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Sample records for alpha self-irradiation effects

  1. Alpha self irradiation effects in nuclear borosilicate glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peuget, S.; Roudil, D.; Deschanels, X.; Jegou, C.; Broudic, V.; Bart, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    The properties of actinide glasses are studied in the context of high-level waste management programs. Reprocessing high burnup fuels in particular will increase the minor actinide content in the glass package, resulting in higher cumulative alpha decay doses in the glass, and raising the question of the glass matrix behavior and especially its containment properties. The effect of alpha self-irradiation on the glass behavior is evaluated by doping the glass with a short-lived actinide ( 244 Cm) to reach in several years the alpha dose received by the future glass packages over several thousand years. 'R7T7' borosilicate glasses were doped with 3 different curium contents (0.04, 0.4 and 1.2 wt% 244 CmO 2 ). The density and mechanical properties of the curium-doped glasses were characterized up to 2. 10 18 α/g, revealing only a slight evolution of the macroscopic behavior of R7T7 glass in this range. The leaching behavior of curium-doped glass was also studied by Soxhlet tests. The results do not show any significant evolution of the initial alteration rate with the alpha dose. (authors)

  2. Effect of alpha self irradiation on helium migration in (U,Pu)O2 samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pipon, Yves; Roudil, Daniele; Jegou, Christophe; Khodja, Hicham; Raepsaet, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    The helium behavior and its migration mechanisms in nuclear spent fuel (UOX and MOX) significantly impact the possible evolution of the spent fuel matrix in a closed system during interim storage or during a disposal repository. An experimental study has been conducted on (U,Pu)O 2 samples in order to investigate the impact of defects created by alpha decay on helium diffusion. One large part is devoted to thermal atomic diffusion and applied on 3 He implanted samples, annealed at 850 and 1000 deg. C. The He profiles, as implanted and after annealing, were investigated with the 3 He(d,p) 4 He nuclear reaction. Another part deals with the thermal release of 4 He amassed in the samples. The measured thermal diffusion coefficients are compared with previously published values, thereby highlighting the effect of the alpha self-irradiation on helium behavior. (authors)

  3. Enhanced diffusion under alpha self-irradiation in spent nuclear fuel: Theoretical approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferry, Cecile; Lovera, Patrick; Poinssot, Christophe; Garcia, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    Various theoretical approaches have been developed in order to estimate the enhanced diffusion coefficient of fission products under alpha self-irradiation in spent nuclear fuel. These simplified models calculate the effects of alpha particles and recoil atoms on mobility of uranium atoms in UO 2 . They lead to a diffusion coefficient which is proportional to the volume alpha activity with a proportionality factor of about 10 -44 (m 5 ). However, the same models applied for fission lead to a radiation-enhanced diffusion coefficient which is approximately two orders of magnitude lower than values reported in literature for U and Pu. Other models are based on an extrapolation of radiation-enhanced diffusion measured either in reactors or under heavy ion bombardment. These models lead to a proportionality factor between the alpha self-irradiation enhanced diffusion coefficient and the volume alpha activity of 2 x 10 -41 (m 5 )

  4. Understanding the effects of alpha self-irradiation on the glass structure by coupling spectroscopic studies and atomistic modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bureau, G.

    2008-12-01

    Our objective was to assess irradiation effects on nuclear containment glass in order to guarantee glass performance when subjected to high alpha decay doses. Experimental studies and molecular dynamics modeling provided a better understanding of the impact of cumulative alpha decay on the structural behavior of complex nuclear glass formulations and of simplified glass models. A mechanism typical of sodium borosilicate glass was identified in response to nuclear interactions or ballistic collisions. The glass local order is slightly modified by the conversion of a fraction of the boron atoms from coordination number IV to III, releasing charge-compensating alkali ions that become available as network modifiers, and resulting in a slight increase in the number of non bridging oxygen atoms. The medium-range order shifts toward increasing disorder in the glass as indicated by broadening of the angular, radial, and size distributions. A model of accumulated quasi-thermal quenching is proposed to account for these changes, based on the two steps describing the reaction of the glass to the alpha decay recoil nucleus: a cascade generates a ballistic phase that completely destabilizes the glass structure with no short and medium-range order, resulting in the loss of the initial structure; glass reconstruction is controlled only by the 'quenching rate' in the displacement cascade, i.e. by its thermal history and the corresponding relaxation options. From this standpoint the final glass structure is the consequence of the ballistic changes and the regenerative capacity of the glass structure, resulting in a higher fictive-temperature glass corresponding to the structural changes identified in this study. (author)

  5. Alpha self-irradiation effects in ternary oxides of actinides elements: The zircon-like phases AmIIIVO4 and AIINpIV(VO4)2 (A=Sr, Pb)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goubard, F.; Griesmar, P.; Tabuteau, A.

    2005-01-01

    We report the experimental studies of irradiation damage from alpha decay in neptunium and americium vanadates versus cumulative dose. The isotopes used were the transuranium α-emitter 237 Np and the α,γ-emitter 241 Am. Neptunium and americium vanadates self-irradiation was studied by X-ray diffraction method (XRD). The comparison of the powder diffraction patterns reveal that the irradiation has no apparent effect on the neptunium phases while the americium vanadate swells and becomes metamict as a function of cumulative dose

  6. On possibility of degradation of lava-like fuel-containing materials of the 4-th block of Chernobyl NPP under internal self-irradiation by alpha-particle sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazukhin, Eh. M.; Borovoj, A.A.; Rudya, K.G.

    2002-01-01

    It is shown that internal self-irradiation by alpha-particle beam cannot be a cause of change of strength characteristics of silicate matrix and so a cause of degradation of Chernobyl lava-like materials. A new method is proposed for management with lava-like fuel-containing materials of the 4-th block: vitrification in smelter unit situated in bubbler-basin and storage of prepared immobilized compacts in corresponding depositories [ru

  7. Self irradiation effects on the thorium phosphate diphosphate dissolution (TPD): simulation by external irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamain, C.; Ozgumus, A.; Dacheux, N.; Garrido, F.; Thome, L.; Corbel, C.; Genet, M.

    2004-01-01

    The Thorium Phosphate Diphosphate (TPD), proposed as a ceramic for the long term immobilization of actinides, was externally irradiated with several ions and energies (but also with gamma rays) in order to simulate the self-irradiation. The influence of the electronic energy loss was first investigated. Thus, the XRD measurements have shown a complete amorphization of the material under 10 13 ions of Kr.cm -2 , while no significant structural change occurred after 5.10 13 S.cm -2 , 2.10 16 He.cm -2 or 320 kGy of dose of gamma rays. The dissolution of the raw and irradiated pellets was studied versus several parameters such as amorphized fraction, energy loss of incident ions, radiolytic species produced in situ in the leachate during irradiation (such as H 2 O 2 ), temperature and acidity. The results reveal an important increase of the dissolution kinetics for amorphized pellets compared to raw ceramic. (authors)

  8. The alpha channeling effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisch, N. J.

    2015-12-01

    Alpha particles born through fusion reactions in a tokamak reactor tend to slow down on electrons, but that could take up to hundreds of milliseconds. Before that happens, the energy in these alpha particles can destabilize on collisionless timescales toroidal Alfven modes and other waves, in a way deleterious to energy confinement. However, it has been speculated that this energy might be instead be channeled into useful energy, so as to heat fuel ions or to drive current. Such a channeling needs to be catalyzed by waves Waves can produce diffusion in energy of the alpha particles in a way that is strictly coupled to diffusion in space. If these diffusion paths in energy-position space point from high energy in the center to low energy on the periphery, then alpha particles will be cooled while forced to the periphery. The energy from the alpha particles is absorbed by the wave. The amplified wave can then heat ions or drive current. This process or paradigm for extracting alpha particle energy collisionlessly has been called alpha channeling. While the effect is speculative, the upside potential for economical fusion is immense. The paradigm also operates more generally in other contexts of magnetically confined plasma.

  9. Crystal orientation and sample preparation effects on sputtering and lattice damage in 100 keV self-irradiated copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprague, J.A.; Malmberg, P.R.; Reynolds, G.W.; Lambert, J.M.; Treado, P.A.; Vincenz, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    Sputtering yields and angular distributions have been measured as functions of sample preparation techniques and incident ion-beam orientation with respect to the crystal axes for 100 keV Cu-ion beams on Cu crystals and polycrystalline samples. The angular distributions have structure requiring an nth order cosine with two Gaussians superimposed to fit the data; strong peaking is observed near the backscatter direction. The yield is dependent on the beam to crystal and beam to polycrystalline-rod axis orientation, on the grain size of the polycrystals and on sample-preparation techniques. Yield measurements vary by as much as a factor of 4. Lattice-damage differences, measured with alpha particle channeling, are much smaller and seem to be saturated by fluences of the order of 1x10 16 /cm 2 . (orig.)

  10. The alpha effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    Much of the recent interest in RAM system reliability stems from concern over alpha particle soft error rates reported for the initial 64 k RAMs. With increasing memory density likely in the next few years the problem of soft errors is rearing its head again. A few years ago ITT carried out experiments on 16k RAMs and found no significant problems. However, recent tests have shown a raise in the number of soft errors with 64k RAMs, and the launch of 256k and 512k memories is likely to make the problem acute

  11. Self-irradiation study of plutonium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oudot, B.

    2005-02-01

    The plutonium is unstable and produces α or β decays depending on the isotope. These decays generate americium, uranium, helium and different kinds of structural defects. The effects of self-irradiation damage are observed at macroscopic scale, the mechanism occurs from atomic scale. In order to improve our understanding of the self-irradiation effects in PuGa alloys, a technique sensitive to the vacancies and vacancies clusters has been developed: the Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy (PAS). The swelling has been characterized by XRD at a microscopic scale and by dilatometry at a macroscopic scale. Swelling starts just after melting and reaches a saturation between 6 and 36 months depending on the degree of gallium homogeneity in the alloy. Swelling at saturation increases with the gallium content, but the absolute change in the cell parameters is constant during time. PAS showed that vacancies clusters develop immediately. Their concentration increase with time. A part of these clusters is stabilized by helium atoms and leads to the creation of bubbles, which contribution to swelling is negligible. The vacancies and vacancies clusters which are not stabilized by helium contribute to the swelling increase by mechanisms known for other materials. These mechanisms are based on a 'dislocation bias'. The presence of these dislocations can furthermore explain the low mean life time value of positrons at the saturation point. (author)

  12. EPR study of sodium plutonyl acetate NaPuO2(CH3COO)3 and plutonium thenoyl trifluoroacetonate Pu(TTA)4: self-irradiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamurty, M.V.

    1978-01-01

    High energy radiations are emitted in the radioactive disintegration of plutonium isotopes. These radiations mainly consisting of α-particles interact with the surrounding ligands in the case of plutonium compounds. The ligand molecules undergo electronic excitation, ionization and fragmentation resulting in extensive radiation damage. Electron paramagnetic resonance technique is utilised to indentify and estimate these molecular products formed as a result of self-irradiation in the case of sodium plutonyl acetate, NaPuO 2 (CH 3 COO) 3 , and plutonium thenoyl trifluoroacetonate, Pu(TTA) 4 . The observed EPR spectra are interpreted to be due to acetate and thenoyl trifluoroacetonate radicals with the unpaired electron localized on oxygens of carboxyl group and carbonyl group, respectively. The efficiency parameter, eta, defined as the ratio of the number of paramagnetic species/defects to the total number of radioactive disintegrations has been determined to be 0.83 and 16.9 for the case of the acetate and thenoyl trifluoroacetonate, respectivly. (author)

  13. Effects of alpha particles on zebrafish embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yum, E.H.W.; Choi, V.W.Y.; Yu, K.N.; Li, V.W.T.; Cheng, S.H.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Ionizing radiation such as X-ray and alpha particles can damage cellular macromolecules, which can lead to DNA single- and double-strand breaks. In the present work, we studied the effects of alpha particles on dechorionated zebrafish embryos. Thin polyallyldiglycol carbonate (PADC) films with a thickness of 16 μm were prepared from commercially available PADC films (with thickness of 100 μm) by chemical etching and used as support substrates for holding zebrafish embryos for alpha-particle irradiation. These films recorded alpha-particle hit positions, quantified the number and energy of alpha particles actually incident on the embryo cells, and thus enabled the calculation of the dose absorbed by the embryo cells. Irradiation was made at 1.25 hours post fertilization (hpf) with various absorbed dose. TdT-mediated dUTP Nick-End Labeling (TUNEL) assay was performed on the embryos at different time stages after irradiation. Marked apoptosis was detected only in embryos at earlier time stages. The results showed that DNA double-strand break during zebrafish embryogenesis can be induced by alpha-particle irradiation, which suggests that zebrafish is a potential model for assessing the effects of alpha-particle radiation

  14. Effects of internally deposited alpha emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rundo, J.; Schlenker, R.A.; Stebbings, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    This study seeks to identify and quantify the human health effects of occupational exposures to radium, use the health effects data from the radium study to predict responses to other alpha-emitting and/or bone-seeking radionuclides at occupational exposure levels and above, and predict the effects of these radionuclides, specifically environmental radium and its daughters, at nonoccupational exposure levels. 14 refs

  15. Alpha particle effects on MHD ballooning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    During the period, as the first step towards the goal of detail understanding of the effects of alpha particle on MHD Ballooning Modes, a new numerical approach to investigate the stability of low-frequency fluctuations in high temperature tokamaks was developed by solving the gyrokinetic equations for the ion and electron directly as an initial value problem. The advantage of this approach is the inclusion of many important kinetic features of the problem without approximations and computationally more economical than particle-pushing simulation. The ion-temperature-gradient-mode was investigated to benchmark this new simulation technique. Previous results in literature were recovered. Both the adiabatic electron model and the full drift-kinetic electron model are studied. Numerical result shows that the full drift-kinetic electron model is more unstable. The development of subcycling technique to handle the fast electron bounce time is particularly significant to apply this new approach to the alpha particle problem since alpha particle bounce frequency is also significantly higher than the mode frequency. This new numerical technique will be the basis of future study of the microstability in high temperature tokamaks with alpha particles (or any energetic species). 15 refs., 13 figs

  16. Effect of Pilates Training on Alpha Rhythm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijie Bian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of Pilates training on the brain function was investigated through five case studies. Alpha rhythm changes during the Pilates training over the different regions and the whole brain were mainly analyzed, including power spectral density and global synchronization index (GSI. It was found that the neural network of the brain was more active, and the synchronization strength reduced in the frontal and temporal regions due to the Pilates training. These results supported that the Pilates training is very beneficial for improving brain function or intelligence. These findings maybe give us some line evidence to suggest that the Pilates training is very helpful for the intervention of brain degenerative diseases and cogitative dysfunction rehabilitation.

  17. Effect of Pilates Training on Alpha Rhythm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Zhijie; Sun, Hongmin; Lu, Chengbiao; Yao, Li; Chen, Shengyong; Li, Xiaoli

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the effect of Pilates training on the brain function was investigated through five case studies. Alpha rhythm changes during the Pilates training over the different regions and the whole brain were mainly analyzed, including power spectral density and global synchronization index (GSI). It was found that the neural network of the brain was more active, and the synchronization strength reduced in the frontal and temporal regions due to the Pilates training. These results supported that the Pilates training is very beneficial for improving brain function or intelligence. These findings maybe give us some line evidence to suggest that the Pilates training is very helpful for the intervention of brain degenerative diseases and cogitative dysfunction rehabilitation. PMID:23861723

  18. Helium bubbles aggravated defects production in self-irradiated copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, FengChao; Zhu, YinBo; Wu, Qiang; Li, XinZhu; Wang, Pei; Wu, HengAn

    2017-12-01

    Under the environment of high radiation, materials used in fission and fusion reactors will internally accumulate numerous lattice defects and bubbles. With extensive studies focused on bubble resolution under irradiation, the mutually effects between helium bubbles and displacement cascades in irradiated materials remain unaddressed. Therefore, the defects production and microstructure evolution under self-irradiation events in vicinity of helium bubbles are investigated by preforming large scale molecular dynamics simulations in single-crystal copper. When subjected to displacement cascades, distinguished bubble resolution categories dependent on bubble size are observed. With the existence of bubbles, radiation damage is aggravated with the increasing bubble size, represented as the promotion of point defects and dislocations. The atomic mechanisms of heterogeneous dislocation structures are attributed to different helium-vacancy cluster modes, transforming from the resolved gas trapped with vacancies to the biased absorption of vacancies by the over-pressured bubble. In both cases, helium impedes the recombination of point defects, leading to the accelerated formation of interstitial loops. The results and insight obtained here might contribute to understand the underlying mechanism of transmutant solute on the long-term evolution of irradiated materials.

  19. Effects of isotropic alpha populations on tokamak ballooning stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spong, D.A.; Sigmar, D.J.; Tsang, K.T.; Ramos, J.J.; Hastings, D.E.; Cooper, W.A.

    1986-12-01

    Fusion product alpha populations can significantly influence tokamak stability due to coupling between the trapped alpha precessional drift and the kinetic ballooning mode frequency. Careful, quantitative evaluations of these effects are necessary in burning plasma devices such as the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor and the Joint European Torus, and we have continued systematic development of such a kinetic stability model. In this model we have considered a range of different forms for the alpha distribution function and the tokamak equilibrium. Both Maxwellian and slowing-down models have been used for the alpha energy dependence while deeply trapped and, more recently, isotropic pitch angle dependences have been examined

  20. Effective liquid drop description for alpha decay of atomic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, O.A.P.; Duarte, S.B.; Rodriguez, O.; Guzman, F.; Goncalves, M.; Garcia, F.

    1998-06-01

    Alpha decay half-lives are presented in the framework of an effective liquid drop model for different combination of mass transfer descriptions and inertia coefficients. Calculated half-life-values for ground-state to ground-state favoured alpha transitions are compared with available, updated experimental data. Results have shown that the present model is very suitable to treat the alpha decay process on equal foot as cluster radioactivity and cold fission processes. Better agreement with the data is found when the sub-set of even-even alpha emitters are considered in the calculation. (author)

  1. [Effect of alpha dihydroergocryptine in patients with fibrocystic breast disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Eugenio; Garibay, Miguel; Mirabent, Felio

    2006-11-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of alpha dihidroergocriptine in patients with fibrocystic mastopathy. Patients with diagnosis of fibrocystic breast disease were included in a prospective longitudinal blind double, controlled with placebo study. Patients were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups: of treatment group A: Alpha dihidroergocriptine tablets of 10 mg, group B: Placebo, during 6 months. After to basal evaluation, the patients were revised in a monthly way evaluating the following symptoms and signs: mastalgia, mammary tension, presence of nodules, nipple secretion, and the presence of adverse events. 39 patients with alpha dihidroergocriptine and 38 with placebo. Mastodinia, a satisfactory response was observed in 100% of alpha dihidroergocriptine group vs 61.11% of placebo group (p = 0.0002). Mastalgia responded in 100% of alpha dihidroergocriptine group vs 64.86% of placebo group (p = 0.0003). Galactorrea responded 100% of alpha dihidroergocriptine group vs 93.33% of the placebo. The nodules in the group alpha dihidroergocriptine disappeared in 23.1% and in 21.1% of the placebo group. Ultrasound evaluation of the nodules did not show significant differences between both groups. Prolactin levels showed a decrease in the group treated with alpha dihidroergocriptine with an important difference between both groups at the end of the 6 months study period. There were not differences in the presence of adverse events between groups. Alpha dihidroergocriptine is effective in the treatment of fribrocystic breast disease with minimum adverse events when compared with similar drugs.

  2. Geometric effects in alpha particle detection from distributed air sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, L.R.; Leitao, R.M.S.; Marques, A.; Rivera, A.

    1994-08-01

    Geometric effects associated to detection of alpha particles from distributed air sources, as it happens in Radon and Thoron measurements, are revisited. The volume outside which no alpha particle may reach the entrance window of the detector is defined and determined analytically for rectangular and cylindrical symmetry geometries. (author). 3 figs

  3. Effects of alpha populations on tokamak ballooning stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spong, D.A.; Sigmar, D.J.; Tsang, K.T.; Ramos, J.J.; Hastings, D.E.; Cooper, W.A.

    1986-01-01

    Fusion product alpha populations can significantly influence tokamak stability due to coupling between the trapped alpha precessional drift and the kinetic ballooning mode frequency. This effect is of particular importance in parameter regimes where the alpha pressure gradient begins to constitute a sizable fraction of the thermal plasma pressure gradient. Careful, quantitative evaluations of these effects are necessary in burning plasma devices such as the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor and the Joint European Torus, and we have continued systematic development of such a kinetic stability model. In this model we have considered a range of different forms for the alpha distribution function and the tokamak equilibrium. Both Maxwellian and slowing-down models have been used for the alpha energy dependence while deeply trapped and, more recently, isotropic pitch angle dependence have been examined

  4. Self-irradiation effect on thermal conductivity of Zr{sub 0.70}Pu{sub 0.25}Cm{sub 0.05}N solid solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishi, Tsuyoshi, E-mail: tsuyoshi.nishi.75@vc.ibaraki.ac.jp [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, Ibaraki University, Hitachi, Ibaraki, 316-8511 (Japan); Hayashi, Hirokazu; Sato, Takumi; Takano, Masahide [Nuclear Science and Engineering Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki, 319-1195 (Japan)

    2017-04-01

    This study evaluated the dependence of the thermal conductivity of Zr{sub 0.70}Pu{sub 0.25}Cm{sub 0.05}N on storage time and temperature. The authors prepared sintered samples of Zr{sub 0.70}Pu{sub 0.25}Cm{sub 0.05}N solid solution and measured thermal diffusivity at storage times of 0, 24, 72, 144, 240, 408, 552, 816, 1,680, and 2064 h, from which it was determined that the thermal conductivity decreased exponentially with increasing storage time. This result suggests that the decrease of the thermal conductivity could be attributed to the accumulation of lattice defects from self-irradiation. To confirm the thermal recovery behavior of Zr{sub 0.70}Pu{sub 0.25}Cm{sub 0.05}N under annealing, thermal diffusivity was also measured just after annealing. The thermal conductivity of Zr{sub 0.70}Pu{sub 0.25}Cm{sub 0.05}N was determined to be larger than that of Zr{sub 0.58}Pu{sub 0.21}Cm{sub 0.21}N but smaller than that of Zr{sub 0.80}Pu{sub 0.10}Cm{sub 0.10}N. - Highlights: •The authors prepared Zr{sub 0.70}Pu{sub 0.25}Cm{sub 0.05}N and measured thermal diffusivity. •Dependence of thermal conductivity on storage time was clarified. •After annealing at 1423 K in vacuum, thermal conductivity was recovered.

  5. Effective liquid drop description for alpha decay of atomic nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavares, O.A.P.; Duarte, S.B. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rodriguez, O.; Guzman, F. [Instituto Superior de Ciencia y Tecnologia Nuclear (ISCTN), La Habana (Cuba); Goncalves, M. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Garcia, F. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    1998-06-01

    Alpha decay half-lives are presented in the framework of an effective liquid drop model for different combination of mass transfer descriptions and inertia coefficients. Calculated half-life-values for ground-state to ground-state favoured alpha transitions are compared with available, updated experimental data. Results have shown that the present model is very suitable to treat the alpha decay process on equal foot as cluster radioactivity and cold fission processes. Better agreement with the data is found when the sub-set of even-even alpha emitters are considered in the calculation. (author) 44 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.; e-mail: telo at ird.gov.br

  6. Effect of alpha1-blockers on stentless ureteroscopic lithotripsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianguo Zhu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the clinical efficiency of alpha1-adrenergic antagonists on stentless ureteroscopic lithotripsy treating uncomplicated lower ureteral stones. Materials and Methods From January 2007 to January 2013, 84 patients who have uncomplicated lower ureteral stones treated by ureteroscopic intracorporeal lithotripsy with the holmium laser were analyzed. The patients were divided into two groups, group A (44 patients received indwelled double-J stents and group B (40 patients were treated by alpha1-adrenergic antagonists without stents. All cases of group B were treated with alpha1 blocker for 1 week. Results The mean operative time of group A was significantly longer than group B. The incidences of hematuria, flank/abdominal pain, frequency/urgency after surgery were statistically different between both groups. The stone-free rate of each group was 100%. Conclusions The effect of alpha1-adrenergic antagonists is more significant than indwelling stent after ureteroscopic lithotripsy in treating uncomplicated lower ureteral stones.

  7. Effects of TNF-alpha on Endothelial Cell Collective Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Desu; Wu, Di; Helim Aranda-Espinoza, Jose; Losert, Wolfgang

    2013-03-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) is a small cell-signaling protein usually released by monocytes and macrophages during an inflammatory response. Previous work had shown the effects of TNF-alpha on single cell morphology, migration, and biomechanical properties. However, the effect on collective migrations remains unexplored. In this work, we have created scratches on monolayers of human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVECs) treated with 25ng/mL TNF-alpha on glass substrates. The wound healing like processes were imaged with phase contrast microscopy. Quantitative analysis of the collective migration of cells treated with TNF-alpha indicates that these cells maintain their persistent motion and alignment better than untreated cells. In addition, the collective migration was characterized by measuring the amount of non-affine deformations of the wound healing monolayer. We found a lower mean non-affinity and narrower distribution of non-affinities upon TNF-alpha stimulation. These results suggest that TNF-alpha introduces a higher degree of organized cell collective migration.

  8. Immunostimulatory effects of natural human interferon-alpha (huIFN-alpha) on carps Cyprinus carpio L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanuki, Hironobu; Chakraborty, Gunimala; Korenaga, Hiroki; Kono, Tomoya; Shivappa, R B; Sakai, Masahiro

    2009-10-15

    Human interferon-alpha (huIFN-alpha) is an important immunomodulatory substance used in the treatment and prevention of numerous infectious and immune-related diseases in animals. However, the immunostimulatory effects of huIFN-alpha in fish remain to be investigated. In the current study, the immune responses of the carp species Cyprinus carpio L. to treatment with huIFN-alpha were analyzed via measurement of superoxide anion production, phagocytic activity and the expression of cytokine genes including interleukin-1beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin 10. Low doses of huIFN-alpha were administered orally once a day for 3 days, and sampling was carried out at 1, 3 and 5 days post-treatment. Our results indicate that a low dose of huIFN-alpha significantly increased phagocytic activity and superoxide anion production in the carp kidney. The huIFN-alpha-treated fish also displayed a significant upregulation in cytokine gene expression. The current study demonstrates the stimulatory effects of huIFN-alpha on the carp immune system and highlights the immunomodulatory role of huIFN-alpha in fish.

  9. Tumor necrosis factor alpha polymorphism correlates with deleterious effects of ultraviolet B light on cutaneous immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vincek, V.; Kurimoto, I.; Medema, J. P.; Prieto, E.; Streilein, J. W.

    1993-01-01

    Intradermally injected tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) mimics the effects of UV B light (UVB) radiation and neutralizing anti-TNF-alpha antibodies abolish the deleterious effects of UVB on induction of contact hypersensitivity suggesting that TNF-alpha is the major mediator of UVB effects on

  10. Neurobehavioral teratogenic effects of clomipramine and alpha-methyldopa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mirmiran, M; Van Haaren, F; Louwerse, A; van de Poll, N E; de Boer, Sietse

    1989-01-01

    Neonatal treatment of rats with centrally acting drugs such as clomipramine was shown to affect adult body and brain weight, behavior and sleep. We made a further study of the effects of clomipramine and tested one dose of alpha-methyldopa. Male rats were treated twice daily with saline, 7.5 or 15

  11. Damage radiation alpha effects in sintered waste form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messi de Bernasconi, Norma B.; Prado, Miguel O.; Bevilacqua, Arturo M.; Arribere, Maria; Heredia, Arturo D.; Sanfilippo, Miguel

    1999-01-01

    We have subjected the borosilicate glass to thermal neutron irradiation in a reactor, with an accumulated fluence equivalent to approximately E3, E4, E5, y E6 years of waste disposal. We considered the following potential effects of accumulated alpha decay: a) Changes in the density; b) Changes in the dissolution rates; c) Changes in the microstructure of the sintered glass. (author)

  12. The Effects of Curcumin on Alpha Amylase in Diabetics Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Najafian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background One of the therapeutic approaches to lower postprandial blood glucose is to inhibition breakdown of starch by inhibiting carbohydrate hydrolysis enzymes. Alpha-amylase catalyzes the hydrolysis of α-(1, 4-D-glycosidic linkages of starch and other glucose polymers. Inhibitors of this enzyme could be used in the treatment of diabetes. Objectives Based on this purpose we examined the effect of curcumin on alpha amylase and its IC50 and Ki. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, 60 rats were divided into two major groups, normal and diabetic, and each was subsequently divided into five subgroups. One of them as control group that received grape seed oil and four of them as experimental groups that received curcumin at 10, 20, 40 and 80 mg/kg (each group include six rats. Blood glucose levels were measured every three days. Serum insulin levels were measured three times, in the first day, middle and end of the experimental period. The activity of serum alpha amylase was measured in the end of experimental period. Results The results showed that curcumin is a competitive inhibitor for alpha amylase with IC50 = 51.32 µM and Ki = 20.17 µM. In both diabetic and normal groups in all doses nearly dose dependent manner reduced blood glucose and insulin levels. In both diabetic and normal groups decreased levels of serum alpha amylase activity. Conclusions It may be concluded that curcumin is a potent inhibitor of alpha amylase and has beneficial effects in the treatment of overweight and diabetes

  13. Biological Effects of Individual Alpha Particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L. A. Braby; R. R. Ford

    2002-01-01

    In order to provide quantitative data on the mechanisms of intercellular communication leading to bystander effects in irradiated cell populations, a positive ion microbeam irradiation system was set up at Texas A and M University and the rate at which photobleached and active fluorescent molecules are exchanged between irradiated and unirradiated cells was studied. AG1522 human fibroblast cells were chosen as one of the lines in this study because they had been shown to be proficient at bystander effects, and because they exhibited scrape loading response and lindane inhibition of effects which suggest that gap junction communication was involved. Surprisingly, detailed measurements of recovery from photobleaching suggested that gap junction communication did not occur in these cells. More detailed studies with gap junction inhibitors and with immunohistochemistry assays for gap junctions seem to confirm that these cells do not communicate in this way. A cell line which does communicate by gap junctions, Clone 9, shows no change in communication rates before and after irradiation. Other techniques, such as assessment of nuclear cross section were developed to determine if bystander effects alter cell progression through the cell cycle and the growth of individual cells

  14. On surface clustering and Pauli principle effects in alpha decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holan, S.

    1983-01-01

    The importance of the correct description of nuclear surface region in alpha decay calculations is pointed out. A model is proposed takinq into account explicitly surface clustering and Pauli principle effects which are essential in this region. A method for solving the main integrodifferential equation of the model by using the oscillator shell basis and the Collatz method is worked out. The first numerical results are obtained for nonlocal potential of the atpha particle-daughter nucleus interaction

  15. Metabolism and biological effects of alpha-emitting radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bair, W. J.

    1979-05-01

    The emphasis of much of the current and planned research on the toxicity of alpha-emitting radionuclides is directed toward the complexities of actual and potential conditions of occupational environmental exposures of human beings. These, as well as the more limited studies on mechanisms of biological transport and effects, should increase our ability to predict health risks more accurately and to deal more confidently with human exposures, if and when they occur.

  16. Stochastic simulation of destruction processes in self-irradiated materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Patsahan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Self-irradiation damages resulting from fission processes are common phenomena observed in nuclear fuel containing (NFC materials. Numerous α-decays lead to local structure transformations in NFC materials. The damages appearing due to the impacts of heavy nuclear recoils in the subsurface layer can cause detachments of material particles. Such a behaviour is similar to sputtering processes observed during a bombardment of the material surface by a flux of energetic particles. However, in the NFC material, the impacts are initiated from the bulk. In this work we propose a two-dimensional mesoscopic model to perform a stochastic simulation of the destruction processes occurring in a subsurface region of NFC material. We describe the erosion of the material surface, the evolution of its roughness and predict the detachment of the material particles. Size distributions of the emitted particles are obtained in this study. The simulation results of the model are in a qualitative agreement with the size histogram of particles produced from the material containing lava-like fuel formed during the Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster.

  17. Szilard-Chalmers effect in natural. cap alpha. disintegrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haissinsky, M; Cottin, M

    1948-11-01

    The Szilard-Chalmers effect resulting from the reaction UI(/sup 238/U) ..-->.. UX1(/sup 234/Th) was investigated. The authors developed a chemical method adapted from a technique of Starke (Naturwissenschaften 30, 577(1942)) to separate UX1 which was formed by ..cap alpha.. emission. The experimental accuracy is insufficient to indicate the influence of the degree of dilution of the chemical solutions used on the efficiency of separation, but it is shown that there is a marked decrease in efficiency when solid compounds are used, which is consistent with a hypothesis of Franck and Rabinowitsch (Trans. Faraday Soc. 30, 120(1934)).

  18. Effect of alpha linolenic acid supplementation on serum prostate specific antigen (PSA): results from the alpha omega trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Ingeborg A.; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Klaasen, Veronique M.; Smit, Liesbeth A.; Giltay, Erik J.; de Goede, Janette; Heijboer, Annemieke C.; Kromhout, Daan; Katan, Martijn B.

    2013-01-01

    Alpha linolenic acid (ALA) is the major omega-3 fatty acid in the diet. Evidence on health effects of ALA is not conclusive, but some observational studies found an increased risk of prostate cancer with higher intake of ALA. We examined the effect of ALA supplementation on serum concentrations of

  19. Risk estimates for the health effects of alpha radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, D.C.; McNeill, K.G.

    1981-09-01

    This report provides risk estimates for various health effects of alpha radiation. Human and animal data have been used to characterize the shapes of dose-response relations and the effects of various modifying factors, but quantitative risk estimates are based solely on human data: for lung cancer, on miners in the Colorado plateau, Czechoslovakia, Sweden, Ontario and Newfoundland; for bone and head cancers, on radium dial painters and radium-injected patients. Slopes of dose-response relations for lung cancer show a tendency to decrease with increasing dose. Linear extrapolation is unlikely to underestimate the excess risk at low doses by more than a factor of l.5. Under the linear cell-killing model, our best estimate

  20. Relative biological effectiveness if alpha radiation for human lung exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarmoshenko, I.; Kirdin, I.; Zhukovsky, M.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The concept of RBE, which introduced by ICRP and ICRU about 50 years ago to compare biological effects of ionizing radiation of different types, still continues to be the essential element of current and projected radiation protection systems in terms of deriving quantities (quality factor and radiation weighting factor). For example, RBE for the stochastic effects induction has to be considered for appropriate radiation weighting of the absorbed dose while estimating equivalent dose. Simulation of lung cancer radiation risk for the cases of inhalation of radon progeny and incorporation of plutonium in lung in comparison with external reference radiation allows assessment of RBE for alpha-radiation. Specific radiation risk models were developed by results of the direct epidemiological studies and used for such simulation. Simulation included published risk models for nuclear workers of the Mayak facilities in the former Soviet Union exposed to incorporated plutonium (Kreisheimer et al., 2003; Gilbert et al., 2004) and underground miners exposed to radon progenies (BEIR VI, 1999). Additionally lung cancer risk model was developed for a case of population indoor radon exposure. Lung cancer risk related to external exposure is estimated using the risk model develop ed using data of Life Span Study of Japanese atomic bomb survivors. By results of lifetime lung cancer risk simulation using Monte Carlo approach estimated median value of RBE in case of indoor radon exposure is 1.5 (with 90% range 0.4 to 7). In case of the two models developed by BEIR VI for lung cancer risk due to radon exposure in underground miners the median values of RBE are 2.1 and 4.4 (with 90% ranges 0.3 to 17 and 0.7 to 45) respectively.Two different models for lung cancer risk related to plutonium exposure resulted in close estimates of RBE: median value of 12 and 13 (with 90% range 4 to 104 and 4 to 136) respectively. Considerable discrepancy between RBE

  1. Self-irradiation damage to the local structure of plutonium and plutonium intermetallics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booth, C. H.; Jiang Yu; Medling, S. A. [Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Wang, D. L. [Nuclear Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Costello, A. L.; Schwartz, D. S.; Mitchell, J. N.; Tobash, P. H. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Bauer, E. D. [Materials Physics and Applications Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); McCall, S. K.; Wall, M. A.; Allen, P. G. [Condensed Matter and Materials Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2013-03-07

    The effect of self-irradiation damage on the local structure of {delta}-Pu, PuAl{sub 2}, PuGa{sub 3}, and other Pu intermetallics has been determined for samples stored at room temperature using the extended x-ray absorption fine-structure (EXAFS) technique. These measurements indicate that the intermetallic samples damage at a similar rate as indicated in previous studies of PuCoGa{sub 5}. In contrast, {delta}-Pu data indicate a much slower damage accumulation rate. To explore the effect of storage temperature and possible room temperature annealing effects, we also collected EXAFS data on a {delta}-Pu sample that was held at less than 32 K for a two month period. This sample damaged much more quickly. In addition, the measurable damage was annealed out at above only 135 K. Data from samples of {delta}-Pu with different Ga concentrations and results on all samples collected from different absorption edges are also reported. These results are discussed in terms of the vibrational properties of the materials and the role of Ga in {delta}-Pu as a network former.

  2. Simulation of Self-Irradiation of High-Sodium Content Nuclear Waste Glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pankov, Alexey S.; Ojovan, Michael I.; Batyukhnova, Olga G.; Lee, William E.

    2007-01-01

    Alkali-borosilicate glasses are widely used in nuclear industry as a matrix for immobilisation of hazardous radioactive wastes. Durability or corrosion resistance of these glasses is one of key parameters in waste storage and disposal safety. It is influenced by many factors such as composition of glass and surrounding media, temperature, time and so on. As these glasses contain radioactive elements most of their properties including corrosion resistance are also impacted by self-irradiation. The effect of external gamma-irradiation on the short-term (up to 27 days) dissolution of waste borosilicate glasses at moderate temperatures (30 deg. to 60 deg. C) was studied. The glasses studied were Magnox Waste glass used for immobilisation of HLW in UK, and K-26 glass used in Russia for ILW immobilisation. Glass samples were irradiated under γ-source (Co-60) up to doses 1 and 11 MGy. Normalised rates of elemental release and activation energy of release were measured for Na, Li, Ca, Mg, B, Si and Mo before and after irradiation. Irradiation up to 1 MGy results in increase of leaching rate of almost all elements from both MW and K-26 with the exception of Na release from MW glass. Further irradiation up to a dose of 11 MGy leads to the decrease of elemental release rates to nearly initial value. Another effect of irradiation is increase of activation energies of elemental release. (authors)

  3. Influence of Magnolol on the bystander effect induced by alpha-particle irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, T.P.W.; Law, Y.L. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Tse, A.K.W.; Fong, W.F. [Research and Development Division, School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong Baptist University, Baptist University Road, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Yu, K.N. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong)], E-mail: peter.yu@cityu.edu.hk

    2010-04-15

    In this work, the influence of Magnolol on the bystander effect in alpha-particle irradiated Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells was examined. The bystander effect was studied through medium transfer experiments. Cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay was performed to quantify the chromosome damage induced by alpha-particle irradiation. Our results showed that the alpha-particle induced micronuclei (MN) frequencies were suppressed with the presence of Magnolol.

  4. Effect of alpha particles on Toroidal Alfven Eigenmodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berk, H.L.

    1992-11-01

    An overview is given of the analytic structure for the linear theory of the Toroidal Alfven Eigenmode (TAE), where multiple gap structures occur. A discussion is given of the alpha particle drive and the various dissipation mechanisms that can stabilize the system. A self-consistent calculation of the TAE mode, for a low-beta high-aspect-ratio plasma, indicates that though the alpha particle drive is comparable to the dissipation mechanisms, overall stability is still achieved for ignited ITER-like plasma. A brief discussion is given of the nonlinear theory for the TAE mode and how nonlinear alpha particle dynamics can be treated by mapping methods

  5. Destabilizing effect of alpha particles in a Maxwellian plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, M.Y.

    1976-01-01

    Various plasma waves which are possibly excited by MeV alphas have been investigated. For a delta birth distribution it is found that: a) The right-circularly polarized Alfven wave can be excited. Its growth rate is linearly proportional to the α-particle density. b) The drift Alfven wave is stable against α-particles. c) For a uniform temperature, the plasma wave spectrum changes from three branches with n/sub α/ = 0 to four branches for n/sub α/ not equal to 0 case. d) α-particles can destabilize the ion drift acoustic wave even with uniform temperature. However, the ion acoustic wave appears to be stable against fusion products in a fusion grade plasma. e) If their effect on the background plasma spectrum is neglected, α-particles can excite the electromagnetic cyclotron wave in a range of harmonics (band structure). The growth rate is proportional to the square root of α-particle density. f) If the effect of α-particle on the plasma spectrum is included, we find that electromagnetic cyclotron wave is stable

  6. Effects of alpha-decay on spent fuel corrosion behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiss, T.; Rondinella, V.V.; Cobos, J.; Wegen, D.H.; Amme, M.; Ronchi, C.

    2004-01-01

    An overview of results in the area of spent fuel characterization as nuclear waste is presented. These studies are focused on primary aspects of spent fuel corrosion, by considering different fuel compositions and burn ups, as well as a wide set of environmental conditions. The key parameter is the storage time of the fuel e.g. in view of spent fuel retrieval or in view of its final disposal. To extrapolate data obtainable from a laboratory-acceptable timescale to those expected after storage periods of interest have elapsed (amounting in the extreme case to geological ages) is a tough challenge. Emphasis is put on key aspects of fuel corrosion related to fuel properties at a given age and environmental conditions expected in the repository: e.g. the fuel activity (radiolysis effects), the effects of helium build-up and of groundwater composition. A wide range of techniques, from traditional leaching experiments to advanced electrochemistry, and of materials, including spent fuel with different compositions/burnups and analogues like the so-called alpha-doped UO 2 , are employed for these studies. The results confirm the safety of European underground repository concepts. (authors)

  7. Effect of alpha-tocopherol and alpha-tocopheryl quinone on the radiosensitivity of thiol-depleted mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgkiss, R.J.; Stratford, M.R.; Watfa, R.R.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of hypoxic cell radiosensitizers is increased when mammalian cells are depleted of endogenous glutathione by buthionine sulphoximine pre-treatment in vitro; a similar gain has not been observed in tumors in vivo despite evidence of glutathione depletion in vivo following buthionine sulphoximine treatment. However, concentrations of biological reducing agents other than glutathione were not measured in the in vivo experiments. Other reducing agents found in tumors include alpha-tocopherol, which reduces the sensitizing efficiency of nitro-aromatic sensitizers in thiol-depleted mammalian cells. These data suggest that the failure to observe large gains in misonidazole sensitizing efficiency in thiol-depleted tumors in vivo may be due, in part, to the presence of biological reducing agents such as alpha-tocopherol

  8. Dual Effects of Alpha-Hydroxy Acids on the Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheau-Chung Tang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available AHAs are organic acids with one hydroxyl group attached to the alpha position of the acid. AHAs including glycolic acid, lactic acid, malic acid, tartaric acid, and citric acid are often used extensively in cosmetic formulations. AHAs have been used as superficial peeling agents as well as to ameliorate the appearance of keratoses and acne in dermatology. However, caution should be exercised in relation to certain adverse reactions among patients using products with AHAs, including swelling, burning, and pruritus. Whether AHAs enhance or decrease photo damage of the skin remains unclear, compelling us to ask the question, is AHA a friend or a foe of the skin? The aim of this manuscript is to review the various biological effects and mechanisms of AHAs on human keratinocytes and in an animal model. We conclude that whether AHA is a friend or foe of human skin depends on its concentration. These mechanisms of AHAs are currently well understood, aiding the development of novel approaches for the prevention of UV-induced skin damage.

  9. Effectiveness and Mechanisms of Antagonism of Toxic Effects of Cyanide by Alpha-Keto Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-12-31

    until the miss-w near death. Lethal blood levels of cyanide in alpha-KG treated animl. as levels of 5-7 mcg cyani0e, which so 5-7 times the expected...lethal levels . rwm these studies, alpha-KC is effettive in antagonising administered dos of CH of five time the lethal dose before the toxic effects are...parameters in the dog .................. 26 Table 6 The effects of cyanide on 2,3 diphosphoglyceric acid .......... 28 Table 7 Stability of solution of ci

  10. Alpha amylase and Alpha glucosidase inhibitory effects of aqueous stem extract of Salacia oblonga and its GC-MS analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladis Raja Malar Chelladurai

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Our present investigation deals with the phytochemical screening, estimation of total flavonoids, terpenoids and tannin contents to evaluate the anti-diabetic activities of Salacia oblonga stem followed by GC-MS analysis. It explores the natural compounds and the potential α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory actions of stem extracts. The aqueous stem extract was selected from other extracts (ethanol, acetone, petroleum ether and chloroform for the in vitro study of anti-diabetic activity by alpha amylase and alpha glucosidase inhibitory assays. The stem extract was also analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry to identify the natural chemical components. Phytochemical analysis of aqueous stem extract showed major classes of secondary metabolites such as phenols, flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, tannins, saponins. The total flavonoid, terpenoid, and tannin contents were quantified as 19.82±0.06 mg QE/g, 96.2±0.20 mg/g and 11.25±0.03 mg TAE/g respectively. The percentage inhibition of assays showed maximum inhibitory effects (59.46±0.04% and 68.51±0.01% at a concentration of 100 mg/mL. The IC50 values of stem extract was found to be 73.56 mg/mL and 80.90 mg/mL for alpha amylase and alpha glucosidase inhibition. Fifteen chemical constituents were found by GC-MS analysis. This study suggest the aqueous stem extract of Salacia oblonga might be considered as potential source of bio active constituents with excellent antidiabetic activity.

  11. Divergent effects of tumor necrosis factor alpha on apoptosis of human neutrophils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, J. M.; Weyer, S.; Weening, J. J.; Roos, D.; Kuijpers, T. W.

    2001-01-01

    Apoptosis of neutrophils is a key mechanism to control the intensity of the acute inflammatory response. Previously, the cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) was reported by some to have pro-apoptotic and by others to have antiapoptotic effects on neutrophils. The aim of this study was

  12. Therapeutic effect of anti-feline TNF-alpha monoclonal antibody for feline infectious peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doki, Tomoyoshi; Takano, Tomomi; Kawagoe, Kohei; Kito, Akihiko; Hohdatsu, Tsutomu

    2016-02-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) replication in macrophages/monocytes induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha production, and that the TNF-alpha produced was involved in aggravating the pathology of FIP. We previously reported the preparation of a feline TNF-alpha (fTNF-alpha)-neutralizing mouse monoclonal antibody (anti-fTNF-alpha mAb). This anti-fTNF-alpha mAb 2-4 was confirmed to inhibit the following fTNF-alpha-induced conditions in vitro. In the present study, we investigated whether mAb 2-4 improved the FIP symptoms and survival rate of experimentally FIPV-inoculated SPF cats. Progression to FIP was prevented in 2 out of 3 cats treated with mAb 2-4, whereas all 3 cats developed FIP in the placebo control group. Plasma alpha1-glycoprotein and vascular endothelial growth factor levels were improved by the administration of mAb 2-4, and the peripheral lymphocyte count also recovered. These results strongly suggested that the anti-fTNF-alpha antibody is effective for the treatment of FIP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Protective effect of poly ({alpha}-L-glutamate) against UV and {gamma}-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuta, Masakazu E-mail: mfuruta@riast.osakafu-u.ac.jp; Huy, Nguyen Quang; Tsuchiya, Akihito; Nakatsuka, Hiroshige; Hayashi, Toshio

    2004-10-01

    We occasionally found that poly ({alpha}-L-glutamate) showed a superior protective effect on enzymes against UV and {sup 60}Co-{gamma} irradiation. We selected papain and {alpha}-amylase as a model enzyme and irradiated the aqueous solution (10 mg/ml) of each enzyme with UV and {sup 60}Co-{gamma} rays in the presence of poly ({alpha}-L-glutamate) ({alpha}-PGA), poly (glucosyl oxyethyl methacrylate (GEMA)), and glucose (1.25% w/v each). The mixture of the three compounds has a significant protective effect on the activity of papain solution showing 40% of remaining activity twice as much as the control containing no additive at the dose of 15 kGy. Among them, {alpha}-PGA showed the highest protecting effect on the both papain and {alpha}-amylase even after 10-kGy irradiation at which 50% of the activity was retained. {alpha}-PGA also showed significant protective activity on {alpha}-amylase against UV both in solution and under dried state.

  14. Effect of tumor necrosis factor-alpha infusion on the incretin effect in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Signe Tellerup; Lehrskov-Schmidt, Louise; Krogh-Madsen, Rikke

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with peripheral insulin resistance, impaired incretin effect, and increased plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). Whereas TNF-α infusion at a dose that induces systemic inflammation in healthy volunteers has been demonstrated to induce...

  15. Alpha Blockers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... quickly, but their effects last only a few hours. Long-acting medications take longer to work, but their effects last longer. Which alpha blocker is best for you depends on your health and the condition being treated. Alpha blockers are ...

  16. Positron annihilation method for {alpha} self radiation effect studies in doped actinide UO{sub 2} samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roudil, D.; Vella, F.; Bonnal, M.; Broudic, V. [CEA centre de Marcoule. BP 17171 30207 Bagnols sur ceze cedex (France); Barthe, M.F.; Gentils, A.; Moineau, V. [CNRS- CEMHTI 3A rue de la Ferollerie 45071 Orleans Cedex (France); Jolly, L. [CEA centre de Valduc 21120 Is-Sur Tille (France)

    2008-07-01

    Towards disposal problematic, fine understanding of the {alpha} aging of UO{sub 2} and (U, Pu)O{sub 2} remains a fundamental challenge for the prediction of the potential increase of the radionuclide source terms with presence of water. The intrinsic evolution of the matrix is closely related to the behavior of radiogenic helium produced by actinide decay. Interactions between helium atoms and vacancy defects are involved in these mechanisms. Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy is also an appropriated method owing to its sensitivity to the vacancy type defects in solid materials. It is a non destructive technique with a remote acquiring data possibility. Because positron implanted in the material is sensitive to the electronic density, the positron lifetime method allows the characterization of the vacancy defects, namely size and concentration. Such equipment has been implemented in the L30 laboratory of the DHA facility in Atalante and will be applied on doped actinides samples, simulating {alpha} aging. This article presents, the analytical protocols and validation results on depleted UO{sub 2} samples and highlights the perspectives on (U, Pu)O{sub 2} for the investigation of different stages of self irradiation matrices and helium behavior. (authors)

  17. Determination of alpha effectiveness in ESR dating using nuclear accelerator techniques: methods and energy dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    An important parameter in calculating the environmental dose rate for electron spin resonance (ESR) age estimates is the relative effectiveness of alpha and gamma radiation. A small research accelerator is used as a source of alpha particles of various pre-selected energies, corresponding to those found in the environment, to determine the effectiveness of alpha radiation of different energies. Preparation of sample targets is discussed, including the use of absolute ethanol, thorough etching and deposition by centrifuge. Preliminary results show that the alpha/gamma effectiveness ratio, k, depends on the energy of the incident alpha and must therefore be expressed in terms of a reference energy. The effectiveness of an alpha particle in causing ESR damage is found to vary linearly with its range or path length, not with its energy, a fact which must be considered when calculating effective dose-rates from environmental radionuclide concentrations. Failure to do so may lead to serious systematic errors in the effective alpha contribution to environmental dose-rates and consequently in age estimates. (author)

  18. Effects of tamsulosin metabolites at alpha-1 adrenoceptor subtypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taguchi, K.; Saitoh, M.; Sato, S.; Asano, M.; Michel, M. C.

    1997-01-01

    We have investigated the affinity and selectivity of tamsulosin and its metabolites, M1, M2, M3, M4 and AM1, at the tissue and the cloned alpha-1 adrenoceptor subtypes in the radioligand binding and the functional studies. In the radioligand binding studies, the compounds competed for [3H]prazosin

  19. Alpha radioactivity in tobacco leaves: Effect of fertilizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nain, Mahabir [Department of Physics, Government College Karnal, Haryana 132001 (India)], E-mail: mnain@rediffmail.com; Chauhan, R.P. [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Kurukshetra 136119 (India); Chakarvarti, S.K. [Department of Applied Physics, NIT, Kurukshetra 136119 (India)

    2008-08-15

    The link between cigarette smoke and cancer has long been established. Smokers are 10 times at a greater risk of developing lung cancer than that of non-smokers. The toxicity in tobacco is considered mainly due to the presence of chemi-toxins like nicotine, tar, aromatic hydrocarbons, sterols and many other materials leading to mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. There are many reports on the presence of naturally occurring radionuclides viz., {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb in tobacco. Investigations on alpha-emitting radionuclides, especially on {sup 210}Po have gained significant importance as alpha interactions with chromosomes of cells may contribute to early arteriosclerosis developments in tobacco smokers. Due to relatively high activity concentration of {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb that are found in tobacco and its product cigarette can increase the internal intake of both the radionuclides and their concentrations in lung tissues. This causes an increase in the internal radiation dose which enhances the instances of lung cancer. Many workers have tried to explain the role of {sup 210}Po in tobacco in the epidemiological investigation of cancer and tumour formation. In the present work, the estimation of alpha radioactivity in tobacco leaves taken from tobacco plants grown using different types of chemical fertilizers like diammonium phosphate (DAP), zinc sulphate, potash, super phosphate, urea etc. in varying amounts before the plantation of the seedlings has been made. For these measurements we used {alpha}-sensitive LR-115 type II plastic track detectors. The results indicate an increase in alpha radioactivity with the use of some fertilizers.

  20. Effect of dietary alpha-tocopherol supplementation and gamma-irradiation on alpha-tocopherol retention and lipid oxidation in cooked minced chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvin, K.; Morrissey, P.A.; Buckley, D.J.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of dietary alpha-tocopherol supplementation and gamma-irradiation on alpha-tocopherol retention and lipid oxidation in cooked minced chicken during refrigerated storage were studied. Minced breast and thigh meat from broilers fed diets supplemented with 100, 200 or 400 mg alpha-tocopheryl acetate/kg feed was irradiated at 2.5 or 4.0 kGy. Cooked irradiated and unirradiated meat was stored at 4 degrees C for 5 days. alpha-Tocopherol concentrations increased with increasing dietary supplementation. Concentrations decreased during storage, but retention was not affected by irradiation. Lipid stability was determined by measuring the formation of thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances (TBARS) and cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) during storage. TBARS and COPs increased during storage and were reduced by increasing levels of dietary alpha-tocopheryl acetate supplementation. Irradiation accelerated TBARS formation during storage, but this was prevented by supplementation with 200 mg alpha-tocopheryl acetate/kg feed. Irradiation tended to increase COPs during storage, although no consistent effects were observed. In general supplementation with over 400 mg alpha-tocopheryl acetate/kg feed may be required to control cholesterol oxidation in minced chicken. The results suggest that, overall, irradiation had little effect on lipid stability in alpha-tocopherol-supplemented meat following cooking and storage

  1. Prostaglandin production by melanocytic cells and the effect of alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaou, Anna; Estdale, Sian E; Tsatmali, Marina; Herrero, Daniel Pascual; Thody, Anthony J

    2004-07-16

    Prostaglandins are potent mediators of the inflammatory response and are also involved in cancer development. In this study, we show that human melanocytes and FM55 melanoma cells express cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 (COX-1 and -2) and thus have the capability to produce prostaglandins. The FM55 cells produced predominantly PGE2 and PGF2alpha, whereas the HaCaT keratinocyte cell line produced mainly PGE2. The anti-inflammatory peptide, alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH), reduced prostaglandin production in FM55 and HaCaT cells and reversed the effect of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha in the former. These results indicate that melanocytes produce prostaglandins and that alpha-MSH, by inhibiting this response, may play an important role in regulating inflammatory responses in the skin.

  2. Biological effects of alpha particles in lung tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, W.; Daschil, F.

    1985-01-01

    Allowing for concomitant cellular inactivation, the tumour incidence function can be written as the product of two probabilities, for malignant transformation and for not being killed. Cell survival of mammalian cells in culture after heavy ion irradiation has been described successfully by the formalism of track structure theory for cellular inactivation. Thus a transformation function is derived by extracting cellular radiosensitivity parameters from experimental data on mutation to thioguanine resistance. For defined conditions of radon daughter inhalation, from the fraction of inhaled radionuclides deposited and retained on bronchial airway surfaces are calculated. The LET distribution in sensitive bronchial stem cells hit by alpha particles depends on initial alpha particle energy, airway diameter, and stem cell depth. Applying the methodology of track structure theory and using cellular radiosensitivity parameters for cell killing and mutation, the radiation risk at a given stem cell depth is expressed by the probabilities for cellular survival, for mutation or transformation, and the joint probability for cancer induction. (author)

  3. Rederivation of the alpha effect in terms of the magnetic fluctuation spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keinigs, R.K.; Gerwin, R.A.

    1982-08-01

    We demonstrate that the alpha effect can be expressed in terms of the integrated current helicity spectrum of the turbulence. This is a much more convenient form than that obtained using a kinematic velocity field description

  4. Effect of alpha linolenic acid supplementation on serum prostate specific antigen (PSA: results from the alpha omega trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingeborg A Brouwer

    Full Text Available Alpha linolenic acid (ALA is the major omega-3 fatty acid in the diet. Evidence on health effects of ALA is not conclusive, but some observational studies found an increased risk of prostate cancer with higher intake of ALA. We examined the effect of ALA supplementation on serum concentrations of prostate-specific antigen (PSA, a biomarker for prostate cancer.The Alpha Omega Trial (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00127452 was a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of ALA and the fish fatty acids eicosapentanoic acid (EPA and docosahexanoic acid (DHA on the recurrence of cardiovascular disease, using a 2×2 factorial design. Blood was collected at the start and the end of the intervention period. The present analysis included 1622 patients with a history of a myocardial infarction, aged 60-80 years with an initial PSA concentration 4 ng/mL.Mean serum PSA increased by 0.42 ng/mL on placebo (n = 815 and by 0.52 ng/mL on ALA (n = 807, a difference of 0.10 (95% confidence interval: -0.02 to 0.22 ng/mL (P = 0·12. The odds ratio for PSA rising above 4 ng/mL on ALA versus placebo was 1.15 (95% CI: 0.84-1.58.An additional amount of 2 g of ALA per day increased PSA by 0.10 ng/mL, but the confidence interval ranged from -0.02 to 0.22 ng/mL and included no effect. Therefore, more studies are needed to establish whether or not ALA intake has a clinically significant effect on PSA or prostate cancer.ClinicalTrials.gov; Identifier: NCT00127452. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00127452.

  5. Combined effects of alpha particles and depleted uranium on Zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Candy Y.P.; Pereira, Sandrine; Cheng, Shuk Han; Adam-Guillermin, Christelle; Garnier-Laplace, Jacqueline; Yu, Kwan Ngok

    2016-01-01

    The combined effects of low-dose or high-dose alpha particles and depleted uranium (DU) in Zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos were studied. Three schemes were examined—(i) [I L U L ]: 0.44 mGy alpha-particle dose + 10 µg/l DU exposure, (ii) [I H U H ]: 4.4 mGy alpha-particle dose + 100 µg/l DU exposure and (iii) [I H U L ]: 4.4 mGy alpha-particle dose + 10 µg/l DU exposure—in which Zebrafish embryos were irradiated with alpha particles at 5 h post fertilization (hpf) and/or exposed to uranium at 5–6 hpf. The results were also compared with our previous work, which studied the effects of [I L U H ]: 0.44 mGy alpha-particle dose + 100 µg/l DU exposure. When the Zebrafish embryos developed to 24 hpf, the apoptotic signals in the entire embryos, used as the biological endpoint for this study, were quantified. Our results showed that [I L U L ] and [I H U L ] led to antagonistic effects, whereas [I H U H ] led to an additive effect. The effect found for the previously studied case of [I L U H ] was difficult to define because it was synergistic with reference to the 100 µg/l DU exposure, but it was antagonistic with reference to the 0.44 mGy alpha-particle dose. All the findings regarding the four different schemes showed that the combined effects critically depended on the dose response to each individual stressor. We also qualitatively explained these findings in terms of promotion of early death of cells predisposed to spontaneous transformation by alpha particles, interacting with the delay in cell death resulting from various concentrations of DU exposure

  6. Effect of alpha amylase on early childhood caries: a matched case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Mojarad, Farzad; Department of Pediatric Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan; Fazlollahifar, Samira; Department of Pediatric Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan; Poorolajal, Jalal; Research Center for Health Sciences, Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan; Hajilooi, Mehrdad; Department of Pathology, School of Dentistry, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: There are a few studies addressing the relationship between salivary alpha-amylase and dental caries. This study was implemented in order to investigate the effect of salivary alpha-amylase level on early childhood caries (ECC).Materials and Methods: In this matched case-control study, which was carried out from November 2011 to March 2012 in Hamadan City, the west of Iran, mean levels of salivary alpha-amylase of 84 ECC-active cases were compared to that of 84 ECC-free controls u...

  7. Alpha heating and isotopic mass effects in JET plasmas with sawteeth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budny, R. V. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Team, JET [EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB, UK

    2016-02-09

    The alpha heating experiment in the Joint European Torus (JET) 1997 DTE1 campaign is re-examined. Several effects correlated with tritium content and thermal hydrogenic isotopic mass < A> weaken the conclusion that alpha heating was clearly observed. These effects delayed the occurrence of significant sawtooth crashes allowing the electron and ion temperatures T e and T i to achieve higher values. Under otherwise equal circumstances T e and T i were typically higher for discharges with higher < A >, and significant scaling of T i, T e, and total stored energy with < A > were observed. The higher T i led to increased ion–electron heating rates with magnitudes comparable to those computed for alpha electron heating. Rates of other heating/loss processes also had comparable magnitudes. Simulations of T e assuming the observed scaling of T i are qualitatively consistent with the measured profiles, without invoking alpha heating

  8. Protective effect of exercise and alpha tocopherol on atherosclerosis promotion in hypercholesterolemic domestic rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekh, Mudhir S.; Mahmud, Almas M. R.

    2017-09-01

    This study was designed to determine effects of exercise training (Moderate and severe) and alpha tocopherol on lipid profiles and organ weights in hypercholesterolemic domestic rabbits. Hypercholesterolemia (HC) and atherosclerotic lesions were induced by feeding the male rabbits the standard chow supplemented with 1% cholesterol (atherogenic diet) for 36 days. Experimental rabbits were divided into seven groups: normal (T1), HC control (T2), HC plus alpha tocopherol (0.5mg /animal/day) (T3), HC plus moderate exercise 40 minutes/day (0.5km/day) 5 days/week (T4), HC plus severe exercise 40 minutes/day (1km/day) 5 days/week (T5), HC plus alpha tocopherol plus moderate exercise (T6) and HC plus alpha tocopherol plus severe exercise (T7). After the treatment period of 36th day, blood samples were collected and total cholesterol (TC), Triglyceride (TG), Very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-cholesterol, High-density lipoproteins (HDL)-cholesterol, Low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, serum glucose, body and organ weights were assayed and compared with hypercholesterolemic control. Combination of moderate exercise with alpha tocopherol produced significant reduction (Pgroup showed no significant change in all lipid profiles. However, the decrement in the above parameters was comparable with hypercholesterolemic rabbits in combination of severe exercise with alpha tocopherol. The results suggest that the combination of moderate exercise with alpha tocopherol can be exploited for prevention of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

  9. Effect of decoyinine on the regulation of alpha-amylase synthesis in Bacillus subtilis.

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholson, W L; Chambliss, G H

    1987-01-01

    Decoyinine, an inhibitor of GMP synthetase, allows sporulation in Bacillus subtilis to initiate and proceed under otherwise catabolite-repressing conditions. The effect of decoyinine on alpha-amylase synthesis in B. subtilis, an event which exhibits regulatory features resembling sporulation initiation, was examined. Decoyinine did not overcome catabolite repression of alpha-amylase synthesis in a wild-type strain of B. subtilis but did cause premature and enhanced synthesis in a mutant strai...

  10. Resolution of G(s)alpha and G(q)alpha/G(11)alpha proteins in membrane domains by two-dimensional electrophoresis: the effect of long-term agonist stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matousek, P; Novotný, J; Svoboda, P

    2004-01-01

    Low-density membrane-domain fractions were prepared from S49 lymphoma cells and clone e2m11 of HEK293 cells expressing a large number of thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor (TRH-R) and G(11)alpha by flotation on sucrose density gradients. The intact cell structure was broken by detergent-extraction, alkaline-treatment or drastic homogenization. Three types of low-density membranes were resolved by two-dimensional electrophoresis and analyzed for G(s)alpha (S49) or G(q)alpha/G11) (e2m11) content. Four individual immunoblot signals of Gsalpha protein were identified in S49 lymphoma cells indicating complete resolution of the long G(s)alpha L+/-ser and short G(s)alpha S+/-ser variants of G(s)alpha. All these were diminished by prolonged agonist (isoprenaline) stimulation. In e2m11-HEK cells, five different immunoblot signals were detected indicating post-translational modification of G proteins of G(q)alpha/G(11)alpha family. The two major spots corresponding to exogenously (over)expressed G(11)alpha and endogenous G(q)alpha were reduced; the minor spots diminished by hormonal stimulation. Parallel analysis by silver staining of the total protein content indicated that no major changes in protein composition occurred under these conditions. Our data thus indicate that agonist-stimulation of target cells results in down-regulation of all different members of G(s) and G(q)/G(11) families. This agonist-specific effect may be demonstrated in crude membrane as well as domain/raft preparations and it is not accompanied by changes in overall protein composition.

  11. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of alpha radiation in cultured porcine aortic endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Patricia; Tracy, Bliss; Ping, Tilly; Baweja, Anar; Wickstrom, Mark; Sidhu, Narinder; Hiebert, Linda

    2007-03-01

    Northern peoples can receive elevated radiation doses (1- 10 mSv/y) from transfer of polonium-210 (210Po) through the lichen-caribou-human food chain. Ingested 210Po is primarily blood-borne and thus many of its short range alpha particles irradiate the endothelial cells lining the blood vessels. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of alpha particles vs. x-rays was examined in porcine aortic endothelial cells as a surrogate for understanding what might happen to human endothelial cells in northern populations consuming traditional foods. Cultured porcine aortic endothelial cells were exposed to x-ray and 210Po alpha particle radiation. Alpha irradiation was applied to the cell cultures internally via the culture medium and externally, using thin-bottomed culture dishes. The results given here are based on the external irradiation method, which was found to be more reliable. Dose-response curves were compared for four lethal endpoints (cell viability, live cell fraction, release of lactate dehydrogenase [LDH] and clonogenic survival) to determine the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of alpha radiation. The alpha RBE for porcine cells varied from 1.6-21, depending on the endpoint: 21.2+/-4.5 for cell viability, 12.9+/-2.7 for decrease in live cell number, 5.3+/-0.4 for LDH release to the medium but only 1.6 +/-0.1 for clonogenic survival. The low RBE of 1.6 was due to x-ray hypersensitivity of endothelial cells at low doses.

  12. Effect of alpha irradiation on UO{sub 2} surface reactivity in aqueous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jegou, C.; Muzeau, B.; Broudic, V.; Poulesquen, A.; Roudil, D. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (CEA), Rhone Valley Research Center, DIEC/SESC/LMPA, Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France); Jorion, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (CEA), Rhone Valley Research Center, DRCP/SE2A/LEMA, Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France); Corbel, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (CEA), Saclay Research Center, DSM/DRECAM/SCM, Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2005-07-01

    The option of direct disposal of spent nuclear fuel in a deep geological formation raises the need to investigate the long-term behavior of the UO{sub 2} matrix in aqueous media subjected to {alpha}-{beta}-{gamma} radiation. The {beta}-{gamma} emitters account for most of the activity of spent fuel at the moment it is removed from the reactor, but diminish within a millennial time frame by over three orders of magnitude to less than the long-term activity. The latter persists over much longer time periods and must therefore be taken into account over a geological disposal time scale. Leaching experiments with solution renewal were carried out on UO{sub 2} pellets doped with alpha emitters ({sup 238}Pu and {sup 239}Pu) to quantify the impact of alpha irradiation on UO{sub 2} matrix alteration. Three batches of doped UO{sub 2} pellets with different alpha flux levels (3.30 x 10{sup 4}, 3.30 x 10{sup 5}, and 3.2 x 10{sup 6} {alpha} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}) were studied. The results obtained in aerated and deaerated media immediately after sample annealing or interim storage in air provide a better understanding of the UO{sub 2} matrix alteration mechanisms under alpha irradiation. Interim storage in air of UO{sub 2} pellets doped with alpha emitters results in variations of the UO{sub 2} surface reactivity, which depends on the alpha particle flux at the interface and on the interim storage duration. The variation in the surface reactivity and the greater uranium release following interim storage cannot be attributed to the effect of alpha radiolysis in aerated media since the uranium release tends toward the same value after several leaching cycles for the doped UO{sub 2} pellet batches and spent fuel. Oxygen diffusion enhanced by alpha irradiation of the extreme surface layer and/or radiolysis of the air could account for the oxidation of the surface UO{sub 2} to UO{sub 2+x}. However, leaching experiments performed in deaerated media after annealing the samples and

  13. Biological effect of focal alpha radiation on the hamster lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.M.; Anderson, E.C.; Prine, J.R.; Holland, L.M.; Richmond, C.R.

    1975-11-01

    Monodispersed 10-μm diameter ZrO 2 ceramic microspheres, containing varying amounts of 239 PuO 2 or 238 PuO 2 , were injected into the jugular vein of 100-day-old Syrian hamsters. These biologically inert microspheres lodged subsequently in pulmonary capillaries and remained static in position throughout the life span of the animals with no discernible inflammatory response. The numbers of microspheres injected ranged from 2000 to 10,000 and the specific activity from 0 to 59 pCi/sphere so that the lung burdens were 0 to 354 nCi/animal. At these numbers, each plutonium-laden microsphere served as an independent, focal source of alpha radiation. No consistent alteration of life spans post-exposure was seen in the experimental hamsters compared to controls. Pulmonary tissue responses were minimal with only 0.5 percent of the animals given Pu/ZrO 2 microspheres ultimately developing primary tumors of the lung. No unexpected gross or histologic lesion were found in other major body tissues

  14. Alpha and beta adrenergic effects on metabolism in contracting, perfused muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Erik; Ruderman, N B; Galbo, H

    1982-01-01

    The role of alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptor stimulation for the effect of epinephrine on muscle glycogenolysis, glucose- and oxygen uptake and muscle performance was studied in the perfused rat hindquarter at rest and during electrical stimulation (60 contractions/min). Adrenergic stimulation...... was obtained by epinephrine in a physiological concentration (2.4 X 10(-8) M) and alpha- and beta-adrenergic blockade by 10(-5) M phentolamine and propranolol, respectively. Epinephrine enhanced net glycogenolysis during contractions most markedly in slow-twitch red fibers. In these fibers the effect...... was mediated by alpha- as well as by beta-adrenergic stimulation, the latter involving production of cAMP, phosphorylase activation and synthase inactivation. In contrast, in fast-twitch fibers only beta-adrenergic mechanisms were involved in the glycogenolytic effect of epinephrine. Moreover, inactivation...

