-reactive portions thereof are responsible for IgE-mediated symptoms of food allergy. Recombinant alphaS1-casein as well as alphaS1-casein-derived peptides may be used in clinical studies to further explore pathomechanisms of food allergy as well as for the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for milk allergy.

  10. Alpha Shapes and Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Pawel; Sterner, Henrik; Sterner, Peter

    2009-01-01

    We provide a unified description of (weighted) alpha shapes, beta shapes and the corresponding simplicialcomplexes. We discuss their applicability to various protein-related problems. We also discuss filtrations of alpha shapes and touch upon related persistence issues.We claim that the full...... potential of alpha-shapes and related geometrical constructs in protein-related problems yet remains to be realized and verified. We suggest parallel algorithms for (weighted) alpha shapes, and we argue that future use of filtrations and kinetic variants for larger proteins will need such implementation....

  11. Alpha Momentum and Price Momentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Lea Hühn

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available We analyze a novel alpha momentum strategy that invests in stocks based on three-factor alphas which we estimate using daily returns. The empirical analysis for the U.S. and for Europe shows that (i past alpha has power in predicting the cross-section of stock returns; (ii alpha momentum exhibits less dynamic factor exposures than price momentum and (iii alpha momentum dominates price momentum only in the U.S. Connecting both strategies to behavioral explanations, alpha momentum is more related to an underreaction to firm-specific news while price momentum is primarily driven by price overshooting due to momentum trading.

  12. Preparation and characterization of alpha sources as standards in the actinides separation; Preparacion y caracterizacion de fuentes alfa como estandares en la separacion de actinidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monroy G, F.; Escobar A, L.; Zepeda R, C. P.; Balcazar, M., E-mail: fabiola.monroy@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2017-09-15

    The radioisotopes Am-243, Cm-244, Pu-242 and U-232 are used as radioactive tracers in the processes of separation and quantification of the radioisotopes of Am, Cm, Pu and U contained in radioactive and nuclear wastes, with the purpose of determining the efficiency of said processes. For this, in this work, alpha sources of Am-243, Cm-244, Pu-242 and U-232 standards were prepared by two methods: evaporation and electro-deposition, and they were analyzed by means of alpha spectrometry to verify the properties of these radioactive standards. The alpha sources prepared by electro-deposition were analyzed by Raman spectrometry to determine the chemical form in which the actinide was deposited; the good homogeneity in the distribution of the deposit was determined with solid nuclear trace detectors. The resolution of the alpha spectra obtained with surface barrier detectors of the standards is greater when deposited by electro-deposition. The FWHM of the alpha sources prepared by electro-deposition is always lower than that prepared by evaporation. Actinides are electrodeposited in the form of hydroxides and oxo compounds. (Author)

  13. /sup 58,60,62/Ni (. cap alpha. ,p) three--nucleon transfer reactions and. cap alpha. optical potential ambiguities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuanda, Wang; Xiuming, Bao; Zhiqiang, Mao; Rongfang, Yuan; Keling, Wen; Binyin, Huang; Zhifu, Wang; Shuming, Li; Jianan, Wang; Zuxun, Sun; others, and

    1985-11-01

    The differential cross sections are measured using 26.0 MeV ..cap alpha.. particle for /sup 58,62/Ni(..cap alpha.., ..cap alpha..) /sup 58,62/Ni and /sup 58,62/Ni(..cap alpha..,p) /sup 61,65/Cu reactions as well as 25.4 MeV ..cap alpha.. particle for /sup 60/Ni(..cap alpha.., ..cap alpha..)/sup 69/Ni and /sup 60/Ni(..cap alpha.., p)/sup 63/Cu reactions. Consistent calculations with optical model and ZR DWBA are made for (..cap alpha.., ..cap alpha..) and (..cap alpha.., p) reactions by using of single, two, three and four nucleon optical potential parameters. For elastic scattering due to the ..cap alpha.. optical potential ambiguities, all the above optical potential can reproduce the experimental angular distributions. However, the single, two and three nucleon potential, including the Baird's mass systematics and the Chang's energy systematics of ..cap alpha.. potentials, obviously can not provide a reasonable fitting with the (..cap alpha..,p) reaction experimental data. Only the results from the four nucleon potential is in good agreement with the (..cap alpha..,p) reaction experimental data. This reveals that in the ..cap alpha..-particle induced transfer reactions, the real depth of the ..cap alpha..-nucleus optical potential should be rather deep.

  14. Targeted Alpha Therapy: From Alpha to Omega

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, Barry J; Clarke, Raymond; Huang Chenyu

    2013-01-01

    This review covers the broad spectrum of Targeted Alpha Therapy (TAT) research in Australia; from in vitro and in vivo studies to clinical trials. The principle of tumour anti-vascular alpha therapy (TAVAT) is discussed in terms of its validation by Monte Carlo calculations of vascular models and the potential role of biological dosimetry is examined. Summmary of this review is as follows: 1. The essence of TAT 2. Therapeutic objectives 3. TAVAT and Monte Carlo microdosimetry 4. Biological dosimetry 5. Preclinical studies 6. Clinical trials 7. What next? 8. Obstacles. (author)

  15. 5alphaDH-DOC (5alpha-dihydro-deoxycorticosterone) activates androgen receptor in castration-resistant prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Motohide; Honma, Seijiro; Chung, Suyoun; Takata, Ryo; Furihata, Mutsuo; Nishimura, Kazuo; Nonomura, Norio; Nasu, Yasutomo; Miki, Tsuneharu; Shuin, Taro; Fujioka, Tomoaki; Okuyama, Akihiko; Nakamura, Yusuke; Nakagawa, Hidewaki

    2010-08-01

    Prostate cancer often relapses during androgen-depletion therapy, even under the castration condition in which circulating androgens are drastically reduced. High expressions of androgen receptor (AR) and genes involved in androgen metabolism indicate a continued role for AR in castration-resistant prostate cancers (CRPCs). There is increasing evidence that some amounts of 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and other androgens are present sufficiently to activate AR within CRPC tissues, and enzymes involved in the androgen and steroid metabolism, such as 5alpha-steroid reductases, are activated in CRPCs. In this report, we screened eight natural 5alphaDH-steroids to search for novel products of 5alpha-steroid reductases, and identified 11-deoxycorticosterone (DOC) as a novel substrate for 5alpha-steroid reductases in CRPCs. 11-Deoxycorticosterone (DOC) and 5alpha-dihydro-deoxycorticosterone (5alphaDH-DOC) could promote prostate cancer cell proliferation through AR activation, and type 1 5alpha-steroid reductase (SRD5A1) could convert from DOC to 5alphaDH-DOC. Sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric analysis detected 5alphaDH-DOC in some clinical CRPC tissues. These findings implicated that under an extremely low level of DHT, 5alphaDH-DOC and other products of 5alpha-steroid reductases within CRPC tissues might activate the AR pathway for prostate cancer cell proliferation and survival under castration.

  16. The alpha channeling effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisch, N. J.

    2015-12-01

    Alpha particles born through fusion reactions in a tokamak reactor tend to slow down on electrons, but that could take up to hundreds of milliseconds. Before that happens, the energy in these alpha particles can destabilize on collisionless timescales toroidal Alfven modes and other waves, in a way deleterious to energy confinement. However, it has been speculated that this energy might be instead be channeled into useful energy, so as to heat fuel ions or to drive current. Such a channeling needs to be catalyzed by waves Waves can produce diffusion in energy of the alpha particles in a way that is strictly coupled to diffusion in space. If these diffusion paths in energy-position space point from high energy in the center to low energy on the periphery, then alpha particles will be cooled while forced to the periphery. The energy from the alpha particles is absorbed by the wave. The amplified wave can then heat ions or drive current. This process or paradigm for extracting alpha particle energy collisionlessly has been called alpha channeling. While the effect is speculative, the upside potential for economical fusion is immense. The paradigm also operates more generally in other contexts of magnetically confined plasma.

  17. Correlations between the alpha particles and ejectiles in the 208 MeV 14N on 93Nb reaction at three different ejectile angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, T.; Ishihara, M.; Tanaka, M.; Ogata, H.; Miura, I.; Inoue, M.; Shimoda, T.; Katori, K.; Nakayama, S.

    1983-01-01

    The in plane correlations between alpha particles and various ejectiles were investigated in the reaction of 208 MeV 14 N on 93 Nb at theta/sub HI/ = +22 0 , +50 0 , and +80 0 . There were three sources of coincident alpha particles: (i) the sequential alpha decay of the excited ejectiles, (ii) the equilibrium alpha emission from the targetlike fragments, and (iii) the nonequilibrium process. Process (i) contributed mainly to the cross sections with the angular range of theta/sub α/ close to theta/sub HI/. Process (ii) contributed to the lowest part of the alpha energy spectra irrespectively of theta/sub HI/ and theta/sub α/. The remaining part was ascribed to process (iii). For this process the differential coincidence cross section of the lower energy part of the alpha particles was approximately factorized as d 4 sigma/dΩ/sub HI/dΩ/sub α/dE/sub HI/dE/sub α/ = K (d 2 sigma/dΩ/sub HI/dE/sub HI/)/sub singles/ (d 2 sigma/dΩ/sub α/dE/sub α/)/sub singles/ with Kapprox.0.4/b, whereas the higher energy part of the alpha particles emitted at the forward angles had a tendency to coincide weakly with the ejectiles emitted at the backward angles (theta/sub HI/ = +50 0 and +80 0 ) as compared to the lower energy part of the alpha particles

  18. Slower EEG alpha generation, synchronization and "flow"-possible biomarkers of cognitive impairment and neuropathology of minor stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovic, Jelena; Milosevic, Vuk; Zivkovic, Miroslava; Stojanov, Dragan; Milojkovic, Olga; Kalauzi, Aleksandar; Saponjic, Jasna

    2017-01-01

    We investigated EEG rhythms, particularly alpha activity, and their relationship to post-stroke neuropathology and cognitive functions in the subacute and chronic stages of minor strokes. We included 10 patients with right middle cerebral artery (MCA) ischemic strokes and 11 healthy controls. All the assessments of stroke patients were done both in the subacute and chronic stages. Neurological impairment was measured using the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), whereas cognitive functions were assessed using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and MoCA memory index (MoCA-MIS). The EEG was recorded using a 19 channel EEG system with standard EEG electrode placement. In particular, we analyzed the EEGs derived from the four lateral frontal (F3, F7, F4, F8), and corresponding lateral posterior (P3, P4, T5, T6) electrodes. Quantitative EEG analysis included: the group FFT spectra, the weighted average of alpha frequency (αAVG), the group probability density distributions of all conventional EEG frequency band relative amplitudes (EEG microstructure), the inter- and intra-hemispheric coherences, and the topographic distribution of alpha carrier frequency phase potentials (PPs). Statistical analysis was done using a Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA with a post-hoc Mann-Whitney U two-tailed test, and Spearman's correlation. We demonstrated transient cognitive impairment alongside a slower alpha frequency ( α AVG) in the subacute right MCA stroke patients vs. the controls. This slower alpha frequency showed no amplitude change, but was highly synchronized intra-hemispherically, overlying the ipsi-lesional hemisphere, and inter-hemispherically, overlying the frontal cortex. In addition, the disturbances in EEG alpha activity in subacute stroke patients were expressed as a decrease in alpha PPs over the frontal cortex and an altered "alpha flow", indicating the sustained augmentation of inter-hemispheric interactions. Although the stroke induced slower alpha was a

  19. Compensatory increase in alpha 1-globin gene expression in individuals heterozygous for the alpha-thalassemia-2 deletion.

    OpenAIRE

    Liebhaber, S A; Cash, F E; Main, D M

    1985-01-01

    alpha-Globin is encoded by the two adjacent genes, alpha 1 and alpha 2. Although it is clearly established that both alpha-globin genes are expressed, their relative contributions to alpha-globin messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein synthesis are not fully defined. Furthermore, changes that may occur in alpha-globin gene activity secondarily to the loss of function of one or more of these genes (alpha-thalassemia [Thal]) have not been directly investigated. This study further defines the expressi...

  20. Resting-State Alpha in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Alpha Associations with Thalamic Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, J. Christopher; Heiken, Kory; Chen, Yu-Han; Herrington, John D.; Chow, Vivian; Liu, Song; Bloy, Luke; Huang, Mingxiong; Pandey, Juhi; Cannon, Katelyn M.; Qasmieh, Saba; Levy, Susan E.; Schultz, Robert T.; Roberts, Timothy P. L.

    2015-01-01

    Alpha circuits (8-12 Hz), necessary for basic and complex brain processes, are abnormal in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The present study obtained estimates of resting-state (RS) alpha activity in children with ASD and examined associations between alpha activity, age, and clinical symptoms. Given that the thalamus modulates cortical RS alpha…

  1. Cytokine vaccination: neutralising IL-1alpha autoantibodies induced by immunisation with homologous IL-1alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenson, M; Hansen, M B; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    2000-01-01

    with IL-1alpha coupled to purified protein derivative of tuberculin (PPD). Both unprimed and primed animals developed IgG aAb to IL-1alpha. These aAb persisted at high levels more than 100 days after vaccination and did not cross-react with murine IL-1beta. The induced anti-IL-1alpha aAb inhibited binding...... in mice by vaccination with recombinant murine IL-1alpha conjugated to PPD. Studies of the effects of IL-1alpha aAb in such animals may help clarify the importance of naturally occurring IL-1alpha aAb in humans and permit the evaluation of future therapies with cytokine aAb in patients...

  2. Bulk GaN alpha-particle detector with large depletion region and improved energy resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Qiang; Mulligan, Padhraic [Nuclear Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Wang, Jinghui [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, 1201 Welch Rd, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Chuirazzi, William [Nuclear Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Cao, Lei, E-mail: cao.152@osu.edu [Nuclear Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2017-03-21

    An alpha-particle detector was fabricated using a freestanding n-type bulk GaN wafer with a Au/Ni/GaN sandwich Schottky structure. Current–voltage measurements at room temperature revealed a Schottky contact with a leakage current of 7.53±0.3 nA at a reverse bias of 200 V. The detector had a large depletion depth that can capture much of the energy from 5.486 MeV alpha particles emitted from a {sup 241}Am source. The resolution of its alpha-particle energy spectrum was improved to 2.2±0.2% at 5.486 MeV under a bias of 550 V. This superior resolution was attributed to the shortening of the carrier transit time and the large energy deposition within the large depletion depth, i.e., 27 µm at −550 V, which all resulted in a more complete charge collection. A model developed using the ATLAS simulation framework from Silvaco Inc. was employed to study the charge collection process. The simulation results were found to agree closely with the experimental results. This detector will be beneficial for research at neutron scattering facilities, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, and the Large Hadron Collider, among other institutions, where the Si-based charged particle detectors could be quickly degraded in an intense radiation field. - Highlights: • An alpha-particle detector based on a Schottky-structured GaN wafer was tested. • The detector's large depletion depth enables fuller energy spectra to be obtained. • The best resolution yet attained in GaN alpha-particle spectrometry was achieved. • The detector's short carrier transit time resulted in improved charge collection. • This detector is usable in extreme conditions, including intense radiation fields.

  3. Proceedings, High-Precision $\\alpha_s$ Measurements from LHC to FCC-ee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    d' Enterria, David [CERN; Skands, Peter Z. [Monash U.

    2015-01-01

    This document provides a writeup of all contributions to the workshop on "High precision measurements of $\\alpha_s$: From LHC to FCC-ee" held at CERN, Oct. 12--13, 2015. The workshop explored in depth the latest developments on the determination of the QCD coupling $\\alpha_s$ from 15 methods where high precision measurements are (or will be) available. Those include low-energy observables: (i) lattice QCD, (ii) pion decay factor, (iii) quarkonia and (iv) $\\tau$ decays, (v) soft parton-to-hadron fragmentation functions, as well as high-energy observables: (vi) global fits of parton distribution functions, (vii) hard parton-to-hadron fragmentation functions, (viii) jets in $e^\\pm$p DIS and $\\gamma$-p photoproduction, (ix) photon structure function in $\\gamma$-$\\gamma$, (x) event shapes and (xi) jet cross sections in $e^+e^-$ collisions, (xii) W boson and (xiii) Z boson decays, and (xiv) jets and (xv) top-quark cross sections in proton-(anti)proton collisions. The current status of the theoretical and experimental uncertainties associated to each extraction method, the improvements expected from LHC data in the coming years, and future perspectives achievable in $e^+e^-$ collisions at the Future Circular Collider (FCC-ee) with $\\cal{O}$(1--100 ab$^{-1}$) integrated luminosities yielding 10$^{12}$ Z bosons and jets, and 10$^{8}$ W bosons and $\\tau$ leptons, are thoroughly reviewed. The current uncertainty of the (preliminary) 2015 strong coupling world-average value, $\\alpha_s(m_Z)$ = 0.1177 $\\pm$ 0.0013, is about 1\\%. Some participants believed this may be reduced by a factor of three in the near future by including novel high-precision observables, although this opinion was not universally shared. At the FCC-ee facility, a factor of ten reduction in the $\\alpha_s$ uncertainty should be possible, mostly thanks to the huge Z and W data samples available.

  4. Hypothalamic PGC-1 alpha Protects Against High-Fat Diet Exposure by Regulating ER alpha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morselli, Eugenia; Fuente-Martin, Esther; Finan, Brian; Kim, Min; Frank, Aaron; Garcia-Caceres, Cristina; Navas, Carlos Rodriguez; Gordillo, Ruth; Neinast, Michael; Kalainayakan, Sarada P.; Li, Dan L.; Gao, Yuanqing; Yi, Chun-Xia; Hahner, Lisa; Palmer, Biff F.; Tschöp, Matthias H.; Clegg, Deborah J.

    2014-01-01

    High-fat diets (HFDs) lead to obesity and inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS). Estrogens and estrogen receptor alpha (ER alpha) protect premenopausal females from the metabolic complications of inflammation and obesity-related disease. Here, we demonstrate that hypothalamic PGC-1 alpha

  5. Workshop on Precision Measurements of $\\alpha_s$

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bethke, Siegfried; /Munich, Max Planck Inst.; Hoang, Andre H.; /Vienna U.; Kluth, Stefan; /Munich, Max Planck Inst.; Schieck, Jochen; /Munich U.; Stewart, Iain W.; Aoki, S.; Beneke, M.; Bethke, S.; Blumlein, J.; Brambilla, N.; Brodsky, S.; /MIT, LNS

    2011-10-01

    These are the proceedings of the Workshop on Precision Measurements of {alpha}{sub s} held at the Max-Planck-Institute for Physics, Munich, February 9-11, 2011. The workshop explored in depth the determination of {alpha}{sub s}(m{sub Z}) in the {ovr MS} scheme from the key categories where high precision measurements are currently being made, including DIS and global PDF fits, {tau}-decays, electro-weak precision observables and Z-decays, event-shapes, and lattice QCD. These proceedings contain a short summary contribution from the speakers, as well as the lists of authors, conveners, participants, and talks.

  6. High-temperature performance of gallium-nitride-based pin alpha-particle detectors grown on sapphire substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhifu; Zhang, Heqiu; Liang, Hongwei; Tang, Bin; Peng, Xincun; Liu, Jianxun; Yang, Chao; Xia, Xiaochuan; Tao, Pengcheng; Shen, Rensheng; Zou, Jijun; Du, Guotong

    2018-06-01

    The temperature-dependent radiation-detection performance of an alpha-particle detector that was based on a gallium-nitride (GaN)-based pin structure was studied from 290 K to 450 K. Current-voltage-temperature measurements (I-V-T) of the reverse bias show the exponential dependence of leakage currents on the voltage and temperature. The current transport mechanism of the GaN-based pin diode from the reverse bias I-V fitting was analyzed. The temperature-dependent pulse-height spectra of the detectors were studied using an 241 Am alpha-particle source at a reverse bias of 10 V, and the peak positions shifted from 534 keV at 290 K to 490 keV at 450 K. The variation of full width at half maximum (FWHM) from 282 keV at 290 K to 292 keV at 450 K is almost negligible. The GaN-based pin detectors are highly promising for high-temperature environments up to 450 K.

  7. Determination of radium-226 by high-resolution alpha spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sill, C.W.

    1983-01-01

    The determination of radium-226 by alpha spectrometry has been investigated critically to determine experimental conditions under which high resolution and accurate and reliable results can be obtained. Refractory solids such as soils, ores, and tailings from uranium mills are dissolved completely by fusion with potassium fluoride in the presence of barium-133 tracer. The fluoride cake is then transposed with sulfuric acid to a pyrosulfate fusion with simultaneous volatilization of all silica and fluoride. Radium is precipitated with barium already present in the sample by addition of lead perchlorate to a dilute hydrochloric acid solution of the pyrosulfate cake. The resulting insoluble sulfates are dissolved in an alkaline solution of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid, and the radium and barium sulfates are reprecipitated with acetic acid. The precipitate is mounted on a membrane filter and analyzed by alpha spectrometry. Water samples are partially evaporated and treated similarly. Resolution of the subsequent alpha spectra is much better than has been achieved previously from barium sulfate, and is almost as good as is obtainable with actinides electrodeposited on polished steel plates. The resolution is about 60 keV full-width-half-maximum with 100 μg of barium on a 1-inch filter with a 450 mm 2 detector at 20% counting efficiency. Recovery is about 97% and accuracy is generally as good as the counting statistics obtained will permit. Grossly inaccurate results can be obtained under certain conditions when barium-133 tracer is used to determine the chemical yield of radium-226. Severe contamination of the surface-barrier detector by polonium-210 and by recoil products of the radium isotopes being counted is demonstrated, amd methods for virtual elimination of both problems are discussed

  8. Combining Alphas via Bounded Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zura Kakushadze

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We give an explicit algorithm and source code for combining alpha streams via bounded regression. In practical applications, typically, there is insufficient history to compute a sample covariance matrix (SCM for a large number of alphas. To compute alpha allocation weights, one then resorts to (weighted regression over SCM principal components. Regression often produces alpha weights with insufficient diversification and/or skewed distribution against, e.g., turnover. This can be rectified by imposing bounds on alpha weights within the regression procedure. Bounded regression can also be applied to stock and other asset portfolio construction. We discuss illustrative examples.

  9. Genetics Home Reference: alpha thalassemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Alpha thalassemia Alpha thalassemia Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Alpha thalassemia is a blood disorder that reduces the production ...

  10. Coaching the alpha male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludeman, Kate; Erlandson, Eddie

    2004-05-01

    Highly intelligent, confident, and successful, alpha males represent about 70% of all senior executives. Natural leaders, they willingly take on levels of responsibility most rational people would find overwhelming. But many of their quintessential strengths can also make alphas difficult to work with. Their self-confidence can appear domineering. Their high expectations can make them excessively critical. Their unemotional style can keep them from inspiring their teams. That's why alphas need coaching to broaden their interpersonal tool kits while preserving their strengths. Drawing from their experience coaching more than 1,000 senior executives, the authors outline an approach tailored specifically for the alpha. Coaches get the alpha's attention by inundating him with data from 360-degree feedback presented in ways he will find compelling--both hard-boiled metrics and vivid verbatim comments from colleagues about his strengths and weaknesses. A 360-degree assessment is a wake-up call for most alphas, providing undeniable proof that their behavior doesn't work nearly as well as they think it does. That paves the way for a genuine commitment to change. In order to change, the alpha must venture into unfamiliar--and often uncomfortable--psychological territory. He must admit vulnerability, accept accountability not just for his own work for others', connect with his underlying emotions, learn to motivate through a balance of criticism and validation, and become aware of unproductive behavior patterns. The goal of executive coaching is not simply to treat the alpha as an individual problem but to improve the entire team dynamic. Initial success creates an incentive to persevere, and the virtuous cycle reverberates throughout the entire organization.

  11. Taraxacum officinale induces cytotoxicity through TNF-alpha and IL-1alpha secretion in Hep G2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Hyun-Na; Hong, Seung-Heon; Song, Bong-Keun; Kim, Cheorl-Ho; Yoo, Young-Hyun; Kim, Hyung-Min

    2004-01-16

    Taraxacum officinale (TO) has been frequently used as a remedy for women's disease (e.g. breast and uterus cancer) and disorders of the liver and gallbladder. Several earlier studies have indicated that TO exhibits anti-tumor properties, but its mechanism remains to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the effect of TO on the cytotoxicity and production of cytokines in human hepatoma cell line, Hep G2. Our results show that TO decreased the cell viability by 26%, and significantly increased the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin (IL)-1alpha production compared with media control (about 1.6-fold for TNF-alpha, and 2.4-fold for IL-1alpha, P < 0.05). Also, TO strongly induced apoptosis of Hep G2 cells as determined by flow cytometry. Increased amounts of TNF-alpha and IL-1alpha contributed to TO-induced apoptosis. Anti-TNF-alpha and IL-1alpha antibodies almost abolished it. These results suggest that TO induces cytotoxicity through TNF-alpha and IL-1alpha secretion in Hep G2 cells.

  12. Infrared Spectra and Optical Constants of Astronomical Ices: I. Amorphous and Crystalline Acetylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, R. L.; Ferrante, R. F.; Moore, M. H.

    2013-01-01

    Here we report recent measurements on acetylene (C2H2) ices at temperatures applicable to the outer Solar System and the interstellar medium. New near- and mid-infrared data, including optical constants (n, k), absorption coefficients (alpha), and absolute band strengths (A), are presented for both amorphous and crystalline phases of C2H2 that exist below 70 K. Comparisons are made to earlier work. Electronic versions of the data are made available, as is a computer routine to use our reported n and k values to simulate the observed IR spectra. Suggestions are given for the use of the data and a comparison to a spectrum of Makemake is made.

  13. Immunodetection of Thyroid Hormone Receptor (Alpha1/Alpha2) in the Rat Uterus and Oviduct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Öner, Jale; Öner, Hakan

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the immunolocalization and the existence of thyroid hormone receptors (THR) (alpha1/alpha2) in rat uterus and oviduct. For this purpose 6 female Wistar albino rats found in estrous period were used. Tissue samples fixed in 10% neutral formalin were examined immunohistochemically. Sections were incubated with primary mouse-monoclonal THR (alpha1/alpha2) antibody. In uterus, THR (alpha1/alpha2) immunoreacted strongly with uterine luminal epithelium, endometrial gland epithelium and endometrial stromal cells and, moderately with myometrial smooth muscle. In oviduct, they were observed moderately in the epithelium of the tube and the smooth muscle cells of the muscular layer. In conclusion, the presence of THR in uterus and oviduct suggests that these organs are an active site of thyroid hormones

  14. Alpha particle emitters in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, D.R.

    1989-09-01

    Radiation-induced cancer of bone, liver and lung has been a prominent harmful side-effect of medical applications of alpha emitters. In recent years, however, the potential use of antibodies labeled with alpha emitting radionuclides against cancer has seemed promising because alpha particles are highly effective in cell killing. High dose rates at high LET, effectiveness under hypoxic conditions, and minimal expectancy of repair are additional advantages of alpha emitters over antibodies labeled with beta emitting radionuclides for cancer therapy. Cyclotron-produced astatine-211 ( 211 At) and natural bismuth-212 ( 212 Bi) have been proposed and are under extensive study in the United States and Europe. Radium-223 ( 223 Ra) also has favorable properties as a potential alpha emitting label, including a short-lived daughter chain with four alpha emissions. The radiation dosimetry of internal alpha emitters is complex due to nonuniformly distributed sources, short particle tracks, and high relative specific ionization. The variations in dose at the cellular level may be extreme. Alpha-particle radiation dosimetry, therefore, must involve analysis of statistical energy deposition probabilities for cellular level targets. It must also account fully for nonuniform distributions of sources in tissues, source-target geometries, and particle-track physics. 18 refs., 4 figs

  15. Monte Carlo alpha calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brockway, D.; Soran, P.; Whalen, P.

    1985-01-01

    A Monte Carlo algorithm to efficiently calculate static alpha eigenvalues, N = ne/sup ..cap alpha..t/, for supercritical systems has been developed and tested. A direct Monte Carlo approach to calculating a static alpha is to simply follow the buildup in time of neutrons in a supercritical system and evaluate the logarithmic derivative of the neutron population with respect to time. This procedure is expensive, and the solution is very noisy and almost useless for a system near critical. The modified approach is to convert the time-dependent problem to a static ..cap alpha../sup -/eigenvalue problem and regress ..cap alpha.. on solutions of a/sup -/ k/sup -/eigenvalue problem. In practice, this procedure is much more efficient than the direct calculation, and produces much more accurate results. Because the Monte Carlo codes are intrinsically three-dimensional and use elaborate continuous-energy cross sections, this technique is now used as a standard for evaluating other calculational techniques in odd geometries or with group cross sections.

  16. The optical spectra of 24 mu m galaxies in the cosmos field. I. Spitzer MIPS bright sources in the zCOSMOS-bright 10k catalog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caputi, K. I.; Lilly, S. J.; Aussel, H.; Sanders, D.; Frayer, D.; Le Fevre, O.; Renzini, A.; Zamorani, G.; Scodeggio, M.; Contini, T.; Scoville, N.; Carollo, C. M.; Hasinger, G.; Iovino, A.; Le Brun, V.; Le Floc'h, E.; Maier, C.; Mainieri, V.; Mignoli, M.; Salvato, M.; Schiminovich, D.; Silverman, J.; Surace, J.; Tasca, L.; Abbas, U.; Bardelli, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Bottini, D.; Capak, P.; Cappi, A.; Cassata, P.; Cimatti, A.; Cucciati, O.; de la Torre, S.; de Ravel, L.; Franzetti, P.; Fumana, M.; Garilli, B.; Halliday, C.; Ilbert, O.; Kampczyk, P.; Kartaltepe, J.; Kneib, J. -P.; Knobel, C.; Kovac, K.; Lamareille, F.; Leauthaud, A.; Le Borgne, J. F.; Maccagni, D.; Marinoni, C.; McCracken, H.; Meneux, B.; Oesch, P.; Pello, R.; Perez-Montero, E.; Porciani, C.; Ricciardelli, E.; Scaramella, R.; Scarlata, C.; Tresse, L.; Vergani, D.; Walcher, J.; Zamojski, M.; Zucca, E.

    2008-01-01

    We study zCOSMOS-bright optical spectra for 609 Spitzer MIPS 24 mu m-selected galaxies with S-24 (mu m) > 0: 30 mJy and I <22.5 (AB mag) over 1.5 deg(2) of the COSMOS field. From emission-line diagnostics we find the following: (1) SFRs derived from the observed H alpha lambda 6563 and H beta lambda

  17. A study of tungsten spectra using large helical device and compact electron beam ion trap in NIFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, S.; Goto, M.; Murakami, I. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292, Gifu (Japan); Department of Fusion Science, Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Toki 509-5292, Gifu (Japan); Dong, C. F.; Kato, D.; Sakaue, H. A.; Oishi, T. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292, Gifu (Japan); Hasuo, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Koike, F. [Physics Laboratory, School of Medicine, Kitasato University, Sagamihara 252-0374 (Japan); Nakamura, N. [Institute of Laser Science, University of Electro-Communications, Tokyo 182-8585 (Japan); Sasaki, A. [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Research Agency, Kizugawa 619-0215, Kyoto (Japan); Wang, E. H. [Department of Fusion Science, Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Toki 509-5292, Gifu (Japan)

    2013-07-11

    Tungsten spectra have been observed from Large Helical Device (LHD) and Compact electron Beam Ion Trap (CoBIT) in wavelength ranges of visible to EUV. The EUV spectra with unresolved transition array (UTA), e.g., 6g-4f, 5g-4f, 5f-4d and 5p-4d transitions for W{sup +24-+33}, measured from LHD plasmas are compared with those measured from CoBIT with monoenergetic electron beam ({<=}2keV). The tungsten spectra from LHD are well analyzed based on the knowledge from CoBIT tungsten spectra. The C-R model code has been developed to explain the UTA spectra in details. Radial profiles of EUV spectra from highly ionized tungsten ions have been measured and analyzed by impurity transport simulation code with ADPAK atomic database code to examine the ionization balance determined by ionization and recombination rate coefficients. As the first trial, analysis of the tungsten density in LHD plasmas is attempted from radial profile of Zn-like WXLV (W{sup 44+}) 4p-4s transition at 60.9A based on the emission rate coefficient calculated with HULLAC code. As a result, a total tungsten ion density of 3.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10}cm{sup -3} at the plasma center is reasonably obtained. In order to observe the spectra from tungsten ions in lower-ionized charge stages, which can give useful information on the tungsten influx in fusion plasmas, the ablation cloud of the impurity pellet is directly measured with visible spectroscopy. A lot of spectra from neutral and singly ionized tungsten are observed and some of them are identified. A magnetic forbidden line from highly ionized tungsten ions has been examined and Cd-like WXXVII (W{sup 26+}) at 3893.7A is identified as the ground-term fine-structure transition of 4f{sup 23}H{sub 5}-{sup 3}H{sub 4}. The possibility of {alpha} particle diagnostic in D-T burning plasmas using the magnetic forbidden line is discussed.

  18. Antihydrogen detection in ALPHA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hydomako, Richard, E-mail: rhydomako@phas.ucalgary.ca [University of Calgary, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Canada); Bruun Andresen, Gorm [Aarhus University, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Denmark); Ashkezari, Mohammad Dehghani [Simon Fraser University, Department of Physics (Canada); Baquero-Ruiz, Marcelo [University of California, Department of Physics (United States); Bertsche, William [Swansea University, Department of Physics (United Kingdom); Butler, Eoin [CERN, European Laboratory for Particle Physics (Switzerland); Bowe, Paul David [Aarhus University, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Denmark); Cesar, Claudo Lenz [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Fsica (Brazil); Chapman, Steve [University of California, Department of Physics (United States); Charlton, Michael [Swansea University, Department of Physics (United Kingdom); Fajans, Joel [University of California, Department of Physics (United States); Friesen, Tim; Fujiwara, Makoto C. [University of Calgary, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Canada); Gill, David Russell [TRIUMF (Canada); Hangst, Jeffrey Scott [Aarhus University, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Denmark); Hardy, Walter Newbold [University of British Columbia, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Canada); Hayano, Ryugo S. [University of Tokyo, Department of Physics (Japan); Hayden, Michael Edward [Simon Fraser University, Department of Physics (Canada); Humphries, Andrew James [Swansea University, Department of Physics (United Kingdom); Jonsell, Svante [Stockholm University, Fysikum (Sweden); Collaboration: ALPHA Collaboration; and others

    2012-12-15

    The ALPHA project is an international collaboration, based at CERN, with the experimental goal of performing precision spectroscopic measurements on antihydrogen. As part of this endeavor, the ALPHA experiment includes a silicon tracking detector. This detector consists of a three-layer array of silicon modules surrounding the antihydrogen trapping region of the ALPHA apparatus. Using this device, the antihydrogen annihilation position can be determined with a spatial resolution of better than 5 mm. Knowledge of the annihilation distribution was a critical component in the recently successful antihydrogen trapping effort. This paper will describe the methods used to reconstruct annihilation events in the ALPHA detector. Particular attention will be given to the description of the background rejection criteria.

  19. Ketamine increases the frequency of electroencephalographic bicoherence peak on the alpha spindle area induced with propofol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, K; Tsuda, N; Sawa, T; Hagihira, S

    2007-09-01

    The reticular and thalamocortical system is known to play a prominent role in spindle wave activity, and the spindle wave is related to the sedative effects of anaesthetics. Recently, bispectral analysis of the EEG has been developed as a better method to indicate nonlinear regulation including the thalamocortical system linking to the cortical area. In the present study, in order to explore the interference of ketamine with the nonlinear regulation of the sub-cortical system, we examined the effect of ketamine on spindle alpha waves through the bispectral analysis. The study included 21 patients. Anaesthesia was induced and maintained using a propofol-TCI system (target-controlled infusion, with target concentration 3.5 microg ml(-1)). An A-2000 BIS monitor was used and the raw EEG signals were collected via an RS232 interface on a personal computer. Bicoherence, the normalized bispectrum, and power spectrum were analysed before and after i.v. administration of 1 mg kg(-1) racemic ketamine. Propofol caused alpha peaks in both power and bicoherence spectra, with average frequencies of 10.6 (SD 0.9) Hz and 10.7 (1.0) Hz, respectively. The addition of ketamine significantly shifted each peak to frequencies of 14.4 (1.4) Hz and 13.6 (1.5) Hz, respectively [P < 0.05, mean (SD)]. Ketamine shifted the alpha peaks of bicoherence induced by propofol to higher frequencies. This suggests that ketamine changes the alpha spindle rhythms through the modulation of the nonlinear sub-cortical reverberating network.

  20. Buffett’s Alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Kabiller, David; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    Berkshire Hathaway has realized a Sharpe ratio of 0.76, higher than any other stock or mutual fund with a history of more than 30 years, and Berkshire has a significant alpha to traditional risk factors. However, we find that the alpha becomes insignificant when controlling for exposures to Betting...

  1. Alpha1 and Alpha2 Integrins Mediate Invasive Activity of Mouse Mammary Carcinoma Cells through Regulation of Stromelysin-1 Expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lochter, Andre; Navre, Marc; Werb, Zena; Bissell, Mina J

    1998-06-29

    Tumor cell invasion relies on cell migration and extracellular matrix proteolysis. We investigated the contribution of different integrins to the invasive activity of mouse mammary carcinoma cells. Antibodies against integrin subunits {alpha}6 and {beta}1, but not against {alpha}1 and {alpha}2, inhibited cell locomotion on a reconstituted basement membrane in two-dimensional cell migration assays, whereas antibodies against {beta}1, but not against a6 or {alpha}2, interfered with cell adhesion to basement membrane constituents. Blocking antibodies against {alpha}1 integrins impaired only cell adhesion to type IV collagen. Antibodies against {alpha}1, {alpha}2, {alpha}6, and {beta}1, but not {alpha}5, integrin subunits reduced invasion of a reconstituted basement membrane. Integrins {alpha}1 and {alpha}2, which contributed only marginally to motility and adhesion, regulated proteinase production. Antibodies against {alpha}1 and {alpha}2, but not {alpha}6 and {beta}1, integrin subunits inhibited both transcription and protein expression of the matrix metalloproteinase stromelysin-1. Inhibition of tumor cell invasion by antibodies against {alpha}1 and {alpha}2 was reversed by addition of recombinant stromelysin-1. In contrast, stromelysin-1 could not rescue invasion inhibited by anti-{alpha}6 antibodies. Our data indicate that {alpha}1 and {alpha}2 integrins confer invasive behavior by regulating stromelysin-1 expression, whereas {alpha}6 integrins regulate cell motility. These results provide new insights into the specific functions of integrins during tumor cell invasion.

  2. Determination of $\\alpha_{s}$ using Jet Rates at LEP with the OPAL detector

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G.; Akesson, P.F.; Alexander, G.; Anagnostou, G.; Anderson, K.J.; Asai, S.; Axen, D.; Bailey, I.; Barberio, E.; Barillari, T.; Barlow, R.J.; Batley, R.J.; Bechtle, P.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bell, P.J.; Bella, G.; Bellerive, A.; Benelli, G.; Bethke, S.; Biebel, O.; Boeriu, O.; Bock, P.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Brown, Robert M.; Burckhart, H.J.; Campana, S.; Capiluppi, P.; Carnegie, R.K.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, D.G.; Ciocca, C.; Csilling, A.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Donkers, M.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Etzion, E.; Fabbri, F.; Ferrari, P.; Fiedler, F.; Fleck, I.; Ford, M.; Frey, A.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, John William; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Giunta, Marina; Goldberg, J.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Gunther, P.O.; Gupta, A.; Hajdu, C.; Hamann, M.; Hanson, G.G.; Harel, A.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hill, J.C.; Horvath, D.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Ishii, K.; Jeremie, H.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Kanzaki, J.; Karlen, D.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kramer, T.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kuhl, T.; Kupper, M.; Lafferty, G.D.; Landsman, H.; Lanske, D.; Lellouch, D.; Lettso, J.; Levinson, L.; Lillich, J.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Lu, J.; Ludwig, A.; Ludwig, J.; Mader, W.; Marcellini, S.; Martin, A.J.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McKenna, J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Menges, W.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Meyer, Niels T.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Mohr, W.; Mori, T.; Mutter, A.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Nanjo, H.; Neal, H.A.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oh, A.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Pahl, C.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Pooth, O.; Przybycien, M.; Quadt, A.; Rabbertz, K.; Rembser, C.; Renkel, P.; Roney, J.M.; Rossi, A.M.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sarkisyan, E.K.G.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schorner-Sadenius, T.; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Sherwood, P.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Spano, F.; Stahl, A.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Tarem, S.; Tasevsky, M.; Teuscher, R.; Thomson, M.A.; Torrence, E.; Toya, D.; Tran, P.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Ueda, I.; Ujvari, B.; Vollmer, C.F.; Vannerem, P.; Vertesi, R.; Verzocchi, M.; Voss, H.; Vossebeld, J.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wengler, T.; Wermes, N.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wolf, G.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Zer-Zion, D.; Zivkovic, Lidija

    2006-01-01

    Hadronic events produced in e+e- collisions by the LEP collider and recorded by the OPAL detector were used to form distributions based on the number of reconstructed jets. The data were collected between 1995 and 2000 and correspond to energies of 91 GeV, 130-136 GeV and 161-209 GeV. The jet rates were determined using four different jet-finding algorithms (Cone, JADE, Durham and Cambridge). The differential two-jet rate and the average jet rate with the Durham and Cambridge algorithms were used to measure alpha(s) in the LEP energy range by fitting an expression in which order alpah_2s calculations were matched to a NLLA prediction and fitted to the data. Combining the measurements at different centre-of-mass energies, the value of alpha_s (Mz) was determined to be alpha(s)(Mz)=0.1177+-0.0006(stat.)+-0.0012$(expt.)+-0.0010(had.)+-0.0032

  3. Faint H-alpha emission objects near the equatorial selected areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, T.H.; Jordan, T.M.

