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Sample records for alpha reduced widths

  1. Analysis of reduced widths and size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, H.C.; Ram Raj; Nath, N.

    1977-01-01

    Recent data on S-wave neutron reduced widths for a large number of nuclei have been analysed nucleus-wise and the calculations for the degree of freedom of the associated (chi) 2 -distribution have been made using the Porter and Thomas procedure. It is noted that a number of nuclei can be fitted by a (chi) 2 -distribution with degree of freedom one, while there are few which are identified to follow a (chi) 2 -distribution with degree of freedom two and even more than two. The present analysis thus contradicts the usual presumption according to which the degree of freedom is taken to be always unity. An analytical attempt has also been made to ascertain the suitability of the data on reduced widths to be used for the analysis. These considerations are likely to modify the neutron cross-section evaluations. (author)

  2. Comparison of alpha decay and alpha transfer reactions in the lead region. [R matrix theory, absolute alpha widths, cross sections, 93 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVries, R.M.

    1978-01-01

    Data were taken for five transitions in the lead region allowing a quantitative comparison with corresponding alpha-decay data via R-matrix theory using the same target + alpha nuclear potential. Good agreement between the absolute reduced widths determined from the two sets of data suggests that in transfer reactions, as in alpha decay, an alpha particle in its ground state is transferred in a one-step process. In a separate analysis, elastic and total reaction cross sections for the systems ..cap alpha.. + /sup 208/Pb, /sup 209/Bi were analyzed to obtain a limited set of potentials which, in turn, were used to calculate absolute alpha widths. Existing shell model calculations give ..gamma../sub ..cap alpha..//sup 2/ values three orders of magnitude smaller.

  3. Correlations for reduced-width amplitudes in 49V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, B.H.; Mitchell, G.E.; Bilpuch, E.G.; Westerfeldt, C.R.

    1980-01-01

    Measurement of the relative sign of inelastic proton-channel amplitudes permits the determination of amplitude correlations. Data were obtained for 45 5/2 + resonances in 49 V. Although the reduced widths in each channel followed a Porter-Thomas distribution, large amplitude correlations were observed. The results are compared with the reduced-width--amplitude distribution of Krieger and Porter. This is the first direct test of the Krieger-Porter distribution

  4. Statistical analysis of s-wave neutron reduced widths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandita Anita; Agrawal, H.M.

    1992-01-01

    The fluctuations of the s-wave neutron reduced widths for many nuclei have been analyzed with emphasis on recent measurements by a statistical procedure which is based on the method of maximum likelihood. It is shown that the s-wave neutron reduced widths of nuclei follow single channel Porter Thomas distribution (x 2 -distribution with degree of freedom ν = 1) for most of the cases. However there are apparent deviations from ν = 1 and possible explanation and significance of this deviation is given. These considerations are likely to modify the evaluation of neutron cross section. (author)

  5. Statistical analysis of P-wave neutron reduced widths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, G.C.; Agrawal, H.M.

    2000-01-01

    The fluctuations of the p-wave neutron reduced widths for fifty one nuclei have been analyzed with emphasis on recent measurements by a statistical procedure which is based on the method of maximum likelihood. It is shown that the p-wave neutron reduced widths of even-even nuclei fallow single channel Porter Thomas distribution (χ 2 -distribution with degree of freedom ν=1) for most of the cases where there are no intermediate structure. It is emphasized that the distribution in nuclei other than even-even may differ from a χ 2 -distribution with one degree of freedom. Possible explanation and significance of this deviation from ν=1 is given. (author)

  6. Facial Width-To-Height Ratio Relates to Alpha Status and Assertive Personality in Capuchin Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefevre, Carmen Emilia; Wilson, Vanessa A. D.; Morton, F. Blake; Brosnan, Sarah F.; Paukner, Annika; Bates, Timothy C.

    2014-01-01

    Social dominance hierarchies play a pivotal role in shaping the behaviour of many species, and sex differences within these hierarchies often exist. To date, however, few physical markers of dominance have been identified. Such markers would be valuable in terms of understanding the etiology of dominant behaviour and changes in social hierarchies over time. Animals may also use such traits to evaluate the potential dominance of others relative to themselves (i.e. a physical “cue”). Facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR), for example, has been suggested as a cue to dominance in humans, with links to both dominant behaviour and the perception of dominance in other individuals. Whether this association is present in non-human animals is currently not known. Therefore, here we examine within-species links between fWHR and dominant behaviour in 64 brown capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp.) aged between 2 and 40 years. fWHR was positively associated with alpha status and with a dimensional rating of assertive personality in both males and females. Moreover, fWHR showed significant sexual dimorphism in adults but not juveniles, suggesting a developmental change may occur during puberty. In a sub-sample, sex differences were mediated by weight, suggesting fWHR dimorphism does not exceed what would be expected by differences in body weight. This is the first report of an association between face shape and behaviour in a non-human species. Results are discussed in terms of the role that face-behaviour associations might play within capuchin societies, and the possible selective forces that might have led to the evolution of fWHR-dominance associations in humans. PMID:24705247

  7. Determination by transfer reaction of alpha widths in fluorine for astrophysical interest; Determination par reaction de transfert de largeurs alpha dans le fluor 19. Applications a l'astrophysique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira Santos, F. de

    1995-04-15

    The nucleosynthesis of fluorine is not known. Several astrophysical models predict the alpha radiative capture onto N{sup 15} as the main fluorine production reaction. In the expression of the reaction rate, one parameter is missing: the alpha width of the resonance on the E = 4.377 MeV level in fluorine. A direct measurement is excluded due to the very low cross-section expected. We have determined this alpha width using a transfer reaction followed by analyses with FR-DWBA (Finite Range Distorted Wave Born Approximation) in a simple cluster alpha model. This experiment was carried out with a Li{sup 7} beam with E = 28 MeV onto a N{sup 15} gas target. The 16 first levels were studied. Spectroscopic factors were extracted for most of them. Alpha widths for unbound levels were determined. Many alpha width were compared with known values from direct reaction and the differences lie within the uncertainty range (factor 2). The alpha width for the E = 4.377 MeV level was determined ({gamma}{sub {alpha}} = 1.5*10{sup -15} MeV), its value is about 60 times weaker than the used value. The influence of our new rate was studied in AGB (Asymptotic Giant Branch) stars during thermal pulses. In this model the alteration is sensitive. (author)

  8. Modified model of neutron resonances widths distributions. Results of reduced neutron widths approximation for mass region 35 ≤ A ≤ 249

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhovoj, A.M.; Khitrov, V.A.

    2011-01-01

    The distributions of the reduced neutron widths of s-, p- and d-resonances of nuclei of any type from nuclear mass region 35 ≤ A ≤ 249 were approximated with maximal precision by the model which presents experimental data set as a superposition of a maximum of four independent neutron amplitudes. Under the assumption that each of these amplitudes has the Gauss distribution with the unique maximum there were determined the most probable values of contribution of each amplitude in summary width distribution, their most probable mean values and dispersions. Comparison of the obtained χ 2 values with value χ 2 at description of the experimental data by one distribution of neutron amplitudes with best fitted parameters shows that all widths from more than 157 analyzed data sets can have different types of wave functions

  9. Reduced neutron widths in the nuclear data ensemble: Experiment and theory do not agree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler, P. E.

    2011-01-01

    I have analyzed reduced neutron widths (Γ n 0 ) for the subset of 1245 resonances in the nuclear data ensemble (NDE) for which they have been reported. Random matrix theory (RMT) predicts for the Gaussian orthogonal ensemble that these widths should follow a χ 2 distribution having one degree of freedom (ν=1)--the Porter Thomas distribution (PTD). Careful analysis of the Γ n 0 values in the NDE rejects the validity of the PTD with a statistical significance of at least 99.97% (ν=0.801±0.052). This striking disagreement with the RMT prediction is most likely due to the inclusion of significant p-wave contamination to the supposedly pure s-wave NDE. When an energy-dependent threshold is used to remove the p-wave contamination, the PTD is still rejected with a statistical significance of at least 98.17% (ν=1.217±0.092). Furthermore, examination of the primary references for the NDE reveals that many resonances in most of the individual data sets were selected using methods derived from RMT. Therefore, using the full NDE data set to test RMT predictions seems highly questionable. These results cast very serious doubt on claims that the NDE represents a striking confirmation of RMT.

  10. Attention demanding tasks during treadmill walking reduce step width variability in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy Karen L

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The variability of step time and step width is associated with falls by older adults. Further, step time is significantly influenced when performing attention demanding tasks while walking. Without exception, step time variability has been reported to increase in normal and pathologically aging older adults. Because of the role of step width in managing frontal plane dynamic stability, documenting the influence of attention-demanding tasks on step width variability may provide insight to events that can disturb dynamic stability during locomotion and increase fall risk. Preliminary evidence suggests performance of an attention demanding task significantly decreases step width variability of young adults walking on a treadmill. The purpose of the present study was to confirm or refute this finding by characterizing the extent and direction of the effects of a widely used attention demanding task (Stroop test on the step width variability of young adults walking on a motorized treadmill. Methods Fifteen healthy young adults walked on a motorized treadmill at a self-selected velocity for 10 minutes under two conditions; without performing an attention demanding task and while performing the Stroop test. Step width of continuous and consecutive steps during the collection was derived from the data recorded using a motion capture system. Step width variability was computed as the standard deviation of all recorded steps. Results Step width decreased four percent during performance of the Stroop test but the effect was not significant (p = 0.10. In contrast, the 16 percent decrease in step width variability during the Stroop test condition was significant (p = 0.029. Conclusion The results support those of our previous work in which a different attention demanding task also decreased step width variability of young subjects while walking on a treadmill. The decreased step width variability observed while performing an attention

  11. Eicosapentaenoic acid reduces membrane fluidity, inhibits cholesterol domain formation, and normalizes bilayer width in atherosclerotic-like model membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, R Preston; Jacob, Robert F; Shrivastava, Sandeep; Sherratt, Samuel C R; Chattopadhyay, Amitabha

    2016-12-01

    Cholesterol crystalline domains characterize atherosclerotic membranes, altering vascular signaling and function. Omega-3 fatty acids reduce membrane lipid peroxidation and subsequent cholesterol domain formation. We evaluated non-peroxidation-mediated effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), other TG-lowering agents, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and other long-chain fatty acids on membrane fluidity, bilayer width, and cholesterol domain formation in model membranes. In membranes prepared at 1.5:1 cholesterol-to-phospholipid (C/P) mole ratio (creating pre-existing domains), EPA, glycyrrhizin, arachidonic acid, and alpha linolenic acid promoted the greatest reductions in cholesterol domains (by 65.5%, 54.9%, 46.8%, and 45.2%, respectively) compared to controls; other treatments had modest effects. EPA effects on cholesterol domain formation were dose-dependent. In membranes with 1:1 C/P (predisposing domain formation), DHA, but not EPA, dose-dependently increased membrane fluidity. DHA also induced cholesterol domain formation without affecting temperature-induced changes in-bilayer unit cell periodicity relative to controls (d-space; 57Å-55Å over 15-30°C). Together, these data suggest simultaneous formation of distinct cholesterol-rich ordered domains and cholesterol-poor disordered domains in the presence of DHA. By contrast, EPA had no effect on cholesterol domain formation and produced larger d-space values relative to controls (60Å-57Å; pacids with differing chain length or unsaturation may differentially influence membrane lipid dynamics and structural organization as a result of distinct phospholipid/sterol interactions. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Vegetative buffer strips for reducing herbicide transport in runoff: effects of buffer width, vegetation, and season

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of vegetative buffer strip (VBS) width, vegetation, and season of the year on herbicide transport in runoff has not been well documented for runoff prone soils. A multi-year replicated plot-scale study was conducted on an eroded claypan soil with the following objectives: 1) assess the ef...

  13. Anomalous Fluctuations of s-Wave Reduced Neutron Widths of 192,194Pt Resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler, P. E.; Harvey, J. A.; Becvar, F.; Krticka, M.; Guber, K. H.

    2010-01-01

    We obtained an unprecedentedly large number of s-wave neutron widths through R-matrix analysis of neutron cross-section measurements on enriched Pt samples. Careful analysis of these data rejects the validity of the Porter-Thomas distribution with a statistical significance of at least 99.997%.

  14. H alpha equivalent width variations across the face of a microlensed K giant in the galactic bulge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albrow, M; Beaulieu, JP; Caldwell, JAR; Dominik, M; Greenhill, J; Hill, K; Kane, S; Martin, R; Menzies, J; Pollard, K; Sackett, PD; Sahu, KC; Vermaak, P; Watson, R; Williams, A; Hauschildt, PH

    2001-01-01

    We present Very Large Telescope FORS1 spectroscopy that temporally resolves the second caustic crossing of the Galactic bulge K giant source of microlensing event EROS 2000-BLG-5, the first time this has been accomplished for several phases of a caustic transit. The similar to1 Angstrom H alpha

  15. The number of degrees of freedom for statistical distribution of s wave reduced neutron width for several nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhixiang, Z.

    1983-01-01

    The least squares fit has been performed using chi-squared distribution function for all available evaluated data for s-wave reduced neutron width of several nuclei. The number of degrees of freedom and average value have been obtained. The missing levels of weak s-wave resonances and extra p-wave levels have been taken into account, if any. For 75 As and 103 Rh, s-wave population has been separated by Bayes' theorem before making fit. The results thus obtained are consistent with Porter-Thomas distribution, i.e., chi-squared distribution with γ=1, as one would expect. It has not been found in this work that the number of degrees of freedom for the distribution of s-wave reduced neutron width might be greater than one as reported by H.C.Sharma et al. (1976) at the international conference on interactions of neutrons with nuclei. (Auth.)

  16. Low bone mineral density is associated with reduced hip joint space width in women: results from the Copenhagen Osteoarthritis Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Steffen; Jensen, Trine W; Bach-Mortensen, Pernille

    2007-01-01

    inconclusive. The present cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between reduced bone mineral density (BMD), as a surrogate parameter of endogenous estrogen status assessed by digital x-ray radiogrammetry, and reduced minimum hip joint space width (JSW). DESIGN: Standardized hand radiographs...... was calculated. Minimum hip JSW was assessed on standardized pelvic radiographs. RESULTS: Digital x-ray radiogrammetry BMD decreased in both men and women after the age of 45 years, progressively more so in women. Although minimum hip JSW in men remained relatively unaltered throughout life, a marked decline...

  17. Does formate reduce alpha-ketoglutarate and ammonia to glutamate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, Q.; Miller, S. L.; Bada, J. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    The reported reduction of alpha-ketoglutarate and ammonia by formate is much slower than described (Morowitz et al., 1995). The formate reduction if any is small under these conditions. Glutamate is produced from a reduction by a second molecule of alpha-ketoglutarate involving an oxidative decarboxylation.

  18. Experimental investigation of heat transfer augmentation inside double pipe heat exchanger equipped with reduced width twisted tapes inserts using polymeric nanofluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazbehian, Mohammad; Maddah, Heydar; Mohammadiun, Hamid; Alizadeh, Mostafa

    2016-11-01

    In this study, we report a further enhancement in heat transfer coefficients of base fluid in combination with structural modifications of tape inserts. Polyvinyl Alcohol and TiO2 with mean diameter of 15 nm were chosen as base fluid and nano-particles, respectively. The experiments are carried out in plain tube with four longitudinal internal fins and reduced width twisted tape (RWTT) inserts of twist ratio varying form 2-5 and width of 12-16. Experiments are undertaken to determine heat transfer coefficients and friction factor of TiO2/PVA nanofluid up to 2.0 % volume concentration at an average temperature of 30 °C. The investigations are undertaken in the Reynolds number range of 800-30,000 for flow in tubes and with tapes of different width length ratios. The experiments was verified with well-known correlations. The average Nusselt number and friction factor in the tube fitted with the full-length twisted tapes at y/w = 3.0, and 5.0, are respectively 50-130, and 30-95 % higher than those in the plain tube; 90-220 and 100-270 % when the working fluid is nanofluid, respectively. For the reduced width twisted tapes, the heat transfer rate is decreased with decreasing tapes width. The average Nusselt numbers in the tube fitted with the RWTT of 16, 14 and 12 are respectively, 210-390, 190-320 and 170-290 % of that in the plain tube. With the similar trend mentioned above, RWTT with higher width length yield higher thermal enhancement factor in comparison with smaller width. The use of RWTT led to the highest thermal performance factor up to 1.75. Maximum thermal performance factor which was obtained belonged to twists with twist ratio of 2 and width of 16 with φ = 0.5 % and Reynolds number range of 800-30,000.

  19. [Quercetin attenuates Staphylococcus aureus virulence by reducing alpha-toxin secretion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrada López, Gabriela; Castañón Sánchez, Carlos A

    2017-10-31

    Alpha toxin, a pore-forming protein with cytotoxic activity, is one of the major virulence factors secreted by most strains of Staphylococcus aureus. The relevance of this protein in the pathogenesis of pneumonia associated with S.aureus infections has already been established. Therefore, inhibiting alpha toxin secretion can be an alternative for controlling these infections. This study shows that quercetin, a naturally occurring flavonoid, inhibits hemolytic activity in a dose-dependent manner and reduces alpha toxin secretion in culture supernatants of methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant S.aureus. Furthermore, quercetin significantly prevents damage to human alveolar cells when co-cultured with S.aureus. Our results suggest that quercetin can reduce S.aureus virulence by affecting alpha-toxin secretion. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Reducing the {alpha}{sub 1} fraction in the coal tar and pitch at OOO Mechel-Koks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.V. Kazak; V.A. Antonova; N.A. Protopopova; A.N. Baranov [OOO Chelyabinskii Zavod po Proizvodstvu Koksokhimicheskoi Produktsii (OOO Mechel-Koks), Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation)

    2009-08-15

    Means of reducing the content of quinoline-insoluble components (the {alpha}{sub 1} fraction) in highly pyrolyzed coal tar and reducing {alpha}{sub 1} in pitch on tar processing are considered. A system for electrode-pitch production is developed.

  1. Rab geranylgeranyl transferase alpha mutation in the gunmetal mouse reduces Rab prenylation and platelet synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detter, J C; Zhang, Q; Mules, E H; Novak, E K; Mishra, V S; Li, W; McMurtrie, E B; Tchernev, V T; Wallace, M R; Seabra, M C; Swank, R T; Kingsmore, S F

    2000-04-11

    Few molecular events important to platelet biogenesis have been identified. Mice homozygous for the spontaneous, recessive mutation gunmetal (gm) have prolonged bleeding, thrombocytopenia, and reduced platelet alpha- and delta-granule contents. Here we show by positional cloning that gm results from a G-->A substitution mutation in a splice acceptor site within the alpha-subunit of Rab geranylgeranyl transferase (Rabggta), an enzyme that attaches geranylgeranyl groups to Rab proteins. Most Rabggta mRNAs from gm tissues skipped exon 1 and lacked a start codon. Rabggta protein and Rab geranylgeranyl transferase (GGTase) activity were reduced 4-fold in gm platelets. Geranylgeranylation and membrane association of Rab27, a Rab GGTase substrate, were significantly decreased in gm platelets. These findings indicate that geranylgeranylation of Rab GTPases is critical for hemostasis. Rab GGTase inhibition may represent a new treatment for thrombocytosis and clotting disorders.

