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Sample records for alpha self-irradiation effects

  1. Alpha self irradiation effects in nuclear borosilicate glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peuget, S.; Roudil, D.; Deschanels, X.; Jegou, C.; Broudic, V.; Bart, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    The properties of actinide glasses are studied in the context of high-level waste management programs. Reprocessing high burnup fuels in particular will increase the minor actinide content in the glass package, resulting in higher cumulative alpha decay doses in the glass, and raising the question of the glass matrix behavior and especially its containment properties. The effect of alpha self-irradiation on the glass behavior is evaluated by doping the glass with a short-lived actinide ( 244 Cm) to reach in several years the alpha dose received by the future glass packages over several thousand years. 'R7T7' borosilicate glasses were doped with 3 different curium contents (0.04, 0.4 and 1.2 wt% 244 CmO 2 ). The density and mechanical properties of the curium-doped glasses were characterized up to 2. 10 18 α/g, revealing only a slight evolution of the macroscopic behavior of R7T7 glass in this range. The leaching behavior of curium-doped glass was also studied by Soxhlet tests. The results do not show any significant evolution of the initial alteration rate with the alpha dose. (authors)

  2. Effect of alpha self irradiation on helium migration in (U,Pu)O{sub 2} samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pipon, Yves; Roudil, Daniele; Jegou, Christophe [CEA Marcoule DEN/DTCD/SECM/LMPA, BP 171 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze cedex (France); Khodja, Hicham; Raepsaet, Caroline [CEA Saclay DSM/IRAMIS/LPS, Point courrier 127, F-91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette cedex (France)

    2008-07-01

    The helium behavior and its migration mechanisms in nuclear spent fuel (UOX and MOX) significantly impact the possible evolution of the spent fuel matrix in a closed system during interim storage or during a disposal repository. An experimental study has been conducted on (U,Pu)O{sub 2} samples in order to investigate the impact of defects created by alpha decay on helium diffusion. One large part is devoted to thermal atomic diffusion and applied on {sup 3}He implanted samples, annealed at 850 and 1000 deg. C. The He profiles, as implanted and after annealing, were investigated with the {sup 3}He(d,p){sup 4}He nuclear reaction. Another part deals with the thermal release of {sup 4}He amassed in the samples. The measured thermal diffusion coefficients are compared with previously published values, thereby highlighting the effect of the alpha self-irradiation on helium behavior. (authors)

  3. Understanding the effects of alpha self-irradiation on the glass structure by coupling spectroscopic studies and atomistic modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bureau, G.

    2008-12-01

    Our objective was to assess irradiation effects on nuclear containment glass in order to guarantee glass performance when subjected to high alpha decay doses. Experimental studies and molecular dynamics modeling provided a better understanding of the impact of cumulative alpha decay on the structural behavior of complex nuclear glass formulations and of simplified glass models. A mechanism typical of sodium borosilicate glass was identified in response to nuclear interactions or ballistic collisions. The glass local order is slightly modified by the conversion of a fraction of the boron atoms from coordination number IV to III, releasing charge-compensating alkali ions that become available as network modifiers, and resulting in a slight increase in the number of non bridging oxygen atoms. The medium-range order shifts toward increasing disorder in the glass as indicated by broadening of the angular, radial, and size distributions. A model of accumulated quasi-thermal quenching is proposed to account for these changes, based on the two steps describing the reaction of the glass to the alpha decay recoil nucleus: a cascade generates a ballistic phase that completely destabilizes the glass structure with no short and medium-range order, resulting in the loss of the initial structure; glass reconstruction is controlled only by the 'quenching rate' in the displacement cascade, i.e. by its thermal history and the corresponding relaxation options. From this standpoint the final glass structure is the consequence of the ballistic changes and the regenerative capacity of the glass structure, resulting in a higher fictive-temperature glass corresponding to the structural changes identified in this study. (author)

  4. Self-irradiation and oxidation effects on americium sesquioxide and Raman spectroscopy studies of americium oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horlait, Denis [CEA, DEN, DTEC/SDTC/LEMA, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze Cedex (France); Caraballo, Richard [CEA, DEN, DTCD/SECM/LMPA, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze Cedex (France); Lebreton, Florent [CEA, DEN, DTEC/SDTC/LEMA, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze Cedex (France); Jégou, Christophe [CEA, DEN, DTCD/SECM/LMPA, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze Cedex (France); Roussel, Pascal [Unité de Catalyse et Chimie du Solide, UMR 8012 CNRS, Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Lille BP 90108, 59652 Villeneuve d’Ascq Cedex (France); Delahaye, Thibaud, E-mail: thibaud.delahaye@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DTEC/SDTC/LEMA, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze Cedex (France)

    2014-09-15

    Americium oxides samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy, with an emphasis on their structural behavior under oxidation and self-irradiation. Raman spectra of americium dioxide (AmO{sub 2}) and sesquioxide (Am{sub 2}O{sub 3}) were obtained for the first time. With the help of literature data on isostructural oxides, Raman signatures of Ia-3 C-type Am{sub 2}O{sub 3} and P-3m1 A-type Am{sub 2}O{sub 3} are identified. For AmO{sub 2,} a clear band is noted at 390 cm{sup −1}. Its nature is compared to that of the other actinide dioxides. Am{sub 2}O{sub 3} evolution under ambient conditions and against {sup 241}Am α self-irradiation was monitored by powder XRD. The sample, initially composed of A-type Am{sub 2}O{sub 3} as major phase as well as C2/m B-type and C-type structures as minor phases, progressively oxidizes to Fm-3m AmO{sub 2−δ} over a few months. On the basis of diffractogram refinements, evolutions of unit cell volumes caused by self-irradiation are also determined and discussed. - Graphical abstract: The evolution of americium oxide under ambient conditions was monitored using XRD (X-ray diffraction) and Raman spectroscopy. After a thermal treatment under reducing conditions, a polyphasic sample mainly composed of A- and C-type americium sesquioxides is evidenced by XRD and Raman spectroscopy. The sample then evolves through two processes: oxidation and self-irradiation. The first one provokes the progressive appearance of F-type americium dioxide while the initial phases disappear, whereas the main effect of the second is a structural swelling with time. - Highlights: • The first Raman spectroscopy measurements on americium oxides were performed. • Observed Am{sub 2}O{sub 3} Raman bands were identified thanks to data on analogue compounds. • AmO{sub 2} assumed T{sub 2g} band presents a shift compared to the actinide dioxide series. • Am{sub 2}O{sub 3} evolution under self-irradiation and oxidation was also

  5. Self irradiation effects on the thorium phosphate diphosphate dissolution (TPD): simulation by external irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamain, C.; Ozgumus, A.; Dacheux, N.; Garrido, F.; Thome, L.; Corbel, C.; Genet, M.

    2004-01-01

    The Thorium Phosphate Diphosphate (TPD), proposed as a ceramic for the long term immobilization of actinides, was externally irradiated with several ions and energies (but also with gamma rays) in order to simulate the self-irradiation. The influence of the electronic energy loss was first investigated. Thus, the XRD measurements have shown a complete amorphization of the material under 10 13 ions of Kr.cm -2 , while no significant structural change occurred after 5.10 13 S.cm -2 , 2.10 16 He.cm -2 or 320 kGy of dose of gamma rays. The dissolution of the raw and irradiated pellets was studied versus several parameters such as amorphized fraction, energy loss of incident ions, radiolytic species produced in situ in the leachate during irradiation (such as H 2 O 2 ), temperature and acidity. The results reveal an important increase of the dissolution kinetics for amorphized pellets compared to raw ceramic. (authors)

  6. Crystal orientation and sample preparation effects on sputtering and lattice damage in 100 keV self-irradiated copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprague, J.A.; Malmberg, P.R.; Reynolds, G.W.; Lambert, J.M.; Treado, P.A.; Vincenz, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    Sputtering yields and angular distributions have been measured as functions of sample preparation techniques and incident ion-beam orientation with respect to the crystal axes for 100 keV Cu-ion beams on Cu crystals and polycrystalline samples. The angular distributions have structure requiring an nth order cosine with two Gaussians superimposed to fit the data; strong peaking is observed near the backscatter direction. The yield is dependent on the beam to crystal and beam to polycrystalline-rod axis orientation, on the grain size of the polycrystals and on sample-preparation techniques. Yield measurements vary by as much as a factor of 4. Lattice-damage differences, measured with alpha particle channeling, are much smaller and seem to be saturated by fluences of the order of 1x10 16 /cm 2 . (orig.)

  7. Self-irradiation study of plutonium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oudot, B.

    2005-02-01

    The plutonium is unstable and produces α or β decays depending on the isotope. These decays generate americium, uranium, helium and different kinds of structural defects. The effects of self-irradiation damage are observed at macroscopic scale, the mechanism occurs from atomic scale. In order to improve our understanding of the self-irradiation effects in PuGa alloys, a technique sensitive to the vacancies and vacancies clusters has been developed: the Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy (PAS). The swelling has been characterized by XRD at a microscopic scale and by dilatometry at a macroscopic scale. Swelling starts just after melting and reaches a saturation between 6 and 36 months depending on the degree of gallium homogeneity in the alloy. Swelling at saturation increases with the gallium content, but the absolute change in the cell parameters is constant during time. PAS showed that vacancies clusters develop immediately. Their concentration increase with time. A part of these clusters is stabilized by helium atoms and leads to the creation of bubbles, which contribution to swelling is negligible. The vacancies and vacancies clusters which are not stabilized by helium contribute to the swelling increase by mechanisms known for other materials. These mechanisms are based on a 'dislocation bias'. The presence of these dislocations can furthermore explain the low mean life time value of positrons at the saturation point. (author)

  8. The alpha effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    Much of the recent interest in RAM system reliability stems from concern over alpha particle soft error rates reported for the initial 64 k RAMs. With increasing memory density likely in the next few years the problem of soft errors is rearing its head again. A few years ago ITT carried out experiments on 16k RAMs and found no significant problems. However, recent tests have shown a raise in the number of soft errors with 64k RAMs, and the launch of 256k and 512k memories is likely to make the problem acute

  9. Determination of the turbulent parameter in accretion discs: effects of self-irradiation in 4U 1543-47 during the 2002 outburst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipunova, G. V.; Malanchev, K. L.

    2017-07-01

    We investigate the viscous evolution of the accretion disc in 4U 1543-47, a black hole binary system, during the first 30 d after the peak of the 2002 burst by comparing the observed and theoretical accretion rate evolution \\dot{M}(t). The observed \\dot{M}(t) is obtained from spectral modelling of the archival Proportional Counter Array aboard the RXTE observatory (RXTE/PCA) data. Different scenarios of disc decay evolution are possible depending on a degree of self-irradiation of the disc by the emission from its centre. If the self-irradiation, which is parametrized by factor Cirr, had been as high as ˜5 × 10-3, then the disc would have been completely ionized up to the tidal radius and the short time of the decay would have required the turbulent parameter α ˜ 3. We find that the shape of the \\dot{M}(t) curve is much better explained in a model with a shrinking high-viscosity zone. If Cirr ≈ (2-3) × 10-4, the resulting α lie in the interval 0.5-1.5 for the black hole masses in the range 6-10 M⊙, while the radius of the ionized disc is variable and controlled by irradiation. For very weak irradiation, Cirr public 1D code freddi to model the viscous evolution of an accretion disc. Analytic approximations are derived to estimate α in X-ray novae using \\dot{M}(t).

  10. Effects of alpha particles on zebrafish embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yum, E.H.W.; Choi, V.W.Y.; Yu, K.N.; Li, V.W.T.; Cheng, S.H.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Ionizing radiation such as X-ray and alpha particles can damage cellular macromolecules, which can lead to DNA single- and double-strand breaks. In the present work, we studied the effects of alpha particles on dechorionated zebrafish embryos. Thin polyallyldiglycol carbonate (PADC) films with a thickness of 16 μm were prepared from commercially available PADC films (with thickness of 100 μm) by chemical etching and used as support substrates for holding zebrafish embryos for alpha-particle irradiation. These films recorded alpha-particle hit positions, quantified the number and energy of alpha particles actually incident on the embryo cells, and thus enabled the calculation of the dose absorbed by the embryo cells. Irradiation was made at 1.25 hours post fertilization (hpf) with various absorbed dose. TdT-mediated dUTP Nick-End Labeling (TUNEL) assay was performed on the embryos at different time stages after irradiation. Marked apoptosis was detected only in embryos at earlier time stages. The results showed that DNA double-strand break during zebrafish embryogenesis can be induced by alpha-particle irradiation, which suggests that zebrafish is a potential model for assessing the effects of alpha-particle radiation

  11. Effects of internally deposited alpha emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rundo, J.; Schlenker, R.A.; Stebbings, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    This study seeks to identify and quantify the human health effects of occupational exposures to radium, use the health effects data from the radium study to predict responses to other alpha-emitting and/or bone-seeking radionuclides at occupational exposure levels and above, and predict the effects of these radionuclides, specifically environmental radium and its daughters, at nonoccupational exposure levels. 14 refs

  12. The Alpha Dynamo Effects in Laboratory Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hantao Ji; Stewart C. Prager

    2001-10-16

    A concise review of observations of the alpha dynamo effect in laboratory plasmas is given. Unlike many astrophysical systems, the laboratory pinch plasmas are driven magnetically. When the system is overdriven, the resultant instabilities cause magnetic and flow fields to fluctuate, and their correlation induces electromotive forces along the mean magnetic field. This alpha-effect drives mean parallel electric current, which, in turn, modifies the initial background mean magnetic structure towards the stable regime. This drive-and-relax cycle, or the so-called self-organization process, happens in magnetized plasmas in a timescale much shorter than resistive diffusion time, thus it is a fast and unquenched dynamo process. The observed alpha-effect redistributes magnetic helicity (a measure of twistedness and knottedness of magnetic field lines) but conserves its total value. It can be shown that fast and unquenched dynamos are natural consequences of a driven system where fluctuations are statistically either not stationary in time or not homogeneous in space, or both. Implications to astrophysical phenomena will be discussed.

  13. Effect of Pilates Training on Alpha Rhythm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Zhijie; Sun, Hongmin; Lu, Chengbiao; Yao, Li; Chen, Shengyong; Li, Xiaoli

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the effect of Pilates training on the brain function was investigated through five case studies. Alpha rhythm changes during the Pilates training over the different regions and the whole brain were mainly analyzed, including power spectral density and global synchronization index (GSI). It was found that the neural network of the brain was more active, and the synchronization strength reduced in the frontal and temporal regions due to the Pilates training. These results supported that the Pilates training is very beneficial for improving brain function or intelligence. These findings maybe give us some line evidence to suggest that the Pilates training is very helpful for the intervention of brain degenerative diseases and cogitative dysfunction rehabilitation. PMID:23861723

  14. Effect of Pilates Training on Alpha Rhythm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijie Bian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of Pilates training on the brain function was investigated through five case studies. Alpha rhythm changes during the Pilates training over the different regions and the whole brain were mainly analyzed, including power spectral density and global synchronization index (GSI. It was found that the neural network of the brain was more active, and the synchronization strength reduced in the frontal and temporal regions due to the Pilates training. These results supported that the Pilates training is very beneficial for improving brain function or intelligence. These findings maybe give us some line evidence to suggest that the Pilates training is very helpful for the intervention of brain degenerative diseases and cogitative dysfunction rehabilitation.

  15. Alpha Radiation Effects on Silicon Oxynitride Waveguides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morichetti, Francesco; Grillanda, Stefano; Manandhar, Sandeep; Shutthanandan, Vaithiyalingam; Kimerling, Lionel; Melloni, Andrea; Agarwal, Anuradha M.

    2016-09-21

    Photonic technologies are today of great interest for use in harsh environments, such as outer space, where they can potentially replace current communication systems based on radiofrequency components. However, very much alike to electronic devices, the behavior of optical materials and circuits can be strongly altered by high-energy and high-dose ionizing radiations. Here, we investigate the effects of alpha () radiation with MeV-range energy on silicon oxynitride (SiON) optical waveguides. Irradiation with a dose of 5×1015 cm-2 increases the refractive index of the SiON core by nearly 10-2, twice as much that of the surrounding silica cladding, leading to a significant increase of the refractive index contrast of the waveguide. The higher mode confinement induced by -radiation reduces the loss of tightly bent waveguides. We show that this increases the quality factor of microring resonators by 20%, with values larger than 105 after irradiation.

  16. Effect of polyols on fungal alpha-amylase thermostability

    OpenAIRE

    Graber, Marianne; Combes, Didier

    1989-01-01

    International audience; The influence of different polyols (ethylene glycol, glycerol, erythritol, xylitol, and sorbitol) on the thermostability of fungal alpha-amylase at 60°C has been studied. The results obtained show a stabilizing effect in the presence of polyols. In the case of 4 m sorbitol solution, the enzyme half-life is 2000-fold longer than in pure water. These polyols have been found as competitive inhibitors for alpha-amylase andtheir stabilizing effect has been correlated to the...

  17. Effect of alpha1-blockers on stentless ureteroscopic lithotripsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianguo Zhu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the clinical efficiency of alpha1-adrenergic antagonists on stentless ureteroscopic lithotripsy treating uncomplicated lower ureteral stones. Materials and Methods From January 2007 to January 2013, 84 patients who have uncomplicated lower ureteral stones treated by ureteroscopic intracorporeal lithotripsy with the holmium laser were analyzed. The patients were divided into two groups, group A (44 patients received indwelled double-J stents and group B (40 patients were treated by alpha1-adrenergic antagonists without stents. All cases of group B were treated with alpha1 blocker for 1 week. Results The mean operative time of group A was significantly longer than group B. The incidences of hematuria, flank/abdominal pain, frequency/urgency after surgery were statistically different between both groups. The stone-free rate of each group was 100%. Conclusions The effect of alpha1-adrenergic antagonists is more significant than indwelling stent after ureteroscopic lithotripsy in treating uncomplicated lower ureteral stones.

  18. Effective liquid drop description for alpha decay of atomic nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavares, O.A.P.; Duarte, S.B. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rodriguez, O.; Guzman, F. [Instituto Superior de Ciencia y Tecnologia Nuclear (ISCTN), La Habana (Cuba); Goncalves, M. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Garcia, F. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    1998-06-01

    Alpha decay half-lives are presented in the framework of an effective liquid drop model for different combination of mass transfer descriptions and inertia coefficients. Calculated half-life-values for ground-state to ground-state favoured alpha transitions are compared with available, updated experimental data. Results have shown that the present model is very suitable to treat the alpha decay process on equal foot as cluster radioactivity and cold fission processes. Better agreement with the data is found when the sub-set of even-even alpha emitters are considered in the calculation. (author) 44 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.; e-mail: telo at ird.gov.br

  19. Alpha-effect dynamos with zero kinetic helicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rädler, Karl-Heinz; Brandenburg, Axel

    2008-02-01

    A simple explicit example of a Roberts-type dynamo is given in which the alpha effect of mean-field electrodynamics exists in spite of pointwise vanishing kinetic helicity of the fluid flow. In this way, it is shown that alpha-effect dynamos do not necessarily require nonzero kinetic helicity. A mean-field theory of Roberts-type dynamos is established within the framework of the second-order correlation approximation. In addition, numerical solutions of the original dynamo equations are given that are independent of any approximation of that kind. Both theory and numerical results demonstrate the possibility of dynamo action in the absence of kinetic helicity.

  20. Inhibitory effect of alpha-mangostin on Candida biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaomongkolgit, Ruchadaporn; Jamdee, Kusuma

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the inhibitory effect of alpha-mangostin on Candida biofilms. Candida species including Candida albicans, Candida krusei, Candida tropicalis, and Candida glabrata were tested. Candida biofilms were formed in flat-bottomed 96-well microtiter plates. The metabolic activity of cells within biofilms was quantified using the XTT assay. The results demonstrated that alpha-mangostin showed a significant anti-biofilm effect on both developing biofilms and preformed biofilms of Candida species. It may be concluded that alpha-mangostin could be an anti-biofilm agent against Candida species. Further in vivo investigations are needed to uncover the therapeutic values of this medicinal plant.

  1. The alpha effectiveness of the dating ESR signal in barite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyoda, Shin; Sato, Fumihiro; Nishido, Hirotsugu; Kayama, Masahiro; Ishibashi, Jun-Ichiro

    2012-01-01

    The alpha effectiveness was investigated for an ESR signal due to SO 3 − in barite by comparing the dose responses of the signal for gamma irradiation and for He ion implantation with an energy of 4 MeV. The value was obtained to be 0.043 ± 0.018 for samples from Morocco and to be 0.0089 ± 0.0006 for Kanehira Mine. The dose response for He ion implantation for the latter sample better fits to a correlation line but the signal shape changes with gamma ray dose, indicating contribution from an unknown radiation sensitive signal, while the former sample shows the same signal shapes. A value of 0.043 ± 0.018 is adopted as the alpha effectiveness of SO 3 − signal in barite, which is used for ESR dating of submarine hydrothermal activity. - Highlights: ► The alpha effectiveness is one of the essential factors in ESR dating. ► The alpha effectiveness value was determined for barite. ► The dose responses for gamma and for He ion implantation were compared. ► A sample shows signal shape change by gamma ray irradiation.

  2. The Effects of Curcumin on Alpha Amylase in Diabetics Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Najafian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background One of the therapeutic approaches to lower postprandial blood glucose is to inhibition breakdown of starch by inhibiting carbohydrate hydrolysis enzymes. Alpha-amylase catalyzes the hydrolysis of α-(1, 4-D-glycosidic linkages of starch and other glucose polymers. Inhibitors of this enzyme could be used in the treatment of diabetes. Objectives Based on this purpose we examined the effect of curcumin on alpha amylase and its IC50 and Ki. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, 60 rats were divided into two major groups, normal and diabetic, and each was subsequently divided into five subgroups. One of them as control group that received grape seed oil and four of them as experimental groups that received curcumin at 10, 20, 40 and 80 mg/kg (each group include six rats. Blood glucose levels were measured every three days. Serum insulin levels were measured three times, in the first day, middle and end of the experimental period. The activity of serum alpha amylase was measured in the end of experimental period. Results The results showed that curcumin is a competitive inhibitor for alpha amylase with IC50 = 51.32 µM and Ki = 20.17 µM. In both diabetic and normal groups in all doses nearly dose dependent manner reduced blood glucose and insulin levels. In both diabetic and normal groups decreased levels of serum alpha amylase activity. Conclusions It may be concluded that curcumin is a potent inhibitor of alpha amylase and has beneficial effects in the treatment of overweight and diabetes

  3. Effect of alpha particles on bacteriophage T4Br(+)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonteva, G.A.; Akoev, I.G.; Grigorev, A.E.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of heavy particle radiation, which is believed to be responsible for the high relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of space hadrons, on bacteriophages are investigated. Dry film cultures of bacteriophage T4 were irradiated with 5.3 MeV Po-210 alpha particles to doses from 5 to 60 Gray, and compared with cultures irradiated by Co-60 gamma radiation. Examination of the exponential dose-response curves for bacteriophage survival indicates an RBE of 4.68 for the alpha particles. The r-mutation frequency per 10,000 surviving phages is found to peak at 7.1 at doses between 65 and 85 Gray for gamma radiation, however it declines steadily from a level of 10.2 per 10,000 survivors with increasing dose of alpha radiation. Comparison of the mutation frequencies at the same levels of lethality and the spectra of mutations produced by the two types of radiation indicates alpha and gamma radiation to differ as well in the mechanisms of mutation production. It is concluded that the observed high RBE of space hadrons cannot be explained by the presence of high-energy particles in the secondary radiation. 13 references

  4. Self-irradiation damage to the local structure of plutonium and plutonium intermetallics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booth, C. H.; Jiang Yu; Medling, S. A. [Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Wang, D. L. [Nuclear Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Costello, A. L.; Schwartz, D. S.; Mitchell, J. N.; Tobash, P. H. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Bauer, E. D. [Materials Physics and Applications Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); McCall, S. K.; Wall, M. A.; Allen, P. G. [Condensed Matter and Materials Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2013-03-07

    The effect of self-irradiation damage on the local structure of {delta}-Pu, PuAl{sub 2}, PuGa{sub 3}, and other Pu intermetallics has been determined for samples stored at room temperature using the extended x-ray absorption fine-structure (EXAFS) technique. These measurements indicate that the intermetallic samples damage at a similar rate as indicated in previous studies of PuCoGa{sub 5}. In contrast, {delta}-Pu data indicate a much slower damage accumulation rate. To explore the effect of storage temperature and possible room temperature annealing effects, we also collected EXAFS data on a {delta}-Pu sample that was held at less than 32 K for a two month period. This sample damaged much more quickly. In addition, the measurable damage was annealed out at above only 135 K. Data from samples of {delta}-Pu with different Ga concentrations and results on all samples collected from different absorption edges are also reported. These results are discussed in terms of the vibrational properties of the materials and the role of Ga in {delta}-Pu as a network former.

  5. Simulation of Self-Irradiation of High-Sodium Content Nuclear Waste Glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pankov, Alexey S.; Ojovan, Michael I.; Batyukhnova, Olga G.; Lee, William E.

    2007-01-01

    Alkali-borosilicate glasses are widely used in nuclear industry as a matrix for immobilisation of hazardous radioactive wastes. Durability or corrosion resistance of these glasses is one of key parameters in waste storage and disposal safety. It is influenced by many factors such as composition of glass and surrounding media, temperature, time and so on. As these glasses contain radioactive elements most of their properties including corrosion resistance are also impacted by self-irradiation. The effect of external gamma-irradiation on the short-term (up to 27 days) dissolution of waste borosilicate glasses at moderate temperatures (30 deg. to 60 deg. C) was studied. The glasses studied were Magnox Waste glass used for immobilisation of HLW in UK, and K-26 glass used in Russia for ILW immobilisation. Glass samples were irradiated under γ-source (Co-60) up to doses 1 and 11 MGy. Normalised rates of elemental release and activation energy of release were measured for Na, Li, Ca, Mg, B, Si and Mo before and after irradiation. Irradiation up to 1 MGy results in increase of leaching rate of almost all elements from both MW and K-26 with the exception of Na release from MW glass. Further irradiation up to a dose of 11 MGy leads to the decrease of elemental release rates to nearly initial value. Another effect of irradiation is increase of activation energies of elemental release. (authors)

  6. The effect of a metalloproteinase inhibitor (GI5402) on tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and TNF-alpha receptors during human endotoxemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekkers, P. E.; Lauw, F. N.; ten Hove, T.; te Velde, A. A.; Lumley, P.; Becherer, D.; van Deventer, S. J.; van der Poll, T.

    1999-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is released from the cell surface by cleavage of pro-TNF-alpha by metalloproteinases (MPs). In cell cultures, inhibition of MPs has been found not only to reduce the release of TNF-alpha, but also to enhance the surface expression of TNF-alpha and TNF-alpha

  7. Effect of Alpha Linolenic Acid Supplementation on Serum Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA): Results from the Alpha Omega Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, I.A.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Klaasen, V.M.; Smit, L.A.; Giltay, E.J.; de Goede, G.J.; Heijboer, A.C.; Kromhout, D.; Katan, M.B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Alpha linolenic acid (ALA) is the major omega-3 fatty acid in the diet. Evidence on health effects of ALA is not conclusive, but some observational studies found an increased risk of prostate cancer with higher intake of ALA. We examined the effect of ALA supplementation on serum

  8. Effect of alpha linolenic acid supplementation on serum prostate specific antigen (PSA): results from the alpha omega trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Ingeborg A.; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Klaasen, Veronique M.; Smit, Liesbeth A.; Giltay, Erik J.; de Goede, Janette; Heijboer, Annemieke C.; Kromhout, Daan; Katan, Martijn B.

    2013-01-01

    Alpha linolenic acid (ALA) is the major omega-3 fatty acid in the diet. Evidence on health effects of ALA is not conclusive, but some observational studies found an increased risk of prostate cancer with higher intake of ALA. We examined the effect of ALA supplementation on serum concentrations of

  9. [Effects of thymosin alpha-1 on radiation-induced pneumonitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Rong; Sun, Yu; Cai, Qing; Li, Yongheng; Zhu, Guangying

    2011-03-01

    Radiation-induced lung injure is one of the major factors of limitation in radiotherapy for lung cancer. Whether the use of thymosin and radiotherapy simultaneously would increase the radiation-induced lung injure is unclear. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of thymosin alpha-1 on radiation induced pneumonitis in mice. Three groups of mice, control (C), radiation alone (RT), thymosin alpha-1 plus radiation (T+RT), were entered into the study. The weight and mortality of mice, pleural effusion, quantity of protein and cell count in the bronchoalvealar lavage (BAL) and pulmonary fibrosis score were evaluated as the outcome measures. The mortality ratio of the T+RT and RT groups were 3/14, 2/10, respectively. The time of death were all in the 23-24 weeks after radiotherapy. There was no pleural effusion in the T+RT group other than 2/2 occurred in RT group. The quantity of protein, cell number and neutrophil number in the BAL and lung coefficient in mice of T+RT group were remarkably lower than that of RT group, but the BALF macrophages number was remarkably higher than that in RT group in the 8 weeks. The quantity of protein, cell number, neutrophil number and macrophages number in the BAL, lung coefficient, the scores of lung fibrosis in mice of T+RT group were significantly lower than that of RT group in the 24 weeks. All test data were lowest in mice of C group. And there was no obvious pulmonary fibrosis in the mice of C group. Thymosin alpha-1 could relieve radiation-induced acute and late pulmonary injuries.

  10. Effects of Thymosin Alpha-1 on Radiation-induced Pneumonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong YU

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Radiation-induced lung injure is one of the major factors of limitation in radiotherapy for lung cancer. Whether the use of thymosin and radiotherapy simultaneously would increase the radiationinduced lung injure is unclear. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of thymosin alpha-1 on radiation induced pneumonitis in mice. Methods Three groups of mice, control (C, radiation alone (RT, thymosin alpha-1 plus radiation (T+RT, were entered into the study. The weight and mortality of mice, pleural effusion, quantity of protein and cell count in the bronchoalvealar lavage (BAL and pulmonary fibrosis score were evaluated as the outcome measures. Results The mortality ratio of the T+RT and RT groups were 3/14, 2/10, respectively. The time of death were all in the 23-24 weeks after radiotherapy. There was no pleural effusion in the T+RT group other than 2/2 occured in RT group. The quantity of protein, cell number and neutrophil number in the BAL and lung coefficient in mice of T+RT group were remarkably lower than that of RT group, but the BALF macrophages number was remarkably higher than that in RT group in the 8 weeks. The quantity of protein, cell number, neutrophil number and macrophages number in the BAL, lung coefficient, the scores of lung fibrosis in mice of T+RT group were significantly lower than that of RT group in the 24 weeks. All test data were lowest in mice of C group. And there was no obvious pulmonary fibrosis in the mice of C group. Conclusion Thymosin alpha-1 could relieve radiation-induced acute and late pulmonary injuries.

  11. The effects of $\\alpha$-lactalbumin and whey protein concentrate on $\\alpha$-amino acids, calcium and phosphorus levels in blood and gastrointestinal tract of rats

    OpenAIRE

    Pantako, Odile; Amiot, Jean

    2001-01-01

    International audience; The effects of two dietary proteins on $\\alpha$-amino acids, calcium and phosphorus concentrations in plasma, stomach and intestine were investigated in rats trained to consume, in a single two-hour daily meal, diets containing $\\alpha$-lactalbumin ($\\alpha$-la) or whey protein concentrate (WPC) for two weeks. The results indicated that the concentrations of calcium and phosphorus in the gastrointestinal tract and that of $\\alpha$-amino acids in portal vein were not si...

  12. Risk estimates for the health effects of alpha radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, D.C.; McNeill, K.G.

    1981-09-01

    This report provides risk estimates for various health effects of alpha radiation. Human and animal data have been used to characterize the shapes of dose-response relations and the effects of various modifying factors, but quantitative risk estimates are based solely on human data: for lung cancer, on miners in the Colorado plateau, Czechoslovakia, Sweden, Ontario and Newfoundland; for bone and head cancers, on radium dial painters and radium-injected patients. Slopes of dose-response relations for lung cancer show a tendency to decrease with increasing dose. Linear extrapolation is unlikely to underestimate the excess risk at low doses by more than a factor of l.5. Under the linear cell-killing model, our best estimate

  13. Influence of Magnolol on the bystander effect induced by alpha-particle irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, T.P.W.; Law, Y.L. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Tse, A.K.W.; Fong, W.F. [Research and Development Division, School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong Baptist University, Baptist University Road, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Yu, K.N. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong)], E-mail: peter.yu@cityu.edu.hk

    2010-04-15

    In this work, the influence of Magnolol on the bystander effect in alpha-particle irradiated Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells was examined. The bystander effect was studied through medium transfer experiments. Cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay was performed to quantify the chromosome damage induced by alpha-particle irradiation. Our results showed that the alpha-particle induced micronuclei (MN) frequencies were suppressed with the presence of Magnolol.

  14. Effect of alpha-tocopherol and tocopherol succinate on lipid peroxidation in equine spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Juliana; Ball, Barry A

    2005-07-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effect of alpha-tocopherol and its ester, alpha tocopherol succinate, on lipid peroxidation and motility of equine spermatozoa. In experiment one, spermatozoa were incubated with dl-alpha-tocopherol (5, 25, 100 or 500 microM), DL-alpha tocopherol succinate (5, 25, 100 or 500 microM) or vehicle (0.5% ethanol) at 38 degrees C, and sperm motility was determined at 30, 60 and 120 min. In experiment two, spermatozoa loaded with the lipophilic probe, C11BODIPY(581/591), were incubated with dl-alpha-tocopherol (50 and 100 microM), DL-alpha-tocopherol succinate (50 and 100 microM) or ethanol (0.5%) and with the promoters cumene hydroperoxide, Fe2SO4, and ascorbate at 38 degrees C in 5% CO2. Lipid peroxidation was determined by changes in fluorescence of C11BODIPY(581/591), and motility was determined by CASA at 0, 15, 30 and 60 min. In experiment three, spermatozoa loaded with C11BODIPY(581/591) were incubated with dl-alpha-tocopherol (5, 25, 100 or 500 microM), DL-alpha-tocopherol succinate (5, 25, 100 or 500 microM) or ethanol (0.5%) at 38 degrees C and then submitted to a 4-hour incubation at room temperature. Motility and lipid peroxidation were determined at 1 and 4 h. In experiment four, the effect of DL alpha tocopherol (5, 25 or 500 microM), DL-alpha-tocopherol succinate (5, 25 or 500 microM) or ethanol (0.5%) on lipid peroxidation and motility were evaluated during storage at 5 degrees C in a skim-milk based extender. Although dl-alpha-tocopherol succinate appeared more effective than DL-alpha-tocopherol in preventing lipid peroxidation during short-term incubations, the succinate ester suppressed sperm motility compared to dl-alpha-tocopherol alone.

  15. Effects of alpha-decay on spent fuel corrosion behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiss, T.; Rondinella, V.V.; Cobos, J.; Wegen, D.H.; Amme, M.; Ronchi, C.

    2004-01-01

    An overview of results in the area of spent fuel characterization as nuclear waste is presented. These studies are focused on primary aspects of spent fuel corrosion, by considering different fuel compositions and burn ups, as well as a wide set of environmental conditions. The key parameter is the storage time of the fuel e.g. in view of spent fuel retrieval or in view of its final disposal. To extrapolate data obtainable from a laboratory-acceptable timescale to those expected after storage periods of interest have elapsed (amounting in the extreme case to geological ages) is a tough challenge. Emphasis is put on key aspects of fuel corrosion related to fuel properties at a given age and environmental conditions expected in the repository: e.g. the fuel activity (radiolysis effects), the effects of helium build-up and of groundwater composition. A wide range of techniques, from traditional leaching experiments to advanced electrochemistry, and of materials, including spent fuel with different compositions/burnups and analogues like the so-called alpha-doped UO 2 , are employed for these studies. The results confirm the safety of European underground repository concepts. (authors)

  16. [Drug therapy of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Is combination therapy with 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors and alpha-receptor blockers effective?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horninger, W; Bartsch, G

    2002-09-01

    5 alpha-reductase inhibitors and alpha 1-receptor blockers are the two main drug therapies used in the management of symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia. As alpha-reductase inhibitors and alpha 1-receptor blockers act through different mechanisms, a combination of the two agents might be promising. The potential benefits of combination therapy with selective alpha 1-receptor blockers and finasteride, a 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor, are currently being evaluated in several placebo-controlled prospective multicenter studies (VA Study, ALFIN Study, PREDICT Study, and MTOPS Study). The data from these studies available so far demonstrate a statistically significant benefit for the study groups receiving alpha 1-receptor blockers and combination therapy vs placebo and finasteride monotherapy in terms of symptom scores and peak urine flow rates. However, none of the studies yielded a statistically significant advantage of combination therapy over treatment with alpha 1-receptor blockers. These results should be interpreted with reference to the prostatic volume, which in the studies mentioned above was relatively low. From the results of all these studies, it can be concluded that in symptomatic patients with prostate volumes of up to 40-45 ml a combination of 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors with alpha 1-receptor blockers does not appear to provide any benefit. Yet, it can be assumed that in symptomatic patients with prostate volumes of more than 60 ml combination therapy may indeed prove more effective.

  17. Effect of plant growth regulators on production of alpha-linolenic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sujana Kokkiligadda

    2017-10-05

    Oct 5, 2017 ... fatty acid–alpha-linolenic acid and grows fast, was con- sidered to study the effect of plant growth regulators on the yield of alpha-linolenic acid .... softener agents, dispersing agents and food packaging. It is also used to manufacture pharmaceuticals as nutritional supplements and as an emollient and ...

  18. The anti-aromatase effect of progesterone and of its natural metabolites 20alpha- and 5alpha-dihydroprogesterone in the MCF-7aro breast cancer cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualini, J R; Chetrite, G

    2008-01-01

    Progesterone is metabolized in the normal breast mainly into 4-ene-pregnenes (e.g. 20alpha-dihydroprogesterone, 20alphaDHP) but, in contrast, in breast cancer tissue the 5alpha-dihydropregnanes (e.g. 5alpha-dihydroprogesterone, 5alphaDHP) are prevalent. In the present study the effect of progesterone and its main metabolites 20alphaDHP and 5alphaDHP on the aromatase activity in a stable aromatase-expressing estrogen receptor-positive human breast cancer cell line, MCF-7aro, was explored. The MCF-7aro cells were stripped of endogenous steroids and incubated with physiological concentrations of [3H]-testosterone ([3H]-testos: 5 x 10(-9)M) alone or in the presence of progesterone, 20alphaDHP or 5alphaDHP (5 x 10(-6) or 5 x 10(-8)M) for 24 h at 37 degrees C. The cellular radioactivity uptake was determined in the ethanolic supernatant and the DNA content in the remaining pellet. [3H]-Estradiol (E2), [3H]-estrone (E1) and [3H]-testos were characterized by thin layer chromatography and quantified using the corresponding standard. Aromatase activity was present at a high level in the MCF-7aro cells after incubation with [3H]-testos when the concentration of [3H]-E2 was 3.70 pmol/mg DNA; 20alphaDHP at concentrations of 5 x 10(-6)M or 5 x 10(-8)M significantly inhibited this conversion by 50.3% and 36.5%, respectively. No significant effect was found with the metabolite 5alphaDHP or the parent hormone, progesterone. The MCF-7aro cell line shows high detectable aromatase activity. The present data indicate that the progesterone metabolite 20alphaDHP, found mainly in normal breast tissue, can act as an anti-aromatase agent.

  19. New and effective multi-element alpha-hematite systems for reduction of trichloroethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorpade, Praveen A; Kim, Jung-Hwan; Choi, Won-Ho; Park, Joo-Yang

    2014-01-01

    The reactivity of different alpha-hematite (alpha-Fe203) systems for dechlorination of trichloroethylene (TCE) in the presence of Fe(II) and CaO was investigated. Initially different experiments were conducted to investigate the reactivity of pure and doped alpha-Fe203. It was found that the presence of elements such as Si, Cu, and Mn in alpha-Fe203 had a significant effect on TCE reduction potential of alpha-Fe203; however, the reduction potential was less than that of alpha-Fe203 (Bayferrox- 110 M, used in a previous study). Further studies were carried out and alpha-Fe203 was synthesized in a manner similar to that of Bayferrox-110 M. This synthetic alpha-Fe203 showed improved reactivity and was found to follow pseudo-first-order kinetics when used in TCE reduction experiments. The preliminary end products analysis showed that TCE degradation was probably via beta-elimination pathway. Detailed investigations ofa-Fe203 systems were carried out using X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, and scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive spectrometry. The results demonstrated that the TCE reduction capacity of alpha-Fe203 was strongly dependent on the other elements present in iron powder used to synthesize alpha-Fe203. It was suspected that these multi-elements in alpha-Fe203 helped to improve its conduction property. Current findings suggest that alpha-Fe203 not in the pure but combined with other elements could be thought as a potential system for TCE reduction.

  20. Role of the alpha-adrenergic blocking effect in the acute hypotensive effect of beta-adrenergic blocking drugs with alpha-blocking activities in conscious SHR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, H; Nakazawa, M; Takeda, K; Imai, S

    1985-12-01

    Acute hypotensive effects and the mechanisms of three beta-adrenergic blocking drugs with alpha-blocking activity were studied in comparison with those of prazosin, propranolol and hydralazine in the conscious spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). Prazosin lowered the blood pressure dose-dependently and inhibited the pressor response to phenylephrine. Three beta-adrenergic blocking drugs with alpha-blocking activity, labetalol (30 mg/kg), arotinolol (100 mg/kg) and nipradilol (100 mg/kg) also lowered the blood pressure to the same extent as prazosin (0.3 mg/kg), but the inhibition of the pressor response to phenylephrine produced by them was disproportionately slight. Propranolol (100 mg/kg) did not lower the blood pressure. These results suggest that the acute hypotensive effects of three beta-adrenergic blocking drugs with alpha-blocking activity were attributable only partially to the alpha-adrenergic blocking effect; a mechanism or mechanisms other than the alpha-adrenergic blocking effect must be invoked to explain the acute hypotensive effect produced by lower doses of these drugs in the conscious SHR.

  1. Effect of tumor necrosis factor-alpha infusion on the incretin effect in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Signe Tellerup; Lehrskov-Schmidt, Louise; Krogh-Madsen, Rikke

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with peripheral insulin resistance, impaired incretin effect, and increased plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). Whereas TNF-α infusion at a dose that induces systemic inflammation in healthy volunteers has been demonstrated to induce...

  2. The acute effects of TNF-alpha on the isolated perfused rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shattuck, K E; Grinnell, C D; Goldman, A S; Rassin, D K

    1996-02-01

    TNF-alpha mediates the hepatic response to sepsis by mechanisms which are not well understood. TNF-alpha is known to stimulate the hepatocellular uptake of specific amino acids in vivo; however, little is known about the direct effects of TNF-alpha on hepatic amino acid or glutathione homeostasis, which is a potential factor in the acute hepatic response to sepsis. Using the isolated perfused rat liver, we characterized the effects of TNF-alpha on the secretion of amino acids and glutathione into bile and perfusate. Livers taken from adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were perfused with TNF-alpha at a dose of 1 or 2 micrograms. Bile and perfusate were collected for the quantitation of amino acid and glutathione concentrations. Administration of 2 micrograms TNF-alpha resulted in significant increases in biliary and perfusate concentrations of branched chain, gluconeogenic, and total amino acids. TNF-alpha was also associated with dose-related increases in oxygen uptake, and greater biliary concentrations of glutathione. TNF-alpha has direct effects upon hepatic amino acid metabolism, which represent some of the early events involved in the mechanism of response to sepsis.

  3. Effects of Alpha- Tocopherol on the Velocity of Low Density Lipoprotein Oxidation by Cupric Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Ghaffari

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effect of different concentrations of alpha-tocopherol on in vitro cupric ions induced oxidation of low density lipoproteins (LDL. Human native LDL (50 µg protein/ml oxidation was induced by 10 µmol/L of CuSO4. Conjugated dienes were measured spectrophotometrically for up to 440 minutes. The length of the lag phase (Tlag, maximum velocity of the reaction (Vmax and the maximum amount of generated dienes were obtained from kinetic data. Alpha-tocopherol increased Tlag and decreased Vmax with a dependence upon concentration (0-100 µmol/L. There was no difference between the Dmax obtained with cupric ions alone or in the presence of the various concentrations of alpha-tocopherol. The results suggest that alpha-tocopherol may decrease free radicals presence in LDL and thus decrease velocity of LDL oxidation by cupric ions. This mechanism may be a reason for alpha-tocopherol effect in ameliorating atherosclerosis.

  4. Effects of tamsulosin metabolites at alpha-1 adrenoceptor subtypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taguchi, K.; Saitoh, M.; Sato, S.; Asano, M.; Michel, M. C.

    1997-01-01

    We have investigated the affinity and selectivity of tamsulosin and its metabolites, M1, M2, M3, M4 and AM1, at the tissue and the cloned alpha-1 adrenoceptor subtypes in the radioligand binding and the functional studies. In the radioligand binding studies, the compounds competed for [3H]prazosin

  5. Effects of alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonists on male sexual function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Marleen M.; de La Rosette, Jean J. M. C. H.; Michel, Martin C.

    2006-01-01

    alpha(1)-Adrenoceptor antagonists such as alfuzosin, doxazosin, tamsulosin and terazosin are first-line agents for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), but are only second-line agents (doxazosin and terazosin only) for the treatment of

  6. Requirement for protein kinase R in interleukin-1alpha-stimulated effects in cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Christine L; Hofbauer, Maria; Towle, Christine A

    2007-12-03

    Interleukin-1 (IL-1) has pleiotropic effects in cartilage. The interferon-induced, double stranded RNA-activated protein kinase PKR that phosphorylates eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2) alpha has been implicated in cytokine effects in chondrocytes. A compound was recently identified that potently suppresses PKR autophosphorylation (IC50 approximately 200 etaM) and partially restores PKR-inhibited translation in a cell-free system with significant effect in the nanomolar range. The objectives of this study were to exploit this potent PKR inhibitor to assess whether PKR kinase activity is required for catabolic and proinflammatory effects of IL-1alpha in cartilage and to determine whether IL-1alpha causes an increase in eIF2alpha phosphorylation that is antagonized by the PKR inhibitor. Cartilage explants were incubated with the PKR inhibitor and IL-1alpha. Culture media were assessed for sulfated glycosaminoglycan as an indicator of proteoglycan degradation and for prostaglandin E(2). Cartilage extracts were analyzed by Western blot for cyclooxygenase-2 and phosphorylated signaling molecules. Nanomolar concentrations of the PKR inhibitor suppressed proteoglycan degradation and cyclooxygenase-2 accumulation in IL-1alpha-activated cartilage. The PKR inhibitor stimulated or inhibited PGE(2) production with a biphasic dose response relationship. IL-1alpha increased the phosphorylation of both PKR and eIF2alpha, and nanomolar concentrations of PKR inhibitor suppressed the IL-1alpha-induced changes in phosphorylation. The results strongly support PKR involvement in pathways activated by IL-1alpha in chondrocytes.

  7. Effect of dietary alpha-tocopherol supplementation and gamma-irradiation on alpha-tocopherol retention and lipid oxidation in cooked minced chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvin, K.; Morrissey, P.A.; Buckley, D.J.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of dietary alpha-tocopherol supplementation and gamma-irradiation on alpha-tocopherol retention and lipid oxidation in cooked minced chicken during refrigerated storage were studied. Minced breast and thigh meat from broilers fed diets supplemented with 100, 200 or 400 mg alpha-tocopheryl acetate/kg feed was irradiated at 2.5 or 4.0 kGy. Cooked irradiated and unirradiated meat was stored at 4 degrees C for 5 days. alpha-Tocopherol concentrations increased with increasing dietary supplementation. Concentrations decreased during storage, but retention was not affected by irradiation. Lipid stability was determined by measuring the formation of thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances (TBARS) and cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) during storage. TBARS and COPs increased during storage and were reduced by increasing levels of dietary alpha-tocopheryl acetate supplementation. Irradiation accelerated TBARS formation during storage, but this was prevented by supplementation with 200 mg alpha-tocopheryl acetate/kg feed. Irradiation tended to increase COPs during storage, although no consistent effects were observed. In general supplementation with over 400 mg alpha-tocopheryl acetate/kg feed may be required to control cholesterol oxidation in minced chicken. The results suggest that, overall, irradiation had little effect on lipid stability in alpha-tocopherol-supplemented meat following cooking and storage

  8. The effect of beta-adrenoceptor antagonists on the alpha-adrenoceptor blockade produced by phenoxybenzamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaranarayanan, A; Sharma, P L

    1977-05-01

    The effect of beta-adrenoceptor antagonists on the irreversible alpha-adrenoceptor blockade produced by phenoxybenzamine was studied in dogs. The pressor effects of adrenaline were revived after the inhibition by the alpha-receptor block by (+/-) propranolol, (-) INPEA, (+/-) MJ 1999 and (+/-) butoxamine. The enantiomers (+) propranolol and (+) INPEA were ineffective in this regard. (+/-) Practolol also did not revive the pressor effect of the amines. The alpha-receptor mediated effect of the amines, in the nictitating membrana-receptor blockade. It is concluded that (1) blockade of the peripheral (beta-2) receptors is essential for the revival of the pressor effects, (2) local anesthetic effect of the beta-antagonists is not involved. Further work using a series of doses of agonists and antagonists of alpha-and beta-receptors is indicated to clarify the nature of this drug-interaction.

  9. In vitro effect of zearalenone and alpha-zearalenol on boar sperm characteristics and acrosome reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakmakidis, I A; Lymberopoulos, A G; Alexopoulos, C; Boscos, C M; Kyriakis, S C

    2006-10-01

    This study was conducted to determine the in vitro effects of three different concentrations (125, 187.5 and 250 microM in diluted semen) of zearalenone (zen) and alpha-zearalenol (alpha-zen) on boar sperm. Semen parameters such as motility, viability and spontaneous acrosome reaction were evaluated. From the results it was shown that both zen and alpha-zen affected the sperm characteristics significantly (p < 0.05), except for alpha-zen at the low concentration which did not decrease the percentage of live reacted spermatozoa significantly. In conclusion, zen and alpha-zen are directly toxic when they affect boar semen in vitro and consequently decrease the fertilization ability of the sperm. The higher the concentration of mycotoxin tested, the greater the decline of sperm parameters noticed. The influence of mycotoxins was found to be time- and dose-dependent.

  10. Effects of mindfulness meditation training on anticipatory alpha modulation in primary somatosensory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Catherine E; Jones, Stephanie R; Wan, Qian; Pritchett, Dominique L; Wasserman, Rachel H; Wexler, Anna; Villanueva, Joel J; Shaw, Jessica R; Lazar, Sara W; Kaptchuk, Ted J; Littenberg, Ronnie; Hämäläinen, Matti S; Moore, Christopher I

    2011-05-30

    During selective attention, ∼7-14 Hz alpha rhythms are modulated in early sensory cortices, suggesting a mechanistic role for these dynamics in perception. Here, we investigated whether alpha modulation can be enhanced by "mindfulness" meditation (MM), a program training practitioners in sustained attention to body and breath-related sensations. We hypothesized that participants in the MM group would exhibit enhanced alpha power modulation in a localized representation in the primary somatosensory neocortex in response to a cue, as compared to participants in the control group. Healthy subjects were randomized to 8-weeks of MM training or a control group. Using magnetoencephalographic (MEG) recording of the SI finger representation, we found meditators demonstrated enhanced alpha power modulation in response to a cue. This finding is the first to show enhanced local alpha modulation following sustained attentional training, and implicates this form of enhanced dynamic neural regulation in the behavioral effects of meditative practice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Adrenoceptor blocking effects of arotinolol, a new combined alpha- and beta-adrenoceptor blocking agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagishi, A; Nakahara, H; Hara, Y

    1984-10-01

    In isolated tissues and anesthetized animals, beta- and alpha-adrenoceptor blocking properties of arotinolol were studied in comparison with those of other typical adrenoceptor antagonists. The following order of beta-adrenoceptor blocking activities were obtained in isolated tissues: arotinolol = pindolol greater than propranolol = oxprenolol = alprenolol greater than or equal to labetalol for beta 1-adrenoceptors (guinea-pig right atrium) and pindolol = oxprenolol = arotinolol greater than propranolol greater than labetalol for beta 2-adrenoceptors (guinea-pig trachea). In anesthetized cats, arotinolol was about 9 and 25 times more potent than propranolol, about 30 and 100 times more potent than labetalol in blocking beta 1- and beta 2-adrenoceptors, respectively. Furthermore arotinolol showed a competitive antagonistic effect on phenylephrine-induced contraction of isolated rat aortic strips. The relative order of alpha 1-adrenoceptor blocking potencies was as follows: prazosin greater than phentolamine greater than labetalol greater than arotinolol = yohimbine. Presynaptic alpha 2-adrenoceptor blocking action of arotinolol was also assessed in isolated rat vas deferens and arotinolol was revealed to be a much weaker presynaptic alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist. In anesthetized rats arotinolol was 4-5 times less potent than labetalol and about 26 times less potent than phentolamine in blocking alpha 1-adrenoceptors. Thus, as for the selectivity for 2 subtypes of alpha-adrenoceptors, arotinolol showed a selectivity for alpha 1-adrenoceptors over presynaptic alpha 2-adrenoceptors.

  12. Protective effect of alpha-mangostin against oxidative stress induced-retinal cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yuan; Su, Tu; Qiu, Xiaorong; Mao, Pingan; Xu, Yidan; Hu, Zizhong; Zhang, Yi; Zheng, Xinhua; Xie, Ping; Liu, Qinghuai

    2016-02-18

    It is known that oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) pathogenesis. Alpha-mangostin is the main xanthone purified from mangosteen known as anti-oxidative properties. The aim of the study was to test the protective effect of alpha-mangostin against oxidative stress both in retina of light-damaged mice model and in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-stressed RPE cells. We observed that alpha-mangostin significantly inhibited light-induced degeneration of photoreceptors and 200 μM H2O2-induced apoptosis of RPE cells. 200 μM H2O2-induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and light-induced generation of malondialdehyde (MDA) were suppressed by alpha-mangostin. Alpha-mangostin stimulation resulted in an increase of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity and glutathione (GSH) content both in vivo and vitro. Furthermore, the mechanism of retinal protection against oxidative stress by alpha-mangostin involves accumulation and the nuclear translocation of the NF-E2-related factor (Nrf2) along with up-regulation the expression of heme oxygenas-1 (HO-1). Meanwhile, alpha-mangostin can activate the expression of PKC-δ and down-regulate the expression of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), including ERK1/2, JNK, P38. The results suggest that alpha-mangostin could be a new approach to suspend the onset and development of AMD.

  13. Rederivation of the alpha effect in terms of the magnetic fluctuation spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keinigs, R.K.; Gerwin, R.A.

    1982-08-01

    We demonstrate that the alpha effect can be expressed in terms of the integrated current helicity spectrum of the turbulence. This is a much more convenient form than that obtained using a kinematic velocity field description

  14. The effect of infliximab, a monoclonal antibody against TNF-alpha, on disc herniation resorption - A randomized controlled study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Autio, Reijo A.; Karppinen, Jaro; Niinimaki, Jaakko; Ojala, Risto; Veeger, Nic; Korhonen, Timo; Hurri, Heikki; Tervonen, Osmo

    2006-01-01

    Study Design. Randomized, controlled study. Objective. To evaluate the effect of infliximab on herniated nucleus pulposus (HNP) resorption. Summary of Background Data. Although the effects of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) on HNP resorption are not fully understood, TNF-alpha appears to be

  15. Effect of alpha linolenic acid supplementation on serum prostate specific antigen (PSA): results from the alpha omega trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Ingeborg A; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Klaasen, Veronique M; Smit, Liesbeth A; Giltay, Erik J; de Goede, Janette; Heijboer, Annemieke C; Kromhout, Daan; Katan, Martijn B

    2013-01-01

    Alpha linolenic acid (ALA) is the major omega-3 fatty acid in the diet. Evidence on health effects of ALA is not conclusive, but some observational studies found an increased risk of prostate cancer with higher intake of ALA. We examined the effect of ALA supplementation on serum concentrations of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a biomarker for prostate cancer. The Alpha Omega Trial (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00127452) was a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of ALA and the fish fatty acids eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA) on the recurrence of cardiovascular disease, using a 2×2 factorial design. Blood was collected at the start and the end of the intervention period. The present analysis included 1622 patients with a history of a myocardial infarction, aged 60-80 years with an initial PSA concentration PSA (both continuously and as a dichotomous outcome, cut-off point: >4 ng/mL). Mean serum PSA increased by 0.42 ng/mL on placebo (n = 815) and by 0.52 ng/mL on ALA (n = 807), a difference of 0.10 (95% confidence interval: -0.02 to 0.22) ng/mL (P = 0·12). The odds ratio for PSA rising above 4 ng/mL on ALA versus placebo was 1.15 (95% CI: 0.84-1.58). An additional amount of 2 g of ALA per day increased PSA by 0.10 ng/mL, but the confidence interval ranged from -0.02 to 0.22 ng/mL and included no effect. Therefore, more studies are needed to establish whether or not ALA intake has a clinically significant effect on PSA or prostate cancer. ClinicalTrials.gov; Identifier: NCT00127452. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00127452.

  16. Protective effect of alpha-mangostin against oxidative stress induced-retinal cell death

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Yuan; Su, Tu; Qiu, Xiaorong; Mao, Pingan; Xu, Yidan; Hu, Zizhong; Zhang, Yi; Zheng, Xinhua; Xie, Ping; Liu, Qinghuai

    2016-01-01

    It is known that oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) pathogenesis. Alpha-mangostin is the main xanthone purified from mangosteen known as anti-oxidative properties. The aim of the study was to test the protective effect of alpha-mangostin against oxidative stress both in retina of light-damaged mice model and in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-stressed RPE cells. We observed that alpha-mangostin significantly inhibited light-induced degeneration of photore...

  17. Alpha heating and isotopic mass effects in JET plasmas with sawteeth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budny, R. V. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Team, JET [EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB, UK

    2016-02-09

    The alpha heating experiment in the Joint European Torus (JET) 1997 DTE1 campaign is re-examined. Several effects correlated with tritium content and thermal hydrogenic isotopic mass < A> weaken the conclusion that alpha heating was clearly observed. These effects delayed the occurrence of significant sawtooth crashes allowing the electron and ion temperatures T e and T i to achieve higher values. Under otherwise equal circumstances T e and T i were typically higher for discharges with higher < A >, and significant scaling of T i, T e, and total stored energy with < A > were observed. The higher T i led to increased ion–electron heating rates with magnitudes comparable to those computed for alpha electron heating. Rates of other heating/loss processes also had comparable magnitudes. Simulations of T e assuming the observed scaling of T i are qualitatively consistent with the measured profiles, without invoking alpha heating

  18. Effects of q(r) on the Alpha Particle Ripple Loss in TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.S. Darrow; M. Diesso; R.V. Budny; S. Batha; S.J. Zweben; et al.

    1997-09-01

    An experiment was done with TFTR DT plasmas to determine the effect of the q(r) profile on the alpha particle ripple loss to the outer midplane. The alpha particle loss measurements were made using a radially movable scintillator detector 20 degrees below the outer midplane. The experimental results were compared with TF ripple loss calculations done using a Monte Carlo guiding center orbit following code, ORBIT. Although some of the experimental results are consistent with the ORBIT code modeling, the variation of the alpha loss with the q(r) profiles is not well explained by this code. Quantitative interpretation of these measurements requires a careful analysis of the limiter shadowing effect, which strongly determines the diffusion of alphas into the detector aperture.

  19. Early and continuing effects of combined alpha and beta irradiation of the lung:

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, B.R.; Hahn, F.F.; Snipes, M.B.; Newton, G.J.; Eidson, A.F.; Mauderly, J.L.; Boecker, B.B.

    1988-03-01

    This report summarizes an inhalation exposure experiment that concerns early and continuing effects of combined alpha and beta irradiation of the lung of rats. Both morbidity at 18 months and mortality within 18 months after exposure were examined for rats exposed to the beta-emitter /sup 147/Pm, the alpha-emitter /sup 238/Pu, or both combined. The results were used to validate hazard-function models that were developed (1)for pulmonary functional morbidity at 18 months and (2) for lethality from radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis within 18 months. Both models were found to adequately predict the experimental observations after combined chronic alpha and beta irradiation of the lung. A relative biological effectiveness of approximately 7 was obtained for /sup 238/Pu alpha radiation compared to /sup 147/Pm beta radiation for both pulmonary functional morbidity and lethality from radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis. 12 refs., 16 figs., 11 tabs.

  20. Protective effect of exercise and alpha tocopherol on atherosclerosis promotion in hypercholesterolemic domestic rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekh, Mudhir S.; Mahmud, Almas M. R.

    2017-09-01

    This study was designed to determine effects of exercise training (Moderate and severe) and alpha tocopherol on lipid profiles and organ weights in hypercholesterolemic domestic rabbits. Hypercholesterolemia (HC) and atherosclerotic lesions were induced by feeding the male rabbits the standard chow supplemented with 1% cholesterol (atherogenic diet) for 36 days. Experimental rabbits were divided into seven groups: normal (T1), HC control (T2), HC plus alpha tocopherol (0.5mg /animal/day) (T3), HC plus moderate exercise 40 minutes/day (0.5km/day) 5 days/week (T4), HC plus severe exercise 40 minutes/day (1km/day) 5 days/week (T5), HC plus alpha tocopherol plus moderate exercise (T6) and HC plus alpha tocopherol plus severe exercise (T7). After the treatment period of 36th day, blood samples were collected and total cholesterol (TC), Triglyceride (TG), Very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-cholesterol, High-density lipoproteins (HDL)-cholesterol, Low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, serum glucose, body and organ weights were assayed and compared with hypercholesterolemic control. Combination of moderate exercise with alpha tocopherol produced significant reduction (Pgroup showed no significant change in all lipid profiles. However, the decrement in the above parameters was comparable with hypercholesterolemic rabbits in combination of severe exercise with alpha tocopherol. The results suggest that the combination of moderate exercise with alpha tocopherol can be exploited for prevention of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

  1. Effect of decoyinine on the regulation of alpha-amylase synthesis in Bacillus subtilis.

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholson, W L; Chambliss, G H

    1987-01-01

    Decoyinine, an inhibitor of GMP synthetase, allows sporulation in Bacillus subtilis to initiate and proceed under otherwise catabolite-repressing conditions. The effect of decoyinine on alpha-amylase synthesis in B. subtilis, an event which exhibits regulatory features resembling sporulation initiation, was examined. Decoyinine did not overcome catabolite repression of alpha-amylase synthesis in a wild-type strain of B. subtilis but did cause premature and enhanced synthesis in a mutant strai...

  2. Inhibitory Effect of Alpha-Mangostin on Adhesion of Candida albicans to Denture Acrylic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaomongkolgit, Ruchadaporn; Jamdee, Kusuma

    2015-01-01

    Candida-associated denture stomatitis is a very common disease affecting denture wearers. It is characterized by the presence of yeast biofilm on the denture, primarily associated with C. albicans. The investigation of agents that can reduce C. albicans adhesion may represent a significant advancement in the prevention and treatment of this disease. This study aims to investigate the effect of alpha-mangostin on the in vitro adhesion of C. albicans to denture acrylic and germ tube formation by C. albicans and to compare its activity with clotrimazole which is a topical antifungal agent commonly used for the treatment of Candida-associated denture stomatitis. Alpha-mangostin was extracted by thin layer chromatography. The effect of alpha-mangostin on adhesion of C. albicans to denture acrylic was determined by using a colorimetric tetrazolium assay and germ tube formation by C. albicans was determined by using the counting chamber. A significant reduction of C. albicans adhesion to denture acrylic was evident after exposure to 2,000 µg/ml of alpha-mangostin for only 15 min. In addition, the 2,000 µg/ml of the alpha-mangostin-treated C. albicans had a reduced ability for germ tube formation. These inhibitory effects of alpha-mangostin were as effective as clotrimazole. Alpha-mangostin has antifungal property against C. albicans by inhibiting the adhesion to denture acrylic and germ tube formation in vitro. These results suggest the potential application of alpha-mangostin as a topical medication or a natural oral hygiene product for treatment of Candida-associated denture stomatitis.

  3. Dominant-negative CK2alpha induces potent effects on circadian rhythmicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine M Smith

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Circadian clocks organize the precise timing of cellular and behavioral events. In Drosophila, circadian clocks consist of negative feedback loops in which the clock component PERIOD (PER represses its own transcription. PER phosphorylation is a critical step in timing the onset and termination of this feedback. The protein kinase CK2 has been linked to circadian timing, but the importance of this contribution is unclear; it is not certain where and when CK2 acts to regulate circadian rhythms. To determine its temporal and spatial functions, a dominant negative mutant of the catalytic alpha subunit, CK2alpha(Tik, was targeted to circadian neurons. Behaviorally, CK2alpha(Tik induces severe period lengthening (approximately 33 h, greater than nearly all known circadian mutant alleles, and abolishes detectable free-running behavioral rhythmicity at high levels of expression. CK2alpha(Tik, when targeted to a subset of pacemaker neurons, generates period splitting, resulting in flies exhibiting both long and near 24-h periods. These behavioral effects are evident even when CK2alpha(Tik expression is induced only during adulthood, implicating an acute role for CK2alpha function in circadian rhythms. CK2alpha(Tik expression results in reduced PER phosphorylation, delayed nuclear entry, and dampened cycling with elevated trough levels of PER. Heightened trough levels of per transcript accompany increased protein levels, suggesting that CK2alpha(Tik disturbs negative feedback of PER on its own transcription. Taken together, these in vivo data implicate a central role of CK2alpha function in timing PER negative feedback in adult circadian neurons.

  4. Inhibitory Effect of Heracleum persicum and Ziziphus jujuba on Activity of Alpha-Amylase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Afrisham

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Postprandial hyperglycemia plays an important role in the development of type 2 diabetes. Inhibition of alpha-amylase was led to a delay in breaks down of starch and glycogen and prevented a rapid rise in blood sugar. Alpha-amylase was isolated by gel filtration chromatography Sephadex G-75 from bovine pancreas. Then, total methanolic extracts of plants were prepared and IC50 values of extracts on alpha-amylase were obtained and compared with acarbose IC50. The polyphenolic content of extracts and antioxidant capacity were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu test and DPPH test, respectively. The specific activity of alpha-amylase was 48.2 U/mg. For inhibition of alpha-amylase, IC50 values of H. persicum, Z. jujuba, and acarbose were 307, 827, and 113 μg/ml, respectively. For inhibition of DPPH radical, IC50 values of extracts were 235 and 701 μg/ml. Total phenolic contents of methanol extracts were 73.8±3.2 and 44.2±1.8 μg tannic acid equivalent/mg extract. Acarbose causes gastrointestinal symptoms and liver toxicity, but H. persicum and Z. jujuba decrease these side effects and prevent gastrointestinal disorders. Due to the high polyphenolic content and antioxidant capacity of these plants and significant inhibitory effect of the plants on alpha-amylase, these plants can be proposed for treatment of diabetic patients.

  5. Toxic effects of zearalenone and its derivatives alpha-zearalenol on male reproductive system in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian Ying; Wang, Guo Xin; Liu, Jia Li; Fan, Jing Jing; Cui, Sheng

    2007-01-01

    The current study evaluated effects of zearalenone (ZEA) and its derivative alpha-zearalenol (alpha-ZOL) on male mouse semen quality, fertility and serum testosterone concentrations. Adult male mice were exposed to intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of ZEA or alpha-ZOL at 0, 25, 50, and 75 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) daily for 7 days, and then mated with sexually mature untreated female mice. Semen quality, serum testosterone concentrations and fertility of treated mice were assessed. The results showed that the number of abnormal spermatozoa increased and the amount of live spermatozoa decreased significantly in males treated with ZEA at all doses. As well, a significant decrease in spermatozoa with integrated acrosome was observed in mice treated with 50 and 75 mg/kg b.w. alpha-ZOL. Significantly low pregnancy rate was observed when females were mated with ZEA or alpha-ZOL exposed males. Male mice exposed to ZEA had significant reductions in b.w. and relative epididymis weights. However, relative seminal vesicle weights were higher than those of controls. Conversely, significant increases in b.w. and relative preputial gland weight were observed in mice exposed to alpha-ZOL. Testicular and cauda epididymal sperm counts, efficiency of sperm production and serum testosterone concentrations were significantly reduced in mice treated with ZEA or alpha-ZOL at all doses in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, we demonstrate that ZEA or alpha-ZOL have adverse effects on reproductive system of adult male mice.

  6. Effects of zearalenone and alpha-Zearalenol in comparison with Raloxifene on T47D cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosrokhavar, Roya; Rahimifard, Nahid; Shoeibi, Shahram; Hamedani, Morteza Pirali; Hosseini, Mir-Jamal

    2009-03-01

    Zearalenone (Zen) is a mycotoxin with estrogenic effect which contaminates cereals. In cell culture, Zen and its metabolite, alpha-Zearalenol (alpha-Zel), stimulate breast cancer cells growth. Today hormone-dependent cancers are important because of high incidence and death rate. Previous studies showed that Zen and alpha-Zel have an effect on hormone-dependent cancers. This study explains the effects of the mentioned compounds in comparison with Raloxifene as an anti-estrogen. Cell culture technique was used with MDA-MB-231 and T47D cells for evaluation of compounds. MDA-MB-231 cells were used as negative control and also for proving that treatment compounds merely affect, due to their proliferation activity in the applied doses. According to the Resazurine-based method, for toxicity assay, none of the test compounds have an effect on MDA-MB-231 cells but do effect the growth of T47D cells. Zen and alpha-Zel at low concentrations (10-8-10-9 M) stimulated T47D cell growth and Raloxifene strongly inhibited cell growth induced by Zen and alpha-Zel. There is a noticeable result in controlling diet of hormonal carcinogenic compounds and applying novel anti-estrogens for prevention and treatment of hormone-dependent cancers.

  7. Short communication: Effect of alphaS1-casein (CSN1S1) and kappa-casein (CSN3) genotypes on milk composition in Murciano-Granadina goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravaca, F; Carrizosa, J; Urrutia, B; Baena, F; Jordana, J; Amills, M; Badaoui, B; Sánchez, A; Angiolillo, A; Serradilla, J M

    2009-06-01

    The effects of the caprine alpha(S1)-casein (CSN1S1) polymorphisms on milk quality have been widely demonstrated. However, much less is known about the consequences of the kappa-casein (CSN3) genotype on milk composition in goats. Moreover, the occurrence of interactions between CSN3 and CSN1S1 genotypes has not been investigated. In this study, an association analysis between CSN1S1 and CSN3 genotypes and milk quality traits was performed in 89 Murciano-Granadina goats. Total milk yield as well as total protein, fat, solids-not-fat, lactose, alpha(S1)-casein (CSN1S1), and alpha(S2)-casein (CSN1S2) contents were recorded every other month during a whole lactation (316 observations). Data analysis using a linear mixed model for repeated observations revealed no interaction between the CSN1S1 and CSN3 genotypes. With regard to the effect of the CSN3 locus, AB and BB genotypes were significantly associated with higher levels of total casein and protein content compared with the AA CSN3 genotype. In strong contrast with French breeds, the CSN1S1 genotype did not affect protein, casein, and fat concentrations in Murciano-Granadina goats. These results highlight the importance of taking into consideration the CSN3 genotype when performing selection for milk composition in dairy goats.

  8. Quantifying structural damage from self-irradiation in a pultonium superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, C.H.; Daniel, M.; Wilson, R.E.; Bauer, E.D.; Mitchell, J.N.; Moreno, N.O.; Morales, L.A.; Sarrao, J.L.; Allen, P.G.