    1989-01-01

    An objective-prism survey of fields centered on the 24 Kapteyn Selected Areas along the celestial equator has resulted in the detection of 120 faint H-alpha emission-line objects. Diffuse objects and stars having molecular bands in their spectra are not included. Only 18 of these stars were identified in previous lists of emission-line objects. Identifications were found for an additional three stars. Images of these objects appear to be stellar on direct plates. The magnitude range for these stars is V = 10.1-19.00. Positions and V magnitudes of these objects are provided, as are identifications of objects which have been reported in other lists. Frequency distributions of the apparent magnitudes and Galactic latitudes of these emission-line objects are discussed, and finding charts are provided. 14 refs

  4. Coincidence study of alpha particle fragmentation at E/sub alpha/ = 140 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koontz, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    Results of an experimental study of the interaction of 140 MeV alpha particles with 90 Zr nuclei resulting in fragmentation of the alpha particle are reported. The experimental observations of the study are analyzed and are found to show that alpha particle breakup reactions leading to at least 4-body final states, composed of two charged alpha particle fragments, contribute significantly to the singles yield of charged fragments observed at a fixed forward angle. The conclusions are based on coincidence measurements where one charged fragment is detected at a small forward angle which remains fixed, while the second charged fragment is detected at a series of coplanar secondary angles. The largest coincidence charged particle yield for the multiparticle final state events results from 90 Zr(α,pp)X reactions, where both of the measured protons have energy distributions similar to the proton singles energy distributions. The second largest observed coincidence yield involving two charged fragments arises from 90 Zr(α,pd)X reactions, where the p and d fragments, as in the 90 Zr(α,pp)X reactions also have energy distribution similar to the singles energy distributions. Analysis of additional measurements, where alpha particle fragments at the fixed angle are detected in coincidence with evaporation and nonequilibrium particles at many coplanar angles, show that the alpha particle fragmentation reactions are also generally associated with large energy transfer to the target nucleus. A multiple scattering model of the fragmentation reaction is employed, in conjunction with the experimental observations, to estimate the cross sections for alpha particle fragmentation into multi-particle final states resulting in n, 2n, p, pp, d, dn, dp, t and 3 He fragments. The estimated total cross section for all fragmentation reactions is 755 mb or approximately 38% of the total reaction cross section for 140 MeV alpha particle interactions with 90 Zr

  5. alpha-MSH and its receptors in regulation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha production by human monocyte/macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taherzadeh, S; Sharma, S; Chhajlani, V; Gantz, I; Rajora, N; Demitri, M T; Kelly, L; Zhao, H; Ichiyama, T; Catania, A; Lipton, J M

    1999-05-01

    The hypothesis that macrophages contain an autocrine circuit based on melanocortin [ACTH and alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH)] peptides has major implications for neuroimmunomodulation research and inflammation therapy. To test this hypothesis, cells of the THP-1 human monocyte/macrophage line were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the presence and absence of alpha-MSH. The inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha was inhibited in relation to alpha-MSH concentration. Similar inhibitory effects on TNF-alpha were observed with ACTH peptides that contain the alpha-MSH amino acid sequence and act on melanocortin receptors. Nuclease protection assays indicated that expression of the human melanocortin-1 receptor subtype (hMC-1R) occurs in THP-1 cells; Southern blots of RT-PCR product revealed that additional subtypes, hMC-3R and hMC-5R, also occur. Incubation of resting macrophages with antibody to hMC-1R increased TNF-alpha concentration; the antibody also markedly reduced the inhibitory influence of alpha-MSH on TNF-alpha in macrophages treated with LPS. These results in cells known to produce alpha-MSH at rest and to increase secretion of the peptide when challenged are consistent with an endogenous regulatory circuit based on melanocortin peptides and their receptors. Targeting of this neuroimmunomodulatory circuit in inflammatory diseases in which myelomonocytic cells are prominent should be beneficial.

  6. Test of the Flavour Independence of $\\alpha_{s}$ using Next-to-Leading Order Calculations for Heavy Quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G.; Alexander, G.; Allison, John; Altekamp, N.; Anderson, K.J.; Anderson, S.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Ashby, S.F.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Ball, A.H.; Barberio, E.; Barlow, Roger J.; Batley, J.R.; Baumann, S.; Bechtluft, J.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bella, G.; Bellerive, A.; Bentvelsen, S.; Bethke, S.; Betts, S.; Biebel, O.; Biguzzi, A.; Bloodworth, I.J.; Bock, P.; Bohme, J.; Bonacorsi, D.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Bright-Thomas, P.; Brigliadori, L.; Brown, Robert M.; Burckhart, H.J.; Capiluppi, P.; Carnegie, R.K.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, David G.; Chrisman, D.; Ciocca, C.; Clarke, P.E.L.; Clay, E.; Cohen, I.; Conboy, J.E.; Cooke, O.C.; Couchman, J.; Couyoumtzelis, C.; Coxe, R.L.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallavalle, G.Marco; Davis, R.; De Jong, S.; de Roeck, A.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Dixit, M.S.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Estabrooks, P.G.; Etzion, E.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fanti, M.; Faust, A.A.; Fiedler, F.; Fierro, M.; Fleck, I.; Frey, A.; Furtjes, A.; Futyan, D.I.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, J.W.; Gascon-Shotkin, S.M.; Gaycken, G.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Gibson, V.; Gibson, W.R.; Gingrich, D.M.; Glenzinski, D.; Goldberg, J.; Gorn, W.; Grandi, C.; Graham, K.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Hajdu, C.; Hanson, G.G.; Hansroul, M.; Hapke, M.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Hargrove, C.K.; Harin-Dirac, M.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Herndon, M.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hildreth, M.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hobson, P.R.; Hocker, James Andrew; Hoffman, Kara Dion; Homer, R.J.; Honma, A.K.; Horvath, D.; Hossain, K.R.; Howard, R.; Huntemeyer, P.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Imrie, D.C.; Ishii, K.; Jacob, F.R.; Jawahery, A.; Jeremie, H.; Jimack, M.; Jones, C.R.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Kanaya, N.; Kanzaki, J.; Karlen, D.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Kayal, P.I.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Kim, D.H.; Klier, A.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Kokott, T.P.; Kolrep, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kowalewski, Robert V.; Kress, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kuhl, T.; Kyberd, P.; Lafferty, G.D.; Landsman, H.; Lanske, D.; Lauber, J.; Lawson, I.; Layter, J.G.; Lellouch, D.; Letts, J.; Levinson, L.; Liebisch, R.; List, B.; Littlewood, C.; Lloyd, A.W.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Long, G.D.; Losty, M.J.; Lu, J.; Ludwig, J.; Lui, D.; Macchiolo, A.; Macpherson, A.; Mader, W.; Mannelli, M.; Marcellini, S.; Martin, A.J.; Martin, J.P.; Martinez, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McDonald, W.John; McKenna, J.; Mckigney, E.A.; McMahon, T.J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Mendez-Lorenzo, P.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Mohr, W.; Montanari, A.; Mori, T.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Neal, H.A.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oakham, F.G.; Odorici, F.; Ogren, H.O.; Okpara, A.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Patrick, G.N.; Patt, J.; Perez-Ochoa, R.; Petzold, S.; Pfeifenschneider, P.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Poffenberger, P.; Poli, B.; Polok, J.; Przybycien, M.; Quadt, A.; Rembser, C.; Rick, H.; Robertson, S.; Robins, S.A.; Rodning, N.; Roney, J.M.; Rosati, S.; Roscoe, K.; Rossi, A.M.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Runolfsson, O.; Rust, D.R.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sahr, O.; Sang, W.M.; Sarkisian, E.K.G.; Sbarra, C.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schmitt, S.; Schoning, A.; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Schwick, C.; Scott, W.G.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.H.; Sherwood, P.; Siroli, G.P.; Sittler, A.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Snow, G.A.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Spagnolo, S.; Sproston, M.; Stahl, A.; Stephens, K.; Steuerer, J.; Stoll, K.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Surrow, B.; Talbot, S.D.; Taras, P.; Tarem, S.; Teuscher, R.; Thiergen, M.; Thomas, J.; Thomson, M.A.; Torrence, E.; Towers, S.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Ueda, I.; Van Kooten, Rick J.; Vannerem, P.; Verzocchi, M.; Voss, H.; Wackerle, F.; Wagner, A.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wermes, N.; Wetterling, D.; White, J.S.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Zacek, V.; Zer-Zion, D.

    1999-01-01

    We present a test of the flavour independence of the strong coupling constant for charm and bottom quarks with respect to light (uds) quarks, based on a hadronic event sample obtained with the OPAL detector at LEP. Five observables related to global event shapes were used to measure alpha_s in three flavour tagged samples (uds, c and b). The event shape distributions were fitted by Order(alpha_s**2) calculations of jet production taking into account mass effects for the c and b quarks. We find: = 0.997 +- 0.038(stat.) +- 0.030(syst.) +- 0.012(theory) and = 0.993 +- 0.008(stat.) +- 0.006(syst.) +- 0.011(theory) for the ratios alpha_s(charm)/alpha_s(uds) and alpha_s(b)/alpha_s(uds) respectively.

  7. Classification of alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michel, M. C.; Kenny, B.; Schwinn, D. A.

    1995-01-01

    Two alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtypes (alpha 1A and alpha 1B) have been detected in various tissues by pharmacological techniques, and three distinct cDNAs encoding alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtypes have been cloned. The profile of an increasing number of subtype-selective compounds at cloned and endogenous

  8. Filling the Void: A Comprehensive Survey of the Intergalactic Medium at z 1 Using STIS/COS Archival Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaire, Vikram

    2017-08-01

    There exists a large void in our understanding of the intergalactic medium (IGM) at z=0.5-1.5, spanning a significant cosmic time of 4 Gyr. This hole resulted from a paucity of near-UV QSO spectra, which were historically very expensive to obtain. However, with the advent of COS and the HST UV initiative, sufficient STIS/COS NUV spectra have finally become available, enabling the first statistical analyses. We propose a comprehensive study of the z 1 IGM using the Ly-alpha forest of 26 archival QSO spectra. This analysis will: (1) measure the distribution of HI absorbers to several percent precision down to log NHI science cases. These results, along with our state-of-the-art hydrodynamical simulations, and theoretical models of the UVB, will fill the 4 Gyr hole in our understanding of the IGM. When combined with existing HST and ground-based data from lower and higher z, they will lead to a complete, empirical description of the IGM from HI reionization to the present, spanning more than 10 Gyr of cosmic history, adding substantially to Hubble's legacy of discovery on the IGM.

  9. DOSEmanPRO - active electronic online personal air sampler for detection of radon progeny long lived alpha nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streil, T.; Oeser, V.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Using the micro system - technology we developed a online personal air sampler not bigger than a mobile phone, to open a new dimension in personal dosimetry of inhaled radioactive aerosols. The DOSEman PRO containing an internal pump with a continuous air flow of 0.15 I/min sample the radon progeny or other nuclides on a millipore filter with excellent spectroscopic resolution. A 1.5 cm 2 light protected ion-implanted silicon detector analyses the alpha radiation at the filter. This small detector head contains also the pre amplification and pulse processing. The alpha radiation of the radon progeny and the long lived alpha nuclides is analyzed by a 60 channel spectrometer. The energy resolution of the online analyzed filter spectra is in the order of 150 keV. Mechanical and electronic design enables one to distinguish the long lived alpha nuclides from the radon and thoron progeny very easily. Using a special algorithm we correct the influence of the tailing of the radon progeny to the long lived alpha nuclides and take into consideration possible interference in determining the long lived alpha nuclides. Because of the air sampling volume of nearly 10 I/h, the system has a high efficiency. The detection limit by 2 hours sampling time is 0.05 Bq/m 3 alpha nuclide concentration. In a modified device for air sampling especially of long-lived alpha nuclides like uranium, radium or plutonium, the flow rate is increased to 0,3 1/min e.g. during a 10 h sampling period we can detect 0.005 Bq/m 3 in a low radon atmosphere. Assuming increased radon progeny concentration, the statistical error for the long lived alpha nuclides will be higher, but in most of the cases for use in nuclear facilities low radon concentrations are ambient conditions. This concept of an electronic personal air sampler with an alpha spectroscopy offers some outstanding advantages compared to passive dosimeters or off-line alpha air filters: The dose value and the nuclide concentration is

  10. Dynamical chaos in a linear 3. alpha. system. Dinamicheskij khaos v linejnoj 3. alpha. -sisteme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolotin, Yu L; Gonchar, V Yu; Chekanov, N A [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kharkov (Ukrainian SSR). Fiziko-Tekhnicheskij Inst.; Vinitskij, S I [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (USSR)

    1989-01-01

    Classical dynamics of the motion of a molecular model of the carbon nucleus, which is a linear 3{alpha} system with realistic {alpha}{alpha} interaction is studied. Transition from a regular to a chaos motion in the nuclear molecule is shown to occur with growing energy more rapidly than in model problems with polynomial potentials. It is found that in a small region of the phase space the motion remains regular at energies higher than the 3{alpha}-system dissociation threshold. This is probably related to the C{sub 3v}-symmetry violation. Formulas for the quasiclassical spectrum of the 3{alpha} system are obtained with the use of the Birkhoff normal form.

  11. Spectra of Graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, A.E.; Haemers, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    This book gives an elementary treatment of the basic material about graph spectra, both for ordinary, and Laplace and Seidel spectra. The text progresses systematically, by covering standard topics before presenting some new material on trees, strongly regular graphs, two-graphs, association

  12. Alpha detection on moving surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacArthur, D.; Orr, C.; Luff, C.

    1998-01-01

    Both environmental restoration (ER) and decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) require characterization of large surface areas (walls, floors, in situ soil, soil and rubble on a conveyor belt, etc.) for radioactive contamination. Many facilities which have processed alpha active material such as plutonium or uranium require effective and efficient characterization for alpha contamination. Traditional methods for alpha surface characterization are limited by the short range and poor penetration of alpha particles. These probes are only sensitive to contamination located directly under the probe. Furthermore, the probe must be held close to the surface to be monitored in order to avoid excessive losses in the ambient air. The combination of proximity and thin detector windows can easily cause instrument damage unless extreme care is taken. The long-range alpha detection (LRAD) system addresses these problems by detecting the ions generated by alpha particles interacting with ambient air rather than the alpha particle directly. Thus, detectors based on LRAD overcome the limitations due to alpha particle range (the ions can travel many meters as opposed to the several-centimeter alpha particle range) and penetrating ability (an LRAD-based detector has no window). Unfortunately, all LRAD-based detectors described previously are static devices, i.e., these detectors cannot be used over surfaces which are continuously moving. In this paper, the authors report on the first tests of two techniques (the electrostatic ion seal and the gridded electrostatic LRAD detector) which extend the capabilities of LRAD surface monitors to use over moving surfaces. This dynamic surface monitoring system was developed jointly by Los Alamos National Laboratory and at BNFL Instruments. All testing was performed at the BNFL Instruments facility in the UK

  13. Correction of measured charged-particle spectra for energy losses in the target - A comparison of three methods

    CERN Document Server

    Soederberg, J; Alm-Carlsson, G; Olsson, N

    2002-01-01

    The experimental facility, MEDLEY, at the The Svedberg Laboratory in Uppsala, has been constructed to measure neutron-induced charged-particle production cross-sections for (n, xp), (n, xd), (n, xt), (n, x sup 3 He) and (n, x alpha) reactions at neutron energies up to 100 MeV. Corrections for the energy loss of the charged particles in the target are needed in these measurements, as well as for loss of particles. Different approaches have been used in the literature to solve this problem. In this work, a stripping method is developed, which is compared with other methods developed by Rezentes et al. and Slypen et al. The results obtained using the three codes are similar and they could all be used for correction of experimental charged-particle spectra. Statistical fluctuations in the measured spectra cause problems independent of the applied technique, but the way to handle it differs in the three codes.

  14. Study of ({alpha}, {sup 3}He) and ({alpha}, t) reactions on {sup 28}Si at 45 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darshan, V.P.; Sathyavathiamma, M.P.; Ramaswamy, C.R.; Raja Rao, M.; Puttaswamy, N.G.; Banerjee, S.R.; Chintalapudi, S.N. [Dept. of Phys., Bangalore Univ. (India)

    1995-03-01

    The {sup 28}Si({alpha}, {sup 3}He){sup 29}Si, {sup 28}Si({alpha}, t){sup 29}P and Si({alpha}, {alpha})Si reactions were studied at E{sub {alpha}} = 45 MeV. Exact finite-range (EFR) DWBA analysis was carried out for the transitions to the ground state and to five excited states in {sup 29}Si and {sup 29}P. Spectroscopic strengths G were extracted for all the states and were compared with the predictions from shell-model and quasi-particle core-coupling calculations. Similar EFR-DWBA analyses were carried out from available (unpublished) data for the {sup 28}Si({alpha}, {sup 3}He){sup 29}Si reaction at E{sub {alpha}} = 64.9 and 120 MeV, and for the {sup 28}Si({alpha}, t){sup 29}P reaction at E{sub {alpha}} = 50 and 64.9 MeV. The comparison of experimental and theoretical values of G are provided. (author)

  15. alpha AD alpha hybrids of Cryptococcus neoformans: evidence of same-sex mating in nature and hybrid fitness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaorong Lin

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus neoformans is a ubiquitous human fungal pathogen that causes meningoencephalitis in predominantly immunocompromised hosts. The fungus is typically haploid, and sexual reproduction involves two individuals with opposite mating types/sexes, alpha and a. However, the overwhelming predominance of mating type (MAT alpha over a in C. neoformans populations limits alpha-a mating in nature. Recently it was discovered that C. neoformans can undergo same-sex mating under laboratory conditions, especially between alpha isolates. Whether same-sex mating occurs in nature and contributes to the current population structure was unknown. In this study, natural alpha AD alpha hybrids that arose by fusion between two alpha cells of different serotypes (A and D were identified and characterized, providing definitive evidence that same-sex mating occurs naturally. A novel truncated allele of the mating-type-specific cell identity determinant SXI1 alpha was also identified as a genetic factor likely involved in this process. In addition, laboratory-constructed alpha AD alpha strains exhibited hybrid vigor both in vitro and in vivo, providing a plausible explanation for their relative abundance in nature despite the fact that AD hybrids are inefficient in meiosis/sporulation and are trapped in the diploid state. These findings provide insights on the origins, genetic mechanisms, and fitness impact of unisexual hybridization in the Cryptococcus population.

  16. Biochemical characterization of CK2alpha and alpha' paralogues and their derived holoenzymes: evidence for the existence of a heterotrimeric CK2alpha'-holoenzyme forming trimeric complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Birgitte; Rasmussen, Tine; Niefind, Karsten

    2008-01-01

    Altogether 2 holoenzymes and 4 catalytic CK2 constructs were expressed and characterized i.e. CK2alpha (2) (1-335) beta(2); CK2alpha'-derived holoenzyme; CK2alpha(1-335); MBP-CK2alpha'; His-tagged CK2alpha and His-tagged CK2alpha'. The two His-tagged catalytic subunits were expressed in insect...... cells, all others in Escherichia coli. IC(50) studies involving the established CK2 inhibitors DMAT, TBBt, TBBz, apigenin and emodin were carried out and the K(i) values calculated. Although the differences in the K(i) values found were modest, there was a general tendency showing that the CK2...... holoenzymes were more sensitive towards the inhibitors than the free catalytic subunits. Thermal inactivation experiments involving the individual catalytic subunits showed an almost complete loss of activity after only 2 min at 45 degrees C. In the case of the two holoenzymes, the CK2alpha...

  17. Flavonoids-induced accumulation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha/2alpha is mediated through chelation of iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung-Soo; Bae, Insoo; Lee, Yong J

    2008-04-15

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1alpha) is the regulatory subunit of the heterodimeric transcription factor HIF-1 that is the key regulator of cellular response to low oxygen tension. Under normoxic conditions, HIF-1alpha is continuously degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway through pVHL (von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor protein). Under hypoxic conditions, HIF-1alpha is stabilized and induces the transcription of HIF-1 target genes. Quercetin, a flavonoid with anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and kinase modulating properties, has been found to induce HIF-1alpha accumulation and VEGF secretion in normoxia. In this study, the molecular mechanisms of quercetin-mediated HIF-1alpha accumulation were investigated. Previous studies have shown that, in addition to being induced by hypoxia, HIF-1alpha can be induced through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and p53 signaling pathways. But our study revealed, through p53 mutant-type as well as p53 null cell lines, that neither the PI3K/Akt nor the p53 signaling pathway is required for quercetin-induced HIF-1alpha accumulation. And we observed that HIF-1alpha accumulated by quercetin is not ubiquitinated and the interaction of HIF-1alpha with pVHL is reduced, compared with HIF-1alpha accumulated by the proteasome inhibitor MG132. The use of quercetin's analogues showed that only quercetin and galangin induce HIF-1/2alpha accumulation and this effect is completely reversed by additional iron ions. This is because quercetin and galangin are able to chelate cellular iron ions that are cofactors of HIF-1/2alpha proline hydroxylase (PHD). These data suggest that quercetin inhibits the ubiquitination of HIF-1/2alpha in normoxia by hindering PHD through chelating iron ions.

  18. HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha are differentially activated in distinct cell populations in retinal ischaemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freya M Mowat

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxia plays a key role in ischaemic and neovascular disorders of the retina. Cellular responses to oxygen are mediated by hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs that are stabilised in hypoxia and induce the expression of a diverse range of genes. The purpose of this study was to define the cellular specificities of HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha in retinal ischaemia, and to determine their correlation with the pattern of retinal hypoxia and the expression profiles of induced molecular mediators.We investigated the tissue distribution of retinal hypoxia during oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR in mice using the bio-reductive drug pimonidazole. We measured the levels of HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha proteins by Western blotting and determined their cellular distribution by immunohistochemistry during the development of OIR. We measured the temporal expression profiles of two downstream mediators, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and erythropoietin (Epo by ELISA. Pimonidazole labelling was evident specifically in the inner retina. Labelling peaked at 2 hours after the onset of hypoxia and gradually declined thereafter. Marked binding to Müller glia was evident during the early hypoxic stages of OIR. Both HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha protein levels were significantly increased during retinal hypoxia but were evident in distinct cellular distributions; HIF-1alpha stabilisation was evident in neuronal cells throughout the inner retinal layers whereas HIF-2alpha was restricted to Müller glia and astrocytes. Hypoxia and HIF-alpha stabilisation in the retina were closely followed by upregulated expression of the downstream mediators VEGF and EPO.Both HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha are activated in close correlation with retinal hypoxia but have contrasting cell specificities, consistent with differential roles in retinal ischaemia. Our findings suggest that HIF-2alpha activation plays a key role in regulating the response of Müller glia to hypoxia.

  19. Application of four anti-human interferon-alpha monoclonal antibodies for immunoassay and comparative analysis of natural interferon-alpha mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, G.; Lundgren, E.; Ekre, H.P.

    1991-01-01

    Four different mouse monoclonal antibodies to human interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) were evaluated for application in quantitative and comparative analysis of natural IFN-alpha mixtures. Binding to IFN-alpha subtypes in solution revealed individual reactivity patterns. These patterns changed if the IFN-alpha molecules were immobilized either passively to a surface or bound by another antibody. Also, substitution of a single amino acid in IFN-alpha 2 affected the binding, apparently by altering the conformation. Isoelectric focusing of three natural IFN-alpha preparations from different sources, followed by immunoblotting, resulted in individual patterns with each of the four mAbs and also demonstrated variation in the composition of the IFN-alpha preparations. None of the mAbs was subtype specific, but by combining the different mAbs, and also applying polyclonal anti-human IFN-alpha antibodies, it was possible to design sensitive sandwich ELISAs with broad or more limited IFN-alpha subtype specificity

  20. 239pu alpha spectrum analysis based on PIPS detector response function and variations with vacuum and distance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui Shi; Xian-Guo Tuo; Huai-Liang Li; Jian-Bo Yang; Yi Cheng; Hong-Long Zheng

    2017-01-01

    Effect factors of the absorption of the source,air,entrance window,and dead layer of a detector must be considered in the measurement of monoenergetic alpha particles,along with statsfical noise and other factors that collectively cause the alpha spectrum to exhibit a well-known low-energy tail.Therefore,the establishment of an alpha spectrum detector response function from the perspective of a signaling system must consider the various factors mentioned above.The detector response function is the convolution of an alphaparticle pulse function,two exponential functions,and a Gaussian function,followed by calculation of the parameters of the detector response function using the weighted leastsquares fitting method as proposed in this paper.In our experiment,239pu alpha spectra were measured by a highresolution,passivated implanted planar silicon (PIPS)detector at 10 levels of vacuum and 10 source-detector distances.The spectrum-fitting results were excellent as evaluated by reduced Chi-square (x2) and correlation coefficients.Finally,the variation of parameters with vacuum level and source-detector distance was studied.Results demonstrate that ο,τ1,and τ2 exhibit no obvious trend of variation with vacuum in the range 2000-20,000 mTorr,and at a confidence level of 95%,the values of τ1 and τ2 decline in a similar fashion with source-detector distance by the power exponential function,while the value of ο declines linearly.

  1. Alpha and beta detection and spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saro, S.

    1984-01-01

    The theory of alpha and beta radioactive decay, the interaction of alpha and beta particles with matter, and their detection and spectrometry are dealt with in seven chapters: 1. Alpha transformation of atomic nuclei; 2. Basic properties of detectors and statistics of detection; 3. Alpha detectors and spectrometers; 4. Applications of alpha detection and spectrometry; 5. Beta transformation of atomic nuclei; 6. Beta particle detectors and spectrometers; 7. Detection of low energy beta particles. Chapter 8 is devoted to sampling and preparation of samples for radiometry. (E.F.)

  2. Temperature-dependent structural changes in intrinsically disordered proteins: formation of alpha-helices or loss of polyproline II?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Magnus; Nørholm, Ann-Beth; Hendus-Altenburger, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    temperature, which most likely reflects formation of transient alpha-helices or loss of polyproline II (PPII) content. Using three IDPs, ACTR, NHE1, and Spd1, we show that the temperature-induced structural change is common among IDPs and is accompanied by a contraction of the conformational ensemble...... with increasing temperature, and accordingly these were not responsible for the change in the CD spectra. In contrast, the nonhelical regions exhibited a general temperature-dependent structural change that was independent of long-range interactions. The temperature-dependent CD spectroscopic signature of IDPs...

  3. Contribution to the study of the reaction p + {sup 11}B = 3 {alpha} by the coincidence method; Contribution a l'etude de la reaction p + {sup 11}B = 3 {alpha} par la methode des coincidences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laugier, J Ph [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1969-07-01

    We have studied the production mode of the 3 {alpha} system in the reaction p + {sup 11}B = {sup 12}C{sup *} = {alpha} + {sup 8}Be{sup *}; {sup 8}Be{sup *} = {alpha} + {alpha}. We have got some information for three different effects: the influence of the {sup 8}Be residual nucleus states = sequential decay; the influence of the {sup 12}C compound nucleus states = spin effect; an interference effect. We give a theoretical expression of the different spectra which take into account the observed phenomena. We have taken, as a parameter, the phase shift, between the waves associated with the detected particles, which produce the interference effect. The main characteristics of the experimental devices are : self supporting boron targets; cooled semiconductor detectors; multi-parametric system: for each nuclear event three parameters are recorded: the energies of the detected particles and the time of the detection; Recording system: the information are recorded on a magnetic tape and at the same time treated with an on line CAE 510 computer. The CAE 510 computer is used in delayed time to analyse the experimental data. (author) [French] Nous avons etudie le mecanisme de production du systeme 3 {alpha} dans la reaction: p + {sup 11}B = {sup 12}C{sup *} = {alpha} + {sup 8}Be{sup *}; {sup 8}Be{sup *} = {alpha} + {alpha}. Cette etude nous a permis de mettre en evidence trois effets de nature differente: l'effet des niveaux du noyau intermediaire {sup 8}Be reaction sequentielle; l'effet des niveaux du noyau compose {sup 12}C = effet de spin; -un effet d'interferences. Nous avons pu donner une expression theorique du spectre, rendant compte d'une facon satisfaisante des phenomenes observes. Pour cela nous avons considere le dephasage, entre les ondes associees aux particules detectees, qui produit les interferences, comme un parametre arbitraire. Du point de vue experimental les caracteristiques principales du materiel utilise sont les suivantes: utilisation de cibles de

  4. Human alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (alpha-NAGA) deficiency: no association with neuroaxonal dystrophy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, H. D.; de Sonnaville, M. L.; Vreken, P.; Abeling, N. G.; Groener, J. E.; Keulemans, J. L.; van Diggelen, O. P.

    2001-01-01

    Two new individuals with alpha-NAGA deficiency are presented. The index patient, 3 years old, has congenital cataract, slight motor retardation and secondary demyelinisation. Screening of his sibs revealed an alpha-NAGA deficiency in his 7-year-old healthy brother who had no clinical or neurological

  5. Applying alpha-channeling to mirror machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhmoginov, A. I.; Fisch, N. J. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

    2012-05-15

    The {alpha}-channeling effect entails the use of radio-frequency waves to expel and cool high-energetic {alpha} particles born in a fusion reactor; the device reactivity can then be increased even further by redirecting the extracted energy to fuel ions. Originally proposed for tokamaks, this technique has also been shown to benefit open-ended fusion devices. Here, the fundamental theory and practical aspects of {alpha} channeling in mirror machines are reviewed, including the influence of magnetic field inhomogeneity and the effect of a finite wave region on the {alpha}-channeling mechanism. For practical implementation of the {alpha}-channeling effect in mirror geometry, suitable contained weakly damped modes are identified. In addition, the parameter space of candidate waves for implementing the {alpha}-channeling effect can be significantly extended through the introduction of a suitable minority ion species that has the catalytic effect of moderating the transfer of power from the {alpha}-channeling wave to the fuel ions.

  6. DT results of TFTR's alpha collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, H.W.; Zweben, S.J.; Darrow, D.S.; Timberlake, J.R.; Macaulay-Newcombe, R.G.

    1996-01-01

    An escaping alpha collector probe has been developed for TFTR's DT phase to complement the results of the lost alpha scintillator detectors which have been operating on TFTR since 1988. Measurements of the energy distribution of escaping alphas have been made by measuring the range of alphas implanted into nickel foils located within the alpha collector. Exposed samples have been analyzed for 4 DT plasma discharges at plasma currents of 1.0 and 1.8 MA. The results at 1.0 MA are in good agreement with predictions for first orbit alpha loss at 3.5 MeV. The 1.8 MA results, however, indicate a large anomalous loss of partially thermalized alphas at an energy ∼30% below the birth energy and at a total fluence nearly an order of magnitude above expected first orbit loss. This anomalous loss is not observed with the lost alpha scintillator detectors in DT plasmas but does resemble the anomalous delayed loss seen in DD plasmas. Several potential explanations for this loss process are examined. None of the candidate explanations proposed thus far are fully consistent with the anomalous loss observations

  7. Alpha Thalassemia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Alpha Thalassemia KidsHealth / For Parents / Alpha Thalassemia What's in this ... Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Print en español Alfa talasemia Thalassemias Thalassemias are a group of blood disorders that ...

  8. Combinations of ERK and p38 MAPK inhibitors ablate tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha ) mRNA induction. Evidence for selective destabilization of TNF-alpha transcripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutault, K; Hazzalin, C A; Mahadevan, L C

    2001-03-02

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is a potent proinflammatory cytokine whose synthesis and secretion are implicated in diverse pathologies. Hence, inhibition of TNF-alpha transcription or translation and neutralization of its protein product represent major pharmaceutical strategies to control inflammation. We have studied the role of ERK and p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase in controlling TNF-alpha mRNA levels in differentiated THP-1 cells and in freshly purified human monocytes. We show here that it is possible to produce virtually complete inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated TNF-alpha mRNA accumulation by using a combination of ERK and p38 MAP kinase inhibitors. Furthermore, substantial inhibition is achievable using combinations of 1 microm of each inhibitor, whereas inhibitors used individually are incapable of producing complete inhibition even at high concentrations. Finally, addressing mechanisms involved, we show that inhibition of p38 MAP kinase selectively destabilizes TNF-alpha transcripts but does not affect degradation of c-jun transcripts. These results impinge on the controversy in the literature surrounding the mode of action of MAP kinase inhibitors on TNF-alpha mRNA and suggest the use of combinations of MAP kinase inhibitors as an effective anti-inflammatory strategy.

  9. Development of thermal conditioning technology for Alpha-containment wastes: Alpha-contaminated waste incineration technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Joon Hyung; Kim, Jeong Guk; Yang, Hee Chul; Choi, Byung Seon; Jeong, Myeong Soo

    1999-03-01

    As the first step of a 3-year project named 'development of alpha-contaminated waste incineration technology', the basic information and data were reviewed, while focusing on establishment of R and D direction to develop the final goal, self-supporting treatment of {alpha}- wastes that would be generated from domestic nuclear industries. The status on {alpha} waste incineration technology of advanced states was reviewed. A conceptual design for {alpha} waste incineration process was suggested. Besides, removal characteristics of volatile metals and radionuclides in a low-temperature dry off-gas system were investigated. Radiation dose assessments and some modification for the Demonstration-scale Incineration Plant (DSIP) at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) were also done.

  10. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha-independent downregulation of hepatic cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase gene in mice treated with lead nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Misaki; Sekikawa, Kenji; Nemoto, Kiyomitsu; Degawa, Masakuni

    2005-10-01

    We previously reported that lead nitrate (LN), an inducer of hepatic tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), downregulated gene expression of cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase. Herein, to clarify the role of TNF-alpha in LN-induced downregulation of cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase, effects of LN on gene expression of hepatic cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (Cyp7a1) in TNF-alpha-knockout (KO) and TNF-alpha-wild-type (WT) mice were comparatively examined. Gene expression of hepatic Cyp7a1 in both WT and KO mice decreased to less than 5% of the corresponding controls at 6-12 h after treatment with LN (100 mumol/kg body weight, iv). Levels of hepatic TNF-alpha protein in either WT or KO mice were below the detection limit, although expression levels of the TNF-alpha gene markedly increased at 6 h in WT mice by LN treatment, but not in KO mice. In contrast, in both WT and KO mice, levels of hepatic IL-1beta protein, which is known to be a suppressor of the cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase gene in hamsters, were significantly increased 3-6 h after LN treatment. Furthermore, LN-induced downregulation of the Cyp7a1 gene did not necessarily result from altered gene expression of hepatic transcription factors, including positive regulators (liver X receptor alpha, retinoid X receptor alpha, fetoprotein transcription factor, and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4alpha) and a negative regulator small heterodimer partner responsible for expression of the Cyp7a1 gene. The present findings indicated that LN-induced downregulation of the Cyp7a1 gene in mice did not necessarily occur through a TNF-alpha-dependent pathway and might occur mainly through an IL-1beta-dependent pathway.

  11. Reverse-phase HPLC analysis of human alpha crystallin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, M S; Abraham, E C

    1991-03-01

    A rapid and highly sensitive reverse-phase HPLC (RP-HPLC) method was used to separate crystallin subunits from human alpha crystallin. Three distinct peaks were separated; by electrophoretic and immunological analyses the first and second peaks were identified as alpha B and alpha A respectively. On the other hand, peak 3 appeared to be a modified form of alpha crystallin. The ratio of alpha A and alpha B proteins was 3:1 in 1 day old lenses which gradually changed to 2:1 in 17 year old lenses and to 1:1 in the 50 and 82 year old whole lenses and 82 year old lens cortex, with a concomitant increase in the modified alpha, suggesting that alpha A subunits are relatively more involved in aggregation. Analysis of the 82 year old lens nucleus also supported this conclusion. The RP-HPLC analysis of the HMW aggregate fraction showed substantial enrichment of the modified alpha. The alpha A and alpha B subunits independently reassociated to form polymeric alpha crystallin whereas the modified alpha reassociated to form HMW aggregates as shown by molecular sieve HPLC. Hence it appears that the HMW aggregate peak was constituted by modified alpha crystallin. Only in the peak 3 material the 280 nm absorbance was about 2-fold higher than what was expected from the actual protein content. The data suggest that the changes induced by post-translational modifications may have some role in the formation of modified alpha. The present RP-HPLC method is useful in separating these modified alpha from the unmodified alpha A and alpha B subunits.

  12. Proteinaceous alpha-araylase inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Birte; Fukuda, Kenji; Nielsen, P.K.

    2004-01-01

    -amylase inhibitors belong to seven different protein structural families, most of which also contain evolutionary related proteins without inhibitory activity. Two families include bifunctional inhibitors acting both on alpha-amylases and proteases. High-resolution structures are available of target alpha...

  13. Resolution of G(s)alpha and G(q)alpha/G(11)alpha proteins in membrane domains by two-dimensional electrophoresis: the effect of long-term agonist stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matousek, P; Novotný, J; Svoboda, P

    2004-01-01

    Low-density membrane-domain fractions were prepared from S49 lymphoma cells and clone e2m11 of HEK293 cells expressing a large number of thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor (TRH-R) and G(11)alpha by flotation on sucrose density gradients. The intact cell structure was broken by detergent-extraction, alkaline-treatment or drastic homogenization. Three types of low-density membranes were resolved by two-dimensional electrophoresis and analyzed for G(s)alpha (S49) or G(q)alpha/G11) (e2m11) content. Four individual immunoblot signals of Gsalpha protein were identified in S49 lymphoma cells indicating complete resolution of the long G(s)alpha L+/-ser and short G(s)alpha S+/-ser variants of G(s)alpha. All these were diminished by prolonged agonist (isoprenaline) stimulation. In e2m11-HEK cells, five different immunoblot signals were detected indicating post-translational modification of G proteins of G(q)alpha/G(11)alpha family. The two major spots corresponding to exogenously (over)expressed G(11)alpha and endogenous G(q)alpha were reduced; the minor spots diminished by hormonal stimulation. Parallel analysis by silver staining of the total protein content indicated that no major changes in protein composition occurred under these conditions. Our data thus indicate that agonist-stimulation of target cells results in down-regulation of all different members of G(s) and G(q)/G(11) families. This agonist-specific effect may be demonstrated in crude membrane as well as domain/raft preparations and it is not accompanied by changes in overall protein composition.

  14. Alpha 1A and alpha 1B-adrenoceptors enhance inositol phosphate generation in rat renal cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michel, M. C.; Büscher, R.; Philipp, T.; Brodde, O. E.

    1993-01-01

    We have studied the role of alpha 1A- and alpha 1B-adrenoceptors in noradrenaline- and methoxamine-stimulated inositol phosphate accumulation in rat renal cortical slices. [3H]Prazosin binding studies with and without inactivation of alpha 1B-adrenoceptors by chloroethylclonidine treatment suggested

  15. Alpha-particle emission probabilities of ²³⁶U obtained by alpha spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marouli, M; Pommé, S; Jobbágy, V; Van Ammel, R; Paepen, J; Stroh, H; Benedik, L

    2014-05-01

    High-resolution alpha-particle spectrometry was performed with an ion-implanted silicon detector in vacuum on a homogeneously electrodeposited (236)U source. The source was measured at different solid angles subtended by the detector, varying between 0.8% and 2.4% of 4π sr, to assess the influence of coincidental detection of alpha-particles and conversion electrons on the measured alpha-particle emission probabilities. Additional measurements were performed using a bending magnet to eliminate conversion electrons, the results of which coincide with normal measurements extrapolated to an infinitely small solid angle. The measured alpha emission probabilities for the three main peaks - 74.20 (5)%, 25.68 (5)% and 0.123 (5)%, respectively - are consistent with literature data, but their precision has been improved by at least one order of magnitude in this work. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Alpha 1-blockers vs 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors in benign prostatic hyperplasia. A comparative review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J T

    1995-01-01

    During recent years, pharmacological treatment of symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) has become the primary treatment choice for an increasing number of patients. The 2 principal drug classes employed are alpha 1-blockers and 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors. Current information from...... of patients who will respond well to alpha 1-blockers have yet to be identified, and data concerning the long term effects of these drugs are not yet available. 5 alpha-Reductase inhibitors have a slow onset of effect, but treatment leads to improvement in symptoms, reduction of the size of the prostate gland...... and improvement in objective parameters for bladder outflow obstruction. Approximately 30 to 50% of patients will respond to treatment with 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors. The definitive role of pharmacological treatment in symptomatic BPH remains to be established, although it seems that patients unfit...

  17. Comparison of species-resolved energy spectra from ACE EPAM and Van Allen Probes RBSPICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, J.; Manweiler, J. W.; Armstrong, T. P.; Lanzerotti, L. J.; Gerrard, A. J.; Gkioulidou, M.