  15. Regulation of bovine kidney alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex by calcium ion and adenine nucleotides. Effects on S0.5 for alpha-ketoglutarate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawlis, V B; Roche, T E

    1981-04-28

    Regulation of bovine kidney alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex by energy-linked metabolites was investigated. Ca2+, ADP, or inorganic phosphate markedly enhanced the activity of the complex, and ATP or, to a lesser extent, GTP decreased the activity of the complex. Initial velocity studies with alpha-ketoglutarate as the varied substrate demonstrated that these modulators induced large changes in S0.5 for alpha-ketoglutarate (based on analysis in Hill plots) with no change in the maximum velocity (as determined by double-reciprocal plots). For all conditions studied, the Hill coefficients were significantly less than 1.0 with slopes that were linear over wide ranges of alpha-ketoglutarate concentrations, indicating negative cooperativity that probably resulted from multiple site-site interactions. Ca2+ (maintained at 10 muM by a Ca2+ buffer) decreased the S0.5 for alpha-ketoglutarate 63-fold (from 25 to 0.40 mM); even in the presence of a positive effector, ADP or phosphate, Ca2+ decreased the S0.5 for alpha-ketoglutarate 7.8- or 28-fold, respectively. Consistent with a mechanism of action dependent of Ca2+, ADP (1.60 mM) or phosphate (20 mM) reduced the S0.5 for alpha-ketoglutarate in the presence of Ca2+ (i.e., 4.5- or 1.67-fold, respectively); however, these effectors elicited larger decreases in S0.5 in the absence of Ca2+ (i.e., 37- or 3.7-fold, respectively). ATP (1.6 mM) increased the S0.5 for alpha-ketoglutarate, and Ca2+ appreciably reduced the effect, lowering the S0.5 98-fold from 66 to 0.67 mM. Thus the activity of the kidney alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex is poised to increase as the energy potential in mitochondria declines, and Ca2+ has a pronounced modulatory effect. Comparative studies on bovine heart alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex and the effects of varying the ADP/ATP ratio in the presence or absence of Ca2+ or phosphate are also described.

  16. Anti-apoptotic effects of Z alpha1-antitrypsin in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Greene, C M

    2010-05-01

    alpha(1)-antitrypsin (alpha(1)-AT) deficiency is a genetic disease which manifests as early-onset emphysema or liver disease. Although the majority of alpha(1)-AT is produced by the liver, it is also produced by bronchial epithelial cells, amongst others, in the lung. Herein, we investigate the effects of mutant Z alpha(1)-AT (ZAAT) expression on apoptosis in a human bronchial epithelial cell line (16HBE14o-) and delineate the mechanisms involved. Control, M variant alpha(1)-AT (MAAT)- or ZAAT-expressing cells were assessed for apoptosis, caspase-3 activity, cell viability, phosphorylation of Bad, nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB activation and induced expression of a selection of pro- and anti-apoptotic genes. Expression of ZAAT in 16HBE14o- cells, like MAAT, inhibited basal and agonist-induced apoptosis. ZAAT expression also inhibited caspase-3 activity by 57% compared with control cells (p = 0.05) and was a more potent inhibitor than MAAT. Whilst ZAAT had no effect on the activity of Bad, its expression activated NF-kappaB-dependent gene expression above control or MAAT-expressing cells. In 16HBE14o- cells but not HEK293 cells, ZAAT upregulated expression of cIAP-1, an upstream regulator of NF-kappaB. cIAP1 expression was increased in ZAAT versus MAAT bronchial biopsies. The data suggest a novel mechanism by which ZAAT may promote human bronchial epithelial cell survival.

  17. Sequential nearest-neighbor effects on computed {sup 13}C{sup {alpha}} chemical shifts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vila, Jorge A. [Cornell University, Baker Laboratory of Chemistry and Chemical Biology (United States); Serrano, Pedro; Wuethrich, Kurt [The Scripps Research Institute, Department of Molecular Biology (United States); Scheraga, Harold A., E-mail: has5@cornell.ed [Cornell University, Baker Laboratory of Chemistry and Chemical Biology (United States)

    2010-09-15

    To evaluate sequential nearest-neighbor effects on quantum-chemical calculations of {sup 13}C{sup {alpha}} chemical shifts, we selected the structure of the nucleic acid binding (NAB) protein from the SARS coronavirus determined by NMR in solution (PDB id 2K87). NAB is a 116-residue {alpha}/{beta} protein, which contains 9 prolines and has 50% of its residues located in loops and turns. Overall, the results presented here show that sizeable nearest-neighbor effects are seen only for residues preceding proline, where Pro introduces an overestimation, on average, of 1.73 ppm in the computed {sup 13}C{sup {alpha}} chemical shifts. A new ensemble of 20 conformers representing the NMR structure of the NAB, which was calculated with an input containing backbone torsion angle constraints derived from the theoretical {sup 13}C{sup {alpha}} chemical shifts as supplementary data to the NOE distance constraints, exhibits very similar topology and comparable agreement with the NOE constraints as the published NMR structure. However, the two structures differ in the patterns of differences between observed and computed {sup 13}C{sup {alpha}} chemical shifts, {Delta}{sub ca,i}, for the individual residues along the sequence. This indicates that the {Delta}{sub ca,i} -values for the NAB protein are primarily a consequence of the limited sampling by the bundles of 20 conformers used, as in common practice, to represent the two NMR structures, rather than of local flaws in the structures.

  18. Effects of alpha-particles on survival and chromosomal aberrations in human mammary epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, M.; Grossi, G. F.; Gialanella, G.; Pugliese, M.; Nappo, M.; Yang, T. C.

    1995-01-01

    We have studied the radiation responses of a human mammary epithelial cell line, H184B5 F5-1 M/10. This cell line was derived from primary mammary cells after treatment with chemicals and heavy ions. The F5-1 M/10 cells are immortal, density-inhibited in growth, and non-tumorigenic in athymic nude mice and represent an in vitro model of the human epithelium for radiation studies. Because epithelial cells are the target of alpha-particles emitted from radon daughters, we concentrated our studies on the efficiency of alpha-particles. Confluent cultures of M/10 cells were exposed to accelerated alpha-particles [beam energy incident at the cell monolayer = 3.85 MeV, incident linear energy transfer (LET) in cell = 109 keV/microns] and, for comparison, to 80 kVp x-rays. The following endpoints were studied: (1) survival, (2) chromosome aberrations at the first postirradiation mitosis, and (3) chromosome alterations at later passages following irradiation. The survival curve was exponential for alpha-particles (D0 = 0.73 +/- 0.04 Gy), while a shoulder was observed for x-rays (alpha/beta = 2.9 Gy; D0 = 2.5 Gy, extrapolation number 1.6). The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of high-LET alpha-particles for human epithelial cell killing was 3.3 at 37% survival. Dose-response curves for the induction of chromosome aberrations were linear for alpha-particles and linearquadratic for x-rays. The RBE for the induction of chromosome aberrations varied with the type of aberration scored and was high (about 5) for chromosome breaks and low (about 2) for chromosome exchanges.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  19. Effect of ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol supplementations on serum leptin, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and serum amyloid A levels in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Jamalan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Diabetes mellitus Type 2 is one of the most widespread chronic metabolic diseases. In most cases, this type of diabetes is associated with alterations in levels of some inflammatory cytokines and hormones. Considering anti-inflammatory properties of plant extracts rich in ascorbic acid (vitamin C and alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E, anti-diabetic properties of these two well-known antioxidant vitamins were investigated through measurement of serum levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, insulin, leptin, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, and serum amyloid A (SAA in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2. Methods: Male patients (n=80 were randomly divided into two groups each consisted of 40 subjects. Test groups were supplemented with ascorbic acid (1000 mg/day or alpha-tocopherol (300 mg/day orally during four weeks. Before and after treatment, serum biochemical factors of subjects were measured and compared. Results: Our results showed that both ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol could induce significant anti-inflammatory effects by decreasing the level of inflammatory factors such as TNF-α, SAA, and hs-CRP in diabetes mellitus type 2 patients. Effects of alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid in decreasing serum leptin level were similar. Ascorbic acid in contrast to alpha-tocopherol diminished fasting insulin and HOMA index but had no effect on LDL serum level. Conclusion: Concerning the obtained results, it is concluded that consumption of supplementary vitamins C and E could decrease induced inflammatory response in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2.  It is also possible that vitamin C and vitamin E supplementation can attenuate incidence of some proposed pathological effects of diabetes mellitus.

  20. Effect of alpha drift and instabilities on tokamak plasma edge conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, G.H.; Choi, C.K.

    1983-01-01

    As suprathermal fusion products slow down in a Tokamak, their average drift is inward. The effect of this drift on the alpha heating and thermalization profiles is examined. In smaller TFTR-type devices, heating in the outer region can be cut in half. Also, the fusion-product energy-distribution near the plasma edge has a positive slope with increasing energy, representing a possible driving mechanism for micro-instabilities. Another instability that can seriously affect outer plasma conditions and shear Alfven transport of alphas is also considered

  1. Effects of alpha radiation on plutonium incorporated in dosimetric materials by ESR studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhide, M.K.; Kadam, R.M.; Mohapatra, Manoj; Godbole, S.V.

    2007-01-01

    The in situ alpha irradiation effects of some ESR dosimetric materials namely alanine, 2-methyl alanine and ammonium tartrate were studied by incorporating 1% plutonium by weight in them. The radical intensity was monitored as a function of alpha dose. It was found that in the dose region 1-35 kGy ammonium tartrate showed better signal intensity, linearity and dose response as compared to the other materials. This was attributed to the single radical produced in case of the tartrate giving a sharp spectrum and the fast relaxation times owing to less saturation of ESR signals. (author)

  2. Effect of alpha irradiation on UO2 surface reactivity in aqueous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jegou, C.; Muzeau, B.; Broudic, V.; Poulesquen, A.; Roudil, D.; Jorion, F.; Corbel, C.

    2005-01-01

    The option of direct disposal of spent nuclear fuel in a deep geological formation raises the need to investigate the long-term behavior of the UO 2 matrix in aqueous media subjected to α-β-γ radiation. The β-γ emitters account for most of the activity of spent fuel at the moment it is removed from the reactor, but diminish within a millennial time frame by over three orders of magnitude to less than the long-term activity. The latter persists over much longer time periods and must therefore be taken into account over a geological disposal time scale. Leaching experiments with solution renewal were carried out on UO 2 pellets doped with alpha emitters ( 238 Pu and 239 Pu) to quantify the impact of alpha irradiation on UO 2 matrix alteration. Three batches of doped UO 2 pellets with different alpha flux levels (3.30 x 10 4 , 3.30 x 10 5 , and 3.2 x 10 6 α cm -2 s -1 ) were studied. The results obtained in aerated and deaerated media immediately after sample annealing or interim storage in air provide a better understanding of the UO 2 matrix alteration mechanisms under alpha irradiation. Interim storage in air of UO 2 pellets doped with alpha emitters results in variations of the UO 2 surface reactivity, which depends on the alpha particle flux at the interface and on the interim storage duration. The variation in the surface reactivity and the greater uranium release following interim storage cannot be attributed to the effect of alpha radiolysis in aerated media since the uranium release tends toward the same value after several leaching cycles for the doped UO 2 pellet batches and spent fuel. Oxygen diffusion enhanced by alpha irradiation of the extreme surface layer and/or radiolysis of the air could account for the oxidation of the surface UO 2 to UO 2+x . However, leaching experiments performed in deaerated media after annealing the samples and preleaching the surface suggest that alpha radiolysis does indeed affect the dissolution, which varies with the

  3. The time-course of alpha neurofeedback training effects in healthy participants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, M.K.J.; Sitskoorn, M.M.; Denissen, A.; van Boxtel, G.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The time-course of alpha neurofeedback training (NFT) was investigated in 18 healthy participants who received 15 sessions of training (eyes open), each consisting of three training periods (data are from Van Boxtel et al., 2012). Here we report on the within- and between-session training effects

  4. A Comparative Study of Effects of Omega‑3 Fatty Acids, Alpha Lipoic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Diabetes Mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by abnormal lipid and glucose metabolism. Various modes of adjuvant therapy have been advocated to ameliorate insulin resistance. Aim: This study was intended to assess the effects of antioxidants; alpha lipoic acid (ALA), omega 3 fatty acid and vitamin ...

  5. Alpha particle effects as a test domain for PAP, a Plasma Apprentice Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mynick, H.E.

    1987-01-01

    A new type of computational tool under development, employing techniques of symbolic computation and artificial intelligence to automate as far as possible the research activities of a human plasma theorist, is described. Its present and potential uses are illustrated using the area of the theory of alpha particle effects in fusion plasmas as a sample domain. (orig.)

  6. Effect of hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1α) on proliferation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-25

    Jul 25, 2011 ... Full Length Research Paper. Effect of hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha ... 1Department of Neurosurgery, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai JiaoTong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025,. China. 2Department of Neurosurgery, Chaoyang Hospital, Huainan, Anhui, China. 3Department of Neurosurgery ...

  7. Effects of L-ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol on biochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of L-ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol as well as combination of these vitamins with or without exposure to physical exercise on intensity of lipid peroxidation, activity of xanthine oxidase, activity of total antioxidative system, concentration of glutathione, and ...

  8. Evaluation of GABAergic neuroactive steroid 3alpha-hydroxy-5alpha-pregnane-20-one as a neurobiological substrate for the anti-anxiety effect of ethanol in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirani, Khemraj; Sharma, Ajay N; Jain, Nishant S; Ugale, Rajesh R; Chopde, Chandrabhan T

    2005-07-01

    Acute systemic ethanol administration is known to elevate plasma and cerebral levels of neuroactive steroid 3alpha-hydroxy-5alpha-pregnane-20-one (3alpha, 5alpha-THP; allopregnanolone) to a concentration sufficient to potentiate GABA(A) receptors. We have earlier demonstrated that 3alpha, 5alpha-THP mediates the antidepressant-like effect of ethanol in Porsolt forced swim test. The aim of the present study is to explain the relationship between endogenous GABAergic neurosteroids and anxiolytic effect of ethanol in Sprague-Dawley rats. The mediation of 3alpha, 5alpha-THP in the anti-anxiety effect of ethanol was assessed by pharmacological interactions of ethanol with various endogenous neurosteroidal modulators and using simulated physiological conditions of altered neurosteroid content in elevated plus maze (EPM) test. Pretreatment of 3alpha, 5alpha-THP (0.5-2.5 mug/rat, i.c.v.) or neurosteroidogenic agents such as 3alpha, 5alpha-THP precursor progesterone (5 or 10 mg/kg, i.p.), 11-beta hydroxylase inhibitor metyrapone (50 or 100 mg/kg, i.p.) or the GABA(A) receptor agonist muscimol (25 ng/rat, i.c.v.) significantly potentiated the anti-anxiety effect of ethanol (1 g/kg, i.p.). On the other hand, the GABAergic antagonistic neurosteroid dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) (1 mg/kg, i.p.), the GABA(A) receptor blocker bicuculline (1 mg/kg, i.p.), the 5alpha-reductase inhibitor finasteride (50 x 2 mg/kg, s.c.) or the mitochondrial diazepam binding inhibitory receptor antagonist PK11195 (1 mg/kg, i.p.) reduced ethanol-induced preference of time spent and number of entries into open arms. Anti-anxiety effect of ethanol was abolished in adrenalectomized (ADX) rats as compared to sham-operated control. This ADX-induced blockade was restored by prior systemic injection of progesterone, signifying the contribution of peripheral steroidogenesis in ethanol anxiolysis. Socially isolated animals known to exhibit decreased brain 3alpha, 5alpha-THP and GABA(A) receptor

  9. Inhibition of K+ permeability diminishes alpha 2-adrenoceptor mediated effects on norepinephrine release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimanyi, I.; Folly, G.; Vizi, E.S.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of two different potassium channel blockers, 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) and quinine, on the alpha 2-adrenoceptor mediated modulation of norepinephrine (NE) release was investigated. Pairs of mouse vasa deferentia were loaded with 3 H-norepinephrine ( 3 H-NE), superfused continuously, and stimulated electrically. 4-AP (5.3 x 10(-4) M), and quinine (10(-5) M) enhanced the stimulation-evoked release of tritium significantly. The electrically induced release of radioactivity was reduced by alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonists (1-NE and xylazine) and enhanced by the alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine. Both effects were affected markedly by 4-AP or quinine: the depressant action of 1-NA and xylazine was partially antagonized and the facilitatory effect of yohimbine was completely abolished during the blockade of the potassium channels. It is suggested that the blockade of the potassium permeability counteracts negative feedback modulation; therefore, it seems likely that the stimulation of alpha 2-adrenoceptors leads to an enhanced potassium permeability and hyperpolarization of varicose axon terminals

  10. The effects of individual upper alpha neurofeedback in ADHD: an open-label pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escolano, C; Navarro-Gil, M; Garcia-Campayo, J; Congedo, M; Minguez, J

    2014-12-01

    Standardized neurofeedback (NF) protocols have been extensively evaluated in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, such protocols do not account for the large EEG heterogeneity in ADHD. Thus, individualized approaches have been suggested to improve the clinical outcome. In this direction, an open-label pilot study was designed to evaluate a NF protocol of relative upper alpha power enhancement in fronto-central sites. Upper alpha band was individually determined using the alpha peak frequency as an anchor point. 20 ADHD children underwent 18 training sessions. Clinical and neurophysiological variables were measured pre- and post-training. EEG was recorded pre- and post-training, and pre- and post-training trials within each session, in both eyes closed resting state and eyes open task-related activity. A power EEG analysis assessed long-term and within-session effects, in the trained parameter and in all the sensors in the (1-30) Hz spectral range. Learning curves over sessions were assessed as well. Parents rated a clinical improvement in children regarding inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. Neurophysiological tests showed an improvement in working memory, concentration and impulsivity (decreased number of commission errors in a continuous performance test). Relative and absolute upper alpha power showed long-term enhancement in task-related activity, and a positive learning curve over sessions. The analysis of within-session effects showed a power decrease ("rebound" effect) in task-related activity, with no significant effects during training trials. We conclude that the enhancement of the individual upper alpha power is effective in improving several measures of clinical outcome and cognitive performance in ADHD. This is the first NF study evaluating such a protocol in ADHD. A controlled evaluation seems warranted due to the positive results obtained in the current study.

  11. Secondary isotope effects on alpha-cleavage reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingemann, S.; Hammerum, S.

    1980-01-01

    Kinetic deuterium isotope effects on mass spectral reactions have in several instances been utilized to provide structural information and to answer mechanistic questions. Typically, the influence of the deuterium label on the rate of one of a number of competing reactions has been studied. Secondary isotope effects have usually been assumed to be relatively insignificant in comparison with the observed kinetic effects, even though various workers have shown that secondary isotope effects may indeed exert a considerable influence on the rates of competing simple cleavages. Recent studies have provided quantitative data to show that the mere presence of deuterium atoms up to six bonds away may influence the rate of a simple cleavage reaction. In relation to an investigation of rearrangements accompanying simple cleavage reactions, a semi-quantitative measure was needed of the variation of the secondary isotope effect with the number of bonds between the deuterium label and the point of rupture. The influence has therefore been examined of the presence of remote deuterium atoms on a typical simple cleavage reaction, the α-cleavage of aliphatic amines. As a model compound, N-methyldipentylamine was chosen, systematically labelled with deuterium. (author)

  12. Chiral amphiphilic self-assembled alpha,alpha'-linked quinque-, sexi, and septithiophenes : synthesis, stability and odd-even effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henze, O.; Feast, W.J.; Gardebien, F.; Jonkheijm, P.; Lazzaroni, R.; Leclère, P.E.L.G.; Meijer, E.W.; Schenning, A.P.H.J.

    2006-01-01

    The synthesis, characterization, and self-assembly in butanol of a series of well-defined ,'-linked quinqui-, sexi-, and septithiophenes substituted, via ester links at their termini, by chiral oligo(ethylene oxide) chains carrying an alpha, beta, delta, and epsilon methyl, respectively, are

  13. The effect of carbohydrates on alpha-amylase activity measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baks, T.; Janssen, A.E.M.; Boom, R.M.

    2006-01-01

    The Ceralpha method can be used for ¿-amylase activity measurements during the hydrolysis of starch at high substrate concentrations (>40 wt.%). However, the results are affected by the carbohydrates present in the samples. The effect of carbohydrates on the Ceralpha ¿-amylase activity

  14. XRD monitoring of α self-irradiation in uranium-americium mixed oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horlait, Denis; Lebreton, Florent; Roussel, Pascal; Delahaye, Thibaud

    2013-12-16

    The structural evolution under (241)Am self-irradiation of U(1-x)Am(x)O(2±δ) transmutation fuels (with x ≤ 0.5) was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Samples first underwent a preliminary heat treatment performed under a reducing atmosphere (Ar/H2(4%)) aiming to recover the previously accumulated structural defects. Over all measurements (carried out over up to a full year and for integrated doses up to 1.5 × 10(18) α-decay events·g(-1)), only fluorite U(1-x)Am(x)O(2±δ) solid solutions were observed. Within a few days after the end of the heat treatment, each of the five studied samples was slowly oxidized as a consequence of their move to air atmosphere, which is evidenced by XRD by an initial sharp decrease of the unit cell parameter. For the compounds with x ≤ 0.15, this oxidation occurred without any phase transitions, but for U0.6Am0.4O(2±δ) and U0.5Am0.5O(2±δ), this process is accompanied by a transition from a first fluorite solid solution to a second oxidized one, as the latter is thermodynamically stable in ambient conditions. In the meantime and after the oxidation process, (241)Am α self-irradiation caused a structural swelling up to ∼0.8 vol %, independently of the sample composition. The kinetic constants of swelling were also determined by regression of experimental data and are, as expected, dependent on x and thus on the dose rate. The normalization of these kinetic constants by sample α-activity, however, leads to very close swelling rates among the samples. Finally, evolutions of microstrain and crystallite size were also monitored, but for the considered dose rates and cumulated doses, α self-irradiation was found, within the limits of the diffractometer used, to have almost no impact on these characteristics. Microstrain was found to be influenced instead by the americium content in the materials (i.e., by the impurities associated with americium starting material and the increase of cationic charge heterogeneity with

  15. Studying effects of Magnolol on alpha-particle induced bystander effects using PADC-film based dishes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, T.P.W.; Tse, A.K.W.; Fong, W.F.; Yu, K.N.

    2009-01-01

    Radiation-induced bystander effect refers to the biological response found in cells (called bystander cells) which are not irradiated directly by ionizing radiation but are next to cells irradiated directly by ionizing radiation. In the present paper, the effects of Magnolol, an extract from the bark of Magnolia officinalis which is used as a traditional Chinese medicine, were studied on alpha-particle induced bystander effects. In our experiments, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were cultured in PADC-film based dishes and were irradiated with low fluences of alpha particles passing through the PADC films. The precise number of cells traversed or missed by alpha particles could be determined by studying the alpha-particle tracks developed on the PADC films upon subsequent chemical etching. TdT-mediated dUTP Nick-End Labeling (TUNEL) assay was employed to analyze the biological response of bystander cells in terms of DNA strand breaks. With the pretreatment of Magnolol, the DNA strand breaks in bystander cells were reduced, which showed that the alpha-particle induced bystander effects were suppressed with the presence of Magnolol. Since Magnolol is an antioxidant which can scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS), our results give support to that ROS play a role in the bystander signal transmission in our experiments.

  16. Studying effects of Magnolol on alpha-particle induced bystander effects using PADC-film based dishes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, T.P.W. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Tse, A.K.W.; Fong, W.F. [Research and Development Division, School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong Baptist University, Baptist University Road, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Yu, K.N., E-mail: peter.yu@cityu.edu.h [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong)

    2009-10-15

    Radiation-induced bystander effect refers to the biological response found in cells (called bystander cells) which are not irradiated directly by ionizing radiation but are next to cells irradiated directly by ionizing radiation. In the present paper, the effects of Magnolol, an extract from the bark of Magnolia officinalis which is used as a traditional Chinese medicine, were studied on alpha-particle induced bystander effects. In our experiments, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were cultured in PADC-film based dishes and were irradiated with low fluences of alpha particles passing through the PADC films. The precise number of cells traversed or missed by alpha particles could be determined by studying the alpha-particle tracks developed on the PADC films upon subsequent chemical etching. TdT-mediated dUTP Nick-End Labeling (TUNEL) assay was employed to analyze the biological response of bystander cells in terms of DNA strand breaks. With the pretreatment of Magnolol, the DNA strand breaks in bystander cells were reduced, which showed that the alpha-particle induced bystander effects were suppressed with the presence of Magnolol. Since Magnolol is an antioxidant which can scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS), our results give support to that ROS play a role in the bystander signal transmission in our experiments.

  17. The effect of spectral filters on VEP and alpha-wave responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin T. Willeford

    2016-04-01

    Conclusions: The Intuitive Colorimeter filters significantly increased both N75 and P100 latencies, an effect which is primarily attributable (∼75% to luminance, and in some cases, specific spectral effects (e.g., blue and red. VEP amplitude and alpha power were not significantly affected. These findings provide an important reference to which either amplitude or power changes in light-sensitive, younger clinical groups can be compared.

  18. Effect of hydrostatic pressure on the tensile properties of alpha uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, E.F.

    1984-09-01

    This report examines the effect of a superimposed hydrostatic pressure on the tensile properties of four grades of rolled unalloyed alpha uranium. The materials varied in carbon content and heat treatment. The principal effect of increasing pressure is an increase in the ductility of the materials. By not heat treating the uranium after the rolling process, the interaction of carbon content on mechanical properties is almost nullified. (author)

  19. Biological effects of alpha radiation on a human population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorleifson, E.M.; Marro, L.; Tracy, B.L.; Wilkinson, D.; Segura, T.M.; Prud'homme-Lalonde, L.; Leach, K.; Ford, B.N.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: In the environment, natural and man-made sources of radioactive material can become integrated into the food chain. Polonium-210 is a significant source of radiation exposure to caribou and to northern human populations who are dependent on caribou for a major portion of their meat supply. Previous work has shown that humans consuming caribou meat containing measurable quantities of polonium-210 can incorporate a substantial fraction of the radionuclide (Thomas et. al.). Conventional chromosome aberration analysis of blood samples collected from 40 individuals who routinely consumed caribou meat was performed to measure genetic damage from the ingested radioactive material. At least 500 metaphase spreads were analysed for each of 39 individuals. Radiation-specific chromosomal aberrations such as dicentrics and rings were scored and their frequencies were compared to the range of aberrations observed in non-caribou consuming populations. This study was designed to address the possible impact of environmental polonium-210 on background radiation health effects in humans

  20. Long-term behaviour of bituminized waste: modelling self-irradiation and leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simondi-Teisseire, B.; Vistoli, P.P.; Libert, M.; Gilardi, T.; Chaix, P.; Blanc, V.

    2001-01-01

    During interim storage, the main evolution factor of bituminized wastes is radiolysis, due to self-irradiation. In deep disposal conditions, after site re-saturation and corrosion of the containers, the main evolution will be due to leaching. This paper deals with two models designed to describe respectively radiolytic gas evacuation (JACOB- 2) and bituminized waste leaching (COLONBO), and some of the typical results obtained from these two models. The first model describes radiolytic gas production, diffusive transport of gas, bubble nucleation and ripening and movement under buoyancy. The second one is based on descriptions of water sorption, solubilization, and diffusion into the matrix, water uptake by the most soluble salts leading to alteration of the matrix and finally to diffusive transport of the salts outside the bitumenisate. (author)

  1. Photon hormesis deactivates alpha-particle induced bystander effects between zebrafish embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, C.Y.P.; Cheng, S.H.; Yu, K.N.

    2017-01-01

    In the present work, we studied the effects of low-dose X-ray photons on the alpha-particle induced bystander effects between embryos of the zebrafish, Danio rerio. The effects on the naive whole embryos were studied through quantification of apoptotic signals (amounts of cells undergoing apoptosis) at 24 h post fertilization (hpf) using vital dye acridine orange staining, followed by counting the stained cells under a fluorescent microscope. We report data showing that embryos at 5 hpf subjected to a 4.4 mGy alpha-particle irradiation could release a stress signal into the medium, which could induce bystander effect in partnered naive embryos sharing the same medium. We also report that the bystander effect was deactivated when the irradiated embryos were subjected to a concomitant irradiation of 10 or 14 mGy of X-rays, but no such deactivation was achieved if the concomitant X-ray dose dropped to 2.5 or 5 mGy. In the present study, the significant drop in the amount of apoptotic signals on the embryos having received 4.4 mGy alpha particles together X-rays irradiation from 2.5 or 5 mGy to 10 or 14 mGy, together with the deactivation of RIBE with concomitant irradiation of 10 or 14 mGy of X-rays supported the participation of photon hormesis with an onset dose between 5 and 10 mGy, which might lead to removal of aberrant cells through early apoptosis or induction of high-fidelity DNA repair. As we found that photons and alpha particles could have opposite biological effects when these were simultaneously irradiated onto living organisms, these ionizing radiations could be viewed as two different environmental stressors, and the resultant effects could be regarded as multiple stressor effects. The present work presented the first study on a multiple stressor effect which occurred on bystander organisms. In other words, this was a non-targeted multiple stressor effect. The photon hormesis could also explain some failed attempts to observe neutron-induced bystander

  2. Effect of Photon Hormesis on Dose Responses to Alpha Particles in Zebrafish Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candy Yuen Ping Ng

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Photon hormesis refers to the phenomenon where the biological effect of ionizing radiation with a high linear energy transfer (LET value is diminished by photons with a low LET value. The present paper studied the effect of photon hormesis from X-rays on dose responses to alpha particles using embryos of the zebrafish (Danio rerio as the in vivo vertebrate model. The toxicity of these ionizing radiations in the zebrafish embryos was assessed using the apoptotic counts at 20, 24, or 30 h post fertilization (hpf revealed through acridine orange (AO staining. For alpha-particle doses ≥ 4.4 mGy, the additional X-ray dose of 10 mGy significantly reduced the number of apoptotic cells at 24 hpf, which proved the presence of photon hormesis. Smaller alpha-particle doses might not have inflicted sufficient aggregate damages to trigger photon hormesis. The time gap T between the X-ray (10 mGy and alpha-particle (4.4 mGy exposures was also studied. Photon hormesis was present when T ≤ 30 min, but was absent when T = 60 min, at which time repair of damage induced by alpha particles would have completed to prevent their interactions with those induced by X-rays. Finally, the drop in the apoptotic counts at 24 hpf due to photon hormesis was explained by bringing the apoptotic events earlier to 20 hpf, which strongly supported the removal of aberrant cells through apoptosis as an underlying mechanism for photon hormesis.

  3. Experimental setup for studying the effects of alpha particles on zebrafish embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yum, E.H.W.; Ng, C.K.M. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China); Lin, A.C.C.; Cheng, S.H. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China); Yu, K.N. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong (China)], E-mail: peter.yu@cityu.edu.hk

    2007-11-15

    In the present work, we have studied the feasibility to use an experimental setup based on polyallyldiglycol-carbonate (PADC) films to study effects of alpha particles on dechorionated zebrafish embryos. Thin PADC films with a thickness of 16 {mu}m were prepared from commercially available CR-39 films by chemical etching and used as support substrates for holding zebrafish embryos for alpha-particle irradiation. These films recorded alpha-particle hit positions, quantified the number and energy of alpha particles actually incident on the embryo cells, and thus enabled the calculation of the dose absorbed by the embryo cells. Irradiation was made at 4 h post fertilization (hpf) with absorbed doses up to 2.3 mGy. Images of the embryos at 48 hpf were examined for identification of morphologic abnormalities. The preliminary results showed that absorbed doses corresponding to the abnormally developed embryos ranged from 0.41 to 2.3 mGy, which was equivalent to 0.21-1.2 mGy in human.

  4. Experimental setup for studying the effects of alpha particles on zebrafish embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yum, E.H.W.; Ng, C.K.M.; Lin, A.C.C.; Cheng, S.H.; Yu, K.N.

    2007-01-01

    In the present work, we have studied the feasibility to use an experimental setup based on polyallyldiglycol-carbonate (PADC) films to study effects of alpha particles on dechorionated zebrafish embryos. Thin PADC films with a thickness of 16 μm were prepared from commercially available CR-39 films by chemical etching and used as support substrates for holding zebrafish embryos for alpha-particle irradiation. These films recorded alpha-particle hit positions, quantified the number and energy of alpha particles actually incident on the embryo cells, and thus enabled the calculation of the dose absorbed by the embryo cells. Irradiation was made at 4 h post fertilization (hpf) with absorbed doses up to 2.3 mGy. Images of the embryos at 48 hpf were examined for identification of morphologic abnormalities. The preliminary results showed that absorbed doses corresponding to the abnormally developed embryos ranged from 0.41 to 2.3 mGy, which was equivalent to 0.21-1.2 mGy in human

  5. Effect of alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonists on gastric pepsin and acid secretion in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazi-Saad, K.; Chariot, J.; Del Tacca, M.; Rozé, C.

    1992-01-01

    1. The purpose of the present study was to analyze the effects of the alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonists clonidine, guanabenz, detomidine and medetomidine on pepsin secretion in conscious rats provided with gastric chronic fistula and to compare this with acid secretion. 2. Basal interdigestive gastric secretion, which is mainly neurally driven in the rat, and the secretion directly stimulated by the two main stimulants of chief cells, cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK8) and methacholine, were studied. 3. Basal secretion of pepsin and acid was inhibited by all four drugs with comparable EC50S. 4. CCK-stimulated pepsin and acid secretion was less sensitive than basal pepsin and acid secretion to alpha 2-adrenoceptor inhibition. 5. Methacholine-stimulated pepsin and acid secretion was not changed by clonidine and guanabenz; methacholine-stimulated acid was even marginally increased by clonidine. 6. These results do not favour the presence of alpha 2-receptors on chief cells in the rat stomach. They rather suggest that pepsin inhibition by alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonists is indirect and due to central or peripheral inhibition of the discharge of nerve fibres activating pepsin secretion. PMID:1356566

  6. Individual Alpha Peak Frequency Predicts 10 Hz Flicker Effects on Selective Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulbinaite, Rasa; van Viegen, Tara; Wieling, Martijn; Cohen, Michael X; VanRullen, Rufin

    2017-10-18

    Rhythmic visual stimulation ("flicker") is primarily used to "tag" processing of low-level visual and high-level cognitive phenomena. However, preliminary evidence suggests that flicker may also entrain endogenous brain oscillations, thereby modulating cognitive processes supported by those brain rhythms. Here we tested the interaction between 10 Hz flicker and endogenous alpha-band (∼10 Hz) oscillations during a selective visuospatial attention task. We recorded EEG from human participants (both genders) while they performed a modified Eriksen flanker task in which distractors and targets flickered within (10 Hz) or outside (7.5 or 15 Hz) the alpha band. By using a combination of EEG source separation, time-frequency, and single-trial linear mixed-effects modeling, we demonstrate that 10 Hz flicker interfered with stimulus processing more on incongruent than congruent trials (high vs low selective attention demands). Crucially, the effect of 10 Hz flicker on task performance was predicted by the distance between 10 Hz and individual alpha peak frequency (estimated during the task). Finally, the flicker effect on task performance was more strongly predicted by EEG flicker responses during stimulus processing than during preparation for the upcoming stimulus, suggesting that 10 Hz flicker interfered more with reactive than proactive selective attention. These findings are consistent with our hypothesis that visual flicker entrained endogenous alpha-band networks, which in turn impaired task performance. Our findings also provide novel evidence for frequency-dependent exogenous modulation of cognition that is determined by the correspondence between the exogenous flicker frequency and the endogenous brain rhythms. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Here we provide novel evidence that the interaction between exogenous rhythmic visual stimulation and endogenous brain rhythms can have frequency-specific behavioral effects. We show that alpha-band (10 Hz) flicker impairs stimulus

  7. Ovarian response markers lead to appropriate and effective use of corifollitropin alpha in assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Marca, Antonio; D'Ippolito, Giovanni

    2014-02-01

    Corifollitropin alpha is a highly effective gonadotrophin, which maintains multifollicular growth for a week. The advantages of its administration include ease of use of the drug, making the treatment more patient friendly, resulting in a lower level of distress for the patient. At the same time, the pregnancy rate resulting from its use in IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles is similar to that found when daily recombinant FSH is administered. The ovarian response to corifollitropin alpha is dependent on clinically established predictors such as baseline FSH, antral follicle count (AFC) and age. There is a general trend towards a higher ovarian response with an increasing AFC and the number of oocytes per attempt decreased with increasing baseline FSH and age. Even if the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome following corifollitropin alpha is very similar to the rate reported in literature for young women undergoing IVF, the risk of overstimulation may be reduced by avoiding maximal ovarian stimulation in women anticipated to be hyperresponders. High basal anti-Müllerian hormone and/or AFC can identify women with enhanced functional ovarian reserve at risk of overstimulation, and the risk is even higher if maximally stimulated with corifollitropin alpha or high dose of daily recombinant FSH. Corifollitropin alpha is a highly effective gonadotrophin which maintains multifollicular growth for a week. The ovarian response to corifollitropin was demonstrated to be dependent on clinically established predictors such as baseline FSH, antral follicle count (AFC) and age. There was a general trend toward a higher ovarian response with an increasing AFC and the mean number of oocytes per attempt decreased with increasing baseline FSH and age. Even if the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) following corifollitropin alpha is very similar to the rate of OHSS reported in literature for young women undergoing IVF, the risk of overstimulation may be

  8. Energy landscape, structure and rate effects on strength properties of alpha-helical proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertaud, Jeremie; Hester, Joshua; Jimenez, Daniel D; Buehler, Markus J

    2010-01-01

    The strength of protein domains is crucial to identify the mechanical role of protein domains in biological processes such as mechanotransduction, tissue mechanics and tissue remodeling. Whereas the concept of strength has been widely investigated for engineered materials, the strength of fundamental protein material building blocks and how it depends on structural parameters such as the chemical bonding, the protein filament length and the timescale of observation or deformation velocity remains poorly understood. Here we report a systematic analysis of the influence of key parameters that define the energy landscape of the strength properties of alpha-helical protein domains, including energy barriers, unfolding and refolding distances, the locations of folded and unfolded states, as well as variations of the length and pulling velocity of alpha-helical protein filaments. The analysis is facilitated by the development of a double-well mesoscale potential formulation, utilized here to carry out a systematic numerical analysis of the behavior of alpha-helices. We compare the results against widely used protein strength models based on the Bell model, one of the simplest models used to characterize the strength of protein filaments. We find that, whereas Bell-type models are a reasonable approximation to describe the rupture of alpha-helical protein domains for a certain range of pulling speeds and values of energy barriers, the model ceases to hold for very large energy barriers and for very small pulling speeds, in agreement with earlier findings. We conclude with an application of our mesoscale model to investigate the effect of the length of alpha-helices on their mechanical strength. We find a weakening effect as the length of alpha-helical proteins increases, followed by an asymptotic regime in which the strength remains constant. We compare strand lengths found in biological proteins with the scaling law of strength versus alpha-helix filament length. The

  9. Modification of certain pharmacological effects of ethanol by lipophilic alpha-1 adrenergic agonists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menon, M.K.; Dinovo, E.C.; Haddox, V.G.

    1987-09-28

    The influence of four centrally-acting alpha-1 adrenoceptor agonists, namely, 2(2-chloro-5-trifluoromethylphenylimino) imidazolidine (St 587), cirazoline, (-) 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-8-methoxy-5-methylthio-2-naphthalenamine ((-)SKF 89748A) and 2-(2-methylindazol-4-imino)imidazolidine (Sgd 101/75) on the pharmacological effects of ethanol was investigated. All four drugs reduced the duration of ethanol-induced hypnosis in C57B1/6 mice, this effect being proportional to their relative potencies to exert central alpha-1 agonism. In prazosin-pretreated mice, St 587 failed to reduce the hypnotic effect of ethanol, which provided strong evidence for the role of alpha-1 agonism for the hypnosis reducing effect of St 587. Hyperactivity induced in C57B1/6 mice by a subhypnotic dose of ethanol and St 587 was reported earlier. In the present study, St 587, cirazoline and (-)SKF 89748A produced similar response, but no correlation between this effect and ethanol hypnosis blockade could be established. 19 references, 8 figures, 2 tables.

  10. Effect of intravenous 1-alpha-hydroxyvitamin D3 on secondary hyperparathyroidism in chronic uremic patients on maintenance hemodialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandi, L; Daugaard, H; Tvedegaard, E

    1989-01-01

    The effect of intravenous 1 alpha(OH)D3 on circulating intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) and COOH-terminal immunoreactive PTH was examined in 21 patients on chronic hemodialysis. The patients were treated for 3 months with increasing doses of 1 alpha(OH)D3 under careful control of serum Ca2+. 1 al...

  11. Clinical and virological effects of high-dose recombinant interferon-alpha in disseminated AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, R.; Schattenkerk, J. K.; Boucher, C. A.; Bakker, P. J.; Veenhof, K. H.; Danner, S. A.

    1988-01-01

    The effectiveness and antiretroviral activities of interferon-alpha in AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma was assessed in a non-randomised, phase-II clinical trial. 28 patients were treated with high-dose (27-36 MU) human recombinant interferon-alpha 2a subcutaneously every day for 8 weeks. In patients

  12. The effects of different types of investments on the alpha-case layer of titanium castings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilin, Yu; Nan, Li; Yousheng, Li; Yining, Wang

    2007-03-01

    Different types of investments affect the formation of the alpha-case (alpha-case) layer on titanium castings. This alpha-case layer may possibly alter the mechanical properties of cast titanium, which may influence the fabrication of removable and fixed prostheses. The formation mechanism for the alpha-case layer is not clear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 3 types of investments on the microstructure, composition, and microhardness of the alpha-case layer on titanium castings. Fifteen wax columns with a diameter of 5 mm and a length of 40 mm were divided into 3 groups of 5 patterns each. Patterns were invested using 3 types of investment materials, respectively, and were cast in pure titanium. The 3 types of materials tested were SiO(2)-, Al(2)O(3)-, and MgO-based investments. All specimens were sectioned and prepared for metallographic observation. The microstructure and composition of the surface reaction layer of titanium castings were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). The surface microhardness (VHN) for all specimens was measured using a hardness testing machine, and a mean value for each group was calculated. The alpha-case layer on titanium castings invested with SiO(2)-, Al(2)O(3)-, and MgO-based investments consisted of 3 layers-namely, the oxide layer, alloy layer, and hardening layer. In this study, the oxide layer and alloy layer were called the reaction layer. The thickness of the reaction layer for titanium castings using SiO(2)-, Al(2)O(3)-, and MgO-based investments was approximately 80 microm, 50 microm, and 14 microm, respectively. The surface microhardness of titanium castings made with SiO(2)-based investments was the highest, and that with MgO-based investments was the lowest. The type of investment affects the microstructure and microhardness of the alpha-case layer of titanium castings. Based on the thickness of the surface reaction layer and the surface

  13. The effect of spectral filters on VEP and alpha-wave responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willeford, Kevin T; Fimreite, Vanessa; Ciuffreda, Kenneth J

    2016-01-01

    Spectral filters are used to treat light sensitivity in individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI); however, the effect of these filters on normal visual function has not been elucidated. Thus, the current study aimed to determine the effect of spectral filters on objectively-measured visual-evoked potential (VEP) and alpha-wave responses in the visually-normal population. The full-field (15°H×17°V), pattern-reversal VEP (20' check size, mean luminance 52cd/m(2)) was administered to 20 visually-normal individuals. They were tested with four Intuitive-Colorimeter-derived, broad-band, spectral filters (i.e., gray/neutral density, blue, yellow, and red), which produced similar luminance values for the test stimulus. The VEP N75 and P100 latencies, and VEP amplitude, were recorded. Power spectrum analysis was used to derive the respective powers at each frequency, and peak frequency, for the selected 9-11Hz components of the alpha band. Both N75 and P100 latencies increased with the addition of each filter when compared to baseline. Additionally, each filter numerically reduced intra-session amplitude variability relative to baseline. There were no significant effects on either the mean VEP amplitude or alpha wave parameters. The Intuitive Colorimeter filters significantly increased both N75 and P100 latencies, an effect which is primarily attributable (∼75%) to luminance, and in some cases, specific spectral effects (e.g., blue and red). VEP amplitude and alpha power were not significantly affected. These findings provide an important reference to which either amplitude or power changes in light-sensitive, younger clinical groups can be compared. Copyright © 2015 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Selective effects of alpha-MSH and MIF-1 on the blood-brain barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankar, R.; Domer, F.R.; Kastin, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of intravenously-injected alpha-MSH and MIF-1 (Pro-Leu-Gly-NH2) on the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to a large protein and a small anion were studied using radioiodinated serum albumin (RISA) and 99mTc-labeled sodium pertechnetate. The permeability of the BBB to RISA was unaltered by either peptide. Permeability to the inorganic pertechnetate anion, however, was significantly increased by alpha-MSH but not by MIF-1 at doses known to evoke EEG and behavioral responses. The peptides did not cause a change in the systemic blood pressure. It is possible, therefore, that at least some CNS effects of peripherally administered peptides are exerted by alteration of the permeability of the BBB to other substances

  15. Irradiation effect on {alpha}- and {beta}-caseins of milk and Queso Blanco cheese determined by capillary electrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, J.S.; Jeong, S.G.; Lee, S.G.; Han, G.S.; Chae, H.S.; Yoo, Y.M.; Kim, D.H. [Animal Food Processing Division, National Institute of Animal Science, Suwon 441-706 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, W.K. [College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Jo, C. [Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: cheorun@cnu.ac.kr

    2009-02-15

    Milk and Queso Blanco cheese were exposed to irradiation with doses of 1, 2, 3, 5, and 10 kGy to investigate the irradiation effect on {alpha}- and {beta}-casein using a capillary electrophoresis. {alpha}{sub S1}-Casein to total protein ratio in raw milk was decreased from 19.63% to 8.64% by 10 kGy of gamma irradiation. The ratio of {alpha}{sub S1}- to {alpha}{sub S0}-casein was also decreased from 1.38 to 0.53, which showed {alpha}{sub S1}-casein is more susceptible to gamma irradiation than {alpha}{sub S0}-casein. Similarly, {alpha}{sub S1}-casein to total protein ratio in Queso Blanco cheese was decreased from 17.48% to 7.82% and the ratio of {alpha}{sub S1}- to {alpha}{sub S0}-casein was decreased from 1.16 to 0.43 by 10 kGy of gamma irradiation. Dose-dependent reduction of {beta}{sub A1}-casein was also found. {beta}{sub A1}-Casein to total protein ratios in raw milk and Queso Blanco cheese were decreased from 22.00% to 14.16% and from 21.96% to 13.89% after 10 kGy, respectively. The ratios of {beta}{sub A1}- to {beta}{sub A2}-casein were from 1.10 to 0.64 and 0.93 to 0.57 in milk and Queso Blanco cheese, respectively. However, {alpha}{sub S0}-, {beta}{sub B}-, and {beta}{sub A3}-casein increased by irradiation at 10 kGy. The results suggest that {alpha}{sub S1}-casein and {beta}{sub A1}-casein were more susceptible to gamma irradiation, and may be related to the reduction of milk allergenicity caused by gamma irradiation.

  16. Experimental demonstration of the finite measurement time effect on the Feynman-{alpha} technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallerbos, E.J.M.; Hoogenboom, J.E

    1998-09-01

    The reactivity of a subcritical system is determined by fitting two different theoretical models to a measured Feynman-{alpha} curve. The first model is the expression usually found in the literature, which can be shown to be the expectation value of the experimental quality if the measurement time is infinite. The second model is a new expression which is the expectation value of the experimental quantity for a finite measurement time. The reactivity inferred with the new model is seen to be independent of the length of the fitting interval, whereas the reactivity inferred with the conventional model is seen to vary. This difference demonstrates the effect of the finite measurement time. As a reference, the reactivity is also measured with the pulsed-neutron source method. It is seen to be in good agreement with the reactivity obtained with the Feynman-{alpha} technique when the new expression is applied.

  17. Effects of a new 3-alpha reaction on the s-process in massive stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuch, Yukihiro; Ono, Masaomi; Matsuo, Yasuhide; Hashimoto, Masa-aki; Fujimoto, Shin-ichiro

    2012-01-01

    Effect of a new 3-alpha reaction rate on the s-process during the evolution of a massive star of 25 solar mass is investigated for the first time, because the s-process in massive stars have been believed to be established with only minor change. We find that the s-process with use of the new rate during the core helium burning is very inefficient compared to the case with the previous 3-alpha rate. However, the difference of the overproduction is found to be largely compensated by the subsequent carbon burning. Since the s-process in massive stars has been attributed so far to the neutron irradiation during core helium burning, our finding reveals for the first time the importance of the carbon burning for the s-process during the evolution of massive stars.

  18. Selective effects of alpha interferon on human T-lymphocyte subsets during mixed lymphocyte cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hokland, M; Hokland, P; Heron, I

    1983-01-01

    Mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) cultures of human lymphocyte subsets with or without the addition of physiological doses of human alpha interferon (IFN-alpha) were compared with respect to surface marker phenotypes and proliferative capacities of the responder cells. A selective depression on the T...... T4 cells and decreased numbers of T4 cells harvested from IFN MLRs (days 5-6 of culture). In contrast, it was shown that the T8 (cytotoxic/suppressor) subset in MLRs was either not affected or slightly stimulated by the addition of IFN. The depression of the T4 cells by IFN was accompanied...... by a decrease in the number of activated T cells expressing Ia antigens. On the other hand, IFN MLRs contained greater numbers of cells expressing the T10 differentiation antigen. In experiments with purified T-cell subsets the IFN effect was exerted directly on the T4 cells and not mediated by either T8...

  19. The insulinotropic effect of endothelin-1 is mediated by glucagon release from the islet alpha cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brock, B; Gregersen, S; Kristensen, K

    1999-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The circulating concentrations of endothelin-1 (ET-1), a peptide derived from endothelium, are increased in hypertension and diabetes. Endothelin-1 has recently been shown to be an insulinotropic agent. The mechanism of action of endothelin-1 on the endocrine pancreas has not yet...... been clarified. METHODS: We investigated the action of endothelin-1 on the insulin secretion, the binding of (125)I-ET-1 to beta cells as well as its effects on purified beta and non-beta cells from normal rats. The expression of endothelin receptors in alpha- and beta-cell lines and in normal rat...... from purified beta cells. Endothelin-1-(100 nmol/l) increased, however, both insulin and glucagon secretion from a mixture of purified beta and non-beta cells indicating that alpha cells seem to have a key role for the action of ET-1 on insulin secretion. CONCLUSION/INTERPRETATION: The insulinotropic...

  20. Disparate effects of p24alpha and p24delta on secretory protein transport and processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen R P M Strating

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The p24 family is thought to be somehow involved in endoplasmic reticulum (ER-to-Golgi protein transport. A subset of the p24 proteins (p24alpha(3, -beta(1, -gamma(3 and -delta(2 is upregulated when Xenopus laevis intermediate pituitary melanotrope cells are physiologically activated to produce vast amounts of their major secretory cargo, the prohormone proopiomelanocortin (POMC. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we find that transgene expression of p24alpha(3 or p24delta(2 specifically in the Xenopus melanotrope cells in both cases causes an effective displacement of the endogenous p24 proteins, resulting in severely distorted p24 systems and disparate melanotrope cell phenotypes. Transgene expression of p24alpha(3 greatly reduces POMC transport and leads to accumulation of the prohormone in large, ER-localized electron-dense structures, whereas p24delta(2-transgenesis does not influence the overall ultrastructure of the cells nor POMC transport and cleavage, but affects the Golgi-based processes of POMC glycomaturation and sulfation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Transgenic expression of two distinct p24 family members has disparate effects on secretory pathway functioning, illustrating the specificity and non-redundancy of our transgenic approach. We conclude that members of the p24 family furnish subcompartments of the secretory pathway with specific sets of machinery cargo to provide the proper microenvironments for efficient and correct secretory protein transport and processing.

  1. Correlation between phosphatidylinositol labeling and contraction in rabbit aorta: effect of alpha-1 adrenergic activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villalobos-Molina, R.; Uc, M.; Hong, E.; Garcia-Sainz, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    Activation of rabbit aortic strips with alpha adrenergic agonists increased the labeling (with [ 32 P]Pi) of phosphatidylinositol (PI) and phosphatidic acid and contracted the vascular preparations in dose-related fashion. Epinephrine, norepinephrine and methoxamine produced maximal effects, whereas clonidine behaved as partial agonist and B-HT 933 (2-amino-6-ethyl-4,5,7,8-tetrahydro-6H-oxazole-[5,4-d] azepin dihydrochloride) was almost without activity in the two experimental models used. Phenylephrine was a full agonist in producing contraction, but failed to elicit the maximal increase in PI labeling. The EC50 values to produce contraction of aortic strips were lower for all agonists than those required to increase the incorporation of radioactive phosphate into PI, but there was a good correlation between the two sets of data. The increased PI labeling and contraction of aortic strips induced by epinephrine were antagonized by prazosin and yohimbine in dose-related fashion, but the first alpha blocker was about three orders of magnitude more potent than the second in antagonizing the two effects. The present results indicate that both stimulation of PI labeling and contraction are mediated through activation of alpha-1 adrenoceptors in rabbit aorta

  2. Effect of alpha-lipoic acid on endometrial implants in an experimental rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pınar, Neslihan; Soylu Karapınar, Oya; Özcan, Oğuzhan; Özgür, Tümay; Bayraktar, Suphi

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) in the treatment of endometriosis in an experimental rat model by evaluating biochemical and histopathologic parameters. Experimental endometriosis was induced by the peritoneal implantation of autologous endometrial tissue. The rats were randomly divided into two groups with eight rats each. Group I was intraperitoneally administered ALA 100 mg/kg/day for 14 days. Group II was intraperitoneally administered saline solution at the same dosage and over the same period. Endometrial implant volume was measured in both groups both pre- and post-treatment. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) was measured in peritoneal fluid. Total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) were assessed in serum. The implants were histopathologically evaluated. In the ALA group, the serum TOS and OSI levels, the endometrial implant volumes, the TNF-α levels in serum and peritoneal fluid, and the histopathologic scores were significantly lower compared to the control group (P < 0.05). Alpha-lipoic acid may have a therapeutic potential in the treatment of endometriosis due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. © 2017 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  3. An introduction to the impact of self-irradiation on nuclear glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghaleb, D.

    1997-01-01

    Irradiation is an important factor in the aging of glasses used to confine nuclear wastes. Beta decays are prevailing during the first 500 years then alpha decays take over. Alpha decay is the main cause of atomic displacements while beta decay, through the emission of energetic electrons, is responsible for most electronic excitations and ionization. Each alpha decay is followed by the creation of an helium atom trapped inside the bulk of glass. (A.C.)

  4. First evidence of collective alpha particle effect on TAE modes in the TFTR D-T experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, K.L.; Schmidt, G.; Batha, S.H.

    1995-08-01

    The alpha particle effect on the excitation of toroidal Alfven eigenmodes (TAE) was investigated in deuterium-tritium (d-t) plasmas in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). RF power was used to position the plasma near the instability threshold, and the alpha particle effect was inferred from the reduction of RF power threshold for TAE instability in d-t plasmas. Initial calculations indicate that the alpha particles contribute 10--30% of the total drive in a d-t plasma with 3 MW of peak fusion power

  5. Effect of gamma irradiation dose on the fabrication of {alpha}-elastin nanoparticles by gamma-ray crosslinking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, Mari; Takeda, Mayuko [Department of Biological Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-2 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8570 (Japan); Okamoto, Kouji [Department of Bioscience and Bioinformatics, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Iizuka, Fukuoka 820-8502 (Japan); Furuta, Masakazu, E-mail: mfuruta@b.s.osakafu-u.ac.j [Department of Biological Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-2 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8570 (Japan)

    2011-02-15

    Nanoparticles were prepared utilizing the thermosensitive aggregation of {alpha}-elastin and gamma-ray crosslinking. We investigated the effect of the {alpha}-elastin irradiation doses to verify the yield of crosslinked nanoparticles. Aqueous solution of {alpha}-elastin (10 mg/ml) was used for the aggregation on raising temperature above its cloudy point (CP), followed by gamma-ray crosslinking. A slow heating process (1.9 {sup o}C/min) effectively led to aggregation of polypeptide and irradiation with more than 15 kGy yielded stable crosslinked nanoparticles with diameters less than ca. 200 nm and a narrow size distribution.

  6. The effect of alpha-ketoglutarate on a piscine skin model: a molecular and morphological study

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Rita

    2009-01-01

    Dissertação mest., Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade do Algarve, 2009 Alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) is a key intermediate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle with important functions in glutamate and glutamine metabolism. Its effect after oral administration was studied in adult sea bream Sparus aurata skin and scales in order to evaluate the effect on collagen synthesis. Scales were removed from one side of the body and allowed to regenerate for 14 days; the control group received unt...

  7. In vitro anti-proliferative effect of interferon alpha in solid tumors: A potential predicative test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchsberger, N.; Kubes, M.; Kontsek, P.; Borecky, L.; Hornak, M.; Silvanova; Godal, A.; Svec, J.

    1993-01-01

    An in vitro test for the anti-proliferative effect of human leukocyte interferon (IFN-alpha) was performed in primary cultures of tumor cells obtained from 32 patients with either malignant melanoma (13), renal carcinoma (4) or bladder carcinoma (15). Our results demonstrated activity of IFN in all three groups of solid tumors. However, appreciable differences in sensitivity to anti-proliferative effect of IFN between individual tumors of the same type were found. The potential of this anti-proliferative test for prediction of treatment response in IFN-therapy is discussed. (author)

  8. Effects of alpha and gamma radiation on glass reaction in an unsaturated environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wronkiewicz, D.J.; Young, J.E.; Bates, J.K.

    1990-01-01

    Radiation may effect the long-term performance of glass in an unsaturated repository site by interacting with air, water vapor, or liquid water. The present study examines (1) the effects of alpha or gamma irradiation in a water vapor environment, and (2) the influence of radiolytic products on glass reaction. Results indicate that nitric and organic acids form in an irradiated water vapor environment and are dissolved in thin films of condensed water. Glass samples exposed to these conditions react faster and have a different assemblage of secondary phases than glasses exposed to nonirradiated water vapor environments. 23 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Effects of interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha on macrophage enzyme levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierangeli, Silvia S.; Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    1989-01-01

    Murine peritoneal macrophages were treated with interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) or tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF). Measurements of changes in acid phosphatase and beta-glucuronidase levels were made as an indication of activation by cytokine treatment. IFN-gamma or TNF-gamma treatment resulted in a significant increase in the activities of both enzymes measured in the cell lysates. This increase was observable after 6 h of incubation, but reached its maximum level after 24 h of incubation. The effect of the treatment of the cell with both cytokines together was additive. No synergistic effect of addition of both cytokines on the enzyme levels was observed.

  10. Affective and cognitive effects of global deletion of alpha3-containing gamma-aminobutyric acid-A receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorelli, Roberto; Rudolph, Uwe; Straub, Carolin J; Feldon, Joram; Yee, Benjamin K

    2008-09-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptors characterized by the presence of the alpha3 subunit are the major GABAA receptor subtype expressed in brain stem monoaminergic nuclei. These alpha3-GABAA receptors are therefore in a unique position to regulate monoaminergic functions. To characterize the functional properties of alpha3-GABAA receptors, we present a preliminary assessment of the expression of affective and cognitive behaviour in male mice with a targeted deletion of the Gabra3 gene encoding the alpha3 subunit [alpha3 knockout (KO) mice] on a C57BL/6Jx129X1/SvJ F1 hybrid genetic background. The alpha3 KO mice did not exhibit any gross change of anxiety-like behaviour or spontaneous locomotor behaviour. In the Porsolt forced swim test for potential antidepressant activity, alpha3 KO mice exhibited reduced floating and enhanced swimming behaviour relative to wild-type controls. Performance on a two-choice sucrose preference test, however, revealed no evidence for an increase in sucrose preference in the alpha3 KO mice that would have substantiated a potential phenotype for depression-related behaviour. In contrast, a suggestion of an enhanced negative contrast effect was revealed in a one-bottle sucrose consumption test across different sucrose concentrations. These affective phenotypes were accompanied by alterations in the balance between conditioned responding to the discrete conditioned stimulus and to the context, and a suggestion of faster extinction, in the Pavlovian conditioned freezing paradigm. Spatial learning in the water maze reference memory test, however, was largely unchanged in the alpha3 KO mice, except for a trend of preservation during reversal learning. The novel phenotypes following global deletion of the GABAA receptor alpha3 subunit identified here provided relevant insights, in addition to our earlier study, into the potential behavioural relevance of this specific receptor subtypes in the modulation of both affective and cognitive

  11. Effect of salivary gland adenocarcinoma cell-derived alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase on the bioactivity of macrophage activating factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Takashi; Uematsu, Takashi; Yamaoka, Minoru; Furusawa, Kiyofumi

    2004-03-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (alpha-NaGalase) produced by human salivary gland adenocarcinoma (SGA) cells on the bioactivity of macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF). High exo-alpha-NaGalase activity was detected in the SGA cell line HSG. HSG alpha-NaGalase had both exo- and endo-enzyme activities, cleaving the Gal-GalNAc and GalNAc residues linked to Thr/Ser but not releasing the [NeuAc2-6]GalNac residue. Furthermore, GcMAF enzymatically prepared from the Gc protein enhanced the superoxide-generation capacity and phagocytic activity of monocytes/macrophages. However, GcMAF treated with purified alpha-NaGalase did not exhibit these effects. Thus, HSG possesses the capacity to produce larger quantities of alpha-NaGalase, which inactivates GcMAF produced from Gc protein, resulting in reduced phagocytic activity and superoxide-generation capacity of monocytes/macrophages. The present data strongly suggest that HSG alpha-NaGalase acts as an immunodeficiency factor in cancer patients.

  12. Targeted alpha therapy using Radium-223: From physics to biological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, I A; Neves, A R; Abrantes, A M; Pires, A S; Tavares-da-Silva, E; Figueiredo, A; Botelho, M F

    2018-05-25

    With the advance of the use of ionizing radiation in therapy, targeted alpha therapy (TAT) has assumed an important role around the world. This kind of therapy can potentially reduce side effects caused by radiation in normal tissues and increased destructive radiobiological effects in tumor cells. However, in many countries, the use of this therapy is still in a pioneering phase. Radium-223 ( 223 Ra), an alpha-emitting radionuclide, has been the first of its kind to be approved for the treatment of bone metastasis in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Nevertheless, the interaction mechanism and the direct effects of this radiopharmaceutical in tumor cells are not fully understood neither characterized at a molecular level. In fact, the ways how TAT is linked to radiobiological effects in cancer is not yet revised. Therefore, this review introduces some physical properties of TAT that leads to biological effects and links this information to the hallmarks of cancer. The authors also collected the studies developed with 223 Ra to correlate with the three categories reviewed - properties of TAT, 5 R's of radiobiology and hallmarks of cancer- and with the promising future to this radiopharmaceutical. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Bystander effect of alpha-particle irradiation on mutagenicity and its associated mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Ying; Yang Zhihua; Cao Zhenshan; Fan Feiyue; Zhu Maoxiang

    2004-01-01

    The work is to investigate α-particle irradiation-induced bystander effects on the mutagenicity in human chromosome 11 in the human-hamster hybrid (A L cells) and its possible mechanism. A L cells were used for assaying mutation rates of human chromosome 11 through screening mutants in the presence of anti-CD59 surface antigen antibody (S1) and complement. A grid was interposed between α-particle source and the cells being irradiated, so as to fix proportion of the irradiated cells (15%) and the bystander effects on the mutagenicity were detected. Free radical scavenger DMSO and intercellular communication inhibitor Lindane were selected to investigate the potential mechanism of α-particle induced bystander effect. There was clear dose-dependent relationship between mutation rate and the dose of alpha particle radiation. However, the mutant fractions of cell population shielded by the grid in α-particle irradiation system were much higher than the expected levels of irradiated cells. Lindane, but not DMSO, could obviously decrease this bystander effect induced by α-particle irradiation. Alpha-particle irradiation can induce bystander effect on the mutagenicity, in which intercellular communication may play important roles

  14. Metabolic and vascular effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha blockade with etanercept in obese patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominguez, Helena; Storgaard, Heidi; Rask-Madsen, Christian

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) impairs insulin action in insulin-sensitive tissues, such as fat, muscle and endothelium, and causes endothelial dysfunction. We hypothesized that TNF-alpha blockade with etanercept could reverse vascular and metabolic...... glucose uptake remained unchanged as well. Beta-cell function tended to improve. CONCLUSION: Although short-term etanercept treatment had a significant beneficial effect on systemic inflammatory markers, no improvement of vascular or metabolic insulin sensitivity was observed....

  15. Effect of polonium alpha-radiation on aqueous solutions (the history of French and Russian studies)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladimirova, M.V.

    1998-01-01

    Since Pierre and Marie Curie's discovery of polonium and radium the effect of their radiation on chemical systems was noted. This gave rise to a new science - radiation chemistry. Systematic studies of radiation effects go back to the mid-1940s. The effect of gamma and x radiation was studied most, while only M. Curie's laboratory in France was concerned with alpha emitting polonium and radon. M. Haissinsky, M. Lefort, P. Bonet-Marry, M. Anta pioneered this activity. Radon was soon abandoned in favour of polonium recovered from RaD. With its short half-life, polonium is an ideal emitter which at its low content by weight produces a highly intensive radiation. French scientists determined radiation yields of H 2 , O 2 , H 2 O 2 and that of water radiolytic decomposition, G[-H 2 O]. The latter was found to be equal to 3.5 molecule/100 eV and much less than that from gamma radiolysis (4.2 molecule/100 eV). It should be noted that the polonium recovered from RaD contained a variety of impurities influencing the yield of radiolysis products formed. From the outset of her study in 1957, the author of this paper used the purest polonium recovered from reactor-irradiated Bi-209. This made it possible to define the yields from alpha radiolysis of various aqueous solutions more exactly. Relying on the J. Pucheault hypothesis concerning the decomposition of molecular radiolysis products in heavy particle tracks, author's efforts were directed toward the quantification of initial radiolysis yields. Special experiments have shown that G[-H 2 O] is much the same from alpha and gamma radiolysis (around 4.2 molecule/100eV). The author had the good luck to discuss her results with Pr. M. Haissinsky from Laboratory Curie. (author)

  16. Effects of local anesthetics on cholinergic agonist binding affinity of central nervous system. cap alpha. -bungarotoxin receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukas, R.L.; Bennett, E.L.

    1979-12-01

    In general, pharmacological effects of local anesthetics may be attributed to their ability to reversibly block the propagation of nerve and muscle action potentials. At physiologically potent concentrations, local anesthetics (LA) also act as noncompetitive antagonists of the physiological response of post-synaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) to cholinergic agonists, and increase agonist binding affinities of nAChR from electric organ. It is postulated that the primary site of LA action on nAChR function is at the receptor-coupled ionophore. Furthermore, LA-nAChR ionophore interactions are thought to accelerate physiological desensitization of nAChR, manifest biochemically as increased affinity of nAChR for agonist. Specific receptors for ..cap alpha..-bungarotoxin (..cap alpha..-Bgt), a potent competitive antagonist at nAChR sites in the periphery, have been detected in rat central nervous system membrane preparations. The affinity of these central ..cap alpha..-Bgt receptors (..cap alpha..-BgtR) for cholinergic agonists is found to increase on exposure to agonist. Nevertheless, on the basis of inconsistent pharmacological and physiological results, uncertainty remains regarding the relationship between ..cap alpha..-BgtR and authentic nAChR in the CNS, despite a wide body of biochemical and histological evidence consistent with their identity. Reasoning that if CNS ..cap alpha..-BgtR are true in nAChR, coupled to functional ion channels, LA might be expected to cause biochemically measurable increases in ..cap alpha..-BgtR affinity for cholinergic agonists, we have undertaken a study of the effects of LA on the ability of acetylcholine (ACh) to inhibit interaction of ..cap alpha..-BgtR with /sup 3/H-labeled ..cap alpha..-Bgt.

  17. Secondary. cap alpha. -deuterium kinetic isotope effects in solvolyses of ferrocenylmethyl acetate and benzoate in ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutic, D. (Univ. of Zagreb, Yugoslavia); Asperger, S.; Borcic, S.

    1982-12-17

    Secondary ..cap alpha..-deuterium kinetic isotope effects (KIE) in solvolyses of ferrocenyldideuteriomethyl acetate and benzoate were determined in 96% (v/v) ethanol, at 25/sup 0/C, as k/sub H//k/sub D/ = 1.24 and 1.26, respectively. The KIEs were also determined in the presence of 0.1 mol dm/sup -3/ lithium perchlorate: the k/sub H//k/ sub D/ values were 1.23 and 1.22 for acetate and benzoate complexes, respectively. The maximum KIE for the C-O bond cleavage of a primary substrate is as large as, or larger than, that of secondary derivatives, which is estimated to be 1.23 per deuterium. The measured KIE of about 12% per D therefore represents a strongly reduced effect relative to its maximum. The solvolyses exhibit ''a special salt effect''. This effect indicates the presence of solvent-separated ion pairs and the return to tight pairs. As the maximum KIE is expected in solvolyses involving transformation of one type of ion pair into another, the strongly reduced ..cap alpha..-D KIE supports the structure involving direct participation of electrons that in the ground state are localized at the iron atom. The alkyl-oxygen cleavage is accompanied by 10-15% acyl-oxygen cleavage.

  18. The involvement of peripheral alpha 2-adrenoceptors in the antihyperalgesic effect of oxcarbazepine in a rat model of inflammatory pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomić, Maja A; Vucković, Sonja M; Stepanović-Petrović, Radica M; Ugresić, Nenad D; Paranos, Sonja Lj; Prostran, Milica S; Bosković, Bogdan

    2007-11-01

    We studied whether peripheral alpha2-adrenergic receptors are involved in the antihyperalgesic effects of oxcarbazepine by examining the effects of yohimbine (selective alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonist), BRL 44408 (selective alpha(2A)-adrenoceptor antagonist), MK-912 (selective alpha2C-adrenoceptor antagonist), and clonidine (alpha2-adrenoceptor agonist) on the antihyperalgesic effect of oxcarbazepine in the rat model of inflammatory pain. Rats were intraplantarly (i.pl.) injected with the proinflammatory compound concanavalin A (Con A). A paw-pressure test was used to determine: 1) the development of hyperalgesia induced by Con A; 2) the effects of oxcarbazepine (i.pl.) on Con A-induced hyperalgesia; and 3) the effects of i.pl. yohimbine, BRL 44408, MK-912 and clonidine on the oxcarbazepine antihyperalgesia. Both oxcarbazepine (1000-3000 nmol/paw; i.pl.) and clonidine (1.9-7.5 nmol/paw; i.pl.) produced a significant dose-dependent reduction of the paw inflammatory hyperalgesia induced by Con A. Yohimbine (260 and 520 nmol/paw; i.pl.), BRL 44408 (100 and 200 nmol/paw; i.pl.) and MK-912 (10 and 20 nmol/paw; i.pl.) significantly depressed the antihyperalgesic effects of oxcarbazepine (2000 nmol/paw; i.pl.) in a dose-dependent manner. The effects of antagonists were due to local effects since they were not observed after administration into the contralateral hindpaw. Oxcarbazepine and clonidine administered jointly in fixed-dose fractions of the ED(50) (1/4, 1/2, and 3/4) caused significant and dose-dependent reduction of hyperalgesia induced by Con A. Isobolographic analysis revealed an additive antihyperalgesic effect. Our results indicate that the peripheral alpha2A and alpha2C adrenoceptors could be involved in the antihyperalgesic effects of oxcarbazepine in a rat model of inflammatory hyperalgesia.

  19. Theory of energetic/alpha particle effects on magnetohydrodynamic modes in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, L.; White, R.B.; Rewoldt, G.; Colestock, P.; Rutherford, P.H.; Chen, Y.P.; Ke, F.J.; Tsai, S.T.; Bussac, M.N.