    2006-01-01

    The 18.5 K superconductor PuCoGa 5 has many unusual properties, including those due to damage induced by self-irradiation. The superconducting transition temperature decreases sharply with time, suggesting a radiation-induced Frenkel defect concentration much larger than predicted by current radiation damage theories. Extended x-ray absorption fine-structure measurements demonstrate that while the local crystal structure in fresh material is well ordered, aged material is disordered much more strongly than expected from simple defects, consistent with strong disorder throughout the damage cascade region. These data highlight the potential impact of local lattice distortions relative to defects on the properties of irradiated materials and underscore the need for more atomic-resolution structural comparisons between radiation damage experiments and theory

  9. Long-term behaviour of bituminized waste: modelling self-irradiation and leaching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simondi-Teisseire, B.; Vistoli, P.P.; Libert, M.; Gilardi, T. [CEA Cadarache, Dept. de Physico-Chimie, DPC, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Chaix, P. [CEA Saclay, Dept. de Physico-Chimie, DPC, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Blanc, V. [Cogema, 78 - Saint Quentin en Yvelines (France)

    2001-07-01

    During interim storage, the main evolution factor of bituminized wastes is radiolysis, due to self-irradiation. In deep disposal conditions, after site re-saturation and corrosion of the containers, the main evolution will be due to leaching. This paper deals with two models designed to describe respectively radiolytic gas evacuation (JACOB- 2) and bituminized waste leaching (COLONBO), and some of the typical results obtained from these two models. The first model describes radiolytic gas production, diffusive transport of gas, bubble nucleation and ripening and movement under buoyancy. The second one is based on descriptions of water sorption, solubilization, and diffusion into the matrix, water uptake by the most soluble salts leading to alteration of the matrix and finally to diffusive transport of the salts outside the bitumenisate. (author)

  10. Effects of inhaled alpha-emitting actinides on mouse alveolar macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, A; Talbot, R J

    1992-01-01

    The effects of inhaled alpha-emitting actinides on the alveolar macrophage (AM) population of the rodent lung are reviewed and, in particular, of the effects of 239PuO2 on murine AM. The effects discussed include changes the AM pool size, macrophage diameter, mobility, phagocytic competence, and enzyme content. Finally, similarities in the dose-response relationships for the induction of nuclear aberrations by alpha emitters and in the induction of lung tumors by the same materials are noted. PMID:1327735

  11. The effects of alpha-lactalbumin and whey protein concentrate on alpha-amino acids, calcium and phosphorus levels in blood and gastrointestinal tract of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantako, O T; Amiot, J

    2001-01-01

    The effects of two dietary proteins on alpha-amino acids, calcium and phosphorus concentrations in plasma, stomach and intestine were investigated in rats trained to consume, in a single two-hour daily meal, diets containing a-lactalbumin (alpha-la) or whey protein concentrate (WPC) for two weeks. The results indicated that the concentrations of calcium and phosphorus in the gastrointestinal tract and that of a-amino acids in portal vein were not significantly influenced by the nature of diets. The amount of alpha-amino acids in the gastrointestinal tract of rats fed on WPC diet was significantly (p < 0.001) higher than that of alpha-la group. The levels of insoluble calcium and insoluble phosphorus in the small intestine were significantly (p < 0.001) higher in alpha-la group than in WPC group. These results indicated that the kinetics of alpha-amino acids, calcium and phosphorus were differently influenced by the nature of diet ingested, the sampling time and the sites of sample collections.

  12. Apoptotic effect of alpha-mangostin on head and neck squamous carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaomongkolgit, Ruchadaporn; Chaisomboon, Niratcha; Pavasant, Prasit

    2011-05-01

    The purposes of this study were to measure the cytotoxic effect of alpha-mangostin on head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines, to evaluate the apoptotic aspect of dead cells, and to identify the molecular mechanism involved in apoptosis. The human HNSCC cell lines HN-22, HN-30 and HN-31 were treated with alpha-mangostin. The apoptotic effects of alpha-mangostin on HNSCC cells were determined by observation the morphological changes of cells, immunofluorescence for single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), and DNA fragmentation analysis. The expression of bax, bcl-2, and p53 were detected by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Alpha-mangostin showed excellent apoptotic effects on HNSCC cell lines, which induced the down-regulation of bcl-2, but up-regulation of bax and p53 in HN-22, HN-30 and HN-31. The present study suggests that the induction of apoptosis by alpha-mangostin seemed to be modulated by bcl-2, bax and p53 level in HNSCC cell lines. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Alpha and beta adrenergic effects on metabolism in contracting, perfused muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Erik; Ruderman, N B; Galbo, H

    1982-01-01

    was obtained by epinephrine in a physiological concentration (2.4 X 10(-8) M) and alpha- and beta-adrenergic blockade by 10(-5) M phentolamine and propranolol, respectively. Epinephrine enhanced net glycogenolysis during contractions most markedly in slow-twitch red fibers. In these fibers the effect...... was mediated by alpha- as well as by beta-adrenergic stimulation, the latter involving production of cAMP, phosphorylase activation and synthase inactivation. In contrast, in fast-twitch fibers only beta-adrenergic mechanisms were involved in the glycogenolytic effect of epinephrine. Moreover, inactivation...

  14. Effects of Alpha- Tocopherol on the Velocity of Low Density Lipoprotein Oxidation by Cupric Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Ghaffari

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available "nWe studied the effect of different concentrations of alpha-tocopherol on in vitro cupric ions induced oxidation of low density lipoproteins (LDL. Human native LDL (50 µg protein/ml oxidation was induced by 10 µmol/L of CuSO4. Conjugated dienes were measured spectrophotometrically for up to 440 minutes. The length of the lag phase (Tlag, maximum velocity of the reaction (Vmax and the maximum amount of generated dienes were obtained from kinetic data. Alpha-tocopherol increased Tlag and decreased Vmax with a dependence upon concentration (0-100 µmol/L. There was no difference between the Dmax obtained with cupric ions alone or in the presence of the various concentrations of alpha-tocopherol. The results suggest that alpha-tocopherol may decrease free radicals presence in LDL and thus decrease velocity of LDL oxidation by cupric ions. This mechanism may be a reason for alpha-tocopherol effect in ameliorating atherosclerosis.

  15. Sequential nearest-neighbor effects on computed {sup 13}C{sup {alpha}} chemical shifts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vila, Jorge A. [Cornell University, Baker Laboratory of Chemistry and Chemical Biology (United States); Serrano, Pedro; Wuethrich, Kurt [The Scripps Research Institute, Department of Molecular Biology (United States); Scheraga, Harold A., E-mail: has5@cornell.ed [Cornell University, Baker Laboratory of Chemistry and Chemical Biology (United States)

    2010-09-15

    To evaluate sequential nearest-neighbor effects on quantum-chemical calculations of {sup 13}C{sup {alpha}} chemical shifts, we selected the structure of the nucleic acid binding (NAB) protein from the SARS coronavirus determined by NMR in solution (PDB id 2K87). NAB is a 116-residue {alpha}/{beta} protein, which contains 9 prolines and has 50% of its residues located in loops and turns. Overall, the results presented here show that sizeable nearest-neighbor effects are seen only for residues preceding proline, where Pro introduces an overestimation, on average, of 1.73 ppm in the computed {sup 13}C{sup {alpha}} chemical shifts. A new ensemble of 20 conformers representing the NMR structure of the NAB, which was calculated with an input containing backbone torsion angle constraints derived from the theoretical {sup 13}C{sup {alpha}} chemical shifts as supplementary data to the NOE distance constraints, exhibits very similar topology and comparable agreement with the NOE constraints as the published NMR structure. However, the two structures differ in the patterns of differences between observed and computed {sup 13}C{sup {alpha}} chemical shifts, {Delta}{sub ca,i}, for the individual residues along the sequence. This indicates that the {Delta}{sub ca,i} -values for the NAB protein are primarily a consequence of the limited sampling by the bundles of 20 conformers used, as in common practice, to represent the two NMR structures, rather than of local flaws in the structures.

  16. Anti-apoptotic effects of Z alpha1-antitrypsin in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Greene, C M

    2010-05-01

    alpha(1)-antitrypsin (alpha(1)-AT) deficiency is a genetic disease which manifests as early-onset emphysema or liver disease. Although the majority of alpha(1)-AT is produced by the liver, it is also produced by bronchial epithelial cells, amongst others, in the lung. Herein, we investigate the effects of mutant Z alpha(1)-AT (ZAAT) expression on apoptosis in a human bronchial epithelial cell line (16HBE14o-) and delineate the mechanisms involved. Control, M variant alpha(1)-AT (MAAT)- or ZAAT-expressing cells were assessed for apoptosis, caspase-3 activity, cell viability, phosphorylation of Bad, nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB activation and induced expression of a selection of pro- and anti-apoptotic genes. Expression of ZAAT in 16HBE14o- cells, like MAAT, inhibited basal and agonist-induced apoptosis. ZAAT expression also inhibited caspase-3 activity by 57% compared with control cells (p = 0.05) and was a more potent inhibitor than MAAT. Whilst ZAAT had no effect on the activity of Bad, its expression activated NF-kappaB-dependent gene expression above control or MAAT-expressing cells. In 16HBE14o- cells but not HEK293 cells, ZAAT upregulated expression of cIAP-1, an upstream regulator of NF-kappaB. cIAP1 expression was increased in ZAAT versus MAAT bronchial biopsies. The data suggest a novel mechanism by which ZAAT may promote human bronchial epithelial cell survival.

  17. [Effect of Xinmailong on hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha expression in neonatal rats with asphyxia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li-Xin; Wu, Xing-Heng

    2009-08-01

    Xinmailong, a compound extracted from Periplaneta americana, is used for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. This study investigated the effects of Xinmailong on myocardial hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) and plasma endothelin-1(ET-1) levels in neonatal rats with asphyxia and explored the protection mechanism of Xinmailong in hypoxia-ischemic myocardial injury. Seven-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups (n=30 each): sham-operated, asphyxia, Xinmailong-treated asphyxia. Each group was randomly subdivided into three groups according to the observed time points: 6 hrs, 24 hrs and 72 hrs. Xinmailong (5 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally injected to the rats in the Xinmailong-treated group five minutes before asphyxia. Myocardial HIF-1alpha expression, and plasma ET-1 and creatine kinase (CK) levels were measured. The histopathologic changes of the myocardium were observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining. Four rats died in the asphyxia group while only one died in the Xinmailong-treated group during the experiment. The plasma ET-1 and CK levels as well as myocardial HIF-1alpha expression increased at 6 hrs, reached a peak at 24 hrs, and declined at 72 hrs after asphyxia in the asphyxia group, being higher than that in the sham-operated group (Pasphyxia in the asphyxia group. Myocardial HIF-1alpha expression was positively correlated with plasma ET-1 levels (r=0.876, Pasphyxia group (PAsphyxia leads to increase in myocardial HIF-1alpha expression and plasma levels of ET-1 and CK. Xinmailong can reduce the myocardial expression of HIF-1alpha and decrease plasma ET-1 levels, thus alleviating hypoxia-ischemic myocardial injury.

  18. A study of the antioxidant effect of alpha lipoic acids on sperm quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Fatimah Ibrahim

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Assisted reproductive techniques are useful in helping infertile couples achieve successful conception. Initial studies have shown that sperm cryopreservation, one step in assisted reproduction, causes a dramatic reduction in sperm quality. This has been attributed to, among other things, free radical activities. The aim of the present study was to minimize this oxidative attack by adding an antioxidant into the sperm microenvironment. Alpha lipoic acids were selected for this purpose for their efficient free radical scavenging properties and solubility in lipid and aqueous phases. METHODS: For this investigation, semen from six Boer bucks was pooled. Seminal analysis of the baseline prior to incubation of samples with different concentrations of Alpha lipoic acids (0.00625, 0.0125, 0.025, 0.05, 0.1 mmol/ml was performed, and post-seminal analysis was conducted after a one-hour incubation. The comet assay was used to observe the effect of Alpha lipoic acids on sperm DNA integrity. Statistical analysis using an unpaired t-test with a significance level of p<0.05 was then performed. RESULTS: Our results indicate that the sperm motility rate was improved after incubation with Alpha lipoic acids at a concentration of 0.02 mmol/ml. This concentration was also capable of reducing DNA damage. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, Alpha lipoic acids renders cryoprotection to sperm, thereby improving sperm quality.

  19. Effects of alpha radiation on plutonium incorporated in dosimetric materials by ESR studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhide, M.K.; Kadam, R.M.; Mohapatra, Manoj; Godbole, S.V.

    2007-01-01

    The in situ alpha irradiation effects of some ESR dosimetric materials namely alanine, 2-methyl alanine and ammonium tartrate were studied by incorporating 1% plutonium by weight in them. The radical intensity was monitored as a function of alpha dose. It was found that in the dose region 1-35 kGy ammonium tartrate showed better signal intensity, linearity and dose response as compared to the other materials. This was attributed to the single radical produced in case of the tartrate giving a sharp spectrum and the fast relaxation times owing to less saturation of ESR signals. (author)

  20. The effect of hexapole and vertical fields on {alpha}-particle confinement in heliotron configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaev, M.Yu. [RRC ' Kurchatov Institute' , Nuclear Fusion Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Watanabe, K.Y.; Yokoyama, M.; Yamazaki, K. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    Collisionless mono-energetic {alpha}-particle confinement in three-dimensional magnetic fields obtained from the magnetic coils of the Large Helical Device (LHD) is calculated. It is found that the inward shift of magnetic axis due to the vertical field improves the {alpha}-particle confinement. In contrast to the vertical field, both large positive and negative hexapole fields do not improve the confinement. The study of the {beta} effect and Mercier criterion calculations for different hexapole fields are also presented. (author)

  1. Effect of alpha irradiation on UO2 surface reactivity in aqueous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jegou, C.; Muzeau, B.; Broudic, V.; Poulesquen, A.; Roudil, D.; Jorion, F.; Corbel, C.

    2005-01-01

    The option of direct disposal of spent nuclear fuel in a deep geological formation raises the need to investigate the long-term behavior of the UO 2 matrix in aqueous media subjected to α-β-γ radiation. The β-γ emitters account for most of the activity of spent fuel at the moment it is removed from the reactor, but diminish within a millennial time frame by over three orders of magnitude to less than the long-term activity. The latter persists over much longer time periods and must therefore be taken into account over a geological disposal time scale. Leaching experiments with solution renewal were carried out on UO 2 pellets doped with alpha emitters ( 238 Pu and 239 Pu) to quantify the impact of alpha irradiation on UO 2 matrix alteration. Three batches of doped UO 2 pellets with different alpha flux levels (3.30 x 10 4 , 3.30 x 10 5 , and 3.2 x 10 6 α cm -2 s -1 ) were studied. The results obtained in aerated and deaerated media immediately after sample annealing or interim storage in air provide a better understanding of the UO 2 matrix alteration mechanisms under alpha irradiation. Interim storage in air of UO 2 pellets doped with alpha emitters results in variations of the UO 2 surface reactivity, which depends on the alpha particle flux at the interface and on the interim storage duration. The variation in the surface reactivity and the greater uranium release following interim storage cannot be attributed to the effect of alpha radiolysis in aerated media since the uranium release tends toward the same value after several leaching cycles for the doped UO 2 pellet batches and spent fuel. Oxygen diffusion enhanced by alpha irradiation of the extreme surface layer and/or radiolysis of the air could account for the oxidation of the surface UO 2 to UO 2+x . However, leaching experiments performed in deaerated media after annealing the samples and preleaching the surface suggest that alpha radiolysis does indeed affect the dissolution, which varies with the

  2. Effect of plant growth regulators on production of alpha-linolenic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sujana Kokkiligadda

    2017-10-05

    Oct 5, 2017 ... acids that is used in treating nervous system disorders, rheumatoid arthritis, renal problems and diabetes [1, 2]. It is ... fatty acid–alpha-linolenic acid and grows fast, was con- sidered to study the effect of plant growth .... softener agents, dispersing agents and food packaging. It is also used to manufacture ...

  3. Effect of different levels of Alpha-Tocopherol Acetate on Growth and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of different levels of alpha-tocopherol acetate (Vitamin E) on growth performance, visceral fat and proximate composition of Clarias gariepinus fingerlings was investigated for 58 days. The results showed that final weight and total length was higher in fingerlings fed 300 mg/kgof vitamin E diet, while mean body ...

  4. Alpha Particle Effects as a Test Domain for PAP, a Plasma Apprentice Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mynick, Harry E.

    1987-01-01

    A new type of computational tool under development, employing techniques of symbolic computation and artificial intelligence to automate as far as possible the research activities of a human plasma theorist, is described. Its present and potential uses are illustrated using the area of the theory of alpha particle effects in fusion plasmas as a sample domain.

  5. Effects of L-ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol on biochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of L-ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol as well as combination of these vitamins with or without exposure to physical exercise on intensity of lipid peroxidation, activity of xanthine oxidase, activity of total antioxidative system, concentration of glutathione, and ...

  6. Coulomb correction to elastic. alpha. -. alpha. scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bera, P.K.; Jana, A.K.; Haque, N.; Talukdar, B. (Department of Physics, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan-731235, West Bengal, India (IN))

    1991-02-01

    The elastic {alpha}-{alpha} scattering is treated within the framework of a generalized phase-function method (GPFM). This generalization consists in absorbing the effect of Coulomb interaction in the comparison functions for developing the phase equation. Based on values of scattering phase shifts computed by the present method, it is concluded that the GPFM provides an uncomplicated approach to rigorous Coulomb correction in the {alpha}-{alpha} scattering.

  7. The effects of individual upper alpha neurofeedback in ADHD: an open-label pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escolano, C; Navarro-Gil, M; Garcia-Campayo, J; Congedo, M; Minguez, J

    2014-12-01

    Standardized neurofeedback (NF) protocols have been extensively evaluated in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, such protocols do not account for the large EEG heterogeneity in ADHD. Thus, individualized approaches have been suggested to improve the clinical outcome. In this direction, an open-label pilot study was designed to evaluate a NF protocol of relative upper alpha power enhancement in fronto-central sites. Upper alpha band was individually determined using the alpha peak frequency as an anchor point. 20 ADHD children underwent 18 training sessions. Clinical and neurophysiological variables were measured pre- and post-training. EEG was recorded pre- and post-training, and pre- and post-training trials within each session, in both eyes closed resting state and eyes open task-related activity. A power EEG analysis assessed long-term and within-session effects, in the trained parameter and in all the sensors in the (1-30) Hz spectral range. Learning curves over sessions were assessed as well. Parents rated a clinical improvement in children regarding inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. Neurophysiological tests showed an improvement in working memory, concentration and impulsivity (decreased number of commission errors in a continuous performance test). Relative and absolute upper alpha power showed long-term enhancement in task-related activity, and a positive learning curve over sessions. The analysis of within-session effects showed a power decrease ("rebound" effect) in task-related activity, with no significant effects during training trials. We conclude that the enhancement of the individual upper alpha power is effective in improving several measures of clinical outcome and cognitive performance in ADHD. This is the first NF study evaluating such a protocol in ADHD. A controlled evaluation seems warranted due to the positive results obtained in the current study.

  8. Inhibition of K+ permeability diminishes alpha 2-adrenoceptor mediated effects on norepinephrine release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimanyi, I.; Folly, G.; Vizi, E.S.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of two different potassium channel blockers, 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) and quinine, on the alpha 2-adrenoceptor mediated modulation of norepinephrine (NE) release was investigated. Pairs of mouse vasa deferentia were loaded with 3 H-norepinephrine ( 3 H-NE), superfused continuously, and stimulated electrically. 4-AP (5.3 x 10(-4) M), and quinine (10(-5) M) enhanced the stimulation-evoked release of tritium significantly. The electrically induced release of radioactivity was reduced by alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonists (1-NE and xylazine) and enhanced by the alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine. Both effects were affected markedly by 4-AP or quinine: the depressant action of 1-NA and xylazine was partially antagonized and the facilitatory effect of yohimbine was completely abolished during the blockade of the potassium channels. It is suggested that the blockade of the potassium permeability counteracts negative feedback modulation; therefore, it seems likely that the stimulation of alpha 2-adrenoceptors leads to an enhanced potassium permeability and hyperpolarization of varicose axon terminals

  9. Alpha-Effect, Current and Kinetic Helicities for Magnetically Driven ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    driven by a (given) Lorentz force in a non stratified but rotating convection zone. The main result confirms the numerical findings of Brandenburg & Schmitt that in the northern hemisphere the α effect and the kinetic helicity are positive (and negative in the northern hemisphere), this being just opposite to what occurs for the ...

  10. The effect of carbohydrates on alpha-amylase activity measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baks, T.; Janssen, A.E.M.; Boom, R.M.

    2006-01-01

    The Ceralpha method can be used for ¿-amylase activity measurements during the hydrolysis of starch at high substrate concentrations (>40 wt.%). However, the results are affected by the carbohydrates present in the samples. The effect of carbohydrates on the Ceralpha ¿-amylase activity

  11. Effects of bacteria-produced human alpha, beta, and gamma interferons on in vitro immune functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalaby, M R; Weck, P K; Rinderknecht, E; Harkins, R N; Frane, J W; Ross, M J

    1984-04-01

    The effects of bacteria-produced human interferons (HuIFN) alpha, beta, and gamma on in vitro immune functions of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were studied. Proliferative response to phytohemagglutinin was significantly inhibited by the addition of HuIFN-alpha 2 or HuIFN-beta at 10, 100, or 1000 U/ml. In contrast, HuIFN-gamma showed suppressive activities only when added at 1000 U/ml. HuIFN-alpha 2 or HuIFN-beta caused significant inhibition of human mixed-lymphocyte reaction (MLR) as measured by [3H]thymidine incorporation. Similar inhibition was caused by HuIFN-gamma when it was added only at very low concentrations (1 U/ml); 10, 100, or 1000 U/ml resulted in no or only a modest increase in MLR. All three interferons exhibited dose-related effects on PWM-induced immunoglobulin synthesis in cultures of PBMC. These data demonstrate that purified interferons produced by recombinant DNA technology can significantly alter in vitro immune functions and that HuIFN-gamma has properties which are different from those of HuIFN-alpha 2 or HuIFN-beta.

  12. Effect of the main dietary antioxidants (carotenoids, gamma-tocopherol, polyphenols, and vitamin C) on alpha-tocopherol absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboul, E; Thap, S; Perrot, E; Amiot, M-J; Lairon, D; Borel, P

    2007-10-01

    (R,R,R)-alpha-tocopherol is a fat-soluble antioxidant vitamin generally ingested with other dietary antioxidants. The objective of this study was to assess whether the main dietary antioxidant classes, that is carotenoids, polyphenols, vitamin C and gamma-tocopherol, affect the intestinal absorption of alpha-tocopherol. METHODS, DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: We evaluated first the effect of different combinations of antioxidants on (R,R,R)-alpha-tocopherol absorption by a human intestinal cell line (Caco-2 clone TC7). Then we compared the effect of two doses of a dietary antioxidant (lutein) on the postprandial chylomicron alpha-tocopherol responses to an alpha-tocopherol-rich meal. Eight healthy men ate two similar meals in a random order at a 1 month interval. The meals contained 24 mg alpha-tocopherol in sunflower oil plus either 18 or 36 mg lutein. Blood samples were collected during the postprandial periods to compare chylomicron alpha-tocopherol responses. A mixture of polyphenols (gallic acid, caffeic acid, (+)-catechin and naringenin) and a mixture of carotenoids (lycopene, beta-carotene and lutein) significantly impaired alpha-tocopherol absorption in Caco-2 cells (P<0.001 and P<0.0001, respectively). The inhibitory effect of gamma-tocopherol was close to significance (P=0.055). In contrast, vitamin C had no significant effect (P=0.158). Naringenin was the only polyphenol that significantly impaired alpha-tocopherol absorption. Postprandial alpha-tocopherol response was weakest at the highest dose of lutein (616+/-280 nmol/l h vs 1001+/-287 nmol/l h). The observed extent of reduction (-38%, P=0.069) supported the inhibitory effect of carotenoids observed in the Caco-2 experiments. Naringenin, carotenoids and probably gamma-tocopherol can impair alpha-tocopherol absorption whereas vitamin C and phenolic acids have no effect.

  13. Effects of tobacco smoke condensate on estrogen receptor-alpha gene expression and activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Mary Beth; Reiter, Ronald; Johnson, Michael; Shah, Mansi S; Iann, Mary C; Singh, Baljit; Richards, Julie Kate; Wang, Antai; Stoica, Adriana

    2007-10-01

    Metallo-estrogens are a new class of potent environmental estrogens. This study investigates whether tobacco smoke condensate (TSC), which contains metals and metalloids, elicits estrogen-like effects at environmentally relevant doses. Treatment of human breast cancer cells, MCF-7, with 40 microg/ml TSC resulted in a 2.5-fold stimulation of cell growth. TSC decreased the concentration of estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha protein and mRNA (63 and 62%, respectively), and increased the expression of the estrogen-regulated genes, progesterone receptor and pS2 (5- and 2-fold, respectively). In addition, TSC activated ER-alpha in COS-1 or CHO cells transiently transfected with wild-type ER-alpha and an ERE-CAT or an ERE-luciferase reporter gene (11- and 6-fold, respectively). TSC also activated a chimeric receptor (GAL-ER) containing the hormone binding domain of ER-alpha (3.5-fold). It blocked the binding of estradiol to the receptor without altering the affinity of estradiol (K(d) = 2.2-6.8 x 10(-10) m). Transfection assays with ER-alpha mutants identified C381, C447, H524, N532, E523, and D538 in the hormone binding domain as important for activation by TSC. In ovariectomized rats, low doses of TSC [10 or 20 mg/kg body weight (bw)] increased uterine wet weight (1.7- and 2.1-fold), and induced the expression of progesterone receptor and complement C3 in the uterus (2- and 26-fold) and mammary gland (4.4- and 15-fold). Both the in vitro and in vivo TSC effects were blocked by the antiestrogen ICI 182,780, suggesting the involvement of ER. Collectively, these results provide strong evidence that low doses of TSC, acting through the hormone binding domain, exert estrogen-like effects in cell culture and animals.

  14. Studying effects of Magnolol on alpha-particle induced bystander effects using PADC-film based dishes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, T.P.W. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Tse, A.K.W.; Fong, W.F. [Research and Development Division, School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong Baptist University, Baptist University Road, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Yu, K.N., E-mail: peter.yu@cityu.edu.h [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong)

    2009-10-15

    Radiation-induced bystander effect refers to the biological response found in cells (called bystander cells) which are not irradiated directly by ionizing radiation but are next to cells irradiated directly by ionizing radiation. In the present paper, the effects of Magnolol, an extract from the bark of Magnolia officinalis which is used as a traditional Chinese medicine, were studied on alpha-particle induced bystander effects. In our experiments, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were cultured in PADC-film based dishes and were irradiated with low fluences of alpha particles passing through the PADC films. The precise number of cells traversed or missed by alpha particles could be determined by studying the alpha-particle tracks developed on the PADC films upon subsequent chemical etching. TdT-mediated dUTP Nick-End Labeling (TUNEL) assay was employed to analyze the biological response of bystander cells in terms of DNA strand breaks. With the pretreatment of Magnolol, the DNA strand breaks in bystander cells were reduced, which showed that the alpha-particle induced bystander effects were suppressed with the presence of Magnolol. Since Magnolol is an antioxidant which can scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS), our results give support to that ROS play a role in the bystander signal transmission in our experiments.

  15. Effect of baseline plasma fatty acids on eicosapentaenoic acid levels in individuals supplemented with alpha-linolenic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFilippis, Andrew P; Harper, Charles R; Cotsonis, George A; Jacobson, Terry A

    2009-01-01

    We previously reported a >50% increase in mean plasma eicosapentaenoic acid levels in a general medicine clinic population after supplementation with alpha-linolenic acid. In the current analysis, we evaluate the variability of changes in eicosapentaenoic acid levels among individuals supplemented with alpha-linolenic acid and evaluated the impact of baseline plasma fatty acids levels on changes in eicosapentaenoic acid levels in these individuals. Changes in eicosapentaenoic acid levels among individuals supplemented with alpha-linolenic acid ranged from a 55% decrease to a 967% increase. Baseline plasma fatty acids had no statistically significant effect on changes in eicosapentaenoic levels acid after alpha-linolenic acid supplementation. Changes in eicosapentaenoic acid levels varied considerably in a general internal medicine clinic population supplemented with alpha-linolenic acid. Factors that may impact changes in plasma eicosapentaenoic acid levels after alpha-linolenic acid supplementation warrant further study.

  16. Effects of dietary alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene on lipid peroxidation induced by methyl mercuric chloride in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H R; Andersen, O

    1993-01-01

    Exposure of male CBA mice to methyl mercuric chloride, CH3HgCl, (10-40 mg/l in drinking water) for 2 weeks resulted in dose-related Hg deposition and enhanced lipid peroxidation in liver, kidney and brain. Mice were fed well-defined semisynthetic diets containing different levels of alpha......Cl/l of drinking water. High dietary alpha-tocopherol protected against CH3HgCl induced hepatic lipid peroxidation, whereas the alpha-tocopherol deficient diet further enhanced CH3HgCl induced hepatic lipid peroxidation. Similar, though statistically non-significant effects occurred in the kidneys, alpha...

  17. Effect of intravenous 1-alpha-hydroxyvitamin D3 on secondary hyperparathyroidism in chronic uremic patients on maintenance hemodialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandi, L; Daugaard, H; Tvedegaard, E

    1989-01-01

    The effect of intravenous 1 alpha(OH)D3 on circulating intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) and COOH-terminal immunoreactive PTH was examined in 21 patients on chronic hemodialysis. The patients were treated for 3 months with increasing doses of 1 alpha(OH)D3 under careful control of serum Ca2+. 1 al...... receptors. Thus, although the exact mechanisms of the action of 1 alpha(OH)D3 have not yet been completely clarified, it is concluded that intravenous administration of 1 alpha(OH)D3 may be of benefit in the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism of uremia....

  18. Effect of Photon Hormesis on Dose Responses to Alpha Particles in Zebrafish Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candy Yuen Ping Ng

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Photon hormesis refers to the phenomenon where the biological effect of ionizing radiation with a high linear energy transfer (LET value is diminished by photons with a low LET value. The present paper studied the effect of photon hormesis from X-rays on dose responses to alpha particles using embryos of the zebrafish (Danio rerio as the in vivo vertebrate model. The toxicity of these ionizing radiations in the zebrafish embryos was assessed using the apoptotic counts at 20, 24, or 30 h post fertilization (hpf revealed through acridine orange (AO staining. For alpha-particle doses ≥ 4.4 mGy, the additional X-ray dose of 10 mGy significantly reduced the number of apoptotic cells at 24 hpf, which proved the presence of photon hormesis. Smaller alpha-particle doses might not have inflicted sufficient aggregate damages to trigger photon hormesis. The time gap T between the X-ray (10 mGy and alpha-particle (4.4 mGy exposures was also studied. Photon hormesis was present when T ≤ 30 min, but was absent when T = 60 min, at which time repair of damage induced by alpha particles would have completed to prevent their interactions with those induced by X-rays. Finally, the drop in the apoptotic counts at 24 hpf due to photon hormesis was explained by bringing the apoptotic events earlier to 20 hpf, which strongly supported the removal of aberrant cells through apoptosis as an underlying mechanism for photon hormesis.

  19. [Effects of polydatin on ALT, AST, TNF-alpha, and COX-2 in sepsis model mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Hui; Wu, Meng-Jiao; Zhang, Li-Na; Zheng, Jia-Jia; Zhang, Li; Wan, Jing-Yuan

    2013-02-01

    To investigate the protective effects of polydatin on sepsis-induced acute liver injury (ALI) in mice, and to preliminarily study its mechanisms. The sepsis model was established using cecal ligation and puncture (CLP).A sham-operation control group was also set up. Polydatin (50, 100, and 300 mg/kg, respectively) was administrated to mice 1 h before CLP. The survival and liver injury were evaluated subsequently per 6 h after CLP. The survived mice were scarified 24 h later. The serum and the liver tissue sample were collected. The serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were detected by colorimetric method. The content of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) was assayed by ELISA. The cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in the liver tissue was detected by Western blot. The pathological changes of the hepatic tissue were analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin stain. The mortality of mice reached as high as 50% at 24 h after CLP. The biochemical indices and the pathological changes of the liver tissue showed obvious lesion. The success rate of modeling was 90%. Compared with the sham-operation control group, the serum ALT,AST activity, the TNF-alpha content, and the hepatic COX-2 protein expression markedly increased in the CLP group (P < 0.01). Polydatin improved the sepsis-induced mortality dose-dependently, inhibited increased ALT, AST activity and TNF-alpha, decreased the hepatic COX-2 protein expression, and attenuated the pathological injury of the liver (P < 0.05). Polydatin could effectively protect sepsis-induced ALI, which might be achieved possibly through inhibiting serum TNF-alpha production and hepatic COX-2 expression.

  20. Individual Alpha Peak Frequency Predicts 10 Hz Flicker Effects on Selective Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulbinaite, Rasa; van Viegen, Tara; Wieling, Martijn; Cohen, Michael X; VanRullen, Rufin

    2017-10-18

    Rhythmic visual stimulation ("flicker") is primarily used to "tag" processing of low-level visual and high-level cognitive phenomena. However, preliminary evidence suggests that flicker may also entrain endogenous brain oscillations, thereby modulating cognitive processes supported by those brain rhythms. Here we tested the interaction between 10 Hz flicker and endogenous alpha-band (∼10 Hz) oscillations during a selective visuospatial attention task. We recorded EEG from human participants (both genders) while they performed a modified Eriksen flanker task in which distractors and targets flickered within (10 Hz) or outside (7.5 or 15 Hz) the alpha band. By using a combination of EEG source separation, time-frequency, and single-trial linear mixed-effects modeling, we demonstrate that 10 Hz flicker interfered with stimulus processing more on incongruent than congruent trials (high vs low selective attention demands). Crucially, the effect of 10 Hz flicker on task performance was predicted by the distance between 10 Hz and individual alpha peak frequency (estimated during the task). Finally, the flicker effect on task performance was more strongly predicted by EEG flicker responses during stimulus processing than during preparation for the upcoming stimulus, suggesting that 10 Hz flicker interfered more with reactive than proactive selective attention. These findings are consistent with our hypothesis that visual flicker entrained endogenous alpha-band networks, which in turn impaired task performance. Our findings also provide novel evidence for frequency-dependent exogenous modulation of cognition that is determined by the correspondence between the exogenous flicker frequency and the endogenous brain rhythms. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Here we provide novel evidence that the interaction between exogenous rhythmic visual stimulation and endogenous brain rhythms can have frequency-specific behavioral effects. We show that alpha-band (10 Hz) flicker impairs stimulus

  1. Buffett's Alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Kabiller, David; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    Berkshire Hathaway has realized a Sharpe ratio of 0.76, higher than any other stock or mutual fund with a history of more than 30 years, and Berkshire has a significant alpha to traditional risk factors. However, we find that the alpha becomes insignificant when controlling for exposures to Betting-Against-Beta...... in publicly traded stocks versus wholly-owned private companies, we find that the former performs the best, suggesting that Buffett's returns are more due to stock selection than to his effect on management. These results have broad implications for market efficiency and the implementability of academic...

  2. Modification of certain pharmacological effects of ethanol by lipophilic alpha-1 adrenergic agonists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menon, M.K.; Dinovo, E.C.; Haddox, V.G.

    1987-09-28

    The influence of four centrally-acting alpha-1 adrenoceptor agonists, namely, 2(2-chloro-5-trifluoromethylphenylimino) imidazolidine (St 587), cirazoline, (-) 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-8-methoxy-5-methylthio-2-naphthalenamine ((-)SKF 89748A) and 2-(2-methylindazol-4-imino)imidazolidine (Sgd 101/75) on the pharmacological effects of ethanol was investigated. All four drugs reduced the duration of ethanol-induced hypnosis in C57B1/6 mice, this effect being proportional to their relative potencies to exert central alpha-1 agonism. In prazosin-pretreated mice, St 587 failed to reduce the hypnotic effect of ethanol, which provided strong evidence for the role of alpha-1 agonism for the hypnosis reducing effect of St 587. Hyperactivity induced in C57B1/6 mice by a subhypnotic dose of ethanol and St 587 was reported earlier. In the present study, St 587, cirazoline and (-)SKF 89748A produced similar response, but no correlation between this effect and ethanol hypnosis blockade could be established. 19 references, 8 figures, 2 tables.

  3. Methyllycaconitine prevents methamphetamine-induced effects in mouse striatum: involvement of alpha7 nicotinic receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escubedo, Elena; Chipana, Carlos; Pérez-Sánchez, Mónica; Camarasa, Jordi; Pubill, David

    2005-11-01

    In a previous study, we demonstrated that in rat striatal synaptosomes, methamphetamine (METH)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was prevented by methyllycaconitine (MLA), a specific antagonist of alpha7 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (alpha7 nAChR). The aim of this study was to test the influence of MLA on acute METH effects and neurotoxicity in mice, using both in vivo and in vitro models. MLA inhibited METH-induced climbing behavior by 50%. Acute effects after 30-min preincubation with 1 microM METH also included a decrease in striatal synaptosome dopamine (DA) uptake, which was prevented by MLA. METH-induced neurotoxicity was assessed in vivo in terms of loss of striatal dopaminergic terminals (73%) and of tyrosine hydroxylase levels (by 90%) at 72 h post-treatment, which was significantly attenuated by MLA. Microglial activation [measured as 1-(2-chlorophenyl)-N-methyl-N-(1-methylpropyl)-3-isoquinolinecarboxamide binding] was also present at 24 h post-treatment and was fully prevented by MLA, tending to confirm its neuroprotective activity. MLA had no effect on METH-induced hyperthermia. Additionally, flow cytometry assays showed that METH-induced ROS generation occurs inside synaptosomes from mouse striatum. This effect implied release of vesicular DA and was calcium-, neuronal nitric-oxide synthase-, and protein kinase C-dependent. MLA and alpha-bungarotoxin, but not dihydro-beta-erythroidine (an antagonist that blocks nAChR-containing beta2 subunits), fully prevented METH-induced ROS production without affecting vesicular DA uptake. The importance of this study lies not only in the neuroprotective effect elicited by the blockade of the alpha7 nicotinic receptors by MLA but also in that it proposes a new mechanism with which to study METH-induced acute and long-term effects.

  4. PGC-1alpha and PGC-1beta have both similar and distinct effects on myofiber switching toward an oxidative phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Ole Hartvig; Frandsen, Lis; Schjerling, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha and -1beta (PGC-1alpha and PGC-1beta) were overexpressed by adenovirus-mediated gene transfer in cultures of primary rat skeletal muscle cells derived from neonatal myoblasts. Effects on muscle fiber type transition and metabolism...

  5. The effect of spectral filters on VEP and alpha-wave responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willeford, Kevin T; Fimreite, Vanessa; Ciuffreda, Kenneth J

    2016-01-01

    Spectral filters are used to treat light sensitivity in individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI); however, the effect of these filters on normal visual function has not been elucidated. Thus, the current study aimed to determine the effect of spectral filters on objectively-measured visual-evoked potential (VEP) and alpha-wave responses in the visually-normal population. The full-field (15°H×17°V), pattern-reversal VEP (20' check size, mean luminance 52cd/m(2)) was administered to 20 visually-normal individuals. They were tested with four Intuitive-Colorimeter-derived, broad-band, spectral filters (i.e., gray/neutral density, blue, yellow, and red), which produced similar luminance values for the test stimulus. The VEP N75 and P100 latencies, and VEP amplitude, were recorded. Power spectrum analysis was used to derive the respective powers at each frequency, and peak frequency, for the selected 9-11Hz components of the alpha band. Both N75 and P100 latencies increased with the addition of each filter when compared to baseline. Additionally, each filter numerically reduced intra-session amplitude variability relative to baseline. There were no significant effects on either the mean VEP amplitude or alpha wave parameters. The Intuitive Colorimeter filters significantly increased both N75 and P100 latencies, an effect which is primarily attributable (∼75%) to luminance, and in some cases, specific spectral effects (e.g., blue and red). VEP amplitude and alpha power were not significantly affected. These findings provide an important reference to which either amplitude or power changes in light-sensitive, younger clinical groups can be compared. Copyright © 2015 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Inhibitory Effect of Alpha-Mangostin on Adhesion of Candida albicans to Denture Acrylic

    OpenAIRE

    Kaomongkolgit, Ruchadaporn; Jamdee, Kusuma

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Candida-associated denture stomatitis is a very common disease affecting denture wearers. It is characterized by the presence of yeast biofilm on the denture, primarily associated with C. albicans. The investigation of agents that can reduce C. albicans adhesion may represent a significant advancement in the prevention and treatment of this disease. This study aims to investigate the effect of alpha-mangostin on the in vitro adhesion of C. albicans to denture acrylic and germ tube ...

  7. Effect of Alpha-Particle Irradiation on Brain Glycogen in the Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, L. S.; Klatzo, Igor; Miquel, Jaime; Tobias, Cornelius; Haymaker, Webb

    1962-01-01

    The studies of Klatzo, Miquel, Tobias and Haymaker (1961) have shown that one of the earliest and most sensitive indications of the effects of alpha-particle irradiation on rat bran is the appearance of glycogen granules mainly in the neuroglia of the exposed area of the brain. Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) positive, alpha-amylase soluble granules were demonstrated within 12 hr after irradiation, preceding by approximately 36 hr the first microscopically detectable vascular permeability disturbances, as shown by the fluorescein labeled serum protein technique. These studies suggested that the injurious effects of alpha-particle energy were on cellular elements primarily, according to the physical properties and distribution of the radiation in the tissue, and that the vascular permeability disturbances played a secondary role in pathogenesis. The purpose of this study was to correlate the histochemical observations on glycogen with a quantitative assessment of the glycogen in the irradiated brain tissue. It is felt that such a study may contribute to the understanding of radiation injury at the molecular level. A practical aspect of this problem is that the information on biological radiation effects due to accelerated particles from the cyclotron source, is employed in this study, is applicable to radiation from cosmic particles both in free space and entrapped in the Van Allen belts.

  8. [Effects of ionol and alpha-tocopherol on lipid peroxidation in the liver of dogs with acute pancreatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipenko, P S; Saliĭ, I S; Potapov, G V

    2008-01-01

    We studied effects of natural (alpha-tocopherol) and synthetic (ionol) antioxidants on lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the liver of dogs with acute experimental pancreatitis (AEP). In the first three days of experiment formation of DK was more strongly inhibited by alpha-tocopherol but after day 6--by ionol. Alpha-tocopherol more effectively inhibits formation of intermolecular connections of lipid peroxides at transition of DK in intermediate (MDA) and end-products of POL. Ionol shows this effect on hour 8-24 and day 6-20. Fat-soluble antioxidants act directly in the lipid bilayer of plasma and cell membranes by interacting with membrane lipophilic components.

  9. [Effect of 1-alpha blockader on maximal oxygen consumption and physical endurance in hypertensive men].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomten, S E; Nilsson, S; Kjeldsen, S E; Westheim, A S

    1996-01-10

    The effect of alpha 1 adrenoceptor blockade (doxazosin, 4 mg daily) on maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) and physical endurance capacity in 16 mildly hypertensive, athletic men was investigated in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, two-period of 4 weeks, cross-over study. The maximal work load obtained during graded bicycle ergometer exercise and the VO2 max were reduced by 16 +/- 3 W (mean +/- SE) and 3 +/- 1 ml x kg-1 x min-1 on doxazosin (p track increased by 43 +/- 12 sec (p < 0.05). Thus, alpha 1-blockade moderately reduces VO2 max and physical endurance capacity in mildly hypertensive athletic men. However, lower systolic blood pressure (9 +/- 4 mm Hg, p < 0.05) immediately after running, and unchanged heart rate suggest a safer performance of exercise.

  10. Effects of a new 3-alpha reaction on the s-process in massive stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuch, Yukihiro; Ono, Masaomi; Matsuo, Yasuhide; Hashimoto, Masa-aki; Fujimoto, Shin-ichiro

    2012-01-01

    Effect of a new 3-alpha reaction rate on the s-process during the evolution of a massive star of 25 solar mass is investigated for the first time, because the s-process in massive stars have been believed to be established with only minor change. We find that the s-process with use of the new rate during the core helium burning is very inefficient compared to the case with the previous 3-alpha rate. However, the difference of the overproduction is found to be largely compensated by the subsequent carbon burning. Since the s-process in massive stars has been attributed so far to the neutron irradiation during core helium burning, our finding reveals for the first time the importance of the carbon burning for the s-process during the evolution of massive stars.

  11. Correlation between phosphatidylinositol labeling and contraction in rabbit aorta: effect of alpha-1 adrenergic activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villalobos-Molina, R.; Uc, M.; Hong, E.; Garcia-Sainz, J.A.

    1982-07-01

    Activation of rabbit aortic strips with alpha adrenergic agonists increased the labeling (with (/sup 32/P)Pi) of phosphatidylinositol (PI) and phosphatidic acid and contracted the vascular preparations in dose-related fashion. Epinephrine, norepinephrine and methoxamine produced maximal effects, whereas clonidine behaved as partial agonist and B-HT 933 (2-amino-6-ethyl-4,5,7,8-tetrahydro-6H-oxazole-(5,4-d) azepin dihydrochloride) was almost without activity in the two experimental models used. Phenylephrine was a full agonist in producing contraction, but failed to elicit the maximal increase in PI labeling. The EC50 values to produce contraction of aortic strips were lower for all agonists than those required to increase the incorporation of radioactive phosphate into PI, but there was a good correlation between the two sets of data. The increased PI labeling and contraction of aortic strips induced by epinephrine were antagonized by prazosin and yohimbine in dose-related fashion, but the first alpha blocker was about three orders of magnitude more potent than the second in antagonizing the two effects. The present results indicate that both stimulation of PI labeling and contraction are mediated through activation of alpha-1 adrenoceptors in rabbit aorta.

  12. Correlation between phosphatidylinositol labeling and contraction in rabbit aorta: effect of alpha-1 adrenergic activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villalobos-Molina, R.; Uc, M.; Hong, E.; Garcia-Sainz, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    Activation of rabbit aortic strips with alpha adrenergic agonists increased the labeling (with [ 32 P]Pi) of phosphatidylinositol (PI) and phosphatidic acid and contracted the vascular preparations in dose-related fashion. Epinephrine, norepinephrine and methoxamine produced maximal effects, whereas clonidine behaved as partial agonist and B-HT 933 (2-amino-6-ethyl-4,5,7,8-tetrahydro-6H-oxazole-[5,4-d] azepin dihydrochloride) was almost without activity in the two experimental models used. Phenylephrine was a full agonist in producing contraction, but failed to elicit the maximal increase in PI labeling. The EC50 values to produce contraction of aortic strips were lower for all agonists than those required to increase the incorporation of radioactive phosphate into PI, but there was a good correlation between the two sets of data. The increased PI labeling and contraction of aortic strips induced by epinephrine were antagonized by prazosin and yohimbine in dose-related fashion, but the first alpha blocker was about three orders of magnitude more potent than the second in antagonizing the two effects. The present results indicate that both stimulation of PI labeling and contraction are mediated through activation of alpha-1 adrenoceptors in rabbit aorta

  13. Disparate effects of p24alpha and p24delta on secretory protein transport and processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen R P M Strating

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The p24 family is thought to be somehow involved in endoplasmic reticulum (ER-to-Golgi protein transport. A subset of the p24 proteins (p24alpha(3, -beta(1, -gamma(3 and -delta(2 is upregulated when Xenopus laevis intermediate pituitary melanotrope cells are physiologically activated to produce vast amounts of their major secretory cargo, the prohormone proopiomelanocortin (POMC. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we find that transgene expression of p24alpha(3 or p24delta(2 specifically in the Xenopus melanotrope cells in both cases causes an effective displacement of the endogenous p24 proteins, resulting in severely distorted p24 systems and disparate melanotrope cell phenotypes. Transgene expression of p24alpha(3 greatly reduces POMC transport and leads to accumulation of the prohormone in large, ER-localized electron-dense structures, whereas p24delta(2-transgenesis does not influence the overall ultrastructure of the cells nor POMC transport and cleavage, but affects the Golgi-based processes of POMC glycomaturation and sulfation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Transgenic expression of two distinct p24 family members has disparate effects on secretory pathway functioning, illustrating the specificity and non-redundancy of our transgenic approach. We conclude that members of the p24 family furnish subcompartments of the secretory pathway with specific sets of machinery cargo to provide the proper microenvironments for efficient and correct secretory protein transport and processing.

  14. Effect of alpha-lipoic acid on endometrial implants in an experimental rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pınar, Neslihan; Soylu Karapınar, Oya; Özcan, Oğuzhan; Özgür, Tümay; Bayraktar, Suphi

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) in the treatment of endometriosis in an experimental rat model by evaluating biochemical and histopathologic parameters. Experimental endometriosis was induced by the peritoneal implantation of autologous endometrial tissue. The rats were randomly divided into two groups with eight rats each. Group I was intraperitoneally administered ALA 100 mg/kg/day for 14 days. Group II was intraperitoneally administered saline solution at the same dosage and over the same period. Endometrial implant volume was measured in both groups both pre- and post-treatment. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) was measured in peritoneal fluid. Total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) were assessed in serum. The implants were histopathologically evaluated. In the ALA group, the serum TOS and OSI levels, the endometrial implant volumes, the TNF-α levels in serum and peritoneal fluid, and the histopathologic scores were significantly lower compared to the control group (P < 0.05). Alpha-lipoic acid may have a therapeutic potential in the treatment of endometriosis due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. © 2017 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  15. Photon hormesis deactivates alpha-particle induced bystander effects between zebrafish embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, C. Y. P.; Cheng, S. H.; Yu, K. N.

    2017-04-01

    In the present work, we studied the effects of low-dose X-ray photons on the alpha-particle induced bystander effects between embryos of the zebrafish, Danio rerio. The effects on the naive whole embryos were studied through quantification of apoptotic signals (amounts of cells undergoing apoptosis) at 24 h post fertilization (hpf) using vital dye acridine orange staining, followed by counting the stained cells under a fluorescent microscope. We report data showing that embryos at 5 hpf subjected to a 4.4 mGy alpha-particle irradiation could release a stress signal into the medium, which could induce bystander effect in partnered naive embryos sharing the same medium. We also report that the bystander effect was deactivated when the irradiated embryos were subjected to a concomitant irradiation of 10 or 14 mGy of X-rays, but no such deactivation was achieved if the concomitant X-ray dose dropped to 2.5 or 5 mGy. In the present study, the significant drop in the amount of apoptotic signals on the embryos having received 4.4 mGy alpha particles together X-rays irradiation from 2.5 or 5 mGy to 10 or 14 mGy, together with the deactivation of RIBE with concomitant irradiation of 10 or 14 mGy of X-rays supported the participation of photon hormesis with an onset dose between 5 and 10 mGy, which might lead to removal of aberrant cells through early apoptosis or induction of high-fidelity DNA repair. As we found that photons and alpha particles could have opposite biological effects when these were simultaneously irradiated onto living organisms, these ionizing radiations could be viewed as two different environmental stressors, and the resultant effects could be regarded as multiple stressor effects. The present work presented the first study on a multiple stressor effect which occurred on bystander organisms. In other words, this was a non-targeted multiple stressor effect. The photon hormesis could also explain some failed attempts to observe neutron-induced bystander

  16. Effect of TNF{alpha} on activities of different promoters of human apolipoprotein A-I gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlov, Sergey V., E-mail: serge@iem.sp.ru [Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Experimental Medicine, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, 197376 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Department of Embryology, St. Petersburg State University, 199034 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Mogilenko, Denis A. [Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Experimental Medicine, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, 197376 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Department of Embryology, St. Petersburg State University, 199034 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Shavva, Vladimir S. [Department of Embryology, St. Petersburg State University, 199034 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Dizhe, Ella B.; Ignatovich, Irina A. [Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Experimental Medicine, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, 197376 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Perevozchikov, Andrej P., E-mail: app@iem.sp.ru [Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Experimental Medicine, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, 197376 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Department of Embryology, St. Petersburg State University, 199034 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2010-07-23

    Research highlights: {yields} TNF{alpha} stimulates the distal alternative promoter of human apoA-I gene. {yields} TNF{alpha} acts by weakening of promoter competition within apoA-I gene (promoter switching). {yields} MEK1/2 and nuclear receptors PPAR{alpha} and LXRs take part in apoA-I promoter switching. -- Abstract: Human apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) is a major structural and functional protein component of high-density lipoproteins. The expression of the apolipoprotein A-I gene (apoA-I) in hepatocytes is repressed by pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1{beta} and TNF{alpha}. Recently, two novel additional (alternative) promoters for human apoA-I gene have been identified. Nothing is known about the role of alternative promoters in TNF{alpha}-mediated downregulation of apoA-I gene. In this article we report for the first time about the different effects of TNF{alpha} on two alternative promoters of human apoA-I gene. Stimulation of HepG2 cells by TNF{alpha} leads to activation of the distal alternative apoA-I promoter and downregulation of the proximal alternative and the canonical apoA-I promoters. This effect is mediated by weakening of the promoter competition within human apoA-I 5'-regulatory region (apoA-I promoter switching) in the cells treated by TNF{alpha}. The MEK1/2-ERK1/2 cascade and nuclear receptors PPAR{alpha} and LXRs are important for TNF{alpha}-mediated apoA-I promoter switching.

  17. Induction of a bystander mutagenic effect of alpha particles in mammalian cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, H.; Randers-Pehrson, G.; Waldren, C. A.; Vannais, D.; Hall, E. J.; Hei, T. K.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    Ever since the discovery of X-rays was made by Rontgen more than a hundred years ago, it has always been accepted that the deleterious effects of ionizing radiation such as mutation and carcinogenesis are attributable mainly to direct damage to DNA. Although evidence based on microdosimetric estimation in support of a bystander effect appears to be consistent, direct proof of such extranuclear/extracellular effects are limited. Using a precision charged particle microbeam, we show here that irradiation of 20% of randomly selected A(L) cells with 20 alpha particles each results in a mutant fraction that is 3-fold higher than expected, assuming no bystander modulation effect. Furthermore, analysis by multiplex PCR shows that the types of mutants induced are significantly different from those of spontaneous origin. Pretreatment of cells with the radical scavenger DMSO had no effect on the mutagenic incidence. In contrast, cells pretreated with a 40 microM dose of lindane, which inhibits cell-cell communication, significantly decreased the mutant yield. The doses of DMSO and lindane used in these experiments are nontoxic and nonmutagenic. We further examined the mutagenic yield when 5-10% of randomly selected cells were irradiated with 20 alpha particles each. Results showed, likewise, a higher mutant yield than expected assuming no bystander effects. Our studies provide clear evidence that irradiated cells can induce a bystander mutagenic response in neighboring cells not directly traversed by alpha particles and that cell-cell communication process play a critical role in mediating the bystander phenomenon.

  18. Effects of liquid phase on basic properties of alpha-tricalcium phosphate-based apatite cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Makoto; Takeuchi, Akari; Lin, Xin; Matsuya, Shigeki; Ishikawa, Kunio

    2008-09-01

    Effects of liquid phase on the basic properties of alpha-tricalcuim phosphate (alpha-TCP)-based cement, BIOPEX, were investigated by employing three liquid phases: distilled water, neutral sodium hydrogen phosphate solution, and succinic acid disodium salt solution containing sodium salt of chondroitin sulfate. When mixed with neutral sodium hydrogen phosphate or succinic acid disodium salt solution, the initial setting times of the cement were 19.4 +/- 0.55 and 11.8 +/- 0.45 minutes respectively. These setting times were much shorter than that of distilled water, 88.4 +/- 0.55 minutes. Formation of needle-like crystals typical of apatite was much faster when neutral sodium hydrogen phosphate solution was used, as compared to distilled water or succinic acid disodium salt solution. Moreover, at 24 hours after mixing, the largest amount of apatite was formed when neutral sodium hydrogen phosphate solution was used, whereas use of succinic acid resulted in the least. On the final mechanical strength of the cement, that yielded with neutral sodium hydrogen phosphate solution was the highest. In contrast, lower mechanical strength was observed--especially at the initial stage--when succinic acid sodium salt was used. It was thus concluded that alpha-TCP-based cement allowed accelerated transformation to apatite, and that higher mechanical strength since the initial stage was achieved when neutral sodium hydrogen phosphate solution was used as the liquid phase.

  19. Toxic effects of zearalenone and alpha-zearalenol on the regulation of steroidogenesis and testosterone production in mouse Leydig cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianying; Zhang, Yongfa; Wang, Yongqiang; Cui, Sheng

    2007-06-01

    Zearalenone (ZEA) and its derivative alpha-zearalenol (alpha-ZOL) are produced by fungi of the genus Fusarium and, after ingestion via contaminated cereals, may lead to animal fertility disturbances and other reproductive pathologies. The previous study demonstrated the toxic effects of ZEA and alpha-ZOL through disturbances in male fertility and other reproductive pathologies in mice. In this study, we further examined the direct biological effects of ZEA and alpha-ZOL on steroidogenesis production, primarily in Leydig cells of mice. Mature mouse Leydig cells were purified by Percoll gradient centrifugation and the cell purity was determined by 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3beta-HSD) staining. To examine ZEA and alpha-ZOL-induced biological consequences, we measured testosterone secretion and transcription level of 3 key steroidogenic enzymes including 3beta-HSD-1, P450scc and StAR, in ZEA and alpha-ZOL/human chorionicgonadotropin (hCG) co-treated cells. Our results showed that ZEA and alpha-ZOL (10(-4) M, 10(-6) M and 10(-8) M) significantly suppressed hCG (10 ng/ml)-induced testosterone secretion. The suppressive effect is correlated with a decrease in the level of transcription of 3beta-HSD-1, P450scc, and StAR (P<0.05).

  20. Anomalous effect of trench-oxide depth on alpha-particle-induced charge collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, H.; Kim, N.M.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of trench-oxide depth on the alpha-particle-induced charge collection is analyzed for the first time. From the simulation results, it was found that the depth of trench oxide has a considerable influence on the amount of collected charge. The confining of generated charge by the trench oxide was identified as a cause of this anomalous effect. Therefore, the tradeoff between soft error rate and cell to cell isolation characteristics should be considered in optimizing the depth of trench oxide

  1. Effect of D-alpha-tocopherol on tubular nephron acidification by rats with induced diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Nascimento Gomes

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine if treatment of diabetic rats with D-alpha-tocopherol could prevent the changes in glomerular and tubular function commonly observed in this disease. Sixty male Wistar rats divided into four groups were studied: control (C, control treated with D-alpha-tocopherol (C + T, diabetic (D, and diabetic treated with D-alpha-tocopherol (D + T. Treatment with D-alpha-tocopherol (40 mg/kg every other day, ip was started three days after diabetes induction with streptozotocin (60 mg/kg, ip. Renal function studies and microperfusion measurements were performed 30 days after diabetes induction and the kidneys were removed for morphometric analyses. Data are reported as means ± SEM. Glomerular filtration rate increased in D rats but decreased in D + T rats (C: 6.43 ± 0.21; D: 7.74 ± 0.45; D + T: 3.86 ± 0.18 ml min-1 kg-1. Alterations of tubular acidification observed in bicarbonate absorption flux (JHCO3 and in acidification half-time (t/2 in group D were reversed in group D + T (JHCO3, C: 2.30 ± 0.10; D: 3.28 ± 0.22; D + T: 1.87 ± 0.08 nmol cm-2 s-1; t/2, C: 4.75 ± 0.20; D: 3.52 ± 0.15; D + T: 5.92 ± 0.19 s. Glomerular area was significantly increased in D, while D + T rats exhibited values similar to C, suggesting that the vitamin prevented the hypertrophic effect of hyperglycemia (C: 8334.21 ± 112.05; D: 10,217.55 ± 100.66; D + T: 8478.21 ± 119.81µm². These results suggest that D-alpha-tocopherol is able to protect rats, at least in part, from the harmful effects of diabetes on renal function.

  2. Effect of polonium alpha-radiation on aqueous solutions (the history of French and Russian studies)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladimirova, M.V.

    1998-01-01

    Since Pierre and Marie Curie's discovery of polonium and radium the effect of their radiation on chemical systems was noted. This gave rise to a new science - radiation chemistry. Systematic studies of radiation effects go back to the mid-1940s. The effect of gamma and x radiation was studied most, while only M. Curie's laboratory in France was concerned with alpha emitting polonium and radon. M. Haissinsky, M. Lefort, P. Bonet-Marry, M. Anta pioneered this activity. Radon was soon abandoned in favour of polonium recovered from RaD. With its short half-life, polonium is an ideal emitter which at its low content by weight produces a highly intensive radiation. French scientists determined radiation yields of H 2 , O 2 , H 2 O 2 and that of water radiolytic decomposition, G[-H 2 O]. The latter was found to be equal to 3.5 molecule/100 eV and much less than that from gamma radiolysis (4.2 molecule/100 eV). It should be noted that the polonium recovered from RaD contained a variety of impurities influencing the yield of radiolysis products formed. From the outset of her study in 1957, the author of this paper used the purest polonium recovered from reactor-irradiated Bi-209. This made it possible to define the yields from alpha radiolysis of various aqueous solutions more exactly. Relying on the J. Pucheault hypothesis concerning the decomposition of molecular radiolysis products in heavy particle tracks, author's efforts were directed toward the quantification of initial radiolysis yields. Special experiments have shown that G[-H 2 O] is much the same from alpha and gamma radiolysis (around 4.2 molecule/100eV). The author had the good luck to discuss her results with Pr. M. Haissinsky from Laboratory Curie. (author)

  3. Secondary. cap alpha. -deuterium kinetic isotope effects in solvolyses of ferrocenylmethyl acetate and benzoate in ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutic, D. (Univ. of Zagreb, Yugoslavia); Asperger, S.; Borcic, S.

    1982-12-17

    Secondary ..cap alpha..-deuterium kinetic isotope effects (KIE) in solvolyses of ferrocenyldideuteriomethyl acetate and benzoate were determined in 96% (v/v) ethanol, at 25/sup 0/C, as k/sub H//k/sub D/ = 1.24 and 1.26, respectively. The KIEs were also determined in the presence of 0.1 mol dm/sup -3/ lithium perchlorate: the k/sub H//k/ sub D/ values were 1.23 and 1.22 for acetate and benzoate complexes, respectively. The maximum KIE for the C-O bond cleavage of a primary substrate is as large as, or larger than, that of secondary derivatives, which is estimated to be 1.23 per deuterium. The measured KIE of about 12% per D therefore represents a strongly reduced effect relative to its maximum. The solvolyses exhibit ''a special salt effect''. This effect indicates the presence of solvent-separated ion pairs and the return to tight pairs. As the maximum KIE is expected in solvolyses involving transformation of one type of ion pair into another, the strongly reduced ..cap alpha..-D KIE supports the structure involving direct participation of electrons that in the ground state are localized at the iron atom. The alkyl-oxygen cleavage is accompanied by 10-15% acyl-oxygen cleavage.

  4. An effective route to fluorine containing asymmetric alpha-aminophosphonates using chiral Bronsted acid catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadury, Pinaki S; Zhang, Yuping; Zhang, Sha; Song, Baoan; Yang, Song; Hu, Deyu; Chen, Zhuo; Xue, Wei; Jin, Linhong

    2009-05-01

    Asymmetric addition of dialkyl phosphites (--CH2CH3, --CH2CH2CH3, --CH(CH3)2, --CH2(CH2)3CH3, --CH2CH2OCH3 and --CH2CH2OC2H5) induced by chiral organocatalyst e.g. (R)- and (S)-3,3'-[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]2-1,1'-binaphthyl phosphate on fluorinated aldimines derived from cinnamaldehyde has been found effective to give new bioactive alpha-aminophosphonates in good yields (58-73%) and high enantiomeric excess (64.6%-90.6%) under mild conditions.

  5. Effect of temperature on the collective clusterization of non-alpha conjugate nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Manpreet; Singh, BirBikram; Patra, S.K.; Gupta, R.K.

    2017-01-01

    In the present work, we report on the role of temperature on the collective clusterization process in non-alpha conjugate systems 21,22 Ne (N≠ Z) in the ground state and at the temperature equivalent to the excitation energy given by Ikeda diagram. Further, to study the impact of increasing temperature on the clustering, these effects are studied in the CN 21 Ne* and 22 Ne* formed in 10 B+ 11 B and 11 B+ 11 B reactions, respectively, with reference to experimental data

  6. Aromatization of 16alpha-hydroxyandrostenedione by human placental microsomes: effect of preincubation with suicide substrates of androstenedione aromatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numazawa, Mitsuteru; Tachibana, Mii; Mutsumi, Ayako; Yoshimura, Akiko; Osawa, Yoshio

    2002-06-01

    Estrogen synthase (aromatase) catalyzes the aromatization of androstenedione (AD) as well as 16alpha-hydroxyandrostenedione (16alpha-OHAD) leading to estrone and estriol, respectively. We found that several steroid analogs including 4-hydroxyandrostenedione (1), 6-oxoandrostenedione (6-oxoAD, 2) and its 19-hydroxy analog (3), 10beta-acetoxyestr-5-ene-7,17-dione (4), androst-5-ene-4,7,17-trione (5), and 17alpha-ethynyl-19-norteststerone (6), which are known suicide inactivators of AD aromatization, are not effective in inactivating 16alpha-OHAD aromatization in a time-dependent manner. The compounds were tested with the use of human placental microsomes and 1beta-tritiated-16alpha-OHAD as the substrate. The results of the tritium water method of 16alpha-OHAD aromatization was confirmed by the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method of estriol formation. The 1beta-tritiated-AD was used to measure AD aromatization as a positive control for these experiments. The compounds were tested at concentrations up to 40-fold higher than the K(i)'s determined for inhibition of AD aromatization. These studies suggest that differences exist in the binding site structures responsible for aromatization of 16alpha-OHAD and AD.

  7. Interactive effects of fumonisin B1 and alpha-zearalenol on proliferation and cytokine expression in Jurkat T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luongo, D; Severino, L; Bergamo, P; De Luna, R; Lucisano, A; Rossi, M

    2006-12-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of fungi that grow on various food and feed. These compounds elicit a wide spectrum of toxicological effects, including the capacity to alter normal immune function. Feed commodities are usually contaminated with more than one mycotoxin; however, extensive information on the interaction between concomitantly occurring mycotoxins and the consequence for their toxicity is lacking. In the present study, we examined the effects in vitro of fumonisin B1 (FB1) and alpha-zearalenol (alpha-ZEA), alone or in combination, on the immune function in the human lymphoblastoid Jurkat T cell line. Treatment of cells with increasing concentrations of FB1 resulted in a dose-dependent induction of proliferation. In contrast, alpha-ZEA showed a marked inhibitory effect on cell proliferation, even at very low doses, essentially mediated by apoptosis. In stimulated cells pre-incubated with FB1, the levels of IL-2 and IFN gamma mRNAs were similar to control whereas a reduction of cytokine transcripts was reported following alpha-ZEA treatment. Interestingly, co-administration of mycotoxins resulted in further inhibition of both proliferation and IFN gamma mRNA expression when compared with alpha-ZEA alone. In conclusion, FB1 and alpha-ZEA showed different immunomodulation abilities when individually administered. Combination of mycotoxins resulted instead in interactive effects.

  8. The effect of thermal cycling to 1100 degree C on the alpha (Mo) phase in directionally solidified gamma/gamma prime-alpha alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harf, F. H.

    1981-01-01

    In gamma/gamma prime - alpha eutectic alloys (Ni-Mo-Al), the resistance of the alpha phase to morphological changes during thermal cycling was found to be dependent on the structure formed during directional solidification. Fine, smooth alpha fibers survived up to 1000 five minute cycles to 1100 C with minor microstructural contour changes, while coarser and irregularly shaped alpha fibers tended to spheroidize. A mechanism to explain this phenomenon is proposed. It is suggested that on heating to 1100 C, the alpha phase is likely to undergo morphological changes, until differential thermal expansion creates a stress free interface between the alpha phase and the gamma/gamma prime matrix.

  9. Inhibitory effects of 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) on the G(1)-S phase-controlling machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, S S; Madsen, M W; Lukas, J; Binderup, L; Bartek, J

    2001-08-01

    The nuclear hormone 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) induces cell cycle arrest, differentiation, or apoptosis depending on target cell type and state. Although the antiproliferative effect of 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) has been known for years, the molecular basis of the cell cycle blockade by 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) remains largely unknown. Here we have investigated the mechanisms underlying the G(1) arrest induced upon 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) treatment of the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Twenty-four-hour exposure of exponentially growing MCF-7 cells to 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) impeded proliferation by preventing S phase entry, an effect that correlated with appearance of the growth-suppressing, hypophosphorylated form of the retinoblastoma protein (pRb), and modulation of cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) activities of cdk-4, -6, and -2. Time course immunochemical and biochemical analyses of the cellular and molecular effects of 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) treatment for up to 6 d revealed a dynamic chain of events, preventing activation of cyclin D1/cdk4, and loss of cyclin D3, which collectively lead to repression of the E2F transcription factors and thus negatively affected cyclin A protein expression. While the observed 10-fold inhibition of cyclin D1/cdk 4-associated kinase activity appeared independent of cdk inhibitors, the activity of cdk 2 decreased about 20-fold, reflecting joint effects of the lower abundance of its cyclin partners and a significant increase of the cdk inhibitor p21(CIP1/WAF1), which blocked the remaining cyclin A(E)/cdk 2 complexes. Together with a rapid down-modulation of the c-Myc oncoprotein in response to 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3), these results demonstrate that 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) inhibits cell proliferation by targeting several key regulators governing the G(1)/S transition.

  10. Effects of Self Irradiation from 238Pu on Candidate Ceramics for Plutonium Immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strachan, Denis M.; Scheele, Randall D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; Sell, Rachel L.

    2003-01-01

    In this document, we describe the results of radiation damage testing and characterization for specimens that were resintered to re-establish crystallinity. The phases in these specimens have become amorphous from radiation induced damage over the 8 months since sintering

  11. alpha-Actin: disposition, quantities, and estimated effects on lung recoil and compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldmixon, E H; Carlsson, K; Kuhn, C; Butler, J P; Hoppin, F G

    2001-07-01

    We have investigated the basis and implications of pneumoconstriction by measuring disposition and quantities of alpha-smooth muscle actin in rat and guinea pig lungs and modeling its effects on lung recoil and compliance. A robust marker of contractility, alpha-smooth muscle actin appears in smooth muscle or myofibroblast-like cells in pleura, airways, blood vessels, and alveolar ductal tissues. In each site, we measured its transected area by immunofluorescent staining and frequency-modulated scanning confocal microscopy. We incorporated these data in a model of the parenchyma consisting of an extensive elastic network with embedded contractile structures. We conclude that contraction at any one of these sites alone can decrease parenchymal compliance by 20-30% during tidal breathing. This is due mostly to the stiffness of activated contractile elements undergoing passive cycling; constant muscle tension would have little effect. The magnitude of the effect corresponds with known responses of the lung to hypocapnia, consistent with a homeostatic function in which gas exchange is defended by redistributing ventilation away from overventilated units.

  12. [Effect of pectin substances on activity of human pancreatic alpha-amylase in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelpanova, T I; Vitiazev, F V; Mikhaleva, N Ia; Efimtseva, É A

    2012-06-01

    Pectin substances were extracted from food plants: sweet pepper Capsicum annuum L., carrot sowing Daucus sativus L., bulb onion Allium cepa L., white cabbage Brassica oleracea L. by two methods with acid solutions similar to gastric environment. The pectins that were extracted were characterized by Monosaccharide composition and quantitative contents of uronic acids, neutral monosaccharides, methoxy groups, protein. The inhibitory effect of all extracted pectin-protein complexes on activity of pharmaceutical drugs of human pancreatic alpha-amylase was detected. It was found that the inhibitory effect of isolated pectin substances was dependent upon the species of plant source, the manner of pectin substance extraction, the chemical composition and acting concentrations. The ability of pectin substances to suppress enzyme activity was found in a range of pectin concentrations from 0.5 up to 1.5 %. It was revealed that extracted pectin substances from bulb onion and white cabbage by acid solution with pepsin had a 2.4-3.4 times greater inhibiting effect on the human pancreatic alpha-amylase activity in comparison with pectin substances extracted by solution without pepsin from the same plant sources in high concentrations.

  13. A Rare Side Effect due to TNF-Alpha Blocking Agent: Acute Pleuropericarditis with Adalimumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Ozkan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumor necrosis factor-alpha antagonism is an important treatment strategy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, vasculitis, and ankylosing spondylitis. Adalimumab is one of the well-known tumor necrosis factor-alpha blocking agents. There are several side effects reported in patients with adalimumab therapy. Cardiac side effects of adalimumab are rare. Only a few cardiac side effects were reported. A 61-year-old man treated with adalimumab for the last 6 months due to psoriatic arthritis presented with typically acute pleuropericarditis. Chest X-ray and echocardiography demonstrated marked pericardial effusion. Patient was successfully evaluated for the etiology of acute pleuro-pericarditis. Every etiology was excluded except the usage of adalimumab. Adalimumab was discontinued, and patient was treated with 1200 mg of ibuprofen daily. Control chest X-ray and echocardiography after three weeks demonstrated complete resolution of both pleural and pericardial effusions. This case clearly demonstrated the acute onset of pericarditis with adalimumab usage. Acute pericarditis and pericardial effusion should be kept in mind in patients with adalimumab treatment.

  14. Alpha particle effects in burning tokamak plasmas: overview and specific examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigmar, D.J.