    2013-12-01

    We present a comparison between energy spectra measured by the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) Electron Proton Alpha Monitor (EPAM) instrument and the Van Allen Probe Ion Composition Experiment (RBSPICE) for two significant and distinct events in early 2013. The first is an impulsive solar particle event on March 17th. While intense, this event presented no significant surprises in terms of its composition or anisotropy characteristics, thus providing a good baseline for response of the trapped radiation belts as observed by the Van Allen Probes. The second solar event occurred late May 22nd and early May 23rd. This event has a much greater concentration of medium and heavy ions than the St. Patrick's Day event, as well as having very peculiar energy spectra with evidence of two distinct populations. During the St. Patrick's Day Event, the energy spectra for helium, carbon, oxygen, neon, silicon, and iron all show the same spectral power law slope -3.1. The event shows strong anisotropy with intensities differing by a factor of four for both protons and Z>1 ions. The late May event also has strong anisotropy, and in the same directions as the St. Patrick's Day Event, but with very different composition and energy spectra. The spectra are much harder with power law spectral slopes of -0.5. Additionally, there is a significant spectral bump at 3 MeV/nuc for helium that is not present in the spectra of the heavier ions. The intensities of the heavier ions, however, show an increase that is an order of magnitude greater than the increase seen for helium. The March 17 RBSPICE observations show multiple injection events lasting for less than an hour each during the Van Allen Probes B apogees. These injections are seen in protons as well as Helium and only somewhat observed in Oxygen. Spectral slopes for the observations range from approximately -5 during quiet times to double peaked events with a spectral slope of approximately -2 at the beginning of the injection

  18. Interactions of foot-and-mouth disease virus with soluble bovine alphaVbeta3 and alphaVbeta6 integrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Hernando; LaRocco, Michael; Golde, William T; Baxt, Barry

    2004-09-01

    At least four members of the integrin family of receptors, alphaVbeta1, alphaVbeta3, alphaVbeta6, and alphaVbeta8, have been identified as receptors for foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in vitro. Our investigators have recently shown that the efficiency of receptor usage appears to be related to the viral serotype and may be influenced by structural differences on the viral surface (H. Duque and B. Baxt, J. Virol. 77:2500-2511, 2003). To further examine these differences, we generated soluble alphaVbeta3 and alphaVbeta6 integrins. cDNA plasmids encoding the individual complete integrin alphaV, beta3, and beta6 subunits were used to amplify sequences encoding the subunits' signal peptide and ectodomain, resulting in subunits lacking transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains. COS-1 cells were transfected with plasmids encoding the soluble alphaV subunit and either the soluble beta3 or beta6 subunit and labeled with [35S]methionine-cysteine. Complete subunit heterodimeric integrins were secreted into the medium, as determined by radioimmunoprecipitation with specific monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies. For the examination of the integrins' biological activities, stable cell lines producing the soluble integrins were generated in HEK 293A cells. In the presence of divalent cations, soluble alphaVbeta6 bound to representatives of type A or O viruses, immobilized on plastic dishes, and significantly inhibited viral replication, as determined by plaque reduction assays. In contrast, soluble alphaVbeta3 was unable to bind to immobilized virus of either serotype; however, virus bound to the immobilized integrin, suggesting that FMDV binding to alphaVbeta3 is a low-affinity interaction. In addition, soluble alphaVbeta3 did not neutralize virus infectivity. Incubation of soluble alphaVbeta6 with labeled type A12 or O1 resulted in a significant inhibition of virus adsorption to BHK cells, while soluble alphaVbeta3 caused a low (20 to 30%), but consistent, inhibition of virus

  19. Serum concentrations of interleukin-1 alpha, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in neonatal sepsis and meningitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fida, Nadia M.; Fadelallah, Mohamed F.; Al-Mughales, Jamil A.

    2006-01-01

    To investigate whether serum levels of interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), C-reactive protein (CRP) are useful in the diagnosis of neonatal sepsis and meningitis and differentiate them. Blood samples were collected from 35 full term neonates with suspected infection who admitted to the Neonatology Unit, Pediatric Department, King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia during January 2002 - June 2003. On the basis of laboratory and bacteriological results, newborns were classified into: sepsis (n=28), meningitis (n=7), and healthy controls (n=16). Sepsis groups were further subdivided according to culture results into: group 1 = proven sepsis (n=6), group 2 = clinical sepsis (n=14), and group 3 = possible-infected (n=8). Serum levels of IL-1alpha, IL-6, TNF-alpha were measured using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay while CRP by nephelometer: In sepsis and meningitis patients, serum levels of CRP (p<0.01, p<0.05,) and IL-1alpha (p<0.001, p<0.05) were elevated than controls. C-reactive protein levels elevated in proven sepsis (p<0.001) and IL-1alpha elevated in all subgroups of sepsis (groups 1, 2, 3) compared with (p<0.05, p<0.001, p<0.01) controls. Interleukin-6, TNF-alpha showed no significant differences between studied groups. In sepsis and meningitis, IL-1alpha had a highest sensitivity (89%, 86%), and negative predictive values (89% and 93%). Interleukin-1alpha and CRP increased in neonatal sepsis and meningitis, but cannot differentiate between them. Interleukin-1alpha had a highest sensitivity in prediction of neonatal infection and its assessment may improve accuracy of diagnosis. (author)

  20. Alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolk, Jan; Seersholm, Niels; Kalsheker, Noor

    2006-01-01

    The Alpha One International Registry (AIR), a multinational research program focused on alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency, was formed in response to a World Health Organization recommendation. Each of the nearly 20 participating countries maintains a national registry of patients with AAT defic...

  1. 15 beta-hydroxysteroids (Part IV). Steroids of the human perinatal period: the synthesis of 3 alpha,15 beta,17 alpha-trihydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-20-one and its A/B-ring configurational isomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, A Y; Joannou, G E

    1995-12-01

    In recent years several 15 beta-hydroxysteroids have emerged pathognomonic of adrenal disorders in human neonates of which 3 alpha,15 beta,17 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-pregnan-20-one (2) was the first to be identified in the urine of newborn infants affected with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. In this investigation we report the synthesis of the three remaining 3 xi,5 xi-isomers, namely 3 alpha,15 beta,17 alpha-trihydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-20-one (3), 3 beta,15 beta,17 alpha-trihydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-20-one (7) and 3 beta,15 beta,17 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-pregnan-20-one (8) for their definitive identification in pathological conditions in human neonates. 3 beta,15 beta-Diacetoxy-17 alpha-hydroxy-5-pregnen-20-one (11), a product of chemical synthesis was converted to the isomeric 3 and 7, while conversion of 15 beta,17 alpha-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3,20-dione (4), a product of microbiological transformation, resulted in the preparation of 8. In brief, selective acetate hydrolysis of 11 gave 15 beta-acetoxy-3 beta,17 alpha-dihydroxy-5-pregnen-20-one (12) which on catalytic hydrogenation gave 15 beta-acetoxy-3 beta,17 alpha-dihydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-20-one (13) a common intermediate for the synthesis of the 3 beta(and alpha),5 alpha-isomers. Hydrolysis of the 15 beta-acetate gave 7, whereas oxidation with pyridinium chlorochromate gave 15 beta-acetoxy-17 alpha-hydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-3,20-dione (14) which on reduction with L-Selectride and hydrolysis of the 15 beta-acetate gave 3. Finally, hydrogenation of 4 gave 15 beta, 17 alpha-dihydroxy-5 beta-pregnan-3,20-dione (10) which on reduction with L-Selectride gave 8.

  2. Enzyme replacement therapy for alpha-mannosidosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgwardt, Line Gutte; Dali, Christine I.; Fogh, J

    2013-01-01

    Alpha-mannosidosis (OMIM 248500) is a rare lysosomal storage disease (LSD) caused by alpha-mannosidase deficiency. Manifestations include intellectual disabilities, facial characteristics and hearing impairment. A recombinant human alpha-mannosidase (rhLAMAN) has been developed for weekly...

  3. IFN-alpha antibodies in patients with age-related macular degeneration treated with recombinant human IFN-alpha2a

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross, Christian; Engler, Claus Bødker; Sander, Birgit

    2002-01-01

    We tested for development of binding and neutralizing antibodies to interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) during IFN-alpha2a therapy of patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) of the eyes. Antibodies were investigated retrospectively in sera of 34 patients treated with 3 x 10(6) IU IFN-alpha2...

  4. IFN-alpha antibodies in patients with age-related macular degeneration treated with recombinant human IFN-alpha2a

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ross, Christian; Engler, Claus Bødker; Sander, Birgit

    2002-01-01

    We tested for development of binding and neutralizing antibodies to interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) during IFN-alpha2a therapy of patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) of the eyes. Antibodies were investigated retrospectively in sera of 34 patients treated with 3 x 10(6) IU IFN-alpha2a...

  5. Alpha-amino acid derivatives and alpha-fluoro ketones by enantioselective decarboxylation

    OpenAIRE

    Baur, Markus A.

    2003-01-01

    Die Methode der enantioselektiven Decarboxylierung wurde angewendet, um Enantiomeren-angereicherte alpha-Aminosäurederivate und alpha-Fluorketone zu erhalten. Als Substrate wurden 2-N-Acetylamino-2-alkylmalonsäuremonoethylester beziehungsweise beta-Keto-benzylester verwendet. China-Alkaloide und Derivate davon wurden als Katalysatoren eingesetzt. Die besten erhaltenen Ergebnisse waren N-Acetyl-L-phenylalaninethylester mit 70% Enantiomerenüberschuß unter Verwendung der katalytisch aktiven Base...

  6. Complete primary structure of rainbow trout type I collagen consisting of alpha1(I)alpha2(I)alpha3(I) heterotrimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, M; Takenouchi, Y; Kunisaki, N; Kimura, S

    2001-05-01

    The subunit compositions of skin and muscle type I collagens from rainbow trout were found to be alpha1(I)alpha2(I)alpha3(I) and [alpha1(I)](2)alpha2(I), respectively. The occurrence of alpha3(I) has been observed only for bonyfish. The skin collagen exhibited more susceptibility to both heat denaturation and MMP-13 digestion than the muscle counterpart; the former had a lower denaturation temperature by about 0.5 degrees C than the latter. The lower stability of skin collagen, however, is not due to the low levels of imino acids because the contents of Pro and Hyp were almost constant in both collagens. On the other hand, some cDNAs coding for the N-terminal and/or a part of triple-helical domains of proalpha(I) chains were cloned from the cDNA library of rainbow trout fibroblasts. These cDNAs together with the previously cloned collagen cDNAs gave information about the complete primary structure of type I procollagen. The main triple-helical domain of each proalpha(I) chain had 338 uninterrupted Gly-X-Y triplets consisting of 1014 amino acids and was unique in its high content of Gly-Gly doublets. In particular, the bonyfish-specific alpha(I) chain, proalpha3(I) was characterized by the small number of Gly-Pro-Pro triplets, 19, and the large number of Gly-Gly doublets, 38, in the triple-helical domain, compared to 23 and 22, respectively, for proalpha1(I). The small number of Gly-Pro-Pro and the large number of Gly-Gly in proalpha3(I) was assumed to partially loosen the triple-helical structure of skin collagen, leading to the lower stability of skin collagen mentioned above. Finally, phylogenetic analyses revealed that proalpha3(I) had diverged from proalpha1(I). This study is the first report of the complete primary structure of fish type I procollagen.

  7. TFTR alpha extraction and measurement: Development and testing of advanced alpha detectors: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehring, B.W.

    1988-01-01

    Advanced alpha-particle detectors made of heavy elements were investigated as alternatives to silicon surface-barrier detectors for the ''foil-neutralization technique'' of alpha-particle diagnostics in fusion reactors with high neutron backgrounds. From an extensive literature review, it was decided that HgI 2 would make a more suitable detector for alpha-particle diagnostics than other heavy element detectors such as CdTe. Thus, HgI 2 detectors were designed and fabricated. Experimental tests were performed to determine detector characteristics and detector responses to alpha particles. Radiation noise measurements were also performed using the North Carolina State University PULSTAR nuclear reactor for both the HgI 2 detectors and commercial Si(Au) surface barrier detectors. 15 refs., 1 fig

  8. Synthesis and evaluation of phytotoxic activity of {alpha}-Santonin derivatives; Sintese e avaliacao da atividade fitotoxica de derivados da {alpha}-Santonina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarenga, Elson S.; Barbosa, Luiz C.A.; Saliba, William A.; Arantes, Francisco F.P.; Demuner, Antonio J. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: elson@ufv.br; Silva, Antonio A. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Fitotecnia

    2009-07-01

    Mixtures of {alpha}-Santonin and various solvents were irradiated by either high or low pressure mercury lamps. The photochemical reactions afforded lumisantonin (11) (76% in acetonitrile), (3 S,3a S,9{beta}S)-3,6,6-trimethyl-3,3a,4,5-tetrahydronafto[1,2-b]furan-2,7({eta}6,9{beta}{eta}) dione (12) (100% in acetonitrile), 10{alpha}-acetoxy-3-oxo-1,7{alpha}H{eta},6,11{alpha}a{eta}-guaia-4-en-6,12-oli= de (8) (26% in acetic acid), 10{alpha}-hydroxy-3-oxo-1,7{alpha}a{eta},6,11{alpha}{eta}-guaia-4-en-6,12-olid= e (10) (32%) and (E)-3-((3 S,3a S,7{alpha}S)-3-methyl-2-oxo-6-(propan-2-ylidene)hexahydrobenzofuran- 7 - (7{alpha}{eta})-ylidene)propanoic acid (9) (44%) (in water/ acetic acid 1:1, v/v). Lactone 12 was also prepared by irradiation of lumisantonin in diethyl ether. Lactones 8 and 10 were converted, respectively, into the 10 {alpha}-acetoxy-3{alpha}-hydroxy-1,7{alpha}H,6,11{alpha}H-guaia-4-en-6,12-olid= e (13) (87%) and 3a,10a-dihydroxy-1,7{alpha}H,6,11{alpha}H-guaia-4-en-6,12-olide (14) (75%) by sodium borohydride reduction. The effects of the compounds on the development of radicle of Sorghum bicolor and Cucumis sativus were evaluated. (author)

  9. Slower EEG alpha generation, synchronization and “flow”—possible biomarkers of cognitive impairment and neuropathology of minor stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Petrovic

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background We investigated EEG rhythms, particularly alpha activity, and their relationship to post-stroke neuropathology and cognitive functions in the subacute and chronic stages of minor strokes. Methods We included 10 patients with right middle cerebral artery (MCA ischemic strokes and 11 healthy controls. All the assessments of stroke patients were done both in the subacute and chronic stages. Neurological impairment was measured using the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS, whereas cognitive functions were assessed using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA and MoCA memory index (MoCA-MIS. The EEG was recorded using a 19 channel EEG system with standard EEG electrode placement. In particular, we analyzed the EEGs derived from the four lateral frontal (F3, F7, F4, F8, and corresponding lateral posterior (P3, P4, T5, T6 electrodes. Quantitative EEG analysis included: the group FFT spectra, the weighted average of alpha frequency (αAVG, the group probability density distributions of all conventional EEG frequency band relative amplitudes (EEG microstructure, the inter- and intra-hemispheric coherences, and the topographic distribution of alpha carrier frequency phase potentials (PPs. Statistical analysis was done using a Kruskal–Wallis ANOVA with a post-hoc Mann–Whitney U two-tailed test, and Spearman’s correlation. Results We demonstrated transient cognitive impairment alongside a slower alpha frequency (αAVG in the subacute right MCA stroke patients vs. the controls. This slower alpha frequency showed no amplitude change, but was highly synchronized intra-hemispherically, overlying the ipsi-lesional hemisphere, and inter-hemispherically, overlying the frontal cortex. In addition, the disturbances in EEG alpha activity in subacute stroke patients were expressed as a decrease in alpha PPs over the frontal cortex and an altered “alpha flow”, indicating the sustained augmentation of inter-hemispheric interactions

  10. A survey of the alpha-nucleon interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.; Ahmad, A.A.Z.; Ferdous, N.

    1984-10-01

    A survey of the alpha-nucleon interaction is made. The experimental work on angular distributions of differential scattering cross-sections and polarizations in proton-alpha and neutron-alpha scattering is described. The phenomenological approach which includes the study of both local and non-local potentials reproducing the experimental alpha-nucleon scattering data, is discussed. Basic studies of the alpha-nucleon interaction attempting to build an interaction between an alpha particle and a nucleon from first principles are then described. A critical discussion of the results with some concluding remarks suggesting the direction for further investigation is made. (author)

  11. Remarks on tilde g_{alpha}-irresolute maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmala Rebecca Paul

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Only a few of the class of generalized closed sets form a topology. The class of tilde g_{alpha}-closed sets is one among them. The aim of this paper is to introduce the different notions of irresolute function using tilde g_{alpha}-closed sets and study some of their basic properties.We also study the relation between strongly tilde g_{alpha}- continuous and perfectly eg-continuous functions. We also introduce tilde g_{alpha}-compact and ilde g_{alpha}-connectedspaces and study their properties using tilde g_{alpha}-continuous and eg-irresolute functions.

  12. Long-range alpha detector (LRAD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacArthur, D.W.; McAtee, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    Historically, alpha detectors have been limited by the very short range of alpha particles in air and by relatively poor sensitivity, even if the particles are intercepted. Of necessity, these detectors are operated in a vacuum or in close proximity to the source if reasonable efficiency is desired. In our new long-range alpha detector (LRAD), alpha particles interact with the ambient air, producing ionization in the air at the rate of about 30,000 ion pairs per MeV of alpha energy. These charges can be transported over significant distances (several meters) in a moving current of air generated by a small fan. An ion chamber located in front of the fan measures the current carried by the moving ions. The LRAD-based monitor is more sensitive and more thorough than conventional monitors. We present current LRAD sensitivity limits and results, practical monitor designs, and proposed uses for LRAD monitors. 4 refs., 7 figs

  13. Beta/alpha continuous air monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, G.K.; Martz, D.E.

    1988-06-27

    A single deep layer silicon detector in combination with a microcomputer, recording both alpha and beta activity and the energy of each pulse, distinquishing energy peaks using a novel curve fitting technique to reduce the natural alpha counts in the energy region where plutonium and other transuranic alpha emitters are present, and using a novel algorithm to strip out radon daughter contribution to actual beta counts. 7 figs.

  14. Detection of {alpha} particles using semiconductors. Application to the control of plutonium extraction; Detection des particules {alpha} par semiconducteurs application au controle de l'extraction du plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanguy, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-03-01

    A study is made of a particles produced by thick sources, using either diffused junction or surface barrier semiconductor detectors for controlling continuously the plutonium extraction process. For this, a presenting apparatus is described in which the solutions to be analyzed flow in contact with the detector protected by a thin mica membrane. A method is described which gives a precise recording of the spectra and which thus allows the separation of two or more {alpha} emitters present in the same solution. This method has been applied to the measurement of {sup 239}Pu in the the presence of {sup 241}Am with an accuracy of {+-}5 per cent. In the second part of the report is considered the detection of plutonium in solutions of {beta} - {gamma} emitting fission products. Pile-up is reduced by using a fast amplification chain associated to totally depleted thin detectors. Under these conditions a few mg of {sup 239}Pu can be detected in solutions of fission products having an activity of 100 curies/liter. A method is given for discriminating {alpha} and {beta} particles, it is based on the difference in the collection times for the charges liberated by these particles in the detector. (author) [French] On etudie la detection de particules {alpha} issues de sources epaisses par detecteurs semiconducteurs a jonction diffusee ou a barriere de surface pour le controle continu du procede d'extraction du plutonium. A cet effet on decrit un appareil presentateur dans lequel les solutions a analyser circulent au contact du detecteur protege par une membrane mince de mica. On decrit une methode qui permet par le trace precis des spectres de separer deux ou plusieurs emetteurs {alpha} presents dans une meme solution. Cette methode a ete appliquee a la mesure du {sup 239}Pu en presence de {sup 241}Am avec une precision de {+-} 5 pour cent. Dans la deuxieme partie on traite de la detection du plutonium dans des solutions de produits de fission emetteurs {beta} and {gamma}. On

  15. ALPHA experiment facility and Prof. Jeffrey Hangst.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2010-01-01

    Picture 01-07: General views of the ALPHA experiment Picture 5: Andrea Gutierrez, a PhD student from UBC, transfers liquid helium from a storage dewar into the cryostat containing the superconducting magnetic trap used by the ALPHA experiment.Picture 08-11: Jeffery Hangst, spokesperson for ALPHA Picture 12: The ALPHA silicon detector, which surrounds the trapping resion and is used for imaging antiproton annihilations (Credit University of Liverpool) Picture 13: Untrapped antihydrogen atoms annihilating on the inner surface of the ALPHA trap. These are measured by the ALPHA annihilation detector. The events are concentrated at the electrode radius of about 22.3 mm. The coordinates are defined in the Nature article, Figure 1b. Picture 14: The electrodes (gold) for the ALPHA Penning trap being inserted into the vacuum chamber and cryostat assembly. This is the trap used to combine or "mix" positrons and antiprotons to make antihydrogen. (Credit: Niels Madsen ALPHA/Swansea.) Picture 15: Top, a diagram of the...

  16. Alpha-Driven MHD and MHD-Induced Alpha Loss in TFTR DT Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zuoyang

    1996-11-01

    Theoretical calculation and numerical simulation indicate that there can be interesting interactions between alpha particles and MHD activity which can adversely affect the performance of a tokamak reactor (e.g., ITER). These interactions include alpha-driven MHD, like the toroidicity-induced-Alfven-eigenmode (TAE) and MHD induced alpha particle losses or redistribution. Both phenomena have been observed in recent TFTR DT experiments. Weak alpha-driven TAE activity was observed in a NBI-heated DT experiment characterized by high q0 ( >= 2) and low core magnetic shear. The TAE mode appears at ~30-100 ms after the neutral beam turning off approximately as predicted by theory. The mode has an amplitude measured by magnetic coils at the edge tildeB_p ~1 mG, frequency ~150-190 kHz and toroidal mode number ~2-3. It lasts only ~ 30-70 ms and has been seen only in DT discharges with fusion power level about 1.5-2.0 MW. Numerical calculation using NOVA-K code shows that this type of plasma has a big TAE gap. The calculated TAE frequency and mode number are close to the observation. (2) KBM-induced alpha particle loss^1. In some high-β, high fusion power DT experiments, enhanced alpha particle losses were observed to be correlated to the high frequency MHD modes with f ~100-200 kHz (the TAE frequency would be two-times higher) and n ~5-10. These modes are localized around the peak plasma pressure gradient and have ballooning characteristics. Alpha loss increases by 30-100% during the modes. Particle orbit simulations show the added loss results from wave-particle resonance. Linear instability analysis indicates that the plasma is unstable to the kinetic MHD ballooning modes (KBM) driven primarily by strong local pressure gradients. ----------------- ^1Z. Chang, et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76 (1996) 1071. In collaberation with R. Nazikian, G.-Y. Fu, S. Batha, R. Budny, L. Chen, D. Darrow, E. Fredrickson, R. Majeski, D. Mansfield, K. McGuire, G. Rewoldt, G. Taylor, R. White, K

  17. Solid state NMR of proteins at high MAS frequencies: symmetry-based mixing and simultaneous acquisition of chemical shift correlation spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellstedt, Peter [Fritz Lipmann Institute, Biomolecular NMR spectroscopy, Leibniz Institute for Age Research (Germany); Herbst, Christian [Ubon Ratchathani University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science (Thailand); Haefner, Sabine; Leppert, Joerg; Goerlach, Matthias; Ramachandran, Ramadurai, E-mail: raman@fli-leibniz.de [Fritz Lipmann Institute, Biomolecular NMR spectroscopy, Leibniz Institute for Age Research (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    We have carried out chemical shift correlation experiments with symmetry-based mixing sequences at high MAS frequencies and examined different strategies to simultaneously acquire 3D correlation spectra that are commonly required in the structural studies of proteins. The potential of numerically optimised symmetry-based mixing sequences and the simultaneous recording of chemical shift correlation spectra such as: 3D NCAC and 3D NHH with dual receivers, 3D NC Prime C and 3D C Prime NCA with sequential {sup 13}C acquisitions, 3D NHH and 3D NC Prime H with sequential {sup 1}H acquisitions and 3D CANH and 3D C'NH with broadband {sup 13}C-{sup 15}N mixing are demonstrated using microcrystalline samples of the {beta}1 immunoglobulin binding domain of protein G (GB1) and the chicken {alpha}-spectrin SH3 domain.

  18. Alpha decay and various problems related to it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katori, Kenji

    1992-01-01

    On the proton-excessive nucleus side of lanthanide and actinide, alpha decay is the main decay mode. In lanthanide region, alpha decay has been measured to the drip line for most even-even nuclei. In the measurement of alpha decay, emitted energy and life are measured, but the measurement of converted alpha width remains in the limited range. In order to obtain the converted alpha width of high accuracy, the nucleus formation in larger quantity on the drip line and the simultaneous measurement with a multiple detector system including gamma ray and beta ray are required. In this paper, three topics related to alpha cluster and alpha decay and the problems that confront at present are discussed. The continuation to exist of alpha cluster structure to heavy nuclei, the analysis of lanthanide nucleus region by the alpha giant resonance model, and the new data on the alpha ray decaying from the mass of 175, 176 and 177 are reported. In lanthanide nucleus region, remarkable interference was not observed between beta-2 and beta-3 modes in the converted alpha width measured between the ground states. The present problems in alpha decay are enumerated. (K.I.)

  19. Cortical Alpha Activity in Schizoaffective Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeini, Mahdi; Khaleghi, Ali; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Zarafshan, Hadi; Fazio, Rachel L; Majidi, Hamid

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Electrophysiological studies have identified abnormal oscillatory activities in the cerebral cortex in schizophrenia and mood disorders. Biological and pathophysiological evidence suggests specific deficits in serotonin (5-HT) receptor function in schizoaffective disorder (SA), a clinical syndrome with characteristics of both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. This study investigated alpha oscillations in patients with SA. Method: Electroencephalography was used to measure ongoing and evoked alpha oscillations in 38 adults meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria for SA, and in 39 healthy controls. Results: Spontaneous alpha power of the participants with SA was significantly lower than that of healthy participants [F (1, 75) = 8.81, P < 0.01]. Evoked alpha activity was also decreased in SA compared to controls [F (1, 75) = 5.67, P = 0.025]. Conclusion : A strong reduction of alpha power in the posterior regions may reflect abnormality in the thalamocortical circuits. It is shown that hypoxia and reduced cerebral blood flow is associated with reduced alpha activity among different regions of the brain. Therefore, it can be concluded that greatly decreased alpha activity, particularly in centro-parietal and occipital regions, is related to SA symptoms such as hallucinations.

  20. Neutron and photon spectra in LINACs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega-Carrillo, H.R.; Martínez-Ovalle, S.A.; Lallena, A.M.; Mercado, G.A.; Benites-Rengifo, J.L.

    2012-01-01

    A Monte Carlo calculation, using the MCNPX code, was carried out in order to estimate the photon and neutron spectra in two locations of two linacs operating at 15 and 18 MV. Detailed models of both linac heads were used in the calculations. Spectra were estimated below the flattening filter and at the isocenter. Neutron spectra show two components due to evaporation and knock-on neutrons. Lethargy spectra under the filter were compared to the spectra calculated from the function quoted by Tosi et al. that describes reasonably well neutron spectra beyond 1 MeV, though tends to underestimate the energy region between 10 –6 and 1 MeV. Neutron and the Bremsstrahlung spectra show the same features regardless of the linac voltage. - Highlights: ► With MCNPX code realistic models of two LINACs were built. ► Photon and neutron spectra below the flattening filter and at the isocenter were calculated. ► Neutron spectrum at the flattening filter was compared against the Tosi et al. source-term model. ► Tosi et al. model underestimates the neutron contribution below 1 MeV. ► Photon spectra look alike to those published in literature.

  1. Alpha 1 B- but not alpha 1 A-adrenoceptors mediate inositol phosphate generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michel, M. C.; Hanft, G.; Gross, G.

    1990-01-01

    We used novel highly subtype-selective antagonists to study whether alpha 1A- and/or alpha 1B-adrenoceptors mediate the stimulation of inositol phosphate generation by noradrenaline in rat cerebral cortex. Phentolamine (10 microM) and prazosin (100 nM) completely abolished the stimulated inositol

  2. Fasting induces basolateral uptake transporters of the SLC family in the liver via HNF4alpha and PGC1alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Christoph G; Martin, Ina V; Porn, Anne C; Voigt, Sebastian; Gartung, Carsten; Trautwein, Christian; Geier, Andreas

    2007-09-01

    Fasting induces numerous adaptive changes in metabolism by several central signaling pathways, the most important represented by the HNF4alpha/PGC-1alpha-pathway. Because HNF4alpha has been identified as central regulator of basolateral bile acid transporters and a previous study reports increased basolateral bile acid uptake into the liver during fasting, we hypothesized that HNF4alpha is involved in fasting-induced bile acid uptake via upregulation of basolateral bile acid transporters. In rats, mRNA of Ntcp, Oatp1, and Oatp2 were significantly increased after 48 h of fasting. Protein expression as determined by Western blot showed significant increases for all three transporters 72 h after the onset of fasting. Whereas binding activity of HNF1alpha in electrophoretic mobility shift assays remained unchanged, HNF4alpha binding activity to the Ntcp promoter was increased significantly. In line with this result, we found significantly increased mRNA expression of HNF4alpha and PGC-1alpha. Functional studies in HepG2 cells revealed an increased endogenous NTCP mRNA expression upon cotransfection with either HNF4alpha, PGC-1alpha, or a combination of both. We conclude that upregulation of the basolateral bile acid transporters Ntcp, Oatp1, and Oatp2 in fasted rats is mediated via the HNF4alpha/PGC-1alpha pathway.

  3. Structural characterization by NMR of the natively unfolded extracellular domain of beta-dystroglycan: toward the identification of the binding epitope for alpha-dystroglycan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzi, Manuela; Bianchi, Marzia; Sciandra, Francesca; Paci, Maurizio; Giardina, Bruno; Brancaccio, Andrea; Cicero, Daniel O

    2003-11-25

    Dystroglycan (DG) is an adhesion molecule playing a crucial role for tissue stability during both early embriogenesis and adulthood and is composed by two tightly interacting subunits: alpha-DG, membrane-associated and highly glycosylated, and the transmembrane beta-DG. Recently, by solid-phase binding assays and NMR experiments, we have shown that the C-terminal domain of alpha-DG interacts with a recombinant extracellular fragment of beta-DG (positions 654-750) independently from glycosylation and that the linear binding epitope is located between residues 550 and 565 of alpha-DG. In order to elucidate which moieties of beta-DG are specifically involved in the complex with alpha-DG, the ectodomain has been recombinantly expressed and purified in a labeled ((13)C,(15)N) form and studied by multidimensional NMR. Although it represents a natively unfolded protein domain, we obtained an almost complete backbone assignment. Chemical shift index, (1)H-(15)N heteronuclear single-quantum coherence and nuclear Overhauser effect (HSQC-NOESY) spectra and (3)J(HN,H)(alpha) coupling constant values confirm that this protein is highly disordered, but (1)H-(15)N steady-state NOE experiments indicate that the protein presents two regions of different mobility. The first one, between residues 659 and 722, is characterized by a limited degree of mobility, whereas the C-terminal portion, containing about 30 amino acids, is highly flexible. The binding of beta-DG(654-750) to the C-terminal region of the alpha subunit, alpha-DG(485-620), has been investigated, showing that the region of beta-DG(654-750) between residues 691 and 719 is involved in the interaction.

  4. Karyopherin alpha7 (KPNA7), a divergent member of the importin alpha family of nuclear import receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Joshua B; Talley, Ashley M; Spencer, Adam; Gioeli, Daniel; Paschal, Bryce M

    2010-08-11

    Classical nuclear localization signal (NLS) dependent nuclear import is carried out by a heterodimer of importin alpha and importin beta. NLS cargo is recognized by importin alpha, which is bound by importin beta. Importin beta mediates translocation of the complex through the central channel of the nuclear pore, and upon reaching the nucleus, RanGTP binding to importin beta triggers disassembly of the complex. To date, six importin alpha family members, encoded by separate genes, have been described in humans. We sequenced and characterized a seventh member of the importin alpha family of transport factors, karyopherin alpha 7 (KPNA7), which is most closely related to KPNA2. The domain of KPNA7 that binds Importin beta (IBB) is divergent, and shows stronger binding to importin beta than the IBB domains from of other importin alpha family members. With regard to NLS recognition, KPNA7 binds to the retinoblastoma (RB) NLS to a similar degree as KPNA2, but it fails to bind the SV40-NLS and the human nucleoplasmin (NPM) NLS. KPNA7 shows a predominantly nuclear distribution under steady state conditions, which contrasts with KPNA2 which is primarily cytoplasmic. KPNA7 is a novel importin alpha family member in humans that belongs to the importin alpha2 subfamily. KPNA7 shows different subcellular localization and NLS binding characteristics compared to other members of the importin alpha family. These properties suggest that KPNA7 could be specialized for interactions with select NLS-containing proteins, potentially impacting developmental regulation.

  5. Complex rearrangements within the human J delta-C delta/J alpha-C alpha locus and aberrant recombination between J alpha segments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baer, R.; Boehm, T.; Yssel, H.; Spits, H.; Rabbitts, T. H.

    1988-01-01

    We have examined DNA rearrangements within a 120 kb cloned region of the human T cell receptor J delta-C delta/J alpha-C alpha locus. Three types of pattern emerge from an analysis of T cell lines and clones. Firstly, cells with two rearrangements within J delta-C delta; secondly, cells with one

  6. Aberrant EEG functional connectivity and EEG power spectra in resting state post-traumatic stress disorder: a sLORETA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imperatori, Claudio; Farina, Benedetto; Quintiliani, Maria Isabella; Onofri, Antonio; Castelli Gattinara, Paola; Lepore, Marta; Gnoni, Valentina; Mazzucchi, Edoardo; Contardi, Anna; Della Marca, Giacomo

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the modifications of EEG power spectra and EEG connectivity of resting state (RS) condition in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Seventeen patients and seventeen healthy subjects matched for age and gender were enrolled. EEG was recorded during 5min of RS. EEG analysis was conducted by means of the standardized Low Resolution Electric Tomography software (sLORETA). In power spectra analysis PTSD patients showed a widespread increase of theta activity (4.5-7.5Hz) in parietal lobes (Brodmann Area, BA 7, 4, 5, 40) and in frontal lobes (BA 6). In the connectivity analysis PTSD patients also showed increase of alpha connectivity (8-12.5Hz) between the cortical areas explored by Pz-P4 electrode. Our results could reflect the alteration of memory systems and emotional processing consistently altered in PTSD patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Genetic evidence that HNF-1alpha-dependent transcriptional control of HNF-4alpha is essential for human pancreatic beta cell function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sara K; Párrizas, Marcelina; Jensen, Maria L

    2002-01-01

    Mutations in the genes encoding hepatocyte nuclear factor 4alpha (HNF-4alpha) and HNF-1alpha impair insulin secretion and cause maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY). HNF-4alpha is known to be an essential positive regulator of HNF-1alpha. More recent data demonstrates that HNF-4alpha...... in human islets and exocrine cells is primarily mediated by the P2 promoter. Furthermore, we describe a G --> A mutation in a conserved nucleotide position of the HNF-1alpha binding site of the P2 promoter, which cosegregates with MODY. The mutation results in decreased affinity for HNF-1alpha...

  8. The alpha3 laminin subunit, alpha6beta4 and alpha3beta1 integrin coordinately regulate wound healing in cultured epithelial cells and in the skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldfinger, L E; Hopkinson, S B; deHart, G W

    1999-01-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that proteolytic processing within the globular domain of the alpha3 subunit of laminin-5 (LN5) converts LN5 from a cell motility-inducing factor to a protein complex that can trigger the formation of hemidesmosomes, certain cell-matrix attachment sites found in epithe......-inhibiting antibodies, we provide evidence that LN5 and its two integrin receptors (alpha6beta4 and alpha3beta1) appear necessary for wound healing to occur in MCF-10A cell culture wounds. We propose a model for healing of wounded epithelial tissues based on these results....... in epithelial cells. We have prepared a monoclonal antibody (12C4) whose epitope is located toward the carboxy terminus of the globular domain of the alpha3 laminin subunit. This epitope is lost from the alpha3 subunit as a consequence of proteolytic processing. Antibody 12C4 stains throughout the matrix...... the wound site. A similar phenomenon is observed in human skin wounds, since we also detect expression of the unprocessed alpha3 laminin subunit at the leading tip of the sheet of epidermal cells that epithelializes skin wounds in vivo. In addition, using alpha3 laminin subunit and integrin function...

  9. Solar Energetic Particle Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, J. M.; Boezio, M.; Bravar, U.; Bruno, A.; Christian, E. R.; de Nolfo, G. A.; Martucci, M.; Mergè, M.; Munini, R.; Ricci, M.; Sparvoli, R.; Stochaj, S.

    2017-12-01

    We report updated event-integrated spectra from several SEP events measured with PAMELA. The measurements were made from 2006 to 2014 in the energy range starting at 80 MeV and extending well above the neutron monitor threshold. The PAMELA instrument is in a high inclination, low Earth orbit and has access to SEPs when at high latitudes. Spectra have been assembled from these high-latitude measurements. The field of view of PAMELA is small and during the high-latitude passes it scans a wide range of asymptotic directions as the spacecraft orbits. Correcting for data gaps, solid angle effects and improved background corrections, we have compiled event-integrated intensity spectra for twenty-eight SEP events. Where statistics permit, the spectra exhibit power law shapes in energy with a high-energy exponential roll over. The events analyzed include two genuine ground level enhancements (GLE). In those cases the roll-over energy lies above the neutron monitor threshold ( 1 GV) while the others are lower. We see no qualitative difference between the spectra of GLE vs. non-GLE events, i.e., all roll over in an exponential fashion with rapidly decreasing intensity at high energies.

  10. Remote Optical Detection of Alpha Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sand, J.; Hannuksela, V.; Toivonen, J.; Ihantola, S.; Peraejaervi, K.; Toivonen, H.

    2010-01-01

    Alpha emitting radiation sources are typically hard to detect with conventional detectors due to the short range of alpha particles in the air. However, previous studies have shown that remote detection of alpha radiation is possible by measuring the ionization-induced fluorescence of air molecules. The alpha-induced ultraviolet (UV) light is mainly emitted by molecular nitrogen and its fluorescence properties are well known. The benefit of this method is the long range of UV photons in the air. Secondly, the detection is possible also under a strong beta and gamma radiation backgrounds as they do not cause localized molecular excitation. In this work, the optical detection was studied using two different detection schemes; spectral separation of fluorescence from the background lighting and coincidence detection of UV photons originating from a single radiative decay event. Our spectrally integrated measurements have shown that one alpha decay event yields up to 400 fluorescence photons in the air and all these UV photons are induced in a 5 ns time-window. On the other hand, the probability of a background coincidence event in 5 ns scale is very rare compared to the number of background photons. This information can be applied in fluorescence coincidence filtering to discriminate the alpha radiation initiated fluorescence signal from much more intense background lighting. A device called HAUVA (Handheld Alpha UV Application) was built during this work for demonstration purposes. HAUVA utilizes spectral filtering and it is designed to detect alpha emitters from a distance of about 40 cm. Using specially selected room lighting, the device is able to separate 1 kBq alpha emitter from the background lighting with 1 second integration time. (author)

  11. Monitor for alpha beta contamination of hands; Moniteur de contamination alpha beta des mains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guitton, J

    1958-07-01

    The following specifications of hands alpha beta contamination monitor are presented: the position of the hands, the detection and separation of alpha and beta, the information processing, the programming, the results presentation and general characteristics. (A.L.B.)

  12. Response spectra in alluvial soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasekharan, A.R.; Paul, D.K.

    1975-01-01

    For aseismic design of structures, the ground motion data is assumed either in the form of ground acceleration as a function of time or indirectly in the form of response spectra. Though the response spectra approach has limitations like not being applicable for nonlinear problems, it is usually used for structures like nuclear power plants. Fifty accelerograms recorded at alluvial sites have been processed. Since different empirical formulas relating acceleration with magnitude and distance give a wide scatter of values, peak ground acceleration alone cannot be the parameter as is assumed by a number of authors. The spectra corresponding to 5% damping have been normalised with respect to three parameters, namely, peak ground acceleration, peak ground velocity and a nondimensional quantity ad/v 2 . Envelopee of maxima and minima as well as average response spectra has been obtained. A comparison with the USAEC spectra has been made. A relation between ground acceleration, ground velocity and ad/v 2 has been obtained which would nearly give the same magnification of the response. A design response spectra for alluvial soils has been recommended. (author)

  13. Antibody modified gold nano-mushroom arrays for rapid detection of alpha-fetoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wanbo; Jiang, Xueqin; Xue, Jiancai; Zhou, Zhangkai; Zhou, Jianhua

    2015-06-15

    Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) combined with immunoassay shows greatly potential in fast detection of tumor markers. In this paper, a highly sensitive LSPR substrate has been fabricated and modified for direct detection of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). The biosensor was prepared by interference lithography, and modified by covalently immobilizing anti-AFP on the surface of gold nano-mushroom arrays (GNMA). The modification process was investigated by Vis-NIR reflectance spectra and cyclic voltammogram measurements. We revealed the optical properties of the modified GNMA by measuring the Vis-NIR reflectance spectra and simulating its electric intensity field distribution under light illumination. The GNMA substrate was highly sensitive, with a refractive index sensitivity of ~465 nm/RIU. The substrate can be applied to label-free detection of AFP, with the linear range and the limit of detection determined to be 20-200 ng/mL and 24 ng/mL (S/N=3), respectively. We also demonstrated its clinical application by directly detecting AFP in human serum samples. It is expected that our biosensor could be integrated on microfluidic chips for high-throughput detection in portable early diagnosis, post-operative and point-of-care (POC) in clinical applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. [Anti-TNF alpha in dermatology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahe, E; Descamps, V

    2002-12-01

    The discovery of the major role of TNF alpha in the physiopathology of certain inflammatory diseases and notably in rheumatoid arthritis and Crohn's disease has led to the development of anti-TNF alpha drugs. These new therapeutic arms issued from bio-technology have rapidly demonstrated their efficacy in the treatment of these two diseases. The anti-TNF alpha arsenal is currently dominated by etanercept, a fusion protein composed of a soluble TNF alpha receptor, and infliximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody. However, new molecules will soon enrich this arsenal. TNF alpha is a major cytokine of inflammatory diseases of the skin. Many dermatological diseases will probably benefit from these new treatments. Two studies have already demonstrated their interest in cutaneous and articular psoriasis. Encouraging sporadic results suggest other potential indications (Behcet's disease, bullous dermatitis, neutrophilic dermatitis, toxic epidermal necrolysis, systemic vascularitis,.). These promising new treatments, although expensive, and with yet unknown long term side effects, justify rigorous assessment of their efficacy and tolerance in each indication. Here again the dermatologist has a major role to play in post-marketing pharmacovigilance.