    1989-01-01

    The presence of energetic particles is shown to qualitatively modify the stability properties of ideal as well as resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes in tokamaks. Specifically, we demonstrate that, consistent with highpower ICRF heating experiments in JET, high energy trapped particles can effectively stabilize the sawtooth mode, providing a possible route to stable high current tokamak operation. An alternative stabilization scheme employing barely circulating energetic particles is also proposed. Finally, we present analytical and numerical studies on the excitations of high-n MHD modes via transit resonances with circulating alpha particles. 14 refs., 3 figs

  20. Effect of temperature on the collective clusterization of non-alpha conjugate nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Manpreet; Singh, BirBikram; Patra, S.K.; Gupta, R.K.

    2017-01-01

    In the present work, we report on the role of temperature on the collective clusterization process in non-alpha conjugate systems 21,22 Ne (N≠ Z) in the ground state and at the temperature equivalent to the excitation energy given by Ikeda diagram. Further, to study the impact of increasing temperature on the clustering, these effects are studied in the CN 21 Ne* and 22 Ne* formed in 10 B+ 11 B and 11 B+ 11 B reactions, respectively, with reference to experimental data

  1. [Cost-effectiveness of drotrecogin alpha [activated] in the treatment of severe sepsis in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacristán, José A; Prieto, Luis; Huete, Teresa; Artigas, Antonio; Badia, Xavier; Chinn, Christopher; Hudson, Peter

    2004-01-01

    The PROWESS clinical trial has shown that treatment with drotrecogin alpha (activated) in patients with severe sepsis is associated with a reduction in the absolute risk of death compared with standard treatment. The aim of the present study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of drotrecogin alpha (activated) versus that of standard care in the treatment of severe sepsis in Spain. A decision analysis model was drawn up to compare costs to hospital discharge and the long-term efficacy of drotrecogin alpha (activated) versus those of standard care in the treatment of severe sepsis in Spain from the perspective of the health care payer. Most of the information for creating the model was obtained from the PROWESS clinical trial. A two-fold baseline analysis was performed: a) for all patients included in the PROWESS clinical trial and b) for the patients with two or more organ failures. The major variables for clinical assessment were the reduction in mortality and years of life gained (YLG). Cost-effectiveness was expressed as cost per YLG. A sensitivity analysis was applied using 3% and 5% discount rates for YLG and by modifying the patterns of health care, intensive care unit costs, and life expectancy by initial co-morbidity and therapeutic efficacy of drotrecogin alpha (activated). Treatment with drotrecogin alfa (activated) was associated with a 6.0% drop in the absolute risk of death (p = 0.005) when all of the patients from the PROWESS trial were included and with a 7.3% reduction (p = 0.005) when the analysis was restricted to patients with two or more organ failures. The cost-effectiveness of drotrecogin alfa (activated) was 13,550 euros per YLG with respect to standard care after analysing all of the patients and 9,800 euros per YLG in the group of patients with two or more organ failures. In the sensitivity analysis, the results ranged from 7,322 to 16,493 euros per YLG. The factors with the greatest impact on the results were the change in the efficacy of

  2. PGC-1alpha and PGC-1beta have both similar and distinct effects on myofiber switching toward an oxidative phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Ole Hartvig; Frandsen, Lis; Schjerling, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha and -1beta (PGC-1alpha and PGC-1beta) were overexpressed by adenovirus-mediated gene transfer in cultures of primary rat skeletal muscle cells derived from neonatal myoblasts. Effects on muscle fiber type transition and metabolism...... an increase in the mRNA expression of TRB3, a negative regulator of insulin signaling. These results show that both PGC-1alpha and PGC-1beta are involved in the regulation of skeletal muscle fiber transition and metabolism and that they have both overlapping and differing effects....... were studied from days 5 to 22 of culture. PGC-1alpha and PGC-1beta overexpression caused a three- to fourfold increase in mRNA level, a doubling of enzymatic activity of citrate synthase, a slight increase in short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase mRNA, a doubling of the mRNA level, and a 30-50% increase...

  3. Radiobiological Effects of Alpha-Particles from Astatine-211: From DNA Damage to Cell Death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claesson, Kristina

    2011-05-15

    In recent years, the use of high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation for radiotherapeutic applications has gained increased interest. Astatine-211 (211At) is an alpha-particle emitting radionuclide, promising for targeted radioimmunotherapy of isolated tumor cells and microscopic clusters. To improve development of safe radiotherapy using 211At it is important to increase our knowledge of the radiobiological effects in cells. During radiotherapy, both tumors and adjacent normal tissue will be irradiated and therefore, it is of importance to understand differences in the radio response between proliferating and resting cells. The aim of this thesis was to investigate effects in fibroblasts with different proliferation status after irradiation with alpha-particles from 211At or X-rays, from inflicted DNA damage, to cellular responses and biological consequences. Throughout this work, irradiation was performed with alpha-particles from 211A or X-rays. The induction and repair of double-strand breaks (DSBs) in human normal fibroblasts were investigated using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and fragment analysis. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of 211At for DSB induction varied between 1.4 and 3.1. A small increase of DSBs was observed in cycling cells compared to stationary cells. The repair kinetics was slower after 211At and more residual damage was found after 24 h. Comparison between cells with different proliferation status showed that the repair was inefficient in cycling cells with more residual damage, regardless of radiation quality. Activation of cell cycle arrests was investigated using immunofluorescent labeling of the checkpoint kinase Chk2 and by measuring cell cycle distributions with flow cytometry analysis. After alpha-particle irradiation, the average number of Chk2-foci was larger and the cells had a more affected cell cycle progression for several weeks compared with X-irradiated cells, indicating a more powerful arrest after 211At

  4. [Cardiovascular exercise on obese women: effects on adiponectine, leptine, and tumour necrosis factor-alpha].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landeros-Olvera, Erick; López-Alvarenga, Juan Carlos; Nava-González, Edna J; Gallegos-Cabriales, Esther; Lavalle-González, Fernando; Bastarrachea, Raúl A; Salazar González, Bertha Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    The relationship of hormones adiponectin, leptin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in adipose tissue on the atherogenic process is one of the most promising models in preventive medicine. The numerous tests performed to identify the effect of exercise on these hormones have not been clear on the type of exercise routine and physical effort calculated to contribute to changing plasma concentrations in obese women. Analyze controlledcardiovascular exercise effect on serum level of adiponectin, leptin, and tumournecrosis factor-alpha in obese young women. A simple blind clinical essay. The intervention covered a 10-week controlled, cardiovascular exercise program by 34 women (cases n=17, controls n=17) with a body mass index>27kg/m(2). Molecular analysis was performed by immune-fluorescence. Following the intervention, cases and controls means were as follows: adiponectin 19.0 vs. 12.2μ/ml (P=.008); leptin 20.0 vs. 28.0μ/L (P=.02); and tumour necrosis factor-alpha 4.7 vs. 5.1pg/ml (P=.05). The established exercise (5 sessions a week of exercise of 40min each for 10 weeks with a heart rate reserve of 40 to 80%) improved plasma concentrations of these hormones in the expected direction. This finding highlights an unpublished amount of exercise, controlled by the reserve cardiac frequency that might contribute the cardiovascular and metabolic protection to obese women. Copyright © 2013 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  5. Elevated sodium chloride concentrations enhance the bystander effects induced by low dose alpha-particle irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han Wei; Zhu Lingyan; Jiang Erkang; Wang Jun; Chen Shaopeng; Bao Linzhi; Zhao Ye; Xu An; Yu Zengliang [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Wu Lijun [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)], E-mail: ljw@ipp.ac.cn

    2007-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that high NaCl can be genotoxic, either alone or combined with irradiation. However, little is known about the relationship between environmental NaCl at elevated conditions and radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBE). RIBE, which has been considered as non-targeted bystander responses, has been demonstrated to occur widely in various cell lines. In the present study, RIBE under the elevated NaCl culture condition was assessed in AG 1522 cells by both the induction of {gamma}-H2AX, a reliable marker of DNA double-strand break (DSB) for the early process (<1 h post irradiation), and the generation of micronuclei (MN), a sensitive marker for relative long process of RIBE. Our results showed that in the absence of irradiation, NaCl at elevated concentration such as 8.0, 9.0 and 10.0 g/L did not significantly increase the frequency of {gamma}-H2AX foci-positive cells and the number of foci per positive cell comparing with that NaCl at a normal concentration (6.8 g/L). However, with 0.2 cGy {alpha}-particle irradiation, the induced fraction of {gamma}-H2AX foci-positive cells and the number of induced {gamma}-H2AX foci per positive cell were significantly increased in both irradiated and adjacent non-irradiated regions. Similarly, the induction of MN by 0.2 cGy {alpha}-particle irradiation also increased with the elevated NaCl concentrations. With N{sup G}-methyl-L-arginine, an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, the induced fraction of foci-positive cells was effectively inhibited both in 0.2 cGy {alpha}-particle irradiated and adjacent non-irradiated regions under either normal or elevated NaCl conditions. These results suggested that the cultures with elevated NaCl medium magnified the damage effects induced by the low dose {alpha}-particle irradiation and nitric oxide generated by irradiation was also very important in this process.

  6. A Rare Side Effect due to TNF-Alpha Blocking Agent: Acute Pleuropericarditis with Adalimumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Ozkan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumor necrosis factor-alpha antagonism is an important treatment strategy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, vasculitis, and ankylosing spondylitis. Adalimumab is one of the well-known tumor necrosis factor-alpha blocking agents. There are several side effects reported in patients with adalimumab therapy. Cardiac side effects of adalimumab are rare. Only a few cardiac side effects were reported. A 61-year-old man treated with adalimumab for the last 6 months due to psoriatic arthritis presented with typically acute pleuropericarditis. Chest X-ray and echocardiography demonstrated marked pericardial effusion. Patient was successfully evaluated for the etiology of acute pleuro-pericarditis. Every etiology was excluded except the usage of adalimumab. Adalimumab was discontinued, and patient was treated with 1200 mg of ibuprofen daily. Control chest X-ray and echocardiography after three weeks demonstrated complete resolution of both pleural and pericardial effusions. This case clearly demonstrated the acute onset of pericarditis with adalimumab usage. Acute pericarditis and pericardial effusion should be kept in mind in patients with adalimumab treatment.

  7. Effects of alpha-2 agonists on renal function in hypertensive humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, M; Gehr, M

    1985-01-01

    Centrally acting adrenergic agonists, by decreasing peripheral adrenergic activity, are effective antihypertensive agents. The older agents, however, especially methyldopa, have been associated with weight gain, clinical edema, and antihypertensive tolerance when used as monotherapy. While acute studies in humans have demonstrated weight gain and sodium retention with clonidine and guanabenz, chronic administration results in a decrease in weight and plasma volume. The absence of chronic weight gain and of sodium retention could be the result of a counterbalance between hypotension-related antinatriuresis, secondary to a decrease in glomerular filtration rate and renal blood flow, and natriuretic activity, as a result of a decrease in renal sympathetic tone. Whereas natriuresis and water diuresis have been demonstrated in animals with acute clonidine or guanabenz administration, this has not been demonstrated in humans. Recent studies in which saline administration was used to precondition humans to a subsequent natriuretic stimulus (i.e., guanabenz-induced decreased renal adrenergic activity) resulted in stabilization of renal blood flow and natriuresis. Selective reduction renal sympathetic activity affecting salt and water transport may explain why guanabenz and probably also clonidine seem to be devoid of the sodium/fluid-retaining properties that are common with other antihypertensive agents. Because agents of this class have effects other than pure central alpha-2 agonism (such as alpha-1 activity), they might have confounding and counterbalancing side effects leading to sodium and water retention.

  8. Alpha particle effects in burning tokamak plasmas: overview and specific examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigmar, D.J.

    1986-07-01

    Using the total power balance of an ignited tokamak plasma as a guideline, a range of alpha driven effects is surveyed regarding their impact on achieving and maintaining fusion burn. Specific examples of MHD and kinetic modes and multi species transport dynamics are discussed, including the possible interaction of these categories of effects. This power balance approach rather than a straightforward enumeration of possible effects serves to reveal their non-linear dependence and the ensuing fragility of our understanding of the approach to and maintenance of ignition. Specific examples are given of the interaction between α-power driven sawtoothing and ideal MHD stability, and direct α-effects on MHD modes including kinetic corrections. Anomalous ion heat transport and central impurity peaking mechanisms and anomalous and collisional α-transport including the ambipolar electric field are discussed

  9. Effects of prostatic inflammation on LUTS and alpha blocker treatment outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ha Na Lee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose To evaluate the association between prostatic inflammation and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS, and to identify the effects of prostatic inflammation on the treatment with an alpha blocker. Materials and Methods 111 Participants who were aged ≥ 50 years, the presence of LUTS (maximal flow rate < 20 m/s, IPSS ≥ 11, and an elevated PSA level (3-20ng/mL were treated with tamsulosin 0.2mg once daily for 3 months after prostate biopsies. Prostatic inflammation was scored as none (0, mild (I, moderate (II, or marked (III. LUTS parameters including urine flow rates, IPSS, PSA, and prostate volume were evaluated. Results Inflammation grading resulted in 25, 60, and 26 patients that were grade 0, I, and II, respectively. Lower grade inflammation was related to higher urine flow rate at baseline. Patients with higher inflammation grades had larger prostate volumes, larger total and transitional zone volumes, and higher PSA levels. Overall, urine flow rates and residual urine volume were improved after 3 months of alpha blocker therapy. Eighty percent of patients with grade 0 inflammation, 73% of patients with grade I inflammation, and 92.3% of patients with grade II inflammation showed improvement of LUTS after treatment. Longer duration of treatment was related to a decreased chance of improvement of LUTS. Patients with increased IPSS voiding subscales could be predictive of improvement of LUTS. Conclusions Patients with high grade inflammation had lower flow rates and higher prostatic volumes than patients with low grade inflammation. Inflammation grade did not affect the outcomes of alpha blocker treatment.

  10. [Effects of intermittent hypoxic exposure on the parameter of erythrocyte and serum hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha and erythropoietin levels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng-yan; Zhang, Ji-xin; Lü, Xiao-tao; Li, Bao-yu

    2009-10-01

    To investigate the effects of intermittent hypoxic exposure and normoxic convalescence on the parameter of erythrocyte and serum hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1alpha) and erythropoietin (EPO) levels. Rat models of intermittent hypoxic exposure were established, combined with the clinical research on volunteers experiencing the intermittent plateau work. Blood samples for red blood cell (RBC) counts, hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (HCT) were collected, serum HIF-1alpha and EPO levels were measured using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. RBC counts, Hb concentration and HCT were significantly higher than the normoxic group (P hypoxic exposure can enhance serum hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha and erythropointin levels and the generation of red blood cells, which leads to an increase in hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit. The results have changed with the hypoxic exposure period prolonged. Normoxic convalescence after intermittent hypoxic exposure can make the related indexes reduced, and contribute to the organism recovery.

  11. Lactobacillus casei secreting alpha-MSH induces the therapeutic effect on DSS-induced acute colitis in Balb/c Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sun-Woo; Lee, Chul-Ho; Kim, Jeong-Yoon; Kim, Jie-Youn; Sung, Moon-Hee; Poo, Haryoung

    2008-12-01

    The neuropeptide alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha- MSH) has anti-inflammatory property by downregulating the expressions of proinflammatory cytokines. Because alpha-MSH elicits the anti-inflammatory effect in various inflammatory disease models, we examined the therapeutic effect of oral administration of recombinant Lactobacillus casei, which secretes alpha-MSH (L. casei-alpha-MSH), on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in Balb/c mice. Thus, we constructed the alpha-MSH-secreting Lactobacillus casei by the basic plasmid, pLUAT-ss, which was composed of a PldhUTLS promoter and alpha-amylase signal sequence from Streptococcus bovis strain. Acute colitis was induced by oral administration of 5% DSS in drinking water for 7 days. To investigate the effect of L. casei-alpha-MSH on the colitis, L. casei or L. casei-alpha-MSH was orally administered for 7 days and their effects on body weight, mortality rate, cytokine production, and tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were observed. Administration of L. casei-alpha-MSH reduced the symptom of acute colitis as assessed by body weight loss (DSS alone: 14.45+/-0. 2 g; L. casei-alpha- MSH: 18.2+/-0.12 g), colitis score (DSS alone: 3.6+/-0.4; L. casei-alpha-MSH: 1.4+/-0.6), MPO activity (DSS alone: 42.7+/-4.5 U/g; L. casei-alpha-MSH: 10.25+/-0.5 U/g), survival rate, and histological damage compared with the DSS alone mice. L. casei-alpha-MSH-administered entire colon showed reduced in vitro production of proinflammatory cytokines and NF-kappaB activation. The alpha-MSH-secreting recombinant L. casei showed significant anti-inflammatory effects in the murine model of acute colitis and suggests a potential therapeutic role for this agent in clinical inflammatory bowel diseases.

  12. Health effect of exposure to internally deposited alpha-emitting radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwata, Shiro

    1989-01-01

    The health effect of exposure on human population to internally deposited alpha-emitting radionuclides and their decay products has been considered as most hazardous radiation effect. However, the harmful late effects by the intake of radioactive nuclides are not definite in the epidemiological and clinical viewpoint. Only two cases, radium and thorium, have since long been noted for their deletrious effects to man. As the former, it has been first reported that dial workers in USA using 226 Ra can suffer from 'radiumjaw' which is a cancer of the bone of jaws. Another radium isotope, 224 Ra, was used for a medical reason as therapy against turberculosis of bone to German children during the years 1946∼1950, and has given rise to bone cancer. As the latter, Thorotrast (the commercial name of a colloidal thorium dioxide preparation), introduced for angiography in 1929 and utilized until about 1950, was found to cause malignant hepatic tumors, liver cirrhosis and blood diseases such as some kinds of leukemia and anemia. In Japan, the former cases have seldom found though, the latter cases are assumed over 1000. Especially, Thorotrast administered war-wounded ex-servicemen in World War II have been beyond 300 persons. The epidemiological and clinico-pathological studies have been demonstrated by the research Group on Biological Effect of Thorium in Special Project Research on Energy, Japan, as a fundamental study of the safe treatment of nuclear fuel materials. The resultant data of the study and risk evaluation of liver cancer for Japanese Thorotrast administered patients are reviewed related to that of another alpha-emitting radionuclides. (author)

  13. alpha-Glucosidase-albumin conjugates: effect of chronic administration in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, T.M.; Murray, L.; Bhardwaj, D.; Poznansky, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    Enzyme albumin conjugates have been proposed as a means of increasing the efficacy of enzyme use in vivo and decreasing immune response to the enzyme. Particulate drug carriers, however, have a pronounced tendency to localize in the mononuclear phagocyte (reticuloendothelial) system. The authors have examined in mice the effect on phagocytic index, tissue distribution and organ size of continued administration of conjugates of alpha-glucosidase with either homologous or heterologous albumin. Mice received 10 X 2-mg injections of bovine serum albumin (BSA) or mouse serum albumin (MSA), either free, polymerized or conjugated with alpha-glucosidase. Experiments involving BSA had to be terminated before the end of the experiment because of anaphylaxis, but these reactions were less severe to the polymerized albumin than to free albumin. Free BSA, BSA polymer and BSA-enzyme conjugates all caused a decrease in phagocytic index after six injections. Mice receiving MSA showed no evidence of anaphylaxis, but mice receiving six or more injections of free MSA, MSA polymer or MSA-enzyme conjugate had significantly decreased phagocytic indices as compared to controls. Phagocytic indices had returned to normal by 7 days after the final injection. Tissue distribution of 125 I-labeled albumin preparations was determined in either naive or chronically injected mice

  14. Effective radiological contamination control and monitoring techniques in high alpha environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funke, Kevin C

    2003-02-01

    In the decommissioning of a highly contaminated alpha environment, such as the one at Hanford's 233-S Plutonium Concentration Facility, one of the key elements of a successful radiological control program is an integrated safety approach. This approach begins with the job-planning phase where the scope of the work is described. This is followed by a brainstorming session involving engineering and craft to identify how to perform the work in a logical sequence of events. Once the brainstorming session is over, a Job Hazard Analysis is performed to identify any potential problems. Mockups are utilized to enable the craft to get hands on experience and provide feedback and ideas to make the job run smoother. Ideas and experience gained during mockups are incorporated into the task instruction. To assure appropriate data are used in planning and executing the job, our principal evaluation tools included lapel and workplace air sampling, plus continuous air monitors and frequent surveys to effectively monitor job progress. In this highly contaminated alpha environment, with contamination levels ranging from 0.3 Bq cm-2 to approximately 100,000 Bq cm-2 (2,000 dpm per 100 cm2 to approximately 600 million dpm per 100 cm2), with average working levels of 1,600-3,200 Bq cm-2 (10-20 million dpm per 100 cm2) without concomitant ambient radiation levels, control of the spread of contamination is key to keeping airborne levels As Low As Reasonably Achievable.

  15. The relative effectiveness of inhaled alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides in producing lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boecker, B.B.; Hahn, F.F.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Guilmetter, R.A.; Griffith, W.C.; McClellan, R.O.

    1988-01-01

    Proper assessment of a long-term human health risks associated with inhaled radionuclides requires knowledge of dose to critical cells and tissues and relationships between dose and effect for different biological end points. Results from epidemiological studies of exposed human populations provided important information for such assessments. However, because the types of exposures are limited, these results need to be supplemented with more detailed information on dosimetry and biological effects available through studies in laboratory animals and in vitro systems. To provide health risk information for inhaled fission product and actinide aerosols, life-span studies are being conducted using beagle dogs and other species at the Lovelace Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute (ITRI). Results of two life-span studies in dogs involving inhalation of the beta emitter 91 Y in fused aluminosilicate particles or the alpha emitter 239 PuO 2 are reported here

  16. Effects of Pauli's principle in the. cap alpha. - /sup 16/O elastic scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schechter, H; Canto, L F; Breitschaft, A M

    1986-03-01

    'Exact' microscopic methods like the RGM (Resonating Group Method) and the GCM (Generator Coordinate Method) and approximate methods like the OCM (Orthogonality Condition Model) are used to study the effects of Pauli's Principle in the ..cap alpha..-/sup 16/O elastic scattering. A method to derive 'exact' effective potentials for the OCM is introduced. These potentials, derived from RGM wave functions, make the OCM identical to the RGM and they have the advantage of being free from poles associated to the forbidden states. Numerical calculations are made with V2 and B1 nucleon-nucleon forces at energies in the range 0-30 MeV. The potentials and the resulting phase-shifts are compared to those obtained from the approximate method suggested by Friedrich and Canto. The problem of searching for local, state independent, potentials for the OCM is discussed.

  17. Effect of alpha-interferon alone and combined with other antineoplastic agents on renal cell carcinoma determined by the tetrazolium microculture assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, Y; Aso, Y

    1994-01-01

    The antiproliferative effect of various alpha-interferons (alpha-IFNs), alone or combined with other agents, on a renal cell carcinoma cell line was evaluated by the tetrazolium microculture assay to examine the rationale for combination therapies. Cells incubated in 96-week microculture plates at 5 x 10(3)/well were exposed to various agents for 3 days. There were no obvious differences in the growth inhibition caused by the 5 kinds of alpha-IFN examined as single agents. The combination of alpha-IFN with the following agents was also assessed: 5-fluorouracil (5FU), methotrexate (MTX), mitomycin C, bleomycin, cis-diaminedichloroplatinum (CDDP), vinblastine, etoposide (ETOP), alpha-IFN, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF), and alpha-difluoromethylornithine. Synergism was observed for the combination of alpha-IFN+TNF, while the other combinations had additive or subadditive effects. No interference or antagonism was found. Trimodal combinations of alpha-IFN+MTX with either 5FU, ETOP, or CDDP all showed subadditive effects. These results indicated that an increased antiproliferative effect, although not necessarily synergistic, was obtained by the combination of alpha-IFN with a variety of antineoplastic agents, providing a rationale to seek for combination therapies including alpha-IFN for treating renal cell carcinoma.

  18. Effects of andrographolide on intrahepatic cholestasis induced by alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamphaya, Tanaporn; Chansela, Piyachat; Piyachaturawat, Pawinee; Suksamrarn, Apichart; Nathanson, Michael H; Weerachayaphorn, Jittima

    2016-10-15

    Cholestasis is a cardinal manifestation of liver diseases but effective therapeutic approaches are limited. Therefore, alternative therapy for treating and preventing cholestatic liver diseases is necessary. Andrographolide, a promising anticancer drug derived from the medicinal plant Andrographis paniculata, has diverse pharmacological properties and multi-spectrum therapeutic applications. However, it is unknown whether andrographolide has a hepatoprotective effect on intrahepatic cholestasis. The aims of this study were to investigate the protective effect and possible mechanisms of andrographolide in a rat model of acute intrahepatic cholestasis induced by alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT). Andrographolide was administered intragastrically for four consecutive days, with a single intraperitoneal injection of ANIT on the second day. Liver injury was evaluated biochemically and histologically together with hepatic gene and protein expression analysis. Rats pretreated with andrographolide prior to ANIT injection demonstrated lower levels of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, as well as bilirubin and bile acids as compared to rats treated with ANIT alone. Andrographolide also decreased the incidence and extent of periductular fibrosis and bile duct proliferation. Analysis of protein expression in livers from andrographolide-treated cholestatic rats revealed markedly decreased expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin and nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB). In conclusion, andrographolide has a potent protective property against ANIT-induced cholestatic liver injury. The mechanisms that underlie this protective effect are mediated through down-regulation of NF-κB expression and inhibition of hepatic stellate cell activation. These findings suggest that andrographolide could be a promising therapeutic option in prevention and slowing down the progression of cholestatic liver diseases. Copyright

  19. A Focus on the Beneficial Effects of Alpha Synuclein and a Re-Appraisal of Synucleinopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryskalin, Larisa; Busceti, Carla L; Limanaqi, Fiona; Biagioni, Francesca; Gambardella, Stefano; Fornai, Francesco

    2018-01-01

    Alpha synuclein (α-syn) belongs to a class of proteins which are commonly considered to play a detrimental role in neuronal survival. This assumption is based on the occurrence of a severe neuronal degeneration in patients carrying a multiplication of the α-syn gene (SNCA) and in a variety of experimental models, where overexpression of α-syn leads to cell death and neurological impairment. In these conditions, a higher amount of normally structured α-syn produces a damage, which is even worse compared with that produced by α-syn owning an abnormal structure (as occurring following point gene mutations). In line with this, knocking out the expression of α-syn is reported to protect from specific neurotoxins such as 1-methyl, 4-phenyl 1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). In the present review we briefly discuss these well-known detrimental effects but we focus on findings showing that, in specific conditions α-syn is beneficial for cell survival. This occurs during methamphetamine intoxication which is counteracted by endogenous α-syn. Similarly, the dysfunction of the chaperone cysteine-string protein- alpha leads to cell pathology which is counteracted by over-expressing α-syn. In line with this, an increased expression of α-syn protects against oxidative damage produced by dopamine. Remarkably, when the lack of α-syn is combined with a depletion of β- and γ- synucleins, alterations in brain structure and function occur. This review tries to balance the evidence showing a beneficial effect with the bulk of data reporting a detrimental effect of endogenous α-syn. The specific role of α-syn as a chaperone protein is discussed to explain such a dual effect. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  20. Hematologic interactions of endotoxin, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha), interleukin 1, and adrenal hormones and the hematologic effects of TNF alpha in Corynebacterium parvum-primed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulich, T R; del Castillo, J; Ni, R X; Bikhazi, N

    1989-06-01

    Endotoxin reduces the release among other cytokines of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin 1 (IL-1) and causes peripheral lymphopenia and a dose-response-dependent initial neutropenia followed by a monophasic neutrophilia. TNF alone induces lymphopenia and an initial neutropenia followed by a biphasic neutrophilia. IL-1 alone induces lymphopenia and a monophasic neutrophilia. TNF-plus-IL-1 caused a greater lymphopenia than either monokine alone, suggesting that both monokines contribute to LPS-induced lymphopenia. TNF-plus-IL-1 induced neutropenia similar in magnitude to that induced by TNF alone and induced a neutrophilia significantly greater than that induced by either monokine alone, suggesting that LPS-induced neutropenia is caused by TNF, while LPS-induced neutrophilia is due to the combined effects of TNF and II-1. TNF and IL-1 were administered together with LPS to simulate the in vivo condition of endogenous monokine release during gram-negative bacteremia. TNF combined with LPS increased both the duration and magnitude of LPS-induced lymphopenia, LPS-induced neutropenia, and LPS-induced neutrophilia. TNF-plus-LPS treated rats at 2 hours after injection exhibited a striking 93% decrease in bone marrow neutrophils even though no peripheral neutrophilia was yet apparent, suggesting that the subsequent neutrophilia was due to demargination and recirculation of neutrophils sequestered in the peripheral vasculature immediately after their release from the bone marrow. Epinephrine, which causes neutrophilia by demargination but not by release of marrow neutrophils, reversed the initial neutropenia in TNF-plus-LPS-treated rats and increased the neutrophilia. IL-1 combined with LPS increased LPS-induced neutrophilia, suggesting that endogenous IL-1 also contributed to LPS-induced neutrophilia. Corynebacterium parvum-primed rats with hyperplasia of the monocyte-macrophage system and treated with TNF differed from naive rats treated with TNF in that the

  1. The effect of the Z mutation on the ability of alpha 1-antitrypsin to prevent neutrophil mediated tissue damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn-Jones, C G; Lomas, D A; Carrell, R W; Stockley, R A

    1994-11-29

    Recent studies have shown that alpha 1-antitrypsin (alpha 1-AT) from Z antitrypsin deficiency subjects has a slightly lower association rate constant with neutrophil elastase (NE) than alpha 1-AT from normal subjects, although it is unknown whether this is of clinical importance. We have purified alpha 1-AT from a normal (M alpha 1-AT) and from a deficient (Z alpha 1-AT) subject and have confirmed that the association rate constants for NE are different (5.28; S.E. 0.06.10(7) M-1 s-1 and 1.2; S.E. 0.2.10(7) M-1 s-1, respectively). We have assessed the ability of both of these proteins to inhibit neutrophil mediated fibronectin (FN) degradation in vitro. Both proteins inhibited FN degradation in a dose dependant manner although Z alpha 1-AT was less effective than M alpha 1-AT at equivalent concentrations of active inhibitor (P < 0.05). Inhibition by M alpha 1-AT was 28.5% S.E. 3.9 at 0.01 microM; 35.5% S.E. 7.3 at 0.1 microM and 37% S.E. 8.4 at 0.5 microM, whereas inhibition by Z alpha 1-AT was 9.25% S.E. 3.9; 19.25% S.E. 7.7 and 21.2% S.E. 9.7, respectively. When the time course of inhibition of FN degradation was studied the difference (although less at 1.0 microM) became greater over the 3 h period of the assay. These results suggest that Z alpha 1-AT is less able than the M phenotype to inhibit connective tissue degradation by neutrophils at equivalent concentrations. This is probably due to the lower association rate constant although the reduced stability of the Z molecule may play a role. The differences, together with the reduced plasma concentration, may accentuate the susceptibility of deficient subjects to the development of emphysema.

  2. Alpha - Skew Pi - Armendariz Rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Areej M Abduldaim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article we introduce a new concept called Alpha-skew Pi-Armendariz rings (Alpha - S Pi - ARas a generalization of the notion of Alpha-skew Armendariz rings.Another important goal behind studying this class of rings is to employ it in order to design a modern algorithm of an identification scheme according to the evolution of using modern algebra in the applications of the field of cryptography.We investigate general properties of this concept and give examples for illustration. Furthermore, this paperstudy the relationship between this concept and some previous notions related to Alpha-skew Armendariz rings. It clearly presents that every weak Alpha-skew Armendariz ring is Alpha-skew Pi-Armendariz (Alpha-S Pi-AR. Also, thisarticle showsthat the concepts of Alpha-skew Armendariz rings and Alpha-skew Pi- Armendariz rings are equivalent in case R is 2-primal and semiprime ring.Moreover, this paper proves for a semicommutative Alpha-compatible ringR that if R[x;Alpha] is nil-Armendariz, thenR is an Alpha-S Pi-AR. In addition, if R is an Alpha - S Pi -AR, 2-primal and semiprime ring, then N(R[x;Alpha]=N(R[x;Alpha]. Finally, we look forwardthat Alpha-skew Pi-Armendariz rings (Alpha-S Pi-ARbe more effect (due to their properties in the field of cryptography than Pi-Armendariz rings, weak Armendariz rings and others.For these properties and characterizations of the introduced concept Alpha-S Pi-AR, we aspire to design a novel algorithm of an identification scheme.

  3. The effect of toroidal field ripple on confined alphas in TFTR D-T plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duong, H.H.; Medley, S.S.

    1996-05-01

    The Pellet Charge Exchange (PCX) diagnostic on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) presently measures trapped alpha distribution functions with very small pitch angle (v parallel /v ∼ 0.05) at the midplane. The measured PCX alpha signal exhibits a depletion region near the outboard region. Results of the alpha energy spectra and radial profile suggest stochastic ripple diffusion is the cause of the depletion. Comparison of the ripple stochastization boundary with Goldston-White-Boozer theory also shows the correct functional dependence on alpha energy and q-profile

  4. The neuroprotective effects of tocotrienol rich fraction and alpha tocopherol against glutamate injury in astrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thilaga Rati Selvaraju

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Tocotrienol rich fraction (TRF is an extract of palm oil, which consists of 25% alpha tocopherol (α-TCP and 75% tocotrienols. TRF has been shown to possess potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, neuroprotection, and cholesterol lowering activities. Glutamate is the main excitatory amino acid neurotransmitter in the central nervous system of mammalian, which can be excitotoxic, and it has been suggested to play a key role in neurodegenerative disorders like Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases. In this present study, the effects of vitamin E (TRF and α-TCP in protecting astrocytes against glutamate injury were elucidated. Astrocytes induced with 180 mM of glutamate lead to significant cell death. However, glutamate mediated cytotoxicity was diminished via pre and post supplementation of TRF and α-TCP. Hence, vitamin E acted as a potent antioxidant agent in recovering mitochondrial injury due to elevated oxidative stress, and enhanced better survivability upon glutamate toxicity.  

  5. The investigation of the magnetic after-effect in iron-alpha after neutron irradiation at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mensch, W.

    1986-01-01

    The present thesis investigates the magnetic after-effect for neutron irradiated, polycrystalline iron-alpha for the temperature range 10 to 400 K by means of susceptibility measurements. 24 maxima of magnetic after-effect are found, which are related to different classes of defects. (BHO)

  6. Use of studies with laboratory animals to assess the potential early health effects of combined internal alpha and beta irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, B.R.; Hahn, F.F.; Guilmette, R.A.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Snipes, M.B.; Boecker, B.B.; McClellan, R.O.

    1986-01-01

    The potential health impacts of radionuclides released in nuclear accidents are of major concern to the public and to regulatory and other governmental agencies. One mode of potential exposure is by inhalation of airborne radionuclides, which could lead to combined internal irradiation by high (alpha) and low (beta) linear energy transfer (LET) radiations. Epidemiological data for health effects of human inhalation exposure are too limited to derive reliable estimates of risks of potential health effects. However, results of studies in which beagle dogs were exposed by inhalation to insoluble radioactive aerosols can be used to estimate expected effects in humans. Data for mortality from radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis caused by internal irradiation of dog lungs by alpha or beta radiations are used to derive the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of alpha irradiation compared to beta irradiation; predict the expected combined effects of alpha and beta irradiation of dog lungs; and extrapolate the results to humans. The extrapolation to humans assumed that, for similar ages at exposure, dog and human lungs have similar sensitivities to lung irradiation. Results of theoretical calculations related to mortality from early effects indicated that the synergistic effects of high- and low-LET radiations should depend on the percentages of the total dose contributed by high- and low-LET radiations, and for very low or very high doses, synergistic effects should be negligible. 23 refs., 8 figs

  7. Analysing the Effect on CMB in a Parity and Charge Parity Violating Varying Alpha Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maity, Debaprasad; /NCTS, Taipei /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U.; Chen, Pisin; /NCTS, Taipei /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC

    2012-09-14

    In this paper we study in detail the effect of our recently proposed model of parity and charge-parity (PCP) violating varying alpha on the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) photon passing through the intra galaxy-cluster medium (ICM). The ICM is well known to be composed of magnetized plasma. According to our model, the polarization and intensity of the CMB would be affected when traversing through the ICM due to non-trivial scalar photon interactions. We have calculated the evolution of such polarization and intensity collectively, known as the stokes parameters of the CMB photon during its journey through the ICM and tested our results against the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) measurement on Coma galaxy cluster. Our model contains a PCP violating parameter, {beta}, and a scale of alpha variation {omega}. Using the derived constrained on the photon-to-scalar conversion probability, {bar P}{sub {gamma}{yields}{phi}}, for Coma cluster in ref.[34] we found a contour plot in the ({omega},{beta}) parameter plane. The {beta} = 0 line in this parameter space corresponds to well-studied Maxwell-dilaton type models which has lower bound on {omega} {approx}> 6.4 x 10{sup 9} GeV. In general, as the absolute value of {beta} increases, lower bound on {omega} also increases. Our model in general predicts the modification of the CMB polarization with a non-trivial dependence on the parity violating coupling parameter {beta}. However, it is unconstrained in this particular study. We show that this effect can in principle be detected in the future measurements on CMB polarization such that {beta} can also be constrained.

  8. Effect of cetuximab in combination with alpha-radioimmunotherapy in cultured squamous cell carcinomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nestor, Marika, E-mail: marika.nestor@bms.uu.s [Unit of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Department of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University, S-751 85 Uppsala (Sweden); Unit of Biomedical Radiation Sciences, Department of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology, Uppsala University, S-751 85 Uppsala (Sweden); Sundstroem, Magnus [Unit of Molecular Pathology, Department of Genetics and Pathology, Uppsala University (Sweden); Anniko, Matti [Unit of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Department of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University, S-751 85 Uppsala (Sweden); Tolmachev, Vladimir [Unit of Biomedical Radiation Sciences, Department of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology, Uppsala University, S-751 85 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2011-01-15

    Aim: The monoclonal antibody cetuximab, targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), is a promising molecular targeting agent to be used in combination with radiation for anticancer therapy. In this study, effects of cetuximab in combination with alpha-emitting radioimmunotherapy (RIT) in a panel of cultured human squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) were assessed. Methods: SCC cell lines were characterized and treated with cetuximab in combination with anti-CD44v6 RIT using the astatinated chimeric monoclonal antibody U36 ({sup 211}At-cMAb U36). Effects on {sup 211}At-cMAb U36 uptake, internalization and cell proliferation were then assessed in SCC cells. Results: Cetuximab in combination with {sup 211}At-cMAb U36 mediated increased growth inhibition compared to RIT or cetuximab alone in two cell lines. However, cetuximab also mediated radioprotective effects compared to RIT alone in two cell lines. The radioprotective effects occurred in the cell lines in which cetuximab clearly inhibited cell growth during radiation exposure. Cetuximab treatment also influenced {sup 211}At-cMAb-U36 uptake and internalization, suggesting interactions between CD44v6 and EGFR. Conclusions: Results from this study demonstrate the vast importance of further clarifying the mechanisms of cetuximab and radiation response, and the relationship between EGFR and suitable RIT targets. This is important not only in order to avoid potential radioprotective effects, but also in order to find and utilize potential synergistic effects from these combinations.

  9. Effect of cetuximab in combination with alpha-radioimmunotherapy in cultured squamous cell carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nestor, Marika; Sundstroem, Magnus; Anniko, Matti; Tolmachev, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The monoclonal antibody cetuximab, targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), is a promising molecular targeting agent to be used in combination with radiation for anticancer therapy. In this study, effects of cetuximab in combination with alpha-emitting radioimmunotherapy (RIT) in a panel of cultured human squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) were assessed. Methods: SCC cell lines were characterized and treated with cetuximab in combination with anti-CD44v6 RIT using the astatinated chimeric monoclonal antibody U36 ( 211 At-cMAb U36). Effects on 211 At-cMAb U36 uptake, internalization and cell proliferation were then assessed in SCC cells. Results: Cetuximab in combination with 211 At-cMAb U36 mediated increased growth inhibition compared to RIT or cetuximab alone in two cell lines. However, cetuximab also mediated radioprotective effects compared to RIT alone in two cell lines. The radioprotective effects occurred in the cell lines in which cetuximab clearly inhibited cell growth during radiation exposure. Cetuximab treatment also influenced 211 At-cMAb-U36 uptake and internalization, suggesting interactions between CD44v6 and EGFR. Conclusions: Results from this study demonstrate the vast importance of further clarifying the mechanisms of cetuximab and radiation response, and the relationship between EGFR and suitable RIT targets. This is important not only in order to avoid potential radioprotective effects, but also in order to find and utilize potential synergistic effects from these combinations.

  10. Functional localization and effective connectivity of cortical theta and alpha oscillatory activity during an attention task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Kitaura

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this paper is to investigate cortical electric neuronal activity as an indicator of brain function, in a mental arithmetic task that requires sustained attention, as compared to the resting state condition. The two questions of interest are the cortical localization of different oscillatory activities, and the directional effective flow of oscillatory activity between regions of interest, in the task condition compared to resting state. In particular, theta and alpha activity are of interest here, due to their important role in attention processing. Methods: We adapted mental arithmetic as an attention ask in this study. Eyes closed 61-channel EEG was recorded in 14 participants during resting and in a mental arithmetic task (“serial sevens subtraction”. Functional localization and connectivity analyses were based on cortical signals of electric neuronal activity estimated with sLORETA (standardized low resolution electromagnetic tomography. Functional localization was based on the comparison of the cortical distributions of the generators of oscillatory activity between task and resting conditions. Assessment of effective connectivity was based on the iCoh (isolated effective coherence method, which provides an appropriate frequency decomposition of the directional flow of oscillatory activity between brain regions. Nine regions of interest comprising nodes from the dorsal and ventral attention networks were selected for the connectivity analysis. Results: Cortical spectral density distribution comparing task minus rest showed significant activity increase in medial prefrontal areas and decreased activity in left parietal lobe for the theta band, and decreased activity in parietal-occipital regions for the alpha1 band. At a global level, connections among right hemispheric nodes were predominantly decreased during the task condition, while connections among left hemispheric nodes were predominantly increased. At more

  11. Effects of alpha radiation on hardness and toughness of the borosilicate glass applied to radioactive wastes immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prado, Miguel Oscar; Bernasconi, Norma B. Messi de; Bevilacqua, Arturo Miguel; Arribere, Maria Angelica; Heredia, Arturo D.; Sanfilippo, Miguel

    1999-01-01

    Borosilicate german glass SG7 samples, obtained by frit sintering, were irradiated with different fluences of thermal neutrons in the nucleus of a nuclear reactor. The nuclear reaction 10 B(n,α) 7 Li, where the 10 B isotope is one of the natural glass components, was used to generate alpha particles throughout the glass volume. The maximum alpha disintegration per unit volume achieved was equivalent to that accumulated in a borosilicate glass with nuclear wastes after 3.8 million years. Through Vickers indentations values for microhardness, stress for 50% fracture probability (Weibull statistics) and estimation of the toughness were obtained as a function of alpha radiation dose. Two counterbalanced effects were found: that due to the disorder created by the alpha particles in the glass and that due to the annealing during irradiation (temperature below 240 deg C). Considering the alpha radiation effect, glasses tend decrease Vickers hardness, and to increase thr 50% fracture probability stress with the dose increase. (author)

  12. Trans-generational effects induced by alpha and gamma ionizing radiations at Daphnia magna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parisot, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic activities related to the nuclear industry contribute to continuous discharges of radionuclides into terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Over the past decades, the ecological risk of ionizing radiation has become a growing public, regulatory and scientific concern for ecosystems protection. Until recently, only few studies focus on exposure situations at low doses of irradiation, although these situations are representative of realistic environmental conditions. Understanding how ionizing radiation affects species over several generations and at various levels of biological organization is a major research goal in radioecology. The aim of this PhD was to bring new knowledge on the effects of ionizing radiation during a multi-generational expose of the aquatic invertebrate, Daphnia magna. A two-step strategy was implemented. First, an external gamma radiation at environmentally relevant dose rates was performed on D. magna over three successive generations (F0, F1 and F2). The objective of this experiment was to examine whether low dose rates of radiation induced increasing effects on survival, growth and reproduction of daphnids over generations and to test a possible accumulation and transmission of DNA alterations from adults to offspring. Results showed an accumulation and a transmission of DNA alterations over generations, together with an increase in effect severity on growth and reproduction from generation F0 to generation F2. Transiently more efficient DNA repair leading to some recovery at the organism level was suggested in generation F1. Second, data from the external gamma irradiation and those from an earlier study of internal alpha contamination were analyzed with DEBtox models (Dynamic Energy Budget applied to toxicology), to identify and compare the causes of the trans-generational increase in effect severity between the two types of radiation. In each case, two distinct metabolic modes of action were necessary to explain effects on

  13. Protective effects of plasma alpha-tocopherols on the risk of inorganic arsenic-related urothelial carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Chi-Jung; Pu, Yeong-Shiau; Chen, Ying-Ting; Su, Chien-Tien; Wu, Chia-Chang; Shiue, Horng-Sheng; Huang, Chao-Yuan; Hsueh, Yu-Mei

    2011-01-01

    Arsenic plays an important role in producing oxidative stress in cultured cells. To investigate the interaction between high oxidative stress and low arsenic methylation capacity on arsenic carcinogenesis, a case-control study was conducted to evaluate the relationship among the indices of oxidative stress, such as urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyquanine (8-OHdG), as well as plasma micronutrients and urinary arsenic profiles on urothelial carcinoma (UC) risk. Urinary 8-OHdG was measured using high-sensitivity enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. The urinary arsenic species were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography and hydride generator-atomic absorption spectrometry. Plasma micronutrient levels were analyzed using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The present study showed a significant protective effect of plasma alpha-tocopherol on UC risk. Plasma alpha-tocopherol levels were significantly inversely related to urinary total arsenic concentrations and inorganic arsenic percentage (InAs%), and significantly positively related to dimethylarsinic acid percentage (DMA%). There were no correlations between plasma micronutrients and urinary 8-OHdG. Study participants with lower alpha-tocopherol and higher urinary total arsenic, higher InAs%, higher MMA%, and lower DMA% had a higher UC risk than those with higher alpha-tocopherol and lower urinary total arsenic, lower InAs%, lower MMA%, and higher DMA%. These results suggest that plasma alpha-tocopherol might modify the risk of inorganic arsenic-related UC. - Research Highlights: → Plasma alpha-tocopherol levels were significantly inversely related to UC risk. → There were no correlations between plasma micronutrients and urinary 8-OHdG. → People with lower alpha-tocopherol and higher total arsenic had increased UC risk.

  14. Protective effects of plasma alpha-tocopherols on the risk of inorganic arsenic-related urothelial carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Chi-Jung [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Pu, Yeong-Shiau [Department of Urology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Ying-Ting [Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Su, Chien-Tien [Department of Family Medicine, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wu, Chia-Chang [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Urology, Taipei Medical Universtiy-Shuang Ho Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Shiue, Horng-Sheng [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Huang, Chao-Yuan [Department of Urology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsueh, Yu-Mei, E-mail: ymhsueh@tmu.edu.tw [Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2011-02-15

    Arsenic plays an important role in producing oxidative stress in cultured cells. To investigate the interaction between high oxidative stress and low arsenic methylation capacity on arsenic carcinogenesis, a case-control study was conducted to evaluate the relationship among the indices of oxidative stress, such as urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyquanine (8-OHdG), as well as plasma micronutrients and urinary arsenic profiles on urothelial carcinoma (UC) risk. Urinary 8-OHdG was measured using high-sensitivity enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. The urinary arsenic species were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography and hydride generator-atomic absorption spectrometry. Plasma micronutrient levels were analyzed using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The present study showed a significant protective effect of plasma alpha-tocopherol on UC risk. Plasma alpha-tocopherol levels were significantly inversely related to urinary total arsenic concentrations and inorganic arsenic percentage (InAs%), and significantly positively related to dimethylarsinic acid percentage (DMA%). There were no correlations between plasma micronutrients and urinary 8-OHdG. Study participants with lower alpha-tocopherol and higher urinary total arsenic, higher InAs%, higher MMA%, and lower DMA% had a higher UC risk than those with higher alpha-tocopherol and lower urinary total arsenic, lower InAs%, lower MMA%, and higher DMA%. These results suggest that plasma alpha-tocopherol might modify the risk of inorganic arsenic-related UC. - Research Highlights: {yields} Plasma alpha-tocopherol levels were significantly inversely related to UC risk. {yields} There were no correlations between plasma micronutrients and urinary 8-OHdG. {yields} People with lower alpha-tocopherol and higher total arsenic had increased UC risk.

  15. Music perception and imagery in EEG: Alpha band effects of task and stimulus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaefer, R.S.; Vlek, R.J.; Desain, P.W.M.

    2011-01-01

    Previous work has shown that mental imagination of sound generally elicits an increase of alpha band activity (8-12Hz) in the electroencephalogram (EEG). In addition, alpha activity has been shown to be related to music processing. In the current study, EEG signatures were investigated for

  16. Acute effect of oral, intraperitoneal, and intravenous 1 alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol on markers of bone metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joffe, P; Ladefoged, S D; Cintin, C

    1994-01-01

    ,25-(OH)2D3 was measured. DESIGN: Single doses of 1 alpha-OHD3 (80 ng/kg body wt) were given in randomized cross-over fashion, orally, intraperitoneally (i.p.) and intravenously (i.v.) on three occasions. Blood was sampled at 0, 1, 6, 12, and 24 h after administration of 1 alpha-OHD3. MAIN RESULTS...

  17. The radiolysis of CMPO: effects of acid, metal complexation and alpha vs. gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce J. Mincher; Stephen P. Mezyk; Gary S. Groenewold

    2016-05-01

    Abstract The group actinide/lanthanide complexing agent octylphenylcarbamoylmethyl phosphine oxide (CMPO) has been examined for its radiation stability by measuring the kinetics of its reactions with free radicals in both the aqueous and organic phases for the free and metal-complexed ligand, identifying its degradation products for both alpha and gamma irradiation, measuring the effects on solvent extraction performance, and measuring the G-values for its degradation under various conditions. This includes the G-values for CMPO in the absence of, and in contact with the acidic aqueous phase, where it is shown that the acidic aqueous phase provides radio-protection for this ligand. It was found that both solvent and metal complexation affect the kinetics of the reaction of the •NO3 radical, a product of HNO3 radiolysis, with CMPO. For example, CMPO complexed with lanthanides has a rate constant for this reaction an order of magnitude higher than for the free ligand, and the reaction for the free ligand in the organic phase is about three times faster than in the aqueous phase. In steady state radiolysis kinetics it was determined that HNO3, although not NO3- anion, provides radio-protection to CMPO, with the G-value for its degradation decreasing with increasing acidity, until it was almost completely suppressed by irradiation in contact with 5 M HNO3. The same degradation products were produced by irradiation with alpha and gamma-sources, except that the relative abundances of these products varied. For example, the product of C-C bond scission was produced only in low amounts for gamma-radiolysis, but it was an important product for samples irradiated with a He ion beam. These results are compared to the new data appearing in the literature on DGA radiolysis, since CMPO and the DGAs both contain the amide functional group.

  18. Effects of Self Irradiation from 238Pu on Candidate Ceramics for Plutonium Immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strachan, Denis M.; Scheele, Randall D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; Sell, Rachel L.

    2003-01-01

    In this document, we describe the results of radiation damage testing and characterization for specimens that were resintered to re-establish crystallinity. The phases in these specimens have become amorphous from radiation induced damage over the 8 months since sintering

  19. The effect of alpha-thalassemia on cord blood red cell indices and interaction with sickle cell gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quadri, Mohammad I.; Islam, Sherief I.A.M.; Nasserullah, Z.

    2000-01-01

    Alpha-thalassemia is known to be prevalent in the Eastern region of Saudi Arabia. There are no large scale reports regarding the effect of alpha-thalassemia on red cell indices of cord blood from Saudi Arabia. Similarly, there are reports regarding the interaction of alpha-thalassemia and the sickle-cell gene in relation to red cell indices in cord blood. To address these issues, we undertook a study on neonatal cold blood samples. In a prospective study, cord blood samples from 504 neonates from the Qatif area of the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia were analyzed for complete blood counts (CBC) and cellulose acetate Hb electrophoresis. Hb S was confirmed by citrate agar Hb electrophoresis. There were 243 case samples with normal Hb electrophoresis (Hb A 27.2+- 7% and Hb F 72.6+-7.7%). Their mean Hb (g/dL), RBC (x10/L), Hct (%), MCV (pg), MCHC (g/dL), RDW-SD (fl) and RDW-CV (%) were 15.05+-1.6, 4.5+-0.5, 47.4+-5.3, 106+-8, 33.6+-2.3, 31.8+-1.7, 69.2+-9.5 and 17.9+-1.7, respectively. There were 136 cases with alpha-thalassemia trait (alphaTT), 57 cases with sickle cell trait (SCT) and 50 cases of sickle cell trait with alplha-thalassemia trait (SCT/ alphaTT). There were ten cases of Hb H disease (6 definite), including one with sickle cell disease (SCD) and two with SCT, Hb Bart's 23.9%-43.6%; four probable with Hb Bart's 10.9%-16.1% and one with SCT. The effect on red cell parameters in Hb H disease were most pronounced. In addition, there seven cases of SCD, four of whom had coexistent alpha-thalassemia trait (SCD/alphaTT). The prevalence of alpha-thalassemia in this cohort of Saudi population was 39.99%. Hb H disease appeared as common as SCD. Sickle cell gene was seen in 23.4% of neonatal samples. Apha-thalassemia gene significantly reduces MCH, MCV, RDW-SD, Hct, Hb and increase RBC count in both normal or sickle cell trait neonates. Generally, the variation of red cell parameters is directly proportional to the amount of Hb Bart's in the cord blood. Sickle cell

  20. Effect of astaxanthin in combination with alpha-tocopherol or ascorbic acid against oxidative damage in diabetic ODS rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Masako; Onodera, Aya; Saito, Emi; Tanabe, Miyako; Yajima, Kazue; Takahashi, Jiro; Nguyen, Van Chuyen

    2008-08-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the effect of astaxanthin in combination with other antioxidants against oxidative damage in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic Osteogenic Disorder Shionogi (ODS) rats. Diabetic-ODS rats were divided into five groups: control, astaxanthin, ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, and tocotrienol. Each of the four experimental groups was administered a diet containing astaxanthin (0.1 g/kg), in combination with ascorbic acid (3.0 g/kg), alpha-tocopherol (0.1 g/kg), or tocotrienol (0.1 g/kg) for 20 wk. The effects of astaxanthin with other antioxidants on lipid peroxidation, urinary 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) excretion, serum creatinine (Cr) level, creatinine clearance (Ccr), and urinary protein content were assessed. The serum lipid peroxide levels and chemiluminescent (CL) intensity in the liver of the alpha-tocopherol and tocotrienol groups were significantly reduced in comparison to that of the control group. In the alpha-tocopherol group, urinary 8-OHdG excretion, serum Cr level, Ccr, urinary albumin excretion, and urinary protein concentration were significantly decreased as compared with those in the control group. Additionally, the CL intensity in the kidney of the alpha-tocopherol group was significantly lower, but that of the ascorbic acid group was significantly higher than that in the control group. These results indicate that dietary astaxanthin in combination with alpha-tocopherol has an inhibitory effect on oxidative stress. On the other hand, our study suggests that excessive ascorbic acid intake increases lipid peroxidation in diabetic rats.

  1. Modulator effects of interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha on AMPA-induced excitotoxicity in mouse organotypic hippocampal slice cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernardino, Liliana; Xapelli, Sara; Silva, Ana P

    2005-01-01

    The inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) have been identified as mediators of several forms of neurodegeneration in the brain. However, they can produce either deleterious or beneficial effects on neuronal function. We investigated the effects...... of mouse recombinant TNF-alpha (10 ng/ml) enhanced excitotoxicity when the cultures were simultaneously exposed to AMPA and to this cytokine. Decreasing the concentration of TNF-alpha to 1 ng/ml resulted in neuroprotection against AMPA-induced neuronal death independently on the application protocol....... By using TNF-alpha receptor (TNFR) knock-out mice, we demonstrated that the potentiation of AMPA-induced toxicity by TNF-alpha involves TNF receptor-1, whereas the neuroprotective effect is mediated by TNF receptor-2. AMPA exposure was associated with activation and proliferation of microglia as assessed...

  2. [Cholesterol metabolism and lipid peroxidation processes in hypodynamia. Effect of using ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elikov, A V; Tsapok, P I

    2010-01-01

    Study status of cholesterol metabolism, processes of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant protection in blood plasma, erythrocytes and homogenates of the, heart, liver, muscle femors of rats attached to movement active. Establishment effects application of ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol. Ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol were infused daily. The daily dosage was 2 and 1 mg respectively. Characteristic shift changes of cholesterol metabolism in conditions of limited muscular activity were revealed. It was shown that vitamin antioxidants play a role in correction of metabolic disorders in case of immobile distress syndrome.

  3. Effect of mode of rolling on development of texture and microstructure in two-phase ({alpha} + {beta}) brass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, Rohini; Ranganathan, S. [Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Suwas, Satyam, E-mail: satyamsuwas@met.iisc.ernet.in [Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2010-07-15

    The evolution of microstructure and texture during deformation of two-phase ({alpha} + {beta}) brass was studied for different initial microstructure and texture. The deformation processing involved unidirectional and multi-step cross-rolling. The bulk textures were determined by measuring the pole figures and calculating the orientation distribution function ODF for both {alpha} (fcc) and {beta} (bcc) phases, while the microstructure and other microstructural parameters were measured through optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy with electron back scatter diffraction (SEM-EBSD). Results indicate that textures developed after unidirectional rolling and multi-step cross-rolling are significantly different. The variation in initial texture had a pronounced effect on the development of texture in the {alpha} phase during subsequent deformation.

  4. Effects of local alpha2-adrenergic receptor blockade on adipose tissue lipolysis during prolonged systemic adrenaline infusion in normal man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Lene; Enevoldsen, Lotte H; Stallknecht, Bente

    2008-01-01

    During prolonged adrenaline infusion, lipolysis peaks within 30 min and thereafter tends to decline, and we hypothesized that the stimulation of local adipose tissue alpha2-adrenergic receptors accounts for this decline. The lipolytic effect of a prolonged intravenous adrenaline infusion combined....... Regional adipose tissue blood flow was measured by the (133)Xe clearance technique. Regional glycerol output (lipolytic rate) was calculated from these measurements and simultaneous measurements of arterial glycerol concentrations. Adrenaline infusion increased lipolysis in all three depots (data...... circulating adrenaline concentrations, and the decrease in lipolysis in subcutaneous adipose tissue under prolonged adrenaline stimulation is thus not attributed to alpha2-adrenergic receptor inhibition of lipolysis. However, in the preperitoneal adipose tissue depot, alpha2-adrenergic receptor tone plays...

  5. Effect of size of alpha phases on cyclic deformation and fatigue crack initiation during fatigue of an alpha-beta titanium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Qiaoyan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Alpha phase exhibits equiaxed or lamellar morphologies with size from submicron to microns in an alpha-beta titanium alloy. Cyclic deformation, slip characteristics and crack nucleation during fatigue in different microstructures of TC21 alloy (Ti-6Al-2Sn-2Zr-3Mo-1Cr-2Nb-0.1Si were systematically investigated and analyzed. During low-cycle fatigue, equiaxed microstructure (EM in TC21 alloy exhibits higher strength, ductility and longer low-cycle fatigue life than those of the lamellar microstructure (LM. There are more voids in the single lamellar alpha than the equiaxed alpha grains. As a result, voids more easily link up to form crack in the lamellar alpha phase than the equiaxed alpha phase. However, during high-cycle fatigue, the fine lamellar microstructure (FLM shows higher fatigue limit than bimodal microstructure (BM. The localized plastic deformation can be induced during high-cycle fatigue. The slip bands or twins are observed in the equiaxed and lamellar alpha phases(>1micron, which tends to form strain concentration and initiate fatigue crack. The localized slip within nanoscale alpha plates is seldom observed and extrusion/intrusion dispersedly distributed on the sample surface in FLM. This indicates that FLM show super resistance to fatigue crack which bring about higher fatigue limit than BM.

  6. Alpha clustering in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgson, P.E.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of nucleon clustering in nuclei are described, with reference to both nuclear structure and nuclear reactions, and the advantages of using the cluster formalism to describe a range of phenomena are discussed. It is shown that bound and scattering alpha-particle states can be described in a unified way using an energy-dependent alpha-nucleus potential. (author)

  7. Differential effects of 17 alpha-ethinylestradiol on the neutral and acidic pathways of bile salt synthesis in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopen, NR; Post, SM; Wolters, H; Havinga, R; Stellaard, F; Boverhof, R; Kuipers, F; Princen, HMG

    Effects of 17 alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE) on the neutral and acidic biosynthetic pathways of bile salt (BS) synthesis were evaluated in rats with an intact enterohepatic circulation and in rats with long-term bile diversion to induce BS synthesis, For this purpose, bile salt pool composition,

  8. The Effects of TM on Concurrent Heart Rate, Peripheral Blood Pulse Volume, and the Alpha Wave Frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, Jerome S.

    Through observation of 26 subjects over a 3 month period, this research project measured the effects of transcendental meditation (TM) on concurrent heart rate, peripheral blood pulse volume, and the alpha wave frequency. The subjects were assigned randomly to three groups. One group practiced TM as prescribed by the International Meditation…

  9. Age- dependent effect of Alzheimer’s risk variant of CLU on EEG alpha rhythm in non-demented adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya ePonomareva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Polymorphism in the genomic region harboring the CLU gene (rs11136000 has been associated with the risk for Alzheimer’s disease (AD. CLU C allele is assumed to confer risk for AD and the allele T may have a protective effect.We investigated the influence of the AD-associated CLU genotype on a common neurophysiological trait of brain activity (resting-state alpha-rhythm activity in non-demented adults and elucidated whether this influence is modified over the course of aging. We examined quantitative EEG (qEEG in cohort of non-demented individuals (age range 20-80 divided into young (age range 20-50 and old (age range 51-80 cohorts and stratified by CLU polymorphism. To rule out the effect of the ApoE genotype on EEG characteristics, only subjects without the ApoE epsilon4 allele were included in the study.The homozygous presence of the AD risk variant CLU CC in non-demented subjects was associated with an increase of alpha3 absolute power. Moreover, the influence of CLU genotype on alpha3 was found to be higher in the subjects older than 50 years of age. The study also showed age-dependent alterations of alpha topographic distribution that occur independently of the CLU genotype.The increase of upper alpha power has been associated with hippocampal atrophy in patients with mild cognitive impairment (Moretti et al., 2012a. In our study, the CLU CC- dependent increase in upper alpha rhythm, particularly enhanced in elderly non-demented individuals, may imply that the genotype is related to preclinical dysregulation of hippocampal neurophysiology in aging and that this factor may contribute to pathogenesis of AD.

  10. Alpha Elements' Effects on Planet Formation and the Hunt for Extragalactic Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penny, Matthew; Rodriguez, Joseph E.; Beatty, Thomas; Zhou, George

    2018-01-01

    A star's likelihood of hosting a giant planet is well known to be strongly dependent on metallicity. However, little is known about what elements cause this correlation (e.g. bulk metals, iron, or alpha elements such as silicon and oxygen). This is likely because most planet searches target stars in the Galactic disk, and due to Galactic chemical evolution, alpha element abundances are themselves correlated with metallicity within a population. We investigate the feasibility of simultaneous transiting planet search towards the alpha-poor Sagittarius dwarf galaxy and alpha-rich Galactic bulge in a single field of view of DECam, that would enable a comparative study of planet frequency over an [alpha/Fe] baseline of ~0.4 dex. We show that a modestly sized survey could detect planet candidates in both populations, but that false positive rejection in Sgr Dwarf may be prohibitively expensive. Conversely, two-filter survey observations alone would be sufficient to rule out a large fraction of bulge false positives, enabling statistical validation of candidates with a modest follow-up investment. Although over a shorter [alpha/Fe] baseline, this survey would provide a test of whether it is alpha or iron that causes the planet metallicity correlation.

  11. Effect of passive concentration as instructional set for training enhancement of EEG alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, S S

    1980-12-01

    The technique of passive concentration, employed by autogenic training and Transcendental Meditation for achieving relaxation, was tested here as a technique for enhancing EEG alpha. Of 30 subjects displaying between 15% and 74% alpha in their resting EEGs recruited, 10 had to be eliminated. The remaining 20 constituted two groups. One was instructed only to attempt to maintain a tone indicating alpha but given no information about technique (control group). The other was given additional instructions in passive concentration (experimental group). Both were given four 5-min. trials a day for 4 consecutive days. Heart rate and skin conductance were measured to monitor autonomic arousal. The group receiving instructions in passive concentration had significantly less alpha than the control group, which did not increase amount of alpha above baseline. The reduction of alpha in the experimental group was interpreted as resulting from beginning long training periods (20 min. per day), a practice advocated by Transcendental Meditation but discouraged by autogenic training. It was concluded that the relevance of passive concentration for alpha enhancement is doubtful.

  12. Protective Effect of Alpha Lipoic Acid on Rat Sciatic Nerve Ischemia Reperfusion Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozan Turamanlar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alpha lipoic acid is a potent antioxidant that plays numerous roles in human health. This study examined the effect of ALA on rat sciatic nerve ischemia reperfusion damage. Aims: Protective effect of alpha lipoic acid (ALA on sciatic nerve following ischemia-reperfusion in rats was investigated by using light microscopy and biochemical methods. Provided that the protective effect of ALA on sciatic nerve is proven, we think the damage to the sciatic nerve that has already occurred or might occur in patients for various reasons maybe prevented or stopped by giving ALA in convenient doses. Study Design: Animal experiment. Methods: Forty-two adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-300 grams were used in this study. Rats were randomly divided into six groups including one control (Group 1, one sham (Group 2, two ischemia-reperfusion (Groups 3 and 4 and two treatment groups (Groups5 and 6. Doses of 60 and 100 mg/kg ALA were given (Group 5 and 6 intra peritoneally twice, 1 and 24 hours before the ischemia to each treatment group. Ischemia was carried out the abdominal aorta starting from the distal part of the renal vein for two hours followed by reperfusion for three hours. In immunohistochemical methods, fibronectin immunoreactivity was analyzed. For biochemical analyses, the tissues were taken in eppendorf microtubes and superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx enzyme activities as well as malondialdehyde (MDA and nitricoxide (NO levels were measured. Results: Fibronectin was observed to have increased significantly in the ischemia group; on the other hand, it was observed to have decreased in parallel to the doses in the ALA groups. Biochemical studies showed that SOD and GSHPx declined with ischemia-reperfusion, but the activities of these enzymes were increased in the treatment groups in parallel with the dose. It was found that increased MDA levels with ischemia-reperfusion were decreased in parallel with ALA dose

  13. The effect of physically applied alpha hydroxyl acids on the skin pore and comedone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S J; Baek, J H; Koh, J S; Bae, M I; Lee, S J; Shin, M K

    2015-10-01

    Alpha hydroxy acids (AHA) have been recognized as commonly used therapy for acne. Our studies examined whether an additional effect of physical treatment using chemical peeling combined with negative pressure and compared with AHA treatment only occurs in acne-prone subjects. The chemical peeling agent used 4% of an AHA solution (mixture of 1000 mL of carbonated water, 20 mL of glycolic acid and 20 mL of lactic acid). All subjects' faces were randomly divided into test and control groups. The test group was treated with chemical peeling combined with a physical effect, and the control group applied chemical peeling alone. For the 23 healthy females (average age: 30.17 ± 5.06 year), we measured sebum output level by light transmission, pore area and number by optical image analyser, and comedone counting before treatment and at 1, 2 and 4 weeks after a single treatment. Compared to the before treatment, whiteheads and blackheads were significantly decreased at 1, 2 and 4 weeks in the test group (P Pore area and number significantly decreased at 1 week (P pore size and seborrhoea. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  14. Effects of alpha-glucosylhesperidin on the peripheral body temperature and autonomic nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takumi, Hiroko; Fujishima, Noboru; Shiraishi, Koso; Mori, Yuka; Ariyama, Ai; Kometani, Takashi; Hashimoto, Shinichi; Nadamoto, Tomonori

    2010-01-01

    We studied the effects of alpha-glucosylhesperidin (G-Hsp) on the peripheral body temperature and autonomic nervous system in humans. We first conducted a survey of 97 female university students about excessive sensitivity to the cold; 74% of them replied that they were susceptible or somewhat susceptible to the cold. We subsequently conducted a three-step experiment. In the first experiment, G-Hsp (500 mg) was proven to prevent a decrease in the peripheral body temperature under an ambient temperature of 24 degrees C. In the second experiment, a warm beverage containing G-Hsp promoted blood circulation and kept the finger temperature higher for a longer time. We finally used a heart-rate variability analysis to study whether G-Hsp changed the autonomic nervous activity. The high-frequency (HF) component tended to be higher, while the ratio of the low-frequency (LF)/HF components tended to be lower after the G-Hsp administration. These results suggest that the mechanism for temperature control by G-Hsp might involve an effect on the autonomic nervous system.

  15. Brain alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex: kinetic properties, regional distribution, and effects of inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, J C; Cooper, A J

    1986-11-01

    The substrate and cofactor requirements and some kinetic properties of the alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDHC; EC 1.2.4.2, EC 2.3.1.61, and EC 1.6.4.3) in purified rat brain mitochondria were studied. Brain mitochondrial KGDHC showed absolute requirement for alpha-ketoglutarate, CoA and NAD, and only partial requirement for added thiamine pyrophosphate, but no requirement for Mg2+ under the assay conditions employed in this study. The pH optimum was between 7.2 and 7.4, but, at pH values below 7.0 or above 7.8, KGDHC activity decreased markedly. KGDHC activity in various brain regions followed the rank order: cerebral cortex greater than cerebellum greater than or equal to midbrain greater than striatum = hippocampus greater than hypothalamus greater than pons and medulla greater than olfactory bulb. Significant inhibition of brain mitochondrial KGDHC was noted at pathological concentrations of ammonia (0.2-2 mM). However, the purified bovine heart KGDHC and KGDHC activity in isolated rat heart mitochondria were much less sensitive to inhibition. At 5 mM both beta-methylene-D,L-aspartate and D,L-vinylglycine (inhibitors of cerebral glucose oxidation) inhibited the purified heart but not the brain mitochondrial enzyme complex. At approximately 10 microM, calcium slightly stimulated (by 10-15%) the brain mitochondrial KGDHC. At concentrations above 100 microM, calcium (IC50 = 1 mM) inhibited both brain mitochondrial and purified heart KGDHC. The present results suggest that some of the kinetic properties of the rat brain mitochondrial KGDHC differ from those of the purified bovine heart and rat heart mitochondrial enzyme complexes. They also suggest that the inhibition of KGDHC by ammonia and the consequent effect on the citric acid cycle fluxes may be of pathophysiological and/or pathogenetic importance in hyperammonemia and in diseases (e.g., hepatic encephalopathy, inborn errors of urea metabolism, Reye's syndrome) where hyperammonemia is a

  16. The Effect of Lithospermum officinale, Silver Sulfadiazine and Alpha Ointments in Healing of Burn Wound Injuries in Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohtasham Amiri, Zahra; Tanideh, Nader; Seddighi, Anahita; Mokhtari, Maral; Amini, Masood; Shakouri Partovi, Alborz; Manafi, Amir; Hashemi, Seyedeh Sara; Mehrabani, Davood

    2017-09-01

    Burn is the most devastating condition in emergency medicine leading to chronic disabilities. This study aimed to compare the effect of Lithospermum officinale , silver sulfadiazine and alpha ointments on healing of burn wounds in rat. Ninety-five rats were divided into 5 groups. Group 1 just underwent burn injury, and groups 2-5 received alpha ointment, silver sulfadiazine (SSD), gel base and L. officinale extract, respectively. A hot plate was used for induction of a standard 3 rd degree burn wound. Burn wounds were macroscopically and microscopically evaluated on days 7 th , 14 th and 21 st after burn induction. A decrease in the number of inflammatory cells was noted when L. officinale and SSD were applied while the most inflammatory response was seen after administration of alpha ointment. The number of macrophages alone decreased after burn injury, while the frequency was the most when L. officinale and alpha ointment were applied. Re-epithelialization, angiogenesis and formation of granulation tissue were the best in relation to L. officinale and alpha ointment while, the worst results belonged to burn injury group and SSD regarding granulation tissue formation. Considering histological assessment, the best results were observed for scoring of inflammation, re-epithelialization, angiogenesis, formation of granulation tissue and number of macrophage when L. officinale and alpha ointment were used after burn injury. It can be concluded that topical application of L. officinale as a non-toxic, inexpensive and easy to produce herbal can lead to a rapid epithelialization and wound healing and these findings can be added to the literature on burn wound healing.