  2. Phase width reduction project summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.J.; Xie, Z.Q.; McMahan, M. A.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the phase width reduction project, 1993--96, was to reduce the phase width of the 88-Inch Cyclotron beam on target from 5--10 ns to 1--2 ns for certain experiments, such as Gammasphere, which use time-of-flight identification. Since reducing the phase width also reduces beam intensity, tuning should be done to also optimize the transmission. The Multi-turn Collimator slits in the cyclotron center region were used to collimate the early turns radially, thus reducing the phase width from about 5 ns to 1--2 ns FWHM for a Gammasphere beam. The effect of the slits on phase width was verified with a Fast Faraday Cup and with particle and gamma-ray detectors in the external beamline

  3. Failure of isolated rat tibial periosteal cells to 5 alpha reduce testosterone to 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, R.T.; Bleiberg, B.; Colvard, D.S.; Keeting, P.E.; Evans, G.; Spelsberg, T.C.

    1990-01-01

    Periosteal cells were isolated from tibiae of adult male rats after collagenase treatment. Northern blot analysis of total cytoplasmic RNA extracted from the isolated periosteal cells was positive for expression of genes encoding the osteoblast marker proteins osteocalcin (BGP) and pre-pro-alpha 2(I) chain of type 1 precollagen. The isolated periosteal cells were incubated with 1 nM [3H]testosterone [( 3 H]T) for up to 240 minutes and the reaction products separated by high-performance liquid chromatography. [ 3 H]5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone [( 3 H]DHT) was not detected in extracts of periosteal cell incubations. In contrast, [ 3 H]DHT was produced in a time-dependent manner by cells from seminal vesicles. These results suggest that testosterone 5 alpha-reductase activity is not expressed by osteoblasts in rat tibial periosteum and that the anabolic effects of androgens in this tissue are not mediated by locally produced DHT

  4. Alpha-contingent EEG feedback reduces SPECT rCBF variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLaughlin, Thomas; Steinberg, Bruce; Mulholland, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    randomly presented to seven subjects, contingent upon the occurrence of alpha (alpha-contingent stimulation (ACS)) or alpha-blocking (not-alpha-blocking-contingent stimulation (NACS)) events. We employed a within-subjects design. rCBF was measured from multiple, cortical and sub-cortical regions...

  5. Failure of isolated rat tibial periosteal cells to 5 alpha reduce testosterone to 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, R.T.; Bleiberg, B.; Colvard, D.S.; Keeting, P.E.; Evans, G.; Spelsberg, T.C. (Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (USA))

    1990-07-01

    Periosteal cells were isolated from tibiae of adult male rats after collagenase treatment. Northern blot analysis of total cytoplasmic RNA extracted from the isolated periosteal cells was positive for expression of genes encoding the osteoblast marker proteins osteocalcin (BGP) and pre-pro-alpha 2(I) chain of type 1 precollagen. The isolated periosteal cells were incubated with 1 nM (3H)testosterone (({sup 3}H)T) for up to 240 minutes and the reaction products separated by high-performance liquid chromatography. ({sup 3}H)5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (({sup 3}H)DHT) was not detected in extracts of periosteal cell incubations. In contrast, ({sup 3}H)DHT was produced in a time-dependent manner by cells from seminal vesicles. These results suggest that testosterone 5 alpha-reductase activity is not expressed by osteoblasts in rat tibial periosteum and that the anabolic effects of androgens in this tissue are not mediated by locally produced DHT.

  6. Local delivery of soluble TNF-alpha receptor 1 gene reduces infarct size following ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugano, Masahiro; Hata, Tomoji; Tsuchida, Keiko; Suematsu, Nobuhiro; Oyama, Jun-Ichi; Satoh, Shinji; Makino, Naoki

    2004-11-01

    Apoptosis in the myocardium is linked to ischemia/reperfusion injury, and TNF-alpha induces apoptosis in cardiomyocytes. A significant amount of TNF-alpha is detected after ischemia and reperfusion. Soluble TNF-alpha receptor 1 (sTNFR1) is an extracellular domain of TNF-alpha receptor 1 and is an antagonist to TNF-alpha. In the present study, we examined the effects of sTNFR1 on infarct size in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) following ischemia/reperfusion. Male Wistar rats were subjected to left coronary artery (LCA) ligation. After 30 min of LCA occlusion, the temporary ligature on the LCA was released and blood flow was restored. Immediately after reperfusion, a total of 200 microg of sTNFR1 or LacZ plasmid was injected into three different sites of the left ventricular wall. At 6 h, 1 and 2 days after reperfusion, the TNF-alpha bioactivity in the myocardium was significantly higher in rats receiving LacZ plasmid than in sham-operated rats, whereas sTNFR1 plasmid significantly suppressed the increase in the TNF-alpha bioactivity. The sTNFR1 plasmid significantly reduced DNA fragmentation and caspase activity compared to the LacZ plasmid. Finally, the sTNFR1 expression-plasmid treatment significantly reduced the area of myocardial infarction at 2 days after ischemia/reperfusion compared to LacZ plasmid. In conclusion, the TNF-alpha bioactivity in the heart increased from the early stage of ischemia/reperfusion, and this increase was thought to contribute in part to the increased area of myocardial infarction. Suppression of TNF-alpha bioactivity with the sTNFR1 plasmid reduced the infarct size in AMI following ischemia and reperfusion.

  7. Age-Related Reduced Somatosensory Gating Is Associated with Altered Alpha Frequency Desynchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chia-Hsiung; Chan, Pei-Ying S.; Lin, Yung-Yang

    2015-01-01

    Sensory gating (SG), referring to an attenuated neural response to the second identical stimulus, is considered as preattentive processing in the central nervous system to filter redundant sensory inputs. Insufficient somatosensory SG has been found in the aged adults, particularly in the secondary somatosensory cortex (SII). However, it remains unclear which variables leading to the age-related somatosensory SG decline. There has been evidence showing a relationship between brain oscillations and cortical evoked excitability. Thus, this study used whole-head magnetoencephalography to record responses to paired-pulse electrical stimulation to the left median nerve in healthy young and elderly participants to test whether insufficient stimulus 1- (S1-) induced event-related desynchronization (ERD) contributes to a less-suppressed stimulus 2- (S2-) evoked response. Our analysis revealed that the minimum norm estimates showed age-related reduction of SG in the bilateral SII regions. Spectral power analysis showed that the elderly demonstrated significantly reduced alpha ERD in the contralateral SII (SIIc). Moreover, it was striking to note that lower S1-induced alpha ERD was associated with higher S2-evoked amplitudes in the SIIc among the aged adults. Conclusively, our findings suggest that age-related decline of somatosensory SG is partially attributed to the altered S1-induced oscillatory activity. PMID:26417458

  8. Age-Related Reduced Somatosensory Gating Is Associated with Altered Alpha Frequency Desynchronization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hsiung Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensory gating (SG, referring to an attenuated neural response to the second identical stimulus, is considered as preattentive processing in the central nervous system to filter redundant sensory inputs. Insufficient somatosensory SG has been found in the aged adults, particularly in the secondary somatosensory cortex (SII. However, it remains unclear which variables leading to the age-related somatosensory SG decline. There has been evidence showing a relationship between brain oscillations and cortical evoked excitability. Thus, this study used whole-head magnetoencephalography to record responses to paired-pulse electrical stimulation to the left median nerve in healthy young and elderly participants to test whether insufficient stimulus 1- (S1- induced event-related desynchronization (ERD contributes to a less-suppressed stimulus 2- (S2- evoked response. Our analysis revealed that the minimum norm estimates showed age-related reduction of SG in the bilateral SII regions. Spectral power analysis showed that the elderly demonstrated significantly reduced alpha ERD in the contralateral SII (SIIc. Moreover, it was striking to note that lower S1-induced alpha ERD was associated with higher S2-evoked amplitudes in the SIIc among the aged adults. Conclusively, our findings suggest that age-related decline of somatosensory SG is partially attributed to the altered S1-induced oscillatory activity.

  9. Biodentine Reduces Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha-induced TRPA1 Expression in Odontoblastlike Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Karim, Ikhlas A; McCrudden, Maelíosa T C; McGahon, Mary K; Curtis, Tim M; Jeanneau, Charlotte; Giraud, Thomas; Irwin, Chris R; Linden, Gerard J; Lundy, Fionnuala T; About, Imad

    2016-04-01

    The transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels have emerged as important cellular sensors in both neuronal and non-neuronal cells, with TRPA1 playing a central role in nociception and neurogenic inflammation. The functionality of TRP channels has been shown to be modulated by inflammatory cytokines. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of inflammation on odontoblast TRPA1 expression and to determine the effect of Biodentine (Septodent, Paris, France) on inflammatory-induced TRPA1 expression. Immunohistochemistry was used to study TRPA1 expression in pulp tissue from healthy and carious human teeth. Pulp cells were differentiated to odontoblastlike cells in the presence of 2 mmol/L beta-glycerophosphate, and these cells were used in quantitative polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, calcium imaging, and patch clamp studies. Immunofluorescent staining revealed TRPA1 expression in odontoblast cell bodies and odontoblast processes, which was more intense in carious versus healthy teeth. TRPA1 gene expression was induced in cultured odontoblastlike cells by tumor necrosis factor alpha, and this expression was significantly reduced in the presence of Biodentine. The functionality of the TRPA1 channel was shown by calcium microfluorimetry and patch clamp recording, and our results showed a significant reduction in tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced TRPA1 responses after Biodentine treatment. In conclusion, this study showed TRPA1 to be modulated by caries-induced inflammation and that Biodentine reduced TRPA1 expression and functional responses. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Protective Effects of Enalapril on Reducing Sensorimotor Dysfunctions of Ischemic Stroke is enhanced by Its Combination with Alpha Tocopherol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdollah Panahpour

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Ischemic stroke has complex pathophysiology and its treatment with single neuroprotective drugs has so far failed. Combination therapy could produce amplified protective effects via different mechanisms. We examined the neuroprotective effects of enalapril and/or alpha tocopherol against sensorimotor dysfunctions of ischemic stroke. Methods: Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups (n=8: sham, control ischemic, enalapril (0.03 mg/kg, alpha tocopherol (30mg/kg and enalapril plus alpha tocopherol treated groups. Transient focal cerebral ischemia (90 min was induced by occlusion of the left middle cerebral artery that followed by 24 h reperfusion periods. Infarct volumes were detected by TTC coloring technique and sensorimotor dysfunctions investigated by rotarod, grip strength and hotplate tests. Results: Induction of cerebral ischemia in the control group produced severe neurological sensorimotor deficits in conjunction with considerable cerebral infarctions. Compared with the enalapril or alpha tocopherol groups, the combined treatment significantly improved neurological motor and sensory functions (p=0.038 and p=0.034, respectively and also reduced the infarct volume (p=0.032. Conclusion: Administration of alpha tocopherol increased protective effects of enalapril. Enalapril combined with alpha tocopherol can produce an augmented protection against ischemic brain injury, and improvement in sensorimotor dysfunctions.

  11. Topical N-acetylcysteine reduces interleukin-1-alpha in tear fluid after laser subepithelial keratectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urgancioglu, Berrak; Bilgihan, Kamil; Engin, Doruk; Cirak, Meltem Yalinay; Hondur, Ahmet; Hasanreisoglu, Berati

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of topical N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on interleukin 1-alpha (IL-1alpha) levels in tear fluid after myopic laser subepithelial keratectomy (LASEK) and its possible role in modulating corneal wound healing. Twenty-six eyes of 13 patients who underwent myopic LASEK were divided into 2 groups. Group 1 (n=10 eyes) was used as a control group. All patients received topical lomefloxacin and dexamethasone postoperatively. Additionally, patients in Group 2 received topical NAC for 1 month postoperatively. Tear fluid samples were collected with microcapillary tubes preoperatively, on the first and on the fifth postoperative day, and the release of IL-1alpha in tear fluid was calculated. Haze grading and confocal microscopic examination were performed at 1 and 3 months postoperatively. The mean IL-1-alpha release values were 0.285-/+0.159 pg/min in Group 1 and 0.235-/+0.142 pg/min in Group 2 preoperatively. In Group 1, the values were 0.243-/+0.155 pg/min on day 1 and 0.164-/+0.125 pg/min on day 5. In Group 2, the mean IL-1alpha release values were 0.220-/+0.200 pg/min on day 1 and 0.080-/+0.079 pg/min on day 5. The difference between the groups was significant only for day 5 (p0.05). NAC seems to have an additive effect to steroids in suppressing IL-1alpha levels in tear fluid and may be clinically advantageous in modulating corneal wound healing during the early postoperative period after LASEK.

  12. Alpha-1 antitrypsin reduces ovariectomy-induced bone loss in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpha-1antitrypsin (AAT) is a multifunctional protein with proteinase inhibitor and anti-inflammatory activities. Recent studies showed that AAT has therapeutic effect for diseases associated with inflammation, such as type 1 diabetes and arthritis. Proinflammatory cytokines are primary mediators of...

  13. Treatment with acarbose, an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, reduces increased albumin excretion in streptozotocin-diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, M P; Vasselli, J R; Neuman, R G; Witt, J

    1995-10-01

    1. We examined the effect of the alpha-glucosidase inhibitor acarbose on urinary albumin excretion (UAE) in streptozotocin diabetic rats. 2. Treatment with acarbose for 8 weeks after induction of diabetes prevented the significant increase in UAE observed in untreated diabetic rats relative to nondiabetic controls. 3. Acarbose significantly reduced integrated glycemia, which correlated with albumin excretion rates, and exerts a salutary effect on diabetic renal dysfunction.

  14. SYNTHESIS AND IDENTIFICATION OF 12 A-RING REDUCED 6-ALPHA-HYDROXYLATED AND 6-BETA-HYDROXYLATED COMPOUNDS DERIVED FROM 11-DEOXYCORTISOL, CORTICOSTERONE AND 11-DEHYDROCORTICOSTERONE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KRAAN, GPB; HARTSTRA, J; WOLTHERS, BG; VANDERMOLEN, JC; NAGEL, GT; DRAYER, NM; ZIJLSTRA, RWJ; KRUIZINGA, WH

    The synthesis and identification of 12 A-ring reduced 6 alpha-(and 6 beta-)hydroxylated compounds derived from 11-deoxycortisol (S), corticosterone (B) and 11-dehydrocorticosterone (A) are reported here. These steroids were prepared in two steps from the corresponding 6 6 alpha-(and 6

  15. Regular endurance training reduces the exercise induced HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha mRNA expression in human skeletal muscle in normoxic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, Carsten; Gassmann, Max; Pilegaard, Henriette

    2005-01-01

    and 2 (HIFs) are clearly related heterodimeric transcription factors that consist of an oxygen-depended alpha-subunit and a constitutive beta-subunit. With hypoxic exposure, HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha protein are stabilized. Upon heterodimerization, HIFs induce the transcription of a variety of genes......Regular exercise induces a variety of adaptive responses that enhance the oxidative and metabolic capacity of human skeletal muscle. Although the physiological adjustments of regular exercise have been known for decades, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. The hypoxia inducible factors 1...... including erythropoietin (EPO), transferrin and its receptor, as well as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor. Considering that several of these genes are also induced with exercise, we tested the hypothesis that the mRNA level of HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha subunits increases...

  16. The free radical spin-trap alpha-PBN attenuates periinfarct depolarizations following permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats without reducing infarct volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas; Bruhn, Torben; Diemer, Nils Henrik

    2003-01-01

    (control: 28.3+/-16.3 mm3 vs. alpha-PBN 23.7+/-7.4 mm3). In the second series of experiments, periinfarct depolarizations (PIDs) were recorded with an extracellular DC electrode at two locations in the ischemic penumbra for the initial 3 h following MCAO. alpha-PBN (100 mg/kg, single dose in conjunction...... with occlusion) significantly reduced the total number (median value of 3 PIDs in the control groups vs. 1 PID in alpha-PBN groups, p...... with a single dose of alpha-PBN (100 mg/kg) or saline. Body temperature was measured and controlled for the first 24 h to obtain identical temperature curves in the two groups. Cortical infarct volumes were determined on histological sections 7 days later. alpha-PBN did not significantly reduce infarct volume...

  17. Metallothionein treatment reduces proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-alpha and apoptotic cell death during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penkowa, M; Hidalgo, J

    2001-01-01

    . However, it is not known how EAE progression is regulated nor how cytokine production and cell death can be reduced. We herewith demonstrate that treatment with Zn-MT-II significantly decreased the CNS expression of IL-6 and TNF-alpha during EAE. Zn-MT-II treatment could also significantly reduce...... apoptotic cell death of neurons and oligodendrocytes during EAE, as judged by using TUNEL and immunoreactivity for cytochrome c and caspases 1 and 3. In contrast, the number of apoptotic lymphocytes and macrophages was less affected by Zn-MT-II treatment. The Zn-MT-II-induced decrease in proinflammatory...... cytokines and apoptosis during EAE could contribute to the reported diminution of clinical symptoms and mortality in EAE-immunized rats receiving Zn-MT-II treatment. Our results demonstrate that MT-II reduces the CNS expression of proinflammatory cytokines and the number of apoptotic neurons during EAE...

  18. Small interfering RNA targeting HIF-1{alpha} reduces hypoxia-dependent transcription and radiosensitizes hypoxic HT 1080 human fibrosarcoma cells in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staab, Adrian [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Fleischer, Markus [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Medical Clinic II; Loeffler, Juergen; Einsele, Herrmann [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Medical Clinic II; Said, Harun M.; Katzer, Astrid; Flentje, Michael [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Plathow, Christian [Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Vordermark, Dirk [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Halle-Wittenberg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2011-04-15

    Background: Hypoxia inducible factor-1 has been identified as a potential target to overcome hypoxia-induced radioresistance The aim of the present study was to investigate whether selective HIF-1 inhibition via small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting hypoxia-inducible factor 1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}) affects hypoxia-induced radioresistance in HT 1080 human fibrosarcoma cells. Material and Methods: HIF-1{alpha} expression in HT 1080 human fibrosarcoma cells in vitro was silenced using HIF-1{alpha} siRNA sequence primers. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay was performed to quantify the mRNA expression of HIF-1{alpha}. HIF-1{alpha} protein levels were studied by Western blotting at 20% (air) or after 12 hours at 0.1% O{sub 2} (hypoxia). Cells were assayed for clonogenic survival after irradiation with 2, 5, or 10 Gy, under normoxic or hypoxic conditions in the presence of HIF-1{alpha}-targeted or control siRNA sequences. A modified oxygen enhancement ratio (OER') was calculated as the ratio of the doses to achieve the same survival at 0.1% O{sub 2} as at ambient oxygen tensions. OER' was obtained at cell survival levels of 50%, 37%, and 10%. Results: HIF-1{alpha}-targeted siRNA enhanced radiation treatment efficacy under severely hypoxic conditions compared to tumor cells treated with scrambled control siRNA. OER was reduced on all survival levels after treatment with HIF-1{alpha}-targeted siRNA, suggesting that inhibition of HIF-1 activation by using HIF-1{alpha}-targeted siRNA increases radiosensitivity of hypoxic tumor cells in vitro. Conclusion: Inhibition of HIF-1 activation by using HIF-1{alpha}-targeted siRNA clearly acts synergistically with radiotherapy and increase radiosensitivity of hypoxic cells in vitro. (orig.)