  15. Human fat cell alpha-2 adrenoceptors. I. Functional exploration and pharmacological definition with selected alpha-2 agonists and antagonists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galitzky, J.; Mauriege, P.; Berlan, M.; Lafontan, M.

    1989-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate more fully the pharmacological characteristics of the human fat cell alpha-2 adrenoceptor. Biological assays were performed on intact isolated fat cells while radioligand binding studies were carried out with [ 3 H]yohimbine in membranes. These pharmacological studies brought: (1) a critical definition of the limits of the experimental conditions required for the exploration of alpha-2 adrenergic responsiveness on human fat cells and membranes; (2) an improvement in the pharmacological definition of the human fat cell postsynaptic alpha-2 adrenoceptor. Among alpha-2 agonists, UK-14,304 was the most potent and the relative order of potency was: UK-14,304 greater than p-aminoclonidine greater than clonidine = B-HT 920 greater than rilmenidine. For alpha-2 antagonists, the potency order was: yohimbine greater than idazoxan greater than SK ampersand F-86,466 much greater than benextramine; (3) a description of the impact of benextramine (irreversible alpha-1/alpha-2 antagonist) on human fat cell alpha-2 adrenergic receptors and on human fat cell function; the drug inactivates the alpha-2 adrenergic receptors with a minor impact on beta adrenergic receptors and without noticeable alterations of fat cell function as assessed by preservation of beta adrenergic and Al-adenosine receptor-mediated lipolytic responses; and (4) a definition of the relationship existing between alpha-2 adrenergic receptor occupancy, inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity and antilipolysis with full and partial agonists. The existence of a receptor reserve must be taken into account when evaluating alpha-2 adrenergic receptor distribution and regulation of human fat cells

  16. BETA SPECTRA. I. Negatrons spectra; ESPECTROS BETA. I. Espectros simples de negatrones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grau Malonda, A; Garcia-Torano, E

    1978-07-01

    Using the Fermi theory of beta decay, the beta spectra for 62 negatrons emitters have been computed introducing a correction factor for unique forbidden transitions. These spectra are plotted vs. energy, once normal i sed, and tabulated with the related Fermi functions. The average and median energies are calculated. (Author)

  17. PLE CATALYZED HYDROLYZES OF ALPHA-SUBSTITUTED ALPHA-HYDROXY ESTERS - THE INFLUENCE OF THE SUBSTITUENTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MOORLAG, H; KELLOGG, RM

    1991-01-01

    The enzymatic hydrolyses of a variety of alpha-substituted mandelic and lactic esters using pig liver esterase (PLE) have been investigated. High to moderate enantioselectivity was found for various alpha-substituted mandelic esters, whereas PLE showed low to no enantioselectivity for

  18. Alpha-driven magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and MHD-induced alpha loss in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Z.; Nazikian, R.; Fu, G.Y.

    1997-02-01

    Alpha-driven toroidal Alfven eigenmodes (TAEs) are observed as predicted by theory in the post neutral beam phase in high central q (safety factor) deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasmas in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). The mode location, poloidal structure and the importance of q profile for TAE instability are discussed. So far no alpha particle loss due to these modes was detected due to the small mode amplitude. However, alpha loss induced by kinetic ballooning modes (KBMs) was observed in high confinement D-T discharges. Particle orbit simulation demonstrates that the wave-particle resonant interaction can explain the observed correlation between the increase in alpha loss and appearance of multiple high-n (n ≥ 6, n is the toroidal mode number) modes

  19. Summary of alpha-neutron sources in GADRAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, Dean James; Thoreson, Gregory G.; Harding, Lee T.

    2012-01-01

    A common source of neutrons for calibration and testing is alpha-neutron material, named for the alpha-neutron nuclear reaction that occurs within. This material contains a long-lived alpha-emitter and a lighter target element. When the alpha particle from the emitter is absorbed by the target, neutrons and gamma rays are released. Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS) includes built-in alpha-neutron source definitions for AcC, AmB, AmBe, AmF, AmLi, CmC, and PuC. In addition, GADRAS users may create their own alpha-neutron sources by placing valid alpha-emitters and target elements in materials within their one-dimensional models (1DModel). GADRAS has the ability to use pre-built alpha-neutron sources for plotting or as trace-sources in 1D models. In addition, if any material (existing or user-defined) specified in a 1D model contains both an alpha emitter in conjunction with a target nuclide, or there is an interface between such materials, then the appropriate neutron-emission rate from the alpha-neutron reaction will be computed. The gamma-emissions from these sources are also computed, but are limited to a subset of nine target nuclides. If a user has experimental data to contribute to the alpha-neutron gamma emission database, it may be added directly or submitted to the GADRAS developers for inclusion. The gadras.exe.config file will be replaced when GADRAS updates are installed, so sending the information to the GADRAS developers is the preferred method for updating the database. This is also preferable because it enables other users to benefit from your efforts.

  20. Exhaustive Weakly Wandering Sequences and Alpha-type Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley Eigen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An increasing sequence of integers, $\\mathbb{B}$, is given for which there exists a family of ergodic, infinite measure preserving transformations $T_\\alpha$, $0 \\leq \\alpha \\leq 1$ so that (1 $T_\\alpha$ is of $\\alpha$-type and (2 $\\mathbb{B}$ is an exhaustive weakly wandering sequence for each $T_\\alpha$.

  1. Design spectra development considering short time histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiner, E.O.

    1983-01-01

    The need for generation of seismic acceleration histories to prescribed response spectra arises several ways in structural dynamics. For example, one way of obtaining floor spectra is to generate a history from a foundation spectra and then solve for the floor motion from which a floor spectrum can be obtained. Two separate programs, MODQKE and MDOF, were written to provide a capability of obtaining equipment spectra from design spectra. MODQKE generates or modifies acceleration histories to conform with design spectra pertaining to, say, a foundation. MDOF is a simple linear modal superposition program that solves for equipment support histories using the design spectra conforming histories as input. Equipment spectra, then, are obtained from the support histories using MODQKE

  2. Determination of the Light Element Fraction in MSL APXS Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrett, G. M.; Pradler, I.; Campbell, J. L.; Gellert, R.; Leshin, L. A.; Schmidt, M. E.; Team, M.

    2013-12-01

    Additional light invisible components (ALICs), measured using the alpha particle X-ray spectrometer (APXS), represent all light elements (e.g. CO3, OH, H2O) present in a sample below Na, excluding bound oxygen. The method for quantifying ALICs was originally developed for the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) APXS (Mallet et al, 2006; Campbell et al, 2008). This method has been applied to data collected by the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) APXS up to sol 269 using a new terrestrial calibration. ALICs are investigated using the intensity ratio of Pu L-alpha Compton and Rayleigh scatter peaks (C/R). Peak areas of the scattered X-rays are determined by the GUAPX fitting program. This experimental C/R is compared to a Monte Carlo simulated C/R. The ratio of simulated and experimental C/R values is called the K-value. ALIC concentrations are calculated by comparing the K-value to the fraction of all invisibles present; the invisible fraction is produced from the spectrum fit by GUAPX. This method is applied to MSL spectra with long integration duration (greater than 3 hours) and with energy resolution less than 180 eV at 5.9 keV. These overnight spectra encompass a variety of geologic materials examined by the Curiosity Rover, including volcanic and sedimentary lithologies. Transfer of the K-value calibration produced in the lab to the flight APXS has been completed and temperature, geometry and spectrum duration effects have been thoroughly examined. A typical limit of detection of ALICs is around 5 wt% with uncertainties of approximately 5 wt%. Accurate elemental concentrations are required as input to the Monte Carlo program (Mallet et al, 2006; Lee, 2010). Elemental concentrations are obtained from the GUAPX code using the same long duration, good resolution spectra used for determining the experimental C/R ratios (Campbell et al. 2012). Special attention was given to the assessment of Rb, Sr, and Y as these element peaks overlap the scatter peaks. Mineral effects

  3. Expression of alpha-amylase in Bacillus licheniformis.

    OpenAIRE

    Rothstein, D M; Devlin, P E; Cate, R L

    1986-01-01

    In Bacillus licheniformis, alpha-amylase production varied more than 100-fold depending on the presence or absence of a catabolite-repressing carbon source in the growth medium. alpha-Amylase was produced during the growth phase and not at the onset of the stationary phase. Induction of alpha-amylase correlated with synthesis of mRNA initiating at the promoter of the alpha-amylase gene.

  4. Increased voluntary exercise in mice deficient for tumour necrosis factor-alpha and lymphotoxin-alpha.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Netea, M.G.; Kullberg, B.J.; Vonk, A.G.; Verschueren, I.; Joosten, L.A.B.; Meer, J.W.M. van der

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The endogenous mediators playing a role in the sensing of fatigue and cessation of exercise are yet to be characterized. We hypothesized that proinflammatory cytokines, in particular tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) and lymphotoxin-alpha (LT) transmit signals leading to fatigue.

  5. Measurement and analysis of $\\alpha$ particle induced reactions on yttrium

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, N L; Chintalapudi, S N

    2000-01-01

    Excitation functions for /sup 89/Y[( alpha ,3n); ( alpha ,4n); ( alpha , p3n); ( alpha , alpha n); ( alpha , alpha 2n)] reactions were measured up to 50 MeV using stacked foil activation technique and HPGe gamma ray spectroscopy method. The experimental data were compared with calculations considering equilibrium as well as preequilibrium reactions according to the hybrid model of Blann (ALICE/90). For ( alpha , xnyp) type of reactions, the precompound contributions are described by the model. There seems to be indications of direct inelastic scattering effects in ( alpha , alpha xn) type of reactions. To the best of our knowledge, the excitation functions for ( alpha ,4n), ( alpha , p3n), ( alpha , alpha n) and ( alpha , alpha 2n) reactions were measured for the first time. (23 refs).

  6. Measurement and analysis of alpha particle induced reactions on yttrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, N.L.; Gadkari, M.S. [Baroda Univ. (India). Dept. of Physics; Chintalapudi, S.N. [IUC-DAEF Calcutta Centre, Calcutta (India)

    2000-05-01

    Excitation functions for {sup 89}Y[({alpha},3n);({alpha},4n);({alpha},p3n);({alpha},{alpha}n);({alpha},{alpha}2n)] reactions were measured up to 50 MeV using stacked foil activation technique and HPGe gamma ray spectroscopy method. The experimental data were compared with calculations considering equilibrium as well as preequilibrium reactions according to the hybrid model of Blann (ALICE/90). For ({alpha},xnyp) type of reactions, the precompound contributions are described by the model. There seems to be indications of direct inelastic scattering effects in ({alpha},{alpha}xn) type of reactions. To the best of our knowledge, the excitation functions for ({alpha},4n), ({alpha},p3n), ({alpha},{alpha}n) and ({alpha},{alpha}2n) reactions were measured for the first time. (orig.)

  7. Alpha clustering in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgson, P.E.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of nucleon clustering in nuclei are described, with reference to both nuclear structure and nuclear reactions, and the advantages of using the cluster formalism to describe a range of phenomena are discussed. It is shown that bound and scattering alpha-particle states can be described in a unified way using an energy-dependent alpha-nucleus potential. (author)

  8. A phenomenological explanation for the anomalous ion heating observed in the JET alpha-heating experiment of 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, D.; Albergante, M.

    2012-08-01

    In the so-called ‘alpha-heating’ experiment performed on the JET tokamak during the deuterium-tritium campaign of 1997, the ion temperature was found to be far exceeding (both in absolute value and in its rise time) the level that could have been expected from direct collisional heating by the fusion-born alpha particles themselves and energy equipartition with the electrons. To date, no explanation has been put forward for this long standing puzzle, despite much work having been performed on this subject in the early 2000s. Two analysis methods that have recently become available have been employed to re-analyse these observations of an anomalous ion heating. First, an algorithm based on the sparse representation of signals has been used to analyse magnetic, reflectometry and electron-cyclotron emission measurements of the turbulence spectra in the drift-wave range of frequencies. This analysis has then been complemented with turbulence simulations performed with the GENE code. We find, both experimentally and in the simulations, that the presence of a minority, but sufficiently large, population of fusion-born alpha particles that have not yet fully thermalized stabilizes the turbulence in the ion-drift direction, but practically does not affect the turbulence in the electron-drift direction. We link such stabilization of the ion-drift-wave turbulence to the increase in the ion temperature above the level achieved in similar discharges that did not have (at all or enough) alpha particles. When the fusion-born alpha particles have fully thermalized, the turbulence spectrum in the ion-drift direction reappears at somewhat larger amplitudes, which we link to the ensuing reduction in the ion temperature. This phenomenological dynamics fully corresponds to the actual experimental observations. By taking into account an effect of the alpha particles that had not been previously considered, our new analysis finally presents a phenomenological explanation for the so

  9. A phenomenological explanation for the anomalous ion heating observed in the JET alpha-heating experiment of 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testa, D.; Albergante, M.

    2012-01-01

    In the so-called ‘alpha-heating’ experiment performed on the JET tokamak during the deuterium–tritium campaign of 1997, the ion temperature was found to be far exceeding (both in absolute value and in its rise time) the level that could have been expected from direct collisional heating by the fusion-born alpha particles themselves and energy equipartition with the electrons. To date, no explanation has been put forward for this long standing puzzle, despite much work having been performed on this subject in the early 2000s. Two analysis methods that have recently become available have been employed to re-analyse these observations of an anomalous ion heating. First, an algorithm based on the sparse representation of signals has been used to analyse magnetic, reflectometry and electron-cyclotron emission measurements of the turbulence spectra in the drift-wave range of frequencies. This analysis has then been complemented with turbulence simulations performed with the GENE code. We find, both experimentally and in the simulations, that the presence of a minority, but sufficiently large, population of fusion-born alpha particles that have not yet fully thermalized stabilizes the turbulence in the ion-drift direction, but practically does not affect the turbulence in the electron-drift direction. We link such stabilization of the ion-drift-wave turbulence to the increase in the ion temperature above the level achieved in similar discharges that did not have (at all or enough) alpha particles. When the fusion-born alpha particles have fully thermalized, the turbulence spectrum in the ion-drift direction reappears at somewhat larger amplitudes, which we link to the ensuing reduction in the ion temperature. This phenomenological dynamics fully corresponds to the actual experimental observations. By taking into account an effect of the alpha particles that had not been previously considered, our new analysis finally presents a phenomenological explanation for the

  10. Pain and the alpha-sleep anomaly: a mechanism of sleep disruption in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Marca, Giacomo; Frusciante, Roberto; Vollono, Catello; Iannaccone, Elisabetta; Dittoni, Serena; Losurdo, Anna; Testani, Elisa; Gnoni, Valentina; Colicchio, Salvatore; Di Blasi, Chiara; Erra, Carmen; Mazza, Salvatore; Ricci, Enzo

    2013-04-01

    To measure the presence of the alpha-sleep anomaly in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) and to evaluate the association between the sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) pattern and the presence of musculoskeletal pain. Cross-sectional study. Sleep laboratory. Fifty-five consecutive adult FSHD patients, 26 women and 29 men, age 49.6 ± 15.1 years (range 18-76). Questionnaires and polysomnography. Patients were asked to indicate if in the 3 months before the sleep study they presented persisting or recurring musculoskeletal pain. Patients who reported pain were asked to fill in the Italian version of the Brief Pain Inventory and the McGill Pain questionnaire, and a 101-point visual analog scale (VAS) for pain intensity. Polysomnographic recordings were performed. EEG was analyzed by means of Fast Fourier Transform. Four power spectra bands (δ 0-4 Hz, θ 4-8 Hz, α 8-14 Hz, β 14-32 Hz) were computed. Sleep macrostructure parameters and alpha/delta EEG power ratio during non rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep were compared between patients with and without pain. Forty-two patients in our sample reported chronic pain. VAS mean score was 55.2 ± 23.8 (range 10-100), pain rating index score was 13.8 ± 10.2, and present pain intensity was 2.5 ± 0.8. The statistical analysis documented an increased occurrence of the alpha and beta rhythms during NREM sleep in FSHD patients with pain. Significant correlations were observed between the alpha/delta power ratio during NREM sleep and pain measures. Chronic musculoskeletal pain is frequent in FSHD patients, and it represents a major mechanism of sleep disruption. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. [Alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone. From bench to bedside].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, M; Luger, T A

    2010-06-01

    Alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) is a tridecapeptide that is produced by the skin itself from the precursor proopiomelanocortin. It crucially mediates ultraviolet light-induced tanning after binding to melanocortin-1 receptors (MC-1R) expressed on the surface of epidermal melanocytes. The potent pigment-inducing and also cytoprotective actions of alpha-MSH are the rationale for the performance of first phase II clinical trials with Nle4-D-Phe7-alpha-MSH (NDP-alpha-MSH), a subcutaneously administered synthetic and superpotent alpha-MSH analogue, in patients with photodermatoses such as erythropoietic protoporphyria. Since alpha-MSH has shown promising anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic properties in numerous preclinical studies, it will be most interesting to evaluate these effects in further clinical pilot studies with NDP-alpha-MSH. In addition to alpha-MSH analogues, truncated tripeptides such as KDPT which do not bind to MC-1R but have sustained anti-inflammatory properties are currently emerging as another novel therapeutic strategy in dermatology.

  12. Far-Infrared and Millimeter Continuum Studies of K-Giants: Alpha Boo and Alpha Tau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Martin; Carbon, Duane F.; Welch, William J.; Lim, Tanya; Forster, James R.; Goorvitch, David; Thigpen, William (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We have imaged two normal, non-coronal, infrared-bright K-giants, alpha Boo and alpha Tau, in the 1.4-millimeter and 2.8-millimeter continuum using BIMA. These stars have been used as important absolute calibrators for several infrared satellites. Our goals are: (1) to probe the structure of their upper photospheres; (2) to establish whether these stars radiate as simple photospheres or possess long-wavelength chromospheres; and (3) to make a connection between millimeter-wave and far-infrared absolute flux calibrations. To accomplish these goals we also present ISO Long Wavelength Spectrometer (LWS) measurements of both these K-giants. The far-infrared and millimeter continuum radiation is produced in the vicinity of the temperature minimum in a Boo and a Tau, offering a direct test of the model photospheres and chromospheres for these two cool giants. We find that current photospheric models predict fluxes in reasonable agreement with those observed for those wavelengths which sample the upper photosphere, namely less than or equal to 170 micrometers in alpha Tau and less than or equal to 125 micrometers in alpha Boo. It is possible that alpha Tau is still radiative as far as 0.9 - 1.4 millimeters. We detect chromospheric radiation from both stars by 2.8 millimeters (by 1.4 millimeters in alpha Boo), and are able to establish useful bounds on the location of the temperature minimum. An attempt to interpret the chromospheric fluxes using the two-component "bifurcation model" proposed by Wiedemann et al. (1994) appears to lead to a significant contradiction.

  13. Generate floor response spectra, Part 2: Response spectra for equipment-structure resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Bo; Jiang, Wei; Xie, Wei-Chau; Pandey, Mahesh D.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The concept of tRS is proposed to deal with tuning of equipment and structures. • Established statistical approaches for estimating tRS corresponding to given GRS. • Derived a new modal combination rule from the theory of random vibration. • Developed efficient and accurate direct method for generating floor response spectra. - Abstract: When generating floor response spectra (FRS) using the direct spectra-to-spectra method developed in the companion paper, probability distribution of t-response spectrum (tRS), which deals with equipment-structure resonance or tuning, corresponding to a specified ground response spectrum (GRS) is required. In this paper, simulation results using a large number of horizontal and vertical ground motions are employed to establish statistical relationships between tRS and GRS. It is observed that the influence of site conditions on horizontal statistical relationships is negligible, whereas the effect of site conditions on vertical statistical relationships cannot be ignored. Considering the influence of site conditions, horizontal statistical relationship suitable for all site conditions and vertical statistical relationships suitable for hard sites and soft sites, respectively, are established. The horizontal and vertical statistical relationships are suitable to estimate tRS for design spectra in USNRC R.G. 1.60 and NUREG/CR-0098, Uniform Hazard Spectra (UHS) in Western North America (WNA), or any GRS falling inside the valid coverage of the statistical relationship. For UHS with significant high frequency spectral accelerations, such as UHS in Central and Eastern North America (CENA), an amplification ratio method is proposed to estimate tRS. Numerical examples demonstrate that the statistical relationships and the amplification ratio method are acceptable to estimate tRS for given GRS and to generate FRS using the direct method in different practical situations.

  14. Generate floor response spectra, Part 2: Response spectra for equipment-structure resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Bo, E-mail: b68li@uwaterloo.ca; Jiang, Wei, E-mail: w46jiang@uwaterloo.ca; Xie, Wei-Chau, E-mail: xie@uwaterloo.ca; Pandey, Mahesh D., E-mail: mdpandey@uwaterloo.ca

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • The concept of tRS is proposed to deal with tuning of equipment and structures. • Established statistical approaches for estimating tRS corresponding to given GRS. • Derived a new modal combination rule from the theory of random vibration. • Developed efficient and accurate direct method for generating floor response spectra. - Abstract: When generating floor response spectra (FRS) using the direct spectra-to-spectra method developed in the companion paper, probability distribution of t-response spectrum (tRS), which deals with equipment-structure resonance or tuning, corresponding to a specified ground response spectrum (GRS) is required. In this paper, simulation results using a large number of horizontal and vertical ground motions are employed to establish statistical relationships between tRS and GRS. It is observed that the influence of site conditions on horizontal statistical relationships is negligible, whereas the effect of site conditions on vertical statistical relationships cannot be ignored. Considering the influence of site conditions, horizontal statistical relationship suitable for all site conditions and vertical statistical relationships suitable for hard sites and soft sites, respectively, are established. The horizontal and vertical statistical relationships are suitable to estimate tRS for design spectra in USNRC R.G. 1.60 and NUREG/CR-0098, Uniform Hazard Spectra (UHS) in Western North America (WNA), or any GRS falling inside the valid coverage of the statistical relationship. For UHS with significant high frequency spectral accelerations, such as UHS in Central and Eastern North America (CENA), an amplification ratio method is proposed to estimate tRS. Numerical examples demonstrate that the statistical relationships and the amplification ratio method are acceptable to estimate tRS for given GRS and to generate FRS using the direct method in different practical situations.

  15. Spectra of alkali atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoso, Budi; Arumbinang, Haryono.

    1981-01-01

    Emission spectra of alkali atoms has been determined by using spectrometer at the ultraviolet to infra red waves range. The spectra emission can be obtained by absorption spectrophotometric analysis. Comparative evaluations between experimental data and data handbook obtained by spark method were also presented. (author tr.)

  16. A new gene deletion in the alpha-like globin gene cluster as the molecular basis for the rare alpha-thalassemia-1(--/alpha alpha) in blacks: HbH disease in sickle cell trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, M H; Coleman, M B; Adams, J G; Hartmann, R C; Saba, H; Anagnou, N P

    1986-02-01

    A novel deletion of at least 26 kilobase of DNA, including both alpha-globin genes, the psi alpha- and psi zeta-globin genes, but sparing the functional zeta-gene was found in a 10-year-old black boy with HbH disease and sickle cell trait. This particular deletion has not previously been described in blacks. Its existence makes it likely that the absence of Hb Barts hydrops fetalis in blacks is due to the rarity of the chromosome lacking two alpha-globin genes rather than a result of early embryonic death due to the failure to synthesize embryonic hemoglobins because of deletion of functional zeta-globin genes.

  17. Color image enhancement of medical images using alpha-rooting and zonal alpha-rooting methods on 2D QDFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoryan, Artyom M.; John, Aparna; Agaian, Sos S.

    2017-03-01

    2-D quaternion discrete Fourier transform (2-D QDFT) is the Fourier transform applied to color images when the color images are considered in the quaternion space. The quaternion numbers are four dimensional hyper-complex numbers. Quaternion representation of color image allows us to see the color of the image as a single unit. In quaternion approach of color image enhancement, each color is seen as a vector. This permits us to see the merging effect of the color due to the combination of the primary colors. The color images are used to be processed by applying the respective algorithm onto each channels separately, and then, composing the color image from the processed channels. In this article, the alpha-rooting and zonal alpha-rooting methods are used with the 2-D QDFT. In the alpha-rooting method, the alpha-root of the transformed frequency values of the 2-D QDFT are determined before taking the inverse transform. In the zonal alpha-rooting method, the frequency spectrum of the 2-D QDFT is divided by different zones and the alpha-rooting is applied with different alpha values for different zones. The optimization of the choice of alpha values is done with the genetic algorithm. The visual perception of 3-D medical images is increased by changing the reference gray line.

  18. Reconstruction of neutron spectra through neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega C, H.R.; Hernandez D, V.M.; Manzanares A, E.

    2003-01-01

    A neural network has been used to reconstruct the neutron spectra starting from the counting rates of the detectors of the Bonner sphere spectrophotometric system. A group of 56 neutron spectra was selected to calculate the counting rates that would produce in a Bonner sphere system, with these data and the spectra it was trained the neural network. To prove the performance of the net, 12 spectra were used, 6 were taken of the group used for the training, 3 were obtained of mathematical functions and those other 3 correspond to real spectra. When comparing the original spectra of those reconstructed by the net we find that our net has a poor performance when reconstructing monoenergetic spectra, this attributes it to those characteristic of the spectra used for the training of the neural network, however for the other groups of spectra the results of the net are appropriate with the prospective ones. (Author)

  19. Case Study - Alpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Leybourne

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This case study was developed from an actual scenario by Dr. Steve Leybourne of Boston University.  The case documents the historical evolution of an organization, and has been used successfully in courses dealing with organizational and cultural change, and the utilization of ‘soft skills’ in project-based management. This is a short case, ideal for classroom use and discussion.  The issues are easily accessible to students, and there is a single wide ranging question that allows for the inclusion of many issues surrounding strategic decision-making, and behavioural and cultural change. Alpha was one of the earlier companies in the USA to invest in large, edge-of-town superstores, with plentiful free vehicle parking, selling food and related household products. Alpha was created in the 1950s as a subsidiary of a major publicly quoted retail group.  It started business by opening a string of very large discount stores in converted industrial and warehouse premises in the south of the United States. In the early days shoppers were offered a limited range of very competitively priced products. When Alpha went public in 1981 it was the fourth largest food retailer in the US, selling an ever-widening range of food and non-food products.  Its success continued to be based on high volume, low margins and good value for money, under the slogan of ‘Alpha Price.’

  20. Ultrastructural studies of human and rabbit alpha-M-globulins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloth, B; Chesebro, B; Svehag, S E

    1968-04-01

    Electron micrographs of isolated human alpha(2)M-molecules, obtained by the negative contrast technique, revealed morphologically homogenous structures resembling a graceful monogram of the two letters H and I. The modal values for the length and width of the alpha(2)M particles were 170 A and 100 A, respectively. Purified rabbit alphamacroglobulins contained about 80% alpha(1)M- and 20% alpha(2)M-globulins. The isolated rabbit alpha(1)M- and alpha(2)M-molecules were morphologically indistinguishable from one another and from human alpha(2)M-molecules. Preliminary immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that the two rabbit alphaM-globulins were antigenically different. Sedimentation constant determinations gave s(20, w) values of 18.8 and 18.2 for rabbit alpha(1)M and alpha(2)M, respectively.

  1. Alpha heating in toroidal devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, G.H.

    1978-01-01

    Ignition (or near-ignition) by alpha heating is a key objective for the achievement of economic fusion reactors. While good confinement of high-energy alphas appears possible in larger reactors, near-term tokamak-type ignition experiments as well as some concepts for small reactors (e.g., the Field-Reversed Mirror or FRM) potentially face marginal situations. Consequently, there is a strong motivation to develop methods to evaluate alpha losses and heating profiles in some detail. Such studies for a TFTR-size tokamak and for a small FRM are described here

  2. A case of alpha-fetoprotein-producing esophageal adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Yu; Hsu, Wen-Hung; Hu, Huang-Ming; Wu, Deng-Chyang; Lin, Wen-Yi

    2013-02-01

    Alpha-fetoprotein is a well-known tumor marker in the screening and follow-up of hepatocellular carcinoma. In Taiwanese society, a high prevalence of hepatitis and hepatoma and elevation of alpha-fetoprotein associated with liver function impairment usually suggested clinics undertake further examination for liver or genital tumor. We report the case of 45-year-old man who was found to have an alpha-fetoprotein-producing esophageal adenocarcinoma with an initial presentation of liver function impairment and rapid elevation of alpha-fetoprotein. Esophageal cancer was diagnosed via endoscope and a biopsy proved the presence of adenocarcinoma. A small endoscopic biopsy specimen failed to identify the alpha-fetoprotein positive tumor cell. Esophagectomy was performed and histopathological study of surgical specimen revealed grade II adenocarcinoma with regional metastatic lymphadenopathy. Immunohistochemical study was focal positive for alpha-fetoprotein. Serum alpha-fetoprotein declined transiently after esophagectomy and fluctuation of alpha-fetoprotein level was noted during the treatment with adjuvant chemotherapy. Finally, 19 months after the operation, the patient died due to multiple organ metastases with multiple organ failure. Thus, a small specimen for upper endoscopy may not be sufficient in the presence of alpha-fetoprotein-producing adenocarcinoma. Monitoring of serum alpha-fetoprotein may be useful in the evaluation and follow-up of esophageal alpha-fetoprotein-producing adenocarcinoma. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Charged defects during alpha-irradiation of actinide oxides as revealed by Raman and luminescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohun, R.; Desgranges, L.; Léchelle, J.; Simon, P.; Guimbretière, G.; Canizarès, A.; Duval, F.; Jegou, C.; Magnin, M.; Clavier, N.; Dacheux, N.; Valot, C.; Vauchy, R.

    2016-01-01

    We have recently evidenced an original Raman signature of alpha irradiation-induced defects in UO 2 . In this study, we aim to determine whether the same signature also exists in different actinide oxides, namely ThO 2 and PuO 2 . Sintered UO 2 and ThO 2 were initially irradiated with 21 MeV He 2+ ions using a cyclotron device and were subjected to an in situ luminescence experiment followed by Raman analysis. In addition, a PuO 2 sample which had accumulated self-irradiation damage due to alpha particles was investigated only by Raman measurement. Results obtained for the initially white ThO 2 showed that a blue color appeared in the irradiated areas as well as luminescence signals during irradiation. However, Raman spectroscopic analysis showed the absence of Raman signature in ThO 2 . In contrast, the irradiated UO 2 and PuO 2 confirmed the presence of the Raman signature but no luminescence peaks were observed. The proposed mechanism involves electronic defects in ThO 2 , while a coupling between electronic defects and phonons is required to explain the Raman spectra for UO 2 and PuO 2 .

  4. Molecular Mechanism of AHSP-Mediated Stabilization of Alpha-Hemoglobin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng,L.; Gell, D.; Zhou, S.; Gu, L.; Kong, Y.; Li, J.; Hu, M.; Yan, N.; Lee, C.; et al.

    2005-01-01

    Hemoglobin A (HbA), the oxygen delivery system in humans, comprises two alpha and two beta subunits. Free alpha-hemoglobin (alphaHb) is unstable, and its precipitation contributes to the pathophysiology of beta thalassemia. In erythrocytes, the alpha-hemoglobin stabilizing protein (AHSP) binds alphaHb and inhibits its precipitation. The crystal structure of AHSP bound to Fe(II)-alphaHb reveals that AHSP specifically recognizes the G and H helices of alphaHb through a hydrophobic interface that largely recapitulates the alpha1-beta1 interface of hemoglobin. The AHSP-alphaHb interactions are extensive but suboptimal, explaining why beta-hemoglobin can competitively displace AHSP to form HbA. Remarkably, the Fe(II)-heme group in AHSP bound alphaHb is coordinated by the distal but not the proximal histidine. Importantly, binding to AHSP facilitates the conversion of oxy-alphaHb to a deoxygenated, oxidized [Fe(III)], nonreactive form in which all six coordinate positions are occupied. These observations reveal the molecular mechanisms by which AHSP stabilizes free alphaHb.

  5. Expression and secretion of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens alpha-amylase by using the yeast pheromone alpha-factor promoter and leader sequence in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    OpenAIRE

    Southgate, V J; Steyn, A J; Pretorius, I S; Van Vuuren, H J

    1993-01-01

    Replacement of the regulatory and secretory signals of the alpha-amylase gene (AMY) from Bacillus amylolique-faciens with the complete yeast pheromone alpha-factor prepro region (MF alpha 1p) resulted in increased levels of extracellular alpha-amylase production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, the removal of the (Glu-Ala)2 peptide from the MF alpha 1 spacer region (Lys-Arg-Glu-Ala-Glu-Ala) yielded decreased levels of extracellular alpha-amylase.

  6. Interactions between an alpha-helix and a beta-sheet. Energetics of alpha/beta packing in proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, K C; Némethy, G; Rumsey, S; Tuttle, R W; Scheraga, H A

    1985-12-05

    Conformational energy computations have been carried out to determine the favorable ways of packing a right-handed alpha-helix on a right-twisted antiparallel or parallel beta-sheet. Co-ordinate transformations have been developed to relate the position and orientation of the alpha-helix to the beta-sheet. The packing was investigated for a CH3CO-(L-Ala)16-NHCH3 alpha-helix interacting with five-stranded beta-sheets composed of CH3CO-(L-Val)6-NHCH3 chains. All internal and external variables for both the alpha-helix and the beta-sheet were allowed to change during energy minimization. Four distinct classes of low-energy packing arrangements were found for the alpha-helix interacting with both the parallel and the anti-parallel beta-sheet. The classes differ in the orientation of the axis of the alpha-helix relative to the direction of the strands of the right-twisted beta-sheet. In the class with the most favorable arrangement, the alpha-helix is oriented along the strands of the beta-sheet, as a result of attractive non-bonded side-chain-side-chain interactions along the entire length of the alpha-helix. A class with nearly perpendicular orientation of the helix axis to the strands is also of low energy, because it allows similarly extensive attractive interactions. In the other two classes, the helix is oriented diagonally relative to the strands of the beta-sheet. In one of them, it interacts with the convex surface near the middle of the saddle-shaped twisted beta-sheet. In the other, it is oriented along the concave diagonal of the beta-sheet and, therefore, it interacts only with the corner regions of the sheet, so that this packing is energetically less favorable. The packing arrangements involving an antiparallel and a parallel beta-sheet are generally similar, although the antiparallel beta-sheet has been found to be more flexible. The major features of 163 observed alpha/beta packing arrangements in 37 proteins are accounted for in terms of the computed

  7. Studies on solvatochromic behavior of some monoazo derivatives using electronic absorption spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidir, Isa; Tasal, Erol; Guelseven, Yadigar [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, 26480 Eskisehir (Turkey); Guengoer, Tayyar [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Akdeniz University, Antalya (Turkey); Berber, Halil [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Anadolu University, Eskisehir (Turkey); Oegretir, Cemil [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Eskisehir (Turkey)

    2009-06-15

    The electronic absorption spectra of 2',4'-dihydroxy-2-methoxyazobenzene and 4,2',4'-trihydroxyazobenzene molecules have been investigated in solvents with different polarities. The solvent dependent UV-vis spectral shifts, {nu}{sub max}, were analysed using some physical parameters such as refractive index, dielectric constant, Kamlet-Taft parameters, {alpha} (hydrogen bond donating ability) and {beta} (hydrogen bond accepting ability). The electronic transitions are assigned and the solvent induced spectral shifts have been analysed in relation to different solute-solvent interaction mechanisms using linear regression analysis. The results of fitting coefficients obtained from the analysis helped us to estimate the contribution of each type of interaction to the spectral shift in the molecule under consideration. It is concluded that the electronic character of the chemical nature of the solvent and the electronic character of substituents are the important factor for the observed solvatochromism. (author)

  8. Testing hypotheses involving Cronbach's alpha using marginal models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers, R.E.; van der Ark, L.A.; Croon, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    We discuss the statistical testing of three relevant hypotheses involving Cronbach's alpha: one where alpha equals a particular criterion; a second testing the equality of two alpha coefficients for independent samples; and a third testing the equality of two alpha coefficients for dependent

  9. Scikit-spectra: Explorative Spectroscopy in Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Hughes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Scikit-spectra is an intuitive framework for explorative spectroscopy in Python. Scikit-spectra leverages the Pandas library for powerful data processing to provide datastructures and an API designed for spectroscopy. Utilizing the new IPython Notebook widget system, scikit-spectra is headed towards a GUI when you want it, API when you need it approach to spectral analysis. As an application, analysis is presented of the surface-plasmon resonance shift in a solution of gold nanoparticles induced by proteins binding to the gold’s surface. Please refer to the scikit-spectra website for full documentation and support: http://hugadams.github.io/scikit-spectra/

  10. An RGB approach to extraordinary spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grusche, Sascha; Theilmann, Florian

    2015-09-01

    After Newton had explained a series of ordinary spectra and Goethe had pointed out its complementary counterpart, Nussbaumer discovered a series of extraordinary spectra which are geometrically identical and colourwise analogous to Newton’s and Goethe’s spectra. To understand the geometry and colours of extraordinary spectra, the wavelength composition is explored with filters and spectroscopic setups. Visualized in a dispersion diagram, the wavelength composition is interpreted in terms of additive colour mixing. Finally, all spectra are simulated as the superposition of red, green, and blue images that are shifted apart. This RGB approach makes it easy to understand the complex relationship between wavelengths and colours.

  11. Alpha/beta separation in liquid scintillation gel samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grau Carles, A.; Grau Malonda, A.

    1994-01-01

    The pulse shape analysis commonly used in liquid scintillation alpha/beta separations is satisfactory for moderate quench levels. However, for gel samples, the alpha particle counting efficiency is never greater than 10%, and an optimum separation of the alpha component cannot be achieved when beta to alpha counting rate ratios are greater than 100. In such cases, it is better to use a spectrum analysis method for alpha/beta separation. ((orig.))

  12. Alpha Channeling in Rotating Plasma with Stationary Waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetterman, A.; Fisch, N.J.

    2010-01-01

    An extension of the alpha channeling effect to supersonically rotating mirrors shows that the rotation itself can be driven using alpha particle energy. Alpha channeling uses radiofrequency waves to remove alpha particles collisionlessly at low energy. We show that stationary magnetic fields with high n θ can be used for this purpose, and simulations show that a large fraction of the alpha energy can be converted to rotation energy.

  13. Reggeon field theory for alpha (0)>1

    CERN Document Server

    Amati, Daniele; Le Bellac, M; Marchesini, G

    1976-01-01

    The asymptotic behaviour of the scattering amplitude is obtained when the pomeron has intercept alpha (0) larger than one. The reggeon field theory is studied by introducing a lattice in impact parameter space. Use is made of a previous result showing that asymptotically the dynamics is controlled at each lattice site ( alpha '=0 case) by a two-level structure. This leads to a non-Hermitean Hamiltonian expressed in terms of spin operators in which the intersite interaction term is proportional to the pomeron slope alpha '. The spectrum of such a system shows a degenerate ground state for alpha (0)> alpha /sub c/>or approximately=1 and a continuum with vanishing excitation gap at alpha (0)= alpha /sub c/. The vacuum does not change structure at the critical value. The criticality is shown by an order parameter which is given by the matrix element of a field operator between the vacuum and its degenerate companion. The nature of this critical phenomenon is better understood by continuously transforming the Hami...

  14. Operator functions and localization of spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Gil’, Michael I

    2003-01-01

    "Operator Functions and Localization of Spectra" is the first book that presents a systematic exposition of bounds for the spectra of various linear nonself-adjoint operators in a Hilbert space, having discrete and continuous spectra. In particular bounds for the spectra of integral, differential and integro-differential operators, as well as finite and infinite matrices are established. The volume also presents a systematic exposition of estimates for norms of operator-valued functions and their applications.