  17. Effect of plant growth regulators on production of alpha-linolenic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sujana Kokkiligadda

    2017-10-05

    Oct 5, 2017 ... MS received 13 October 2016; revised 22 March 2017; accepted 30 May 2017; ... Plant growth regulators; microalgae; Chlorella pyrenoidosa; alpha-linolenic acid. 1. ... the growth period by flocculation method [9] using alum.

  18. Effect of sawteeth on alpha power deposition and ignition in Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolesnichenko, Ya.I.; Lutsenko, V.V.; Yakovenko, Yu.V.

    1992-01-01

    The main features of the alpha particle heating, ignition and thermonuclear burn in a tokamak plasma with sawtooth oscillations are revealed. The sensitivity of results against the various model of sawteeth and characteristics of the safety factor q(r) is investigated. Analysis of ignition is best applicable to the case T ε r ,T ε being the alpha particle energy loss time, T r period of sawtooth oscillations

  19. The Effects of Individual Upper Alpha Neurofeedback in ADHD: An Open-Label Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Escolano , Carlos; Navarro-Gil , Mayte; Garcia-Campayo , Javier; Congedo , Marco; Minguez , Javier

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Standardized neurofeedback (NF) protocols have been extensively evaluated in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, such protocols do not account for the large EEG heterogeneity in ADHD. Thus, individualized approaches have been suggested to improve the clinical outcome. In this direction, an open-label pilot study was designed to evaluate a NF protocol of relative upper alpha power enhancement in fronto-central sites. Upper alpha band was individual...

  20. Deficiency Mutations of Alpha-1 Antitrypsin. Effects on Folding, Function, and Polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Imran; Irving, James A; Saleh, Aarash D; Dron, Louis; Regan-Mochrie, Gemma L; Motamedi-Shad, Neda; Hurst, John R; Gooptu, Bibek; Lomas, David A

    2016-01-01

    Misfolding, polymerization, and defective secretion of functional alpha-1 antitrypsin underlies the predisposition to severe liver and lung disease in alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency. We have identified a novel (Ala336Pro, Baghdad) deficiency variant and characterized it relative to the wild-type (M) and Glu342Lys (Z) alleles. The index case is a homozygous individual of consanguineous parentage, with levels of circulating alpha-1 antitrypsin in the moderate deficiency range, but is a biochemical phenotype that could not be classified by standard methods. The majority of the protein was present as functionally inactive polymer, and the remaining monomer was 37% active relative to the wild-type protein. These factors combined indicate an 85 to 95% functional deficiency, similar to that seen with ZZ homozygotes. Biochemical, biophysical, and computational studies further defined the molecular basis of this deficiency. These studies demonstrated that native Ala336Pro alpha-1 antitrypsin could populate the polymerogenic intermediate-and therefore polymerize-more readily than either wild-type alpha-1 antitrypsin or the Z variant. In contrast, folding was far less impaired in Ala336Pro alpha-1 antitrypsin than in the Z variant. The data are consistent with a disparate contribution by the "breach" region and "shutter" region of strand 5A to folding and polymerization mechanisms. Moreover, the findings demonstrate that, in these variants, folding efficiency does not correlate directly with the tendency to polymerize in vitro or in vivo. They therefore differentiate generalized misfolding from polymerization tendencies in missense variants of alpha-1 antitrypsin. Clinically, they further support the need to quantify loss-of-function in alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency to individualize patient care.

  1. Effects of central imidazolinergic and alpha2-adrenergic activation on water intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugawara A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-adrenergic ligands that bind to imidazoline receptors (I-R, a selective ligand that binds to alpha2-adrenoceptors (alpha2-AR and mixed ligands that bind to both receptors were tested for their action on water intake behavior of 24-h water-deprived rats. All drugs were injected into the third cerebral ventricle. Except for agmatine (80 nmol, mixed ligands binding to I-R/alpha2-AR such as guanabenz (40 nmol and UK 14304 (20 nmol inhibited water intake by 65% and up to 95%, respectively. The selective non-imidazoline alpha2-AR agonist, alpha-methylnoradrenaline, produced inhibition of water intake similar to that obtained with guanabenz, but at higher doses (80 nmol. The non-adrenergic I-R ligands histamine (160 nmol, mixed histaminergic and imidazoline ligand and imidazole-4-acetic acid (80 nmol, imidazoline ligand did not alter water intake. The results show that selective, non-imidazoline alpha2-AR activation suppresses water intake, and suggest that the action on imidazoline sites by non-adrenergic ligands is not sufficient to inhibit water intake.

  2. The Alpha value decrease when the annual individual effective dose decreases?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sordi, Gian M.; Marchiusi, Thiago; Sousa, Jefferson de J.

    2008-01-01

    A recent IAEA publication tells that a few entities took different alpha values for maxima individual doses. Beyond to disregard the international agencies, that recommend only one alpha value for each country, the alpha values decreases when the individual doses decreases and the practice happens exactly the conversely as we will show in this paper. We will prove that the alpha value increase when the maximum individual doses decreases in a four different manner. The first one we call the theoretical conception and it is linked to the emergent of the ALARA policy and to the purpose that led to the 3/10 of the annual limits, for to decrease the individual doses as a first resort and a 1/10 as a last resort. The second prove will be based in a small mine example used in the ICRP publication number 55 concerning to the optimization and the quantitative decision-aiding techniques in radiological protection where we will determine the alpha value ranges in which each radiological protection options becomes the analytical solution. The third prove will be based in the determination of the optimized thickness example of a plane shielding for a radiation source exposed in the ICRP publication number 37. We will use, also, the numerical example provided there. Eventually, as four prove we will show that the alpha value dos not only increases with the maximum individual dose decrease, but also, with the shielding geometry. (author)

  3. Effects of dietary [alpha]-tocopherol and [beta]-carotene on lipid peroxidation induced by methyl mercuric chloride in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raun Andersen, H; Andersen, O [Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Odense, Odense (Denmark)

    1993-01-01

    Exposure of male CBA mice to methyl mercuric chloride, CH[sub 3]HgCl, (10-40 mg/l in drinking water) for 2 weeks resulted in dose-related Hg deposition and enhanced lipid peroxidation in liver, kidney and brain. Mice were fed well-defined semisynthetic diets containing different levels of [alpha]-tocopherol (10, 100 or 1000 mg/kg) or [beta]-carotene (1000, 10,000 or 100,000 IU/kg) for four weeks, two groups on each diet. The concentration of [alpha]-tocopherol and [beta]-carotene used corresponded to deficient, normal and high levels. During the last two weeks, one group on each diet was given 40 mg CH[sub 3]HgCl/l of drinking water. High dietary [alpha]-tocopherol protected against CH[sub 3]HgCl induced hepatic lipid peroxidation, whereas the [alpha]-tocopherol deficient diet further enhanced CH[sub 3]HgCl induced hepatic lipid peroxidation. Similar, though statistically non-significant effects occurred in the kidneys, [alpha]-tocopherol did not protect against CH[sub 3]HgCl induced lipid peroxidation in the brain. Excess dietary [beta]-carotene further enhanced CH[sub 3]HgCl induced lipid peroxidation in liver, kidney and brain. CH[sub 3]HgCl significantly decreased the activity of total glutathione peroxidase (T-GSH-Px) and Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase (Se-GSH-Px) in the kidneys in all dietary groups. High dietary [alpha]-tocopherol enhanced the activity of Se-GSH-Px in liver and kidney compared to the activity in mice fed the normal level of [alpha]-tocopherol. This occurred in mice exposed to CH[sub 3]-HgCl as well as in unexposed mice, and the difference between CH[sub 3]HgCl exposed and unexposed mice was not diminished. High dietary [alpha]-tocopherol increased the activity of both Se-GSH-Px and T-GSH-Px in the brain of CH[sub 3]HgCl-exposed mice. The dietary level of [beta]-carotene did not affect the activity of the two enzymes in the organs investigated. (au) (43 refs.).

  4. Effects of Socio demographic factors on plasma ascorbic acid and alpha tocopherol anti oxidants during pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sylvester, I.E.; Paul, A.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the plasma levels of vitamins C and E at the various stages of pregnancy and to correlate their plasma levels with the socio-demographic factors of pregnant Nigerians. Methodology: The pregnant cases (n=180) were randomly selected according to gestational ages. And the controls (n=20) were non-pregnant women of the same age. Plasma levels of both vitamins were assayed with well established laboratory methods. Results: The mean plasma vitamins C and E in the pregnant cases was lower (by 17-23%) than controls across the three trimesters, p<0.0001. The correlation of vitamin C versus maternal age was significant; r = - 0.59, p<0.05; the mean plasma level of vitamin C declined by 57% as the maternal age increases from 22-37 years. Conclusion: The mean plasma Ascorbic acid and Alpha-tocopherol are reduced during pregnancy and socio-demographic factors have mild effects on the plasma levels of these vitamins. (author)

  5. Differential Effects of Alpha-Particle Radiation and X-Irradiation on Genes Associated with Apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauhan, V.; Howland, M.; Chen, J.; Kutzner, B.; Wilkins, R.C.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined differential effects of alpha-(α) particle radiation and X-rays on apoptosis and associated changes in gene expression. Human monocytic cells were exposed to a-particle radiation and X-rays from 0 to 1.5 Gy. Four days postexposure, cell death was measured by flow cytometry and 84 genes related to apoptosis were analyzed using real-time PCR. On average, 33% of the cells were apoptotic at 1.5 Gy of a-particle radiation. Transcript profiling showed statistical expression of 15 genes at all three doses tested. Cells exposed to X-rays were <5% apoptotic at ∼1.5 Gy and induced less than a 2-fold expression in 6 apoptotic genes at the higher doses of radiation. Among these 6 genes, Fas and TNF-α were common to the α-irradiated cells. This data suggests that α-particle radiation initiates cell death by TNF-a and Fas activation and through intermediate signalling mediators that are distinct from X-irradiated cells

  6. Buffett's Alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Kabiller, David; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    Berkshire Hathaway has realized a Sharpe ratio of 0.76, higher than any other stock or mutual fund with a history of more than 30 years, and Berkshire has a significant alpha to traditional risk factors. However, we find that the alpha becomes insignificant when controlling for exposures to Betting...

  7. Effectiveness and safety of alpha agonists for ADHD in population between 6 and 19 years: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Calleja

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is generally treated with pharmacological interventions; psychostimulants are first choice. Other alternatives have been used such as alpha agonists (clonidine, hence it is important to know its effectiveness and safety. Purpose: To identify, synthesize and evaluate the best available evidence on the effectiveness and safety of alpha agonists in treating ADHD in the 6-19 year-old population. Methods: A systematic review of intervention studies that evaluated effectiveness comparing alpha agonists to methylphenidate was conducted. Outcomes measured were educational performance, psychosocial functioning, quality of life and adverse effects. The following databases were searched up to February 2012 in English and Spanish: PubMed/MEDLINE, Lilacs, Cochrane, DARE and National Guideline Clearinghouse. The articles that met the inclusion criteria were assessed by two researchers independently. Results: Of the 34 studies found initially, three were included, among which a systematic review and two clinical guidelines. Conclusions: Clonidine is considered an effective second and third line treatment for ADHD symptoms, but it is less effective than stimulants. Its use is associated with many side effects.

  8. The determination of $\\alpha_s$ by the ALPHA collaboration

    CERN Document Server

    Bruno, Mattia

    2016-01-01

    We review the ALPHA collaboration strategy for obtaining the QCD coupling at high scale. In the three-flavor effective theory it avoids the use of perturbation theory at $\\alpha > 0.2$ and at the same time has the physical scales small compared to the cutoff $1/a$ in all stages of the computation. The result $\\Lambda_\\overline{MS}^{(3)}=332(14)$~MeV is translated to $\\alpha_\\overline{MS}(m_Z)=0.1179(10)(2)$ by use of (high order) perturbative relations between the effective theory couplings at the charm and beauty quark "thresholds". The error of this perturbative step is discussed and estimated as $0.0002$.

  9. alpha2-Adrenergic agonists antagonise the anxiolytic-like effect of antidepressants in the four-plate test in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massé, Fabienne; Hascoët, Martine; Bourin, Michel

    2005-10-14

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin/noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) has been reported to be efficient in anxiety disorders. Some animal models have demonstrated an anxiolytic-like effect following acute administration, however, it is not yet known how noradrenergic receptors are implicated in the therapeutic effects of antidepressants (ADs) in anxiety. The effects of two alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonists (clonidine, guanabenz) on anxiolytic-like effect of two SSRIs (paroxetine and citalopram) and two SNRIs (venlafaxine and milnacipran) were evaluated in the four-plate test (FPT) in mice. Paroxetine (4 mg/kg), citalopram (8 mg/kg), venlafaxine (8 mg/kg), and milnacipran (8 mg/kg) administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) increased the number of punishments accepted by mice in the FPT. Clonidine (0.0039-0.5 mg/kg) and guanabenz (0.03-0.5mg/kg) had no effect on the number of punishments accepted by mice. Clonidine (0.03 and 0.06 mg/kg) and guanabenz (0.125 and 0.5 mg/kg) (i.p. -45 min) reversed the anti-punishment effect of paroxetine, citalopram, venlafaxine and milnacipran (i.p. -30 min). But if the antidepressants are administered 45 min before the test and alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonists 30 min before the test, alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonists failed to alter the anti-punishment effect of antidepressants. The results of this present study indicate that alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonists antagonise the anxiolytic-like effect of antidepressants in mice when they are administered 15 min before the administration of antidepressant suggesting a close inter-regulation between noradrenergic and serotoninergic system in the mechanism of SSRIs and SNRIs in anxiety-like behaviour.

  10. Adverse effects of cyclosporine A on HSP25, alpha B-crystallin and myofibrillar cytoskeleton in rat heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacchiotti, Alessandra; Bonomini, Francesca; Lavazza, Antonio; Rodella, Luigi Fabrizio; Rezzani, Rita

    2009-01-01

    Cyclosporine (CsA) is a universally used immunosuppressive drug which induces adverse side effects in several organs, but its impact on the heart is still controversial. Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs), such as HSP25 and alpha B-crystallin, are cytoprotective stress proteins exceptionally represented in the heart. They act as myofibrillar chaperones that help actin and desmin to maintain their optimum configuration and stability, thereby antagonizing oxidative damage. The present study examined: (1) the cardiac distribution and abundance of HSP25 and alpha B-crystallin in rats receiving CsA at a therapeutic dosage (15 mg/kg/day) for 42 days and 63 days; (2) the presence of myofibrillar proteins, such as actin, alpha-actinin and desmin following the CsA treatments; (3) the subcellular effects of prolonged CsA exposure on the cardiomyocytes by histopathology and transmission electron microscopy. After 63 days CsA intake, sHSPs translocated from a regular sarcomeric pattern to peripheral sarcolemma and intercalated discs, together with actin and desmin. In contrast, the sarcomeric alpha-actinin pattern did not change in all experimental groups. The abundance of actin and HSP25 was unchanged in every time point of treatment while after 63 days CsA, alpha B-crystallin and desmin levels significantly decreased. Furthermore CsA induced fibrosis, irregular sarcomeric alignment and damaged desmosomes. These findings indicate that following prolonged CsA exposure, the cardiac muscle network was affected. In particular, the translocation of sHSPs to intercalated discs merits special consideration as a direct compensatory mechanism to limit CsA cardiotoxicity.

  11. Effect of adrenaline and alpha-agonists on net rate of liquid absorption from the pleural space of rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zocchi, L; Raffaini, A; Agostoni, E

    1997-05-01

    Indirect evidence supporting a solute-coupled liquid absorption from the pleural space of rabbits has recently been provided; moreover, the beta 2-adrenoceptor agonist terbutaline has been found to increase this absorption. In this study the effect of adrenaline and alpha-adrenoceptor agonists on net rate of liquid absorption (Jnet) from albumin Ringer hydrothoraces of various sizes has been determined in anaesthetized rabbits. In hydrothoraces with adrenaline (5 x 10(-6) M) the relationship between Jnet and volume of liquid injected was displaced upwards by 0.09 ml h-1 relative to that in control hydrothoraces (P liquid absorption, since beta-agonists inhibit lymphatic activity while, at relatively high concentrations, they may increase active transport. Conversely, the strong stimulation of lymphatic alpha-receptors that should occur with adrenaline after beta-blockade may fail to increase lymphatic drainage, because it has been shown that the increase in contraction frequency of lymphatics may be balanced by the decrease in their stroke volume. Arterial blood pressure during the hydrothoraces with adrenaline was unchanged. In hydrothoraces with the alpha 2-agonist clonidine (5 x 10(-6) M; a less potent agent than adrenaline) the slope of the relationship between Jnet and volume injected increased by 26% (P liquid load. In hydrothoraces with the alpha 1-agonist phenylephrine (5 x 10(-6) or 10(-7) M) Jnet was simlar to control values.

  12. Effects of thyroid status on presynaptic. cap alpha. 2-adrenoceptor and. beta. -adrenoceptor binding in the rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atterwill, C.K.; Bunn, S.J.; Atkinson, D.J. (Development Neurobiology Unit, London (UK). Inst. of Neurology); Smith, S.L.; Heal, D.J. (Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford (UK))

    1984-01-01

    The effect of thyroid status on noradrenergic synaptic function in the mature brain was examined by measuring presynaptic ..cap alpha..2- and postsynaptic ..beta..-adrenoceptors. Repeated triiodothyronine (T/sub 3/) administration to rats (100..mu..g/kg x 14 days hyperthyroid) caused an 18% increase in striatal ..beta..-adrenoceptors as shown by (/sup 3/H)-dihydroalprenolol binding with no change in membranes from cerebral cortex or hypothalamus. In contrast, hypothyroidism (propylthiouracil, PTU x 14 days) produced significant 12% and 30% reductions in striatal and hypothalamic ..beta..-adrenoceptors respectively with no change in the cerebral cortex. Presynaptic ..cap alpha..2-adrenoceptor function was measured in the two dysthyroid states using the clonidine-induced hypoactivity model. Experimental hyperthyroidism increased the degree of clonidine-induced hypoactivity, and suggests increased presynaptic ..cap alpha..2-adrenoceptor function compared with control rats, whereas hypothyroidism suppressed presynaptic ..cap alpha..2-adrenoceptor function. These results show firstly that changes of thyroid status in the mature rat may produce homeostatic alterations at central noradrenergic synapses as reflected by changes in pre- and postsynaptic adrenoceptor function. Secondly, there appear to be T/sub 3/-induced changes in ..beta..-adrenoceptors in the striatum where changes in dopaminergic neuronal activity have previously been demonstrated.

  13. A complex effect of arsenite on the formation of alpha-ketoglutarate in rat liver mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenartowicz, E

    1990-12-01

    This investigation presents disturbances of the mitochondrial metabolism by arsenite, a hydrophilic dithiol reagent known as an inhibitor of mitochondrial alpha-keto acid dehydrogenases. Arsenite at concentrations of 0.1-1.0 mM was shown to induce a considerable oxidation of intramitochondrial NADPH, NADH, and glutathione without decreasing the mitochondrial membrane potential. The oxidation of NAD(P)H required the presence of phosphate and was sensitive to ruthenium red, but occurred without the addition of calcium salts. Mitochondrial reactions producing alpha-ketoglutarate from glutamate and isocitrate were modulated by arsenite through various mechanisms: (i) both glutamate transaminations, with oxaloacetate and with pyruvate, were inhibited by accumulating alpha-ketoglutarate; however, at low concentrations of alpha-ketoglutarate the aspartate aminotransferase reaction was stimulated due to the increase of NAD+ content; (ii) the oxidation of isocitrate was stimulated at its low concentration only, due to the oxidation of NADPH and NADH; this oxidation was prevented by concentrations of citrate or isocitrate greater than 1 mM; (iii) the conversion of isocitrate to citrate was suppressed, presumably as a result of the decrease of Mg2+ concentration in mitochondria. Thus the depletion of mitochondrial vicinal thiol groups in hydrophilic domains disturbs the mitochondrial metabolism not only by the inhibition of alpha-keto acid dehydrogenases but also by the oxidation of NAD(P)H and, possibly, by the change in the ion concentrations.

  14. Nutritional Effect of Alpha-Linolenic Acid on Honey Bee Colony Development (Apis Mellifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Lanting

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, which is an n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA, influences honey bee feed intake and longevity. The objective of this study was to research the effect of six dietary ALA levels on the growth and development of Apis mellifera ligustica colonies. In the early spring, a total of 36 honey bee colonies of equal size and queen quality were randomly allocated into 6 groups. The six groups of honey bees were fed a basal diet with supplementation of ALA levels at 0 (group A, 2 (group B, 4 (group C, 6 (group D, 8 (group E, and 10% (group F. In this study, there were significant effects of pollen substitute ALA levels on the feeding amounts of the bee colony, colony population, sealed brood amount, and weight of newly emerged workers (P<0.05. The workers’ midgut Lipase (LPS activity of group C was significantly lower than that of the other groups (P<0.01. The worker bees in groups B, C, and D had significantly longer lifespans than those in the other groups (P<0.05. However, when the diets had ALA concentrations of more than 6%, the mortality of the honey bees increased (P<0.01. These results indicate that ALA levels of 2 ~ 4% of the pollen substitute were optimal for maintaining the highest reproductive performance and the digestion and absorption of fatty acids in honey bees during the period of spring multiplication. Additionally, ALA levels of 2 ~ 6% of the pollen substitute, improved worker bee longevity.

  15. Probability of bystander effect induced by alpha-particles emitted by radon progeny using the analytical model of tracheobronchial tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovanovic, B.; Nikezic, D.

    2010-01-01

    Radiation-induced biological bystander effects have become a phenomenon associated with the interaction of radiation with cells. There is a need to include the influence of biological effects in the dosimetry of the human lung. With this aim, the purpose of this work is to calculate the probability of bystander effect induced by alpha-particle radiation on sensitive cells of the human lung. Probability was calculated by applying the analytical model cylinder bifurcation, which was created to simulate the geometry of the human lung with the geometric distribution of cell nuclei in the airway wall of the tracheobronchial tree. This analytical model of the human tracheobronchial tree represents the extension of the ICRP 66 model, and follows it as much as possible. Reported probabilities are calculated for various targets and alpha-particle energies. Probability of bystander effect has been calculated for alpha particles with 6 and 7.69 MeV energies, which are emitted in the 222 Rn chain. The application of these results may enhance current dose risk estimation approaches in the sense of the inclusion of the influence of the biological effects. (authors)

  16. Divergent effects of 17-{beta}-estradiol on human vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cell function diminishes TNF-{alpha}-induced neointima formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nintasen, Rungrat [Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Leeds Institute of Genetics, Health and Therapeutics, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Multidisciplinary Cardiovascular Research Center (MCRC), University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Department of Tropical Pathology, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University (Thailand); Riches, Kirsten; Mughal, Romana S. [Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Leeds Institute of Genetics, Health and Therapeutics, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Multidisciplinary Cardiovascular Research Center (MCRC), University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Viriyavejakul, Parnpen; Chaisri, Urai; Maneerat, Yaowapa [Department of Tropical Pathology, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University (Thailand); Turner, Neil A. [Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Leeds Institute of Genetics, Health and Therapeutics, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Multidisciplinary Cardiovascular Research Center (MCRC), University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Porter, Karen E., E-mail: medkep@leeds.ac.uk [Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Leeds Institute of Genetics, Health and Therapeutics, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Multidisciplinary Cardiovascular Research Center (MCRC), University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2012-04-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TNF-{alpha} augments neointimal hyperplasia in human saphenous vein. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TNF-{alpha} induces detrimental effects on endothelial and smooth muscle cell function. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Estradiol exerts modulatory effects on TNF-induced vascular cell functions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The modulatory effects of estradiol are discriminatory and cell-type specific. -- Abstract: Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a condition characterized by increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}). TNF-{alpha} can induce vascular endothelial cell (EC) and smooth muscle cell (SMC) dysfunction, central events in development of neointimal lesions. The reduced incidence of CHD in young women is believed to be due to the protective effects of estradiol (E2). We therefore investigated the effects of TNF-{alpha} on human neointima formation and SMC/EC functions and any modulatory effects of E2. Saphenous vein (SV) segments were cultured in the presence of TNF-{alpha} (10 ng/ml), E2 (2.5 nM) or both in combination. Neointimal thickening was augmented by incubation with TNF-{alpha}, an effect that was abolished by co-culture with E2. TNF-{alpha} increased SV-SMC proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner that was optimal at 10 ng/ml (1.5-fold increase), and abolished by E2 at all concentrations studied (1-50 nM). Surprisingly, E2 itself at low concentrations (1 and 5 nM) stimulated SV-SMC proliferation to a level comparable to that of TNF-{alpha} alone. SV-EC migration was significantly impaired by TNF-{alpha} (42% of control), and co-culture with E2 partially restored the ability of SV-EC to migrate and repair the wound. In contrast, TNF-{alpha} increased SV-SMC migration by 1.7-fold, an effect that was completely reversed by co-incubation with E2. Finally, TNF-{alpha} potently induced ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression in both SV-EC and SV-SMC. However there

  17. Effect of radioactive isotope 32P upon alpha amylase activity and glucose concentration in chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraljevic, P.; Emanovic, D.; Simpraga, M.; Nejedli, S.; Stojevic, Z.

    1996-01-01

    An attempt has been made to investigate whether alpha amylase activity and glucose concentration in blood plasma can serve as the help in establishing on early diagnosis of organic or functional damage caused by ionizing radiation in chickens. Fifty day old hybrid chickens of heavy 'Jata' breeds of both sexes, were treated by 32 P administered intramusculary as sodium orthophosphate in a single dose of 333 MBq per kilogram of body weight. Blood samples was taken from the wing vein on day 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 after administration of 32 P. Alpha amylase activity and glucose concentration were determined spectrophotometrically using kits produced by 'Radonja', Sisak. Alpha amylase activity was decreased and glucose concentration was increased during investigated period. Yet, the further investigations are needed to find out whether these two parameters can be used for early diagnosis of injury in chicken organism by ionizing radiation. (author)

  18. The effect of gamma irradiation on the formation of alpha-amylase isoenzymes in germinating wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machaiah, J.P.; Vakil, U.K.

    1979-01-01

    The biosynthesis of alpha-amylase during seedling growth commenced after a prolonged lag-period in wheat (cv. Vijay), irradiated at a high dose (200 krad). Also, a different requirement for exogenous gibberellins (GA) to stimulate the enzyme synthesis was noted in control and irradiated seeds. Further, the developmental patterns of three major isoenzymes of alpha-amylase (designated as α 1 , α 2 - and α 3 ) during germination were different. It was observed that α 1 -isoenzyme which appeared on the fourth day of germination of control seeds, was delayed in its development and was undetectable up to 4 days in samples irradiated with 200 krad. However, α 1 -isoenzyme appeared after 6 days or after 4 days in GA-treated samples in germinating seeds exposed to a high dose. These results suggested that two systems differing in their radiosensitivity and response to GA application were operating in germinating wheat for the synthesis of functional alpha-amylase molecules. (author)

  19. Inferring uncertainty from interval estimates: Effects of alpha level and numeracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke F. Rinne

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Interval estimates are commonly used to descriptively communicate the degree of uncertainty in numerical values. Conventionally, low alpha levels (e.g., .05 ensure a high probability of capturing the target value between interval endpoints. Here, we test whether alpha levels and individual differences in numeracy influence distributional inferences. In the reported experiment, participants received prediction intervals for fictitious towns' annual rainfall totals (assuming approximately normal distributions. Then, participants estimated probabilities that future totals would be captured within varying margins about the mean, indicating the approximate shapes of their inferred probability distributions. Results showed that low alpha levels (vs. moderate levels; e.g., .25 more frequently led to inferences of over-dispersed approximately normal distributions or approximately uniform distributions, reducing estimate accuracy. Highly numerate participants made more accurate estimates overall, but were more prone to inferring approximately uniform distributions. These findings have important implications for presenting interval estimates to various audiences.

  20. Study of the antioxidant effect of {alpha}-tocopherol on low-density lipoprotein peroxidation induced at low and high {gamma}-radiation dose rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalil, Abdelouahed [Research Centre on Aging and Department of Medicine, University of Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC, J1H 4C4 (Canada)]. E-mail: abdelouahed.khalil@usherbrooke.ca; Milochevitch, Christelle [Research Centre on Aging and Department of Medicine, University of Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC, J1H 4C4 (Canada)

    2005-02-01

    It is well known that vitamin E ({alpha}-tocopherol, {alpha}-toc) is a very efficient lipid soluble antioxidant and several studies showed its beneficial action in the prevention and reduction of atherosclerosis. However, some in vitro studies suggest a prooxidant role of vitamin E, which could occur under given circumstances. This study was thus designed to investigate the antioxidant vs. prooxidant effect of vitamin E with regards to LDL peroxidation induced under different oxidative stress conditions. LDL was enriched with {alpha}-tocopherol and different {alpha}-toc/LDL ratios were studied (8.0{+-}2.5, 14.3{+-}3.0, 33.3{+-}3.7, 42.7{+-}3.5 and 48.2{+-}4.5 molecules of {alpha}-toc/LDL particle). Enriched and control LDL were oxidized by action of {sup {center_dot}}OH and O{sub 2}{sup {center_dot}}{sup -} free radicals produced by {gamma}-radiolysis at different dose rates. Susceptibility of LDL to oxidation was examined by the measure of conjugated diene and TBARS formation as well as LDL endogenous {alpha}-toc disappearance. Increasing LDL {alpha}-toc concentration reduced the LDL susceptibility to oxidation and their oxidizability. {alpha}-toc disappearance rates were comprised between 43 and 8.3x10{sup -10} M s{sup -1} and decreased with the radiation dose rate. Our results support an antioxidant role for {alpha}-tocopherol at high and low oxidative stress conditions.

  1. Alpha radiation and in-pile annealing effects on the fracture properties of a sintered alumino borosilicate glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevilacqua, Arturo M.; Prado, Miguel O.; Messi de Bernasconi, Norma B.; Heredia, Arturo D.; Sanfilippo, Miguel

    1999-01-01

    The alpha radiation and the in-pile during irradiation effects on the hardness, the crack nucleation and the fracture toughness of the German alumino borosilicate glass SG7 were investigated by using the Vickers indentation. Cold pressed and sintered samples were irradiated with thermal neutrons, in the Argentine nuclear reactors RA-3 and RA-6, to produce alpha particles in the whole volume of the glass by means of the (n, alpha)-reaction with B-10. The Vickers hardness, the crack nucleation, as 50 percent fracture probability load, plotted as the Weibull's fracture probability distribution function and the fracture toughness, as critical stress intensity factor K Ic , were correlated to the four cumulative disintegration values. It was ascertained that: a) the Vickers hardness decreases from 5.6 GPa for the non-irradiated sample up to 4.7 GPa for the sample irradiated 70 h at the lower neutron flux (4.0 x 10 - sup 18 - alpha disintegration per cm - sup 3 -), b) the 50 % fracture probability load increases from 1.4 N for the non-irradiated sample up to 4.7 g for the sample irradiated 22 h at the higher flux (6.8 x 10 - sup 18 - alpha disintegration per cm - sup 3 -), and c) the stress intensity factor increases from 0.80 MPa.m - sup 1/2 - for the non irradiated sample up to 0.86 MPa.m - sup 1/2 - for the sample mentioned in b). The in-pile annealing was analyzed by comparing the crack nucleation after irradiation with data obtained by heavy ion irradiation followed by thermal annealing. Results for the SG7 glass were compared to those for soda-lime and borosilicate glasses. (author)

  2. Autoradiographic analysis of alpha 1-noradrenergic receptors in the human brain postmortem. Effect of suicide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross-Isseroff, R.; Dillon, K.A.; Fieldust, S.J.; Biegon, A.

    1990-01-01

    In vitro quantitative autoradiography of alpha 1-noradrenergic receptors, using tritiated prazosin as a ligand, was performed on 24 human brains postmortem. Twelve brains were obtained from suicide victims and 12 from matched controls. We found significant lower binding to alpha 1 receptors in several brain regions of the suicide group as compared with matched controls. This decrease in receptor density was evident in portions of the prefrontal cortex, as well as the temporal cortex and in the caudate nucleus. Age, sex, presence of alcohol, and time of death to autopsy did not affect prazosin binding, in our sample, as measured by autoradiography

  3. Alpha prime effect on mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of UR 52N+ duplex stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontes, Talita Filier

    2009-01-01

    Alpha prime phase leads to decreased corrosion resistance and mechanical properties losses of duplex stainless steels. In this work mechanical and electrochemical tests were performed in duplex stainless steel UR 52N+ aged at 475 degree C for various periods in order to determine the sensibility of these tests to alpha prime presence. Hardness tests showed a gradual increase in its values; on the other hand, impact tests revealed that the material aged for 12h losses about 80% of energy absorption capacity of the solution annealed sample. Notwithstanding cyclic polarization tests showed that significant changes are only noted for aging times greater than 96h. (author)

  4. Immediate effects of Alpha/theta and Sensory-Motor Rhythm feedback on music performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruzelier, J H; Hirst, L; Holmes, P; Leach, J

    2014-07-01

    This is one of a series of investigations comparing two EEG-neurofeedback protocols - Alpha/theta (A/T) and Sensory-Motor Rhythm (SMR) - for performance enhancement in the Arts, here with the focus on music. The original report (Egner and Gruzelier, 2003) established a beneficial outcome for elite conservatoire musicians following A/T training in two investigations. Subsequently this A/T advantage was replicated for both advanced instrumental and novice singing abilities, including improvisation, while SMR training benefited novice performance only (Gruzelier, Holmes et al., 2014). Here we report a replication of the latter study in university instrumentalists who as before were novice singers with one design change - post-training performances were conducted within the tenth final session instead of on a subsequent occasion. As before expert judges rated the domains of Creativity/Musicality, Communication/Presentation and Technique. The proximity to training of the music performances within the last session likely compromised gains from A/T learning, but perhaps reinforced the impact of SMR training efficacy. In support of validation there was evidence of strong within- and across-session A/T learning and positive linear trends for across-session SMR/theta and SMR/beta-2 ratio learning. In support of mediation learning correlated with music performance. The A/T outcome was markedly discrepant from previous studies and should dispel any impression that the hypnogogic state itself is transferred to the performance context. The effects of SMR ratio training are consistent with an impact on lower-order abilities required in novice performance such as sustained attention and memory, and benefiting all three domains of music assessment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of chemical permeation enhancers on stratum corneum barrier lipid organizational structure and interferon alpha permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadam, Shadi H; Saliaj, Evi; Wettig, Shawn D; Dong, Chilbert; Ivanova, Marina V; Huzil, J Torin; Foldvari, Marianna

    2013-06-03

    The outermost layer of the skin, known as the stratum corneum (SC), is composed of dead corneocytes embedded in an intercellular lipid matrix consisting of ceramides, free fatty acids, and cholesterol. The high level of organization within this matrix protects the body by limiting the permeation of most compounds through the skin. While essential for its protective functions, the SC poses a significant barrier for the delivery of topically applied pharmaceutical agents. Chemical permeation enhancers (CPEs) can increase delivery of small drug compounds into the skin by interacting with the intercellular lipids through physical processes including extraction, fluidization, increased disorder, and phase separation. However, it is not clear whether these same mechanisms are involved in delivery of biotherapeutic macromolecules, such as proteins. Here we describe the effect of three categories of CPEs {solvents [ethanol, propylene glycol, diethylene glycol monoethyl ether (transcutol), oleic acid], terpenes [menthol, nerol, camphor, methyl salicylate], and surfactants [Tween 80, SDS, benzalkonium chloride, polyoxyl 40 hydrogenated castor oil (Cremophor RH40), didecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB), didecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB)]} on the lipid organizational structure of human SC as determined by X-ray scattering studies. Small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering studies were conducted to correlate the degree of structural changes and hydrocarbon chain packing in SC lipids caused by these various classes of CPEs to the extent of permeation of interferon alpha-2b (IFNα), a 19 kDa protein drug, into human skin. With the exception of solvents, propylene glycol and ethanol, all classes of CPEs caused increased disordering of lamellar and lateral packing of lipids. We observed that the highest degree of SC lipid disordering was caused by surfactants (especially SDS, DDAB, and DTAB) followed by terpenes, such as nerol. Interestingly, in vitro skin permeation studies

  6. Channel coupling and distortion effects in the excitation of the 02+ state in 12C by alpha scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauhoff, W.

    1983-01-01

    The excitation of the 0 2 + (7.65 MeV) state in 12 C by inelastic alpha scattering is investigated using microscopic resonating-group wave-functions in a coupled channel folding model. The importance of coupling to other states and the influence of varying the optical potential in the excited states is studied. Both effects must be taken into account for a quantitative description

  7. Hypothermic and antipyretic effects of ACTH (1-24) and alpha-melanotropin in guinea-pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, S. B.; Williams, B. A.

    1984-01-01

    Intracerebroventricular administration of adrenocorticotropin (ACTH 1-24) and alpha-melanotropin (alpha-MSH), peptides which occur naturally in brain induced dose-related hypothermia in guinea-pigs at room temperature (21 C) and also produced greater hypothermia at low (10 C) ambient temperature. However, when the experiments were repeated in a warm (30 C) environment, no effect on body temperature was observed. These results indicate that the peptides did not reduce the central set-point of temperature control. The hypothermia induced by ACTH and alpha-MSH was not mediated via histamine H1- or H2-receptors and serotonin since the H1-receptor antagonist, mepyramine, the H2-receptor antagonist, cimetidine, and the serotonin antagonist, methysergide, had no antagonistic effects. The peptides were antipyretic since they reduced pyrogen-induced-fever and hyperthermia due to prostaglandin E2, norepinephrine and dibutyryl cAMP, at a dose which did not affect normal body temperature. The powerful central effects of these peptides on normal body temperature, fever and hyperthermia, together with their presence of the brain regions important to temperature control, suggest that they participate in thermoregulation.

  8. Effects of ascorbic acid and alpha tocopherol supplementation on basal testosterone cortisol ratio in male sprague dawley rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lodhi, G.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Basal testosterone cortisol ratio is considered very important to maintain homeostasis. Increase in this ratio has various beneficial effects on body. In this study we determined the effects of ascorbic acid and alpha tocopherol supplementation on basal testosterone cortisol ratio in male Sprague Dawley rats. Methods: It was quasi experimental study carried out in department of Physiology, Army Medical College Rawalpindi in collaboration with National Institute of Health, Islamabad during October 2006 to September 2007. Forty male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups with ten rats in each group and above mentioned antioxidants supplementation were given along with standard diet for one month. After this, blood samples were taken and analyzed for serum testosterone and cortisol by ELISA and malondialdehyde levels colorimetrically. Data were analysed on SPSS version 13 and p<0.05 was considered significant. Results: There was no significant rise in testosterone cortisol ratio in rats supplemented with single antioxidant; however rats supplemented with combination of ascorbic acid and alpha tocopherol revealed significant rise in testosterone cortisol ratio with a fall in malondialdehyde levels. Conclusions: Synergistic effects of ascorbic acid and alpha tocopherol resulted in a decline in reactive oxygen species induced lipid peroxidation and rise of testosterone cortisol ratio. (author)

  9. Antagonist effect of triptolide on AKT activation by truncated retinoid X receptor-alpha.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Lu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Retinoid X receptor-alpha (RXRα is a key member of the nuclear receptor superfamily. We recently demonstrated that proteolytic cleavage of RXRα resulted in production of a truncated product, tRXRα, which promotes cancer cell survival by activating phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase (PI3K/AKT pathway. However, how the tRXRα-mediated signaling pathway in cancer cells is regulated remains elusive. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We screened a natural product library for tRXRα targeting leads and identified that triptolide, an active component isolated from traditional Chinese herb Trypterygium wilfordii Hook F, could modulate tRXRα-mediated cancer cell survival pathway in vitro and in animals. Our results reveal that triptolide strongly induces cancer cell apoptosis dependent on intracellular tRXRα expression levels, demonstrating that tRXRα serves as an important intracellular target of triptolide. We show that triptolide selectively induces tRXRα degradation and inhibits tRXRα-dependent AKT activity without affecting the full-length RXRα. Interestingly, such effects of triptolide are due to its activation of p38. Although triptolide also activates Erk1/2 and MAPK pathways, the effects of triptolide on tRXRα degradation and AKT activity are only reversed by p38 siRNA and p38 inhibitor. In addition, the p38 inhibitor potently inhibits tRXRα interaction with p85α leading to AKT inactivation. Our results demonstrate an interesting novel signaling interplay between p38 and AKT through tRXRα mediation. We finally show that targeting tRXRα by triptolide strongly activates TNFα death signaling and enhances the anticancer activity of other chemotherapies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results identify triptolide as a new xenobiotic regulator of the tRXRα-dependent survival pathway and provide new insight into the mechanism by which triptolide acts to induce apoptosis of cancer cells. Triptolide represents one of the most

  10. The effect of alpha amylase enzyme on quality of sweet sorghum juice for chrystal sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwati, T.; Cahyaningrum, N.; Widodo, S.; Astiati, U. T.; Budiyanto, A.; Wahyudiono; Arif, A. B.; Richana, N.

    2018-01-01

    Sweet sorghum juice (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) has characteristics similar to sugar cane juice and potentially used for sugar substitutes that can support food security. Nevertheless the sweet sorghum juicecontain starch which impede sorghum sugar crystallization. Therefore, research on the enzymatic process is needed to convert starch into reducing sugar. The experimental design used was the Factorial Randomized Design with the first factor was alpha amylase enzyme concentration (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120 μL/100 mL) and second factor was incubation time (0, 30, 60, 90 minute) at temperature 100°C. The experiment was conducted on fresh sweet sorghum. The results showed that the addition of the alpha amylase enzyme increased the content of reducing sugar and decreased levels of starch. Elevating concentration of alpha amylase enzyme will increase the reducing sugar content in sweet sorghum juice. The optimum alpha amylase enzyme concentration to produce the highest total sugar was 80 μL/100 mL of sweet sorghum juice with the optimum incubation time was 90 minutes. The results of this study are expected to create a new sweetener for sugar substitution. From the economic prospective aspect, sorghum is a potential crop and can be relied upon to support the success of the food diversification program which further leads to the world food security

  11. The Effect of Bladder Outlet Obstruction on alpha(1)- and beta-Adrenoceptor Expression and Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barendrecht, Maurits M.; Frazier, Elfaridah P.; Vrydag, Wim; Alewijnse, Astrid E.; Peters, Stephan L. M.; Michel, Martin C.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: To explore possible changes in expression and/or function of alpha(1)- and beta-adrenoceptor subtypes as a cause for bladder dysfunction in a rat model of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO). Methods: BOO was induced in rats by partial urethral ligature. Contraction and relaxation experiments

  12. Nickel doping effect on resistance to movement of edge dislocations in. cap alpha. -Fe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brovkov, V.A.; Dudarev, E.F. (Tomskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR). Sibirskij Fiziko-Tekhnicheskij Inst.)

    1984-03-01

    Microplastic deformation of ..cap alpha..-Fe polycrystals and Fe-Ni solid solutions is studied. Data on the concentration and temperature dependences of resistance to movement of edge dislocation at the expense of elastic interaction with atoms of the doping element are obtained.

  13. Systemic side effects of isolated limb perfusion with tumor necrosis factor alpha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaveling, Jan Harm

    1997-01-01

    The main function of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a), a small polypeptide shared by all mammals, is probably protection against invading bacteria, parasites and viruses; killing of these microorganisms is facilitated in the presence of TNF-a. However, as its name suggest, TNF-a is also capable

  14. Effect of tissue-specific acetylcholinesterase inhibitor C-547 on alpha 3 beta 4 and alpha beta epsilon delta acetylcholine receptors in COS cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lindovský, Jiří; Petrov, K.; Krůšek, Jan; Reznik, V.S.; Nikolsky, E. E.; Vyskočil, František

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 688, 1-3 (2012), s. 22-26 ISSN 0014-2999 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA ČR(CZ) GA202/09/0806; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500110905; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA100110501; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA5011411 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : nicotinic ACh receptor * alpha 3 beta 4 * alpha beta epsilon delta * C-547 * anti-cholinesterase Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.592, year: 2012

  15. Molecular cloning of rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) tumor necrosis factor-alpha and its effect on the respiratory burst activity of phagocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Sun; Hwang, Yoon Jung; Yoon, Ki Joon; Zenke, Kosuke; Nam, Yoon Kwon; Kim, Sung Koo; Kim, Ki Hong

    2009-11-01

    Rock bream (Oplegnathus fasciatus) tumor necrosis factor-alpha (rbTNF-alpha) gene was cloned, recombinantly produced, and the effect of the recombinant rbTNF-alpha on the respiratory burst activity of rock bream phagocytes was analyzed. Structurally, genomic DNA of rbTNF-alpha was comprised with four exons and three introns, and deduced amino acid sequence of its cDNA possessed the TNF family signature, a transmembrane domain, a protease cleavage site, and two cysteine residues, which are the typical characteristics of TNF-alpha gene in mammals and fish. The chemiluminescent (CL) response of rock bream phagocytes was significantly enhanced by pre-incubation with recombinant rbTNF-alpha, when opsonized zymosan was used as a stimulant of the respiratory burst. However, CL enhancing effect of the recombinant rbTNF-alpha was very weak when the respiratory burst activity of phagocytes was triggered with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) instead of zymosan. These results suggest that rock bream TNF-alpha might have an ability to prime the respiratory burst activity of phagocytes against receptor-mediated phagocytosis inducing stimulants, such as zymosan, but have little ability against stimulants not accompanying receptor-mediated phagocytosis.

  16. [Experimental study on aging effect of Angelica sinensis polysaccharides combined with cytarabine on human leukemia KG1alpha cell lines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chun-Yan; Geng, Shan; Liu, Jun; Zhu, Jia-Hong; Zhang, Xian-Ping; Jiang, Rong; Wang, Ya-Ping

    2014-04-01

    The latest findings of our laboratory showed that Angelica sinensis polysaccharide (ASP) showed a definite effect in regulating the aging of hematopoietic stem cells. Leukemia is a type of malignant hematopoietic tumor in hematopoietic stem cells. There have been no relevant reports about ASP's effect in regulating the aging of leukemia cells. In this study, human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) KG1alpha cell lines in logarithmic growth phase were taken as the study object, and were divided into the ASP group, the cytarabine (Ara-C) group, the ASP + Ara-C group and the control group. The groups were respectively treated with different concentration of ASP, Ara-C and ASP + Ara-C for different periods, with the aim to study the effect of ASP combined with Ara-C in regulating the aging of human acute myeloid leukemia KG1alpha cell lines and its relevant mechanism. The results showed that ASP, Ara-C and ASP + Ara-C could obviously inhibit KG1alpha cell proliferation in vitro, block the cells in G0/G1 phase. The cells showed the aging morphological feature. The percentage of positive stained aging cells was dramatically increased, and could significantly up-regulate the expression of aging-related proteins P16 and RB, which were more obvious in the ASP + Ara-C group. In conclusion, the aging mechanism of KG1alpha cell induced by ASP and Ara-C may be related to the regulation of the expression of aging-related proteins, suggesting that the combined administration of ASP and anticancer drugs plays a better role in the treatment of leukemia .

  17. Screening of traditional antidiabetic medicinal plants of Mauritius for possible alpha-amylase inhibitory effects in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotowaroo, M I; Mahomoodally, M F; Gurib-Fakim, A; Subratty, A H

    2006-03-01

    In this study, seven exotic/indigenous medicinal plants of Mauritius, namely Coix lacryma-jobi (Poaceae), Aegle marmelos (Rutaceae), Artocarpus heterophyllus (Moraceae), Vangueria madagascariensis (Rubiaceae), Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae), Eriobotrya japonica (Rosaceae) and Syzigium cumini (Myrtaceae) were studied for possible effects on starch breakdown by alpha-amylase in vitro. The results showed that only Artocarpus heterophyllus significantly (p Artocarpus heterophyllus on alpha-amylase activity using rat plasma in vitro. It was found that the aqueous leaf extract significantly (p Artocarpus heterophyllus behaved as a competitive inhibitor. Results from the present study tend to indicate that Artocarpus heterophyllus could act as a 'starch blocker' thereby reducing post-prandial glucose peaks. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. The effects of intense gamma-irradiation on the alpha-particle response of silicon carbide semiconductor radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruddy, Frank H.; Seidel, John G.

    2007-01-01

    Silicon Carbide (SiC) semiconductor radiation detectors are being developed for alpha-particle, X-ray and Gamma-ray, and fast-neutron energy spectrometry. SiC detectors have been operated at temperatures up to 306 deg. C and have also been found to be highly resistant to the radiation effects of fast-neutron and charged-particle bombardments. In the present work, the alpha-particle response of a SiC detector based on a Schottky diode design has been carefully monitored as a function of 137 Cs gamma-ray exposure. The changes in response have been found to be negligible for gamma exposures up to and including 5.4 MGy, and irradiations to higher doses are in progress

  19. Effectiveness of Alpha-toxin Fab Monoclonal Antibody Therapy in Limiting the Pathology of Staphylococcus aureus Keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Armando R; Foletti, Davide L; Bierdeman, Michael A; Tang, Aihua; Arana, Angela M; Hasa-Moreno, Adela; Sangalang, Emma Ruth B; O'Callaghan, Richard J

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of a high-affinity human monoclonal antibody Fab fragment to Staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin (LTM14 Fab) as therapy for S. aureus keratitis. A single topical drop of the LTM14 Fab antibody to alpha-toxin alone, or in 0.006% benzalkonium chloride (BAK), was applied every 30 min to S. aureus-infected rabbit corneas from 9 to 14 hours post-infection. Erosions and pathology were measured at 15 h post-infection. LTM14 Fab with BAK limited corneal erosions better than LTM14 Fab alone (p = 0.036), and both limited erosions compared to untreated eyes (p ≤ 0.0001). Overall pathology was similar in all groups (p ≥ 0.070), but iritis and chemosis were reduced by treatment (p ≤ 0.036). The high-affinity human monoclonal Fab fragment antibody (LTM14 Fab) to S. aureus alpha-toxin was effective in reducing corneal damage during S. aureus keratitis.

  20. The effect of the use of a TNF-alpha inhibitor in hypothermic machine perfusion on kidney function after transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diuwe, Piotr; Domagala, Piotr; Durlik, Magdalena; Trzebicki, Janusz; Chmura, Andrzej; Kwiatkowski, Artur

    2017-08-01

    One of the most important problems in transplantation medicine is the ischemia/reperfusion injury of the organs to be transplanted. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) inhibitor etanercept on the machine perfusion hypothermia of renal allograft kidney function and organ perfusion. No statistically significant differences were found in the impact of the applied intervention on kidney machine perfusion during which the average flow and vascular resistance were evaluated. There were no statistically significant differences in the occurrence of delayed graft function (DGF). Fewer events in patients who received a kidney from the etanercept treated Group A compared to the patients who received a kidney from the control Group B were observed when comparing the functional DGF and occurrence of acute rejection episodes, however, there was no statistically significant difference. In summary, no effect of treatment with etanercept an inhibitor of TNF-alpha in a hypothermic machine perfusion on renal allograft renal survival and its perfusion were detected in this study. However, treatment of the isolated organ may be important for the future of transplantation medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Steroid withdrawal in the mouse results in anxiogenic effects of 3alpha,5beta-THP: a possible model of premenstrual dysphoric disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sheryl S; Ruderman, Yevgeniy; Frye, Cheryl; Homanics, Gregg; Yuan, Maoli

    2006-06-01

    3alpha-OH-5alpha[beta]-pregnan-20-one (THP) is a positive modulator of the GABAA receptor (GABAR), which underlies its reported anxiolytic effect. However, there are conditions such as premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) where increases in THP levels can be associated with adverse mood. In order to test for conditions where THP might be anxiogenic, we developed a mouse model of THP withdrawal. Because delta-containing GABAR are highly sensitive to THP modulation, results were compared in wild-type and delta knockout mice. Finasteride, a 5alpha-reductase blocker, was administered for 3 days to female wild-type or delta knockout mice. Then, animals were tested in the elevated plus maze, following acute administration of THP, lorazepam, flumazenil, or 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-3-ol (THIP), and results compared to vehicle-injected controls. CA1 hippocampal GABAR alpha4 subunit levels were assessed by Western blot. After THP withdrawal, THP produced anxiogenic effects, decreasing open arm entries on the elevated plus maze, following a brief shock, in contrast to its expected anxiolytic effects. As we have shown in rats, THP withdrawal also resulted in increased expression of the alpha4 subunit in mouse CA1 hippocampus. As expected for increases in alpha4-containing GABAR, THP withdrawn mice were relatively insensitive to the benzodiazepine (BDZ) lorazepam and had atypical responses to the BDZ antagonist flumazenil when tested on the plus maze. In contrast, they showed a greater anxiolytic response to THIP, which has greater efficacy at alpha4betadelta than other GABAR. Although THP withdrawal in delta knockout mice also increased the alpha4 GABAR subunit, the anxiogenic effects of THP and the anxiolytic effects of THIP were not observed, implicating alpha4betadelta GABAR in these effects. Based on these behavioral and pharmacological findings, we suggest that THP withdrawal in the mouse may serve as a rodent model of PMDD.

  2. Effect of neohesperidin dihydrochalcone on the activity and stability of alpha-amylase: a comparative study on bacterial, fungal, and mammalian enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashani-Amin, Elaheh; Ebrahim-Habibi, Azadeh; Larijani, Bagher; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar

    2015-10-01

    Neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC) was recently introduced as an activator of mammalian alpha-amylase. In the current study, the effect of NHDC has been investigated on bacterial and fungal alpha-amylases. Enzyme assays and kinetic analysis demonstrated the capability of NHDC to significantly activate both tested alpha-amylases. The ligand activation pattern was found to be more similar between the fungal and mammalian enzyme in comparison with the bacterial one. Further, thermostability experiments indicated a stability increase in the presence of NHDC for the bacterial enzyme. In silico (docking) test locates a putative binding site for NHDC on alpha-amylase surface in domain B. This domain shows differences in various alpha-amylase types, and the different behavior of the ligand toward the studied enzymes may be attributed to this fact. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Anti-inflammatory effects of compounds alpha-humulene and (-)-trans-caryophyllene isolated from the essential oil of Cordia verbenacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Elizabeth S; Passos, Giselle F; Medeiros, Rodrigo; da Cunha, Fernanda M; Ferreira, Juliano; Campos, Maria M; Pianowski, Luiz F; Calixto, João B

    2007-08-27

    This study evaluated the anti-inflammatory properties of two sesquiterpenes isolated from Cordia verbenacea's essential oil, alpha-humulene and (-)-trans-caryophyllene. Our results revealed that oral treatment with both compounds displayed marked inhibitory effects in different inflammatory experimental models in mice and rats. alpha-humulene and (-)-trans-caryophyllene were effective in reducing platelet activating factor-, bradykinin- and ovoalbumin-induced mouse paw oedema, while only alpha-humulene was able to diminish the oedema formation caused by histamine injection. Also, both compounds had important inhibitory effects on the mouse and rat carrageenan-induced paw oedema. Systemic treatment with alpha-humulene largely prevented both tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) generation in carrageenan-injected rats, whereas (-)-trans-caryophyllene diminished only TNFalpha release. Furthermore, both compounds reduced the production of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX-2) expression, induced by the intraplantar injection of carrageenan in rats. The anti-inflammatory effects of alpha-humulene and (-)-trans-caryophyllene were comparable to those observed in dexamethasone-treated animals, used as positive control drug. All these findings indicate that alpha-humulene and (-)-trans-caryophyllene, derived from the essential oil of C. verbenacea, might represent important tools for the management and/or treatment of inflammatory diseases.

  4. The effect of 6 days of alpha glycerylphosphorylcholine on isometric strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellar, David; LeBlanc, Nina R; Campbell, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Ergogenic aides are widely used by fitness enthusiasts and athletes to increase performance. Alpha glycerylphosphorylcholine (A-GPC) has demonstrated some initial promise in changing explosive performance. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine if 6 days of supplementation with A-GPC would augment isometric force production compared to a placebo. Thirteen college-aged males (Means ± SD; Age: 21.9 ± 2.2 years, Height: 180.3 ± 7.7 cm, Weight: 87.6 ± 15.6 kg; VO2 max: 40.08 ± 7.23 ml O2*Kg(-1)*min(-1), Body Fat: 17.5 ± 4.6%) gave written informed consent to participate in the study. The study was a double blind, placebo controlled, cross-over design. The participants reported to the lab for an initial visit where they were familiarized with the isometric mid thigh pull in a custom squat cage on a force platform and upper body isometric test against a high frequency load cell, and baseline measurements were taken for both. The participant then consumed either 600 mg per day of A-GPC or placebo and at the end of 6 days performed isometric mid thigh pulls and an upper body isometric test. A one-week washout period was used before the participants' baseline was re-measured and crossed over to the other treatment. The A-GPC treatment resulted in significantly greater isometric mid thigh pull peak force change from baseline (t = 1.76, p = 0.044) compared with placebo (A-GPC: 98.8. ± 236.9 N vs Placebo: -39.0 ± 170.9 N). For the upper body test the A-GPC treatment trended towards greater change from baseline force production (A-GPC: 50.9 ± 67.2 N Placebo: -14.9 ± 114.9 N) but failed to obtain statistical significance (t = 1.16, p = 0.127). A-GPC is effective at increasing lower body force production after 6 days of supplementation. Sport performance coaches can consider adding A-GPC to the diet of speed and power athletes to enhance muscle performance.

  5. Measurement and analysis of $\\alpha$ particle induced reactions on yttrium

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, N L; Chintalapudi, S N

    2000-01-01

    Excitation functions for /sup 89/Y[( alpha ,3n); ( alpha ,4n); ( alpha , p3n); ( alpha , alpha n); ( alpha , alpha 2n)] reactions were measured up to 50 MeV using stacked foil activation technique and HPGe gamma ray spectroscopy method. The experimental data were compared with calculations considering equilibrium as well as preequilibrium reactions according to the hybrid model of Blann (ALICE/90). For ( alpha , xnyp) type of reactions, the precompound contributions are described by the model. There seems to be indications of direct inelastic scattering effects in ( alpha , alpha xn) type of reactions. To the best of our knowledge, the excitation functions for ( alpha ,4n), ( alpha , p3n), ( alpha , alpha n) and ( alpha , alpha 2n) reactions were measured for the first time. (23 refs).

  6. Measurement and analysis of alpha particle induced reactions on yttrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, N.L.; Gadkari, M.S. [Baroda Univ. (India). Dept. of Physics; Chintalapudi, S.N. [IUC-DAEF Calcutta Centre, Calcutta (India)

    2000-05-01

    Excitation functions for {sup 89}Y[({alpha},3n);({alpha},4n);({alpha},p3n);({alpha},{alpha}n);({alpha},{alpha}2n)] reactions were measured up to 50 MeV using stacked foil activation technique and HPGe gamma ray spectroscopy method. The experimental data were compared with calculations considering equilibrium as well as preequilibrium reactions according to the hybrid model of Blann (ALICE/90). For ({alpha},xnyp) type of reactions, the precompound contributions are described by the model. There seems to be indications of direct inelastic scattering effects in ({alpha},{alpha}xn) type of reactions. To the best of our knowledge, the excitation functions for ({alpha},4n), ({alpha},p3n), ({alpha},{alpha}n) and ({alpha},{alpha}2n) reactions were measured for the first time. (orig.)

  7. Effects of superior cervical ganglionectomy on alpha 2 adrenergic receptors in dog cerebral arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, M.; Tsukahara, T.; Taniguchi, T.; Usui, H.

    1986-01-01

    Norepinephrine (NE)- and clonidine-induced contractions of dog cerebral arteries were attenuated by yohimbine but not affected by prazosin. There was no detectable 3 H-prazosin binding site in the cerebral arteries. On the other hand, 3 H-yohimbine binding studies revealed the presence of two binding sites with high and low affinities in the cerebral arteries. After superior cervical ganglionectomy, NE- and clonidine-induced contractions of the denervated cerebral arteries were not altered compared with the control arteries. The binding study revealed that there was low affinity 3 H-yohimbine binding sites, whereas high affinity sites were not detectable. These results suggest that there are two different NE binding sites in alpha 2 adrenergic receptors, and that the high affinity sites are presynaptically located and low affinity sites are postsynaptic. It is also suggested that NE-induced contractions are mediated by postsynaptic low affinity sites of alpha 2 adrenergic receptors in the dog cerebral arteries

  8. Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 Levels in Experimental Brain Injury and the Effects of Alpha-tocopherol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilgun Senol

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The mechanisms, responsible for the secondary injuries occuring after acute injury of the brain are; release of nitrous oxide which is an inflammatory mediator, abnormal formation of free oxygen radicals and excessive stimulation of excitatory aminoacids. In this study, it is aimed to investigate changes in intercellular adhesion molecule levels in the brain, that occur subsequent to blunt head trauma, and after administration of an antioxidant agent, vitamin E. Material and Method: In this study, rats were divided into 4 groups. In group A; rats had only skin incision, group B; rats were traumatized after the skin incision, group C; isotonic (30mg/kg was given intraperitoneally after 30 minutes of the trauma, group D; alpha-tocopherol (30mg/kg was given intraperitoneally, after 30 minutes of the trauma. All the rats in these groups were sacrified after 24 hours. Biparietal and bifrontal lobs were taken about 3x5x1mm tickness and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 levels were studied by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Results: As the result of the statistical analysis, it is detected that although there is an increase in intercellular adhesion molecule levels in brain parenchyma after trauma, it is statistically unsignificant. However, as the traumatized group and the group given alpha-tocopherol after trauma was compared, a statistically significant decrease in intercellular adhesion molecule-1 levels in the alpha-tocopherol given group was seen. Discussion: Alpha-tocopherol, an antioxidant agent, causes decrease in intercellular adhesion molecule levels, by decreasing inflammation.

  9. Effects of L-carnitine against oxidative stress in human hepatocytes: involvement of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jin-Lian

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excessive oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation have been demonstrated to play important roles in the production of liver damage. L-carnitine is a natural substance and acts as a carrier for fatty acids across the inner mitochondrial membrane for subsequent beta-oxidation. It is also an antioxidant that reduces metabolic stress in the cells. Recent years L-carnitine has been proposed for treatment of various kinds of disease, including liver injury. This study was conducted to evaluate the protective effect of L-carnitine against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2-induced cytotoxicity in a normal human hepatocyte cell line, HL7702. Methods We analyzed cytotoxicity using MTT assay and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH release. Antioxidant activity and lipid peroxidation were estimated by reactive oxygen species (ROS levels, activities and protein expressions of superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT, and malondialdehyde (MDA formation. Expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR-alpha and its target genes were evaluated by RT-PCR or western blotting. The role of PPAR-alpha in L-carnitine-enhanced expression of SOD and CAT was also explored. Statistical analysis was performed by a one-way analysis of variance, and its significance was assessed by Dennett's post-hoc test. Results The results showed that L-carnitine protected HL7702 cells against cytotoxity induced by H2O2. This protection was related to the scavenging of ROS, the promotion of SOD and CAT activity and expression, and the prevention of lipid peroxidation in cultured HL7702 cells. The decreased expressions of PPAR-alpha, carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 (CPT1 and acyl-CoA oxidase (ACOX induced by H2O2 can be attenuated by L-carnitine. Besides, we also found that the promotion of SOD and CAT protein expression induced by L-carnitine was blocked by PPAR-alpha inhibitor MK886. Conclusions Taken together, our findings suggest that L-carnitine could protect HL

  10. Effect of aging on alpha-1 adrenergic stimulation of phosphoinositide hydrolysis in various regions of rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, D.M.; Bowyer, J.F.; Masserano, J.M.; Zahniser, N.R.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of aging were examined on the ability of alpha-1 adrenergic receptor agonists to stimulate phosphoinositide hydrolysis in three brain regions. Tissue minces of thalamus, cerebral cortex and hippocampus from 3-, 18- and 28-month-old male Fischer 344 rats were prelabeled with [ 3 H]myoinositol. Exposure of these prelabeled minces to phenylephrine and (-)-norepinephrine revealed that accumulation of [ 3 H]inositol phosphates was selectively reduced by 20 to 30% in the thalamus and cerebral cortex of the oldest age group. Analysis of concentration-response and competition binding curves indicated that this decrease was due to diminished agonist efficacy rather than diminished receptor affinity. The reduction in responsiveness to phenylephrine and (-)-norepinephrine in the cerebral cortex and the lack of any changes in the hippocampus parallel previously reported changes in the density of alpha-1 adrenergic receptors with aging. These data indicate that the ability of alpha-1 adrenergic receptor agonists to stimulate phosphoinositide hydrolysis is reduced in some, but not all, brain regions of aged Fischer 344 rats

  11. Effects of alpha-lipoic acids on sperm membrane integrity during liquid storage of boar semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Parlapan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary studies have shown that sperm membrane from swine shows high sensitivity to cryopreservation process, causing a dramatic reduction in sperm quality. This has been attributed to the production of reactive oxygen species, that cause lipid peroxidation in sperm membranes. The aim of the present study was to minimize the oxidative attack by adding different concentration of alpha-lipoic acid into the sperm liquid storage at 17ºC for 7 days. Freshly ejaculated boar semen was diluted with Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS and supplemented with 5 levels of alpha-lipoic  acid (0.015, 0.02, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15 mmol/ml. The membrane integrity was evaluated at days 0, 1, 3, 5 and 7 of liquid preservation, using flow cytometer FACSCanto II (BD Biociencias systems. The experiment indicate that supplementation of alpha-lipoic  acid to the semen liquid storage extender improve sperm membrane

  12. Effects of the pesticide amitraz and its metabolite BTS 27271 on insulin and glucagon secretion from the perfused rat pancreas: involvement of alpha2D-adrenergic receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Basha, E A; Yibchok-Anun, S; Hopper, D L; Hsu, W H

    1999-11-01

    The study purpose was to investigate the direct effect of amitraz, a formamidine insecticide/acaricide, and its active metabolite BTS 27271 on insulin and glucagon secretion from the perfused rat pancreas. Amitraz and BTS 27271 (0.01, 0.1, 1, and 10 micromol/L) inhibited insulin secretion in a concentration-dependent manner. Amitraz increased glucagon secretion at 10 micromol/L, whereas BTS 27271 increased glucagon secretion at 1 and 10 micromol/L. Amitraz- and BTS 27271-induced decreases in insulin secretion and increases in glucagon secretion were not abolished during the 10-minute washout period. During the arginine treatment, both amitraz and BTS 27271 groups (0.1, 1, and 10 micromol/L) had lower insulin secretion and higher glucagon secretion than the control group. Idazoxan, an alpha2A/2D-adrenergic receptor (AR) antagonist, prevented the inhibitory effect of amitraz on insulin secretion in a concentration-dependent manner, but prazosin, an alpha1- and alpha2B/2C-AR antagonist, failed to antagonize the effect of amitraz. These results demonstrate that (1) amitraz and BTS 27271 inhibit insulin and stimulate glucagon secretion from the perfused rat pancreas, (2) amitraz inhibits insulin secretion by activation of alpha2D-ARs, since rats have alpha2D- but not alpha2A-ARs, and (3) amitraz and BTS 27271 may have a high binding affinity to the alpha2D-ARs of pancreatic islets.

  13. Effects of anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha and anti-intercellular adhesion molecule-1 antibodies on ischemia/reperfusion lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Chi-Huei

    2006-10-31

    Inhibition of neutrophil activation and adherence to endothelium by antibodies to tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAM-1), respectively, might attenuate ischemia-reperfusion injury (I/R). I/R was conducted in an isolated rat lung model. Anti-TNF-alpha antibody and/or anti-ICAM-1 antibody were added before ischemia or after reperfusion. Hemodynamic changes, lung weight gain (LWG), capillary filtration coefficients (Kfc), and pathologic changes were assessed to evaluate the severity of I/R. The LWG, Kfc, pathological changes and lung injury score of treatment groups with anti-TNF-alpha antibody treatment, either pre-ischemia or during reperfusion, were less than those observed in control groups. Similar findings were found in group treated with anti-ICAM-1 antibody or combination therapy during reperfusion. In contrast, pre-I/R treatment with anti-ICAM-1 antibody induced severe lung edema and failure to complete the experimental procedure. No additional therapeutic effect was found in combination therapy. We conclude that TNF-alpha and ICAM-1 play important roles in I/R. Anti-TNF-alpha antibody has therapeutic and preventive effects on I/R. However, combined therapy with anti-TNF-alpha antibody and anti-ICAM-1 antibody may have no additive effect and need further investigation.

  14. Inhibition of alpha oscillations through serotonin-2A receptor activation underlies the visual effects of ayahuasca in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Marta; Maqueda, Ana Elda; Rabella, Mireia; Rodríguez-Pujadas, Aina; Antonijoan, Rosa Maria; Romero, Sergio; Alonso, Joan Francesc; Mañanas, Miquel Àngel; Barker, Steven; Friedlander, Pablo; Feilding, Amanda; Riba, Jordi

    2016-07-01

    Ayahuasca is an Amazonian psychotropic plant tea typically obtained from two plants, Banisteriopsis caapi and Psychotria viridis. It contains the psychedelic 5-HT2A and sigma-1 agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) plus β-carboline alkaloids with monoamine-oxidase (MAO)-inhibiting properties. Although the psychoactive effects of ayahuasca have commonly been attributed solely to agonism at the 5-HT2A receptor, the molecular target of classical psychedelics, this has not been tested experimentally. Here we wished to study the contribution of the 5-HT2A receptor to the neurophysiological and psychological effects of ayahuasca in humans. We measured drug-induced changes in spontaneous brain oscillations and subjective effects in a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study involving the oral administration of ayahuasca (0.75mg DMT/kg body weight) and the 5-HT2A antagonist ketanserin (40mg). Twelve healthy, experienced psychedelic users (5 females) participated in four experimental sessions in which they received the following drug combinations: placebo+placebo, placebo+ayahuasca, ketanserin+placebo and ketanserin+ayahuasca. Ayahuasca induced EEG power decreases in the delta, theta and alpha frequency bands. Current density in alpha-band oscillations in parietal and occipital cortex was inversely correlated with the intensity of visual imagery induced by ayahuasca. Pretreatment with ketanserin inhibited neurophysiological modifications, reduced the correlation between alpha and visual effects, and attenuated the intensity of the subjective experience. These findings suggest that despite the chemical complexity of ayahuasca, 5-HT2A activation plays a key role in the neurophysiological and visual effects of ayahuasca in humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of a high-pressure treatment on the wheat alpha-amylase inhibitor and its relationship to elimination of allergenicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, S [Food Science Center, Niigata University, Ikarashi, Niigata, 950-2181 (Japan); Takanohashi, K; Nishiumi, T [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, Ikarashi, Niigata, 950-2181 (Japan); Hara, T [Department of Applied Biological Chemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, Niigata University, Ikarashi, Niigata, 950-2181 (Japan); Odani, S [Department of Living Science and Technology, Faculty of Education and Human Science, Ikarashi, Niigata, 950-2181 (Japan); Suzuki, A, E-mail: shuyama@agr.niigata-u.ac.j [Department of Health and Nutrition, Faculty of Medical Science for Health, Teikyo Heisei University, Ikebukuro, Tokyo, 170-0013 (Japan)

    2010-03-01

    In this study, the effects of high-pressure treatment on structure and allergeincity of alpha amylase inhibitor (a-AI) were investigated. The pressure-induced structural changes of {alpha}-AI were estimated by fluorescence spectra and by fourth derivative UV-spectroscopy for probed tyrosine residues and by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. The changes in the tertiary structure detected by fluorescence spectra and by fourth derivative UV-spectroscopy under high pressure were indicated at over 300 MPa. Measurements of CD spectroscopy suggested that the effects of a high-pressure treatment on changes in the secondary structure of {alpha}-AI were little. From our results, pressure-induced changes of the {alpha}-AI structure were not apparent. On the other hands, the IgE-specific binding activities of pressurized {alpha}-AI to sera from allergic patients against wheat, which is estimated by observations of dot-blotting, were decreased by high-pressure treatment. It is known that the pressure-induced elimination of allergenicity is related to the tertiary structural changes of allergen molecules. This study are suspected that the epitopes of {alpha}-AI do not contain tyrosine residues, and thus the decrease of IgE-specific binding activities is probably caused by the tertiary structural changes of these parts of {alpha}-AI.