    1986-07-01

    Using the total power balance of an ignited tokamak plasma as a guideline, a range of alpha driven effects is surveyed regarding their impact on achieving and maintaining fusion burn. Specific examples of MHD and kinetic modes and multi species transport dynamics are discussed, including the possible interaction of these categories of effects. This power balance approach rather than a straightforward enumeration of possible effects serves to reveal their non-linear dependence and the ensuing fragility of our understanding of the approach to and maintenance of ignition. Specific examples are given of the interaction between α-power driven sawtoothing and ideal MHD stability, and direct α-effects on MHD modes including kinetic corrections. Anomalous ion heat transport and central impurity peaking mechanisms and anomalous and collisional α-transport including the ambipolar electric field are discussed

  15. Effect of low electric fields on alpha scintillation light yield in liquid argon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnes, P.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Alexander, T.; Alton, A. K.; Asner, D. M.; Back, H. O.; Baldin, B.; Biery, K.; Bocci, V.; Bonfini, G.; Bonivento, W.; Bossa, M.; Bottino, B.; Brigatti, A.; Brodsky, J.; Budano, F.; Bussino, S.; Cadeddu, M.; Cadoni, M.; Calaprice, F.; Canci, N.; Candela, A.; Caravati, M.; Cariello, M.; Carlini, M.; Catalanotti, S.; Cavalcante, P.; Chepurnov, A.; Cicalò, C.; Cocco, A. G.; Covone, G.; D'Angelo, D.; D'Incecco, M.; Davini, S.; De Cecco, S.; De Deo, M.; De Vincenzi, M.; Derbin, A.; Devoto, A.; Di Eusanio, F.; Di Pietro, G.; Dionisi, C.; Edkins, E.; Empl, A.; Fan, A.; Fiorillo, G.; Fomenko, K.; Forster, G.; Franco, D.; Gabriele, F.; Galbiati, C.; Giagu, S.; Giganti, C.; Giovanetti, G. K.; Goretti, A. M.; Granato, F.; Gromov, M.; Guan, M.; Guardincerri, Y.; Hackett, B. R.; Herner, K.; Hughes, D.; Humble, P.; Hungerford, E. V.; Ianni, A.; James, I.; Johnson, T. N.; Jollet, C.; Keeter, K.; Kendziora, C. L.; Koh, G.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Kubankin, A.; Li, X.; Lissia, M.; Loer, B.; Lombardi, P.; Longo, G.; Ma, Y.; Machulin, I. N.; Mandarano, A.; Mari, S. M.; Maricic, J.; Marini, L.; Martoff, C. J.; Meregaglia, A.; Meyers, P. D.; Milincic, R.; Miller, J. D.; Montanari, D.; Monte, A.; Mount, B. J.; Muratova, V. N.; Musico, P.; Napolitano, J.; Navrer Agasson, A.; Odrowski, S.; Oleinik, A.; Orsini, M.; Ortica, F.; Pagani, L.; Pallavicini, M.; Pantic, E.; Parmeggiano, S.; Pelczar, K.; Pelliccia, N.; Pocar, A.; Pordes, S.; Pugachev, D. A.; Qian, H.; Randle, K.; Ranucci, G.; Razeti, M.; Razeto, A.; Reinhold, B.; Renshaw, A. L.; Rescigno, M.; Riffard, Q.; Romani, A.; Rossi, B.; Rossi, N.; Rountree, D.; Sablone, D.; Saggese, P.; Sands, W.; Savarese, C.; Schlitzer, B.; Segreto, E.; Semenov, D. A.; Shields, E.; Singh, P. N.; Skorokhvatov, M. D.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Stanford, C.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Tatarowicz, J.; Testera, G.; Tonazzo, A.; Trinchese, P.; Unzhakov, E. V.; Verducci, M.; Vishneva, A.; Vogelaar, B.; Wada, M.; Walker, S.; Wang, H.; Wang, Y.; Watson, A. W.; Westerdale, S.; Wilhelmi, J.; Wojcik, M. M.; Xiang, X.; Xiao, X.; Xu, J.; Yang, C.; Zhong, W.; Zhu, C.; Zuzel, G.

    2017-01-01

    Measurements were made of scintillation light yield of alpha particles from the 222Rn decay chain within the DarkSide-50 liquid argon time projection chamber. The light yield was found to increase as the applied electric field increased, with alphas in a 200 V/cm electric field exhibiting a ~2% increase in light yield compared to alphas in no field.

  16. Protective Effects of Enalapril on Reducing Sensorimotor Dysfunctions of Ischemic Stroke is enhanced by Its Combination with Alpha Tocopherol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdollah Panahpour

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Ischemic stroke has complex pathophysiology and its treatment with single neuroprotective drugs has so far failed. Combination therapy could produce amplified protective effects via different mechanisms. We examined the neuroprotective effects of enalapril and/or alpha tocopherol against sensorimotor dysfunctions of ischemic stroke. Methods: Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups (n=8: sham, control ischemic, enalapril (0.03 mg/kg, alpha tocopherol (30mg/kg and enalapril plus alpha tocopherol treated groups. Transient focal cerebral ischemia (90 min was induced by occlusion of the left middle cerebral artery that followed by 24 h reperfusion periods. Infarct volumes were detected by TTC coloring technique and sensorimotor dysfunctions investigated by rotarod, grip strength and hotplate tests. Results: Induction of cerebral ischemia in the control group produced severe neurological sensorimotor deficits in conjunction with considerable cerebral infarctions. Compared with the enalapril or alpha tocopherol groups, the combined treatment significantly improved neurological motor and sensory functions (p=0.038 and p=0.034, respectively and also reduced the infarct volume (p=0.032. Conclusion: Administration of alpha tocopherol increased protective effects of enalapril. Enalapril combined with alpha tocopherol can produce an augmented protection against ischemic brain injury, and improvement in sensorimotor dysfunctions.

  17. Alpha power oscillation in the frontal cortex under Bromazepam and Modafinil effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Aprigio

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTObjective Our aim was to investigate and compare the neuromodulatory effects of bromazepam (6 mg and modafinil (200 mg during a sensorimotor task analyzing the changes produced in the absolute alpha power.Method The sample was composed of 15 healthy individuals exposed to three experimental conditions: placebo, modafinil and bromazepam. EEG data were recorded before, during and after the execution of the task. A three-way ANOVA was applied, in order to compare the absolute alpha power among the factors: Group (control, bromazepam and modafinil Condition (Pre and Post-drug ingestion and Moment (pre and post-stimulus.Results Interaction was found between the group and condition factors for Fp1, F4 and F3. We observed a main effect of moment and condition for the Fp2, F8 and Fz electrodes.Conclusion We concluded that drugs may interfere in sensorimotor processes, such as in the performance of tasks carried out in an unpredictable scenario.

  18. [Antioxidant effectiveness of short-chain alpha-tocopherol acetate in acute paracetamol poisoning in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaiakhmetova, H M; Kovalenko, V M; Bondarenko, L B; Kuz'menko, I V

    2000-01-01

    In the experiments in vivo on white rats possibility of paracetamol hepatotoxic effects correction with synthetic short-chain alpha-tocopherol derivative and pharmacopeial preparation of vitamin E has been studied. Levels of superoxide anion generation in liver mitochondria fraction, catalase activity and reduced glutathione, serum aminotransferase and alcaline phosphatase activities and liver subcellular fractions lipid contents were investigated. It was shown that the short-chain vitamin E derivative and pharmacopeial preparation had a membranotropic effect, normalizing free and total cholesterol levels in liver mitochondria fraction and decreasing serum aminotransferase activity level. Investigated compounds also decreased levels of superoxide anions generation, increased catalase activity and level of reduced glutathione in liver. Antioxidative properties of this derivative and pharmacopeial preparation were demonstrated both at the primary (dienes, trienes) and at final steps of lipid peroxidation (TBA-products formation). This antioxidative activity of alpha-tocopherol acetate and its derivative depended on the structure of chromane cycle but not on the length of side chain.

  19. Effects of prostatic inflammation on LUTS and alpha blocker treatment outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ha Na Lee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose To evaluate the association between prostatic inflammation and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS, and to identify the effects of prostatic inflammation on the treatment with an alpha blocker. Materials and Methods 111 Participants who were aged ≥ 50 years, the presence of LUTS (maximal flow rate < 20 m/s, IPSS ≥ 11, and an elevated PSA level (3-20ng/mL were treated with tamsulosin 0.2mg once daily for 3 months after prostate biopsies. Prostatic inflammation was scored as none (0, mild (I, moderate (II, or marked (III. LUTS parameters including urine flow rates, IPSS, PSA, and prostate volume were evaluated. Results Inflammation grading resulted in 25, 60, and 26 patients that were grade 0, I, and II, respectively. Lower grade inflammation was related to higher urine flow rate at baseline. Patients with higher inflammation grades had larger prostate volumes, larger total and transitional zone volumes, and higher PSA levels. Overall, urine flow rates and residual urine volume were improved after 3 months of alpha blocker therapy. Eighty percent of patients with grade 0 inflammation, 73% of patients with grade I inflammation, and 92.3% of patients with grade II inflammation showed improvement of LUTS after treatment. Longer duration of treatment was related to a decreased chance of improvement of LUTS. Patients with increased IPSS voiding subscales could be predictive of improvement of LUTS. Conclusions Patients with high grade inflammation had lower flow rates and higher prostatic volumes than patients with low grade inflammation. Inflammation grade did not affect the outcomes of alpha blocker treatment.

  20. Pressor effect for ethanol and absence of its. cap alpha. -blocking activity in the SHR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Rahman, A.R.A.; Iams, S.G.; Wooles, V.R.

    1986-03-01

    In a previous study the authors have suggested ethanol (ETOH) has an ..cap alpha..-blocking activity in anesthetized Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. The present investigation shows that ETOH (1 g/Kg, i.v.) has a pressor and tachycardic effect in SHR, SD and Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. However, quantitative differences existed between ..delta.. MAP, but not ..delta.. HR, among the 3 strains; the biggest rise occurred in the SHR and the least in SD. It is not yet clear whether the significantly higher MAP in the SHR contributes to the significantly larger ..delta.. MAP in response to ETOH. Nonetheless, MAP was similar in WKY and SD in spite of a larger ..delta.. MAP after ETOH in the former. Furthermore, both SD and WKY rats showed a significant and parallel rightward shift of the phenylephrine (PE) pressor response curve after ETOH (more in SD than WKY) suggesting an ..cap alpha..-blocking activity for ethanol and confirming their previous findings in SD rats. This suggestion was further supported by the absence of any shift in the angiotensin II (AII) dose-response curves. On the other hand, neither PE nor AII pressor responsiveness was influenced by ETOH in the SHR suggesting an absence of ..cap alpha..-blocking activity for ETOH in this strain. Finally, no change occurred in the baroreflex control of HR in SHR as compared to an impairment of this function in WKY and SD rats. This may relate at least in part, to the already depressed baroreflex function in the SHR.

  1. [Effects of intermittent hypoxic exposure on the parameter of erythrocyte and serum hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha and erythropoietin levels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng-yan; Zhang, Ji-xin; Lü, Xiao-tao; Li, Bao-yu

    2009-10-01

    To investigate the effects of intermittent hypoxic exposure and normoxic convalescence on the parameter of erythrocyte and serum hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1alpha) and erythropoietin (EPO) levels. Rat models of intermittent hypoxic exposure were established, combined with the clinical research on volunteers experiencing the intermittent plateau work. Blood samples for red blood cell (RBC) counts, hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (HCT) were collected, serum HIF-1alpha and EPO levels were measured using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. RBC counts, Hb concentration and HCT were significantly higher than the normoxic group (P hypoxic exposure can enhance serum hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha and erythropointin levels and the generation of red blood cells, which leads to an increase in hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit. The results have changed with the hypoxic exposure period prolonged. Normoxic convalescence after intermittent hypoxic exposure can make the related indexes reduced, and contribute to the organism recovery.

  2. Effects of alpha-Escin on mechanical features of the femoral bone in rats with experimental post-steroid osteopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cegieła, U; Pytlik, M; Janiec, W; Sliwiński, L

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of alpha-escin on the experimental prednisolone-induced osteopenia. The experiments were carried out on male Wistar rats of initial body mass 240-310 g, divided into 4 groups (n = 6): I (C)-control, II (E)-alpha-Escin, III (P)-Prednisolone, IV (E + P)-Prednisolone + alpha-escin. Prednisolone (5 mg/kg i.m. daily) and/or alpha-escin (100 mg/kg p.o. daily) were administered for 28 days. Studies into the effect of alpha-escin on the development of steroid-induced osteopenia included the determination of an increase in body and adrenal glands mass in rats, determination of macrometrical parameters, of calcium and other minerals density in examined bones and determination of mechanical endurance of femoral bone. The carried-out experiments indicated that the p.o. administration of 100 mg/kg of alpha-escin for 28 days to sexually mature male rats with experimental steroid-induced osteopenia caused slight protective action on bone tissue against unfavourable influence of prednisolone manifested by enhancement of mechanical features of femoral bone.

  3. Effects of alpha-escin on histomorphometrical parameters of long bones in rats with experimental post-steroid osteopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cegieła, U; Pytlik, M; Janiec, W

    2000-01-01

    The excess of glucocorticosteroids leads to the development of osteopenia. A decreased bone formation rate and an increased bone resorption rate are observed. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of alpha-escin on the experimental prednisolone-induced osteopenia. The experiments were carried out on male Wistar rats with initial body weight of 240-310 g, divided into 4 groups (n = 6): Control, Alpha-escin, Prednisolone, Prednisolone + alpha-escin. Prednisolone (5 mg/kg im daily) and/or alpha-escin (100 mg/kg po daily) were administered for 28 days. Transverse cross-section surfaces of the cortical diaphysis and of the marrow cavity in the tibia, transverse growth, width of endosteal and periosteal osteoid, thickness of trabeculae and width of epiphyseal cartilage were examined. Prednisolone administration caused osteopenic changes in rat bones. Alpha-escin administered to the control rats did not exert statistically significant influence on the investigated bone parameters. Alpha-escin administration to prednisolone-treated rats slightly reduced the unfavorable effects of prednisolone on width of periosteal and endosteal osteoid and periosteal transverse growth in the tibia.

  4. Inhibitory effect of nicotinamide on in vitro and in vivo production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuzawa, M; Satoh, J; Muto, G; Muto, Y; Nishimura, S; Miyaguchi, S; Qiang, X L; Toyota, T

    1997-10-01

    Nicotinamide, a pellagra-preventive factor, has multiple functions such as inhibition of poly-ADP-ribose synthetase, inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase, free radical scavenging and suppression of major histocompatibility complex class II expression and ICAM-1 expression on endothelial cells. In addition to these, we have found an inhibitory effect of nicotinamide on production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in vitro and in vivo. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced in vitro TNF-alpha production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), was significantly inhibited with more than 1 x 10(-3) mol/l of nicotinamide, while interleukin-1-beta was not inhibited and interleukin-6 was slightly inhibited even with 10(-2) mol/l. Oral administration of nicotinamide with more than 62.5 mg/kg also significantly inhibited LPS-induced serum TNF-alpha production measured by ELISA and bioassay in Balb/c mice. Thus, nicotinamide has an inhibitory effect on TNF-alpha production that may be beneficial to TNF-alpha-mediated diseases.

  5. The effects of SB 216469, an antagonist which discriminates between the alpha 1A-adrenoceptor and the human prostatic alpha 1-adrenoceptor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chess-Williams, R.; Chapple, C. R.; Verfurth, F.; Noble, A. J.; Couldwell, C. J.; Michel, M. C.

    1996-01-01

    1. The affinity of the alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonist SB 216469 (also known as REC 15/2739) has been determined at native and cloned alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtypes by radioligand binding and at functional alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtypes in isolated tissues. 2. In radioligand binding studies with

  6. Lactobacillus casei secreting alpha-MSH induces the therapeutic effect on DSS-induced acute colitis in Balb/c Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sun-Woo; Lee, Chul-Ho; Kim, Jeong-Yoon; Kim, Jie-Youn; Sung, Moon-Hee; Poo, Haryoung

    2008-12-01

    The neuropeptide alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha- MSH) has anti-inflammatory property by downregulating the expressions of proinflammatory cytokines. Because alpha-MSH elicits the anti-inflammatory effect in various inflammatory disease models, we examined the therapeutic effect of oral administration of recombinant Lactobacillus casei, which secretes alpha-MSH (L. casei-alpha-MSH), on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in Balb/c mice. Thus, we constructed the alpha-MSH-secreting Lactobacillus casei by the basic plasmid, pLUAT-ss, which was composed of a PldhUTLS promoter and alpha-amylase signal sequence from Streptococcus bovis strain. Acute colitis was induced by oral administration of 5% DSS in drinking water for 7 days. To investigate the effect of L. casei-alpha-MSH on the colitis, L. casei or L. casei-alpha-MSH was orally administered for 7 days and their effects on body weight, mortality rate, cytokine production, and tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were observed. Administration of L. casei-alpha-MSH reduced the symptom of acute colitis as assessed by body weight loss (DSS alone: 14.45+/-0. 2 g; L. casei-alpha- MSH: 18.2+/-0.12 g), colitis score (DSS alone: 3.6+/-0.4; L. casei-alpha-MSH: 1.4+/-0.6), MPO activity (DSS alone: 42.7+/-4.5 U/g; L. casei-alpha-MSH: 10.25+/-0.5 U/g), survival rate, and histological damage compared with the DSS alone mice. L. casei-alpha-MSH-administered entire colon showed reduced in vitro production of proinflammatory cytokines and NF-kappaB activation. The alpha-MSH-secreting recombinant L. casei showed significant anti-inflammatory effects in the murine model of acute colitis and suggests a potential therapeutic role for this agent in clinical inflammatory bowel diseases.

  7. The relative effectiveness of inhaled alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides in producing lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boecker, B.B.; Hahn, F.F.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Guilmetter, R.A.; Griffith, W.C.; McClellan, R.O.

    1988-01-01

    Proper assessment of a long-term human health risks associated with inhaled radionuclides requires knowledge of dose to critical cells and tissues and relationships between dose and effect for different biological end points. Results from epidemiological studies of exposed human populations provided important information for such assessments. However, because the types of exposures are limited, these results need to be supplemented with more detailed information on dosimetry and biological effects available through studies in laboratory animals and in vitro systems. To provide health risk information for inhaled fission product and actinide aerosols, life-span studies are being conducted using beagle dogs and other species at the Lovelace Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute (ITRI). Results of two life-span studies in dogs involving inhalation of the beta emitter 91 Y in fused aluminosilicate particles or the alpha emitter 239 PuO 2 are reported here

  8. Effect of alpha-interferon alone and combined with other antineoplastic agents on renal cell carcinoma determined by the tetrazolium microculture assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, Y; Aso, Y

    1994-01-01

    The antiproliferative effect of various alpha-interferons (alpha-IFNs), alone or combined with other agents, on a renal cell carcinoma cell line was evaluated by the tetrazolium microculture assay to examine the rationale for combination therapies. Cells incubated in 96-week microculture plates at 5 x 10(3)/well were exposed to various agents for 3 days. There were no obvious differences in the growth inhibition caused by the 5 kinds of alpha-IFN examined as single agents. The combination of alpha-IFN with the following agents was also assessed: 5-fluorouracil (5FU), methotrexate (MTX), mitomycin C, bleomycin, cis-diaminedichloroplatinum (CDDP), vinblastine, etoposide (ETOP), alpha-IFN, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF), and alpha-difluoromethylornithine. Synergism was observed for the combination of alpha-IFN+TNF, while the other combinations had additive or subadditive effects. No interference or antagonism was found. Trimodal combinations of alpha-IFN+MTX with either 5FU, ETOP, or CDDP all showed subadditive effects. These results indicated that an increased antiproliferative effect, although not necessarily synergistic, was obtained by the combination of alpha-IFN with a variety of antineoplastic agents, providing a rationale to seek for combination therapies including alpha-IFN for treating renal cell carcinoma.

  9. A Comparison of the Effects of Alpha and Medical-Grade Honey Ointments on Cutaneous Wound Healing in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Paydar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This study compared the healing efficacy and possible adverse effects of topical Alpha and medical-grade honey ointments on cutaneous wounds in rats. Methods. To conduct the study, 22 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated into two equal groups: (1 rats with Alpha ointment applied to the wound surface area and (2 rats with medical-grade honey ointment applied to their wounds. The ointments were applied daily during the 21-day study period. Wound contraction was examined photographically with images taken on days 0, 7, and 21 after wounding. The healing process was histopathologically assessed using skin biopsies taken from the wound sites on days 7 and 21. Results. No statistically significant difference in mean wound surface area was observed between the two study groups. According to histopathological assessment, a significant reduction in the amount of collagen deposition (P value: 0.007 and neovascularisation (P value: 0.002 was seen in the Alpha-treated rats on day 21. No tissue necrosis occurred following the application of Alpha ointment. Conclusion. Daily topical usage of Alpha ointment on a skin wound can negatively affect the healing process by inhibiting neovascularization. Topical Alpha ointment can reduce the possibility of excessive scar formation by reducing collagen deposition.

  10. Effects of andrographolide on intrahepatic cholestasis induced by alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamphaya, Tanaporn; Chansela, Piyachat; Piyachaturawat, Pawinee; Suksamrarn, Apichart; Nathanson, Michael H; Weerachayaphorn, Jittima

    2016-10-15

    Cholestasis is a cardinal manifestation of liver diseases but effective therapeutic approaches are limited. Therefore, alternative therapy for treating and preventing cholestatic liver diseases is necessary. Andrographolide, a promising anticancer drug derived from the medicinal plant Andrographis paniculata, has diverse pharmacological properties and multi-spectrum therapeutic applications. However, it is unknown whether andrographolide has a hepatoprotective effect on intrahepatic cholestasis. The aims of this study were to investigate the protective effect and possible mechanisms of andrographolide in a rat model of acute intrahepatic cholestasis induced by alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT). Andrographolide was administered intragastrically for four consecutive days, with a single intraperitoneal injection of ANIT on the second day. Liver injury was evaluated biochemically and histologically together with hepatic gene and protein expression analysis. Rats pretreated with andrographolide prior to ANIT injection demonstrated lower levels of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, as well as bilirubin and bile acids as compared to rats treated with ANIT alone. Andrographolide also decreased the incidence and extent of periductular fibrosis and bile duct proliferation. Analysis of protein expression in livers from andrographolide-treated cholestatic rats revealed markedly decreased expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin and nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB). In conclusion, andrographolide has a potent protective property against ANIT-induced cholestatic liver injury. The mechanisms that underlie this protective effect are mediated through down-regulation of NF-κB expression and inhibition of hepatic stellate cell activation. These findings suggest that andrographolide could be a promising therapeutic option in prevention and slowing down the progression of cholestatic liver diseases. Copyright

  11. [Effect of synaptosomal cytosolic [3H]GABA pool depletion on secretory ability of alpha-latrotoxin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linets'ka, M V; Storchak, L H; Himmelreĭch, N H

    2002-01-01

    alpha-Latrotoxin, a presynaptic neurotoxin from the venom of Latrodectus mactans tredecimguttatus, induces massive [3H]GABA release from rat brain synaptosomes as a result of interaction with either Ca(2+)-dependent (neurexin 1 alpha or Ca(2+)-independent (latrophilin) membrane receptor. The main aim of the study was to elucidate whether the binding of alpha-latrotoxin to different types of receptors led to [3H]GABA secretion from one pool or in each case the source of neurotransmitter differs: in the presence of Ca2+ exocytosis is induced, while in the absence of Ca(2+)--outflow by mobile membrane GABA transporter from cytoplasm. We examined the effect of the depletion of cytosolic [3H]GABA pool by competitive inhibitors of the GABA transporter (nipecotic acid and 2,4-diaminobutyric acid) on the alpha-latrotoxin-stimulated neurotransmitter release. We also compared the influence of these agents on neurosecretion, evoked by depolarization with that evoked by alpha-latrotoxin. Depolarization was stimulated by 4-aminopyridine in the Ca(2+)-containing saline and high KCl in Ca(2+)-free medium. In synaptosomes treated with nipecotic acid unstimulated [3H]GABA release was significantly augmented and high KCl-evoked Ca(2+)-independent [3H]GABA release was essentially inhibited. But under the same conditions neurosecretion stimulated by alpha-latrotoxin greatly raised with respect to the control response. The similar results were obtained with the synaptosomes treated with 2,4-diaminobutyric acid. Another way to determine which of GABA pool is the target of alpha-latrotoxin action lay in analysis of the toxin effects on the preliminary depolarized synaptosomes. alpha-Latrotoxin influence was diminished by the preceding depolarization by 4-aminopyridine in Ca2+ presence. But after the high KCl stimulation effect of alpha-latrotoxin didn't change. These data suggest that alpha-latrotoxin triggers neurotransmitter release from synaptic vesicles via exocytosis. We suppose

  12. A study on effective of increasing right frontal alpha and decreasing left frontal alpha on treatment of major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaria Eskandari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Various studies have shown some relationship between brain wave abnormalies and depression. The current study aimed to examine the effectiveness of the real neurofeedback treatment compared with mock neurofeedback in decreasing major depression severity of symptoms and change on ? waves into a desirable pattern among some patients who suffer from major depression disorder. The study chooses six patients who were suffering from major depression sufferers and they were randomly placed in two groups called real neurofeedback and mock neurofeedback group (placebo. The two groups were treated for a twenty sessions twice a week. The two groups were examined before, during and after the treatment by Beck Depression Inventory II, Hamilton Depression Scale. The research data were examined through the analysis of the size effect, improvement percentage and charts. The data resulting from the size effect and the improvement percentage suggested that the real neurofeedback was more effective in regulating brain waves and in decreasing major depression disorder symptoms in comparison with the mock neuro-feedback and the groups were significantly different from the clinical point of view. The effectiveness of the real neurofeedback was not from the changes in placebo and it can be used as a complementary treatment in treating major depression disorder. The findings of the current research were congruent with those of the related studies.

  13. Inhibitory effect of leaf extract of Newbouldia laevis on the metabolic activities of alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyetunji T. Kolawole

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of ethanol extract of the leaves of Newbouldia laevis on the activity of α-amylase and α-glucosidase was investigated. Inhibitory effect of N. laevis extract on α-glucosidase was tested in vitro using baker’s yeast α-glucosidase and rat intestinal α-glucosidase while α-amylase inhibitory effect was assayed using rat pancreatic α-amylase. α-Glucosidase inhibitory effect of the extract was also tested in vivo in diabetic and non-diabetic rats. N. laevis extract exhibited good α-glucosidase inhibitory activity in vitro with IC50 values of 2.2 µg/mL and 43.5 µg/mL for baker’s yeast and rat intestinal α-glucosidase respectively. The extract also inhibited rat pancreatic α-amylase activity with IC50 value of 58.7 µg/mL. In both diabetic and non-diabetic rats, N. laevis extract caused a significant reduction in postprandial blood glucose level after oral sucrose load. The results of this study indicate that N. laevis extract exerts its glucose-lowering effect through inhibition of α-glucosidase and α-amylase.

  14. Changes in Temperature Have Opposing Effects on Current Amplitude in alpha 7 and alpha 4 beta 2 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jindřichová, Marie; Lansdell, S. J.; Millar, N. S.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 2 (2012), e32073 E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : effect of temperature * nicotinic acetylcholine receptor * voltage- clamp recording Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.730, year: 2012

  15. The effect of anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha agents on postoperative anastomotic complications in Crohn's disease: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hussuna, Alaa; Krag, Aleksander; Olaison, Gunnar; Bendtsen, Flemming; Gluud, Lise L

    2013-12-01

    Patients with Crohn's disease treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha agents may have an increased risk of surgical complications. We assessed the effect of anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha on postoperative complications in patients with Crohn's disease undergoing abdominal surgery. Studies were identified through electronic and manual searches. Observational studies on patients with Crohn's disease undergoing laparoscopic or open abdominal surgery were included. Anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha agents were administered within 3 months before surgery. The primary outcome was anastomotic complications including overt dehiscence, intra-abdominal abscess, and enteric fistulas. Fourteen studies on 679 patients in the intervention (anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha) group and 2363 controls were included. Random-effects meta-analysis found no difference in anastomotic complications between the 2 groups (7.6% versus 8.2%; risk ratio, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.56-1.48). There was clear heterogeneity between studies. In subgroup analyses, the anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha increased anastomotic complications in trials with a lower risk of bias, but not in the studies with a higher bias risk (risk ratio, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.03-2.60 and risk ratio, 0.17; 95% CI, 0.05-0.60). In the overall analysis and in studies with a lower bias risk, anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha agents increased the risk of nonanastomotic surgical complications, major medical complications, and minor medical complications. Limitations of observations studies. In studies with a low risk of bias, anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha agents increased the risk of anastomotic complications. Inadequate bias control may lead to an underestimated risk of anastomotic complications.

  16. Effects of magnetized alpha particles on lower hybrid heating and current drive in a reactor grade plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlo, P.; Krlin, L.; Tluchor, Z.

    1991-01-01

    The results of computer simulations of lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) for ITER parameters are presented. The damping of LH waves by alpha particles due to the interaction at high cyclotron resonances is obtained by solving the 2-D Fokker-Planck equation with the corresponding quasi-linear term (FPA code). This code is incorporated into a spatially 1-D LHCD code so as to obtain radial profiles of the radiofrequency (RF) power absorbed by electrons (1-D Fokker-Planck code) and alpha particles as well as the radial profile of the driven current. One-pass absorption is assumed and verified by a detailed analysis of LH rays for an ITER-like magnetic configuration. Noticeable absorption by alpha particles is observed only below ∼ 5 GHz of the generator frequency and is still acceptable down to ∼ 3 Ghz (19% of the input power P in, with a 16% reduction of the total driven current for P in = 50 MW). Two competing quasi-linear effects influence the damping rates: the RF field reduces the slopes of the alpha particle distribution function but, since the absorption is accompanied by acceleration of groups of alpha particles above their initial velocity, the RF field also increases the number of resonant particles. Both the global results and the damping rates are compared with those obtained for unmagnetized alpha particles and with the linear approximation. For frequencies above ∼ 3 GHz, the latter approach was found to significantly overestimate the absorption by alpha particles. Some further mechanisms not included in the code but having possible effects on the interaction are also discussed. (author). 21 refs, 11 figs, 1 tab

  17. The neuroprotective effects of tocotrienol rich fraction and alpha tocopherol against glutamate injury in astrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thilaga Rati Selvaraju

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Tocotrienol rich fraction (TRF is an extract of palm oil, which consists of 25% alpha tocopherol (α-TCP and 75% tocotrienols. TRF has been shown to possess potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, neuroprotection, and cholesterol lowering activities. Glutamate is the main excitatory amino acid neurotransmitter in the central nervous system of mammalian, which can be excitotoxic, and it has been suggested to play a key role in neurodegenerative disorders like Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases. In this present study, the effects of vitamin E (TRF and α-TCP in protecting astrocytes against glutamate injury were elucidated. Astrocytes induced with 180 mM of glutamate lead to significant cell death. However, glutamate mediated cytotoxicity was diminished via pre and post supplementation of TRF and α-TCP. Hence, vitamin E acted as a potent antioxidant agent in recovering mitochondrial injury due to elevated oxidative stress, and enhanced better survivability upon glutamate toxicity.  

  18. Use of studies with laboratory animals to assess the potential early health effects of combined internal alpha and beta irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, B.R.; Hahn, F.F.; Guilmette, R.A.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Snipes, M.B.; Boecker, B.B.; McClellan, R.O.

    1986-01-01

    The potential health impacts of radionuclides released in nuclear accidents are of major concern to the public and to regulatory and other governmental agencies. One mode of potential exposure is by inhalation of airborne radionuclides, which could lead to combined internal irradiation by high (alpha) and low (beta) linear energy transfer (LET) radiations. Epidemiological data for health effects of human inhalation exposure are too limited to derive reliable estimates of risks of potential health effects. However, results of studies in which beagle dogs were exposed by inhalation to insoluble radioactive aerosols can be used to estimate expected effects in humans. Data for mortality from radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis caused by internal irradiation of dog lungs by alpha or beta radiations are used to derive the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of alpha irradiation compared to beta irradiation; predict the expected combined effects of alpha and beta irradiation of dog lungs; and extrapolate the results to humans. The extrapolation to humans assumed that, for similar ages at exposure, dog and human lungs have similar sensitivities to lung irradiation. Results of theoretical calculations related to mortality from early effects indicated that the synergistic effects of high- and low-LET radiations should depend on the percentages of the total dose contributed by high- and low-LET radiations, and for very low or very high doses, synergistic effects should be negligible. 23 refs., 8 figs

  19. Functional localization and effective connectivity of cortical theta and alpha oscillatory activity during an attention task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Kitaura

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this paper is to investigate cortical electric neuronal activity as an indicator of brain function, in a mental arithmetic task that requires sustained attention, as compared to the resting state condition. The two questions of interest are the cortical localization of different oscillatory activities, and the directional effective flow of oscillatory activity between regions of interest, in the task condition compared to resting state. In particular, theta and alpha activity are of interest here, due to their important role in attention processing. Methods: We adapted mental arithmetic as an attention ask in this study. Eyes closed 61-channel EEG was recorded in 14 participants during resting and in a mental arithmetic task (“serial sevens subtraction”. Functional localization and connectivity analyses were based on cortical signals of electric neuronal activity estimated with sLORETA (standardized low resolution electromagnetic tomography. Functional localization was based on the comparison of the cortical distributions of the generators of oscillatory activity between task and resting conditions. Assessment of effective connectivity was based on the iCoh (isolated effective coherence method, which provides an appropriate frequency decomposition of the directional flow of oscillatory activity between brain regions. Nine regions of interest comprising nodes from the dorsal and ventral attention networks were selected for the connectivity analysis. Results: Cortical spectral density distribution comparing task minus rest showed significant activity increase in medial prefrontal areas and decreased activity in left parietal lobe for the theta band, and decreased activity in parietal-occipital regions for the alpha1 band. At a global level, connections among right hemispheric nodes were predominantly decreased during the task condition, while connections among left hemispheric nodes were predominantly increased. At more

  20. Effect of alpha-linolenic, capric and lauric acid on the fatty acid biosynthesis in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sado-Kamdem, Sylvain L; Vannini, Lucia; Guerzoni, M Elisabetta

    2009-02-28

    The antimicrobial activity of alpha-linolenic, capric and lauric acids on Staphylococcus aureus was studied in relation to their effect on the de novo fatty acid biosynthesis. Labelled acetate was used as integrated carbon source and traced in the de novo fatty acid by using a GC-Mass spectrometer and the single ion monitoring (SIM) technique. The detection of the incorporation of the labelled carbon into the individual cell fatty acids (FAs) provided an insight into the different effects of alpha-linolenic, capric and lauric acids on the FA biosynthesis. The results suggested that FAs pathway is the major target of alpha-linolenic acid and that other enzymes in addition to FabI are involved in S. aureus response mechanism when medium chain fatty acids are present.

  1. Trans-generational effects induced by alpha and gamma ionizing radiations at Daphnia magna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parisot, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic activities related to the nuclear industry contribute to continuous discharges of radionuclides into terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Over the past decades, the ecological risk of ionizing radiation has become a growing public, regulatory and scientific concern for ecosystems protection. Until recently, only few studies focus on exposure situations at low doses of irradiation, although these situations are representative of realistic environmental conditions. Understanding how ionizing radiation affects species over several generations and at various levels of biological organization is a major research goal in radioecology. The aim of this PhD was to bring new knowledge on the effects of ionizing radiation during a multi-generational expose of the aquatic invertebrate, Daphnia magna. A two-step strategy was implemented. First, an external gamma radiation at environmentally relevant dose rates was performed on D. magna over three successive generations (F0, F1 and F2). The objective of this experiment was to examine whether low dose rates of radiation induced increasing effects on survival, growth and reproduction of daphnids over generations and to test a possible accumulation and transmission of DNA alterations from adults to offspring. Results showed an accumulation and a transmission of DNA alterations over generations, together with an increase in effect severity on growth and reproduction from generation F0 to generation F2. Transiently more efficient DNA repair leading to some recovery at the organism level was suggested in generation F1. Second, data from the external gamma irradiation and those from an earlier study of internal alpha contamination were analyzed with DEBtox models (Dynamic Energy Budget applied to toxicology), to identify and compare the causes of the trans-generational increase in effect severity between the two types of radiation. In each case, two distinct metabolic modes of action were necessary to explain effects on

  2. Effects of pentoxifylline on TNF-alpha and lung histopathology in HCL-induced lung injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itamar Souza de Oliveira-Júnior

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of pentoxifylline on hydrochloric acid-induced lung lesions in rats subjected to mechanical ventilation. METHODS: Twenty male, adult Wistar-EPM-1 rats were anesthetized and randomly grouped (n=5 animals per group as follows: control-MV (mechanical ventilation, MV group; bilateral instillation of HCl (HCl group; bilateral instillation of HCl followed by pentoxifylline (50 mg/kg bw infusion (HCl+PTX group and pentoxifylline infusion followed by bilateral instillation of HCl (PTX+HCl group. At 20, 30, 90 and 180 min after treatments, the blood partial pressures of CO2 and O2 were measured. The animals were euthanized, and bronchoalveolar lavages were taken to determine the contents of total proteins, corticosterone and TNF-alpha. Samples of lung tissue were used for histomorphometric studies and determining the wet-to-dry (W/D lung weight ratio. RESULTS: In the MV group, rats had alveolar septal congestion, and, in the HCl group, a remarkable recruitment of neutrophils and macrophages into the alveoli was noticed; these events were reduced in the animals with PTX+HCl. The partial pressure of oxygen increased in PTX+HCl animals (121±5 mmHg as compared with the HCl (62±6 mmHg and HCl+PTX (67±3 mmHg groups within 30 minutes. TNF-alpha levels in bronchoalveolar lavage were significantly higher in the HCl group (458±50 pg/mL, reduced in the HCl+PTX group (329±45 pg/mL and lowest in the PTX+HCl group (229±41 pg/mL. The levels of corticosterone in bronchoalveolar lavage were significantly lower in the HCl (8±1.3 ng/mL and HCl+PTX group (16±2 ng/mL and were highest in the PTX+HCl (27±1.9 ng/mL. CONCLUSION: Pretreatment with PTX improves oxygenation, reduces TNF-alpha concentration and increases the concentration of corticosterone in bronchoalveolar lavage upon lung lesion induced by HCl.

  3. Protective effects of plasma alpha-tocopherols on the risk of inorganic arsenic-related urothelial carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Chi-Jung [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Pu, Yeong-Shiau [Department of Urology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Ying-Ting [Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Su, Chien-Tien [Department of Family Medicine, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wu, Chia-Chang [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Urology, Taipei Medical Universtiy-Shuang Ho Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Shiue, Horng-Sheng [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Huang, Chao-Yuan [Department of Urology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsueh, Yu-Mei, E-mail: ymhsueh@tmu.edu.tw [Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2011-02-15

    Arsenic plays an important role in producing oxidative stress in cultured cells. To investigate the interaction between high oxidative stress and low arsenic methylation capacity on arsenic carcinogenesis, a case-control study was conducted to evaluate the relationship among the indices of oxidative stress, such as urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyquanine (8-OHdG), as well as plasma micronutrients and urinary arsenic profiles on urothelial carcinoma (UC) risk. Urinary 8-OHdG was measured using high-sensitivity enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. The urinary arsenic species were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography and hydride generator-atomic absorption spectrometry. Plasma micronutrient levels were analyzed using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The present study showed a significant protective effect of plasma alpha-tocopherol on UC risk. Plasma alpha-tocopherol levels were significantly inversely related to urinary total arsenic concentrations and inorganic arsenic percentage (InAs%), and significantly positively related to dimethylarsinic acid percentage (DMA%). There were no correlations between plasma micronutrients and urinary 8-OHdG. Study participants with lower alpha-tocopherol and higher urinary total arsenic, higher InAs%, higher MMA%, and lower DMA% had a higher UC risk than those with higher alpha-tocopherol and lower urinary total arsenic, lower InAs%, lower MMA%, and higher DMA%. These results suggest that plasma alpha-tocopherol might modify the risk of inorganic arsenic-related UC. - Research Highlights: {yields} Plasma alpha-tocopherol levels were significantly inversely related to UC risk. {yields} There were no correlations between plasma micronutrients and urinary 8-OHdG. {yields} People with lower alpha-tocopherol and higher total arsenic had increased UC risk.

  4. Effects of prostaglandin F2alpha treatment on the behavior of pseudopregnant pigs in an extensive environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, C L; Murfitt, P J; Boulton, M I; Pain, J; Burne, T H

    2000-05-01

    In seminatural environments, prepartum sows leave the herd and construct a maternal nest (a dug out hollow lined with vegetation) prior to the birth of their piglets. The endocrine drives motivating this behavior are not understood, but may involve prostaglandin (PG) F2alpha. This study examined the effect of PGF2alpha treatment on the behavior of pseudopregnant gifts housed in a large enclosure. Pseudopregnancy was induced using 5 mg/ml estradiol valerate/day im from days 11 to 15 of the estrous cycle (first day of estrus = day 0). The gifts' behavior was recorded on a control day, during which no treatment was given, and a test day (= 45.9 +/- 0.42 days of pseudopregnancy) when gilts received either 15 mg PGF2alpha (dinoprost: Lutalyse, Upjohn, Crawley, UK, n = 11) or 0.9% saline (n = 10) im at 11.00 h. PGF2alpha-treated gilts traveled further and were more frequently >10 m from the nearest pig than saline-treated animals. In the hour following injection, PGF2alpha-treated animals also showed increased frequencies of rooting and pawing the ground and stood for longer than saline-treated animals. However, gathering and carrying nest materials were not increased. These results suggest that PGF2alpha, given as a single dose to extensively housed gilts, initiated many, but not all, of the behaviors characteristic of prepartum nest building. The dose and duration of PGF2alpha treatment may have limited the observed behaviors. In addition, environmental feedback is likely to affect the degree to which some nest building behaviors are expressed.

  5. TNF-alpha in cancer treatment: molecular insights, antitumor effects, and clinical utility.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horssen, R. van; Hagen, T.L.M. ten; Eggermont, A.M.M.

    2006-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), isolated 30 years ago, is a multifunctional cytokine playing a key role in apoptosis and cell survival as well as in inflammation and immunity. Although named for its antitumor properties, TNF has been implicated in a wide spectrum of other diseases. The

  6. The radiolysis of CMPO: effects of acid, metal complexation and alpha vs. gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce J. Mincher; Stephen P. Mezyk; Gary S. Groenewold

    2016-05-01

    Abstract The group actinide/lanthanide complexing agent octylphenylcarbamoylmethyl phosphine oxide (CMPO) has been examined for its radiation stability by measuring the kinetics of its reactions with free radicals in both the aqueous and organic phases for the free and metal-complexed ligand, identifying its degradation products for both alpha and gamma irradiation, measuring the effects on solvent extraction performance, and measuring the G-values for its degradation under various conditions. This includes the G-values for CMPO in the absence of, and in contact with the acidic aqueous phase, where it is shown that the acidic aqueous phase provides radio-protection for this ligand. It was found that both solvent and metal complexation affect the kinetics of the reaction of the •NO3 radical, a product of HNO3 radiolysis, with CMPO. For example, CMPO complexed with lanthanides has a rate constant for this reaction an order of magnitude higher than for the free ligand, and the reaction for the free ligand in the organic phase is about three times faster than in the aqueous phase. In steady state radiolysis kinetics it was determined that HNO3, although not NO3- anion, provides radio-protection to CMPO, with the G-value for its degradation decreasing with increasing acidity, until it was almost completely suppressed by irradiation in contact with 5 M HNO3. The same degradation products were produced by irradiation with alpha and gamma-sources, except that the relative abundances of these products varied. For example, the product of C-C bond scission was produced only in low amounts for gamma-radiolysis, but it was an important product for samples irradiated with a He ion beam. These results are compared to the new data appearing in the literature on DGA radiolysis, since CMPO and the DGAs both contain the amide functional group.

  7. NAD(P)H oxidase/nitric oxide interactions in peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR){alpha}-mediated cardiovascular effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newaz, Mohammad [Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Texas Southern University, Houston, TX 77004 (United States); Blanton, Ahmad [Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Texas Southern University, Houston, TX 77004 (United States); Fidelis, Paul [Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Texas Southern University, Houston, TX 77004 (United States); Oyekan, Adebayo [Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Texas Southern University, Houston, TX 77004 (United States)]. E-mail: Oyekan_AO@TSU.EDU

    2005-11-11

    Activation of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR){alpha} and its protective role in cardiovascular function has been reported but the exact mechanism(s) involved is not clear. As we have shown that PPAR{alpha} ligands increased nitric oxide (NO) production and cardiovascular function is controlled by a balance between NO and free radicals, we hypothesize that PPAR{alpha} activation tilts the balance between NO and free radicals and that this mechanism defines the protective effects of PPAR{alpha} ligands on cardiovascular system. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was greater in PPAR{alpha} knockout (KO) mice compared with its wild type (WT) litter mates (130 {+-} 10 mmHg versus 107 {+-} 4 mmHg). L-NAME (100 mg/L p.o.), the inhibitor of NO production abolished the difference between PPAR{alpha} KO and WT mice. In kidney homogenates, tissue lipid hydroperoxide generation was greater in KO mice (11.8 {+-} 1.4 pM/mg versus 8.3 {+-} 0.6 pM/mg protein). This was accompanied by a higher total NOS activity (46 {+-} 6%, p < 0.05) and a {approx}3 fold greater Ca{sup 2+}-dependent NOS activity in kidney homogenates of untreated PPAR{alpha} WT compared with the KO mice. Clofibrate, a PPAR{alpha} ligand, increased NOS activity in WT but not KO mice. Bezafibrate (30 mg/kg) reduced SBP in conscious rats (19 {+-} 4%, p < 0.05), increased urinary NO excretion (4.06 {+-} 0.53-7.07 {+-} 1.59 {mu}M/24 h; p < 0.05) and reduced plasma 8-isoprostane level (45.8 {+-} 15 {mu}M versus 31.4 {+-} 8 {mu}M), and NADP(H) oxidase activity (16 {+-} 5%). Implantation of DOCA pellet (20 mg s.c.) in uninephrectomized mice placed on 1% NaCl drinking water increased SBP by a margin that was markedly greater in KO mice (193 {+-} 13 mmHg versus 130 {+-} 12 mmHg). In the rat, DOCA increased SBP and NAD(P)H oxidase activity and both effects were diminished by clofibrate. In addition, clofibrate reduced ET-1 production in DOCA/salt hypertensive rats. Thus, apart from inhibition of ET-1 production

  8. The effect of alpha-thalassemia on cord blood red cell indices and interaction with sickle cell gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quadri, Mohammad I.; Islam, Sherief I.A.M.; Nasserullah, Z.

    2000-01-01

    Alpha-thalassemia is known to be prevalent in the Eastern region of Saudi Arabia. There are no large scale reports regarding the effect of alpha-thalassemia on red cell indices of cord blood from Saudi Arabia. Similarly, there are reports regarding the interaction of alpha-thalassemia and the sickle-cell gene in relation to red cell indices in cord blood. To address these issues, we undertook a study on neonatal cold blood samples. In a prospective study, cord blood samples from 504 neonates from the Qatif area of the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia were analyzed for complete blood counts (CBC) and cellulose acetate Hb electrophoresis. Hb S was confirmed by citrate agar Hb electrophoresis. There were 243 case samples with normal Hb electrophoresis (Hb A 27.2+- 7% and Hb F 72.6+-7.7%). Their mean Hb (g/dL), RBC (x10/L), Hct (%), MCV (pg), MCHC (g/dL), RDW-SD (fl) and RDW-CV (%) were 15.05+-1.6, 4.5+-0.5, 47.4+-5.3, 106+-8, 33.6+-2.3, 31.8+-1.7, 69.2+-9.5 and 17.9+-1.7, respectively. There were 136 cases with alpha-thalassemia trait (alphaTT), 57 cases with sickle cell trait (SCT) and 50 cases of sickle cell trait with alplha-thalassemia trait (SCT/ alphaTT). There were ten cases of Hb H disease (6 definite), including one with sickle cell disease (SCD) and two with SCT, Hb Bart's 23.9%-43.6%; four probable with Hb Bart's 10.9%-16.1% and one with SCT. The effect on red cell parameters in Hb H disease were most pronounced. In addition, there seven cases of SCD, four of whom had coexistent alpha-thalassemia trait (SCD/alphaTT). The prevalence of alpha-thalassemia in this cohort of Saudi population was 39.99%. Hb H disease appeared as common as SCD. Sickle cell gene was seen in 23.4% of neonatal samples. Apha-thalassemia gene significantly reduces MCH, MCV, RDW-SD, Hct, Hb and increase RBC count in both normal or sickle cell trait neonates. Generally, the variation of red cell parameters is directly proportional to the amount of Hb Bart's in the cord blood. Sickle cell

  9. Neuroprotective Effects of Alpha-Mangostin on MPP+-Induced Apoptotic Cell Death in Neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Janhom, Prachya; Dharmasaroja, Permphan

    2015-01-01

    In vitro studies have shown that extracts from mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.) act as antioxidants and cytoprotective agents against oxidative damage. The protective effect of alpha-mangostin, the major xanthone found in the pericarp of the mangosteen, in cellular models of Parkinson’s disease (PD), has not been investigated. This study aims to investigate whether alpha-mangostin could protect SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells from MPP+-induced apoptosis. The effects of alpha-mangostin on MP...

  10. Effect of holding time in the ({alpha} + {gamma}) temperature range on toughness of specially austempered ductile iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, T.; Yamada, S. [Toyohashi Univ. of Technology (Japan). Dept. of Production Systems Engineering

    1996-07-01

    Austempered ductile iron (ADI) finds wide application in the industry because of its high strength and toughness. The QB{prime} process has been developed to produce a fine microstructure with high fracture toughness in ADI. This process involves reaustenitizing a prequenched ductile iron in the ({alpha} + {gamma}) temperature range followed by an isothermal treatment in the bainitic transformation temperature range. In the present work, the effect of holding time in the ({alpha} + {gamma}) temperature range on the structure and un-notched toughness of ADI has been studied. Prior to the austempering treatment, the as-cast ductile iron was heat treated to obtain martensitic, ferritic, and pearlitic matrix structures. In the case of prequenched material (martensitic matrix), the un-notched impact toughness increased as a function of holding time in the ({alpha} + {gamma}) temperature range. The reaustenitization heat treatment also resulted in the precipitation of fine carbide particles, identified as (Fe,Cr,Mn){sub 3}C. It was shown that the increase in holding time in the ({alpha} + {gamma}) temperature range leads to a reduction in the number of carbide particles. In the case of a ferritic prior structure, a long duration hold in the ({alpha} + {gamma}) temperature range resulted in the coarsening of the structure with a marginal increase in the toughness. In the case of a pearlitic prior structure, the toughness increased with holding time. This was attributed to the decomposition of the relatively stable carbide around the eutectic cell boundary with longer holding times.

  11. Effects of local alpha2-adrenergic receptor blockade on adipose tissue lipolysis during prolonged systemic adrenaline infusion in normal man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Lene; Enevoldsen, Lotte H; Stallknecht, Bente

    2008-01-01

    During prolonged adrenaline infusion, lipolysis peaks within 30 min and thereafter tends to decline, and we hypothesized that the stimulation of local adipose tissue alpha2-adrenergic receptors accounts for this decline. The lipolytic effect of a prolonged intravenous adrenaline infusion combined....... Regional adipose tissue blood flow was measured by the (133)Xe clearance technique. Regional glycerol output (lipolytic rate) was calculated from these measurements and simultaneous measurements of arterial glycerol concentrations. Adrenaline infusion increased lipolysis in all three depots (data...... circulating adrenaline concentrations, and the decrease in lipolysis in subcutaneous adipose tissue under prolonged adrenaline stimulation is thus not attributed to alpha2-adrenergic receptor inhibition of lipolysis. However, in the preperitoneal adipose tissue depot, alpha2-adrenergic receptor tone plays...

  12. Alpha clustering in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgson, P.E.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of nucleon clustering in nuclei are described, with reference to both nuclear structure and nuclear reactions, and the advantages of using the cluster formalism to describe a range of phenomena are discussed. It is shown that bound and scattering alpha-particle states can be described in a unified way using an energy-dependent alpha-nucleus potential. (author)

  13. Effect of alpha-lipoic acid on boar spermatozoa quality during freezing-thawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Tao; Jiang, Zhong-Liang; Li, Cong-Jun; Hu, Xiao-Chen; Li, Qing-Wang

    2016-04-01

    Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) is known to be a natural antioxidant. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cryoprotective effect of ALA on the motility of boar spermatozoa and its antioxidant effect on boar spermatozoa during freezing-thawing. Different concentrations (2.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0 or 10.0 mg/ml) of ALA were added to the extender used to freeze boar semen, and the effects on the quality and endogenous antioxidant enzyme activities of frozen-thawed spermatozoa were assessed. The results indicated that the addition of ALA to the extender resulted in a higher percentage of motile spermatozoa post-thaw (P < 0.05). The activities of superoxide dismutase, lactate dehydrogenase, glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase and catalase improved after adding ALA to the extender (P < 0.05). Artificial insemination results showed that pregnancy rate and litter size were significantly higher at 6.0 mg/ml in the ALA group than in the control group (P < 0.05). In conclusion, ALA conferred a cryoprotective capacity to the extender used for boar semen during the process of freezing-thawing, and the optimal concentration of ALA for the frozen extender was 6.0 mg/ml.

  14. Increased alpha-linolenic acid intake lowers C-reactive protein, but has no effect on markers of atherosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemelmans, WJE; Lefrandt, JD; Feskens, EJM; van Haelst, PL; Broer, J; Meyboom-de Jong, B; May, JF; Cohen Tervaert, Jan; Smit, AJ

    Objective: To investigate the effects of increased alpha-linolenic acid (ALA)-intake on intima-media thickness (IMT), oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) antibodies, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), C-reactive protein (CRP), and interleukins 6 and 10. Design: Randomized

  15. Quark mass corrections to the perturbative thrust and its effect on the determination of alpha sub s

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, S

    2002-01-01

    We consider the effects of quark masses to the perturbative thrust in e sup + e sup - annihilation. In particular we show that perturbative power corrections resulting from non-zero quark masses considerably alters the size of the non-perturbative power corrections and consequently, significantly changes the fitted value of alpha sub s. (author)

  16. Effects of alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist doxazosin on MDR1-mediated multidrug resistance and transcellular transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takara, Kohji; Sakaeda, Toshiyuki; Kakumoto, Mikio; Tanigawara, Yusuke; Kobayashi, Hironao; Okumura, Katsuhiko; Ohnishi, Noriaki; Yokoyama, Teruyoshi

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of doxazosin, an alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist, on P-glycoprotein/MDR1-mediated multidrug resistance (MDR) and the transport of anticancer drugs. The effects of doxazosin, prazosin, and terazosin on MDR1-mediated MDR were assessed in human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells and the MDR1-overexpressing derivative Hvrl00-6, established by stepwise increases of the vinblastine concentration in the culture medium. The effects of doxazosin on the transcellular transport and intracellular accumulation of [3H]vinblastine, [3H]daunorubicin, and [3H]digoxin, all MDR1 substrates, were evaluated using LLC-GA5-COL150 cell monolayers, established by transfection of human MDR1 cDNA into porcine kidney epithelial LLC-PK1 cells. The sensitivity to vinblastine and paclitaxel of Hvrl00-6 cells was increased at 3.4- and 17.5-fold, respectively, by the addition of 1 microM doxazosin, whereas prazosin and terazosin had weaker or no such effects. Prazosin at 1 microM had a reversal effect on the sensitivity to vinblastine, whereas terazosin had no effect. In transport experiments, doxazosin concentration dependently increased the apical-to-basal transport of radiolabeled drugs in LLC-GA5-COL150 cells, but did not show remarkable effects on the basal-to-apical transport. In addition, doxazosin restored the intracellular accumulation in a concentration-dependent manner in LLC-GA5-COL150 cells. Doxazosin may partly reverse MDR by inhibiting MDR1-mediated transport, making it a candidate lead compound in the development of a reversing agent for MDR.

  17. Age- dependent effect of Alzheimer’s risk variant of CLU on EEG alpha rhythm in non-demented adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya ePonomareva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Polymorphism in the genomic region harboring the CLU gene (rs11136000 has been associated with the risk for Alzheimer’s disease (AD. CLU C allele is assumed to confer risk for AD and the allele T may have a protective effect.We investigated the influence of the AD-associated CLU genotype on a common neurophysiological trait of brain activity (resting-state alpha-rhythm activity in non-demented adults and elucidated whether this influence is modified over the course of aging. We examined quantitative EEG (qEEG in cohort of non-demented individuals (age range 20-80 divided into young (age range 20-50 and old (age range 51-80 cohorts and stratified by CLU polymorphism. To rule out the effect of the ApoE genotype on EEG characteristics, only subjects without the ApoE epsilon4 allele were included in the study.The homozygous presence of the AD risk variant CLU CC in non-demented subjects was associated with an increase of alpha3 absolute power. Moreover, the influence of CLU genotype on alpha3 was found to be higher in the subjects older than 50 years of age. The study also showed age-dependent alterations of alpha topographic distribution that occur independently of the CLU genotype.The increase of upper alpha power has been associated with hippocampal atrophy in patients with mild cognitive impairment (Moretti et al., 2012a. In our study, the CLU CC- dependent increase in upper alpha rhythm, particularly enhanced in elderly non-demented individuals, may imply that the genotype is related to preclinical dysregulation of hippocampal neurophysiology in aging and that this factor may contribute to pathogenesis of AD.

  18. Alpha Elements' Effects on Planet Formation and the Hunt for Extragalactic Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penny, Matthew; Rodriguez, Joseph E.; Beatty, Thomas; Zhou, George

    2018-01-01

    A star's likelihood of hosting a giant planet is well known to be strongly dependent on metallicity. However, little is known about what elements cause this correlation (e.g. bulk metals, iron, or alpha elements such as silicon and oxygen). This is likely because most planet searches target stars in the Galactic disk, and due to Galactic chemical evolution, alpha element abundances are themselves correlated with metallicity within a population. We investigate the feasibility of simultaneous transiting planet search towards the alpha-poor Sagittarius dwarf galaxy and alpha-rich Galactic bulge in a single field of view of DECam, that would enable a comparative study of planet frequency over an [alpha/Fe] baseline of ~0.4 dex. We show that a modestly sized survey could detect planet candidates in both populations, but that false positive rejection in Sgr Dwarf may be prohibitively expensive. Conversely, two-filter survey observations alone would be sufficient to rule out a large fraction of bulge false positives, enabling statistical validation of candidates with a modest follow-up investment. Although over a shorter [alpha/Fe] baseline, this survey would provide a test of whether it is alpha or iron that causes the planet metallicity correlation.

  19. Protective Effect of Alpha Lipoic Acid on Rat Sciatic Nerve Ischemia Reperfusion Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozan Turamanlar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alpha lipoic acid is a potent antioxidant that plays numerous roles in human health. This study examined the effect of ALA on rat sciatic nerve ischemia reperfusion damage. Aims: Protective effect of alpha lipoic acid (ALA on sciatic nerve following ischemia-reperfusion in rats was investigated by using light microscopy and biochemical methods. Provided that the protective effect of ALA on sciatic nerve is proven, we think the damage to the sciatic nerve that has already occurred or might occur in patients for various reasons maybe prevented or stopped by giving ALA in convenient doses. Study Design: Animal experiment. Methods: Forty-two adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-300 grams were used in this study. Rats were randomly divided into six groups including one control (Group 1, one sham (Group 2, two ischemia-reperfusion (Groups 3 and 4 and two treatment groups (Groups5 and 6. Doses of 60 and 100 mg/kg ALA were given (Group 5 and 6 intra peritoneally twice, 1 and 24 hours before the ischemia to each treatment group. Ischemia was carried out the abdominal aorta starting from the distal part of the renal vein for two hours followed by reperfusion for three hours. In immunohistochemical methods, fibronectin immunoreactivity was analyzed. For biochemical analyses, the tissues were taken in eppendorf microtubes and superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx enzyme activities as well as malondialdehyde (MDA and nitricoxide (NO levels were measured. Results: Fibronectin was observed to have increased significantly in the ischemia group; on the other hand, it was observed to have decreased in parallel to the doses in the ALA groups. Biochemical studies showed that SOD and GSHPx declined with ischemia-reperfusion, but the activities of these enzymes were increased in the treatment groups in parallel with the dose. It was found that increased MDA levels with ischemia-reperfusion were decreased in parallel with ALA dose

  20. Acute effect of oral, intraperitoneal, and intravenous 1 alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol on markers of bone metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joffe, P; Ladefoged, S D; Cintin, C

    1994-01-01

    ,25-(OH)2D3 was measured. DESIGN: Single doses of 1 alpha-OHD3 (80 ng/kg body wt) were given in randomized cross-over fashion, orally, intraperitoneally (i.p.) and intravenously (i.v.) on three occasions. Blood was sampled at 0, 1, 6, 12, and 24 h after administration of 1 alpha-OHD3. MAIN RESULTS......: Following oral administration of 1 alpha-OHD3, a decrease in serum alkaline phosphatase was seen when levels at 1 and 6 h were compared to baseline (P trend in serum Ca2+ throughout the study (P

  1. THYMUS PEPTIDES (THYMULIN, THYMOSIN ALPHA 1 AND THYMOSIN BETA 4 INHIBITING EFFECTS ON THE INTRINSIC BLOOD COAGULATION PATHWAY IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negrin Negrev

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Thymus peptides (thymulin, thymosin alpha 1 and thymosin beta 4 inhibiting effects on the intrinsic blood coagulation pathway in rats Background and purpose: Hemostasis is a basic homeostatic mechanism protecting the body from thrombosis or haemorrhage. A number of pathological conditions, including multiple endocrine disorders modulate the balance between pro- and anticoagulation factors and establish conditions of hyper- or hypocoagulability. Endocrine effects of thymus gland on blood coagulation are not completely elucidated, and data existing on the theme are relatively scarce and partially controversial. The present study was designed to investigate thymus peptides (thymulin, thymosin alpha 1 and thymosin beta 4 effects on key intrinsic pathway plasma clotting factors XII, XI, IX, X and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT – a principal marker of blood coagulation via intrinsic pathway of hemocoagulation, in rats. Materials and methods: Plasma clotting factor activities and aPTT were studied on 52 male Wistar intact rats after 3 day s.c. application of the thymic peptides envisaged using routine kinetic coagulometry. Results of the study indicate a significant reduction of FXII activity by thymulin and thymosin alpha 1, and FXI and FIX activity by thymulin and thymosin beta 4. Conclusion: Upper results support the conclusion that thymus peptides thymulin, thymosin alpha 1 and thymosin beta 4 application in rats imposes a distinct tendency of hypocoagulability.

  2. Effect of long-term exposure to mobile phone radiation on alpha-Int1 gene sequence of Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahin-jafari, Ariyo; Bayat, Mansour; Shahhosseiny, Mohammad Hassan; Tajik, Parviz; Roudbar-mohammadi, Shahla

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, communication industries have witnessed a tremendous expansion, while, the biological effects of electromagnetic waves have not been fully elucidated. Current study aimed at evaluating the mutagenic effect of long-term exposure to 900-MHz radiation on alpha-Int1 gene sequences of Candida albicans. A standard 900 MHz radiation generator was used for radiation. 10 ml volumes from a stock suspension of C. albicans were transferred into 10 polystyrene tubes. Five tubes were exposed at 4 °C to a fixed magnitude of radiation with different time periods of 10, 70, 210, 350 and 490 h. The other 5 tubes were kept far enough from radiation. The samples underwent genomic DNA extraction. PCR amplification of alpha-Int1 gene sequence was done using one set of primers. PCR products were resolved using agarose gel electrophoresis and the nucleotide sequences were determined. All samples showed a clear electrophoretic band around 441 bp and further sequencing revealed the amplified DNA segments are related to alpha-Int1 gene of the yeast. No mutations in the gene were seen in radiation exposed samples. Long-term exposure of the yeast to mobile phone radiation under the above mentioned conditions had no mutagenic effect on alpha-Int1 gene sequence. PMID:27081370

  3. Effect of Low-Concentration, Nonmydriatic Selective Alpha-Adrenergic Agonist Eyedrops on Upper Eyelid Position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Taís B; Lummertz, Atauíne P; Bocaccio, Francisco J L; Procianoy, Fernando

    2017-02-01

    Ptosis after botulinum toxin injection is a disturbing complication. Decongestant and antiglaucoma eyedrops are frequently prescribed for temporary improvement of eyelid ptosis. Although frequently cited on informal communications, the effect of these drugs on eyelid position has never been compared in a formal study. To measure the effect of low-concentration, nonmydriatic selective alpha agonist eyedrops on upper eyelid position. This nonrandomized clinical trial enrolled 20 healthy subjects aged 18 to 50 years. The upper margin-reflex distance (MRD1) was measured before, 30, 60, and 120 minutes after administration of 1 drop of brimonidine 0.2%, phenylephrine 0.12%, or naphazoline 0.05% to the left eye. There was no statistically significant difference in mean MRD1 between the brimonidine and phenylephrine groups when comparing baseline to all other study time points. After administration of naphazoline 0.05%, MRD1 had a mean increase of 0.56 ± 0.11 mm (p upper eyelid ptosis in selected patients.

  4. Dual Effects of Alpha-Arbutin on Monophenolase and Diphenolase Activities of Mushroom Tyrosinase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Liang; Wu, Yang; Liu, Youting; Chen, Yiming; Zhang, Peng

    2014-01-01

    The effects of α-arbutin on the monophenolase and diphenolase activities of mushroom tyrosinase were investigated. The results showed that α-arbutin inhibited monophenolase activity but it activated diphenolase activity. For monophenolase activity, IC50 value was 4.5 mmol·L−1 and 4.18 mmol·L−1 of α-arbutin could extend the lag time from 40.5 s to 167.3 s. Alpha- arbutin is proposed to be regarded as a triphenolic substrate by the enzyme during catalyzation, leading to the suicide inactivation of the active site of tyrosinase. For diphenolase activity, α-arbutin acted as an activator and its activation mechanism was mixed type activation. To reveal such activation, it should be mainly refered to the conformational changes in tyrosinase caused by the interaction of α-arbutin with residues located at the entrance to the active site, and the decrease of the effect of suicide inactivation. PMID:25303458

  5. The effect of physically applied alpha hydroxyl acids on the skin pore and comedone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S J; Baek, J H; Koh, J S; Bae, M I; Lee, S J; Shin, M K

    2015-10-01

    Alpha hydroxy acids (AHA) have been recognized as commonly used therapy for acne. Our studies examined whether an additional effect of physical treatment using chemical peeling combined with negative pressure and compared with AHA treatment only occurs in acne-prone subjects. The chemical peeling agent used 4% of an AHA solution (mixture of 1000 mL of carbonated water, 20 mL of glycolic acid and 20 mL of lactic acid). All subjects' faces were randomly divided into test and control groups. The test group was treated with chemical peeling combined with a physical effect, and the control group applied chemical peeling alone. For the 23 healthy females (average age: 30.17 ± 5.06 year), we measured sebum output level by light transmission, pore area and number by optical image analyser, and comedone counting before treatment and at 1, 2 and 4 weeks after a single treatment. Compared to the before treatment, whiteheads and blackheads were significantly decreased at 1, 2 and 4 weeks in the test group (P Pore area and number significantly decreased at 1 week (P pore size and seborrhoea. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  6. Effects of alpha-glucosylhesperidin on the peripheral body temperature and autonomic nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takumi, Hiroko; Fujishima, Noboru; Shiraishi, Koso; Mori, Yuka; Ariyama, Ai; Kometani, Takashi; Hashimoto, Shinichi; Nadamoto, Tomonori

    2010-01-01

    We studied the effects of alpha-glucosylhesperidin (G-Hsp) on the peripheral body temperature and autonomic nervous system in humans. We first conducted a survey of 97 female university students about excessive sensitivity to the cold; 74% of them replied that they were susceptible or somewhat susceptible to the cold. We subsequently conducted a three-step experiment. In the first experiment, G-Hsp (500 mg) was proven to prevent a decrease in the peripheral body temperature under an ambient temperature of 24 degrees C. In the second experiment, a warm beverage containing G-Hsp promoted blood circulation and kept the finger temperature higher for a longer time. We finally used a heart-rate variability analysis to study whether G-Hsp changed the autonomic nervous activity. The high-frequency (HF) component tended to be higher, while the ratio of the low-frequency (LF)/HF components tended to be lower after the G-Hsp administration. These results suggest that the mechanism for temperature control by G-Hsp might involve an effect on the autonomic nervous system.

  7. Modulator effects of interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha on AMPA-induced excitotoxicity in mouse organotypic hippocampal slice cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernardino, Liliana; Xapelli, Sara; Silva, Ana P

    2005-01-01

    The inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) have been identified as mediators of several forms of neurodegeneration in the brain. However, they can produce either deleterious or beneficial effects on neuronal function. We investigated the effects of th...

  8. Effects of MS-8209, an amphotericin B derivative, on tumor necrosis factor alpha synthesis and human immunodeficiency virus replication in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayette, P; Martin, M; Beringue, V; Dereuddre-Bosquet, N; Adjou, K T; Seman, M; Dormont, D

    2000-02-01

    Amphotericin B derivatives, such as MS-8209, have been evaluated as a therapeutic approach to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. We show that MS-8209, like amphotericin B, increases tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) mRNA expression and TNF-alpha production and consequently HIV replication in human macrophages. These effects confirm the pharmacological risk associated with the administration of amphotericin B or its derivatives to HIV-infected patients.

  9. Acute effect of oral, intraperitoneal, and intravenous 1 alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol on markers of bone metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joffe, P; Ladefoged, S D; Cintin, C

    1994-01-01

    , significant decreases of intact PTH were observed in the oral and i.v. group. No changes in serum phosphate and serum PICP levels were observed over time after oral, i.p., and i.v. delivery of 1 alpha-OHD3. However, serum PIIINP following oral and i.p. administration of 1 alpha-OHD3 decreased at 1 and 6 h (P......,25-(OH)2D3 was measured. DESIGN: Single doses of 1 alpha-OHD3 (80 ng/kg body wt) were given in randomized cross-over fashion, orally, intraperitoneally (i.p.) and intravenously (i.v.) on three occasions. Blood was sampled at 0, 1, 6, 12, and 24 h after administration of 1 alpha-OHD3. MAIN RESULTS...

  10. Patterns of secretion of transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) in experimental silicosis. Acute and subacute effects of cristobalite exposure in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Absher, M; Sjöstrand, M; Baldor, L C; Hemenway, D R; Kelley, J

    1993-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) a cytokine having potent mitogenic activity for epithelial and mesenchymal cells, may play a role in the lung remodeling of silicosis. Lung macrophages are among the major cells producing TGF-alpha in a lung tissue. A pivotal event in the cascade of pathologic events leading to pulmonary silicosis is the interaction between inhaled silica and macrophages. TGF-alpha may be critical in directing the proliferation of type II pneumocytes that characterize silicosis. An inhalation model of brief exposure of pathogen-restricted male rats to 25 mg/M3 cristobalite, a highly reactive form of silicon dioxide was used to study experimental silicosis. This model is characterized by a rapid, intense, and sustained increase in macrophages, neutrophils, and lymphocytes in both alveolar and interstitial compartments of the lung. TGF-alpha was measured in an A431 cell proliferation assay made specific with the use of anti-TGF-alpha neutralizing antiserum in epithelial lining fluid (ELF) and conditioned media harvested from cultured alveolar and interstitial macrophages. Soluble TGF-alpha levels found in ELF were slightly elevated above control values during the exposure period, then increased 5-fold during the 20 weeks after the 8-day exposure period. Secretion of TGF-alpha by macrophages was elevated during exposure to cristobalite but then fell during the early post exposure period. Marked elevations in TGF-alpha secretion from both interstitial and alveolar macrophages (10- and 12-fold, respectively) occurred 8-16 weeks after cessation of exposure.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Deficiency Mutations of Alpha-1 Antitrypsin. Effects on Folding, Function, and Polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Imran; Irving, James A; Saleh, Aarash D; Dron, Louis; Regan-Mochrie, Gemma L; Motamedi-Shad, Neda; Hurst, John R; Gooptu, Bibek; Lomas, David A

    2016-01-01

    Misfolding, polymerization, and defective secretion of functional alpha-1 antitrypsin underlies the predisposition to severe liver and lung disease in alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency. We have identified a novel (Ala336Pro, Baghdad) deficiency variant and characterized it relative to the wild-type (M) and Glu342Lys (Z) alleles. The index case is a homozygous individual of consanguineous parentage, with levels of circulating alpha-1 antitrypsin in the moderate deficiency range, but is a biochemical phenotype that could not be classified by standard methods. The majority of the protein was present as functionally inactive polymer, and the remaining monomer was 37% active relative to the wild-type protein. These factors combined indicate an 85 to 95% functional deficiency, similar to that seen with ZZ homozygotes. Biochemical, biophysical, and computational studies further defined the molecular basis of this deficiency. These studies demonstrated that native Ala336Pro alpha-1 antitrypsin could populate the polymerogenic intermediate-and therefore polymerize-more readily than either wild-type alpha-1 antitrypsin or the Z variant. In contrast, folding was far less impaired in Ala336Pro alpha-1 antitrypsin than in the Z variant. The data are consistent with a disparate contribution by the "breach" region and "shutter" region of strand 5A to folding and polymerization mechanisms. Moreover, the findings demonstrate that, in these variants, folding efficiency does not correlate directly with the tendency to polymerize in vitro or in vivo. They therefore differentiate generalized misfolding from polymerization tendencies in missense variants of alpha-1 antitrypsin. Clinically, they further support the need to quantify loss-of-function in alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency to individualize patient care.

  12. The Effects of Individual Upper Alpha Neurofeedback in ADHD: An Open-Label Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Escolano , Carlos; Navarro-Gil , Mayte; Garcia-Campayo , Javier; Congedo , Marco; Minguez , Javier

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Standardized neurofeedback (NF) protocols have been extensively evaluated in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, such protocols do not account for the large EEG heterogeneity in ADHD. Thus, individualized approaches have been suggested to improve the clinical outcome. In this direction, an open-label pilot study was designed to evaluate a NF protocol of relative upper alpha power enhancement in fronto-central sites. Upper alpha band was individual...