  15. Radionuclide, scintillation cocktail and chemical/color quench influence on discriminator setting in gross alpha/beta measurements by LSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stojković, Ivana; Tenjović, Branislava; Nikolov, Jovana; Todorović, Nataša

    2015-01-01

    Gross alpha/beta measurements in drinking waters enable radiochemical composition analysis in environmental studies providing efficient screening method that can indicate whether water contains elevated levels of any radionuclide. Routine gross alpha/beta activity monitoring in drinking waters has been carried out for a few years in laboratory for low-level radioactivity measurements in Novi Sad according to ASTM method, performing measurements on liquid scintillation counter Quantulus 1220 which can simultaneously generate alpha/beta spectra of samples by Pulse Shape Analysis (PSA circuit). In this paper, PSA discriminator impact was investigated to ensure obtaining of accurate and reliable alpha/beta activities. One novelty of presented work is PSA parameter setup with two combinations of radionuclides ( 241 Am, 226 Ra and 90 Sr/ 90 Y) with varying activity concentrations. Performed experiments also make contribution to investigations on the manner in which chemical and color quench affect optimal PSA parameter setting and further on, their altogether influence on gross alpha/beta activity measurements. Nitromethane, 15.8 M nitric acid and water, as well as yellow and yellow-orange dye, were used as quenching agents in order to test PSA/interference factor behavior in the presence of quenchers with different quenching strengths. Variation of PSA setting in quenched samples with two different commercially available cocktails (Ultima Gold LLT and OptiPhase HiSafe 3) was also tested. Lastly, application i.e. assessment of obtained PSA-SQP(E) correlation on the obtained results of activity concentrations of few artesian well water samples and colored spiked samples, based on the measured SQP(E) value of samples, has been demonstrated. - Highlights: • Thorough study on influence of relevant factors on optimal PSA level in gross alpha/beta measurements in waters is presented. • Experiments were performed on liquid scintillation counter Quantulus 1220™ according

  16. Innovations in Los Alamos alpha box design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledbetter, J.M.; Dowler, K.E.; Cook, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    Destructive examinations of irradiated fuel pins containing plutonium fuel must be performed in shielded hot cells with strict provisions for containing the plutonium. Alpha boxes provide containment for the plutonium, toxic fission products, and other hazardous highly radioactive materials. The alpha box contains windows for viewing and a variety of transfer systems specially designed to allow transfers in and out of the alpha box without spread of the hazardous materials that are contained in the box. Alpha boxes have been in use in the Wing 9 hot cells at Los Alamos National Laboratory for more than 20 years. Features of the newly designed alpha boxes are presented

  17. Improving interpretation of infrared spectra for OM characterization by subtraction of spectra from incinerated samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellerbrock, Ruth H.; Gerke, Horst H.; Leue, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Non-destructive methods such as diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFT) have been applied to characterize organic matter (OM) at intact structural surfaces among others. However, it is often difficult to distinguish effects of organic components on DRIFT signal intensities from those of mineral components. The objective of this study was to re-evaluate DRIFT spectra from intact earthworm burrow walls and coated cracks to improve the interpretation of C-H and C=O bands. We compared DRIFT and transmission Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of entire samples that were from the same pedogenetic soil horizon, but different in mineral composition and texture (i.e., glacial till versus loess). Spectra of incinerated samples were subtracted from the original spectra. Transmission FTIR and DRIFT spectra were almost identical for entire soil samples. However, the DRIFT spectra were affected by the bulk mode bands (i.e., wavenumbers 2000 to 1700 cm-1) that affected spectral resolution and reproducibility. The ratios between C-H and C=O band intensities as indicator for OM quality obtained with DRIFT were smaller than those obtained from transmission FTIR. A spectral subtraction procedure was found to reduce effects of mineral absorption bands on DRIFT spectra allowing an improved interpretation. DRIFT spectroscopy as a non-destructive method for analyzing OM composition at intact surfaces in structured soils could be calibrated with information obtained with the more detailed transmission FTIR and complementary methods.

  18. Training detector as simulator of alpha detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirosh, D.; Duvniz, E.; Assido, H.; Barak, D.; Paran, J.

    1997-01-01

    Alpha contamination is a common phenomena in radiation research laboratories and other sites. Training staff to properly detect and control alpha contamination, present special problems. In order to train health physics personnel, while using alpha sources, both the trainers and the trainees are inevitably exposed to alpha contamination. This fact of course, comes in conflict with safety principles. In order to overcome these difficulties, a training detector was developed, built and successfully tested. (authors)

  19. Observed and theoretical spectra in the 10-100 A interval. [of solar spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, W. A.; Bruner, M. E.; Acton, L. W.

    1988-01-01

    The soft X-ray spectra recorded in two sounding-rocket flights in 1982 and 1985 are compared with predicted spectra. The processed densitometer trace of the full spectrum is presented, together with the new spectrum from the 1985 experiment. The intensities of the lines are then compared with predictions.

  20. Grindability of alpha-case formed on cast titanium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Marie; Jacobson, David; Chan, Kwai S; Okabe, Toru

    2009-09-01

    The hardened alpha-case (alpha-case) layer inevitably forms on the surface of titanium castings when prepared by investment casting. Because the hardness of the alpha-case is incomparable to that of the interior structure, the perception exists that the alpha-case is difficult to remove during cutting, grinding and polishing. Grindability (ease of grinding) of cast cpTi and cast Ti-6Al-4V was evaluated by grinding cast specimens incrementally using a SiC abrasive wheel. The present study revealed that the presence of the brittle alpha-case with lower fracture toughness is beneficial in grinding titanium. The alpha-case on the ductile cpTi can be ground much easier than its bulk interior structure. In less ductile Ti-6Al-4V, the grinding rate is much higher than that of cpTi, and the alpha-case and its interior structure are at similar levels since the fracture toughness of its alpha-case and the bulk material is not large enough.

  1. Quercetin suppresses hypoxia-induced accumulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) through inhibiting protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dae-Hee; Lee, Yong J

    2008-10-01

    Quercetin, a ubiquitous bioactive plant flavonoid, has been shown to inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells and induce the accumulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) in normoxia. In this study, under hypoxic conditions (1% O(2)), we examined the effect of quercetin on the intracellular level of HIF-1alpha and extracellular level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in a variety of human cancer cell lines. Surprisingly, we observed that quercetin suppressed the HIF-1alpha accumulation during hypoxia in human prostate cancer LNCaP, colon cancer CX-1, and breast cancer SkBr3 cells. Quercetin treatment also significantly reduced hypoxia-induced secretion of VEGF. Suppression of HIF-1alpha accumulation during treatment with quercetin in hypoxia was not prevented by treatment with 26S proteasome inhibitor MG132 or PI3K inhibitor LY294002. Interestingly, hypoxia (1% O(2)) in the presence of 100 microM quercetin inhibited protein synthesis by 94% during incubation for 8 h. Significant quercetin concentration-dependent inhibition of protein synthesis and suppression of HIF-1alpha accumulation were observed under hypoxic conditions. Treatment with 100 microM cycloheximide, a protein synthesis inhibitor, replicated the effect of quercetin by inhibiting HIF-1alpha accumulation during hypoxia. These results suggest that suppression of HIF-1alpha accumulation during treatment with quercetin under hypoxic conditions is due to inhibition of protein synthesis. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Functional and genomic analyses of alpha-solenoid proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, David; Palidwor, Gareth A; Shcherbinin, Sergey; Szengel, Angelika; Schaefer, Martin H; Perez-Iratxeta, Carol; Andrade-Navarro, Miguel A

    2013-01-01

    Alpha-solenoids are flexible protein structural domains formed by ensembles of alpha-helical repeats (Armadillo and HEAT repeats among others). While homology can be used to detect many of these repeats, some alpha-solenoids have very little sequence homology to proteins of known structure and we expect that many remain undetected. We previously developed a method for detection of alpha-helical repeats based on a neural network trained on a dataset of protein structures. Here we improved the detection algorithm and updated the training dataset using recently solved structures of alpha-solenoids. Unexpectedly, we identified occurrences of alpha-solenoids in solved protein structures that escaped attention, for example within the core of the catalytic subunit of PI3KC. Our results expand the current set of known alpha-solenoids. Application of our tool to the protein universe allowed us to detect their significant enrichment in proteins interacting with many proteins, confirming that alpha-solenoids are generally involved in protein-protein interactions. We then studied the taxonomic distribution of alpha-solenoids to discuss an evolutionary scenario for the emergence of this type of domain, speculating that alpha-solenoids have emerged in multiple taxa in independent events by convergent evolution. We observe a higher rate of alpha-solenoids in eukaryotic genomes and in some prokaryotic families, such as Cyanobacteria and Planctomycetes, which could be associated to increased cellular complexity. The method is available at http://cbdm.mdc-berlin.de/~ard2/.

  3. Murine elongation factor 1 alpha (EF-1 alpha) is posttranslationally modified by novel amide-linked ethanolamine-phosphoglycerol moieties. Addition of ethanolamine-phosphoglycerol to specific glutamic acid residues on EF-1 alpha

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whiteheart, S.W.; Shenbagamurthi, P.; Chen, L.; Cotter, R.J.; Hart, G.W.

    1989-01-01

    Elongation Factor 1 alpha (EF-1 alpha), an important eukaryotic translation factor, transports charged aminoacyl-tRNA from the cytosol to the ribosomes during poly-peptide synthesis. Metabolic radiolabeling with [ 3 H] ethanolamine shows that, in all cells examined, EF-1 alpha is the major radiolabeled protein. Radiolabeled EF-1 alpha has an apparent Mr = 53,000 and a basic isoelectric point. It is cytosolic and does not contain N-linked oligosaccharides. Trypsin digestion of murine EF-1 alpha generated two major [ 3 H]ethanolamine-labeled peptides. Three peptides were sequenced and were identical to two distinct regions of the human EF-1 alpha protein. Blank sequencing cycles coinciding with glutamic acid in the human cDNA-derived sequence were also found to release [ 3 H]ethanolamine, and compositional analysis of these peptides confirmed the presence of glutamic acid. Dansylation analysis demonstrates that the amine group of the ethanolamine is blocked. These results indicate that EF-1 alpha is posttranslationally modified by the covalent attachment of ethanolamine via an amide bond to at least two specific glutamic acid residues (Glu-301 and Glu-374). The hydroxyl group of the attached ethanolamine was shown by mass spectrometry and compositional analysis, to be further modified by the addition of a phosphoglycerol unit. This novel posttranslational modification may represent an important alteration of EF-1 alpha, comparable to the regulatory effects of posttranslational methylation of EF-1 alpha lysine residues

  4. Expression and functional importance of collagen-binding integrins, alpha 1 beta 1 and alpha 2 beta 1, on virus-activated T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Susanne Ø; Thomsen, Allan R; Koteliansky, Victor E

    2003-01-01

    decreased responses were seen upon transfer of alpha(1)-deficient activated/memory T cells. Thus, expression of alpha(1)beta(1) and alpha(2)beta(1) integrins on activated T cells is directly functionally important for generation of inflammatory responses within tissues. Finally, the inhibitory effect......Adhesive interactions are crucial to cell migration into inflammatory sites. Using murine lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus as an Ag model system, we have investigated expression and function of collagen-binding integrins, alpha(1)beta(1) and alpha(2)beta(1), on activated and memory T cells. Using...... this system and MHC tetramers to define Ag-specific T cells, we demonstrate that contrary to being VLAs, expression of alpha(1)beta(1) and alpha(2)beta(1) can be rapidly induced on acutely activated T cells, that expression of alpha(1)beta(1) remains elevated on memory T cells, and that expression of alpha(1...

  5. Psychiatric Symptoms in Alpha-Mannosidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malm, D.; Pantel, J.; Linaker, O. M.

    2005-01-01

    Alpha-mannosidosis is characterized by mild to moderate intellectual disability (ID), moderate to severe neurosensory hearing loss, frequent infections, psychomotor disturbances and skeletal dysmorphism. For the first time, a panel of nine alpha-mannosidosis patients with psychiatric symptoms is presented. The clinical picture has several…

  6. Correlation of repressed transcription of alpha-tocopherol transfer protein with serum alpha-tocopherol during hepatocarcinogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, C. G.; Hoek, F. J.; Groenink, M.; Reitsma, P. H.; van Deventer, S. J.; Chamuleau, R. A.

    1997-01-01

    Using a subtraction-enhanced display technique, we identified a rodent alpha-tocopherol transfer protein (alpha-TTP) cDNA which exhibited markedly lower messenger RNA (mRNA) amounts in rat hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) than in healthy controls. Several lines of evidence have substantiated that

  7. X-ray spectra and time variability of active galactic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mushotzky, R.F.

    1984-02-01

    The X-ray spectra of broad line active galactic nuclei (AGN) of all types (Seyfert I's, NELG's, broadline radio galaxies) are well fit by a power law in the .5 to 100 keV band of man energy slope alpha .68 + or - .15. There is, as yet, no strong evidence for time variability of this slope in a given object. The constraints that this places on simple models of the central energy source are discussed. BL Lac objects have quite different X-ray spectral properties and show pronounced X-ray spectral variability. On time scales longer than 12 hours most radio quiet AGN do not show strong, delta I/I .5, variability. The probability of variability of these AGN seems to be inversely related to their luminosity. However characteristics timescales for variability have not been measured for many objects. This general lack of variability may imply that most AGN are well below the Eddington limit. Radio bright AGN tend to be more variable than radio quiet AGN on long, tau approx 6 month, timescales

  8. Effects of alpha particles on zebrafish embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yum, E.H.W.; Choi, V.W.Y.; Yu, K.N.; Li, V.W.T.; Cheng, S.H.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Ionizing radiation such as X-ray and alpha particles can damage cellular macromolecules, which can lead to DNA single- and double-strand breaks. In the present work, we studied the effects of alpha particles on dechorionated zebrafish embryos. Thin polyallyldiglycol carbonate (PADC) films with a thickness of 16 μm were prepared from commercially available PADC films (with thickness of 100 μm) by chemical etching and used as support substrates for holding zebrafish embryos for alpha-particle irradiation. These films recorded alpha-particle hit positions, quantified the number and energy of alpha particles actually incident on the embryo cells, and thus enabled the calculation of the dose absorbed by the embryo cells. Irradiation was made at 1.25 hours post fertilization (hpf) with various absorbed dose. TdT-mediated dUTP Nick-End Labeling (TUNEL) assay was performed on the embryos at different time stages after irradiation. Marked apoptosis was detected only in embryos at earlier time stages. The results showed that DNA double-strand break during zebrafish embryogenesis can be induced by alpha-particle irradiation, which suggests that zebrafish is a potential model for assessing the effects of alpha-particle radiation

  9. Alpha 2-adrenergic receptor turnover in adipose tissue and kidney: irreversible blockade of alpha 2-adrenergic receptors by benextramine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taouis, M.; Berlan, M.; Lafontan, M.

    1987-01-01

    The recovery of post- and extrasynaptic alpha 2-adrenergic receptor-binding sites was studied in vivo in male golden hamsters after treatment with an irreversible alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist benextramine, a tetramine disulfide that possesses a high affinity for alpha 2-binding sites. The kidney alpha 2-adrenergic receptor number was measured with [ 3 H]yohimbine, whereas [ 3 H]clonidine was used for fat cell and brain membrane alpha 2-binding site identification. Benextramine treatment of fat cell, kidney, and brain membranes reduced or completely suppressed, in an irreversible manner, [ 3 H] clonidine and [ 3 H]yohimbine binding without modifying adenosine (A1-receptor) and beta-adrenergic receptor sites. This irreversible binding was also found 1 and 2 hr after intraperitoneal administration of benextramine to the hamsters. Although it bound irreversibly to peripheral and central alpha 2-adrenergic receptors on isolated membranes, benextramine was unable to cross the blood-brain barrier of the hamster at the concentrations used (10-20 mg/kg). After the irreversible blockade, alpha 2-binding sites reappeared in kidney and adipose tissue following a monoexponential time course. Recovery of binding sites was more rapid in kidney than in adipose tissue; the half-lives of the receptor were 31 and 46 hr, respectively in the tissues. The rates of receptor production were 1.5 and 1.8 fmol/mg of protein/hr in kidney and adipose tissue. Reappearance of alpha 2-binding sites was associated with a rapid recovery of function (antilipolytic potencies of alpha 2-agonists) in fat cells inasmuch as occupancy of 15% of [ 3 H]clonidine-binding sites was sufficient to promote 40% inhibition of lipolysis. Benextramine is a useful tool to estimate turnover of alpha 2-adrenergic receptors under normal and pathological situations

  10. Alpha-Concave Hull, a Generalization of Convex Hull

    OpenAIRE

    Asaeedi, Saeed; Didehvar, Farzad; Mohades, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Bounding hull, such as convex hull, concave hull, alpha shapes etc. has vast applications in different areas especially in computational geometry. Alpha shape and concave hull are generalizations of convex hull. Unlike the convex hull, they construct non-convex enclosure on a set of points. In this paper, we introduce another generalization of convex hull, named alpha-concave hull, and compare this concept with convex hull and alpha shape. We show that the alpha-concave hull is also a general...

  11. Structure and dynamics of alpha-tocopherol in model membranes and in solution: a broad-line and high-resolution NMR study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekiel, I.H.; Hughes, L.; Burton, G.W.; Jovall, P.A.; Ingold, K.U.; Smith, I.C.

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance has been applied to study the conformational dynamics of alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) in solution and in model membranes. In nonviscous solution, 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) showed that alpha-tocopherol is in rapid equilibrium between two or more puckered conformers of its heterocyclic ring. The most likely conformers to be so involved are the two half-chair forms. Deuterium NMR spectra of specifically deuteriated alpha-tocopherol in multilamellar dispersions of egg phosphatidylcholine, measured in the liquid-crystalline state, were characteristic of axially symmetric motional averaging. The orientation of the rotational axis within the molecular framework was determined. Studies on oriented multilamellar membranes revealed that this axis is perpendicular to the surface of the membrane. The profile of quadrupolar splittings along the hydrophobic tail does not have a plateau, in contrast to that of the fatty acyl chains of the membrane lipids. Longitudinal relaxation times (T1) were short. The presence of a minimum in their temperature dependence shows that molecular motion with an effective correlation time tau eff approximately equal to 3 X 10(-9)s is responsible for relaxation. However, the temperatures and absolute values of the minima depend on the position of the deuterium in the molecule, demonstrating that tau eff represents a complex blend of motions

  12. Binding of benzo(a)pyrene and (+/-)-7 beta,8 alpha-dihydroxy-9 alpha, 10 alpha-epoxy-7,8,9, 10-tetrahydrobenzo(a)pyrene to histones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sculley, T.B.; Zytkovicz, T.H.

    1983-01-01

    AKR-2B mouse embryo cells were incubated for 24 hr with [3H]benzo(a)pyrene, and the histones were isolated and analyzed using one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. The results revealed that (a) histones H1, H2A, and H3 incorporated significant amounts of label whereas little or no label was associated with histones H2B and H4 and (b) electrophoresis of the histones in the Triton: acid: urea gel system caused labeled histones to have a slower migration than did the corresponding unlabeled histones. Additional studies such as incubation of (+/-)-7 beta,8 alpha-[3H]dihydroxy-9 alpha,10 alpha-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo(a)pyrene with nuclei resulted in radioactive labeling of histones H1, H2A, H2B, and H3 and of high-mobility-group proteins HMG1 and HMG2. The low levels of label associated with histone H4 in the whole-cell and nuclear studies were further investigated by incubating isolated histones with (+/-)-7 beta,8 alpha-[3H]dihydroxy-9 alpha,10 alpha-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo(a)pyrene. Under these conditions, negligible amounts of radioactivity were associated with H4, while significant labeling of H1, H2A, H2B, and H3 and other nuclear proteins was observed. The results suggest that factors other than the presence of suitable nucleophilic acceptor sites on the histones may be necessary for carcinogen binding

  13. Application of the pulse-shape technique to proton-alpha discrimination in Si-detector arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pausch, G.; Moszynski, M.; Wolski, D.; Bohne, W.; Grawe, H.; Hilscher, D.; Schubart, R.; De Angelis, G.; De Poli, M.

    1995-04-01

    The capability of the pulse-shape technique with reversed n-type Si detectors for discrimination of protons and alphas produced in fusion-evaporation reactions was tested at the VICKSI cyclotron in Berlin. We applied a zero-crossing technique which does not need any external time reference, and which can therefore be exploited at DC accelerators. Excellent proton-alpha discrimination in the full energy range of the evaporation spectra, but also charge and even isotope resolution for heavier ions produced in projectile fragmentation, was obtained with detectors of an existing Si ball. There is no doubt that the pulse-shape discrimination works well with detectors from serial production and under experimental conditions which are typical for nuclear structure studies. An application of this technique in Si detector arrays is obvious, but some special features must be considered in the design of the electronics. The particle discrimination depends strongly on the electric field distribution inside the detector. Stabilization of the bias voltage at the detector is therefore recommended. A consequence of the rear-side injection mode is a strong variation of the charge-collection time with energy, charge, and mass number of the detected ion. To obtain a precise energy signal it is indispensable to correct for the ballistic deficit. (orig.)

  14. Design energy spectra for Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    López Almansa, Francisco; Yazgan, Ahmet Utku; Benavent Climent, Amadeo

    2012-01-01

    This work proposes design energy spectra in terms of velocity, derived through linear dynamic analyses on Turkish registers and intended for regions with design peak acceleration 0.3 g or higher. In the long and mid period ranges the analyses are linear, taking profit of the rather insensitivity of the spectra to the structural parameters other than the fundamental period; in the short period range, the spectra are more sensitive to the structural parameters and nonlinear analyses would be re...

  15. Meta-Analysis of Coefficient Alpha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Michael C.; Maeda, Yukiko

    2006-01-01

    The meta-analysis of coefficient alpha across many studies is becoming more common in psychology by a methodology labeled reliability generalization. Existing reliability generalization studies have not used the sampling distribution of coefficient alpha for precision weighting and other common meta-analytic procedures. A framework is provided for…

  16. Calculation of subLAMBDA sup 9 Be in an alpha-alpha-LAMBDA three-body model using the Faddeev equations

    CERN Document Server

    Oryu, S; Yamashita, H; Nakazawa, M; Kamada, H

    2000-01-01

    The hypernucleus subLAMBDA sup 9 Be is investigated in an alpha-alpha-LAMBDA three-body model using the Faddeev formalism. We use an alpha-alpha interaction in which the Pauli-forbidden states are correctly taken into account and we employ some phenomenological potentials between the alpha and LAMBDA particles. We obtained two bound states for J suppi = 1/2 sup + and 3/2 sup + , and three resonance states of (3/2) sub 1 sup - , (3/2) sub 2 sup - , (3/2) sub 3 sup -. We studied the properties of these states by calculating the components and the expectation values of the potential for each partial wave. It is found that a few channels dominate in the 1/2 sup + and 3/2 sup + states, so that the alpha-clusters or the sup 8 Be core are still alive in the nucleus. In a case were the two alpha particles are fixed on an axis the contour plots of the distribution of the LAMBDA particle are shown. With the assistence of these plots one can visually understand that some of them are shell-model-like states while others ...

  17. Experimental investigation of the reactions {sup 25}Mg({alpha},n){sup 28}Si, {sup 26}Mg({alpha},n){sup 29}Si, {sup 18}O({alpha},n){sup 21}Ne and their impact on stellar nucleosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falahat, Sascha

    2010-06-10

    In the present dissertation, the nuclear reactions {sup 25}Mg({alpha},n){sup 28}Si, {sup 26}Mg({alpha},n){sup 29}Si, {sup 18}O({alpha},n){sup 21}Ne are investigated in the astrophysically interesting energy region from E{sub {alpha}}=1000 keV to E{sub {alpha}}=2450 keV. The experiments were performed at the Nuclear Structure Laboratory of the University of Notre Dame (USA) with the Van-de-Graaff accelerator KN. Solid state targets with evaporated magnesium or anodized oxygen were bombarded with {alpha}-particles and the released neutrons detected. For the detection of the released neutrons, computational simulations were used to construct a neutron detector based on {sup 3}He counters. Because of the strong occurrence of background reactions, different methods of data analysis were employed. Finally, the impact of the reactions {sup 25}Mg({alpha},n){sup 28}Si, {sup 26}Mg({alpha},n){sup 29}Si, {sup 18}O({alpha},n){sup 21}Ne on stellar nucleosynthesis is investigated by means of network calculations. (orig.)

  18. Development of methodology for detection of long lived alpha emitters in air based on simultaneous alpha and beta activity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaushik, Vivek; Rath, D.P.; Vinayagami, Bhakti; Ashokkumar, P.; Umashankar, C.; Gopalakrishnan, R.K.; Kulkarni, M.S.

    2018-01-01

    Interference of the radon and thoron progeny co-deposited on the filtration media is the long-standing problem related to prompt analyses in continuous air sampling or monitoring of any potential suspect radionuclides. The solutions to this problem have been quite diverse, and included, for example, simple gross-alpha counting, the use of beta-to-alpha ratios, and the use of alpha spectrum analyses. The techniques based on beta to alpha disintegration ratios make use of the naturally occurring alpha to beta disintegration ratios and departures therefrom. This ratio is found empirically to be relatively constant. With the help of the solution of differential equation, which govern the deposition of radionuclide on filter paper, one can easily estimate theoretically the behavior of the radon progeny alpha to beta disintegration (or count) rate ratio

  19. [Preparation and spectral analysis of a new type of blue light-emitting material delta-Alq3].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hua; Hao, Yu-ying; Gao, Zhi-xiang; Zhou, He-feng; Xu, Bing-she

    2006-10-01

    In the present article, delta-Alq3, a new type of blue light-emitting material, was synthesized and investigated by IR spectra, XRD spectra, UV-Vis absorption spectra, photoluminescence (PL) spectra, and electroluminescence (EL) spectra. The relationship between molecular spatial structure and spectral characteristics was studied by the spectral analysis of delta-Alq3 and alpha-Alq3. Results show that a new phase of Alq3 (delta-Alq3) can be obtained by vacuum heating alpha-Alq3, and the molecular spatial structure of alpha-Alq3 changes during the vacuum heating. The molecular spatial structure of delta-Alq3 lacks symmetry compared to alpha-Alq3. This transformation can reduce the electron cloud density on phenoxide of Alq3 and weaken the intermolecular conjugated interaction between adjacent Alq3 molecules. Hence, the pi--pi* electron transition absorption peak of delta-Alq3 shifts toward short wavelength in UV-Vis absorption spectra, and the maximum emission peak of delta-Alq3 (lamda max = 480 nm) blue-shifts by 35 nm compared with that of alpha-Alq3 (lamda max = 515 nm) in PL spectra. The maximum emission peaks of delta-Alq3 and alpha-Alq3 are all at 520 nm in EL spectra.

  20. Correlation Functions and Power Spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan

    2006-01-01

    The present lecture note is a supplement to the textbook Digital Signal Processing by J. Proakis and D.G. Manolakis used in the IMM/DTU course 02451 Digital Signal Processing and provides an extended discussion of correlation functions and power spectra. The definitions of correlation functions...... and spectra for discrete-time and continuous-time (analog) signals are pretty similar. Consequently, we confine the discussion mainly to real discrete-time signals. The Appendix contains detailed definitions and properties of correlation functions and spectra for analog as well as discrete-time signals....... It is possible to define correlation functions and associated spectra for aperiodic, periodic and random signals although the interpretation is different. Moreover, we will discuss correlation functions when mixing these basic signal types. In addition, the note include several examples for the purpose...

  1. Measurement of event shape distributions and moments in $e^{+}e^{-} \\to$ hadrons at 91-209 GeV and a determination of $\\alpha_{s}$

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G.; Akesson, P.F.; Alexander, G.; Allison, John; Amaral, P.; Anagnostou, G.; Anderson, K.J.; Asai, S.; Axen, D.; Bailey, I.; Barberio, E.; Barillari, T.; Barlow, R.J.; Batley, R.J.; Bechtle, P.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bell, P.J.; Bella, G.; Bellerive, A.; Benelli, G.; Bethke, S.; Biebel, O.; Boeriu, O.; Bock, P.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Brown, Robert M.; Burckhart, H.J.; Campana, S.; Carnegie, R.K.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, D.G.; Ciocca, C.; Csilling, A.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Roeck, A.De; Wolf, E.A.De; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Donkers, M.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Etzion, E.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Ferrari, P.; Fiedler, F.; Fleck, I.; Ford, M.; Frey, A.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, John William; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Giunta, Marina; Goldberg, J.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Gunther, P.O.; Gupta, A.; Hajdu, C.; Hamann, M.; Hanson, G.G.; Harel, A.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hoffman, Kara Dion; Horvath, D.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Ishii, K.; Jeremie, H.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Kanzaki, J.; Karlen, D.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kramer, T.; Krieger, P.; Krogh, J.von; Kuhl, T.; Kupper, M.; Lafferty, G.D.; Landsman, H.; Lanske, D.; Lellouch, D.; Lettso, J.; Levinson, L.; Lillich, J.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Lu, J.; Ludwig, A.; Ludwig, J.; Mader, W.; Marcellini, S.; Martin, A.J.; Masetti, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McKenna, J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Menges, W.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Meyer, Niels T.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Mohr, W.; Montanari, A.; Mori, T.; Mutter, A.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Nanjo, H.; Neal, H.A.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oh, A.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Pahl, C.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Pooth, O.; Przybycien, M.; Quadt, A.; Rabbertz, K.; Rembser, C.; Renkel, P.; Roney, J.M.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sarkisyan, E.K.G.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schorner-Sadenius, T.; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Sherwood, P.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Spano, F.; Stahl, A.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Tarem, S.; Tasevsky, M.; Teuscher, R.; Thomson, M.A.; Torrence, E.; Toya, D.; Tran, P.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Ueda, I.; Ujvari, B.; Vollmer, C.F.; Vannerem, P.; Vertesi, R.; Verzocchi, M.; Voss, H.; Vossebeld, J.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wengler, T.; Wermes, N.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wolf, G.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Zer-Zion, D.; Zivkovic, Lidija; CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    We have studied hadronic events from e+e- annihilation data at centre-of-mass energies from 91 to 209 GeV. We present distributions of event shape observables and their moments at each energy and compare with QCD Monte Carlo models. From the event shape distributions we extract the strong coupling alpha_s and test its evolution with energy scale. The results are consistent with the running of alpha_s expected from QCD. Combining all data, the value of alpha_s (M_z) is determined to be alpha_s(Mz)=0.1191+-0.0005(stat.)+-0.0010 (expt.)+-0.0011(hadr.)+-0.0044(theo.) The energy evolution of the moments is also used to determine a value of alpha_ with slightly larger errors: alpha_s(Mz)=0.1223+-0.0005(stat.) +-0.0014(expt.) +-0.0016(hadr.) +0.0054 -0.0036 (theo).

  2. Enantioselective conjugate radical addition to alpha'-hydroxy enones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunggi; Lim, Chae Jo; Kim, Sunggak; Subramaniam, Rajesh; Zimmerman, Jake; Sibi, Mukund P

    2006-09-14

    Enantioselective conjugate radical addition to alpha'-hydroxy alpha,beta-unsaturated ketones, compounds containing bidentate donors, has been investigated. It has been found that radical additions to alpha'-hydroxy alpha,beta-unsaturated ketones in the presence of Mg(NTf2)2 and bisoxazoline ligand 5a proceeded cleanly, yielding the addition products in high chemical yields and good enantiomeric excesses.

  3. Radiation quality and effective dose equivalent of alpha particles from radon decay products indoors: uncertainties in risk estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Affan, I.A. (Velindre Hospital, Whitchurch, Cardiff (United Kingdom))

    1994-01-01

    In order to make a better estimate of cancer risk due to radon the radiation quality of alpha particles emitted from the element and its daughters has been re-assessed. In particular, uncertainties in all components involved in the calculations of the effective dose E, have been investigated. This has been done in the light of the recent draft report of the ICRU on quantities and units for use in radiation protection (Allisy et al (1991) ICRU NEWS 2). On the assumption of an indoor radon concentration of 30 Bq.m[sup -3], microdose spectra have been calculated for alpha particles hitting lung cells at different depths. Then the mean quality factor Q-bar in the lung, dose equivalent H[sub T] to the lung and the effective dose have been calculated. A comparison between lung cancer risk from radon and that arising from diagnostic X rays to the chest is made. A suggestion to make the lung weighting factor w[sub T] a function of the fraction of lung cells hit is discussed. (Author).

  4. Serum albumin and globulin analysis for hepatocellular carcinoma detection avoiding false-negative results from alpha-fetoprotein test negative subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Feng, Shangyuan; Lin, Juqiang; Zeng, Yongyi; Li, Ling; Huang, Zufang; Li, Buhong; Zeng, Haishan; Chen, Rong

    2013-11-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) of serum albumin and globulin were employed to detect hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Tentative assignments of SERS bands show specific biomolecular changes associated with cancer development. These changes include a decrease in relative amounts of tryptophan, glutamine, glycine, and serine, indicating excessive consumption of amino acids for protein duplication. Principal component analysis was also introduced to analyze the obtained spectra, resulting in both diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 100%. More importantly, it reveals that this method can detect HCC patients with alpha-fetoprotein negative test results, suggesting its great potential as a new alternative to detect HCC.

  5. Identification of 4,5-didemethyl-4-O-alpha-D-glucopyranosylsimmondsin and pinitol alpha-D-galactosides in jojoba seed meal (Simmondsia chinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Boven, M; Leyssen, T; Busson, R; Holser, R; Cokelaere, M; Flo, G; Decuypere, E

    2001-09-01

    The isolation and identification of two pinitol alpha-D-galactosides from jojoba meal are described. The products were isolated by a combination of preparative HPLC on silica gel and TLC on amino silica gel and were identified by MS, NMR spectroscopy, and chemical derivatization as 5-O-(alpha-D-galactopyranosyl)-3-O-methyl-D-chiro-inositol or 5-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-D-pinitol and 2-O-(alpha-D-galactopyranosyl)-3-O-methyl-D-chiro-inositol or 2-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-D-pinitol. The same preparative HPLC method on silica gel allowed a new simmondsin derivative to be isolated and identified as 4,5-didemethyl-4-O-alpha-D-glucopyranosylsimmondsin mainly by NMR spectroscopy and high-resolution mass spectrometry.

  6. Detection of {alpha} particles using semiconductors. Application to the control of plutonium extraction; Detection des particules {alpha} par semiconducteurs application au controle de l'extraction du plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanguy, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-03-01

    A study is made of a particles produced by thick sources, using either diffused junction or surface barrier semiconductor detectors for controlling continuously the plutonium extraction process. For this, a presenting apparatus is described in which the solutions to be analyzed flow in contact with the detector protected by a thin mica membrane. A method is described which gives a precise recording of the spectra and which thus allows the separation of two or more {alpha} emitters present in the same solution. This method has been applied to the measurement of {sup 239}Pu in the the presence of {sup 241}Am with an accuracy of {+-}5 per cent. In the second part of the report is considered the detection of plutonium in solutions of {beta} - {gamma} emitting fission products. Pile-up is reduced by using a fast amplification chain associated to totally depleted thin detectors. Under these conditions a few mg of {sup 239}Pu can be detected in solutions of fission products having an activity of 100 curies/liter. A method is given for discriminating {alpha} and {beta} particles, it is based on the difference in the collection times for the charges liberated by these particles in the detector. (author) [French] On etudie la detection de particules {alpha} issues de sources epaisses par detecteurs semiconducteurs a jonction diffusee ou a barriere de surface pour le controle continu du procede d'extraction du plutonium. A cet effet on decrit un appareil presentateur dans lequel les solutions a analyser circulent au contact du detecteur protege par une membrane mince de mica. On decrit une methode qui permet par le trace precis des spectres de separer deux ou plusieurs emetteurs {alpha} presents dans une meme solution. Cette methode a ete appliquee a la mesure du {sup 239}Pu en presence de {sup 241}Am avec une precision de {+-} 5 pour cent. Dans la deuxieme partie on traite de la detection du plutonium dans des solutions de produits de fission emetteurs {beta} and {gamma

  7. Integrin {alpha}{beta}1, {alpha}{sub v}{beta}, {alpha}{sub 6}{beta} effectors p130Cas, Src and talin regulate carcinoma invasion and chemoresistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sansing, Hope A. [Department of Oral and Craniofacial Biology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center-New Orleans, School of Dentistry, New Orleans, LA (United States); Sarkeshik, Ali; Yates, John R. [Department of Chemical Physiology, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA (United States); Patel, Vyomesh; Gutkind, J. Silvio [Oral and Pharyngeal Cancer Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Yamada, Kenneth M. [Laboratory of Cell and Developmental Biology, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Berrier, Allison L., E-mail: allison.berrier@gmail.com [Department of Oral and Craniofacial Biology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center-New Orleans, School of Dentistry, New Orleans, LA (United States)

    2011-03-11

    Research highlights: {yields} Proteomics of clustered integrin {alpha}{beta}1, {alpha}{sub v}{beta}, {alpha}{sub 6}{beta} receptors in oral carcinoma. {yields} p130Cas, Dek, Src and talin regulate oral carcinoma invasion. {yields} p130Cas, talin, Src and zyxin regulate oral carcinoma resistance to cisplatin. -- Abstract: Ligand engagement by integrins induces receptor clustering and formation of complexes at the integrin cytoplasmic face that controls cell signaling and cytoskeletal dynamics critical for adhesion-dependent processes. This study searches for a subset of integrin effectors that coordinates both tumor cell invasion and resistance to the chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin in oral carcinomas. Candidate integrin effectors were identified in a proteomics screen of proteins recruited to clustered integrin {alpha}{beta}1, {alpha}{sub v}{beta} or {alpha}{sub 6}{beta} receptors in oral carcinomas. Proteins with diverse functions including microtubule and actin binding proteins, and factors involved in trafficking, transcription and translation were identified in oral carcinoma integrin complexes. Knockdown of effectors in the oral carcinoma HN12 cells revealed that p130Cas, Dek, Src and talin were required for invasion through Matrigel. Disruption of talin or p130Cas by RNA interference increased resistance to cisplatin, whereas targeting Dek, Src or zyxin reduced HN12 resistance to cisplatin. Analysis of the spreading of HN12 cells on collagen I and laminin I revealed that a decrease in p130Cas or talin expression inhibited spreading on both matrices. Interestingly, a reduction in zyxin expression enhanced spreading on laminin I and inhibited spreading on collagen I. Reduction of Dek, Src, talin or zyxin expression reduced HN12 proliferation by 30%. Proliferation was not affected by a reduction in p130Cas expression. We conclude that p130Cas, Src and talin function in both oral carcinoma invasion and resistance to cisplatin.

  8. Reduced Fragment Diversity for Alpha and Alpha-Beta Protein Structure Prediction using Rosetta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbass, Jad; Nebel, Jean-Christophe

    2017-01-01

    Protein structure prediction is considered a main challenge in computational biology. The biannual international competition, Critical Assessment of protein Structure Prediction (CASP), has shown in its eleventh experiment that free modelling target predictions are still beyond reliable accuracy, therefore, much effort should be made to improve ab initio methods. Arguably, Rosetta is considered as the most competitive method when it comes to targets with no homologues. Relying on fragments of length 9 and 3 from known structures, Rosetta creates putative structures by assembling candidate fragments. Generally, the structure with the lowest energy score, also known as first model, is chosen to be the "predicted one". A thorough study has been conducted on the role and diversity of 3-mers involved in Rosetta's model "refinement" phase. Usage of the standard number of 3-mers - i.e. 200 - has been shown to degrade alpha and alpha-beta protein conformations initially achieved by assembling 9-mers. Therefore, a new prediction pipeline is proposed for Rosetta where the "refinement" phase is customised according to a target's structural class prediction. Over 8% improvement in terms of first model structure accuracy is reported for alpha and alpha-beta classes when decreasing the number of 3- mers. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. Activity monitoring of alpha-bearing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkhoff, G.; Bondar, L.