  16. Antitumor effect of intra-arterial tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} in rats with transplanted intracerebral glioma and its evaluation by MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, Kunyu; Yoshida, Jun; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko; Sugita, Kenichiro [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Kurisu, Kaoru; Uozumi, Tohru; Zieroth, B.F.; Takahashi, Masaya; Yamanaka, Tsuyoshi

    1995-12-01

    Recombinant human TNF-{alpha} was administrated intra-arterially to rats with transplanted intracerebral glioma. 1 x 10{sup 6} of T9 rat glioma cells were transplanted into Fisher 344 rat brain stereotaxically and 1000 units of TNF-{alpha} was administrated at a rate of 100{mu}l/min via an internal carotid artery 1 or 3 weeks after the transplantation. The effects of TNF-{alpha} were evaluated by MRI and histopathological examinations. Neurological symptoms, i.e. hemiparesis, appeared after 9.0{+-}0.63 days and all rats died of tumor overloading 14.5{+-}0.84 days after the transplantation. Single injection of TNF-{alpha} on 7th day after the transplantation induced regression of the tumor size in one of six rats. The tumors were detected 3 days after transplantation by MRI and they were revealed as low/iso intensity mass in T1WI, iso/high intensity in T2WI, and were enhanced by Gd-DTPA heterogenously. On 7/14 days after the transplantation, the tumor grew approximately 7/10 mm in diameter. The single 1000 units of TNF-{alpha} were administrated via an internal carotid artery. Three days after the administration or TNF-{alpha}, regression of the tumor size was seen in one of six rats and decrease of peritumoral edema was seen in three. These effects of TNF-{alpha} were, however, transient and they were not demonstrated on day 7. Single injection of TNF-{alpha} was not effective for large tumors more than 10 mm in diameter seen 14 days after the transplantation. These data suggest that intra-arterial TNF-{alpha} should be administrated at an early stage of the tumor growth and several injections are needed to cause regression in the size of the gliomas. (author).

  17. Experimental study on the effects of recombinant adenoviral-mediated mI{kappa}B{alpha} gene combined with irradiation on the treatment of hepatocarcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kejun, Zhang; Dechun, Li; Dongming, Zhu [The First Affiliated Hospital to Suzhou Univ., Suzhou (China); Caixia, Song

    2007-10-15

    Objective: To explore the effect of recombinant adenovirus vector mediated mutant I{kappa}B{alpha} (mI{kappa}B{alpha}) combined with radiation on the hepatocarcinoma. Methods: Limited dilution method was used to test the virus titer in 293 cells. The HCC9204 cells were infected with MOI 10,20,30 and 50 for 48 h, respectively. The expression of p65 and mI{kappa}B{alpha} protein was analyzed by Western blot. Transfected HCC9204 cells and controls were treated with 4 Gy {gamma} rays. The inhibition rate of HCC9204 cells was examined by MTT. Rat models of HCC9204 was constructed. AdmI{kappa}B{alpha} plasmids were injected into tumor tissue and the tumors were administered with 6 Gy {gamma} irradiation 48 hours later. Tumor growth at different time points was recorded during 28 days. Results: The titer of AdmI{kappa}B{alpha} is 1.252 x 10{sup 9} pfu/ml. The expression of mI{kappa}B{alpha} protein was increased with titer of AdmI{kappa}B{alpha}, and p65 protein began to decrease when MOI was 10, and reached the lowest when MOI was 50, they were all dose-dependent. The proliferation of HCC9204 cell lines were suppressed, as was more significant combined with radiation, and the effect was in a viral dose-dependent manner. From days 7 to 28 after AdmI{kappa}B{alpha} gene and radiotherapy, the tumor growth was significantly slower than after irradiation or gene therapy alone. Conclusions: Recombinant adenoviral-mediated mI{kappa}B{alpha} gene, combined with irradiation, can increase the cell-killing effect. It is better than that of either one alone. (authors)

  18. Longitudinal and immediate effect of Kundalini Yoga on salivary levels of cortisol and activity of alpha-amylase and its effect on perceived stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelyn N García-Sesnich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Stress is defined as an alteration of an organism's balance in response to a demand perceived from the environment. Diverse methods exist to evaluate physiological response. A noninvasive method is salivary measurement of cortisol and alpha-amylase. A growing body of evidence suggests that the regular practice of Yoga would be an effective treatment for stress. Aims: To determine the Kundalini Yoga (KY effect, immediate and after 3 months of regular practice, on the perception of psychological stress and the salivary levels of cortisol and alpha-amylase activity. Settings and Design: To determine the psychological perceived stress, levels of cortisol and alpha-amylase activity in saliva, and compare between the participants to KY classes performed for 3 months and a group that does not practice any type of yoga. Subjects and Methods: The total sample consisted of 26 people between 18 and 45-year-old; 13 taking part in KY classes given at the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Chile and 13 controls. Salivary samples were collected, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed to quantify cortisol and kinetic reaction test was made to determine alpha-amylase activity. Perceived Stress Scale was applied at the beginning and at the end of the intervention. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was applied using Stata v11.1 software. Shapiro–Wilk test was used to determine data distribution. The paired analysis was fulfilled by t-test or Wilcoxon signed-rank test. T-test or Mann–Whitney's test was applied to compare longitudinal data. A statistical significance was considered when P< 0.05. Results: KY practice had an immediate effect on salivary cortisol. The activity of alpha-amylase did not show significant changes. A significant decrease of perceived stress in the study group was found. Conclusions: KY practice shows an immediate effect on salivary cortisol levels and on perceived stress after 3 months of practice.

  19. Longitudinal and Immediate Effect of Kundalini Yoga on Salivary Levels of Cortisol and Activity of Alpha-Amylase and Its Effect on Perceived Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sesnich, Jocelyn N; Flores, Mauricio Garrido; Ríos, Marcela Hernández; Aravena, Jorge Gamonal

    2017-01-01

    Stress is defined as an alteration of an organism's balance in response to a demand perceived from the environment. Diverse methods exist to evaluate physiological response. A noninvasive method is salivary measurement of cortisol and alpha-amylase. A growing body of evidence suggests that the regular practice of Yoga would be an effective treatment for stress. To determine the Kundalini Yoga (KY) effect, immediate and after 3 months of regular practice, on the perception of psychological stress and the salivary levels of cortisol and alpha-amylase activity. To determine the psychological perceived stress, levels of cortisol and alpha-amylase activity in saliva, and compare between the participants to KY classes performed for 3 months and a group that does not practice any type of yoga. The total sample consisted of 26 people between 18 and 45-year-old; 13 taking part in KY classes given at the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Chile and 13 controls. Salivary samples were collected, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed to quantify cortisol and kinetic reaction test was made to determine alpha-amylase activity. Perceived Stress Scale was applied at the beginning and at the end of the intervention. Statistical analysis was applied using Stata v11.1 software. Shapiro-Wilk test was used to determine data distribution. The paired analysis was fulfilled by t -test or Wilcoxon signed-rank test. T -test or Mann-Whitney's test was applied to compare longitudinal data. A statistical significance was considered when P < 0.05. KY practice had an immediate effect on salivary cortisol. The activity of alpha-amylase did not show significant changes. A significant decrease of perceived stress in the study group was found. KY practice shows an immediate effect on salivary cortisol levels and on perceived stress after 3 months of practice.

  20. Effect of particle size on hydroxyapatite crystal-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha secretion by macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadra, Imad; Boccaccini, Aldo R; Philippidis, Pandelis; Whelan, Linda C; McCarthy, Geraldine M; Haskard, Dorian O; Landis, R Clive

    2008-01-01

    Macrophages may promote a vicious cycle of inflammation and calcification in the vessel wall by ingesting neointimal calcific deposits (predominantly hydroxyapatite) and secreting tumor necrosis factor (TNF)alpha, itself a vascular calcifying agent. Here we have investigated whether particle size affects the proinflammatory potential of hydroxyapatite crystals in vitro and whether the nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB pathway plays a role in the macrophage TNFalpha response. The particle size and nano-topography of nine different crystal preparations was analyzed by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and gas sorbtion analysis. Macrophage TNFalpha secretion was inversely related to hydroxyapatite particle size (P=0.011, Spearman rank correlation test) and surface pore size (P=0.014). A necessary role for the NF-kappaB pathway was demonstrated by time-dependent I kappaB alpha degradation and sensitivity to inhibitors of I kappaB alpha degradation. To test whether smaller particles were intrinsically more bioactive, their mitogenic activity on fibroblast proliferation was examined. This showed close correlation between TNFalpha secretion and crystal-induced fibroblast proliferation (P=0.007). In conclusion, the ability of hydroxyapatite crystals to stimulate macrophage TNFalpha secretion depends on NF-kappaB activation and is inversely related to particle and pore size, with crystals of 1-2 microm diameter and pore size of 10-50 A the most bioactive. Microscopic calcific deposits in early stages of atherosclerosis may therefore pose a greater inflammatory risk to the plaque than macroscopically or radiologically visible deposits in more advanced lesions.

  1. Effect of hot isostatic pressing on the properties of sintered alpha silicon carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, G. K.; Moore, T. J.; Millard, M. L.

    1985-01-01

    Two lots of alpha silicon carbide were isostatically hot-pressed under 138 MPa for 2 h in Ar at temperatures up to 2200 C. Nearly theoretically dense specimens resulted. Hot isostatic pressing increased both room-temperature strength and 1200 C strength, and resulted in improved reliability. One lot of material which was pressed at 2200 C showed increases of about 20 percent in room-temperature strength and about 50 percent in 1200 C flexural strength; the Weibull modulus improved about 100 percent.

  2. The effect of inhibition of prostaglandin F2 alpha synthesis on placental expulsion in the ewe.

    OpenAIRE

    Chassagne, M; Barnouin, J

    1993-01-01

    Five ewes were injected with two doses of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAI), lysine acetyl salicylate, at birth of their first lamb and one hour later, and five others were injected once only, at birth of their first lamb. A control group of six animals was constituted. The times needed for fetal expulsion and placental release were recorded. The peripheral plasma PgF2 alpha (as PGFM) levels were measured prepartum during the seven last days of gestation, at parturition, then 1 h, ...

  3. Effect of short-term ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate pretreatment on intestinal ischemia-reperfusion in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves,Eduardo Silvio Gouveia; Rabelo,Camila Menezes; Prado Neto,Alberico Ximenes do; Garcia,José Huygens Parente; Guimarães,Sérgio Botelho; Vasconcelos,Paulo Roberto Leitão de

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of preventive enteral administration of ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate (OKG) in an ischemia-reperfusion rat model. METHODS: Sixty rats were randomized into five groups (G1-G5, n = 12). Each group was divided into two subgroups (n = 6) and treated with calcium carbonate (CaCa) or OKG by gavage. Thirty minutes later, the animals were anesthetized with xylazine 15mg + ketamine 1mg ip and subjected to laparotomy. G1-G3 rats served as controls. Rats in groups G4 ...

  4. Effects of a dietary Aspergillus oryzae extract containing alpha-amylase activity on performance and carcass characteristics of finishing beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricarico, J M; Abney, M D; Galyean, M L; Rivera, J D; Hanson, K C; McLeod, K R; Harmon, D L

    2007-03-01

    Three experiments were conducted to examine the effects of an Aspergillus oryzae extract containing alpha-amylase activity on performance and carcass characteristics of finishing beef cattle. In Exp. 1, 120 crossbred steers were used in a randomized complete block design to evaluate the effects of roughage source (alfalfa hay vs. cottonseed hulls) and supplemental alpha-amylase at 950 dextrinizing units (DU)/kg of DM. Significant roughage source x alpha-amylase interactions (P < 0.05) were observed for performance. In steers fed cottonseed hulls, supplemental alpha-amylase increased ADG through d 28 and 112 and tended (P < 0.15) to increase ADG in all other periods. The increases in ADG were related to increased DMI and efficiency of gain during the initial 28-d period but were primarily related to increased DMI as the feeding period progressed. Supplemental alpha-amylase increased (P = 0.02) the LM area across both roughage sources. In Exp. 2, 96 crossbred heifers were used in a randomized complete block design with a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments to evaluate the effects of corn processing (dry cracked vs. high moisture) and supplemental alpha-amylase concentration (0, 580, or 1,160 DU/kg of DM). Alpha-amylase supplementation increased DMI (P = 0.05) and ADG (P = 0.03) during the initial 28 d on feed and carcass-adjusted ADG (P = 0.04) across corn processing methods. Longissimus muscle area was greatest (quadratic effect, P = 0.04), and yield grade was least (quadratic effect, P = 0.02) in heifers fed 580 DU of alpha-amylase/kg of DM across corn processing methods. In Exp. 3, 56 crossbred steers were used in a randomized complete block design to evaluate the effects of supplemental alpha-amylase (930 DU/kg of DM) on performance when DMI was restricted to yield a programmed ADG. Alpha-amylase supplementation did not affect performance when DMI was restricted. We conclude that dietary alpha-amylase supplementation of finishing beef diets may result in

  5. The effects of the alpha2-adrenergic receptor agonists clonidine and rilmenidine, and antagonists yohimbine and efaroxan, on the spinal cholinergic receptor system in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abelson, Klas S P; Höglund, A Urban

    2004-01-01

    Cholinergic agonists produce spinal antinociception via mechanisms involving an increased release of intraspinal acetylcholine. The cholinergic receptor system interacts with several other receptor types, such as alpha2-adrenergic receptors. To fully understand these interactions, the effects...... of various receptor ligands on the cholinergic system must be investigated in detail. This study was initiated to investigate the effects of the alpha2-adrenergic receptor agonists clonidine and rilmenidine and the alpha2-adrenergic receptor antagonists yohimbine and efaroxan on spinal cholinergic receptors......, all ligands possessed affinity for nicotinic receptors. Clonidine and yohimbine binding was best fit to a one site binding curve and rilmenidine and efaroxan to a two site binding curve. The present study demonstrates that the tested alpha2-adrenergic receptor ligands affect intraspinal acetylcholine...

  6. Effect of tamoxifen pre-treatment on the retention of tritiated oestradiol and 5. cap alpha. -dihydrotestosterone and on glucose metabolism in human breast carcinomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshpande, N; Mitchell, I [Imperial Cancer Research Fund, London (UK). Labs.; Hughes, D

    1978-05-01

    The effect of pre-treatment with tamoxifen on glucose metabolism and retention of injected oestradiol-17B and 5..cap alpha..-dihydrotestosterone by human breast carcinomas were studied in patients undergoing mastectomy. The following effects were observed: the pretreatment reduced retention of oestradiol-17B whereas a small but statistically significant rise in 5..cap alpha..-dihydrotestosterone accumulation was observed. There was an increase in both phosphofructokinase (PFK) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) activities in tumours from treated patients whereas ..cap alpha..-glycerolphosphate dehydrogenase (..cap alpha..-GPDH) activity was significantly reduced in the same tumours. The significance of these findings is discussed and it is argued that these changes in carbohydrate metabolism may not be due to the blocking of hormone receptors.

  7. Proliferative and antiproliferative effects of interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha on cell lines derived from cervical and ovarian malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutch, D.G.; Massad, L.S.; Kao, M.S.; Collins, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    Four human cell lines derived from cervical carcinomas (ME-180, SiHa, HT-3, and MS751) and three human cell lines derived from ovarian carcinomas (SK-OV-3, Caov-3, and NIH:OVCAR-3) were analyzed in vitro to determine the effect of recombinant interferon-gamma and recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-alpha on cell growth and survival. The effects of interferon-gamma, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and both interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha on cell growth were measured after 24 and 72 hours of incubation by the incorporation of chromium 51. The results of this analysis showed that all seven cell lines were resistant to the antiproliferative action of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, that the growth of most cell lines was inhibited by interferon-gamma by 72 hours of incubation, and that after 72 hours of incubation all cell lines demonstrated a synergistic antiproliferative response to the combination of interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. However, the effects of these cytokines on cell growth were found to differ among cell lines and varied with the concentration and the duration of incubation. The growth of one cell line (Caov-3) was stimulated by both tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma. These results suggest that the clinical effects of these cytokines on the growth of gynecologic cancers may be more complex than previously supposed

  8. Effect of polyols on the native structure of {alpha}-chymotrypsin: A comparable study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Awanish; Attri, Pankaj [Department of Chemistry, University of Delhi, Delhi - 110 007 (India); Venkatesu, Pannuru, E-mail: venkatesup@hotmail.com [Department of Chemistry, University of Delhi, Delhi - 110 007 (India)

    2012-05-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have studied stability of {alpha}-chymotrypsin in polyols. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have performed DSC, CD and fluorescence spectroscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our {Delta}G{sub u} of CT in polyol increase as polyol concentration increases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer All polyols acted as enhancers for CT stability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our results show that trehalose is strong stabilizer. - The influence of polyols on the structure and stability of {alpha}-chymotrypsin (CT) have been explored by using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), circular dichroism (CD) and fluorescence spectroscopy. We have predicted the thermodynamic folding properties (transition temperature (T{sub m}), enthalpy change ({Delta}H), heat capacity change ({Delta}C{sub p}) and Gibbs free energy change ({Delta}G{sub u}) from DSC to understand the clear picture of folding studies of CT. All polyols (trehalose, sucrose, sorbitol, and glycerol) acted as enhancers for CT stability, with varying efficacies and efficiencies. The DSC, CD and fluorescence spectral analysis clearly showed the ability of polyols to protect the native structural conformation of enzyme and preventing the unfolding which occurs in the aqueous media. These results explicitly explain that stabilizing polyols are preferentially excluded from the surface of CT, since water has a higher tendency toward favourable interactions with functional groups of the CT than with polyols.

  9. The Effect of Alpha-Lipoic Acid on Learning and Memory Deficit in a Rat Model of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Karimi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder in which patients experience spontaneous recurrent seizures and deficiency in learning and memory. Although the most commonly recommended therapy is drug treatment, some patients do not achieve adequate control of their seizures on existing drugs. New medications with novel mechanisms of action are needed to help those patients whose seizures are resistant to currently-available drugs. While alpha-lipoic acid as a antioxidant has some neuroprotective properties, but this action has not been investigated in models of epilepsy. Therefore, the protective effect of pretreatment with alpha-lipoic acid was evaluated in experimental model of temporal lobe epilepsy in male rats. Methods: In the present study, Wistar male rats were injected intrahippocampally with 0.9% saline(Sham-operated group, kainic acid(4 μg alone, or α-lipoic acid (25mg and 50mg/kg in association with kainic acid(4μg. We performed behavior monitoring(spontaneous seizure, learning and memory by Y-maze and passive avoidance test, intracranial electroencepholography (iEEG recording, histological analysis, to evaluate the anti- epilepsy effect of α-lipoic acid in kainate-induced epileptic rats.   Results: Behavior data showed that the kainate rats exhibit spontaneous seizures, lower spontaneous alternation score inY-maze tasks (p<0.01, impaired retention and recall capability in the passive avoidance test (p<0.05. Administration of alpha-lipoic acid, in both doses, significantly decrease the number of spontaneous seizures, improved alternation score in Y-maze task (p<0.005 and impaired retention and recall capability in the passive avoidance test (p<0.01 in kainite rats. Moreover, lipoic acid could improve the lipid peroxidation and nitrite level and superoxid dismutase activity.Conclusion: This study indicates that lipoic acid pretreatment attenuates kainic acid-induced impairment of short-term spatial memory in rats

  10. The Effect of Alpha-Lipoic Acid on Learning and Memory Deficit in a Rat Model of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tourandokht Baluchnejadmojarad

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder in which patients experience spontaneous recurrent seizures and deficiency in learning and memory. Although the most commonly recommended therapy is drug treatment, some patients do not achieve adequate control of their seizures on existing drugs. New medications with novel mechanisms of action are needed to help those patients whose seizures are resistant to currently-available drugs. While alpha-lipoic acid as a antioxidant has some neuroprotective properties, but this action has not been investigated in models of epilepsy. Therefore, the protective effect of pretreatment with alpha-lipoic acid was evaluated in experimental model of temporal lobe epilepsy in male rats. Methods: In the present study, Wistar male rats were injected intrahippocampally with 0.9% saline(Sham-operated group, kainic acid(4 μg alone, or α-lipoic acid (25mg and 50mg/kg in association with kainic acid(4μg. We performed behavior monitoring(spontaneous seizure, learning and memory by Y-maze and passive avoidance test, intracranial electroencepholography (iEEG recording, histological analysis, to evaluate the anti- epilepsy effect of α-lipoic acid in kainate-induced epileptic rats. Results: Behavior data showed that the kainate rats exhibit spontaneous seizures, lower spontaneous alternation score inY-maze tasks (p<0.01, impaired retention and recall capability in the passive avoidance test (p<0.05. Administration of alpha-lipoic acid, in both doses, significantly decrease the number of spontaneous seizures, improved alternation score in Y-maze task (p<0.005 and impaired retention and recall capability in the passive avoidance test (p<0.01 in kainite rats. Moreover, lipoic acid could improve the lipid peroxidation and nitrite level and superoxid dismutase activity. Discussion: This study indicates that lipoic acid pretreatment attenuates kainic acid-induced impairment of short-term spatial memory in rats

  11. The acute effects of alpha and beta irradiation of mouse skin and the factors affecting the response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Needham, S.G.; Coggle, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    Several problems regarding acute effects of alpha and beta irradiation were investigated in order to clarify protection problems of localised doses to the skin. A study into the acute biological effects of different energy beta emitters and the effects of energy and area on the response showed direct relationships between these criteria for a range of different acute responses with different time courses. Three different types of acute response were found and these are described as 'moist desquamation', 'acute ulceration' and 'acute epidermal necrosis'. An unexpected finding was that the lower energy beta emitter 170 Tm was as efficient at inducing scab formation as the higher energy 90 Sr sources for the same area of exposure. Experiments using 2x4 cm 2 exposures to 224 Cm alpha particles showed that the response to this poorly penetrating radiation was minimal after doses as high as 180 Gy measured at 10 μm into the skin. In comparison, large area exposure to 170 Tm produced areas of prolonged scabbing after doses up to 100 Gy. However, the intensity of the reaction varied between strains. (author)

  12. Effect of dietary protein on the excretion of. cap alpha. /sub 2u/, the sex-dependent protein of the adult male rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuhaus, O W; Flory, W

    1975-01-01

    Adult male rates were maintained on normal (20 percent casein), protein-free (0 percent casein), high protein (50 percent casein), deficient protein (20 percent zein), and a supplemented, deficient protein (20 percent zein plus L-lysine and L-tryptophan) diets. Rats on a protein-free diet excreted approximately 1 mg ..cap alpha../sub 2u//24 h compared with a normal of 10-15 mg/24 h. Depleted rats placed on the normal diet showed a rapid restoration of the normal ..cap alpha../sub 2u/ excretion as well as total urinary proteins. Accumulation of ..cap alpha../sub 2u/ in the blood serum was measured in nephrectomized rats. Rats on the protein free diet accumulated only 30 percent of the ..cap alpha../sub 2u/ compared to normals. On a 50 precent casein diet, rats excreted 30-50 mg ..cap alpha../sub 2u//24 h. However, the accumulation was normal in the serum of nephrectomized rats. A high protein diet did not stimulate ..cap alpha../sub 2u/ synthesis but probably increased the renal loss of all urinary proteins. The excretion of ..cap alpha../sub 2u/ on a zein diet was reduced to the same degree as with the protein-free diet. Supplementation with lysine and tryptophan restored the capacity to eliminate ..cap alpha../sub 2u/ to near normal levels. Accumulation of ..cap alpha../sub 2u/ in the serum of nephrectomized rats kept on the zein diets showed that the effect was to suppress the synthesis of the ..cap alpha../sub 2u/. Supplementation restored the biosynthesis of ..cap alpha../sub 2u/. It is concluded that the effect of dietary protein on the excretion of urinary proteins in the adult male rat is caused in a large part by an influence on the hepatic biosynthesis of ..cap alpha../sub 2u/. The biosynthesis of this protein, which represents approximately 30 percent of the total urinary proteins, is dependent on an adequate supply of dietary protein.

  13. Crystallographic study and self irradiation damage on plutonium at low temperature; Etude cristallographique et effets de l'auto-irradiation sur le plutonium a basse temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solente, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-05-01

    We have studied the variation of the parameters of {alpha} plutonium and aluminium stabilised {delta} alloys at low temperature, in order to verify the existence of an antiferromagnetic transition at low temperature. The effects of {alpha} particles on the length of a polycrystal of {alpha} plutonium at 4,2 deg. K are also presented at 18 deg. K a plutonium shows no crystallographic change from its structure at room temperature. The thermal expansion coefficients along the 3 axis seem to be positive at this temperature. Therefore a magnetic contribution on thermal expansion coefficients must be small. A dilatation anomaly of {delta}Pu has been observed at 100 deg. K, together with an anomaly of the diffraction lines intensity. No sur-structure line has been observed at 20 deg. K. The length of {alpha} plutonium Increases with time at a rate of about 5 x 10{sup -6} per hour when held in liquid helium. This effect is attributed to the creation of Frenkel pairs. (author) [French] On presente une etude cristallographique a basse temperature du plutonium {alpha} et stabilise {delta} par des additions d'aluminium en vue de verifier l'existence d'une transformation antiferromagnetique a basse temperature. L'effet des particules {alpha} a 4,2 deg. K sur la longueur d'un polycristal de plutonium {alpha} a egalement ete etudie. Il a ete determine que le plutonium {alpha} ne mange pas de phase allotropique Jusqu'a 18 deg. K, les coefficients de dilatation des trois axes de la maille semblent rester positifs. Une eventuelle contribution magnetique sur les coefficients de dilatation devrait donc etre faible. Une legere anomalie de dilatation de Pu {delta} a ete observee a 100 deg. K ainsi qu'une anomalie d'intensite des raies de diffraction. Aucune raie de surstructure n'a ete observee. Le plutonium {alpha} s'allonge lorsqu'il est plonge dans l'helium liquide d'un taux de l'ordre de 5 x 10{sup -6}/heure. Cet effet a ete attribuee a la creation de paires de Frenkel. (auteur)

  14. Comparative effectiveness and adverse effects of interferon alpha-2b plus ribavirin therapy in hepatitis 'C' for 26 weeks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.

    2009-01-01

    Hepatitis C is major emerging challenge for pathologists and treating physicians all over the world. Already 10 million Pakistani population has become anti-HCV positive. It is not only affecting hepatobiliary system but with passage of time research is revealing that Hepatitis C is going to involve almost every organ of the body. With timely diagnosis and treatment, millions of patients can be saved from morbidity and mortality. The nation has to sacrifice initial economic allocations to avoid later millions of mortalities and greater economic losses on affected patients and to support their families. The objective of this study was to evaluate effectiveness of combine therapy of Hepatitis C in local population of Pakistan. This case series study was done at CMH Okara, Kohat, Abbottabad, and PAF Hospital, Shorkot from August 2000 to August 2009. All 1,000 patients from 10 to 60 years of age, confirmed anti-HCV Positive by ELISA and PCR Positive for HCV RNA, were subjected to Interferon alpha-2b and Ribavirin therapy for similar period of time. Response and adverse affects were observed by clinical examination, blood complete picture including platelet count and ALT fortnightly. PCR for HCV RNA and ultrasound abdomen (hepatobiliary system) was done quarterly during treatment and 6 monthly for 2 years after treatment to review the sustained response and relapse. Over all cure rate after 2 years was 855 (85.5%) excluding the 50 (5%) of initial resistant to one year treatment and 95 (9.5%) re-treated relapse cases. One hundred and forty-five (14.5%) patients were found to be resistant to treatment. Hepatitis C must be treated timely after proper diagnosis. Interferon and Ribavirin combination have shown high 'cure' rate in Hepatitis C. In spite of high cure rate of 85.5% with timely and proper treatment, low socio-economic status is a major problem for poor individuals to get treatment. Preventive aspect must be strictly followed and implemented. (author)

  15. Comparative effectiveness and adverse effects of interferon alpha-2b plus ribavirin therapy in hepatitis 'C' for 26 weeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shafqut; Iram, Samia

    2009-01-01

    Hepatitis C is major emerging challenge for pathologists and treating physicians all over the world. Already 10 million Pakistani population has become anti-HCV positive. It is not only affecting hepatobiliary system but with passage of time research is revealing that Hepatitis C is going to involve almost every organ of the body. With timely diagnosis and treatment, millions of patients can be saved from morbidity and mortality. The nation has to sacrifice initial economic allocations to avoid later millions of mortalities and greater economic losses on affected patients and to support their families. The objective of this study was to evaluate effectiveness of combine therapy of Hepatitis C in local population of Pakistan. This case series study was done at CMH Okara, Kohat, Abbottabad, and PAF Hospital, Shorkot from August 2000 to August 2009. All 1,000 patients from 10 to 60 years of age, confirmed anti-HCV Positive by ELISA and PCR Positive for HCV RNA, were subjected to Interferon alpha-2b and Ribavirin therapy for similar period of time. Response and adverse affects were observed by clinical examination, blood complete picture including platelet count and ALT fortnightly. PCR for HCV RNA and ultrasound abdomen (hepatobilliary system) was done quarterly during treatment and 6 monthly for 2 years after treatment to review the sustained response and relapse. Over all cure rate after 2 years was 855 (85.5%) excluding the 50 (5%) of initial resistant to one year treatment and 95 (9.5%) re-treated relapse cases. One hundred and forty-five (14.5%) patients were found to be resistant to treatment. Hepatitis C must be treated timely after proper diagnosis. Interferon and Ribavirin combination have shown high 'cure' rate in Hepatitis C. In spite of high cure rate of 85.5% with timely and proper treatment, low socio-economic status is a major problem for poor individuals to get treatment. Preventive aspect must be strictly followed and implemented.

  16. The effect of combining recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-alpha with local radiation on tumor control probability of a human glioblastoma multiforme xenograft in nude mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Peigen; Allam, Ayman; Perez, Luis A; Taghian, Alphonse; Freeman, Jill; Suit, Herman D

    1995-04-30

    Purpose: To evaluate the antitumor activity of recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-alpha (rHuTNF-{alpha}) on a human glioblastoma multiforme (U87) xenograft in nude mice, and to study the effect of combining rHuTNF-{alpha} with local radiation on the tumor control probability of this tumor model. Methods and Materials: U87 xenograft was transplanted SC into the right hindleg of NCr/Sed nude mice (7-8 weeks old, male). When tumors reached a volume of about 110 mm{sup 3}, mice were randomly assigned to treatment: rHuTNF-{alpha} alone compared with normal saline control; or local radiation plus rHuTNF-{alpha} vs. local radiation plus normal saline. Parameters of growth delay, volume doubling time, percentage of necrosis, and cell loss factor were used to assess the antitumor effects of rHuTNF-{alpha} on this tumor. The TCD{sub 50} (tumor control dose 50%) was used as an endpoint to determine the effect of combining rHuTNF-{alpha} with local radiation. Results: Tumor growth in mice treated with a dose of 150 {mu}g/kg body weight rHuTNF-{alpha}, IP injection daily for 7 consecutive days, was delayed about 8 days compared to that in controls. Tumors in the treatment group had a significantly longer volume doubling time, and were smaller in volume and more necrotic than matched tumors in control group. rHuTNF-{alpha} also induced a 2.3 times increase of cell loss factor. The administration of the above-mentioned dose of rHuTNF-{alpha} starting 24 h after single doses of localized irradiation under hypoxic condition, resulted in a significant reduction in TCD{sub 50} from the control value of 60.9 Gy to 50.5 Gy (p < 0.01). Conclusion: rHuTNF-{alpha} exhibits an antitumor effect against U87 xenograft in nude mice, as evidenced by an increased delay in tumor growth as well as cell loss factor. Also, there was an augmentation of tumor curability when given in combination with radiotherapy, resulting in a significantly lower TCD{sub 50} value in the treatment vs. the

  17. Hepatitis B spliced protein (HBSP) promotes the carcinogenic effects of benzo [alpha] pyrene by interacting with microsomal epoxide hydrolase and enhancing its hydrolysis activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jin-Yan; Chen, Wan-Nan; Jiao, Bo-Yan; Lin, Wan-Song; Wu, Yun-Li; Liu, Ling-Ling; Lin, Xu

    2014-01-01

    The risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) increases in chronic hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) carriers who often have concomitant increase in the levels of benzo[alpha]pyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide(±) (BPDE)-DNA adduct in liver tissues, suggesting a possible co-carcinogenesis of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and benzo[alpha]pyrene in HCC; however the exact mechanisms involved are unclear. The interaction between hepatitis B spliced protein (HBSP) and microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) was confirmed using GST pull-down, co-immunoprecipitation and mammalian two-hybrid assay; the effects of HBSP on mEH-mediated B[alpha]P metabolism was examined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); and the influences of HBSP on B[alpha]P carcinogenicity were evaluated by bromodeoxyuridine cell proliferation, anchorage-independent growth and tumor xenograft. HBSP could interact with mEH in vitro and in vivo, and this interaction was mediated by the N terminal 47 amino acid residues of HBSP. HBSP could greatly enhance the hydrolysis activity of mEH in cell-free mouse liver microsomes, thus accelerating the metabolism of benzo[alpha]pyrene to produce more ultimate carcinnogen, BPDE, and this effect of HBSP requires the intact HBSP molecule. Expression of HBSP significantly increased the formation of BPDE-DNA adduct in benzo[alpha]pyrene-treated Huh-7 hepatoma cells, and this enhancement was blocked by knockdown of mEH. HBSP could enhance the cell proliferation, accelerate the G1/S transition, and promote cell transformation and tumorigenesis of B[alpha]P-treated Huh-7 hepatoma cells. Our results demonstrated that HBSP could promote carcinogenic effects of B[alpha]P by interacting with mEH and enhancing its hydrolysis activity

  18. Radiation quality and effective dose equivalent of alpha particles from radon decay products indoors: uncertainties in risk estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Affan, I.A. (Velindre Hospital, Whitchurch, Cardiff (United Kingdom))

    1994-01-01

    In order to make a better estimate of cancer risk due to radon the radiation quality of alpha particles emitted from the element and its daughters has been re-assessed. In particular, uncertainties in all components involved in the calculations of the effective dose E, have been investigated. This has been done in the light of the recent draft report of the ICRU on quantities and units for use in radiation protection (Allisy et al (1991) ICRU NEWS 2). On the assumption of an indoor radon concentration of 30 Bq.m[sup -3], microdose spectra have been calculated for alpha particles hitting lung cells at different depths. Then the mean quality factor Q-bar in the lung, dose equivalent H[sub T] to the lung and the effective dose have been calculated. A comparison between lung cancer risk from radon and that arising from diagnostic X rays to the chest is made. A suggestion to make the lung weighting factor w[sub T] a function of the fraction of lung cells hit is discussed. (Author).

  19. (Alpha, gamma) irradiation effect on the alteration of high-level radioactive wastes matrices (UO2, hollandite, glass SON68)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, T.

    2007-06-01

    The aim of this work is to determine the effect of irradiation on the alteration of high level nuclear waste forms matrices. The matrices investigated are UO 2 to simulate the spent fuel, the hollandite for the specific conditioning of Cs, and the inactive glass SON68 representing the nuclear glass R7T7) The alpha irradiation experiments on UO 2 colloids in aqueous carbonate media have enabled to distinguish between the oxidation of UO 2 matrix as initial and dissolution as subsequent step. The simultaneous presence of carbonate and H 2 O 2 (product resulting from water radiolysis) increased the dissolution rate of UO 2 to its maximum value governed by the oxidation rate. ii) The study of hollandite alteration under gamma irradiation confirmed the good retention capacity for Cs and Ba. Gamma irradiation had brought only a little influence on releasing of Cs and Ba in solution. Electronic irradiation had conducted to the amorphization of the hollandite only for a dose 1000 times higher than the auto-induced dose of Ba over millions of years. iii) The experiences of glass irradiation under alpha beam and of helium implantation in the glass SON68 were analyzed by positon annihilation spectroscopy. No effect has been observed on the solid surface for an irradiation dose equal to 1000 years of storage. (author)

  20. [The most effective dosage in the administration of PGF2-alpha for interruption of pregnancy during the 2d trimester].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herczeg, J; Szontágh, F

    1974-06-23

    Artificial interruption of pregnancy contains too many risks from the 12th week of pregnancy. The authors have been working at finding the most suitable and effective dosage of prostaglandin for the interruption of pregnancy during the 2nd trimester. The new dosage experimented was 25 mg of prostaglandin F2alpha, followed by another 25 mg 6 hours later. The clinical efficiency of this dosage was tested. This procedures was used in 45 cases. The efficiency of the method was compared to the efficiency of the previously used dosage, which was 25 mg of prostaglandin F2alpha, followed by 25 mg 24 hours later. The new dosage was evaluated 91% efficient, while the previous dosage was found to be 75% efficient. The side effects were rated as acceptable by the patients. There was no case of infection. Two undeniable advantages were found with this new dosage: the duration of the actual procedure is considerably reduced, and the method appears to be much safer. The authors conclude that this new procedure offers numerous clinical advantages.

  1. Effects of omega-3 fatty acid plus alpha-tocopherol supplementation on malnutrition-inflammation score, biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress in chronic hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asemi, Zatollah; Soleimani, Alireza; Shakeri, Hossein; Mazroii, Navid; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2016-11-01

    The current study was carried out to assess the effects of omega-3 fatty acid and alpha-tocopherol co-supplementation on malnutrition-inflammation score (MIS), biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress in chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients. In a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial, 120 patients with chronic HD were included. Patients were randomly allocated into four groups to receive: (1) 1250 mg/day omega-3 fatty acid containing 600 mg EPA and 300 mg DHA + alpha-tocopherol placebo (n = 30); (2) 400 IU/day alpha-tocopherol + omega-3 fatty acids placebo (n = 30); (3) 1250 mg omega-3 fatty acids/day + 400 IU/day alpha-tocopherol (n = 30); and (4) omega-3 fatty acids placebo + alpha-tocopherol placebo (n = 30) for 12 weeks. After 12 weeks of intervention, all three groups of alpha-tocopherol only, individual omega-3 fatty acids, and combined omega-3 fatty acids and alpha-tocopherol experienced a significant improvements in MIS compared with the placebo group; however, improvements were much greater in the individual omega-3 fats (-1.4 ± 1.4) and combined omega-3 fats and alpha-tocopherol (-1.1 ± 2.3) groups compared with alpha-tocopherol group alone (-0.5 ± 1.7, P = 0.004). Furthermore, both individual and combined intervention with omega-3 fats and alpha-tocopherol led to a significant increase in plasma nitric oxide (NO) (combined group: +17.6 ± 29.3; alpha-tocopherol: +43.1 ± 36.3; omega-3 fats: +31.0 ± 40.0; and placebo: -0.5 ± 18.5 µmol/L, respectively, P acids and alpha-tocopherol co-supplementation for 12 weeks among HD patients improved MIS, plasma NO and TAC levels. Future studies with longer duration of the intervention are needed to confirm the validity of our findings. CLINICAL REGISTRATION: www.irct.ir as IRCT201410245623N28.

  2. Effect of trapping methods on the estimation of alpha diversity of a phlebotomine sandfly assemblage in southern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rojas, J J; Rebollar-Téllez, E A

    2017-12-01

    The aims of the study were to (a) investigate the effect of trapping methods on alpha diversity; and (b) enhance the knowledge of the sandfly assemblage in the state of Quintana Roo. Field work was undertaken in a tropical forest of southern Mexico from August 2013 to July 2014. Sampling was conducted monthly during three consecutive nights. For each trapping night, 12 different types of trap were operated from 18.00 to 24.00 hours in four transects. Measures of alpha community diversity were based on the quantification of the number of species (Chao 2, Jackknife 2, Clench's equation, Margalef's index) and the community structure, as well as the dominance (Simpson and Berger-Parker indexes) and evenness (Shannon's entropy index, true diversity of the Jost and Pielou index). With a total sampling effort of 1728 night-traps, 16 101 phlebotomine sandflies were collected; they represented two genera and 13 species. Diversity estimates of 100% (Chao 2 and Clench's equation) and 85% (Jackknife 2) of potential species in the study area were calculated. Shannon traps and CDC light traps indicated the largest number of species, but only Shannon traps showed the greatest abundance. This inventory of sandflies is an important activity to enhance our knowledge of sandfly assemblages and guilds. The ultimate goal of studying alpha diversity in sandflies would be to have a better understanding of the population dynamics and all complex networks of interactions that may, in turn, be associated with the epidemiology of the disease. © 2017 The Royal Entomological Society.

  3. High-temperature effect of hydrogen on sintered alpha-silicon carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallum, G. W.; Herbell, T. P.

    1986-01-01

    Sintered alpha-silicon carbide was exposed to pure, dry hydrogen at high temperatures for times up to 500 hr. Weight loss and corrosion were seen after 50 hr at temperatures as low as 1000 C. Corrosion of SiC by hydrogen produced grain boundary deterioration at 1100 C and a mixture of grain and grain boundary deterioration at 1300 C. Statistically significant strength reductions were seen in samples exposed to hydrogen for times greater than 50 hr and temperatures above 1100 C. Critical fracture origins were identified by fractography as either general grain boundary corrision at 1100 C or as corrosion pits at 1300 C. A maximum strength decrease of approximately 33 percent was seen at 1100 and 1300 C after 500 hr exposure to hydrogen. A computer assisted thermodynamic program was also used to predict possible reaction species of SiC and hydrogen.

  4. Effect of antioxidant therapy with dl-alpha-tocopherol on cardiovascular structure in experimental renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amann, Kerstin; Törnig, Johannes; Buzello, Mareike; Kuhlmann, Alexander; Gross, Marie-Luise; Adamczak, Marcin; Buzello, Moriz; Ritz, Eberhard

    2002-09-01

    Chronic renal failure is characterized by remodeling of the structure of the heart and the vasculature, for example, left ventricular hypertrophy, myocardial fibrosis, capillary/myocyte mismatch, as well as thickening of intramyocardial arteries and of peripheral arteries and veins. Furthermore, uremia is a state of increased oxygen stress. It was the purpose of this study to examine whether these findings are interrelated. To investigate whether antioxidative therapy with dl-alpha-tocopherol (Toco; vitamin E) interferes with the development of abnormal cardiovascular structure in experimental renal failure, 28 male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to partial renal ablation (subtotal nephrectomy, SNX) or to sham operation (sham). SNX were either left untreated or received the antioxidant Toco (2 x 1500 IE/kg BW/week in the pellets). Blood pressure was measured using tail plethysmography. The experiment was terminated after 12 weeks. Heart and left ventricular weight were determined and the following parameters were measured using morphometry and stereology: volume densities of cardiomyocytes, capillaries and non-vascular interstitium; length density and total length of cardiac capillaries, wall thickness of intramyocardial arterioles and of the aorta. Systolic blood pressure and body weight were comparable in all groups. Treatment with Toco led to significantly increased plasma concentrations of Toco. Left ventricular weight and wall thickness of intramyocardial arteries were significantly higher in both SNX groups compared to sham controls. Volume density of the cardiac interstitial tissue was significantly higher in untreated SNX than in Toco treated SNX and sham control rats. Length density of capillaries was significantly lower in untreated SNX than in control rats; however, the values were significantly higher, and even higher than in sham controls, when SNX were treated with Toco. Treatment with the antioxidant dl-alpha-tocopherol prevented cardiomyocyte

  5. The effect of inhibition of prostaglandin F2 alpha synthesis on placental expulsion in the ewe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassagne, M; Barnouin, J

    1993-04-01

    Five ewes were injected with two doses of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAI), lysine acetyl salicylate, at birth of their first lamb and one hour later, and five others were injected once only, at birth of their first lamb. A control group of six animals was constituted. The times needed for fetal expulsion and placental release were recorded. The peripheral plasma PgF2 alpha (as PGFM) levels were measured prepartum during the seven last days of gestation, at parturition, then 1 h, 2 h and 12 h after lambing. The results were compared among and within treatment groups. They indicate that the physiological increase in peripheral PGFM levels starts two days before lambing and that the level peaks at lambing. The normal decrease after parturition is emphasized by NSAI injections as detected 1 h and 2 h posttreatment (p NSAI drug is short-acting as revealed by the lower PGFM levels in twice-treated animals 2 h after birth compared to once treated animals and the similar low levels in all three groups 12 h after birth. The fetal membranes were expelled normally in all treated and nontreated animals, but the time needed for placental expulsion in ewes injected with two doses of NSAI was longer than in controls (p < 0.05). A negative correlation (p < 0.05) was found between plasma PGFM levels measured two hours after lambing and the time needed for fetal membrane expulsion. PgF2 alpha appears to have a role in placental release in the ewe.

  6. Short-term effects of repeated olfactory administration of homeopathic sulphur or pulsatilla on electroencephalographic alpha power in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Iris R; Brooks, Audrey J; Howerter, Amy; Jackson, Nicholas; Schwartz, Gary E

    2011-10-01

    Homeopathic pathogenetic trials usually rely on symptom self report measures. Adding objective biomarkers could enhance detection of subtle initial remedy effects. The present feasibility study examined electroencephalographic (EEG) effects of repeated olfactory administration of two polycrest remedies. College student volunteers (ages 18-30, both sexes) from an introductory psychology course were screened for good health and relatively elevated Sulphur or Pulsatilla symptom scores on the Homeopathic Constitutional Type Questionnaire (CTQ). Subjects underwent a series of 3 once-weekly double-blind sessions during which they repeatedly sniffed the remedy matched to their CTQ type and solvent controls. Each remedy was given in a 6c, 12c, and 30c potency, one potency per week, in randomly assigned order. Solvent controls included both plain distilled water and a water-ethanol (95%) solution. All sniff test solutions were further diluted just prior to laboratory sessions (0.5 ml test solution in 150 ml distilled water). Within a session, remedies and control solvents were administered via 2-s sniffs (8 sniffs of each of 4 different succussion levels for the potency in randomized order). Primary outcome variable was relative EEG power (alpha 1 8-10 Hz; alpha 2 10-12 Hz) averaged over 19 electrode sites, including all succussions for a given potency. Mixed-effect models revealed significant main effects for remedy type (Sulphur >Pulsatilla) in both alpha bands, controlling for gender, baseline resting EEG alpha, and solvent control responses. Additional analyses showed significant nonlinear interactions between dilution and time (weekly session) in alpha 2 for both remedies and alpha 1 for Sulphur. EEG alpha offers an objective biomarker of remedy effects for future studies and potential method for distinguishing time-dependent effects of specific remedies and remedy potencies from one another. Copyright © 2011 The Faculty of Homeopathy. Published by Elsevier Ltd

  7. Synergistic effect of interleukin 1 alpha on nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae-induced up-regulation of human beta-defensin 2 in middle ear epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Raekil

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We recently showed that beta-defensins have antimicrobial activity against nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi and that interleukin 1 alpha (IL-1 alpha up-regulates the transcription of beta-defensin 2 (DEFB4 according to new nomenclature of the Human Genome Organization in human middle ear epithelial cells via a Src-dependent Raf-MEK1/2-ERK signaling pathway. Based on these observations, we investigated if human middle ear epithelial cells could release IL-1 alpha upon exposure to a lysate of NTHi and if this cytokine could have a synergistic effect on beta-defensin 2 up-regulation by the bacterial components. Methods The studies described herein were carried out using epithelial cell lines as well as a murine model of acute otitis media (OM. Human cytokine macroarray analysis was performed to detect the released cytokines in response to NTHi exposure. Real time quantitative PCR was done to compare the induction of IL-1 alpha or beta-defensin 2 mRNAs and to identify the signaling pathways involved. Direct activation of the beta-defensin 2 promoter was monitored using a beta-defensin 2 promoter-Luciferase construct. An IL-1 alpha blocking antibody was used to demonstrate the direct involvement of this cytokine on DEFB4 induction. Results Middle ear epithelial cells released IL-1 alpha when stimulated by NTHi components and this cytokine acted in an autocrine/paracrine synergistic manner with NTHi to up-regulate beta-defensin 2. This synergistic effect of IL-1 alpha on NTHi-induced beta-defensin 2 up-regulation appeared to be mediated by the p38 MAP kinase pathway. Conclusion We demonstrate that IL-1 alpha is secreted by middle ear epithelial cells upon exposure to NTHi components and that it can synergistically act with certain of these molecules to up-regulate beta-defensin 2 via the p38 MAP kinase pathway.

  8. Isotope effect in the photochemical decomposition of CO{sub 2} (ice) by Lyman-{alpha} radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan Chunqing; Yates, John T. Jr. [Department of Chemistry, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States)

    2013-04-21

    The photochemical decomposition of CO{sub 2}(ice) at 75 K by Lyman-{alpha} radiation (10.2 eV) has been studied using transmission infrared spectroscopy. An isotope effect in the decomposition of the CO{sub 2} molecule in the ice has been discovered, favoring {sup 12}CO{sub 2} photodecomposition over {sup 13}CO{sub 2} by about 10%. The effect is caused by electronic energy transfer from the excited CO{sub 2} molecule to the ice matrix, which favors quenching of the heavier electronically-excited {sup 13}CO{sub 2} molecule over {sup 12}CO{sub 2}. The effect is similar to the Menzel-Gomer-Redhead isotope effect in desorption from adsorbed molecules on surfaces when electronically excited. An enhancement of the rate of formation of lattice-trapped CO and CO{sub 3} species is observed for the photolysis of the {sup 12}CO{sub 2} molecule compared to the {sup 13}CO{sub 2} molecule in the ice. Only 0.5% of the primary photoexcitation results in O-CO bond dissociation to produce trapped-CO and trapped-CO{sub 3} product molecules and the majority of the electronically-excited CO{sub 2} molecules return to the ground state. Here either vibrational relaxation occurs (majority process) or desorption of CO{sub 2} occurs (minority process) from highly vibrationally-excited CO{sub 2} molecules in the ice. The observation of the {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C isotope effect in the Lyman-{alpha} induced photodecomposition of CO{sub 2} (ice) suggests that over astronomical time scales the isotope enrichment effect may distort historical information derived from isotope ratios in space wherever photochemistry can occur.

  9. The effects of alpha2-adrenoceptor agents on anti-hyperalgesic effects of carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine in a rat model of inflammatory pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vucković, Sonja M; Tomić, Maja A; Stepanović-Petrović, Radica M; Ugresić, Nenad; Prostran, Milica S; Bosković, Bogdan

    2006-11-01

    In this study, the effects of yohimbine (alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonist) and clonidine (alpha2-adrenoceptor agonist) on anti-hyperalgesia induced by carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine in a rat model of inflammatory pain were investigated. Carbamazepine (10-40 mg/kg; i.p.) and oxcarbazepine (40-160 mg/kg; i.p.) caused a significant dose-dependent reduction of the paw inflammatory hyperalgesia induced by concanavalin A (Con A, intraplantarly) in a paw pressure test in rats. Yohimbine (1-3 mg/kg; i.p.) significantly depressed the anti-hyperalgesic effects of carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Both drug mixtures (carbamazepine-clonidine and oxcarbazepine-clonidine) administered in fixed-dose fractions of the ED50 (1/2, 1/4 and 1/8) caused significant and dose-dependent reduction of the hyperalgesia induced by Con A. Isobolographic analysis revealed a significant synergistic (supra-additive) anti-hyperalgesic effect of both combinations tested. These results indicate that anti-hyperalgesic effects of carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine are, at least partially, mediated by activation of adrenergic alpha2-receptors. In addition, synergistic interaction for anti-hyperalgesia between carbamazepine and clonidine, as well as oxcarbazepine and clonidine in a model of inflammatory hyperalgesia, was demonstrated.

  10. Effects of cigarette smoke exposure on nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits {alpha}7 and {beta}2 in the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) brainstem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machaalani, Rita, E-mail: rita.machaalani@sydney.edu.au [Department of Medicine, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Bosch Institute, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, NSW 2145 (Australia); Say, Meichien [Department of Medicine, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Bosch Institute, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Waters, Karen A. [Department of Medicine, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Bosch Institute, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, NSW 2145 (Australia)

    2011-12-15

    It is postulated that nicotine, as the main neurotoxic constituent of cigarette smoke, influences SIDS risk through effects on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in brainstem nuclei that control respiration and arousal. This study compared {alpha}7 and {beta}2 nAChR subunit expression in eight nuclei of the caudal and rostral medulla and seven nuclei of the pons between SIDS (n = 46) and non-SIDS infants (n = 14). Evaluation for associations with known SIDS risk factors included comparison according to whether infants had a history of exposure to cigarette smoke in the home, and stratification for sleep position and gender. Compared to non-SIDS infants, SIDS infants had significantly decreased {alpha}7 in the caudal nucleus of the solitary tract (cNTS), gracile and cuneate nuclei, with decreased {beta}2 in the cNTS and increased {beta}2 in the facial. When considering only the SIDS cohort: 1-cigarette smoke exposure was associated with increased {alpha}7 in the vestibular nucleus and increased {beta}2 in the rostral dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, rNTS and Cuneate, 2-there was a gender interaction for {alpha}7 in the gracile and cuneate, and {beta}2 in the cNTS and rostral arcuate nucleus, and 3-there was no effect of sleep position on {alpha}7, but prone sleep was associated with decreased {beta}2 in three nuclei of the pons. In conclusion, SIDS infants demonstrate differences in expression of {alpha}7 and {beta}2 nAChRs within brainstem nuclei that control respiration and arousal, which is independent on prior history of cigarette smoke exposure, especially for the NTS, with additional differences for smoke exposure ({beta}2), gender ({alpha}7 and {beta}2) and sleep position ({beta}2) evident. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The 'normal' response to smoke exposure is decreased {alpha}7 and {beta}2 in certain nuclei. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SIDS infants have decreased {alpha}7 in cNTS, Grac and Cun. Black

  11. Self-irradiation damage in 4H-SiC by molecular dynamics simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Miaomiao; Wang Qingyu; Li Taosheng; Li Zhongyu

    2014-01-01

    The development of nuclear technology is closely and inseparably related to the improvements of materials irradiation performance. The irradiation damage of nuclear materials is an important issue of characteristics and difficulties. Because of the excellent features, SiC becomes one of the candidate materials for the cladding material and structure material in fast neutron reactor and fusion reactor. As one of the polytypes, 4H-SiC has prospective important applications in a strong irradiation environment. In this work, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was performed to study the irradiation-induced cascade damage in single-crystalline 4H-SiC to get the microscopic evolution during the irradiation, in the aim of getting access to the detail that we cannot get from experiments. The software LAMMPS was used to simulate the damage formation process and the recovery process. The results showed that the initial project direction, the temperature and PKA energy exerted significant effects on the number and morphology of defects. (authors)

  12. Surface effect of KrF laser exposure on ECE of alpha particle tracks in polycarbonate polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parvin, P. [Physics Department, Amirkabir University, P.O. Box 15875-4413, Hafez Ave, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of) and Laser Research Center, Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, AEOI, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: parvin@aut.ac.ir; Jaleh, B. [Physics Department, Bu Ali Sina University, Hamadan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sheikh, N. [Gamma Irradiation Center, AEOI, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Amiri, N. [Physics Department, Emam Hossien University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2005-11-15

    The optical penetration depth for polycarbonate (PC) at 308nm due to XeCl laser is about 450{mu}m while those of KrF (248nm) and ArF (193nm) lasers become noticeably shorter to 1{mu}m and 20nm, respectively, to show the strong superficial absorption at shorter UV wavelengths. On the other hand, KrF laser exposure on polycarbonate, at doses above 6J/cm{sup 2}, creates the surface crosslinking. In spite of several reliable methods available, such as 'hot set' and 'gel content', to determine the bulk crosslinking, there are a few consistent techniques to evaluate the surface crosslinking effect quantitatively. It includes hardening measurements using nanoindenter or AFM (atomic force microscopy). In this work, we present a technique for the measurement of superficial crosslinking, based on electrochemical etching of alpha irradiated polycarbonate accordingly. The mean diameter of the developed tracks nonlinearly decreases for KrF laser treatment at higher doses. The relative shrinkage of track diameters due to UV exposure before alpha irradiation, comparing to those without UV pre-radiation, indicates that UV laser makes the polymer surface hardened. The variation of mean track diameters can be strongly used to quantify the surface crosslinking.

  13. Surface effect of KrF laser exposure on ECE of alpha particle tracks in polycarbonate polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parvin, P.; Jaleh, B.; Sheikh, N.; Amiri, N.

    2005-01-01

    The optical penetration depth for polycarbonate (PC) at 308nm due to XeCl laser is about 450μm while those of KrF (248nm) and ArF (193nm) lasers become noticeably shorter to 1μm and 20nm, respectively, to show the strong superficial absorption at shorter UV wavelengths. On the other hand, KrF laser exposure on polycarbonate, at doses above 6J/cm 2 , creates the surface crosslinking. In spite of several reliable methods available, such as 'hot set' and 'gel content', to determine the bulk crosslinking, there are a few consistent techniques to evaluate the surface crosslinking effect quantitatively. It includes hardening measurements using nanoindenter or AFM (atomic force microscopy). In this work, we present a technique for the measurement of superficial crosslinking, based on electrochemical etching of alpha irradiated polycarbonate accordingly. The mean diameter of the developed tracks nonlinearly decreases for KrF laser treatment at higher doses. The relative shrinkage of track diameters due to UV exposure before alpha irradiation, comparing to those without UV pre-radiation, indicates that UV laser makes the polymer surface hardened. The variation of mean track diameters can be strongly used to quantify the surface crosslinking

  14. The alpha-particle irradiator set up at the ISS for radiobiological studies on targeted and non-targeted effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esposito, G.; Antonelli, F.; Belli, M.; Campa, A.; Simone, G.; Sorrentino, E.; Tabocchini, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we describe the alpha-particle irradiator that has been set up at the Istituto Superiore di Sanita (ISS) for controlled exposure of cultured mammalian cells. It can be equipped with two different sources, namely 2'4'4'Cm and 2'4'1'Am, allowing irradiation at different dose-rates (typically 1-100 mGy/min). The irradiator has dimensions small enough to be inserted into a standard cell culture incubator to perform irradiation of cultured cells in physiological conditions. The dose uniformity is such that the variations in the irradiation area are less than ± 12% of the average dose value on different irradiation areas up to ∼ 25 cm'2. Moreover, in the framework of the FP6 Euratom Integrated Project Non-targeted effects of ionizing radiation (NOTE), Petri dishes were realized for housing permeable membrane insert(s) to be used in co-culture experiments. Aluminium shields were also realized for half shield irradiation experiments. The alpha-particle irradiator of the ISS has been successfully used for studying DNA damage, namely double strand breaks (DSB, as measured by the γ-H2AX assay), in directly hit and in bystander primary human fibroblasts [it

  15. Effects of mating on plasma concentrations of testosterone, cortisol, oestrone sulphate and 15-ketodihydro-PGF2alpha in stallions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villani, M; Cairoli, F; Kindahl, H; Galeati, G; Faustini, M; Carluccio, A; Veronesi, M C

    2006-12-01

    Very little information is available regarding the physiological mechanisms involved in the normal sexual activity in the stallion and, in particular, the endocrine control of reproduction is still not clearly understood. This experiment was designed to determine the short-term effect of sexual stimulation on plasma concentrations of testosterone, cortisol, oestrone sulphate and 15-ketodihydro-PGF(2alpha) in stallions. Semen samples were collected from 10 lighthorse stallions of proven fertility using a Missouri model artificial vagina. At the same time, blood samples were collected from the jugular vein with heparinized tubes, 20 and 10 min before oestrous mare exposure, at exposure and 10, 20, 30 min after dismounting. Testosterone concentrations showed a sharp rise 10 min after mating (p Cortisol concentrations increased 10 min after mating (p < 0.001) and remained at high levels in the subsequent samples taken. A peak of oestrone sulphate was observed 10 min after mating (p < 0.001). 15-Ketodihydro-PGF(2alpha) concentrations decreased rapidly at the moment of the exposure of the stallions to an oestrous mare (p < 0.05), returned to pre-mating concentrations and then decreased again 30 min after mating (p < 0.05).

  16. Differential modulation of a radiation-induced bystander effect in glioblastoma cells by pifithrin-alpha and wortmannin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao Chunlin, E-mail: clshao@shmu.edu.c [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, No. 2094 Xie-Tu Road, Shanghai 200032 (China); Zhang Jianghong [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, No. 2094 Xie-Tu Road, Shanghai 200032 (China); Prise, Kevin M. [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen' s University Belfast, Lisburn Road, Belfast BT9 7AB (United Kingdom)

    2010-03-15

    The implication of radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) for both radiation protection and radiotherapy has attracted significant attention, but a key question is how to modulate the RIBE. The present study found that, when a fraction of glioblastoma cells in T98G population were individually targeted with precise helium particles through their nucleus, micronucleus (MN) were induced and its yield increased non-linearly with radiation dose. After co-culturing with irradiated cells, additional MN could be induced in the non-irradiated bystander cells and its yield was independent of irradiation dose, giving direct evidence of a RIBE. Further results showed that the RIBE could be eliminated by pifithrin-alpha (p53 inhibitor) but enhanced by wortmannin (PI3K inhibitor). Moreover, it was found that nitric oxide (NO) contributed to this RIBE, and the levels of NO of both irradiated cells and bystander cells could be extensively diminished by pifithrin-alpha but insignificantly reduced by wortmannin. Our results indicate that RIBE can be modulated by p53 and PI3K through a NO-dependent and NO-independent pathway, respectively.

  17. Effect of mild intermittent hypoxia on glucose tolerance, muscle morphology and AMPK-PGC-1alpha signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chung-Yu; Tsai, Ying-Lan; Kao, Chung-Lan; Lee, Shin-Da; Wu, Ming-Chieh; Mallikarjuna, K; Liao, Yi-Hung; Ivy, John L; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2010-02-28

    The main goal of this study was to investigate the long-term effect of daily 8-hour mild intermittent hypoxia (14-15% O2) on glucose tolerance and muscle morphology of Sprague-Dawley rats. The involvement of AMPK-PGC-1alpha-VEGF signaling pathways in the skeletal muscle was also determined during the first 8 hours of hypoxia. We found that mRNA levels of VEGF and PGC-1alpha were significantly increased above control after 8-h mild hypoxia without a change in AMPK phosphorylation. After 8 weeks of mild intermittent hypoxia treatment, plasma glucose and insulin levels in oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), epididymal fat mass, and body weight were significantly lower compared to the control group. While soleus muscle weight was not changed, capillary and fiber densities in the hypoxia group were 33% and 35% above the control suggesting reorganization of muscle fibers. In conclusion, our data provide strong evidence that long-term mild intermittent hypoxia decreases the diffusion distance of glucose and insulin across muscle fibers, and decreases adiposity in rats. These changes may account for the improved glucose tolerance observed following the 8-week hypoxia treatment, and provides grounds for investigating the development of a mild non-pharmacological intervention in the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  18. Study of substrate topographical effects on epithelial cell behavior using etched alpha-particle tracks on PADC films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, C.K.M.; Poon, W.L.; Li, W.Y.; Cheung, T.; Cheng, S.H.; Yu, K.N.

    2008-01-01

    Micrometer-size pits on the surface of a polymer (polyallyldiglycol carbonate or PADC) substrate created by alpha-particle irradiation and subsequent chemical etching were used to study the topographical effects alone on cell behavior. Vinculin, the cell adhesion and membrane protrusion protein, was used as an indicator of cytoskeletonal reorganization on the substrate and localization of vinculin was used to demonstrate the presence of focal adhesions. In our experiments, vinculin expressed in epithelial HeLa cells cultured on PADC films with track-etch pits, but not in cells cultured on the raw or chemically etched blank films. In other words, vinculin expression was induced by the topography of track-etch pits, while etching of the substrate alone (without alpha-particle irradiation) did not cause up-regulation of vinculin protein expression. HeLa cells cultured on PADC films with track-etch pits also showed changes in cell proliferation, cell area and cell circularity, and were largely contained by the pits. In other words, the cell membrane edges tended to be in contact with the pits. By comparing the correlation between the positions of HeLa cells and the pits, and that between the positions of cells and computer-simulated pits, the tendency for membrane edges of HeLa cells to be in contact with the pits was recognized. This could be explained by inhibition of membrane protrusion at the pits. In conclusion, substrate track-etch pits were an important determinant of epithelial cell behaviors

  19. Intravenous Versus Subcutaneous Anti-TNF-Alpha Agents for Crohn's Disease: A Comparison of Effectiveness and Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinan; Sylwestrzak, Gosia; Ruggieri, Alexander P; DeVries, Andrea

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, there have been a number of pharmacological innovations for Crohn's disease (CD), a difficult-to-treat condition, including new treatment philosophies (e.g., top-down therapy) and new therapeutic options in terms of the agent and the route of administration. Three anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF-alpha) agents are available for use among CD patients in the United States: infliximab, an intravenous agent, and adalimumab and certolizumab pegol, 2 newer subcutaneous products. Infliximab is considered the "gold standard" because it has the longest clinical experience, and adalimumab and certolizumab pegol have each gained significant market share. To examine differences in effectiveness and safety between currently available intravenous and subcutaneous anti-TNF-alpha agents used to treat patients with CD. Data for this retrospective, administrative claims analysis were obtained from pharmacy and medical claims from major U.S. health plans geographically dispersed across 14 states during 2007-2011. Patients had at least 1 ICD-9-CM diagnosis for CD, 6 months pre-index eligibility, and initiated anti-TNF-alpha therapy on the index date. Patients in each cohort were propensity score matched on pre-index demographics, clinical characteristics, and baseline health care use. During the post-index period, age-sex adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of CD-related symptoms, infections, cancers, and hepatic-related conditions were compared using Cox (PH) models. The matched cohorts included 515 patients in each group, with an average age of 39 years. Median follow-up was 17.5 months in the intravenous cohort and 17.7 months in the subcutaneous cohort. In terms of effectiveness outcomes, age-sex adjusted IRRs for the subcutaneous group, with the intravenous cohort as a reference, were as follows: 0.61 (95% CI = 0.32-1.18, P = 0.14) for anal fissures; 0.97 (95% CI = 0.72-1.30, P = 0.85) for abscess; 1.08 (95% CI = 0.79-1.04, P = 0

  20. Effect of diclofenac alone or in combination with alpha-tocopherol on the oxidative activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in healthy and osteoartheritic individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Arfaj, Abdurahman S.; Alballa, Sulaiman R.; Mustafa, Ali A.; Al-Tuwajiri, Ali S.; Al-Humayyad, M.S.; Al-Dalaan, Abdullah N.

    2004-01-01

    To ivestigate the effects of diclofenac alone or when combined with alpha-tocopherol on the oxidative activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) in healthy and osteoartheritic (OA) patients. The study was carried out at the College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, KIgdom of Saudi Arabia, over the period 1999 to 2000. 12 healthy controls and 12 osteoartheritic patients were recruited to the study. They were given diclofenac 50mg thricedaily orally, initially for 5 days then alpha-tocopherol at 200mg thrice daily orally, was added for another 5 days. Blood samples were drawn before the start of study and at 5 days following treatmentwith diclofenac alone and 10 days following treatment with diclophenac and alpha-tocopherol. Chemiluminescence (CL)reponse was measured for wohle blood and isolated (PMNs) on all samples. Diclofenac enhanced CL response of whole blood and PMNs of healthy controls when stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and opsonized zymosan (OPZ). Cotreatment with alpha-tocopherol resulted in no appreciable change in the CL response of whole blood when stimulated with PMA or OPZ but a further significant enhancement of CL response of isolated PMNs when these cells were stimulated by either PMA or OPZ. In osteoartheritic patients, diclofenac alone and when combined with alpha-tocopherol showed no significant change in CL response of the whole blood.The CL response of PMNs from OA patients was decreased by diclofenac alone. However the inhibitory effect was not observed when alpha-tocopherol was used together with diclofenac. The effect of diclofenac alone or in combination with alpha-tocopherol did not produce a consistent effect on the CL response of whole blood or isolated PMNs of healthy or osteoartheritic patients. (author)

  1. Cocaine-like discriminative stimulus effects of alpha-pyrrolidinovalerophenone, methcathinone and their 3,4-methylenedioxy or 4-methyl analogs in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Douglas A; Negus, S Stevens; Poklis, Justin L; Blough, Bruce E; Banks, Matthew L

    2017-09-01

    Synthetic cathinones are beta-ketone amphetamine analogs that have emerged as a heterogeneous class of abused compounds that function as either monoamine transporter substrates or inhibitors. Pre-clinical drug discrimination procedures are useful for interrogating structure-activity relationships of abuse-related drug effects; however, in vivo structure-activity relationship comparisons between synthetic cathinones with different mechanisms of action are lacking. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the cocaine-like discriminative stimulus effects of the monoamine transporter inhibitor alpha-pyrrolidinovalerophenone (alpha-PVP) and the monoamine transporter substrate methcathinone were differentially sensitive to 3,4-methylenedioxy and 4-methyl substitutions. Male rhesus monkeys (n = 4) were trained to discriminate intramuscular cocaine (0.32 mg/kg) from saline in a two-key food-reinforced discrimination procedure. Potency and timecourse of cocaine-like discriminative stimulus effects were determined for (±)-alpha-PVP, (±)-methcathinone and their 3,4-methylenedioxy or 4-methyl analogs. Alpha-PVP and methcathinone produced dose- and time-dependent cocaine-like effects. A 3,4-methylenedioxy addition to either alpha-PVP or methcathinone (methylone) did not alter the potency or efficacy to produce cocaine-like effects, but did prolong the time course. A 4-methyl addition to alpha-PVP (pyrovalerone) did not alter the potency or efficacy to produce cocaine-like effects, but did prolong the time course. In contrast, addition of a 4-methyl moiety to methcathinone (4MMC; mephedrone) significantly attenuated efficacy to produce cocaine-like effects. Overall, these results suggest different structural requirements for cocaine-like discriminative stimulus effects of monoamine transporter inhibitor and substrate synthetic cathinone analogs. Given that 4MMC is more hydrophobic than MDMC, these results suggest that hydrophobicity may be an important

  2. Fluorescence Quenching of Alpha-Fetoprotein by Gold Nanoparticles: Effect of Dielectric Shell on Non-Radiative Decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jian; Li, Jian-Jun; Wang, A.-Qing; Chen, Yu; Zhao, Jun-Wu

    2010-09-01

    Fluorescence quenching spectrometry was applied to study the interactions between gold colloidal nanoparticles and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). Experimental results show that the gold nanoparticles can quench the fluorescence emission of adsorbed AFP effectively. Furthermore, the intensity of fluorescence emission peak decreases monotonously with the increasing gold nanoparticles content. A mechanism based on surface plasmon resonance-induced non-radiative decay was investigated to illuminate the effect of a dielectric shell on the fluorescence quenching ability of gold nanoparticles. The calculation results show that the increasing dielectric shell thickness may improve the monochromaticity of fluorescence quenching. However, high energy transfer efficiency can be obtained within a wide wavelength band by coating a thinner dielectric shell.