  13. Effects of Clostridium perfringens alpha and epsilon toxins in the bovine gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Winston E; Dunleavy, Mariana V; Diodati, Julián; Berra, Guillermo; Fernandez-Miyakawa, Mariano E

    2012-02-01

    Clostridium perfringens alpha and epsilon toxins produce enterotoxaemia in sheep and goats. However, the information regarding the pathophysiology of alpha and epsilon toxins in the bovine intestine is still scanty. In this study, intestinal loops were performed in the ileum and colon of three one-week-old Holstein and two four-week-old crossbreed calves. Laparotomy was performed in all calves under anaesthesia and four loops -three cm long- were performed in the small and large intestines. For both intestines, loops were inoculated with alpha or epsilon toxins. Tissue samples from all loops were obtained and processed for routine histology and for transmission electron microscopy. Congestion was observed in toxin treated loops. Fluid accumulation in the gut lumen was prominent in all treated loops, but in epsilon treated ones the mucous was also haemorrhagic. The histology revealed large amount of exfoliated epithelial cells in the lumen of alpha toxin treated loops and severe haemorrhage was observed in the lamina propria of epsilon toxin treated colonic loops. Despite some necrotic exfoliated enterocytes, no ultraestructural changes were observed in alpha toxin treated loops, though with epsilon toxin the loops exhibited dilation of the intercellular space in the mucosa of both, small and large intestines. These observations indicate that both, alpha and epsilon toxins can alter the intestinal barrier, in calves and are pathogenic for this species. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of central imidazolinergic and alpha2-adrenergic activation on water intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugawara A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-adrenergic ligands that bind to imidazoline receptors (I-R, a selective ligand that binds to alpha2-adrenoceptors (alpha2-AR and mixed ligands that bind to both receptors were tested for their action on water intake behavior of 24-h water-deprived rats. All drugs were injected into the third cerebral ventricle. Except for agmatine (80 nmol, mixed ligands binding to I-R/alpha2-AR such as guanabenz (40 nmol and UK 14304 (20 nmol inhibited water intake by 65% and up to 95%, respectively. The selective non-imidazoline alpha2-AR agonist, alpha-methylnoradrenaline, produced inhibition of water intake similar to that obtained with guanabenz, but at higher doses (80 nmol. The non-adrenergic I-R ligands histamine (160 nmol, mixed histaminergic and imidazoline ligand and imidazole-4-acetic acid (80 nmol, imidazoline ligand did not alter water intake. The results show that selective, non-imidazoline alpha2-AR activation suppresses water intake, and suggest that the action on imidazoline sites by non-adrenergic ligands is not sufficient to inhibit water intake.

  15. Effect of chronic alcohol consumption on Hepatic SIRT1 and PGC-1alpha in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieber, Charles S; Leo, Maria A; Wang, Xiaolei; Decarli, Leonore M

    2008-05-23

    The nuclear genes, NAD-dependent deacetylase Sirtuis 1 (SIRT1) and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator1alpha (PGC-1alpha) are regulators of energy metabolism. Here, we studied the role of alcohol consumption in expression of these sensing molecules. Alcohol significantly reduced hepatic SIRT1 mRNA by 50% and PGC-1alpha mRNA by 46% and it significantly inhibited the protein expression of SIRT1 and PGC-1alpha, while the transcription factor PPAR-gamma remained unchanged. However, when the lipid composition of the alcohol diet was changed by replacing long-chain triglycerides (LCT) with medium chain triglycerides (MCT), SIRT1 and PGC-1alpha mRNA were restored to near control levels. This study demonstrates that alcohol reduces key energy sensing proteins and that replacement of LCT by MCT affects the transcription of these genes. Since there is a pathophysiological link between SIRT1 and PGC-1alpha and mitochondrial energy, the implication of the study is that mitochondrial dysfunction due to alcohol abuse can be treated by dietary modifications.

  16. Effect of the endothelin receptor antagonist tezosentan on alpha-naphthylthiourea-induced lung injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figen Atalay

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Acute lung injury is an inflammatory syndrome that increases the permeability of the blood-gas barrier, resulting in high morbidity and mortality. Despite intensive research, treatment options remain limited. We investigated the protective efficacy of tezosentan, a novel, dual endothelin receptor antagonist, in an experimental model of alpha-naphthylthiourea (ANTU-induced acute lung injury in rats. ANTU was intraperitoneally (i.p. injected into rats at a dose of 10 mg/kg. Tezosentan was injected 30 minutes before ANTU was subcutaneously (s.c. injected at doses of 2, 10, or 30 mg/kg, 60 minutes before ANTU was injected at doses of 2, 10, or 30 mg/kg (i.p., and 90 minutes before ANTU at a dose of 10 mg/kg (i.p.. Four hours later, the lung weight/body weight (LW/BW ratio and pleural effusion (PE were measured. When injected 30 minutes before ANTU at doses of 2, 10, or 30 mg/kg (s.c., tezosentan had no effect on lung pathology. When injected 60 minutes before ANTU at doses of 2, 10, or 30 mg/kg (i.p. or 90 minutes before ANTU (10 mg/kg, i.p., tezosentan significantly decreased the PE/BW ratio and had a prophylactic effect on PE formation at all doses. Therefore, tezosentan may attenuate lung injury. Furthermore, its acute and inhibitory effects on fluid accumulation were more effective in the pleural cavity than in the interstitial compartment in this experimental model.

  17. Protective effects of alpha lipoic acid on high glucose-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Rezvan; Sharifi, Ali Mohammad; Hosseini, Asieh

    2015-06-01

    Hyperglycemia plays an important role in the development of diabetic neuropathy. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of alpha lipoic acid (ALA) against high glucose-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells as a suitable in vitro model for studying neuronal functions. PC12 cells were treated with high glucose (25 mg/ml for 24 h) in the absence and presence of ALA (100 μM for 24 h). The viability of PC12 cells was estimated by using MTT assay. The expression of pro- apoptotic Bax, anti- apoptotic Bcl-2 and caspase 3 protein were evaluated by western blotting. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were determined with 2,7-dichlorodihydro- fluorescein diacetate (H2DCFDA). Biochemical markers of oxidative stress were assessed by using the total antioxidant power (TAP), lipid peroxidation (LPO), ADP/ATP ratio, activity of antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Pretreatment of PC12 cells with ALA, significantly improved high glucose-induced toxicity by increasing activity of antioxidant enzymes CAT and SOD in the PC12 cell. It also increased the concentrations of TAP. An elevated level of cell death and ROS in high glucose conditions, diminished with ALA treatment. Over expression of Bax and caspase 3 protein, elevation of ADP/ATP ratio and LPO level in high glucose- treated PC12 cells, were significantly reduced by ALA. It was concluded that ALA attenuates neurotoxicity induced by high glucose in PC12 cells.

  18. Effects of Socio demographic factors on plasma ascorbic acid and alpha tocopherol anti oxidants during pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sylvester, I.E.; Paul, A.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the plasma levels of vitamins C and E at the various stages of pregnancy and to correlate their plasma levels with the socio-demographic factors of pregnant Nigerians. Methodology: The pregnant cases (n=180) were randomly selected according to gestational ages. And the controls (n=20) were non-pregnant women of the same age. Plasma levels of both vitamins were assayed with well established laboratory methods. Results: The mean plasma vitamins C and E in the pregnant cases was lower (by 17-23%) than controls across the three trimesters, p<0.0001. The correlation of vitamin C versus maternal age was significant; r = - 0.59, p<0.05; the mean plasma level of vitamin C declined by 57% as the maternal age increases from 22-37 years. Conclusion: The mean plasma Ascorbic acid and Alpha-tocopherol are reduced during pregnancy and socio-demographic factors have mild effects on the plasma levels of these vitamins. (author)

  19. Effectiveness and safety of alpha agonists for ADHD in population between 6 and 19 years: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Calleja

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is generally treated with pharmacological interventions; psychostimulants are first choice. Other alternatives have been used such as alpha agonists (clonidine, hence it is important to know its effectiveness and safety. Purpose: To identify, synthesize and evaluate the best available evidence on the effectiveness and safety of alpha agonists in treating ADHD in the 6-19 year-old population. Methods: A systematic review of intervention studies that evaluated effectiveness comparing alpha agonists to methylphenidate was conducted. Outcomes measured were educational performance, psychosocial functioning, quality of life and adverse effects. The following databases were searched up to February 2012 in English and Spanish: PubMed/MEDLINE, Lilacs, Cochrane, DARE and National Guideline Clearinghouse. The articles that met the inclusion criteria were assessed by two researchers independently. Results: Of the 34 studies found initially, three were included, among which a systematic review and two clinical guidelines. Conclusions: Clonidine is considered an effective second and third line treatment for ADHD symptoms, but it is less effective than stimulants. Its use is associated with many side effects.

  20. The determination of $\\alpha_s$ by the ALPHA collaboration

    CERN Document Server

    Bruno, Mattia

    2016-01-01

    We review the ALPHA collaboration strategy for obtaining the QCD coupling at high scale. In the three-flavor effective theory it avoids the use of perturbation theory at $\\alpha > 0.2$ and at the same time has the physical scales small compared to the cutoff $1/a$ in all stages of the computation. The result $\\Lambda_\\overline{MS}^{(3)}=332(14)$~MeV is translated to $\\alpha_\\overline{MS}(m_Z)=0.1179(10)(2)$ by use of (high order) perturbative relations between the effective theory couplings at the charm and beauty quark "thresholds". The error of this perturbative step is discussed and estimated as $0.0002$.

  1. The effects of alpha-tocopherol supplementation on fracture healing in a postmenopausal osteoporotic rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharlina Mohamad

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Osteoporosis increases the risk of bone fractures and may impair fracture healing. The aim of this study was to investigate whether alpha-tocopherol can improve the late-phase fracture healing of osteoporotic bones in ovariectomized rats. METHOD: In total, 24 female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups. The first group was sham-operated, and the other two groups were ovariectomized. After two months, the right femora of the rats were fractured under anesthesia and internally repaired with K-wires. The sham-operated and ovariectomized control rat groups were administered olive oil (a vehicle, whereas 60 mg/kg of alpha-tocopherol was administered via oral gavage to the alpha-tocopherol group for six days per week over the course of 8 weeks. The rats were sacrificed, and the femora were dissected out. Computed tomography scans and X-rays were performed to assess fracture healing and callus staging, followed by the assessment of callus strengths through the biomechanical testing of the bones. RESULTS: Significantly higher callus volume and callus staging were observed in the ovariectomized control group compared with the sham-operated and alpha-tocopherol groups. The ovariectomized control group also had significantly lower fracture healing scores than the sham-operated group. There were no differences between the alpha-tocopherol and sham-operated groups with respect to the above parameters. The healed femora of the ovariectomized control group demonstrated significantly lower load and strain parameters than the healed femora of the sham-operated group. Alpha-tocopherol supplementation was not able to restore these biomechanical properties. CONCLUSION: Alpha-tocopherol supplementation appeared to promote bone fracture healing in osteoporotic rats but failed to restore the strength of the fractured bone.

  2. The anticonvulsant effects of progesterone and 5alpha-dihydroprogesterone on amygdala-kindled seizures in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, Deborah; Burnham, W McIntyre

    2003-12-01

    Progesterone has been shown to be anticonvulsant in several animal seizure models. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the anticonvulsant actions of progesterone and its primary metabolite 5alpha-dihydroprogesterone in the amygdala kindling model. Female Wistar rats were implanted in the right basolateral amygdala with a long-term, bipolar electrode. The subjects were kindled to 30 stage 5 seizures and stability tested. Multiple doses of progesterone and 5alpha-dihydroprogesterone were then tested for anticonvulsant activity against focal electrographic and generalized convulsive kindled seizures. The time course of progesterone's anticonvulsant action also was examined. Progesterone had a median effective dose (ED50) of 103 mg/kg against generalized convulsions at 15 min after injection. Subjects were not sedated at the time of seizure testing, although sedation developed later (40-60 min after injection). In time-course experiments, it was found that 120 mg/kg of progesterone caused complete suppression of the generalized convulsion from 20 to 160 min after injection. Suppression of the focal discharge also was seen in some animals between 20 and 160 min. 5alpha-dihydroprogesterone had an ED50 of 2.9 mg/kg against generalized kindled convulsions and an ED50 of 4.3 mg/kg against focal afterdischarge 15 min after injection. 5alpha-dihydroprogesterone did not produce sedation 15 min after injection, or at any later time interval. Progesterone is anticonvulsant only at high doses when tested against amygdala kindled seizures. 5alpha-dihydroprogesterone is considerably more potent than progesterone. At low, nonsedative doses, it was effective against both the kindled amygdala focal afterdischarge and the generalized convulsion.

  3. Antidiabetic effects of natural plant extracts via inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolysis enzymes with emphasis on pancreatic alpha amylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etxeberria, Usune; de la Garza, Ana Laura; Campión, Javier; Martínez, J Alfredo; Milagro, Fermín I

    2012-03-01

    The increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and the negative clinical outcomes observed with the commercially available anti-diabetic drugs have led to the investigation of new therapeutic approaches focused on controlling postprandrial glucose levels. The use of carbohydrate digestive enzyme inhibitors from natural resources could be a possible strategy to block dietary carbohydrate absorption with less adverse effects than synthetic drugs. This review covers the latest evidence regarding in vitro and in vivo studies in relation to pancreatic alpha-amylase inhibitors of plant origin, and presents bioactive compounds of phenolic nature that exhibit anti-amylase activity. Pancreatic alpha-amylase inhibitors from traditional plant extracts are a promising tool for diabetes treatment. Many studies have confirmed the alpha-amylase inhibitory activity of plants and their bioactive compounds in vitro, but few studies corroborate these findings in rodents and very few in humans. Thus, despite some encouraging results, more research is required for developing a valuable anti-diabetic therapy using pancreatic alpha-amylase inhibitors of plant origin.

  4. Effect of vitamin E supplementation on immune status and alpha-tocopherol in plasma of piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidiroglou, M; Batra, T R; Farnworth, E R; Markham, F

    1995-01-01

    Twelve (Yorkshire) gilts were assigned to 2 dietary fat supplement groups starting at 57 d of gestation. Group 1 received no fat and Group 2 was supplemented with 5% Canola oil. Each group was supplemented with 0.1 ppm Se and 22 IU of DL-alpha-tocopherol acetate/kg of feed. Colostrum (d 0) and milk (7, 14, 21 and 28 d post partum) were sampled from gilts. At farrowing 3 piglets from each gilt of both groups were injected with alpha-tocopherol at birth (500 IU) and at 7 and 14 d (1,000 IU) of age and 3 piglets were injected with saline and used as control. Blood samples were taken from the newborn piglets at birth and at 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 d of age. alpha-Tocopherol concentration in the colostrum of gilts was significantly higher than in the milk. Plasma alpha-tocopherol concentrations and antibody titres to Key-hole limpet haemocyanin of piglets injected with vitamin E were significantly higher than the control piglets. Vitamin E injected piglets had significantly higher alpha-tocopherol concentrations in spleen, liver, kidney, heart, lung and hip muscle than the control piglets.

  5. Nutritional Effect of Alpha-Linolenic Acid on Honey Bee Colony Development (Apis Mellifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Lanting

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, which is an n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA, influences honey bee feed intake and longevity. The objective of this study was to research the effect of six dietary ALA levels on the growth and development of Apis mellifera ligustica colonies. In the early spring, a total of 36 honey bee colonies of equal size and queen quality were randomly allocated into 6 groups. The six groups of honey bees were fed a basal diet with supplementation of ALA levels at 0 (group A, 2 (group B, 4 (group C, 6 (group D, 8 (group E, and 10% (group F. In this study, there were significant effects of pollen substitute ALA levels on the feeding amounts of the bee colony, colony population, sealed brood amount, and weight of newly emerged workers (P<0.05. The workers’ midgut Lipase (LPS activity of group C was significantly lower than that of the other groups (P<0.01. The worker bees in groups B, C, and D had significantly longer lifespans than those in the other groups (P<0.05. However, when the diets had ALA concentrations of more than 6%, the mortality of the honey bees increased (P<0.01. These results indicate that ALA levels of 2 ~ 4% of the pollen substitute were optimal for maintaining the highest reproductive performance and the digestion and absorption of fatty acids in honey bees during the period of spring multiplication. Additionally, ALA levels of 2 ~ 6% of the pollen substitute, improved worker bee longevity.

  6. Inhibitory effect of a triterpenoid compound, with or without alpha interferon, on hepatitis C virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takako; Sakamoto, Naoya; Nakagawa, Mina; Kakinuma, Sei; Itsui, Yasuhiro; Nishimura-Sakurai, Yuki; Ueyama, Mayumi; Funaoka, Yusuke; Kitazume, Akiko; Nitta, Sayuri; Kiyohashi, Kei; Murakawa, Miyako; Azuma, Seishin; Tsuchiya, Kiichiro; Oooka, Shinya; Watanabe, Mamoru

    2011-06-01

    A lack of patient response to alpha interferon (α-IFN) plus ribavirin (RBV) treatment is a major problem in eliminating hepatitis C virus (HCV). We screened chemical libraries for compounds that enhanced cellular responses to α-IFN and identified a triterpenoid, toosendanin (TSN). Here, we studied the effects and mechanisms of action of TSN on HCV replication and its effect on α-IFN signaling. We treated HCV genotype 1b replicon-expressing cells and HCV-J6/JFH-infected cells with TSN, with or without α-IFN, and the level of HCV replication was quantified. To study the effects of TSN on α-IFN signaling, we detected components of the interferon-stimulated gene factor 3 (ISGF3), phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1), and STAT2 by Western blotting analysis; expression levels of mRNA of interferon regulatory factor 9 using real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR); and interferon-stimulated response element reporter activity and measured the expression levels of interferon-inducible genes for 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase, MxA, protein kinase R, and p56 using real-time RT-PCR. TSN alone specifically inhibited expression of the HCV replicon (50% effective concentration = 20.6 nM, 50% cytotoxic concentration > 3 μM, selectivity index > 146). Pretreatment with TSN prior to α-IFN treatment was more effective in suppressing HCV replication than treatment with either drug alone. Although TSN alone did not activate the α-IFN pathway, it significantly enhanced the α-IFN-induced increase of phosphorylated STATs, interferon-stimulated response element activation, and interferon-stimulated gene expression. TSN significantly increased baseline expression of interferon regulatory factor 9, a component of interferon-stimulated gene factor 3. Antiviral effects of treatment with α-IFN can be enhanced by pretreatment with TSN. Its mechanisms of action could potentially be important to identify novel molecular targets to treat HCV

  7. Pathological effects of cigarettes on the reproductive system and the protective effects of alpha-lipoic acid in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asci, Halil; Erol, Onur; Ellidag, Hamit Yasar; Tola, Esra Nur; Savran, Mehtap; Ozmen, Ozlem

    2018-01-01

    Cigarette smoking (CS) has some detrimental effects that occur via oxidative stress (OS). The aim of this work was to demonstrate the pathological and immunohistochemical effects of CS and the protective effects of a strong antioxidant alpha lipoic acid (ALA) on CS-induced genital system changes in a rat model. Twenty-eight female rats were randomly allocated to three groups as control, CS-exposed, and CS-exposed and ALA-treated. Reproductive tract organs were collected for biochemical and pathological examinations. In the CS group, OS markers increased in the tissues of both the ovary and fallopian tubes. Decreased follicle numbers in the ovary, marked cilial loss in the fallopian tubes, and pathologic changes in the uterus were observed in the CS group. Positive calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), caspase 3α, hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) immunoreactions were observed in uterine tissues and HIF-1α immunoreactions in tubal and uterine epithelial cells of the CS group. ALA reversed all these findings effectively. CS has negative effects on the female reproductive system via HIF-1α in tuba uterina and HIF-1α, HIF-2α, TNF-α, caspase 3, and CGRP in the uterus, and ALA could protect against the negative effects of CS on the female reproductive system.

  8. Effect of an increased intake of alpha-linolenic acid and group nutritional education on cardiovascular risk factors : the Mediterranean Alpha-linolenic Enriched Groningen Dietary Intervention (MARGARIN) study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemelmans, W.J.; Broer, J.; Feskens, E.J.; Smit, A.J.; Muskiet, F.A.; Lefrandt, J.D.; Bom, V.J.; May, J.F.; Meyboom-de Jong, B.

    Background: The effect of long-term increased intakes of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3n-3) on cardiovascular risk factors is unknown. Objectives: Our objectives were to assess the effect of increased ALA intakes on cardiovascular risk factors and the estimated risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD)

  9. Inferring uncertainty from interval estimates: Effects of alpha level and numeracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke F. Rinne

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Interval estimates are commonly used to descriptively communicate the degree of uncertainty in numerical values. Conventionally, low alpha levels (e.g., .05 ensure a high probability of capturing the target value between interval endpoints. Here, we test whether alpha levels and individual differences in numeracy influence distributional inferences. In the reported experiment, participants received prediction intervals for fictitious towns' annual rainfall totals (assuming approximately normal distributions. Then, participants estimated probabilities that future totals would be captured within varying margins about the mean, indicating the approximate shapes of their inferred probability distributions. Results showed that low alpha levels (vs. moderate levels; e.g., .25 more frequently led to inferences of over-dispersed approximately normal distributions or approximately uniform distributions, reducing estimate accuracy. Highly numerate participants made more accurate estimates overall, but were more prone to inferring approximately uniform distributions. These findings have important implications for presenting interval estimates to various audiences.

  10. Effect of radioactive isotope 32P upon alpha amylase activity and glucose concentration in chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraljevic, P.; Emanovic, D.; Simpraga, M.; Nejedli, S.; Stojevic, Z.

    1996-01-01

    An attempt has been made to investigate whether alpha amylase activity and glucose concentration in blood plasma can serve as the help in establishing on early diagnosis of organic or functional damage caused by ionizing radiation in chickens. Fifty day old hybrid chickens of heavy 'Jata' breeds of both sexes, were treated by 32 P administered intramusculary as sodium orthophosphate in a single dose of 333 MBq per kilogram of body weight. Blood samples was taken from the wing vein on day 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 after administration of 32 P. Alpha amylase activity and glucose concentration were determined spectrophotometrically using kits produced by 'Radonja', Sisak. Alpha amylase activity was decreased and glucose concentration was increased during investigated period. Yet, the further investigations are needed to find out whether these two parameters can be used for early diagnosis of injury in chicken organism by ionizing radiation. (author)

  11. The effect of gamma irradiation on the formation of alpha-amylase isoenzymes in germinating wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machaiah, J.P.; Vakil, U.K.

    1979-01-01

    The biosynthesis of alpha-amylase during seedling growth commenced after a prolonged lag-period in wheat (cv. Vijay), irradiated at a high dose (200 krad). Also, a different requirement for exogenous gibberellins (GA) to stimulate the enzyme synthesis was noted in control and irradiated seeds. Further, the developmental patterns of three major isoenzymes of alpha-amylase (designated as α 1 , α 2 - and α 3 ) during germination were different. It was observed that α 1 -isoenzyme which appeared on the fourth day of germination of control seeds, was delayed in its development and was undetectable up to 4 days in samples irradiated with 200 krad. However, α 1 -isoenzyme appeared after 6 days or after 4 days in GA-treated samples in germinating seeds exposed to a high dose. These results suggested that two systems differing in their radiosensitivity and response to GA application were operating in germinating wheat for the synthesis of functional alpha-amylase molecules. (author)

  12. Study of the antioxidant effect of {alpha}-tocopherol on low-density lipoprotein peroxidation induced at low and high {gamma}-radiation dose rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalil, Abdelouahed [Research Centre on Aging and Department of Medicine, University of Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC, J1H 4C4 (Canada)]. E-mail: abdelouahed.khalil@usherbrooke.ca; Milochevitch, Christelle [Research Centre on Aging and Department of Medicine, University of Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC, J1H 4C4 (Canada)

    2005-02-01

    It is well known that vitamin E ({alpha}-tocopherol, {alpha}-toc) is a very efficient lipid soluble antioxidant and several studies showed its beneficial action in the prevention and reduction of atherosclerosis. However, some in vitro studies suggest a prooxidant role of vitamin E, which could occur under given circumstances. This study was thus designed to investigate the antioxidant vs. prooxidant effect of vitamin E with regards to LDL peroxidation induced under different oxidative stress conditions. LDL was enriched with {alpha}-tocopherol and different {alpha}-toc/LDL ratios were studied (8.0{+-}2.5, 14.3{+-}3.0, 33.3{+-}3.7, 42.7{+-}3.5 and 48.2{+-}4.5 molecules of {alpha}-toc/LDL particle). Enriched and control LDL were oxidized by action of {sup {center_dot}}OH and O{sub 2}{sup {center_dot}}{sup -} free radicals produced by {gamma}-radiolysis at different dose rates. Susceptibility of LDL to oxidation was examined by the measure of conjugated diene and TBARS formation as well as LDL endogenous {alpha}-toc disappearance. Increasing LDL {alpha}-toc concentration reduced the LDL susceptibility to oxidation and their oxidizability. {alpha}-toc disappearance rates were comprised between 43 and 8.3x10{sup -10} M s{sup -1} and decreased with the radiation dose rate. Our results support an antioxidant role for {alpha}-tocopherol at high and low oxidative stress conditions.

  13. Involvement of dorsal hippocampal alpha-adrenergic receptors in the effect of scopolamine on memory retrieval in inhibitory avoidance task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azami, Nasrin-Sadat; Piri, Morteza; Oryan, Shahrbano; Jahanshahi, Mehrdad; Babapour, Vahab; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2010-05-01

    The present study evaluated the possible role of alpha-adrenergic receptors of the dorsal hippocampus on scopolamine-induced amnesia and scopolamine state-dependent memory in adult male Wistar rats. The animals were bilaterally implanted with chronic cannulae in the CA1 regions of the dorsal hippocampus, trained in a step-through type inhibitory avoidance task, and tested 24h after training to measure step-through latency. Results indicate that post-training or pre-test intra-CA1 administration of scopolamine (1 and 2 microg/rat) dose-dependently reduced the step-through latency, showing an amnestic response. Amnesia produced by post-training scopolamine (2 microg/rat) was reversed by pre-test administration of the scopolamine that is due to a state-dependent effect. Interestingly, pre-test intra-CA1 microinjection of alpha1-adrenergic agonist, phenylephrine (1 and 2 microg/rat) or alpha2-adrenergic agonist, clonidine improved post-training scopolamine (2 microg/rat)-induced retrieval impairment. Furthermore, pre-test intra-CA1 microinjection of phenylephrine (0.25, 0.5 and 1 microg/rat) or clonidine (0.25, 0.5 and 1 microg/rat) with an ineffective dose of scopolamine (0.25 microg/rat), synergistically improved memory performance impaired by post-training scopolamine. On the other hand, pre-test injection of alpha1-receptors antagonist prazosin (1 and 2 microg/rat) or alpha2-receptors antagonist yohimbine (1 and 2 microg/rat) prevented the restoration of memory by pre-test scopolamine. It is important to note that pre-test intra-CA1 administration of the same doses of prazosin or yohimbine, alone did not affect memory retrieval. These results suggest that alpha1- and alpha2-adrenergic receptors of the dorsal hippocampal CA1 regions may play an important role in scopolamine-induced amnesia and scopolamine state-dependent memory. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of Storage Duration and Atmosphere on the Content and Price of Hop Alpha Bitter Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rybka A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The quality of hops is significantly affected by the content of alpha bitter acids. Maintaining it with minimum losses lies within the competence of both the hop grower and processor depending on how they follow the optimum harvest technology, storage conditions, and post-harvest hop processing. That indicator is considerably affected by the hop storage method, i.e. whether the warehouse is air-conditioned or not, as well as the storage duration. The alpha bitter acid content should not be reduced during storage. The objective of this paper is an analysis of the alpha bitter acid content in the Saaz hop variety in a technological sequence of operations starting with drying at the grower and finishing with six-month storing at the processor, with three storage variants: an air-conditioned warehouse, non-conditioned warehouse, and a variant in which the square bale is moved after 60 days from a non-conditioned warehouse into an air-conditioned warehouse. The analysis of samples to identify the alpha bitter acid content was carried out by means of the ASBC Hops-6 and the HPLC EBC 7.7 methods. Practically in all cases the alpha content declines, although if a square bale is placed in an air-conditioned warehouse this decline is the lowest depending on the storage duration. The economic analysis shows a significant profit referring to the price of alpha contained in 1 t of hops stored in an air-conditioned warehouse. At the date of 1/11/2015 this profit was 14 706 CZK, at the date of 4/1/2016 it was 7646 CZK, and at 1/3/2016 the profit was 6587 CZK.

  15. Effect of pullulanase and. alpha. -amylase on hydrolysis of waxy corn starch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sreenath, H.K. (Defence Food Research Lab., Mysore (India)); BeMiller, J. (Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (USA). Whistler Center for Carbohydrate Research)

    1990-12-01

    Using commercial pullulanase, {alpha}-amylase and their mixture, partial hydrolysis of waxy corn starch was characterised for optimising production of maltodextrins free of D-glucose. Compared to pullulanase or {alpha}-amylase alone, the mixture of these two (simultaneous or successive addition) on the substrate enhanced the efficiency of maltodextrin turnover with low or traces of D-glucose production in a short time. D-glucose was removed from dextrins by mambrane filtration and the yield of dextrin above DP6 was 60-65%. (orig.).

  16. Autoradiographic analysis of alpha 1-noradrenergic receptors in the human brain postmortem. Effect of suicide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross-Isseroff, R.; Dillon, K.A.; Fieldust, S.J.; Biegon, A.

    1990-01-01

    In vitro quantitative autoradiography of alpha 1-noradrenergic receptors, using tritiated prazosin as a ligand, was performed on 24 human brains postmortem. Twelve brains were obtained from suicide victims and 12 from matched controls. We found significant lower binding to alpha 1 receptors in several brain regions of the suicide group as compared with matched controls. This decrease in receptor density was evident in portions of the prefrontal cortex, as well as the temporal cortex and in the caudate nucleus. Age, sex, presence of alcohol, and time of death to autopsy did not affect prazosin binding, in our sample, as measured by autoradiography

  17. Alpha prime effect on mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of UR 52N+ duplex stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontes, Talita Filier

    2009-01-01

    Alpha prime phase leads to decreased corrosion resistance and mechanical properties losses of duplex stainless steels. In this work mechanical and electrochemical tests were performed in duplex stainless steel UR 52N+ aged at 475 degree C for various periods in order to determine the sensibility of these tests to alpha prime presence. Hardness tests showed a gradual increase in its values; on the other hand, impact tests revealed that the material aged for 12h losses about 80% of energy absorption capacity of the solution annealed sample. Notwithstanding cyclic polarization tests showed that significant changes are only noted for aging times greater than 96h. (author)

  18. Effect of chemical permeation enhancers on stratum corneum barrier lipid organizational structure and interferon alpha permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadam, Shadi H; Saliaj, Evi; Wettig, Shawn D; Dong, Chilbert; Ivanova, Marina V; Huzil, J Torin; Foldvari, Marianna

    2013-06-03

    The outermost layer of the skin, known as the stratum corneum (SC), is composed of dead corneocytes embedded in an intercellular lipid matrix consisting of ceramides, free fatty acids, and cholesterol. The high level of organization within this matrix protects the body by limiting the permeation of most compounds through the skin. While essential for its protective functions, the SC poses a significant barrier for the delivery of topically applied pharmaceutical agents. Chemical permeation enhancers (CPEs) can increase delivery of small drug compounds into the skin by interacting with the intercellular lipids through physical processes including extraction, fluidization, increased disorder, and phase separation. However, it is not clear whether these same mechanisms are involved in delivery of biotherapeutic macromolecules, such as proteins. Here we describe the effect of three categories of CPEs {solvents [ethanol, propylene glycol, diethylene glycol monoethyl ether (transcutol), oleic acid], terpenes [menthol, nerol, camphor, methyl salicylate], and surfactants [Tween 80, SDS, benzalkonium chloride, polyoxyl 40 hydrogenated castor oil (Cremophor RH40), didecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB), didecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB)]} on the lipid organizational structure of human SC as determined by X-ray scattering studies. Small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering studies were conducted to correlate the degree of structural changes and hydrocarbon chain packing in SC lipids caused by these various classes of CPEs to the extent of permeation of interferon alpha-2b (IFNα), a 19 kDa protein drug, into human skin. With the exception of solvents, propylene glycol and ethanol, all classes of CPEs caused increased disordering of lamellar and lateral packing of lipids. We observed that the highest degree of SC lipid disordering was caused by surfactants (especially SDS, DDAB, and DTAB) followed by terpenes, such as nerol. Interestingly, in vitro skin permeation studies

  19. Immediate effects of Alpha/theta and Sensory-Motor Rhythm feedback on music performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruzelier, J H; Hirst, L; Holmes, P; Leach, J

    2014-07-01

    This is one of a series of investigations comparing two EEG-neurofeedback protocols - Alpha/theta (A/T) and Sensory-Motor Rhythm (SMR) - for performance enhancement in the Arts, here with the focus on music. The original report (Egner and Gruzelier, 2003) established a beneficial outcome for elite conservatoire musicians following A/T training in two investigations. Subsequently this A/T advantage was replicated for both advanced instrumental and novice singing abilities, including improvisation, while SMR training benefited novice performance only (Gruzelier, Holmes et al., 2014). Here we report a replication of the latter study in university instrumentalists who as before were novice singers with one design change - post-training performances were conducted within the tenth final session instead of on a subsequent occasion. As before expert judges rated the domains of Creativity/Musicality, Communication/Presentation and Technique. The proximity to training of the music performances within the last session likely compromised gains from A/T learning, but perhaps reinforced the impact of SMR training efficacy. In support of validation there was evidence of strong within- and across-session A/T learning and positive linear trends for across-session SMR/theta and SMR/beta-2 ratio learning. In support of mediation learning correlated with music performance. The A/T outcome was markedly discrepant from previous studies and should dispel any impression that the hypnogogic state itself is transferred to the performance context. The effects of SMR ratio training are consistent with an impact on lower-order abilities required in novice performance such as sustained attention and memory, and benefiting all three domains of music assessment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Cytotoxicity effects induced by Zearalenone metabolites, alpha Zearalenol and beta Zearalenol, on cultured Vero cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othmen, Zouhour Ouanes-Ben; Golli, Emna El; Abid-Essefi, Salwa; Bacha, Hassen

    2008-10-30

    Zearalenone (Zen) is a non-steroidal estrogenic mycotoxin produced by several species of Fusarium. It has been implicated in several mycotoxicosis in farm animals and in humans. The major metabolites of this mycotoxin in various species are alpha and beta Zearalenol. In vivo, Zen is mainly reduced to these alcoholic metabolites which cause reproductive tract disorders and impaired fertility due to their estrogenic activities. In this study, we examined the cytotoxicity of alpha and beta Zearalenol in cultured cells. For this purpose, the MTT assay was carried out and the influence of alpha and beta Zearalenol on protein and DNA syntheses was assessed. To evaluate the cell stress caused by these two metabolites, oxidative stress measured by MDA induction and stress protein induction (Hsp 70, Hsp 27) were tested. Results showed that alpha and beta Zearalenol were metabolites that caused cytotoxicity by inhibiting cell viability, protein and DNA syntheses and inducing oxidative damage and over-expression of stress proteins. However, the Zen metabolites exhibited lower toxicity than Zen, with beta zearalenol being the more active of the two metabolites.

  1. The effect of alpha amylase enzyme on quality of sweet sorghum juice for chrystal sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwati, T.; Cahyaningrum, N.; Widodo, S.; Astiati, U. T.; Budiyanto, A.; Wahyudiono; Arif, A. B.; Richana, N.

    2018-01-01

    Sweet sorghum juice (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) has characteristics similar to sugar cane juice and potentially used for sugar substitutes that can support food security. Nevertheless the sweet sorghum juicecontain starch which impede sorghum sugar crystallization. Therefore, research on the enzymatic process is needed to convert starch into reducing sugar. The experimental design used was the Factorial Randomized Design with the first factor was alpha amylase enzyme concentration (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120 μL/100 mL) and second factor was incubation time (0, 30, 60, 90 minute) at temperature 100°C. The experiment was conducted on fresh sweet sorghum. The results showed that the addition of the alpha amylase enzyme increased the content of reducing sugar and decreased levels of starch. Elevating concentration of alpha amylase enzyme will increase the reducing sugar content in sweet sorghum juice. The optimum alpha amylase enzyme concentration to produce the highest total sugar was 80 μL/100 mL of sweet sorghum juice with the optimum incubation time was 90 minutes. The results of this study are expected to create a new sweetener for sugar substitution. From the economic prospective aspect, sorghum is a potential crop and can be relied upon to support the success of the food diversification program which further leads to the world food security

  2. Effect of a HIF-1 Alpha Polymorphism on the Incidence and Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    inducible factor-1alpha in rat and human prostate cancer. Cancer Res 1998;58(23):5280–5284. 7. Zhong H, Chiles K, Feldser D, Laughner E, Hanrahan C... diabetes in Japanese. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2005;90(10):5841–5847. 13. Fu XS, Choi E, Bubley GJ, Balk SP. Identification of hypoxia- inducible factor

  3. Nickel doping effect on resistance to movement of edge dislocations in. cap alpha. -Fe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brovkov, V.A.; Dudarev, E.F. (Tomskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR). Sibirskij Fiziko-Tekhnicheskij Inst.)

    1984-03-01

    Microplastic deformation of ..cap alpha..-Fe polycrystals and Fe-Ni solid solutions is studied. Data on the concentration and temperature dependences of resistance to movement of edge dislocation at the expense of elastic interaction with atoms of the doping element are obtained.

  4. Effects of hydrophobicity on the antifungal activity of alpha-helical antimicrobial peptides.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, Z.; Kullberg, B.J.; Lee, H. van der; Vasil, A.I.; Hale, J.D.; Mant, C.T.; Hancock, R.E.; Vasil, M.L.; Netea, M.G.; Hodges, R.S.

    2008-01-01

    We utilized a series of analogs of D-V13K (a 26-residue amphipathic alpha-helical antimicrobial peptide, denoted D1) to compare and contrast the role of hydrophobicity on antifungal and antibacterial activity to the results obtained previously with Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. Antifungal activity

  5. Circulatory and metabolic effects of alpha-adrenergic blockade in the hyperinsulinemic ovine fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonestreet, B S; Boyle, L D; Papparella, A; Berard, D J

    1996-01-01

    Fetuses of diabetic women exhibit hypoxemia, elevated catecholamine concentrations at birth, and increased incidence of death. Our previous findings suggested that experimental fetal hyperinsulinemia results in a surge in catecholamines with cardiovascular changes supported by increased beta-adrenergic activity. The present experiments were designed to assess the contribution of alpha-adrenergic stimulation to the hemodynamic changes in the hyperinsulinemic ovine fetus. Combined ventricular output, regional organ blood flow, vascular resistance, metabolism, and catecholamine concentrations were measured before and during an infusion of insulin and during continued infusion with alpha-adrenergic blockade (phentolamine) in eight chronically catheterized fetal sheep. Fetal insulin infusion produced hyperinsulinemic-hypoglycemia, a surge in epinephrine and norepinephrine concentration, and increases in the combined ventricular output (blood flow to the fetus plus placenta) and regional blood flow to the fetus, heart, stomach, gastrointestinal tract, fat, and carcass. In the hyperinsulinemic state, alpha-adrenergic blockade was associated with additional increases in fetal norepinephrine concentration and no major changes in combined ventricular output or blood flow to the body of the fetus, except for decreased blood flow to the stomach and lungs, and a decrease in stroke volume. Because vasodilation characterizes the hyperinsulinemic state, alpha-adrenergic stimulation contributes less to compensatory cardiovascular changes in the hyperinsulinemic fetus than that which we previously have shown for beta-adrenergic stimulation.

  6. Effect of tissue-specific acetylcholinesterase inhibitor C-547 on alpha 3 beta 4 and alpha beta epsilon delta acetylcholine receptors in COS cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lindovský, Jiří; Petrov, K.; Krůšek, Jan; Reznik, V.S.; Nikolsky, E. E.; Vyskočil, František

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 688, 1-3 (2012), s. 22-26 ISSN 0014-2999 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA ČR(CZ) GA202/09/0806; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500110905; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA100110501; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA5011411 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : nicotinic ACh receptor * alpha 3 beta 4 * alpha beta epsilon delta * C-547 * anti-cholinesterase Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.592, year: 2012

  7. LLU-alpha, an endogenous metabolite of gamma-tocopherol, is more effective against metal nephrotoxicity in rats than gamma-tocopherol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appenroth, D; Karge, E; Kiessling, G; Wechter, W J; Winnefeld, K; Fleck, C

    2001-07-06

    Antioxidants of the vitamin E family have protective effects against metal toxicity. We examined the protective effect of racemic LLU-alpha [2,7,8-trimethyl-2-(carboxyethyl)-6-hydroxychroman] a metabolite of gamma-tocopherol, in comparison to the effect of alpha- and gamma-tocopherol in rats treated with sodium dichromate (Cr) or thallium sulfate (Tl). We measured metal nephrotoxicity based on urinary protein excretion and discussed it with respect to the metal concentration in renal tissue. The ranking of antioxidant activity (iron stimulated lipid peroxidation, luminol and lucigenin amplified chemiluminescence) was determined in the following order: alpha-tocopherolthallium-induced proteinuria, a lower concentration of Tl in the renal medulla, and higher urinary Tl excretion. Unlike LLU-alpha, which has been shown to inhibit K(+) channels in the apical membrane of the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop, we found that gamma-tocopherol did not. This finding reaffirmed the similarity between K(+) and Tl(+) and also explained the significantly decreased Tl concentration in the renal medulla in rats treated with LLU-alpha. We speculate that the protective effect of LLU-alpha against Tl nephrotoxicity is caused both by its antioxidant effect and, at least in part, by its ability to decrease Tl concentration as a consequence of inhibited Tl(+) uptake through K(+) channels. This finding confirmed the similarity between K(+) and Tl(+) and also explained the significantly decreased Tl concentration in the renal medulla in rats treated with LLU-alpha.

  8. Microwave specific Wolff rearrangement of alpha-diazoketones and its relevance to the nonthermal and thermal effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudrik, Surendra G; Chavan, Sambhaji P; Chandrakumar, K R S; Pal, Sourav; Date, Sadgopal K; Chavan, Subhash P; Sonawane, Harikisan R

    2002-03-08

    alpha-Diazoketones possess high electric dipole moments, as a consequence of the dipolar nature of the diazocarbonyl functional group. The vectorial analysis, theoretical calculations (PM3 and ab initio), and literature reports based on experimental and theoretical calculations reveal a higher dipole moment for the Z-configuration of the diazo functional group. Microwave irradiation of alpha-diazoketone (1a-m) (Figure 1) promotes Wolff rearrangement specifically via the Z-configuration in excellent yields. The dielectric properties of the solvent govern the course of the microwave rearrangement. 3-Diazocamphor (1m) on microwave irradiation in benzylamine exhibits nonthermal effects to furnish exclusively the Wolff rearrangement product (4m), equivalent to its photochemical behavior. In the presence of an aqueous medium, through solvent heating predominates, leading to the formation of a tricyclic ketone (5) as the principal product, arising from an intramolecular C-H insertion. This behavior is similar to its known thermal and transition metal catalyzed reactivity pattern.

  9. Into the square and out of the box: the effects of Quadrato Motor Training on creativity and alpha coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotan Ben-Soussan, Tal; Glicksohn, Joseph; Goldstein, Abraham; Berkovich-Ohana, Aviva; Donchin, Opher

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the body-cognitive relationship through behavioral and electrophysiological measures in an attempt to uncover the underlying mediating neuronal mechanism for movement-induced cognitive change. To this end we examined the effects of Quadrato Motor Training (QMT), a new whole-body training paradigm on cognitive performance, including creativity and reaction time tasks, and electrophysiological change, using a within-subject pre-post design. Creativity was studied by means of the Alternate Uses Task, measuring ideational fluency and ideational flexibility. Electrophysiological effects were measured in terms of alpha power and coherence. In order to determine whether training-induced changes were driven by the cognitive or the motor aspects of the training, we used two control groups: Verbal Training (VT, identical cognitive training with verbal response) and Simple Motor Training (SMT, similar motor training with reduced choice requirements). Twenty-seven participants were randomly assigned to one of the groups. Following QMT, we found enhanced inter-hemispheric and intra-hemispheric alpha coherence, and increased ideational flexibility, which was not the case for either the SMT or VT groups. These findings indicate that it is the combination of the motor and cognitive aspects embedded in the QMT which is important for increasing ideational flexibility and alpha coherence.

  10. Into the square and out of the box: the effects of Quadrato Motor Training on creativity and alpha coherence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tal Dotan Ben-Soussan

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the body-cognitive relationship through behavioral and electrophysiological measures in an attempt to uncover the underlying mediating neuronal mechanism for movement-induced cognitive change. To this end we examined the effects of Quadrato Motor Training (QMT, a new whole-body training paradigm on cognitive performance, including creativity and reaction time tasks, and electrophysiological change, using a within-subject pre-post design. Creativity was studied by means of the Alternate Uses Task, measuring ideational fluency and ideational flexibility. Electrophysiological effects were measured in terms of alpha power and coherence. In order to determine whether training-induced changes were driven by the cognitive or the motor aspects of the training, we used two control groups: Verbal Training (VT, identical cognitive training with verbal response and Simple Motor Training (SMT, similar motor training with reduced choice requirements. Twenty-seven participants were randomly assigned to one of the groups. Following QMT, we found enhanced inter-hemispheric and intra-hemispheric alpha coherence, and increased ideational flexibility, which was not the case for either the SMT or VT groups. These findings indicate that it is the combination of the motor and cognitive aspects embedded in the QMT which is important for increasing ideational flexibility and alpha coherence.

  11. Deformation effects in the alpha accompanied cold ternary fission of even-even {sup 244-260}Cf isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santhosh, K.P.; Krishnan, Sreejith [Kannur University, School of Pure and Applied Physics, Payyanur, Kerala (India)

    2016-04-15

    Within the unified ternary fission model (UTFM), the alpha accompanied ternary fission of even-even {sup 244-260}Cf isotopes has been studied by taking the interacting barrier as the sum of Coulomb and proximity potential. For the alpha accompanied ternary fission of the {sup 244}Cf isotope, the highest yield is obtained for the fragment combination {sup 108}Ru + {sup 4}He + {sup 132}Te, which contains the near doubly magic nucleus {sup 132}Te (N = 80, Z = 52). In the case of {sup 246}Cf and {sup 248}Cf isotopes, the highest yield is obtained for the fragment combinations with the near doubly magic nucleus {sup 134}Te (N = 82, Z = 52) as the heaviest fragment. The highest yield obtained for {sup 250}Cf, {sup 252}Cf, {sup 254}Cf, {sup 256}Cf, {sup 258}Cf and {sup 260}Cf isotopes is for the fragment combination with the doubly magic nucleus {sup 132}Sn (N = 82), Z = 50 as the heaviest fragment. We have included the effect of deformation and orientation of fragments and this has revealed that in addition to the closed shell effect, ground-state deformation also plays an important role in the calculation of the relative yield of favorable fragment combinations. The computed isotopic yields for the alpha accompanied ternary fission of the {sup 252}Cf isotope are found to be in agreement with the experimental data. The emission probability and kinetic energy of the long-range alpha particle is calculated for the various isotopes of Cf and are found to be in good agreement with the experimental data. (orig.)

  12. Effect of neohesperidin dihydrochalcone on the activity and stability of alpha-amylase: a comparative study on bacterial, fungal, and mammalian enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashani-Amin, Elaheh; Ebrahim-Habibi, Azadeh; Larijani, Bagher; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar

    2015-10-01

    Neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC) was recently introduced as an activator of mammalian alpha-amylase. In the current study, the effect of NHDC has been investigated on bacterial and fungal alpha-amylases. Enzyme assays and kinetic analysis demonstrated the capability of NHDC to significantly activate both tested alpha-amylases. The ligand activation pattern was found to be more similar between the fungal and mammalian enzyme in comparison with the bacterial one. Further, thermostability experiments indicated a stability increase in the presence of NHDC for the bacterial enzyme. In silico (docking) test locates a putative binding site for NHDC on alpha-amylase surface in domain B. This domain shows differences in various alpha-amylase types, and the different behavior of the ligand toward the studied enzymes may be attributed to this fact. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Self-irradiation damage in 4H-SiC by molecular dynamics simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Miaomiao; Wang Qingyu; Li Taosheng; Li Zhongyu

    2014-01-01

    The development of nuclear technology is closely and inseparably related to the improvements of materials irradiation performance. The irradiation damage of nuclear materials is an important issue of characteristics and difficulties. Because of the excellent features, SiC becomes one of the candidate materials for the cladding material and structure material in fast neutron reactor and fusion reactor. As one of the polytypes, 4H-SiC has prospective important applications in a strong irradiation environment. In this work, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was performed to study the irradiation-induced cascade damage in single-crystalline 4H-SiC to get the microscopic evolution during the irradiation, in the aim of getting access to the detail that we cannot get from experiments. The software LAMMPS was used to simulate the damage formation process and the recovery process. The results showed that the initial project direction, the temperature and PKA energy exerted significant effects on the number and morphology of defects. (authors)

  14. Measurement and analysis of $\\alpha$ particle induced reactions on yttrium

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, N L; Chintalapudi, S N

    2000-01-01

    Excitation functions for /sup 89/Y[( alpha ,3n); ( alpha ,4n); ( alpha , p3n); ( alpha , alpha n); ( alpha , alpha 2n)] reactions were measured up to 50 MeV using stacked foil activation technique and HPGe gamma ray spectroscopy method. The experimental data were compared with calculations considering equilibrium as well as preequilibrium reactions according to the hybrid model of Blann (ALICE/90). For ( alpha , xnyp) type of reactions, the precompound contributions are described by the model. There seems to be indications of direct inelastic scattering effects in ( alpha , alpha xn) type of reactions. To the best of our knowledge, the excitation functions for ( alpha ,4n), ( alpha , p3n), ( alpha , alpha n) and ( alpha , alpha 2n) reactions were measured for the first time. (23 refs).

  15. Measurement and analysis of alpha particle induced reactions on yttrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, N.L.; Gadkari, M.S. [Baroda Univ. (India). Dept. of Physics; Chintalapudi, S.N. [IUC-DAEF Calcutta Centre, Calcutta (India)

    2000-05-01

    Excitation functions for {sup 89}Y[({alpha},3n);({alpha},4n);({alpha},p3n);({alpha},{alpha}n);({alpha},{alpha}2n)] reactions were measured up to 50 MeV using stacked foil activation technique and HPGe gamma ray spectroscopy method. The experimental data were compared with calculations considering equilibrium as well as preequilibrium reactions according to the hybrid model of Blann (ALICE/90). For ({alpha},xnyp) type of reactions, the precompound contributions are described by the model. There seems to be indications of direct inelastic scattering effects in ({alpha},{alpha}xn) type of reactions. To the best of our knowledge, the excitation functions for ({alpha},4n), ({alpha},p3n), ({alpha},{alpha}n) and ({alpha},{alpha}2n) reactions were measured for the first time. (orig.)

  16. Effect of Mg(2+) doping on beta-alpha phase transition in tricalcium phosphate (TCP) bioceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasnelli, Matteo; Sglavo, Vincenzo M

    2016-03-01

    The beta to alpha transition in tricalcium phosphate (TCP) bioceramics containing different amount of magnesium was studied in the present work. Mg-doped TCP powder was obtained by solid-state reaction starting from pure calcium carbonate, ammonium phosphate dibasic and magnesium oxide powders. The β to α transformation temperature was identified by dilatometric and thermo-differential analyses. Small pellets produced by uniaxial pressing samples were employed to study the influence of Mg(2+) on the transition kinetic, after sintering at 1550°C and subsequent slow or fast cooling down to room temperature. The evolution of β- and α-TCP crystalline phases during each thermal treatment was determined by X-ray powder diffraction analysis combined with Rietveld method-based software An annealing treatment, suitable to reconvert metastable α phase to the more clinically suitable β phase, was also investigated. It is shown that the presence of magnesium within the TCP lattice strongly influences the kinetic of the β⇆α phase transition, promoting the spontaneous α→β reconversion even upon fast cooling, or slowing down the β→α transition during heating. Similarly, it allows the α→β transformation in TCP sintered components by optimized annealing treatment at 850°C. This work concerns the effect of Mg(2+) doping on the β→α phase reconstructive transition in tricalcium phosphate (TCP), one of the most important bio-resorbable materials for bone tissue regeneration. The transition occurs upon the sintering process and is has been shown to be strongly irreversible upon cooling, leading to technological issues such as poor mechanical properties and excessive solubility due to the presence of metastable α-phase. This paper points out the kinetic contribution of Mg(2+) on the spontaneous α→β reconversion also upon fast cooling (i.e. quenching). Moreover, an annealing treatment has been shown to be beneficial to remove the retained α-phase in

  17. Effects of Wnt signaling on brown adipocyte differentiation and metabolism mediated by PGC-1alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kang, Sona; Bajnok, Laszlo; Longo, Kenneth A

    2005-01-01

    Activation of canonical Wnt signaling inhibits brown adipogenesis of cultured cells by impeding induction of PPARgamma and C/EBPalpha. Although enforced expression of these adipogenic transcription factors restores lipid accumulation and expression of FABP4 in Wnt-expressing cells, additional...... expression of PGC-1alpha is required for activation of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). Wnt10b blocks brown adipose tissue development and expression of UCP1 when expressed from the fatty acid binding protein 4 promoter, even when mice are administered a beta3-agonist. In differentiated brown adipocytes......, activation of Wnt signaling suppresses expression of UCP1 through repression of PGC-1alpha. Consistent with these in vitro observations, UCP1-Wnt10b transgenic mice, which express Wnt10b in interscapular tissue, lack functional brown adipose tissue. While interscapular tissue of UCP1-Wnt10b mice lacks...

  18. Selective effects of alpha interferon on human T-lymphocyte subsets during mixed lymphocyte cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hokland, M; Hokland, P; Heron, I

    1983-01-01

    Mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) cultures of human lymphocyte subsets with or without the addition of physiological doses of human alpha interferon (IFN-alpha) were compared with respect to surface marker phenotypes and proliferative capacities of the responder cells. A selective depression on the T...... T4 cells and decreased numbers of T4 cells harvested from IFN MLRs (days 5-6 of culture). In contrast, it was shown that the T8 (cytotoxic/suppressor) subset in MLRs was either not affected or slightly stimulated by the addition of IFN. The depression of the T4 cells by IFN was accompanied......4 (inducer) T-cell subset could be demonstrated as a sequence of events: decreased fluorescence intensity of the T4 inducer cells (day 2 of culture), decreased percentages of T4 cells as demonstrated by cell cytofluorometry (days 3-6 of culture), and decreased 3H-thymidine incorporation of purified...

  19. Effect of 17- alpha- methyl testosterone on cichlid kaliko (Labeotropheous foellobroni) sex reversal

    OpenAIRE

    Hosseinzadeh Sahafi, H.; Ashja Ardalan, Aria; Sayfi, J.

    2013-01-01

    In this present study, Cichlid Kaliko (Labeotropheous foellobroni) fallowing was exposed to 17-alpha-methyl testosterone at 2 stages of development including prior to maturity (larvae) and after puberty (broodstock). The influence of sex hormone on the larvae was also explored. The first group was the larvae under the four treatments (0, 50,100, 250) mg per kg of food and hormones that broodstock group also included four treatments (0, 100, 250, 400) mg per kg food three replicates were perfo...

  20. Effects of L-carnitine against oxidative stress in human hepatocytes: involvement of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jin-Lian

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excessive oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation have been demonstrated to play important roles in the production of liver damage. L-carnitine is a natural substance and acts as a carrier for fatty acids across the inner mitochondrial membrane for subsequent beta-oxidation. It is also an antioxidant that reduces metabolic stress in the cells. Recent years L-carnitine has been proposed for treatment of various kinds of disease, including liver injury. This study was conducted to evaluate the protective effect of L-carnitine against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2-induced cytotoxicity in a normal human hepatocyte cell line, HL7702. Methods We analyzed cytotoxicity using MTT assay and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH release. Antioxidant activity and lipid peroxidation were estimated by reactive oxygen species (ROS levels, activities and protein expressions of superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT, and malondialdehyde (MDA formation. Expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR-alpha and its target genes were evaluated by RT-PCR or western blotting. The role of PPAR-alpha in L-carnitine-enhanced expression of SOD and CAT was also explored. Statistical analysis was performed by a one-way analysis of variance, and its significance was assessed by Dennett's post-hoc test. Results The results showed that L-carnitine protected HL7702 cells against cytotoxity induced by H2O2. This protection was related to the scavenging of ROS, the promotion of SOD and CAT activity and expression, and the prevention of lipid peroxidation in cultured HL7702 cells. The decreased expressions of PPAR-alpha, carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 (CPT1 and acyl-CoA oxidase (ACOX induced by H2O2 can be attenuated by L-carnitine. Besides, we also found that the promotion of SOD and CAT protein expression induced by L-carnitine was blocked by PPAR-alpha inhibitor MK886. Conclusions Taken together, our findings suggest that L-carnitine could protect HL

  1. Effects of L-carnitine against oxidative stress in human hepatocytes: involvement of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin-Lian; Wang, Qiao-Yun; Luan, Hai-Yun; Kang, Ze-Chun; Wang, Chun-Bo

    2012-03-21

    Excessive oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation have been demonstrated to play important roles in the production of liver damage. L-carnitine is a natural substance and acts as a carrier for fatty acids across the inner mitochondrial membrane for subsequent beta-oxidation. It is also an antioxidant that reduces metabolic stress in the cells. Recent years L-carnitine has been proposed for treatment of various kinds of disease, including liver injury. This study was conducted to evaluate the protective effect of L-carnitine against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced cytotoxicity in a normal human hepatocyte cell line, HL7702. We analyzed cytotoxicity using MTT assay and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. Antioxidant activity and lipid peroxidation were estimated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, activities and protein expressions of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), and malondialdehyde (MDA) formation. Expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-alpha and its target genes were evaluated by RT-PCR or western blotting. The role of PPAR-alpha in L-carnitine-enhanced expression of SOD and CAT was also explored. Statistical analysis was performed by a one-way analysis of variance, and its significance was assessed by Dennett's post-hoc test. The results showed that L-carnitine protected HL7702 cells against cytotoxity induced by H2O2. This protection was related to the scavenging of ROS, the promotion of SOD and CAT activity and expression, and the prevention of lipid peroxidation in cultured HL7702 cells. The decreased expressions of PPAR-alpha, carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 (CPT1) and acyl-CoA oxidase (ACOX) induced by H2O2 can be attenuated by L-carnitine. Besides, we also found that the promotion of SOD and CAT protein expression induced by L-carnitine was blocked by PPAR-alpha inhibitor MK886. Taken together, our findings suggest that L-carnitine could protect HL7702 cells against oxidative stress through the

  2. The effects of the alpha2-adrenergic receptor agonists clonidine and rilmenidine, and antagonists yohimbine and efaroxan, on the spinal cholinergic receptor system in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abelson, Klas S P; Höglund, A Urban

    2004-01-01

    Cholinergic agonists produce spinal antinociception via mechanisms involving an increased release of intraspinal acetylcholine. The cholinergic receptor system interacts with several other receptor types, such as alpha2-adrenergic receptors. To fully understand these interactions, the effects of ...

  3. Effect of laser phototherapy on the release of TNF-alpha and MMP-1 by endodontic sealer-stimulated macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Lorena R; Cavalcanti, Bruno N; Marques, Márcia M

    2009-02-01

    Our aim was to analyze the effect of laser phototherapy on the secretory activity of macrophages activated by interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and stimulated by substances leached from an epoxy resin-based sealer (AH-Plus) and a calcium hydroxide-based sealer (Sealapex). Laser phototherapy can modulate the inflammatory process, improving wound healing. This type of therapy could be useful for modulating postoperative symptoms seen after endodontic treatment. Cytotoxicity was indirectly assessed by measuring mitochondrial activity. Macrophages were stimulated by the leached substances or not (controls), and the groups were then irradiated or not. The secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha and MMP-1) was analyzed using ELISA. Two irradiations at 6-h intervals were done with an As-Ga-Al diode laser (780 nm, 70 mW, spot size 4.0 mm(2), 3 J/cm(2), for 1.5 sec) in contact mode. The sealers were non-cytotoxic to macrophages. The production of TNF-alpha was significantly decreased by laser phototherapy, regardless of experimental group. The level of secretion of MMP-1 was similar in all groups. Based on the conditions of this study we concluded that in activated macrophages, laser phototherapy impairs the secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha, but has no influence on MMP-1 secretion.

  4. Neuroprotective Effects of Alpha-Mangostin on MPP+-Induced Apoptotic Cell Death in Neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janhom, Prachya; Dharmasaroja, Permphan

    2015-01-01

    In vitro studies have shown that extracts from mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.) act as antioxidants and cytoprotective agents against oxidative damage. The protective effect of alpha-mangostin, the major xanthone found in the pericarp of the mangosteen, in cellular models of Parkinson's disease (PD), has not been investigated. This study aims to investigate whether alpha-mangostin could protect SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells from MPP+-induced apoptosis. The effects of alpha-mangostin on MPP+-induced cell death were evaluated with a cell viability assay, staining for nuclear DNA morphology, flow cytometry for apoptotic cells and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, quantitative real-time PCR for the expression of p53, Bax, and Bcl-2, and western blot analysis for cleaved caspase-3. Concomitant treatment with alpha-mangostin attenuated the effect of MPP+ on cell viability and apoptotic cell death. Alpha-mangostin reduced ROS formation induced by MPP+. Bax/Bcl-2 expression ratio and expression of p53 were significantly lower in cells cocultured with alpha-mangostin and MPP+. The cotreated cells showed a significant decrease in activated caspase-3 compared with MPP+ treatment alone. Our data suggest that cytoprotection of alpha-mangostin against MPP+-induced apoptosis may be associated with the reduction of ROS production, modulating the balance of pro- and antiapoptotic genes, and suppression of caspase-3 activation. PMID:26357513

  5. Effects of the pesticide amitraz and its metabolite BTS 27271 on insulin and glucagon secretion from the perfused rat pancreas: involvement of alpha2D-adrenergic receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Basha, E A; Yibchok-Anun, S; Hopper, D L; Hsu, W H

    1999-11-01

    The study purpose was to investigate the direct effect of amitraz, a formamidine insecticide/acaricide, and its active metabolite BTS 27271 on insulin and glucagon secretion from the perfused rat pancreas. Amitraz and BTS 27271 (0.01, 0.1, 1, and 10 micromol/L) inhibited insulin secretion in a concentration-dependent manner. Amitraz increased glucagon secretion at 10 micromol/L, whereas BTS 27271 increased glucagon secretion at 1 and 10 micromol/L. Amitraz- and BTS 27271-induced decreases in insulin secretion and increases in glucagon secretion were not abolished during the 10-minute washout period. During the arginine treatment, both amitraz and BTS 27271 groups (0.1, 1, and 10 micromol/L) had lower insulin secretion and higher glucagon secretion than the control group. Idazoxan, an alpha2A/2D-adrenergic receptor (AR) antagonist, prevented the inhibitory effect of amitraz on insulin secretion in a concentration-dependent manner, but prazosin, an alpha1- and alpha2B/2C-AR antagonist, failed to antagonize the effect of amitraz. These results demonstrate that (1) amitraz and BTS 27271 inhibit insulin and stimulate glucagon secretion from the perfused rat pancreas, (2) amitraz inhibits insulin secretion by activation of alpha2D-ARs, since rats have alpha2D- but not alpha2A-ARs, and (3) amitraz and BTS 27271 may have a high binding affinity to the alpha2D-ARs of pancreatic islets.

  6. Neuroprotective Effects of Alpha-Mangostin on MPP+-Induced Apoptotic Cell Death in Neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prachya Janhom

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro studies have shown that extracts from mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn. act as antioxidants and cytoprotective agents against oxidative damage. The protective effect of alpha-mangostin, the major xanthone found in the pericarp of the mangosteen, in cellular models of Parkinson’s disease (PD, has not been investigated. This study aims to investigate whether alpha-mangostin could protect SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells from MPP+-induced apoptosis. The effects of alpha-mangostin on MPP+-induced cell death were evaluated with a cell viability assay, staining for nuclear DNA morphology, flow cytometry for apoptotic cells and reactive oxygen species (ROS production, quantitative real-time PCR for the expression of p53, Bax, and Bcl-2, and western blot analysis for cleaved caspase-3. Concomitant treatment with alpha-mangostin attenuated the effect of MPP+ on cell viability and apoptotic cell death. Alpha-mangostin reduced ROS formation induced by MPP+. Bax/Bcl-2 expression ratio and expression of p53 were significantly lower in cells cocultured with alpha-mangostin and MPP+. The cotreated cells showed a significant decrease in activated caspase-3 compared with MPP+ treatment alone. Our data suggest that cytoprotection of alpha-mangostin against MPP+-induced apoptosis may be associated with the reduction of ROS production, modulating the balance of pro- and antiapoptotic genes, and suppression of caspase-3 activation.

  7. Neuroprotective Effects of Alpha-Mangostin on MPP(+)-Induced Apoptotic Cell Death in Neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janhom, Prachya; Dharmasaroja, Permphan

    2015-01-01

    In vitro studies have shown that extracts from mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.) act as antioxidants and cytoprotective agents against oxidative damage. The protective effect of alpha-mangostin, the major xanthone found in the pericarp of the mangosteen, in cellular models of Parkinson's disease (PD), has not been investigated. This study aims to investigate whether alpha-mangostin could protect SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells from MPP(+)-induced apoptosis. The effects of alpha-mangostin on MPP(+)-induced cell death were evaluated with a cell viability assay, staining for nuclear DNA morphology, flow cytometry for apoptotic cells and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, quantitative real-time PCR for the expression of p53, Bax, and Bcl-2, and western blot analysis for cleaved caspase-3. Concomitant treatment with alpha-mangostin attenuated the effect of MPP(+) on cell viability and apoptotic cell death. Alpha-mangostin reduced ROS formation induced by MPP(+). Bax/Bcl-2 expression ratio and expression of p53 were significantly lower in cells cocultured with alpha-mangostin and MPP(+). The cotreated cells showed a significant decrease in activated caspase-3 compared with MPP(+) treatment alone. Our data suggest that cytoprotection of alpha-mangostin against MPP(+)-induced apoptosis may be associated with the reduction of ROS production, modulating the balance of pro- and antiapoptotic genes, and suppression of caspase-3 activation.

  8. Age-dependent effects of A53T alpha-synuclein on behavior and dopaminergic function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam W Oaks

    Full Text Available Expression of A53T mutant human alpha-synuclein under the mouse prion promoter is among the most successful transgenic models of Parkinson's disease. Accumulation of A53T alpha-synuclein causes adult mice to develop severe motor impairment resulting in early death at 8-12 months of age. In younger, pre-symptomatic animals, altered motor activity and anxiety-like behaviors have also been reported. These behavioral changes, which precede severe neuropathology, may stem from non-pathological functions of alpha-synuclein, including modulation of monoamine neurotransmission. Our analysis over the adult life-span of motor activity, anxiety-like, and depressive-like behaviors identifies perturbations both before and after the onset of disease. Young A53T mice had increased distribution of the dopamine transporter (DAT to the membrane that was associated with increased striatal re-uptake function. DAT function decreased with aging, and was associated with neurochemical alterations that included increased expression of beta-synuclein and gamma synuclein. Prior to normalization of dopamine uptake, transient activation of Tau kinases and hyperphosphorylation of Tau in the striatum were also observed. Aged A53T mice had reduced neuron counts in the substantia nigra pars compacta, yet striatal medium spiny neuron dendritic spine density was largely maintained. These findings highlight the involvement of the synuclein family of proteins and phosphorylation of Tau in the response to dopaminergic dysfunction of the nigrostriatal pathway.

  9. Effects of alpha-lipoic acids on sperm membrane integrity during liquid storage of boar semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Parlapan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary studies have shown that sperm membrane from swine shows high sensitivity to cryopreservation process, causing a dramatic reduction in sperm quality. This has been attributed to the production of reactive oxygen species, that cause lipid peroxidation in sperm membranes. The aim of the present study was to minimize the oxidative attack by adding different concentration of alpha-lipoic acid into the sperm liquid storage at 17ºC for 7 days. Freshly ejaculated boar semen was diluted with Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS and supplemented with 5 levels of alpha-lipoic  acid (0.015, 0.02, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15 mmol/ml. The membrane integrity was evaluated at days 0, 1, 3, 5 and 7 of liquid preservation, using flow cytometer FACSCanto II (BD Biociencias systems. The experiment indicate that supplementation of alpha-lipoic  acid to the semen liquid storage extender improve sperm membrane

  10. Beneficial effect of modified peptide inhibitor of alpha4 integrins on experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in Lewis rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Laan, Luc J W; van der Goes, Annette; Wauben, Marca H M; Ruuls, Sigrid R; Döpp, Ed A; De Groot, Corline J A; Kuijpers, Taco W; Elices, Mariano J; Dijkstra, Christine D

    2002-01-15

    An important event in the pathogenesis of the autoimmune disease multiple sclerosis (MS) is the recruitment of lymphocytes and inflammatory macrophages to the central nervous system (CNS). Recruitment requires adhesive interactions between the leukocytes and the microvascular endothelium, perivascular cells, and astrocytes in the CNS parenchyma. Previous studies using an animal model of MS, experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), have shown the involvement of the alpha4 integrin VLA-4 (beta4beta1). In the present study, the effect of a modified peptide inhibitor of alpha4 integrins on the clinical course and leukocyte infiltration during EAE is investigated. EAE was either induced actively, by immunizing Lewis rats with whole guinea pig MBP, or passively, by transfer of an MBP-specific T cell line. Treatment with the inhibitor (CS1 ligand mimic) completely prevented both clinical signs and cellular infiltration in passively induced EAE. Peptide treatment of actively induced EAE, which has a more severe disease course than the transfer model, significantly reduced clinical signs although the recruitment of inflammatory cells and induction of MHC class II expression was not prevented. The alpha4 inhibitor did inhibit the adhesion of lymphocytes to primary astrocytes in vitro suggesting a role for astrocyte-leukocyte interactions in the pathogenesis of induced EAE. Astrocytes were found to express an extracellular matrix protein distinct from fibronectin, which shows immune cross-reactivity with the CS1 domain of fibronectin. Our results show that small-molecule inhibitors of alpha4 integrins act therapeutically in EAE possibly by interfering with cell adhesion events involved in this autoimmune disease. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Inhibition of alpha oscillations through serotonin-2A receptor activation underlies the visual effects of ayahuasca in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Marta; Maqueda, Ana Elda; Rabella, Mireia; Rodríguez-Pujadas, Aina; Antonijoan, Rosa Maria; Romero, Sergio; Alonso, Joan Francesc; Mañanas, Miquel Àngel; Barker, Steven; Friedlander, Pablo; Feilding, Amanda; Riba, Jordi

    2016-07-01

    Ayahuasca is an Amazonian psychotropic plant tea typically obtained from two plants, Banisteriopsis caapi and Psychotria viridis. It contains the psychedelic 5-HT2A and sigma-1 agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) plus β-carboline alkaloids with monoamine-oxidase (MAO)-inhibiting properties. Although the psychoactive effects of ayahuasca have commonly been attributed solely to agonism at the 5-HT2A receptor, the molecular target of classical psychedelics, this has not been tested experimentally. Here we wished to study the contribution of the 5-HT2A receptor to the neurophysiological and psychological effects of ayahuasca in humans. We measured drug-induced changes in spontaneous brain oscillations and subjective effects in a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study involving the oral administration of ayahuasca (0.75mg DMT/kg body weight) and the 5-HT2A antagonist ketanserin (40mg). Twelve healthy, experienced psychedelic users (5 females) participated in four experimental sessions in which they received the following drug combinations: placebo+placebo, placebo+ayahuasca, ketanserin+placebo and ketanserin+ayahuasca. Ayahuasca induced EEG power decreases in the delta, theta and alpha frequency bands. Current density in alpha-band oscillations in parietal and occipital cortex was inversely correlated with the intensity of visual imagery induced by ayahuasca. Pretreatment with ketanserin inhibited neurophysiological modifications, reduced the correlation between alpha and visual effects, and attenuated the intensity of the subjective experience. These findings suggest that despite the chemical complexity of ayahuasca, 5-HT2A activation plays a key role in the neurophysiological and visual effects of ayahuasca in humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  12. Alpha-lipoic acid potently inhibits peroxynitrite-mediated DNA strand breakage and hydroxyl radical formation: implications for the neuroprotective effects of alpha-lipoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zhenquan; Zhu, Hong; Vitto, Michael J; Misra, Bhaba R; Li, Yunbo; Misra, Hara P

    2009-03-01

    Alpha-lipoic acid (LA) has recently been reported to afford protection against neurodegenerative disorders in humans and experimental animals. However, the mechanisms underlying LA-mediated neuroprotection remain an enigma. Because peroxynitrite has been extensively implicated in the pathogenesis of various forms of neurodegenerative disorders, this study was undertaken to investigate the effects of LA in peroxynitrite-induced DNA strand breaks, a critical event leading to peroxynitrite-elicited cytotoxicity. Incubation of phi X-174 plasmid DNA with the 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1), a peroxynitrite generator, led to the formation of both single- and double-stranded DNA breaks in a concentration- and time-dependent fashion. The presence of LA at 100-1,600 microM was found to significantly inhibit SIN-1-induced DNA strand breaks in a concentration-dependent manner. The consumption of oxygen induced by 250 microM SIN-1 was found to be decreased in the presence of high concentrations of LA (400-1,600 microM), indicating that LA at these concentrations may affect the generation of peroxynitrite from auto-oxidation of SIN-1. It is observed that incubation of the plasmid DNA with authentic peroxynitrite resulted in a significant formation of DNA strand breaks, which could also be dramatically inhibited by the presence of LA (100-1,600 microM). EPR spectroscopy in combination with spin-trapping experiments, using 5,5-dimethylpyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO) as spin trap, resulted in the formation of DMPO-hydroxyl radical adduct (DMPO-OH) from authentic peroxynitrite and LA at 50-1,600 microM inhibited the adduct signal. Taken together, these studies demonstrate for the first time that LA can potently inhibit peroxynitrite-mediated DNA strand breakage and hydroxyl radical formation. In view of the critical involvement of peroxynitrite in the pathogenesis of various neurodegenerative diseases, the inhibition of peroxynitrite-mediated DNA damage by LA may be responsible, at least

  13. Effects of a high-pressure treatment on the wheat alpha-amylase inhibitor and its relationship to elimination of allergenicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, S [Food Science Center, Niigata University, Ikarashi, Niigata, 950-2181 (Japan); Takanohashi, K; Nishiumi, T [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, Ikarashi, Niigata, 950-2181 (Japan); Hara, T [Department of Applied Biological Chemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, Niigata University, Ikarashi, Niigata, 950-2181 (Japan); Odani, S [Department of Living Science and Technology, Faculty of Education and Human Science, Ikarashi, Niigata, 950-2181 (Japan); Suzuki, A, E-mail: shuyama@agr.niigata-u.ac.j [Department of Health and Nutrition, Faculty of Medical Science for Health, Teikyo Heisei University, Ikebukuro, Tokyo, 170-0013 (Japan)

    2010-03-01

    In this study, the effects of high-pressure treatment on structure and allergeincity of alpha amylase inhibitor (a-AI) were investigated. The pressure-induced structural changes of {alpha}-AI were estimated by fluorescence spectra and by fourth derivative UV-spectroscopy for probed tyrosine residues and by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. The changes in the tertiary structure detected by fluorescence spectra and by fourth derivative UV-spectroscopy under high pressure were indicated at over 300 MPa. Measurements of CD spectroscopy suggested that the effects of a high-pressure treatment on changes in the secondary structure of {alpha}-AI were little. From our results, pressure-induced changes of the {alpha}-AI structure were not apparent. On the other hands, the IgE-specific binding activities of pressurized {alpha}-AI to sera from allergic patients against wheat, which is estimated by observations of dot-blotting, were decreased by high-pressure treatment. It is known that the pressure-induced elimination of allergenicity is related to the tertiary structural changes of allergen molecules. This study are suspected that the epitopes of {alpha}-AI do not contain tyrosine residues, and thus the decrease of IgE-specific binding activities is probably caused by the tertiary structural changes of these parts of {alpha}-AI.