    1980-01-01

    The paper aims at the survey on the actual situation in activity monitoring of alpha-bearing wastes. Homogeneous materials such as liquid-, gaseous- and homogeneous solid wastes are amenable to destructive analyses of representative samples. Available destructive analyses methods are sensitive and precise enough to cope with all requirements in alpha-waste monitoring. The more difficult problems are encountered with alpha-contaminated solids, when representative sampling is not practicable. Non-destructive analysis techniques are applied for monitoring this category of solid wastes. The techniques for nondestructive analysis of alpha-bearing wastes are based on the detection of gamma and/or neutron-emission of actinides. Principles and a theory of non-destructive radiometric assay of plutonium contaminated solid waste streams are explained. Guidelines for the calibration of instruments and interpretation of experimental data are given. Current theoretical and experimental development work in this problem area is reviewed. Evaluations concerning capabilities and limitations of monitoring systems for alpha-bearing solid wastes are very complex and out of the scope of this paper

  10. Effect of dietary alpha-tocopherol supplementation and gamma-irradiation on alpha-tocopherol retention and lipid oxidation in cooked minced chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvin, K.; Morrissey, P.A.; Buckley, D.J.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of dietary alpha-tocopherol supplementation and gamma-irradiation on alpha-tocopherol retention and lipid oxidation in cooked minced chicken during refrigerated storage were studied. Minced breast and thigh meat from broilers fed diets supplemented with 100, 200 or 400 mg alpha-tocopheryl acetate/kg feed was irradiated at 2.5 or 4.0 kGy. Cooked irradiated and unirradiated meat was stored at 4 degrees C for 5 days. alpha-Tocopherol concentrations increased with increasing dietary supplementation. Concentrations decreased during storage, but retention was not affected by irradiation. Lipid stability was determined by measuring the formation of thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances (TBARS) and cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) during storage. TBARS and COPs increased during storage and were reduced by increasing levels of dietary alpha-tocopheryl acetate supplementation. Irradiation accelerated TBARS formation during storage, but this was prevented by supplementation with 200 mg alpha-tocopheryl acetate/kg feed. Irradiation tended to increase COPs during storage, although no consistent effects were observed. In general supplementation with over 400 mg alpha-tocopheryl acetate/kg feed may be required to control cholesterol oxidation in minced chicken. The results suggest that, overall, irradiation had little effect on lipid stability in alpha-tocopherol-supplemented meat following cooking and storage

  11. Synthesis of tritium or deuterium labelled 19-nor-3. cap alpha. -hydroxy-5. cap alpha. -androstan-17-one from nortestosterone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Protiva, J; Klinotova, E [Karlova Univ., Prague (Czechoslovakia). Prirodovedecka Fakulta; Filip, J [Ustav pro Vyzkum, Vyrobu a Vyuziti Radioisotopu, Prague (Czechoslovakia); Hampl, R [Research Inst. of Endocrinology, Praha (Czechoslovakia)

    1982-10-20

    Tritium and/or deuterium (5-H) labelled 19-nor-3..cap alpha..-hydroxy-5..cap alpha..-androstan-17-one (norandrosterone) was prepared from nortestosterone in view to use it as a radioligand for radioimmunoassay of the main nortestosterone metabolites. Based upon model experiments using testosterone and deuterium labelling, the following four step procedure was established: nortestosterone was oxidized with pyridine chlorochromate and the resulting 19-nor-4-androsten-3,17-dione was tritiated with tritium gas under catalysis with tris(triphenylphosphine)rhodium chloride to give (4,5..cap alpha..-/sup 3/H)19-nor-5..cap alpha..-androstan-3,17-dione. A selective reduction of the latter compound yielded (5-/sup 3/H)19-nor-3..cap alpha..-hydroxy-5..cap alpha..-androstan-17-one of the molar radioactivity 0.3 TBq (8.15 Ci)/mmol.

  12. alpha-MSH in systemic inflammation. Central and peripheral actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catania, A; Delgado, R; Airaghi, L; Cutuli, M; Garofalo, L; Carlin, A; Demitri, M T; Lipton, J M

    1999-10-20

    Until recently, inflammation was believed to arise from events taking place exclusively in the periphery. However, it is now clear that central neurogenic influences can either enhance or modulate peripheral inflammation. Therefore, it should be possible to improve treatment of inflammation by use of antiinflammatory agents that reduce peripheral host responses and inhibit proinflammatory signals in the central nervous system (CNS). One such strategy could be based on alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH). Increases in circulating TNF-alpha and nitric oxide (NO), induced by intraperitoneal administration of endotoxin in mice, were modulated by central injection of a small concentration of alpha-MSH. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity and iNOS mRNA in lungs and liver were likewise modulated by central alpha-MSH. Increase in lung myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity was significantly less in lungs of mice treated with central alpha-MSH. Proinflammatory agents induced by endotoxin were significantly greater after blockade of central alpha-MSH. The results suggest that antiinflammatory influences of neural origin that are triggered by alpha-MSH could be used to treat systemic inflammation. In addition to its central influences, alpha-MSH has inhibitory effects on peripheral host cells, in which it reduces release of proinflammatory mediators. alpha-MSH reduces chemotaxis of human neutrophils and production of TNF-alpha, neopterin, and NO by monocytes. In research on septic patients, alpha-MSH inhibited release of TNF-alpha, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), and interleukin-8 (IL-8) in whole blood samples in vitro. Combined central and peripheral influences can be beneficial in treatment of sepsis.

  13. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha} (PPAR{alpha}) suppresses postprandial lipidemia through fatty acid oxidation in enterocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Rino [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Takahashi, Nobuyuki, E-mail: nobu@kais.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Murota, Kaeko [Department of Life Science, School of Science and Engineering, Kinki University, Osaka 770-8503 (Japan); Yamada, Yuko [Laboratory of Physiological Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Niiya, Saori; Kanzaki, Noriyuki; Murakami, Yoko [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Moriyama, Tatsuya [Department of Applied Cell Biology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kinki University, Nara 631-8505 (Japan); Goto, Tsuyoshi; Kawada, Teruo [Laboratory of Molecular Function of Food, Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2011-06-24

    Highlights: {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation increased mRNA expression levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes in human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells. {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation also increased oxygen consumption rate and CO{sub 2} production and decreased secretion of triglyceride and ApoB from Caco-2 cells. {yields} Orally administration of bezafibrate increased mRNA expression levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes and CO{sub 2} production in small intestinal epithelial cells. {yields} Treatment with bezafibrate decreased postprandial serum concentration of triglyceride after oral injection of olive oil in mice. {yields} It suggested that intestinal lipid metabolism regulated by PPAR{alpha} activation suppresses postprandial lipidemia. -- Abstract: Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-{alpha} which regulates lipid metabolism in peripheral tissues such as the liver and skeletal muscle, decreases circulating lipid levels, thus improving hyperlipidemia under fasting conditions. Recently, postprandial serum lipid levels have been found to correlate more closely to cardiovascular diseases than fasting levels, although fasting hyperlipidemia is considered an important risk of cardiovascular diseases. However, the effect of PPAR{alpha} activation on postprandial lipidemia has not been clarified. In this study, we examined the effects of PPAR{alpha} activation in enterocytes on lipid secretion and postprandial lipidemia. In Caco-2 enterocytes, bezafibrate, a potent PPAR{alpha} agonist, increased mRNA expression levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes, such as acyl-CoA oxidase, carnitine palmitoyl transferase, and acyl-CoA synthase, and oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and suppressed secretion levels of both triglycerides and apolipoprotein B into the basolateral side. In vivo experiments revealed that feeding high-fat-diet containing bezafibrate increased mRNA expression levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes and

  14. The Lyman alpha reference sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayes, M.; Östlin, G.; Schaerer, D.

    2013-01-01

    We report on new imaging observations of the Lyman alpha emission line (Lyα), performed with the Hubble Space Telescope, that comprise the backbone of the Lyman alpha Reference Sample. We present images of 14 starburst galaxies at redshifts 0.028

  15. Alpha decay and nuclear deformation: the case for favoured alpha transitions of even-even emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, F.; Goncalves, M.; Duarte, S.B.; Tavares, O.A.P.

    2000-02-01

    Alpha-decay half-life for ground-state transitions of 174 even-even alpha emitters has been calculated from a simple, Gamow-like model in which the quadrupole deformation of the product nucleus (assumed to have an ellipsoidal shape) is taken into account. The assumption made is that before tunneling through a purely Coulomb potential barrier the two-body system oscillates isotropically, thus giving rise to an equivalent, average polar direction θ (referred to the symmetry axis of the ellipsoid) for alpha emission. It is shown that the experimental half-life data are much better reproduced by the present description than in the spherical-shaped approximation for the daughter nucleus. (author)

  16. Alpha decay and nuclear deformation: the case for favoured alpha transitions of even-even emitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, F. [Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilheus, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas; Rodriguez, O.; Guzman, F. [Instituto Superior de Ciencias y Tecnologia Nucleares (ISCTN), La Habana (Cuba); Goncalves, M. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria IRD/CNEN, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Duarte, S.B.; Tavares, O.A.P. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). E-mail: sbd@cbpf.br

    2000-02-01

    Alpha-decay half-life for ground-state transitions of 174 even-even alpha emitters has been calculated from a simple, Gamow-like model in which the quadrupole deformation of the product nucleus (assumed to have an ellipsoidal shape) is taken into account. The assumption made is that before tunneling through a purely Coulomb potential barrier the two-body system oscillates isotropically, thus giving rise to an equivalent, average polar direction {theta} (referred to the symmetry axis of the ellipsoid) for alpha emission. It is shown that the experimental half-life data are much better reproduced by the present description than in the spherical-shaped approximation for the daughter nucleus. (author)

  17. ALPHA-SYNUCLEIN STRUCTURE, AGGREGATION AND MODULATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinakin K. Makwana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Alpha-synuclein is an intrinsically unstructured protein, involved in various neurodegenerative disorders. In vitro/in vivo experiments, as well as genetic mutation studies establish a direct link between alphasynuclein and synucleinopathies. Due to its natively unfolded state, alpha synuclein can adopt numerous conformations upon interaction with its partners and cellular factors, offering explanation for its diverse interactions. Aggregated form of alpha-synuclein has been observed in the brain of patients with synucleinopathies, a hallmark of neurodegeneration, and cell death has been attributed to aggregation induced toxicity. The process of aggregation involves nucleation, followed by intermediate oligomeric states, and finally the fibrillar amyloids. Of the various conformations/species that alpha-synuclein assumes before it transforms into mature amyloid fibrils, the oligomeric species is the most toxic. Thus, an effective way to limit disease progression is by modifying/slowing down protein aggregation/deposition in the brain. Various small natural products, synthetic chemicals, peptides and antibodies specific to alpha-synuclein have been designed/identified to reduce its rate of aggregation. Unfortunately, not even a handful of the molecules have cleared the clinical trials. Even today, medications available for Parkinson’s patients are mostly the drugs that adjust for loss of dopamine in the brain, and hence do not stop the progression of the disease or cure the symptoms. Thus, more molecular level studies are warranted to fully elucidate the process of alpha-synuclein aggregation, which in turn could help in identifying novel therapeutics and preventives. The present review summarizes the insights gained into the structure, in vitro aggregation and inhibitors/modulators of alpha-synuclein aggregation, that can be used to design better and effective inhibitors against the diseases.

  18. Some applications of Photon/Electron-Rejecting Alpha Liquid Scintillation (PERALS) spectrometry to the assay of alpha emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell, W.J.; Case, G.N.

    1988-01-01

    The combination of certain solvent extraction separations and a special kind of liquid scintillation detector and electronics designed for alpha spectrometry allows some highly accurate, yet simple determinations of alpha-emitting nuclides. Counting efficiency is 99.68% with backgrounds of 99.95%. The Photon/Electron Rejecting Alpha Liquid Scintillation (PERALS) equipment is described and procedures for the separation and determination of uranium, thorium, plutonium, polonium, radium, and trivalent actinides are outlined. 25 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  19. Breakout from the hot CNO cycle: the {sup 15}O({alpha},{gamma}) and {sup 18}Ne({alpha},p) reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradfield-Smith, W; Laird, A M; Davinson, T; Pietro, A di; Ostrowski, A N; Shotter, A C; Woods, P J [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Cherubini, S; Galster, W; Graulich, J S; Leleux, P; Michel, L; Ninane, A; Vervier, J [Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, UCL, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Aliotta, M; Cali, D; Cappussello, F; Cunsolo, A; Spitaleri, C [INFN, Catania (Italy); Gorres, J; Wiescher, M [Notre Dame Univ. (United States); Rahighi, J [Van de Graaf Lab., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hinnefeld, J [Indiana Univ., South Bend (United States)

    1998-06-01

    One of the most important reactions which determines the rate of breakout from the hot CNO cycle is the {sup 15}O({alpha},{gamma}){sup 19}Ne. The reaction {sup 18}Ne({alpha},p){sup 21}Na may also provide an alternative breakout route. Experiments are being undertaken at Louvain-La-Neuve using the radioactive {sup 18}Ne beam to study these reactions by measurement of {alpha}({sup 18}Ne,p){sup 21}Na and d({sup 18}Ne,p){sup 19}Ne{sup *} {yields} {sup 15}O + {alpha} (orig.)

  20. Excitation functions for alpha-particle-induced reactions with natural antimony

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, N. L.; Shah, D. J.; Mukherjee, S.; Chintalapudi, S. N. [Vadodara, M. S. Univ. of Baroda (India). Fac. of Science. Dept. of Physics

    1997-07-01

    Stacked-foil activation technique and {gamma} - rays spectroscopy were used for the determination of the excitation functions of the {sup 121}Sb [({alpha}, n); ({alpha}, 2n); ({alpha},4 n); ({alpha}, p3n); ({alpha}, {alpha}n)]; and Sb [({alpha}, 3n); ({alpha}, 4n); ({alpha}, {alpha}3n)] reactions. The excitation functions for the production of {sup 124}I, {sup 123}I, {sup 121}I, {sup 121}Te and {sup 120}Sb were reported up to 50 MeV. The reactions {sup 121} Sb ({alpha}, {alpha}n) + {sup 123} Sb ({alpha}, {alpha}3n) are measured for the first time. Since natural antimony used as the target has two odd mass stable isotopes of abundances 57.3 % ({sup 121}Sb), their activation in some cases gives the same product nucleus through different reaction channels but with very different Q-values. In such cases, the individual reaction cross-sections are separated with the help of theoretical cross-sections. The experimental cross-sections were compared with the predictions based on hybrid model of Blann. The high-energy part of the excitation functions are dominated by the pre-equilibrium reaction mechanism and the initial exciton number n{sub 0} = 4 (4 p 0 h) gives fairly good agreement with presently measured results.

  1. Conditioning of alpha bearing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Alpha bearing wastes are generated during the reprocessing of spent fuel, mixed oxide fuel fabrication, decommissioning and other activities. The safe and effective management of these wastes is of particular importance owing to the radiotoxicity and long lived characteristics of certain transuranic (TRU) elements. The management of alpha bearing wastes involves a number of stages which include collection, characterization, segregation, treatment, conditioning, transport, storage and disposal. This report describes the currently available matrices and technologies for the conditioning of alpha wastes and relates them to their compatibility with the other stages of the waste management process. The selection of a specific immobilization process is dependent on the waste treatment state and the subsequent handling, transport, storage and disposal requirements. The overall objectives of immobilization are similar for all waste producers and processors, which are to produce: (a) Waste forms with sufficient mechanical, physical and chemical stability to satisfy all stages of handling, transport and storage (referred to as the short term requirements), and (b) Waste forms which will satisfy disposal requirements and inhibit the release of radionuclides to the biosphere (referred to as the long term requirements). Cement and bitumen processes have already been successfully applied to alpha waste conditioning on the industrial scale in many of the IAEA Member States. Cement systems based on BFS and pozzolanic cements have emerged as the principal encapsulation matrices for the full range of alpha bearing wastes. Alternative technologies, such as polymers and ceramics, are being developed for specific waste streams but are unlikely to meet widespread application owing to cost and process complexity. The merits of alpha waste conditioning are improved performance in transport, storage and disposal combined with enhanced public perception of waste management operations. These

  2. Different spectra with the same neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega C, H. R.; Ortiz R, J. M.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Martinez B, M. R.; Hernandez A, B.; Ortiz H, A. A.; Mercado, G. A.

    2010-01-01

    Using as source term the spectrum of a 239 Pu-Be source several neutron spectra have been calculated using Monte Carlo methods. The source term was located in the centre of spherical moderators made of light water, heavy water and polyethylene of different diameters. Also a 239 Pu-Be source was used to measure its neutron spectrum, bare and moderated by water. The neutron spectra were measured at 100 cm with a Bonner spheres spectrometer. Monte Carlo calculations were used to calculate the neutron spectra of bare and water-moderated spectra that were compared with those measured with the spectrometer. Resulting spectra are similar to those found in power plants with PWR, BWR and Candu nuclear reactors. Beside the spectra the dosimetric features were determined. Using moderators and a single neutron source can be produced neutron spectra alike those found in workplaces, this neutron fields can be utilized to calibrate neutron dosimeters and area monitors. (Author)

  3. Evidence for Alpha Receptors in the Human Ureter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeb, Ralph; Knopf, Joy; Golijanin, Dragan; Bourne, Patricia; Erturk, Erdal

    2007-04-01

    An immunohistochemical and western blot expression analysis of human ureters was performed in order to characterize the alpha-1-adrenergic receptor distribution along the length of the human ureteral wall. Mapping the distribution will assist in understanding the potential role alpha -1-adrenergic receptors and their subtype density might have in the pathophysiology of ureteral colic and stone passage. Patients diagnosed with renal cancer or bladder cancer undergoing nephrectomy, nephroureterectomy, or cystectomy had ureteral specimens taken from the proximal, mid, distal and tunneled ureter. Tissues were processed for fresh frozen examination and fixed in formalin. None of the ureteral specimens were involved with cancer. Serial histologic sections and immunohistochemical studies were performed using antibodies specific for alpha-1-adrenergic receptor subtypes (alpha 1a, alpha 1b, alpha 1d). The sections were examined under a light microscope and scored as positive or negative. In order to validate and quantify the alpha receptor subtypes along the human ureter. Western blotting techniques were applied. Human ureter stained positively for alpha -1-adrenergic receptors. Immunostaining appeared red, with intense reaction in the smooth muscle of the ureter and endothelium of the neighboring blood vessels. There was differential expression between all the receptors with the highest staining for alpha-1D subtype. The highest protein expression for all three subtypes was in the renal pelvis and decreased with advancement along the ureter to the distal ureter. At the distal ureter, there was marked increase in expression as one progressed towards the ureteral orifice. The same pattern of protein expression was exhibited for all three alpha -1-adrenergic receptor subtypes. We provide preliminary evidence for the ability to detect and quantify the alpha-1-receptor subtypes along the human ureter which to the best of our knowledge has never been done with

  4. Mind Your p's and Alphas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallings, William M.

    In the educational research literature alpha, the a priori level of significance, and p, the a posteriori probability of obtaining a test statistic of at least a certain value when the null hypothesis is true, are often confused. Explanations for this confusion are offered. Paradoxically, alpha retains a prominent place in textbook discussions of…

  5. Deconvolution of Positrons' Lifetime spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderin Hidalgo, L.; Ortega Villafuerte, Y.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, we explain the iterative method previously develop for the deconvolution of Doppler broadening spectra using the mathematical optimization theory. Also, we start the adaptation and application of this method to the deconvolution of positrons' lifetime annihilation spectra

  6. Actions of alpha2 adrenoceptor ligands at alpha2A and 5-HT1A receptors: the antagonist, atipamezole, and the agonist, dexmedetomidine, are highly selective for alpha2A adrenoceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman-Tancredi, A; Nicolas, J P; Audinot, V; Gavaudan, S; Verrièle, L; Touzard, M; Chaput, C; Richard, N; Millan, M J

    1998-08-01

    This study examined the activity of chemically diverse alpha2 adrenoceptor ligands at recombinant human (h) and native rat (r) alpha2A adrenoceptors compared with 5-HT1A receptors. First, in competition binding experiments at h alpha2A and h5-HT1A receptors expressed in CHO cells, several compounds, including the antagonists 1-(2-pyrimidinyl)piperazine (1-PP), (+/-)-idazoxan, benalfocin (SKF 86466), yohimbine and RX 821,002, displayed preference for h alpha2A versus h5-HT1A receptors of only 1.4-, 3.6-, 4-, 10- and 11-fold, respectively (based on differences in pKi values). Clonidine, brimonidine (UK 14304), the benzopyrrolidine fluparoxan and the guanidines guanfacine and guanabenz exhibited intermediate selectivity (22- to 31-fold) for h alpha2A receptors. Only the antagonist atipamezole and the agonist dexmedetomidine (DMT) displayed high preference for alpha2 adrenoceptors (1290- and 91-fold, respectively). Second, the compounds were tested for their ability to induce h5-HT1A receptor-mediated G-protein activation, as indicated by the stimulation of [35S]GTPgammaS binding. All except atipamezole and RX 821,002 exhibited agonist activity, with potencies which correlated with their affinity for h5-HT1A receptors. Relative efficacies (Emax values) were 25-35% for guanabenz, guanfacine, WB 4101 and benalfocin, 50-65% for 1-PP, (+/-)-idazoxan and clonidine, and over 70% for fluparoxan, oxymetazoline and yohimbine (relative to 5-HT = 100%). Yohimbine-induced [35S]GTPgammaS binding was inhibited by the selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY 100,635. In contrast, RX 821,002 was the only ligand which exhibited antagonist activity at h5-HT1A receptors, inhibiting 5-HT-stimulated [35S]GTPgammaS binding. Atipamezole, which exhibited negligeable affinity for 5-HT1A receptors, was inactive. Third, the affinities for r alpha2A differed considerably from the affinities for h alpha2A receptors whereas the affinities for r5-HT1A differed much less from the affinities for h5-HT

  7. Alpha-mannosidosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgwardt, Line; Stensland, Hilde Monica Frostad Riise; Olsen, Klaus Juul

    2015-01-01

    of the three subgroups of genotype/subcellular localisation and the clinical and biochemical data were done to investigate the potential relationship between genotype and phenotype in alpha-mannosidosis. Statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS software. Analyses of covariance were performed...

  8. 4-(ALPHA, ALPHA-DIMETHYLBENZYL)PHENYL METHACRYLATE .3. SYNTHESIS, TACTICITY AND GLASS-TRANSITION TEMPERATURES OF ITS POLYMERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANEKENSTEIN, GORA; TAN, YY

    Depending on the kind of initiator, anionic Polymerization of 4-(alpha,alpha-dimethylbenzyl)phenyl methacrylate in toluene at -78-degrees-C led either to highly isotactic or predominantly syndiotactic polymers as determined by C-13 NMR spectro copy. The glass transition temperature difference

  9. Monte Carlo simulation of semiconductor detector response to "2"2"2Rn and "2"2"0Rn environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irlinger, J.; Trinkl, S.; Wielunksi, M.; Tschiersch, J.; Rühm, W.

    2016-01-01

    A new electronic radon/thoron monitor employing semiconductor detectors based on a passive diffusion chamber design has been recently developed at the Helmholtz Zentrum München (HMGU). This device allows for acquisition of alpha particle energy spectra, in order to distinguish alpha particles originating from radon and radon progeny decays, as well as those originating from thoron and its progeny decays. A Monte-Carlo application is described which uses the Geant4 toolkit to simulate these alpha particle spectra. Reasonable agreement between measured and simulated spectra were obtained for both "2"2"0Rn and "2"2"2Rn, in the energy range between 1 and 10 MeV. Measured calibration factors could be reproduced by the simulation, given the uncertainties involved in the measurement and simulation. The simulated alpha particle spectra can now be used to interpret spectra measured in mixed radon/thoron atmospheres. The results agreed well with measurements performed in both radon and thoron gas environments. It is concluded that the developed simulation allows for an accurate prediction of calibration factors and alpha particle energy spectra. - Highlights: • A method was developed to simulate alpha particle spectra from radon/thoron decay. • New monitor features alpha-particle-spectroscopy based on silicon detectors. • A method is presented to quantify radon/thoron concentrations in mixed atmospheres. • The calibration factor can be simulated for various environmental parameters.

  10. The Lyman-alpha signature of the first galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Aaron

    2018-01-01

    Radiation from the first stars and galaxies initiated the dramatic phase transition marking an end to the cosmic dark ages. The emission and absorption signatures from the Lyman-alpha (Lyα) transition of neutral hydrogen have been indispensable in extending the observational frontier for high-redshift galaxies into the epoch of reionization. Lyα radiative transfer provides clues about the processes leading to Lyα escape from individual galaxies and the subsequent transmission through the intergalactic medium. Cosmological simulations incorporating Lyα radiative transfer enhance our understanding of fundamental physics by supplying the inferred spectra and feedback on the gas. In this talk, I will discuss the dynamical impact of Lyα radiation pressure on galaxy formation throughout cosmic reionization with the first fully coupled Lyα radiation-hydrodynamics simulations. Based on a suite of spherically symmetric models and high-resolution ab initio cosmological simulations we find that Lyα radiation pressure is dynamically important during the assembly of direct collapse black holes (DCBHs), which may be the seeds of the first supermassive black holes in the universe. Finally, I will discuss recent advances in Lyα modeling based on current state-of-the-art simulations and observational insights.

  11. Digital readout alpha survey instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, M.E.

    1976-01-01

    A prototype solid-state digital readout alpha particle survey instrument has been designed and constructed. The meter incorporates a Ludlum alpha scintillator as a detector, digital logic circuits for control and timing, and a Digilin counting module with reflective liquid crystal display. The device is used to monitor alpha radiation from a surface. Sample counts are totalized over 10-second intervals and displayed digitally in counts per minute up to 19,999. Tests over source samples with counts to 15,600 cpm have shown the device to be rapid, versatile and accurate. The instrument can be fabricated in one man-week and requires about $835 in material costs. A complete set of drawings is included

  12. QCD analyses and determinations of $\\alpha_{s}$ in $e^{+}e^{-}$ annihilation at energies between 35 and 189 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Pfeifenschneider, P.; Movilla Fernandez, P.A.; Abbiendi, G.; Ackerstaff, K.; Akesson, P.F.; Alexander, G.; Allison, John; Anderson, K.J.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Ashby, S.F.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Bailey, I.; Ball, A.H.; Barberio, E.; Barlow, Roger J.; Batley, J.R.; Baumann, S.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bella, G.; Bellerive, A.; Bentvelsen, S.; Bethke, S.; Biguzzi, A.; Bloodworth, I.J.; Bock, P.; Bohme, J.; Boeriu, O.; Bonacorsi, D.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Bright-Thomas, P.; Brigliadori, L.; Brown, Robert M.; Burckhart, H.J.; Cammin, J.; Capiluppi, P.; Carnegie, R.K.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, David G.; Chrisman, D.; Ciocca, C.; Clarke, P.E.L.; Clay, E.; Cohen, I.; Cooke, O.C.; Couchman, J.; Couyoumtzelis, C.; Coxe, R.L.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallavalle, G.Marco; Dallison, S.; Davis, R.; de Roeck, A.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Dixit, M.S.; Donkers, M.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Estabrooks, P.G.; Etzion, E.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fanti, M.; Faust, A.A.; Feld, L.; Ferrari, P.; Fiedler, F.; Fierro, M.; Fleck, I.; Frey, A.; Furtjes, A.; Futyan, D.I.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, J.W.; Gaycken, G.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Gingrich, D.M.; Glenzinski, D.; Goldberg, J.; Gorn, W.; Grandi, C.; Graham, K.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Gunther, P.O.; Hajdu, C.; Hanson, G.G.; Hansroul, M.; Hapke, M.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Hargrove, C.K.; Harin-Dirac, M.; Hauke, A.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Hensel, C.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hildreth, M.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hobson, P.R.; Hocker, James Andrew; Hoffman, Kara Dion; Homer, R.J.; Honma, A.K.; Horvath, D.; Hossain, K.R.; Howard, R.; Huntemeyer, P.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Imrie, D.C.; Ishii, K.; Jacob, F.R.; Jawahery, A.; Jeremie, H.; Jimack, M.; Jones, C.R.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Kanaya, N.; Kanzaki, J.; Karapetian, G.; Karlen, D.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Kayal, P.I.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Kim, D.H.; Klier, A.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Kokott, T.P.; Kolrep, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kowalewski, Robert V.; Kress, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kuhl, T.; Kupper, M.; Kyberd, P.; Lafferty, G.D.; Landsman, H.; Lanske, D.; Lawson, I.; Layter, J.G.; Leins, A.; Lellouch, D.; Letts, J.; Levinson, L.; Liebisch, R.; Lillich, J.; List, B.; Littlewood, C.; Lloyd, A.W.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Long, G.D.; Losty, M.J.; Lu, J.; Ludwig, J.; Macchiolo, A.; Macpherson, A.; Mader, W.; Mannelli, M.; Marcellini, S.; Marchant, T.E.; Martin, A.J.; Martin, J.P.; Martinez, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McDonald, W.John; McKenna, J.; McMahon, T.J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Mendez-Lorenzo, P.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Meyer, I.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Mohr, W.; Montanari, A.; Mori, T.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Neal, H.A.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oakham, F.G.; Odorici, F.; Ogren, H.O.; Okpara, A.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Patrick, G.N.; Patt, J.; Perez-Ochoa, R.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Poli, B.; Polok, J.; Przybycien, M.; Quadt, A.; Rembser, C.; Rick, H.; Robins, S.A.; Rodning, N.; Roney, J.M.; Rosati, S.; Roscoe, K.; Rossi, A.M.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Runolfsson, O.; Rust, D.R.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sahr, O.; Sang, W.M.; Sarkisian, E.K.G.; Sbarra, C.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schmitt, S.; Schoning, A.; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Schwick, C.; Scott, W.G.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.H.; Sherwood, P.; Siroli, G.P.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Snow, G.A.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Spagnolo, S.; Sproston, M.; Stahl, A.; Stephens, K.; Stoll, K.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Surrow, B.; Talbot, S.D.; Tarem, S.; Taylor, R.J.; Teuscher, R.; Thiergen, M.; Thomas, J.; Thomson, M.A.; Torrence, E.; Towers, S.; Trefzger, T.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Ueda, I.; Van Kooten, Rick J.; Vannerem, P.; Verzocchi, M.; Voss, H.; Waller, D.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wengler, T.; Wermes, N.; Wetterling, D.; White, J.S.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Zacek, V.; Zer-Zion, D.; Jade, The

    2000-01-01

    We employ data taken by the JADE and OPAL experiments for an integrated QCD study in hadronic e+e- annihilations at c.m.s. energies ranging from 35 GeV through 189 GeV. The study is based on jet-multiplicity related observables. The observables are obtained to high jet resolution scales with the JADE, Durham, Cambridge and cone jet finders, and compared with the predictions of various QCD and Monte Carlo models. The strong coupling strength, alpha_s, is determined at each energy by fits of O(alpha_s^2) calculations, as well as matched O(alpha_s^2) and NLLA predictions, to the data. Matching schemes are compared, and the dependence of the results on the choice of the renormalization scale is investigated. The combination of the results using matched predictions gives alpha_s(MZ)=0.1187+{0.0034}-{0.0019}. The strong coupling is also obtained, at lower precision, from O(alpha_s^2) fits of the c.m.s. energy evolution of some of the observables. A qualitative comparison is made between the data and a recent MLLA p...

  13. Modifications of EEG power spectra in mesial temporal lobe during n-back tasks of increasing difficulty. A sLORETA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imperatori, Claudio; Farina, Benedetto; Brunetti, Riccardo; Gnoni, Valentina; Testani, Elisa; Quintiliani, Maria I; Del Gatto, Claudia; Indraccolo, Allegra; Contardi, Anna; Speranza, Anna M; Della Marca, Giacomo

    2013-01-01

    The n-back task is widely used to investigate the neural basis of Working Memory (WM) processes. The principal aim of this study was to explore and compare the EEG power spectra during two n-back tests with different levels of difficulty (1-back vs. 3-back). Fourteen healthy subjects were enrolled (seven men and seven women, mean age 31.21 ± 7.05 years, range: 23-48). EEG was recorded while performing the N-back test, by means of 19 surface electrodes referred to joint mastoids. EEG analysis were conducted by means of the standardized Low Resolution brain Electric Tomography (sLORETA) software. The statistical comparison between EEG power spectra in the two conditions was performed using paired t-statistics on the coherence values after Fisher's z transformation available in the LORETA program package. The frequency bands considered were: delta (0.5-4 Hz); theta (4.5-7.5 Hz); alpha (8-12.5 Hz); beta (13-30 Hz); gamma (30.5-100 Hz). Significant changes occurred in the delta band: in the 3-back condition an increased delta power was localized in a brain region corresponding to the Brodmann Area (BA) 28 in the left posterior entorhinal cortex (T = 3.112; p < 0.05) and in the BA 35 in the left perirhinal cortex in the parahippocampal gyrus (T = 2.876; p < 0.05). No significant differences were observed in the right hemisphere and in the alpha, theta, beta, and gamma frequency bands. Our results indicate that the most prominent modification induced by the increased complexity of the task occur in the mesial left temporal lobe structures.

  14. Modifications of EEG Power Spectra in Mesial Temporal Lobe during n-back tasks of increasing difficulty. A sLORETA study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio eImperatori

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The n-back task is widely used to investigate the neural basis of Working Memory (WM processes. The principal aim of this study was to explore and compare the EEG power spectra during two n-back tests with different levels of difficulty (1-back vs 3-back.Fourteen healthy subjects were enrolled (7 men and 7 women, mean age 31.21±7.05 years, range: 23-48. EEG was recorded while performing the N-back test, by means of 19 surface electrodes referred to joint mastoids. EEG analysis were conducted by means of the standardized LOw Resolution brain Electric Tomography (sLORETA software. The statistical comparison between EEG power spectra in the two conditions was performed using paired t-statistics on the coherence values after Fisher’s z transformation available in the LORETA program package. The frequency bands considered were: delta (0.5-4 Hz; theta (4.5–7.5 Hz; alpha (8–12.5 Hz; beta (13–30 Hz; gamma (30.5–100 Hz. Significant changes occurred in the delta band: in the 3-back condition an increased delta power was localized in a brain region corresponding to the Brodmann Area (BA 28 in the left posterior entorhinal cortex (T = 3.112; p<0.05 and in the BA 35 in the left peririnhal cortex in the parahippocampal gyrus (T = 2.876; p<0.05. No significant differences were observed in the right hemisphere and in the alpha, theta, beta and gamma frequency bands. Our results indicate that the most prominent modification induced by the increased complexity of the task occur in the mesial left temporal lobe structures.

  15. Silicon vertex detector upgrade in the ALPHA experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Amole, C; Ashkezari, M.D; Baquero-Ruiz, M; Bertsche, W; Burrows, C; Butler, E; Capra, A; Cesar, C.L; Chapman, S; Charlton, M; Deller, A; Eriksson, S; Fajans, J; Friesen, T; Fujiwara, M.C; Gill, D.R; Gutierrez, A; Hangst, J.S; Hardy, W.N; Hayden, M.E; Humphries, A.J; Isaac, C.A; Jonsell, S; Kurchaninov, L; Little, A; Madsen, N; McKenna, J.T.K; Menary, S; Napoli, S.C; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Povilus, A; Pusa, P; Rasmussen, C.Ø; Robicheaux, F; Sacramento, R.L; Sampson, J.A; Sarid, E; Seddon, D; Silveira, D.M; So, C; Stracka, S; Tharp, T; Thompson, R.I; Thornhill, J; Tooley, M.P; Van Der Werf, D.P; Wells, D

    2013-01-01

    The Silicon Vertex Detector (SVD) is the main diagnostic tool in the ALPHA-experiment. It provides precise spatial and timing information of antiproton (antihydrogen) annihilation events (vertices), and most importantly, the SVD is capable of directly identifying and analysing single annihilation events, thereby forming the basis of ALPHA ' s analysis. This paper describes the ALPHA SVD and its upgrade, installed in the ALPHA ' s new neutral atom trap.

  16. Silicon vertex detector upgrade in the ALPHA experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amole, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto, ON, M3J 1P3 (Canada); Andresen, G.B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Ashkezari, M.D. [Department of Physics, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, V5A 1S6 (Canada); Baquero-Ruiz, M. [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States); Bertsche, W. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, M13 9PL Manchester (United Kingdom); The Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury Laboratory, WA4 4AD Warrington (United Kingdom); Burrows, C. [Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Butler, E. [Physics Department, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Capra, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto, ON, M3J 1P3 (Canada); Cesar, C.L. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 21941-972 (Brazil); Chapman, S. [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States); Charlton, M.; Deller, A.; Eriksson, S. [Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Fajans, J. [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Friesen, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada); Fujiwara, M.C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada); TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Gill, D.R. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Gutierrez, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z4 (Canada); and others

    2013-12-21

    The Silicon Vertex Detector (SVD) is the main diagnostic tool in the ALPHA-experiment. It provides precise spatial and timing information of antiproton (antihydrogen) annihilation events (vertices), and most importantly, the SVD is capable of directly identifying and analysing single annihilation events, thereby forming the basis of ALPHA's analysis. This paper describes the ALPHA SVD and its upgrade, installed in the ALPHA's new neutral atom trap.

  17. Investigation of the Effect of He-Ne Laser on the Optical Properties through Etched CN-85 and CR-39 Containing Alpha Tracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaki, M.F.; Hegazy, T.M.; Taha, D.H.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of He-Ne laser on the optical characteristics of Cellulose nitrate, CN-85, and Poly allyl diglycole carbonate, CR-39, nuclear track detectors have been studied by using photoluminescence (PL) and UV-visible spectroscopic techniques. The polymers irradiated with alpha particles with close contact to 241 Am and then exposed to He-Ne laser with different doses. The laser energy intensities ranged between 0 and 217 J/cm 2 . The change in the PL spectra may be explained by chain conformational disorders as well as chain scission. From the UV-visible spectra, it is found that a shift in the absorption edge towards a longer wavelength with increasing laser doses can be readily observed. The absorption peak with increasing dose is seen to change into a broad one. The optical band gaps determined from the UV-visible spectra were found to decrease with the increase of energy intensities of He-Ne laser. These results have been explained on the basis of scission of the polymers due to laser irradiation. The UV absorption tail formation in both polymers was related to the diminution of optical band gap. Results show good correlation with the applied doses.

  18. Comparison between simplified load spectra in accordance with Germanische Lloyd guidelines, and load spectra derived from time domain simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rees, M [Aerodyn Energiesysteme gmbH, Rendsburg (Germany)

    1996-09-01

    The Germanische Lloyd guideline allows calculations of load spectra in two fundamentally different ways. In the case of the so-called `simplified load spectra` the maximum amplitude of fluctuation of a load component is formed as {+-}75% of the average value of the purely aerodynamic loads of this component at rated wind conditions, together with an overlay of mass-related loads. The second method allowed in the GL guideline is the calculation of load spectra from simulation results in the time domain. For a number of average wind speeds the time-dependent characteristics of the load components are calculated taking account of the natural spatial turbulence of the wind. These are converted into load spectra using the rainflow method. In a parametric study the load spectra are calculated according to both methods and compared. The calculations are performed for turbines with rated powers of 100 kW to 2000 kW, with two and three blades, and also for stall-controlled and pitch-controlled turbines. The calculated load spectra are compared with each by means of 1 P fatigue equivalent load spectra. The influence of individual parameters is presented, as is the validity of the simplified load spectra. (au)

  19. Increased 5. cap alpha. -reductase activity in idiopathic hirsutism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serafini, P.; Lobo, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    In vitro, genital skin 5..cap alpha..-reductase activity (5..cap alpha..-RA) was measured in ten hirsute women with normal androgen levels (idiopathic hirsutism (IH)) and in ten hirsute women with elevated androgen levels (polycystic ovary syndrome (PCO)) in order to determine the influence of secreted androgens on 5..cap alpha..-RA. In vitro 5..cap alpha..-RA was assessed by incubations of skin with /sup 14/C-testosterone (T) for 2 hours, after which steroids were separated and the radioactivity of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and 5..cap alpha..-androstane 3..cap alpha..-17..beta..-estradiol (3..cap alpha..-diol) in specific eluates were determined. All androgens were normal in IH with the exception of higher levels of 3..cap alpha..-diol glucuronide which were similar to the levels of PCO. The conversion ratio (CR) of T to DHT in IH and PCO were similar, yet significantly greater than the CR of control subjects. The CR of T to 3..cap alpha..-diol in IH and PCO were similar, yet higher than in control subjects. Serum androgens showed no correlation with 5..cap alpha..-RA, while the CR of T to DHT showed a significant positive correlation with the Ferriman and Gallwey score. The increased 5..cap alpha..-RA in IH appears to be independent of serum androgen levels and is, therefore, an inherent abnormality. The term idiopathic is a misnomer, because hirsutism in these patients may be explained on the basis of increased skin 5..cap alpha..-RA.

  20. Local energy deposited for alpha particles emitted from inhaled radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-affan, I.A.M.; Haque, A.K.M.M.