  19. Residual-interaction renormalization effect on the spherical-nuclei α-decay absolute widths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumitresku, T.; Kadmenskij, S.G.; Lomachenkov, I.A.; Kholan, S.; Furman, V.I.

    1978-01-01

    In the framework of the shell model approximation for the probabilities of alpha-decay the exact formulas (for alpha-widths) taking into account the contribution of density dependent effective interaction between nucleons forming the emitted alpha-particle are obtained. In agreement with previous estimations the numerical calculation reveals that the inclusion of the above-mentioned interaction is followed by some decrease of absolute alpha-widths

  20. The free radical spin-trap alpha-PBN attenuates periinfarct depolarizations following permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats without reducing infarct volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas; Bruhn, Torben; Diemer, Nils Henrik

    2003-01-01

    (control: 28.3+/-16.3 mm3 vs. alpha-PBN 23.7+/-7.4 mm3). In the second series of experiments, periinfarct depolarizations (PIDs) were recorded with an extracellular DC electrode at two locations in the ischemic penumbra for the initial 3 h following MCAO. alpha-PBN (100 mg/kg, single dose in conjunction...... with occlusion) significantly reduced the total number (median value of 3 PIDs in the control groups vs. 1 PID in alpha-PBN groups, p...

  1. Fluphenazine reduces proteotoxicity in C. elegans and mammalian models of alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Li

    Full Text Available The classical form of α1-antitrypsin deficiency (ATD is associated with hepatic fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. It is caused by the proteotoxic effect of a mutant secretory protein that aberrantly accumulates in the endoplasmic reticulum of liver cells. Recently we developed a model of this deficiency in C. elegans and adapted it for high-content drug screening using an automated, image-based array scanning. Screening of the Library of Pharmacologically Active Compounds identified fluphenazine (Flu among several other compounds as a drug which reduced intracellular accumulation of mutant α1-antitrypsin Z (ATZ. Because it is representative of the phenothiazine drug class that appears to have autophagy enhancer properties in addition to mood stabilizing activity, and can be relatively easily re-purposed, we further investigated its effects on mutant ATZ. The results indicate that Flu reverses the phenotypic effects of ATZ accumulation in the C. elegans model of ATD at doses which increase the number of autophagosomes in vivo. Furthermore, in nanomolar concentrations, Flu enhances the rate of intracellular degradation of ATZ and reduces the cellular ATZ load in mammalian cell line models. In the PiZ mouse model Flu reduces the accumulation of ATZ in the liver and mediates a decrease in hepatic fibrosis. These results show that Flu can reduce the proteotoxicity of ATZ accumulation in vivo and, because it has been used safely in humans, this drug can be moved rapidly into trials for liver disease due to ATD. The results also provide further validation for drug discovery using C. elegans models that can be adapted to high-content drug screening platforms and used together with mammalian cell line and animal models.

  2. Pulse-width discriminators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budyashov, Yu.G.; Grebenyuk, V.M.; Zinov, V.G.

    1978-01-01

    A pulse duration discriminator is described which is intended for processing signals from multilayer scintillators. The basic elements of the scintillator are: an input gate, a current generator, an integrating capacitor, a Schmidt trigger and an anticoincidence circuit. The basic circuit of the discriminator and its time diagrams explaining its operating are given. The discriminator is based on microcircuits. Pulse duration discrimination threshold changes continuously from 20 to 100 ns, while its amplitude threshold changes within 20 to 100 mV. The temperature instability of discrimination thresholds (both in pulse width and in amplitude) is better than 0.1 per cent/deg C

  3. Tigecycline reduced tumor necrosis factor alpha level and inhospital mortality in spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Saekhu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The outcome of patients with spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage (SSICH is unsatisfactory. Inflammatory response secondary to brain injury as well as those resulted from surgical procedure were considered responsible of this outcome. This study was intended to elucidate the anti-inflammatory activity of tigecycline by measuring TNF-α level and its neuroprotective effect as represented by inhospital mortality rate.Methods: Patients with SSICH who were prepared for hematoma evacuation were randomized to receive either tigecycline (n=35 or fosfomycine (n=37 as prophylactic antibiotic. TNF-α level was measured in all subjects before surgery and postoperatively on day-1 and day-7. A repeated brain CT Scan was performed on postoperative day-7. The Glasgow outcome scale (GOS and length of stay (LOS were recorded at the time of hospital discharge. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney and Chi square test. Relative clinical effectiveness was measured by calculating the number needed to treat (NNT.Results: There was a significant difference regarding the proportion of subject who had  reduced TNF-α level on postoperative day-7 between the groups receiving tigecycline and fosfomycine (62% vs 29%, p=0.022. Decrease brain edema on CT control (86% vs 80%, p=0.580. Tigecycline administration showed a tendency of better clinical effectiveness in lowering inhospital mortality (17% vs 35%; p=0.083; OR=0.49; NNT=5 and worse clinical outcome / GOS ≤ 2 (20% vs 38% ; p=0.096; OR=0.41; NNT=6. LOS ≥ 15 hari ( 40% vs 27%; p=0.243; OR=1.81; NNT=8.Conclusion: Tigecycline showed anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective activities. These activities were associated with improved clinical outcome in patients with SSICH after hematoma evacuation.

  4. Optimal alpha reduces error rates in gene expression studies: a meta-analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudge, J F; Martyniuk, C J; Houlahan, J E

    2017-06-21

    Transcriptomic approaches (microarray and RNA-seq) have been a tremendous advance for molecular science in all disciplines, but they have made interpretation of hypothesis testing more difficult because of the large number of comparisons that are done within an experiment. The result has been a proliferation of techniques aimed at solving the multiple comparisons problem, techniques that have focused primarily on minimizing Type I error with little or no concern about concomitant increases in Type II errors. We have previously proposed a novel approach for setting statistical thresholds with applications for high throughput omics-data, optimal α, which minimizes the probability of making either error (i.e. Type I or II) and eliminates the need for post-hoc adjustments. A meta-analysis of 242 microarray studies extracted from the peer-reviewed literature found that current practices for setting statistical thresholds led to very high Type II error rates. Further, we demonstrate that applying the optimal α approach results in error rates as low or lower than error rates obtained when using (i) no post-hoc adjustment, (ii) a Bonferroni adjustment and (iii) a false discovery rate (FDR) adjustment which is widely used in transcriptome studies. We conclude that optimal α can reduce error rates associated with transcripts in both microarray and RNA-seq experiments, but point out that improved statistical techniques alone cannot solve the problems associated with high throughput datasets - these approaches need to be coupled with improved experimental design that considers larger sample sizes and/or greater study replication.

  5. The adaptor protein alpha-syntrophin is reduced in human non-alcoholic steatohepatitis but is unchanged in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rein-Fischboeck, Lisa; Pohl, Rebekka; Haberl, Elisabeth M; Weiss, Thomas S; Buechler, Christa

    2017-10-01

    The adaptor protein alpha-syntrophin (SNTA) is differentially expressed in varying types of cancer and affects triglyceride levels, inflammatory response and cell proliferation. However, little is known about the expression of SNTA in liver diseases. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized by hepatic steatosis, inflammation and eventually fibrosis, and may progress to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, SNTA mRNA was analyzed in liver tissues from 71 non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients and 32 controls to assess associations with disease characteristics. SNTA mRNA expression was reduced in NASH liver and negatively correlated with steatosis, inflammation, fibrosis and NASH scores. In the NASH patients, those with type 2 diabetes had a higher fibrosis score, reduced inflammation and increased hepatic SNTA mRNA levels demonstrating a strong association of SNTA mRNA levels with inflammation. Recently, we have shown diminished expression of the high-density lipoprotein scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI) in the liver of syntrophin-deficient mice. Indeed, hepatic SNTA and SR-BI mRNA were positively correlated. SNTA protein was further determined in tumor and non-tumorous tissues of 21 HCC patients. Protein expression was unchanged in the tumor and not related to staging and grading. Present study identified associations of hepatic SNTA mRNA levels with SR-BI and features of NASH assuming a function of this protein in chronic liver disease and cholesterol metabolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Antidepressants reduce neuroinflammatory responses and astroglial alpha-synuclein accumulation in a transgenic mouse model of Multiple System Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera, Elvira; Ubhi, Kiren; Mante, Michael; Rockenstein, Edward; Masliah, Eliezer

    2014-01-01

    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the pathological accumulation of alpha-synuclein (α-syn) within oligodendroglial cells. This accumulation is accompanied by neuroinflammation with astrogliosis and microgliosis, that leads to neuronal death and subsequent parkinsonism and dysautonomia. Antidepressants have been explored as neuroprotective agents as they normalize neurotrophic factor levels, increase neurogenesis and reduce neurodegeneration, but their anti-inflammatory properties have not been fully characterized. We analyzed the anti-inflammatory profiles of three different antidepressants (fluoxetine, olanzapine and amitriptyline) in the MBP1-hα-syn transgenic (tg) mouse model of MSA. We observed that antidepressant treatment decreased the number of α-syn-positive cells in the basal ganglia of 11-month old tg animals. This reduction was accompanied with a similar decrease in the colocalization of α-syn with astrocyte markers in this brain structure. Consistent with these results, antidepressants reduced astrogliosis in the hippocampus and basal ganglia of the MBP1-hα-syn tg mice, and modulated the expression levels of key cytokines that were dysregulated in the tg mouse model, such as IL-1β. In vitro experiments in the astroglial cell line C6 confirmed that antidepressants inhibited NF-κB translocation to the nucleus and reduced IL-1β protein levels. We conclude that the anti-inflammatory properties of antidepressants in the MBP1-hα-syn tg mouse model of MSA might be related to their ability to inhibit α-syn propagation from oligodendrocytes to astroglia and to regulate transcription factors involved in cytokine expression. Our results suggest that antidepressants might be of interest as anti-inflammatory and α-syn-reducing agents for MSA and other α-synucleinopathies. PMID:24310907

  7. Azithromycin reduces tumor necrosis factor-alpha production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated THP-1 monocytic cells by modification of stress response and p38 MAPK pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegaya, S; Inai, K; Iwasaki, H; Naiki, H; Ueda, T

    2009-08-01

    Macrolide antibiotics are known to have a variety of immunomodulatory effects in addition to antimicrobial activity, but the mechanisms of immunomodulation are still unclear. We investigated in vitro the effect of azithromycin on tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated THP-1 cells, a human monocytic cell line, and compared the results with those for other macrolides, minocycline and ofloxacin. In the presence of LPS, treatment with azithromycin (AZM) resulted in a significant decrease in LPS-induced TNF-alpha production compared to that with other antimicrobial agents. the results of phosphorylation of three MAPKs, ERK, JNK and p38, indicated that the phospho-p38 level was reduced by AZM. Ikappab-alpha, an inhibitor of NFkappab, was not disrupted by the antibiotics. LPS-induced TNF-alpha release from THP-1 cells was inhibited in the presence of KNK437, a potent 70-kDa heat shock protein (HSP-70) inhibitor. Interestingly, the induction of HSP-70 by LPS was attenuated with the concurrent addition of AZM in the cells. AZM was found to restrain TNF-alpha production by monocytes at least in part by modifying the HSp-70 and p38 related signaling pathways to LPS stimulation.

  8. Thermal annealing behavior of niobium-implanted {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} under reducing environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng Jianer; Naramoto, Hiroshi; Aoki, Yasushi; Yamamoto, Shunya; Gan Mingle; Takeshita, Hidefumi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    Thermal annealing behavior is studied in {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} implanted with {sup 93}Nb{sup +} using RBS/channeling technique and optical absorption spectrometry. The samples with <0001> and <112-bar0> orientations are implanted with 300 keV and 400 keV {sup 93}Nb{sup +} ions. Thermal annealing under reducing environment (Ar+3%H{sub 2}) is employed in the temperature range from 600 to 1000degC to explore unusual materials phase. The annealing up to 1000degC for an hour does not show any essential change in RBS/channeling spectra in two kinds of samples but the significant decrease in the visible region is observed in optical absorption spectra. After annealing at 1000degC for 10 hours, the recovery of the lattice damage is detected by RBS/channeling analysis especially in (112-bar0) sample. In the optical absorption spectra, new absorption envelope appears in the ultraviolet region. The results are related to the formation of niobium metal fine particles, and the sharp distribution is realized especially in (0001) sample. (author)

  9. Synthesis of nonionic reduced-sugar based bola amphiphiles and gemini surfactants with an alpha,omega-diamino-(oxa)alkyl spacer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaar, Anno; Engberts, Jan B. F. N.

    2007-01-01

    Reduced-sugar based gemini surfactants with an alpha,omega-diamino-(oxa) alkyl spacer exhibit a rich pH-dependent aggregation behavior and are efficient DNA carriers in gene transfection. Herein, we describe an improved synthetic procedure for these amphiphiles. First, a series of novel nonionic

  10. Low voltage alpha EEG phenotype is associated with reduced amplitudes of alpha event-related oscillations, increased cortical phase synchrony, and a low level of response to alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Cindy L; Wills, Derek N; Phillips, Evelyn; Havstad, James

    2015-10-01

    Low voltage EEG (LVEEG) is a heritable phenotype that differs depending on ancestral heritage, yet its impact on brain networks and cognition remain relatively unexplored. In this study we assessed energy and task related phase locking of event-related oscillation (EROs), behavioral responses, measures of IQ and personality, and expected responses to alcohol in a large sample of individuals with LVEEG compared to those with higher voltage variants. Participants (n=762) were recruited from a Native American community and completed a diagnostic interview, the Quick Test, the Subjective High Assessment Scale Expectation Version (SHAS-E) and the Maudsley Personality Inventory. Clinical and spectral analyzed EEGs were collected for determination of the presence of a LVEEG variant. EROs were generated using a facial expression recognition task. Participants with LVEEG (n=451) were significantly more likely to be older, married and have higher degrees of Native American heritage but did not differ in gender, income or education. Individuals with LVEEG were also found to have decreased energy in their alpha EROs, increased phase locking between stimulus trials, and increased phase-locking between cortical brain areas. No significant differences in the cognitive tests, personality variables or alcohol dependence or anxiety diagnoses were found, however, individuals with LVEEG did report a larger number of drinks ever consumed in a 24-h period and a less intense expected response to alcohol. These data suggest that alpha power in the resting EEG is highly associated with energy and cortical connectivity measures generated by event-related stimuli, as well as potentially increased risk for alcohol use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Low voltage alpha EEG phenotype is associated with reduced amplitudes of alpha event related oscillations, increased cortical phase synchrony, and a low level of response to alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Cindy L.; Wills, Derek N.; Phillips, Evelyn; Havstad, James

    2015-01-01

    Low voltage EEG (LVEEG) is a heritable phenotype that differs depending on ancestral heritage, yet its impact on brain networks and cognition remain relatively unexplored. In this study we assessed energy and task related phase locking of event-related oscillation (EROs), behavioral responses, measures of IQ and personality, and expected responses to alcohol in a large sample of individuals with LVEEG compared to those with higher voltage variants. Participants (n=762) were recruited from a Native American community and completed a diagnostic interview, the Quick Test, the Subjective High Assessment Scale Expectation Version (SHAS-E) and the Maudsley Personality Inventory. Clinical and spectral analyzed EEGs were collected for determination of the presence of a LVEEG variant. EROs were generated using a facial expression recognition task. Participants with LVEEG (n=451) were significantly more likely to be older, married and have higher degrees of Native American heritage but did not differ in gender, income or education. Individuals with LVEEG were also found to have decreased energy in their alpha EROs, increased phase locking between stimulus trials, and increased phase-locking between cortical brain areas. No significant differences in the cognitive tests, personality variables or alcohol dependence or anxiety diagnoses were found, however, individuals with LVEEG did report a larger number of drinks ever consumed in a 24-hr period and a less intense expected response to alcohol. These data suggest that alpha power in the resting EEG is highly associated with energy and cortical connectivity measures generated by event-related stimuli, as well as potentially increased risk for alcohol use. PMID:26151497

  12. Genetics Home Reference: alpha thalassemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Alpha thalassemia Alpha thalassemia Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Alpha thalassemia is a blood disorder that reduces the production ...

  13. Reducing renal uptake of 90Y- and 177Lu-labeled alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone peptide analogues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Yubin; Fisher, Darrell R.; Quinn, Thomas P.

    2006-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to improve the tumor-to-kidney uptake ratios of 90Y- and 177Lu-[1,2,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid-Re-Cys,D-Phe,Arg]alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (DOTA-RE(Arg)CCMSH), through coupling a negatively charged glutamic acid (Glu) to the peptide sequence. A new peptide of DOTA-Re(Glu,Arg)CCMSH was designed, synthesized and labeled with 90Y and 177Lu. Pharmacokinetics of 90Y- and 177Lu-DOTA-RE(Glu,Arg)CCNSH were determined in B16/F1 murine melanoma-bearing C57 mice. Both exhibited significantly less renal uptake than 90Y- and 177Lu-DOTA-Re(Arg)CCMSH at 30 min and at 2, 3, and 24 h after dose administration. The renal uptake values of 90Y- and 177Lu-DOTA-Re(Glu,Arg)CCMSH were 28.16% and 28.81% of those of 90Y- and 177Lu-DOTA-RE(Arg)CCMSH, respectively, at 4 hr post-injection. We also showed higher tumor-to-kidney uptake ratios 2.28 and 1.69 times that of 90Y- and 177Lu-DOTA-Re(Arg)CCMSH, respectively, at 4 h post-injection. The90Y- and 177Lu-DOTA-Re(Glu,Arg)CCMSH activity accumulation was low in normal organs except for kidneys. Coupling a negatively charged amino acid (Glu) to the CCMSH peptide sequence dramatically reduced the renal uptake values and increased the tumor-to-kidney uptake ratios of 90Y- and 177Lu-DOTA-Re(Glu,Arg)CCMSH, facilitating their potential applications as radiopharmaceuticals for targeted radionuclide therapy of melanoma.

  14. Narrow-width mechanism of a=5 Ξ-state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai-Fuse, I.; Akaishi, Y.

    1995-04-01

    Narrow-width mechanism of ≡ 5 H is discussed by calculating conversion widths to all its possible decay channels. Since the conversion processes have small reaction Q values, the three- and four- body decays are strongly suppressed owing to small phase volumes available. Decay widths to the two-body channels are significantly reduced by the distortion of emitted-particle waves. This mechanism brings about a narrow width of ≡ 5 H. The total width is estimated to be 0.87 MeV, in which the largest contribution comes from the decay into the Λ 4 H * +Λ channel. (author)

  15. Subinhibitory concentrations of thymol reduce enterotoxins A and B and alpha-hemolysin production in Staphylococcus aureus isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiazhang Qiu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Targeting bacterial virulence factors is now gaining interest as an alternative strategy to develop new types of anti-infective agents. It has been shown that thymol, when used at low concentrations, can inhibit the TSST-1 secretion in Staphylococcus aureus. However, there are no data on the effect of thymol on the production of other exotoxins (e.g., alpha-hemolysin and enterotoxins by S. aureus. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Secretion of alpha-hemolysin, SEA and SEB in both methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates cultured with graded subinhibitory concentrations of thymol was detected by immunoblot analysis. Hemolysin and tumor necrosis factor (TNF release assays were performed to elucidate the biological relevance of changes in alpha-hemolysin, SEA and SEB secretion induced by thymol. In addition, the influence of thymol on the transcription of hla, sea, and seb (the genes encoding alpha-hemolysin, SEA and SEB, respectively was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. Thymol inhibited transcription of hla, sea and seb in S. aureus, resulting in a reduction of alpha-hemolysin, SEA and SEB secretion and, thus, a reduction in hemolytic and TNF-inducing activities. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Subinhibitory concentrations of thymol decreased the production of alpha-hemolysin, SEA and SEB in both MSSA and MRSA in a dose-dependent manner. These data suggest that thymol may be useful for the treatment of S. aureus infections when used in combination with beta-lactams and glycopeptide antibiotics, which induce expression of alpha-hemolysin and enterotoxins at subinhibitory concentrations. Furthermore, the structure of thymol may potentially be used as a basic structure for development of drugs aimed against these bacterial virulence factors.