  14. Effect of lipid extracts of Nigella sativa L. seeds on the liver ATP reduction and alpha-glucosidase inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobhi, Widad; Stevigny, Caroline; Duez, Pierre; Calderon, Bedro Buc; Atmani, Djebbar; Benboubetra, Mustapha

    2016-01-01

    Various extracts from the seeds of Nigella sativa have been used in traditional folk medicine to treat inflammation, liver disorders and arthritis. These seeds have been experimentally shown to possess antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties. Beside the hypoglycaemic and hypolipidemic effects, this study was carried out to evaluate, in vitro, toxicological effect of lipid extracts from the Nigella sativa seeds. The tested fractions were: (i) defatted methanolic extract, (ii) total lipid extract obtained by hexane extraction from methanolic extract and (iii) neutral and polar lipid fractions. The fractions were assessed, in vitro, for their inhibitory activity potential on the enzyme alpha-glucosidase as suppressing the enzyme activity is one among the therapeutic approaches to attenuate postprandial hyperglycemia. High inhibition of alpha-glucosidase by the two polar lipid fractions (F6 and F7) was reflected by their IC50 (0.51±0.04mg/ml and 0.55±0.09mg/ml, respectively), compared to acarbose (0.53±0.06mg/ml) and thymoquinone (0.65±0.05mg/ml). The hypoglycaemic effect of the polar lipid fraction of Nigella sativa could be explained by the inhibition of alpha-glucosidase, which is one of early steps of carbohydrate metabolism. Toxicological evaluation was investigated on precision-cut rat liver slices (PCLS). On PCLS, lipid extracts reduced ATP levels by 27 to 35%. Results indicate suggest that Nigella sativa extracts don't show a hepatoprotective effect against acetaminophen, but don't exhibit a major hepatotoxicity when tested alone.

  15. Longitudinal and Immediate Effect of Kundalini Yoga on Salivary Levels of Cortisol and Activity of Alpha-Amylase and Its Effect on Perceived Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sesnich, Jocelyn N; Flores, Mauricio Garrido; Ríos, Marcela Hernández; Aravena, Jorge Gamonal

    2017-01-01

    Stress is defined as an alteration of an organism's balance in response to a demand perceived from the environment. Diverse methods exist to evaluate physiological response. A noninvasive method is salivary measurement of cortisol and alpha-amylase. A growing body of evidence suggests that the regular practice of Yoga would be an effective treatment for stress. To determine the Kundalini Yoga (KY) effect, immediate and after 3 months of regular practice, on the perception of psychological stress and the salivary levels of cortisol and alpha-amylase activity. To determine the psychological perceived stress, levels of cortisol and alpha-amylase activity in saliva, and compare between the participants to KY classes performed for 3 months and a group that does not practice any type of yoga. The total sample consisted of 26 people between 18 and 45-year-old; 13 taking part in KY classes given at the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Chile and 13 controls. Salivary samples were collected, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed to quantify cortisol and kinetic reaction test was made to determine alpha-amylase activity. Perceived Stress Scale was applied at the beginning and at the end of the intervention. Statistical analysis was applied using Stata v11.1 software. Shapiro-Wilk test was used to determine data distribution. The paired analysis was fulfilled by t -test or Wilcoxon signed-rank test. T -test or Mann-Whitney's test was applied to compare longitudinal data. A statistical significance was considered when P effect on salivary cortisol. The activity of alpha-amylase did not show significant changes. A significant decrease of perceived stress in the study group was found. KY practice shows an immediate effect on salivary cortisol levels and on perceived stress after 3 months of practice.

  16. Longitudinal and immediate effect of Kundalini Yoga on salivary levels of cortisol and activity of alpha-amylase and its effect on perceived stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelyn N García-Sesnich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Stress is defined as an alteration of an organism's balance in response to a demand perceived from the environment. Diverse methods exist to evaluate physiological response. A noninvasive method is salivary measurement of cortisol and alpha-amylase. A growing body of evidence suggests that the regular practice of Yoga would be an effective treatment for stress. Aims: To determine the Kundalini Yoga (KY effect, immediate and after 3 months of regular practice, on the perception of psychological stress and the salivary levels of cortisol and alpha-amylase activity. Settings and Design: To determine the psychological perceived stress, levels of cortisol and alpha-amylase activity in saliva, and compare between the participants to KY classes performed for 3 months and a group that does not practice any type of yoga. Subjects and Methods: The total sample consisted of 26 people between 18 and 45-year-old; 13 taking part in KY classes given at the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Chile and 13 controls. Salivary samples were collected, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed to quantify cortisol and kinetic reaction test was made to determine alpha-amylase activity. Perceived Stress Scale was applied at the beginning and at the end of the intervention. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was applied using Stata v11.1 software. Shapiro–Wilk test was used to determine data distribution. The paired analysis was fulfilled by t-test or Wilcoxon signed-rank test. T-test or Mann–Whitney's test was applied to compare longitudinal data. A statistical significance was considered when P< 0.05. Results: KY practice had an immediate effect on salivary cortisol. The activity of alpha-amylase did not show significant changes. A significant decrease of perceived stress in the study group was found. Conclusions: KY practice shows an immediate effect on salivary cortisol levels and on perceived stress after 3 months of practice.

  17. Effect of hot isostatic pressing on the properties of sintered alpha silicon carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, G. K.; Moore, T. J.; Millard, M. L.

    1985-01-01

    Two lots of alpha silicon carbide were isostatically hot-pressed under 138 MPa for 2 h in Ar at temperatures up to 2200 C. Nearly theoretically dense specimens resulted. Hot isostatic pressing increased both room-temperature strength and 1200 C strength, and resulted in improved reliability. One lot of material which was pressed at 2200 C showed increases of about 20 percent in room-temperature strength and about 50 percent in 1200 C flexural strength; the Weibull modulus improved about 100 percent.

  18. Hydrothermal synthesis, structure, Raman spectroscopy, and self-irradiation studies of 248Cm(IO3)3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sykora, Richard E.; Assefa, Zerihun; Haire, Richard G.; Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E.

    2004-01-01

    The study of curium iodate, Cm(IO 3 ) 3 , was undertaken as part of a systematic investigation of the 4f- and 5f-elements' iodates. The reaction of 248 CmCl 3 with aqueous H 5 IO 6 under mild hydrothermal conditions results in the reduction of IO 6 5- to IO 3 - anions, and the subsequent formation of Cm(IO 3 ) 3 single crystals. Crystallographic data are: (193K, MoKα, λ=0.71073A): monoclinic, space group P2 1 /c, a=7.2014(7)A, b=8.5062(9)A, c=13.4622(14)A, β=100.142(2) o , V=811.76(14), Z=4, R(F)=2.11%, Rw(Fo2)=4.43% for 119 parameters with 1917 reflections with I>2σ(I). The structure consists of Cm 3+ cations bound by iodate anions to form [Cm(IO 3 ) 8 ] units, where the local coordination environment around the curium centers can be described as a distorted dodecahedron. There are three crystallographically unique iodate anions within the structure; two iodates bridge between three Cm centers, and one iodate bridges between two Cm centers and has a terminal oxygen atom. The bridging of the curium centers by the iodate anions creates a three-dimensional structure. Three strong Raman bands with comparable intensities were observed at 846, 804, and 760cm -1 and correspond to the I-O symmetric stretching of the three crystallographically distinct iodate ions. The Raman profile suggests a lack of inter-ionic vibrational coupling of the I-O stretching, while intra-ionic coupling provides symmetric and asymmetric components that correspond to each iodate site. Repeated collection of X-ray diffraction data for a crystal of Cm(IO 3 ) 3 over a period of time revealed a gradual expansion of the unit cell from self-irradiation. After 71 days, the new parameters were: a=7.2132(7)A, b=8.5310(8)A, c=13.505(1)A, β=100.021(2) o , V=818.3(2)

  19. Funneling effect of alpha particles on the charge collection efficiency in N type silicon surface barrier detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boorboor, S.; Feghhi, S.A.H.; Jafari, H.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Field funneling due to SEE in microelectronic device affects the charge collection efficiency. • Charge collection efficiency from alpha particles in a N type SSB device was calculated. • GEANT4, a Monte Carlo code and ATLAS, a numerical code have been used. • The simulation results have been validated through comparison with the experimental results. - Abstract: There are three different mechanisms of charge collection in a semiconductor charge particle detector, such as the drift of carriers in depletion zone, the drift of carriers in an extended electrical field along the ion track or funneling effect and the diffusion of carriers. In this work, the funneling effect on charge collection efficiency due to alpha particle track in a N type silicon surface barrier detector has been investigated. GEANT4, as Monte Carlo code, has been used for estimation of the deposit energy distribution in the component. In addition, the semiconductor device simulator, ATLAS, has been used in calculation of charge collection efficiency. The simulation results have been validated through comparison with the available experimental results. The calculated charge collection efficiency has good agreement with experiment. Without considering the funneling effect and diffusion, the calculation results underestimate the charge collection efficiency within 60%. Our overall results were indicative of the fact that considering funneling effect, considerably improves the accuracy of the charge collection efficiency estimation

  20. Tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibits the suppressive effect of regulatory T cells on the hepatitis B virus-specific immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoop, Jeroen N; Woltman, Andrea M; Biesta, Paula J; Kusters, Johannes G; Kuipers, Ernst J; Janssen, Harry L A; van der Molen, Renate G

    2007-09-01

    Chronicity of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is characterized by a weak immune response to the virus. CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Treg) are present in increased numbers in the peripheral blood of chronic HBV patients, and these Treg are capable of suppressing the HBV-specific immune response. The aim of this study was to abrogate Treg-mediated suppression of the HBV-specific immune response. Therefore, Treg and a Treg-depleted cell fraction were isolated from peripheral blood of chronic HBV patients. Subsequently, the suppressive effect of Treg on the response to HBV core antigen (HBcAg) and tetanus toxin was compared, and the effect of exogenous tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1-beta (IL-1beta), or neutralizing antibodies against interleukin-10 (IL-10) or transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) on Treg-mediated suppression was determined. The results show that Treg of chronic HBV patients had a more potent suppressive effect on the response to HBcAg compared with the response to tetanus toxin. Neutralization of IL-10 and TGF-beta or exogenous IL-1beta had no effect on Treg-mediated suppression of the anti-HBcAg response, whereas exogenous TNF-alpha partially abrogated Treg-mediated suppression. Preincubation of Treg with TNF-alpha demonstrated that TNF-alpha had a direct effect on the Treg. No difference was observed in the type II TNF receptor expression by Treg from chronic HBV patients and healthy controls. Treg-mediated suppression of the anti-HBV response can be reduced by exogenous TNF-alpha. Because chronic HBV patients are known to produce less TNF-alpha, these data implicate an important role for TNF-alpha in the impaired antiviral response in chronic HBV.

  1. Effects of spins and resonance parities of 12C on the mechanism of emission of three alpha particles in the 11B (p, 3 α) reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quebert, Jean

    1968-01-01

    This research thesis reports the study of the mechanism of emission of alpha particles in the 11 B (p, 3 α) reaction with respect to the effects of spins and parities of the various resonances met between 150 keV and 4 MeV. From an experimental point of view, the reaction has been studied by two methods: the detection of alpha particles by a semiconductor-based counter located at a given angle with respect to the beam direction and study of continuous spectra of alpha particles with respect to projectile energies, and recording, for a given resonance, of alpha-alpha coincidences by using the multi-parametric technique with two semiconductor-based sensors with a varying relative angular position. After a discussion of the main characteristics of resonance and of the mechanism of emission of alpha particles, the author first reports the theoretical study of a reaction producing three particles in the final state, and then reports the theoretical calculation of direct alpha spectrum shapes in the case of the 11 B (p, 3 α) reaction (statistic hypothesis, hypothesis of interaction with two particles in the final state). The next part reports the experimental study of the 11 B (p, 3 α) reaction

  2. Effects of four Fusarium toxins (fumonisin B(1), alpha-zearalenol, nivalenol and deoxynivalenol) on porcine whole-blood cellular proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luongo, D; De Luna, R; Russo, R; Severino, L

    2008-07-01

    The in vitro effects of four Fusarium toxins, fumonisin B(1) (FB(1)), alpha-zearalenol (alpha-ZEA), nivalenol (NIV) and deoxynivalenol (DON), on mitogen-induced cell proliferation were determined in swine whole-blood cultures. Considering the lack of sufficient toxicological data both on single and in combination effects, in vitro studies may contribute to risk assessment of these toxins. Incubation with increasing concentrations of FB(1) did not produce any consequence on proliferation; in contrast alpha-ZEA, NIV and DON showed an inhibitory effect. Dose-response curves for each mycotoxin were generated. NIV was found to be the most potent toxin followed by DON and alpha-ZEA. The effects of both FB(1)+alpha-ZEA and NIV+DON mixtures were also analysed to investigate possible interactions. The results indicated that combination of FB(1)+alpha-ZEA produces a synergistic inhibition of porcine cell proliferation; whereas there is no interaction between DON and NIV on porcine whole-blood proliferation, at tested concentrations.

  3. The effects of dexamethasone and chlorpromazine on tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1 beta, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist and interleukin-10 in human volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleeker, M W; Netea, M G; Kullberg, B J; Van der Ven-Jongekrijg, J; Van der Meer, J W

    1997-01-01

    Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) are pro-inflammatory cytokines that play an important role in severe infections, whereas IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) and IL-10 are anti-inflammatory cytokines that counteract their effects. Chlorpromazine and dexamethasone protect mice against lethal endotoxaemia by decreasing circulating concentrations of TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta. We investigated whether administration of chlorpromazine or dexamethasone to human volunteers is able to modulate the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated cytokine production capacity in whole blood. Blood samples were taken before and several time-points after medication. Circulating cytokine concentrations were low in all samples. LPS-induced TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta production in whole blood was inhibited by dexamethasone treatment, while chlorpromazine had no effect. When peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated in vitro with LPS, the addition of chlorpromazine (1-100 ng/ml) had no modulatory action on TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-1ra or IL-10 synthesis. The chlorpromazine concentrations measured in circulation of volunteers were eight to 40 times lower than the concentrations shown to be effective in mice. In conclusion, chlorpromazine inhibits TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta production in mice at concentrations that cannot be reached in humans, thus precluding its usage in clinical anti-cytokine strategies. In contrast, dexamethasone is an effective inhibitor of pro-inflammatory cytokine production. PMID:9378493

  4. Effects of alpha-adrenoceptor and of combined sympathetic and parasympathetic blockade on cardiac performance and vascular resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelbaek, H; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Hilsted, J

    1992-01-01

    1. Cardiac performance and vascular resistance was studied in seven healthy men by radionuclide cardiography and venous plethysmography before and after alpha-adrenoceptor blockade with phentolamine and after combined alpha-adrenoceptor, beta-adrenoceptor (propranolol) and parasympathetic (atropine...

  5. Surface effect of ultraviolet radiation on electrochemically etched alpha-particle tracks in PADC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, F.M.F.; Tse, K.C.C.; Nikezic, D.; Dai, Junfeng; Zhao, Ziqiang; Yu, K.N.

    2008-01-01

    The size of alpha-particle tracks on electrochemically etched ultraviolet-irradiated polyallyldiglycol carbonate (PADC) films were studied. PADC films were first irradiated with 3 MeV alpha particles and then pre-etched chemically using aqueous 6.25 N NaOH solution for 2 h. The films were then exposed to incoherent broad-band ultraviolet (UV) radiation provided by a mercury lamp for different durations up to 2 h. The films were then electrochemically etched in a 6.25 N NaOH solution, with an a.c. voltage of about 1200 V eff and a frequency of 5 kHz, for 2 h at room temperature. The mean sizes of the tracks (or trees) were measured and were found to increase for short UV exposures and decrease for prolonged UV exposures. The results can be explained by the dominance of chain scission at the beginning of UV exposure and the dominance of cross linking for prolonged UV exposure. This explanation is further supported by results from X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS). Here, the C-O-C bonds decrease for short UV exposures, which is explained by scission of the polymer chains, and increase again for prolonged UV exposure, which indicates cross linking. From nano-indentation measurements, the hardness and the reduced modulus increase monotonically with the UV irradiation. Apparently, these quantities only characterize the amount of cross linking, and do not give information on the initial scission process

  6. Effect of polyols on the native structure of {alpha}-chymotrypsin: A comparable study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Awanish; Attri, Pankaj [Department of Chemistry, University of Delhi, Delhi - 110 007 (India); Venkatesu, Pannuru, E-mail: venkatesup@hotmail.com [Department of Chemistry, University of Delhi, Delhi - 110 007 (India)

    2012-05-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have studied stability of {alpha}-chymotrypsin in polyols. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have performed DSC, CD and fluorescence spectroscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our {Delta}G{sub u} of CT in polyol increase as polyol concentration increases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer All polyols acted as enhancers for CT stability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our results show that trehalose is strong stabilizer. - The influence of polyols on the structure and stability of {alpha}-chymotrypsin (CT) have been explored by using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), circular dichroism (CD) and fluorescence spectroscopy. We have predicted the thermodynamic folding properties (transition temperature (T{sub m}), enthalpy change ({Delta}H), heat capacity change ({Delta}C{sub p}) and Gibbs free energy change ({Delta}G{sub u}) from DSC to understand the clear picture of folding studies of CT. All polyols (trehalose, sucrose, sorbitol, and glycerol) acted as enhancers for CT stability, with varying efficacies and efficiencies. The DSC, CD and fluorescence spectral analysis clearly showed the ability of polyols to protect the native structural conformation of enzyme and preventing the unfolding which occurs in the aqueous media. These results explicitly explain that stabilizing polyols are preferentially excluded from the surface of CT, since water has a higher tendency toward favourable interactions with functional groups of the CT than with polyols.

  7. The Effects of Red and Blue Lights on Circadian Variations in Cortisol, Alpha Amylase, and Melatonin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana G. Figueiro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary purpose of the present study was to expand our understanding of the impact of light exposures on the endocrine and autonomic systems as measured by acute cortisol, alpha amylase, and melatonin responses. We utilized exposures from narrowband long-wavelength (red and from narrow-band short-wavelength (blue lights to more precisely understand the role of the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN in these responses. In a within-subjects experimental design, twelve subjects periodically received one-hour corneal exposures of 40 lux from the blue or from the red lights while continuously awake for 27 hours. Results showed-that, as expected, only the blue light reduced nocturnal melatonin. In contrast, both blue and red lights affected cortisol levels and, although less clear, alpha amylase levels as well. The present data bring into question whether the nonvisual pathway mediating nocturnal melatonin suppression is the same as that mediating other responses to light exhibited by the endocrine and the autonomic nervous systems.

  8. Effect of Combined Treatment with Alpha Lipoic Acid and Acetyl-L-Carnitine on Vascular Function and Blood Pressure in Coronary Artery Disease Patients

    OpenAIRE

    McMackin, Craig J.; Widlansky, Michael E.; Hamburg, Naomi M.; Huang, Alex L.; Weller, Susan; Holbrook, Monika; Gokce, Noyan; Hagen, Tory M.; Keaney, John F.; Vita, Joseph A.

    2007-01-01

    Mitochondria produce reactive oxygen species that may contribute to vascular dysfunction. Alpha-lipoic acid and acetyl-L-carnitine reduce oxidative stress and improve mitochondrial function. In a double blind, crossover study, we examined the effects of combined alpha-lipoic acid /acetyl-L-carnitine treatment and placebo (eight weeks per treatment) on vasodilator function and blood pressure in 36 subjects with coronary artery disease. Active treatment increased brachial artery diameter by 2.3...

  9. Effects of alpha-adrenoceptor and of combined sympathetic and parasympathetic blockade on cardiac performance and vascular resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelbaek, H; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Hilsted, J

    1992-01-01

    1. Cardiac performance and vascular resistance was studied in seven healthy men by radionuclide cardiography and venous plethysmography before and after alpha-adrenoceptor blockade with phentolamine and after combined alpha-adrenoceptor, beta-adrenoceptor (propranolol) and parasympathetic (atropine......) blockade. 2. During alpha-adrenoceptor blockade heart rate and cardiac output increased considerably and left ventricular ejection fraction increased because of increased contractility. Systemic vascular resistance fell both during alpha-adrenoceptor blockade alone and during combined blockade...

  10. Comparative effectiveness and adverse effects of interferon alpha-2b plus ribavirin therapy in hepatitis 'C' for 26 weeks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.

    2009-01-01

    Hepatitis C is major emerging challenge for pathologists and treating physicians all over the world. Already 10 million Pakistani population has become anti-HCV positive. It is not only affecting hepatobiliary system but with passage of time research is revealing that Hepatitis C is going to involve almost every organ of the body. With timely diagnosis and treatment, millions of patients can be saved from morbidity and mortality. The nation has to sacrifice initial economic allocations to avoid later millions of mortalities and greater economic losses on affected patients and to support their families. The objective of this study was to evaluate effectiveness of combine therapy of Hepatitis C in local population of Pakistan. This case series study was done at CMH Okara, Kohat, Abbottabad, and PAF Hospital, Shorkot from August 2000 to August 2009. All 1,000 patients from 10 to 60 years of age, confirmed anti-HCV Positive by ELISA and PCR Positive for HCV RNA, were subjected to Interferon alpha-2b and Ribavirin therapy for similar period of time. Response and adverse affects were observed by clinical examination, blood complete picture including platelet count and ALT fortnightly. PCR for HCV RNA and ultrasound abdomen (hepatobiliary system) was done quarterly during treatment and 6 monthly for 2 years after treatment to review the sustained response and relapse. Over all cure rate after 2 years was 855 (85.5%) excluding the 50 (5%) of initial resistant to one year treatment and 95 (9.5%) re-treated relapse cases. One hundred and forty-five (14.5%) patients were found to be resistant to treatment. Hepatitis C must be treated timely after proper diagnosis. Interferon and Ribavirin combination have shown high 'cure' rate in Hepatitis C. In spite of high cure rate of 85.5% with timely and proper treatment, low socio-economic status is a major problem for poor individuals to get treatment. Preventive aspect must be strictly followed and implemented. (author)

  11. Hepatitis B spliced protein (HBSP) promotes the carcinogenic effects of benzo [alpha] pyrene by interacting with microsomal epoxide hydrolase and enhancing its hydrolysis activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jin-Yan; Chen, Wan-Nan; Jiao, Bo-Yan; Lin, Wan-Song; Wu, Yun-Li; Liu, Ling-Ling; Lin, Xu

    2014-01-01

    The risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) increases in chronic hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) carriers who often have concomitant increase in the levels of benzo[alpha]pyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide(±) (BPDE)-DNA adduct in liver tissues, suggesting a possible co-carcinogenesis of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and benzo[alpha]pyrene in HCC; however the exact mechanisms involved are unclear. The interaction between hepatitis B spliced protein (HBSP) and microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) was confirmed using GST pull-down, co-immunoprecipitation and mammalian two-hybrid assay; the effects of HBSP on mEH-mediated B[alpha]P metabolism was examined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); and the influences of HBSP on B[alpha]P carcinogenicity were evaluated by bromodeoxyuridine cell proliferation, anchorage-independent growth and tumor xenograft. HBSP could interact with mEH in vitro and in vivo, and this interaction was mediated by the N terminal 47 amino acid residues of HBSP. HBSP could greatly enhance the hydrolysis activity of mEH in cell-free mouse liver microsomes, thus accelerating the metabolism of benzo[alpha]pyrene to produce more ultimate carcinnogen, BPDE, and this effect of HBSP requires the intact HBSP molecule. Expression of HBSP significantly increased the formation of BPDE-DNA adduct in benzo[alpha]pyrene-treated Huh-7 hepatoma cells, and this enhancement was blocked by knockdown of mEH. HBSP could enhance the cell proliferation, accelerate the G1/S transition, and promote cell transformation and tumorigenesis of B[alpha]P-treated Huh-7 hepatoma cells. Our results demonstrated that HBSP could promote carcinogenic effects of B[alpha]P by interacting with mEH and enhancing its hydrolysis activity

  12. Effect of operating frequency and phase angle on performance of Alpha Stirling cryocooler driven by a novel compact mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sant, K D; Bapat, S L

    2015-01-01

    Amongst the mechanical cryocoolers in use, Stirling cycle cryocoolers exhibit the desirable features such as high efficiency, low specific power consumption, small size and mass and large mean time before failure. Stirling cycle cryocooler of Alpha configuration exhibits better theoretical performance as compared to Gamma. However, the theory could not be put into practice due to unavailability of compatible drive mechanism for Alpha cryocooler providing large stroke to diameter ratio. The concept of novel compact drive mechanism can be made functional to operate miniature Alpha Stirling cryocoolers. It allows the use of multicylinder system while converting rotary motion to reciprocating. This permits the drive mechanism to be employed for driving different configurations of Stirling cryocooler simultaneously. This drive is capable of providing large stroke to diameter ratio compared to other drive mechanisms generally in use for the purpose. A stroke to diameter ratio of three is chosen in the present work and the drive dimensions are calculated for four piston-cylinder arrangements with 90° phase difference between adjacent arrangements providing two Alpha Stirling cryocoolers working simultaneously. It has to be noted that the coolers operate at half the frequency of the motor used. As the two coolers operate at phase difference of 180°, during compression stroke of one unit, the suction stroke occurs for the other unit. Due to power output of second unit, the combined peak torque requirement falls by 26.81% below the peak torque needed when one unit is operated separately. This allows for use of a comparatively lower torque motor. The practicability of the drive ensuring smooth operation of the system is decided based on comparison between torque availability from the motor and torque requirement of the complete unit.The second order method of cyclic (or thermodynamic) analysis provides a simple computational procedure useful for the design of Stirling

  13. Comparative study of toxic effects of zearalenone and its two major metabolites alpha-zearalenol and beta-zearalenol on cultured human Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid-Essefi, S; Bouaziz, C; Golli-Bennour, E El; Ouanes, Z; Bacha, Hassen

    2009-01-01

    Zearalenone (ZEN) is a fusarotoxin converted predominantly into alpha-zearalenol (alpha-Zol) and beta-zearalenol (beta-Zol) by hepatic hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases. The feeding of naturally contaminated grains with ZEN was associated with hyperestrogenic and adverse effects on humans and animals. There is a lack of information on the attribution of the toxic effects of these toxins. One wonders if these effects are due to the parent molecule (ZEN) or to its major metabolites (alpha-Zol and beta-Zol). Using human Caco-2 cells, we looked for the molecular mechanisms of toxicity of ZEN, alpha-Zol, and beta-Zol. Toxicity effects were studied by MTT viability assay and oxidative stress induction by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA) generation. To check whether the oxidative stress induction was associated to DNA lesions, we looked for DNA fragmentation by means of the Comet and the diphenylamine assays. To specify cell death pathway, we investigated caspase-3 activation, confirmed by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage and by Bcl-2 depletion. Our results clearly demonstrated that ZEN as well as its two metabolites presented variable toxic effects. They induced cell death and an increase in MDA generation. These effects were associated to DNA fragmentation as well as caspase-3 activation. The observed toxic effects seem to be relieved by the metabolism of ZEN into alpha-Zol and beta-Zol. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Effect of alpha 1-adrenoceptor blockade on maximal VO2 and endurance capacity in well-trained athletic hypertensive men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomten, S E; Kjeldsen, S E; Nilsson, S; Westheim, A S

    1994-07-01

    The effect of alpha 1-adrenoceptor blockade (doxazosin, 4 mg daily) on maximal VO2 and physical endurance capacity in 16 mildly hypertensive, athletic men was investigated in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, two-period of 4 weeks, cross-over study. The maximal workload obtained during graded bicycle ergometer exercise and the corresponding maximal VO2 were reduced by 16 +/- 3 W (mean +/- SE), (P = .00003) and 3 +/- 1 mL/(kg.min) (P = .0004), respectively, on doxazosin compared with placebo. The running time on a 5000 m track increased by 43 +/- 12 sec on doxazosin (P = .04). Heart rate was unchanged during the running session. Systolic blood pressure was reduced by 9 +/- 4.1 mm Hg (P = .04) immediately after finishing 5000 m. Six subjects reported side effects from doxazosin (headache, fatigue, and leg pain). Thus, antihypertensive treatment with alpha 1-selective adrenoceptor blockade moderately, but significantly, reduces maximal O2 consumption and high intensity physical endurance capacity in mildly hypertensive athletic men. Significantly reduced systolic blood pressure and unchanged heart rate immediately after running, combined with unchanged heart rate during the race may, however, suggest a safer exercise performance.

  15. (Alpha, gamma) irradiation effect on the alteration of high-level radioactive wastes matrices (UO2, hollandite, glass SON68)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, T.

    2007-06-01

    The aim of this work is to determine the effect of irradiation on the alteration of high level nuclear waste forms matrices. The matrices investigated are UO 2 to simulate the spent fuel, the hollandite for the specific conditioning of Cs, and the inactive glass SON68 representing the nuclear glass R7T7) The alpha irradiation experiments on UO 2 colloids in aqueous carbonate media have enabled to distinguish between the oxidation of UO 2 matrix as initial and dissolution as subsequent step. The simultaneous presence of carbonate and H 2 O 2 (product resulting from water radiolysis) increased the dissolution rate of UO 2 to its maximum value governed by the oxidation rate. ii) The study of hollandite alteration under gamma irradiation confirmed the good retention capacity for Cs and Ba. Gamma irradiation had brought only a little influence on releasing of Cs and Ba in solution. Electronic irradiation had conducted to the amorphization of the hollandite only for a dose 1000 times higher than the auto-induced dose of Ba over millions of years. iii) The experiences of glass irradiation under alpha beam and of helium implantation in the glass SON68 were analyzed by positon annihilation spectroscopy. No effect has been observed on the solid surface for an irradiation dose equal to 1000 years of storage. (author)

  16. The effects of dietary protein on the somatotropic axis: a comparison of soy, gelatin, alpha-lactalbumin and milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vught, A J A H; Nieuwenhuizen, A G; Veldhorst, M A B; Brummer, R-Jm; Westerterp-Plantenga, M S

    2010-05-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is an important regulator of growth and body composition. It has been shown that GH release can be promoted by administration of various amino acids (AAs), such as arginine and lysine, that are present in soy protein. We previously showed that oral ingestion of soy protein stimulates the GH release, it is not known however to which extent other proteins stimulate the GH secretion. Ingestion of soy protein (soy), gelatin protein (gelatin), alpha-lactalbumin protein (alpha-lactalbumin) and milk protein (milk) were compared on their GH-stimulating capacity. After oral ingestion of protein (0.6 g protein per kg bodyweight), blood was sampled every 20 min for 5 h to analyze GH, AA, insulin and glucose concentrations. The study was performed in eight healthy women (aged 19-26 years; body mass index 19-26 kg/m(2)) in a randomized, single blind, placebo-controlled crossover design. GH responses were more increased after ingestion of gelatine (8.2+/-1.1 microg/l) compared with ingestion of soy, alpha-lactalbumin and milk (5.0+/-0.8, 4.5+/-0.6 and 6.4+/-1.0 microg/l, respectively) (P<0.05). After ingestion of each protein, GH responses were higher compared with placebo ingestion (P<0.05). Simultaneously ingestion of gelatin resulted in the highest serum-arginine concentrations (ARG) compared with after ingestion of the other proteins (P<0.05). Insulin as well as glucose concentrations were not different after ingestion of the various proteins (P<0.05). The GH-promoting activity of protein depends on the protein source, in that, gelatin protein is the most potent GH stimulator. Arginine may be the responsible AA in the GH-promoting effect of gelatin, although each protein may have its own specific AA-spectrum involved in the stimulation of the somatotropic axis.

  17. The effect of alpha-linolenic acid supplementation on ADHD symptoms in children: a randomized controlled double-blind study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gal eDubnov-Raz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is the most common neuro-developmental disorder in childhood. Its pharmacologic treatment mostly includes methylphenidate, yet many parents seek alternative, natural, therapeutic options, commonly omega-3 fatty acids. Previous studies of supplementation with fish oil or long-chain omega-3 fatty acids to children with ADHD yielded mixed results. The use of alpha-linolenic acid, a medium-chained, plant-based omega-3 fatty acid (18:3 n-3, has not been sufficiently examined in this population. Methods: Forty untreated children with ADHD, aged 6-16 years, were randomized to receive either 2gr/day of oil containing 1gr alpha-linolenic acid or placebo, for 8 weeks. Before and after supplementation, the children underwent a physician assessment of ADHD symptoms and a computerized continuous performance functions test. The children's parents and teachers filled out Conners' and DSM questionnaires. Results: Seventeen (42.5% children completed the study, 8 in the supplementation group, 9 in the placebo group. Main drop-out reasons were capsule size, poor compliance, and a sense of lack of effect. No significant difference was found in any of the measured variables tested before and after supplementation, in both study groups. No between-group difference was found in the changes of the various measures of ADHD symptoms throughout the study period.Conclusion: Supplementation of 2gr/day of oil containing 1gr alpha-linolenic acid did not significantly reduce symptoms in children with ADHD. Future studies in this field should consider an alternative method to deliver the oil, a higher dose, and a larger sample size.

  18. Study on the in vitro effect of zearalenone and alpha-zearalenol on boar sperm-zona pellucida interaction by hemizona assay application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakmakidis, I A; Lymberopoulos, A G; Vainas, E; Boscos, C M; Kyriakis, S C; Alexopoulos, C

    2007-01-01

    The mycotoxin zearalenone (zen) impairs fertility in farm animals. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of zearalenone and its major metabolite (alpha-zearalenol) on boar semen binding capacity, under in vitro conditions. Extended boar semen was exposed to three different concentrations of zen and alpha-zen (40, 60 and 80 microg ml(-1) of semen) for 1 h. Afterwards, the semen was washed and incubated with homologous oocyte hemizona for 4 h. A significant decrease (P < 0.001) in the number of tightly attached spermatozoa on the hemizona was obtained at concentrations of 60 microg ml(-1) and 80 microg ml(-1) of zen and alpha-zen. In conclusion, zen and alpha-zen affected the sperm-zona interaction by reducing the ability of boar spermatozoa to bind to the zona pellucida. (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. High-temperature effect of hydrogen on sintered alpha-silicon carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallum, G. W.; Herbell, T. P.

    1986-01-01

    Sintered alpha-silicon carbide was exposed to pure, dry hydrogen at high temperatures for times up to 500 hr. Weight loss and corrosion were seen after 50 hr at temperatures as low as 1000 C. Corrosion of SiC by hydrogen produced grain boundary deterioration at 1100 C and a mixture of grain and grain boundary deterioration at 1300 C. Statistically significant strength reductions were seen in samples exposed to hydrogen for times greater than 50 hr and temperatures above 1100 C. Critical fracture origins were identified by fractography as either general grain boundary corrision at 1100 C or as corrosion pits at 1300 C. A maximum strength decrease of approximately 33 percent was seen at 1100 and 1300 C after 500 hr exposure to hydrogen. A computer assisted thermodynamic program was also used to predict possible reaction species of SiC and hydrogen.

  20. Synergistic effect of interleukin 1 alpha on nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae-induced up-regulation of human beta-defensin 2 in middle ear epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Raekil

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We recently showed that beta-defensins have antimicrobial activity against nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi and that interleukin 1 alpha (IL-1 alpha up-regulates the transcription of beta-defensin 2 (DEFB4 according to new nomenclature of the Human Genome Organization in human middle ear epithelial cells via a Src-dependent Raf-MEK1/2-ERK signaling pathway. Based on these observations, we investigated if human middle ear epithelial cells could release IL-1 alpha upon exposure to a lysate of NTHi and if this cytokine could have a synergistic effect on beta-defensin 2 up-regulation by the bacterial components. Methods The studies described herein were carried out using epithelial cell lines as well as a murine model of acute otitis media (OM. Human cytokine macroarray analysis was performed to detect the released cytokines in response to NTHi exposure. Real time quantitative PCR was done to compare the induction of IL-1 alpha or beta-defensin 2 mRNAs and to identify the signaling pathways involved. Direct activation of the beta-defensin 2 promoter was monitored using a beta-defensin 2 promoter-Luciferase construct. An IL-1 alpha blocking antibody was used to demonstrate the direct involvement of this cytokine on DEFB4 induction. Results Middle ear epithelial cells released IL-1 alpha when stimulated by NTHi components and this cytokine acted in an autocrine/paracrine synergistic manner with NTHi to up-regulate beta-defensin 2. This synergistic effect of IL-1 alpha on NTHi-induced beta-defensin 2 up-regulation appeared to be mediated by the p38 MAP kinase pathway. Conclusion We demonstrate that IL-1 alpha is secreted by middle ear epithelial cells upon exposure to NTHi components and that it can synergistically act with certain of these molecules to up-regulate beta-defensin 2 via the p38 MAP kinase pathway.

  1. Anti-Parkinson effects of a selective alpha2C-adrenoceptor antagonist in the MPTP marmoset model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippens, Ingrid H C H M; Joosen, Marloes J A; Ahnaou, Abdellah; Andres, Ignacio; Drinkenburg, Wilhelmus Pim H I M

    2014-08-01

    Current dopamine replacement therapies, in Parkinson's disease (PD), result in aversive side effects and rapid drug dose escalation over time. Therefore, a non-dopaminergic treatment would be an advantageous supplement to lower the dose of dopamine replacement treatment postponing the occurrence of side effects. The noradrenergic system plays an important role in the facilitation or maintenance of the activity of the nigrostriatal dopamine pathways. Here the putative anti-Parkinson effects of the oral selective alpha2C-adrenoceptor antagonist (JNJ27063699 0.1-10mg/kg p.o.) and of vehicle (fruit syrup) were evaluated in the MPTP-marmoset model. Dose-related anti-Parkinson effects were assessed by means of a behavioural rating scale covering parkinsonian symptoms, body weight and body temperature, and two test systems assessing locomotor activity and complex motor skills of hand-eye coordination for controlled movements in MPTP- or saline-pretreated marmosets. JNJ27063699, at the middle and higher doses, consistently improved locomotor activity and hand-eye coordination capabilities, which indicates an improvement in the coordination of motor control -or movements- in MPTP-pretreated monkeys. No additional effects on the parkinsonian symptoms or side effects were observed on other test systems. Overall, the findings link deficit in motor coordination with dysfunctional adrenergic signalling and it suggest that selective alpha2C adrenergic antagonism may contribute to behavioural improvement in the MPTP-monkey model of PD. In multi-drug medication JNJ27063699 might have potential in the treatment of motor deficit in PD. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of cigarette smoke exposure on nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits {alpha}7 and {beta}2 in the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) brainstem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machaalani, Rita, E-mail: rita.machaalani@sydney.edu.au [Department of Medicine, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Bosch Institute, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, NSW 2145 (Australia); Say, Meichien [Department of Medicine, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Bosch Institute, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Waters, Karen A. [Department of Medicine, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Bosch Institute, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, NSW 2145 (Australia)

    2011-12-15

    It is postulated that nicotine, as the main neurotoxic constituent of cigarette smoke, influences SIDS risk through effects on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in brainstem nuclei that control respiration and arousal. This study compared {alpha}7 and {beta}2 nAChR subunit expression in eight nuclei of the caudal and rostral medulla and seven nuclei of the pons between SIDS (n = 46) and non-SIDS infants (n = 14). Evaluation for associations with known SIDS risk factors included comparison according to whether infants had a history of exposure to cigarette smoke in the home, and stratification for sleep position and gender. Compared to non-SIDS infants, SIDS infants had significantly decreased {alpha}7 in the caudal nucleus of the solitary tract (cNTS), gracile and cuneate nuclei, with decreased {beta}2 in the cNTS and increased {beta}2 in the facial. When considering only the SIDS cohort: 1-cigarette smoke exposure was associated with increased {alpha}7 in the vestibular nucleus and increased {beta}2 in the rostral dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, rNTS and Cuneate, 2-there was a gender interaction for {alpha}7 in the gracile and cuneate, and {beta}2 in the cNTS and rostral arcuate nucleus, and 3-there was no effect of sleep position on {alpha}7, but prone sleep was associated with decreased {beta}2 in three nuclei of the pons. In conclusion, SIDS infants demonstrate differences in expression of {alpha}7 and {beta}2 nAChRs within brainstem nuclei that control respiration and arousal, which is independent on prior history of cigarette smoke exposure, especially for the NTS, with additional differences for smoke exposure ({beta}2), gender ({alpha}7 and {beta}2) and sleep position ({beta}2) evident. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The 'normal' response to smoke exposure is decreased {alpha}7 and {beta}2 in certain nuclei. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SIDS infants have decreased {alpha}7 in cNTS, Grac and Cun. Black

  3. Effects of mating on plasma concentrations of testosterone, cortisol, oestrone sulphate and 15-ketodihydro-PGF2alpha in stallions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villani, M; Cairoli, F; Kindahl, H; Galeati, G; Faustini, M; Carluccio, A; Veronesi, M C

    2006-12-01

    Very little information is available regarding the physiological mechanisms involved in the normal sexual activity in the stallion and, in particular, the endocrine control of reproduction is still not clearly understood. This experiment was designed to determine the short-term effect of sexual stimulation on plasma concentrations of testosterone, cortisol, oestrone sulphate and 15-ketodihydro-PGF(2alpha) in stallions. Semen samples were collected from 10 lighthorse stallions of proven fertility using a Missouri model artificial vagina. At the same time, blood samples were collected from the jugular vein with heparinized tubes, 20 and 10 min before oestrous mare exposure, at exposure and 10, 20, 30 min after dismounting. Testosterone concentrations showed a sharp rise 10 min after mating (p Cortisol concentrations increased 10 min after mating (p < 0.001) and remained at high levels in the subsequent samples taken. A peak of oestrone sulphate was observed 10 min after mating (p < 0.001). 15-Ketodihydro-PGF(2alpha) concentrations decreased rapidly at the moment of the exposure of the stallions to an oestrous mare (p < 0.05), returned to pre-mating concentrations and then decreased again 30 min after mating (p < 0.05).

  4. Intravenous Versus Subcutaneous Anti-TNF-Alpha Agents for Crohn's Disease: A Comparison of Effectiveness and Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinan; Sylwestrzak, Gosia; Ruggieri, Alexander P; DeVries, Andrea

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, there have been a number of pharmacological innovations for Crohn's disease (CD), a difficult-to-treat condition, including new treatment philosophies (e.g., top-down therapy) and new therapeutic options in terms of the agent and the route of administration. Three anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF-alpha) agents are available for use among CD patients in the United States: infliximab, an intravenous agent, and adalimumab and certolizumab pegol, 2 newer subcutaneous products. Infliximab is considered the "gold standard" because it has the longest clinical experience, and adalimumab and certolizumab pegol have each gained significant market share. To examine differences in effectiveness and safety between currently available intravenous and subcutaneous anti-TNF-alpha agents used to treat patients with CD. Data for this retrospective, administrative claims analysis were obtained from pharmacy and medical claims from major U.S. health plans geographically dispersed across 14 states during 2007-2011. Patients had at least 1 ICD-9-CM diagnosis for CD, 6 months pre-index eligibility, and initiated anti-TNF-alpha therapy on the index date. Patients in each cohort were propensity score matched on pre-index demographics, clinical characteristics, and baseline health care use. During the post-index period, age-sex adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of CD-related symptoms, infections, cancers, and hepatic-related conditions were compared using Cox (PH) models. The matched cohorts included 515 patients in each group, with an average age of 39 years. Median follow-up was 17.5 months in the intravenous cohort and 17.7 months in the subcutaneous cohort. In terms of effectiveness outcomes, age-sex adjusted IRRs for the subcutaneous group, with the intravenous cohort as a reference, were as follows: 0.61 (95% CI = 0.32-1.18, P = 0.14) for anal fissures; 0.97 (95% CI = 0.72-1.30, P = 0.85) for abscess; 1.08 (95% CI = 0.79-1.04, P = 0

  5. Effect of diclofenac alone or in combination with alpha-tocopherol on the oxidative activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in healthy and osteoartheritic individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Arfaj, Abdurahman S.; Alballa, Sulaiman R.; Mustafa, Ali A.; Al-Tuwajiri, Ali S.; Al-Humayyad, M.S.; Al-Dalaan, Abdullah N.

    2004-01-01

    To ivestigate the effects of diclofenac alone or when combined with alpha-tocopherol on the oxidative activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) in healthy and osteoartheritic (OA) patients. The study was carried out at the College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, KIgdom of Saudi Arabia, over the period 1999 to 2000. 12 healthy controls and 12 osteoartheritic patients were recruited to the study. They were given diclofenac 50mg thricedaily orally, initially for 5 days then alpha-tocopherol at 200mg thrice daily orally, was added for another 5 days. Blood samples were drawn before the start of study and at 5 days following treatmentwith diclofenac alone and 10 days following treatment with diclophenac and alpha-tocopherol. Chemiluminescence (CL)reponse was measured for wohle blood and isolated (PMNs) on all samples. Diclofenac enhanced CL response of whole blood and PMNs of healthy controls when stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and opsonized zymosan (OPZ). Cotreatment with alpha-tocopherol resulted in no appreciable change in the CL response of whole blood when stimulated with PMA or OPZ but a further significant enhancement of CL response of isolated PMNs when these cells were stimulated by either PMA or OPZ. In osteoartheritic patients, diclofenac alone and when combined with alpha-tocopherol showed no significant change in CL response of the whole blood.The CL response of PMNs from OA patients was decreased by diclofenac alone. However the inhibitory effect was not observed when alpha-tocopherol was used together with diclofenac. The effect of diclofenac alone or in combination with alpha-tocopherol did not produce a consistent effect on the CL response of whole blood or isolated PMNs of healthy or osteoartheritic patients. (author)

  6. Effects of 17{alpha}-ethynylestradiol on hormonal responses and xenobiotic biotransformation system of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortensen, Anne S. [Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Hogskoleringen 5, 7491 Trondheim (Norway); Arukwe, Augustine [Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Hogskoleringen 5, 7491 Trondheim (Norway)], E-mail: arukwe@bio.ntnu.no

    2007-11-30

    Pharmaceuticals are ubiquitous pollutants in the aquatic environment where their potential effects on non-target species like fish has only recently become subject of systematic investigations. In the present study, experiments were undertaken to examine the effects of a synthetic pharmaceutical endocrine disruptor, ethynylestradiol (EE2), given in water at 5 or 50 ng/L and sampled at days 0 (control), 3 and 7 after exposure, on hepatic phase I and II biotransformation and hormonal pathways of juvenile salmon using quantitative (real-time) polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), Vtg ELISA and 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) catalytic activity. Our data show that EE2 produced time- and concentration-specific modulation of estrogen receptor isoforms (ER{alpha}, ER{beta}) and androgen receptor-{beta} (AR{beta}). EE2 produced a concentration-specific induction of vitellogenin (Vtg) and zona radiata protein (Zr-protein) at day 3 after exposure. At day 7, Vtg and Zr-protein mRNA (and plasma Vtg protein) expression were significantly decreased in the group given 5 ng EE2/L, compared to dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) control group. In the xenobiotic biotransformation pathway, EE2 produced a significant increase of aryl hydrocarbon receptor-{alpha} (AhR{alpha}) at day 3 in the group given 5 ng EE2/L and AhR{beta} was decreased at the same concentration at day 7. While CYP3A was not significantly affected by EE2 exposure, the CYP1A1, AhR nuclear translocator (Arnt) and AhR repressor (AhRR) mRNA showed an apparent EE2 concentration and time-dependent decrease. The expression of uridine diphosphoglucuronosyl transferase (UGT) and glutathione S-transferase class pi-like (GSTpi-like) mRNA were decreased after exposure to 50 ng EE2/L at both day 3 and 7 after exposure. The effect of EE2 on the CYP1A1 gene expressions paralleled effect on EROD and AhRR mRNA, suggesting a direct role of EE2 in controlling cellular detoxification machinery. Interestingly, the carrier vehicle, DMSO

  7. Studies on the biological effects of ozone: 2. Induction of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) on human leucocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulesu, L.; Luzzi, E.; Bocci, V. (Institute of General Physiology, University of Siena (Italy))

    1991-10-01

    The effect of ozone as a probable inducer of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) has been investigated on human blood and on Ficoll-purified blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Samples were exposed at different ozone concentrations ranging from 2.2 to 108 micrograms/ml and incubated at 37 degrees C in an 95% air-5% CO2 atmosphere. At predetermined times, all cell supernatants were tested for TNF activity and some PBMC cultures were examined for DNA synthesis. The authors have shown that ozone concentration is critical in terms of TNF production and of cell mitogenesis and that, owing to the presence of erythrocytes, higher ozone concentrations are required to be effective in blood than in PBMC. Because ozonization of blood is a procedure followed in several European countries for the treatment of viral diseases and tumors, the release of factors with antiviral and immunomodulatory activities by leukocytes may explain the mechanism of action of ozone and of autohemotherapy.

  8. Modulatory effects of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) administration on insulin sensitivity in obese PCOS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genazzani, A D; Shefer, K; Della Casa, D; Prati, A; Napolitano, A; Manzo, A; Despini, G; Simoncini, T

    2017-10-31

    To evaluate the efficacy of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) administration on hormonal and metabolic parameters of obese PCOS patients. A group of 32 obese PCOS patients were selected after informed consent. 20 patients referred to have first grade relatives with diabetes type I or II. Hormonal and metabolic parameters as well as OGTT were evaluated before and after 12 weeks of ALA integrative administration (400 mg per os every day). ALA administration significantly decreased insulin, glucose, BMI and HOMA index. Hyperinsulinemia and insulin response to OGTT decreased both as maximal response (Δmax) and as AUC. PCOS with diabetes relatives showed the decrease also of triglyceride and GOT. Interestingly in all PCOS no changes occurred on all hormonal parameters involved in reproduction such as LH, FSH, and androstenedione. ALA integrative administration at a low dosage as 400 mg daily improved the metabolic impairment of all PCOS patients especially in those PCOS with familiar diabetes who have a higher grade of risk of NAFLD and predisposition to diabetes.

  9. Harsh discipline and behavior problems: the moderating effects of cortisol and alpha-amylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Frances R; Raine, Adrian; Rudo-Hutt, Anna S; Glenn, Andrea L; Soyfer, Liana; Granger, Douglas A

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies link harsh discipline to adjustment problems in youth, yet not all individuals exposed to harsh discipline develop behavior problems. Contemporary theory suggests that this relationship could be moderated by individual differences in environmentally sensitive biological systems. This study investigated whether the interaction between hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity and autonomic nervous system (ANS) arousal moderated the link between harsh discipline and behavior problems. Three saliva samples were collected on a single day from 425 inner city youth (50% male, age 11-12 years, 80% African American) and were later assayed for cortisol (HPA) and alpha-amylase (ANS). Problem behavior was assessed by self- and parent-report using the Child Behavior Checklist. Youth also reported the level of harsh discipline that they experienced. Harsh discipline was positively associated with externalizing and internalizing problems only when there were asymmetrical profiles of HPA activity and ANS arousal. This pattern was evident for boys but not girls. Findings are discussed in relation to prevailing theories suggesting that biological susceptibility translates adversity into risk for behavior problems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The small-molecule TNF-alpha modulator, UTL-5g, reduces side effects induced by cisplatin and enhances the therapeutic effect of cisplatin in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, JiaJiu; Chen, Ben; Huang, Wen-Hsin; Lee, An-Rong; Media, Joseph; Valeriote, Frederick A

    2011-01-01

    We investigated a small-molecule modulator of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), UTL-5g (also referred to as GBL-5g), as a potential chemoprotective agent against cisplatin-induced side effects including nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity and hematotoxicity. Pretreatment of UTL-5g i.p. in BDF1 mice reduced the levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine induced by cisplatin treatment. The levels of both aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) in these animals were also reduced by UTL-5g. Pretreatment of UTL-5g did not significantly affect the number of white blood cells (WBC) under current experimental conditions, yet it markedly increased blood platelet counts by more than threefold. Therapeutic assessment in SCID mice inoculated with human HCT-15 tumor cells showed that UTL-5g did not attenuate the anti-tumor effect of cisplatin but increased the therapeutic efficacy of cisplatin. The LD50 of UTL-5g was determined to be > 2,000 mg/kg by an acute toxicity study. In summary, our studies showed that 1) UTL-5g significantly reduces nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity induced by cisplatin in mice, presumably by lowering the levels of TNF-alpha, 2) UTL-5g markedly increased blood platelet counts in mice and 3) UTL-5g treatment increased the therapeutic efficacy of cisplatin against HCT-15 cells inoculated in SCID mice.

  11. Loss of Smyhc1 or Hsp90alpha1 function results in different effects on myofibril organization in skeletal muscles of zebrafish embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Codina

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Myofibrillogenesis requires the correct folding and assembly of sarcomeric proteins into highly organized sarcomeres. Heat shock protein 90alpha1 (Hsp90alpha1 has been implicated as a myosin chaperone that plays a key role in myofibrillogenesis. Knockdown or mutation of hsp90alpha1 resulted in complete disorganization of thick and thin filaments and M- and Z-line structures. It is not clear whether the disorganization of these sarcomeric structures is due to a direct effect from loss of Hsp90alpha1 function or indirectly through the disorganization of myosin thick filaments. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we carried out a loss-of-function analysis of myosin thick filaments via gene-specific knockdown or using a myosin ATPase inhibitor BTS (N-benzyl-p-toluene sulphonamide in zebrafish embryos. We demonstrated that knockdown of myosin heavy chain 1 (myhc1 resulted in sarcomeric defects in the thick and thin filaments and defective alignment of Z-lines. Similarly, treating zebrafish embryos with BTS disrupted thick and thin filament organization, with little effect on the M- and Z-lines. In contrast, loss of Hsp90alpha1 function completely disrupted all sarcomeric structures including both thick and thin filaments as well as the M- and Z-lines. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Together, these studies indicate that the hsp90alpha1 mutant phenotype is not simply due to disruption of myosin folding and assembly, suggesting that Hsp90alpha1 may play a role in the assembly and organization of other sarcomeric structures.

  12. Dose effect of alpha-linolenic acid on PUFA conversion, bioavailability, and storage in the hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morise, Anne; Combe, Nicole; Boué, Carole; Legrand, Philippe; Catheline, Daniel; Delplanque, Bernadette; Fénart, Evelyne; Weill, Pierre; Hermier, Dominique

    2004-04-01

    If an increased consumption of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is to be promoted in parallel with that of n-3 long-chain-rich food, it is necessary to consider to what extent dietary ALA can be absorbed, transported, stored, and converted into long-chain derivatives. We investigated these processes in male hamsters, over a broad range of supply as linseed oil (0.37, 3.5, 6.9, and 14.6% energy). Linoleic acid (LA) was kept constant (8.5% energy), and the LA/ALA ratio was varied from 22.5 to 0.6. The apparent absorption of individual FA was very high (>96%), and that of ALA remained almost maximum even at the largest supply (99.5%). The capacity for ALA transport and storage had no limitation over the chosen range of dietary intake. Indeed, ALA intake was significantly correlated with ALA level not only in cholesteryl esters (from 0.3 to 9.7% of total FA) but also in plasma phospholipids and red blood cells (RBC), which makes blood components extremely reliable as biomarkers of ALA consumption. Similarly, ALA storage in adipose tissue increased from 0.85 to 14% of total FA and was highly correlated with ALA intake. As for bioconversion, dietary ALA failed to increase 22:6n-3, decreased 20:4n-6, and efficiently increased 20:5n-3 (EPA) in RBC and cardiomyocytes. EPA accumulation did not tend to plateau, in accordance with identical activities of delta5- and delta6-desaturases in all groups. Dietary supply of ALA was therefore a very efficient means of improving the 20:4n-6 to 20:5n-3 balance.

  13. Time-dependent Occurrence Rate of Electromagnetic Cyclotron Waves in the Solar Wind: Evidence for the Effect of Alpha Particles?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, G. Q.; Feng, H. Q. [Institute of Space Physics, Luoyang Normal University, Luoyang (China); Wu, D. J. [Purple Mountain Observatory, CAS, Nanjing (China); Chu, Y. H. [Institute of Space Science, National Central University, Chungli, Taiwan (China); Huang, J. [CAS Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Beijing (China)

    2017-09-20

    Previous studies revealed that electromagnetic cyclotron waves (ECWs) near the proton cyclotron frequency exist widely in the solar wind, and the majority of ECWs are left-handed (LH) polarized waves. Using the magnetic field data from the STEREO mission, this Letter carries out a survey of ECWs over a long period of 7 years and calculates the occurrence rates of ECWs with different polarization senses. Results show that the occurrence rate is nearly a constant for the ECWs with right-handed polarization, but it varies significantly for the ECWs with LH polarization. Further investigation of plasma conditions reveals that the LH ECWs take place preferentially in a plasma characterized by higher temperature, lower density, and larger velocity. Some considerable correlations between the occurrence rate of LH ECWs and the properties of ambient plasmas are discussed. The present research may provide evidence for the effect of alpha particles on the generation of ECWs.

  14. Effects of alpha-lipoic acid supplementation on growth performance, antioxidant capacity and biochemical parameters for ammonia-exposed broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Min; Bai, Jie; Wei, Fengxian; Xu, Bin; Sun, Quanyou; Li, Jie; Wang, Gaili; Tang, Xiangfang; Zhang, Hongfu; Yin, Qingqiang; Li, Shaoyu

    2017-08-01

    In order to estimate the effect of alpha-lipoic acid (LA) supplementation on relieving ammonia stress of broilers, 180 22-day-old male broilers were assigned to three groups, six replicates in each group and 10 birds per replicate. The three groups were: (1) a control group without ammonia stress; (2) exposure to 70 ppm atmospheric ammonia (AM); (3) exposure to 70 ppm atmospheric ammonia and administration of 300 mg/kg LA (AM + LA). The experimental period was 3 weeks. Results showed that average daily weight gain was increased and feed conversion ratio was decreased in the AM + LA group, compared with the AM group (P ammonia stress to restore broiler production performance to normal levels. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  15. Effect of gelatinization and hydrolysis conditions on the selectivity of starch hydrolysis with alpha-amylase from Bacillus licheniformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baks, Tim; Bruins, Marieke E; Matser, Ariette M; Janssen, Anja E M; Boom, Remko M

    2008-01-23

    Enzymatic hydrolysis of starch can be used to obtain various valuable hydrolyzates with different compositions. The effects of starch pretreatment, enzyme addition point, and hydrolysis conditions on the hydrolyzate composition and reaction rate during wheat starch hydrolysis with alpha-amylase from Bacillus licheniformis were compared. Suspensions of native starch or starch gelatinized at different conditions either with or without enzyme were hydrolyzed. During hydrolysis, the oligosaccharide concentration, the dextrose equivalent, and the enzyme activity were determined. We found that the hydrolyzate composition was affected by the type of starch pretreatment and the enzyme addition point but that it was just minimally affected by the pressure applied during hydrolysis, as long as gelatinization was complete. The differences between hydrolysis of thermally gelatinized, high-pressure gelatinized, and native starch were explained by considering the granule structure and the specific surface area of the granules. These results show that the hydrolyzate composition can be influenced by choosing different process sequences and conditions.

  16. Effects of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) tannins on alpha-amylase activity and in vitro digestibility of starch in raw and processed flours

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of condensed tannins (CT) on in vitro starch digestibility in cooked, wholegrain sorghum flours and on corn starch was investigated. CT extracts were also tested for their inhibitory effect on alpha-amylases. Rapidly digestible starch, slowly digestible starch, and resistant starch were n...

  17. Effect of prostaglandins E1, E2, and F2 alpha on osteoclast formation in mouse bone marrow cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, D.A.; Chambers, T.J.

    1991-01-01

    Prostaglandins (PG) act as direct inhibitors of mature osteoclasts, but although resorption-inhibition is also observed initially PG increase bone resorption in organ culture. This suggests that PG influence bone resorption in organ culture through actions on cell types other than mature osteoclasts. We have therefore tested the effects of PG E1, E2, and F2 alpha on the differentiation of osteoclastic phenotype in mouse bone marrow cultures using bone resorption and calcitonin receptors (CTR) as markers of osteoclastic differentiation. We found that PGE2 (10 - 6 -10 - 9 M) and PGE1 (10 - 6 - 10 - 7 M) induced a significant increase in CTR-positive cell numbers, to levels five to eight times those seen in controls and similar to the number induced by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25-(OH)2D3]. Bone resorption was increased (10 - 7 M PGE2 and 10 - 6 M PGE1) in association with the increased CTR-positive cell numbers, suggesting that the PG also induced resorptive function. 1,25-(OH)2D3 increased both the number of CTR-positive cells and the extent of resorption per cell; the additional presence of PG did not affect the number of CTR-positive cells but did reduce bone resorption compared with 1,25-(OH)2D3 alone. PGF2 alpha had no significant effect on CTR-positive cell induction or bone resorption. The results suggest that PGE1 and E2 induce osteoclastic differentiation in mouse bone marrow cultures and inhibit the function of the osteoclasts thus formed

  18. The effect of Bobath approach on the excitability of the spinal alpha motor neurones in stroke patients with muscle spasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, N N; Naghdi, S

    2007-01-01

    A clinical study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of the Bobath approach on the excitability of the spinal alpha motor neurones in patients with poststroke spasticity. Ten subjects ranging in age from 37 through 76 years (average 60 years) with ankle plantarflexor spasticity secondary to a stroke were recruited and completed the trial. They had physiotherapy according to Bobath concept for ten treatment sessions, three days per week. Two repeated measures, one before and another after treatment, were taken to quantify clinical efficacy. The effect of this type of therapy on the excitability of alpha motor neurones (aMN) was assessed by measuring the latency of the Hoffmann reflex (H-reflex) and the Hmax/Mmax ratio. The original Ashworth scale and ankle range of motion were also measured. The mean HmaxlMmax ratio on the affected side at baseline was high in the study patients. However, there were no statistically significant differences in the HmaxlMmax ratio or in the H-reflex latency between the baseline values and those recorded after therapy intervention. Before treatment, the HmaxlMmax ratio was significantly higher in the affected side than in the unaffected side. However, it was similar at both sides after treatment. Following treatment, the significant reduction in spasticity was clinically detected as measured with the original Ashworth scale. The ankle joint active and passive range of motion was significantly increased. In conclusion, Bobath therapy had a statistically significant effect on the excitability of the aMN in the affected side compared to the unaffected side in stroke patients with muscle spasticity.

  19. NCX 4040, a nitric oxide-donating aspirin, exerts anti-inflammatory effects through inhibition of I kappa B-alpha degradation in human monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciotti, Emanuela; Dovizio, Melania; Di Francesco, Luigia; Anzellotti, Paola; Salvatore, Tania; Di Francesco, Andrea; Sciulli, Maria G; Pistritto, Giuseppa; Monopoli, Angela; Patrignani, Paola

    2010-02-15

    NO-donating aspirins consist of aspirin to which a NO-donating group is covalently linked via a spacer molecule. NCX 4040 and NCX 4016 are positional isomers with respect to the -CH(2)ONO(2) group (para and meta, respectively) on the benzene ring of the spacer. Because positional isomerism is critical for antitumor properties of NO-donating aspirins, we aimed to compare their anti-inflammatory effects with those of aspirin in vitro. Thus, we assessed their impacts on cyclooxygenase-2 activity (by measuring PGE(2) levels), protein expression, and cytokine generation(IL-1beta, IL-18, TNF-alpha, and IL-10) in human whole blood and isolated human monocytes stimulated with LPS. Interestingly, we found that micromolar concentrations of NCX 4040, but not NCX 4016 or aspirin, affected cyclooxygenase-2 expression and cytokine generation. We compared the effects of NCX 4040 with those of NCX 4016 or aspirin on IkappaB-alpha stabilization and proteasome activity in the LPS-stimulated human monocytic cell line THP1. Differently from aspirin and NCX 4016, NCX 4040, at a micromolar concentration range, inhibited IkappaB-alpha degradation. In fact, NCX 4040 caused concentration-dependent accumulation of IkappaB-alpha and its phosphorylated form. This effect was not reversed by 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one, an inhibitor of guanylyl cyclase, thus excluding the contribution of NO-dependent cGMP generation. In contrast, IkappaB-alpha accumulation by NCX 4040 may involve an inhibitory effect on proteasome functions. Indeed, NCX 4040 inhibited 20S proteasome activity when incubated with intact cells but not in the presence of cell lysate supernatants, thus suggesting an indirect inhibitory effect. In conclusion, NCX 4040 is an inhibitor of IkappaB-alpha degradation and proteasome function, and it should be taken into consideration for the development of novel anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive agents.

  20. Regulation of PGE2 signaling pathways and TNF-alpha signaling pathways on the function of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells and the effects of CP-25.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Sheng, Kangliang; Chen, Jingyu; Wu, Yujing; Zhang, Feng; Chang, Yan; Wu, Huaxun; Fu, Jingjing; Zhang, Lingling; Wei, Wei

    2015-12-15

    This study was to investigate PGE2 and TNF-alpha signaling pathway involving in the maturation and activation of bone marrow dendritic cells (DCs) and the effect of CP-25. Bone marrow DCs were isolated and stimulated by PGE2 and TNF-alpha respectively. The markers of maturation and activation expressed on DCs, such as CD40, CD80, CD83, CD86, MHC-II, and the ability of antigen uptake of DCs were analyzed by flow cytometry. The proliferation of T cells co-cultured with DCs, the signaling pathways of PGE2-EP4-cAMP and TNF-alpha-TRADD-TRAF2-NF-κB in DCs were analyzed. The results showed that both PGE2 and TNF-alpha up-regulated the expressions of CD40, CD80, CD83, CD86, and MHC-II, decreased the antigen uptake of DCs, and DCs stimulated by PGE2 or TNF-alpha could increase T cell proliferation. CP-25 (10(-5), 10(-6), and 10(-7)mol/l) decreased significantly the expressions of CD40, CD80, CD83, CD86 and MHC-II, increased the antigen uptake of DCs, and suppressed T cell proliferation induced by DCs. PGE2 increased the expressions of EP4, NF-κB and down-regulated cAMP level of DCs. TNF-alpha could also up-regulate TNFR1, TRADD, TRAF2, and NF-κB expression of DCs. CP-25 (10(-5), 10(-6), and 10(-7)mol/l) decreased the expressions of EP4 and NF-κB, increased cAMP level in DCs stimulated by PGE2. CP-25 (10(-5), 10(-6), and 10(-7)mol/l) also could down-regulate significantly TNFR1, TRADD, TRAF2, and NF-κB expression in DCs stimulated by TNF-alpha. These results demonstrate that PGE2 and TNF-alpha could enhance DCs functions by mediating PGE2-EP4-cAMP pathway, TNF-alpha-TNFR1-TRADD-TRAF2-NF-κB pathway respectively. CP-25 might inhibit the function of DCs through regulating PGE2-EP4-cAMP and TNF-alpha-TNFR1-TRADD-TRAF2-NF-κB pathways. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics on alpha-toxin (hla) gene expression of methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlsen, K; Ziebuhr, W; Koller, K P; Hell, W; Wichelhaus, T A; Hacker, J

    1998-11-01

    Concentrations of antibiotics below the MIC are able to modulate the expression of virulence-associated genes. In this study, the influence of subinhibitory doses of 31 antibiotics on the expression of the gene encoding the staphylococcal alpha-toxin (hla), a major virulence factor of Staphylococcus aureus, was investigated with a novel gene fusion protocol. The most striking observation was a strong induction of hla expression by subinhibitory concentrations of beta-lactams and an almost complete inhibition of alpha-toxin expression by clindamycin. Whereas glycopeptide antibiotics had no effect, the macrolide erythromycin and several aminoglycosides reduced and fluoroquinolones slightly stimulated hla expression. Furthermore, Northern blot analysis of hla mRNA and Western blot (immunoblot) analysis of culture supernatants of both methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant S. aureus strains revealed that methicillin-induced alpha-toxin expression is a common phenomenon of alpha-toxin-producing strains. Some methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates produced up to 30-fold more alpha-toxin in the presence of 10 microg of methicillin per ml than in its absence. The results indicate that the novel gene fusion technique is a useful tool for studying the modulation of virulence gene expression by antibiotics. Moreover, the results suggest that the effects of certain antibiotics on virulence properties may be relevant for the management of S. aureus infections.

  2. Effect of polarized radiative transfer on the Hanle magnetic field determination in prominences: Analysis of hydrogen H alpha line observations at Pic-du-Midi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bommier, V.; Deglinnocenti, E. L.; Leroy, J. L.; Sahal-Brechot, S.

    1985-01-01

    The linear polarization of the Hydrogen H alpha line of prominences has been computed, taking into account the effect of a magnetic field (Hanle effect), of the radiative transfer in the prominence, and of the depolarization due to collisions with the surrounding electrons and protons. The corresponding formalisms are developed in a forthcoming series of papers. In this paper, the main features of the computation method are summarized. The results of computation have been used for interpretation in terms of magnetic field vector measurements from H alpha polarimetric observations in prominences performed at Pic-du-Midi coronagraph-polarimeter. Simultaneous observations in one optically thin line (He I D(3)) and one optically thick line (H alpha) give an opportunity for solving the ambiguity on the field vector determination.

  3. Effects of arotinolol, an alpha- and beta-adrenoceptor antagonist, on renin release from rat kidney cortical slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, S; Miyawaki, N; Sasaki, Y; Matsumura, Y

    1986-06-01

    The effects of arotinolol on changes in renin release in rat kidney cortical slices in response to isoproterenol (IP) or norepinephrine (NE), were studied in comparison with those of AC-623, a main metabolite of arotinolol, and other typical adrenoceptor antagonists. Arotinolol, at concentrations of 10(-8) to 10(-4) mol/l, inhibited the increasing effect of 10(-6) mol/l IP on renin release, in a concentration-dependent manner. Similar results were observed with AC-623, propranolol or labetalol, although the inhibitory potencies of these agents were considerably lower than that of arotinolol. The blocking effect of arotinolol on the 10(-5) mol/l NE-induced decrease in renin release was much less potent than seen with other alpha-adrenoceptor blocking agents such as prazosin, phenoxybenzamine and labetalol. These data suggest that the potent blocking effects of arotinolol and its metabolite on the increased renin release in response to beta-adrenoceptor stimulation may contribute to the antihypertensive effect of this agent.

  4. The effect of anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha agents on postoperative anastomotic complications in Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Hussuna, Alaa Abdul-Hussein H; Krag, Aleksander; Olaison, Gunnar

    2013-01-01

    Patients with Crohn's disease treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha agents may have an increased risk of surgical complications.......Patients with Crohn's disease treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha agents may have an increased risk of surgical complications....

  5. Neutrophil superoxide-anion generating capacity in chronic smoking: effect of long-term alpha-tocopherol therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tits, van L.; Waart, de F.; Hak-Lemmers, H.L.M.; Graaf, de J.; Demacker, P.N.; Stalenhoef, A.F.