  3. Influence of thermal barrier effect of grain boundaries on bulk cascades in alpha-zirconium revealed by molecular dynamics simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Yanan; Lai, Wensheng, E-mail: wslai@tsinghua.edu.cn

    2016-03-15

    The effect of grain boundaries (GBs) on bulk cascades in nano-structured alpha-zirconium has been studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. It turns out that the existence of GBs increases the defect productivity in grains, suggesting that the GBs may act as a thermal barrier and postpone the annihilation of defects within grains. Moreover, it is found that the thermal barrier effect of GBs facilitates the shift of symmetric tilt GBs to the grain with higher temperature, and the smaller the tilt angle is, the easier the boundary shift will be. Thus, the influence of GBs on radiation damage in the nano-structured materials comes from the competition between damage increase in grains and defect annihilation at GBs.

  4. Computer modeling of siRNA knockdown effects indicates an essential role of the Ca2+ channel alpha2delta-1 subunit in cardiac excitation-contraction coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuluc, Petronel; Kern, Georg; Obermair, Gerald J; Flucher, Bernhard E

    2007-06-26

    L-type Ca(2+) currents determine the shape of cardiac action potentials (AP) and the magnitude of the myoplasmic Ca(2+) signal, which regulates the contraction force. The auxiliary Ca(2+) channel subunits alpha(2)delta-1 and beta(2) are important regulators of membrane expression and current properties of the cardiac Ca(2+) channel (Ca(V)1.2). However, their role in cardiac excitation-contraction coupling is still elusive. Here we addressed this question by combining siRNA knockdown of the alpha(2)delta-1 subunit in a muscle expression system with simulation of APs and Ca(2+) transients by using a quantitative computer model of ventricular myocytes. Reconstitution of dysgenic muscle cells with Ca(V)1.2 (GFP-alpha(1C)) recapitulates key properties of cardiac excitation-contraction coupling. Concomitant depletion of the alpha(2)delta-1 subunit did not perturb membrane expression or targeting of the pore-forming GFP-alpha(1C) subunit into junctions between the outer membrane and the sarcoplasmic reticulum. However, alpha(2)delta-1 depletion shifted the voltage dependence of Ca(2+) current activation by 9 mV to more positive potentials, and it slowed down activation and inactivation kinetics approximately 2-fold. Computer modeling revealed that the altered voltage dependence and current kinetics exert opposing effects on the function of ventricular myocytes that in total cause a 60% prolongation of the AP and a 2-fold increase of the myoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration during each contraction. Thus, the Ca(2+) channel alpha(2)delta-1 subunit is not essential for normal Ca(2+) channel targeting in muscle but is a key determinant of normal excitation and contraction of cardiac muscle cells, and a reduction of alpha(2)delta-1 function is predicted to severely perturb normal heart function.

  5. The Protective Effects of Alpha-Lipoic Acid and Coenzyme Q10 Combination on Ovarian Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Ali Tuncer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study aims to evaluate whether alpha-lipoic acid and/or coenzyme Q10 can protect the prepubertal ovarian tissue from ischemia-reperfusion injury in an experimental rat model of ovarian torsion. Materials and Methods. Forty-two female preadolescent Wistar-Albino rats were divided into 6 equal groups randomly. The sham group had laparotomy without torsion; the other groups had torsion/detorsion procedure. After undergoing torsion, group 2 received saline, group 3 received olive oil, group 4 received alpha-lipoic acid, group 5 received coenzyme Q10, and group 6 received both alpha-lipoic acid and coenzyme Q10 orally. The oxidant-antioxidant statuses of these groups were compared using biochemical measurement of oxidized/reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase and malondialdehyde, pathological evaluation of damage and apoptosis within the ovarian tissue, and immunohistochemical assessment of nitric oxide synthase. Results. The left ovaries of the alpha-lipoic acid + coenzyme Q10 group had significantly lower apoptosis scores and significantly higher nitric oxide synthase content than the left ovaries of the control groups. The alpha-lipoic acid + coenzyme Q10 group had significantly higher glutathione peroxidase levels and serum malondialdehyde concentrations than the sham group. Conclusions. The combination of alpha-lipoic acid and coenzyme Q10 has beneficial effects on oxidative stress induced by ischemia-reperfusion injury related to ovarian torsion.

  6. Effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma on expressions of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 in human bladder cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, K Y; Moon, H S; Park, H Y; Lee, T Y; Woo, Y N; Kim, H J; Lee, S J; Kong, G

    2000-10-31

    We have investigated the effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interferon (INF-gamma), the potent Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG)-induced cytokines on the production of MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, TIMP-2 and MT1-MMP in high grade human bladder cancer cell lines, T-24, J-82 and HT-1376 cell lines. MMP-2 expression and activity were decreased in T-24 cells treated with both cytokines in a dose dependent manner. However, J-82 cells treated with TNF-alpha and INF-gamma revealed dose dependent increases of MMP-9 expression and activity with similar baseline expression and activity of MMP-2. HT-1376 cells after exposure to TNF-alpha only enhanced the expression and activity of MMP-9. These results indicate that TNF-alpha and INF-gamma could regulate the production of MMP-2 or MMP-9 on bladder cancer cells and their patterns of regulation are cell specific. Furthermore, this diverse response of bladder cancer cells to TNF-alpha and INF-gamma suggests that BCG immunotherapy may enhance the invasiveness of bladder cancer in certain conditions with induction of MMPs.

  7. Insurance - Piper Alpha ''et al''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hales, K.

    1995-01-01

    This paper opens with some brief information about the Piper Alpha loss, how the loss was handled and its final cost. More importantly, it discusses the effect of the Piper Alpha loss on the world insurance market including the oil insurance captives such as O.I.L Limited. Finally, the insurance market current status and prognosis for the future are considered. (Author)

  8. Modulatory effects of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) administration on insulin sensitivity in obese PCOS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genazzani, A D; Shefer, K; Della Casa, D; Prati, A; Napolitano, A; Manzo, A; Despini, G; Simoncini, T

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) administration on hormonal and metabolic parameters of obese PCOS patients. A group of 32 obese PCOS patients were selected after informed consent. 20 patients referred to have first grade relatives with diabetes type I or II. Hormonal and metabolic parameters as well as OGTT were evaluated before and after 12 weeks of ALA integrative administration (400 mg per os every day). ALA administration significantly decreased insulin, glucose, BMI and HOMA index. Hyperinsulinemia and insulin response to OGTT decreased both as maximal response (Δmax) and as AUC. PCOS with diabetes relatives showed the decrease also of triglyceride and GOT. Interestingly in all PCOS no changes occurred on all hormonal parameters involved in reproduction such as LH, FSH, and androstenedione. ALA integrative administration at a low dosage as 400 mg daily improved the metabolic impairment of all PCOS patients especially in those PCOS with familiar diabetes who have a higher grade of risk of NAFLD and predisposition to diabetes.

  9. Alpha-hydroxyacid chemical peeling agents: case studies and rationale for safe and effective use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briden, M Elizabeth

    2004-02-01

    Chemical peeling is an in-office procedure that involves the application of a chemical agent to the skin to induce controlled destruction or exfoliation of old skin and stimulation of new epidermal growth with more evenly distributed melanin. When peel agents reach the dermal layer, important wound-healing activities occur that cause skin remodeling and skin smoothing, both antiaging benefits. There are a number of key factors in selecting a peeling agent and procedure, and each is discussed. Variables to consider are the peeling agent and its formulation, the concentration of the agent, the patient's skin type, the site to be peeled, the skin preparation procedure prior to and immediately preceding the application of the agent, the application method, the duration of contact, and the patient's medical history and lifestyle. Various types of peels are discussed. Of particular interest are superficial chemical peels, which offer great flexibility over a range of skin types and conditions with minimal to no "downtime." Alpha-hydroxyacid (AHA) peels are superficial and can be combined with other cosmetic procedures in the office to maximize benefits. In addition, AHA peels work well when combined with supportive homecare products including AHAs or polyhydroxy acids (PHAs), topical retinoids, and antiacne/antirosacea treatments. Case studies are presented of patients using AHA peels for the treatment of acne and hyperpigmentation in a variety of skin types, including Asian skin.

  10. Effect of molecular weight on the quality of poly(alpha-methylstyrene mandrel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuyun Shangguan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hollow poly(alpha-methylstyrene (PAMS shows application in inertial confinement fusion experiments as the degradable mandrels of glow plasma polymer shells. However, the molecular weight of PAMS has great influence on the quality of mandrels. In this work, this influence was systematically studied using several PAMS samples with different molecular weights. For PAMS shells with 900 μm inner diameter and different wall thickness, when the molecular weight of PAMS is in the range of 300–500 kg·mol−1, perfect sphericity and good wall thickness uniformity can be obtained. In contrast, when increasing molecular weight to 800 kg·mol−1, the sphericity and the wall thickness uniformity become worse. Moreover, compared with the wall uniformity, the sphericity of PAMS shells was much less sensitive to the molecular weight. The results also showed that the stability of W1/O compound droplets of PAMS shells were less affected by the molecular weight. It was revealed that the wall uniformity and the sphericity of the PAMS shells were associated with the diffusion rates of fluorobenzene (FB.

  11. Harsh discipline and behavior problems: the moderating effects of cortisol and alpha-amylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Frances R; Raine, Adrian; Rudo-Hutt, Anna S; Glenn, Andrea L; Soyfer, Liana; Granger, Douglas A

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies link harsh discipline to adjustment problems in youth, yet not all individuals exposed to harsh discipline develop behavior problems. Contemporary theory suggests that this relationship could be moderated by individual differences in environmentally sensitive biological systems. This study investigated whether the interaction between hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity and autonomic nervous system (ANS) arousal moderated the link between harsh discipline and behavior problems. Three saliva samples were collected on a single day from 425 inner city youth (50% male, age 11-12 years, 80% African American) and were later assayed for cortisol (HPA) and alpha-amylase (ANS). Problem behavior was assessed by self- and parent-report using the Child Behavior Checklist. Youth also reported the level of harsh discipline that they experienced. Harsh discipline was positively associated with externalizing and internalizing problems only when there were asymmetrical profiles of HPA activity and ANS arousal. This pattern was evident for boys but not girls. Findings are discussed in relation to prevailing theories suggesting that biological susceptibility translates adversity into risk for behavior problems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of microstructure evolution of the lamellar alpha on impact toughness in a two-phase titanium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Jianwei; Zeng, Weidong; Zhao, Yawei; Jia, Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    The effects of the evolution of the lamellar alpha microstructure on the impact toughness of Ti-17 alloy are investigated. For this purpose, the beta-processed material is isothermally forged at 820 °C and subsequently heat treated using the combination of solid solution and aging treatment. Then the impact tests are carried out at room temperature. The corresponding microstructure and fracture surface are examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Microstructural observations reveal that globularization behavior is the main feature of microstructure evolution and the globularization fraction increases with the increasing of prestrain. However, globularization behavior has a negative influence on the impact toughness of Ti-17 alloy. In this work, the impact toughness have been obtained in the range of 29–55 J/cm 2 via varying globularization fraction of alpha phase. A linear relationship between the impact toughness and globularization fraction can be observed though the quantitative analysis. The linear equation is expressed as A=−0.3232f+59.885. The two major reasons can be used to explain the effect of globularization fraction on the impact property of Ti-17 alloy. One explanation is that the lamellar structure can provide excellent interfacial strengthening effect, which can improve the toughness of material, and makes it not easy to fracture. On the other hand, the fracture surface of specimen with the lamellar structure has larger amplitude of ups and downs. A long crack path length will be generated during fracture process. By contrast, the fracture of specimen with the equiaxed structure presents more flat surface and shorter crack path.

  13. The small-molecule TNF-alpha modulator, UTL-5g, reduces side effects induced by cisplatin and enhances the therapeutic effect of cisplatin in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, JiaJiu; Chen, Ben; Huang, Wen-Hsin; Lee, An-Rong; Media, Joseph; Valeriote, Frederick A

    2011-01-01

    We investigated a small-molecule modulator of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), UTL-5g (also referred to as GBL-5g), as a potential chemoprotective agent against cisplatin-induced side effects including nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity and hematotoxicity. Pretreatment of UTL-5g i.p. in BDF1 mice reduced the levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine induced by cisplatin treatment. The levels of both aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) in these animals were also reduced by UTL-5g. Pretreatment of UTL-5g did not significantly affect the number of white blood cells (WBC) under current experimental conditions, yet it markedly increased blood platelet counts by more than threefold. Therapeutic assessment in SCID mice inoculated with human HCT-15 tumor cells showed that UTL-5g did not attenuate the anti-tumor effect of cisplatin but increased the therapeutic efficacy of cisplatin. The LD50 of UTL-5g was determined to be > 2,000 mg/kg by an acute toxicity study. In summary, our studies showed that 1) UTL-5g significantly reduces nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity induced by cisplatin in mice, presumably by lowering the levels of TNF-alpha, 2) UTL-5g markedly increased blood platelet counts in mice and 3) UTL-5g treatment increased the therapeutic efficacy of cisplatin against HCT-15 cells inoculated in SCID mice.

  14. Alpha particle emitters in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, D.R.

    1989-09-01

    Radiation-induced cancer of bone, liver and lung has been a prominent harmful side-effect of medical applications of alpha emitters. In recent years, however, the potential use of antibodies labeled with alpha emitting radionuclides against cancer has seemed promising because alpha particles are highly effective in cell killing. High dose rates at high LET, effectiveness under hypoxic conditions, and minimal expectancy of repair are additional advantages of alpha emitters over antibodies labeled with beta emitting radionuclides for cancer therapy. Cyclotron-produced astatine-211 ( 211 At) and natural bismuth-212 ( 212 Bi) have been proposed and are under extensive study in the United States and Europe. Radium-223 ( 223 Ra) also has favorable properties as a potential alpha emitting label, including a short-lived daughter chain with four alpha emissions. The radiation dosimetry of internal alpha emitters is complex due to nonuniformly distributed sources, short particle tracks, and high relative specific ionization. The variations in dose at the cellular level may be extreme. Alpha-particle radiation dosimetry, therefore, must involve analysis of statistical energy deposition probabilities for cellular level targets. It must also account fully for nonuniform distributions of sources in tissues, source-target geometries, and particle-track physics. 18 refs., 4 figs

  15. Gender-specific effects of endogenous testosterone: female alpha-estrogen receptor-deficient C57Bl/6J mice develop glomerulosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, S J; Berho, M; Korach, K; Doublier, S; Lupia, E; Striker, G E; Karl, M

    2007-08-01

    Young female mice on a C57Bl/6J (B6) background are considered glomerulosclerosis (GS)-resistant but aging B6 mice develop mild GS. Estrogen deficiency accelerates while estrogen replacement retards GS in young sclerosis-prone oligosyndactyly mutant mice on an ROP background. To explore the effects of sex hormones on glomerular structure and function in the context of gender and genetic background, we studied mice in which the estrogen-receptor (ER) genes alpha- or -beta were deleted (alpha- or betaER knockout (KO)) and crossed into the B6 background. We also studied ovariectomized (Ovx) B6 mice given testosterone. Male and female betaERKO and male alphaERKO mice had no glomerular dysfunction at 9 months of age; however, alphaERKO female mice displayed albuminuria and GS. Ovx prevented glomerular dysfunction in alphaERKO female mice by eliminating endogenous testosterone production while exogenous testosterone induced GS in Ovx B6 mice. Androgen receptor (AR) expression and function was found in microdissected glomeruli and cultured mesangial cells. Testosterone compared to placebo increased both AR expression and TGF-beta1 mRNA levels in glomeruli isolated from female B6 mice. Estrogen deficiency had no deleterious effects on the glomeruli in B6 mice. Our study shows that genetic traits strongly influence the GS-promoting effects of estrogen deficiency while testosterone induces GS in a gender-specific manner.

  16. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibits insulin's stimulating effect on glucose uptake and endothelium-dependent vasodilation in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask-Madsen, Christian; Domínguez, Helena; Ihlemann, Nikolaj

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Inflammatory mechanisms could be involved in the pathogenesis of both insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. Therefore, we aimed at examining whether the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha inhibits insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and insulin....../or TNF-alpha were coinfused. During infusion of insulin alone for 20 minutes, forearm glucose uptake increased by 220+/-44%. This increase was completely inhibited during coinfusion of TNF-alpha (started 10 min before insulin) with a more pronounced inhibition of glucose extraction than of blood flow....... Furthermore, TNF-alpha inhibited the ACh forearm blood flow response (Palpha...

  17. Antihypertensive effect of alpha- and beta-adrenergic blockade in obese and lean hypertensive subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wofford, M R; Anderson, D C; Brown, C A; Jones, D W; Miller, M E; Hall, J E

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the contribution of the adrenergic system in mediating hypertension in obese and lean patients. Thirteen obese, hypertensive patients with a body mass index (BMI) > or =28 kg/m2 (obese) and nine lean patients with a BMI lean) were recruited. After a 1-week washout period, participants underwent daytime ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). Participants were then treated with the alpha-adrenergic antagonist doxazosin, titrating to 4 mg QHS in 1 week. In the next week, the beta-adrenergic antagonist atenolol was added at an initial dose of 25 mg/day and titrated to 50 mg/day within 1 week. One month after the addition of atenolol, all patients underwent a second ABPM session. There were no differences between the obese and lean subjects in baseline systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP), or mean arterial pressures (MAP) measured by office recording or ABPM. However, obese subjects had higher heart rates than lean subjects (87.5+/-2.4 v 76.8+/-4.9 beats/min). After 1 month of treatment with the adrenergic blockers, obese patients had a significantly lower SBP (130.0+/-2.5 v 138.9+/-2.1 mm Hg, P = .02) and MAP (99.6+/-2.3 v 107.0+/-1.5 mm Hg, P = .02) than lean patients. Obese patients also tended to have a lower DBP than lean patients (84.3+/-2.5 v 90.9+/-1.6 mm Hg, P = .057), but there was no significant difference in heart rate after 1 month of adrenergic blockade. These results indicate that blood pressure is more sensitive to adrenergic blockade in obese than in lean hypertensive patients and suggest that increased sympathetic activity may be an important factor in the maintenance of hypertension in obesity.

  18. Loss of Smyhc1 or Hsp90alpha1 function results in different effects on myofibril organization in skeletal muscles of zebrafish embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Codina

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Myofibrillogenesis requires the correct folding and assembly of sarcomeric proteins into highly organized sarcomeres. Heat shock protein 90alpha1 (Hsp90alpha1 has been implicated as a myosin chaperone that plays a key role in myofibrillogenesis. Knockdown or mutation of hsp90alpha1 resulted in complete disorganization of thick and thin filaments and M- and Z-line structures. It is not clear whether the disorganization of these sarcomeric structures is due to a direct effect from loss of Hsp90alpha1 function or indirectly through the disorganization of myosin thick filaments. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we carried out a loss-of-function analysis of myosin thick filaments via gene-specific knockdown or using a myosin ATPase inhibitor BTS (N-benzyl-p-toluene sulphonamide in zebrafish embryos. We demonstrated that knockdown of myosin heavy chain 1 (myhc1 resulted in sarcomeric defects in the thick and thin filaments and defective alignment of Z-lines. Similarly, treating zebrafish embryos with BTS disrupted thick and thin filament organization, with little effect on the M- and Z-lines. In contrast, loss of Hsp90alpha1 function completely disrupted all sarcomeric structures including both thick and thin filaments as well as the M- and Z-lines. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Together, these studies indicate that the hsp90alpha1 mutant phenotype is not simply due to disruption of myosin folding and assembly, suggesting that Hsp90alpha1 may play a role in the assembly and organization of other sarcomeric structures.

  19. Effect of gelatinization and hydrolysis conditions on the selectivity of starch hydrolysis with alpha-amylase from Bacillus licheniformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baks, Tim; Bruins, Marieke E; Matser, Ariette M; Janssen, Anja E M; Boom, Remko M

    2008-01-23

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of starch can be used to obtain various valuable hydrolyzates with different compositions. The effects of starch pretreatment, enzyme addition point, and hydrolysis conditions on the hydrolyzate composition and reaction rate during wheat starch hydrolysis with alpha-amylase from Bacillus licheniformis were compared. Suspensions of native starch or starch gelatinized at different conditions either with or without enzyme were hydrolyzed. During hydrolysis, the oligosaccharide concentration, the dextrose equivalent, and the enzyme activity were determined. We found that the hydrolyzate composition was affected by the type of starch pretreatment and the enzyme addition point but that it was just minimally affected by the pressure applied during hydrolysis, as long as gelatinization was complete. The differences between hydrolysis of thermally gelatinized, high-pressure gelatinized, and native starch were explained by considering the granule structure and the specific surface area of the granules. These results show that the hydrolyzate composition can be influenced by choosing different process sequences and conditions.

  20. Effects of alpha-lipoic acid supplementation on growth performance, antioxidant capacity and biochemical parameters for ammonia-exposed broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Min; Bai, Jie; Wei, Fengxian; Xu, Bin; Sun, Quanyou; Li, Jie; Wang, Gaili; Tang, Xiangfang; Zhang, Hongfu; Yin, Qingqiang; Li, Shaoyu

    2017-08-01

    In order to estimate the effect of alpha-lipoic acid (LA) supplementation on relieving ammonia stress of broilers, 180 22-day-old male broilers were assigned to three groups, six replicates in each group and 10 birds per replicate. The three groups were: (1) a control group without ammonia stress; (2) exposure to 70 ppm atmospheric ammonia (AM); (3) exposure to 70 ppm atmospheric ammonia and administration of 300 mg/kg LA (AM + LA). The experimental period was 3 weeks. Results showed that average daily weight gain was increased and feed conversion ratio was decreased in the AM + LA group, compared with the AM group (P ammonia stress to restore broiler production performance to normal levels. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  1. Time-dependent Occurrence Rate of Electromagnetic Cyclotron Waves in the Solar Wind: Evidence for the Effect of Alpha Particles?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, G. Q.; Feng, H. Q. [Institute of Space Physics, Luoyang Normal University, Luoyang (China); Wu, D. J. [Purple Mountain Observatory, CAS, Nanjing (China); Chu, Y. H. [Institute of Space Science, National Central University, Chungli, Taiwan (China); Huang, J. [CAS Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Beijing (China)

    2017-09-20

    Previous studies revealed that electromagnetic cyclotron waves (ECWs) near the proton cyclotron frequency exist widely in the solar wind, and the majority of ECWs are left-handed (LH) polarized waves. Using the magnetic field data from the STEREO mission, this Letter carries out a survey of ECWs over a long period of 7 years and calculates the occurrence rates of ECWs with different polarization senses. Results show that the occurrence rate is nearly a constant for the ECWs with right-handed polarization, but it varies significantly for the ECWs with LH polarization. Further investigation of plasma conditions reveals that the LH ECWs take place preferentially in a plasma characterized by higher temperature, lower density, and larger velocity. Some considerable correlations between the occurrence rate of LH ECWs and the properties of ambient plasmas are discussed. The present research may provide evidence for the effect of alpha particles on the generation of ECWs.

  2. [Alpha but not beta-adrenergic stimulation has a positive inotropic effect associated with alkalinization of intracellular pH].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambassi, G; Lakatta, E G; Capogrossi, M C

    1991-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that alpha-adrenoceptors also exist in the myocardium and that an increase in force of contraction may be produced by stimulation of these sites. This positive inotropism seems to be dependent either on an increased amount of Ca++ released into the cytosol with each action potential or on increased myofilament responsiveness. In contrast, beta-adrenergic stimulation reduces the sensitivity of the contractile proteins and the positive inotropic effect is due to the activation of L-type calcium channels on the sarcolemma. We used single, isolated, enzymatically dissociated, adult rat ventricular myocytes. Cells were loaded either with the ester derivative of the Ca++ probe Indo-1 or with the intracellular pH probe Snarf-1 and at the same time we measured the contractile parameters and monitored the fluorescence as an index of intracellular calcium concentration or pH value. The single cells (bicarbonate buffer continuously gassed with O2 95%, CO2 5%, Ca++ 1.5 mM, field stimulation 0.5 Hz) were exposed to phenylephrine (50 microM) and nadolol (1 microM). Alpha-adrenergic stimulation increased twitch amplitude (delta ES = 1.93 +/- 0.77, n = 8; p less than 0.05) and showed only a slight increase in Ca++ transient. On the other end, the positive inotropic effect (delta ES = 2.84 +/- 0.86, n = 4; p less than 0.02) obtained with beta-adrenergic stimulation (isoproterenol 50 nM, bicarbonate buffer, Ca++ 0.5 mM, field stimulation 0.2 Hz) was always associated with a large increase in intracellular Ca++ concentration. Isoproterenol did not change intracellular pH (delta pH = 0.006 +/- 0.006, n = 4; NS) while phenylephrine increased it significantly (delta pH = 0.055 +/- 0.011, n = 8; p less than 0.002). Moreover, there was a statistically significant correlation between delta ES and delta pH (R2 = 0.532; p less than 0.05) when phenylephrine was present. This alkalinization as well as the increased contractility was antagonized by treatment with

  3. Effects of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone on mitochondrial energy metabolism in rats of different age-groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feichtinger, René G; Pétervári, Erika; Zopf, Michaela; Vidali, Silvia; Aminzadeh-Gohari, Sepideh; Mayr, Johannes A; Kofler, Barbara; Balaskó, Márta

    2017-08-01

    Hypothalamic alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) is a key catabolic mediator of energy homeostasis. Its anorexigenic and hypermetabolic effects show characteristic age-related alterations that may be part of the mechanism of middle-aged obesity and geriatric anorexia/cachexia seen in humans and other mammals. We aimed to investigate the role of α-MSH in mitochondrial energy metabolism during the course of aging in a rodent model. To determine the role of α-MSH in mitochondrial energy metabolism in muscle, we administered intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusions of α-MSH for 7-days to different age-groups of male Wistar rats. The activities of oxidative phosphorylation complexes I to V and citrate synthase were determined and compared to those of age-matched controls. We also quantified mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number and measured the expression of the master regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). The peptide reduced weight gain in juvenile rats to one fifth of that of controls and increased the weight loss in older animals by about five fold. Mitochondrial DNA copy number inversely correlated with changes in body weight in controls, but not in α-MSH-treated animals. The strong increase in body weight in young rats was associated with a low mtDNA copy number and high PPARγ mRNA levels in controls. Expression of PGC-1α and PPARγ declined with age, whereas OXPHOS and citrate synthase enzyme activities were unchanged. In contrast, α-MSH treatment suppressed OXPHOS enzyme and citrate synthase activity. In conclusion, our results showed age-related differences in the metabolic effects of α-MSH. In addition, administration of α-MSH suppressed citrate synthase and OXPHOS activities independent of age. These findings suggest that α-MSH exposure may inhibit mitochondrial biogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  4. The effect of Bobath approach on the excitability of the spinal alpha motor neurones in stroke patients with muscle spasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, N N; Naghdi, S

    2007-01-01

    A clinical study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of the Bobath approach on the excitability of the spinal alpha motor neurones in patients with poststroke spasticity. Ten subjects ranging in age from 37 through 76 years (average 60 years) with ankle plantarflexor spasticity secondary to a stroke were recruited and completed the trial. They had physiotherapy according to Bobath concept for ten treatment sessions, three days per week. Two repeated measures, one before and another after treatment, were taken to quantify clinical efficacy. The effect of this type of therapy on the excitability of alpha motor neurones (aMN) was assessed by measuring the latency of the Hoffmann reflex (H-reflex) and the Hmax/Mmax ratio. The original Ashworth scale and ankle range of motion were also measured. The mean HmaxlMmax ratio on the affected side at baseline was high in the study patients. However, there were no statistically significant differences in the HmaxlMmax ratio or in the H-reflex latency between the baseline values and those recorded after therapy intervention. Before treatment, the HmaxlMmax ratio was significantly higher in the affected side than in the unaffected side. However, it was similar at both sides after treatment. Following treatment, the significant reduction in spasticity was clinically detected as measured with the original Ashworth scale. The ankle joint active and passive range of motion was significantly increased. In conclusion, Bobath therapy had a statistically significant effect on the excitability of the aMN in the affected side compared to the unaffected side in stroke patients with muscle spasticity.

  5. Regulation of PGE2 signaling pathways and TNF-alpha signaling pathways on the function of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells and the effects of CP-25.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Sheng, Kangliang; Chen, Jingyu; Wu, Yujing; Zhang, Feng; Chang, Yan; Wu, Huaxun; Fu, Jingjing; Zhang, Lingling; Wei, Wei

    2015-12-15

    This study was to investigate PGE2 and TNF-alpha signaling pathway involving in the maturation and activation of bone marrow dendritic cells (DCs) and the effect of CP-25. Bone marrow DCs were isolated and stimulated by PGE2 and TNF-alpha respectively. The markers of maturation and activation expressed on DCs, such as CD40, CD80, CD83, CD86, MHC-II, and the ability of antigen uptake of DCs were analyzed by flow cytometry. The proliferation of T cells co-cultured with DCs, the signaling pathways of PGE2-EP4-cAMP and TNF-alpha-TRADD-TRAF2-NF-κB in DCs were analyzed. The results showed that both PGE2 and TNF-alpha up-regulated the expressions of CD40, CD80, CD83, CD86, and MHC-II, decreased the antigen uptake of DCs, and DCs stimulated by PGE2 or TNF-alpha could increase T cell proliferation. CP-25 (10(-5), 10(-6), and 10(-7)mol/l) decreased significantly the expressions of CD40, CD80, CD83, CD86 and MHC-II, increased the antigen uptake of DCs, and suppressed T cell proliferation induced by DCs. PGE2 increased the expressions of EP4, NF-κB and down-regulated cAMP level of DCs. TNF-alpha could also up-regulate TNFR1, TRADD, TRAF2, and NF-κB expression of DCs. CP-25 (10(-5), 10(-6), and 10(-7)mol/l) decreased the expressions of EP4 and NF-κB, increased cAMP level in DCs stimulated by PGE2. CP-25 (10(-5), 10(-6), and 10(-7)mol/l) also could down-regulate significantly TNFR1, TRADD, TRAF2, and NF-κB expression in DCs stimulated by TNF-alpha. These results demonstrate that PGE2 and TNF-alpha could enhance DCs functions by mediating PGE2-EP4-cAMP pathway, TNF-alpha-TNFR1-TRADD-TRAF2-NF-κB pathway respectively. CP-25 might inhibit the function of DCs through regulating PGE2-EP4-cAMP and TNF-alpha-TNFR1-TRADD-TRAF2-NF-κB pathways. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of polarized radiative transfer on the Hanle magnetic field determination in prominences: Analysis of hydrogen H alpha line observations at Pic-du-Midi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bommier, V.; Deglinnocenti, E. L.; Leroy, J. L.; Sahal-Brechot, S.

    1985-01-01

    The linear polarization of the Hydrogen H alpha line of prominences has been computed, taking into account the effect of a magnetic field (Hanle effect), of the radiative transfer in the prominence, and of the depolarization due to collisions with the surrounding electrons and protons. The corresponding formalisms are developed in a forthcoming series of papers. In this paper, the main features of the computation method are summarized. The results of computation have been used for interpretation in terms of magnetic field vector measurements from H alpha polarimetric observations in prominences performed at Pic-du-Midi coronagraph-polarimeter. Simultaneous observations in one optically thin line (He I D(3)) and one optically thick line (H alpha) give an opportunity for solving the ambiguity on the field vector determination.

  7. Hippocampal 3alpha,5alpha-THP may alter depressive behavior of pregnant and lactating rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Cheryl A; Walf, Alicia A

    2004-07-01

    The 5alpha-reduced metabolite of progesterone (P), 5alpha-pregnan-3alpha-ol-20-one (3alpha,5alpha-THP), may mediate progestins' effects to reduce depressive behavior of female rats in part through actions in the hippocampus. To investigate, forced swim test behavior and plasma and hippocampal progestin levels were assessed in groups of rats expected to differ in their 3alpha,5alpha-THP levels due to endogenous differences (pregnant and postpartum), administration of a 5alpha-reductase inhibitor (finasteride; 50 mg/kg sc), and/or gestational stress [prenatal stress (PNS)], an animal model of depression. Pregnant rats had higher plasma and hippocampal 3alpha,5alpha-THP levels and less depressive behavior (decreased immobility, increased struggling and swimming) in the forced swim test than did postpartum rats. Finasteride, compared to vehicle-administration, reduced plasma and hippocampal 3alpha,5alpha-THP levels and increased depressive behavior (increased immobility, decreased struggling and swimming). PNS was associated with lower hippocampal, but not plasma, 3alpha,5alpha-THP levels and increased swimming compared to that observed in control rats. Together, these data suggest that 3alpha,5alpha-THP in the hippocampus may mediate antidepressive behavior of female rats.

  8. Neutrophil superoxide-anion generating capacity in chronic smoking: effect of long-term alpha-tocopherol therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tits, van L.; Waart, de F.; Hak-Lemmers, H.L.M.; Graaf, de J.; Demacker, P.N.; Stalenhoef, A.F.

    2003-01-01

    We investigated whether long-term alpha-tocopherol therapy in chronic smoking affects superoxide generating capacity of neutrophils ex vivo. To this purpose, we randomly assigned 128 male chronic smokers (37 21 pack years of smoking) to treatment with placebo (n = 64) or alpha-tocopherol (400 IU

  9. Influence of fasting on circulating levels of alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene. Effect of short-term supplementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, DAJ; Molin, F; van Beusekom, CM; van Doormaal, JJ; Muskiet, FAJ

    1998-01-01

    We investigated the influence of fasting on the levels of alpha-tocopherol in plasma, erythrocytes and platelets, and on plasma beta-carotene. Six apparently healthy adults were subjected to 17-h feed-fasting experiments at various days before, during and after supplementation with alpha-tocopherol

  10. The effect of anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha agents on postoperative anastomotic complications in Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Hussuna, Alaa Abdul-Hussein H; Krag, Aleksander; Olaison, Gunnar

    2013-01-01

    Patients with Crohn's disease treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha agents may have an increased risk of surgical complications.......Patients with Crohn's disease treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha agents may have an increased risk of surgical complications....

  11. Effects of exposure to GSM mobile phone base station signals on salivary cortisol, alpha-amylase, and immunoglobulin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augner, Christoph; Hacker, Gerhard W; Oberfeld, Gerd; Florian, Matthias; Hitzl, Wolfgang; Hutter, Jörg; Pauser, Gernot

    2010-06-01

    The present study aimed to test whether exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) emitted by mobile phone base stations may have effects on salivary alpha-amylase, immunoglobulin A (IgA), and cortisol levels. Fifty seven participants were randomly allocated to one of three different experimental scenarios (22 participants to scenario 1, 26 to scenario 2, and 9 to scenario 3). Each participant went through five 50-minute exposure sessions. The main RF-EMF source was a GSM-900-MHz antenna located at the outer wall of the building. In scenarios 1 and 2, the first, third, and fifth sessions were "low" (median power flux density 5.2 microW/m(2)) exposure. The second session was "high" (2126.8 microW/m(2)), and the fourth session was "medium" (153.6 microW/m(2)) in scenario 1, and vice versa in scenario 2. Scenario 3 had four "low" exposure conditions, followed by a "high" exposure condition. Biomedical parameters were collected by saliva samples three times a session. Exposure levels were created by shielding curtains. In scenario 3 from session 4 to session 5 (from "low" to "high" exposure), an increase of cortisol was detected, while in scenarios 1 and 2, a higher concentration of alpha-amylase related to the baseline was identified as compared to that in scenario 3. IgA concentration was not significantly related to the exposure. RF-EMF in considerably lower field densities than ICNIRP-guidelines may influence certain psychobiological stress markers. Copyright © 2010 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Anti-obesogenic effects of WY14643 (PPAR-alpha agonist): Hepatic mitochondrial enhancement and suppressed lipogenic pathway in diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Flavia Maria Silva; Graus-Nunes, Francielle; Rachid, Tamiris Lima; Barreto, Aline Barcellos; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos Alberto; Souza-Mello, Vanessa

    2017-09-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) presents with growing prevalence worldwide, though its pharmacological treatment remains to be established. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a PPAR-alpha agonist on liver tissue structure, ultrastructure, and metabolism, focusing on gene and protein expression of de novo lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis pathways, in diet-induced obese mice. Male C57BL/6 mice (three months old) received a control diet (C, 10% of lipids, n = 10) or a high-fat diet (HFD, 50% of lipids, n = 10) for ten weeks. These groups were subdivided to receive the treatment (n = 5 per group): C, C-alpha (PPAR-alpha agonist, 2.5 mg/kg/day mixed in the control diet), HFD and HFD-alpha group (PPAR-alpha agonist, 2.5 mg/kg/day mixed in the HFD). The effects were compared with biometrical, biochemical, molecular biology and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses. HFD showed greater body mass (BM) and insulinemia than C, both of which were tackled by the treatment in the HFD-alpha group. Increased hepatic protein expression of glucose-6-phosphatase, CHREBP and gene expression of PEPCK in HFD points to increased gluconeogenesis. Treatment rescued these parameters in the HFD-alpha group, eliciting a reduced hepatic glucose output, confirmed by the smaller GLUT2 expression in HFD-alpha than in HFD. Conversely, favored de novo lipogenesis was found in the HFD group by the increased expression of PPAR-gamma, and its target gene SREBP-1, FAS and GK when compared to C. The treatment yielded a marked reduction in the expression of all lipogenic factors. TEM analyses showed a greater numerical density of mitochondria per area of tissue in treated than in untreated groups, suggesting an increase in beta-oxidation and the consequent NAFLD control. PPAR-alpha activation reduced BM and treated insulin resistance (IR) and NAFLD by increasing the number of mitochondria and reducing hepatic gluconeogenesis and de novo lipogenesis protein and gene

  13. Prophylactic effect of four prescriptions of traditional Chinese medicine on alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate and carbon tetrachloride induced toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, K J; Chen, J C; Tsauer, W; Lin, C C; Lin, J G; Tsai, C C

    2001-12-01

    To study the prophylactic effects of four Chinese traditional prescriptions against experimental liver injury. Liver toxins, alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT), and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) were used to induce acute liver injury. Simo Yin(SMY), Guizhi Fuling Wan (GFW), Xieqing Wan (XQW), and Sini San (SNS) were fed (500 mg/kg, in saline, po) to the rats before toxin administration. All the animals were killed 48 h after toxin insulted. Serum index of liver function and hepatic lipid peroxidation (LPO) were estimated. Histopathological observation was conducted simultaneously. The rats treated with ANIT exhibited elevations of serum total bilirubin (TBI), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), glutamate-oxalate- transaminase (GOT), glutamate-pyruvate-transaminase (GPT), as well as cholestasis and parenchyma necrosis. In rats, challenged with ANIT, receiving the pre-treatment of prescriptions of SMY, XQW, and SNS, the biochemical and morphological parameters of liver injury were significantly reduced. The increased LPO level in liver tissue, associated with the provoked serum GOT and GPT levels were the salient features observed in CCl4-insulting rats. Pre-treatment of four prescriptions showed a remarkable protective effect, and also was effective in counteracting the free radical toxicity by bringing about a significant decrease in peroxidative level. These recipes ameliorate liver damage induced by both ANIT and CCl4 despite the differences in their mechanisms of injury. Therefore they may be able to exert hepatoprotective effects through more than one mechanism of action because they contained a mixture of anti-hepatotoxic ingredients with mutual reinforcement and assistance.

  14. Effects of Long-Term Cultivation on Medium with Alpha-Ketoglutarate Supplementation on Metabolic Processes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Burdyliuk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During last years, alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG, an important intermediate in the Krebs cycle, has been intensively studied as a dietary supplement with stress-protective and potential antiaging effects. Here, we examined the effects of exogenous AKG on metabolic processes and survival of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae during long-term cultivation. Growth on AKG had no effect on the total cell number but increased the number of reproductively active cells at the late days of cultivation (from day 7 to day 15. A gradual increase in levels of total protein, glycogen, and trehalose was found over 7-day cultivation with more pronounced effects in AKG-grown cells. In control cells, metabolic activity and the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase decreased, whereas levels of carbonyl proteins and low-molecular-mass thiols increased during 7-day cultivation. This suggests development of oxidative stress in stationary phase cells. Meanwhile, stationary phase cells cultured on AKG possessed higher levels of low-molecular-mass thiols and lower levels of carbonyl proteins and α-dicarbonyl compounds when compared to control ones. Collectively, higher levels of storage carbohydrates and an activation of antioxidant defense with diminishing oxidative protein damage can prevent a loss of reproductive ability in yeast cells during long-term cultivation on AKG-supplemented medium.

  15. Distance distribution of bystander effects in alpha-particle irradiated cell populations using a CR-39-based culture dish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaillard, S.; Pusset, D.; Toledo, S.M. de; Azzam, E.I.; Fromm, M.

    2008-01-01

    Propagation of induced biological effects from irradiated to non-irradiated cells is known to occur in cell cultures exposed to low fluences of charged particles. These bystander effects are currently investigated using microbeam or non-microbeam (broad beams) irradiation techniques. Identification of the targeted and non-targeted bystander cells is critical to our understanding of mechanisms underlying such effects. We developed a novel cell culture dish where the base consists of a thin CR-39 sheet grafted on a thin polyethylene terephthalate (PET) foil. The validity of this device in identifying not only irradiated cells, but also the cellular compartment traversed by the particle track is described. We have optimized track etch parameters that do not interfere with measurement of induced biological endpoints under normal incident irradiation. Thus the culture dishes can be used to determine distance distributions for the propagation of induced biological effects from a hit cell to bystander cells. We describe the computer code developed to determine the distance distributions of propagated biological stress responses in normal human fibroblast cells exposed to very low fluences of alpha particles

  16. Alpha B-crystallin prevents the arrhythmogenic effects of particulate matter isolated from ambient air by attenuating oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyelim [The Division of Cardiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sanghoon; Jeon, Hyunju [The Division of Cardiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Byeong-Wook [The Division of Cardiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin-Bae [Division of Cardiology, Kyung Hee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chang-Soo [The Department of Preventive Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Pak, Hui-Nam [The Division of Cardiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Ki-Chul [The Division of Cardiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Moon-Hyoung [The Division of Cardiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Ji Hyung, E-mail: jhchung@yuhs.ac [The Division of Cardiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Joung, Boyoung, E-mail: cby6908@yuhs.ac [The Division of Cardiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is activated by particulate matter (PM) isolated from ambient air and linked to prolonged repolarization and cardiac arrhythmia. We evaluated whether alpha B-crystallin (CryAB), a heat shock protein, could prevent the arrhythmogenic effects of PM by preventing CaMKII activation. CryAB was delivered into cardiac cells using a TAT-protein transduction domain (TAT-CryAB). ECGs were measured before and after tracheal exposure of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) and each intervention in adult Sprague–Dawley rats. After endotracheal exposure of DEP (200 μg/mL for 30 minutes, n = 11), QT intervals were prolonged from 115 ± 14 ms to 144 ± 20 ms (p = 0.03), and premature ventricular contractions were observed more frequently (0% vs. 44%) than control (n = 5) and TAT-Cry (n = 5). However, DEP-induced arrhythmia was not observed in TAT-CryAB (1 mg/kg) pretreated rats (n = 5). In optical mapping of Langendorff-perfused rat heats, compared with baseline, DEP infusion of 12.5 μg/mL (n = 12) increased apicobasal action potential duration (APD) differences from 2 ± 6 ms to 36 ± 15 ms (p < 0.001), APD restitution slope from 0.26 ± 0.07 to 1.19 ± 0.11 (p < 0.001) and ventricular tachycardia (VT) from 0% to 75% (p < 0.001). DEP infusion easily induced spatially discordant alternans. However, the effects of DEP were prevented by TAT-CryAB (1 mg/kg, n = 9). In rat myocytes, while DEP increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and phosphated CaMKII, TAT-CryAB prevented these effects. In conclusion, CryAB, a small heat shock protein, might prevent the arrhythmogenic effects of PM by attenuating ROS generation and CaMKII activation. -- Highlights: ► Particulate matter (PM) increases arrhythmia. ► PM induced arrhythmias are related with oxidative stress and CaMKII activation. ► Alpha B-crystallin (CryAB) could attenuate the arrhythmogenic effect of PM. ► CryAB decreases oxidative stress and CaMKII activation

  17. Protective effect of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) in a model of endotoxic shock: action mechanisms and role of CNTF receptor alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demitri, M T; Benigni, F; Meazza, C; Zinetti, M; Fratelli, M; Villa, P; Acheson, A; Panayotatos, N; Ghezzi, P

    1998-01-01

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) inhibits the production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated mice and protects against LPS lethality when coadministered with its soluble receptor (sCNTFR alpha). Both of these activities are abolished in adrenalectomized (ADX) mice. LPS-induced pulmonary polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) infiltration and nitric oxide (NO) production were also inhibited by CNTF + sCNTFR alpha but not by CNTF alone. sCNTFR alpha did not alter the clearance or tissue distribution of CNTF. Furthermore, CNTF variants coadministered with sCNTFR alpha protected against LPS toxicity in a manner related to their affinity for the beta components of CNTFR. Thus, inhibition of TNF production and protection against LPS lethality by CNTF/sCNTFR alpha require an intact hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) and may be mediated by endogenous glucocorticoids. This protective effect is, at least in part, due to the inhibition of PMN infiltration and NO production, and appears to be mediated by cells displaying only beta-receptor subtypes.

  18. Effects of x-ray irradiation on the induction of. cap alpha. -amylase synthesis by gibberelic acid in the aleurone system of barley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zellner, H

    1974-01-01

    The influence of ionizing radiation on a system without DNA replication and cell division was investigated with the aid of GA/sub 3/-induced ..cap alpha..-amylase synthesis in aleurone cells of barley. The reaction of the system was determined by dose effect curves (after irradiation of one half of the endosperms in rest) for the synthesis and secretion of ..cap alpha..-amylase, protein, and reducing sugars. The system proves to be highly radiation-resistant. The course of the synthesis of ..cap alpha..-amylase after X-ray irradiation with varying doses during enzyme synthesis suggests that transcription occurs in the middle of the lag-phase and is the most sensitive stage in enzyme synthesis, while translation alone is less sensitive to radiation.

  19. [The effect of isoflurane on the secretion of TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta from LPS-stimulated human peripheral blood monocytes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, W; Enzan, K; Masaki, Y; Kayaba, M; Suzuki, M

    1995-07-01

    The cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1 secreted from macrophages/monocytes proved to play important roles in the pathogenesis of endotoxemia, severe pancreatitis and other surgical injuries. However, it is still unclear how inhalational anesthetic agents influence the secretion of these cytokines from macrophages/monocytes. We investigated the effects of isoflurane on TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta secretions from human peripheral blood monocytes stimulated by lipopolysaccharide. TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta secretions increased after LPS stimulation and this increase was inhibited by isoflurane in dose-dependent fashion. The inhibitory action of isoflurane disappeared between 1 and 3 hours after stopping isoflurane inhalation. We concluded that isoflurane could inhibit TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta secretions from peripheral blood monocytes stimulated by LPS in a dose-dependent fashion and that the inhibitory action of isoflurane was reversible.

  20. Alpha effect of Alfven waves and current drive in reversed field pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litwin, C.; Prager, S.C.

    1997-10-01

    Circularly polarized Alfven waves give rise to an α-dynamo effect that can be exploited to drive parallel current. In a open-quotes laminarclose quotes magnetic the effect is weak and does not give rise to significant currents for realistic parameters (e.g., in tokamaks). However, in reversed field pinches (RFPs) in which magnetic field in the plasma core is stochastic, a significant enhancement of the α-effect occurs. Estimates of this effect show that it may be a realistic method of current generation in the present-day RFP experiments and possibly also in future RFP-based fusion reactors

  1. Effect of alpha and gamma radiation on the near-field chemistry and geochemistry of high-level waste packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, D.T.

    1985-12-01

    Ionizing radiation can potentially alter geochemical and chemical processes in a geologic system. These effects can either enhance or reduce the performance of the waste package in a deep geologic repository. Current indications are that, in a repository located in basalt, ionizing radiation significantly affects geochemical/chemical processes but does not appear to significantly affect factors important to the long-term performance of the repository. The experimental results presented in this paper were obtained as part of an ongoing effort by the Basalt Waste Isolation Project to determine the effect of ionizing radiation on chemical and geochemical processes in the environment of the waste package. Gamma radiolysis experiments were done by subjecting samples of synthetic basalt groundwater in the presence of various waste package components (basalt/packing/low-carbon steel) to high levels of gamma radiation from a 60 Co source. Post-irradiation analysis was done on the gas, liquid, and solid components of the basalt system. The results obtained are important in evaluating waste package performance during the containment period. The effect of alpha radiation on the basalt groundwater system in the presence of waste package components is important in evaluating waste package performance during the isolation period. The experimental work in this area is in a very preliminary stage. Results from two experiments are reported. 9 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs

  2. Combined cytotoxic effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha with various cytotoxic agents in tumor cell lines that are drug resistant due to mutated p53

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleijfer, S; Le, T. K. P.; de Jong, S.; Timmer-Bosscha, H; Withoff, S; Mulder, NH

    Several studies suggest that tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) is able to overcome drug resistance in tumors. Whether TNF is able to do so in tumor cell lines that are drug resistant due to a mutation in the tumor suppressor gene p53 is unclear. Therefore, we studied the in vitro cytotoxic effects

  3. Effect of hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia on the response of IL-6, TNF-alpha, and FFAs to low-dose endotoxemia in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh-Madsen, Rikke; Møller, Kirsten; Dela, Flemming

    2004-01-01

    Effect of hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia on the response of IL-6, TNF-alpha, and FFAs to low-dose endotoxemia in humans.Krogh-Madsen R, Moller K, Dela F, Kronborg G, Jauffred S, Pedersen BK. Professor of Internal Medicine, Dept. of Infectious Diseases 7641, Univ. Hospital Rigshospitalet...

  4. Synergistic Effect of 14-Alpha-Lipoyl Andrographolide and Various Antibiotics on the Formation of Biofilms and Production of Exopolysaccharide and Pyocyanin by Pseudomonas aeruginosa▿

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Xiangping; Liu, Xiangyang; Bian, Jiang; Pei, Gang; Dai, Huanqin; Polyak, Steven W.; Song, Fuhang; Ma, Li; Wang, Yuqiang; Zhang, Lixin

    2011-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces a biofilm that provides the bacteria with an effective barrier against antibiotics. Here, we investigated the synergy of various antibiotics with 14-alpha-lipoyl andrographolide (AL-1), focusing upon synthesis of the biofilm. AL-1 also inhibited the production of the exopolysaccharide and pyocyanin components. We propose that AL-1 may potentially serve as a cotherapy to combat P. aeruginosa.

  5. Synergistic effect of 14-alpha-lipoyl andrographolide and various antibiotics on the formation of biofilms and production of exopolysaccharide and pyocyanin by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiangping; Liu, Xiangyang; Bian, Jiang; Pei, Gang; Dai, Huanqin; Polyak, Steven W; Song, Fuhang; Ma, Li; Wang, Yuqiang; Zhang, Lixin

    2011-06-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces a biofilm that provides the bacteria with an effective barrier against antibiotics. Here, we investigated the synergy of various antibiotics with 14-alpha-lipoyl andrographolide (AL-1), focusing upon synthesis of the biofilm. AL-1 also inhibited the production of the exopolysaccharide and pyocyanin components. We propose that AL-1 may potentially serve as a cotherapy to combat P. aeruginosa.

  6. High-alpha band synchronization across frontal, parietal and visual cortex mediates behavioral and neuronal effects of visuospatial attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobier, Muriel; Palva, J Matias; Palva, Satu

    2018-01-15

    Visuospatial attention prioritizes processing of attended visual stimuli. It is characterized by lateralized alpha-band (8-14 Hz) amplitude suppression in visual cortex and increased neuronal activity in a network of frontal and parietal areas. It has remained unknown what mechanisms coordinate neuronal processing among frontoparietal network and visual cortices and implement the attention-related modulations of alpha-band amplitudes and behavior. We investigated whether large-scale network synchronization could be such a mechanism. We recorded human cortical activity with magnetoencephalography (MEG) during a visuospatial attention task. We then identified the frequencies and anatomical networks of inter-areal phase synchronization from source localized MEG data. We found that visuospatial attention is associated with robust and sustained long-range synchronization of cortical oscillations exclusively in the high-alpha (10-14 Hz) frequency band. This synchronization connected frontal, parietal and visual regions and was observed concurrently with amplitude suppression of low-alpha (6-9 Hz) band oscillations in visual cortex. Furthermore, stronger high-alpha phase synchronization was associated with decreased reaction times to attended stimuli and larger suppression of alpha-band amplitudes. These results thus show that high-alpha band phase synchronization is functionally significant and could coordinate the neuronal communication underlying the implementation of visuospatial attention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Protective effect of an alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist against enterovirus 71 infection in neuronal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Feng Xia; Zhao, Lin Qing; Zhu, Ru Nan; Song, Qin Wei; Deng, Jie; Tian, Run; Wang, Fang; Qian, Yuan

    2018-01-01

    Enterovirus 71, as one of the dominant pathogens associated with severe hand, foot, and mouth disease, has been well reported to trigger severe neurological symptoms among young children over the last decade, particularly among children in the Asia-Pacific region. To date, no effective antiviral agent has been developed for the treatment of severe enterovirus 71 infection. PNU-282987, a selective alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) agonist, has been reported to have a neuroprotective effect by participating in inflammatory regulation in previous studies. Therefore, in the present study, we aimed to assess the cell-protective effect of PNU-282987 against enterovirus 71 infection in neuronal cells, and to discuss potential mechanisms underlying this cell-protective effect in order to elucidate the potential impact of such agonists in the treatment of neurotropic viral infection. We observed that treatment with PNU-282987 improved cell viability and inhibited viral replication in enterovirus 71-infected SH-SY5Y cells. Further investigation revealed that inhibition of enterovirus 71 production by PNU-282987 is likely associated with events of RNA replication, and that increased levels of INF mRNA and its downstream antiviral proteins stimulated by the JAK-STAT2 pathway may contribute to the antiviral effect of PNU-282987. Moreover, our findings suggest that both the antiviral and anti-inflammatory effects of PNU-282987 may contribute to the neural protective effect of the drug in enterovirus 71-infected cells. Taken together, the results suggest that selective α7nAChR agonists may represent viable candidates for future therapeutic treatment of severe enterovirus 71 infection, and for other cases of neurotropic viral infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of 2G and 3G mobile phones on human alpha rhythms: Resting EEG in adolescents, young adults, and the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, R J; Leung, S; McKenzie, R J; Loughran, S P; Iskra, S; Hamblin, D L; Cooper, N R

    2010-09-01

    The present study was conducted to determine whether adolescents and/or the elderly are more sensitive to mobile phone (MP)-related bioeffects than young adults, and to determine this for both 2nd generation (2G) GSM, and 3rd generation (3G) W-CDMA exposures. To test this, resting alpha activity (8-12 Hz band of the electroencephalogram) was assessed because numerous studies have now reported it to be enhanced by MP exposure. Forty-one 13-15 year olds, forty-two 19-40 year olds, and twenty 55-70 year olds were tested using a double-blind crossover design, where each participant received Sham, 2G and 3G exposures, separated by at least 4 days. Alpha activity, during exposure relative to baseline, was recorded and compared between conditions. Consistent with previous research, the young adults' alpha was greater in the 2G compared to Sham condition, however, no effect was seen in the adolescent or the elderly groups, and no effect of 3G exposures was found in any group. The results provide further support for an effect of 2G exposures on resting alpha activity in young adults, but fail to support a similar enhancement in adolescents or the elderly, or in any age group as a function of 3G exposure. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Effects of alpha-zirconium phosphate on thermal degradation and flame retardancy of transparent intumescent fire protective coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, Weiyi [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Zhang, Ping [State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base for Nonmetal Composites and Functional Materials, Southwest University of Science and Technology, 59 Qinglong Road, Mianyang 621010 (China); Song, Lei; Wang, Xin [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Hu, Yuan, E-mail: yuanhu@ustc.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, 96 Jinzai Road, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A transparent intumescent fire protective coating was obtained by UV-cured technology. • OZrP could enhance the thermal stability and anti-oxidation of the coating. • OZrP could reduce the combustion properties of the coatings. - Abstract: Organophilic alpha-zirconium phosphate (OZrP) was used to improve the thermal and fire retardant behaviors of the phenyl di(acryloyloxyethyl)phosphate (PDHA)-triglycidyl isocyanurate acrylate (TGICA)-2-phenoxyethyl acrylate (PHEA) (PDHA-TGICA-PHEA) coating. The morphology of nanocomposite coating was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The effect of OZrP on the flame retardancy, thermal stability, fireproofing time and char formation of the coatings was investigated by microscale combustion calorimeter (MCC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), laser Raman spectroscopy (LRS) and scanning electric microscope (SEM). The results showed that by adding OZrP, the peak heat release rate and total heat of combustion were significantly reduced. The highest improvement was achieved with 0.5 wt% OZrP. XPS analysis indicated that the performance of anti-oxidation of the coating was improved with the addition of OZrP, and SEM images showed that a good synergistic effect was obtained through a ceramic-like layer produced by OZrP covered on the surface of char.

  10. Effects of alpha-zirconium phosphate on thermal degradation and flame retardancy of transparent intumescent fire protective coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing, Weiyi; Zhang, Ping; Song, Lei; Wang, Xin; Hu, Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A transparent intumescent fire protective coating was obtained by UV-cured technology. • OZrP could enhance the thermal stability and anti-oxidation of the coating. • OZrP could reduce the combustion properties of the coatings. - Abstract: Organophilic alpha-zirconium phosphate (OZrP) was used to improve the thermal and fire retardant behaviors of the phenyl di(acryloyloxyethyl)phosphate (PDHA)-triglycidyl isocyanurate acrylate (TGICA)-2-phenoxyethyl acrylate (PHEA) (PDHA-TGICA-PHEA) coating. The morphology of nanocomposite coating was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The effect of OZrP on the flame retardancy, thermal stability, fireproofing time and char formation of the coatings was investigated by microscale combustion calorimeter (MCC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), laser Raman spectroscopy (LRS) and scanning electric microscope (SEM). The results showed that by adding OZrP, the peak heat release rate and total heat of combustion were significantly reduced. The highest improvement was achieved with 0.5 wt% OZrP. XPS analysis indicated that the performance of anti-oxidation of the coating was improved with the addition of OZrP, and SEM images showed that a good synergistic effect was obtained through a ceramic-like layer produced by OZrP covered on the surface of char

  11. Effect of antitumour necrosis factor-alpha therapy on bone turnover in patients with active Crohn's disease: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, B M; Russel, M G V M; Schurgers, L; Wichers, M; Sijbrandij, J; Stockbrugger, R W; Schoon, E

    2004-10-15

    Patients with Crohn's disease are at increased risk of osteoporosis. Disease activity and circulating proinflammatory cytokines are thought to play a role in this process. Infliximab, a chimaeric antitumour necrosis factor-alpha antibody is effective in the treatment of Crohn's disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of treatment with infliximab on bone turnover in Crohn's disease patients. This was a prospective trial. Twenty-four patients with active Crohn's disease were treated with infliximab (5 mg/kg). Bone markers were assayed pre- and post-treatment. Bone formation was measured using serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and total osteocalcin and bone resorption using serum N-telopeptide cross-linked type 1 collagen. Infliximab therapy caused a significant increase in both markers of bone formation in patients with active Crohn's disease. No significant change in the bone resorption marker serum N-telopeptide cross-linked type 1 was found. Infliximab therapy had a significant beneficial effect on bone metabolism in patients with active Crohn's disease. These findings further support the theory that active ongoing inflammation and high levels of circulating cytokines play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of bone loss in patients with Crohn's disease.

  12. The Effects of rTMS Combined with Motor Training on Functional Connectivity in Alpha Frequency Band.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jing-Na; Wang, Xin; Li, Ying; Jin, Fang; Liu, Zhi-Peng; Yin, Tao

    2017-01-01

    It has recently been reported that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with motor training (rTMS-MT) could improve motor function in post-stroke patients. However, the effects of rTMS-MT on cortical function using functional connectivity and graph theoretical analysis remain unclear. Ten healthy subjects were recruited to receive rTMS immediately before application of MT. Low frequency rTMS was delivered to the dominant hemisphere and non-dominant hand performed MT over 14 days. The reaction time of Nine-Hole Peg Test and electroencephalography (EEG) in resting condition with eyes closed were recorded before and after rTMS-MT. Functional connectivity was assessed by phase synchronization index (PSI), and subsequently thresholded to construct undirected graphs in alpha frequency band (8-13 Hz). We found a significant decrease in reaction time after rTMS-MT. The functional connectivity between the parietal and frontal cortex, and the graph theory statistics of node degree and efficiency in the parietal cortex increased. Besides the functional connectivity between premotor and frontal cortex, the degree and efficiency of premotor cortex showed opposite results. In addition, the number of connections significantly increased within inter-hemispheres and inter-regions. In conclusion, this study could be helpful in our understanding of how rTMS-MT modulates brain activity. The methods and results in this study could be taken as reference in future studies of the effects of rTMS-MT in stroke patients.

  13. 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate vehicle, castor oil, enhances the contractile effect of oxytocin in human myometrium in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Michael D; Hehir, Mark P; O'Brien, Yvonne M; Morrison, John J

    2010-05-01

    The possibility exists that the vehicle for 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate, castor oil, exerts an effect on human uterine contractility. The aim of this study was to evaluate its effects on contractility of myometrial preparations that were obtained during pregnancy. Myometrial strips were suspended under isometric conditions. Contractility was induced with oxytocin. Strips were incubated in castor oil or physiologic salt solution and suspended for a further oxytocin challenge. Contractile integrals were compared between both groups. Strips that were exposed to castor oil demonstrated increased contractile activity that was elicited by oxytocin (mean contractility value, 165.53%+/-17.03%; n=8; P=.004), compared with control strips (mean contractility value, 72.57%+/-7.48%; n=8; P=.003). There was a significant increase in contractile activity of the castor oil-exposed strips, compared with those that were exposed to physiologic salt solution (n=8; Pcastor oil results in enhanced oxytocin-induced contractility. Copyright (c) 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The effects of radiation (beta/gamma and alpha) on cemented intermediate level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.V.C.; Wilding, C.R.

    1990-02-01

    A worldwide review of what has been published on the effects of radiation on cemented ILW has been carried out where properties such as composition and volume of any gas evolved/absorbed, physical properties, chemical evolution and dose rate were considered. It is clear that only a superficial knowledge of the underlying reasons for radiolytic effects exist although there is sufficient data to enable quantities of gas a function of storage time to be predicted. If long term predictions of behaviour are to be made then the understanding of basic radiation chemistry of cement grout needs to be developed in parallel with the wider study of understanding the effects at the elevated temperatures expected to be present in a repository. (author)

  15. Alpha-particle effects on high-n instabilities in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rewoldt, G.

    1988-06-01

    Hot α-particles and thermalized helium ash particles in tokamaks can have significant effects on high toroidal mode number instabilities such as the trapped-electron drift mode and the kinetically calculated magnetohydrodynamic ballooning mode. In particular, the effects can be stabilizing, destabilizing, or negligible, depending on the parameters involved. In high-temperature tokamaks capable of producing significant numbers of hot α-particles, the predominant interaction of the mode with the α-particles is through resonances of various sorts. In turn, the modes can cause significant anomalous transport of the α-particles and the helium ash. Here, results of comprehensive linear eigenfrequency-eigenfunction calculations are presented for relevant realistic cases to show these effects. 24 refs., 12 figs., 6 tabs

  16. [Enzyme inductive effect of zixoryn (3-trifluoromethyl-alpha-ethyl-benzhydrol) in neonatal jaundice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korányi, G; Boross, G

    1985-02-01

    Zixoryn, (3-trifluoromethyl-alfa-aethyl-benzhydrole) is a new product of the Hungarian Chemical Works of Gedeon Richter Ltd. It induces the mixed function oxydase enzyme system of the endoplasmic reticulum of the liver and has no other pharmacological effects. We have studied the effect of Zixoryn on early hyperbilirubin-aemia. 42 neonates were studied, 21 of them were randomly assigned to be treated and the others served as control group Zixoryn treatment consisted of drops containing 10 mg Zixoryn per ml in a single 20 mg/kg body weight dose through a gastric tube. Results are summarized in Fig. 2. It shows the mean se bi levels during the first six days of life. It is remarkable that the decline of se bi level was much faster in the treated than in the control group. On the third day the difference between the two groups was significant. We may conclude that after Zixoryn administration the se bi level of otherwise healthy newborns decreased significantly faster than that of untreated neonates. No side-effects what so ever were observed. The administration is easy, a single oral dose has a satisfactory effect.

  17. Effect of Senna alata (L) Roxb (Fabaceae) Leaf Extracts on alpha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the inhibitory effect of S. alata leaf extracts on α-amylase and α-glucosidase, and its potential for reducing postprandial blood glucose level of rats. Methods: The α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory potentials of acetone, ethylacetate and hexane extracts of S. alata were investigated by reacting ...

  18. Alpha-particles microbeam irradiation: impact of reactive oxygen species in bystander effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanot, M.

    2008-11-01

    Ionizing radiation-induced bystander effects arise in bystander cells that receive signals from directly irradiated cells. To date, free radicals are believed to play an active role in the bystander response, but this is incompletely characterized. To mark temporal and spatial impacts of bystander effect, we employed a precise α-particle microbeam to target a small fraction of sub-confluent osteoblastic cell cultures (MC3T3-E1). We identified the cellular membrane and mitochondria like two distinct places generating reactive oxygen species. The global oxidative stress observed after irradiation was significantly attenuated after filipin treatment, evidencing the pivotal role of membrane in MC3T3-E1 cells bystander response. To determine impact of bystander effect at a cell level, cellular consequences of this membrane-dependant bystander effect were then investigated. A variable fraction of the cell population (10 to 100%) was individually targeted. In this case, mitotic death and micronuclei yield both increased in bystander cells as well as in targeted cells demonstrating a role of bystander signals between irradiated cells in an autocrine or paracrine manner. Our results indicate a complex interaction of direct irradiation and bystander signals that lead to a membrane-dependant amplification of cell responses. (author)

  19. Human acid alpha-glucosidase from rabbit milk has therapeutic effect in mice with glycogen storage disease type II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.G.A. Bijvoet (Agnes); A.J.J. Reuser (Arnold); H. van Hirtum (Hans); M.A. Kroos (Marian); E.H. van de Kamp; O. Schoneveld; P. Visser (Pim); J.P. Brakenhoff (Just); M. Weggeman (Miranda); E.J.J.M. van Corven (Emiel); A.T. van der Ploeg (Ans)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractPompe's disease or glycogen storage disease type II (GSDII) belongs to the family of inherited lysosomal storage diseases. The underlying deficiency of acid alpha-glucosidase leads in different degrees of severity to glycogen storage in heart, skeletal

  20. Effects of combined maternal administration with alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) and β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) on prenatal programming of skeletal properties in the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatara, Marcin R; Krupski, Witold; Tymczyna, Barbara; Studziński, Tadeusz

    2012-05-11

    Nutritional manipulations during fetal growth may induce long-term metabolic effects in postnatal life. The aim of the study was to test whether combined treatment of pregnant sows with alpha-ketoglutarate and β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate induces additive long-term effects on skeletal system properties in the offspring. The study was performed on 290 pigs obtained from 24 sows divided into 4 equal groups and subjected to experimental treatment during two weeks before delivery. The first group consisted of control sows, while the second group received alpha-ketoglutarate. The third group was treated with β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate and the fourth group underwent combined administration of alpha-ketoglutarate and β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate. Piglets obtained from sows were reared until slaughter age to perform morphometric, densitometric and mechanical analyses of femur. Serum evaluations of growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin were performed in newborns and 90-day old piglets; additionally, plasma amino acid concentration was measured in newborns. Maternal treatment with alpha-ketoglutarate and β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate significantly reduced fattening time and increased birth body weight, daily body weight gain, bone weight, volumetric bone mineral density, geometrical parameters and mechanical endurance of femur. These effects were associated with increased serum concentrations of growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin. Furthermore, alpha-ketoglutarate and β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate administered solely or in combination significantly increased plasma level of 19 amino acids. Hormonal and amino acid evaluations in pigs indicate additive effects of AKG and HMB on systemic growth and development; however, determination of bone properties has not shown such phenomenon.

  1. Effect of the glass transition temperature on alpha-amylase activity in a starch matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Vinita; Panyoyai, Naksit; Small, Darryl M; Shanks, Robert A; Kasapis, Stefan

    2017-02-10

    This study optimises a protocol for the estimation of α-amylase activity in a condensed starch matrix in the vicinity of the glass transition region. Enzymatic activity on the vitrified starch system was compared with that of a reference substrate, maltodextrin. The activity was assayed as the rate of release of reducing sugar using a dinitrosalicylic acid procedure. The condensed carbohydrate matrices served the dual purpose of acting as a substrate as well as producing a pronounced effect on the ability to enzymatic hydrolysis. Activation energies were estimated throughout the glass transition region of condensed carbohydrate preparations based on the concept of the spectroscopic shift factor. Results were used to demonstrate a considerable moderation by the mechanical glass transition temperature, beyond the expected linear effect of the temperature dependence, on the reaction rate of starch hydrolysis by α-amylase in comparison with the low-molecular weight chain of maltodextrin. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Elevated sodium chloride concentrations enhance the bystander effects induced by low dose alpha-particle irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Wei; Zhu Lingyan; Jiang Erkang; Wang Jun; Chen Shaopeng; Bao Linzhi; Zhao Ye; Xu An; Yu Zengliang; Wu Lijun

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that high NaCl can be genotoxic, either alone or combined with irradiation. However, little is known about the relationship between environmental NaCl at elevated conditions and radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBE). RIBE, which has been considered as non-targeted bystander responses, has been demonstrated to occur widely in various cell lines. In the present study, RIBE under the elevated NaCl culture condition was assessed in AG 1522 cells by both the induction of γ-H2AX, a reliable marker of DNA double-strand break (DSB) for the early process ( G -methyl-L-arginine, an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, the induced fraction of foci-positive cells was effectively inhibited both in 0.2 cGy α-particle irradiated and adjacent non-irradiated regions under either normal or elevated NaCl conditions. These results suggested that the cultures with elevated NaCl medium magnified the damage effects induced by the low dose α-particle irradiation and nitric oxide generated by irradiation was also very important in this process

  3. Alpha-glucosidase inhibitory effect and inorganic constituents of Phyllanthus amarus Schum. & Thonn. ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malinee Wongnawa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the -glucosidase inhibitory effect and determined the concentration of some inorganic constituents in P. amarus ash. Oral glucose and sucrose tolerance test were performed on normal mice. In vitro -glucosidase inhibitory activity was evaluated by using yeast a-glucosidase. The element concentrations were measured by inductively coupled plasma (ICP spectroscopy. Single oral administration of P. amarus ash did not show antihyperglycemic effect after glucose administration, but decreased blood glucose level after sucrose administration. The ash showed -glucosidase inhibitory activity in vitro with IC50 of 982 mg/mL. The concentrations of K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Zn, Cu, Pb, Cr, Ni and Co in P. amarus ash were 35049.80±340.64, 3337.24±52.10, 1368.52±13.29, 90.81±1.34, 87.68±1.15, 18.28±0.22, 4.69±0.07, 1.07±0.15, 0.29±0.03, 0.20±0.04 and 0.10±0.02 mg/g, respectively. These results indicate that the antihyperglycemic effect of P. amarus ash might be partly due to the -glucosidase inhibitory activity of the inorganic constituents.