  16. Subinhibitory concentrations of thymol reduce enterotoxins A and B and alpha-hemolysin production in Staphylococcus aureus isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jiazhang; Wang, Dacheng; Xiang, Hua; Feng, Haihua; Jiang, Youshuai; Xia, Lijie; Dong, Jing; Lu, Jing; Yu, Lu; Deng, Xuming

    2010-03-17

    Targeting bacterial virulence factors is now gaining interest as an alternative strategy to develop new types of anti-infective agents. It has been shown that thymol, when used at low concentrations, can inhibit the TSST-1 secretion in Staphylococcus aureus. However, there are no data on the effect of thymol on the production of other exotoxins (e.g., alpha-hemolysin and enterotoxins) by S. aureus. Secretion of alpha-hemolysin, SEA and SEB in both methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates cultured with graded subinhibitory concentrations of thymol was detected by immunoblot analysis. Hemolysin and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) release assays were performed to elucidate the biological relevance of changes in alpha-hemolysin, SEA and SEB secretion induced by thymol. In addition, the influence of thymol on the transcription of hla, sea, and seb (the genes encoding alpha-hemolysin, SEA and SEB, respectively) was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. Thymol inhibited transcription of hla, sea and seb in S. aureus, resulting in a reduction of alpha-hemolysin, SEA and SEB secretion and, thus, a reduction in hemolytic and TNF-inducing activities. Subinhibitory concentrations of thymol decreased the production of alpha-hemolysin, SEA and SEB in both MSSA and MRSA in a dose-dependent manner. These data suggest that thymol may be useful for the treatment of S. aureus infections when used in combination with beta-lactams and glycopeptide antibiotics, which induce expression of alpha-hemolysin and enterotoxins at subinhibitory concentrations. Furthermore, the structure of thymol may potentially be used as a basic structure for development of drugs aimed against these bacterial virulence factors.

  17. Red cell distribution width and its relationship with global longitudinal strain in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction: a study using two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eroglu, Elif; Kilicgedik, Alev; Kahveci, Gokhan; Bakal, Ruken Bengi; Kirma, Cevat

    2018-01-01

    Red cell distribution width (RDW) is a measurement of size variability of the red blood cells and has been shown to be a powerful predictor of prognosis in heart failure (HF). Recently, global longitudinal strain (GLS) emerged as a more accurate marker of left ventricular (LV) systolic function. We aimed to assess the relationship between RDW and standard echocardiographic parameters and LV global strain measured by two-dimensional (2D) speckle tracking echocardiography in patients with HF with reduced EF (HFrEF). Fifty-nine HF patients with an EF natri-uretic peptide (r = 0.45, p = 0.0001), left atrial volume index (r = 0.38, p = 0.001), LV end-diastolic dimensions (r = 0.37, p = 0.001), and E/e' (r = 0.33, p = 0.005) and negative correlations with haemoglobin (r = -0.54, p = 0.0001), LVEF (r = -0.27, p = 0.004) and finally LV GLS (r = -0.41, p = 0.001). HFrEF patients were divided into two groups based on the median RDW value. Patients with higher than median RDW had significantly lower GLS despite similar EF. Elevated RDW is associated with poorer LV deformation assessed by speckle tracking echocardiography in HF patients with similar EF. Therefore, the degree of anisocytosis could be used as an additional marker to identify these high-risk patients as well as improve treatment strategy.

  18. Sertoli cell specific knockdown of RAR-related orphan receptor (ROR) alpha at puberty reduces sperm count in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Kamal; Sarkar, Rajesh K; Sen Sharma, Souvik; Jain, Ayushi; Majumdar, Subeer S

    2018-01-30

    Globally, there is an alarming decline in sperm count. Very often hormonal supplementation fails to restore normal sperm count. Sertoli cells (Sc) present within seminiferous tubules provide appropriate niche and factors required for the differentiation of germ cells (Gc) into mature sperm (spermatogenesis). Functionally compromised Sc may be one of the reasons for failure of hormones to facilitate normal spermatogenesis. Although role of secretory proteins and signaling molecules of Sc has been studied well, role of transcription factors regulating sperm count has not been addressed appropriately. Retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor (ROR)-alpha is one of such transcription factors reported in testis but its role in testicular function is not yet known. In a separate study, we found abundant ROR-alpha binding sites on promoter regions of several genes upregulated in pubertal rat Sc as compared to infant Sc. Immunostaining studies also revealed presence of ROR alpha in nucleus of pubertal Sc. We generated a transgenic knockdown rat model expressing shRNA targeted to ROR-alpha under Sc specific promoter, which is transcriptionally active only at and after puberty. ROR-alpha knockdown animals were found to have abnormal association of Sc and Gc, including Gc sloughing and restricted release of sperm. The knockdown animals displayed compromised spermatogenesis leading to significant reduction in sperm count. This is the first report describing the Sc specific role of ROR-alpha in maintaining quantitatively normal sperm output. Identification of various such molecules can generate avenues to limit or reverse an alarmingly declining sperm count witnessed globally in men. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Eugenol reduces acute pain in mice by modulating the glutamatergic and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Bó, Wladmir; Luiz, Ana Paula; Martins, Daniel F; Mazzardo-Martins, Leidiane; Santos, Adair R S

    2013-10-01

    Eugenol is utilized together with zinc oxide in odontological clinical for the cementation of temporary prostheses and the temporary restoration of teeth and cavities. This work explored the antinociceptive effects of the eugenol in different models of acute pain in mice and investigated its possible modulation of the inhibitory (opioid) and excitatory (glutamatergic and pro-inflammatory cytokines) pathways of nociceptive signaling. The administration of eugenol (3-300 mg/kg, p.o., 60 min or i.p., 30 min) inhibited 82 ± 10% and 90 ± 6% of the acetic acid-induced nociception, with ID₅₀ values of 51.3 and 50.2 mg/kg, respectively. In the glutamate test, eugenol (0.3-100 mg/kg, i.p.) reduced the response behavior by 62 ± 5% with an ID₅₀ of 5.6 mg/kg. In addition, the antinociceptive effect of eugenol (10 mg/kg, i.p.) in the glutamate test was prevented by the i.p. treatment for mice with naloxone. The pretreatment of mice with eugenol (10 mg/kg, i.p.) was able to inhibit the nociception induced by the intrathecal (i.t.) injection of glutamate (37 ± 9%), kainic (acid kainite) (41 ± 12%), α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) (55 ± 5%), and substance P (SP) (39 ± 8%). Furthermore, eugenol (10 mg/kg, i.p.) also inhibited biting induced by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, 65 ± 8%). These results extend our current knowledge of eugenol and confirm that it promotes significant antinociception against different mouse models of acute pain. The mechanism of action appears to involve the modulation of the opioid system and glutamatergic receptors (i.e., kainate and AMPA), and the inhibition of TNF-α. Thus, eugenol could represent an important compound in the treatment for acute pain. © 2012 The Authors Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology © 2012 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  20. Phosphorylation of the von Hippel-Lindau protein (VHL) by protein kinase CK2 reduces its protein stability and affects p53 and HIF-1alpha mediated transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampofo, Emmanuel; Kietzmann, Thomas; Zimmer, Andreas; Jakupovic, Mirza; Montenarh, Mathias; Götz, Claudia

    2010-10-01

    The von Hippel-Lindau tumour suppressor gene encodes a protein with 213 amino acids, which is known to be part of an E3-ubiquitin ligase targeting the HIF-1alpha transcription factor as well as to form a complex with p53. The VHL protein can be phosphorylated by protein kinase CK2 at serines 33, 38 and 43. However, the role of VHL phosphorylation in the context of p53 and HIF-1alpha regulation remained so far unknown. In the present study we investigated whether phosphorylation of VHL by CK2 might affect the function of p53 and HIF-1alpha. By using 4,5,6,7-tetrabromobenzotriazole (TBB), a CK2-specific inhibitor, as well as a mutant VHL where serines 33, 38 and 43 were replaced by alanines we found that CK2 phosphorylation affected the VHL protein half-life and increased VHL protein stability. Further, we found that inhibition of VHL phosphorylation by CK2 reduced p53 function. In addition, the enhanced levels of VHL due to CK2 inhibition contributed to the down-regulation of HIF-activity and degradation of HIF-1alpha. Thus, these results demonstrate that phosphorylation of VHL by CK2 plays an important role in the regulation of VHL protein stability and may contribute to the survival of tumour cells. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The small-molecule TNF-alpha modulator, UTL-5g, reduces side effects induced by cisplatin and enhances the therapeutic effect of cisplatin in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, JiaJiu; Chen, Ben; Huang, Wen-Hsin; Lee, An-Rong; Media, Joseph; Valeriote, Frederick A

    2011-01-01

    We investigated a small-molecule modulator of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), UTL-5g (also referred to as GBL-5g), as a potential chemoprotective agent against cisplatin-induced side effects including nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity and hematotoxicity. Pretreatment of UTL-5g i.p. in BDF1 mice reduced the levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine induced by cisplatin treatment. The levels of both aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) in these animals were also reduced by UTL-5g. Pretreatment of UTL-5g did not significantly affect the number of white blood cells (WBC) under current experimental conditions, yet it markedly increased blood platelet counts by more than threefold. Therapeutic assessment in SCID mice inoculated with human HCT-15 tumor cells showed that UTL-5g did not attenuate the anti-tumor effect of cisplatin but increased the therapeutic efficacy of cisplatin. The LD50 of UTL-5g was determined to be > 2,000 mg/kg by an acute toxicity study. In summary, our studies showed that 1) UTL-5g significantly reduces nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity induced by cisplatin in mice, presumably by lowering the levels of TNF-alpha, 2) UTL-5g markedly increased blood platelet counts in mice and 3) UTL-5g treatment increased the therapeutic efficacy of cisplatin against HCT-15 cells inoculated in SCID mice.

  2. A deterministic width function model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Puente

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of a deterministic fractal-multifractal (FM geometric method to model width functions of natural river networks, as derived distributions of simple multifractal measures via fractal interpolating functions, is reported. It is first demonstrated that the FM procedure may be used to simulate natural width functions, preserving their most relevant features like their overall shape and texture and their observed power-law scaling on their power spectra. It is then shown, via two natural river networks (Racoon and Brushy creeks in the United States, that the FM approach may also be used to closely approximate existing width functions.

  3. Probabilistic Analysis of Crack Width

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Marková

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Probabilistic analysis of crack width of a reinforced concrete element is based on the formulas accepted in Eurocode 2 and European Model Code 90. Obtained values of reliability index b seem to be satisfactory for the reinforced concrete slab that fulfils requirements for the crack width specified in Eurocode 2. However, the reliability of the slab seems to be insufficient when the European Model Code 90 is considered; reliability index is less than recommended value 1.5 for serviceability limit states indicated in Eurocode 1. Analysis of sensitivity factors of basic variables enables to find out variables significantly affecting the total crack width.

  4. Chemical stimulation of the ST36 acupoint reduces both formalin-induced nociceptive behaviors and spinal astrocyte activation via spinal alpha-2 adrenoceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Suk-Yun; Kim, Chi-Young; Roh, Dae-Hyun; Yoon, Seo-Yeon; Park, Ji-Ho; Lee, Hye-Jung; Beitz, Alvin J; Lee, Jang-Hern

    2011-11-25

    Spinal astrocytes have emerged as important mechanistic contributors to pathological and chronic pain. Recently, we have demonstrated that injection of diluted bee venom (DBV) into the Zusanli (ST36) acupoint produces a potent anti-nociceptive effect via the activation of spinal alpha-2 adrenoceptors. However, it is unclear if this anti-nociceptive effect is associated with alterations in spinal astrocytes. Thus, the present study was designed to determine: (1) whether DBV's anti-nociceptive effect in the formalin test involves suppression of spinal astrocyte activation; (2) whether DBV-induced astrocyte inhibition is mediated by spinal alpha-2 adrenoceptors; and (3) whether this glial modulation is potentiated by intrathecal administration of the glial metabolic inhibitor, fluorocitrate (FC) in combination with DBV injection. DBV was injected directly into the ST36 acupoint, and spinal expression of the astrocytic marker, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), was assessed together with effects on formalin-induced nociception. DBV treatment reduced pain responses in the late phase of the formalin test and significantly blocked the formalin-evoked increase in spinal GFAP expression. These effects of DBV were prevented by intrathecal pretreatment with selective alpha-2A and alpha-2C adrenoceptor antagonists. Moreover, low dose intrathecal injection of FC in conjunction with low dose DBV injection into the ST36 acupoint synergistically suppressed pain responses and GFAP expression. These results demonstrate that DBV stimulation of the ST36 acupoint inhibits the formalin-induced activation of spinal astrocytes and nociceptive behaviors in this inflammatory pain model and this inhibition is associated with the activation of spinal alpha-2 adrenoceptors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Reducing renal uptake of {sup 9}Y- and {sup 177}Lu-labeled alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone peptide analogues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao Yubin [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States) and Department of Dermatology, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States) and Harry S. Truman Memorial Veteran Hospital, Columbia, MO 65201 (United States)]. E-mail: ymiao@salud.unm.edu; Fisher, Darrell R. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Quinn, Thomas P. [Harry S. Truman Memorial Veteran Hospital, Columbia, MO 65201 (United States); Department of Biochemistry, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)

    2006-08-15

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to improve the tumor-to-kidney uptake ratios of {sup 9}Y- and {sup 177}Lu-[1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid-Re-Cys{sup 3,4,1}, D-Phe{sup 7}, Arg{sup 11}]{alpha}-melanocyte stimulating hormone{sub 3-13} {l_brace}DOTA-Re(Arg{sup 11})CCMSH{r_brace} through coupling a negatively charged glutamic acid (Glu) to the peptide sequence. Methods: A new peptide of DOTA-Re(Glu{sup 2}, Arg{sup 11})CCMSH was designed, synthesized and labeled with {sup 9}Y and {sup 177}Lu. Pharmacokinetics of {sup 9}Y- and {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-Re(Glu{sup 2}, Arg{sup 11})CCMSH was determined in B16/F1 murine melanoma-bearing C57 mice. Results: {sup 9}Y- and {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-Re(Glu{sup 2}, Arg{sup 11})CCMSH exhibited significantly (P<.05) less renal uptake values than {sup 9}Y- and {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-Re(Arg{sup 11})CCMSH at 30 min and at 2, 4 and 24 h after dose administration. The renal uptake values of {sup 9}Y- and {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-Re(Glu{sup 2}, Arg{sup 11})CCMSH were 28.16% and 28.81% of those of {sup 9}Y- and {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-Re(Arg{sup 11})CCMSH, respectively, at 4 h postinjection. {sup 9}Y- and {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-Re(Glu{sup 2}, Arg{sup 11})CCMSH displayed higher tumor-to-kidney uptake ratios than {sup 9}Y- and {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-Re(Arg{sup 11})CCMSH at 30 min and at 2, 4 and 24 h after dose administration. The tumor-to-kidney uptake ratio of {sup 9}Y- and {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-Re(Glu{sup 2}, Arg{sup 11})CCMSH was 2.28 and 1.69 times of {sup 9}Y- and {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-Re(Arg{sup 11})CCMSH, respectively, at 4 h postinjection. The {sup 9}Y- and {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-Re(Glu{sup 2}, Arg{sup 11})CCMSH activity accumulation was low in normal organs except for kidney. Conclusions: Coupling a negatively charged amino acid (Glu) to the CCMSH peptide sequence dramatically reduced the renal uptake values and increased the tumor-to-kidney uptake ratios of {sup 9}Y- and {sup 177}Lu-DOTA-Re(Glu{sup 2}, Arg{sup 11})CCMSH, facilitating their potential applications

  6. Probabilistic Analysis of Crack Width

    OpenAIRE

    J. Marková; M. Holický

    2000-01-01

    Probabilistic analysis of crack width of a reinforced concrete element is based on the formulas accepted in Eurocode 2 and European Model Code 90. Obtained values of reliability index b seem to be satisfactory for the reinforced concrete slab that fulfils requirements for the crack width specified in Eurocode 2. However, the reliability of the slab seems to be insufficient when the European Model Code 90 is considered; reliability index is less than recommended value 1.5 for serviceabi...

  7. Bounding the Higgs boson width through interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Lance J; Li, Ye

    2013-09-13

    We study the change in the diphoton-invariant-mass distribution for Higgs boson decays to two photons, due to interference between the Higgs resonance in gluon fusion and the continuum background amplitude for gg→γγ. Previously, the apparent Higgs mass was found to shift by around 100 MeV in the standard model in the leading-order approximation, which may potentially be experimentally observable. We compute the next-to-leading-order QCD corrections to the apparent mass shift, which reduce it by about 40%. The apparent mass shift may provide a way to measure, or at least bound, the Higgs boson width at the Large Hadron Collider through "interferometry." We investigate how the shift depends on the Higgs width, in a model that maintains constant Higgs boson signal yields. At Higgs widths above 30 MeV, the mass shift is over 200 MeV and increases with the square root of the width. The apparent mass shift could be measured by comparing with the ZZ* channel, where the shift is much smaller. It might be possible to measure the shift more accurately by exploiting its strong dependence on the Higgs transverse momentum.

  8. Correlation between interalar width and intercommisural width against mesiodistal width of central upper incisor in Buginese tribe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahruddin Thalib

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Various types of anatomical landmarks of the face should match its proportions with the size of the teeth which is the interalar width, intercomissural width, interpupillary width, Intercanthal width, and byzigomatic width. Some of face landmarks can be used as a guide in the selection of anterior teeth in complete denture, especially if the pre extraction record such as radiography image, extracted teeth, model study, the remaining teeth, face shape, and the shape of the curved jaw have been lost. The objective of this study was to evaluate the correlation between interalar width and intercommisural width against mesiodistal incisivus centralis width in a group of Buginese tribe. Ninety nine Buginese tribe subjects aged 17-25 were selected. The interalar width, intercommisural width, and mesiodistal incisor centralis teeth were measured using caliper about three times for accuracy and precision. Mean of interalar width and mesiodistal incisor centralis maxilla width in males more width than females (p0.05. The degree of correlation between interalar width against mesiodistal incisor centralis maxilla width was 0.030, -0.246, 0,225 in Buginese tribe, males, and females (p>0.05. : The degree of correlation between intercommisural width against  mesiodistal incisor centralis maxilla width in Buginese tribe was 0,054, 0,013, 0,153 in Buginese tribe, males, and females (p>0.05. The degree of correlation between interalar width and intercommisural width was 0.301 and 0.356 in Buginese tribe and males (p0.05. In conclusion, there is no significant correlation between interalar width and intercommisural width against mesiodistal incisor centralis maxilla width in a group of Buginese tribe. Interalar width and intercommisural width  directly proportional to mesiodistal incisor centralis maxilla in a group of Buginese tribe. Interalar width and intercommisural width  inversely proportional to mesiodistal incisor centralis maxilla in males and directly

  9. Reduced volume and increased training intensity elevate muscle Na+/K+ pump {alpha}2-subunit expression as well as short- and long-term work capacity in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsbo, Jens; Gunnarsson, Thomas Petursson; Wendell, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    was unaltered, but the 3-K (3,000 m) time was reduced (Pexpression and performance remained unaltered in CON. The present data suggest that both short- and long-term......% reduction in the amount of training but including speed endurance training consisting of 6-12 30-s sprint runs 3-4 times a week (SET, n=12) or a control group (CON, n=5), which continued the endurance training (about 55 km(.)wk(-1)). For SET the expression of the muscle Na(+)/K(+) pump alpha2-subunit was 68...