    2003-01-01

    We investigated whether long-term alpha-tocopherol therapy in chronic smoking affects superoxide generating capacity of neutrophils ex vivo. To this purpose, we randomly assigned 128 male chronic smokers (37 21 pack years of smoking) to treatment with placebo (n = 64) or alpha-tocopherol (400 IU

  6. Influence of fasting on circulating levels of alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene. Effect of short-term supplementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, DAJ; Molin, F; van Beusekom, CM; van Doormaal, JJ; Muskiet, FAJ

    1998-01-01

    We investigated the influence of fasting on the levels of alpha-tocopherol in plasma, erythrocytes and platelets, and on plasma beta-carotene. Six apparently healthy adults were subjected to 17-h feed-fasting experiments at various days before, during and after supplementation with alpha-tocopherol

  7. Effects of adenoviral delivered interferon-alpha on porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Type I interferons, such as interferon alpha (IFN-alpha), contribute to innate antiviral immunity by promoting production of antiviral mediators and also play a role in the adaptive immune response. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is one of the most devastating and costly diseas...

  8. Effect of Oral Alpha Lipoic Acid in Preventing the Genesis of Canine Diabetic Cataract: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David L

    2017-03-16

    Blinding cataract is a significant effect of canine diabetes with 75% of animals affected two years after diagnosis. Lens opacification occurs primarily through the generation of sorbitol, a sugar alcohol, through the action of aldose reductase (AR). The osmotic effect of sorbitol draws water into the lens, causing opacification. Inhibition of AR should thus prevent the generation of cataracts. A topical AR inhibitor has been shown to have this effect, as has the commercially available neutraceutical OcuGLO, containing the AR inhibitor alpha lipoic acid (ALA) together with other plant-based antioxidants. Here a comparison is made between the number of diabetic dogs developing cataracts when given oral ALA alone and those given a mix containing ascorbic acid and tocopherol. Animals given ALA developed significantly fewer lens opacities than those given conventional antioxidants. Cataracts which formed occurred at a significantly greater duration after the commencement of treatment than those on the antioxidant mix. Although this is a small study conducted over a short period, the significant benefit of ALA in diabetic dogs is a reason to evaluate these effects in larger trials. As AR is involved in diabetic retinopathy and neuropathy, this enzyme inhibitor may be worthy of evaluation in preventing these conditions in human diabetics also.

  9. Effect of Oral Alpha Lipoic Acid in Preventing the Genesis of Canine Diabetic Cataract: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Williams

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Blinding cataract is a significant effect of canine diabetes with 75% of animals affected two years after diagnosis. Lens opacification occurs primarily through the generation of sorbitol, a sugar alcohol, through the action of aldose reductase (AR. The osmotic effect of sorbitol draws water into the lens, causing opacification. Inhibition of AR should thus prevent the generation of cataracts. A topical AR inhibitor has been shown to have this effect, as has the commercially available neutraceutical OcuGLO, containing the AR inhibitor alpha lipoic acid (ALA together with other plant-based antioxidants. Here a comparison is made between the number of diabetic dogs developing cataracts when given oral ALA alone and those given a mix containing ascorbic acid and tocopherol. Animals given ALA developed significantly fewer lens opacities than those given conventional antioxidants. Cataracts which formed occurred at a significantly greater duration after the commencement of treatment than those on the antioxidant mix. Although this is a small study conducted over a short period, the significant benefit of ALA in diabetic dogs is a reason to evaluate these effects in larger trials. As AR is involved in diabetic retinopathy and neuropathy, this enzyme inhibitor may be worthy of evaluation in preventing these conditions in human diabetics also.

  10. Effects of Long-Term Cultivation on Medium with Alpha-Ketoglutarate Supplementation on Metabolic Processes ofSaccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdyliuk, Nadia; Bayliak, Maria

    2017-01-01

    During last years, alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG), an important intermediate in the Krebs cycle, has been intensively studied as a dietary supplement with stress-protective and potential antiaging effects. Here, we examined the effects of exogenous AKG on metabolic processes and survival of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae during long-term cultivation. Growth on AKG had no effect on the total cell number but increased the number of reproductively active cells at the late days of cultivation (from day 7 to day 15). A gradual increase in levels of total protein, glycogen, and trehalose was found over 7-day cultivation with more pronounced effects in AKG-grown cells. In control cells, metabolic activity and the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase decreased, whereas levels of carbonyl proteins and low-molecular-mass thiols increased during 7-day cultivation. This suggests development of oxidative stress in stationary phase cells. Meanwhile, stationary phase cells cultured on AKG possessed higher levels of low-molecular-mass thiols and lower levels of carbonyl proteins and α -dicarbonyl compounds when compared to control ones. Collectively, higher levels of storage carbohydrates and an activation of antioxidant defense with diminishing oxidative protein damage can prevent a loss of reproductive ability in yeast cells during long-term cultivation on AKG-supplemented medium.

  11. Effects of Long-Term Cultivation on Medium with Alpha-Ketoglutarate Supplementation on Metabolic Processes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Burdyliuk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During last years, alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG, an important intermediate in the Krebs cycle, has been intensively studied as a dietary supplement with stress-protective and potential antiaging effects. Here, we examined the effects of exogenous AKG on metabolic processes and survival of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae during long-term cultivation. Growth on AKG had no effect on the total cell number but increased the number of reproductively active cells at the late days of cultivation (from day 7 to day 15. A gradual increase in levels of total protein, glycogen, and trehalose was found over 7-day cultivation with more pronounced effects in AKG-grown cells. In control cells, metabolic activity and the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase decreased, whereas levels of carbonyl proteins and low-molecular-mass thiols increased during 7-day cultivation. This suggests development of oxidative stress in stationary phase cells. Meanwhile, stationary phase cells cultured on AKG possessed higher levels of low-molecular-mass thiols and lower levels of carbonyl proteins and α-dicarbonyl compounds when compared to control ones. Collectively, higher levels of storage carbohydrates and an activation of antioxidant defense with diminishing oxidative protein damage can prevent a loss of reproductive ability in yeast cells during long-term cultivation on AKG-supplemented medium.

  12. Protective effect of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) in a model of endotoxic shock: action mechanisms and role of CNTF receptor alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demitri, M T; Benigni, F; Meazza, C; Zinetti, M; Fratelli, M; Villa, P; Acheson, A; Panayotatos, N; Ghezzi, P

    1998-01-01

    Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) inhibits the production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated mice and protects against LPS lethality when coadministered with its soluble receptor (sCNTFR alpha). Both of these activities are abolished in adrenalectomized (ADX) mice. LPS-induced pulmonary polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) infiltration and nitric oxide (NO) production were also inhibited by CNTF + sCNTFR alpha but not by CNTF alone. sCNTFR alpha did not alter the clearance or tissue distribution of CNTF. Furthermore, CNTF variants coadministered with sCNTFR alpha protected against LPS toxicity in a manner related to their affinity for the beta components of CNTFR. Thus, inhibition of TNF production and protection against LPS lethality by CNTF/sCNTFR alpha require an intact hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) and may be mediated by endogenous glucocorticoids. This protective effect is, at least in part, due to the inhibition of PMN infiltration and NO production, and appears to be mediated by cells displaying only beta-receptor subtypes.

  13. [The effect of isoflurane on the secretion of TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta from LPS-stimulated human peripheral blood monocytes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, W; Enzan, K; Masaki, Y; Kayaba, M; Suzuki, M

    1995-07-01

    The cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1 secreted from macrophages/monocytes proved to play important roles in the pathogenesis of endotoxemia, severe pancreatitis and other surgical injuries. However, it is still unclear how inhalational anesthetic agents influence the secretion of these cytokines from macrophages/monocytes. We investigated the effects of isoflurane on TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta secretions from human peripheral blood monocytes stimulated by lipopolysaccharide. TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta secretions increased after LPS stimulation and this increase was inhibited by isoflurane in dose-dependent fashion. The inhibitory action of isoflurane disappeared between 1 and 3 hours after stopping isoflurane inhalation. We concluded that isoflurane could inhibit TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta secretions from peripheral blood monocytes stimulated by LPS in a dose-dependent fashion and that the inhibitory action of isoflurane was reversible.

  14. Lucid dreaming and alpha activity: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvie, R D; Hunt, H T; Tyson, P D; Lucescu, M L; Jeakins, D B

    1982-12-01

    10 good dream recallers spent 2 nights in the sleep lab during which they were awakened 4 times per night from REM sleep, twice during their highest alpha activity in REM, and twice during low REM alpha. 5 were given alpha feedback training prior to sleep onset. Arousals from high alpha REM sleep yielded significantly higher lucidity ratings. Alpha feedback had no effect upon lucidity or REM alpha levels. Similarities between lucid dreams and meditative phenomena are discussed.

  15. The suppressive effect of apricot kernel extract on 5alpha-Androst-16-en-3-one generated by microbial metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikoshiba, S; Takenaka, H; Okumura, T; Someya, K; Ohdera, M

    2006-02-01

    Body odours are generated from dead skin cells and secreted materials, such as sweat and sebum, through the metabolism of microorganisms living on the skin. Volatile steroids, key compounds in body odours, are also generated through the metabolism of microorganisms. These volatile steroids strengthen the intensity of the overall body malodour and are sensed differently by males and females. Females are more sensitive than males to volatile steroids, especially 5alpha-androst-16-en-3-one (androstenone). To regulate body odours that are especially unpleasant for women, we devised an androstenone-generation model using the metabolism of Corynebacterium xerosis, which is one of the bacteria living on the axillary skin. Using this model, we studied the suppressive effect of plant extracts on the generation of androstenone. We found that apricot kernel extract (AKE) had the most positive effect among the plant extracts to which we applied the model. However, although AKE did suppress androstenone generation, it did not show any bactericidal effect. Using the cell-free system, AKE also suppressed the generation of androstenone. In conclusion, we found that AKE suppressed the generation of androstenone, which is especially unpleasant for women, and the mechanism was not bactericidal but metabolic inhibition. The results of these studies provide new understanding of the regulation of androstenone, which, in turn, should lead to the development of novel deodorant systems.

  16. Differential effects of triclosan on the activation of mouse and human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuanfeng; Wu, Qiangen; Beland, Frederick A; Ge, Peter; Manjanatha, Mugimane G; Fang, Jia-Long

    2014-11-18

    Triclosan is an anti-bacterial agent used in many personal care products, household items, medical devices, and clinical settings. Liver tumors occur in mice exposed to triclosan, a response attributed to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) activation; however, the effects of triclosan on mouse and human PPARα have not been fully evaluated. We compared the effects of triclosan on mouse and human PPARα using PPARα reporter assays and on downstream events of PPARα activation using mouse hepatoma Hepa1c1c7 cells and human hepatoma HepG2 cells. PPARα transcriptional activity was increased by triclosan in a mouse PPARα reporter assay and decreased in a human PPARα reporter assay. Concentrations of triclosan inhibiting 50% cell growth were similar in both human and mouse hepatoma cells. Western blotting analysis showed that triclosan increased acyl-coenzyme A oxidase (ACOX1), a PPARα target, in Hepa1c1c7 cells but decreased the level in HepG2 cells. Treatment of Hepa1c1c7 cells with triclosan enhanced DNA synthesis and suppressed transforming growth factor beta-mediated apoptosis. This did not occur in HepG2 cells. These data demonstrate that triclosan had similar cytotoxicity in Hepa1c1c7 and HepG2 cells, but differential effects on the activation of PPARα, the expression of ACOX1, and downstream events including DNA synthesis and apoptosis. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  17. The protective effect of dietary Arthrospira (Spirulina) maxima against mutagenicity induced by benzo[alpha]pyrene in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorro-Cevallos, Germán; Garduño-Siciliano, Leticia; Martínez-Galero, Elizdath; Mojica-Villegas, Angélica; Pages, Nicole; Gutiérrez-Salmeán, Gabriela

    2014-05-01

    Benzo[alpha]pyrene (B[α]P) was used to test the possible antimutagenic effects of Arthrospira (Spirulina) maxima (SP) on male and female mice. SP was orally administered at 0, 200, 400, or 800 mg/kg of body weight to animals of both sexes for 2 weeks before starting the B[α]P (intraperitoneal injection) at 125 mg/kg of body weight for 5 consecutive days. For the male dominant lethal test, each male was caged with two untreated females per week for 3 weeks. For the female dominant lethal test, each female was caged for 1 week with one untreated male. All the females were evaluated 13-15 days after mating for incidence of pregnancy, total corpora lutea, total implants and pre- and postimplant losses. SP protected from B[α]P-induced pre- and postimplant losses in the male dominant lethal test, and from B[α]P-induced postimplantation losses in treated females. Moreover, SP treatment significantly reduced the detrimental effect of B[α]P on the quality of mouse semen. Our results illustrate the protective effects of SP in relation to B[α]P-induced genetic damage to germ cells. We conclude that SP, owing mainly to the presence of phycocyanin, could be of potential clinical interest in cancer treatment or prevention of relapse.

  18. Effect of alpha and gamma radiation on the near-field chemistry and geochemistry of high-level waste packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, D.T.

    1985-12-01

    Ionizing radiation can potentially alter geochemical and chemical processes in a geologic system. These effects can either enhance or reduce the performance of the waste package in a deep geologic repository. Current indications are that, in a repository located in basalt, ionizing radiation significantly affects geochemical/chemical processes but does not appear to significantly affect factors important to the long-term performance of the repository. The experimental results presented in this paper were obtained as part of an ongoing effort by the Basalt Waste Isolation Project to determine the effect of ionizing radiation on chemical and geochemical processes in the environment of the waste package. Gamma radiolysis experiments were done by subjecting samples of synthetic basalt groundwater in the presence of various waste package components (basalt/packing/low-carbon steel) to high levels of gamma radiation from a 60 Co source. Post-irradiation analysis was done on the gas, liquid, and solid components of the basalt system. The results obtained are important in evaluating waste package performance during the containment period. The effect of alpha radiation on the basalt groundwater system in the presence of waste package components is important in evaluating waste package performance during the isolation period. The experimental work in this area is in a very preliminary stage. Results from two experiments are reported. 9 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs

  19. Age-related effects on verbal and visuospatial memory are mediated by theta and alpha II rhythms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Johanna Louise; Kober, Silvia Erika; Witte, Matthias; Neuper, Christa; Wood, Guilherme

    2016-01-01

    Both electrical brain activity during rest and memory functions change across the lifespan. Moreover, electrical brain activity is associated with memory functions. However, the interplay between all these effects has been investigated only scarcely. The present study investigated the extent to which the power of resting-state electroencephalographic (EEG) frequencies mediates the impact of aging on verbal and visuospatial memory. Seventy healthy participants with 22 to 83years of age completed a visuospatial and verbal learning and memory test and provided eyes-open and eyes-closed resting-state EEG data. Robust age-related effects on behavioral and EEG data were observed. Mediation analyses showed that the relative power of the theta (4-8Hz) frequency band in fronto-central locations partly explained the negative age-related effect on delayed recall in the verbal memory task. The relative power of the alpha II (10-12Hz) frequency band in mainly parietal locations partly explained the negative impact of age on immediate and delayed recall in the visuospatial task. Results indicate that spontaneous brain activity carries specific information about aging processes and predicts the level of competence in verbal and visuospatial memory tasks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Combined cytotoxic effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha with various cytotoxic agents in tumor cell lines that are drug resistant due to mutated p53

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleijfer, S; Le, T. K. P.; de Jong, S.; Timmer-Bosscha, H; Withoff, S; Mulder, NH

    Several studies suggest that tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) is able to overcome drug resistance in tumors. Whether TNF is able to do so in tumor cell lines that are drug resistant due to a mutation in the tumor suppressor gene p53 is unclear. Therefore, we studied the in vitro cytotoxic effects

  1. Protective effect of an alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist against enterovirus 71 infection in neuronal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Feng Xia; Zhao, Lin Qing; Zhu, Ru Nan; Song, Qin Wei; Deng, Jie; Tian, Run; Wang, Fang; Qian, Yuan

    2018-01-01

    Enterovirus 71, as one of the dominant pathogens associated with severe hand, foot, and mouth disease, has been well reported to trigger severe neurological symptoms among young children over the last decade, particularly among children in the Asia-Pacific region. To date, no effective antiviral agent has been developed for the treatment of severe enterovirus 71 infection. PNU-282987, a selective alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) agonist, has been reported to have a neuroprotective effect by participating in inflammatory regulation in previous studies. Therefore, in the present study, we aimed to assess the cell-protective effect of PNU-282987 against enterovirus 71 infection in neuronal cells, and to discuss potential mechanisms underlying this cell-protective effect in order to elucidate the potential impact of such agonists in the treatment of neurotropic viral infection. We observed that treatment with PNU-282987 improved cell viability and inhibited viral replication in enterovirus 71-infected SH-SY5Y cells. Further investigation revealed that inhibition of enterovirus 71 production by PNU-282987 is likely associated with events of RNA replication, and that increased levels of INF mRNA and its downstream antiviral proteins stimulated by the JAK-STAT2 pathway may contribute to the antiviral effect of PNU-282987. Moreover, our findings suggest that both the antiviral and anti-inflammatory effects of PNU-282987 may contribute to the neural protective effect of the drug in enterovirus 71-infected cells. Taken together, the results suggest that selective α7nAChR agonists may represent viable candidates for future therapeutic treatment of severe enterovirus 71 infection, and for other cases of neurotropic viral infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Experimental study on inhibitory effect of niacinamide on tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced matrix degradation of annulus fibrous tissue in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Runbing; Shao, Zengwu; Xiong, Liming

    2008-10-01

    The inhibitory effect of niacinamide on tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) induced annulus fibrous (AF) degradation was assessed, and the mechanism of the inhibition was investigated. Chiba's intervertebral disc (IVD) culture model was established. Forty-eight IVDs from 12 adult Japanese white rabbits were randomly divided into 4 groups (12 IVDs in each group), and various concentrations of niacinamide and TNF-alpha were added to the medium for intervention: negative control group, niacinamide control group (0.5 mg/mL niacinamide), degeneration group (10 ng/mL TNF-alpha), and treatment group (0.5 mg/mL niacinamide and 10 ng/mL TNF-alpha). After one week's culture, AFs were collected for glycosaminoglycan (GS) content measurement, safranin O-fast green staining, and immunohistochemical staining for type I, II collagen and cysteine containing aspartate specific protease-3 (Caspase-3). It was found that the GS content in treatment group was increased by about 48% as compared with degeneration group (t=16.93, Pniacinamide control group (t=0.71, P=0.667). Safranine O-fast green staining exhibited higher staining density and better histological structure of AF in the treatment group as compared with the degeneration group. Immunohistochemical staining for both Type I and II collagen demonstrated that lamellar structure and continuity of collagen in treatment group were better reserved than in degeneration group. Positive staining rate of Caspase-3 in AFs of negative control group, niacinamide control group, degeneration group and treatment group was 3.4%, 4.3%, 17.9% and 10.3% respectively. The positive rate in treatment group was significantly lower than in degeneration group (Pniacinamide could effectively alleviate TNF-alpha induced destruction and synthesis inhibition of matrix ingredients in AFs. The inhibition may be related with reduction of expression of Caspase-3. Thus, niacinamide is of potential for IVD degeneration clinical treatment.

  3. High-alpha band synchronization across frontal, parietal and visual cortex mediates behavioral and neuronal effects of visuospatial attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobier, Muriel; Palva, J Matias; Palva, Satu

    2018-01-15

    Visuospatial attention prioritizes processing of attended visual stimuli. It is characterized by lateralized alpha-band (8-14 Hz) amplitude suppression in visual cortex and increased neuronal activity in a network of frontal and parietal areas. It has remained unknown what mechanisms coordinate neuronal processing among frontoparietal network and visual cortices and implement the attention-related modulations of alpha-band amplitudes and behavior. We investigated whether large-scale network synchronization could be such a mechanism. We recorded human cortical activity with magnetoencephalography (MEG) during a visuospatial attention task. We then identified the frequencies and anatomical networks of inter-areal phase synchronization from source localized MEG data. We found that visuospatial attention is associated with robust and sustained long-range synchronization of cortical oscillations exclusively in the high-alpha (10-14 Hz) frequency band. This synchronization connected frontal, parietal and visual regions and was observed concurrently with amplitude suppression of low-alpha (6-9 Hz) band oscillations in visual cortex. Furthermore, stronger high-alpha phase synchronization was associated with decreased reaction times to attended stimuli and larger suppression of alpha-band amplitudes. These results thus show that high-alpha band phase synchronization is functionally significant and could coordinate the neuronal communication underlying the implementation of visuospatial attention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Intrahepatic expression of interferon alpha & interferon alpha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kemrilib

    Alpha m-RNA while 30% only expressed Interferon Alpha Receptor m-RNA. Responders and non-responders to Interferon therapy ... expression of IFN Alpha Receptor mRNA. Regardless of the response to interferon, histological .... generation reverse hybridisation, line probe assay. (Inno-LiPA HCV II; Innogenetics, Ghent,.

  5. Dose-response effects of estrogenic mycotoxins (zearalenone, alpha- and beta-zearalenol) on motility, hyperactivation and the acrosome reaction of stallion sperm

    OpenAIRE

    Filannino, Angela; Stout, Tom AE; Gadella, Bart M; Sostaric, Edita; Pizzi, Flavia; Colenbrander, Ben; Dell'Aquila, Maria Elena; Minervini, Fiorenza

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro effects of the Fusarium fungus-derived mycotoxin, zearalenone and its derivatives alpha-zearalenol and beta-zearalenol on motility parameters and the acrosome reaction of stallion sperm. Since the toxic effects of zearalenone and its derivatives are thought to result from their structural similarity to 17beta-estradiol, 17beta-estradiol was used as a positive control for 'estrogen-like' effects. Methods Stallion spermat...

  6. Microhemodynamic indices to evaluate the effectiveness of herbal medicine in diabetes: A comparison between alpha-mangostin and curcumin in the retina of type 2 diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jariyapongskul, Amporn; Areebambud, Chonticha; Hideyuki, Niimi

    2018-01-10

    This study was aimed to develop microhemodynamic indices to evaluate the effectiveness of herbal medicine in diabetic tissues. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: normal control rats (Control), type 2 diabetic rats without (DM2) and with supplementation of alpha mangostin (DM2-MG) or curcumin (DM2-CUR). Alpha-mangostin or curcumin (200 mg/kg BW) were fed followed by i.p. injection of streptozotocin (STZ). Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and retinal blood flow (RBF) were measured and retinal flow resistance (RFR) was calculated. Three indices were developed to evaluate the effectiveness of herbal medicines in RFR-MAP diagram based on experimental data of MAP and RFR in type 2 diabetic rats. These indices are α, β, and γ where α is a ratio of reduction in MAP, β is a ratio of reduction in RFR increasing with MAP increase, and γ indicates a ratio of reduction in RFR. The elevated MAP and RFR and decreased RBF were observed in DM2 rats.Interestingly, alpha-mangostin or curcumin supplementation significantly increased RBF while decreased MAP and RFR. Using α, β and γ indices, it was found that alpha-mangostin is more effective than curcumin in type 2 diabetic retina. These microhemodynamic indices may be useful to compare various herbal medicines in different tissues.

  7. 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate vehicle, castor oil, enhances the contractile effect of oxytocin in human myometrium in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Michael D; Hehir, Mark P; O'Brien, Yvonne M; Morrison, John J

    2010-05-01

    The possibility exists that the vehicle for 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate, castor oil, exerts an effect on human uterine contractility. The aim of this study was to evaluate its effects on contractility of myometrial preparations that were obtained during pregnancy. Myometrial strips were suspended under isometric conditions. Contractility was induced with oxytocin. Strips were incubated in castor oil or physiologic salt solution and suspended for a further oxytocin challenge. Contractile integrals were compared between both groups. Strips that were exposed to castor oil demonstrated increased contractile activity that was elicited by oxytocin (mean contractility value, 165.53%+/-17.03%; n=8; P=.004), compared with control strips (mean contractility value, 72.57%+/-7.48%; n=8; P=.003). There was a significant increase in contractile activity of the castor oil-exposed strips, compared with those that were exposed to physiologic salt solution (n=8; Pcastor oil results in enhanced oxytocin-induced contractility. Copyright (c) 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The effects of radiation (beta/gamma and alpha) on cemented intermediate level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.V.C.; Wilding, C.R.

    1990-02-01

    A worldwide review of what has been published on the effects of radiation on cemented ILW has been carried out where properties such as composition and volume of any gas evolved/absorbed, physical properties, chemical evolution and dose rate were considered. It is clear that only a superficial knowledge of the underlying reasons for radiolytic effects exist although there is sufficient data to enable quantities of gas a function of storage time to be predicted. If long term predictions of behaviour are to be made then the understanding of basic radiation chemistry of cement grout needs to be developed in parallel with the wider study of understanding the effects at the elevated temperatures expected to be present in a repository. (author)

  9. Effect of estradiol on estrogen receptor-alpha gene expression and activity can be modulated by the ErbB2/PI 3-K/Akt pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoica, Gerald E; Franke, Thomas F; Moroni, Maria; Mueller, Susette; Morgan, Elisha; Iann, Mary C; Winder, Abigail D; Reiter, Ronald; Wellstein, Anton; Martin, Mary Beth; Stoica, Adriana

    2003-09-11

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), and heregulin-beta1 (HRG-beta1), can modulate the expression and activity of the estrogen receptor-alpha (ER-alpha) via the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-K)/Akt pathway in the ER-alpha-positive breast cancer cell line, MCF-7. Estradiol can also rapidly activate PI 3-K/Akt in these cells (nongenomic effect). The recent study examines whether Akt is involved in the ER-alpha regulation by estradiol (genomic effect). Stable transfection of parental MCF-7 cells with a dominant-negative Akt mutant, as well as the PI 3-K inhibitors wortmannin and LY 294,002, blocked the effect of estradiol on ER-alpha expression and activity by 70-80 and 55-63%, respectively. Stable transfection of MCF-7 cells with a constitutively active Akt mimicked the effect of estradiol. The changes in ER-alpha expression and activity were abrogated in response to estradiol by an arginine to cysteine mutation in the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain of Akt (R25C), suggesting the involvement of this amino acid in the interaction between Akt and ER-alpha. Experiments employing selective ErbB inhibitors demonstrate that the effect of estradiol on ER-alpha expression and activity is mediated by ErbB2 and not by EGFR. Moreover, anchorage-dependent and -independent growth assays, cell cycle and membrane ruffling analyses showed that Akt exerts estrogen-like activity on cell growth and membrane ruffling and that a selective ErbB2 inhibitor, but not anti-ErbB2 antibodies directed to the extracellular domain, can block these effects. In the presence of constitutively active Akt, tamoxifen only partially inhibits cell growth. In contrast, in cells stably transfected with either a dominant-negative Akt or with R25C-Akt, as well as in parental cells in the presence of a selective ErbB2 inhibitor, the effect of estradiol on anchorage-dependent and -independent cell growth was inhibited by 50-75 and 100%, respectively. Dominant-negative Akt

  10. Effects of physicochemical factors on Cr(VI) removal from leachate by zero-valent iron and alpha-Fe(2)O(3) nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, T Y; Zhao, L; Tan, X; Liu, S J; Li, J J; Qi, Y; Mao, G Z

    2010-01-01

    The effects of nanoparticle dosage, initial hexavalent chromium concentration, pH value, reaction temperature, and initial concentration of humic acid (HA) on chromate (CrO(4)(2-)) removal from landfill leachate by nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI) and hematite (alpha-Fe(2)O(3)) nanoparticles were examined in the present investigations. The Cr(VI) removal rate decreased as the initial Cr(VI) concentration and the reaction temperature increased, whereas corresponding removal rate by NZVI was higher than that of alpha-Fe(2)O(3). The optimum pH for the removal of Cr(VI) by NZVI was found to be 5.0 and more than 99.0% of Cr(VI) was removed within 5 h. However, the removal rate by alpha-Fe(2)O(3) decreased as pH increased. Presence of HA resulted in substantial reduction in the rate and extent of Cr(VI) removal by NZVI, whereas Cr(VI) removal rate by alpha-Fe(2)O(3) did not significantly decrease as HA concentration increased from 0.5 g/L to 3.0 g/L. Increasing the dosage of nanoparticles enhanced the rate constant and the removal of Cr(VI) by NZVI and alpha-Fe(2)O(3) followed pseudo-first-order reaction kinetics. The information should be very useful for the successful application of NZVI and alpha-Fe(2)O(3) for the treatment of groundwater or raw wastewater.

  11. Effects of alpha-tocopherol on gingival expression of inducible nitric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-09-01

    Sep 1, 2015 ... alveolar bone, increased depth of pocket, loss of attachment, mobility, and unless treated loss of tooth.[1] Diabetes mellitus has been defined as a group of ... healing, suppress iNOS production, and provide protection against oxidative damage.[16‑20]. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of.

  12. The Effect of Alpha Tocopherol on Body Organs of Neonatal Rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this work was to investigate the effects of -Tocopherol (vitamin E) on the organs of neonatal rats exposed to Vanadium. Organ histology show that vanadium through lactation induced pathological changes including congestion and haemorrhages at the renal cortex, severe diffuse vacuolar degeneration of ...

  13. Effect of omega-3 fatty acids on kidney function after myocardial infarction: The Alpha Omega Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeveen, E.K.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Kromhout, D.; Stijnen, T.; Gemen, E.F.; Kusters, R.; Giltay, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives Kidney function gradually decreases with age, and myocardial infarction accelerates this deterioration. Omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids may slow down the decline of kidney function. The effect of marine and plant-derived n-3 fatty acids on kidney function in patients after

  14. Effects of Drawing on Alpha Activity: A Quantitative EEG Study with Implications for Art Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkofer, Christopher M.; Van Hecke, Amy Vaughan; Konopka, Lukasz M.

    2014-01-01

    Little empirical evidence exists as to how materials used in art therapy affect the brain and its neurobiological functioning. This pre/post within-groups study utilized the quantitative electroencephalogram (qEEG) to measure residual effects in the brain after 20 minutes of drawing. EEG recordings were conducted before and after participants (N =…

  15. Effect of Senna alata (L) Roxb (Fabaceae) Leaf Extracts on alpha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the inhibitory effect of S. alata leaf extracts on α-amylase and α-glucosidase, and its potential for reducing postprandial blood glucose level of rats. Methods: The α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory potentials of acetone, ethylacetate and hexane extracts of S. alata were investigated by reacting ...

  16. Acute inhibitory effect of alpha-mangostin on sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium-ATPase and myocardial relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phungphong, Sukanya; Kijtawornrat, Anusak; de Tombe, Pieter P; Wattanapermpool, Jonggonnee; Bupha-Intr, Tepmanas; Suksamrarn, Sunit

    2017-10-01

    The benefits of α-mangostin for various tissues have been reported, but its effect on the heart has not been clarified. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of α-mangostin on cardiac function. Using a cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) membrane preparation, α-mangostin inhibited SR Ca 2+ -ATPase activity in a dose-dependent manner (IC 50 of 6.47 ± 0.7 μM). Its suppressive effect was specific to SR Ca 2+ -ATPase but not to myofibrillar Ca 2+ -ATPase. Using isolated cardiomyocytes, 50 μM of α-mangostin significantly increased the duration of cell relengthening and increased the duration of Ca 2+ transient decay, suggesting altered myocyte relaxation. The relaxation effect of α-mangostin was also supported in vivo after intravenous infusion. A significant suppression of both peak pressure and rate of ventricular relaxation (-dP/dt) relative to DMSO infusion was observed. The results from the present study demonstrated that α-mangostin exerts specific inhibitory action on SR Ca 2+ -ATPase activity, leading to myocardial relaxation dysfunction. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Alpha-particles microbeam irradiation: impact of reactive oxygen species in bystander effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanot, M.

    2008-11-01

    Ionizing radiation-induced bystander effects arise in bystander cells that receive signals from directly irradiated cells. To date, free radicals are believed to play an active role in the bystander response, but this is incompletely characterized. To mark temporal and spatial impacts of bystander effect, we employed a precise α-particle microbeam to target a small fraction of sub-confluent osteoblastic cell cultures (MC3T3-E1). We identified the cellular membrane and mitochondria like two distinct places generating reactive oxygen species. The global oxidative stress observed after irradiation was significantly attenuated after filipin treatment, evidencing the pivotal role of membrane in MC3T3-E1 cells bystander response. To determine impact of bystander effect at a cell level, cellular consequences of this membrane-dependant bystander effect were then investigated. A variable fraction of the cell population (10 to 100%) was individually targeted. In this case, mitotic death and micronuclei yield both increased in bystander cells as well as in targeted cells demonstrating a role of bystander signals between irradiated cells in an autocrine or paracrine manner. Our results indicate a complex interaction of direct irradiation and bystander signals that lead to a membrane-dependant amplification of cell responses. (author)

  18. The antagonistic effect of antipsychotic drugs on a HEK293 cell line stably expressing human alpha(1A1)-adrenoceptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nourian, Zahra; Mulvany, Michael J; Nielsen, Karsten Bork

    2008-01-01

    Antipsychotic drugs often cause orthostatic hypotension, probably through antagonist action on resistance vessel alpha(1A)-adrenoceptors. Here we have tested this possibility directly using cells transfected with a relevant human alpha(1A)-adrenoceptor splice variant. To determine a splice variant...... a cell line stably expressing a functional form of this splice variant. The expression of recombinant alpha(1A1)-adrenoceptor subtype was confirmed by Western immunoblot analysis, and its functionality demonstrated using a Fura-2 assay by a rise in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) when...... human alpha(1A1)-adrenoceptors in competition binding studies confirmed much higher antagonist affinity of sertindole and risperidone than haloperidol for these receptors. In summary, it can be concluded that there is an approximately 10-fold higher adrenoceptor affinity of risperidone and sertindole...

  19. Effect of recombinant alpha interferon on NK and ADCC function in lung cancer patients: results from a phase II trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hokland, P; Hokland, M; Olesen, B K

    1985-01-01

    During a phase II trial of recombinant IFN-alpha given in doses of 50 X 10(6) units/m2 three times per week to lung cancer patients, 13 patients were evaluated longitudinally in NK and ADCC assays and in immunofluorescence tests enumerating the number of cells reactive with the new N901 NK....... These data are discussed in relation to other clinical trials using leukocyte or recombinant IFN-alpha. Udgivelsesdato: 1984 Fall...

  20. Effect of the glass transition temperature on alpha-amylase activity in a starch matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Vinita; Panyoyai, Naksit; Small, Darryl M; Shanks, Robert A; Kasapis, Stefan

    2017-02-10

    This study optimises a protocol for the estimation of α-amylase activity in a condensed starch matrix in the vicinity of the glass transition region. Enzymatic activity on the vitrified starch system was compared with that of a reference substrate, maltodextrin. The activity was assayed as the rate of release of reducing sugar using a dinitrosalicylic acid procedure. The condensed carbohydrate matrices served the dual purpose of acting as a substrate as well as producing a pronounced effect on the ability to enzymatic hydrolysis. Activation energies were estimated throughout the glass transition region of condensed carbohydrate preparations based on the concept of the spectroscopic shift factor. Results were used to demonstrate a considerable moderation by the mechanical glass transition temperature, beyond the expected linear effect of the temperature dependence, on the reaction rate of starch hydrolysis by α-amylase in comparison with the low-molecular weight chain of maltodextrin. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Mechanism and environmental effects on MEOR induced by the alpha process. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiebert, F.K.; Zumberge, J.; Rouse, B.; Cowes, A.; Lake, L.W.

    1993-04-01

    This project was an interdisciplinary investigation of the enhanced oil recovery effects of a commercial microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) system. The purpose was to investigate in parallel laboratory and field studies the response of a portion of the Shannon Sandstone reservoir to two single-well treatments with a commercial MEOR system, to investigate basic bacteria/rock interactions, and to investigate mechanisms of oil release. The MEOR system consisted of a mixed culture of hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria, inorganic nutrients, and other growth factors. Parallel field and laboratory investigations into the effect and mechanisms of the treatment were carried out by independent principal investigators. The Shannon Sandstone at the Naval Petroleum Reserve {number_sign}3 (NPR {number_sign}3), Teapot Dome Field, Wyoming, was the location of the pilot field treatment. The treated and adjacent observation wells showed production and microbiological perturbations that are attributed to the effects of treatment during the first four post-treatment months. Effects of treatment declined to background levels within four months of inoculation. No production response was recorded in control wells unaffected by microbial stimulation. Laboratory research resulted in descriptions of colonization patterns of hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria in the reservoir rock environment. Core-flooding research utilizing various components of the MEOR system did not result in the isolation of an oilrelease mechanism or measure incremental oil recovery from cores at residual oil saturation to waterflood. Chemical analysis of pre- and post-treatment produced oil identified large organic acid molecules concentrated in the asphaltenic fraction of posttreatment oil, but not in the oil from untreated control wells. No significant changes were measured in the overall quality of the oil produced from MEOR treated wells.

  2. Mechanism and environmental effects on MEOR induced by the alpha process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiebert, F.K.; Zumberge, J.; Rouse, B.; Cowes, A.; Lake, L.W.

    1993-04-01

    This project was an interdisciplinary investigation of the enhanced oil recovery effects of a commercial microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) system. The purpose was to investigate in parallel laboratory and field studies the response of a portion of the Shannon Sandstone reservoir to two single-well treatments with a commercial MEOR system, to investigate basic bacteria/rock interactions, and to investigate mechanisms of oil release. The MEOR system consisted of a mixed culture of hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria, inorganic nutrients, and other growth factors. Parallel field and laboratory investigations into the effect and mechanisms of the treatment were carried out by independent principal investigators. The Shannon Sandstone at the Naval Petroleum Reserve [number sign]3 (NPR [number sign]3), Teapot Dome Field, Wyoming, was the location of the pilot field treatment. The treated and adjacent observation wells showed production and microbiological perturbations that are attributed to the effects of treatment during the first four post-treatment months. Effects of treatment declined to background levels within four months of inoculation. No production response was recorded in control wells unaffected by microbial stimulation. Laboratory research resulted in descriptions of colonization patterns of hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria in the reservoir rock environment. Core-flooding research utilizing various components of the MEOR system did not result in the isolation of an oilrelease mechanism or measure incremental oil recovery from cores at residual oil saturation to waterflood. Chemical analysis of pre- and post-treatment produced oil identified large organic acid molecules concentrated in the asphaltenic fraction of posttreatment oil, but not in the oil from untreated control wells. No significant changes were measured in the overall quality of the oil produced from MEOR treated wells.

  3. Effect of alpha interferon on glucose and alanine transport by rat renal brush border membrane vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batuman, V.; Chadha, I.

    1990-01-01

    To investigate the pathogenetic mechanisms of interferon nephrotoxicity, we studied the effect of recombinant interferon alfa-2b on the uptake of 14 C-D-glucose and 14 C-L-alanine by rat renal brush-border-membrane vesicles. Interferon significantly inhibited 20 sec. sodium-dependent and 5 and 10 min. equilibrium uptake of both glucose and alanine. The inhibitory effect was dose dependent with maximum effect achieved at interferon concentration of 5 x 10 -8 M in the uptake media. The half-maximal inhibitory concentrations, IC 50 , of interferon on glucose uptake was 1.8 x 10 -8 M, and 5.4 x 10 -9 M on alanine uptake. Dixon plot analysis of uptake data was consistent with pure non-competitive inhibition. The inhibition constants, K i , 1.5 x 10 -8 M for glucose uptake, and 7.3 x 10 -9 M for alanine uptake, derived from Dixon plots were in close agreement with the IC 50 s calculated from the semilog dose response curves. These observations reveal that direct interactions at the proximal tubule cell membrane are involved in the pathogenesis of interferon nephrotoxicity, and that its mechanism of nephrotoxicity is similar to that of other low molecular weight proteins

  4. Antioxidant effects of alpha-tocopherol (vitamine E on testis regeneration in busulfan-treated mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Rohnavaz

    2016-09-01

    (35, 40 mg/kg body weight intraperitonealy. The effects of busulfan was examinned on destruction of testis tissue, semen parameters and catalase enzymatic activity compared with control group after 30 days. Finally, fter determining the effective dose of busulfan, Vitamin E was injected to the mice as an antioxidant enzyme  and its effects on semen parameters and testis tissue was examined after one month.  Results: The results showed that oxidative stress was increased in busulfan-treated mice during 30 days. Catalase enzymatic activity decreased significantly in testis of Busulfan-treated mice in comparison with control group. A significant decrease of sperm number was observed according to treatment by Busulfan. After finding the most damaging dose of busulfan (40 mg/kg in destruction of testis tissue, these mice were injected by vitamine E. The results showed that the oxidative stress and percentage of abnormal sperm were decreased in Busulfan-treated mice that exposed a dose of 100 mg/kg vitamin E. The number of sperm and antioxidant activity of catalase was increased. Conclusion: Vitamin E improves a revival of spermatogenesis and improves testicular parameters in these patients. 

  5. Alpha-glucosidase inhibitory effect and inorganic constituents of Phyllanthus amarus Schum. & Thonn. ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malinee Wongnawa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the -glucosidase inhibitory effect and determined the concentration of some inorganic constituents in P. amarus ash. Oral glucose and sucrose tolerance test were performed on normal mice. In vitro -glucosidase inhibitory activity was evaluated by using yeast a-glucosidase. The element concentrations were measured by inductively coupled plasma (ICP spectroscopy. Single oral administration of P. amarus ash did not show antihyperglycemic effect after glucose administration, but decreased blood glucose level after sucrose administration. The ash showed -glucosidase inhibitory activity in vitro with IC50 of 982 mg/mL. The concentrations of K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, Zn, Cu, Pb, Cr, Ni and Co in P. amarus ash were 35049.80±340.64, 3337.24±52.10, 1368.52±13.29, 90.81±1.34, 87.68±1.15, 18.28±0.22, 4.69±0.07, 1.07±0.15, 0.29±0.03, 0.20±0.04 and 0.10±0.02 mg/g, respectively. These results indicate that the antihyperglycemic effect of P. amarus ash might be partly due to the -glucosidase inhibitory activity of the inorganic constituents.

  6. Dose-response effects of estrogenic mycotoxins (zearalenone, alpha- and beta-zearalenol) on motility, hyperactivation and the acrosome reaction of stallion sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filannino, Angela; Stout, Tom A E; Gadella, Bart M; Sostaric, Edita; Pizzi, Flavia; Colenbrander, Ben; Dell'Aquila, Maria Elena; Minervini, Fiorenza

    2011-10-05

    The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro effects of the Fusarium fungus-derived mycotoxin, zearalenone and its derivatives alpha-zearalenol and beta-zearalenol on motility parameters and the acrosome reaction of stallion sperm. Since the toxic effects of zearalenone and its derivatives are thought to result from their structural similarity to 17beta-estradiol, 17beta-estradiol was used as a positive control for 'estrogen-like' effects. Stallion spermatozoa were exposed in vitro to zearalenone, alpha-zearalenol, beta-zearalenol or 17beta-estradiol at concentrations ranging from 1 pM - 0.1 mM. After 2 hours exposure, motility parameters were evaluated by computer-assisted analysis, and acrosome integrity was examined by flow cytometry after staining with fluoroscein-conjugated peanut agglutinin. Mycotoxins affected sperm parameters only at the highest concentration tested (0.1 mM) after 2 hours exposure. In this respect, all of the compounds reduced the average path velocity, but only alpha-zearalenol reduced percentages of motile and progressively motile sperm. Induction of motility patterns consistent with hyperactivation was stimulated according to the following rank of potency: alpha-zearalenol > 17beta-estradiol > zearalenone = beta-zearalenol. The hyperactivity-associated changes observed included reductions in straight-line velocity and linearity of movement, and an increase in the amplitude of lateral head displacement, while curvilinear velocity was unchanged. In addition, whereas alpha- and beta- zearalenol increased the percentages of live acrosome-reacted sperm, zearalenone and 17beta-estradiol had no apparent effect on acrosome status. In short, alpha-zearalenol inhibited normal sperm motility, but stimulated hyperactive motility in the remaining motile cells and simultaneously induced the acrosome reaction. Beta-zearalenol induced the acrosome reaction without altering motility. Conversely, zearalenone and 17beta-estradiol did not induce

  7. Dose-response effects of estrogenic mycotoxins (zearalenone, alpha- and beta-zearalenol on motility, hyperactivation and the acrosome reaction of stallion sperm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colenbrander Ben

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro effects of the Fusarium fungus-derived mycotoxin, zearalenone and its derivatives alpha-zearalenol and beta-zearalenol on motility parameters and the acrosome reaction of stallion sperm. Since the toxic effects of zearalenone and its derivatives are thought to result from their structural similarity to 17beta-estradiol, 17beta-estradiol was used as a positive control for 'estrogen-like' effects. Methods Stallion spermatozoa were exposed in vitro to zearalenone, alpha-zearalenol, beta-zearalenol or 17beta-estradiol at concentrations ranging from 1 pM - 0.1 mM. After 2 hours exposure, motility parameters were evaluated by computer-assisted analysis, and acrosome integrity was examined by flow cytometry after staining with fluoroscein-conjugated peanut agglutinin. Results Mycotoxins affected sperm parameters only at the highest concentration tested (0.1 mM after 2 hours exposure. In this respect, all of the compounds reduced the average path velocity, but only alpha-zearalenol reduced percentages of motile and progressively motile sperm. Induction of motility patterns consistent with hyperactivation was stimulated according to the following rank of potency: alpha-zearalenol >17beta-estradiol > zearalenone = beta-zearalenol. The hyperactivity-associated changes observed included reductions in straight-line velocity and linearity of movement, and an increase in the amplitude of lateral head displacement, while curvilinear velocity was unchanged. In addition, whereas alpha- and beta- zearalenol increased the percentages of live acrosome-reacted sperm, zearalenone and 17beta-estradiol had no apparent effect on acrosome status. In short, alpha-zearalenol inhibited normal sperm motility, but stimulated hyperactive motility in the remaining motile cells and simultaneously induced the acrosome reaction. Beta-zearalenol induced the acrosome reaction without altering motility

  8. Effect of D-Alpha Tocopherol Therapy towards Malondialdehyde Level and Histology of Kidney in Rattus norvegicus with MLD-STZ Induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marissa Agnestiansyah Mahardhian

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic Nephropathy is a kidney disease which occurs due to complication of diabetes mellitus  as a consequence of the damage of the kidney endothelial cells. Hyperglicemia condition in patients with diabetes mellitus that induces an oxidative stress, were related to endothelial cell damage. Oxidative stress as a result of hyperglycemia will activate a number of signal transduction pathways resulting in increase of  free radicals. D-alpha tocopherol as one of antioxidant substance, that can act as an inhibitor of free radical chain reactions, play an important role in the reduction of the oxidative stress effect. Effect of D-alpha-tocopherol in reducing oxidative stress is identified by the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA in kidney and histology of kidney. This study used five groups mice; they were a control group, a diabetic group which was induced with MLD-STZ, and a therapeutic groups with a varieties doses of D-alpha tocopherol (100 mg/kgBW, 200 mg/kgBW and 300 mg/kgBW. The results showed that the D-alpha tocopherol was able to reduce the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA and repair the histology of kidney of mice induced by MLD-STZ.

  9. Alpha-2 adrenergic activity of bromocriptine and quinpirole in chicken pineal gland. Effects on melatonin synthesis and [3H]rauwolscine binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zawilska, J.; Iuvone, P.M.

    1990-01-01

    In the pineal gland and retina of chickens, serotonin N-acetyl-transferase (NAT) activity and melatonin content are modulated by different receptors, alpha-2 adrenergic receptors in pineal gland and D2-dopamine receptors in retina. The effect of two D2-dopamine receptor agonists, bromocriptine and quinpirole (LY 171555), on melatonin synthesis in these tissues was investigated. Systemic administrations of bromocriptine and quinpirole decreased nocturnal NAT activity and melatonin content of both pineal gland and retina. Bromocriptine was equipotent in the two tissues, whereas quinpirole was approximately 100-fold more potent in retina than in pineal gland. In pineal gland, the suppressive effects of bromocriptine and quinpirole on NAT activity were blocked by yohimbine, a selective alpha-2 adrenergic receptor antagonist, but not by spiperone, a D2-dopamine receptor antagonist. In contrast, bromocriptine- and quinpirole-induced decreases of the enzyme activity in retina were antagonized by spiperone, and not affected by yohimbine. The nocturnal increase of NAT activity of pineal glands in vitro was inhibited with an order of potency clonidine greater than bromocriptine greater than quinpirole. Additionally, bromocriptine and quinpirole displaced the specific binding of [3H]rauwolscine, an alpha-2 adrenergic receptor antagonist, to membranes from chicken pineal gland, with potencies comparable to those observed for inhibition of NAT activity in vitro. It is suggested that bromocriptine and quinpirole, in addition to their D2-dopaminergic activity, can stimulate alpha-2 adrenergic receptors in pineal gland of chicken

  10. Effect of capric, lauric and alpha-linolenic acids on the division time distributions of single cells of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sado Kamdem, S; Guerzoni, M E; Baranyi, J; Pin, C

    2008-11-30

    The effect of non-inhibitory concentrations of capric, lauric and alpha-linolenic acids (C10:0, C12:0 and C18:3 respectively) on the division time distribution of single cells of Staphylococcus aureus was evaluated at pH 7 and pH 5. The effect of the initial cell concentration on the lag time of growing cell populations was also assessed. The statistical properties of the division times (defined as the time interval from birth to next binary fission for a single cell) were studied using the method of Elfwing et al. [Elfwing, A., Le Marc, Y., Baranyi, J., Ballagi, A., 2004. Observing the growth and division of large number of individual bacteria using image analysis. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 70, 675-678]. The division times were significantly longer in the presence of free fatty acids than in the control. Shorter division intervals were detected at pH 7 than at pH 5 in the control experiment and in the presence of C10:0. However, both C12:0 and C18:3 slowed down the growth, regardless of the pH. The observed division time distributions were used to simulate growth curves from different inoculum sizes using the stochastic birth process described by Pin and Baranyi [Pin, C., Baranyi, J., 2006. Kinetics of single cells: observation and modelling of a stochastic process. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 72, 2163-2169]. The output of the simulation results were compared with observed data. The lag times fitted to simulated growth curves were in good agreement with those fitted to growth curves measured by plate counts. The averaged out effect of the population masked the effect of the free fatty acids and pH on the division times of single cells.

  11. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha infusion produced insulin resistance but no change in the incretin effect in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Signe Tellerup; Lehrskov-Schmidt, Louise; Krogh-Madsen, Rikke; Solomon, Thomas P J; Lehrskov-Schmidt, Lars; Holst, Jens Juul; Møller, Kirsten

    2013-11-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with peripheral insulin resistance, impaired incretin effect, and increased plasma levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). Although TNF-α infusion at a dose that induces systemic inflammation in healthy volunteers has been demonstrated to induce peripheral insulin resistance, the influence of this cytokine on the incretin effect is unknown. We investigated whether systemic inflammation induced by TNF-α infusion in healthy volunteers alters the incretin hormone response to oral and intravenous glucose loads in a crossover study design with ten healthy male volunteers (mean age 24 years, mean body mass index 23.7 kg/m(2) ). The study consisted of four study days: days 1 and 2, 6-h infusion of saline; days 3 and 4, 6-h infusion of TNF-α; days 1 and 3, 4-h oral glucose tolerance test; and days 2 and 4, 4-h corresponding intravenous isoglycaemic glucose tolerance test. Glucose tolerance tests were initiated after 2 h of saline/TNF-α infusion. Plasma concentrations of TNF-α, interleukin 6, glucose, incretin hormones, and cortisol, and serum concentrations of C-peptide and insulin were measured throughout the study days. Insulin sensitivity was estimated by the Matsuda index and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Prehepatic insulin secretion rates were calculated. TNF-α infusion induced symptoms of systemic inflammation; increased plasma levels of cortisol, TNF-α, and interleukin 6; and increased the HOMA-IR. The secretion of incretin hormones as well as the incretin effect remained unchanged. In healthy young male volunteers, acute systemic inflammation induced by infusion of TNF-α is associated with insulin resistance with no change in the incretin effect. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. The effectiveness of evening primrose oil and alpha lipoic acid in recovery of nerve function in diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer Mohamed Rashad

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Diabetic polyneuropathy is a serious complication of diabetes mellitus and the most frequent neuropathy worldwide. Evening primrose oil (EPO is rich in omega-6 essential fatty acid component and gamma-linolenic acid. Alpha lipoic acid (ALPA has a protective effect against lipid peroxidation and helps in scavenging free radicals. Data regarding the effect of treatment with EPO on diabetic parameters and neuropathic manifestations are conflicting. This study aimed to determine the therapeutic efficacy of EPO and ALPA in correcting diabetic parameters and functional and structural neuropathic manifestations in streptozotocin (STZ induced diabetic rats.Materials and methods: In this study, the effects of two week oral treatment with EPO (1.25 g/kg was compared to that of ALPA (100 mg/kg and insulin (2 IU/day, utilized singly or in combination.Results: Compared with untreated diabetic rats, EPO and ALPA resulted in reduction of serum levels of glucose (p<0.05, total cholesterol (p<0.01, triglycerides (p<0.01, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (p<0.01, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (a marker of oxidative stress (p<0.05, and increased in levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (p<0.05 and total antioxidant capacity (p<0.05. Enhanced positive effect was observed with combination therapy.Conclusion: This work indicates that EPO and ALPA, particularly when used in combination, improve glycemic control, lipid abnormalities and antioxidant capacity, thus restore the impaired functional properties of peripheral nerves to a great extent. J Clin Exp Invest 2011; 2 (3: 245-253.

  13. In vivo adverse effects of alpha-tocopherol on the semen quality of male bucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, A; Qureshi, M S; Khan, R U

    2015-10-01

    Oxidative stress has detrimental effects on semen quality during spermatogenesis and semen processing for artificial insemination. This work was conducted to study the effect of different levels of vitamin E on the semen traits, oxidative status and trace minerals in Beetal bucks. Thirty-six bucks of similar body weight and age (1 year) were randomly divided into four groups. One group was kept as control with no supplementation (group 1), and the others were supplemented with 200 (group 2), 400 (group 3) and 800 IU (group 4) vitamin E/animal/day for 2 months. At the end of the experiment, semen samples were collected and evaluated. Seminal plasma was separated to study the concentration of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and trace minerals (Zn, Cu, Mn and Fe). Group 3 showed significantly higher (p < 0.05) semen volume and per cent motility and lower dead sperm percentage compared to control group. Superoxide dismutase, GPx, Zn, Cu and Mn were higher in the same group. The level of AST decreased in group 3 without any change on the concentration of ALT. It is suggested that vitamin E at the rate of 400 IU/buck/day supported higher semen volume, per cent motility, per cent live spermatozoa, antioxidants (SOD, GPx) and trace mineral levels (Zn, Cu, Mn) in the seminal plasma. The increased supplementation from 0 to 400 showed a general increasing trend in improving semen quality. However, the dose of 800 IU/kg had no useful effect in further improving the semen quality. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Solute effects on edge dislocation pinning in complex alpha-Fe alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascuet, M. I.; Martínez, E.; Monnet, G.; Malerba, L.

    2017-10-01

    Reactor pressure vessel steels are well-known to harden and embrittle under neutron irradiation, mainly because of the formation of obstacles to the motion of dislocations, in particular, precipitates and clusters composed of Cu, Ni, Mn, Si and P. In this paper, we employ two complementary atomistic modelling techniques to study the heterogeneous precipitation and segregation of these elements and their effects on the edge dislocations in BCC iron. We use a special and highly computationally efficient Monte Carlo algorithm in a constrained semi-grand canonical ensemble to compute the equilibrium configurations for solute clusters around the dislocation core. Next, we use standard molecular dynamics to predict and analyze the effect of this segregation on the dislocation mobility. Consistently with expectations our results confirm that the required stress for dislocation unpinning from the precipitates formed on top of it is quite large. The identification of the precipitate resistance allows a quantitative treatment of atomistic results, enabling scale transition towards larger scale simulations, such as dislocation dynamics or phase field.

  15. The effects of HIP processing on microstructure and phase relations in. alpha. sub 2 -base titanium aluminides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saqib, M. (Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Wright State Univ., Dayton, OH (United States)); Apgar, L.S.; Eylon, D. (Graduate Materials Engineering, Univ. of Dayton, OH (United States)); Weiss, I. (Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Wright State Univ., Dayton, OH (United States))

    1992-05-30

    Cast {alpha}{sub 2}-base alloy (Ti-25Al-10Nb-3V-1Mo, at.%) underwent hot isostatic pressing (HIP) at temperatures ranging from 925 to 1125degC and pressures of 100-270 MPa. Effects of temperature and pressure during HIP, on microstructure and volume fraction of the phases present, were investigated. Microstructural characterization was carried out using optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The phases present were identified using selected area and convergent beam electron diffraction. Volume fraction of the phases was determined using X-ray diffraction. Optimum refinement in the microstructure was obtained following HIP at 1020degC/262 MPa/6 h. The volume fraction of the B2 phase increased from 12% in the as-cast condition to 45% following HIP at 982degC/262 MPa/6 h. Experiments on forged Ti-25Al-10Nb-3V-1Mo alloy demonstrated that changes in volume fraction of the phases owing to HIP was applicable for cast as well as forged material. Sharp decrease in the volume fraction of the B2 phase was observed when as-HIP materials were aged at elevated temperature. Possible mechanisms of these changes in the phase stability and microstructure are discussed. (orig.).

  16. The effect of alpha-ketoglutaric acid on tyrosinase activity and conformation: Kinetics and molecular dynamics simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Lin; Lee, Jinhyuk; Yang, Jun-Mo; Park, Yong-Doo; Zhou, Hai-Meng; Zhan, Yi; Lü, Zhi-Rong

    2017-12-01

    Alpha-ketoglutaric acid (AKG) is naturally found in organisms and is a well-known intermediate in the production of ATP or GTP in the Krebs cycle. We elucidated the effects of AKG on tyrosinase activity and conformation via methods of inhibition kinetics integrated with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. AKG was found to be a reversible inhibitor of tyrosinase (IC 50 =15±0.5mM) and induced parabolic slope mixed-type inhibition. Based on our newly established equation, the dissociation constant (K islope ) was determined to be 7.93±0.31mM. The spectrofluorimetry studies showed that AKG mainly induced regional changes in the active site of tyrosinase, which reflects the flexibility of the active site. The computational docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations further demonstrated that AKG could interact with several residues near the substrate-binding site located in the tyrosinase active site pocket. Our study provides insight into the mechanism by which energy-producing intermediates such as AKG inhibit tyrosinase through its ketone groups. Also, AKG could be a potential natural antipigmentation agent due to its non-toxic property. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonist (tamsulosin) on incident of ejaculation and semen quality in the goat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimsakulvech, S; Suttiyotin, P; Pinyopummin, A

    2015-04-01

    Male temporary contraception is occasionally required in some animals. Alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonist (tamsulosin) can cause ejaculation disorder. Two sets of Latin square were applied to six male goats to received either normal saline, dimethylsulphoxide or tamsulosin (179.8 nmol kg(-1) ) at 1-week interval. Semen collection and libido scoring were undertaken at 3, 6 and 24 h post-injection. For ejaculated semen, its quality was evaluated. Physiological measurements including body temperature, respiration and heart rates were measured before injection and at 30 min before semen collection. The results showed that libido score and physiological changes were not affected by treatments and time periods. Anejaculation was observed in 11 (91.7%), 5 (41.7%) and 1 (8.3%) males at 3, 6 and 24 h post-tamsulosin injection respectively. The incidence returned to normal when compared with control groups at 24 h. The percentages of motile and live spermatozoa at 6 h post-tamsulosin injection were significantly lower (P tamsulosin had temporary effects on ejaculation and semen quality without reducing sex desire and physiological functions in male goats. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. [1 alpha(OH) D3 (Alfarol) is effective for the treatment of chronic B cell leukemia: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, E; Takeuchi, H; Saitou, M; Hirashima, K

    1989-10-01

    We reported a case of chronic B-cell leukemia reacted to the administration of 1 alpha (OH)D3 (Alfarol-CHUGAI Pharm. Co.), The patient showed pancytopenia with IgM-kappa type monoclonal protein in the serum. The bone marrow aspiration was failed due to a dry tap, but the biopsied specimen showed a marked infiltration of small sized lymphoid cells with wide cytoplasm. The leukemic cells from peripheral blood showed a morphology of atypical hairy cells, Surface markers of the leukemic cells were IgM, D(kappa)+, CD 19+, CD 20+, CD 21- and HLADR+, The leukemic cells showed no L-tartrate resistant acid phosphatase sensitivity. This case was diagnosed as a chronic B-cell leukemia closely related to a hairy cell leukemia. The treatment with estrogen-chlorambucil compound (Bestrabucil-KUREHA Chem, Co.) or splenic irradiation was not effective. However, after two months' administration of Alfarol the regular blood transfusion was not needed because of increment of the Hb concentration. After eight months of its administration, the bone marrow aspirate showed a marked decrease in the number of the leukemic cells and a restoration of normal hematopoietic cells. This experience suggested that Alfarol in usefull for the treatment of chronic B cell leukemia including hairy cell leukemia and chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

  19. On D-brane anti D-brane effective actions and their corrections to all orders in alpha-prime

    CERN Document Server

    Hatefi, Ehsan

    2013-09-09

    Based on a four point function, the S-matrix elements at disk level of the scattering amplitude of one closed string Ramond-Ramond field ($C$) and two tachyons and one scalar field, we find out new couplings in brane anti brane effective actions for $p=n,p+2=n$ cases. Using the infinite corrections of the vertex of one RR, one gauge and one scalar field and applying the correct expansion, it is investigated in details how we produce the infinite gauge poles of the amplitude for $p = n$ case. By discovering new higher derivative corrections of two tachyon-two scalar couplings in brane anti brane systems to all orders in $\\alpha'$, we also obtain the infinite scalar poles in $t'+s'+u$-channel in field theory. Working with the complete form of the amplitude with the closed form of the expansion and comparing all the infinite contact terms of this amplitude, we derive several new Wess-Zumino couplings with all their infinite higher derivative corrections in the world volume of brane anti brane systems. In particu...

  20. Effect of alpha-ketoglutarate on neurobehavioral, neurochemical and oxidative changes caused by sub-chronic cyanide poisoning in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathangi, D C; Shyamala, R; Vijayashree, R; Rao, K R; Ruckmani, A; Vijayaraghavan, R; Bhattacharya, R

    2011-03-01

    Recent studies revealed that alpha-ketoglutarate (A-KG) alone or with sodium thiosulfate (STS) provide significant protection against acute and sub-acute cyanide poisoning in rodents. This study addresses the protective effect of A-KG and/or STS in sub-chronic (90 days) cyanide poisoning. Wistar rats were divided into seven groups (n = 10): Control animals, potassium cyanide (KCN) A-KG, STS, KCN + A-KG, KCN + STS and KCN + A-KG + STS. Spontaneous motor activity and motor coordination were recorded every 15th day. Lipid peroxidation (LPO), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in blood, brain, liver and kidney, and glutamate, aspartate and dopamine in discrete regions of brain were measured following 90 days exposure. Cyanide significantly decreased motor coordination, accompanied by increase in LPO (blood, brain and liver) and dopamine (corpus striatum and cerebral cortex) levels, and depletion in GSH (blood, brain and liver), GPx (brain and liver), SOD (brain and liver), and CAT (blood and brain) levels. Although treatment of A-KG and STS alone significantly blunted the toxicity of KCN, concomitant use of both afforded the maximum protection. This study shows a promising role of A-KG and STS as treatment regime for long term cyanide exposure.

  1. Biphasic effects of histamine on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesions: Studies with betahistine, dimaprit, (R). alpha. -methylhistamine and nizatidine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, R.E.; Palitzsch, K.D.; Szabo, S. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States))

    1991-03-15

    In elucidating further the role that histamine (H) may play in gastroprotection against hemorrhagic mucosal lesions (HML) induced by ethanol (E), fasted S-D rats were treated with subcutaneous (s.c.) H 10, 15, 20 and 30 min before intragastric (i.g.) 100% E or H-agonists betahistine (H1) or dimaprit (H2) i.g. 30 min. before 75% E. All animals were killed 1 hr after E, HML were measured with stereomicrosopic planimetry and expressed as % of glandular stomach. The H2 antagonist nizatidine did not influence the extent of HML. As a follow up to previously reported nizatidine blockade of H2-induced gastroprotection against 75% E, nizatidine + H1 or nizatidine + H3 agonist (R){alpha}-methylhistamine was also tested. The H2 antagonist nizatidine abolished the gastroprotection by H3 but did not influence the H1-induced reduction of HML. H injected s.c. showed a dose- and time-dependent biphasic effect on E-induced gastric mucosal lesions. Both H1- and H2-agonists injected s.c. reduced the E-induced damage. Nizatidine alone failed to influence mucosal lesions, blocked gastroprotection induced by H2 or H3, but not by H1 agonists.

  2. Effect of 17alpha-ethinylestradiol on activity of rat liver enzymes for synthesis and hydrolysis of cholesterol esters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikitin, Yu.P.; Dushkin, M.I.; Dolgov, A.V.; Gordienko, I.A.

    1987-01-01

    Administration of estrogens is known to lower the concentration of cholesterol esters in the blood vessel wall and may delay the development of arteriosclerosis. It is also known that under the influence of estrogens the redistribution of concentrations of free cholesterol and cholesterol esters takes place in rats between the blood and liver as a result of the intensification of receptor-dependent uptake of low-density lipoproteins by the hepatocytes. The mechanisms of this intracellular redistribution, however, have been inadequately studied. The purpose of this paper is to study the effects of 17alpha-ethinylestradiol on the activity of lysosomal and cytoplasmic cholesterol esterases, acyl-CoA-cholesterol-O-acyltransferase, lysosomal acid phosphatase, and beta-D-galactosidase. The activity was measured by using cholesterol [1-C 14]-oleate as the substrate. The influence of the estradiol is found to be based on cholesterol redistribution between the blood and liver. Accumulation of free cholesterol in the liver under these conditions stimulates bile acid formation. Depression of cholesterol ester synthesis as a result of direct inhibition of the acyltransferase by the estradiol is found to possibly contribute to the fall in the cholesterol level in the body. Liquid scintillation counting was used to measure distribution and accumulation

  3. Gene knockout of the alpha6 subunit of the gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor: lack of effect on responses to ethanol, pentobarbital, and general anesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homanics, G E; Ferguson, C; Quinlan, J J; Daggett, J; Snyder, K; Lagenaur, C; Mi, Z P; Wang, X H; Grayson, D R; Firestone, L L

    1997-04-01

    The alpha6 subunit of the gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABA(A)-R) has been implicated in mediating the intoxicating effects of ethanol and the motor ataxic effects of general anesthetics. To test this hypothesis, we used gene targeting in embryonic stem cells to create mice lacking a functional alpha6 gene. Homozygous mice are viable and fertile and have grossly normal cerebellar cytoarchitecture. Northern blot and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analyses demonstrated that the targeting event disrupted production of functional alpha6 mRNA. Autoradiography of histological sections of adult brains demonstrated that diazepam-insensitive binding of [3H]Ro15-4513 to the cerebellar granule cell layer of wild-type mice was completely absent in homozygous mice. Cerebellar GABA(A)-R density was unchanged in the mutant mice; however, the apparent affinity for muscimol was markedly reduced. Sleep time response to injection of ethanol after pretreatment with vehicle or Ro15-4513 did not differ between genotypes. Sleep time response to injection of pentobarbital and loss of righting reflex and response to tail clamp stimulus in mice anesthetized with volatile anesthetics also did not differ between genotypes. Thus, the alpha6 subunit of the GABA(A)-R is not required for normal development, viability, and fertility and does not seem to be a critical or unique component of the neuronal pathway mediating the hypnotic effect of ethanol and its antagonism by Ro15-4513 in mice. Similarly, the alpha6 subunit does not seem to be involved in the behavioral responses to general anesthetics or pentobarbital.

  4. Effects of alpha decays on nuclear waste glasses, simulation through atomistic models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghaleb, D.; Delaye, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    In a simplified (SiO 2 , B 2 O 3 , Na 2 O 3 , Al 2 O 3 , ZrO 2 ) nuclear glass we have simulated, by Molecular Dynamics simulations, the effects of displacement cascades created by the slowing-down of the recoil nucleus. The methodology employed to construct and validate the used Molecular Dynamics model representing the basis matrix of the 'light-water' French nuclear glass (R77) and the manner which are simulated atomic displacements are described. Although the energies given to recoil nucleus were relatively low (≤ 1/10 of actual energies) the study has yielded a number of interesting results. Notably we have: - identified the main mechanisms responsible for the depolymerization of the network; - observed, at the atomic level, the kinetic of the structure evolution; - detailed the behavior and displacement mechanisms of every atomic species during the cascade sequences; - made a link with the experimentation through the calculation of some physical properties. (authors)

  5. Effects of Trehalose on Thermodynamic Properties of Alpha-synuclein Revealed through Synchrotron Radiation Circular Dichroism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Ruzza

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Many neurodegenerative diseases, including Huntington’s, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases, are characterized by protein misfolding and aggregation. The capability of trehalose to interfere with protein misfolding and aggregation has been recently evaluated by several research groups. In the present work, we studied, by means of synchrotron radiation circular dichroism (SRCD spectroscopy, the dose-effect of trehalose on α-synuclein conformation and/or stability to probe the capability of this osmolyte to interfere with α-synuclein’s aggregation. Our study indicated that a low trehalose concentration stabilized α-synuclein folding much better than at high concentration by blocking in vitro α-synuclein’s polymerisation. These results suggested that trehalose could be associated with other drugs leading to a new approach for treating Parkinson’s and other brain-related diseases.