  4. Effect of alpha interferon on glucose and alanine transport by rat renal brush border membrane vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batuman, V.; Chadha, I.

    1990-01-01

    To investigate the pathogenetic mechanisms of interferon nephrotoxicity, we studied the effect of recombinant interferon alfa-2b on the uptake of 14 C-D-glucose and 14 C-L-alanine by rat renal brush-border-membrane vesicles. Interferon significantly inhibited 20 sec. sodium-dependent and 5 and 10 min. equilibrium uptake of both glucose and alanine. The inhibitory effect was dose dependent with maximum effect achieved at interferon concentration of 5 x 10 -8 M in the uptake media. The half-maximal inhibitory concentrations, IC 50 , of interferon on glucose uptake was 1.8 x 10 -8 M, and 5.4 x 10 -9 M on alanine uptake. Dixon plot analysis of uptake data was consistent with pure non-competitive inhibition. The inhibition constants, K i , 1.5 x 10 -8 M for glucose uptake, and 7.3 x 10 -9 M for alanine uptake, derived from Dixon plots were in close agreement with the IC 50 s calculated from the semilog dose response curves. These observations reveal that direct interactions at the proximal tubule cell membrane are involved in the pathogenesis of interferon nephrotoxicity, and that its mechanism of nephrotoxicity is similar to that of other low molecular weight proteins

  5. Dose-response effects of estrogenic mycotoxins (zearalenone, alpha- and beta-zearalenol on motility, hyperactivation and the acrosome reaction of stallion sperm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colenbrander Ben

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro effects of the Fusarium fungus-derived mycotoxin, zearalenone and its derivatives alpha-zearalenol and beta-zearalenol on motility parameters and the acrosome reaction of stallion sperm. Since the toxic effects of zearalenone and its derivatives are thought to result from their structural similarity to 17beta-estradiol, 17beta-estradiol was used as a positive control for 'estrogen-like' effects. Methods Stallion spermatozoa were exposed in vitro to zearalenone, alpha-zearalenol, beta-zearalenol or 17beta-estradiol at concentrations ranging from 1 pM - 0.1 mM. After 2 hours exposure, motility parameters were evaluated by computer-assisted analysis, and acrosome integrity was examined by flow cytometry after staining with fluoroscein-conjugated peanut agglutinin. Results Mycotoxins affected sperm parameters only at the highest concentration tested (0.1 mM after 2 hours exposure. In this respect, all of the compounds reduced the average path velocity, but only alpha-zearalenol reduced percentages of motile and progressively motile sperm. Induction of motility patterns consistent with hyperactivation was stimulated according to the following rank of potency: alpha-zearalenol >17beta-estradiol > zearalenone = beta-zearalenol. The hyperactivity-associated changes observed included reductions in straight-line velocity and linearity of movement, and an increase in the amplitude of lateral head displacement, while curvilinear velocity was unchanged. In addition, whereas alpha- and beta- zearalenol increased the percentages of live acrosome-reacted sperm, zearalenone and 17beta-estradiol had no apparent effect on acrosome status. In short, alpha-zearalenol inhibited normal sperm motility, but stimulated hyperactive motility in the remaining motile cells and simultaneously induced the acrosome reaction. Beta-zearalenol induced the acrosome reaction without altering motility

  6. The effect of anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha agents on the outcome in pediatric uveitis of diverse etiologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deitch, Iris; Amer, Radgonde; Tomkins-Netzer, Oren; Habot-Wilner, Zohar; Friling, Ronit; Neumann, Ron; Kramer, Michal

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to report the clinical outcome of children with uveitis treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) agents. This included a retrospective cohort study. Children with uveitis treated with infliximab or adalimumab in 2008-2014 at five dedicated uveitis clinics were identified by database search. Their medical records were reviewed for demographic data, clinical presentation, ocular complications, and visual outcome. Systemic side effects and the steroid-sparing effect of treatment were documented. The cohort included 24 patients (43 eyes) of whom 14 received infliximab and 10 received adalimumab after failing conventional immunosuppression therapy. Mean age was 9.3 ± 4.0 years. The most common diagnosis was juvenile idiopathic arthritis-related uveitis (n = 10), followed by Behçet's disease (n = 4), sarcoidosis (n = 1), and ankylosing spondylitis (n = 1); eight had idiopathic uveitis. Ocular manifestations included panuveitis in 20 eyes (46.5%), chronic anterior uveitis in 19 (44.2%), and intermediate uveitis in 4 (9.3%). The duration of biologic treatment ranged from 6 to 72 months. During the 12 months prior to biologic treatment, while on conventional immunosuppressive therapy, mean visual acuity deteriorated from 0.22 to 0.45 logMAR, with a trend of recovery to 0.25 at 3 months after initiation of biologic treatment, remaining stable thereafter. A full corticosteroid-sparing effect was demonstrated in 16 of the 19 patients (84.2%) for whom data were available. Treatment was well tolerated. Treatment of pediatric uveitis with anti-TNF-α agents may improve outcome while providing steroid-sparing effect, when conventional immunosuppression fails. The role of anti-TNF-α agents as first-line treatment should be further investigated in controlled prospective clinical trials.

  7. Gastroprotective effect of alpha-pinene and its correlation with antiulcerogenic activity of essential oils obtained from Hyptis species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Marcelo de Almeida; Magalhães, Rafael Matos; Torres, Danielle Mesquita; Cavalcante, Rodrigo Cardoso; Mota, Francisca Sheila Xavier; Oliveira Coelho, Emanuela Maria Araújo; Moreira, Henrique Pires; Lima, Glauber Cruz; Araújo, Pamella Cristina da Costa; Cardoso, José Henrique Leal; de Souza, Andrelina Noronha Coelho; Diniz, Lúcio Ricardo Leite

    2015-01-01

    Background: Alpha-pinene (α-pinene) is a monoterpene commonly found in essential oils with gastroprotective activity obtained from diverse medicinal plants, including Hyptis species. The genus Hyptis (lamiaceae) consists of almost 400 species widespread in tropical and temperate regions of America. In the north and northeastern Brazil, some Hyptis species are used in traditional medicine to treat gastrointestinal disturbances. Objective: The present study has investigated the gastoprotective effect of purified α-pinene in experimental gastric ulcer induced by ethanol and indomethacin in mice. Materials and Methods: Gastric ulcers were induced in male Swiss mice (20-30 g) by oral administration of absolute ethanol or indomethacin 45 min after oral pretreatment with vehicle, standard control drugs or α-pinene (10, 30, and 100 mg/kg). One hour after the ulcerative challenges, the stomach were removed, and gastric lesions areas measured. The effects of α-pinene on the gastric juice acidity were determined by pylorus ligation model. The gastrointestinal motility and mucus depletion were determined by measuring the gastric levels of phenol red and alcian blue, respectively. Hematoxylin and eosin stained sections of gastric mucosa of the experimental groups were used for histology analysis. Results: α-pinene pretreatment inhibited ethanol-induced gastric lesions, reduced volume and acidity of the gastric juice and increased gastric wall mucus (P < 0.05). Furthermore, we showed an interesting correlation between concentration of α-pinene and gastroprotective effect of Hyptis species (P Pearson = 0.98). Conclusion: Our data showed that the α-pinene exhibited significant antiulcerogenic activity and a great correlation between concentration of α-pinene and gastroprotective effect of Hyptis species was also observed. PMID:25709221

  8. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha infusion produced insulin resistance but no change in the incretin effect in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Signe Tellerup; Lehrskov-Schmidt, Louise; Krogh-Madsen, Rikke; Solomon, Thomas P J; Lehrskov-Schmidt, Lars; Holst, Jens Juul; Møller, Kirsten

    2013-11-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with peripheral insulin resistance, impaired incretin effect, and increased plasma levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). Although TNF-α infusion at a dose that induces systemic inflammation in healthy volunteers has been demonstrated to induce peripheral insulin resistance, the influence of this cytokine on the incretin effect is unknown. We investigated whether systemic inflammation induced by TNF-α infusion in healthy volunteers alters the incretin hormone response to oral and intravenous glucose loads in a crossover study design with ten healthy male volunteers (mean age 24 years, mean body mass index 23.7 kg/m(2) ). The study consisted of four study days: days 1 and 2, 6-h infusion of saline; days 3 and 4, 6-h infusion of TNF-α; days 1 and 3, 4-h oral glucose tolerance test; and days 2 and 4, 4-h corresponding intravenous isoglycaemic glucose tolerance test. Glucose tolerance tests were initiated after 2 h of saline/TNF-α infusion. Plasma concentrations of TNF-α, interleukin 6, glucose, incretin hormones, and cortisol, and serum concentrations of C-peptide and insulin were measured throughout the study days. Insulin sensitivity was estimated by the Matsuda index and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Prehepatic insulin secretion rates were calculated. TNF-α infusion induced symptoms of systemic inflammation; increased plasma levels of cortisol, TNF-α, and interleukin 6; and increased the HOMA-IR. The secretion of incretin hormones as well as the incretin effect remained unchanged. In healthy young male volunteers, acute systemic inflammation induced by infusion of TNF-α is associated with insulin resistance with no change in the incretin effect. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Cytostatic effect of L-lysine-. cap alpha. -oxidase from Trichoderma harzianum Rifai and Trichoderma viride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khaduev, S.Kh.; Zhukova, O.S.; Dobrynin, Ya.V.; Soda, K.; Berezov, T.T.

    1987-09-01

    Comparative data is given on the effect of the new antitumor enzyme LO, obtained from a Soviet strain of Trichoderma harzianum Rifai and from Trichoderma viride from Japan, on DNA and RNA synthesis in human ovarian carcinoma cells in culture and also the results of the action of LO from Tr. harzianum Rifai on protein synthesis. Specific precursors were added to the samples 1 hour before the end of incubation time: /sup 3/H-thymidine, the precursor for DNA synthesis, /sup 3/H-uridine for RNA synthesis, and /sup 3/H-leucine for protein synthesis.

  10. Choice of the density-dependent effective interaction and alpha decay of heavy spherical nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadmenskij, S.G.; Ratis, Yu.L.; Rybak, K.S.; Furman, V.I.

    1978-01-01

    The parameters of density-dependent effective interaction are studied for some nuclei in the vicinity of a 208 Pb double-magic nucleus. Both nuclei having two nucleons (holes) over magic core and some superfluid nuclei are considered. It is found that the magnitudes of the matrix elements for the zero-range forces (delta forces) are more than three times larger in comparison with the case of the finite-range forces (f forces). Sets of parameters for the effective interaction, which does not lead to the superfluidity of nuclear matter are obtained. Besides, these parameters depend weakly on mass number. It is shown that the attractive part of interaction is substantially larger for the case of f forces than for the delta forces. The theoretical enhancement coefficients for the favoured α decay of 210 Po, 210 Pb and 224 Th nuclei are calculated. For the case of f forces a tendency to saturation of the enhancement coefficients with the increase of the shell-model basis is found

  11. Solute effects on edge dislocation pinning in complex alpha-Fe alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascuet, M. I.; Martínez, E.; Monnet, G.; Malerba, L.

    2017-10-01

    Reactor pressure vessel steels are well-known to harden and embrittle under neutron irradiation, mainly because of the formation of obstacles to the motion of dislocations, in particular, precipitates and clusters composed of Cu, Ni, Mn, Si and P. In this paper, we employ two complementary atomistic modelling techniques to study the heterogeneous precipitation and segregation of these elements and their effects on the edge dislocations in BCC iron. We use a special and highly computationally efficient Monte Carlo algorithm in a constrained semi-grand canonical ensemble to compute the equilibrium configurations for solute clusters around the dislocation core. Next, we use standard molecular dynamics to predict and analyze the effect of this segregation on the dislocation mobility. Consistently with expectations our results confirm that the required stress for dislocation unpinning from the precipitates formed on top of it is quite large. The identification of the precipitate resistance allows a quantitative treatment of atomistic results, enabling scale transition towards larger scale simulations, such as dislocation dynamics or phase field.

  12. The radiolysis of CMPO: effects of acid, metal complexation and alpha vs. gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mincher, B.J.; Groenewold, G.S.; Mezyk, S.P.

    2016-01-01

    The organophosphorus amide octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutyl-carbamoylmethyl phosphine oxide (CMPO) is proposed for use in fuel cycle separations as a group actinide/lanthanide extractant. Alternative compounds such as the mono-amides and diglycol amides (DGAs) proposed for actinide and/or actinide/lanthanide extraction also contain the amidic functional group, but do not contain the CMPO aromatic or phosphoryl groups. Their radiation stability is in the order mono-amides > CMPO > DGA for irradiation under similar conditions. Although they produce similar radiolysis products, the kinetics of degradation for CMPO are completely different than for the other amides. CMPO degradation occurs in a zero-order fashion, and the -G-value for the change in [CMPO] is much lower when in the presence of acid. The DGAs and mono-amides degrade with pseudo-first-order kinetics and are not protected by acidity. Possible mechanistic reasons for the differences between CMPO and the other amides are discussed, as are the effects of the diluent and metal complexation on CMPO free radical reaction rates. Finally, it is also shown that α-irradiation has much less adverse effects on CMPO degradation than β/γ irradiation, both with respect to -G-values, and radiolysis product generation. (authors)

  13. The radiolysis of CMPO: effects of acid, metal complexation and alpha vs. gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mincher, B.J.; Groenewold, G.S. [Idaho National Laboratory, PO Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States); Mezyk, S.P. [California State University at Long Beach, Long Beach, CA 90840 (United States)

    2016-07-01

    The organophosphorus amide octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutyl-carbamoylmethyl phosphine oxide (CMPO) is proposed for use in fuel cycle separations as a group actinide/lanthanide extractant. Alternative compounds such as the mono-amides and diglycol amides (DGAs) proposed for actinide and/or actinide/lanthanide extraction also contain the amidic functional group, but do not contain the CMPO aromatic or phosphoryl groups. Their radiation stability is in the order mono-amides > CMPO > DGA for irradiation under similar conditions. Although they produce similar radiolysis products, the kinetics of degradation for CMPO are completely different than for the other amides. CMPO degradation occurs in a zero-order fashion, and the -G-value for the change in [CMPO] is much lower when in the presence of acid. The DGAs and mono-amides degrade with pseudo-first-order kinetics and are not protected by acidity. Possible mechanistic reasons for the differences between CMPO and the other amides are discussed, as are the effects of the diluent and metal complexation on CMPO free radical reaction rates. Finally, it is also shown that α-irradiation has much less adverse effects on CMPO degradation than β/γ irradiation, both with respect to -G-values, and radiolysis product generation. (authors)

  14. Effect of the new C-12(alpha, gamma)O-16 rate on the chemical evolution of the solar neighborhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matteucci, F.

    1986-01-01

    New models of chemical evolution of the solar neighborhood have been computed by taking into account the effect of the revised rate of the C-12(alpha, gamma)O-16 reaction on the chemical yields from massive stars, together with the yields from low- and intermediate-mass stars which also include those from Type I supernova explosions (C-deflagration in white dwarfs). In particular, the evolution of C-12, N-14, O-16, Ne-20, Mg-24, Si-28, and Fe-56 has been followed in detail, and their predicted solar absolute abundances as well as their relative ratios, both in the sun and in metal-poor stars, have been compared with the observed ones. It is concluded that a model with the new yields combined with a Salpeter initial mass function, an upper cutoff mass of 100 solar masses (the mass beyond which stars are not contributing to the galactic enrichment), and an upper limiting mass for intermediate-mass stars of the order of 5 solar masses, is in best agreement with the observations. 34 references

  15. Effects of alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonist (tamsulosin) on incident of ejaculation and semen quality in the goat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimsakulvech, S; Suttiyotin, P; Pinyopummin, A

    2015-04-01

    Male temporary contraception is occasionally required in some animals. Alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonist (tamsulosin) can cause ejaculation disorder. Two sets of Latin square were applied to six male goats to received either normal saline, dimethylsulphoxide or tamsulosin (179.8 nmol kg(-1) ) at 1-week interval. Semen collection and libido scoring were undertaken at 3, 6 and 24 h post-injection. For ejaculated semen, its quality was evaluated. Physiological measurements including body temperature, respiration and heart rates were measured before injection and at 30 min before semen collection. The results showed that libido score and physiological changes were not affected by treatments and time periods. Anejaculation was observed in 11 (91.7%), 5 (41.7%) and 1 (8.3%) males at 3, 6 and 24 h post-tamsulosin injection respectively. The incidence returned to normal when compared with control groups at 24 h. The percentages of motile and live spermatozoa at 6 h post-tamsulosin injection were significantly lower (P tamsulosin had temporary effects on ejaculation and semen quality without reducing sex desire and physiological functions in male goats. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. The effects of HIP processing on microstructure and phase relations in. alpha. sub 2 -base titanium aluminides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saqib, M. (Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Wright State Univ., Dayton, OH (United States)); Apgar, L.S.; Eylon, D. (Graduate Materials Engineering, Univ. of Dayton, OH (United States)); Weiss, I. (Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Wright State Univ., Dayton, OH (United States))

    1992-05-30

    Cast {alpha}{sub 2}-base alloy (Ti-25Al-10Nb-3V-1Mo, at.%) underwent hot isostatic pressing (HIP) at temperatures ranging from 925 to 1125degC and pressures of 100-270 MPa. Effects of temperature and pressure during HIP, on microstructure and volume fraction of the phases present, were investigated. Microstructural characterization was carried out using optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The phases present were identified using selected area and convergent beam electron diffraction. Volume fraction of the phases was determined using X-ray diffraction. Optimum refinement in the microstructure was obtained following HIP at 1020degC/262 MPa/6 h. The volume fraction of the B2 phase increased from 12% in the as-cast condition to 45% following HIP at 982degC/262 MPa/6 h. Experiments on forged Ti-25Al-10Nb-3V-1Mo alloy demonstrated that changes in volume fraction of the phases owing to HIP was applicable for cast as well as forged material. Sharp decrease in the volume fraction of the B2 phase was observed when as-HIP materials were aged at elevated temperature. Possible mechanisms of these changes in the phase stability and microstructure are discussed. (orig.).

  17. Effect of 17alpha-ethinylestradiol on activity of rat liver enzymes for synthesis and hydrolysis of cholesterol esters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikitin, Yu.P.; Dushkin, M.I.; Dolgov, A.V.; Gordienko, I.A.

    1987-01-01

    Administration of estrogens is known to lower the concentration of cholesterol esters in the blood vessel wall and may delay the development of arteriosclerosis. It is also known that under the influence of estrogens the redistribution of concentrations of free cholesterol and cholesterol esters takes place in rats between the blood and liver as a result of the intensification of receptor-dependent uptake of low-density lipoproteins by the hepatocytes. The mechanisms of this intracellular redistribution, however, have been inadequately studied. The purpose of this paper is to study the effects of 17alpha-ethinylestradiol on the activity of lysosomal and cytoplasmic cholesterol esterases, acyl-CoA-cholesterol-O-acyltransferase, lysosomal acid phosphatase, and beta-D-galactosidase. The activity was measured by using cholesterol [1-C 14]-oleate as the substrate. The influence of the estradiol is found to be based on cholesterol redistribution between the blood and liver. Accumulation of free cholesterol in the liver under these conditions stimulates bile acid formation. Depression of cholesterol ester synthesis as a result of direct inhibition of the acyltransferase by the estradiol is found to possibly contribute to the fall in the cholesterol level in the body. Liquid scintillation counting was used to measure distribution and accumulation

  18. Effects of Alpha-Lipoic Acid Supplementation on Plasma Adiponectin Levels and Some Metabolic Risk Factors in Patients with Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidović, Bojana; Milovanović, Srđan; Stefanović, Aleksandra; Kotur-Stevuljević, Jelena; Takić, Marija; Debeljak-Martačić, Jasmina; Pantović, Maja; Đorđević, Brižita

    2017-01-01

    Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived plasma protein with insulin-sensitizing and anti-inflammatory properties and is suggested to be a biomarker of metabolic disturbances. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) on plasma adiponectin and some metabolic risk factors in patients with schizophrenia. The plasma adipokine levels (adiponectin and leptin), routine biochemical and anthropometric parameters, markers of oxidative stress, and the serum phospholipid fatty acid profile in eighteen schizophrenic patients at baseline, in the middle, and at the end of a 3-month long supplementation period with ALA (500 mg daily) were determined. A significant increase in the plasma adiponectin concentrations, as well as a decrease in fasting glucose and aspartate aminotransferase activity (AST), was found. Baseline AST activity was independently correlated with the adiponectin concentrations. Our data show that ALA can improve plasma adiponectin levels and may play a potential role in the treatment of metabolic risk factor in patients with schizophrenia. Future randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm these preliminary investigations.

  19. The effect of salvianolate on serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in ApoE-/- mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yuqi; Wu Zonggui; Liang Chun; Luo Nanping; Zhang Hongming; Xu Jun; Li Xiaoyan; Xu Lin

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the possible antiatherosclerotic mechanism of salvianolate, through examination of the effect of salvianolate on serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in C57BL/6J ApoE -/- mice. Methods: Fifty C57BL/6J ApoE -/- mice of 8 week-old were fed high cholesterol diet for 12 weeks. After sacrificing 2 mice to examine formation of atheromatous plaques at root of aorta, the remaining 48 C57BL/6J ApoE -/- mice were divided randomly into 4 groups: (1) model group (without salvianolate treatment) (2) low dosage of salvianolate (60mg/kg) group (3) medium dosage of salvianolate (120mg/kg) group and (4) high dosage of salvianolate(240mg/kg) group. Ten C57BL/6 wild-type mice served as controls. At the end of 32nd week, serum levels of TNF-α were measured with specific radioimmunoassay. Results: The serum levels of TNF-α were decreased in ApoE -/- mice with the increase of salvianolate dosage (P 0.05). Conclusion: Salvianolate treatment can decrease the serum levels of TNF-α in C57BL/6 ApoE -/- mice and inhibit inflammation process. This may be one of the possible mechanism of antiatherosclerosis of salvianolate. (authors)

  20. Effects of Trehalose on Thermodynamic Properties of Alpha-synuclein Revealed through Synchrotron Radiation Circular Dichroism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Ruzza

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Many neurodegenerative diseases, including Huntington’s, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases, are characterized by protein misfolding and aggregation. The capability of trehalose to interfere with protein misfolding and aggregation has been recently evaluated by several research groups. In the present work, we studied, by means of synchrotron radiation circular dichroism (SRCD spectroscopy, the dose-effect of trehalose on α-synuclein conformation and/or stability to probe the capability of this osmolyte to interfere with α-synuclein’s aggregation. Our study indicated that a low trehalose concentration stabilized α-synuclein folding much better than at high concentration by blocking in vitro α-synuclein’s polymerisation. These results suggested that trehalose could be associated with other drugs leading to a new approach for treating Parkinson’s and other brain-related diseases.

  1. Effects of alpha decays on nuclear waste glasses, simulation through atomistic models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghaleb, D.; Delaye, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    In a simplified (SiO 2 , B 2 O 3 , Na 2 O 3 , Al 2 O 3 , ZrO 2 ) nuclear glass we have simulated, by Molecular Dynamics simulations, the effects of displacement cascades created by the slowing-down of the recoil nucleus. The methodology employed to construct and validate the used Molecular Dynamics model representing the basis matrix of the 'light-water' French nuclear glass (R77) and the manner which are simulated atomic displacements are described. Although the energies given to recoil nucleus were relatively low (≤ 1/10 of actual energies) the study has yielded a number of interesting results. Notably we have: - identified the main mechanisms responsible for the depolymerization of the network; - observed, at the atomic level, the kinetic of the structure evolution; - detailed the behavior and displacement mechanisms of every atomic species during the cascade sequences; - made a link with the experimentation through the calculation of some physical properties. (authors)

  2. Effects of prostaglandin F2 alpha and a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist on inositol phospholipid metabolism in isolated rat corpora lutea of various ages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahav, M.; West, L.A.; Davis, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    The sensitivity of rat corpora lutea to luteolytic agents increases with luteal age. We examined the effect of prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) and [D-Ala6,Des-Gly10]GnRH ethylamide (GnRHa) on inositol phospholipid metabolism in day 2 and day 7 corpora lutea from PMSG-treated rats. Isolated corpora lutea were incubated with 32PO4 or [3H]inositol and were treated with LH, PGF2 alpha, or GnRHa. Phospholipids were purified by TLC, and the water-soluble products of phospholipase-C activity (inositol phosphates) were isolated by ion exchange chromatography. In day 2 corpora lutea, PGF2 alpha, (10 microM) and GnRHa (100 ng/ml) significantly increased 32PO4 incorporation into phosphatidic acid (PA) and phosphatidylinositol (PI), but not into other fractions. LH provoked slight increases in PA. Results were similar with 30 min of prelabeling or simultaneous addition of 32PO4 and stimulants. In other experiments, PGF2 alpha and GnRHa provoked rapid increases (1-5 min) in the accumulation of inositol mono-, bis-, and trisphosphates. LH did not significantly increase inositol phosphate accumulation, but stimulated cAMP accumulation in 2-day-old corpora lutea. Inositol phospholipid metabolism was increased in day 7 corpora lutea compared to that in day 2 corpora lutea. This increase was associated with increased incorporation of 32PO4 into PA and PI and increased accumulation of [3H]inositol phosphates. In day 7 corpora lutea, which are very sensitive to the luteolytic effect of PGF2 alpha, the PG-induced increase in PA labeling was small and inconsistent, whereas PI labeling was unaffected in 30-min incubations. GnRHa was without effect in such corpora lutea. LH, PGF2 alpha, or GnRHa did not increase inositol phosphate accumulation in 7-day-old corpora lutea. These studies demonstrate that the transformation of young (day 2) to mature (day 7) corpora lutea is associated with an increase in luteal inositol phospholipid metabolism

  3. Serum alpha-fetoprotein in the three trimesters of pregnancy: effects of maternal characteristics and medical history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredaki, F E; Sciorio, C; Wright, A; Wright, D; Nicolaides, K H

    2015-07-01

    To define the contribution of maternal variables which influence the measured level of maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in screening for pregnancy complications. Maternal characteristics and medical history were recorded and serum AFP was measured in women with a singleton pregnancy attending for three routine hospital visits at 11 + 0 to 13 + 6, 19 + 0 to 24 + 6 and 30 + 0 to 34 + 6 weeks' gestation. For pregnancies delivering phenotypically normal live births or stillbirths ≥ 24 weeks' gestation, variables from maternal demographic characteristics and medical history that are important in the prediction of AFP were determined from a linear mixed-effects multiple regression. Serum AFP was measured in 17 071 cases in the first trimester, 8583 in the second trimester and 8607 in the third trimester. Significant independent contributions to serum AFP were provided by gestational age, maternal weight, racial origin, gestational age at delivery and birth-weight Z-score of the neonate of the previous pregnancy and interpregnancy interval. Cigarette smoking was found to significantly affect serum AFP in the first trimester only. The machine used to measure serum AFP was also found to have a significant effect. Random-effects multiple regression analysis was used to define the contribution of maternal variables that influence the measured level of serum AFP and express the values as multiples of the median (MoMs). The model was shown to provide an adequate fit of MoM values for all covariates, both in pregnancies that developed pre-eclampsia and in those without this pregnancy complication. A model was fitted to express measured serum AFP across the three trimesters of pregnancy as MoMs, after adjusting for variables from maternal characteristics and medical history that affect this measurement. Copyright © 2015 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. High secondary [alpha]-deuterium kinetic isotope effect in the acetolysis and formolysis of dideuterioferrocenylmethyl benzoate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asperger, S. (Research Center of the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Zagreb (Croatia)); Kukric, Z.; Sutic, D. (Sarajevo Univ. (Yugoslavia). Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics); Saunders, W.H. Jr. (Rochester Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1992-02-01

    Acetolysis and formolysis of dideuterioferrocenylmethyl benzoate exhibit large secondary deuterium kinetic isotope effects and an abnormal temperature dependence. In the presence of LiClO[sub 4], which prevents the reversion from solvent-separated to contact ion-pairs, K[sub H]/K[sub D] at 25 [sup o]C amount to 1.53 [+-] 0.02 (acetolysis) and 1.48 [+-] 0.03 (formolysis). In the presence of LiClO[sub 4] the ratios of Arrhenius pre-exponential factors, A[sub H]/A[sub D], are significantly less than unity and amount to 0.49 [+-] 0.01 (acetolysis) and 0.38 [+-] 0.04 (formolysis). In the absence of LiClO[sub 4] the A[sub H]/A[sub D] ratios are much smaller (0.02 both in acetolysis and formolysis). We suggest that these surprisingly low values result from a change in rate-determining step over the temperature range, from formation of the solvent-separated ion-pair at low temperatures to reaction of the dissociated carbocation with solvent at the highest temperatures. Whether tunnelling plays any role in these solvolyses is discussed. (Author).

  5. Relative biological effectiveness of alpha-particle emitters in vivo at low doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, R.W.; Azure, M.T.; Narra, V.R.; Rao, D.V.

    1994-01-01

    The therapeutic potential of radionuclides that emit α particles, as well as their associated health hazards, have attracted considerable attention. The 224 Ra daughters 212 Pb and 212 Bi, by virtue of their radiation properties which involve emission of α and β particles in their decay to stable 208 Pb, have been proposed as candidates for radioimmunotherapy. Using mouse testes as the experimental model and testicular spermhead survival as the biological end point, the present work examines the radiotoxicity of 212 Pb and its daughters. When 212 Pb, in equilibrium with its daughters 212 Bi, 212 Po and 208 Tl, was administered directly into the testis, the dose required to achieve 37% survival (D 37 ) was 0.143 ± 0.014 Gy and the corresponding RBE of the mixed radiation field was 4.7 when compared to the D 37 for acute external 120 kVp X rays. This datum, in conjunction with our earlier results for 210 Po, was used to obtain an RBE-LET relationship for α particles emitted by tissue-incorporated radionuclides: RBE α = 4.8 - 6.1 x 10 -2 LET + 1.0 x 10 -3 LET 2 . Similarly, the dependence of RBE on α-particle energy E α was given by RBE α = 22 E α -0.73 . These relationships, based on in vivo experimental data, may be valuable in predicting biological effects of α-particle emitters. 46 refs., 6 figs

  6. Effects of environmental estrogenic chemicals on AP1 mediated transcription with estrogen receptors alpha and beta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Nariaki; Honda, Hiroaki; Kitamura, Shigeyuki

    2004-01-01

    There has been much discussion concerning endocrine disrupting chemicals suspected of exerting adverse effects in both wildlife and humans. Since the majority of these compounds are estrogenic, a large number of in vitro tests for estrogenic characteristics have been developed for screening purpose. One reliable and widely used method is the reporter gene assay employing estrogen receptors (ERs) and a reporter gene with a cis-acting estrogen responsive element (ERE). Other elements such as AP1 also mediate estrogenic signals and the manner of response could be quite different from that of ERE. Since this has yet to be explored, the ER mediated AP1 activity in response to a series of environmental estrogens was investigated in comparison with ERE findings. All the compounds exhibited estrogenic properties with ERE-luc and their AP1 responses were quite similar. These was one exception, however, p,p'-DDT (1,1,1,-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane) did not exert any AP1-luc activity, while it appeared to be estrogenic at 10(-7) to 10(-5)M with the ERE action. None of the compounds demonstrated ER beta:AP1 activity. These data suggest that significant differences can occur in responses through the two estrogen pathways depending on environmental chemicals.

  7. Alpha detection on moving surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacArthur, D.; Orr, C.; Luff, C.

    1998-01-01

    Both environmental restoration (ER) and decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) require characterization of large surface areas (walls, floors, in situ soil, soil and rubble on a conveyor belt, etc.) for radioactive contamination. Many facilities which have processed alpha active material such as plutonium or uranium require effective and efficient characterization for alpha contamination. Traditional methods for alpha surface characterization are limited by the short range and poor penetration of alpha particles. These probes are only sensitive to contamination located directly under the probe. Furthermore, the probe must be held close to the surface to be monitored in order to avoid excessive losses in the ambient air. The combination of proximity and thin detector windows can easily cause instrument damage unless extreme care is taken. The long-range alpha detection (LRAD) system addresses these problems by detecting the ions generated by alpha particles interacting with ambient air rather than the alpha particle directly. Thus, detectors based on LRAD overcome the limitations due to alpha particle range (the ions can travel many meters as opposed to the several-centimeter alpha particle range) and penetrating ability (an LRAD-based detector has no window). Unfortunately, all LRAD-based detectors described previously are static devices, i.e., these detectors cannot be used over surfaces which are continuously moving. In this paper, the authors report on the first tests of two techniques (the electrostatic ion seal and the gridded electrostatic LRAD detector) which extend the capabilities of LRAD surface monitors to use over moving surfaces. This dynamic surface monitoring system was developed jointly by Los Alamos National Laboratory and at BNFL Instruments. All testing was performed at the BNFL Instruments facility in the UK

  8. Interferon-Inducible CD169/Siglec1 Attenuates Anti-HIV-1 Effects of Alpha Interferon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Hisashi; Ramirez, Nora-Guadalupe Pina; Gibson, Gregory; Kline, Christopher; Watkins, Simon; Ambrose, Zandrea

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT A hallmark of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in vivo is chronic immune activation concomitant with type I interferon (IFN) production. Although type I IFN induces an antiviral state in many cell types, HIV-1 can replicate in vivo via mechanisms that have remained unclear. We have recently identified a type I IFN-inducible protein, CD169, as the HIV-1 attachment factor on dendritic cells (DCs) that can mediate robust infection of CD4+ T cells in trans. Since CD169 expression on macrophages is also induced by type I IFN, we hypothesized that type I IFN-inducible CD169 could facilitate productive HIV-1 infection in myeloid cells in cis and CD4+ T cells in trans and thus offset antiviral effects of type I IFN. In support of this hypothesis, infection of HIV-1 or murine leukemia virus Env (MLV-Env)-pseudotyped HIV-1 particles was enhanced in IFN-α-treated THP-1 monocytoid cells, and this enhancement was primarily dependent on CD169-mediated enhancement at the virus entry step, a phenomenon phenocopied in HIV-1 infections of IFN-α-treated primary monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs). Furthermore, expression of CD169, a marker of type I IFN-induced immune activation in vivo, was enhanced in lymph nodes from pigtailed macaques infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) carrying HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT-SHIV), compared to uninfected macaques, and interestingly, there was extensive colocalization of p27gag and CD169, suggesting productive infection of CD169+ myeloid cells in vivo. While cell-free HIV-1 infection of IFN-α-treated CD4+ T cells was robustly decreased, initiation of infection in trans via coculture with CD169+ IFN-α-treated DCs restored infection, suggesting that HIV-1 exploits CD169 in cis and in trans to attenuate a type I IFN-induced antiviral state. IMPORTANCE HIV-1 infection in humans causes immune activation characterized by elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines, including type I interferons (IFN

  9. Effects of myo-inositol plus alpha-lactalbumin in myo-inositol-resistant PCOS women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanino Oliva, Mario; Buonomo, Giovanna; Calcagno, Marco; Unfer, Vittorio

    2018-05-10

    Myo-inositol (MI), successfully used in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), was administered with α-LA to exploit its action of favouring the passage of other molecules through biological barriers, and also considering its anti-inflammatory effect. PCOS patients, according to the Rotterdam ESHRE-ASRM criteria, with anovulation and infertility > 1 year, were included in this open and prospective study. The preliminary phase was aimed at determining a set of MI-resistant PCOS patients. This treatment involved 2 g MI, taken twice per day by oral route, for three months. The Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) index and MI plasma levels were measured. In the main phase, previously selected MI-resistant patients received the same daily amount of MI plus 50 mg α-LA twice a day, for a further three months. Ovulation was assessed using ultrasound examination on days 12, 14 and 20 of the cycle. The HOMA index, lipid, hormone and MI plasma levels were detected at baseline and at the end of this phase. Thirty-seven anovulatory PCOS subjects were included in the study. Following MI treatment, 23 of the 37 women (62%) ovulated, while 14 (38%) were resistant and did not ovulate. In the latter group, MI plasma levels did not increase. These MI-resistant patients underwent treatment in the main phase of the study, receiving MI and α-LA. After this combined treatment, 12 (86%) of them ovulated. Their MI plasma levels were found to be significantly higher than at baseline; also, a hormone and lipid profile improvement was recorded. The combination of MI with α-LA allowed us to obtain significant progress in the treatment of PCOS MI-resistant patients. Therefore, this new formulation was able to re-establish ovulation, greatly increasing the chances of desired pregnancy. Clinical trial registration number: NCT03422289 ( ClinicalTrials.gov registry).

  10. Inhibitory Effect of Capparis spinosa Extract on Pancreatic Alpha-Amylase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Selfayan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by high blood glucose level caused due to deficiency of insulin secretion or insulin function. The inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes such as α-amylase can be an important strategy for decrease postprandial blood glucose level in patients with type II diabetes. Plants contains different chemical constituents with potential for inhibition of α-amylase and hence maybe used as therapeutic. Objectives The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of the ethanolic extract of Capparis spinosa on pancreatic α-amylase activities to find out the relevance of the plant in controlling blood sugar. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, root and leaves of C. spinosa were tested for α-amylase inhibition. Different concentrations (1.56, 3.12, 6.25, 12.5 and 25 mg/mL of extracts were incubated with enzyme substrate solution and the spectrometric method used for measure enzyme activity. Also acarbose was used as the standard inhibitor. Results Both root and leaves extracts showed inhibition of α-amylase (root = 97.31% and leaves = 98.92%. The root and leaves extracts of C. spinosa exhibited appreciable α-amylase inhibitory activity with an IC50 values 5.93 mg/mL and 3.89 mg/mL respectively, when compared with acarbose (IC50 value 0.038 mg/mL. Conclusions This study supports that root and leaves extracts of C. spinosa exhibit considerable α-amylase inhibitory activities. These results could be useful for developing functional foods by combination of plant-based foods for treatment of diabetes mellitus.

  11. Effects of alpha fetoprotein on escape of Bel 7402 cells from attack of lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Mengsen; Liu, Xinhua; Zhou, Sheng; Li, Pingfeng; Li, Gang

    2005-01-01

    Involvement of AFP against apoptosis of tumor cell has been implicated in its evasion of immune surveillance. However, the molecular events of immune escape mechanisms are still unknown. The major observations reported here relate to a possible mechanism by which heptoloma Bel 7402 cells escape immune surveillance in vitro. Western blotting and a well-characterized cofocal scanning image were performed to analyze the expression of Fas/FasL and caspase-3 in co-cultured Bel 7402 and Jurkat cells. After co-culture with Jurkat cells, up-regulated Fas and reduced FasL expression could be observed. Treatment with AFP could remarkably inhibit the elevated Fas and, whereas, induce the FasL expression in co-cultured Bel 7402 cells. Cells co-culture could induce the expression of caspase-3 in both cells line. The elevated caspase-3 in Bel 7402 cells was abolished following the treatment of AFP. The expression of caspase-3 was elevated in co-cultured Jurkat cells treated with AFP. No detectable change on the expression of survivin was examined in both cells line. Monoclonal antibody against AFP treatment alone did not obviously influence the growth of cells, as well as the expression of Fas/FasL and caspase-3. However, the effect of AFP could be blocked by antibody. our results provide evidence that AFP could promote the escape of liver cancer cells from immune surveillance through blocking the caspase signal pathway of tumor cells and triggering the Fas/FasL interaction between tumor cells and lymphocytes

  12. Contribution to the study of the effects of {alpha}-irradiation in nuclear glasses; Contribution a l'etude des effets de l'irradiation {alpha} sur les verres nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas, A

    2001-07-01

    The main topic of this work is to characterise the effects of {alpha}-disintegration in nuclear waste glasses. Experimental and numerical approaches have been considered. The structure of the French nuclear waste glass (R7T7) has been simulated using four- and six-oxides simplified glasses which contain the main elements of the R7T7 glass: SiO{sub 2}, B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}O, ZrO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and CaO. Four- and six-oxides glasses have been irradiated with 1 MeV-He{sup +} (ionisation) and 2.1 MeV-Kr{sup 3+} (ionisation and atomic collisions) ions in order to reproduce the effects of the {alpha}-particle and of the recoil nucleus emitted during {alpha}-disintegration of actinides, and also to differentiate electronic and ballistic effects. Irradiated glasses have been characterised using several techniques, which have been adapted to the peculiarities of our samples (isolated material, small irradiated depth). The results point out the salient role of sodium in the observed modifications: depth concentration profiles obtained with RBS show an accumulation of sodium at the irradiated surface. We found a apparent acceleration of sodium release in leaching experiments which confirm that point. Modifications observed in Raman spectra of irradiated glasses show an increase of the polymerisation (increase of Q{sub 3}/Q{sub 2} ratio) due to sodium migration. In simplified glasses we have found that the modifications of mechanical properties by external irradiations reproduce the modifications observed in actinide doped nuclear glass (decrease of hardness and increase of fracture toughness). At the same time, we performed Molecular Dynamics simulations of a six-oxides glass. We have shown that the surface modifies the glass structure down to a depth of 10 Angstrom: modification of depth concentration profiles, decrease of the atomic coordination number (A1, B and Si). During cascades, we found that atomic displacements are easier near the surface. This

  13. STAT1, STAT3 and p38MAPK are involved in the apoptotic effect induced by a chimeric cyclic interferon-{alpha}2b peptide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blank, Viviana C.; Pena, Clara [Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics (UBA-CONICET), School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Buenos Aires, Junin 956-C1113AAD Buenos Aires (Argentina); Roguin, Leonor P., E-mail: rvroguin@qb.ffyb.uba.ar [Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics (UBA-CONICET), School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Buenos Aires, Junin 956-C1113AAD Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2010-02-15

    In the search of mimetic peptides of the interferon-{alpha}2b molecule (IFN-{alpha}2b), we have previously designed and synthesized a chimeric cyclic peptide of the IFN-{alpha}2b that inhibits WISH cell proliferation by inducing an apoptotic response. Here, we first studied the ability of this peptide to activate intracellular signaling pathways and then evaluated the participation of some signals in the induction of apoptosis. Stimulation of WISH cells with the cyclic peptide showed tyrosine phosphorylation of Jak1 and Tyk2 kinases, tyrosine and serine phosphorylation of STAT1 and STAT3 transcription factors and activation of p38 MAPK pathway, although phosphorylation levels or kinetics were in some conditions different to those obtained under IFN-{alpha}2b stimulus. JNK and p44/42 pathways were not activated by the peptide in WISH cells. We also showed that STAT1 and STAT3 downregulation by RNA interference decreased the antiproliferative activity and the amount of apoptotic cells induced by the peptide. Pharmacological inhibition of p38 MAPK also reduced the peptide growth inhibitory activity and the apoptotic effect. Thus, we demonstrated that the cyclic peptide regulates WISH cell proliferation through the activation of Jak/STAT signaling pathway. In addition, our results indicate that p38 MAPK may also be involved in cell growth regulation. This study suggests that STAT1, STAT3 and p38 MAPK would be mediating the antitumor and apoptotic response triggered by the cyclic peptide in WISH cells.

  14. Effect of the Administration of Alpha-Lipoic Acid on Contrast Sensitivity in Patients with Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Gębka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the effects of oral supplementation of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA on contrast sensitivity (CS in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. The study included 12 patients with T1DM aged 43±12 years, 48 patients with T2DM aged 59±10 years, and 20 control subjects aged 33±8 years. Patients from each studied group, including the control group, were randomly assigned to receive 300 mg of ALA orally once daily for 3 months. CS was evaluated with the Functional Acuity Contrast Test (FACT, Stereo Optical. In the group of patients with T1DM receiving ALA for 3 months CS remained stable and improved in those with T2DM. Reduction of CS in both T1DM and T2DM patients without alpha-lipoic acid supplementation was observed. In the control group on alpha-lipoic acid supplementation, CS improvement was noticed at one spatial frequency. Changes in the CS were observed, despite stable visual acuity and eye fundus image in all studied subjects. Our study demonstrated that oral administration of alpha-lipoic acid had influence on CS in both T1DM and T2DM patients.

  15. A Proposed Mechanism for the Thermal Denaturation of a Recombinant Bacillus Halmapalus Alpha-amylase - the Effect of Calcium Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Anders D.; Pusey, Marc L.; Fuglsang, Claus C.; Westh, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The thermal stability of a recombinant alpha-amylase from Bacillus halmapalus alpha-amylase (BHA) has been investigated using circular dichroism spectroscopy (CD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). This alpha-amylase is homologous to other Bacillus alpha-amylases where previous crystallographic studies have identified the existence of 3 calcium binding sites in the structure. Denaturation of BHA is irreversible with a Tm of approximately 89 C, and DSC thermograms can be described using a one-step irreversible model. A 5 C increase in T(sub m) in the presence of 10 fold excess CaCl2 was observed. However, a concomitant increase in the tendency to aggregate was also observed. The presence of 30-40 fold excess calcium chelator (EDTA or EGTA) results in a large destabilization of BHA corresponding to about 40 C lower T(sub m), as determined by both CD and DSC. Ten fold excess EGTA reveals complex DSC thermograms corresponding to both reversible and irreversible transitions, which possibly originate from different populations of BHA:calcium complexes. The observations in the present study have, in combination with structural information of homologous alpha-amylases, provided the basis for the proposal of a simple denaturation mechanism of BHA. The proposed mechanism describes the irreversible thermal denaturation of different BHA:calcium complexes and the calcium binding equilibrium involved. Furthermore, the model accounts for a temperature induced reversible structural change associated with calcium binding.

  16. Effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha activators on tumor necrosis factor expression in mice during endotoxemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, M R; Clarke, S; Rodgers, K; Thornhill, B; Peters, J M; Gonzalez, F J; Gimble, J M

    1999-07-01

    Inflammatory mediators orchestrate the host immune and metabolic response to acute bacterial infections and mediate the events leading to septic shock. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) has long been identified as one of the proximal mediators of endotoxin action. Recent studies have implicated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) as a potential target to modulate regulation of the immune response. Since PPARalpha activators, which are hypolipidemic drugs, are being prescribed for a significant population of older patients, it is important to determine the impact of these drugs on the host response to acute inflammation. Therefore, we examined the role of PPARalpha activators on the regulation of TNF expression in a mouse model of endotoxemia. CD-1 mice treated with dietary fenofibrate or Wy-14,643 had fivefold-higher lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced TNF plasma levels than LPS-treated control-fed animals. Higher LPS-induced TNF levels in drug-fed animals were reflected physiologically in significantly lower glucose levels in plasma and a significantly lower 50% lethal dose than those in LPS-treated control-fed animals. Utilizing PPARalpha wild-type (WT) and knockout (KO) mice, we showed that the effect of fenofibrate on LPS-induced TNF expression was indeed mediated by PPARalpha. PPARalpha WT mice fed fenofibrate also had a fivefold increase in LPS-induced TNF levels in plasma compared to control-fed animals. However, LPS-induced TNF levels were significantly decreased and glucose levels in plasma were significantly increased in PPARalpha KO mice fed fenofibrate compared to those in control-fed animals. Data from peritoneal macrophage studies indicate that Wy-14,643 modestly decreased TNF expression in vitro. Similarly, overexpression of PPARalpha in 293T cells decreased activity of a human TNF promoter-luciferase construct. The results from these studies suggest that any anti-inflammatory activity of PPARalpha in vivo can be masked by other

  17. Alpha-capture reaction rates for 22 Ne (α , n) via sub-Coulomb alpha-transfer and its effect on final abundances of s-process isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayatissa, Heshani; Rogachev, Grigory; Koshchiy, Yevgeny; Goldberg, Vladilen; Hooker, Joshua; Hunt, Curtis; Magana, Cordero; Roeder, Brian; Saastamoinen, Antti; Spiridon, Alexandria; Upadhyayula, Sriteja; Trippella, Oscar

    2017-09-01

    The 22 Ne (α , n) reaction is a very important neutron source reaction for the slow neutron capture process (s-process) in asymptotic giant branch stars. These direct measurements are very difficult to carry out at the energy regimes of interest for astrophysics (Gamow energies) due to the extremely small reaction cross section. The large uncertainties introduced when extrapolating direct measurements at high energies down to the Gamow energies can be overcome by measuring the Asymptotic Normalization Coefficients (ANC) of the relevant states using α-transfer reactions at sub-Coulomb energies to reduce the optical model dependence. The study of the 22Ne(6Li,d) and 22Ne(7Li,t) reaction was carried out at the Cyclotron Institute at Texas A&M University. The α-ANC measurements for the near α-threshold resonances of 26Mg provide constraints for the 22Ne(α,n) reaction rate. The effect of this reaction rate on the final abundances of the s-process isotopes will be discussed.

  18. [Effects of low-protein diet plus alpha-keto acid on micro-inflammation and the relationship between micro-inflammation and nutritional status in patients performing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis: a randomized controlled trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Guo, Zhi-Yong; Wu, Hao; Sun, Li-Jing; Cai, Li-Li; Xu, Hai-Yan

    2008-05-01

    To investigate the effects of the combination of alpha-keto acid and low-protein diet on the levels of serum cytokines in patients performing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and to explore the relationship between inflammation and malnutrition in CAPD patients. Eighty-nine CAPD patients were randomized into three groups, and 78 cases completed a one-year follow-up and with complete data. There were 31 cases in low-protein diet plus alpha-keto acid group, 26 cases in low-protein diet group and 21 cases in routine-protein diet group. The levels of serum albumin (Alb), prealbumin (PA), retinol-binding protein (RBP), transferrin (TRF), cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), leptin, and triceps skinfold thickness (TSF), mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC), body mass index (BMI) were measured. The changes of serum interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were also detected. Compared with low-protein diet group, serum levels of PA, RBP and TRF were significantly increased both in low-protein diet plus alpha-keto acid and routine-protein diet groups ( Pdiet plus alpha-keto acid group and routine-protein diet group. There was an increased tendency in the content of Alb, TC, TG, BMI, TSF and MAMC, but there were no significant differences. The plasma levels of IL-1alpha, IL-6 and TNF-alpha in low-protein diet plus alpha-keto acid group were decreased as compared with the routine-protein diet group, but there were no significant differences. The plasma level of CRP in low-protein diet plus alpha-keto acid group was lower than that in the routine-protein diet group ( Pketo acid and low-protein diet can ameliorate malnutrition and micro-inflammation in CAPD patients.

  19. Spatial distribution patterns of energy deposition and cellular radiation effects in lung tissue following simulated exposure to alpha particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, W.; Crawford-Brown, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    Randomly oriented sections of rat tissue have been digitised to provide the contours of tissue-air interfaces and the locations of individual cell nuclei in the alveolated region of the lung. Sources of alpha particles with varying irradiation geometries and densities are simulated to compute the resulting random pattern of cellular irradiation, i.e. spatial coordinates, frequency, track length, and energy of traversals by the emitted alpha particles. Probabilities per unit track lengths, derived from experimental data on in vitro cellular inactivation and transformation, are then applied to the results of the alpha exposure simulations to yield an estimate of the number of both dead and viable transformed cells and their spatial distributions. If lung cancer risk is linearly related to the number of transformed cells, the carcinogenic risk for hot particles is always smaller than that for a uniform nuclide distribution of the same activity. (author)

  20. The antagonistic effect of antipsychotic drugs on a HEK293 cell line stably expressing human alpha(1A1)-adrenoceptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nourian, Zahra; Mulvany, Michael J; Nielsen, Karsten Bork

    2008-01-01

    challenged with phenylephrine (EC(50)=1.61x10(-8) M). From Schild analysis, prazosin, sertindole, risperidone, and haloperidol caused a concentration-dependent, rightward shift of the cumulative concentration-response curves for phenylephrine in cells expressing human recombinant alpha(1A1)-adrenoceptors...... human alpha(1A1)-adrenoceptors in competition binding studies confirmed much higher antagonist affinity of sertindole and risperidone than haloperidol for these receptors. In summary, it can be concluded that there is an approximately 10-fold higher adrenoceptor affinity of risperidone and sertindole...... for human alpha(1A1)-adrenoceptors compared to haloperidol. These findings are consistent with the observation that risperidone and sertindole have a higher incidence of orthostatic hypotension than haloperidol....

  1. The Effect of Nigella Sativa Extract on Alpha-ketoglutarate Activity and Histopathologic Changes on Rat Liver Induced by Monosodium Glutamate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ala Sh Emhemed Eshami

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Monosodium glutamate (MSG is a commonly used food additive and found in most soups, fish, and processed meat. The use of MSG in food is growing. However, the fear of consuming MSG has increased in the last few years due to the adverse reactions and toxicity in the liver. Nigella sativa (NS is used as traditional medicine for the treatment of many diseases. It has been extensively investigated in recent years due to its notable pharmacological properties such as inhibit oxidative stress. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of different doses of Nigella Sativa on alpha KGDH activity and liver histology of MSG-induced rats. The animals (n=30 were grouped into A (control, B (treated with MSG 1g/kg.bw , C (treated with MSG 1g/kg.bw and NS 0.1 g/kg.bw, D (treated with MSG 1g/kg.bw and NS 0.2 g/kg.bw, E (treated with MSG 1g/kg.bw and NS 0.4 g/kg.bw and F (given a daily NS extract 0.2 g/kg.bw. Alpha KGDH activity was investigated using ELISA method and liver histopathology by light microscope. The MSG treatment increased Alpha KGDH activity and disturbed liver architecture, hemorrhage in the central veins, areas of necrosis, vacuolation and increased inflammatory cells infiltration. The condition was normalized by treatment NS on dose 0.2 and 0.4 g/kg.bw. The findings showed that the administration of MSG increases alpha KGDH and induces damage in liver tissue. Nigella sativa extract can reduce alpha KGDH and prevent liver damage caused by MSG.

  2. Commentary: Are alpha-2 agonist really effective in children with tics with comorbid ADHD? A commentary on Whittington et al. (2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Michael H

    2016-09-01

    In this issue, Whittington et al. (2016) present a systematic review that reports the efficacy of three primary treatments for children with Tourette syndrome (TS) - (a) α2-adrenergic receptor agonists; (b) antipsychotic medications; and (c) habit reversal training/comprehensive behavioral intervention. In this commentary, we highlight the large degree of heterogeneity observed in the meta-analysis of trials involving alpha-2 agonist medications and present possible explanations for the observed heterogeneity. Among these possible explanations is the possibility that presence of comorbid ADHD may moderate the efficacy of alpha-2 agonists in the treatment of tic disorder with the medications being more effective in patients with both conditions. The commentary reviews the evidence supporting this possible moderating effect of ADHD and discusses the implications for such a relationship. © 2016 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  3. Effect of coexistent hydrogen isotopes on tracer diffusion of tritium in alpha phase of group-V metal-hydrogen systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Kan; Hashizume, Kenichi; Sugisaki, Masayasu

    2009-01-01

    Tracer diffusion coefficients of tritium in the alpha phase of group-V metal-hydrogen systems, α-MH(D)xTy (M=V and Ta; x>>y), were measured in order to clarify the effects of coexistent hydrogen isotopes on the tritium diffusion behavior. The hydrogen concentration dependence of such behavior and the effects of the coexistent hydrogen isotopes (protium and deuterium) were determined. The results obtained in the present (for V and Ta) and previous (for Nb) studies revealed that tritium diffusion was definitely dependent on hydrogen concentration but was not so sensitive to the kind of coexistent hydrogen isotopes. By summarizing those data, it was found that the hydrogen concentration dependence of the tracer diffusion coefficient of tritium in the alpha phase of group-V metals could be roughly expressed by a single empirical curve. (author)

  4. Effect of short-term ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate pretreatment on intestinal ischemia-reperfusion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Eduardo Silvio Gouveia; Rabelo, Camila Menezes; Prado Neto, Alberico Ximenes do; Garcia, José Huygens Parente; Guimarães, Sérgio Botelho; Vasconcelos, Paulo Roberto Leitão de

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the effects of preventive enteral administration of ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate (OKG) in an ischemia-reperfusion rat model. Sixty rats were randomized into five groups (G1-G5, n = 12). Each group was divided into two subgroups (n = 6) and treated with calcium carbonate (CaCa) or OKG by gavage. Thirty minutes later, the animals were anesthetized with xylazine 15mg + ketamine 1mg ip and subjected to laparotomy. G1-G3 rats served as controls. Rats in groups G4 and G5 were subjected to ischemia for 30 minutes. Ischemia was achieved by clamping the small intestine and its mesentery, delimiting a segment of bowel 5 cm long and 5 cm apart from the ileocecal valve. In addition, G5 rats underwent reperfusion for 30 minutes. Blood samples were collected at the end of the laparotomy (G1), after 30 minutes (G2, G4) and 60 minutes (G3, G5) to determine concentrations of metabolites (pyruvate, lactate), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and glutathione (GSH). There was a significant decrease in tissue pyruvate and lactate and plasma CPK levels in OKG-treated rats at the end of reperfusion period. GSH levels did not change significantly in ischemia and reperfusion groups. However, TBARS levels increased significantly (p<0.05) in tissue samples in OKG-treated rats subjected to ischemia for 30 minutes. Short-term pretreatment with OKG before induction of I/R decreases tissue damage, increases pyruvate utilization for energy production in the Krebs cycle and does not attenuate the oxidative stress in this animal model.

  5. Different effects of ursodeoxycholic acid on intrahepatic cholestasis in acute and recovery stages induced by alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linlin; Su, Huizong; Li, Yue; Fan, Yujuan; Wang, Qian; Jiang, Jian; Hu, Yiyang; Chen, Gaofeng; Tan, Bo; Qiu, Furong

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) on the alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT)-induced acute and recovery stage of cholestasis model mice. In the acute stage of model mice, pretreatment with UDCA (25, 50, and 100 mg·kg -1 , ig) for 12 days prior to ANIT administration (50 mg·kg -1 , ig) resulted in the dramatic increase in serum biochemistry, with aggrevation of bile infarcts and hepatocyte necrosis. The elevation of beta-muricholic acid (β-MCA), cholic acid (CA), and taurocholic acid (TCA) in serum and liver, and reduction of these bile acids (BAs) in bile was observed. In contrast, in the recovery stage of model mice, treatment with UDCA (25, 50, and 100 mg·kg -1 , ig) for 7 days after ANIT administration (50 mg·kg -1 , ig) resulted in the significant decrease in levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and total bile acid (TBA). Liver injury was attenuated, and the levels of TBA, CA, TCA, and β-MCA in the liver were significantly decreased. Additionally, UDCA can upregulate expression of BSEP, but it cannot upregulate expression of AE2. UDCA, which induced BSEP to increase bile acid-dependent bile flow, aggravated cholestasis and liver injury when the bile duct was obstructed in the acute stage of injury in model mice. In contrast, UDCA alleviated cholestasis and liver injury induced by ANIT when the obstruction was improved in the recovery stage. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. The effect of incorporation of SDF-1alpha into PLGA scaffolds on stem cell recruitment and the inflammatory response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevenot, Paul T; Nair, Ashwin M; Shen, Jinhui; Lotfi, Parisa; Ko, Cheng-Yu; Tang, Liping

    2010-05-01

    Despite significant advances in the understanding of tissue responses to biomaterials, most implants are still plagued by inflammatory responses which can lead to fibrotic encapsulation. This is of dire consequence in tissue engineering, where seeded cells and bioactive components are separated from the native tissue, limiting the regenerative potential of the design. Additionally, these interactions prevent desired tissue integration and angiogenesis, preventing functionality of the design. Recent evidence supports that mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) can have beneficial effects which alter the inflammatory responses and improve healing. The purpose of this study was to examine whether stem cells could be targeted to the site of biomaterial implantation and whether increasing local stem cell responses could improve the tissue response to PLGA scaffold implants. Through incorporation of SDF-1alpha through factor adsorption and mini-osmotic pump delivery, the host-derived stem cell response can be improved resulting in 3X increase in stem cell populations at the interface for up to 2 weeks. These interactions were found to significantly alter the acute mast cell responses, reducing the number of mast cells and degranulated mast cells near the scaffold implants. This led to subsequent downstream reduction in the inflammatory cell responses, and through altered mast cell activation and stem cell participation, increased angiogenesis and decreased fibrotic responses to the scaffold implants. These results support that enhanced recruitment of autologous stem cells can improve the tissue responses to biomaterial implants through modifying/bypassing inflammatory cell responses and jumpstarting stem cell participation in healing at the implant interface. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Mitochondrial Effects of PGC-1alpha Silencing in MPP+ Treated Human SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinyong Ye

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The dopaminergic neuron degeneration and loss that occurs in Parkinson’s disease (PD has been tightly linked to mitochondrial dysfunction. Although the aged-related cause of the mitochondrial defect observed in PD patients remains unclear, nuclear genes are of potential importance to mitochondrial function. Human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1α is a multi-functional transcription factor that tightly regulates mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative capacity. The goal of the present study was to explore the potential pathogenic effects of interference by the PGC-1α gene on N-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP+-induced SH-SY5Y cells. We utilized RNA interference (RNAi technology to probe the pathogenic consequences of inhibiting PGC-1α in the SH-SY5Y cell line. Remarkably, a reduction in PGC-1α resulted in the reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential, intracellular ATP content and intracellular H2O2 generation, leading to the translocation of cytochrome c (cyt c to the cytoplasm in the MPP+-induced PD cell model. The expression of related proteins in the signaling pathway (e.g., estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα, nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1, NRF-2 and Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ also decreased. Our finding indicates that small interfering RNA (siRNA interference targeting the PGC-1α gene could inhibit the function of mitochondria in several capacities and that the PGC-1α gene may modulate mitochondrial function by regulating the expression of ERRα, NRF-1, NRF-2 and PPARγ. Thus, PGC-1α can be considered a potential therapeutic target for PD.

  8. The Effects of Alpha Interferon on the Development of Autoimmune Thyroiditis in the NOD H2h4 Mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael Oppenheim

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Alpha interferon (αIFN therapy is known to induce thyroid autoimmunity in up to 40% of patients. The mechanism is unknown, but Th1 switching has been hypothesized. The aim of our study was to examine whether αIFN accelerated the development of thyroiditis in genetically susceptible mice. We took advantage of NOD-H2h4, a genetically susceptible animal model, which develops thyroiditis when fed a high iodine diet. Six to eight week old male NOD H2h4 mice were injected with mouse αIFN (200 units or with saline three times a week for 8 weeks. All mice drank iodinated water (0.15%. Mice were sacrificed after 8 weeks of injection. Their thyroids were examined for histology and blood was tested for antithyroglobulin antibody levels. T4 and glucose levels were also assessed. In the IFN-injected group, 6/13 (46.2% developed thyroiditis and/or thyroid antibodies while in the saline-injected group, only 4/13 (30.8% developed thyroiditis and/or thyroid antibodies (p=0.4. The grade of thyroiditis was not different amongst the two groups. None of the mice developed clinical thyroiditis or diabetes mellitus. Our results showed that αIFN treatment did not accelerate thyroiditis in this mouse model. This may imply that αIFN induces thyroiditis in a non-genetically dependent manner, and this would not be detected in a genetically susceptible mouse model if the effect were small. Alternatively, it is possible that αIFN did not induce thyroiditis in mice because, unlike in humans, in mice αIFN does not induce Th1 switching.

  9. Effect of neonatal hypothyroidism on prepubertal mouse testis in relation to thyroid hormone receptor alpha 1 (THRα1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Debarshi; Singh, Shio Kumar

    2017-09-15

    Thyroid hormones (THs) are important for growth and development of many tissues, and altered thyroid status affects various organs and systems. Testis also is considered as a thyroid hormone responsive organ. Though THs play an important role in regulation of testicular steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis, the exact mechanism of this regulation remains poorly understood. The present study, therefore, is designed to examine the effect of neonatal hypothyroidism on prepubertal Parkes (P) strain mice testis in relation to thyroid hormone receptor alpha 1 (THRα1). Hypothyroidism was induced by administration of 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) in mother's drinking water from birth to day 28; on postnatal day (PND) 21 only pups, and on PND 28, both pups and lactating dams were euthanized. Serum T 3 and T 4 were markedly reduced in pups at PND 28 and in lactating mothers, while serum and intra-testicular testosterone levels were considerably decreased in pups of both age groups. Further, serum and intra-testicular levels of estrogen were significantly increased in hypothyroid mice at PND 28 with concomitant increase in CYP19 expression. Histologically, marked changes were noticed in testes of PTU-treated mice; immunohistochemical and western blot analyses of testes in treated mice also revealed marked decrease in the expression of THRα1 at both age groups. Semiquantitative RT-PCR and western blot analyses also showed reductions in both testicular mRNA and protein levels of SF-1, StAR, CYP11A1 and 3β-HSD in these mice. In conclusion, our results suggest that neonatal hypothyroidism alters localization and expression of THRα1 and impairs testicular steroidogenesis by down-regulating the expression SF-1, thereby affecting spermatogenesis in prepubertal mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Therapeutic effects of an alpha-casozepine and L-tryptophan supplemented diet on fear and anxiety in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsberg, Gary; Milgram, Bill; Mougeot, Isabelle; Kelly, Stephanie; de Rivera, Christina

    2017-06-01

    Objectives This study assessed the anxiolytic effectiveness of a test diet (Royal Canin Feline Calm diet) supplemented with L-tryptophan and alpha-casozepine. Methods Subjects were 24 cats that were classified as mildly or markedly fearful based on the presence of a person in their home room. Three different protocols were used to assess anxiety: (1) evaluation of the response to a human in the cat's home room (home room test); (2) analysis of the response to placement in an empty test room (open-field test); and (3) analysis of the response to an unfamiliar human (human interaction test). All three protocols were first run at baseline, and the results were used to assign the animals to control and test diet groups that showed equivalent fear and anxiety. Both groups were retested on the three protocols after 2 weeks (test 1) and again after 4 weeks (test 2). Results The diet groups differed for two behavioral measures in the open-field test: inactivity duration and inactivity frequency. The control group showed statistically significant increases in inactivity duration between baseline and test 1 and baseline and test 2, while the group fed the test diet showed a marginally not significant decrease in inactivity duration between baseline and test 1 and a not significant decrease for test 2. There was also a significant increase in inactivity frequency between baseline and test 1 in the test diet group and marginally not significant decrease in the control group. There were no differences between groups in the approach of the cats toward people for the home room test and the human interaction test. Conclusions and relevance These results suggest that the test diet reduced the anxiety response to placement in an unfamiliar location, but that fear in the presence of an unfamiliar person was not counteracted by the diet.

  11. [The effect of alpha-tocopherol and ionol on the physical structure of the membranes of rat liver microsomes under conditions of antioxidant insufficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubskiĭ, Iu I; Boldeskul, A E; Primak, R G; Zadorina, O V

    1989-01-01

    Physiochemical conformity of the alpha-tocopherol interaction with hepatic microsomal membranes has been studied by means of fluorescent probes (pyrene and 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulphonate). The microsomal membrane microviscosity is shown to sharply decrease under conditions of the antioxidant deficiency with vitamin E expelled into animals normalizes microviscosity, but feebly influences the microsomal surface charge. Microcalorimetry has been used to establish that penetration of tocopherol into microsomal membranes was accompanied by the exothermic effect.

  12. Differential Effects of Self-Reported Lifetime Marijuana Use on Interleukin-1 Alpha and Tumor Necrosis Factor in African American Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Keen, Larry; Turner, Arlener D.; Callender, Clive; Campbell, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    It is unknown how lifetime marijuana use affects different proinflammatory cytokines. The purpose of the current study is to explore potential differential effects of lifetime marijuana use on interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1α) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in a community based sample. Participants included 168 African American adults (51% female, median age= 47 years). Upon study entry, blood was drawn and the participants completed questions regarding illicit drug use history whose answers were ...

  13. Effect of alpha-tocopherol supplementation on renal oxidative stress and Na+/K+ -adenosine triphosphatase in ethanol treated Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailankot, Maneesh; Jayalekshmi, H; Chakrabarti, Amit; Alang, Neha; Vasudevan, D M

    2009-07-01

    Ethanol intoxication resulted in high extent of lipid peroxidation, and reduction in antioxidant defenses (decreased GSH, GSH/GSSG ratio, and catalase, SOD and GPx activities) and (Na+/K+)-ATPase activity in kidney. Alpha-tocopherol treatment effectively protected kidney from ethanol induced oxidative challenge and improved renal (Na+/K+)-ATPase activity. Ethanol induced oxidative stress in the kidney and decreased (Na+/K+)-ATPase activity could be reversed by treatment with ascorbic acid.

  14. Electric resistivity of 241-americium and 244-curium metals. Creation of defects and isochronous annealing of 241-americium metal after self-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenkel, R.

    1977-03-01

    The temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity of thin films of bulk 241 Am metal were measured between 300 and 4.5 K. The room temperature resistivity was found to be 68.90μΩcm. At room temperature the electrical resistivity of americium increases with pressure (3% up to 13 kbar). The application of 13 kbar pressure did not change the low temperature power law in the electrical resistivity. The resistivity vs temperature curve can be explained by assuming s-d scattering of conduction electrons. The localized 5f electrons are considered to be about 5eV below the Fermi level. Americium therefore should be the first lanthanide-like element in the actinide series. The defect production due to self-irradiation damage was studied by measuring the increase of the resistivity at 4.2 K over a period of 738 h. A saturation resistivity of 16.036 μΩcm was found corresponding to a defect concentration of about 0.22 a/o. After isochronal annealing two recovery stages were observed at about 65 and 145 K. The two stages shift with increasing initial defect concentration to lower temperatures. Estimates of the activation energies and the reaction order were made and possible defect reactions suggested. The magnetic contribution to the electrical resistivity of curium, which shows an antiferromagnetic transition at 52.5 k, was obtained by subtracting the resistivity of americium (to be considered as phonon part). Comparison with theoretical models were made. At low temperatures the measurements are strongly affected by self-irradiation damage [drho/dt(t=0)=9.8μΩcm/h

  15. Effect of addition of yohimbine (alpha-2-receptor antagonist) to the antidepressant activity of fluoxetine or venlafaxine in the mouse forced swim test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhir, Ashish; Kulkarni, S K

    2007-01-01

    Studies have suggested that alpha(2)-adrenoceptors strongly affect monoaminergic neurotransmission by enhancing not only noradrenergic but also serotonergic firing rates. With this background in mind, the present study was undertaken to monitor the effect of addition of yohimbine (alpha(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist) to the effect of fluoxetine (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor) or venlafaxine (dual reuptake inhibitors of both serotonin and norepinephrine) in Porsolt's forced swim test (FST) using male Laca strain mice. The immobility period was recorded in mouse FST during a 6-min period. Different doses of fluoxetine or venlafaxine were administered 30 min before exposing the animals to the test procedure. In the combination study, yohimbine (2 mg/kg i.p.) was administered 15 min before the administration of different doses of fluoxetine or venlafaxine. Fluoxetine (5, 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg) [F = 28.352] or venlafaxine (2, 4, 8 and 16 mg/kg) [F = 17.842] dose-dependently inhibited the immobility period in mice. Addition of yohimbine (2 mg/kg i.p.) potentiated the antidepressant action of fluoxetine or venlafaxine in mouse FST as the animals showed a decrease in the immobility period compared to the fluoxetine or venlafaxine per se group, respectively. The present study not only demonstrated the association of alpha(2)-receptors in the antidepressant effect of fluoxetine or venlafaxine, but also supports its adjuvant therapy with other antidepressant drugs. (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. [Effects of recombinant human alpha-2b and gamma interferons on bone marrow megakaryocyte progenitors (CFU-Meg) from patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Y; Dan, K; Kuriya, S; Nomura, T

    1989-10-01

    The effects of recombinant human interferon (IFN) alpha-2b and gamma on the bone marrow megakaryocyte progenitors (CFU-Meg) were compared between eight patients in the chronic phase of Ph1-positive chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML) and five hematologically normal patients. CFU-Meg was assayed in plasma clot culture added with phytohemagglutinin-stimulated leukocyte-conditioned medium as a source of colony stimulating activity. The average count of CFU-Meg colonies formed from the bone marrow of CML patients was 5.5 times that of normal controls. Spontaneous CFU-Meg colonies were grown in seven of eight CML patients, but in none of five controls. Colony formation by CFU-Meg in CML as well as normal bone marrow was suppressed by the two preparations of IFN in a dose dependent fashion. Their suppressive influence on colonies from CFU-Meg was comparable between CML and normal bone marrow at lower concentrations, but was less marked for CML than normal bone marrow at higher concentrations. The formation of CFU-Meg colonies from CML bone marrow was more severely suppressed by IFN-gamma than IFN-alpha-2b. Depletion of either T lymphocytes or adherent cells from the CML bone marrow cells diminished the suppressive effects of IFN-gamma, but had no influence on the effects of IFN-alpha-2b.