  10. Phloretin derived from apple can reduce alpha-hemolysin expression in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xuan; Liu, Shui; Li, Wenhua; Zhang, Bing; Liu, Bowen; Liu, Yan; Deng, Xuming; Peng, Liping

    2015-08-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become increasingly important because it is the most common cause of hospital-acquired infections, which have become globally epidemic. Our study specifically focused on the MRSA strain USA300, which was shown in 2014 to be responsible for the most current pandemic of highly virulent MRSA in the United States. We aimed to evaluate the in vitro effect of phloretin on USA300. Susceptibility testing, western blotting assays, hemolysis assays and real-time RT-PCR were employed to examine the in vitro effects of phloretin on alpha-hemolysin (Hla) production when the bacterium was co-cultured with phloretin. The protective effect of phloretin against the USA300-mediated injury of human alveolar epithelial cells (A549) was tested using the live/dead analysis and cytotoxicity assays. We showed that sub-inhibitory concentrations of phloretin have no effect on bacterial viability; however, they can markedly inhibit the production of Hla in culture supernatants and the transcriptional levels of hla (the gene encoding Hla) and agrA (the accessory gene regulator). Phloretin, at a final concentration of 16 µg/ml, could protect A549 cells from injury caused by USA300 in the co-culture system. Our study suggests that phloretin might have a potential application in the development of treatment for MRSA infections.

  11. Ly(alpha) emission and absorption features in the spectra of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W. L.; Neufeld, David A.

    1994-01-01

    The combined effects of interstellar dust absorption and of scattering by hydrogen atoms may give rise to a Ly(alpha) spectral feature of negative equivalent width, as has been observed in several star-forming galaxies. By considering the transfer of Ly(alpha) line radiation and of neighboring stellar continuum radiation within a dusty galaxy, we find that dust absorption has three effects: (1) it reduces the apparent ultraviolet continuum luminosity at all wavelengths; (2) it preferentially decreases the apparent Ly(alpha) line luminosity from H II regions; and (3) it creates an 'attenuation feature' in the continuum spectrum -- centered at the Ly(alpha) rest frequency -- which occurs because the attenuation of the stellar continuum radiation increases as the Ly(alpha) rest frequency is approached, due to the effects of scattering by hydrogen atoms. For plausible values of the galactic dust content and of the disk thickness, these effects can lead to a negative net Ly(alpha) equivalent width, even for galaxies in which the unattenuated spectrum would show a strong Ly(alpha) emission line.

  12. Effect of step width manipulation on tibial stress during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meardon, Stacey A; Derrick, Timothy R

    2014-08-22

    Narrow step width has been linked to variables associated with tibial stress fracture. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of step width on bone stresses using a standardized model of the tibia. 15 runners ran at their preferred 5k running velocity in three running conditions, preferred step width (PSW) and PSW±5% of leg length. 10 successful trials of force and 3-D motion data were collected. A combination of inverse dynamics, musculoskeletal modeling and beam theory was used to estimate stresses applied to the tibia using subject-specific anthropometrics and motion data. The tibia was modeled as a hollow ellipse. Multivariate analysis revealed that tibial stresses at the distal 1/3 of the tibia differed with step width manipulation (p=0.002). Compression on the posterior and medial aspect of the tibia was inversely related to step width such that as step width increased, compression on the surface of tibia decreased (linear trend p=0.036 and 0.003). Similarly, tension on the anterior surface of the tibia decreased as step width increased (linear trend p=0.029). Widening step width linearly reduced shear stress at all 4 sites (p<0.001 for all). The data from this study suggests that stresses experienced by the tibia during running were influenced by step width when using a standardized model of the tibia. Wider step widths were generally associated with reduced loading of the tibia and may benefit runners at risk of or experiencing stress injury at the tibia, especially if they present with a crossover running style. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Microparticles Carrying Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Alpha Restore the Reduced Differentiation and Functionality of Bone Marrow-Derived Cells Induced by High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergori, Luisa; Lauret, Emilie; Soleti, Raffaella; Andriantsitohaina, Ramaroson; Carmen Martinez, M

    2018-01-01

    Metabolic pathologies such as diabetes and obesity are associated with decreased level of circulating and bone marrow (BM)-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). It is known that activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) may stimulate cell differentiation. In addition, microparticles (MPs), small membrane vesicles produced by activated and apoptotic cells, are able to reprogram EPCs. Here, we evaluated the role of MPs carrying PPARα on both phenotype and function of progenitor cells from mice fed with a high-fat diet (HFD). HFD reduced circulating EPCs and, after 7 days of culture, BM-derived EPCs and monocytic progenitor cells from HFD-fed mice displayed impaired differentiation. At the same time, we show that MPs bearing PPARα, MPs PPARα+/+ , increased the differentiation of EPCs and monocytic progenitors from HFD-fed mice, whereas MPs taken from PPARα knockout mice (MPs PPARα-/- ) had no effect on the differentiation of all types of progenitor cells. Furthermore, MPs PPARα+/+ increased the ability of progenitor cells to promote in vivo angiogenesis in mice fed with HFD. The in vitro and in vivo effects of MPs PPARα+/+ were abolished in presence of MK886, a specific inhibitor of PPARα. Collectively, these data highlight the ability of MPs carrying PPARα to restore the failed differentiation and functionality of BM-derived cells induced by HFD. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2018;7:135-145. © 2017 The Authors Stem Cells Translational Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AlphaMed Press.

  14. Triplication of alpha-globin genes is responsible for unusual alpha 113Leu/alpha 113His-globin chain ratios in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestri, R; Masina, P; Rando, A; Testa, A; Di Gregorio, P

    1987-10-01

    By investigations at the DNA and protein level, it has been shown that in sheep a previously detected, presumed quantitative allele of the II alpha 113His gene, displaying a reduced efficiency (called the II alpha 113His decreases gene), is carried by a chromosome bearing three alpha-globin loci. In particular, five sheep having an alpha 113Leu/alpha 113His-chain ratio of about 13:1 (13:1 phenotype) possessed the -I alpha 113Leu-II alpha 113Leu-/-I alpha 113Leu-II alpha 113Leu-III alpha 113His decreases genotype. One sheep showing a alpha 113Leu/alpha 113His-chain ratio of about 3:1 (3:1 phenotype) had the -I alpha 113Leu-II alpha 113His-/-I alpha 113Leu-II alpha 113Leu-III alpha 113His decreases genotype, while one sheep having a chain ratio of about 6:1 (6:1 phenotype) carried the -I alpha 113Leu-II alpha 113Leu-II alpha 113His decreases-/-I alpha 113Leu-II alpha 113Leu-III alpha 113His decreases genotype. Nineteen sheep, displaying the common phenotypes, all possessed the alpha alpha/alpha alpha gene arrangement. Furthermore, the possible location of the gene with reduced efficiency and the expression of the three genes in the triple alpha-globin loci chromosome are discussed.

  15. Effects of alpha-escin on histomorphometrical parameters of long bones in rats with experimental post-steroid osteopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cegieła, U; Pytlik, M; Janiec, W

    2000-01-01

    The excess of glucocorticosteroids leads to the development of osteopenia. A decreased bone formation rate and an increased bone resorption rate are observed. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of alpha-escin on the experimental prednisolone-induced osteopenia. The experiments were carried out on male Wistar rats with initial body weight of 240-310 g, divided into 4 groups (n = 6): Control, Alpha-escin, Prednisolone, Prednisolone + alpha-escin. Prednisolone (5 mg/kg im daily) and/or alpha-escin (100 mg/kg po daily) were administered for 28 days. Transverse cross-section surfaces of the cortical diaphysis and of the marrow cavity in the tibia, transverse growth, width of endosteal and periosteal osteoid, thickness of trabeculae and width of epiphyseal cartilage were examined. Prednisolone administration caused osteopenic changes in rat bones. Alpha-escin administered to the control rats did not exert statistically significant influence on the investigated bone parameters. Alpha-escin administration to prednisolone-treated rats slightly reduced the unfavorable effects of prednisolone on width of periosteal and endosteal osteoid and periosteal transverse growth in the tibia.

  16. Alpha-Tocopherol Reduces Brain Edema and Protects Blood-Brain Barrier Integrity following Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghnejad Azar, Adel; Oryan, Shahrbanoo; Bohlooli, Shahab; Panahpour, Hamdollah

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the neuroprotective effects of α-tocopherol against edema formation and disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) following transient focal cerebral ischemia in rats. Ninety-six male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 major groups (n = 32 in each), namely the sham, and control and α-tocopherol-treated (30 mg/kg) ischemic groups. Transient focal cerebral ischemia (90 min) was induced by occlusion of the left middle cerebral artery. At the end of the 24-hour reperfusion period, the animals were randomly selected and used for 4 investigations (n = 8) in each of the 3 main groups: (a) assessment of neurological score and measurement of infarct size, (b) detection of brain edema formation by the wet/dry method, (c) evaluation of BBB permeability using the Evans blue (EB) extravasation technique, and (d) assessment of the malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) concentrations using high-performance liquid chromatography methods. Induction of cerebral ischemia in the control group produced extensive brain edema (brain water content 83.8 ± 0.11%) and EB leakage into brain parenchyma (14.58 ± 1.29 µg/g) in conjunction with reduced GSH and elevated MDA levels (5.86 ± 0.31 mmol/mg and 63.57 ± 5.42 nmol/mg, respectively). Treatment with α-tocopherol significantly lowered brain edema formation and reduced EB leakage compared with the control group (p edema formation and produced protective effects on BBB function following ischemic stroke occurrence. This effect could be through increasing antioxidant activity. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Alpha-decay within Feshbach theory of nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandulescu, A.; Silisteanu, I.; Wunsch, R.

    1977-01-01

    In the frame of Feshbach theory of nuclear reactions the alpha-decay widths are determined by the alpha-daughter nucleus optical potential and by the formation factors. It is shown that the calculated absolute values of the alpha widths for Po light isotopes are in good agreement with experimental data, if the real part of the optical potential with the parameters fitted by the low energy α-scattering is used

  18. miR-451 deficiency is associated with altered endometrial fibrinogen alpha chain expression and reduced endometriotic implant establishment in an experimental mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren B Nothnick

    Full Text Available Endometriosis is defined as the growth of endometrial glandular and stromal components in ectopic locations and affects as many as 10% of all women of reproductive age. Despite its high prevalence, the pathogenesis of endometriosis remains poorly understood. MicroRNAs, small non-coding RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression, are mis-expressed in endometriosis but a functional role in the disease pathogenesis remains uncertain. To examine the role of microRNA-451 (miR-451 in the initial development of endometriosis, we utilized a novel mouse model in which eutopic endometrial fragments used to induce endometriosis were deficient for miR-451. After induction of the disease, we evaluated the impact of this deficiency on implant development and survival. Loss of miR-451 expression resulted in a lower number of ectopic lesions established in vivo. Analysis of differential protein profiles between miR-451 deficient and wild-type endometrial fragments revealed that fibrinogen alpha polypeptide isoform 2 precursor was approximately 2-fold higher in the miR-451 null donor endometrial tissue and this elevated expression of the protein was associated with altered expression of the parent fibrinogen alpha chain mRNA and protein. As this polypeptide contains RGD amino acid "cell adhesion" motifs which could impact early establishment of lesion development, we examined and confirmed using a cyclic RGD peptide antagonist, that endometrial cell adhesion and endometriosis establishment could be respectively inhibited both in vitro and in vivo. Collectively, these results suggest that the reduced miR-451 eutopic endometrial expression does not enhance initial establishment of these fragments when displaced into the peritoneal cavity, that loss of eutopic endometrial miR-451 expression is associated with altered expression of fibrinogen alpha chain mRNA and protein, and that RGD cyclic peptide antagonists inhibit establishment of endometriosis

  19. Reducing renal uptake of 9Y- and 177Lu-labeled alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone peptide analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao Yubin; Fisher, Darrell R.; Quinn, Thomas P.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to improve the tumor-to-kidney uptake ratios of 9 Y- and 177 Lu-[1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid-Re-Cys 3,4,1 , D-Phe 7 , Arg 11 ]α-melanocyte stimulating hormone 3-13 {DOTA-Re(Arg 11 )CCMSH} through coupling a negatively charged glutamic acid (Glu) to the peptide sequence. Methods: A new peptide of DOTA-Re(Glu 2 , Arg 11 )CCMSH was designed, synthesized and labeled with 9 Y and 177 Lu. Pharmacokinetics of 9 Y- and 177 Lu-DOTA-Re(Glu 2 , Arg 11 )CCMSH was determined in B16/F1 murine melanoma-bearing C57 mice. Results: 9 Y- and 177 Lu-DOTA-Re(Glu 2 , Arg 11 )CCMSH exhibited significantly (P 9 Y- and 177 Lu-DOTA-Re(Arg 11 )CCMSH at 30 min and at 2, 4 and 24 h after dose administration. The renal uptake values of 9 Y- and 177 Lu-DOTA-Re(Glu 2 , Arg 11 )CCMSH were 28.16% and 28.81% of those of 9 Y- and 177 Lu-DOTA-Re(Arg 11 )CCMSH, respectively, at 4 h postinjection. 9 Y- and 177 Lu-DOTA-Re(Glu 2 , Arg 11 )CCMSH displayed higher tumor-to-kidney uptake ratios than 9 Y- and 177 Lu-DOTA-Re(Arg 11 )CCMSH at 30 min and at 2, 4 and 24 h after dose administration. The tumor-to-kidney uptake ratio of 9 Y- and 177 Lu-DOTA-Re(Glu 2 , Arg 11 )CCMSH was 2.28 and 1.69 times of 9 Y- and 177 Lu-DOTA-Re(Arg 11 )CCMSH, respectively, at 4 h postinjection. The 9 Y- and 177 Lu-DOTA-Re(Glu 2 , Arg 11 )CCMSH activity accumulation was low in normal organs except for kidney. Conclusions: Coupling a negatively charged amino acid (Glu) to the CCMSH peptide sequence dramatically reduced the renal uptake values and increased the tumor-to-kidney uptake ratios of 9 Y- and 177 Lu-DOTA-Re(Glu 2 , Arg 11 )CCMSH, facilitating their potential applications as radiopharmaceuticals for targeted radionuclide therapy of melanoma

  20. The effect of a metalloproteinase inhibitor (GI5402) on tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and TNF-alpha receptors during human endotoxemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekkers, P. E.; Lauw, F. N.; ten Hove, T.; te Velde, A. A.; Lumley, P.; Becherer, D.; van Deventer, S. J.; van der Poll, T.

    1999-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is released from the cell surface by cleavage of pro-TNF-alpha by metalloproteinases (MPs). In cell cultures, inhibition of MPs has been found not only to reduce the release of TNF-alpha, but also to enhance the surface expression of TNF-alpha and TNF-alpha

  1. Tetrahydro iso-alpha acids from hops improve glucose homeostasis and reduce body weight gain and metabolic endotoxemia in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Everard

    Full Text Available Obesity and related metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes are associated with a low-grade inflammatory state possibly through changes in gut microbiota composition and the development of higher plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS levels, i.e. metabolic endotoxemia. Various phytochemical compounds have been investigated as potential tools to regulate these metabolic features. Humulus lupulus L. (hops contains several classes of compounds with anti-inflammatory potential. Recent evidence suggests that hops-derived compounds positively impact adipocyte metabolism and glucose tolerance in obese and diabetic rodents via undefined mechanisms. In this study, we found that administration of tetrahydro iso-alpha acids (termed META060 to high-fat diet (HFD-fed obese and diabetic mice for 8 weeks reduced body weight gain, the development of fat mass, glucose intolerance, and fasted hyperinsulinemia, and normalized insulin sensitivity markers. This was associated with reduced portal plasma LPS levels, gut permeability, and higher intestinal tight junction proteins Zonula occludens-1 and occludin. Moreover, META060 treatment increased the plasma level of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 and decreased the plasma level of the pro-inflammatory cytokine granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. In conclusion, this research allows us to decipher a novel mechanism contributing to the positive effects of META060 treatment, and supports the need to investigate such compounds in obese and type 2 diabetic patients.

  2. Tetrahydro iso-alpha acids from hops improve glucose homeostasis and reduce body weight gain and metabolic endotoxemia in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everard, Amandine; Geurts, Lucie; Van Roye, Marie; Delzenne, Nathalie M; Cani, Patrice D

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and related metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes are associated with a low-grade inflammatory state possibly through changes in gut microbiota composition and the development of higher plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels, i.e. metabolic endotoxemia. Various phytochemical compounds have been investigated as potential tools to regulate these metabolic features. Humulus lupulus L. (hops) contains several classes of compounds with anti-inflammatory potential. Recent evidence suggests that hops-derived compounds positively impact adipocyte metabolism and glucose tolerance in obese and diabetic rodents via undefined mechanisms. In this study, we found that administration of tetrahydro iso-alpha acids (termed META060) to high-fat diet (HFD)-fed obese and diabetic mice for 8 weeks reduced body weight gain, the development of fat mass, glucose intolerance, and fasted hyperinsulinemia, and normalized insulin sensitivity markers. This was associated with reduced portal plasma LPS levels, gut permeability, and higher intestinal tight junction proteins Zonula occludens-1 and occludin. Moreover, META060 treatment increased the plasma level of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 and decreased the plasma level of the pro-inflammatory cytokine granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. In conclusion, this research allows us to decipher a novel mechanism contributing to the positive effects of META060 treatment, and supports the need to investigate such compounds in obese and type 2 diabetic patients.

  3. Exposure of the eggs to 17{alpha}-methyl testosterone reduced hatching success and growth and elicited teratogenic effects in postembryonic life stages of crayfish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, Guenter [Zoological Institute and Museum, University of Greifswald, Johann-Sebastian-Bach-Strasse 11/12, D-17487 Greifswald (Germany)], E-mail: gunter.vogt@web.de

    2007-12-30

    Testosterone is regularly found in the tissues of decapod crustaceans. Although this vertebrate-type sex hormone is not the principal factor of sex differentiation in crustaceans, it was shown to be capable of acting on the reproductive organs of shrimps and crabs. In the present study I have exposed developing eggs and stage 5 juveniles of the parthenogenetic all female marbled crayfish to 17{alpha}-methyl testosterone in order to test whether in freshwater crayfish sex can be changed from female to male by this androgen. MT did not elicit sex change, neither when administered during embryonic development nor during juvenile stage 5, the main period of proliferation of the oocytes. However, exposure to 100 {mu}g/L MT from 64% to 84% embryonic development resulted in prolonged embryonic development, reduced hatching success, reduced growth of the juveniles, and severe malformations of the appendages in the juveniles. The marbled crayfish is recommended to be considered for toxicity tests due to its easy culture in the laboratory and its genotypical uniformity.