  6. Effects of prostaglandin F2 alpha and a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist on inositol phospholipid metabolism in isolated rat corpora lutea of various ages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahav, M.; West, L.A.; Davis, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    The sensitivity of rat corpora lutea to luteolytic agents increases with luteal age. We examined the effect of prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) and [D-Ala6,Des-Gly10]GnRH ethylamide (GnRHa) on inositol phospholipid metabolism in day 2 and day 7 corpora lutea from PMSG-treated rats. Isolated corpora lutea were incubated with 32PO4 or [3H]inositol and were treated with LH, PGF2 alpha, or GnRHa. Phospholipids were purified by TLC, and the water-soluble products of phospholipase-C activity (inositol phosphates) were isolated by ion exchange chromatography. In day 2 corpora lutea, PGF2 alpha, (10 microM) and GnRHa (100 ng/ml) significantly increased 32PO4 incorporation into phosphatidic acid (PA) and phosphatidylinositol (PI), but not into other fractions. LH provoked slight increases in PA. Results were similar with 30 min of prelabeling or simultaneous addition of 32PO4 and stimulants. In other experiments, PGF2 alpha and GnRHa provoked rapid increases (1-5 min) in the accumulation of inositol mono-, bis-, and trisphosphates. LH did not significantly increase inositol phosphate accumulation, but stimulated cAMP accumulation in 2-day-old corpora lutea. Inositol phospholipid metabolism was increased in day 7 corpora lutea compared to that in day 2 corpora lutea. This increase was associated with increased incorporation of 32PO4 into PA and PI and increased accumulation of [3H]inositol phosphates. In day 7 corpora lutea, which are very sensitive to the luteolytic effect of PGF2 alpha, the PG-induced increase in PA labeling was small and inconsistent, whereas PI labeling was unaffected in 30-min incubations. GnRHa was without effect in such corpora lutea. LH, PGF2 alpha, or GnRHa did not increase inositol phosphate accumulation in 7-day-old corpora lutea. These studies demonstrate that the transformation of young (day 2) to mature (day 7) corpora lutea is associated with an increase in luteal inositol phospholipid metabolism

  7. Serum alpha-fetoprotein in the three trimesters of pregnancy: effects of maternal characteristics and medical history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredaki, F E; Sciorio, C; Wright, A; Wright, D; Nicolaides, K H

    2015-07-01

    To define the contribution of maternal variables which influence the measured level of maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in screening for pregnancy complications. Maternal characteristics and medical history were recorded and serum AFP was measured in women with a singleton pregnancy attending for three routine hospital visits at 11 + 0 to 13 + 6, 19 + 0 to 24 + 6 and 30 + 0 to 34 + 6 weeks' gestation. For pregnancies delivering phenotypically normal live births or stillbirths ≥ 24 weeks' gestation, variables from maternal demographic characteristics and medical history that are important in the prediction of AFP were determined from a linear mixed-effects multiple regression. Serum AFP was measured in 17 071 cases in the first trimester, 8583 in the second trimester and 8607 in the third trimester. Significant independent contributions to serum AFP were provided by gestational age, maternal weight, racial origin, gestational age at delivery and birth-weight Z-score of the neonate of the previous pregnancy and interpregnancy interval. Cigarette smoking was found to significantly affect serum AFP in the first trimester only. The machine used to measure serum AFP was also found to have a significant effect. Random-effects multiple regression analysis was used to define the contribution of maternal variables that influence the measured level of serum AFP and express the values as multiples of the median (MoMs). The model was shown to provide an adequate fit of MoM values for all covariates, both in pregnancies that developed pre-eclampsia and in those without this pregnancy complication. A model was fitted to express measured serum AFP across the three trimesters of pregnancy as MoMs, after adjusting for variables from maternal characteristics and medical history that affect this measurement. Copyright © 2015 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Effects of 17alpha-ethynylestradiol on hormonal responses and xenobiotic biotransformation system of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Anne S; Arukwe, Augustine

    2007-11-30

    Pharmaceuticals are ubiquitous pollutants in the aquatic environment where their potential effects on non-target species like fish has only recently become subject of systematic investigations. In the present study, experiments were undertaken to examine the effects of a synthetic pharmaceutical endocrine disruptor, ethynylestradiol (EE2), given in water at 5 or 50 ng/L and sampled at days 0 (control), 3 and 7 after exposure, on hepatic phase I and II biotransformation and hormonal pathways of juvenile salmon using quantitative (real-time) polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), Vtg ELISA and 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) catalytic activity. Our data show that EE2 produced time- and concentration-specific modulation of estrogen receptor isoforms (ERalpha, ERbeta) and androgen receptor-beta (ARbeta). EE2 produced a concentration-specific induction of vitellogenin (Vtg) and zona radiata protein (Zr-protein) at day 3 after exposure. At day 7, Vtg and Zr-protein mRNA (and plasma Vtg protein) expression were significantly decreased in the group given 5 ng EE2/L, compared to dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) control group. In the xenobiotic biotransformation pathway, EE2 produced a significant increase of aryl hydrocarbon receptor-alpha (AhRalpha) at day 3 in the group given 5 ng EE2/L and AhRbeta was decreased at the same concentration at day 7. While CYP3A was not significantly affected by EE2 exposure, the CYP1A1, AhR nuclear translocator (Arnt) and AhR repressor (AhRR) mRNA showed an apparent EE2 concentration and time-dependent decrease. The expression of uridine diphosphoglucuronosyl transferase (UGT) and glutathione S-transferase class pi-like (GSTpi-like) mRNA were decreased after exposure to 50ng EE2/L at both day 3 and 7 after exposure. The effect of EE2 on the CYP1A1 gene expressions paralleled effect on EROD and AhRR mRNA, suggesting a direct role of EE2 in controlling cellular detoxification machinery. Interestingly, the carrier vehicle, DMSO produced significant

  9. Inflammatory bowel disease as a paradoxical effect of anti-TNF alpha therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriarte, Ainara; Zaera, Celia; Bachiller-Corral, Javier; López-Sanromán, Antonio

    2017-02-01

    Anti-TNF-α therapies are used in the treatment of different inflammatory conditions, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, paradoxical effects may occur during treatment. In other words, these drugs can induce or unmask diseases similar to those they were intended to treat. Etanercept is the main anti-TNF-α agent associated with the development of paradoxical IBD; this drug, moreover, has no proven usefulness in the treatment of the disease. This association, which is not coincidental and meets the criteria for a temporal causal association, is infrequent and is seen particularly in patients with spondyloarthritis. Restarting treatment with etanercept may induce new intestinal symptoms. There are no endoscopic, histopathologic or clinical differences between primary and secondary IBD, and both are diagnosed in the same way. The most frequent presentation is Crohn disease. When a paradoxical event occurs, etanercept is usually replaced with infliximab, which has not been associated with disease recurrence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U., AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  10. High secondary [alpha]-deuterium kinetic isotope effect in the acetolysis and formolysis of dideuterioferrocenylmethyl benzoate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asperger, S. (Research Center of the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Zagreb (Croatia)); Kukric, Z.; Sutic, D. (Sarajevo Univ. (Yugoslavia). Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics); Saunders, W.H. Jr. (Rochester Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1992-02-01

    Acetolysis and formolysis of dideuterioferrocenylmethyl benzoate exhibit large secondary deuterium kinetic isotope effects and an abnormal temperature dependence. In the presence of LiClO[sub 4], which prevents the reversion from solvent-separated to contact ion-pairs, K[sub H]/K[sub D] at 25 [sup o]C amount to 1.53 [+-] 0.02 (acetolysis) and 1.48 [+-] 0.03 (formolysis). In the presence of LiClO[sub 4] the ratios of Arrhenius pre-exponential factors, A[sub H]/A[sub D], are significantly less than unity and amount to 0.49 [+-] 0.01 (acetolysis) and 0.38 [+-] 0.04 (formolysis). In the absence of LiClO[sub 4] the A[sub H]/A[sub D] ratios are much smaller (0.02 both in acetolysis and formolysis). We suggest that these surprisingly low values result from a change in rate-determining step over the temperature range, from formation of the solvent-separated ion-pair at low temperatures to reaction of the dissociated carbocation with solvent at the highest temperatures. Whether tunnelling plays any role in these solvolyses is discussed. (Author).

  11. Alpha-PVP induces the rewarding effect via activating dopaminergic neuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hataoka, Kyoko; Kaizaki-Mitsumoto, Asuka; Numazawa, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    A synthetic cathinone, 1-phenyl-2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-1-pentanone (α-PVP), was occasionally found in the "bath salt" type of designer drugs, as an active ingredient. It has been reported that drivers who consumed α-PVP were in an excited state and incapable of controlling their behavior, causing traffic accidents. Despite its acute excitatory effects, there is no information on the psychological dependency elicited by α-PVP use. The purpose of the present study was to clarify whether the reward pathway is activated with repeated doses of α-PVP in experimental animals. Treatment of male C57BL/6j mice with α-PVP (25 mg/kg, i.p.), once a day, for 3 days significantly increased the conditioned place preference scores. Therefore, repeated doses of α-PVP were shown to induce palatability in mice. α-PVP increases extracellular dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens shell immediately after administration. The number of cells immunopositive for phosphorylated cAMP-regulatory element binding protein (CREB) was significantly increased in the α-PVP-treated mice in our study. These results indicate that the administration of α-PVP activates the phosphorylation of CREB in the nucleus accumbens shell. Our results suggest that α-PVP stimulates the reward pathway by increasing the extracellular dopamine levels and CREB phosphorylation in the nucleus accumbens shell, eventually causing positive reinforcement in mice.

  12. Effects of ultrasonication variables on the activity and properties of alpha amylase preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thi Thu Tra; Nguyen, Khanh Tien; Le, Van Viet Man

    2018-01-18

    Recently, ultrasound was demonstrated to increase enzyme activity in food industry. In most studies, an enzyme-substrate mixture was ultrasonicated. Very little is reported on the ultrasonication of enzyme preparation; the effects of ultrasonication variables on the enzyme activity and properties remained unclear. In this study, an α-amylase preparation was ultrasonicated under different conditions. At the ultrasonic frequency, power, temperature, and time of 20 kHz, 25 W/mL, 30°C, and 75 s, respectively, the secondary structure of the α-amylase was changed and that improved the catalytic activity by 47% over the control. The optimal temperature and pH of the α-amylase preparation did not change under the ultrasonic treatment. In addition, ultrasonic treatment increased kinetic parameters of the α-amylase including maximal velocity V max , Michaelis constant K m , turnover number K cat , and catalytic specificity constant K cat /K m . Nevertheless, the ultrasonicated α-amylase had lower thermal inactivation rate constant and half-life value than the nonultrasonicated enzyme. Ultrasonic treatment can be considered as a novel solution for improvement in enzyme activity. © 2018 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2018. © 2018 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  13. Sulforaphane has opposing effects on TNF-alpha stimulated and unstimulated synoviocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragoulis, Athanassios; Laufs, Jendrik; Müller, Susanna; Soppa, Ulf; Siegl, Stephanie; Reiss, Lucy Kathleen; Tohidnezhad, Mersedeh; Rosen, Christian; Tenbrock, Klaus; Varoga, Deike; Lippross, Sebastian; Pufe, Thomas; Wruck, Christoph Jan

    2012-10-27

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterized by progressive inflammation associated with rampantly proliferating synoviocytes and joint destruction due to oxidative stress. Recently, we described nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) as a major requirement for limiting cartilage destruction. NF-κB and AP-1 are the main transcription factors triggering the inflammatory progression in RA. We used sulforaphane, an isothiocyanate, which is both an Nrf2 inducer and a NF-κB and AP-1 inhibitor. Cultured synoviocytes were stimulated with sulforaphane (SFN) with or without TNF-α pre-treatment. NF-κB, AP-1, and Nrf2 activation was investigated via dual luciferase reporter gene assays. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were measured via zymography and luminex technique. Cytokine levels were detected using ELISA. Cell viability, apoptosis and caspase activity were studied. Cell proliferation was analysed by real-time cell analysis. SFN treatment decreased inflammation and proliferation dose-dependently in TNF-α-stimulated synoviocytes. SFN did not reduce MMP-3 and MMP-9 activity or expression significantly. Interestingly, we demonstrated that SFN has opposing effects on naïve and TNF-α-stimulated synoviocytes. In naïve cells, SFN activated the cytoprotective transcription factor Nrf2. In marked contrast to this, SFN induced apoptosis in TNF-α-pre-stimulated synoviocytes. We were able to show that SFN treatment acts contrary on naïve and inflammatory synoviocytes. SFN induces the cytoprotective transcription factor Nrf2 in naïve synoviocytes, whereas it induces apoptosis in inflamed synoviocytes. These findings indicate that the use of sulforaphane might be considered as an adjunctive therapeutic strategy to combat inflammation, pannus formation, and cartilage destruction in RA.

  14. Inhibitory Effect of Capparis spinosa Extract on Pancreatic Alpha-Amylase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Selfayan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by high blood glucose level caused due to deficiency of insulin secretion or insulin function. The inhibition of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes such as α-amylase can be an important strategy for decrease postprandial blood glucose level in patients with type II diabetes. Plants contains different chemical constituents with potential for inhibition of α-amylase and hence maybe used as therapeutic. Objectives The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of the ethanolic extract of Capparis spinosa on pancreatic α-amylase activities to find out the relevance of the plant in controlling blood sugar. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, root and leaves of C. spinosa were tested for α-amylase inhibition. Different concentrations (1.56, 3.12, 6.25, 12.5 and 25 mg/mL of extracts were incubated with enzyme substrate solution and the spectrometric method used for measure enzyme activity. Also acarbose was used as the standard inhibitor. Results Both root and leaves extracts showed inhibition of α-amylase (root = 97.31% and leaves = 98.92%. The root and leaves extracts of C. spinosa exhibited appreciable α-amylase inhibitory activity with an IC50 values 5.93 mg/mL and 3.89 mg/mL respectively, when compared with acarbose (IC50 value 0.038 mg/mL. Conclusions This study supports that root and leaves extracts of C. spinosa exhibit considerable α-amylase inhibitory activities. These results could be useful for developing functional foods by combination of plant-based foods for treatment of diabetes mellitus.

  15. Contribution to the study of the effects of {alpha}-irradiation in nuclear glasses; Contribution a l'etude des effets de l'irradiation {alpha} sur les verres nucleaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas, A

    2001-07-01

    The main topic of this work is to characterise the effects of {alpha}-disintegration in nuclear waste glasses. Experimental and numerical approaches have been considered. The structure of the French nuclear waste glass (R7T7) has been simulated using four- and six-oxides simplified glasses which contain the main elements of the R7T7 glass: SiO{sub 2}, B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}O, ZrO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and CaO. Four- and six-oxides glasses have been irradiated with 1 MeV-He{sup +} (ionisation) and 2.1 MeV-Kr{sup 3+} (ionisation and atomic collisions) ions in order to reproduce the effects of the {alpha}-particle and of the recoil nucleus emitted during {alpha}-disintegration of actinides, and also to differentiate electronic and ballistic effects. Irradiated glasses have been characterised using several techniques, which have been adapted to the peculiarities of our samples (isolated material, small irradiated depth). The results point out the salient role of sodium in the observed modifications: depth concentration profiles obtained with RBS show an accumulation of sodium at the irradiated surface. We found a apparent acceleration of sodium release in leaching experiments which confirm that point. Modifications observed in Raman spectra of irradiated glasses show an increase of the polymerisation (increase of Q{sub 3}/Q{sub 2} ratio) due to sodium migration. In simplified glasses we have found that the modifications of mechanical properties by external irradiations reproduce the modifications observed in actinide doped nuclear glass (decrease of hardness and increase of fracture toughness). At the same time, we performed Molecular Dynamics simulations of a six-oxides glass. We have shown that the surface modifies the glass structure down to a depth of 10 Angstrom: modification of depth concentration profiles, decrease of the atomic coordination number (A1, B and Si). During cascades, we found that atomic displacements are easier near the surface. This

  16. Effects of the mycotoxins alpha- and beta-zearalenol on regulation of progesterone synthesis in cultured granulosa cells from porcine ovaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiemann, U; Tomek, W; Schneider, F; Vanselow, J

    2003-01-01

    Mycotoxins as contaminants of animal food can impair fertility and can cause abnormal fetal development in farm animals. Therefore, the present study has investigated whether derivatives of the mycotoxin zearalenone, alpha-zearalenol (alpha-ZOL) and beta-zearalenol (beta-ZOL), influence progesterone synthesis via cytochrome p450 side chain cleavage enzyme (p450scc) and 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/isomerase (3beta-HSD) in cultured porcine granulosa cells. Both enzymes are essential for the conversion of cholesterol to progesterone. No differences in basal progesterone levels and numbers of viable cell were observed between untreated granulosa cells and those treated with alpha- or beta-ZOL (15 and 30 microM). FSH (0.01 microg/ml) or forskolin (10 microM) enhanced the basal progesterone secretion in the absence of mycotoxins. The addition of alpha- or beta-ZOL (7.5, 15 and 30 microM) to cultures stimulated with FSH (0.01 microg) or forskolin (10 microM) reduced progesterone synthesis and the levels of p450scc and 3beta-HSD transcripts in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.05). The enzymatic activity of 3beta-HSD and the abundance of p450scc protein were also reduced by these mycotoxins. In conclusion, effects of mycotoxins on FSH receptor-dependent and receptor-independent pathways indicate that adenylate cyclase activity and/or regulatory pathways further downstream are targets of mycotoxin actions. The apparent dose-dependent reduction of p450scc and 3beta-HSD transcripts implies an effect of alpha- and beta-ZOL on transcriptional regulation of these enzymes.

  17. The effect of cloricromene, a coumarine derivative, on leukocyte accumulation, myocardial necrosis and TNF-alpha production in myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squadrito, F; Altavilla, D; Zingarelli, B; Ioculano, M; Calapai, G; Campo, G M; Miceli, A; Prosdocimi, M; Caputi, A P

    1993-01-01

    The effects of cloricromene, a coumarine derivative, were studied in an anaesthetized rat model of coronary artery ligation (60 min) followed by reperfusion (60 min; MI/R). Sham operated rats were used as controls (Sham MI/R). Myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury produced a marked myocardial injury (necrotic area/area-at-risk = 68 +/- 4%; necrotic area/total area = 48 +/- 3%) high serum creatinphosphokinase activity (Sham MI/R = 29 +/- 8 U/ml; MI/R = 205 +/- 11 U/ml) and elevated myocardial myeloperoxidase activity (investigated as an index of leukocyte adhesion and accumulation), in the area-at-risk (6.3 +/- 0.2 U x 10(-3)/g tissue) and in necrotic area (6.5 +/- 0.5 U x 10(-3)/g tissue). Furthermore, serum TNF-alpha was undetectable during the occlusion period, but upon the release of the coronary artery significantly increased. At the end of reperfusion, macrophage TNF-alpha was also enhanced. The administration of cloricromene (2 mg/kg, 5 minutes after the onset of reperfusion) significantly reduced myocardial injury (necrotic area/area-at-risk 30 +/- 1.3%; necrotic area/total area = 25 +/- 1.5) blunted the increase in serum creatinphosphokinase activity (92 +/- 5 U/ml) and lowered myeloperoxidase activity in area-at-risk (2.5 +/- 0.2 U x 10(-3)/g tissue) and in necrotic area (2.2 +/- 0.3 U x 10(-3)/g tissue) and decreased the serum and macrophage levels of TNF-alpha. These data indicate that cloricromene exerts beneficial effects on myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion injury. Finally, since we measured increased serum levels of TNF-alpha that were blunted by the cloricromene treatment, our data are consistent with an involvement of TNF-alpha in the reperfusion injury induced by myocardial ischaemia.

  18. Inhibitory effects of alpha-zearalenol on angiotensin II-induced integrin beta3 mRNA via suppression of nuclear factor-kappaB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Su-Min; Wang, Xiao-Ming; Qiu, Jin; Si, Qin; Guo, Heng-Yi; Sun, Ren-Yu; Wu, Qi-Xia

    2005-10-01

    To investigate the effect of alpha-zearalenol on angiotensin II-induced beta3 integrin mRNA expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The mRNA level in integrin beta3 was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Endothelial NF-kappaB activity was determined by the luciferase activity assay of plasmid NF-kappaB-LUC. The angiotensin II-induced beta3 integrin mRNA expression was inhibited by alpha-zearalenol and 17beta-estradiol (10 nmol/L -1 micromol/L), but not influenced by ICI 182, 780, a pure competitive antagonist for estrogen receptor or a nitric oxide inhibitor Nomega-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride. Alpha-zearalenol and 17beta-estradiol suppressed the angiotensin II-induced activation of NF-kappaB in endothelial cells. Alpha-zearalenol inhibits angiotensin II-induced integrin beta3 mRNA expression by suppressing NF-kappaB activation in endothelial cells.

  19. Effect of compound D-600 (methoxyverapamil) on gluconeogenesis and on acceleration of the process by alpha-adrenergic stimuli in rat kidney tubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saggerson, E D; Carpenter, C A

    1980-01-01

    1. Tubule fragments were isolated from renal cortex of fed rats and glucose formation was measured after incubation with 5 mM-sodium lactate. 20 Compound D-600 (10-100 microM) decreased gluconeogenesis from lactate. This inhibition of the process by compound D-600 increased with increasing extracellular Ca2+ concentration, was overridden by noradrenaline and diminished by starvation for 24 h. 3. Inhibition of lactate-supported gluconeogenesis by compound D-600 was not prevented by the alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonist thymoxamine. 4. Compound D-600 had little effect on gluconeogenesis from 2-oxoglutarate and increased gluconeogenesis from succinate. 5. Compound D-600 opposed stimulation of gluconeogenesis by noradrenaline or oxymetazoline (a selective alpha-adrenoceptor agonist) in a manner suggesting that compound D-600 is an alpha-adrenoceptor blocker. Oxymetazoline was more sensitive than noradrenaline to blockade by both compound D-600 and by the conventional alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist phentolamine. Noradrenaline became more sensitive to blockade by compound D-600 when extracellular Ca2+ was decreased. 6. Compound D-600 did not block stimulation of gluconeogenesis by angiotensin or cyclic AMP. PMID:6258565

  20. Potential effects of alpha-recoil on uranium-series dating of calcrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neymark, L.A.

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation of paleosol ages in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, at the time the site of a proposed high-level nuclear waste repository, is important for fault-displacement hazard assessment. Uranium-series isotope data were obtained for surface and subsurface calcrete samples from trenches and boreholes in Midway Valley, Nevada, adjacent to Yucca Mountain. 230Th/U ages of 33 surface samples range from 1.3 to 423 thousand years (ka) and the back-calculated 234U/238U initial activity ratios (AR) are relatively constant with a mean value of 1.54 ± 0.15 (1σ), which is consistent with the closed-system behavior. Subsurface calcrete samples are too old to be dated by the 230Th/U method. U-Pb data for post-pedogenic botryoidal opal from a subsurface calcrete sample show that these subsurface calcrete samples are older than ~ 1.65 million years (Ma), old enough to have attained secular equilibrium had their U-Th systems remained closed. However, subsurface calcrete samples show U-series disequilibrium indicating open-system behavior of 238U daughter isotopes, in contrast with the surface calcrete, where open-system behavior is not evident. Data for 21 subsurface calcrete samples yielded calculable 234U/238U model ages ranging from 130 to 1875 ka (assuming an initial AR of 1.54 ± 0.15, the mean value calculated for the surface calcrete samples). A simple model describing continuous α-recoil loss predicts that the 234U/238U and 230Th/238U ARs reach steady-state values ~ 2 Ma after calcrete formation. Potential effects of open-system behavior on 230Th/U ages and initial 234U/238U ARs for younger surface calcrete were estimated using data for old subsurface calcrete samples with the 234U loss and assuming that the total time of water-rock interaction is the only difference between these soils. The difference between the conventional closed-system and open-system ages may exceed errors of the calculated conventional ages for samples older than ~ 250 ka, but is

  1. A Proposed Mechanism for the Thermal Denaturation of a Recombinant Bacillus Halmapalus Alpha-amylase - the Effect of Calcium Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Anders D.; Pusey, Marc L.; Fuglsang, Claus C.; Westh, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The thermal stability of a recombinant alpha-amylase from Bacillus halmapalus alpha-amylase (BHA) has been investigated using circular dichroism spectroscopy (CD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). This alpha-amylase is homologous to other Bacillus alpha-amylases where previous crystallographic studies have identified the existence of 3 calcium binding sites in the structure. Denaturation of BHA is irreversible with a Tm of approximately 89 C, and DSC thermograms can be described using a one-step irreversible model. A 5 C increase in T(sub m) in the presence of 10 fold excess CaCl2 was observed. However, a concomitant increase in the tendency to aggregate was also observed. The presence of 30-40 fold excess calcium chelator (EDTA or EGTA) results in a large destabilization of BHA corresponding to about 40 C lower T(sub m), as determined by both CD and DSC. Ten fold excess EGTA reveals complex DSC thermograms corresponding to both reversible and irreversible transitions, which possibly originate from different populations of BHA:calcium complexes. The observations in the present study have, in combination with structural information of homologous alpha-amylases, provided the basis for the proposal of a simple denaturation mechanism of BHA. The proposed mechanism describes the irreversible thermal denaturation of different BHA:calcium complexes and the calcium binding equilibrium involved. Furthermore, the model accounts for a temperature induced reversible structural change associated with calcium binding.

  2. Lens and cornea lesions of rats fed corn syrup and the protective effects of alpha lipoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunes, Alime; Ozmen, Ozlem; Saygın, Mustafa; Ascı, Halil; Tok, Levent; Tok, Ozlem; Dıncoglu, Dılnur

    2016-03-01

    To examine the pathological findings that occurred in the lens and cornea and biochemical findings in the lens of rats fed with corn syrup and the protective effects of alpha lipoic acid (ALA). Twenty-four rats were randomly divided into three groups. Group I served as the control group. Group II was used as the study group; the rats were treated with 30% corn sugar solution for 10 weeks. Group III was the treatment group. Corn syrup was given by the oral route to the rats during the study, and ALA (100 mg/kg) was added to the treatment 4 weeks after the study began. At the end of the experiment, central corneal thickness (CCT) was measured in all rats with an ultrasonic pachymeter. Then the right eyes of the rats were enucleated for histopathological examination of the cornea and lens. The left lenses were homogenized for biochemical analyses. The lenses of the rats treated with corn syrup revealed severe damage; many lens fibers appeared swollen and ruptured with large vacuoles near the lens epithelium. In addition, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, a parameter of oxidative stress, increased but not significantly in Group II; however. ALA treatment decreased MDA levels significantly. Antioxidant enzyme and catalase (CAT) activities were significantly decreased in Group II, and ALA treatment increased these activities; however, the increase was not significant. Changes were observed in the cornea such as epithelial alterations, subepithelial vacuolizations, collagen fibers loss in the stromal layer, interruptions in the subepithelial basement membrane and central corneal thickening. Corn syrup can cause severe damage in rat lenses and corneas. However, ALA ameliorates the effect of corn syrup-related lesions on the cornea and lens.

  3. Loss of protein kinase 2 subunit alpha 2 (CK2α') effect ram sperm function after freezing and thawing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuxuan; Li, Hongyan; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Yong; Zhao, Xingxu

    2017-06-01

    Protein kinase 2 subunit alpha 2 (CK2α'), a serine/threonine-selective protein kinase, is associated with sperm apoptosis. However, the presence of CK2α' in ram sperm during the freezing-thawing process has not been previously reported. Thus, this study was conducted to determine the effect of cryopreservation on the association between CK2α' and ram sperm function. Sperm variables, including sperm motility, DNA damage and acrosome integrity, were measured in fresh (F), cooled (CO) and freeze-thawed (FT) sperm. Sperm proteins and total mRNA were extracted form cells of each group, and subjected to western blot and real-time PCR analysis for detection of CK2α' proteins and relative abundance of mRNA. The distribution pattern of CK2α' protein in ram sperm was also monitored in each group using an immunofluorescence technique. The results provided evidence that the freeze-thaw process has an impact on ram sperm variables, and the normalized CK2α' protein and relative abundance of CK2α' mRNA were both significantly less in FT than F sperm. The amount of CK2α' in FT extended seminal plasma was increased as compared with F samples. Furthermore, immunofluorescence revealed that CK2α' was distributed throughout the acrosome of ram sperm. The association of CK2α' with DNA damage and acrosome integrity was confirmed using Pearson's linear correlation. In conclusion, the understanding the molecular effects of cryopreservation on CK2α' in ram sperm could provide insight into methods for improving fertility associated with frozen-thawed ram sperm. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Inhibitory Effect of a Triterpenoid Compound, with or without Alpha Interferon, on Hepatitis C Virus Infection▿†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takako; Sakamoto, Naoya; Nakagawa, Mina; Kakinuma, Sei; Itsui, Yasuhiro; Nishimura-Sakurai, Yuki; Ueyama, Mayumi; Funaoka, Yusuke; Kitazume, Akiko; Nitta, Sayuri; Kiyohashi, Kei; Murakawa, Miyako; Azuma, Seishin; Tsuchiya, Kiichiro; Oooka, Shinya; Watanabe, Mamoru

    2011-01-01

    A lack of patient response to alpha interferon (α-IFN) plus ribavirin (RBV) treatment is a major problem in eliminating hepatitis C virus (HCV). We screened chemical libraries for compounds that enhanced cellular responses to α-IFN and identified a triterpenoid, toosendanin (TSN). Here, we studied the effects and mechanisms of action of TSN on HCV replication and its effect on α-IFN signaling. We treated HCV genotype 1b replicon-expressing cells and HCV-J6/JFH-infected cells with TSN, with or without α-IFN, and the level of HCV replication was quantified. To study the effects of TSN on α-IFN signaling, we detected components of the interferon-stimulated gene factor 3 (ISGF3), phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1), and STAT2 by Western blotting analysis; expression levels of mRNA of interferon regulatory factor 9 using real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR); and interferon-stimulated response element reporter activity and measured the expression levels of interferon-inducible genes for 2′,5′-oligoadenylate synthetase, MxA, protein kinase R, and p56 using real-time RT-PCR. TSN alone specifically inhibited expression of the HCV replicon (50% effective concentration = 20.6 nM, 50% cytotoxic concentration > 3 μM, selectivity index > 146). Pretreatment with TSN prior to α-IFN treatment was more effective in suppressing HCV replication than treatment with either drug alone. Although TSN alone did not activate the α-IFN pathway, it significantly enhanced the α-IFN-induced increase of phosphorylated STATs, interferon-stimulated response element activation, and interferon-stimulated gene expression. TSN significantly increased baseline expression of interferon regulatory factor 9, a component of interferon-stimulated gene factor 3. Antiviral effects of treatment with α-IFN can be enhanced by pretreatment with TSN. Its mechanisms of action could potentially be important to identify novel molecular targets to treat HCV

  5. The nitric oxide-donating pravastatin derivative, NCX 6550 [(1S-[1alpha(betaS*, deltaS*), 2alpha, 6alpha, 8beta-(R*), 8a alpha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dever, G; Spickett, C M; Kennedy, S; Rush, C; Tennant, G; Monopoli, A; Wainwright, C L

    2007-01-01

    Statins possess anti-inflammatory effects that may contribute to their ability to slow atherogenesis, whereas nitric oxide (NO) also influences inflammatory cell adhesion. This study aimed to determine whether a novel NO-donating pravastatin derivative, NCX 6550 [(1S-[1alpha(betaS*,deltaS*),2alpha,6alpha,8beta-(R*),8a alpha

  6. Effect of {alpha}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} Addition on Sintering of {alpha}-Sialon Powder via Carbonthermal Reduction Nitridation of Boron-rich Slag-based Mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Junbin; Jiang Tao; Xue Xiangxin, E-mail: komsae@163.com [School of Materials and Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang (China)

    2011-10-29

    With boron-rich slag, silica fume, bauxite chalmette, carbon black and {alpha}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} as starting materials, {alpha}-Sialon powders were prepared by carbothermal reduction-nitridation(CRN). Different contents of {alpha}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} addition were added to investigate the {alpha}-Sialon formation as a function of {alpha}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} addition from boron rich slag based mixture fired at 1480 deg. C for 8 h under N{sub 2} flowing of 0.4 L/min. Phase assembly, microstructure of reaction products were determined by X-ray Diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscope. The results showed that the main phases of the samples were a-Sialon, h-BN, AlN and small quantity of SiC. With the increasing amount of the {alpha}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} addition, the h-BN content remained in a constant and AlN content was running down steadily, while the {alpha}-Sialon content increased gradually. The aspect ratio and the amount of elongated {alpha}-Sialon grains could be tailored by using different amounts of the {alpha}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} addition.

  7. Interferon Alpha in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy B. Niewold

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The pleiotropic cytokine interferon alpha is involved in multiple aspects of lupus etiology and pathogenesis. Interferon alpha is important under normal circumstances for antiviral responses and immune activation. However, heightened levels of serum interferon alpha and expression of interferon response genes are common in lupus patients. Lupus-associated autoantibodies can drive the production of interferon alpha and heightened levels of interferon interfere with immune regulation. Several genes in the pathways leading to interferon production or signaling are associated with risk for lupus. Clinical and cellular manifestations of excess interferon alpha in lupus combined with the genetic risk factors associated with interferon make this cytokine a rare bridge between genetic risk and phenotypic effects. Interferon alpha influences the clinical picture of lupus and may represent a therapeutic target. This paper provides an overview of the cellular, genetic, and clinical aspects of interferon alpha in lupus.

  8. Metabolic and vascular effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha blockade with etanercept in obese patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominguez, Helena; Storgaard, Heidi; Rask-Madsen, Christian

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) impairs insulin action in insulin-sensitive tissues, such as fat, muscle and endothelium, and causes endothelial dysfunction. We hypothesized that TNF-alpha blockade with etanercept could reverse vascular and metabolic...... insulin resistance. METHOD AND RESULTS: Twenty obese patients with type 2 diabetes were randomized to etanercept treatment (25 mg subcutaneously twice weekly for 4 weeks) or used as controls in an open parallel study. Forearm blood flow and glucose uptake were measured during intra-arterial infusions...... of serotonin, sodium nitroprusside and insulin co-infused with serotonin. Beta-cell function was assessed with oral and intra-venous glucose tolerance tests and whole-body insulin sensitivity by hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamps. Plasma levels of C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 decreased significantly...

  9. Contrasting effects of rh-MIP-1 alpha and TGF-beta 1 on chronic myeloid leukemia progenitors in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holyoake, T L; Freshney, M G; Sproul, A M; Richmond, L J; Alcorn, M J; Steward, W P; Fitzsimons, E; Dunlop, D J; Franklin, I M; Pragnell, I B

    1993-10-01

    In chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) an abnormality at the stem cell level results in unregulated expansion of myeloid progenitors. The mechanism underlying this uncontrolled proliferation remains unclear. An in vitro clonogenic assay which detects the human counterpart of the murine colony forming unit (CFU) CFU-A/CFU-S day 12 was described in a report of our recent findings. CML bone marrow samples were found to proliferate in the CFU-A assay, producing colonies morphologically indistinguishable from normal controls. The bcr/abl transcripts were sought in the RNA from individual colonies using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). For the five CML samples tested to date, the majority of CFU-A colonies at diagnosis or in early chronic phase were found to be bcr/abl positive. For normal controls both macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1 alpha) and transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) inhibited the proliferation of CFU-A colonies when directly added to the assay. In contrast, CML progenitors responded normally to TGF-beta 1, but showed no response to MIP-1 alpha. In suicide assays, for five normal bone marrow samples, CFU-A progenitors induced into S-phase returned to a quiescent state after treatment with MIP-1 alpha. CML progenitors demonstrated inherently high cycle status which showed no definite response to MIP-1 alpha. However, TGF-beta 1 resulted in quiescence of CML progenitor cycling. In conclusion, the primitive progenitors from CML samples were inhibited normally by TGF-beta 1 but showed no response to MIP-1 alpha.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. The Effect of Nigella Sativa Extract on Alpha-ketoglutarate Activity and Histopathologic Changes on Rat Liver Induced by Monosodium Glutamate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ala Sh Emhemed Eshami

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Monosodium glutamate (MSG is a commonly used food additive and found in most soups, fish, and processed meat. The use of MSG in food is growing. However, the fear of consuming MSG has increased in the last few years due to the adverse reactions and toxicity in the liver. Nigella sativa (NS is used as traditional medicine for the treatment of many diseases. It has been extensively investigated in recent years due to its notable pharmacological properties such as inhibit oxidative stress. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of different doses of Nigella Sativa on alpha KGDH activity and liver histology of MSG-induced rats. The animals (n=30 were grouped into A (control, B (treated with MSG 1g/kg.bw , C (treated with MSG 1g/kg.bw and NS 0.1 g/kg.bw, D (treated with MSG 1g/kg.bw and NS 0.2 g/kg.bw, E (treated with MSG 1g/kg.bw and NS 0.4 g/kg.bw and F (given a daily NS extract 0.2 g/kg.bw. Alpha KGDH activity was investigated using ELISA method and liver histopathology by light microscope. The MSG treatment increased Alpha KGDH activity and disturbed liver architecture, hemorrhage in the central veins, areas of necrosis, vacuolation and increased inflammatory cells infiltration. The condition was normalized by treatment NS on dose 0.2 and 0.4 g/kg.bw. The findings showed that the administration of MSG increases alpha KGDH and induces damage in liver tissue. Nigella sativa extract can reduce alpha KGDH and prevent liver damage caused by MSG.

  11. Effects of alpha-adrenoceptor and of combined sympathetic and parasympathetic blockade on cardiac performance and vascular resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelbaek, H; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Hilsted, J

    1992-01-01

    . The increase in calf blood flow was of the same magnitude after combined blockade and after alpha-adrenoceptor blockade alone, and was considerably higher than the fall in systemic vascular resistance. Plasma catecholamine concentrations increased after phentolamine, but the changes were blunted when...... propranolol and atropine were added. 3. These results indicate that peripheral vasoconstriction especially that exerted by alpha-adrenoceptor nervous tone in skeletal muscle restricts left ventricular emptying of the intact heart. During pharmacologic blockade of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous...

  12. Commentary: Are alpha-2 agonist really effective in children with tics with comorbid ADHD? A commentary on Whittington et al. (2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Michael H

    2016-09-01

    In this issue, Whittington et al. (2016) present a systematic review that reports the efficacy of three primary treatments for children with Tourette syndrome (TS) - (a) α2-adrenergic receptor agonists; (b) antipsychotic medications; and (c) habit reversal training/comprehensive behavioral intervention. In this commentary, we highlight the large degree of heterogeneity observed in the meta-analysis of trials involving alpha-2 agonist medications and present possible explanations for the observed heterogeneity. Among these possible explanations is the possibility that presence of comorbid ADHD may moderate the efficacy of alpha-2 agonists in the treatment of tic disorder with the medications being more effective in patients with both conditions. The commentary reviews the evidence supporting this possible moderating effect of ADHD and discusses the implications for such a relationship. © 2016 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  13. Mitochondrial Effects of PGC-1alpha Silencing in MPP+ Treated Human SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinyong Ye

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The dopaminergic neuron degeneration and loss that occurs in Parkinson’s disease (PD has been tightly linked to mitochondrial dysfunction. Although the aged-related cause of the mitochondrial defect observed in PD patients remains unclear, nuclear genes are of potential importance to mitochondrial function. Human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1α is a multi-functional transcription factor that tightly regulates mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative capacity. The goal of the present study was to explore the potential pathogenic effects of interference by the PGC-1α gene on N-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion (MPP+-induced SH-SY5Y cells. We utilized RNA interference (RNAi technology to probe the pathogenic consequences of inhibiting PGC-1α in the SH-SY5Y cell line. Remarkably, a reduction in PGC-1α resulted in the reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential, intracellular ATP content and intracellular H2O2 generation, leading to the translocation of cytochrome c (cyt c to the cytoplasm in the MPP+-induced PD cell model. The expression of related proteins in the signaling pathway (e.g., estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα, nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1, NRF-2 and Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ also decreased. Our finding indicates that small interfering RNA (siRNA interference targeting the PGC-1α gene could inhibit the function of mitochondria in several capacities and that the PGC-1α gene may modulate mitochondrial function by regulating the expression of ERRα, NRF-1, NRF-2 and PPARγ. Thus, PGC-1α can be considered a potential therapeutic target for PD.

  14. Therapeutic effects of an alpha-casozepine and L-tryptophan supplemented diet on fear and anxiety in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsberg, Gary; Milgram, Bill; Mougeot, Isabelle; Kelly, Stephanie; de Rivera, Christina

    2017-06-01

    Objectives This study assessed the anxiolytic effectiveness of a test diet (Royal Canin Feline Calm diet) supplemented with L-tryptophan and alpha-casozepine. Methods Subjects were 24 cats that were classified as mildly or markedly fearful based on the presence of a person in their home room. Three different protocols were used to assess anxiety: (1) evaluation of the response to a human in the cat's home room (home room test); (2) analysis of the response to placement in an empty test room (open-field test); and (3) analysis of the response to an unfamiliar human (human interaction test). All three protocols were first run at baseline, and the results were used to assign the animals to control and test diet groups that showed equivalent fear and anxiety. Both groups were retested on the three protocols after 2 weeks (test 1) and again after 4 weeks (test 2). Results The diet groups differed for two behavioral measures in the open-field test: inactivity duration and inactivity frequency. The control group showed statistically significant increases in inactivity duration between baseline and test 1 and baseline and test 2, while the group fed the test diet showed a marginally not significant decrease in inactivity duration between baseline and test 1 and a not significant decrease for test 2. There was also a significant increase in inactivity frequency between baseline and test 1 in the test diet group and marginally not significant decrease in the control group. There were no differences between groups in the approach of the cats toward people for the home room test and the human interaction test. Conclusions and relevance These results suggest that the test diet reduced the anxiety response to placement in an unfamiliar location, but that fear in the presence of an unfamiliar person was not counteracted by the diet.

  15. The Effects of Alpha Interferon on the Development of Autoimmune Thyroiditis in the NOD H2h4 Mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael Oppenheim

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Alpha interferon (αIFN therapy is known to induce thyroid autoimmunity in up to 40% of patients. The mechanism is unknown, but Th1 switching has been hypothesized. The aim of our study was to examine whether αIFN accelerated the development of thyroiditis in genetically susceptible mice. We took advantage of NOD-H2h4, a genetically susceptible animal model, which develops thyroiditis when fed a high iodine diet. Six to eight week old male NOD H2h4 mice were injected with mouse αIFN (200 units or with saline three times a week for 8 weeks. All mice drank iodinated water (0.15%. Mice were sacrificed after 8 weeks of injection. Their thyroids were examined for histology and blood was tested for antithyroglobulin antibody levels. T4 and glucose levels were also assessed. In the IFN-injected group, 6/13 (46.2% developed thyroiditis and/or thyroid antibodies while in the saline-injected group, only 4/13 (30.8% developed thyroiditis and/or thyroid antibodies (p=0.4. The grade of thyroiditis was not different amongst the two groups. None of the mice developed clinical thyroiditis or diabetes mellitus. Our results showed that αIFN treatment did not accelerate thyroiditis in this mouse model. This may imply that αIFN induces thyroiditis in a non-genetically dependent manner, and this would not be detected in a genetically susceptible mouse model if the effect were small. Alternatively, it is possible that αIFN did not induce thyroiditis in mice because, unlike in humans, in mice αIFN does not induce Th1 switching.

  16. Effect of neonatal hypothyroidism on prepubertal mouse testis in relation to thyroid hormone receptor alpha 1 (THRα1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Debarshi; Singh, Shio Kumar

    2017-09-15

    Thyroid hormones (THs) are important for growth and development of many tissues, and altered thyroid status affects various organs and systems. Testis also is considered as a thyroid hormone responsive organ. Though THs play an important role in regulation of testicular steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis, the exact mechanism of this regulation remains poorly understood. The present study, therefore, is designed to examine the effect of neonatal hypothyroidism on prepubertal Parkes (P) strain mice testis in relation to thyroid hormone receptor alpha 1 (THRα1). Hypothyroidism was induced by administration of 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) in mother's drinking water from birth to day 28; on postnatal day (PND) 21 only pups, and on PND 28, both pups and lactating dams were euthanized. Serum T 3 and T 4 were markedly reduced in pups at PND 28 and in lactating mothers, while serum and intra-testicular testosterone levels were considerably decreased in pups of both age groups. Further, serum and intra-testicular levels of estrogen were significantly increased in hypothyroid mice at PND 28 with concomitant increase in CYP19 expression. Histologically, marked changes were noticed in testes of PTU-treated mice; immunohistochemical and western blot analyses of testes in treated mice also revealed marked decrease in the expression of THRα1 at both age groups. Semiquantitative RT-PCR and western blot analyses also showed reductions in both testicular mRNA and protein levels of SF-1, StAR, CYP11A1 and 3β-HSD in these mice. In conclusion, our results suggest that neonatal hypothyroidism alters localization and expression of THRα1 and impairs testicular steroidogenesis by down-regulating the expression SF-1, thereby affecting spermatogenesis in prepubertal mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Long-term effects of interferon-alpha in five HIV-positive patients with chronic hepatitis B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Martino, V; Lunel, F; Cadranel, J F; Hoang, C; Parlier, Y; Le Charpentier, Y; Opolon, P

    1996-09-01

    Chronic hepatitis B viral infection is common in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) carriers, but the effectiveness of interferon therapy is still unknown. We report the results of a long-term pilot study of five patients, who were infected with HIV and chronic hepatitis B, treated by interferon. Five males co-infected with HIV and hepatitis B virus (HBV) (mean age 27 years) were given a 6-month course of interferon (IFN)-alpha 2b 5 million units (MU) three times weekly. On initiating the treatment, their CD4 lymphocyte count was 340-553 mm-3, their CDC stage was IIa-III; all had histologically proven chronic hepatitis, with Knodell's score ranging from 6-10, and active HBV replication (HBV DNA and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) were detectable). There was no associated hepatitis delta virus (H delta V) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Follow-up was for 53 months on average (24-74 months). After the treatment, hepatitis B e antibody (HBeAb) and hepatitis B s antibody (HBsAb) seroconversion was observed in one patient, HBeAb seroconversion alone in two patients, HBV DNA was absent from serum in three patients, and HBV DNA significantly decreased in one patient. The serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity was normal in four patients. Histological improvement was obtained in four patients. The HIV stage remained unchanged in all patients during the whole follow-up. These preliminary results suggest that interferon can be successfully used in immunocompetent HIV carriers with chronic hepatitis B as well as in HIV-negative patients.

  18. Effects of MS-8209, an Amphotericin B Derivative, on Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Synthesis and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Replication in Macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Clayette, Pascal; Martin, Marc; Beringue, Vincent; Dereuddre-Bosquet, Nathalie; Adjou, Karim T.; Seman, Michel; Dormont, Dominique

    2000-01-01

    Amphotericin B derivatives, such as MS-8209, have been evaluated as a therapeutic approach to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. We show that MS-8209, like amphotericin B, increases tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) mRNA expression and TNF-α production and consequently HIV replication in human macrophages. These effects confirm the pharmacological risk associated with the administration of amphotericin B or its derivatives to HIV-infected patients.

  19. [Effects of recombinant human alpha-2b and gamma interferons on bone marrow megakaryocyte progenitors (CFU-Meg) from patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Y; Dan, K; Kuriya, S; Nomura, T

    1989-10-01

    The effects of recombinant human interferon (IFN) alpha-2b and gamma on the bone marrow megakaryocyte progenitors (CFU-Meg) were compared between eight patients in the chronic phase of Ph1-positive chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML) and five hematologically normal patients. CFU-Meg was assayed in plasma clot culture added with phytohemagglutinin-stimulated leukocyte-conditioned medium as a source of colony stimulating activity. The average count of CFU-Meg colonies formed from the bone marrow of CML patients was 5.5 times that of normal controls. Spontaneous CFU-Meg colonies were grown in seven of eight CML patients, but in none of five controls. Colony formation by CFU-Meg in CML as well as normal bone marrow was suppressed by the two preparations of IFN in a dose dependent fashion. Their suppressive influence on colonies from CFU-Meg was comparable between CML and normal bone marrow at lower concentrations, but was less marked for CML than normal bone marrow at higher concentrations. The formation of CFU-Meg colonies from CML bone marrow was more severely suppressed by IFN-gamma than IFN-alpha-2b. Depletion of either T lymphocytes or adherent cells from the CML bone marrow cells diminished the suppressive effects of IFN-gamma, but had no influence on the effects of IFN-alpha-2b.

  20. Effects of infrared radiation, solar cooking and microwave cooking on alpha-amylase inhibitor in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulimani, V H; Supriya, D

    1994-10-01

    Three domestic cooking methods were studied in alpha-amylase inhibitory activity in sorghum grains. In all the treatments, overnight soaked seeds lost amylase inhibitory activity much faster. All the three treatments reduced the inhibitory activity. Use of solar cooker for reducing amylase inhibitory activity works out very economically and efficiently. Microwave cooking eliminates amylase inhibitory activity within 5 minutes.

  1. Effect of fluoxetine and adenosine receptor NECA agonist on G alpha q/11 protein of C6 glioma cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovářů, H.; Kovářů, F.; Lisá, Věra

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 6 (2012), s. 614-618 ISSN 0172-780X Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : C6 glioma cells * SSRI antidepressant * G alpha q/11 signalling * G protein coupled receptor Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.932, year: 2012

  2. Immersion of fry in 17-Alpha Methyltestosterone can be highly effective for sex reversal in rainbow trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    17-alpha methyltestosterone (MT) is currently used to sex reverse genetic female rainbow trout into phenotypic males, commonly referred to as neomales. Neomales are primarily generated to propagate all-female lines. The MT is most commonly administered orally, fed during the first 6-9 weeks after sw...

  3. Getting the Most from Pi Sigma Alpha Chapters: Exploring the Chapter Activity Grant Program and Its Multiplier Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Robert M.

    2009-01-01

    The political science honor society, Pi Sigma Alpha, has chapters in nearly 700 institutions across the United States. The organization sponsors many programs that can contribute a great deal to students of political science; however, many students are unaware of these opportunities. This article encourages chapter advisors to make use of these…

  4. alpha-1-Antitrypsin (AAT)-modified donor cells suppress GVHD but enhance the GVL effect: a role for mitochondrial bioenergetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcondes, A.M.; Karoopongse, E.; Lesnikova, M.; Margineantu, D.; Welte, T.; Dinarello, C.A.; Hockenbery, D.; Janciauskiene, S.; Deeg, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Hematopoietic cell transplantation is curative in many patients. However, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), triggered by alloreactive donor cells, has remained a major complication. Here, we show an inverse correlation between plasma alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) levels in human donors and the

  5. Effects of 1 alpha,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D-3 on Transporters and Enzymes of the Rat Intestine and Kidney In Vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chow, Edwin C. Y.; Sun, Huadong; Khan, Ansar A.; Groothuis, Geny M. M.; Pang, K. Sandy

    1 alpha,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D-3 (1,25(OH)(2)D-3), the natural ligand of the vitamin D receptor (VDR), was found to regulate bile acid related transporters and enzymes directly and indirectly in the rat intestine and liver in vivo. The kidney is another VDR-rich target organ in which VDR regulation

  6. Women at Altitude: Effects of Menstrual Cycle Phase and Alpha-Adrenergic Blockade on High Altitude Acclimatization

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    and venous tone. Alpha 1-adrenergic blockade with prazosin attenuated the rise in SNS activity at 4,300 m and prevented the increase in PNS activity in...Physiol 1991;70(3):1129-36. 4. Zamudio S., S.K. Palmer, T.E. Dahms, et al. Blood volume expansion, preeclampsia , and infant birth weight at high altitude

  7. Pyruvate: immunonutritional effects on neutrophil intracellular amino or alpha-keto acid profiles and reactive oxygen species production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathioudakis, D.; Engel, J.; Welters, I.D.; Dehne, M.G.; Matejec, R.; Harbach, H.; Henrich, M.; Schwandner, T.; Fuchs, M.; Weismuller, K.; Scheffer, G.J.; Muhling, J.

    2011-01-01

    For the first time the immunonutritional role of pyruvate on neutrophils (PMN), free alpha-keto and amino acid profiles, important reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced [superoxide anion (O(2) (-)), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))] as well as released myeloperoxidase (MPO) acitivity has been

  8. Maltose effects on barley malt diastatic power enzyme activity and thermostability at high isothermal mashing temperature: II. Alpha-amylase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltose, the primary product of starch degradation during mashing, has the potential as a compatible solute to affect the activity of and increase the thermostability of barley malt alpha-amylase activity at high temperatures used in mashing and temperatures above those normally used in mashing. To ...

  9. KINETIC-ANALYSIS OF SHORT-TERM EFFECTS OF ALPHA-AGONISTS ON GLUCONEOGENESIS IN ISOLATED RAT HEPATOCYTES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leverve, X. M.; Groen, A. K.; Verhoeven, A. J.; Tager, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    Isolated hepatocytes from fasted rats were perifused with glycerol as gluconeogenic substrate. Stimulation of gluconeogenesis with phenylephrine (10(-5) M) as alpha-adrenergic agonist consisted of two distinct phases. The first phase was a transient stimulation of gluconeogenesis and was accompanied

  10. Contribution to study of effects consecutive to alpha decay of uranium 238 in some uranium compounds and uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordonez-Regil, E.

    1985-06-01

    The consequences of alpha decay of 238 U in uranium compounds and in uranium bearing ores have been examined in two ways: leaching of 234 Th and determination of the activity ratio of 234 U and 238 U. The results have been interpreted mainly in terms of the ''hot'' character of the nascent 234 Th atoms [fr

  11. The effect of individual upper alpha band enhancing neurofeedbac kon reaction-time as an indicator of short-term memory in women employee’s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mersedeh Jahanseir

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In neurofeedback systems, people are able to reinforce or hinder their basic EEG rhythms according to operant conditioninin recent studies the effect of neurofeedback training on improvement of working memory has been shown on the healthy subjects. Disadvantage of neurofeedback is the high number of training sessions and high cost. In previous studies, alpha band power within (8-12 Hz has been considered for all subjects. Previous research reached the conclusion that by using individual upper alpha in neurofeedback, learning rate will increase, so the training sessions and the cost of training will be reduced. Material and Methods: In this study, all participants were female, 10 adults (10 women, mean age 33.8 years, SD=3.56 years. Randomly assigned to control and test group, five in test group and five in control group. Each subject performed the memory test four times, two times before the start of the first neurofeedback training and two times after the end of the last neurofeedback session. Eight training sessions were held, each session had three trials. Results: Discriminate response to the color of the drawing, as well as reaction time hadsignificant effects for test group (p0.05. Before and after eight training sessions by individual upper alpha power neurofeedback, reaction time of discriminate response to the color of the drawing for test group decreased and had significant effects (p0.05. Conclusion: Increasing relative individual upper alpha power, caused by neurofeedback training during eight sessions, indicated that this method increases the memory of women employees, and improves the ability of discriminative response to the color (red & green of the drawing as well as reducing reaction time.

  12. Alpha-lipoic acid effects on brain glial functions accompanying double-stranded RNA antiviral and inflammatory signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scumpia, Philip O; Kelly-Scumpia, Kindra; Stevens, Bruce R

    2014-01-01

    Double-stranded RNAs (dsRNA) serve as viral ligands that trigger innate immunity in astrocytes and microglial, as mediated through Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) and dsRNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR). Beneficial transient TLR3 and PKR anti-viral signaling can become deleterious when events devolve into inflammation and cytotoxicity. Viral products in the brain cause glial cell dysfunction, and are a putative etiologic factor in neuropsychiatric disorders, notably schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, Parkinson's, and autism spectrum. Alpha-lipoic acid (LA) has been proposed as a possible therapeutic neuroprotectant. The objective of this study was to test our hypothesis that LA can control untoward antiviral mechanisms associated with neural dysfunction. Utilizing rat brain glial cultures (91% astrocytes:9% microglia) treated with PKR- and TLR3-ligand/viral mimetic dsRNA, polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (polyI:C), we report in vitro glial antiviral signaling and LA reduction of the effects of this signaling. LA blunted the dsRNA-stimulated expression of IFNα/β-inducible genes Mx1, PKR, and TLR3. And in polyI:C treated cells, LA promoted gene expression of rate-limiting steps that benefit healthy neural redox status in glutamateric systems. To this end, LA decreased dsRNA-induced inflammatory signaling by downregulating IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα, iNOS, and CAT2 transcripts. In the presence of polyI:C, LA prevented cultured glial cytotoxicity which was correlated with increased expression of factors known to cooperatively control glutamate/cystine/glutathione redox cycling, namely glutamate uptake transporter GLAST/EAAT1, γ-glutamyl cysteine ligase catalytic and regulatory subunits, and IL-10. Glutamate exporting transporter subunits 4F2hc and xCT were downregulated by LA in dsRNA-stimulated glia. l-Glutamate net uptake was inhibited by dsRNA, and this was relieved by LA. Glutathione synthetase mRNA levels were unchanged by dsRNA or LA. This study demonstrates the protective

  13. Protective Effects of Alpha-Lipoic Acid on Oleic Acid-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Gülcü Bulmuş

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress is believed to be an important factor in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI. Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the possible protective role of alpha-lipoic acid (α-LA on oleic acid (OA-induced ALI in rats. Study Design: Animal experiment. Methods: A total of thirty-five rats were divided into five groups in the study. Group 1 served as a control group. Rats in Group 2 (α-LA were administered α-LA intraperitoneally at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight (BW. Rats in Group 3 (OA were administered OA intravenously at a dose of 100 mg/kg BW. In Group 4 (pre-OA-α-LA, α-LA was given 15 minutes prior to OA infusion, and in Group 5 (post-OA-α-LA, α-LA was given two hours after OA infusion. Four hours after the OA infusion, rats were decapitated. Blood samples were collected to measure serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA and glutathione (GSH, and the levels of activity for superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px. Lung tissue samples were taken for histopathological examination. Results: Exposure to OA resulted in increases in serum MDA levels (p<0.001, as well as histopathological lesions in lung tissue, and decreases in CAT (p<0.05, GSH-Px (p<0.05 activities and GSH (p<0.05 levels. On the other hand, MDA levels were decreased significantly (p<0.001, while CAT (p<0.05, GSH-Px (p<0.01 activities and GSH (p<0.05 levels were increased significantly in the pre-OA-α-LA group compared with the OA group. Conclusion: α-LA was found to lessen oxidative stress and to have positive effects on antioxidants in cases of OA-induced ALI. In conclusion, α-LA appears to have protective effects against ALI and potential for the prevention of ALI.

  14. Effect of Zataria multiflora Boiss. essential oil, nisin, and their combination on the production of enterotoxin C and alpha-hemolysin by Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsaeimehr, Mahnoosh; Basti, Afshin Akhondzadeh; Radmehr, Behrad; Misaghi, Ali; Abbasifar, Arash; Karim, Ghity; Rokni, Nourdahr; Motlagh, Mohammad Sobhani; Gandomi, Hassan; Noori, Negin; Khanjari, Ali

    2010-03-01

    The effect of different concentrations of Zataria multiflora Boiss. essential oil (EO; 0%, 0.005%, and 0.015%), nisin (0, 0.125, and 0.25 microL/mL), and their combinations on the production of staphylococcal enterotoxin C (SEC) and alpha-hemolysin (alpha-toxin) by Staphylococcus aureus at different inoculation levels (10(3), 10(4), and 10(5) cfu/mL) in brain heart infusion broth during storage at 35 degrees C for up to 43 days was evaluated. The SEC production was significantly (p aureus during the manufacturing process of a traditional Iranian white brined cheese (as a food model) even at its lowest concentration (5 microL/100 mL), in this study.

  15. The effect of the phytoestrogens genistein, daidzein, and equol on the growth of tamoxifen-resistant T47D/PKC alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonetti, Debra A; Zhang, Yiyun; Zhao, Huiping; Lim, Sok-Bee; Constantinou, Andreas I

    2007-01-01

    Soy supplements are often consumed by women for alleviating menopausal symptoms or for the perceived protective effects against breast cancer. More concerning is the concurrent consumption of soy isoflavones with tamoxifen (TAM) for prevention or treatment of breast cancer. We previously described a T47D:A18/protein kinase C (PKC)alpha TAM-resistant tumor model that exhibits autonomous growth and estradiol-induced tumor regression. We compared the estrogenicity of the isoflavones genistein, daidzein, and the daidzein metabolite equol in the parental T47D:A18 and T47D:A18/PKC alpha cell lines in vitro and in vivo. Whereas equol exerts estrogenic effects on T47D:A18 cells in vitro, none of the isoflavones stimulated T47D:A18 tumor growth. T47D:A18/PKC alpha tumor growth was partially stimulated by genistein, yet partially inhibited by daidzein. Interestingly, coadministration of TAM with either daidzein or genistein produced tumors of greater size than with TAM alone. These findings suggest that simultaneous consumption of isoflavone supplements with TAM may not be safe.

  16. Effect of 6 Weeks of Resistance Training and Boldenone Supplementation on 5-alpha Reductase and Aromatase Gene Expression in Testes Tissue of Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sadeghi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Using anabolic androgenic steroids by athletes has significant side effects on sex hormones and the reproductive system. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 6 weeks of resistance exercise and Boldenone supplements on the expression of 5-alpha reductase and aromatase genes of the testis tissue in Wistar rats. Material & Methods: In this experimental study, thirty 12-week old male Wistar rats with the average weight of 195.00±7.94 grams were divided randomly into 5 groups; control, sham, Boldenone supplements (2mg per each kilogram of body weight, resistance exercise and Boldenone exercise. Resistance exercise program was 5 sessions of climbing the ladder each week (3 sets of 5 repeats for 6 weeks that was started by 50% of one maximum repetition and reached 100% at the end. The level of 5-alpha reductase and aromatase genes expression were measured after the anesthesia and the removal of the testes tissue in the samples. Data was analyzed by paired T, ANOVA and Tukey post hoc tests by using SPSS 22 software. Findings: The average weight of all groups’ mice were significantly increased in week 6 comparing to the first week (p=0.0001. There was significant increasing in 5-alpha-reductase expression in Boldenone and Boldenone exercise than the control group and also in the Boldenone exercise than resistance exercise group after the intervention. There was significant increasing in aromatase gene expression in resistance exercise and Boldenone exercise groups than the control group (p<0.05. Conclusion: Boldenone supplement along with 6 weeks of resistance exercise increases the levels of 5-alpha reductase and aromatase genes expression in testis tissue of Wistar rats.

  17. [Effects of feixin decoction on the contents of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha and vascular endothelial growth factor in the rat model of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hong-Jun; Dai, Ai-Guo

    2012-05-01

    To explore the effects of Feixin Decoction (FXD) on the hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the rat model of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (HPH), and to study its mechanisms for treating HPH. Forty healthy male SD rats were randomly divided into four groups, i. e., the normal control group, the HPH model group, the FXD group, and the Nifedipine group, 10 rats in each group. The HPH rat model was prepared using normal pressure intermittent hypoxia method. Except the normal control group, rats in the rest groups were fed in a self-made hypoxic plexiglass cabin, with the poor oxygen condition for 8 h daily for 14 successive days. Then the distilled water (at 30 mL/kg) was given by gastrogavage to rats in the normal control group and the HPH model group. FXD (at 28 g/kg) and Nifedipine (at 20 mg/kg) were given by gastrogavage to rats in the FXD group and the Nifedipine group respectively, once daily, for 14 successive days. Besides, hypoxia was continued for 14 days while medicating. The mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) was detected on the second day after the last medication. The morphology of the pulmonary arteriole was detected. The ratio of pulmonary artery wall area and tube area (WA%) was determined. The protein and mRNA expressions of HIF-1alpha and VEGF were detected using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization technique. Compared with the normal control group, mPAP, WA%, and the protein and mRNA expressions of HIF-1alpha and VEGF significantly increased in the model group (P < 0.01, P < 0.05). Compared with the HPH model group, mPAP, WA%, and the protein and mRNA expressions of HIF-1alpha and VEGF significantly decreased in the FXD group (P < 0.01, P < 0.05). FXD down-regulated the expression of VEGF through decreasing the expression of HIF-1alpha. One of its mechanisms for treating HPH might be partially due to reversing the remodeling of pulmonary vascular smooth muscle.

  18. Effect of metallic iron on the oxidative dissolution of UO2 doped with a radioactive alpha emitter in synthetic Callovian-Oxfordian groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odorowski, Mélina; Jegou, Christophe; De Windt, Laurent; Broudic, Véronique; Jouan, Gauthier; Peuget, Sylvain; Martin, Christelle

    2017-12-01

    In the hypothesis of direct disposal of spent fuel in a geological nuclear waste repository, interactions between the fuel mainly composed of UO2 and its environment must be understood. The dissolution rate of the UO2 matrix, which depends on the redox conditions on the fuel surface, will have a major impact on the release of radionuclides into the environment. The reducing conditions expected for a geological disposal situation would appear to be favorable as regards the solubility and stability of the UO2 matrix, but may be disturbed on the surface of irradiated fuel. In particular, the local redox conditions will result from a competition between the radiolysis effects of water under alpha irradiation (simultaneously producing oxidizing species like H2O2, hydrogen peroxide, and reducing species like H2, hydrogen) and those of redox active species from the environment. In particular, Fe2+, a strongly reducing aqueous species coming from the corrosion of the iron canister or from the host rock, could influence the dissolution of the fuel matrix. The effect of iron on the oxidative dissolution of UO2 was thus investigated under the conditions of the French disposal site, a Callovian-Oxfordian clay formation chosen by the French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (Andra), here tested under alpha irradiation. For this study, UO2 fuel pellets doped with a radioactive alpha emitter (238/239Pu) were leached in synthetic Callovian-Oxfordian groundwater (representative of the French waste disposal site groundwater) in the presence of a metallic iron foil to simulate the steel canister. The pellets had varying levels of alpha activity, in order to modulate the concentrations of species produced by water radiolysis on the surface and to simulate the activity of aged spent fuel after 50 and 10,000 years of alpha radioactivity decay. The experimental data showed that whatever the sample alpha radioactivity, the presence of iron inhibits the oxidizing dissolution of

  19. Kinetic study of the aroxyl radical-scavenging reaction of alpha-tocopherol in methanol solution: notable effect of the alkali and alkaline earth metal salts on the reaction rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouchi, Aya; Nagaoka, Shin-ichi; Abe, Kouichi; Mukai, Kazuo

    2009-10-08

    A kinetic study of the aroxyl (ArO*) radical-scavenging reaction of alpha-tocopherol (alpha-TocH) has been performed in the presence of six kinds of alkali and alkaline earth metal salts (LiI, LiClO(4), NaI, NaClO(4), KI, and Mg(ClO(4))(2)) in methanol solution, using stopped-flow spectrophotometry. The decay rate of the ArO* for the reaction of alpha-TocH with ArO* increased linearly with increasing concentration of metal salts. The second-order rate constants (k(s)) for the reaction of alpha-TocH with ArO* increased in the order of no metal salt concentration of metal salts. For example, the k(s) values in methanol solution including 4.00 x 10(-1) M of LiI and Mg(ClO(4))(2) were 3.04 and 1.30 times larger than that in the absence of metal salts, respectively. The alkali and alkaline earth metal salts having smaller ionic radius of cation and anion and larger charge of cation gave larger rate constants (k(s)). Effects of metal cations on the UV-vis absorption spectra of the alpha-Toc* (and ArO*) radical were negligible in methanol solution, suggesting that the complex formation between the alpha-Toc* (and ArO*) radical molecule and metal cations is hindered by the hydrogen bond between radical and methanol molecules. The results indicate that the hydrogen transfer reaction of alpha-TocH proceeds via an electron transfer intermediate from alpha-TocH to ArO* radicals followed by proton transfer. Both the coordinations of metal cations to the one-electron reduced anions of ArO* (ArO: (-)) and of counteranions to the one-electron oxidized cations of alpha-TocH (alpha-TocH(+)*) may stabilize the intermediate, resulting in the acceleration of electron transfer. On the other hand, the effect of metal salts on the rate of bimolecular self-reaction (2k(d)) of the alpha-Toc* radical was not observed. The result suggests that the hydrogen transfer reaction between two alpha-Toc* radical molecules proceeds via a one-step hydrogen atom transfer mechanism rather than via an

  20. Binding and uptake of {sup 125}iodine-labelled, oxidized low density lipoprotein by macrophages: Comparison of the effects of {alpha}-tocopherol, probucol, pyridoxal-5`-phosphate and magnesium-pyridoxal-5`-phosphate-glutamate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selmer, D. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Phytopathologie; Senekowitsch-Schmidtke, R. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Nuklearmedizinische Klinik; Schneider, W. [Steigerwald Arzneimittel, Darmstadt (Germany); Elstner, E.F. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Phytopathologie

    1997-01-01

    Specific and unspecific binding and uptake (internalization) by macrophages of {sup 125}iodine-labelled, copper-oxidized human low density lipoprotein is differently influenced by the anti-oxidants {alpha}-tocopherol ({alpha}-Toc), probucol (Prob), pyridoxal-5`-phosphate (PP) and the magnesium-pyridoxal-5`-phosphate glutamate complex (MPPG). Binding as well as internalization, mediated by the so-called `scavenger receptor` is lower in the presence of MPPG whereas both specific binding and internalization are enhanced. The comparison of the effects in vitro allows a rating of the potentially anti-atherogenic and thus protective effects of the tested substances as follows: MPPG>PP>{alpha}-Toc>Prob. (orig.)

  1. Unexpected effect of drying method on the microstructure and electrocatalytic properties of bentonite/alpha-nickel hydroxide nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Cícero V.; Danczuk, Marins; Bortoti, Andressa A.; Gonçalves, Josué M.; Araki, Koiti; Anaissi, Fauze J.

    2015-11-01

    The degree of crystallinity, morphology and electrochemical properties of a nanocomposite formed by stabilized alpha-Ni(OH)2 nanoparticles and bentonite nanoflakes is strongly influenced by the vacuum drying process, either at room temperature or by freeze-drying (lyophilization). Alpha-Ni(OH)2 nanoparticles induced the formation of intercalation nanocomposites exhibiting higher structural organization than in the precursor clay. Also, lyophilization process preserved the structure of the nanocomposites in aqueous suspension and/or induced the disaggregation of nanoflakes, producing materials with lower degree of crystallinity, larger interlamellar distances and electrochemically more active than those obtained by conventional vacuum drying. In fact, the lyophilized materials exhibited more than twice as large density of current for electrocatalytic oxidation of methanol (37 against 14 mA cm-2) indicating its potentiality for development of sensors and fuel cells.

  2. Adolescents' increasing stress response to social evaluation: pubertal effects on cortisol and alpha-amylase during public speaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bos, Esther; de Rooij, Mark; Miers, Anne C; Bokhorst, Caroline L; Westenberg, P Michiel

    2014-01-01

    Stress responses to social evaluation are thought to increase during adolescence, which may be due to pubertal maturation. However, empirical evidence is scarce. This study is the first to investigate the relation between pubertal development and biological responses to a social-evaluative stressor longitudinally. Participants performed the Leiden Public Speaking Task twice, with a 2-year interval (N = 217; age at Time 1: 8-17 years). The results support an increase in sensitivity to social evaluation during adolescence. The overall cortisol and alpha-amylase responses increased-both between and within participants-and were more strongly related to self-reported pubertal development than to age. The cortisol response shifted from speech delivery toward anticipation. The alpha-amylase response increased in both phases. © 2013 The Authors. Child Development © 2013 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  3. The effect of sawtooth oscillations on the alpha particle distribution and energy balance in the ITER plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitsev, F. S.; Gorelenkov, N. N.; Petrov, M. P.; Afanasyev, V. I.; Mironov, M. I.

    2017-11-01

    The mixing of toroidal plasma under the conditions of sawtooth oscillations is considered using the Kadomtsev model. A new mixing formula for the averaged distribution function of fast transit and trapped particles is proposed in the methodology of a kinetic equation averaged over drift trajectories. The proposed formula generalizes the known results for the case of non-circular magnetic surfaces, an arbitrary aspect ratio, and charged particle drift trajectories significantly deviating from the magnetic surfaces. The formula is applicable for a sufficiently wide class of instabilities. The 3D kinetic equation is numerically solved using the FPP- 3D computation code for parameters close to the ITER inductive scenario. The alpha particle distribution function and the power introduced by alpha particles in plasma when sawtooth oscillations occur are calculated. It is shown that such oscillations may change the energy input of a thermonuclear reaction in certain areas by several times.

  4. Effect of communities of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria on degradation of 17-alpha-ethynylestradiol by nitrifying activated sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limpiyakorn, T.; Sermwaraphan, P.; Kurisu, F.

    2009-07-01

    An endocrine disrupting compound, 17-alpha-ethynylestradiol (EE2), is a synthetic estrogen used as a key ingredient in oral contraceptives pill. this persistent organic pollutant, no biodegradable by most microorganisms, is discharged via municipal waste streams to natural receiving waters. Recently, it was found that ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in nitrifying activated sludge (NAS) enriched with high ammonium loads can degrade EE2 via co-metabolism during ammonia oxidation. (Author)

  5. Chemical Environment Effects on K[beta]/K[alpha] Intensity Ratio: An X-Ray Fluorescence Experiment on Periodic Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Chaney R.; Chase, Jeffery M.; Nivens, Delana A.; Baird, William H.; Padgett, Clifford W.

    2011-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) data from an energy-dispersive XRF instrument were used to investigate the chlorine K[alpha] and K[beta] peaks in several group 1 salts. The ratio of the peak intensity is sensitive to the local chemical environment of the chlorine atoms studied in this experiment and it shows a periodic trend for these salts. (Contains 1…

  6. The effect of alpha2-adrenergic drugs on the activity of neurons in the rat nucleus raphe magnus in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, T; Ohta, Y; Kida, A; Kemmotsu, O

    1999-02-01

    The nucleus raphe magnus (NRM) is an important descending inhibitory system for pain transmission. We tested whether clonidine, an alpha2-adrenergic agonist, and yohimbine, an alpha2-adrenergic antagonist, modulate the activity of NRM neurons using extracellular recording in a rat brainstem slice preparation. Clonidine 1-20 microM increased firing frequencies (FF) in 22 (37%) and decreased FF in 6 (10%) spontaneously active neurons. Correlation between the concentrations of clonidine and FF changes was unremarkable. Eight spontaneously active neurons (13%) showed increases followed by decreases in FF with increasing doses of clonidine. The remaining 24 neurons (40%) showed no change in FF. Yohimbine 1 microM decreased FF in 38 spontaneously active neurons (58%), whereas the remaining 27 neurons (42%) showed no change in FF. In some neurons, yohimbine antagonized the increase or decrease in FF by application of clonidine. In three silent neurons (25%), clonidine (5 or 10 microM) induced firing activity, which stopped or decreased with the increasing doses of clonidine. In the remaining nine neurons (75%), clonidine did not induce firing activity. We conclude that activation and inhibition of alpha2-adrenergic receptors of NRM neurons augments and suppresses output of the descending inhibitory pain pathway. The nucleus raphe magnus is implicated in descending control of the nociceptive processes. We found that clonidine and yohimbine increased and decreased, respectively, the firing activity of a substantial number of nucleus raphe magnus neurons. Clonidine and may facilitate and yohimbine may reduce the outflow of the descending inhibitory pathway.

  7. Effect of Grain Boundary Alpha on Mechanical Properties of Ti5.4Al3Mo1V Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Kurnala Naresh; Muneshwar, Pravin; Singh, Satish Kumar; Jha, Abhay K.; Pant, Bhanu; George, Koshy M.

    2015-06-01

    The article brings out the correlation between the microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti5.4Al3Mo1V (VT14 alloy) high-strength alpha beta titanium alloy. The specimens were solution treated above the beta transus temperature of the alloy (980°C and 1000°C) for 45 min and cooled at different rates (water quenched, air cooled, and furnace cooled) to ambient temperature. The specimens were polished, and the microstructural observations under optical microscopy resulted in a discontinuous alpha phase and a continuous network of alpha for 980°C and 1000°C beta-annealed conditions, respectively. Mechanical properties like tensile and impact were evaluated for a 980°C beta-annealed condition. The fracture morphology features of failed impact specimens were compared with a mill annealed product. From the tensile strength data, it was observed that the strength achieved is maximum in the water-quenched condition (1291-1308 MPa) and lowest in the furnace-cooled condition (895-905 MPa), whereas the impact strength is highest in the furnace-cooled condition (8.03-8.7 gm/cm2), which is comparable with the air-cooled condition (7.3-8.5 kg/cm2), and lowest for the water-quenched condition (2.5-3.1 kg/cm2). The current study is an attempt to correlate the mechanical properties to the heat treatment and thereby to the microstructure.