    1989-01-01

    An analytical method has been developed to calculate the local energy deposited by alpha particles emitted from radon daughters deposited on the mucus surface in the lung airways. For the particular case of 218 Po (Ra A) and 214 Bi (Ra C'), microdose spectra have been evaluated in test spheres of 1 μm diameter which were taken to lie within airways of diameters 18 000, 3500 and 600 μm. In each case, the contributions of the near and far wall were computed separately. The average microdosimetric parameters y-bar F and y-bar D have also been calculated. For the two smaller airways, y-bar F and y-bar D values were found to be about 110 and 135 keV μm -1 for 218 Po and about 87 and 107 keV μm -1 for 214 Bi respectively. The corresponding values were about 10% higher for the largest airway. (author)

  1. Alpha-mannosidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilssen Øivind

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Alpha-mannosidosis is an inherited lysosomal storage disorder characterized by immune deficiency, facial and skeletal abnormalities, hearing impairment, and intellectual disability. It occurs in approximately 1 of 500,000 live births. The children are often born apparently normal, and their condition worsens progressively. Some children are born with ankle equinus or develop hydrocephalus in the first year of life. Main features are immune deficiency (manifested by recurrent infections, especially in the first decade of life, skeletal abnormalities (mild-to-moderate dysostosis multiplex, scoliosis and deformation of the sternum, hearing impairment (moderate-to-severe sensorineural hearing loss, gradual impairment of mental functions and speech, and often, periods of psychosis. Associated motor function disturbances include muscular weakness, joint abnormalities and ataxia. The facial trait include large head with prominent forehead, rounded eyebrows, flattened nasal bridge, macroglossia, widely spaced teeth, and prognathism. Slight strabismus is common. The clinical variability is significant, representing a continuum in severity. The disorder is caused by lysosomal alpha-mannosidase deficiency. Alpha-mannosidosis is inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion and is caused by mutations in the MAN2B1 gene located on chromosome 19 (19 p13.2-q12. Diagnosis is made by measuring acid alpha-mannosidase activity in leukocytes or other nucleated cells and can be confirmed by genetic testing. Elevated urinary secretion of mannose-rich oligosaccharides is suggestive, but not diagnostic. Differential diagnoses are mainly the other lysosomal storage diseases like the mucopolysaccharidoses. Genetic counseling should be given to explain the nature of the disease and to detect carriers. Antenatal diagnosis is possible, based on both biochemical and genetic methods. The management should be pro-active, preventing complications and treating

  2. Quasi-bound alpha resonant states populated by the {sup 12}C({sup 6}Li, d) reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, M.R.D.; Borello-Lewin, T.; Miyake, H.; Horodynski-Matsushigue, L.B.; Duarte, J.L.M.; Rodrigues, C.L.; Souza, M.A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Cunsolo, A.; Cappuzzello, F.; Foti, A.; Agodi, C.; Cavallaro, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (LNS/INFN), Catania (Italy). Lab. Nazionali del Sud; Ukita, G.M. [Universidade de Santo Amaro (UNISA), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Psicologia

    2012-07-01

    Full text: The alpha cluster phenomenon in the light nuclei structure has been the subject of a long time investigation since the proposal of the Ikeda diagrams [1]. The main purpose of the research program in progress is the investigation of this phenomenon in (x{alpha}) and (x{alpha}+n) nuclei through the ({sup 6}Li, d) alpha transfer reaction [2-4]. Alpha resonant states around the (4{alpha}) threshold in the nucleus {sup 16}O are the focus of the present contribution. In fact, the importance of these resonances at the elements production in stars is recognized, as primarily pointed out by Hoyle in {sup 12}C [6]. The existence of a rotational band with the {alpha} +{sup 12} C (Hoyle) cluster state structure was recently demonstrated by Ohkubo and Hirabayashi [6]. In order to explore this region of interest, measurements of the {sup 12}C({sup 6}Li, d){sup 16}O reaction up to 17 MeV of excitation at an incident energy of 25.5 MeV, have been performed employing the Sao Paulo Pelletron-Enge Split-Pole facility and the nuclear emulsion detection technique (plates Fuji G6B, 50 {mu}m thick). Spectra associated with six scattering angles, from 5 deg to 29 deg in the laboratory frame, each one 50 cm along the focal surface, were measured. Several narrow resonances with a quasi-bound behavior embedded in the continuum were detected and the resolution of 25 keV allowed for the separation of doublets not resolved before [7,8]. The absolute cross sections and the respective deuteron angular distributions were determined and the analysis is in progress. [1] K. Ikeda et al., Prog. Theor. Phys. Suppl. E 68, 464 (1968); H. Horiuchi, K. Ikeda, and Y. Suzuki, ibid. 44, 225 (1978). [2] M.R.D.Rodrigues et al., in12th International Conference on Nuclear Reaction Mechanism, Varenna, Italy, edited by F. Cerutti and A. Ferrari , CERN Proceedings, 2010-2, pp. 331- 335. [3] T. Borello-Lewin et al., Proceedings of SOTANCP2, Brussels, Belgium 2010, edited by P. Descouvemount et al., Int. J

  3. alpha-Globin genes: thalassemic and structural alterations in a Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R.S.C. Wenning

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Seven unrelated patients with hemoglobin (Hb H disease and 27 individuals with alpha-chain structural alterations were studied to identify the alpha-globin gene mutations present in the population of Southeast Brazil. The -alpha3.7, --MED and -(alpha20.5 deletions were investigated by PCR, whereas non-deletional alpha-thalassemia (alphaHphalpha, alphaNcoIalpha, aaNcoI, alphaIcalpha and alphaTSaudialpha was screened with restriction enzymes and by nested PCR. Structural alterations were identified by direct DNA sequencing. Of the seven patients with Hb H disease, all of Italian descent, two had the -(alpha20.5/-alpha3.7 genotype, one had the --MED/-alpha3.7 genotype, one had the --MED/alphaHphalpha genotype and three showed interaction of the -alpha3.7 deletion with an unusual, unidentified form of non-deletional alpha-thalassemia [-alpha3.7/(aaT]. Among the 27 patients with structural alterations, 15 (of Italian descent had Hb Hasharon (alpha47Asp->His associated with the -alpha3.7 deletion, 4 (of Italian descent were heterozygous for Hb J-Rovigo (alpha53Ala->Asp, 4 (3 Blacks and 1 Caucasian were heterozygous for Hb Stanleyville-II (alpha78Asn->Lys associated with the alpha+-thalassemia, 1 (Black was heterozygous for Hb G-Pest (alpha74Asp->Asn, 1 (Caucasian was heterozygous for Hb Kurosaki (alpha7Lys->Glu, 1 (Caucasian was heterozygous for Hb Westmead (alpha122His->Gln, and 1 (Caucasian was the carrier of a novel silent variant (Hb Campinas, alpha26Ala->Val. Most of the mutations found reflected the Mediterranean and African origins of the population. Hbs G-Pest and Kurosaki, very rare, and Hb Westmead, common in southern China, were initially described in individuals of ethnic origin differing from those of the carriers reported in the present study and are the first cases to be reported in the Brazilian population.

  4. Endocytosis of GPI-linked membrane folate receptor-alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijnboutt, S; Jansen, G; Posthuma, G; Hynes, J B; Schornagel, J H; Strous, G J

    1996-01-01

    GPI-linked membrane folate receptors (MFRs) have been implicated in the receptor-mediated uptake of reduced folate cofactors and folate-based chemotherapeutic drugs. We have studied the biosynthetic transport to and internalization of MFR isoform alpha in KB-cells. MFR-alpha was synthesized as a 32-kD protein and converted in a maturely glycosylated 36-38-kD protein 1 h after synthesis. 32-kD MFR-alpha was completely soluble in Triton X-100 at 0 degree C. In contrast, only 33% of the 36-38-kD species could be solubilized at these conditions whereas complete solubilization was obtained in Triton X-100 at 37 degrees C or in the presence of saponin at 0 degree C. Similar solubilization characteristics were found when MFR-alpha at the plasma membrane was labeled with a crosslinkable 125I-labeled photoaffinity-analog of folic acid as a ligand. Triton X-100-insoluble membrane domains containing MFR-alpha could be separated from soluble MFR-alpha on sucrose flotation gradients. Only Triton X-100 soluble MFR-alpha was internalized from the plasma membrane. The reduced-folate-carrier, an integral membrane protein capable of translocating (anti-)folates across membranes, was completely excluded from the Triton X-100-resistant membrane domains. Internalized MFR-alpha recycled slowly to the cell surface during which it remained soluble in Triton X-100 at 0 degree C. Using immunoelectron microscopy, we found MFR-alpha along the entire endocytic pathway: in clathrin-coated buds and vesicles, and in small and large endosomal vacuoles. In conclusion, our data indicate that a large fraction, if not all, of internalizing MFR-alpha bypasses caveolae.

  5. Luminescence imaging of water during alpha particle irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Komori, Masataka; Koyama, Shuji; Toshito, Toshiyuki

    2016-05-01

    The luminescence imaging of water using the alpha particle irradiation of several MeV energy range is thought to be impossible because this alpha particle energy is far below the Cerenkov-light threshold and the secondary electrons produced in this energy range do not emit Cerenkov-light. Contrary to this consensus, we found that the luminescence imaging of water was possible with 5.5 MeV alpha particle irradiation. We placed a 2 MBq of 241Am alpha source in water, and luminescence images of the source were conducted with a high-sensitivity, cooled charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. We also carried out such imaging of the alpha source in three different conditions to compare the photon productions with that of water, in air, with a plastic scintillator, and an acrylic plate. The luminescence imaging of water was observed from 10 to 20 s acquisition, and the intensity was linearly increased with time. The intensity of the luminescence with the alpha irradiation of water was 0.05% of that with the plastic scintillator, 4% with air, and 15% with the acrylic plate. The resolution of the luminescence image of water was better than 0.25 mm FWHM. Alpha particles of 5.5 MeV energy emit luminescence in water. Although the intensity of the luminescence was smaller than that in air, it was clearly observable. The luminescence of water with alpha particles would be a new method for alpha particle detection and distribution measurements in water.

  6. Luminescence imaging of water during alpha particle irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Seiichi, E-mail: s-yama@met.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Radiological and Medical Laboratory Sciences, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Komori, Masataka; Koyama, Shuji [Radiological and Medical Laboratory Sciences, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Toshito, Toshiyuki [Department of Proton Therapy Physics, Nagoya Proton Therapy Center, Nagoya City West Medical Center (Japan)

    2016-05-21

    The luminescence imaging of water using the alpha particle irradiation of several MeV energy range is thought to be impossible because this alpha particle energy is far below the Cerenkov-light threshold and the secondary electrons produced in this energy range do not emit Cerenkov-light. Contrary to this consensus, we found that the luminescence imaging of water was possible with 5.5 MeV alpha particle irradiation. We placed a 2 MBq of {sup 241}Am alpha source in water, and luminescence images of the source were conducted with a high-sensitivity, cooled charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. We also carried out such imaging of the alpha source in three different conditions to compare the photon productions with that of water, in air, with a plastic scintillator, and an acrylic plate. The luminescence imaging of water was observed from 10 to 20 s acquisition, and the intensity was linearly increased with time. The intensity of the luminescence with the alpha irradiation of water was 0.05% of that with the plastic scintillator, 4% with air, and 15% with the acrylic plate. The resolution of the luminescence image of water was better than 0.25 mm FWHM. Alpha particles of 5.5 MeV energy emit luminescence in water. Although the intensity of the luminescence was smaller than that in air, it was clearly observable. The luminescence of water with alpha particles would be a new method for alpha particle detection and distribution measurements in water.

  7. Localization of alpha emitters by damage production in a thin film. Application to the study of alpha emitter diffusion in irradiated samples; Localisation des emetteurs alpha par creation de dommages dans un film mince. Application a l'etude de la diffusion des emetteurs alpha dans des echantillons irradies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houdaille, B; Perrot, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 91 - Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    The process of recording {alpha} particles on cellulose nitrate films, called alpha-graphy, is applied to the study of the diffusion of {alpha}-emitting elements in irradiated alloys. The existence of diffusion is shown by attacking the film with concentrated caustic soda after exposition. The insensitivity of the recorder to {beta} {gamma} radiation emitted by the sample after passing in the reactor makes it possible to operate with long exposure times and to detect small diffusions. The concentration-penetration curves are drawn up after carrying out a densitometric analysis of the alpha-graphies. - As the cellulose nitrate is affected only by {alpha} particles of energies of between 0.5 and 4 MeV, it was first necessary to determine the yield of the recorder for {alpha} particles emitted by a thick source, i.e. whose energy varies between 0 and E{sub 0}, E{sub 0} being the energy of the alpha emitter. - The concentration C of the {alpha}-emitter, as a function of the optical density D of the alpha-graphy, and of the exposure time t is given by a simple relationship: C = D/at where a is an experimental constant determined by calibration. It depends on the nature of the cellulose nitrate, of the {alpha}-emitting element and of the alloy studied. (authors) [French] Le procede d'enregistrement des particules alpha sur film de nitrate de cellulose, ou alphagraphie, est applique a l'etude de la diffusion d'elements emetteurs alpha dans des alliages irradies. La diffusion est mise en evidence par une attaque du film de nitrate, apres exposition, dans de la soude concentree. L'insensibilite de l'enregistreur au rayonnement {beta} {gamma}, emis par l'echantillon apres son sejour en pile, permet d'operer sur de longs temps de pose et de detecter des diffusions faibles. Les courbes concentration - penetration sont etablies par exploitation densitometrique des alphagraphies. - Comme le nitrate de cellulose n'est impressionne que par des particules alpha dont l'energie est

  8. About the reactions sup 3 H(alpha,gamma) sup 7 Li and sup 3 He(alpha,gamma) sup 7 Be

    CERN Document Server

    Loeffler, W

    1993-01-01

    In this article the current experimental and theoretical status of the radiative alpha capture reactions sup 3 H(alpha,gamma) sup 7 Li and sup 3 He(alpha,gamma) sup 7 Be and their relations to primordial nucleosynthesis and the solar neutrino problem are reviewed. (author)

  9. Alpha oscillations and early stages of visual encoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang eKlimesch

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available For a long time alpha oscillations have been functionally linked to the processing of visual information. Here we propose an new theory about the functional meaning of alpha. The central idea is that synchronized alpha reflects a basic processing mode that controls access to information stored in a complex long-term memory system, which we term knowledge system (KS in order to emphasize that it comprises not only declarative memories but any kind of knowledge comprising also procedural information. Based on this theoretical background, we assume that during early stages of perception, alpha ‘directs the flow of information’ to those neural structures which represent information that is relevant for encoding. The physiological function of alpha is interpreted in terms of inhibition. We assume that alpha enables access to stored information by inhibiting task irrelevant neuronal structures and by timing cortical activity in task relevant neuronal structures. We discuss a variety findings showing that evoked alpha and phase locking reflect successful encoding of global stimulus features in an early poststimulus interval of about 0 - 150 ms.

  10. Partitioning diversity into independent alpha and beta components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Lou

    2007-10-01

    Existing general definitions of beta diversity often produce a beta with a hidden dependence on alpha. Such a beta cannot be used to compare regions that differ in alpha diversity. To avoid misinterpretation, existing definitions of alpha and beta must be replaced by a definition that partitions diversity into independent alpha and beta components. Such a unique definition is derived here. When these new alpha and beta components are transformed into their numbers equivalents (effective numbers of elements), Whittaker's multiplicative law (alpha x beta = gamma) is necessarily true for all indices. The new beta gives the effective number of distinct communities. The most popular similarity and overlap measures of ecology (Jaccard, Sorensen, Horn, and Morisita-Horn indices) are monotonic transformations of the new beta diversity. Shannon measures follow deductively from this formalism and do not need to be borrowed from information theory; they are shown to be the only standard diversity measures which can be decomposed into meaningful independent alpha and beta components when community weights are unequal.

  11. Alpha-tocopheryl phosphate: a novel, natural form of vitamin E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianello, Robert; Libinaki, Roksan; Azzi, Angelo; Gavin, Paul D; Negis, Yesim; Zingg, Jean-Marc; Holt, Phillip; Keah, Hooi-Hong; Griffey, Annike; Smallridge, Andrew; West, Simon M; Ogru, Esra

    2005-10-01

    We have detected alpha-tocopheryl phosphate in biological tissues including liver and adipose tissue, as well as in a variety of foods, suggesting a ubiquitous presence in animal and plant tissue. Alpha-tocopheryl phosphate is a water-soluble molecule that is resistant to both acid and alkaline hydrolysis, making it undetectable using standard assays for vitamin E. A new method was therefore developed to allow the extraction of both alpha-tocopheryl phosphate and alpha-tocopherol from a single specimen. We used ESMS to detect endogenous alpha-tocopheryl phosphate in biological samples that also contained alpha-tocopherol. Due to the significance of these findings, further proof was required to unequivocally demonstrate the presence of endogenous alpha-tocopheryl phosphate in biological samples. Four independent methods of analysis were examined: HPLC, LCMS, LCMS/MS, and GCMS. Alpha-tocopherol phosphate was identified in all instances by comparison between standard alpha-tocopheryl phosphate and extracts of biological tissues. The results show that alpha-tocopheryl phosphate is a natural form of vitamin E. The discovery of endogenous alpha-tocopheryl phosphate has implications for the expanding knowledge of the roles of alpha-tocopherol in biological systems.

  12. Structure of high-resolution NMR spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Corio, PL

    2012-01-01

    Structure of High-Resolution NMR Spectra provides the principles, theories, and mathematical and physical concepts of high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectra.The book presents the elementary theory of magnetic resonance; the quantum mechanical theory of angular momentum; the general theory of steady state spectra; and multiple quantum transitions, double resonance and spin echo experiments.Physicists, chemists, and researchers will find the book a valuable reference text.

  13. Secondary reduction of alpha7B integrin in laminin alpha2 deficient congenital muscular dystrophy supports an additional transmembrane link in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, R D; Mayer, U; Saher, G; Herrmann, R; van der Flier, A; Sonnenberg, A; Sorokin, L; Voit, T

    1999-03-01

    The integrins are a large family of heterodimeric transmembrane cellular receptors which mediate the association between the extracellular matrix (ECM) and cytoskeletal proteins. The alpha7beta1 integrin is a major laminin binding integrin in skeletal and cardiac muscle and is thought to be involved in myogenic differentiation and migration processes. The main binding partners of the alpha7 integrin are laminin-1 (alpha1-beta1-gamma1), laminin-2 (alpha2-beta1-gamma1) and laminin-4 (alpha2-beta2-gamma1). Targeted deletion of the gene for the alpha7 integrin subunit (ITGA7) in mice leads to a novel form of muscular dystrophy. In the present study we have investigated the expression of two alternative splice variants, the alpha7B and beta1D integrin subunits, in normal human skeletal muscle, as well as in various forms of muscular dystrophy. In normal human skeletal muscle the expression of the alpha7 integrin subunit appeared to be developmentally regulated: it was first detected at 2 years of age. In contrast, the beta1D integrin could be detected in immature and mature muscle in the sarcolemma of normal fetal skeletal muscle at 18 weeks gestation. The expression of alpha7B integrin was significantly reduced at the sarcolemma in six patients with laminin alpha2 chain deficient congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD) (age >2 years). However, this reduction was not correlated with the amount of laminin alpha2 chain expressed. In contrast, the expression of the laminin alpha2 chain was not altered in the skeletal muscle of the alpha7 knock-out mice. These data argue in favor that there is not a tight correlation between the expression of the alpha7 integrin subunit and that of the laminin alpha2 chain in either human or murine dystrophic muscle. Interestingly, in dystrophinopathies (Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy; DMD/BMD) expression of alpha7B was upregulated irrespective of the level of dystrophin expression as shown by a strong sarcolemmal staining pattern even

  14. FSFE: Fake Spectra Flux Extractor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Simeon

    2017-10-01

    The fake spectra flux extractor generates simulated quasar absorption spectra from a particle or adaptive mesh-based hydrodynamic simulation. It is implemented as a python module. It can produce both hydrogen and metal line spectra, if the simulation includes metals. The cloudy table for metal ionization fractions is included. Unlike earlier spectral generation codes, it produces absorption from each particle close to the sight-line individually, rather than first producing an average density in each spectral pixel, thus substantially preserving more of the small-scale velocity structure of the gas. The code supports both Gadget (ascl:0003.001) and AREPO.

  15. NEW APPROACHES TO CONFINED ALPHA DIAGNOSTICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FISHER,R.K

    2004-04-01

    Three new approaches to obtain information on the confined fast alphas in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) are proposed. The first technique measures the energetic charge exchange (CX) neutrals that result from the alpha collision-induced knock-on fuel ion tails undergoing electron capture on the MeV D neutral beams planned for heating and current drive. The second technique measures the energetic knock-on neutron tail due to alphas using the lengths of the proton recoil tracks produced by neutron collisions in nuclear emulsions. The range of the 14 to 20 MeV recoil protons increases by {approx}140 microns per MeV. The third approach would measure the CX helium neutrals resulting from confined alphas capturing two electrons in the ablation cloud surrounding a dense gas jet that has been proposed for disruption mitigation in ITER.

  16. NEW APPROACHES TO CONFINED ALPHA DIAGNOSTICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FISHER, R.K.

    2004-01-01

    Three new approaches to obtain information on the confined fast alphas in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) are proposed. The first technique measures the energetic charge exchange (CX) neutrals that result from the alpha collision-induced knock-on fuel ion tails undergoing electron capture on the MeV D neutral beams planned for heating and current drive. The second technique measures the energetic knock-on neutron tail due to alphas using the lengths of the proton recoil tracks produced by neutron collisions in nuclear emulsions. The range of the 14 to 20 MeV recoil protons increases by ∼140 microns per MeV. The third approach would measure the CX helium neutrals resulting from confined alphas capturing two electrons in the ablation cloud surrounding a dense gas jet that has been proposed for disruption mitigation in ITER

  17. Anti-IL-1alpha autoantibodies in early rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forslind, K; Svensson, Birte; Svenson, M

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the potential predictive value of autoantibodies against IL1-alpha (anti-IL-1alpha) in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA).......To investigate the potential predictive value of autoantibodies against IL1-alpha (anti-IL-1alpha) in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA)....

  18. Variable displacement alpha-type Stirling engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homutescu, V. M.; Bălănescu, D. T.; Panaite, C. E.; Atanasiu, M. V.

    2016-08-01

    The basic design and construction of an alpha-type Stirling engine with on load variable displacement is presented. The variable displacement is obtained through a planar quadrilateral linkage with one on load movable ground link. The physico-mathematical model used for analyzing the variable displacement alpha-type Stirling engine behavior is an isothermal model that takes into account the real movement of the pistons. Performances and power adjustment capabilities of such alpha-type Stirling engine are calculated and analyzed. An exemplification through the use of the numerical simulation was performed in this regard.

  19. Monte Carlo simulation of the alpha-amylolysis of amylopectin potato starch. 2. alpha-amylolysis of amylopectin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchal, L.M.; Ulijn, R.V.; Gooijer, de C.D.; Franke, G.T.; Tramper, J.

    2003-01-01

    A model is presented that describes all the saccharides that are produced during the hydrolysis of starch by an alpha-amylase. Potato amylopectin, the substrate of the hydrolysis reaction, was modeled in a computer matrix. The four different subsite maps presented in literature for alpha-amylase

  20. A basic research of gadolinium hydrogen [alpha], [alpha]', [alpha]'', [alpha]'''-tetramethly- 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane- 1,4,7,10-tetraacetate with high complex stability as a contrast agent for MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seri, Shigemi; Hashiguchi, Yuji; Kubomura, Kan; Abe, Yukiko; Iguchi, Toshio; Iwai, Kumiko [Nihon Medi-Physics Co., Ltd., Sodegaura, Chiba (Japan); Watanabe, Tokuko

    1993-05-01

    Gadolinium hydrogen [alpha], [alpha]', [alpha]'', [alpha]'''-tetramethyl- 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane- 1,4,7,10-tetraacetate (abbreviated Gd-DOTMA) was developed as a new contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging. Our study focused on the evaluation of the pharmaceutical properties as in vivo agent. The new modified process by which Gd-DOTMA was synthesized resulted in high yields of this agent. A high stability constant of 10[sup 26] fro Gd-DOTMA was determined at physiological pH. It is more stable than Gd complex with tetraazacyclododecanetetraacetic acid (which is regarded as the most stable Gd complex). The strong T[sub 1] relaxivities of 4.0 and 3.7 (mM [center dot] s)[sup -1] at 0.5 tesla and 1.5 tesla were measured in the aqueous solution. The osmolarity of 0.5 M solution, dissolved with equal amounts of meglumine as a solubilizer is 1020 mOsmol/kg. This contrasting agent was studied in vivo by using rats as the experimental group. The agent showed strong enhancement of transplanted tumors within the rat population studied. This compound is rapidly excreted by the kidneys, and has a half-life of 26 min in blood. The median lethal dose (LD[sub 50] value) of the stable Gd-DOTMA has a favorable tolerance of over 12.3 mmol/kg. (author).

  1. Suicide attempt with a mix of synthetic cannabinoids and synthetic cathinones: Case report of non-fatal intoxication with AB-CHMINACA, AB-FUBINACA, alpha-PHP, alpha-PVP and 4-CMC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klavž, Janez; Gorenjak, Maksimiljan; Marinšek, Martin

    2016-08-01

    We report on a case of intoxication with a mix of new psychoactive substances. A 38-year-old male was brought to the emergency department (ED) following the ingestion of an unknown drug in a suicide attempt. During the transport, he became progressively more somnolent and unresponsive to painful stimuli. Urine and stomach content were collected on admission to be screened for drugs of abuse and medicinal drugs. After admission, the patient's next of kin presented five small grip seal plastic bags containing different powders/crystals, and they were sent for analysis along with urine and stomach content to the toxicology laboratory. An easy and rapid sample preparation technique was applied for the extraction of urine and stomach content. Samples were extracted with liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) technique and analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A small amount of powder material from the bags was diluted in methanol and injected directly into the GC-MS instrument. Obtained spectra (EI) were evaluated against SWGDRUG library. Five different designer drugs were identified in the powder material, including synthetic cannabinoids (AB-CHMINACA, AB-FUBINACA) and synthetic cathinones (alpha-PHP, alpha-PVP and 4-CMC). With the exception of 4-CMC, all of these substances were also detected in the stomach content along with the prescription drugs. This is the first time that a positive identification of these five drugs has been made by a clinical laboratory in Slovenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Targeted alpha therapy: Applications and current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruchertseifer, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Full text: The field of targeted alpha therapy has been developed rapidly in the last decade. Besides 223 Ra, 211 At and 212 Pb/ 212 Bi the alpha emitters 225 Ac and 213 Bi are promising therapeutic radionuclides for application in targeted alpha therapy of cancer and infectious diseases. The presentation will give a short overview about the current clinical treatments with alpha emitting radionuclides and will place an emphasis on the most promising clinical testing of peptides and antibodies labelled with 225 Ac and 213 Bi for treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer patients with glioma and glioblastoma multiform, PSMA-positive tumor phenotype and bladder carcinoma in situ. (author)

  3. Determination of hCG-alpha subunit in threatened pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talas, M.; Pohanka, J.; Fingerova, H.; Janouskova, M.; Krikal, Z.; Prasilova, J.; Zupkova, H.

    1987-01-01

    Radioimmunoassay of the hCG-alpha subunit was made using an antibody anti hCG-alpha serum, highly purified hCG-alpha for 125 I-labelling and the standard hCG-alpha. Sera of healthy pregnant women sampled throughout the whole pregnancies were used to determine x-bar±S.D. of hCG-alpha for 14-day intervals. Included in the study were groups of women with high risk of premature labor, late toxemia of pregnancy, twins and fetal hypotrophy. It was shown that increased hCG-alpha is found in pregnant women in whom signs of late toxemia of pregnancy are combined with high risk of premature labor, or with twin pregnancies, while in those with fetal hypotrophy hCG-alpha is within normal limits. (author). 3 figs., 7 refs

  4. Insurance - Piper Alpha ''et al''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hales, K.

    1995-01-01

    This paper opens with some brief information about the Piper Alpha loss, how the loss was handled and its final cost. More importantly, it discusses the effect of the Piper Alpha loss on the world insurance market including the oil insurance captives such as O.I.L Limited. Finally, the insurance market current status and prognosis for the future are considered. (Author)

  5. The ALPHA antihydrogen trapping apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amole, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto ON Canada, M3J 1P3 (Canada); Andresen, G.B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Ashkezari, M.D. [Department of Physics, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC Canada, V5A 1S6 (Canada); Baquero-Ruiz, M. [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States); Bertsche, W. [Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); The Cockcroft Institute, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Bowe, P.D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Butler, E. [Physics Department, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Capra, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto ON Canada, M3J 1P3 (Canada); Carpenter, P.T. [Department of Physics, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849-5311 (United States); Cesar, C.L. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 21941-972 (Brazil); Chapman, S. [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States); Charlton, M.; Deller, A.; Eriksson, S. [Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Escallier, J. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Fajans, J. [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States); Friesen, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary AB, Canada, T2N 1N4 (Canada); Fujiwara, M.C.; Gill, D.R. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver BC, Canada V6T 2A3 (Canada); Gutierrez, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver BC, Canada V6T 1Z4 (Canada); and others

    2014-01-21

    The ALPHA collaboration, based at CERN, has recently succeeded in confining cold antihydrogen atoms in a magnetic minimum neutral atom trap and has performed the first study of a resonant transition of the anti-atoms. The ALPHA apparatus will be described herein, with emphasis on the structural aspects, diagnostic methods and techniques that have enabled antihydrogen trapping and experimentation to be achieved.

  6. Synthesis of peptide .alpha.-thioesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarero, Julio A [Livermore, CA; Mitchell, Alexander R [Livermore, CA; De Yoreo, James J [Clayton, CA

    2008-08-19

    Disclosed herein is a new method for the solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) of C-terminal peptide .alpha. thioesters using Fmoc/t-Bu chemistry. This method is based on the use of an aryl hydrazine linker, which is totally stable to conditions required for Fmoc-SPPS. When the peptide synthesis has been completed, activation of the linker is achieved by mild oxidation. The oxidation step converts the acyl-hydrazine group into a highly reactive acyl-diazene intermediate which reacts with an .alpha.-amino acid alkylthioester (H-AA-SR) to yield the corresponding peptide .alpha.-thioester in good yield. A variety of peptide thioesters, cyclic peptides and a fully functional Src homology 3 (SH3) protein domain have been successfully prepared.

  7. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of uranium for alpha spectrometry; Deposicion quimica de vapor (CVD) de uranio para espectrometria alfa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez V, M. L.; Rios M, C.; Ramirez O, J.; Davila R, J. I.; Mireles G, F., E-mail: luisalawliet@gmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    The uranium determination through radiometric techniques as alpha spectrometry requires for its proper analysis, preparation methods of the source to analyze and procedures for the deposit of this on a surface or substrate. Given the characteristics of alpha particles (small penetration distance and great loss of energy during their journey or its interaction with the matter), is important to ensure that the prepared sources are thin, to avoid problems of self-absorption. The routine methods used for this are the cathodic electro deposition and the direct evaporation, among others. In this paper the use of technique of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) for the preparation of uranium sources is investigated; because by this, is possible to obtain thin films (much thinner than those resulting from electro deposition or evaporation) on a substrate and comprises reacting a precursor with a gas, which in turn serves as a carrier of the reaction products to achieve deposition. Preliminary results of the chemical vapor deposition of uranium are presented, synthesizing and using as precursor molecule the uranyl acetylacetonate, using oxygen as carrier gas for the deposition reaction on a glass substrate. The uranium films obtained were found suitable for alpha spectrometry. The variables taken into account were the precursor sublimation temperatures and deposition temperature, the reaction time and the type and flow of carrier gas. Of the investigated conditions, two depositions with encouraging results that can serve as reference for further work to improve the technique presented here were selected. Alpha spectra obtained for these depositions and the characterization of the representative samples by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction are also presented. (Author)

  8. Penetration of HEPA filters by alpha recoil aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell, W.J.; Seeley, F.G.; Ryan, M.T.

    1976-01-01

    The self-scattering of alpha-active substances has long been recognized and is attributed to expulsion of aggregates of atoms from the surface of alpha-active materials by alpha emission recoil energy, and perhaps to further propulsion of these aggregates by subsequent alpha recoils. Workers at the University of Lowell recently predicted that this phenomenon might affect the retention of alpha-active particulate matter by HEPA filters, and found support in experiments with 212 Pb. Tests at Oak Ridge National Laboratory have confirmed that alpha-emitting particulate matter does penetrate high-efficiency filter media, such as that used in HEPA filters, much more effectively than do non-radioactive or beta-gamma active aerosols. Filter retention efficiencies drastically lower than the 99.9 percent quoted for ordinary particulate matter were observed with 212 Pb, 253 Es, and 238 Pu sources, indicating that the phenomenon is common to all of these and probably to all alpha-emitting materials of appropriate half-life. Results with controlled air-flow through filters in series are consistent with the picture of small particles dislodged from the ''massive'' surface of an alpha-active material, and then repeatedly dislodged from positions on the filter fibers by subsequent alpha recoils. The process shows only a small dependence on the physical form of the source material. Oxide dust, nitrate salt, and plated metal all seem to generate the recoil particles effectively. The amount penetrating a series of filters depends on the total amount of activity in the source material, its specific activity, and the length of time of air flow

  9. Mid-aged and aged wild-type and progestin receptor knockout (PRKO) mice demonstrate rapid progesterone and 3alpha,5alpha-THP-facilitated lordosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, C A; Sumida, K; Lydon, J P; O'Malley, B W; Pfaff, D W

    2006-05-01

    Progesterone (P) and its 5alpha-reduced metabolite, 3alpha-hydroxy-5alpha-pregnan-20-one (3alpha,5alpha-THP), facilitate sexual behavior of rodents via agonist-like actions at intracellular progestin receptors (PRs) and membrane GABA(A)/benzodiazepine receptor complexes (GBRs), respectively. Given that ovarian secretion of progestins declines with aging, whether or not senescent mice are responsive to progestins was of interest. Homozygous PR knockout (PRKO) or wild-type mice that were between 10-12 (mid-aged) or 20-24 (aged) months of age were administered P or 3alpha,5alpha-THP, and the effect on lordosis were examined. Effects of a progestin-priming regimen that enhances PR-mediated (experiment 1) or more rapid, PR-independent effects of progestins (experiments 2 and 3) on sexual behavior were examined. Levels of P, 3alpha,5alpha-THP, and muscimol binding were examined in tissues from aged mice (experiment 4). Wild-type, but not PRKO, mice were responsive when primed with 17beta-estradiol (E(2); 0.5 microg) and administered P (500 microg, subcutaneously). Mid-aged wild-type mice demonstrated greater increases in lordosis 6 h later compared to their pre-P, baseline test than did aged wild-type mice (experiment 1). Lordosis of younger and older wild-type, but not PRKO, mice was significantly increased within 5 min of intravenous (IV) administration of P (100 ng), compared with E(2)-priming alone (experiment 2). However, wild-type and PRKO mice demonstrated significant increases in lordosis 5 min after IV administration of 3alpha,5alpha-THP, an effect which was more pronounced in mid-aged than in aged animals (100 ng-experiment 3). In tissues from aged wild-type and PRKO mice, levels of P, 3alpha,5alpha-THP, and muscimol binding were increased by P administration (experiment 4). PR binding was lower in the cortex of PRKO than that of wild-type mice. Mid-aged and aged PRKO and wild-type mice demonstrated rapid P or 3alpha,5alpha-THP-facilitated lordosis that may be

  10. E-PERM alpha surface monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fricke, V.

    1999-01-01

    Innovative Technology Summary Reports are designed to provide potential users with the information they need to quickly determine if a technology would apply to a particular environmental management problem. They are also designed for readers who may recommend that a technology be considered by prospective users. Each report describes a technology, system, or process that has been developed and tested with funding from DOE's Office of Science and Technology (OST). The E-PERMreg s ign Alpha Surface Monitor is an integrating electret ion chamber innovative technology used to measure alpha radiation on surfaces of materials. The technology is best used on surfaces with low contamination levels such as areas with potential for free release, but can also be used in areas with higher levels of contamination. Measurement accuracy and production of the E-PERM reg s ign Alpha Surface Monitor compared favorably with the baseline technology. The innovative technology cost is approximately 28% higher than the baseline with an average unit cost per reading costing %6.04 vs. $4.36; however, the flexibility of the E-PERMreg s ign Alpha Surface Monitor may offer advantages in ALARA, reduction of operator error, waste minimization, and measurement accuracy

  11. Design spectra development considering short time histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiner, E.O.

    1983-01-01

    Two separate programs, MODQKE and MDOF, were written to provide a capability of obtaining equipment spectra from design spectra. MODQKE generates or modifies acceleration histories to conform with design spectra pertaining to, say, a foundation. MDOF is a simple linear modal superposition program that solves for equipment support histories using the design spectra conforming histories as input. Equipment spectra, then, are obtained from the support histories using MODQKE. MODQKE was written to modify or provide new histories with special attention paid to short seismic records. A technique from the open literature was borrowed to generate an initial history that approximates a given response spectrum. Further refinement is done with smoothing cycles in which several correction signals are added to the history in a way that produces a least squares fit between actual and prescribed spectra. Provision is made for history shaping, a baseline correction, and final scaling. MODQKE performance has been demonstrated with seven examples having zero to ten percent damping ratios, and 2.5 seconds to 20 seconds durations and a variety of target spectra. The examples show the program is inexpensive to use. MDOF is a simple modal superposition program. It has no eigensolver, and the user supplies mode shapes, frequencies, and participation factors as input. Floor spectra can be generated from design spectra by using a history from MODQKE that conforms to the design spectrum as input to MDOF. Floor motions from MDOF can be fed back to MODQKE without modification to obtain the floor spectra. A simple example is given to show how equipment mass effects can be incorporated into the MDOF solution. Any transient solution capability can be used to replace MDOF. For example, a direct transient approach may be desirable if both the equipment and floor structures are to be included in the model with different damping fractions. (orig./HP)

  12. Preliminary studies for the determination of alpha emitters using the gross alpha coprecipitation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez-Navarro, J. A.; Pujol, L.; Suarez, J. A.; Pablo, M. A. de

    2003-01-01

    The radiological quality of drinking water in Spain is regulated by Nuclear Security Guideline No, 7.7 (Rev.1) of the Nuclear Security Council (NSC). this guideline establishes the protocol to follow when the radiological level exceeds 0,1 Bq.l''1. When this level is passed, the responsible alpha emitter must be identified; ''210 Po, ''226Ra, ''230Th, ''239Pu, ''224Ra, ''234 U and ''138 U. Activity due to these isotopes is usually determined using alpha spectrometry with semiconductor detectors. This method allows the activity of the alpha emitters to be determined with a good sensitivity. however, it requires long radiochemical isolations and long counting times, so the method is not suitable for rough estimate radiological analysis. In this preliminary work, we present the conditioning of the sample-precipitate that is essential for further radiochemical isolations. (Author) 9 refs

  13. Statistical properties of Fermi GBM GRBs' spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rácz, István I.; Balázs, Lajos G.; Horvath, Istvan; Tóth, L. Viktor; Bagoly, Zsolt

    2018-03-01

    Statistical studies of gamma-ray burst (GRB) spectra may result in important information on the physics of GRBs. The Fermi GBM catalogue contains GRB parameters (peak energy, spectral indices, and intensity) estimated fitting the gamma-ray spectral energy distribution of the total emission (fluence, flnc), and during the time of the peak flux (pflx). Using contingency tables, we studied the relationship of the models best-fitting pflx and flnc time intervals. Our analysis revealed an ordering of the spectra into a power law - Comptonized - smoothly broken power law - Band series. This result was further supported by a correspondence analysis of the pflx and flnc spectra categorical variables. We performed a linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to find a relationship between categorical (spectral) and model independent physical data. LDA resulted in highly significant physical differences among the spectral types, that is more pronounced in the case of the pflx spectra, than for the flnc spectra. We interpreted this difference as caused by the temporal variation of the spectrum during the outburst. This spectral variability is confirmed by the differences in the low-energy spectral index and peak energy, between the pflx and flnc spectra. We found that the synchrotron radiation is significant in GBM spectra. The mean low-energy spectral index is close to the canonical value of α = -2/3 during the peak flux. However, α is ˜ -0.9 for the spectra of the fluences. We interpret this difference as showing that the effect of cooling is important only for the fluence spectra.

  14. Long-range alpha detector for contamination monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacArthur, D.W.; Allander, K.S.; McAtee, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    Historically, alpha detectors have been limited by the very short range of alpha particles in air and by relatively poor sensitivity, even if the particles are intercepted. Of necessity, these detectors are operated in a vacuum or in close proximity to the source if reasonable efficiency is desired. In our new long-range alpha detector (LRAD), alpha particles interact with the ambient air, producing ionization in the air at the rate of about 30,000 ion pairs per MeV of alpha energy. These charges can be transported over significant distances (several meters) in a moving current of air generated by a small fan. An ion chamber located in front of the fan measures the current carried by the moving ions. The LRAD-based monitor is more sensitive and more thorough than conventional monitors. We present current LRAD sensitivity limits and results, practical monitor designs, and proposed uses for LRAD monitors. 4 refs., 6 figs

  15. Unweighted event generation in hadronic WZ production at order $(\\alpha_{S})$

    CERN Document Server

    Dobbs, Matt; Lefebvre, Michel

    2001-01-01

    We present an algorithm for unweighted event generation in the partonic process pp -> WZ (j) with leptonic decays at next-to-leading order in alpha_S. Monte Carlo programs for processes such as this frequently generate events with negative weights in certain regions of phase space. For simulations of experimental data one would like to have unweighted events only. We demonstrate how the phase space from the matrix elements can be combined to achieve unweighted event generation using a second stage Monte Carlo integration over a volume of real emissions (jets). Observable quantities are kept fixed in the laboratory frame throughout the integration. The algorithm is applicable to a broader class of processes and is CPU intensive.

  16. Raman spectra of lithium compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelik, V. S.; Bi, Dongxue; Voinov, Y. P.; Vodchits, A. I.; Gorshunov, B. P.; Yurasov, N. I.; Yurasova, I. I.

    2017-11-01

    The paper is devoted to the results of investigating the spontaneous Raman scattering spectra in the lithium compounds crystals in a wide spectral range by the fibre-optic spectroscopy method. We also present the stimulated Raman scattering spectra in the lithium hydroxide and lithium deuteride crystals obtained with the use of powerful laser source. The symmetry properties of the lithium hydroxide, lithium hydroxide monohydrate and lithium deuteride crystals optical modes were analyzed by means of the irreducible representations of the point symmetry groups. We have established the selection rules in the Raman and infrared absorption spectra of LiOH, LiOH·H2O and LiD crystals.

  17. Waves for Alpha-Channeling in Mirror Machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhmoginov, A.I.; Fisch, N.J.

    2009-01-01

    Alpha-channeling can, in principle, be implemented in mirror machines via exciting weaklydamped modes in the ion cyclotron frequency range with perpendicular wavelengths smaller than the alpha particle gyroradius. Assuming quasi-longitudinal or quasi-transverse wave propagation, we search systematically for suitable modes in mirror plasmas. Considering two device designs, a proof-of-principle facility and a fusion rector prototype, we in fact identify candidate modes suitable for alpha-channeling.