  4. Tetrahydro iso-Alpha Acids from Hops Improve Glucose Homeostasis and Reduce Body Weight Gain and Metabolic Endotoxemia in High-Fat Diet-Fed Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Roye, Marie; Delzenne, Nathalie M.; Cani, Patrice D.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and related metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes are associated with a low-grade inflammatory state possibly through changes in gut microbiota composition and the development of higher plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels, i.e. metabolic endotoxemia. Various phytochemical compounds have been investigated as potential tools to regulate these metabolic features. Humulus lupulus L. (hops) contains several classes of compounds with anti-inflammatory potential. Recent evidence suggests that hops-derived compounds positively impact adipocyte metabolism and glucose tolerance in obese and diabetic rodents via undefined mechanisms. In this study, we found that administration of tetrahydro iso-alpha acids (termed META060) to high-fat diet (HFD)-fed obese and diabetic mice for 8 weeks reduced body weight gain, the development of fat mass, glucose intolerance, and fasted hyperinsulinemia, and normalized insulin sensitivity markers. This was associated with reduced portal plasma LPS levels, gut permeability, and higher intestinal tight junction proteins Zonula occludens-1 and occludin. Moreover, META060 treatment increased the plasma level of the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 and decreased the plasma level of the pro-inflammatory cytokine granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. In conclusion, this research allows us to decipher a novel mechanism contributing to the positive effects of META060 treatment, and supports the need to investigate such compounds in obese and type 2 diabetic patients. PMID:22470484

  5. Clenbuterol, a β2-adrenergic agonist, reciprocally alters PGC-1 alpha and RIP140 and reduces fatty acid and pyruvate oxidation in rat skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, Daisuke; Yoshida, Yuko; Holloway, Graham P; Lally, James; Hatta, Hideo; Bonen, Arend

    2012-02-01

    Clenbuterol, a β2-adrenergic agonist, reduces mitochondrial content and enzyme activities in skeletal muscle, but the mechanism involved has yet to be identified. We examined whether clenbuterol-induced changes in the muscles' metabolic profile and the intrinsic capacity of mitochondria to oxidize substrates are associated with reductions in the nuclear receptor coactivator PGC-1 alpha and/or an increase in the nuclear corepressor RIP140. In rats, clenbuterol was provided in the drinking water (30 mg/l). In 3 wk, this increased body (8%) and muscle weights (12-17%). In red (R) and white (W) muscles, clenbuterol induced reductions in mitochondrial content (citrate synthase: R, 27%; W, 52%; cytochrome-c oxidase: R, 24%; W, 34%), proteins involved in fatty acid transport (fatty acid translocase/CD36: R, 36%; W, 35%) and oxidation [β-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase (β-HAD): R, 33%; W, 62%], glucose transport (GLUT4: R, 8%; W, 13%), lactate transport monocarboxylate transporter (MCT1: R, 61%; W, 37%), and pyruvate oxidation (PDHE1α, R, 18%; W, 12%). Concurrently, only red muscle lactate dehydrogenase activity (25%) and MCT4 (31%) were increased. Palmitate oxidation was reduced in subsarcolemmal (SS) (R, 30%; W, 52%) and intermyofibrillar (IMF) mitochondria (R, 17%; W, 44%) along with reductions in β-HAD activity (SS: R, 17%; W, 51%; IMF: R, 20%; W, 57%). Pyruvate oxidation was only reduced in SS mitochondria (R, 20%; W, 28%), but this was not attributable solely to PDHE1α, which was reduced in both SS (R, 21%; W, 20%) and IMF mitochondria (R, 15%; W, 43%). These extensive metabolic changes induced by clenbuterol were associated with reductions in PGC-1α (R, 37%; W, 32%) and increases in RIP140 (R, 23%; W, 21%). This is the first evidence that clenbuterol appears to exert its metabolic effects via simultaneous and reciprocal changes in the nuclear receptor coactivator PGC-1α and the nuclear corepressor RIP140.

  6. Ascorbic acid, but not dehydroascorbic acid increases intracellular vitamin C content to decrease Hypoxia Inducible Factor -1 alpha activity and reduce malignant potential in human melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Adam P; Miles, Sarah L

    2017-02-01

    Accumulation of hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) in malignant tissue is known to contribute to oncogenic progression and is inversely associated with patient survival. Ascorbic acid (AA) depletion in malignant tissue may contribute to aberrant normoxic activity of HIF-1α. While AA supplementation has been shown to attenuate HIF-1α function in malignant melanoma, the use of dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) as a therapeutic means to increase intracellular AA and modulate HIF-1α function is yet to be evaluated. Here we compared the ability of AA and DHA to increase intracellular vitamin C content and decrease the malignant potential of human melanoma by reducing the activity of HIF-1α. HIF-1α protein accumulation was evaluated by western blot and transcriptional activity was evaluated by reporter gene assay using a HIF-1 HRE-luciferase plasmid. Protein expressions and subcellular localizations of vitamin C transporters were evaluated by western blot and confocal imaging. Intracellular vitamin C content following AA, ascorbate 2-phosphate (A2P), or DHA supplementation was determined using a vitamin C assay. Malignant potential was accessed using a 3D spheroid Matrigel invasion assay. Data was analyzed by One or Two-way ANOVA with Tukey's multiple comparisons test as appropriate with pascorbic acid as an adjuvant cancer therapy remains under investigated. While AA and A2P were capable of modulating HIF-1α protein accumulation/activity, DHA supplementation resulted in minimal intracellular vitamin C activity with decreased ability to inhibit HIF-1α activity and malignant potential in advanced melanoma. Restoring AA dependent regulation of HIF-1α in malignant cells may prove beneficial in reducing chemotherapy resistance and improving treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Statistical distribution of partial widths in the microscopic theory of nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunakov, V.E.; Ogloblin, S.G.

    1978-01-01

    Using the microscopic theory of nuclear reaction the distribution function of neutron reduced partial widths is obtained. It is shown that the distribution of reduced partial widths of a radiative transition is of the same form. The distribution obtained differs from the Porter-Thomas law for neutron widths only in the presence of intermediate structures. It is noteworthy that the presence of an intermediate structure leads to a greater dispersion

  8. Knockdown of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha reduces proliferation, induces apoptosis and attenuates the aggressive phenotype of retinoblastoma WERI-Rb-1 cells under hypoxic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Tian; Cheng, Hao; Zhu, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) plays a critical role in tumor cell adaption to hypoxia by inducing the transcription of numerous genes. The role of HIF-1α in malignant retinoblastoma remains unclear. We analyzed the role of HIF-1α in WERI-Rb-1 retinoblastoma cells under hypoxic conditions. CoCl2 (125 mmol/L) was added to the culture media to mimic hypoxia. HIF-1α was silenced using siRNA. Gene and protein expression were measured by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting. Cell cycle and apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry. Cell proliferation, adhesion and invasion were assayed using MTT, Transwell invasion, and cell adhesion assays respectively. Hypoxia significantly upregulated HIF-1α protein expression and the HIF-1α target genes VEGF, GLUT1, and Survivin mRNA. HIF-1α mRNA expression was not affected by hypoxia. Transfection of the siRNA expression plasmid pRNAT-CMV3.2/Neo-HIF-1α silenced HIF-1α by approximately 80% in hypoxic WERI-Rb-1 cells. The knockdown of HIF-1α under hypoxic conditions downregulated VEGF, GLUT1, and Survivin mRNA. It also inhibited proliferation, promoted apoptosis, induced the G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest, and reduced the adhesion and invasion of WERI-Rb-1 cells. HIF-1α plays a major role in the survival and aggressive phenotype of retinoblastoma cells under hypoxic conditions. Targeting HIF-1α may be a promising therapeutic strategy for human malignant retinoblastoma.

  9. Fortified complementary foods with or without alpha-amylase treatment increase hemoglobin but do not reduce breast milk intake of 9-mo-old Zambian infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owino, Victor O; Kasonka, Lackson M; Sinkala, Moses M; Wells, Jonathan K; Eaton, Simon; Darch, Tegan; Coward, Andrew; Tomkins, Andrew M; Filteau, Suzanne M

    2007-10-01

    Malnutrition in late infancy in developing countries may result from poor-quality complementary foods that displace breast milk. The objective of the study was to assess the effects of fortified complementary blends of different energy densities on growth, hemoglobin concentrations, and breast milk intake of 9-mo-old Zambian infants. Infants were randomly assigned at 6 mo of age to receive for 3 mo a fortified blend of maize, beans, bambaranuts, and groundnuts [Chilenje Baby Mix (CBM); energy density: 68 kcal/100 g; n = 37] or a similar blend with alpha-amylase (CBMA; energy density: 106 kcal/100 g; n = 44). Cross-sectional data were obtained at 9 mo for a control group of infants (n = 69) not given the diets. Breast milk intake was measured by using the dose-to-the-mother deuterium dilution technique. No differences in weight or length z scores, all of which were within normal ranges, were seen between groups at 9 mo. Percentage fat mass was significantly (P = 0.01) greater in the infants in both the CBM (23.2 +/- 2.7%) and CBMA (23.4 +/- 2.5%) groups than in the control group (21.6 +/- 2.6%). Hemoglobin concentrations were significantly (P = 0.03) greater in both intervention groups (CBM group: 104 +/- 12 g/L: CBMA group: 103 +/- 12 g/L) than in the control group (98 +/- 14 g/L). Breast milk intake was not significantly (P = 0.87) different between groups (CBM group: 614 +/- 271 g/d; CBMA group: 635 +/- 193 g/d; control group: 653 +/- 221 g/d). The study foods improved hemoglobin concentrations without reducing breast milk intake and may be used to improve the nutritional status of infants in developing countries.

  10. Pulse Width Affects Scalp Sensation of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterchev, Angel V; Luber, Bruce; Westin, Gregory G; Lisanby, Sarah H

    Scalp sensation and pain comprise the most common side effect of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), which can reduce tolerability and complicate experimental blinding. We explored whether changing the width of single TMS pulses affects the quality and tolerability of the resultant somatic sensation. Using a controllable pulse parameter TMS device with a figure-8 coil, single monophasic magnetic pulses inducing electric field with initial phase width of 30, 60, and 120 µs were delivered in 23 healthy volunteers. Resting motor threshold of the right first dorsal interosseus was determined for each pulse width, as reported previously. Subsequently, pulses were delivered over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex at each of the three pulse widths at two amplitudes (100% and 120% of the pulse-width-specific motor threshold), with 20 repetitions per condition delivered in random order. After each pulse, subjects rated 0-to-10 visual analog scales for Discomfort, Sharpness, and Strength of the sensation. Briefer TMS pulses with amplitude normalized to the motor threshold were perceived as slightly more uncomfortable than longer pulses (with an average 0.89 point increase on the Discomfort scale for pulse width of 30 µs compared to 120 µs). The sensation of the briefer pulses was felt to be substantially sharper (2.95 points increase for 30 µs compared to 120 µs pulse width), but not stronger than longer pulses. As expected, higher amplitude pulses increased the perceived discomfort and strength, and, to a lesser degree the perceived sharpness. Our findings contradict a previously published hypothesis that briefer TMS pulses are more tolerable. We discovered that the opposite is true, which merits further study as a means of enhancing tolerability in the context of repetitive TMS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A niche width model of optimal specialization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggeman, J.P.; Ó Nualláin, Breanndán

    2000-01-01

    Niche width theory, a part of organizational ecology, predicts whether “specialist” or “generalist” forms of organizations have higher “fitness,” in a continually changing environment. To this end, niche width theory uses a mathematical model borrowed from biology. In this paper, we first loosen the

  12. Constant Width Planar Computation Characterizes ACC0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, K.A.

    2004-01-01

    We obtain a characterization of ACC 0 in terms of a natural class of constant width circuits, namely in terms of constant width polynomial size planar circuits. This is shown via a characterization of the class of acyclic digraphs which can be embedded on a cylinder surface in such a way that all...

  13. Constant Width Planar Computation Characterizes ACC0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt

    2006-01-01

    We obtain a characterization of ACC0 in terms of a natural class of constant width circuits, namely in terms of constant width polynomial size planar circuits. This is shown via a characterization of the class of acyclic digraphs which can be embedded on a cylinder surface in such a way that all...

  14. 7 CFR 29.1085 - Width.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Width. 29.1085 Section 29.1085 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Heavy Fleshy Medium Thin Oil Lean Oily Rich Color intensity Pale Weak Moderate Strong Deep. Width...

  15. A low concentration of ethanol reduces the chemiluminescence of human granulocytes and monocytes but not the tumor necrosis factor alpha production by monocytes after endotoxin stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Diedrich, J. P.; Schäfer, Christian

    1998-01-01

    necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) from Mphi. Further, the efficiency of ethanol to inactivate chemically generated ROS was tested. Significant stimulation of ROS release occurred at endotoxin concentrations of 1 ng/ml or higher in both PMNs and Mphi. Ethanol significantly suppressed the formation of ROS...... identical (6 to 8 ng/ml) in both PMNs and Mphi, independent of the presence of ethanol. In contrast to ROS formation, ethanol had no effect on the amount of TNF-alpha produced by endotoxin-stimulated Mphi. Ethanol was shown to be unable to decrease the levels of chemically generated ROS under physiological......The ability of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) and monocytes (Mphi) to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been related closely to their potential in the killing of microorganisms. Ethanol has been shown to impair the generation of ROS in these phagocytes after stimulation with some...

  16. First Accurate Normalization of the $\\beta$-delayed $\\alpha$ Decay of $^{16}$N and Implications for the $^{12}$C$(\\alpha,\\gamma)^{16}$O Astrophysical Reaction Rate arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Kirsebom, O.S.; Lica, R.; Munch, M.; Riisager, K.; Fynbo, H.O.U.; Borge, M.J.G.; Madurga, M.; Marroquin, I.; Andreyev, A.N.; Berry, T.A.; Christensen, E.R.; Fernández, P. Díaz; Doherty, D.T.; Van Duppen, P.; Fraile, L.M.; Gallardo, M.C.; Greenlees, P.T.; Harkness-Brennan, L.J.; Hubbard, N.; Huyse, M.; Jensen, J.H.; Johansson, H.; Jonson, B.; Judson, D.S.; Konki, J.; Lazarus, I.; Lund, M.V.; Marginean, N.; Marginean, R.; Perea, A.; Mihai, C.; Negret, A.; Page, R.D.; Pucknell, V.; Rahkila, P.; Sorlin, O.; Sotty, C.; Swartz, J.A.; Sørensen, H.B.; Törnqvist, H.; Vedia, V.; Warr, N.; De Witte, H.

    The $^{12}$C$(\\alpha,\\gamma)^{16}$O reaction plays a central role in astrophysics, but its cross section at energies relevant for astrophysical applications is only poorly constrained by laboratory data. The reduced $\\alpha$ width, $\\gamma_{11}$, of the bound $1^-$ level in $^{16}$O is particularly important to determine the cross section. The magnitude of $\\gamma_{11}$ is determined via sub-Coulomb $\\alpha$-transfer reactions or the $\\beta$-delayed $\\alpha$ decay of $^{16}$N, but the latter approach is presently hampered by the lack of sufficiently precise data on the $\\beta$-decay branching ratios. Here we report improved branching ratios for the bound $1^-$ level and for $\\beta$-delayed $\\alpha$ emission. In the case of the $\\beta$-delayed $\\alpha$ branch, we find a $5\\sigma$ deviation from the literature value. With our new branching ratios, the constraints imposed on $\\gamma_{11}$ by the $\\beta\\alpha$-decay and $\\alpha$-transfer data are of similar precision and, for the first time, in good agreement. Th...

  17. Intraspecific competition reduces niche width in experimental populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Christine E; Agashe, Deepa; Bolnick, Daniel I

    2014-10-01

    Intraspecific competition is believed to drive niche expansion, because otherwise suboptimal resources can provide a refuge from competition for preferred resources. Competitive niche expansion is well supported by empirical observations, experiments, and theory, and is often invoked to explain phenotypic diversification within populations, some forms of speciation, and adaptive radiation. However, some foraging models predict the opposite outcome, and it therefore remains unclear whether competition will promote or inhibit niche expansion. We conducted experiments to test whether competition changes the fitness landscape to favor niche expansion, and if competition indeed drives niche expansion as expected. Using Tribolium castaneum flour beetles fed either wheat (their ancestral resource), corn (a novel resource) or mixtures of both resources, we show that fitness is maximized on a mixed diet. Next, we show that at higher population density, the optimal diet shifts toward greater use of corn, favoring niche expansion. In stark contrast, when beetles were given a choice of resources, we found that competition caused niche contraction onto the ancestral resource. This presents a puzzling mismatch between how competition alters the fitness landscape, versus competition's effects on resource use. We discuss several explanations for this mismatch, highlighting potential reasons why optimality models might be misleading.

  18. Human Alpha-1-Antitrypsin (hAAT) therapy reduces renal dysfunction and acute tubular necrosis in a murine model of bilateral kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maicas, Nuria; van der Vlag, Johan; Bublitz, Janin; Florquin, Sandrine; Bakker-van Bebber, Marinka; Dinarello, Charles A; Verweij, Vivienne; Masereeuw, Roos|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/155644033; Joosten, Leo A; Hilbrands, Luuk B

    2017-01-01

    Several lines of evidence have demonstrated the anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective effects of alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT), the major serum serine protease inhibitor. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of human AAT (hAAT) monotherapy during the early and recovery phase of

  19. Biologic width dimensions--a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Julia C; Sahrmann, Philipp; Weiger, Roland; Schmidlin, Patrick R; Walter, Clemens

    2013-05-01

    Consideration of the biologic width in restorative dentistry seems to be important for maintaining periodontal health. To evaluate the dimensions of the biologic width in humans. A systematic literature search was performed for publications published by 28 September 2012 using five different electronic databases; this search was complemented by a manual search. Two reviewers conducted the study selection, data collection, and validity assessment. The PRISMA criteria were applied. From 615 titles identified by the search strategy, 14 publications were included and six were suitable for meta-analyses. Included studies were published from the years 1924 to 2012. They differed with regard to measurements of the biologic width. Mean values of the biologic width obtained from two meta-analyses ranged from 2.15 to 2.30 mm, but large intra- and inter-individual variances (subject sample range: 0.2 - 6.73 mm) were observed. The tooth type and site, the presence of a restoration and periodontal diseases/surgery affected the dimensions of the biologic width. Pronounced heterogeneity among studies regarding methods and outcome measures exists. No universal dimension of the biologic width appears to exist. Establishment of periodontal health is suggested prior to the assessment of the biologic width within reconstructive dentistry. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Similarity of Stream Width Distributions Across Headwater Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, G. H.; Pavelsky, T.; Barefoot, E. A.; Tashie, A.; Butman, D. E.