  8. Brain regional {alpha}-[{sup 11}C]methyl-L-tryptophan trapping, used as an index of 5-HT synthesis, in healthy adults: absence of an age effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa-Neto, Pedro; Benkelfat, Chawki; Leyton, Marco [Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Montreal (Canada); McGill University, Department of Psychiatry, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Sakai, Yojiro [Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Montreal (Canada); University of Tokyo, Department of Psychosomatic Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Morais, Jose A. [McGill University, Department of Geriatrics, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Diksic, Mirko [Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Montreal (Canada)

    2007-08-15

    Previous functional neuroimaging studies suggest that selective aspects of the brain serotonin (5-HT) system change during the aging process. Here, we assessed the effects of aging on the brain regional {alpha}-[{sup 11}C]methyl-L-tryptophan ({alpha}-[{sup 11}C]MTrp) trapping rate constant (K*; {mu}l.g{sup -1}.min{sup -1}), which, with certain assumptions, could be taken as a proxy of 5-HT synthesis. Thirty-six healthy right-handed subjects had positron emission tomography (PET) scans following injection with {alpha}-[{sup 11}C]MTrp [18 males aged 46.6 {+-} 22.2 years (range 20-80 years) and 18 females aged 33.0 {+-} 15.5 years (range 20-80 years)]. The trapping rate constant, K*, was calculated with the graphical method for irreversible ligands using the sinus-venous input function. A priori selected volumes of interest (VOIs) were defined using an automatic algorithm. VOI analysis showed no correlation between age and brain regional K* values. As reported by others, significant age-related reductions of gray matter were observed in the thalamus and frontal and cingulate cortices; even with partial volume correction there was still no significant relationship between K* and age. Further exploratory SPM voxelwise correlation between age and {alpha}-[{sup 11}C]MTrp trapping, using p = 0.05 (uncorrected), as well as voxel-based morphometry, was in agreement with the VOI analysis. The dissociation between age-related changes in brain anatomy and this index of serotonin synthesis suggests independent mechanisms underlying the normal aging process. (orig.)

  9. Elimination of alpha-gal xenoreactive epitope: alpha-galactosidase treatment of porcine heart valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sun-Young; Jeong, Hee-Jin; Lim, Hong-Gook; Park, Seong-Sik; Kim, Soo-Hwan; Kim, Yong Jin

    2012-05-01

    Porcine heart valves are among the most widely used tissue valves in clinical heart valve implantation. However, immunologic responses have been implicated as potential causes of the limited durability of xenograft heart valves. The study aim was to determine the effectiveness of alpha-galactosidase treatment used to degrade the major xenoreactive antigens found in xenograft heart valves. Fresh porcine heart valves and pericardium treated with alpha-galactosidase were studied to evaluate the xenoreactive galactose (alpha1,3) galactose (alpha-gal) antigen. Removal of the alpha-gal epitope from the porcine heart valve was monitored via 3,3'-diaminobenzidine staining intensity, while the removal of alpha-gal from N-glycans on porcine heart valves treated with recombinant alpha-galactosidase was determined either qualitatively or quantitatively by mass fingerprinting using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The porcine pericardium was used for monitoring the change in mechanical properties after alpha-galactosidase treatment. In addition, the biomechanical modification property of collagen fiber rearrangement on tissue was assessed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Following a 24-h incubation at pH 7.2, 4 degrees C, employing 0.1 U/ml of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron-derived recombinant alpha-galactosidase, the enzyme effectively removed the alpha-gal epitopes expressed on porcine heart valves. The identification type of alpha-gal N-glycan on fresh aortic valve, aortic wall, pulmonary valve, and pulmonary wall was 7.1%, 10.3%, 6% and 8%, respectively. In the presence of alpha-galactosidase treatment, alpha-gal-containing N-glycans were converted into alpha-gal-negative N-glycans. Likewise, alpha-gal-containing N-glycans were not detected when MALDI-TOF MS quantitative analysis was used. Furthermore, no significant difference was observed in the mechanical properties and findings from TEM in alpha

  10. Effects of a melanogenic bicyclic monoterpene diol on cell cycle, p53, TNF-alpha, and PGE2 are distinct from those of UVB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Eliyahu; Galvin, Jason W; Boumakis, Stavroula; Boamah, Ernest K; Canning, Matthew T; Yarosh, Daniel B; Brown, David A

    2003-12-01

    Bicyclic monoterpene (BMT) diols are small-molecule compounds that mimic ultraviolet radiation (UVR) by inducing melanogenesis. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of 2,2-dimethyl-3-propanyldiol-norbornane (AGI-1140), a novel BMT diol, and ultraviolet B (UVB) on additional cellular responses. S91 mouse melanoma cells were treated with a range of concentrations of AGI-1140, and examined for induction of melanogenesis and nitric oxide (NO). The effect of AGI-1140 on dendrite outgrowth from human melanocytes was examined by quantitative microscopy. The effect of AGI-1140 and UVB on phosphorylation of p53 serine 15 in human keratinocytes was examined by Western blotting, while the release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The effects of AGI-1140 and UVB on cell cycle arrest of human melanocytes, keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells were compared using fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Similar to UVB, AGI-1140 induced both melanogenesis and NO in melanoma cells. AGI-1140 also induced dendrite outgrowth from melanocytes, indicative of differentiation. However, whereas UVB induced G2 cell cycle arrest with phosphorylation of p53 at serine 15, AGI-1140 induced G1 cell cycle arrest without this phosphorylation. Additionally, unlike UVB, AGI-1140 did not increase the secretion of TNF-alpha or PGE2, mediators of UVB-induced immunosuppressive and inflammatory responses in the skin that may contribute to carcinogenesis. This study shows that melanogenesis can be induced by AGI-1140 without many of the deleterious effects associated with UVB.

  11. Brain oscillatory activity during motor preparation: Effect of directional uncertainty on beta, but not alpha, frequency band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charidimos eTzagarakis

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In time-constraint activities, such as sports, it is advantageous to be prepared to act even before knowing precisely what action will be needed. Here, we studied the relation between neural oscillations during motor preparation and amount of uncertainty about the direction of the upcoming target. Ten right-handed volunteers participated in a cued center-out task. A brief visual cue identified the region of space in which the target would appear. Three cue sizes were used to vary the amount of information about the direction of the upcoming target. The target appeared at a random location within the region indicated by the cue, and the participants moved a joystick-controlled cursor towards it. Time-frequency analyses showed phasic increases of power in low (delta/theta: 30 Hz frequency-bands in relation to the onset of visual stimuli and of the motor response. More importantly in regard to motor preparation, there was a tonic reduction of power in the alpha (8-12 Hz and beta (14-30 Hz bands during the period between cue presentation and target onset. During motor preparation, the main source of change of power of the alpha band was localized over the contralateral sensorimotor region and both parietal cortices, whereas for the beta-band the main source was the contralateral sensorimotor region. During cue presentation, the reduction of power of the alpha-band in the occipital lobe showed a brief differentiation of condition: the wider the visual cue, the more the power of the alpha-band decreased. However during motor preparation, only the power of the beta-band was dependent on directional uncertainty: the less the directional uncertainty, the more the power of the beta-band decreased. In conclusion, the results indicate that the power in the alpha-band is associated briefly with cue size, but is otherwise an undifferentiated indication of neural activation, whereas the power of the beta-band reflects the level of motor preparation.

  12. Effects of amino acid substitutions at beta 131 on the structure and properties of hemoglobin: evidence for communication between alpha 1 beta 1- and alpha 1 beta 2-subunit interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chung-ke; Simplaceanu, Virgil; Ho, Chien

    2002-04-30

    Substitutions of Asn, Glu, and Leu for Gln at the beta131 position of the hemoglobin molecule result in recombinant hemoglobins (rHbs) with moderately lowered oxygen affinity and high cooperativity compared to human normal adult hemoglobin (Hb A). The mutation site affects the hydrogen bonds present at the alpha(1)beta(1)-subunit interface between alpha103His and beta131Gln as well as that between alpha122His and beta35Tyr. NMR spectroscopy shows that the hydrogen bonds are indeed perturbed; in the case of rHb (beta131Gln --> Asn) and rHb (beta131Gln --> Leu), the perturbations are propagated to the other alpha(1)beta(1)-interface H-bond involving alpha122His and beta35Tyr. Proton exchange measurements also detect faster exchange rates for both alpha(1)beta(1)-interface histidine side chains of the mutant rHbs in 0.1 M sodium phosphate buffer at pH 7.0 than for those of Hb A under the same conditions. In addition, the same measurements in 0.1 M Tris buffer at pH 7.0 show a much slower exchange rate for mutant rHbs and Hb A. One of the mutants, rHb (beta131Gln --> Asn), shows the conformational exchange of its interface histidines, and exchange rate measurements have been attempted. We have also conducted studies on the reactivity of the SH group of beta93Cys (a residue located in the region of the alpha(1)beta(2)-subunit interface) toward p-mercuribenzoate, and our results show that low-oxygen-affinity rHbs have a more reactive beta93Cys than Hb A in the CO form. Our results indicate that there is communication between the alpha(1)beta(1)- and alpha(1)beta(2)-subunit interfaces, and a possible communication pathway for the cooperative oxygenation of Hb A that allows the alpha(1)beta(1)-subunit interface to modulate the functional properties in conjunction with the alpha(1)beta(2) interface is proposed.

  13. Effects of heterotropic allosteric effectors on the equilibrium and kinetics of the reaction of a single ligand molecule with an alpha or beta subunit of deoxygenated HbA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasik, Ellen; Kwiatkowski, Laura D; Hui, Hilda L; Colby, Judith F; Noble, Robert W

    2004-06-22

    Symmetrical FeZn hybrids of human HbA have been used to measure K(1)(alpha) and K(1)(beta), the dissociation constants for the binding of a single molecule of oxygen to unliganded HbA at an alpha subunit and at a beta subunit, respectively. The kinetic constants, l(1)'(alpha) and l(1)'(beta), for the combination of the first CO molecule to unliganded HbA at an alpha or a beta subunit, respectively, were also measured. Measurements were carried out between pH 6 and pH 8 in the presence and absence of inositol hexaphosphate (IHP). Both equilibrium constants exhibit a significant Bohr effect in the absence of IHP. The addition of IHP to a concentration of 0.1 mM increases both dissociation constants in a pH-dependent manner with the result that both Bohr effects are greatly reduced. These results require a negative thermodynamic linkage between the binding of a single oxygen at either an alpha or a beta subunit and the binding of IHP to the T quaternary structure of HbA. Although the beta hemes are relatively near the IHP binding site, a linkage between that site and the alpha hemes, such that the binding of a single oxygen molecule to the heme of one alpha subunit reduces the affinity of the T state for IHP, requires communication across the molecule. l(1)'(alpha) exhibits a very slight pH dependence, with a maximum variation of 20%, while l(1)'(beta) varies with pH three times as much. IHP has no effect on the pH dependence of either rate constant but reduces l(1)'(alpha) marginally, 20%, and l(1)'(beta) by 2-fold at all pH values.

  14. Influence of butter and of corn, coconut and fish oils on the effects of recombinant human tumour necrosis factor-alpha in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulrooney, H M; Grimble, R F

    1993-01-01

    1. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha is produced in response to inflammatory stimuli. Fish oil can suppress the production and actions of cytokines. Little information is available on the effects of other fats on cytokine biology. We compared the effects of fats, with a wide range of fatty acid characteristics, on the effects of tumour necrosis factor-alpha on protein and zinc metabolism in rats. 2. Weanling rats were fed for 8 weeks on diets containing 10% fat in the form of corn, fish or coconut oils or butter before an intraperitoneal injection of recombinant human tumour necrosis factor-alpha was given. Measurements were made 24h after the injection. 3. In rats fed corn oil, food intake was reduced by 62% and rates of protein synthesis were increased by 86, 32 and 39% in the liver, lung and kidney, respectively. Zinc concentrations increased by 23% in the liver but decreased by 10% in the kidney. Plasma caeruloplasmin and complement C3 levels increased by 25% and 28%, respectively, and plasma albumin level decreased by 24%. 4. Fish oil prevented the increase in hepatic protein synthesis and changed the response of protein synthesis in lung and kidney to a decrease. Changes in hepatic and renal zinc concentrations were prevented. The response of the plasma caeruloplasmin level was unaltered but those of the plasma complement C3 and albumin concentrations were prevented. 5. Coconut oil and butter, although similarly low in linoleic acid, differed in their modulatory effects. With the exception of the rise in the plasma complement C3 concentration, all responses were prevented or greatly inhibited in rats fed butter.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis. Modification of models resulting from addition of effects of exposure to alpha-emitting radionuclides: Revision 1, Part 2, Scientific bases for health effects models, Addendum 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrahamson, S. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States); Bender, M.A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Boecker, B.B.; Scott, B.R. [Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Inhalation Toxicology Research Inst.; Gilbert, E.S. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-05-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has sponsored several studies to identify and quantify, through the use of models, the potential health effects of accidental releases of radionuclides from nuclear power plants. The Reactor Safety Study provided the basis for most of the earlier estimates related to these health effects. Subsequent efforts by NRC-supported groups resulted in improved health effects models that were published in the report entitled {open_quotes}Health Effects Models for Nuclear Power Plant Consequence Analysis{close_quotes}, NUREG/CR-4214, 1985 and revised further in the 1989 report NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 2. The health effects models presented in the 1989 NUREG/CR-4214 report were developed for exposure to low-linear energy transfer (LET) (beta and gamma) radiation based on the best scientific information available at that time. Since the 1989 report was published, two addenda to that report have been prepared to (1) incorporate other scientific information related to low-LET health effects models and (2) extend the models to consider the possible health consequences of the addition of alpha-emitting radionuclides to the exposure source term. The first addendum report, entitled {open_quotes}Health Effects Models for Nuclear Power Plant Accident Consequence Analysis, Modifications of Models Resulting from Recent Reports on Health Effects of Ionizing Radiation, Low LET Radiation, Part 2: Scientific Bases for Health Effects Models,{close_quotes} was published in 1991 as NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 2, Addendum 1. This second addendum addresses the possibility that some fraction of the accident source term from an operating nuclear power plant comprises alpha-emitting radionuclides. Consideration of chronic high-LET exposure from alpha radiation as well as acute and chronic exposure to low-LET beta and gamma radiations is a reasonable extension of the health effects model.

  16. Opposing actions of the progesterone metabolites, 5alpha-dihydroprogesterone (5alphaP) and 3alpha-dihydroprogesterone (3alphaHP) on mitosis, apoptosis, and expression of Bcl-2, Bax and p21 in human breast cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, John P; Beausoleil, Michel; Zhang, Guihua; Cialacu, Valentin

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that breast tissues and breast cell lines convert progesterone (P) to 5alpha-dihydroprogesterone (5alphaP) and 3alpha-dihydroprogesterone (3alphaHP) and that 3alphaHP suppresses, whereas 5alphaP promotes, cell proliferation and detachment. The objectives of the current studies were to determine if the 5alphaP- and 3alphaHP-induced changes in cell numbers are due to altered rates of mitosis and/or apoptosis, and if 3alphaHP and 5alphaP act on tumorigenic and non-tumorigenic cells, regardless of estrogen (E) and P receptor status. The studies were conducted on tumorigenic (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, T47D) and non-tumorigenic (MCF-10A) human breast cell lines, employing several methods to assess the effects of the hormones on cell proliferation, mitosis, apoptosis and expression of Bcl-2, Bax and p21. In all four cell lines, 5alphaP increased, whereas 3alphaHP decreased cell numbers, [(3)H]thymidine uptake and mitotic index. Apoptosis was stimulated by 3alphaHP and suppressed by 5alphaP. 5alphaP resulted in increases in Bcl-2/Bax ratio, indicating decreased apoptosis; 3alphaHP resulted in decreases in Bcl-2/Bax ratio, indicating increased apoptosis. The effects of either 3alphaHP or 5alphaP on cell numbers, [(3)H]thymidine uptake, mitosis, apoptosis, and Bcl-2/Bax ratio, were abrogated when cells were treated simultaneously with both hormones. The expression of p21 was increased by 3alphaHP, and was unaffected by 5alphaP. The results provide the first evidence that 5alphaP stimulates mitosis and suppresses apoptosis, whereas 3alphaHP inhibits mitosis and stimulates apoptosis. The opposing effects of 5alphaP and 3alphaHP were observed in all four breast cell lines examined and the data suggest that all breast cancers (estrogen-responsive and unresponsive) might be suppressed by blocking 5alphaP formation and/or increasing 3alphaHP. The findings further support the hypothesis that progesterone metabolites are key regulatory hormones and that changes

  17. Modulation of key metabolic enzyme of Labeo rohita (Hamilton) juvenile: effect of dietary starch type, protein level and exogenous alpha-amylase in the diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shivendra; Sahu, N P; Pal, A K; Sagar, Vidya; Sinha, Amit Kumar; Baruah, Kartik

    2009-06-01

    A 60-day feeding trial was conducted to delineate the effect of both gelatinized (G) and non-gelatinized (NG) corn with or without supplementation of exogenous alpha-amylase, either at optimum (35%) or sub-optimum (27%) protein levels, on blood glucose, and the key metabolic enzymes of glycolysis (hexokinase, HK), gluconeogenesis (glucose-6 phosphatase, G6Pase and fructose-1,6 bisphosphatase, FBPase), lipogenesis (glucose-6 phosphate dehydrogenase, G6PD) and amino acid metabolism (alanine amino transferase, ALT and aspartate amino transferase, AST) in Labeo rohita. Three hundred and sixty juveniles (average weight 10 +/- 0.15 g) were randomly distributed into 12 treatment groups with each of two replicates. Twelve semi-purified diets containing either 35 or 27% crude protein were prepared by including G or NG corn as carbohydrate source with different levels of microbial alpha-amylase (0, 50, 100 and 150 mg kg(-1)). The G corn fed groups showed significantly higher (P 0.05) on liver HK activity, but the optimum crude protein (35%) fed group showed higher HK activity than their low protein counterparts. The sub-optimum crude protein (27%) fed group showed significantly higher (P < 0.05) G6PD activity than the optimum protein fed group, whereas the reverse trend was observed for HK, G6Pase, FBPase, ALT and AST activity. Addition of 50 mg alpha-amylase kg(-1) feed showed increased blood glucose and G6PD activity of the NG corn fed group, whereas the reverse trend was found for G6Pase, FBPase, ALT and AST activity in liver, which was similar to that of the G or NG corn supplemented with 100/150 mg alpha-amylase kg(-1) feed. Data on enzyme activities suggest that NG corn in the diet significantly induced more gluconeogenic and amino acid metabolic enzyme activity, whereas G corn induced increased lipogenic enzyme activity. Increased amino acid catabolic enzyme (ALT and AST) activity was observed either at optimum protein (35%) irrespective of corn type or NG corn

  18. EFFECTS OF L-ASCORBIC ACID AND ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL ON BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF SWIMMING-INDUCED OXIDATIVE STRESS IN SERUM OF GUINEA PIGS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursać-Mitrović, Marija; Milovanović, Dragan R; Mitić, Radoslav; Jovanović, Danijela; Sovrlić, Miroslav; Vasiljević, Perica; Tomović, Jovica; Manojlović, Nedeljko

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of L-ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol as well as combination of these vitamins with or without exposure to physical exercise on intensity of lipid peroxidation, activity of xanthine oxidase, activity of total antioxidative system, concentration of glutathione, and activity of catalase in the serum of guinea pigs. The experimental measurements of intensity of lipid peroxidation, activity of xanthine oxidase, activity of total antioxidative system, concentration of glutathione, and activity of catalase were done in the serum of guinea pigs. The animals were exposed to the test load to achieve exhaustion and the test was terminated when the animal for the third time to sink into the water. The results of this study demonstrated that endurance exercise of guinea pigs induced oxidative stress response in terms of increased lipid peroxidation and activity of xanthine oxidase in the serum of experimental animals. Our study investigated the antioxidant activity of L-ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol also measuring three protective markers in the serum: total antioxidant activity, content of glutathione and activity of catalase. The results obtained show that the vitamins influence the concentrations of above mentioned biochemical parameters, which points out their protective effect of swimming-induced oxidative stress. Single or combined administration of L-ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol caused significant inhibition of these markers indicating the important antioxidant activity of the vitamins. Results lead to conclude that the combined treatments with vitamins with or without exposure to physical exercise showed the clear synergistic effect..

  19. Effects of TNF-alpha and leptin on weight loss in patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kyeong-Cheol; Chung, Jin Hong; Lee, Kwan Ho

    2007-12-01

    Weight loss is common in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the mechanisms of this weight loss are still unclear. Sixty male patients with stable COPD and 45 healthy male controls participated in this study. The COPD patients were divided into two groups, that is, the emphysema and chronic bronchitis groups, by the transfer coefficient of carbon monoxide. The body composition, resting energy expenditure (REE), plasma leptin levels and serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) were measured in all the study participants. The difference and correlation of these parameters were investigated between the two groups. Emphysematous patients were characterized by a lower body mass index (BMI) and fat-mass (FM) compared with the chronic bronchitis patients (p leptin levels, as corrected for the FM, were not different between the COPD patients and healthy controls (78.3 +/- 30.9 pg/mL/kg vs. 70.9 +/- 17.3 pg/mL/kg, respectively), and the plasma leptin levels, as adjusted for the FM, were also not different between the two groups of COPD patients. In the chronic bronchitis patients, the plasma leptin concentration was correlated with the BMI (r = 0.866, p COPD patients than those in the controls, but there was no statistical difference (10.7 +/- 18.6 pg/mL vs. 7.2 x 3.5 pg/mL, respectively, p0.05). The leptin concentration was well correlated with the BMI and %FM in the patients with chronic bronchitis and the leptin concentration was only correlated with the %FM (r = 0.450, p = 0.027) in emphysema patients. There was no correlation between the plasma leptin concentration, as adjusted for the fat mass, and the activity of the TNF-alpha system. The interaction of leptin and the activity of the TNF-alpha system in the pathogenesis of tissue depletion may not play an important role in chronic stable COPD patients.

  20. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha increases myocardial microvascular transport in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P R; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Høyer, S

    1994-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is a primary mediator in the pathogenesis of tissue injury, and high circulating levels of TNF-alpha are found in a variety of pathological conditions. In open-chest anesthetized dogs, the effects of intracoronary recombinant human TNF-alpha (rTNF-alpha; 100...

  1. Lyman Alpha Control

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, Daniel Stefaniak

    2015-01-01

    This document gives an overview of how to operate the Lyman Alpha Control application written in LabVIEW along with things to watch out for. Overview of the LabVIEW code itself as well as the physical wiring of and connections from/to the NI PCI-6229 DAQ box is also included. The Lyman Alpha Control application is the interface between the ALPHA sequencer and the HighFinesse Wavelength Meter as well as the Lyman Alpha laser setup. The application measures the wavelength of the output light from the Lyman Alpha cavity through the Wavelength Meter. The application can use the Wavelength Meter’s PID capabilities to stabilize the Lyman Alpha laser output as well as switch between up to three frequencies.

  2. New ALPHA-2 magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    On 21 June, members of the ALPHA collaboration celebrated the handover of the first solenoid designed for the ALPHA-2 experiment. The magnet has since been successfully installed and is working well.   Khalid Mansoor, Sumera Yamin and Jeffrey Hangst in front of the new ALPHA-2 solenoid. “This was the first of three identical solenoids that will be installed between now and September, as the rest of the ALPHA-2 device is installed and commissioned,” explains ALPHA spokesperson Jeffrey Hangst. “These magnets are designed to allow us to transfer particles - antiprotons, electrons and positrons - between various parts of the new ALPHA-2 device by controlling the transverse size of the particle bunch that is being transferred.” Sumera Yamin and Khalid Mansoor, two Pakistani scientists from the National Centre for Physics in Islamabad, came to CERN in February specifically to design and manufacture these magnets. “We had the chance to work on act...

  3. The effect of dietary protein restriction on the secretory dynamics of 1 alpha-hydroxycorticosterone and urea in the dogfish, Scyliorhinus canicula: a possible role for 1 alpha-hydroxycorticosterone in sodium retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, K J; O'Toole, L B; Hazon, N

    1993-08-01

    The putative osmoregulatory role of the unique elasmobranch corticosteroid, 1 alpha-hydroxycorticosterone (1 alpha-OH-B), was investigated using dietary protein restriction as a means of limiting urea biosynthetic ability. Groups of dogfish (Scyliorhinus canicula) were adapted to either a high or a low protein diet (HPD and LPD respectively) and the secretory dynamics of urea and 1 alpha-OH-B were determined following acclimation to normal (100%), 130% and 50% sea water. In normal sea water, LPD fish showed significantly decreased blood production of urea compared with fish fed a HPD (P strategy adopted by these animals was the retention of high plasma concentrations of Na+ and Cl-, which increased plasma osmolality and tended to decrease osmotic water loss. Concomitant with the increased ion concentrations, plasma 1 alpha-OH-B concentration was also greatly elevated in LPD fish indicating that the steroid may be acting to minimize Na+ (and Cl-) excretion at osmoregulatory sites such as the rectal gland, kidney and gills. This and a previous study have also demonstrated that 1 alpha-OH-B concentration is elevated in 50% sea water. Decreases in plasma Na+ concentration are tolerated down to 75% sea water, whereafter Na+ is preferentially retained and further decreases in osmolality are achieved by reductions in plasma urea concentration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Effects of Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback on EEG Alpha Asymmetry and Anxiety Symptoms in Male Athletes: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziembowska, Inga; Izdebski, Paweł; Rasmus, Anna; Brudny, Janina; Grzelczak, Marta; Cysewski, Piotr

    2016-06-01

    Heart rate variability biofeedback (HRV-BFB) has been shown as useful tool to manage stress in various populations. The present study was designed to investigate whether the biofeedback-based stress management tool consisting of rhythmic breathing, actively self-generated positive emotions and a portable biofeedback device induce changes in athletes' HRV, EEG patterns, and self-reported anxiety and self-esteem. The study involved 41 healthy male athletes, aged 16-21 (mean 18.34 ± 1.36) years. Participants were randomly divided into two groups: biofeedback and control. Athletes in the biofeedback group received HRV biofeedback training, athletes in the control group didn't receive any intervention. During the randomized controlled trial (days 0-21), the mean anxiety score declined significantly for the intervention group (change-4 p athletes in biofeedback group showed substantial and statistically significant improvement in heart rate variability indices and changes in power spectra of both theta and alpha brain waves, and alpha asymmetry. These changes suggest better self-control in the central nervous system and better flexibility of the autonomic nervous system in the group that received biofeedback training. A HRV biofeedback-based stress management tool may be beneficial for stress reduction for young male athletes.

  5. Synthesis of novel naphthoquinone-spermidine conjugates and their effects on DNA-topoisomerases I and II-{alpha}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Andrea S.; Lima, Edson L.S.; Pinto, Angelo C.; Esteves-Souza, Andressa; Torrese, Jose C. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Echevarria, Aurea [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Camara, Celso A. [Paraiba Univ., Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Lab. de Tecnologia Farmaceutica; Vargas, Maria D. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: mdvargas@vm.uff.br

    2006-05-15

    Novel derivatives of lapachol 2, nor-lapachol 3 and lawsone 4 have been synthesized by nucleophilic displacement of the methoxynaphthoquinones 2a, 3a and 4a with the polyamine (PA) N{sup 1}-Boc-N{sup 5}-Bn-spermidine 1a. The respective products 2b-4b were obtained in good yields and characterized by spectroscopic and analytical methods. The inhibitory action of these naphthoquinone-PA conjugates on DNA-topoisomerases (topo) I and II-{alpha} was evaluated by relaxation assay of supercoiled DNA plasmid. All compounds (1a 2b, 3b and 4b) presented significant inhibition of topo II-{alpha} catalytic activity at the 2 {mu}M dose. Considering that only PA 1a did not inhibit the enzyme catalytic activity at the 0.2 {mu}M dose, the appended naphthoquinone moiety acts as a 'value added' fragment. Compounds 1a 2b, 3b and 4b did not inhibit the enzyme DNA-topo I at the 200 {mu}M dose. (author)

  6. Synthesis of novel naphthoquinone-spermidine conjugates and their effects on DNA-topoisomerases I and II-alpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunha Andréa S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel derivatives of lapachol 2, nor-lapachol 3 and lawsone 4 have been synthesized by nucleophilic displacement of the methoxynaphthoquinones 2a, 3a and 4a with the polyamine (PA N¹-Boc-N5-Bn-spermidine 1a. The respective products 2b-4b were obtained in good yields and characterized by spectroscopic and analytical methods. The inhibitory action of these naphthoquinone-PA conjugates on DNA-topoisomerases (topo I and II-alpha was evaluated by relaxation assay of supercoiled DNA plasmid. All compounds (1a 2b, 3b and 4b presented significant inhibition of topo II-alpha catalytic activity at the 2 µM dose. Considering that only PA 1a did not inhibit the enzyme catalytic activity at the 0.2 µM dose, the appended naphthoquinone moiety acts as a "value added" fragment. Compounds 1a 2b, 3b and 4b did not inhibit the enzyme DNA-topo I at the 200 µM dose.

  7. Effect of aerobic training on EEG alpha asymmetry and depressive symptoms in the elderly: a 1-year follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Deslandes

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of physical exercise on the treatment of depressive elderly adults has not been investigated thus far in terms of changes in cortical hemispheric activity. The objective of the present study was to identify changes in depressive symptoms, quality of life, and cortical asymmetry produced by aerobic activity. Elderly subjects with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder (DSM-IV were included. Twenty patients (70% females, 71 ± 3 years were divided into an exercise group (pharmacological treatment plus aerobic training and a control group (undergoing pharmacological treatment in a quasi-experimental design. Pharmacological treatment was maintained stable throughout the study (antidepressants and anxiolytics. Subjects were evaluated by depression scales (Beck Depression Inventory, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale and the Short Form Health Survey-36, and electroencephalographic measurements (frontal and parietal alpha asymmetry before and after 1 year of treatment. After 1 year, the control group showed a decrease in cortical activity on the right hemisphere (increase of alpha power, which was not observed in the exercise group. The exercise group showed a significant decrease of depressive symptoms, which was not observed in the control group. This result was also accompanied by improved treatment response and remission rate after 1 year of aerobic exercise associated with treatment. This study provides support for the effect of aerobic training on alpha activity and on depressive symptoms in elderly patients. Exercise facilitates the treatment of depressive elderly adults, leading to clinical and physical improvement and protecting against a decrease in cortical activity.

  8. Erythrocyte osmotic fragility and lipid peroxidation following chronic co-exposure of rats to chlorpyrifos and deltamethrin, and the beneficial effect of alpha-lipoic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chidiebere Uchendu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of chronic co-exposure to chlorpyrifos (CPF and deltamethrin (DLT on erythrocyte osmotic fragility, lipid peroxidation and the ameliorative effect of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA on erythrocyte fragility. Thirty-six male Wistar rats divided into six groups of six rats each were used for the study. Groups I (S/oil and II (ALA were given soya oil (2 ml/kg and ALA (60 mg/kg, respectively. Rats in group III (DLT and IV (CPF were exposed to DLT (6.25 mg/kg and CPF (4.75 mg/kg (1/20th of the previously determined LD50 of 125 mg/kg and 95 mg/kg, respectively, over a period of 48 h. Rats in group V (CPF + DLT were co-exposed to CPF (4.75 mg/kg and DLT (6.25 mg/kg, while those in group VI (ALA + CPF + DLT were pretreated with ALA (60 mg/kg and then co-exposed to CPF and DLT, 45 min later. The treatments were administered by gavage once daily for a period of 16 weeks. Blood collected at the end of the experimental period were analyzed for erythrocyte osmotic fragility and malondialdehyde (MDA concentration. The study showed that chronic co-exposure to CPF and DLT resulted in an increase in erythrocyte fragility and MDA concentration which were ameliorated by supplementation with alpha-lipoic acid. The study concluded that repeated co-exposure to CPF and DLT elevated erythrocyte fragility probably due to increased lipid peroxidation, and pretreatment with alpha-lipoic acid ameliorated these alterations.

  9. Comparative effects of RRR-alpha- and RRR-gamma-tocopherol on proliferation and apoptosis in human colon cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Sharon E; Stone, William L; Lee, Steven; Whaley, Sarah; Yang, Hongsong; Qui, Min; Goforth, Paige; Sherman, Devin; McHaffie, Derek; Krishnan, Koyamangalath

    2006-01-17

    Mediterranean societies, with diets rich in vitamin E isoforms, have a lower risk for colon cancer than those of northern Europe and the Americas. Vitamin E rich diets may neutralize free radicals generated by fecal bacteria in the gut and prevent DNA damage, but signal transduction activities can occur independent of the antioxidant function. The term vitamin E represents eight structurally related compounds, each differing in their potency and mechanisms of chemoprevention. The RRR-gamma-tocopherol isoform is found primarily in the US diet, while RRR-alpha-tocopherol is highest in the plasma. The effectiveness of RRR-alpha- and RRR-gamma-tocopherol at inhibiting cell growth and inducing apoptosis in colon cancer cell lines with varying molecular characteristics (SW480, HCT-15, HCT-116 and HT-29) and primary colon cells (CCD-112CoN, nontransformed normal phenotype) was studied. Colon cells were treated with and without RRR-alpha- or RRR-gamma-tocopherol using varying tocopherol concentrations and time intervals. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were measured using the trypan blue assay, annexin V staining, DNA laddering and caspase activation. Treatment with RRR-gamma-tocopherol resulted in significant cell death for all cancer cell lines tested, while RRR-alpha-tocopherol did not. Further, RRR-gamma-tocopherol treatment showed no cytotoxicity to normal colon cells CCD-112CoN at the highest concentration and time point tested. RRR-gamma-tocopherol treatment resulted in cleavage of PARP, caspase 3, 7, and 8, but not caspase 9. Differences in the percentage cell death and apoptosis were observed in different cell lines suggesting that molecular differences in these cell lines may influence the ability of RRR-gamma-tocopherol to induce cell death. This is the first study to demonstrate that multiple colon cancer cell lines containing varying genetic alterations will under go growth reduction and apoptosis in the presence of RRR-gamma-tocopherol without damage to

  10. [Effect of truncated PDGF-alpha receptor on proliferation and expression of c-sis mRNA of vascular smooth muscular cells of pulmonary artery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Qin; Su, Xu; Liu, Han-Min; Gao, Ju; Li, Feng-Yi; Dong, Li-Qun; Luo, Chun-Hua

    2005-11-01

    To investigate the effect of truncated PDGF-alpha receptor on proliferation expression of c-sis mRNA of pulmonary artery vascular smooth muscular cells(VSMC). Tissue mass culture was done to get vascular smooth muscular cells of pulmonary artery. Different concentrations of truncated PDGF-alpha receptor and adenoviral recombined body (Ad5CMV-PalphaRtr, ACP) were added into the cultures. VSMC proliferation curves were obtained using MTT test. The expression of c-sis mRNA was detected by PCR. ACP at 5 ml/L and 10 ml/L concentrations restrained the proliferation of VSMC apparently with the peak of cell growth being attenuated or eliminated. The curve presented ascending tendency only after 7 days. Affected by 5 ml/L ACP, PDGF-BB exerted no significant accelerating effect on the proliferation of VSMC. The expression of c-sis mRNA was up-regulated under the effect of ACP. Affected by 5 ml/L ACP and PDGF-BB, the expression of c-sis mRNA was down-regulated. ACP at 5 ml/L and 10 ml/L concentration powerful inhibitor of cellular proliferation for pulmonary artery VSMC. It can increase c-sis mRNA expression significantly and the increase seems to be ACP dosage dependent.

  11. Alpha Shapes and Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Pawel; Sterner, Henrik; Sterner, Peter

    2009-01-01

    We provide a unified description of (weighted) alpha shapes, beta shapes and the corresponding simplicialcomplexes. We discuss their applicability to various protein-related problems. We also discuss filtrations of alpha shapes and touch upon related persistence issues.We claim that the full...... potential of alpha-shapes and related geometrical constructs in protein-related problems yet remains to be realized and verified. We suggest parallel algorithms for (weighted) alpha shapes, and we argue that future use of filtrations and kinetic variants for larger proteins will need such implementation....

  12. Involvement of the clock gene Rev-erb alpha in the regulation of glucagon secretion in pancreatic alpha-cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Vieira

    Full Text Available Disruption of pancreatic clock genes impairs pancreatic beta-cell function, leading to the onset of diabetes. Despite the importance of pancreatic alpha-cells in the regulation of glucose homeostasis and in diabetes pathophysiology, nothing is known about the role of clock genes in these cells. Here, we identify the clock gene Rev-erb alpha as a new intracellular regulator of glucagon secretion. Rev-erb alpha down-regulation by siRNA (60-70% inhibition in alphaTC1-9 cells inhibited low-glucose induced glucagon secretion (p<0.05 and led to a decrease in key genes of the exocytotic machinery. The Rev-erb alpha agonist GSK4112 increased glucagon secretion (1.6 fold and intracellular calcium signals in alphaTC1-9 cells and mouse primary alpha-cells, whereas the Rev-erb alpha antagonist SR8278 produced the opposite effect. At 0.5 mM glucose, alphaTC1-9 cells exhibited intrinsic circadian Rev-erb alpha expression oscillations that were inhibited by 11 mM glucose. In mouse primary alpha-cells, glucose induced similar effects (p<0.001. High glucose inhibited key genes controlled by AMPK such as Nampt, Sirt1 and PGC-1 alpha in alphaTC1-9 cells (p<0.05. AMPK activation by metformin completely reversed the inhibitory effect of glucose on Nampt-Sirt1-PGC-1 alpha and Rev-erb alpha. Nampt inhibition decreased Sirt1, PGC-1 alpha and Rev-erb alpha mRNA expression (p<0.01 and glucagon release (p<0.05. These findings identify Rev-erb alpha as a new intracellular regulator of glucagon secretion via AMPK/Nampt/Sirt1 pathway.

  13. The inhibitory effect of newer calcium antagonists (nimodipine and PY-108-068) on vasoconstriction in vivo mediated by postsynaptic alpha 2-adrenoceptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Meel, J. C. A.; Wilffert, B; De Zoeten, K; Timmermans, P B; Van Zwieten, P A

    1982-01-01

    In the pithed rat, stimulation of postsynaptic alpha 1 as well as alpha 2-adrenoceptors is known to cause vasoconstriction. The two newer nifedipine-related calcium antagonistic agents nimodipine and PY-108-068 proved potent inhibitors of pressor responses induced by the selective alpha 2-receptor

  14. Conditioning of alpha bearing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Alpha bearing wastes are generated during the reprocessing of spent fuel, mixed oxide fuel fabrication, decommissioning and other activities. The safe and effective management of these wastes is of particular importance owing to the radiotoxicity and long lived characteristics of certain transuranic (TRU) elements. The management of alpha bearing wastes involves a number of stages which include collection, characterization, segregation, treatment, conditioning, transport, storage and disposal. This report describes the currently available matrices and technologies for the conditioning of alpha wastes and relates them to their compatibility with the other stages of the waste management process. The selection of a specific immobilization process is dependent on the waste treatment state and the subsequent handling, transport, storage and disposal requirements. The overall objectives of immobilization are similar for all waste producers and processors, which are to produce: (a) Waste forms with sufficient mechanical, physical and chemical stability to satisfy all stages of handling, transport and storage (referred to as the short term requirements), and (b) Waste forms which will satisfy disposal requirements and inhibit the release of radionuclides to the biosphere (referred to as the long term requirements). Cement and bitumen processes have already been successfully applied to alpha waste conditioning on the industrial scale in many of the IAEA Member States. Cement systems based on BFS and pozzolanic cements have emerged as the principal encapsulation matrices for the full range of alpha bearing wastes. Alternative technologies, such as polymers and ceramics, are being developed for specific waste streams but are unlikely to meet widespread application owing to cost and process complexity. The merits of alpha waste conditioning are improved performance in transport, storage and disposal combined with enhanced public perception of waste management operations. These

  15. Alpha 1-blockers vs 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors in benign prostatic hyperplasia. A comparative review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J T

    1995-01-01

    During recent years, pharmacological treatment of symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) has become the primary treatment choice for an increasing number of patients. The 2 principal drug classes employed are alpha 1-blockers and 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors. Current information from...... of patients who will respond well to alpha 1-blockers have yet to be identified, and data concerning the long term effects of these drugs are not yet available. 5 alpha-Reductase inhibitors have a slow onset of effect, but treatment leads to improvement in symptoms, reduction of the size of the prostate gland...... or unwilling to undergo surgical resection of the prostate will benefit from such therapy....

  16. Influence of fast alpha diffusion and thermal alpha buildup on tokamak reactor performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uckan, N.A.; Tolliver, J.S.; Houlberg, W.A.; Attenberger, S.E.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of fast alpha diffusion and thermal alpha accumulation on the confinement capability of a candidate Engineering Test Reactor plasma (Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Reactor) in achieving ignition and steady-state driven operation has been assessed using both global and 1-1/2-dimensional transport models. Estimates are made of the threshold for radial diffusion of fast alphas and thermal alpha buildup. It is shown that a relatively low level of radial transport, when combined with large gradients in the fast alpha density, leads to a significant radial flow with a deleterious effect on plasma performance. Similarly, modest levels of thermal alpha concentration significantly influence the ignition and steady-state burn capability

  17. New insights into the effectiveness of alpha-amylase enzyme presentation on the Bacillus subtilis spore surface by adsorption and covalent immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gashtasbi, Fatemeh; Ahmadian, Gholamreza; Noghabi, Kambiz Akbari

    2014-10-01

    Most of the studies in the field of enzyme immobilization have sought to develop a simple, efficient and cost-effective immobilization system. In this study, probiotic Bacillus spores were used as a matrix for enzyme immobilization, because of their inherent resistance to extreme temperatures, UV irradiation, solvents and drying. Above all, their preparation is cost-effective. The alpha-amylase enzyme was immobilized on the spore surface by the covalent and adsorption methods. For the covalent method, 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) and N hydroxysulfosuccinimide (NHS) were used. The maximum concentration of the alpha-amylase immobilized by the two methods onto the spore surface was 360 μg/1.2×10(11) spore. However, maximum activity was achieved at an enzyme concentration of approximately 60 μg/.4×10(10), corresponding to an estimated activity of 8×10(3) IU mg(-1)/1.2×10(11) spore for covalent immobilization and 8.53×10(3) for the adsorption method. After washing the enzyme with 1M NaCl and 0.5% Triton X-100, the enzyme immobilization yield was estimated to be 77% and 20.07% for the covalent and adsorption methods, respectively. The alpha-amylase immobilized by both methods, displayed improved activity in the basic pH range. The optimum pH for the free enzyme was 5 while it shifted to 8 for the immobilized enzyme. The optimum temperatures for the free and immobilized enzymes were 60 °C and 80 °C, respectively. The covalently-immobilized alpha-amylase retained 65% of its initial activity, even after 10 times of recycling. The Km and Vmax values were determined by the GraphPad Prism software, which showed that the Vmax value decreased moderately after immobilization. This is the first study which reports the covalent immobilization of an enzyme on the spore surface. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Targeted Alpha Therapy: From Alpha to Omega

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, Barry J; Clarke, Raymond; Huang Chenyu

    2013-01-01

    This review covers the broad spectrum of Targeted Alpha Therapy (TAT) research in Australia; from in vitro and in vivo studies to clinical trials. The principle of tumour anti-vascular alpha therapy (TAVAT) is discussed in terms of its validation by Monte Carlo calculations of vascular models and the potential role of biological dosimetry is examined. Summmary of this review is as follows: 1. The essence of TAT 2. Therapeutic objectives 3. TAVAT and Monte Carlo microdosimetry 4. Biological dosimetry 5. Preclinical studies 6. Clinical trials 7. What next? 8. Obstacles. (author)

  19. Effect of proteasome inhibitors on monocytic IkappaB-alpha and -beta depletion, NF-kappaB activation, and cytokine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, M; Page, S; Page, M; Neumann, F J; Marx, N; Adam, M; Ziegler-Heitbrock, H W; Neumeier, D; Brand, K

    1998-03-01

    We investigated the effect of proteasome inhibitors on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced expression of several monocytic cytokines, which may be dependent on the transcription factor, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB). Exposure of human monocytic THP-1 cells to ALLN and Mu873 prevented the LPS-induced degradation of IkappaB-alpha and -beta, as did the more potent proteasome inhibitor, PSI, whereas several calpain inhibitors were ineffective. This was accompanied by the inhibition of nuclear NF-kappaB binding activity and NF-kappaB transcriptional activation. At the mRNA level, the inhibitors blocked the expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), whereas IL-8 remained unaffected by ALLN and was only partially reduced by the highest dose of PSI. The latter effect appears to be due to an increase in IL-8 mRNA stability in the presence of proteasome inhibitors. Furthermore, the production of TNF was efficiently suppressed by ALLN and PSI, less by Mu873, and not at all by calpain inhibitors. In primary human blood monocytes ALLN also prevented the LPS-induced degradation of IkappaB-alpha and -beta, efficiently blocked the production of TNF and, to a lesser extent, IL-1beta, whereas that of IL-8 was not inhibited. The expression of NF-kappaB-dependent monocytic cytokines may be selectively controlled by the proteasome, offering a potential therapeutic target in inflammatory disease.

  20. [Effects of electro-warmed needle of inner-Mongolian medicine on serum TNF-alpha, ACTH and corticosterone contents in fatigue rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-song; Lu, Jun; Su-Chao, Lu-men; Wu, Qi-zhu; Tu, Ya; Agula

    2008-08-01

    To observe the effect of electro-warmed needle (EWN, of Inner-Mongolian medicine) on fatigue rats' behavior, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortex (HPA) axis activity and immune system so as to reveal its neuro-endocrino-immune mechanism. Male SD rats were randomized into control (n=20), model (n=20) and EWN (n=19) groups. Fatigue model was established by forcing the rat to swim in a water pool till exhaustion, once daily, continuously for 21 days. "Dinghui" (central spot over the bregmatic bone) and "Xinxue" (the center of the depression beneath the 7th thoracic vertebra) were punctured with silver needles which were warmed electrically by using a MLY-I Electrical Needle-warming Apparatus, once every 3 days, 7 sessions altogether. On the 21st day of modeling, swim-exhaustion duration (SED), and immobility time and struggle times in tail suspension test were measured. Twenty-four hours after the last swim, the rats' serum TNF-alpha, ACTH an corticosterone contents were detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Compared with control group SED, immobility time and struggle times in tail suspension test in model group decreased, increased and lowered respectively and significantly (P 0.05). Compared with control group, serum TNF-alpha, ACTH and corticosterone contents in model group increased significantly (P < 0.01), while in comparison with model group, the 3 indexes of EWN group were significantly lower (P < 0.01, 0.05). EWN treatment can reduce fatigue-induced increase of serum TNF-alpha, ACTH and corticosterone levels, and raise motor ability, suggesting a favorable regulation of HPA axis and immune function after EWN and improvement of fatigue in fatigue

  1. Biomonitoring of the adverse effects induced by the chronic exposure to lead and cadmium on kidney function: Usefulness of alpha-glutathione S-transferase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcon, Guillaume [LCE EA2598, Toxicologie Industrielle et Environnementale, Maison de la Recherche en Environnement Industriel de Dunkerque 2, 189A, Avenue Maurice Schumann, 59140 Dunkerque (France); Leleu, Bruno [Laboratoire Universitaire de Medecine du Travail et Environnement, Faculte de Medecine - Pole Recherche, 01, place de Verdun, 59045 Lille Cedex (France); Marez, Thierry [LCE EA2598, Toxicologie Industrielle et Environnementale, Maison de la Recherche en Environnement Industriel de Dunkerque 2, 189A, Avenue Maurice Schumann, 59140 Dunkerque (France); Zerimech, Farid [Laboratoire de Biochimie et de Biologie Moleculaire, Hopital Huriez, 01, Place de Verdun, 59045 Lille Cedex (France); Haguenoer, Jean-Marie [Laboratoire de Toxicologie, Sante Publique et Environnement, Faculte des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, 03, Rue du Pr. Laguesse, BP 83, 59006 Lille Cedex (France); Furon, Daniel [Laboratoire Universitaire de Medecine du Travail et Environnement, Faculte de Medecine - Pole Recherche, 01, place de Verdun, 59045 Lille Cedex (France); Shirali, Pirouz [LCE EA2598, Toxicologie Industrielle et Environnementale, Maison de la Recherche en Environnement Industriel de Dunkerque 2, 189A, Avenue Maurice Schumann, 59140 Dunkerque (France)]. E-mail: Pirouz.Shirali@univ-littoral.fr

    2007-05-15

    A successful prevention of renal diseases induced by occupational exposure to lead (Pb) and/or cadmium (Cd) largely relies on the capability to detect nephrotoxic effects at a stage when they are still reversible or at least not yet compromising renal function. Hence, the aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the usefulness of a set of early biological markers of oxidative stress or nephrotoxicity for the biomonitoring of workers occupationally exposed to Pb and/or Cd in a non-ferrous metal smelter, and gender, age, socioeconomic status, smoking habits, and drug use-matched control individuals. In exposed subjects, mean levels of Pb in blood and urine were also 387.1 {+-} 99.1 {mu}g Pb/L (1.868 {+-} 0.478 {mu}mol Pb/L) and 217.7 {+-} 117.7 {mu}g Pb/g creatinine (1.051 {+-} 0.568 {mu}mol Pb/g creatinine), and mean levels of Cd in blood and urine were 3.26 {+-} 2.11 {mu}g Cd/L (0.029 {+-} 0.019 {mu}mol Cd/L) and 2.51 {+-} 1.89 {mu}g Cd/g creatinine (0.022 {+-} 0.017 {mu}mol Cd/g creatinine), suggesting thereby relatively low occupational exposure levels. Statistically significant variations in zinc protoporphyrin, malondialdehyde, retinol binding protein, alpha-glutathione S-transferase, and urinary protein levels were reported between the two groups, and were closely correlated with Pb and/or Cd exposure levels. Variations in {alpha}GST levels were closely associated with Pb exposure. Taken together, these results suggest the use of alpha-glutathione S-transferase excretion in urine as a hallmark of early changes in the proximal tubular integrity.

  2. Minimal Effects of Age and Exposure to a Noisy Environment on Hearing in Alpha9 Nicotinic Receptor Knockout Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda M. Lauer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies have suggested a role of weakened medial olivocochlear (OC efferent feedback in accelerated hearing loss and increased susceptibility to noise. The present study investigated the progression of hearing loss with age and exposure to a noisy environment in medial OC-deficient mice. Alpha9 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor knockout (α9KO and wild types were screened for hearing loss using auditory brainstem responses. α9KO mice housed in a quiet environment did not show increased hearing loss compared to wild types in young adulthood and middle age. Challenging the medial OC system by housing in a noisy environment did not increase hearing loss in α9KO mice compared to wild types. ABR wave 1 amplitudes also did not show differences between α9KO mice and wild types. These data suggest that deficient medial OC feedback does not result in early onset of hearing loss.

  3. Alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolk, Jan; Seersholm, Niels; Kalsheker, Noor

    2006-01-01

    The Alpha One International Registry (AIR), a multinational research program focused on alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency, was formed in response to a World Health Organization recommendation. Each of the nearly 20 participating countries maintains a national registry of patients with AAT defic...... epidemiology, inflammatory and signalling processes, therapeutic advances, and lung imaging techniques....

  4. Effects of Prolastin C (Plasma-Derived Alpha-1 Antitrypsin) on the acute inflammatory response in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (from the VCU-alpha 1-RT pilot study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbate, A.; Tassell, B.W. Van; Christopher, S.; Abouzaki, N.A.; Sonnino, C.; Oddi, C.; Carbone, S.; Melchior, R.D.; Gambill, M.L.; Roberts, C.S.; Kontos, M.C.; Peberdy, M.A.; Toldo, S.; Vetrovec, G.W.; Biondi-Zoccai, G.; Dinarello, C.A.

    2015-01-01

    Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) has broad anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating properties in addition to inhibiting serine proteases. Administration of human plasma-derived AAT is protective in models of acute myocardial infarction in mice. The objective of this study was to determine the safety and

  5. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) modulates the effect of serum albumin on brain development by restraining the neurotrophic effect of oleic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-García, Alejandro G; Polo-Hernández, Erica; Tabernero, Arantxa; Medina, José M

    2015-10-22

    We have previously shown that serum albumin controls perinatal rat brain development through the regulation of oleic acid synthesis by astrocytes. In fact, oleic acid synthesized and released by astrocytes promoted neurite growth, neuron migration and the arrangement of prospective synapses. In this work we show that alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is also present in the brain during embryonic development, its concentrations peaking at E15.5 and at E19.5. However, after E19.5 AFP concentrations plummeted concurrently with a sharp increase in serum albumin concentrations. At E15.5, AFP is present in caudal regions of the brain, particularly in brain areas undergoing differentiation during this period, such as the thalamic reticular nucleus of the thalamus, the hypothalamus, the amygdala and the hippocampus. Albumin was not detected in the brain at E15.5 but stained brain cells substantially on day E19.5, showing a very similar distribution to that of AFP under the same circumstances. The concentrations of free oleic acid in the brain were inversely correlated with those of AFP, suggesting that the signals elicited by AFP and oleic acid can be inversely associated. GAP-43, a marker of axonal growth that is highly expressed by the presence of oleic acid, was not co-localized with AFP except in the marginal zone and areas delimiting the subplate. AFP prevented the increase in GAP-43 expression caused by the presence of oleic acid in neurons in primary culture in vitro and in organotypic cultures of embryonic rat brain ex vivo, suggesting that AFP may modulate the effect of serum albumin on brain development. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of Alpha Particle and Proton Beam Irradiation as Putative Cross-Talk between A549 Cancer Cells and the Endothelial Cells in a Co-Culture System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riquier, Hélène; Abel, Denis; Wera, Anne-Catherine; Heuskin, Anne-Catherine; Genard, Géraldine; Lucas, Stéphane; Michiels, Carine

    2015-01-01

    Background: High-LET ion irradiation is being more and more often used to control tumors in patients. Given that tumors are now considered as complex organs composed of multiple cell types that can influence radiosensitivity, we investigated the effects of proton and alpha particle irradiation on the possible radioprotective cross-talk between cancer and endothelial cells. Materials and Methods: We designed new irradiation chambers that allow co-culture study of cells irradiated with a particle beam. A549 lung carcinoma cells and endothelial cells (EC) were exposed to 1.5 Gy of proton beam or 1 and 2 Gy of alpha particles. Cell responses were studied by clonogenic assays and cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry. Gene expression studies were performed using Taqman low density array and by RT-qPCR. Results: A549 cells and EC displayed similar survival fraction and they had similar cell cycle distribution when irradiated alone or in co-culture. Both types of irradiation induced the overexpression of genes involved in cell growth, inflammation and angiogenesis. Conclusions: We set up new irradiation chamber in which two cell types were irradiated together with a particle beam. We could not show that tumor cells and endothelial cells were able to protect each other from particle irradiation. Gene expression changes were observed after particle irradiation that could suggest a possible radioprotective inter-cellular communication between the two cell types but further investigations are needed to confirm these results

  7. Acute hypoxic stress: Effect on blood parameters, antioxidant enzymes, and expression of HIF-1alpha and GLUT-1 genes in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S; Yan, T; Wu, H; Xiao, Q; Fu, H M; Luo, J; Zhou, J; Zhao, L L; Wang, Y; Yang, S Y; Sun, J L; Ye, X; Li, S J

    2017-08-01

    Dissolved oxygen (DO) plays a crucial role in survival, growth, and normal physiological functions of aquatic organisms. Nevertheless, the mechanisms involved in hypoxic stress and adaptation have not been fully elucidated in Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). To reveal the effect of acute hypoxia on Largemouth bass, we simulated acute hypoxia (DO: 1.2 ± 0.2 mg/L) in the laboratory and analyzed physiological parameters (RBCs, Hb, SOD, CAT, NA + /K + -ATPase, GPx, and MDA) and gene expression (HIF-1alpha and GLUT-1) in Largemouth bass exposed to various durations of acute hypoxia (0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h). Our results indicated that acute hypoxic exposure significantly increased RBCs but decreased Hb. In addition, antioxidant enzyme activity was enhanced significantly in the liver and muscles at the initial stage of acute hypoxic exposure, but decreased significantly in gills during the entire process of hypoxic exposure. Furthermore, the expression levels of HIF-1alpha and GLUT-1 mRNA were significantly up-regulated in Largemouth bass under acute hypoxic exposure. In conclusion, our study provides a valuable basis for further elucidation of hypoxic adaptation and facilitates husbandry for an economically valuable species. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. In vivo effects of 5. 3 MeV alpha particles from sup 210 Po in mouse testes: comparison with internal Auger emitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, D.V.; Narra, V.R.; Govelitz, G.F.; Lanka, V.K.; Howell, R.W. (University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, NJ (USA). Dept. of Radiology); Sastry, K.S.R. (Massachusetts Univ., Amherst, MA (USA). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy)

    1990-01-01

    Using spermatogenesis in the mouse testis as the experimental model, we have investigated the in vivo effects of 5.3 MeV {alpha} particles in the decay of {sup 210}Po localised in the organ. Spermatogonial cell killing and induction of abnormal shapes in epididymal sperm are the biological end points. The mean lethal dose (D{sub 37}) to the organ at 37% survival of spermatogonia is 100 mGy, while a dose of 5 mGy doubles the fraction of abnormal sperm in the epididymis. In contrast to these findings with densely ionising {alpha} particles are our results for the sparsely ionising 477 keV photons from internal {sup 7}Be, with D{sub 37} = 670 mGy, and 250 mGy for a doubling of the abnormal sperm fraction. These results, and those obtained with several internal Auger emitters in the same model, are examined in terms of radionuclide localisation and radiation quality. (author).

  9. Effects of Alpha Particle and Proton Beam Irradiation as Putative Cross-Talk between A549 Cancer Cells and the Endothelial Cells in a Co-Culture System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riquier, Hélène; Abel, Denis [URBC-NARILIS, University of Namur, 61 rue de Bruxelles, Namur 5000 (Belgium); Wera, Anne-Catherine; Heuskin, Anne-Catherine [LARN-PMR, NARILIS, University of Namur, Namur 5000 (Belgium); Genard, Géraldine [URBC-NARILIS, University of Namur, 61 rue de Bruxelles, Namur 5000 (Belgium); Lucas, Stéphane [LARN-PMR, NARILIS, University of Namur, Namur 5000 (Belgium); Michiels, Carine, E-mail: carine.michiels@unamur.be [URBC-NARILIS, University of Namur, 61 rue de Bruxelles, Namur 5000 (Belgium)

    2015-03-18

    Background: High-LET ion irradiation is being more and more often used to control tumors in patients. Given that tumors are now considered as complex organs composed of multiple cell types that can influence radiosensitivity, we investigated the effects of proton and alpha particle irradiation on the possible radioprotective cross-talk between cancer and endothelial cells. Materials and Methods: We designed new irradiation chambers that allow co-culture study of cells irradiated with a particle beam. A549 lung carcinoma cells and endothelial cells (EC) were exposed to 1.5 Gy of proton beam or 1 and 2 Gy of alpha particles. Cell responses were studied by clonogenic assays and cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry. Gene expression studies were performed using Taqman low density array and by RT-qPCR. Results: A549 cells and EC displayed similar survival fraction and they had similar cell cycle distribution when irradiated alone or in co-culture. Both types of irradiation induced the overexpression of genes involved in cell growth, inflammation and angiogenesis. Conclusions: We set up new irradiation chamber in which two cell types were irradiated together with a particle beam. We could not show that tumor cells and endothelial cells were able to protect each other from particle irradiation. Gene expression changes were observed after particle irradiation that could suggest a possible radioprotective inter-cellular communication between the two cell types but further investigations are needed to confirm these results.

  10. Effectiveness of mouse interferon alpha/beta compared to single-agent chemotherapy in increasing survival time of mice after intravenous inoculation of Friend erythroleukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresser, I; Maury, C; Belardelli, F; Maunoury, M T; Machover, D

    1988-03-16

    DBA/2 mice received an iv injection of 2 X 10(6) Friend erythroleukemia cells (FLCs; approximately equal to 4 X 10(5) lethal dose50), which multiplied rapidly in the liver and spleen and killed all untreated or control treated mice between 7 and 12 days. Daily interferon (IFN) treatment resulted in a very marked increase in survival time and apparent cure of 4 of 22 tumor-inoculated mice. In contrast, treatment of tumor-injected (iv) mice with cyclophosphamide, 5-fluorouracil, and methotrexate increased survival time by only a few days; and treatment of mice with cisplatin, vincristine, doxorubicin, bleomycin, or etoposide was ineffective. However, when FLCs were injected ip, both cytostatic drugs and IFN exerted an antitumor effect. We conclude that IFN alpha/beta was particularly effective in inhibiting the development of liver and spleen metastases and in increasing mouse survival time after iv inoculation of FLCs.

  11. Genetics Home Reference: alpha thalassemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Alpha thalassemia Alpha thalassemia Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Alpha thalassemia is a blood disorder that reduces the production ...

  12. Calibration of alpha surface contamination monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, I.S.M. de; Goncalez, O.L.

    1990-01-01

    In this work, the results, as well as the methodology, of the calibration of an alpha surface contamination monitor are presented. The calibration factors are obtained by least-squares fitting with effective variance. (author)

  13. Effect of the cross-talk between autophagy and endoplasmic reticulum stress on Mn-induced alpha-synuclein oligomerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Yan, Dong-Ying; Tan, Xuan; Ma, Zhuo; Wang, Can; Deng, Yu; Liu, Wei; Yang, Tian-Yao; Xu, Zhao-Fa; Xu, Bin

    2018-03-01

    Overexposure to manganese (Mn) has been known to induce alpha-synuclein (α-Syn) oligomerization, which is degraded mainly depending on endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) and autophagy pathways. However, little data reported the cross-talk between ER stress and autophagy on Mn-induced α-Syn oligomerization. To explore the relationship between ER stress and autophagy, we used 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA, the ER stress inhibitor), rapamycin (Rap, autophagy activator) and 3-methyladenine (3-MA, autophagy inhibitor) in mice model of manganism. After 4 weeks of treatment with Mn, both ER stress and autophagy were activated. Exposed to Mn also resulted in α-Syn oligomerization and neuronal cell damage in the brain tissue of mice, which could be relieved by 4-PBA pretreatment. Moreover, when the ER stress was inhibited, the activation of autophagy was also inhibited. Rap pretreatment significantly activated autophagy and decreased α-Syn oligomers. However, 3-MA pretreatment inhibited autophagy resulting in increase of α-Syn oligomers, and compensatorily activated PERK signaling pathway. Our results also demonstrated that the inhibition of autophagy by 3-MA aggravated neuronal cell damage. The findings clearly demonstrated that the cross-talking between autophagy and ER stress might play an important role in the α-Syn oligomerization and neurotoxicity by Mn. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Effect of the level of dietary protein on the utilization of alpha-ketoisocaproate for protein synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, C.W.; Tungsanga, K.; Walser, M.

    1986-04-01

    The efficiency of alpha-ketoisocaproate (KIC) as a dietary substitute for leucine in rats on varying protein intake was estimated by an isotopic method, previously shown to yield the same results as comparative growth experiments. /sup 14/C-KIC and /sup 3/H-leucine are injected orally. Six hours later the ratio, R, of /sup 14/C//sup 3/H in isolated proteins, divided by the same ratio in the injectate is measured. This ratio has been shown to be approximately equal to nutritional efficiency of KIC relative to leucine. As dietary protein increased from 6.3% to 48.3%, whole body protein R decreased from 0.515 +/- 0.045 to 0.299 +/- 0.016. Variations with protein intake were noted in R of protein isolated from individual organs. The magnitude of R in these organs varied two-fold, in the following sequence: brain greater than heart greater than or equal to skeletal muscle greater than or equal to salivary gland greater than or equal to kidney greater than liver. Whole body protein R could be confidently predicted (r2 = 0.992) from R in the protein of kidney and muscle. Thus, the nutritional efficiency of KIC as a dietary substitute for leucine in individual organs as well as in the whole animal is strongly dependent on the level of protein intake.

  15. Effect ALPHA Globalin Gene Deletion and GAMMA Globin Gene -158 (C/T) Polymorphism in BETA- Thalassaemic Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL Serafi, T.I.; Ismail, E.F.; Mahmoud, M.A.; Mohamed, M.A.; Ghattas, M.H.; Badran, D.I.; El Serafi, I.T.; Mohamed, H.S.

    2008-01-01

    The beta-thalassemias (β- thalassemias) are among the most common autosomal recessive disorders. They have a remarkably high frequency in the Mediterranean region and represent one of the most common genetic diseases in Egypt. In this study, the spectrum of P- thalassemia mutations and genotype-to-phenotype correlations were defined in 32 β- thalassaemic patients (β- thalassemias major and intermedia) with varying disease severity in two cities of the Suez Canal region. Ten different mutations were identified and the most frequent ones were: Isi-6 (T-C) (37.5%), IVSI-110 (G-A) (34.4%) and both IVSI-1 (G-A), IVSII-745 (C-G) and -102 (C-G) (12.5% each). There was a wide spectrum of phenotypic severity in all patients. We studied the Xmnl polymorphism (C/T) in γ- globin gene position -158 of P- thalassemia as a modulating factor of the disease severity. Presence of the polymorphism was found in two patients and this was not sufficient to explain the diversity of the phenotype encountered. Co-inheritance of alpha thalassaemia as a modulating factor was not evident in our patients. In conclusion, we have been unable to find a molecular basis for the benign clinical course in all our patients. Other genetic or acquired factors must be hypothesized which ameliorate the clinical condition.

  16. Comparison of the cytotoxic effect of lapachol, alpha-lapachone and pentacyclic 1,4-naphthoquinones on human leukemic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salustiano, Eduardo J S; Netto, Chaquip D; Fernandes, Renata F; da Silva, Alcides J M; Bacelar, Thiago S; Castro, Carolina P; Buarque, Camilla D; Maia, Raquel C; Rumjanek, Vivian M; Costa, Paulo R R

    2010-04-01

    The pentacyclic 1,4-naphthoquinones 1a-d were cytotoxic (IC(50) approximately 2-7 microM) to human leukemic cell lines K562 (oxidative stress-resistant), Lucena-1 (MDR phenotype) and Daudi. Fresh leukemic cells obtained from patients, some with the MDR phenotype, were also sensitive to these compounds. The pentacyclic 1,4-naphthoquinones 1a and 1c induced apoptotic cell death in cells from leukemic patients as determined by flow cytometry. Conversely, the cell lines were highly insensitive to lapachol (2) and alpha-lapachone (3). Mitomycin-C inhibited cell proliferation at concentrations as low as 0.5 microM. The low toxicity against lymphocytes activated by phytohemagglutinin shows that these compounds are selective for the cancer cells studied. Previous data suggest that these compounds (1a-d) can be bioactivated in situ by reduction followed by rearrangement leading to enones, which are powerful alkylating agents. In contrast, lapachol (2) and beta-lapachone (3), which cannot be bioactivated by reduction, showed little activity against the same cell lines.

  17. The novel hypoxic cytotoxin, TX-2098 has antitumor effect in pancreatic cancer; possible mechanism through inhibiting VEGF and hypoxia inducible factor-1{alpha} targeted gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, Kotaro, E-mail: hif.panc@gmail.com [Department of Surgery, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Tokushima 770-8503 (Japan); Nishioka, Masanori; Imura, Satoru; Batmunkh, Erdenebulgan [Department of Surgery, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Tokushima 770-8503 (Japan); Uto, Yoshihiro [Department of Biological Science and Technology, Institute of Socio Technosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Tokushima 770-8503 (Japan); Nagasawa, Hideko [Laboratory of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry, Gifu Pharmaceutical University, Gifu 501-1196 (Japan); Hori, Hitoshi [Department of Biological Science and Technology, Institute of Socio Technosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Tokushima 770-8503 (Japan); Shimada, Mitsuo [Department of Surgery, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Tokushima 770-8503 (Japan)

    2012-08-01

    Tumor hypoxia has been considered to be a potential therapeutic target, because hypoxia is a common feature of solid tumors and is associated with their malignant phenotype. In the present study, we investigated the antitumor effect of a novel hypoxic cytotoxin, 3-[2-hydroxyethyl(methyl)amino]-2-quinoxalinecarbonitrile 1,4-dioxide (TX-2098) in inhibiting the expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}), and consequently vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) expression in pancreatic cancer. The antitumor effects of TX-2098 under hypoxia were tested against various human pancreatic cancer cell lines using WST-8 assay. VEGF protein induced pancreatic cancer was determined on cell-free supernatant by ELISA. Moreover, nude mice bearing subcutaneously (s.c.) or orthotopically implanted human SUIT-2 were treated with TX-2098. Tumor volume, survival and expression of HIF-1 and associated molecules were evaluated in treatment versus control groups. In vitro, TX-2098 inhibited the proliferation of various pancreatic cancer cell lines. In s.c model, tumors from nude mice injected with pancreatic cancer cells and treated with TX-2098 showed significant reductions in volume (P < 0.01 versus control). Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR analysis revealed that TX-2098 significantly inhibited mRNA expression of the HIF-1 associated molecules, VEGF, glucose transporter 1 and Aldolase A (P < 0.01 versus control). These treatments also prolong the survival in orthotopic models. These results suggest that the effect of TX-2098 in pancreatic cancer might be correlated with the expression of VEGF and HIF-1 targeted molecules. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We designed and synthesized novel hypoxic cytoxin, TX-2098. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TX-2098 inhibited the proliferation of human pancreatic cancer cells than TPZ. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TX-2098 reduced VEGF protein level than TPZ. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TX-2098

  18. The effect of clomethiazole on plasma concentrations of interleukin-6, -8, -1beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and neutrophil adhesion molecule expression during experimental extracorporeal circulation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Harmon, D

    2012-02-03

    Clomethiazole (CMZ), a neuroprotective drug, has antiinflammatory actions. We investigated the effects of CMZ administration on plasma concentrations of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-1beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and neutrophil adhesion molecule expression during experimental extracorporeal circulation. Five healthy volunteers each donated 500 mL of blood, which was subsequently divided into equal portions. Identical extracorporeal circuits were simultaneously primed with donated blood (250 mL) and circulated for 2 h at 37 degrees C. CMZ was added to 1 of the circuits of each pair to achieve a total plasma concentration of 40 micro mol\\/L. Blood samples were withdrawn at (i) donation, (ii) immediately after addition of CMZ, and at (iii) 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after commencing circulation. Plasma concentrations of IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha were less in the CMZ group compared with control after 60 min of circulation (2.2 [0.3] versus 3.2 [0.4], 14.9 [4.8] versus 21.9 [18.4], 63.3 [43.5] versus 132.2 [118.9] pg\\/mL, respectively, P < 0.05). After 120 min of circulation, neutrophils from CMZ-treated circuits showed significantly less CD18 expression compared with control (237.5 [97.4] versus 280.5 [111.5], P = 0.03). The addition of CMZ to experimental extracorporeal circuits decreases the inflammatory response. This effect may be of clinical benefit by decreasing inflammatory-mediated neurological injury during cardiopulmonary bypass. IMPLICATIONS: Enhancement of gamma-aminobutyric acid(A)-mediated effects by clomethiazole (CMZ) and associated neuroprotection has been established in animal models of cerebral ischemia. In an ex vivo study, we demonstrated antiinflammatory activity of CMZ in experimental extracorporeal circulation. This represents a potential neuroprotective mechanism of CMZ in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery.

  19. The Neuroprotective Effect of Alcoholic Extract of Cannabis Sativa on Neuronal Density of Spinal Cord Alpha Motoneurons after Sciatic Nerve Injury in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Tehranipour

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Injuries of the peripheral nerve system affect the neurons cell body leading to axon injury. Cannabis sativa plant has anti oxidant and anti apoptotic effects. Therefore the aim of present study was to study the neuroprotective effect of alcoholic extract of cannabis sativa leaves on neuronal density of alpha motoneurons in spinal cord after sciatic nerve injury in rats. Methods: In this experimental research, animals were divided into four groups; A: control, B: compression, C: compression+ treatment with 25 mg/kg alcoholic extract, D: compression + treatment with 50 mg/kg extract (n=8. At first, sciatic nerve compression in B, C and D groups was achieved for 60 seconds using locker pincers. Alcoholic extract was injected intra peritoneally in the first and second weeks after compression. Then 28 days after compression, under profusion method, the lumbar spinal cord was sampled and the numerical density in each group was compared with the compression group. The data was analyzed with the use of Minitab 14 software and ANOVA statistical test. Results: Neuronal density showed a meaningful difference in the compression and control groups(P<0.001. Neuronal density in treatment groups(25, 50 mg/kg also had a meaningful increase(P<0.001 as compared to the compression group. Conclusion: Alcoholic extract of cannabis sativa leaves has a neuroprotective effect on spinal cord alpha motoneurons after injury. This could be due to growth and regeneration factors present in the alcoholic extract of cannabis sativa leaves that induce regeneration process in injured neurons or prevent degeneration.

  20. Cytokine vaccination: neutralising IL-1alpha autoantibodies induced by immunisation with homologous IL-1alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenson, M; Hansen, M B; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    2000-01-01

    High-affinity IgG autoantibodies (aAb) to IL-1alpha are among the most frequently found aAb to cytokines in humans. To establish an animal model with aAb to IL-1alpha, we immunised mice with recombinant murine IL-1alpha. Unprimed and Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG)-primed BALB/cA mice were vaccinated...... in mice by vaccination with recombinant murine IL-1alpha conjugated to PPD. Studies of the effects of IL-1alpha aAb in such animals may help clarify the importance of naturally occurring IL-1alpha aAb in humans and permit the evaluation of future therapies with cytokine aAb in patients...... with IL-1alpha coupled to purified protein derivative of tuberculin (PPD). Both unprimed and primed animals developed IgG aAb to IL-1alpha. These aAb persisted at high levels more than 100 days after vaccination and did not cross-react with murine IL-1beta. The induced anti-IL-1alpha aAb inhibited binding...