  17. Effect of fluoxetine and adenosine receptor NECA agonist on G alpha q/11 protein of C6 glioma cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovářů, H.; Kovářů, F.; Lisá, Věra

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 6 (2012), s. 614-618 ISSN 0172-780X Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : C6 glioma cells * SSRI antidepressant * G alpha q/11 signalling * G protein coupled receptor Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.932, year: 2012

  18. alpha-1-Antitrypsin (AAT)-modified donor cells suppress GVHD but enhance the GVL effect: a role for mitochondrial bioenergetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcondes, A.M.; Karoopongse, E.; Lesnikova, M.; Margineantu, D.; Welte, T.; Dinarello, C.A.; Hockenbery, D.; Janciauskiene, S.; Deeg, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Hematopoietic cell transplantation is curative in many patients. However, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), triggered by alloreactive donor cells, has remained a major complication. Here, we show an inverse correlation between plasma alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) levels in human donors and the

  19. Contribution to study of effects consecutive to alpha decay of uranium 238 in some uranium compounds and uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordonez-Regil, E.

    1985-06-01

    The consequences of alpha decay of 238 U in uranium compounds and in uranium bearing ores have been examined in two ways: leaching of 234 Th and determination of the activity ratio of 234 U and 238 U. The results have been interpreted mainly in terms of the ''hot'' character of the nascent 234 Th atoms [fr

  20. KINETIC-ANALYSIS OF SHORT-TERM EFFECTS OF ALPHA-AGONISTS ON GLUCONEOGENESIS IN ISOLATED RAT HEPATOCYTES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leverve, X. M.; Groen, A. K.; Verhoeven, A. J.; Tager, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    Isolated hepatocytes from fasted rats were perifused with glycerol as gluconeogenic substrate. Stimulation of gluconeogenesis with phenylephrine (10(-5) M) as alpha-adrenergic agonist consisted of two distinct phases. The first phase was a transient stimulation of gluconeogenesis and was accompanied

  1. Getting the Most from Pi Sigma Alpha Chapters: Exploring the Chapter Activity Grant Program and Its Multiplier Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Robert M.

    2009-01-01

    The political science honor society, Pi Sigma Alpha, has chapters in nearly 700 institutions across the United States. The organization sponsors many programs that can contribute a great deal to students of political science; however, many students are unaware of these opportunities. This article encourages chapter advisors to make use of these…

  2. Effects of 1 alpha,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D-3 on Transporters and Enzymes of the Rat Intestine and Kidney In Vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chow, Edwin C. Y.; Sun, Huadong; Khan, Ansar A.; Groothuis, Geny M. M.; Pang, K. Sandy

    1 alpha,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D-3 (1,25(OH)(2)D-3), the natural ligand of the vitamin D receptor (VDR), was found to regulate bile acid related transporters and enzymes directly and indirectly in the rat intestine and liver in vivo. The kidney is another VDR-rich target organ in which VDR regulation

  3. The effect of individual upper alpha band enhancing neurofeedbac kon reaction-time as an indicator of short-term memory in women employee’s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mersedeh Jahanseir

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In neurofeedback systems, people are able to reinforce or hinder their basic EEG rhythms according to operant conditioninin recent studies the effect of neurofeedback training on improvement of working memory has been shown on the healthy subjects. Disadvantage of neurofeedback is the high number of training sessions and high cost. In previous studies, alpha band power within (8-12 Hz has been considered for all subjects. Previous research reached the conclusion that by using individual upper alpha in neurofeedback, learning rate will increase, so the training sessions and the cost of training will be reduced. Material and Methods: In this study, all participants were female, 10 adults (10 women, mean age 33.8 years, SD=3.56 years. Randomly assigned to control and test group, five in test group and five in control group. Each subject performed the memory test four times, two times before the start of the first neurofeedback training and two times after the end of the last neurofeedback session. Eight training sessions were held, each session had three trials. Results: Discriminate response to the color of the drawing, as well as reaction time hadsignificant effects for test group (p0.05. Before and after eight training sessions by individual upper alpha power neurofeedback, reaction time of discriminate response to the color of the drawing for test group decreased and had significant effects (p0.05. Conclusion: Increasing relative individual upper alpha power, caused by neurofeedback training during eight sessions, indicated that this method increases the memory of women employees, and improves the ability of discriminative response to the color (red & green of the drawing as well as reducing reaction time.

  4. Melanoma targeting with alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone analogs labeled with fac-[99mTc(CO)3]+: effect of cyclization on tumor-seeking properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposinho, Paula D; Xavier, Catarina; Correia, João D G; Falcão, Soraia; Gomes, Paula; Santos, Isabel

    2008-03-01

    Early detection of primary melanoma tumors is essential because there is no effective treatment for metastatic melanoma. Several linear and cyclic radiolabeled alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) analogs have been proposed to target the melanocortin type 1 receptor (MC1R) overexpressed in melanoma. The compact structure of a rhenium-cyclized alpha-MSH analog (Re-CCMSH) significantly enhanced its in vivo tumor uptake and retention. Melanotan II (MT-II), a cyclic lactam analog of alpha-MSH (Ac-Nle-cyclo[Asp-His-DPhe-Arg-Trp-Lys]-NH2]), is a very potent and stable agonist peptide largely used in the characterization of melanocortin receptors. Taking advantage of the superior biological features associated with the MT-II cyclic peptide, we assessed the effect of lactam-based cyclization on the tumor-seeking properties of alpha-MSH analogs by comparing the pharmacokinetics profile of the 99mTc-labeled cyclic peptide betaAla-Nle-cyclo[Asp-His-D-Phe-Arg-Trp-Lys]-NH2 with that of the linear analog betaAla-Nle-Asp-His-DPhe-Arg-Trp-Lys-NH2 in melanoma-bearing mice. We have synthesized and coupled the linear and cyclic peptides to a bifunctional chelator containing a pyrazolyl-diamine backbone (pz) through the amino group of betaAla, and the resulting pz-peptide conjugates were reacted with the fac-[99mTc(CO)3]+ moiety. The 99mTc(CO)3-labeled conjugates were obtained in high yield, high specific activity, and high radiochemical purity. The cyclic 99mTc(CO)3-labeled conjugate presents a remarkable internalization (87.1% of receptor-bound tracer and 50.5% of total applied activity, after 6 h at 37 degrees C) and cellular retention (only 24.7% released from the cells after 5 h) in murine melanoma B16F1 cells. A significant tumor uptake and retention was obtained in melanoma-bearing C57BL6 mice for the cyclic radioconjugate [9.26 +/- 0.83 and 11.31 +/- 1.83% ID/g at 1 and 4 h after injection, respectively]. The linear 99mTc(CO)3-pz-peptide presented lower values for

  5. Bi209 alpha activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo Penna, M.M. de.

    1970-01-01

    The study for measuring Bi 209 alpha activity is presented. Ilford L4 nuclear emulsion pellicles loaded with bismuth citrate to obtain a load of 100 mg/cm 3 of dry emulsion, were prepared. Other pellicles were prepared with the same. Ilford L4 gel to estimate the background radiation. To observe 'fading' effect, pellicles loaded with bismuth were submitted to neutrons of high energy, aiming to record recoil proton tracks. The pellicles were confined in nitrogen atmosphere at temperature lower than -10 0 C. The Bi 209 experimental half-life was obtained and compared with the estimated theoretical data. (M.C.K.) [pt

  6. Alpha Channeling in Rotating Plasma with Stationary Waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetterman, A.; Fisch, N.J.

    2010-01-01

    An extension of the alpha channeling effect to supersonically rotating mirrors shows that the rotation itself can be driven using alpha particle energy. Alpha channeling uses radiofrequency waves to remove alpha particles collisionlessly at low energy. We show that stationary magnetic fields with high n θ can be used for this purpose, and simulations show that a large fraction of the alpha energy can be converted to rotation energy.

  7. Protective Effects of Alpha-Lipoic Acid on Oleic Acid-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Gülcü Bulmuş

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress is believed to be an important factor in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI. Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the possible protective role of alpha-lipoic acid (α-LA on oleic acid (OA-induced ALI in rats. Study Design: Animal experiment. Methods: A total of thirty-five rats were divided into five groups in the study. Group 1 served as a control group. Rats in Group 2 (α-LA were administered α-LA intraperitoneally at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight (BW. Rats in Group 3 (OA were administered OA intravenously at a dose of 100 mg/kg BW. In Group 4 (pre-OA-α-LA, α-LA was given 15 minutes prior to OA infusion, and in Group 5 (post-OA-α-LA, α-LA was given two hours after OA infusion. Four hours after the OA infusion, rats were decapitated. Blood samples were collected to measure serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA and glutathione (GSH, and the levels of activity for superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px. Lung tissue samples were taken for histopathological examination. Results: Exposure to OA resulted in increases in serum MDA levels (p<0.001, as well as histopathological lesions in lung tissue, and decreases in CAT (p<0.05, GSH-Px (p<0.05 activities and GSH (p<0.05 levels. On the other hand, MDA levels were decreased significantly (p<0.001, while CAT (p<0.05, GSH-Px (p<0.01 activities and GSH (p<0.05 levels were increased significantly in the pre-OA-α-LA group compared with the OA group. Conclusion: α-LA was found to lessen oxidative stress and to have positive effects on antioxidants in cases of OA-induced ALI. In conclusion, α-LA appears to have protective effects against ALI and potential for the prevention of ALI.

  8. Calculation of effective atomic number and electron density of essential biomolecules for electron, proton, alpha particle and multi-energetic photon interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurudirek, Murat; Onaran, Tayfur

    2015-07-01

    Effective atomic numbers (Zeff) and electron densities (Ne) of some essential biomolecules have been calculated for total electron interaction, total proton interaction and total alpha particle interaction using an interpolation method in the energy region 10 keV-1 GeV. Also, the spectrum weighted Zeff for multi-energetic photons has been calculated using Auto-Zeff program. Biomolecules consist of fatty acids, amino acids, carbohydrates and basic nucleotides of DNA and RNA. Variations of Zeff and Ne with kinetic energy of ionizing charged particles and effective photon energies of heterogeneous sources have been studied for the given materials. Significant variations in Zeff and Ne have been observed through the entire energy region for electron, proton and alpha particle interactions. Non-uniform variation has been observed for protons and alpha particles in low and intermediate energy regions, respectively. The maximum values of Zeff have found to be in higher energies for total electron interaction whereas maximum values have found to be in relatively low energies for total proton and total alpha particle interactions. When it comes to the multi-energetic photon sources, it has to be noted that the highest Zeff values were found at low energy region where photoelectric absorption is the pre-dominant interaction process. The lowest values of Zeff have been shown in biomolecules such as stearic acid, leucine, mannitol and thymine, which have highest H content in their groups. Variation in Ne seems to be more or less the same with the variation in Zeff for the given materials as expected.

  9. Interferin with thyroid scintigraphy: the effects of interferon alpha induced thyroid gland autoimmunity and dysfunction upon thyroid scintigraphy in patients with the hepatitis C virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rome, S.P.; Karamoskos, P.; Schlicht, S.M.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The incidence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is increasing. Interferon alpha therapy is often used to treat patients who are HCV positive. Thyroid gland autoimmunity and dysfunction has been reported to occur with variable frequency during INF-alpha therapy in patients with the HCV. This study reviews the scintigraphic findings of thyroid scans in such patients in order to assess for the effects on thyroid scintigraphy. To our knowledge, there has been no comprehensive study of this important occurrence to date. There were a number of patients with the HCV being treated at our institution between 23/09/1996 and 09/08/2000. Some of them received INF-alpha therapy, certain were subsequently diagnosed with thyroid gland autoimmunity and/or dysfunction. Eight were imaged with thyroid scintigraphy and reviewed. The scintigraphic findings in the 8 patients fell into two broad categories; 4 demonstrated changes of Graves' disease, and 3 changes of thyroiditis (1 of these was sub-acute). One hypothyroid patient with anti-thyroglobulin antibodies had normal thyroid scintigraphy. Six patients were found to have antithyroid antibodies. One patient with thyroiditis tested negative to antithyroid antibodies. One patient was not tested for antithyroid antibodies. Interferon alpha induced thyroid gland autoimmunity and/or dysfunction can markedly affect the thyroid scintigraphic findings of patients with the hepatitis C virus. This hitherto undescribed occurrence on thyroid scintigraphy has important practical implications of which Nuclear Medicine Specialists need to be aware in order to correctly interpret thyroid scintigraphy studies in such patients. The clinical presentation and effects on imaging appearances are varied. The Nuclear Medicine Specialist can play a central role in establishing the causal link. Awareness of this occurrence enables the Nuclear Medicine Specialist to add value to the referral. This occurrence will become an increasingly common

  10. Alpha Meals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myra A. Fernandes

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Past research suggests that our ability to recall information increases when atypical items are presented within otherwise homogeneous sets. We investigated whether this effect applied to performance on practical, everyday tasks. In a computer-simulated restaurant scenario, participants acted as virtual servers, delivering “plates of food orders” to tables set up in different “rooms.” Plate destination was communicated using either a distinctive alphanumeric code or a homogeneous numeric code, both of which indicated the room and table number for delivery of food orders. We examined accuracy of plate delivery when two (low load or three (high load coded assignments were given per delivery trial. As expected, performance declined from the low- to high-load condition. Importantly, performance declined less with alphanumeric compared with all-numeric communication of assignments. Results suggest that increasing the distinctiveness of assignments, by using alphanumeric codes, can boost performance in real-life situations to significantly improve memory-related task performance, particularly when cognitive load is taxed.

  11. [Effects of feixin decoction on the contents of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha and vascular endothelial growth factor in the rat model of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hong-Jun; Dai, Ai-Guo

    2012-05-01

    To explore the effects of Feixin Decoction (FXD) on the hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the rat model of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (HPH), and to study its mechanisms for treating HPH. Forty healthy male SD rats were randomly divided into four groups, i. e., the normal control group, the HPH model group, the FXD group, and the Nifedipine group, 10 rats in each group. The HPH rat model was prepared using normal pressure intermittent hypoxia method. Except the normal control group, rats in the rest groups were fed in a self-made hypoxic plexiglass cabin, with the poor oxygen condition for 8 h daily for 14 successive days. Then the distilled water (at 30 mL/kg) was given by gastrogavage to rats in the normal control group and the HPH model group. FXD (at 28 g/kg) and Nifedipine (at 20 mg/kg) were given by gastrogavage to rats in the FXD group and the Nifedipine group respectively, once daily, for 14 successive days. Besides, hypoxia was continued for 14 days while medicating. The mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) was detected on the second day after the last medication. The morphology of the pulmonary arteriole was detected. The ratio of pulmonary artery wall area and tube area (WA%) was determined. The protein and mRNA expressions of HIF-1alpha and VEGF were detected using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization technique. Compared with the normal control group, mPAP, WA%, and the protein and mRNA expressions of HIF-1alpha and VEGF significantly increased in the model group (P < 0.01, P < 0.05). Compared with the HPH model group, mPAP, WA%, and the protein and mRNA expressions of HIF-1alpha and VEGF significantly decreased in the FXD group (P < 0.01, P < 0.05). FXD down-regulated the expression of VEGF through decreasing the expression of HIF-1alpha. One of its mechanisms for treating HPH might be partially due to reversing the remodeling of pulmonary vascular smooth muscle.

  12. Suppressive effect of glucocorticoids on TNF-alpha production is associated with their clinical effect in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Winsen, L.M.L.; Polman, C.H.; Dijkstra, C.D.; Tilders, F.J.H.; Uitdehaag, B.M.J.

    2010-01-01

    A reduced sensitivity to glucocorticoids can affect the clinical effect of treatment with high-dose intravenous methylprednisolone in multiple sclerosis. We prospectively studied 27 multiple sclerosis patients who were treated with intravenous methylprednisolone. Before and after treatment in vitro

  13. Effect of metallic iron on the oxidative dissolution of UO2 doped with a radioactive alpha emitter in synthetic Callovian-Oxfordian groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odorowski, Mélina; Jegou, Christophe; De Windt, Laurent; Broudic, Véronique; Jouan, Gauthier; Peuget, Sylvain; Martin, Christelle

    2017-12-01

    In the hypothesis of direct disposal of spent fuel in a geological nuclear waste repository, interactions between the fuel mainly composed of UO2 and its environment must be understood. The dissolution rate of the UO2 matrix, which depends on the redox conditions on the fuel surface, will have a major impact on the release of radionuclides into the environment. The reducing conditions expected for a geological disposal situation would appear to be favorable as regards the solubility and stability of the UO2 matrix, but may be disturbed on the surface of irradiated fuel. In particular, the local redox conditions will result from a competition between the radiolysis effects of water under alpha irradiation (simultaneously producing oxidizing species like H2O2, hydrogen peroxide, and reducing species like H2, hydrogen) and those of redox active species from the environment. In particular, Fe2+, a strongly reducing aqueous species coming from the corrosion of the iron canister or from the host rock, could influence the dissolution of the fuel matrix. The effect of iron on the oxidative dissolution of UO2 was thus investigated under the conditions of the French disposal site, a Callovian-Oxfordian clay formation chosen by the French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (Andra), here tested under alpha irradiation. For this study, UO2 fuel pellets doped with a radioactive alpha emitter (238/239Pu) were leached in synthetic Callovian-Oxfordian groundwater (representative of the French waste disposal site groundwater) in the presence of a metallic iron foil to simulate the steel canister. The pellets had varying levels of alpha activity, in order to modulate the concentrations of species produced by water radiolysis on the surface and to simulate the activity of aged spent fuel after 50 and 10,000 years of alpha radioactivity decay. The experimental data showed that whatever the sample alpha radioactivity, the presence of iron inhibits the oxidizing dissolution of

  14. The effects of increasing doses of MK-467, a peripheral alpha(2)-adrenergic receptor antagonist, on the cardiopulmonary effects of intravenous dexmedetomidine in conscious dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkavaara, J M; Restitutti, F; Raekallio, M R; Kuusela, E K; Vainio, O M

    2011-08-01

    Different doses of MK-467, a peripheral alpha(2)-adrenergic receptor antagonist, with or without dexmedetomidine were compared in conscious dogs. Eight animals received either dexmedetomidine (10 μg/kg [D]), MK-467 (250 μg/kg [M250] or dexmedetomidine (10 μg/kg) with increasing doses of MK-467 (250 μg/kg [DM250], 500 μg/kg [DM500] and 750 μg/kg [DM750], respectively). Treatments were given intravenously (i.v.) in a randomized, crossover design with a 14-day washout period. Systemic hemodynamics and arterial blood gas analyses were recorded at baseline and at intervals up to 90 min after drugs administration. Dexmedetomidine alone decreased heart rate, cardiac index and tissue oxygen delivery and increased mean arterial pressure and systemic vascular resistance 5 min after administration. DM250 did not completely prevent these early effects, while DM750 induced a decrease in mean arterial pressure. With DM500, systemic hemodynamics remained stable throughout the observational period. MK-467 alone increased cardiac index and tissue oxygen delivery and had no deleterious adverse effects. No differences in arterial blood gases were observed between treatments that included dexmedetomidine. It was concluded that MK-467 attenuated or prevented dexmedetomidine's systemic hemodynamic effects in a dose-dependent manner when given simultaneously i.v. but had no effect on the pulmonary outcome in conscious dogs. A 50:1 dose ratio (MK-467:dexmedetomidine) induced the least alterations in cardiovascular function. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Binding and uptake of {sup 125}iodine-labelled, oxidized low density lipoprotein by macrophages: Comparison of the effects of {alpha}-tocopherol, probucol, pyridoxal-5`-phosphate and magnesium-pyridoxal-5`-phosphate-glutamate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selmer, D. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Phytopathologie; Senekowitsch-Schmidtke, R. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Nuklearmedizinische Klinik; Schneider, W. [Steigerwald Arzneimittel, Darmstadt (Germany); Elstner, E.F. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Phytopathologie

    1997-01-01

    Specific and unspecific binding and uptake (internalization) by macrophages of {sup 125}iodine-labelled, copper-oxidized human low density lipoprotein is differently influenced by the anti-oxidants {alpha}-tocopherol ({alpha}-Toc), probucol (Prob), pyridoxal-5`-phosphate (PP) and the magnesium-pyridoxal-5`-phosphate glutamate complex (MPPG). Binding as well as internalization, mediated by the so-called `scavenger receptor` is lower in the presence of MPPG whereas both specific binding and internalization are enhanced. The comparison of the effects in vitro allows a rating of the potentially anti-atherogenic and thus protective effects of the tested substances as follows: MPPG>PP>{alpha}-Toc>Prob. (orig.)

  16. Adolescents' increasing stress response to social evaluation: pubertal effects on cortisol and alpha-amylase during public speaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bos, Esther; de Rooij, Mark; Miers, Anne C; Bokhorst, Caroline L; Westenberg, P Michiel

    2014-01-01

    Stress responses to social evaluation are thought to increase during adolescence, which may be due to pubertal maturation. However, empirical evidence is scarce. This study is the first to investigate the relation between pubertal development and biological responses to a social-evaluative stressor longitudinally. Participants performed the Leiden Public Speaking Task twice, with a 2-year interval (N = 217; age at Time 1: 8-17 years). The results support an increase in sensitivity to social evaluation during adolescence. The overall cortisol and alpha-amylase responses increased-both between and within participants-and were more strongly related to self-reported pubertal development than to age. The cortisol response shifted from speech delivery toward anticipation. The alpha-amylase response increased in both phases. © 2013 The Authors. Child Development © 2013 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  17. Unexpected effect of drying method on the microstructure and electrocatalytic properties of bentonite/alpha-nickel hydroxide nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Cícero V.; Danczuk, Marins; Bortoti, Andressa A.; Gonçalves, Josué M.; Araki, Koiti; Anaissi, Fauze J.

    2015-11-01

    The degree of crystallinity, morphology and electrochemical properties of a nanocomposite formed by stabilized alpha-Ni(OH)2 nanoparticles and bentonite nanoflakes is strongly influenced by the vacuum drying process, either at room temperature or by freeze-drying (lyophilization). Alpha-Ni(OH)2 nanoparticles induced the formation of intercalation nanocomposites exhibiting higher structural organization than in the precursor clay. Also, lyophilization process preserved the structure of the nanocomposites in aqueous suspension and/or induced the disaggregation of nanoflakes, producing materials with lower degree of crystallinity, larger interlamellar distances and electrochemically more active than those obtained by conventional vacuum drying. In fact, the lyophilized materials exhibited more than twice as large density of current for electrocatalytic oxidation of methanol (37 against 14 mA cm-2) indicating its potentiality for development of sensors and fuel cells.

  18. Pressure effects on enzyme reactions in mainly organic media: alpha-chymotrypsin in reversed micelles of Aerosol OT in octane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozhaev, V V; Bec, N; Balny, C

    1994-08-01

    Biocatalytic transformations in reversed micelles formed by anionic surfactant Aerosol OT in octane have been studied at high pressures by an example of alpha-chymotrypsin-catalyzed hydrolysis of N-carbobenzoxy-L-tyrosine p-nitrophenyl ester and N-succinyl-L-phenylalanine p-nitroanilide. For the first time it has been found that the enzyme retains high activity in these water-in-oil microemulsions up to a pressure of 2 kbar. The value of the activation volume (delta V*) for the enzyme reactions shows a dependence on the water content in the system. When the size of the micellar aqueous inner cavity (as evaluated at 1 atm) approaches the molecular size of alpha-chymotrypsin, delta V* becomes significantly different from the value in aqueous solution and in the micelles with a larger size. Possibilities of regulating the enzyme activity by pressure in systems with a low content of water are discussed.

  19. Effect of communities of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria on degradation of 17-alpha-ethynylestradiol by nitrifying activated sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limpiyakorn, T.; Sermwaraphan, P.; Kurisu, F.

    2009-07-01

    An endocrine disrupting compound, 17-alpha-ethynylestradiol (EE2), is a synthetic estrogen used as a key ingredient in oral contraceptives pill. this persistent organic pollutant, no biodegradable by most microorganisms, is discharged via municipal waste streams to natural receiving waters. Recently, it was found that ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in nitrifying activated sludge (NAS) enriched with high ammonium loads can degrade EE2 via co-metabolism during ammonia oxidation. (Author)

  20. Effect of alpha-calciferol on bone mineral density, bone histomorphometry and bone biomechanics in rats by radiative injury to kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Feipeng; Wang Hongfu; Gao Linfeng; Jin Weifang

    2003-01-01

    The work is to study the effects of alpha-calciferol on bone mineral density, histomorphometry and biomechanics in rats with osteoporosis induced by irradiation of the rat kidney. 32 male SD rats of six months in age were randomly divided into 4 groups (8 rats per group), i.e. the model group, the sham group, the bone one group and the fosamax group. Osteoporosis was developed in the rats by irradiating the kidney. Then the rats were administrated orally as follows in a 90 days, 0.1 g·kg -1 BW.d of alpha-calciferol for the bone one group, 10 mg·kg -1 BW.d of alendronate sodium in 1 mL CMC for the fosamax group, and 1 mL CMC for both the model group and sham group. BMD of L1-4, bone histomorphometry and the bone biomechanical properties were measured. Compared with the model group, both the bone one group and the fosamax group were characterized with significantly higher BMD of L1-4 (p<0.01), significantly larger volume and width of bone trabecula, smaller space of bone trabecula (p<0.05, p<0.01), and significantly larger maximal stress of femur and lumbar vertebra (p<0.05, p<0.01). It is concluded that Alpha-calciferol can improve BMD, bone histomorphometry and bone biomechanical properties in rat osteoporosis induced by kidney irradiation

  1. Effects of polymorphic variations in tumor necrosis factor alpha and occupational exposure to grain dust on longitudinal decline in pulmonary function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahwa, Punam; Nakagawa, Kazuko; Koehncke, Niels; McDuffie, Helen H

    2009-01-01

    Longitudinal declines in pulmonary function are associated with individuals experiencing occupational exposure to organic dusts in combination with lifestyle factors such as cigarette smoking and with genetic factors, and interactions between these factors. To investigate the relationship between polymorphism of genes encoding Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNF-alpha) and longitudinal lung function decline in grain workers exposed to grain dust. Male grain handlers who participated in the Saskatchewan Grain Workers Surveillance Program from 2002 through 2005 provided demographic, occupational, lifestyle, and respiratory symptoms information as well as pulmonary function measurements and DNA for genotyping. Marginal models using the generalized estimating equations approach were fitted by using a SAS PROC GENMOD to predict the annual decline in Forced Expired Volume in one second (FEV(1)) and Forced Vital Capacity (FVC). Smoking intensity contributed to the decline in FEV(1.)Among *1/*1 homozygotes and *1/*2 heterozygotes, grain workers with grain industry had significantly lower FEV(1)declines compared to those of the other two exposure groups (>10 and 20 years in the grain industry). The annual declines in FEV(1)for grain workers who were either *1/*1 homozygote or *1/*2 heterozygote and had been in the grain industry for grain workers who were *2/*2 genotype and had been in the industry for grain industry is an effect modifier between TNF-alpha 308 genotype and longitudinal decline in FEV(1)in male subjects exposed to grain dust.

  2. Alpha-Hydroxylation of lignoceric and nervonic acids in the brain. Effects of altered thyroid function on postnatal development of the hydroxylase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murad, S; Strycharz, G D; Kishimoto, Y

    1976-09-10

    Rat brain postnuclear preparations catalyzed the alpha-hydroxylation of nervonic acid with an apparent Km of 3 muM. Evidence has been presented which suggests that nervonic acid in the brain is hydroxylated by the same enzyme system which hydroxylates lignoceric acid. The hydroxylase activity in brains of normal (euthyroid) rats increased rapidly from a low in the period immediately following birth to a maximum at the 23rd day and then declined to a low level characteristic of the mature brain. Neonatal hypothyroidism retarded the development of the activity and shifted its peak to the 39th day after birth. Conversely, neonatal hyperthyroidism accelerated the entire developmental pattern and shifted the peak to the 16th day after birth. The hydroxylase activity in mouse brain was also increased by thyroid hormone administration from the 13th through the 18th day after birth. Unlike normal mice, the low activity in jimpy mice was not affected by this treatment. It is concluded that thyroid hormones play an important role in the control of brain fatty acid alpha-hydroxylation. The stimulation of alpha-hydroxy fatty acid synthesis in response to hyperthyroidism during the early postnatal period may be one of the major effects of thyroid hormones in accelerating myelination of the central nervous system.

  3. Brain regional {alpha}-[{sup 11}C]methyl-L-tryptophan trapping, used as an index of 5-HT synthesis, in healthy adults: absence of an age effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa-Neto, Pedro; Benkelfat, Chawki; Leyton, Marco [Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Montreal (Canada); McGill University, Department of Psychiatry, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Sakai, Yojiro [Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Montreal (Canada); University of Tokyo, Department of Psychosomatic Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Morais, Jose A. [McGill University, Department of Geriatrics, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Diksic, Mirko [Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Montreal (Canada)

    2007-08-15

    Previous functional neuroimaging studies suggest that selective aspects of the brain serotonin (5-HT) system change during the aging process. Here, we assessed the effects of aging on the brain regional {alpha}-[{sup 11}C]methyl-L-tryptophan ({alpha}-[{sup 11}C]MTrp) trapping rate constant (K*; {mu}l.g{sup -1}.min{sup -1}), which, with certain assumptions, could be taken as a proxy of 5-HT synthesis. Thirty-six healthy right-handed subjects had positron emission tomography (PET) scans following injection with {alpha}-[{sup 11}C]MTrp [18 males aged 46.6 {+-} 22.2 years (range 20-80 years) and 18 females aged 33.0 {+-} 15.5 years (range 20-80 years)]. The trapping rate constant, K*, was calculated with the graphical method for irreversible ligands using the sinus-venous input function. A priori selected volumes of interest (VOIs) were defined using an automatic algorithm. VOI analysis showed no correlation between age and brain regional K* values. As reported by others, significant age-related reductions of gray matter were observed in the thalamus and frontal and cingulate cortices; even with partial volume correction there was still no significant relationship between K* and age. Further exploratory SPM voxelwise correlation between age and {alpha}-[{sup 11}C]MTrp trapping, using p = 0.05 (uncorrected), as well as voxel-based morphometry, was in agreement with the VOI analysis. The dissociation between age-related changes in brain anatomy and this index of serotonin synthesis suggests independent mechanisms underlying the normal aging process. (orig.)

  4. Drugs interacting with alpha adrenoceptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zwieten, P. A.

    1989-01-01

    Alpha adrenoceptors should be divided into various subtypes, comprising pre/postsynaptic and alpha 1/alpha 2-subpopulations, respectively. This classification implicates important functional differences between the various alpha-receptor subtypes, including certain differences in signal transduction

  5. F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) parameter identification flight test maneuvers for optimal input design validation and lateral control effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Eugene A.

    1995-01-01

    Flight test maneuvers are specified for the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV). The maneuvers were designed for open loop parameter identification purposes, specifically for optimal input design validation at 5 degrees angle of attack, identification of individual strake effectiveness at 40 and 50 degrees angle of attack, and study of lateral dynamics and lateral control effectiveness at 40 and 50 degrees angle of attack. Each maneuver is to be realized by applying square wave inputs to specific control effectors using the On-Board Excitation System (OBES). Maneuver descriptions and complete specifications of the time/amplitude points define each input are included, along with plots of the input time histories.

  6. Mechanism and activation for allosteric adenosine 5'-monophosphate nucleosidase. Kinetic alpha-deuterium isotope effects for the enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis of adenosine 5'-monophosphate and nicotinamide mononucleotide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoog, M.T.

    1986-01-01

    The kinetic alpha-deuterium isotope effect on Vmax/Km for hydrolysis of NMN catalyzed by AMP nucleosidase at saturating concentrations of the allosteric activator MgATP2- is kH/kD = 1.155 +/- 0.012. This value is close to that reported previously for the nonenzymatic hydrolysis of nucleosides of related structure, suggesting that the full intrinsic isotope effect for enzymatic NMN hydrolysis is expressed under these conditions; that is, bond-changing reactions are largely or completely rate-determining and the transition state has marked oxocarbonium ion character. The kinetic alpha-deuterium isotope effect for this reaction is unchanged when deuterium oxide replaces water as solvent, corroborating this conclusion. Furthermore, this isotope effect is independent of pH over the range 6.95-9.25, for which values of Vmax/Km change by a factor of 90, suggesting that the isotope-sensitive and pH-sensitive steps for AMP-nucleosidase-catalyzed NMN hydrolysis are the same. Values of kH/kD for AMP nucleosidase-catalyzed hydrolysis of NMN decrease with decreasing saturation of enzyme with MgATP2- and reach unity when the enzyme is less than half-saturated with this activator. This requires that the rate-determining step changes from cleavage of the covalent C-N bond to one which is isotope-independent. In contrast to the case for NMN hydrolysis, AMP nucleosidase-catalyzed hydrolysis of AMP at saturating concentrations of MgATP2- shows a kinetic alpha-deuterium isotope effect of unity. Thus, covalent bond-changing reactions are largely or completely rate-determining for hydrolysis of a poor substrate, NMN, but make little or no contribution to rate-determining step for hydrolysis of a good substrate, AMP, by maximally activated enzyme. This behavior has several precedents

  7. Health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis. Modification of models resulting from addition of effects of exposure to alpha-emitting radionuclides: Revision 1, Part 2, Scientific bases for health effects models, Addendum 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrahamson, S. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States); Bender, M.A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Boecker, B.B.; Scott, B.R. [Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Inhalation Toxicology Research Inst.; Gilbert, E.S. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-05-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has sponsored several studies to identify and quantify, through the use of models, the potential health effects of accidental releases of radionuclides from nuclear power plants. The Reactor Safety Study provided the basis for most of the earlier estimates related to these health effects. Subsequent efforts by NRC-supported groups resulted in improved health effects models that were published in the report entitled {open_quotes}Health Effects Models for Nuclear Power Plant Consequence Analysis{close_quotes}, NUREG/CR-4214, 1985 and revised further in the 1989 report NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 2. The health effects models presented in the 1989 NUREG/CR-4214 report were developed for exposure to low-linear energy transfer (LET) (beta and gamma) radiation based on the best scientific information available at that time. Since the 1989 report was published, two addenda to that report have been prepared to (1) incorporate other scientific information related to low-LET health effects models and (2) extend the models to consider the possible health consequences of the addition of alpha-emitting radionuclides to the exposure source term. The first addendum report, entitled {open_quotes}Health Effects Models for Nuclear Power Plant Accident Consequence Analysis, Modifications of Models Resulting from Recent Reports on Health Effects of Ionizing Radiation, Low LET Radiation, Part 2: Scientific Bases for Health Effects Models,{close_quotes} was published in 1991 as NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 2, Addendum 1. This second addendum addresses the possibility that some fraction of the accident source term from an operating nuclear power plant comprises alpha-emitting radionuclides. Consideration of chronic high-LET exposure from alpha radiation as well as acute and chronic exposure to low-LET beta and gamma radiations is a reasonable extension of the health effects model.

  8. Transition-state structure in the yeast alcohol dehydrogenase reaction: the magnitude of solvent and alpha-secondary hydrogen isotope effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welsh, K.M.; Creighton, D.J.; Klinman, J.P.

    1980-01-01

    Solvent and alpha-secondary isotope effects have been measured in the yeast alcohol dehydrogenase reaction, under conditions of a rate-limiting transfer of hydrogen between coenzyme and substrate. Determination of catalytic constants in H20 and D20 as a function of pH(D) has allowed the separation of solvent effects on pKa from kcat. The small effect of D20 on pKa is tentatively assigned to ionization of an active-site ZnOH 2 . The near absence of an isotope effect on kcat in the direction of alcohol oxidation rules out a mechanism involving concerted catalysis by an active-site base of hydride transfer. The near identity of kinetic and equilibrium alpha-secondary isotope effects in the direction of alcohol oxidation implicates a transition-state structure which resembles aldehyde with regard to bond hybridization properties. The result contrasts sharply with previously reported structure - reactivity correlations, which implicate a transition-state structure resembling alcohol with regard to charge properties. The significance of these findings to the mechanism of NAD(P)H-dependent redox reactions is discussed

  9. EFFECTS OF L-ASCORBIC ACID AND ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL ON BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF SWIMMING-INDUCED OXIDATIVE STRESS IN SERUM OF GUINEA PIGS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursać-Mitrović, Marija; Milovanović, Dragan R; Mitić, Radoslav; Jovanović, Danijela; Sovrlić, Miroslav; Vasiljević, Perica; Tomović, Jovica; Manojlović, Nedeljko

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of L-ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol as well as combination of these vitamins with or without exposure to physical exercise on intensity of lipid peroxidation, activity of xanthine oxidase, activity of total antioxidative system, concentration of glutathione, and activity of catalase in the serum of guinea pigs. The experimental measurements of intensity of lipid peroxidation, activity of xanthine oxidase, activity of total antioxidative system, concentration of glutathione, and activity of catalase were done in the serum of guinea pigs. The animals were exposed to the test load to achieve exhaustion and the test was terminated when the animal for the third time to sink into the water. The results of this study demonstrated that endurance exercise of guinea pigs induced oxidative stress response in terms of increased lipid peroxidation and activity of xanthine oxidase in the serum of experimental animals. Our study investigated the antioxidant activity of L-ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol also measuring three protective markers in the serum: total antioxidant activity, content of glutathione and activity of catalase. The results obtained show that the vitamins influence the concentrations of above mentioned biochemical parameters, which points out their protective effect of swimming-induced oxidative stress. Single or combined administration of L-ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol caused significant inhibition of these markers indicating the important antioxidant activity of the vitamins. Results lead to conclude that the combined treatments with vitamins with or without exposure to physical exercise showed the clear synergistic effect..

  10. Lyman Alpha Control

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, Daniel Stefaniak

    2015-01-01

    This document gives an overview of how to operate the Lyman Alpha Control application written in LabVIEW along with things to watch out for. Overview of the LabVIEW code itself as well as the physical wiring of and connections from/to the NI PCI-6229 DAQ box is also included. The Lyman Alpha Control application is the interface between the ALPHA sequencer and the HighFinesse Wavelength Meter as well as the Lyman Alpha laser setup. The application measures the wavelength of the output light from the Lyman Alpha cavity through the Wavelength Meter. The application can use the Wavelength Meter’s PID capabilities to stabilize the Lyman Alpha laser output as well as switch between up to three frequencies.

  11. New ALPHA-2 magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    On 21 June, members of the ALPHA collaboration celebrated the handover of the first solenoid designed for the ALPHA-2 experiment. The magnet has since been successfully installed and is working well.   Khalid Mansoor, Sumera Yamin and Jeffrey Hangst in front of the new ALPHA-2 solenoid. “This was the first of three identical solenoids that will be installed between now and September, as the rest of the ALPHA-2 device is installed and commissioned,” explains ALPHA spokesperson Jeffrey Hangst. “These magnets are designed to allow us to transfer particles - antiprotons, electrons and positrons - between various parts of the new ALPHA-2 device by controlling the transverse size of the particle bunch that is being transferred.” Sumera Yamin and Khalid Mansoor, two Pakistani scientists from the National Centre for Physics in Islamabad, came to CERN in February specifically to design and manufacture these magnets. “We had the chance to work on act...

  12. The effect of dietary protein restriction on the secretory dynamics of 1 alpha-hydroxycorticosterone and urea in the dogfish, Scyliorhinus canicula: a possible role for 1 alpha-hydroxycorticosterone in sodium retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, K J; O'Toole, L B; Hazon, N

    1993-08-01

    The putative osmoregulatory role of the unique elasmobranch corticosteroid, 1 alpha-hydroxycorticosterone (1 alpha-OH-B), was investigated using dietary protein restriction as a means of limiting urea biosynthetic ability. Groups of dogfish (Scyliorhinus canicula) were adapted to either a high or a low protein diet (HPD and LPD respectively) and the secretory dynamics of urea and 1 alpha-OH-B were determined following acclimation to normal (100%), 130% and 50% sea water. In normal sea water, LPD fish showed significantly decreased blood production of urea compared with fish fed a HPD (P strategy adopted by these animals was the retention of high plasma concentrations of Na+ and Cl-, which increased plasma osmolality and tended to decrease osmotic water loss. Concomitant with the increased ion concentrations, plasma 1 alpha-OH-B concentration was also greatly elevated in LPD fish indicating that the steroid may be acting to minimize Na+ (and Cl-) excretion at osmoregulatory sites such as the rectal gland, kidney and gills. This and a previous study have also demonstrated that 1 alpha-OH-B concentration is elevated in 50% sea water. Decreases in plasma Na+ concentration are tolerated down to 75% sea water, whereafter Na+ is preferentially retained and further decreases in osmolality are achieved by reductions in plasma urea concentration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Antithetical effect of tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene polymorphism on coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X.T.; Ohtsuka, Y.; Kimura, K.; Muroi, M.; Ishida, T.; Saito, J.; Munakata, M. [Fukushima Medical University, Fukushima (Japan). School of Medicine

    2005-07-01

    Inter-individual variation in the severity of pneumoconiosis has been described, even with the same environmental exposure. We hypothesized that TNF-alpha promoter polymorphisms associate with lung responses to environmental exposure in coal worker's pneumoconiosis (CWP) patients. We examined polymorphisms at -238, -308, and -376 in 124 patients with CWP who had similar dust exposure history and in 122 non-exposed controls. CWP patients were divided into two groups: (1) nodular CWP (n = 84): (2) progressive massive fibrosis (PMF) (n = 44). The -308 A allele frequency was higher in patients with CWP compared to controls (6.35% and 2.05%, P {lt} 0.01). It was also higher in patients with nodular CWP compared to PMF (P {lt} 0.05). Logistic regression analysis revealed that patients with the -308 A allele were 3.8 times (P = 0.036) and those with smoking habit were 2.3 times (P {lt} 0.002) more likely to have nodular CWP than PMF. Thus TNF-alpha-308 A allele might interact with smoking to enhance susceptibility to nodular CWP.

  14. Effects of Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback on EEG Alpha Asymmetry and Anxiety Symptoms in Male Athletes: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziembowska, Inga; Izdebski, Paweł; Rasmus, Anna; Brudny, Janina; Grzelczak, Marta; Cysewski, Piotr

    2016-06-01

    Heart rate variability biofeedback (HRV-BFB) has been shown as useful tool to manage stress in various populations. The present study was designed to investigate whether the biofeedback-based stress management tool consisting of rhythmic breathing, actively self-generated positive emotions and a portable biofeedback device induce changes in athletes' HRV, EEG patterns, and self-reported anxiety and self-esteem. The study involved 41 healthy male athletes, aged 16-21 (mean 18.34 ± 1.36) years. Participants were randomly divided into two groups: biofeedback and control. Athletes in the biofeedback group received HRV biofeedback training, athletes in the control group didn't receive any intervention. During the randomized controlled trial (days 0-21), the mean anxiety score declined significantly for the intervention group (change-4 p athletes in biofeedback group showed substantial and statistically significant improvement in heart rate variability indices and changes in power spectra of both theta and alpha brain waves, and alpha asymmetry. These changes suggest better self-control in the central nervous system and better flexibility of the autonomic nervous system in the group that received biofeedback training. A HRV biofeedback-based stress management tool may be beneficial for stress reduction for young male athletes.

  15. Effect of aerobic training on EEG alpha asymmetry and depressive symptoms in the elderly: a 1-year follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Deslandes

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of physical exercise on the treatment of depressive elderly adults has not been investigated thus far in terms of changes in cortical hemispheric activity. The objective of the present study was to identify changes in depressive symptoms, quality of life, and cortical asymmetry produced by aerobic activity. Elderly subjects with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder (DSM-IV were included. Twenty patients (70% females, 71 ± 3 years were divided into an exercise group (pharmacological treatment plus aerobic training and a control group (undergoing pharmacological treatment in a quasi-experimental design. Pharmacological treatment was maintained stable throughout the study (antidepressants and anxiolytics. Subjects were evaluated by depression scales (Beck Depression Inventory, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale and the Short Form Health Survey-36, and electroencephalographic measurements (frontal and parietal alpha asymmetry before and after 1 year of treatment. After 1 year, the control group showed a decrease in cortical activity on the right hemisphere (increase of alpha power, which was not observed in the exercise group. The exercise group showed a significant decrease of depressive symptoms, which was not observed in the control group. This result was also accompanied by improved treatment response and remission rate after 1 year of aerobic exercise associated with treatment. This study provides support for the effect of aerobic training on alpha activity and on depressive symptoms in elderly patients. Exercise facilitates the treatment of depressive elderly adults, leading to clinical and physical improvement and protecting against a decrease in cortical activity.

  16. Erythrocyte osmotic fragility and lipid peroxidation following chronic co-exposure of rats to chlorpyrifos and deltamethrin, and the beneficial effect of alpha-lipoic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chidiebere Uchendu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of chronic co-exposure to chlorpyrifos (CPF and deltamethrin (DLT on erythrocyte osmotic fragility, lipid peroxidation and the ameliorative effect of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA on erythrocyte fragility. Thirty-six male Wistar rats divided into six groups of six rats each were used for the study. Groups I (S/oil and II (ALA were given soya oil (2 ml/kg and ALA (60 mg/kg, respectively. Rats in group III (DLT and IV (CPF were exposed to DLT (6.25 mg/kg and CPF (4.75 mg/kg (1/20th of the previously determined LD50 of 125 mg/kg and 95 mg/kg, respectively, over a period of 48 h. Rats in group V (CPF + DLT were co-exposed to CPF (4.75 mg/kg and DLT (6.25 mg/kg, while those in group VI (ALA + CPF + DLT were pretreated with ALA (60 mg/kg and then co-exposed to CPF and DLT, 45 min later. The treatments were administered by gavage once daily for a period of 16 weeks. Blood collected at the end of the experimental period were analyzed for erythrocyte osmotic fragility and malondialdehyde (MDA concentration. The study showed that chronic co-exposure to CPF and DLT resulted in an increase in erythrocyte fragility and MDA concentration which were ameliorated by supplementation with alpha-lipoic acid. The study concluded that repeated co-exposure to CPF and DLT elevated erythrocyte fragility probably due to increased lipid peroxidation, and pretreatment with alpha-lipoic acid ameliorated these alterations.

  17. Comparative effects of RRR-alpha- and RRR-gamma-tocopherol on proliferation and apoptosis in human colon cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Sharon E; Stone, William L; Lee, Steven; Whaley, Sarah; Yang, Hongsong; Qui, Min; Goforth, Paige; Sherman, Devin; McHaffie, Derek; Krishnan, Koyamangalath

    2006-01-17

    Mediterranean societies, with diets rich in vitamin E isoforms, have a lower risk for colon cancer than those of northern Europe and the Americas. Vitamin E rich diets may neutralize free radicals generated by fecal bacteria in the gut and prevent DNA damage, but signal transduction activities can occur independent of the antioxidant function. The term vitamin E represents eight structurally related compounds, each differing in their potency and mechanisms of chemoprevention. The RRR-gamma-tocopherol isoform is found primarily in the US diet, while RRR-alpha-tocopherol is highest in the plasma. The effectiveness of RRR-alpha- and RRR-gamma-tocopherol at inhibiting cell growth and inducing apoptosis in colon cancer cell lines with varying molecular characteristics (SW480, HCT-15, HCT-116 and HT-29) and primary colon cells (CCD-112CoN, nontransformed normal phenotype) was studied. Colon cells were treated with and without RRR-alpha- or RRR-gamma-tocopherol using varying tocopherol concentrations and time intervals. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were measured using the trypan blue assay, annexin V staining, DNA laddering and caspase activation. Treatment with RRR-gamma-tocopherol resulted in significant cell death for all cancer cell lines tested, while RRR-alpha-tocopherol did not. Further, RRR-gamma-tocopherol treatment showed no cytotoxicity to normal colon cells CCD-112CoN at the highest concentration and time point tested. RRR-gamma-tocopherol treatment resulted in cleavage of PARP, caspase 3, 7, and 8, but not caspase 9. Differences in the percentage cell death and apoptosis were observed in different cell lines suggesting that molecular differences in these cell lines may influence the ability of RRR-gamma-tocopherol to induce cell death. This is the first study to demonstrate that multiple colon cancer cell lines containing varying genetic alterations will under go growth reduction and apoptosis in the presence of RRR-gamma-tocopherol without damage to

  18. Effects of Ascorbic Acid, Alpha-Tocopherol and Allopurinol on Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Rabbit Skeletal Muscle: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilgehan Erkut

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Ischemia reperfusion injury to skeletal muscle, following an acute arterial occlusion is important cause of morbidity and mortality. The aim of the present study was to determine and evaluate the effects of ascorbic acide, alpha-tocopherol and allopurinol on ischemia reperfusion injury in rabbit skeletal muscle. Methods Forty-eight New Zealand white rabbits, all male, weighing between 2.5 to 3.0 (mean 2.8 kg, were used in the study. They were separated into four groups. Group I was the control group without any drugs. The other groups were treatment groups (groups II, III, and IV. Group II rabbits administrated 50 mg/kg ascorbic acide and 100 mg/kg alpha-tocopherol 3 days prior to ischemia, group III rabbits received 50 mg/kg allopurinol 2 days prior to ischemia, and group IV rabbits were administrated both 50 mg/kg ascorbic acide, 100 mg/kg alpha-tocopherol 3 days prior to ischemia and 50 mg/kg allopurinol 2 days prior to ischemia. Two hours ischemia and 2 hours reperfusion were underwent to the treatment groups. At the end of the reperfusion periods, muscle samples were taken from rectus femoris muscle for determination of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities as antioxidant enzymes, and malondialdehyde as an indicator of lipid peroxidation and xanthine oxidase levels as source hydroxyl radical. Besides, histopathological changes (edema, inflammation, ring formation and splitting formation were evaluated in the muscle specimens. Results In the treatment groups; superoxide dismutase (U/mgprotein, catalase (U/mgprotein, and glutathione peroxidase (U/mgprotein levels increased, malondialdehyde (nmol/mgprotein and xanthine oksidase (mU/mgprotein levels decreased compared to control I ( p < 0.05. Increase of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase levels were the highest and decrease of malondialdehyde and xanthine oxidase levels were the highest in group IV compared to groups II and III

  19. Adsorptive effects of di-tri-octahedral smectite on Clostridium perfringens alpha, beta, and beta-2 exotoxins and equine colostral antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Jacquelin Boggs; Hassel, Diana M; Magnuson, Roberta J; Hill, Ashley E; McCue, Patrick M; Traub-Dargatz, Josie L

    2008-02-01

    To determine the adsorptive capability of di-tri-octahedral smectite (DTOS) on Clostridium perfringens alpha, beta, and beta-2 exotoxins and equine colostral antibodies. 3 C perfringens exotoxins and 9 colostral samples. Alpha, beta, and beta-2 exotoxins were individually co-incubated with serial dilutions of DTOS or bismuth subsalicylate, and the amount of toxin remaining after incubation was determined via toxin-specific ELISAs. Colostral samples from healthy mares were individually co-incubated with serial dilutions of DTOS, and colostral IgG concentrations were determined via single radial immunodiffusion assay. Di-tri-octahedral smectite decreased the amount of each C perfringens exotoxin in co-incubated samples in a dose-dependent manner and was more effective than bismuth subsalicylate at reducing exotoxins in vitro. Decreases in the concentration of IgG were detected in samples of colostrum that were combined with DTOS at 1:4 through 1:16 dilutions, whereas no significant decrease was evident with DTOS at the 1:32 dilution. Di-tri-octahedral smectite effectively adsorbed C perfringens exotoxins in vitro and had a dose-dependent effect on the availability of equine colostral antibodies. Results suggested that DTOS may be an appropriate adjunctive treatment in the management of neonatal clostridiosis in horses. In vivo studies are necessary to fully assess the clinical efficacy of DTOS treatment.

  20. Spirituality, Illness Unpredictability, and Math Anxiety Effects on Negative Affect and Affect-Management Coping for Individuals Diagnosed with Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, Amber K; Parrott, Roxanne L; Smith, Rachel A

    2018-04-01

    A growing number of genetic tests are included in diagnostic protocols associated with many common conditions. A positive diagnosis associated with the presence of some gene versions in many instances predicts a range of possible outcomes, and the uncertainty linked to such results contributes to the need to understand varied responses and plan strategic communication. Uncertainty in illness theory (UIT; Mishel, 1988, 1990) guided the investigation of efforts to feel in control and hopeful regarding genetic testing and diagnosis for alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD). Participants included 137 individuals with AATD recruited from the Alpha-1 Research Registry who were surveyed about their subjective numeracy, anxiety about math, spirituality, perceptions of illness unpredictability, negative affect regarding genetic testing, and coping strategies about a diagnosis. Results revealed that experiencing more fear and worry contributed both directly and indirectly to affect-management coping strategies, operating through individual perceptions of illness unpredictability. The inability to predict the symptoms and course of events related to a genetic illness and anxiety regarding math heightened fear and worry. Spirituality lessened both illness unpredictability and negative affective responses to a diagnosis. Results affirm the importance of clinician and counselor efforts to incorporate attention to patient spirituality. They also illustrate the complexity associated with strategic efforts to plan communication about the different versions of a gene's effects on well-being, when some versions align with mild health effects and others with severe effects.

  1. Chromatographic determination of alpha beta momocharin and its effects with the combination of temozolamide and vinblastine in the treatment of glioma cancer In-Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunasekar Manoharan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Prior to the availability of chemotherapeutic agents, dietary measures, including traditional medicines derived from plants, were the major forms of cancer treatment. One such plant is M.charantia (Family: Cucurbitaceae, whose fruit is known as Karela or bitter gourd. M.charantia is believed to posse’s anti-carcinogenic properties and it can modulate its effect via xenobiotic metabolism and oxidative stress. Different concentration (200μM - 800μMof the alpha and beta momorcharin a protein extracted from bitter gourd fruit, were treated (24 hrs incubation separately with six different cancer cell lines 1321N1, Gos-3, U87-MG, Sk Mel, Corl -23, Weri Rb-1 and normal L6 muscle cell line. The results also show that combining either temozolomide (240 μM or vinblastine (40 μg with (800 μM alpha and beta momorcharin, result in significant decreases in cell viability for each cell line, these effects were additive compared to the individual effect of temozolomide or vinblastine.

  2. Alpha Shapes and Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Pawel; Sterner, Henrik; Sterner, Peter

    2009-01-01

    We provide a unified description of (weighted) alpha shapes, beta shapes and the corresponding simplicialcomplexes. We discuss their applicability to various protein-related problems. We also discuss filtrations of alpha shapes and touch upon related persistence issues.We claim that the full...... potential of alpha-shapes and related geometrical constructs in protein-related problems yet remains to be realized and verified. We suggest parallel algorithms for (weighted) alpha shapes, and we argue that future use of filtrations and kinetic variants for larger proteins will need such implementation....

  3. Conditioning of alpha bearing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Alpha bearing wastes are generated during the reprocessing of spent fuel, mixed oxide fuel fabrication, decommissioning and other activities. The safe and effective management of these wastes is of particular importance owing to the radiotoxicity and long lived characteristics of certain transuranic (TRU) elements. The management of alpha bearing wastes involves a number of stages which include collection, characterization, segregation, treatment, conditioning, transport, storage and disposal. This report describes the currently available matrices and technologies for the conditioning of alpha wastes and relates them to their compatibility with the other stages of the waste management process. The selection of a specific immobilization process is dependent on the waste treatment state and the subsequent handling, transport, storage and disposal requirements. The overall objectives of immobilization are similar for all waste producers and processors, which are to produce: (a) Waste forms with sufficient mechanical, physical and chemical stability to satisfy all stages of handling, transport and storage (referred to as the short term requirements), and (b) Waste forms which will satisfy disposal requirements and inhibit the release of radionuclides to the biosphere (referred to as the long term requirements). Cement and bitumen processes have already been successfully applied to alpha waste conditioning on the industrial scale in many of the IAEA Member States. Cement systems based on BFS and pozzolanic cements have emerged as the principal encapsulation matrices for the full range of alpha bearing wastes. Alternative technologies, such as polymers and ceramics, are being developed for specific waste streams but are unlikely to meet widespread application owing to cost and process complexity. The merits of alpha waste conditioning are improved performance in transport, storage and disposal combined with enhanced public perception of waste management operations. These

  4. Influence of fast alpha diffusion and thermal alpha buildup on tokamak reactor performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uckan, N.A.; Tolliver, J.S.; Houlberg, W.A.; Attenberger, S.E.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of fast alpha diffusion and thermal alpha accumulation on the confinement capability of a candidate Engineering Test Reactor plasma (Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Reactor) in achieving ignition and steady-state driven operation has been assessed using both global and 1-1/2-dimensional transport models. Estimates are made of the threshold for radial diffusion of fast alphas and thermal alpha buildup. It is shown that a relatively low level of radial transport, when combined with large gradients in the fast alpha density, leads to a significant radial flow with a deleterious effect on plasma performance. Similarly, modest levels of thermal alpha concentration significantly influence the ignition and steady-state burn capability

  5. Effect of DOTA position on melanoma targeting and pharmacokinetic properties of 111In-labeled lactam bridge-cyclized alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Haixun; Yang, Jianquan; Gallazzi, Fabio; Prossnitz, Eric R; Sklar, Larry A; Miao, Yubin

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of DOTA (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid) position on melanoma targeting and pharmacokinetics of radiolabeled lactam bridge-cyclized alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) peptide. A novel lactam bridge-cyclized alpha-MSH peptide, Ac-GluGlu-CycMSH[DOTA] {Ac-Glu-Glu-c[Lys-Nle-Glu-His-DPhe-Arg-Trp-Gly-Arg-Pro-Val-Lys(DOTA)]}, was synthesized using standard 9-fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl (Fmoc) chemistry. DOTA was directly attached to the alpha-amino group of Lys in the cyclic ring, while the N-terminus of the peptide was acetylated to generate Ac-GluGlu-CycMSH[DOTA]. The MC1 receptor binding affinity of Ac-GluGlu-CycMSH[DOTA] was determined in B16/F1 melanoma cells. Melanoma targeting and pharmacokinetic properties of Ac-GluGlu-CycMSH[DOTA]-111In were determined in B16/F1 melanoma-bearing C57 mice and compared to that of 111In-DOTA-Gly-Glu-c[Lys-Nle-Glu-His-DPhe-Arg-Trp-Gly-Arg-Pro-Val-Asp] (111In-DOTA-GlyGlu-CycMSH; DOTA was coupled to the N-terminus of the peptide). Ac-GluGlu-CycMSH[DOTA] displayed 0.6 nM MC1 receptor binding affinity in B16/F1 cells. Ac-GluGlu-CycMSH[DOTA]-111In was readily prepared with greater than 95% radiolabeling yield. Ac-GluGlu-CycMSH[DOTA]-111In exhibited high tumor uptake (11.42 +/- 2.20% ID/g 2 h postinjection) and prolonged tumor retention (9.42 +/- 2.41% ID/g 4 h postinjection) in B16/F1 melanoma-bearing C57 mice. The uptake values for nontarget organs were generally low (<1.3% ID/g) except for the kidneys 2, 4, and 24 h postinjection. DOTA position exhibited profound effect on melanoma targeting and pharmacokinetic properties of Ac-GluGlu-CycMSH[DOTA]-111In, providing a new insight into the design of lactam bridge-cyclized peptide for melanoma imaging and therapy.

  6. Targeted Alpha Therapy: From Alpha to Omega

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, Barry J; Clarke, Raymond; Huang Chenyu

    2013-01-01

    This review covers the broad spectrum of Targeted Alpha Therapy (TAT) research in Australia; from in vitro and in vivo studies to clinical trials. The principle of tumour anti-vascular alpha therapy (TAVAT) is discussed in terms of its validation by Monte Carlo calculations of vascular models and the potential role of biological dosimetry is examined. Summmary of this review is as follows: 1. The essence of TAT 2. Therapeutic objectives 3. TAVAT and Monte Carlo microdosimetry 4. Biological dosimetry 5. Preclinical studies 6. Clinical trials 7. What next? 8. Obstacles. (author)

  7. Varying effects of calcium on the oxidation of palmitate and alpha-ketoglutarate in isolated rat liver mitochondria incubated in KCl-based and sucrose-based media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrebaek, B; Dolva, K; Singh, B

    1984-01-01

    Isolated mitochondria from rat liver were incubated in the presence of [U-14C]palmitate, ATP, CoA, carnitine, EGTA (ethylene glycol bis (beta-aminoethyl ether) N,N'-tetraacetic acid) and varying amounts of calcium. When a KC1-based incubation medium was used, the oxidation of palmitate was inhibited when the concentration of free calcium was increased from about 0.1-10 microM. When a sucrose-based incubation medium was used, the basal rate of palmitate oxidation was about half of that observed with the KC1-medium and calcium had a stimulatory effect. With the KC1-medium the rate of oxygen consumption was inhibited by calcium with alpha-ketoglutarate as well as palmitate as the respiratory substrate. No inhibitory effect of calcium was observed with succinate or beta-hydroxybutyrate. With the KC1-medium and with alpha-ketoglutarate as the respiratory substrate, state 3 respiration but not state 4 respiration was inhibited by calcium. When the sucrose-medium was used, state 3 respiration was first inhibited by calcium, but this inhibition was gradually relieved and the respiratory rate finally became higher than it was before calcium addition.

  8. Minimal Effects of Age and Exposure to a Noisy Environment on Hearing in Alpha9 Nicotinic Receptor Knockout Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda M. Lauer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies have suggested a role of weakened medial olivocochlear (OC efferent feedback in accelerated hearing loss and increased susceptibility to noise. The present study investigated the progression of hearing loss with age and exposure to a noisy environment in medial OC-deficient mice. Alpha9 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor knockout (α9KO and wild types were screened for hearing loss using auditory brainstem responses. α9KO mice housed in a quiet environment did not show increased hearing loss compared to wild types in young adulthood and middle age. Challenging the medial OC system by housing in a noisy environment did not increase hearing loss in α9KO mice compared to wild types. ABR wave 1 amplitudes also did not show differences between α9KO mice and wild types. These data suggest that deficient medial OC feedback does not result in early onset of hearing loss.

  9. Inhibition of chitin biosynthesis in cultured imaginal discs: Effects of alpha-amanitin, actinomycin-D, cycloheximide, and puromycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberlander, Herbert; Ferkovich, Stephen; Leach, Eddie; Van Essen, Frank

    1980-02-01

    Wing imaginal discs isolated from last instar larvae of the Indian meal moth,Plodia interpunctella, produced chitin when incubated in vitro with ≧2×10 -7 M 20-hydroxyecdysone. Chitin biosynthesis was initiated 8 h after the conclusion of a 24-h treatment with hormone. Simulataneous incubation of wing discs with 20-hydroxyecdysone and either inhibitors of RNA synthesis (alpha-amanitin, actinomycin-D) or inhibitors of protein systhesis (cycloheximide, puromycin) prevented chitin biosynthesis. We conclude from our results that RNA and protein synthesis must continue undiminished during the hormone-contact period, and that synthesis of protein, but not of new RNA is required during the posthormone culture period. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that ecdysteroids stimulate insect metamorphosis by promoting the synthesis of new RNA and protein during a hormone-dependent phase followed by hormone-independent protein synthesis.

  10. The effect of alpha incident- and poloidal-angle distributions on blister-induced first-wall erosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenske, G.; Hively, L.; Miley, G.

    1979-01-01

    The incident velocity distribution of high-energy alpha particles bombarding the first wall of an axisymmetric tokamak is evaluated as a function of poloidal angle (theta). The resulting helium concentration profile as a function of the poloidal angle and the implant depth is calculated for a typical Experimental Power Reactor (EPR) design. The critical helium concentration for blistering is first exceeded at theta approx. 55 0 . Peak concentrations are reduced somewhat through continuous D-T sputtering which, dependent on theta, reduces the blister skin thicknesses. The blistering-induced impurity level is found to increase drastically (< approx. 50%), relative to sputtering-induced impurities, at periodic intervals corresponding to approx. 4000 hours operation when each generation of blister begins to exfoliate. (orig.)

  11. The effect of alpha-interferon on bone marrow megakaryocytes and platelet production rate in essential thrombocythemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadenvik, H.; Kutti, J.; Ridell, B.; Revesz, P.; Jacobsson, S.; Magnusson, B.; Westin, J.; Vilen, L.

    1991-01-01

    In 10 patients with previously untreated essential thrombocythemia (ET), by using 111 In-labeled platelets and megakaryocyte morphometry, the relation between platelet production rate and bone marrow megakaryocytes was evaluated before and during alpha-2b-interferon (IFN) therapy. A highly significant decrease in platelet count occurred during IFN therapy; the platelet counts, at baseline and after 2 and 6 months of IFN therapy, were 1,102 +/- 345 x 10(9)/L, 524 +/- 169 x 10(9)/L (P less than .0001), and 476 +/- 139 x 10(9)/L (P less than .0001), respectively. The decrement in platelet count was mainly a result of diminished platelet production rate, which at baseline and after 2 and 6 months of IFN therapy was 89 +/- 30 x 10(10) platelets/d, 53 +/- 18 x 10(10) platelets/d (P = .0033), and 45 +/- 20 x 10(10) platelets/d (P less than .0001), respectively. Also, a slight shortening of platelet mean life-span (MLS) was observed in response to IFN treatment; platelet MLS was 7.96 +/- 0.69 days at baseline and 6.68 +/- 1.30 days (P = .012) after 6 months of IFN therapy. IFN induced a significant decrease in bone marrow megakaryocyte volume; both megakaryocyte nuclear and cytoplasmatic volumes were affected. The mean megakaryocyte volume was 372 +/- 126 x 10(2) pL/microL at baseline and 278 +/- 147 x 10(2) pL/microL (P = .049) after 6 months of IFN therapy. However, the number of megakaryocytes did not show any significant change in response to IFN. It is concluded that alpha-IFN reduces platelet production rate and the peripheral platelet count in ET mainly through an anti-proliferative action on the megakaryocytes and to a considerably lesser degree by a shortening of platelet MLS

  12. Effect of prior dust collection on detection, counting efficiency, and energy resolution for alpha continuous air monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, G.J.; Hoover, M.D.

    1994-01-01

    For the past several years, we have supported the DOE Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project by evaluating the capabilities and performance of the Eberline Alpha 6 continuous air monitor (CAM). This evalution has focused on the ability of the CAM to correctly report plutonium in the presence of salt dust. Tests involving the simultaneous collection of plutonium and salt have shown that burial by salt can degrade the detection of plutonium, but that this interference is negligible when salt concentrations are below about 0.2 mg/m 3 . Throughout the evalution, it has been assumed that salt burial is a concern for slow, chronic release of plutonium, but that any acute release of plutonium would be collected on the top surface of the filter or salt and would be unattenuated. The spectral quality of alpha radiation detection on membrane filters is observed to improve with filter loading. This is attributed to the probability that accumulations of dust tend to fill in surface irregularities of the collection filter at a a faster rate than they create additional surface irregularities. The validity of these assumptions about the improved detection of plutonium on salt-layer surfaces has recently been questioned. Based on electron micrographic examination of salt-laden filters, it has been speculated that collection of salt dust on a membrane filter results in formation of pores, fissures, and dendritic shapes of salt on the filter surface. If plutonium were collected, particles could penetrate into the pores and fissures, resulting in a degraded or lost signal from the plutonium. Because no experimental evidence existed to answer the concern, the purpose of the current study was to quantify any differences between detection of plutonium on clean or salt-laden filters

  13. Applying alpha-channeling to mirror machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhmoginov, A. I.; Fisch, N. J. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

    2012-05-15

    The {alpha}-channeling effect entails the use of radio-frequency waves to expel and cool high-energetic {alpha} particles born in a fusion reactor; the device reactivity can then be increased even further by redirecting the extracted energy to fuel ions. Originally proposed for tokamaks, this technique has also been shown to benefit open-ended fusion devices. Here, the fundamental theory and practical aspects of {alpha} channeling in mirror machines are reviewed, including the influence of magnetic field inhomogeneity and the effect of a finite wave region on the {alpha}-channeling mechanism. For practical implementation of the {alpha}-channeling effect in mirror geometry, suitable contained weakly damped modes are identified. In addition, the parameter space of candidate waves for implementing the {alpha}-channeling effect can be significantly extended through the introduction of a suitable minority ion species that has the catalytic effect of moderating the transfer of power from the {alpha}-channeling wave to the fuel ions.

  14. Alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolk, Jan; Seersholm, Niels; Kalsheker, Noor

    2006-01-01

    The Alpha One International Registry (AIR), a multinational research program focused on alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency, was formed in response to a World Health Organization recommendation. Each of the nearly 20 participating countries maintains a national registry of patients with AAT defic...

  15. Alpha Thalassemia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Alpha Thalassemia KidsHealth / For Parents / Alpha Thalassemia What's in this ... Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Print en español Alfa talasemia Thalassemias Thalassemias are a group of blood disorders that ...

  16. Buffett’s Alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Kabiller, David; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    Berkshire Hathaway has realized a Sharpe ratio of 0.76, higher than any other stock or mutual fund with a history of more than 30 years, and Berkshire has a significant alpha to traditional risk factors. However, we find that the alpha becomes insignificant when controlling for exposures to Betting...

  17. Effects of Prolastin C (Plasma-Derived Alpha-1 Antitrypsin) on the acute inflammatory response in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (from the VCU-alpha 1-RT pilot study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbate, A.; Tassell, B.W. Van; Christopher, S.; Abouzaki, N.A.; Sonnino, C.; Oddi, C.; Carbone, S.; Melchior, R.D.; Gambill, M.L.; Roberts, C.S.; Kontos, M.C.; Peberdy, M.A.; Toldo, S.; Vetrovec, G.W.; Biondi-Zoccai, G.; Dinarello, C.A.

    2015-01-01

    Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) has broad anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating properties in addition to inhibiting serine proteases. Administration of human plasma-derived AAT is protective in models of acute myocardial infarction in mice. The objective of this study was to determine the safety and

  18. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) modulates the effect of serum albumin on brain development by restraining the neurotrophic effect of oleic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

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