    2016-12-01

    The morphology and abundance of streams control the rates of hydraulic and biogeochemical exchange between streams, groundwater, and the atmosphere. In large river systems, studies have used remote sensing to quantify river morphology, and have found that the relationship between river width and abundance is fractal, such that narrow rivers are proportionally more common than wider rivers. However, in headwater systems (stream order 1-3), where many biogeochemical reactions are most rapid, the relationship between stream width and abundance is unknown, reducing the certainty of biogeochemical flux estimates. To constrain this uncertainty, we surveyed two components of stream morphology (wetted stream width and length) in seven physiographically contrasting stream networks in Kings Creek in Konza Prarie, KS; Sagehen Creek in the N. Sierra Nevada Mtns., CA; Elder Creek in Angelo Coast Range Preserve, CA; Caribou Creek in the Caribou Poker Creek Research Watershed, AK; V40 Stream, NZ; Blue Duck Creek, NZ; Stony Creek in Duke Forest, NC. To assess temporal variations, we also surveyed stream geometry in a subcatchment of Stony Creek six times over a range of moderate streamflow conditions (discharge less than 90 percentile of gauge record). Here we show a strikingly consistent gamma statistical distribution of stream width in all surveys and a characteristic most abundant stream width of 32±7 cm independent of flow conditions or basin size. This consistency is remarkable given the substantial physical diversity among the studied catchments. We propose a model that invokes network topology theory and downstream hydraulic geometry to show that, as active drainage networks expand and contract in response to changes in streamflow, the most abundant stream width remains approximately static. This framework can be used to better extrapolate stream size and abundance from large rivers to small headwater streams, with significant impact on understanding of the hydraulic

  1. Buffett's Alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Kabiller, David; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    Berkshire Hathaway has realized a Sharpe ratio of 0.76, higher than any other stock or mutual fund with a history of more than 30 years, and Berkshire has a significant alpha to traditional risk factors. However, we find that the alpha becomes insignificant when controlling for exposures to Betting-Against-Beta...... in publicly traded stocks versus wholly-owned private companies, we find that the former performs the best, suggesting that Buffett's returns are more due to stock selection than to his effect on management. These results have broad implications for market efficiency and the implementability of academic...

  2. Direct measurement of the W boson width

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, F.; Albrow, M.G.; Amidei, D.; Antos, J.; Anway-Wiese, C.; Apollinari, G.; Areti, H.; Atac, M.; Auchincloss, P.; Azfar, F.; Azzi, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Badgett, W.; Bailey, M.W.; Bao, J.; de Barbaro, P.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Barnes, V.E.; Barnett, B.A.; Bartalini, P.; Bauer, G.; Baumann, T.; Bedeschi, F.; Behrends, S.; Belforte, S.; Bellettini, G.; Bellinger, J.; Benjamin, D.; Benlloch, J.; Bensinger, J.; Benton, D.; Beretvas, A.; Berge, J.P.; Bertolucci, S.; Bhatti, A.; Biery, K.; Binkley, M.; Bird, F.; Bisello, D.; Blair, R.E.; Blocker, C.; Bodek, A.; Bokhari, W.; Bolognesi, V.; Bortoletto, D.; Boswell, C.; Boulos, T.; Brandenburg, G.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Budd, H.S.; Burkett, K.; Busetto, G.; Byon-Wagner, A.; Byrum, K.L.; Cammerata, J.; Campagnari, C.; Campbell, M.; Caner, A.; Carithers, W.; Carlsmith, D.; Castro, A.; Cen, Y.; Cervelli, F.; Chapman, J.; Cheng, M.; Chiarelli, G.; Chikamatsu, T.; Cihangir, S.; Clark, A.G.; Cobal, M.; Contreras, M.; Conway, J.; Cooper, J.; Cordelli, M.; Crane, D.; Cunningham, J.D.; Daniels, T.; DeJongh, F.; Delchamps, S.; Dell'Agnello, S.; Dell'Orso, M.; Demortier, L.; Denby, B.; Deninno, M.; Derwent, P.F.; Devlin, T.; Dickson, M.; Donati, S.; Drucker, R.B.; Dunn, A.; Einsweiler, K.; Elias, J.E.; Ely, R.; Engels, E. Jr.; Eno, S.; Errede, D.; Errede, S.; Fan, Q.; Farhat, B.; Fiori, I.; Flaugher, B.; Foster, G.W.; Franklin, M.; Frautschi, M.; Freeman, J.; Friedman, J.; Frisch, H.; Fry, A.; Fuess, T.A.; Fukui, Y.; Funaki, S.; Gagliardi, G.; Galeotti, S.; Gallinaro, M.; Garfinkel, A.F.; Geer, S.; Gerdes, D.W.; Giannetti, P.; Giokaris, N.; Giromini, P.; Gladney, L.; Glenzinski, D.; Gold, M.; Gonzalez, J.; Gordon, A.; Goshaw, A.T.; Goulianos, K.; Grassmann, H.; Grewal, A.; Grieco, G.; Groer, L.; Grosso-Pilcher, C.; Haber, C.; Hahn, S.R.; Hamilton, R.; Handler, R.; Hans, R.M.; Hara, K.; Harral, B.; Harris, R.M.; Hauger, S.A.; Hauser, J.; Hawk, C.; Heinrich, J.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Hollebeek, R.; Holloway, L.; Hoelscher, A.

    1995-01-01

    This Letter describes a direct measurement of the W boson decay width, Γ(W), using the high-mass tail of the transverse mass spectrum of W→eν decays recorded by the Collider Detector at Fermilab. We find Γ(W)=2.11±0.28(stat) ± 0.16(syst) GeV and compare this direct measurement with indirect means of obtaining the width

  3. Bayesian Identification of Emission-Line Galaxies with Photometric Equivalent Widths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Andrew S.; Gawiser, Eric J.; Acquaviva, Viviana; HETDEX Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    We present a Bayesian approach to the classification of emission-line galaxies as an alternative to the traditional limit of requiring Lyman-alpha emitting (LAE) galaxies to have rest-frame equivalent width (EW) > 20Å. The Bayesian method relies on known distributions of line luminosities and equivalent widths as prior probabilities and returns the probability that an object is an LAE given the observed characteristics. This will be directly relevant for the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX), which seeks to classify more than a million emission-line galaxies into LAEs and low-redshift [O II] emitters. For a simulated HETDEX catalog with realistic measurement noise, the Bayesian method recovers a majority of the LAEs missed by the EW > 20 Angstroms cutoff over 2 20Å cut in contamination (false positives) and incompleteness (false negatives). Trade-off between contamination and incompleteness can be achieved by adjusting the stringency of the probability requirement for classifying an observed object as an LAE. A basic implementation of the Bayesian reduces errors in cosmological parameters by ~22%, which is equivalent to obtaining ~40% more data. The inclusion of the color of the galaxies, contingent on the availability of this information, increases the discriminating power of Bayesian separation and results in further reductions in errors. The Bayesian method is also being used to determine which single broadband filter produces the best performance. This method would enable large-scale structure analyses to be performed directly on emission-line objects labeled with probabilities of being LAEs rather than splitting the sample into LAEs and [O II] emitters.We gratefully acknowledge support from NSF through grant AST-1055919.

  4. Correlation between facial measurements and the mesiodistal width of the maxillary anterior teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Vanderlei Luiz; Gonçalves, Luiz Carlos; do Prado, Célio Jesus; Junior, Itamar Lopes; de Lima Lucas, Bárbara

    2006-01-01

    One of the most difficult aspects during the selection of maxillary anterior teeth for a removable prosthesis is determining the appropriate mesiodistal width of the six maxillary anterior teeth. Many attempts have been made to establish methods of estimating the combined width of these anterior teeth, and improving the esthetic outcome. The proportion of facial structures and the relationship between facial measurements and natural teeth could be used as a guide in selecting denture teeth. The aim of this study was to verify the relation between the combined mesiodistal width of the six maxillary anterior teeth and the facial segments: the width of the eyes, the inner canthal distance (ICD), the interpupillary distance (IPD), the interalar width, and the intercommissural width (ICm). Standardized digital images of 81 dentate Brazilian subjects were used to measure both facial and oral segments when viewed from the frontal aspect through an image processing program. To measure the distance between the upper canines on a curve, accurate casts were made from the upper right first premolar to the upper left first premolar. The Spearman rank correlation coefficient was conducted to measure the strength of the associations between the variables (alpha = 0.05). The results showed a significant correlation between all facial elements and the combined mesiodistal width of the six teeth, when observed from the frontal aspect. The ICD, IPD, and ICm showed the highest probability of being correlated to the mesiodistal width of the teeth (p = 0.000). This article considers facial analysis with digital photography as a practical and efficient application to select the mesiodistal width of artificial anterior teeth in an esthetically pleasing and natural appearance during an oral rehabilitation treatment.

  5. The decay width of stringy hadrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Sonnenschein

    2018-02-01

    We fit the theoretical decay width to experimental data for mesons on the trajectories of ρ, ω, π, η, K⁎, ϕ, D, and Ds⁎, and of the baryons N, Δ, Λ, and Σ. We examine both the linearity in L and the exponential suppression factor. The linearity was found to agree with the data well for mesons but less for baryons. The extracted coefficient for mesons A=0.095±0.015 is indeed quite universal. The exponential suppression was applied to both strong and radiative decays. We discuss the relation with string fragmentation and jet formation. We extract the quark–diquark structure of baryons from their decays. A stringy mechanism for Zweig suppressed decays of quarkonia is proposed and is shown to reproduce the decay width of ϒ states. The dependence of the width on spin and flavor symmetry is discussed. We further apply this model to the decays of glueballs and exotic hadrons.

  6. Relative Width and Height of Handwritten Letter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizega Rika, Joseba

    2018-01-01

    This is an exploratory study that analyzes the width and the height of letters in two texts written by each of the 21 writers analyzed. After detrending the linear, text, and allograph trends, we proceeded to comparing the sizes obtained in different texts. The different detrended series were compared by means of correlation and t-test. According to the results regarding the width of letters, the texts of 19 of 21 writers correlated strongly, whereas the texts of two writers did not correlate with the limits of the threshold. With regard to the height of letters, texts written by between 18 and 21 writers of 21 writers correlated strongly, whereas texts that did not correlate were within the threshold value. Regarding both the width and the height of letters, of 21 writers, texts written by between 19 and 21 individuals were found to correlate strongly. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  7. Alliances and Bisection Width for Planar Graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Martin; Revsbæk, Morten

    2013-01-01

    An alliance in a graph is a set of vertices (allies) such that each vertex in the alliance has at least as many allies (counting the vertex itself) as non-allies in its neighborhood of the graph. We show that any planar graph with minimum degree at least 4 can be split into two alliances...... in polynomial time. We base this on a proof of an upper bound of n on the bisection width for 4-connected planar graphs with an odd number of vertices. This improves a recently published n + 1 upper bound on the bisection width of planar graphs without separating triangles and supports the folklore conjecture...... that a general upper bound of n exists for the bisection width of planar graphs....

  8. Line width of Josephson flux flow oscillators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koshelets, V.P.; Dmitriev, P.N.; Sobolev, A.S.

    2002-01-01

    A combination of wide-band electronic tunability and moderate free-running line width makes the Josephson flux flow oscillator (FFO) a perfect on-chip local oscillator for integrated submillimeter-wave SIS receivers. The possibility of FFO phase locking at all frequencies of interest has...... to be proven before one initiates real FFO applications. To achieve this goal a comprehensive set of line width measurements of the FFO operating in different regimes has been performed. FFOs with tapered shape have been successfully implemented in order to avoid the superfine resonant structure with voltage...... spacing of about 20 nV and extremely low differential resistance, recently observed in the IVC of the standard rectangular geometry. The obtained results have been compared with existing theories and FFO models in order to understand and possibly eliminate excess noise in the FFO. The intrinsic line width...

  9. The decay width of stringy hadrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenschein, Jacob; Weissman, Dorin

    2018-02-01

    In this paper we further develop a string model of hadrons by computing their strong decay widths and comparing them to experiment. The main decay mechanism is that of a string splitting into two strings. The corresponding total decay width behaves as Γ = π/2 ATL where T and L are the tension and length of the string and A is a dimensionless universal constant. We show that this result holds for a bosonic string not only in the critical dimension. The partial width of a given decay mode is given by Γi / Γ =Φi exp ⁡ (- 2 πCmsep2 / T) where Φi is a phase space factor, msep is the mass of the "quark" and "antiquark" created at the splitting point, and C is a dimensionless coefficient close to unity. Based on the spectra of hadrons we observe that their (modified) Regge trajectories are characterized by a negative intercept. This implies a repulsive Casimir force that gives the string a "zero point length". We fit the theoretical decay width to experimental data for mesons on the trajectories of ρ, ω, π, η, K*, ϕ, D, and Ds*, and of the baryons N, Δ, Λ, and Σ. We examine both the linearity in L and the exponential suppression factor. The linearity was found to agree with the data well for mesons but less for baryons. The extracted coefficient for mesons A = 0.095 ± 0.015 is indeed quite universal. The exponential suppression was applied to both strong and radiative decays. We discuss the relation with string fragmentation and jet formation. We extract the quark-diquark structure of baryons from their decays. A stringy mechanism for Zweig suppressed decays of quarkonia is proposed and is shown to reproduce the decay width of ϒ states. The dependence of the width on spin and flavor symmetry is discussed. We further apply this model to the decays of glueballs and exotic hadrons.

  10. Alpha decay of neutron-deficient isotopes with 52

    CERN Document Server

    Schardt, D; Kirchner, R; Klepper, O; Kurcewicz, W; Roeckl, E; Tidemand-Petersson, P

    1981-01-01

    Using /sup 58/Ni(/sup 58/Ni, xpyn) reactions and on-line mass separation, the alpha -decays of very neutron-deficient isotopes of tellurium, iodine, xenon and cesium were studied. The new isotopes /sup 106/Te (T/sub 1/2/=60/sub -10//sup +30/ mu s) and /sup 110/Xe were identified by their alpha -lines of 4160+or-30 keV and 3737+or-30 keV energy, respectively, with the genetic relationship between the two successive alpha -decays being verified experimentally, while for several other alpha -decaying isotopes more precise data were obtained. The observed alpha -decay properties are discussed within the systematics of energy and reduced width. (19 refs).

  11. Temperature dependence of giant dipole resonance width

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vdovin, A.I.; Storozhenko, A.N.

    2005-01-01

    The quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model extended to finite temperature within the framework of the thermo field dynamics is applied to calculate a temperature dependence of the spreading width Γ d own of a giant dipole resonance. Numerical calculations are made for 12S n and 208 Pb nuclei. It is found that the width Γ d own increases with T. The reason of this effect is discussed as well as a relation of the present approach to other ones existing in the literature

  12. Reduced volume but increased training intensity elevates muscle Na+-K+ pump alpha1-subunit and NHE1 expression as well as short-term work capacity in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iaia, F. Marcello; Thomassen, Martin; Kolding, Helle

    2008-01-01

    by 30-s sprint runs three to four times a week, whereas CON continued the endurance training ( approximately 45 km/wk). After the 4-wk sprint period, the expression of the muscle Na(+)-K(+) pump alpha(1)-subunit and Na(+)/H(+)-exchanger isoform 1 was 29 and 30% higher (P ... pulmonary maximum oxygen uptake and 10-k time were unchanged. No changes in CON were observed. The present data suggest a role of the Na(+)-K(+) pump in the control of K(+) homeostasis and in the development of fatigue during repeated high-intensity exercise. Furthermore, performance during intense exercise....... Furthermore, plasma K(+) concentration was reduced (P

  13. Radiative width of molecular-cluster states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alhassid, Y.; Gai, M.; Bertsch, G.F.

    1982-01-01

    Molecular states are characterized by enhanced electromagnetic deexcitations of many different multipolarities. The expected enhancement of E1, E2, and E3 transitions is examined by deriving molecular sum rules for radiative deexcitation widths and via a dimensionality approach. The enhancement of the E1 transitions is the most striking

  14. Wireline equalization using pulse-width modulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrader, J.H.R.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Visschers, J.L.; Nauta, Bram

    2006-01-01

    Abstract-High-speed data links over copper cables can be effectively equalized using pulse-width modulation (PWM) pre-emphasis. This provides an alternative to the usual 2-tap FIR filters. The use of PWM pre-emphasis allows a channel loss at the Nyquist frequency of ~30dB, compared to ~20dB for a

  15. Comparison of Arch Width Changes Following Orthodontic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-11-21

    Nov 21, 2015 ... they found optimal results are achieved when individual arch forms are maintained.[15]. This retrospective study used digital measurements of orthodontic models (1) to evaluate arch width changes in patients treated with fixed orthodontic appliances whose initial ovoid arch form was maintained following.

  16. Measurement of giant dipole resonance width at low temperature: A new experimental perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhopadhyay, S.; Pandit, Deepak; Pal, Surajit; Bhattacharya, Srijit; De, A.; Bhattacharya, S.; Bhattacharya, C.; Banerjee, K.; Kundu, S.; Rana, T.K.; Mukherjee, G.; Pandey, R.; Gohil, M.; Pai, H.; Meena, J.K.; Banerjee, S.R.

    2012-01-01

    The systematic evolution of the giant dipole resonance (GDR) width in the temperature region of 0.9-1.4 MeV has been measured experimentally for 119 Sb using alpha induced fusion reaction and employing the LAMBDA high energy photon spectrometer. The temperatures have been precisely determined by simultaneously extracting the vital level density parameter from the neutron evaporation spectrum and the angular momentum from gamma multiplicity filter using a realistic approach. The systematic trend of the data seems to disagree with the thermal shape fluctuation model (TSFM). The model predicts the gradual increase of GDR width from its ground state value whereas the measured GDR widths appear to remain constant at the ground state value till T∼1 MeV and increase thereafter, indicating towards a failure of the adiabatic assumption of the model at low temperature.