  18. Photon and photoneutron spectra produced in radiotherapy Linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega C, H. R.; Martinez O, S. A.; Benites R, J. L.; Lallena, A. M.

    2011-10-01

    A Monte Carlo calculation, using the MCNPX code, was carried out in order to estimate the photon and neutron spectra in two locations of two linacs operating at 15 and 18 MV. Detailed models of both linac heads were used in the calculations. Spectra were estimated below the flattening filter and at the isocenter. Neutron spectra show two components due to evaporation and knock-on neutrons. Lethargy spectra under the filter were compared to the spectra calculated from the function quoted by Tosi et al. that describes reasonably well neutron spectra beyond 1 MeV, though tends to underestimate the energy region between 10 -6 and 1 MeV. Neutron and Bremsstrahlung spectra show the same features regardless of the linac voltage. The amount of photons and neutrons produced by the 15 MV linac is smaller than that found for the 18 MV linac. As expected, Bremsstrahlung spectra ends according to the voltage used to accelerate the electrons. (Author)

  19. Photon and photoneutron spectra produced in radiotherapy Linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega C, H. R. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Calle Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Martinez O, S. A. [Universidad Pedagogica y Tecnologica de Colombia, Grupo de Fisica Nuclear Aplicada y Simulacion, Av. Central del Norte Km. 1, Via Paipa Tunja, Boyaca (Colombia); Benites R, J. L. [Universidad Autonoma de Nayarit, Postgrado CBAP, Carretera Tepic Compostela Km. 9, Xalisco, Nayarit (Mexico); Lallena, A. M., E-mail: fermineutron@yahoo.com [Universida de Granada, Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, E-18071 Granada (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    A Monte Carlo calculation, using the MCNPX code, was carried out in order to estimate the photon and neutron spectra in two locations of two linacs operating at 15 and 18 MV. Detailed models of both linac heads were used in the calculations. Spectra were estimated below the flattening filter and at the isocenter. Neutron spectra show two components due to evaporation and knock-on neutrons. Lethargy spectra under the filter were compared to the spectra calculated from the function quoted by Tosi et al. that describes reasonably well neutron spectra beyond 1 MeV, though tends to underestimate the energy region between 10{sup -6} and 1 MeV. Neutron and Bremsstrahlung spectra show the same features regardless of the linac voltage. The amount of photons and neutrons produced by the 15 MV linac is smaller than that found for the 18 MV linac. As expected, Bremsstrahlung spectra ends according to the voltage used to accelerate the electrons. (Author)

  20. Action of ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate, ornithine hydrochloride, and calcium alpha-ketoglutarate on plasma amino acid and hormonal patterns in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cynober, L; Coudray-Lucas, C; de Bandt, J P; Guéchot, J; Aussel, C; Salvucci, M; Giboudeau, J

    1990-02-01

    Ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate (OKG) has been useful as an adjuvant of enteral and parenteral nutrition. However, its metabolism and mechanism of action remain unclear although it is known that alpha-ketoglutarate (alpha KG) and ornithine (ORN) follow, in part, common metabolic pathways. Six fasting healthy male subjects underwent three separate oral load tests: (i) they received 10 g of OKG (i.e., 3.6 g of alpha KG and 6.4 g of ORN); (ii) 6.4 g of ORN as ornithine hydrochloride, and (iii) 3.6 g of alpha KG as calcium alpha-ketoglutarate. Blood was drawn 15 times over a five-hour period for measurements of plasma amino acids, alpha KG, insulin, and glucagon. After OKG and ORN administration, plasma ORN peaked at 60-75 min (494 +/- 91 and 541 +/- 85 mumol/L). The increase in plasma alpha KG was very small. OKG, alpha KG, and ORN all increased glutamate concentrations at 60 min (mean: +43%, +68%, +68%, respectively, p less than 0.05 compared to basal values). However, only OKG increased proline and arginine levels at 60 min (mean: +35%, p less than 0.01 and mean: +41%, p less than 0.05). Furthermore, glutamate, proline, and arginine concentrations correlated linearly with ornithine levels at 60 min. Finally, OKG increased insulinemia and glucagonemia (mean: +24% at 15 min, p less than 0.05 and +30% at 60 min, p less than 0.01, respectively). These data provide evidence that the combination of ORN and alpha KG modifies amino acid metabolism in a way which is not observed when they are administered separately. In addition, the OKG-mediated increase in insulin levels probably does not appear to result from a direct action of ORN on pancreatic secretion.

  1. Nutrient Content, Phytonutrient Composition, Alpha Amylase, Alpha Glucosidase Inhibition Activity and Antioxidant Activity of the Stoechospermum Marginatum Collected in Pre Monsoon Season

    OpenAIRE

    Reka Palanivel; Thahira Banu Azeez; Seethalakshmi Muthaya

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the nutrient content, phytonutrient composition, physicochemical properties, alpha amylase and alpha glucosidase inhibition activity and antioxidant activity of the brown algae Stoechospermum marginatum collected from Gulf of Mannar, Tamil Nadu, India in pre monsoon season (June- September, 2015). Six and eight hours of ethanol and aqueous extract of Stoechospermum marginatum were used for phytonutrient screening, alpha amylase, alpha glucosidase...

  2. Targeted alpha therapy: Applications and current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruchertseifer, Frank, E-mail: frank.bruchertseifer@ec.europa.eu [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2017-07-01

    Full text: The field of targeted alpha therapy has been developed rapidly in the last decade. Besides {sup 223}Ra, {sup 211}At and {sup 212}Pb/{sup 212}Bi the alpha emitters {sup 225}Ac and {sup 213}Bi are promising therapeutic radionuclides for application in targeted alpha therapy of cancer and infectious diseases. The presentation will give a short overview about the current clinical treatments with alpha emitting radionuclides and will place an emphasis on the most promising clinical testing of peptides and antibodies labelled with {sup 225}Ac and {sup 213}Bi for treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer patients with glioma and glioblastoma multiform, PSMA-positive tumor phenotype and bladder carcinoma in situ. (author)

  3. Anomalous atomic volume of alpha-Pu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kollar, J.; Vitos, Levente; Skriver, Hans Lomholt

    1997-01-01

    We have performed full charge-density calculations for the equilibrium atomic volumes of the alpha-phase light actinide metals using the local density approximation (LDA) and the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The average deviation between the experimental and the GGA atomic radii is 1.......3%. The comparison between the LDA and GGA results show that the anomalously large atomic volume of alpha-Pu relative to alpha-Np can be ascribed to exchange-correlation effects connected with the presence of low coordinated sites in the structure where the f electrons are close to the onset of localization...

  4. Effect of size of alpha phases on cyclic deformation and fatigue crack initiation during fatigue of an alpha-beta titanium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Qiaoyan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Alpha phase exhibits equiaxed or lamellar morphologies with size from submicron to microns in an alpha-beta titanium alloy. Cyclic deformation, slip characteristics and crack nucleation during fatigue in different microstructures of TC21 alloy (Ti-6Al-2Sn-2Zr-3Mo-1Cr-2Nb-0.1Si were systematically investigated and analyzed. During low-cycle fatigue, equiaxed microstructure (EM in TC21 alloy exhibits higher strength, ductility and longer low-cycle fatigue life than those of the lamellar microstructure (LM. There are more voids in the single lamellar alpha than the equiaxed alpha grains. As a result, voids more easily link up to form crack in the lamellar alpha phase than the equiaxed alpha phase. However, during high-cycle fatigue, the fine lamellar microstructure (FLM shows higher fatigue limit than bimodal microstructure (BM. The localized plastic deformation can be induced during high-cycle fatigue. The slip bands or twins are observed in the equiaxed and lamellar alpha phases(>1micron, which tends to form strain concentration and initiate fatigue crack. The localized slip within nanoscale alpha plates is seldom observed and extrusion/intrusion dispersedly distributed on the sample surface in FLM. This indicates that FLM show super resistance to fatigue crack which bring about higher fatigue limit than BM.

  5. Adverse cutaneous reactions induced by TNF-alpha antagonist therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrás-Blasco, Joaquín; Navarro-Ruiz, Andrés; Borrás, Consuelo; Casterá, Elvira

    2009-11-01

    To review adverse cutaneous drug reactions induced by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) antagonist therapy. A literature search was performed using PubMed (1996-March 2009), EMBASE, and selected MEDLINE Ovid bibliography searches. All language clinical trial data, case reports, letters, and review articles identified from the data sources were used. Since the introduction of TNF-alpha antagonist, the incidence of adverse cutaneous drug reactions has increased significantly. A wide range of different skin lesions might occur during TNF-alpha antagonist treatment. New onset or exacerbation of psoriasis has been reported in patients treated with TNF-alpha antagonists for a variety of rheumatologic conditions. TNF-alpha antagonist therapy has been associated with a lupus-like syndrome; most of these case reports occurred in patients receiving either etanercept or infliximab. Serious skin reactions such as erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and toxic epidermal necrolysis have been reported rarely with the use of TNF-alpha antagonists. As the use of TNF-alpha antagonists continues to increase, the diagnosis and management of cutaneous side effects will become an increasingly important challenge. In patients receiving TNF-alpha antagonist treatment, skin disease should be considered, and clinicians need to be aware of the adverse reactions of these drugs.

  6. Correlations in the three-dimensional Lyman-alpha forest contaminated by high column density absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Keir K.; Bird, Simeon; Peiris, Hiranya V.; Pontzen, Andrew; Font-Ribera, Andreu; Leistedt, Boris

    2018-05-01

    Correlations measured in three dimensions in the Lyman-alpha forest are contaminated by the presence of the damping wings of high column density (HCD) absorbing systems of neutral hydrogen (H I; having column densities N(H I) > 1.6 × 10^{17} atoms cm^{-2}), which extend significantly beyond the redshift-space location of the absorber. We measure this effect as a function of the column density of the HCD absorbers and redshift by measuring three-dimensional (3D) flux power spectra in cosmological hydrodynamical simulations from the Illustris project. Survey pipelines exclude regions containing the largest damping wings. We find that, even after this procedure, there is a scale-dependent correction to the 3D Lyman-alpha forest flux power spectrum from residual contamination. We model this residual using a simple physical model of the HCD absorbers as linearly biased tracers of the matter density distribution, convolved with their Voigt profiles and integrated over the column density distribution function. We recommend the use of this model over existing models used in data analysis, which approximate the damping wings as top-hats and so miss shape information in the extended wings. The simple `linear Voigt model' is statistically consistent with our simulation results for a mock residual contamination up to small scales (|k| account for the effect of the highest column density absorbers on the smallest scales (e.g. |k| > 0.4 h Mpc^{-1} for small damped Lyman-alpha absorbers; HCD absorbers with N(H I) ˜ 10^{21} atoms cm^{-2}). However, these systems are in any case preferentially removed from survey data. Our model is appropriate for an accurate analysis of the baryon acoustic oscillations feature. It is additionally essential for reconstructing the full shape of the 3D flux power spectrum.

  7. Application of Micro-coprecipitation Method to Alpha Source Preparation for Measuring Alpha Nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myung Ho; Park, Jong Ho; Oh, Se Jin; Song, Byung Chul; Song, Kyuseok

    2011-01-01

    Among the source preparations, an electrodeposition is a commonly used method for the preparation of sources for an alpha spectrometry, because this technique is simple and produces a very thin deposit, which is essential for a high resolution of the alpha peak. Recently, micro-coprecipitation with rare earths have been used to yield sources for -spectrometry. In this work, the Pu, Am and Cm isotopes were purified from hindrance nuclides and elements with an a TRU resin in radioactive waste samples, and the activity concentrations of the Pu, Am and Cm isotopes were determined by radiation counting methods after alpha source preparation like micro coprecipitation. After the Pu isotopes in the radioactive waste samples were separated from the other nuclides with an anion exchange resin, the Am isotopes were purified with a TRU resin and an anion exchange resin or a TRU resin. Activity concentrations and chemical recoveries of 241 Am purified with the TRU resin were similar to those with the TRU resin and anion exchange resin. In this study, to save on the analytical time and cost, the Am isotopes were purified with the TRU resin without using an additional anion exchange resin. After comparing the electrodeposition method with the micro-coprecipitation method, the micro-coprecipitation method was used for the alpha source preparation, because the micro-coprecipitation method is simple and more reliable for source preparation of the Pu, Am and Cm isotopes

  8. Study of transfer reactions ({alpha},t), ({alpha},{sup 3}He) in the f-p shell: mechanism and spectroscopic use; Etude des reactions de transfert ({alpha},t), ({alpha},{sup 3}He) dans la couche f-p mecanisme et utilisation spectroscopique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roussel, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-05-01

    We describe an experimental study of ({alpha},t), ({alpha},{sup 3}He) reactions at 44 MeV using a solid-state identifier, on the target-nuclei {sup 54}Fe and {sup 58,60,62,64}Ni. A critical study of optical model and of disturbed wave analysis has been performed. We show the complementarity of different transfer-reactions, the ambiguity of spectroscopic factors, the importance of the problem of the reaction mechanism. (author) [French] On decrit une etude experimentale des reactions ({alpha},t), ({alpha},{sup 3}He) a 44 MeV utilisant un systeme identificateur de particules sur les noyaux-cibles {sup 54}Fe et {sup 58,60,62,64}Ni. Une etude critique de modele optique et d'analyse en ondes deformees (D.W.B.A.) a ete entreprise. On montre la complementarite des differentes reactions de transfert, l'ambiguite des facteurs spectroscopiques, l'importance du probleme du mecanisme. (auteur)

  9. PCA: Principal Component Analysis for spectra modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Peter D.; Oliver, Seb; Farrah, Duncan; Wang, Lingyu; Efstathiou, Andreas

    2012-07-01

    The mid-infrared spectra of ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) contain a variety of spectral features that can be used as diagnostics to characterize the spectra. However, such diagnostics are biased by our prior prejudices on the origin of the features. Moreover, by using only part of the spectrum they do not utilize the full information content of the spectra. Blind statistical techniques such as principal component analysis (PCA) consider the whole spectrum, find correlated features and separate them out into distinct components. This code, written in IDL, classifies principal components of IRS spectra to define a new classification scheme using 5D Gaussian mixtures modelling. The five PCs and average spectra for the four classifications to classify objects are made available with the code.

  10. 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors and prostatic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, F H

    1994-08-01

    5 alpha-Reductase inhibitors are a new class of substances with very specific effects on type I and type II 5 alpha R which may be of use in the treatment of skin disease, such as male pattern baldness, male acne and hirsutism, as well as prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer. At least two types of 5 alpha R inhibitors with a different pH optimum have been described. cDNA encoding for both the type I and the type II enzyme has been cloned. Most of the orally effective 5 alpha R inhibitors belong to the class of 4-azasteroids. The radical substituted in the 17 position of the steroid ring seems to be related to species specific variations and to the types of 5 alpha R enzymes in different species and organ systems. 5 alpha R inhibitors lead to a decrease of plasma DHT by about 65% while there is a slight rise in plasma testosterone. The decrease of tissue DHT in the ventral prostate of the intact rat, the dog and in humans is more pronounced and amounts to about 85%. There is a reciprocal rise of tissue T in these systems. The application of an inhibitor of 5 alpha R type II leads to a shrinkage of BPH in men by about 30%. In the rat a similar shrinkage accompanied by a significant decrease of total organ DNA occurs. This decrease, however, is not as pronounced as can be achieved with castration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Alpha particle radiography of small insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chingshen Su

    1993-01-01

    Radiographies of ants, mosquitoes, cockroaches and small bugs have been done with a radioisotope 244 Cm alpha source. Energy of alpha particles was varied by attenuating the 5.81 MeV alpha particles with adjustable air spacings from the source to the sample. The LR-115 was used to register radiographs. The image of the insect registered on the LR-115 was etched out in a 2.5 N NaOH solution at 52 o C for certain minutes, depending on various irradiation conditions for the insects. For larger insects, a scanning device for the alpha particle irradiation has been fabricated to take the radiograph of whole body of the insect, and the scanning period can be selected to give desired irradiation dosage. A CCDTV camera system connected to a microscope interfaced to an IBM/AT computer is used to register the microscopic image of the radiograph and to print it out with a video copy processor. (Author)

  12. Alpha particles spectrometer with photodiode PIN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chacon R, A.; Hernandez V, R.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Vega C, H. R.; Ramirez G, J.

    2009-10-01

    The radiation propagates in form of electromagnetic waves or corpuscular radiation; if the radiation energy causes ionization in environment that crosses it is considered ionizing radiation. To detect radiation several detectors types are used, if the radiation are alpha particles are used detectors proportional type or trace elements. In this work the design results, construction and tests of an alpha particles spectrometer are presented, which was designed starting from a photodiode PIN type. The system design was simulated with a code for electronic circuits. With results of simulation phase was constructed the electronic phase that is coupled to a multichannel analyzer. The resulting electronic is evaluated analyzing the electronic circuit performance before an alphas triple source and alpha radiation that produce two smoke detectors of domestic use. On the tests phase we find that the system allows obtain, in a multichannel, the pulses height spectrum, with which we calibrate the system. (Author)

  13. QUALITATIVE INTERPRETATION OF GALAXY SPECTRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Almeida, J.; Morales-Luis, A. B. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Terlevich, R.; Terlevich, E. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica, Tonantzintla, Puebla (Mexico); Cid Fernandes, R., E-mail: jos@iac.es, E-mail: abml@iac.es, E-mail: rjt@ast.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: eterlevi@inaoep.mx, E-mail: cid@astro.ufsc.br [Departamento de Fisica-CFM, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, P.O. Box 476, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2012-09-10

    We describe a simple step-by-step guide to qualitative interpretation of galaxy spectra. Rather than an alternative to existing automated tools, it is put forward as an instrument for quick-look analysis and for gaining physical insight when interpreting the outputs provided by automated tools. Though the recipe is for general application, it was developed for understanding the nature of the Automatic Spectroscopic K-means-based (ASK) template spectra. They resulted from the classification of all the galaxy spectra in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data release 7, thus being a comprehensive representation of the galaxy spectra in the local universe. Using the recipe, we give a description of the properties of the gas and the stars that characterize the ASK classes, from those corresponding to passively evolving galaxies, to H II galaxies undergoing a galaxy-wide starburst. The qualitative analysis is found to be in excellent agreement with quantitative analyses of the same spectra. We compare the mean ages of the stellar populations with those inferred using the code STARLIGHT. We also examine the estimated gas-phase metallicity with the metallicities obtained using electron-temperature-based methods. A number of byproducts follow from the analysis. There is a tight correlation between the age of the stellar population and the metallicity of the gas, which is stronger than the correlations between galaxy mass and stellar age, and galaxy mass and gas metallicity. The galaxy spectra are known to follow a one-dimensional sequence, and we identify the luminosity-weighted mean stellar age as the affine parameter that describes the sequence. All ASK classes happen to have a significant fraction of old stars, although spectrum-wise they are outshined by the youngest populations. Old stars are metal-rich or metal-poor depending on whether they reside in passive galaxies or in star-forming galaxies.

  14. Alpha particle loss in the TFTR DT experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zweben, S.J.; Darrow, D.S.; Herrmann, H.W.

    1995-01-01

    Alpha particle loss was measured during the TFTR DT experiments using a scintillator detector located at the vessel bottom in the ion grad-B drift direction. The DT alpha particle loss to this detector was consistent with the calculated first-orbit loss over the whole range of plasma current I=0.6-2.7 MA. In particular, the alpha particle loss rate per DT neutron did not increase significantly with fusion power up to 10.7 MW, indicating the absence of any new ''collective'' alpha particle loss processes in these experiments

  15. Bayesian Meta-Analysis of Coefficient Alpha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannick, Michael T.; Zhang, Nanhua

    2013-01-01

    The current paper describes and illustrates a Bayesian approach to the meta-analysis of coefficient alpha. Alpha is the most commonly used estimate of the reliability or consistency (freedom from measurement error) for educational and psychological measures. The conventional approach to meta-analysis uses inverse variance weights to combine…

  16. Evaluation of GABAergic neuroactive steroid 3alpha-hydroxy-5alpha-pregnane-20-one as a neurobiological substrate for the anti-anxiety effect of ethanol in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirani, Khemraj; Sharma, Ajay N; Jain, Nishant S; Ugale, Rajesh R; Chopde, Chandrabhan T

    2005-07-01

    Acute systemic ethanol administration is known to elevate plasma and cerebral levels of neuroactive steroid 3alpha-hydroxy-5alpha-pregnane-20-one (3alpha, 5alpha-THP; allopregnanolone) to a concentration sufficient to potentiate GABA(A) receptors. We have earlier demonstrated that 3alpha, 5alpha-THP mediates the antidepressant-like effect of ethanol in Porsolt forced swim test. The aim of the present study is to explain the relationship between endogenous GABAergic neurosteroids and anxiolytic effect of ethanol in Sprague-Dawley rats. The mediation of 3alpha, 5alpha-THP in the anti-anxiety effect of ethanol was assessed by pharmacological interactions of ethanol with various endogenous neurosteroidal modulators and using simulated physiological conditions of altered neurosteroid content in elevated plus maze (EPM) test. Pretreatment of 3alpha, 5alpha-THP (0.5-2.5 mug/rat, i.c.v.) or neurosteroidogenic agents such as 3alpha, 5alpha-THP precursor progesterone (5 or 10 mg/kg, i.p.), 11-beta hydroxylase inhibitor metyrapone (50 or 100 mg/kg, i.p.) or the GABA(A) receptor agonist muscimol (25 ng/rat, i.c.v.) significantly potentiated the anti-anxiety effect of ethanol (1 g/kg, i.p.). On the other hand, the GABAergic antagonistic neurosteroid dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) (1 mg/kg, i.p.), the GABA(A) receptor blocker bicuculline (1 mg/kg, i.p.), the 5alpha-reductase inhibitor finasteride (50 x 2 mg/kg, s.c.) or the mitochondrial diazepam binding inhibitory receptor antagonist PK11195 (1 mg/kg, i.p.) reduced ethanol-induced preference of time spent and number of entries into open arms. Anti-anxiety effect of ethanol was abolished in adrenalectomized (ADX) rats as compared to sham-operated control. This ADX-induced blockade was restored by prior systemic injection of progesterone, signifying the contribution of peripheral steroidogenesis in ethanol anxiolysis. Socially isolated animals known to exhibit decreased brain 3alpha, 5alpha-THP and GABA(A) receptor

  17. Towards Antihydrogen Confinement with the ALPHA Antihydrogen Trap

    CERN Document Server

    Fujiwara, M.C.; Bertsche, W.; Boston, A.; Bowe, P.D.; Cesar, C.L.; Chapman, S.; Charlton, M.; Chartier, M.; Deutsch, A.; Fajans, J.; Funakoshi, R.; Gill, D.R.; Gomberoff, K.; Hangst, J.S.; Hardy, W.N.; Hayano, R.S.; Hydomako, R.; Jenkins, M.J.; Jorgensen, L.V.; Kurchaninov, L.; Madsen, N.; Nolan, P.; Olchanski, K.; Olin, A.; Page, R.D.; Povilus, A.; Robicheaux, F.; Sarid, E.; Silveira, D.M.; Storey, J.W.; Thompson, R.I.; van der Werf, D.P.; Wurtele, J.S.; Yamazaki, Y.

    2006-01-01

    ALPHA is an international project that has recently begun experimentation at CERN's Antiproton Decelerator (AD) facility. The primary goal of ALPHA is stable trapping of cold antihydrogen atoms with the ultimate goal of precise spectroscopic comparisons with hydrogen. We discuss the status of the ALPHA project and the prospects for antihydrogen trapping.

  18. Optical absorption spectra of Ag-11 isomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Jose Ignacio; Fernandez, E. M.

    2009-01-01

    The optical absorption spectra of the three most; stable structural isomers of the Ag-11 cluster were calculated using the time-dependent, density functional theory within the Casida formalism. The slightly different, spectra, of the isomers may permit the identification of the ground-stale confi......The optical absorption spectra of the three most; stable structural isomers of the Ag-11 cluster were calculated using the time-dependent, density functional theory within the Casida formalism. The slightly different, spectra, of the isomers may permit the identification of the ground...

  19. Fourier transform spectroscopy of six stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza V, E E [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City. Inst. de Astronomia

    1981-01-01

    This paper outlines results from a digital analysis of the Fourier transform spectroscopy of six stars: ..sigma.. Aur, rho Ori, ..cap alpha.. Lyr, zeta Aql and ..cap alpha.. Cyg. Nearly 1200 different spectral lines have been identified in the spectra of these six stars in the wavelength interval 4800-10200 A where the spectra are of very high quality, less than the one per cent level of noise versus signal. ..cap alpha.. Lyr and ..cap alpha.. Cyg show spectral line and profile variations easily seen in their spectra.

  20. The T alpha 2 nuclear protein binding site from the human T cell receptor alpha enhancer functions as both a T cell-specific transcriptional activator and repressor

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    T cell-specific expression of the human T cell receptor alpha (TCR- alpha) gene is regulated by the interaction of variable region promoter elements with a transcriptional enhancer that is located 4.5 kb 3' of the TCR-alpha constant region (C alpha) gene segment. The minimal TCR- alpha enhancer is composed of two nuclear protein binding sites, T alpha 1 and T alpha 2, that are both required for the T cell-specific activity of the enhancer. The T alpha 1 binding site contains a consensus cAMP ...

  1. Vibronic spectra of Gd3+ in metaphosphate glasses: Comparison with Raman and infrared spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, D.W.; Brawer, S.A.; Weber, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    Vibronic sidebands associated with the 6 P/sub 7/2/→ 8 S/sub 7/2/ transition of Gd 3+ -doped metaphosphate glasses are observed using line-narrowed fluorescence techniques. Glasses having metal cations of different mass and charge (La,Al,Mg,Ba) are examined. Vibronic spectra, which probe vibrations about the rare-earth element site, are compared with polarized Raman scattering data and the infrared dielectric constant obtained from near-normal reflectance measurements. Results indicate that in metaphosphate glasses vibronic selection rules are similar to HV (vertical height) Raman selection rules. The wavelengths and relative intensities of peaks in the high-frequency portion of the vibronic spectra change with respect to corresponding peaks in the Raman spectra when the mass and/or charge of Gd 3+ differs significantly from that of the metal cation

  2. Effects of alpha populations on tokamak ballooning stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spong, D.A.; Sigmar, D.J.; Tsang, K.T.; Ramos, J.J.; Hastings, D.E.; Cooper, W.A.

    1986-01-01

    Fusion product alpha populations can significantly influence tokamak stability due to coupling between the trapped alpha precessional drift and the kinetic ballooning mode frequency. This effect is of particular importance in parameter regimes where the alpha pressure gradient begins to constitute a sizable fraction of the thermal plasma pressure gradient. Careful, quantitative evaluations of these effects are necessary in burning plasma devices such as the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor and the Joint European Torus, and we have continued systematic development of such a kinetic stability model. In this model we have considered a range of different forms for the alpha distribution function and the tokamak equilibrium. Both Maxwellian and slowing-down models have been used for the alpha energy dependence while deeply trapped and, more recently, isotropic pitch angle dependence have been examined

  3. Lack of co-ordinate expression of the alpha1(I) and alpha1(III) procollagen genes in fibroblast clonal cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Y; Crane, S; Zhou, L; Ochoa, S M; Falanga, V

    2000-12-01

    Several extracellular matrix genes, most notably alpha1(I) and alpha1(III) procollagen, are reported to be co-ordinately expressed in cultures of dermal fibroblasts. However, it remains unclear whether the expression of these genes is truly co-ordinate or whether it may be the result of averaging the phenotypic expression of different fibroblast subpopulations present within each culture. Objectives To determine by Northern analysis the correlation between alpha1(I) and alpha1(III) procollagen mRNA levels in clonal populations of human dermal fibroblasts. As previously described, clonal cultures were derived from parent strains of human dermal fibroblasts by a microscopically controlled dilution technique and by stimulation of single cells with low oxygen tension in the early phases of clonal growth. In agreement with previous reports, we found that baseline steady-state levels of alpha1(I) procollagen mRNA were co-ordinately regulated with the alpha1(III) procollagen mRNA in 26 parent strains (r = 0. 9003; P ordinate regulation observed in non-clonal cultures, suggesting that these two genes operate under different sets of regulatory controls. This clonal heterogeneity may provide additional flexibility to the process of tissue repair and fibroblast clonal expansion.

  4. Space Station alpha joint bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everman, Michael R.; Jones, P. Alan; Spencer, Porter A.

    1987-01-01

    Perhaps the most critical structural system aboard the Space Station is the Solar Alpha Rotary Joint which helps align the power generation system with the sun. The joint must provide structural support and controlled rotation to the outboard transverse booms as well as power and data transfer across the joint. The Solar Alpha Rotary Joint is composed of two transition sections and an integral, large diameter bearing. Alpha joint bearing design presents a particularly interesting problem because of its large size and need for high reliability, stiffness, and on orbit maintability. The discrete roller bearing developed is a novel refinement to cam follower technology. It offers thermal compensation and ease of on-orbit maintenance that are not found in conventional rolling element bearings. How the bearing design evolved is summarized. Driving requirements are reviewed, alternative concepts assessed, and the selected design is described.

  5. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency (Inherited Emphysema)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... antitrypsin inactivates elastase once it has finished its job. Without alpha 1 antitrypsin, elastase can destroy the air sacs of the lung. How is the diagnosis made? Because Alpha-1 related disease is COPD, the diagnosis is made by the same methods. Your doctor may have you do a number ...

  6. Diagnostic value of alpha-fetoprotein in liver cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pervez, T.; Anwar, S.M.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To determine diagnostic value of alpha-fetoproteins (alpha-FP) in liver cancer. Design: Prospective study. Place and duration of study: Department of clinical oncology services Hospital Lahore, during the period from February 1998 to February 2001. Subjects and Methods: Among 200 persons studied, 100 presented with liver mass, jaundice and other symptoms directing toward liver pathology, later confirmed histopathologically, as suffering from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) while the other 100 healthy subject came to the department for blood donation and were HBs Ag pasitive on blood screening. All these subjects under went blood test for alpha-FP. This tumor marker was analyzed by using enzyme immunoassay-based kit. Results: The alpha-FP positivity was statistically evaluated. In HCC this test was statistically significant with p value of <0.001. In this study sensitivity of alpha-FP was 72% specificity 89%, positive predictive value 86.7% and negative predictive value of 76.1%. Conclusion: This study showed that alpha-FP was a useful diagnostic tool in the diagnosis of HCC. (author)

  7. The structure of BPS spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhi, Pietro

    In this thesis we develop and apply novel techniques for analyzing BPS spectra of supersymmetric quantum field theories of class S. By a combination of wall-crossing, spectral networks and quiver methods we explore the BPS spectra of higher rank four-dimensional N = 2 super Yang-Mills, uncovering surprising new phenomena. Focusing on the SU(3) case, we prove the existence of wild BPS spectra in field theory, featuring BPS states of higher spin whose degeneracies grow exponentially with the energy. The occurrence of wild BPS states is surprising because it appears to be in tension with physical expectations on the behavior of the entropy as a function of the energy scale. The solution to this puzzle comes from realizing that the size of wild BPS states grows rapidly with their mass, and carefully analyzing the volume-dependence of the entropy of BPS states. We also find some interesting structures underlying wild BPS spectra, such as a Regge-like relation between the maximal spin of a BPS multiplet and the square of its mass, and the existence of a universal asymptotic distribution of spin-j irreps within a multiplet of given charge. We also extend the spectral networks construction by introducing a refinement in the topological classification of 2d-4d BPS states, and identifying their spin with a topological invariant known as the "writhe of soliton paths". A careful analysis of the 2d-4d wall-crossing behavior of this refined data reveals that it is described by motivic Kontsevich-Soibelman transformations, controlled by the Protected Spin Character, a protected deformation of the BPS index encoding the spin of BPS states. Our construction opens the way for the systematic study of refined BPS spectra in class S theories. We apply it to several examples, including ones featuring wild BPS spectra, where we find an interesting relation between spectral networks and certain functional equations. For class S theories of A 1 type, we derive an alternative technique for

  8. Electronic structure simulation of chromium aluminum oxynitride by discrete variational-X{alpha} method and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Youngmin; Chang, Hyunju; Lee, Jae Do [Korea Research Inst. of Chemical Technology, Taejon (Korea); Kim, Eunah; No, Kwangsoo [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea)

    2002-09-01

    We use a first-principles discrete variational (DV)-X{alpha} method to investigate the electronic structure of chromium aluminum oxynitride. When nitrogen is substituted for oxygen in the Cr-Al-O system, the N2p level appears in the energy range between O2p and Cr3d levels. Consequently, the valence band of chromium aluminum oxynitride becomes broader and the band gap becomes smaller than that of chromium aluminum oxide, which is consistent with the photoelectron spectra for the valence band using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS). We expect that this valence band structure of chromium aluminum oxynitride will modify the transmittance slope which is a requirement for photomask application. (author)

  9. A 28-day repeat dose toxicity study of steroidal glycoalkaloids, alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine in the Syrian Golden hamster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkilde, Søren; Mandimika, T.; Schrøder, Malene

    2009-01-01

    of the glycoalkaloids. The Syrian Golden hamster was given daily doses of alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine by gavage for 28 days. Doses of up to 33.3 mg total glycoalkaloids/kg body weight were applied in ratios of 1:3.7 and 1:70 (alpha-solanine:alpha-chaconine). Administration of the highest doses of both ratios...... intestines of the hamsters administered the highest doses of the glycoalkaloid treatments. In general, more differential gene expression was observed in the epithelial scrapings of the hamsters fed the ratio of 1:3.7. Mostly, pathways involved in lipid and energy metabolism were affected by the ratio of 1:3.7....

  10. Imaging of alpha(v)beta(3) expression by a bifunctional chimeric RGD peptide not cross-reacting with alpha(v)beta(5).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zannetti, Antonella; Del Vecchio, Silvana; Iommelli, Francesca; Del Gatto, Annarita; De Luca, Stefania; Zaccaro, Laura; Papaccioli, Angela; Sommella, Jvana; Panico, Mariarosaria; Speranza, Antonio; Grieco, Paolo; Novellino, Ettore; Saviano, Michele; Pedone, Carlo; Salvatore, Marco

    2009-08-15

    To test whether a novel bifunctional chimeric peptide comprising a cyclic Arg-Gly-Asp pentapeptide covalently bound to an echistatin domain can discriminate alpha(v)beta(3) from alpha(v)beta(5) integrin, thus allowing the in vivo selective visualization of alpha(v)beta(3) expression by single-photon and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. The chimeric peptide was preliminarily tested for inhibition of alpha(v)beta(3)-dependent cell adhesion and competition of 125I-echistatin binding to membrane of stably transfected K562 cells expressing alpha(v)beta(3) (Kalpha(v)beta(3)) or alpha(v)beta(5) (Kalpha(v)beta(5)) integrin. The chimeric peptide was then conjugated with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid and labeled with 111In for single-photon imaging, whereas a one-step procedure was used for labeling the full-length peptide and a truncated derivative, lacking the last five C-terminal amino acids, with 18F for PET imaging. Nude mice bearing tumors from Kalpha(v)beta(3), Kalpha(v)beta(5), U87MG human glioblastoma, and A431 human epidermoid cells were subjected to single-photon and PET imaging. Adhesion and competitive binding assays showed that the novel chimeric peptide selectively binds to alpha(v)beta(3) integrin and does not cross-react with alpha(v)beta(5). In agreement with in vitro findings, single-photon and PET imaging studies showed that the radiolabeled chimeric peptide selectively localizes in tumor xenografts expressing alphavbeta3 and fails to accumulate in those expressing alpha(v)beta(5) integrin. When 18F-labeled truncated derivative was used for PET imaging, alphavbeta3- and alpha(v)beta(5)-expressing tumors were visualized, indicating that the five C-terminal amino acids are required to differentially bind the two integrins. Our findings indicate that the novel chimeric Arg-Gly-Asp peptide, having no cross-reaction with alphavbeta5 integrin, allows highly selective alphavbeta3 expression imaging and monitoring.

  11. Comparative carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance study at 67. 9 MHz on lysozyme (human and egg-white) and. cap alpha. -lactalbumin (human and bovine) in their native and denatured state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Binst, G; Biesemans, M [Brussels Univ. (Belgium). Faculte des Sciences

    1975-01-01

    A first detailed comparison of the /sup 13/C spectra at high field of two lysozymes (human and egg-white) and two ..cap alpha..-lactalbumins (human and bovine milk) is presented. Assignments were made on most of the resonance peaks in the aliphatic and aromatic regions of the denatured proteins. The relative peak intensities clearly demonstrate the differences in the amino acid composition of the related proteins. The broadening and the complexity of the spectra of the native proteins reflect the non equivalence of the chemical groups in the folded conformation. The usefulness of /sup 13/C nmr spectroscopy in the study of the interaction between small molecules and proteins was tested on N-acteyl-glucosamine in the presence of lysozyme.

  12. Self-assembling, dynamic alphaPNAs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter E

    2009-01-01

    In the recent report published in Science, Ghadiri and coworkers describe dynamic tPNAs, alphaPNA derivatives with a nucleobase attached via a thioester bond that are a step forward toward self-repairing and replicating molecules.......In the recent report published in Science, Ghadiri and coworkers describe dynamic tPNAs, alphaPNA derivatives with a nucleobase attached via a thioester bond that are a step forward toward self-repairing and replicating molecules....

  13. Alpha Hydroxy Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or tenderness (8), chemical burns (6), and increased sunburn (3). The frequency of such reports for skin ... bear a statement that conveys the following information: Sunburn Alert: This product contains an alpha hydroxy acid ( ...

  14. Justify your alpha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lakens, Daniel; Adolfi, Federico G.; Albers, Casper J.; Anvari, Farid; Apps, Matthew A.J.; Argamon, Shlomo E.; Baguley, Thom; Becker, Raymond B.; Benning, Stephen D.; Bradford, Daniel E.; Buchanan, Erin M.; Caldwell, Aaron R.; Van Calster, Ben; Carlsson, Rickard; Chen, Sau Chin; Chung, Bryan; Colling, Lincoln J.; Collins, Gary S.; Crook, Zander; Cross, Emily S.; Daniels, Sameera; Danielsson, Henrik; Debruine, Lisa; Dunleavy, Daniel J.; Earp, Brian D.; Feist, Michele I.; Ferrell, Jason D.; Field, James G.; Fox, Nicholas W.; Friesen, Amanda; Gomes, Caio; Gonzalez-Marquez, Monica; Grange, James A.; Grieve, Andrew P.; Guggenberger, Robert; Grist, James; Van Harmelen, Anne Laura; Hasselman, Fred; Hochard, Kevin D.; Hoffarth, Mark R.; Holmes, Nicholas P.; Ingre, Michael; Isager, Peder M.; Isotalus, Hanna K.; Johansson, Christer; Juszczyk, Konrad; Kenny, David A.; Khalil, Ahmed A.; Konat, Barbara; Lao, Junpeng; Larsen, Erik Gahner; Lodder, Gerine M.A.; Lukavský, Jiří; Madan, Christopher R.; Manheim, David; Martin, Stephen R.; Martin, Andrea E.; Mayo, Deborah G.; McCarthy, Randy J.; McConway, Kevin; McFarland, Colin; Nio, Amanda Q.X.; Nilsonne, Gustav; De Oliveira, Cilene Lino; De Xivry, Jean Jacques Orban; Parsons, Sam; Pfuhl, Gerit; Quinn, Kimberly A.; Sakon, John J.; Saribay, S. Adil; Schneider, Iris K.; Selvaraju, Manojkumar; Sjoerds, Zsuzsika; Smith, Samuel G.; Smits, Tim; Spies, Jeffrey R.; Sreekumar, Vishnu; Steltenpohl, Crystal N.; Stenhouse, Neil; Świątkowski, Wojciech; Vadillo, Miguel A.; Van Assen, Marcel A.L.M.; Williams, Matt N.; Williams, Samantha E.; Williams, Donald R.; Yarkoni, Tal; Ziano, Ignazio; Zwaan, Rolf A.

    2018-01-01

    In response to recommendations to redefine statistical significance to P ≤ 0.005, we propose that researchers should transparently report and justify all choices they make when designing a study, including the alpha level.

  15. Low-Cost alpha Alane for Hydrogen Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabian, Tibor [Ardica Technologies, San Francisco, CA (United States); Petrie, Mark [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Crouch-Baker, Steven [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fong, Henry [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2017-10-10

    This project was directed towards the further development of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) lab-scale electrochemical synthesis of the hydrogen storage material alpha-alane and Ardica Technologies-SRI International (SRI) chemical downstream processes that are necessary to meet DoE cost metrics and transition alpha-alane synthesis to an industrial scale. Ardica has demonstrated the use of alpha-alane in a fuel-cell system for the U.S. Army WFC20 20W soldier power system that has successfully passed initial field trials with individual soldiers. While alpha-alane has been clearly identified as a desirable hydrogen storage material, cost-effective means for its production and regeneration on a scale of use applicable to the industry have yet to be established. We focused on three, principal development areas: 1. The construction of a comprehensive engineering techno-economic model to establish the production costs of alpha-alane by both electrochemical and chemical routes at scale. 2. The identification of critical, cost-saving design elements of the electrochemical cell and the qu