  17. Measurement of $\\alpha_{s}$ with Radiative Hadronic Events

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G; Åkesson, P F; Alexander, G; Anagnostou, G; Anderson, K J; Asai, S; Axen, D; Bailey, I; Barberio, E; Barillari, T; Barlow, R J; Batley, R J; Bechtle, P; Behnke, T; Bell, K W; Bell, P J; Bella, G; Bellerive, A; Benelli, G; Bethke, S; Biebel, O; Boeriu, O; Bock, P; Boutemeur, M; Braibant, S; Brown, R M; Burckhart, H J; Campana, S; Capiluppi, P; Carnegie, R K; Carter, A A; Carter, J R; Chang, C Y; Charlton, D G; Ciocca, C; Csilling, A; Cuffiani, M; Dado, S; Dallavalle, M; de Roeck, A; De Wolf, E A; Desch, K; Dienes, B; Dubbert, J; Duchovni, E; Duckeck, G; Duerdoth, I P; Etzion, E; Fabbri, F; Ferrari, P; Fiedler, F; Fleck, I; Ford, M; Frey, A; Gagnon, P; Gary, J W; Geich-Gimbel, C; Giacomelli, G; Giacomelli, P; Giunta, M; Goldberg, J; Gross, E; Grunhaus, J; Gruwé, M; Sen-Gupta, A; Hajdu, C; Hamann, M; Hanson, G G; Harel, A; Hauschild, M; Hawkes, C M; Hawkings, R; Herten, G; Heuer, R D; Hill, J C; Horváth, D; Igo-Kemenes, P; Ishii, K; Jeremie, H; Jovanovic, P; Junk, T R; Kanzaki, J; Karlen, D; Kawagoe, K; Kawamoto, T; Keeler, R K; Kellogg, R G; Kennedy, B W; Kluth, S; Kobayashi, T; Kobel, M; Komamiya, S; Kramer, T; Krasznahorkays, A Jr; Krieger, P; Von Krogh, J; Kühl, T; Kupper, M; Lafferty, G D; Landsman, H; Lanske, D; Lellouch, D; Letts, J; Levinson, L; Lillich, J; Lloyd, S L; Loebinger, F K; Lü, J; Ludwig, A; Ludwig, J; Mader, W; Marcellini, S; Martin, A J; Mashimo, T; Mättig, P; McKenna, J; McPherson, R A; Meijers, F; Menges, W; Merritt, F S; Mes, H; Meyer, N; Michelini, A; Mihara, S; Mikenberg, G; Miller, D J; Mohr, W; Mori, T; Mutter, A; Nagai, K; Nakamura, I; Nanjo, H; Neal, H A; O'Neale, S W; Oh, A; Oreglia, M J; Orito, S; Pahl, C; Pásztor, G; Pater, J R; Pilcher, J E; Pinfold, J L; Plane, D E; Pooth, O; Przybycien, M; Quadt, A; Rabbertz, K; Rembser, C; Renkel, P; Roney, J M; Rossi, A M; Rozen, Y; Runge, K; Sachs, K; Saeki, T; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E; Schaile, A D; Schaile, O; Scharff-Hansen, P; Schiecks, J; Schörner-Sadenius, T; Schröder, M; Schumacher, M; Seuster, R; Shears, T G; Shen, B C; Sherwood, P; Skuja, A; Smith, A M; Sobie, R J; Söldner-Rembold, S; Spanó, F; Stahl, A; Strom, D; Ströhmer, R; Tarem, S; Tasevsky, M; Teuscher, R; Thomson, M A; Torrence, E; Toya, D; Trigger, I; Trócsányi, Z L; Tsur, E; Turner-Watson, M F; Ueda, I; Ujvári, B; Vollmer, C F; Vannerem, P; Vertesi, R; Verzocchi, M; Voss, H; Vossebeld, J; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Wells, P S; Wengler, T; Wermes, N; Wilson, G W; Wilson, J A; Wolf, G; Wyatt, T R; Yamashita, S; Zer-Zion, D; Zivkovic, L

    2008-01-01

    Hadronic final states with a hard isolated photon are studied using data taken at centre-of-mass energies around the mass of the Z0 boson with the OPAL detector at LEP. The strong coupling alpha S is extracted by comparing data and QCD predictions for event shape observables at average reduced centre-of-mass energies ranging from 24 GeV to 78 GeV, and the energy dependence of alpha S is studied. Our results are consistent with the running of alpha S as predicted by QCD and show that within the uncertainties of our analysis event shapes in hadronic Z0 decays with hard and isolated photon radiation can be described by QCD at reduced centre-of-mass energies. Combining all values from different event shape observables and energies gives alpha S (Mz)=0.1182 pm 0.0015(stat.) pm 0.0101(syst.).

  18. Alpha1 and Alpha2 Integrins Mediate Invasive Activity of Mouse Mammary Carcinoma Cells through Regulation of Stromelysin-1 Expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lochter, Andre; Navre, Marc; Werb, Zena; Bissell, Mina J

    1998-06-29

    Tumor cell invasion relies on cell migration and extracellular matrix proteolysis. We investigated the contribution of different integrins to the invasive activity of mouse mammary carcinoma cells. Antibodies against integrin subunits {alpha}6 and {beta}1, but not against {alpha}1 and {alpha}2, inhibited cell locomotion on a reconstituted basement membrane in two-dimensional cell migration assays, whereas antibodies against {beta}1, but not against a6 or {alpha}2, interfered with cell adhesion to basement membrane constituents. Blocking antibodies against {alpha}1 integrins impaired only cell adhesion to type IV collagen. Antibodies against {alpha}1, {alpha}2, {alpha}6, and {beta}1, but not {alpha}5, integrin subunits reduced invasion of a reconstituted basement membrane. Integrins {alpha}1 and {alpha}2, which contributed only marginally to motility and adhesion, regulated proteinase production. Antibodies against {alpha}1 and {alpha}2, but not {alpha}6 and {beta}1, integrin subunits inhibited both transcription and protein expression of the matrix metalloproteinase stromelysin-1. Inhibition of tumor cell invasion by antibodies against {alpha}1 and {alpha}2 was reversed by addition of recombinant stromelysin-1. In contrast, stromelysin-1 could not rescue invasion inhibited by anti-{alpha}6 antibodies. Our data indicate that {alpha}1 and {alpha}2 integrins confer invasive behavior by regulating stromelysin-1 expression, whereas {alpha}6 integrins regulate cell motility. These results provide new insights into the specific functions of integrins during tumor cell invasion.

  19. Effects of Lane Width, Lane Position and Edge Shoulder Width on Driving Behavior in Underground Urban Expressways: A Driving Simulator Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Liu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study tested the effects of lane width, lane position and edge shoulder width on driving behavior for a three-lane underground urban expressway. A driving simulator was used with 24 volunteer test subjects. Five lane widths (2.85, 3.00, 3.25, 3.50, and 3.75 m and three shoulder widths (0.50, 0.75, and 1.00 m were studied. Driving speed, lane deviation and subjective perception of driving behavior were collected as performance measures. The results show that lane and shoulder width have significant effects on driving speed. Average driving speed increases from 60.01 km/h in the narrowest lane to 88.05 km/h in the widest lane. While both narrower lanes and shoulders result in reduced speed and lateral lane deviation, the effect of lane width is greater than that of shoulder width. When the lane and shoulder are narrow, drivers in the left or right lane tend to shy away from the tunnel wall, even encroaching into the neighboring middle lane. As the lane or shoulder gets wider, drivers tend to stay in the middle of the lane. An interesting finding is that although few participants acknowledged that lane position had any great bearing on their driving behaviors, the observed driving speed is statistically higher in the left lane than in the other two lanes when the lane width is narrow (in 2.85, 3 and 3.25 m lanes. These findings provided support for amending the current design specifications of urban underground roads, such as the relationship between design speed and lane width, speed limit, and combination form of lanes.

  20. Intercanine width as a tool in two dimensional reconstruction of face: An aid in forensic dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivhare, Peeyush; Shankarnarayan, Lata; Basavaraju, Sowbhagya Malligere; Gupta, Ashish; Vasan, Vinitra; Jambunath, Usha

    2015-01-01

    Dental evidence is a valuable tool in identifying individuals, especially when disasters befall. Reference points in faciomaxillary region such as interpupillary distance, intercanthal distance, interalar distance and bizygomatic width can significantly contribute toward reconstruction of two-dimensional (2D) facial profiles. This study was researched upon to determine the relationship between the maxillary intercanine width and the different reference points of the face. The aim of the following study is to ascertain whether maxillary intercanine width can be used to detect interpupillary distance, intercanthal distance, interalar distance and bizygomatic distance and to evaluate the role of maxillary intercanine width in the 2D reconstruction of the face. The study was carried out by consent and involved 90 subjects-45 males and 45 females who satisfied the inclusion criteria. Subjects were divided into three age groups, i.e. 18-24, 25-28, 29-35. Four parameters were measured- intercanine width, interpupillary distance, intercanthal distance and interalar distance. All the measurements were carried out with a digital Vernier caliper. The bizygomatic width was measured from posterior-anterior view. Two empiricists were assigned for the task. Each test was carried out twice to validate the soundness of the findings and to reduce bias. Analysis of variance and Pearson correlation was established. Regression analysis was performed to predict the study variables by intercanine width. Intercanine width showed a significant relationship with different points. The width varied with age and gender. Inter canine width can be used as a valuable parameter in the reconstruction of face in two dimensional as it shows significant relationship with faciomaxillary reference point such as interpupillary distance, intercanthal distance, interalar distance and bizygomatic width.

  1. Liquid scintillation alpha particle spectrometry. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, L.L.; Hakooz, S.A.; Johnson, L.O.; Nieschmidt, E.B.; Meikrantz, D.H.

    1979-12-01

    Objective to develop a technique whereby Pu may be put into solution, extracted by solvent extraction into a suitable extractive scintillant and subsequently counted. Presented here are results of attempts to separate beta and alpha activities through pulse shape discrimination. A qualitative discussion is given which yields alpha particle peak widths, resolution and response. The detection efficiency for alpha particles in a liquid scintillant is 100%. Present detection sensitivities of the equipment being used are: 4.5 x 10 -6 μCi (100 s), 1.2 x 10 -6 μCi (1000 s), and 4.0 x 10 -7 μCi (10,000 s) at the 3 sigma level. The detectability of a particular alpha-emitting species is strongly dependent upon the population of other species. The ability to discriminate depends upon the system resolution. 14 figures, 2 tables

  2. Alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, acarbose, improves glycamic control and reduces body weight in type 2 diabetes: Findings on indian patients from the pooled data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors are widely used especially in Asian countries as a treatment option for type 2 diabetes patients with high postprandial glycemia (PPG. The higher carbohydrate in the Indian diets lead to greater prandial glycemic excursion, increased glucosidase, and incretin activity in the gut and may need special therapeutic strategies to tackle these glucose peaks. This is the subgroup analysis of Indian subjects who participated in the GlucoVIP study that investigated the effectiveness and tolerability of acarbose as add-on or monotherapy in a range of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. A total of 1996 Indian patients were included in the effectiveness analysis. After 12.5 weeks (mean, the mean change in 2-hour PPG from baseline was −74.4 mg/dl, mean HbA1c decreased by -1.0%, and mean fasting blood glucose decreased by -37.9 mg/dl. The efficacy of acarbose was rated "very good" or "good" in 91.1% of patients, and tolerability as "very good" or "good" in 88.0% of patients. The results of this observational study suggest that acarbose was effective and well tolerated in the Indian patients with T2DM.

  3. You can't stop the music: reduced auditory alpha power and coupling between auditory and memory regions facilitate the illusory perception of music during noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Nadia; Keil, Julian; Obleser, Jonas; Schulz, Hannah; Grunwald, Thomas; Bernays, René-Ludwig; Huppertz, Hans-Jürgen; Weisz, Nathan

    2013-10-01

    Our brain has the capacity of providing an experience of hearing even in the absence of auditory stimulation. This can be seen as illusory conscious perception. While increasing evidence postulates that conscious perception requires specific brain states that systematically relate to specific patterns of oscillatory activity, the relationship between auditory illusions and oscillatory activity remains mostly unexplained. To investigate this we recorded brain activity with magnetoencephalography and collected intracranial data from epilepsy patients while participants listened to familiar as well as unknown music that was partly replaced by sections of pink noise. We hypothesized that participants have a stronger experience of hearing music throughout noise when the noise sections are embedded in familiar compared to unfamiliar music. This was supported by the behavioral results showing that participants rated the perception of music during noise as stronger when noise was presented in a familiar context. Time-frequency data show that the illusory perception of music is associated with a decrease in auditory alpha power pointing to increased auditory cortex excitability. Furthermore, the right auditory cortex is concurrently synchronized with the medial temporal lobe, putatively mediating memory aspects associated with the music illusion. We thus assume that neuronal activity in the highly excitable auditory cortex is shaped through extensive communication between the auditory cortex and the medial temporal lobe, thereby generating the illusion of hearing music during noise. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Exotic meson decay widths using lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, M. S.; Fiebig, H. R.

    2006-01-01

    A decay width calculation for a hybrid exotic meson h, with J PC =1 -+ , is presented for the channel h→πa 1 . This quenched lattice QCD simulation employs Luescher's finite box method. Operators coupling to the h and πa 1 states are used at various levels of smearing and fuzzing, and at four quark masses. Eigenvalues of the corresponding correlation matrices yield energy spectra that determine scattering phase shifts for a discrete set of relative πa 1 momenta. Although the phase shift data is sparse, fits to a Breit-Wigner model are attempted, resulting in a decay width of about 60 MeV when averaged over two lattice sizes having a lattice spacing of 0.07 fm

  5. Palindromic widths of nilpotent and wreath products

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This result was gen- eralized by Bardakov and Tolstykh [8] who proved that almost all free products have infinite palindromic width; the only exception is given by ..... Next, let X0 ⊆ X and Y0 ⊆ Y be sets of representatives of elements of ¯X and. ¯Y respectively. Let ¯g ∈ ¯Gn be the homomorphic image of g ∈ Gn, then ¯g =.

  6. New determination of proton spectroscopic factors and reduced widths for 8Be states in the 16.5-18.0 MeV excitation energy region via the study of the 7Li(3He,d )8Be transfer reaction at Elab=20 MeV: Implication for the 7Li(p ,α )4He hydrogen burning reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhout, A.; Ouichaoui, S.; Beaumevieille, H.; Bouchemha, A.; Bogaert, G.; Fortier, S.; Kiener, J.; Lefebvre-Schuhl, A.; Maison, J. M.; Rosier, L.; Rotbard, J.; Tatischeff, V.; Thibaud, J. P.; Vernotte, J.

    2017-11-01

    The angular distributions of 8Be states in the excitation energy region Ex˜(16.5 -18.2 ) MeV produced in the 7Li(3He,d )8Be proton transfer reaction have been measured at the Orsay 14.8 -MV tandem accelerator for 2+3He ion bombarding energy, Elab=20 MeV, and forward angular range, θlab=5 ∘-50 ∘ . A high energy resolution detection system composed of a split-pole magnetic spectrometer and a Δ E -E , position-sensitive drift chamber was used to record the energy spectra of outgoing deuterons. The measured cross section data for the direct reaction component have been separated from the compound nucleus one, then analyzed in the framework of the nonlocal, finite-range (FR)-distorted-wave Born approximation (DWBA) theory. New values of the C2S and (Sp 1 /2,Sp 3 /2) proton absolute and partial spectroscopic factors and related γp2(a ) proton reduced widths versus the p +7Li channel radius have been extracted for the 2+(16.626 ) and 2+(16.922 ) ,T =0 +1 isospin-mixed loosely bound states of astrophysical interest and the 1+(17.640 ) , T =1 unbound state of 8Be. They are compared to sparse earlier experimental values and to shell-model-predicted ones from the literature, and are discussed. In particular, the status of the spectroscopic information on the 2+ isospin-mixed doublet is reviewed and updated. The application in nuclear astrophysics of the DWBA derived results is emphasized.

  7. Width and partial widths of unstable particles in the light of the Nielsen identities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grassi, P.A.; Sirlin, A.; Kniehl, B.A.; Hamburg Univ.

    2001-09-01

    Fundamental properties of unstable particles, including mass, width, and partial widths, are examined on the basis of the Nielsen identities (NI) that describe the gauge dependence of Green functions. In particular, we prove that the pole residues and associated definitions of branching ratios and partial widths are gauge independent to all orders. A simpler, previously discussed definition of branching ratios and partial widths is found to be gauge independent through next-to-next-to-leading order. It is then explained how it may be modified in order to extend the gauge independence to all orders. We also show that the physical scattering amplitude is the most general combination of self-energy, vertex, and box contributions that is gauge independent for arbitrary s, discuss the analytical properties of the NI functions, and exhibit explicitly their one-loop expressions in the Z-γ sector of the Standard Model. (orig.)

  8. Activator protein 2alpha mediates parathyroid TGF-alpha self-induction in secondary hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcidiacono, Maria Vittoria; Cozzolino, Mario; Spiegel, Noah; Tokumoto, Masanori; Yang, Jing; Lu, Yan; Sato, Tetsuhiko; Lomonte, Carlo; Basile, Carlo; Slatopolsky, Eduardo; Dusso, Adriana S

    2008-10-01

    In secondary hyperparathyroidism, enhanced expression of TGF-alpha in the parathyroid leads to its own upregulation, generating a feed-forward loop for TGF-alpha activation of its receptor, EGFR receptor (EGFR), which promotes parathyroid hyperplasia. These studies examined the role of activator protein 2alpha (AP2), an inducer of TGF-alpha gene transcription, in the upregulation of parathyroid TGF-alpha in secondary hyperparathyroidism. In rat and human secondary hyperparathyroidism, parathyroid AP2 expression strongly correlated with TGF-alpha levels and with the rate of parathyroid growth, as expected. Furthermore, the increases in rat parathyroid content of AP2 and its binding to a consensus AP2 DNA sequence preceded the increase in TGF-alpha induced by high dietary phosphate. More significant, in A431 cells, which provide a model of enhanced TGF-alpha and TGF-alpha self-induction, mutating the core AP2 site of the human TGF-alpha promoter markedly impaired promoter activity induced by endogenous or exogenous TGF-alpha. Important for therapy, in five-sixths nephrectomized rats fed high-phosphate diets, inhibition of parathyroid TGF-alpha self-induction using erlotinib, a highly specific inhibitor of TGF-alpha/EGFR-driven signals, reduced AP2 expression dosage dependently. This suggests that the increases in parathyroid AP2 occur downstream of EGFR activation by TGF-alpha and are required for TGF-alpha self-induction. Indeed, in A431 cells, erlotinib inhibition of TGF-alpha self-induction caused parallel reductions in AP2 expression and nuclear localization, as well as TGF-alpha mRNA and protein levels. In summary, increased AP2 expression and transcriptional activity at the TGF-alpha promoter determine the severity of the hyperplasia driven by parathyroid TGF-alpha self-upregulation in secondary hyperparathyroidism.

  9. Ageratum conyzoides L. inhibits 5-alpha-reductase gene expression in human prostate cells and reduces symptoms of benign prostatic hypertrophy in otherwise healthy men in a double blind randomized placebo controlled clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detering, Matthew; Steels, Elizabeth; Koyyalamudi, Sundar Rao; Allifranchini, Elena; Bocchietto, Elena; Vitetta, Luis

    2017-11-01

    A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial assessed the efficacy and safety of Ageratum conyzoides in treating benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH). In this study, 109 men with medically diagnosed BPH, aged 41-76 years, were administered the investigational product, A. conyzoides extract at a dose of 250 mg/d or placebo, q.d. for 12 weeks. The primary outcome measures were the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), daily urinary frequency and safety evaluations. The secondary outcome measures were testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, oestradiol, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) and cortisol levels, and prostate specific antigen (PSA), lipids, blood glucose, the Aging Male's Symptom (AMS) Score and sexual function assessed by Derogatis Interview for Sexual Functioning-Self Report (DISF-SR). The effect of A. conyzoides L extract on gene expression of 5-alpha-reductase in human prostate cells was also investigated to elucidate a potential mechanism of action. The clinical study, showed a significant reduction in total IPSS score (p prostate epithelial cells. The overall results indicate that A. conyzoides may be an effective treatment for reducing symptoms of BPH in healthy men, in part, through inhibition of 5-alpha-reductase enzyme activity. © 2017 BioFactors, 43(6):789-800, 2017. © 2017 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  10. Rho iso-alpha acids from hops inhibit the GSK-3/NF-κB pathway and reduce inflammatory markers associated with bone and cartilage degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bland Jeffrey S

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rho iso-alpha acids (RIAA from hops have been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties. To understand the mechanisms, we evaluated the effect of RIAA in cell signaling pathways and inflammatory markers using various in vitro models. We also investigated their therapeutic effect in mice with collagen-induced arthritis. Methods The LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages were used to evaluate the effect of RIAA on the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways; phosphorylation of ERK1/2, p38 and JNK was assessed by western blotting and NF-κB binding by electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Effect on the NF-κB activity was evaluated by the luciferase reporter assays in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. GSK-3α/β kinase activity was measured in cell-free assays. The inhibitory effect of RIAA on inflammatory markers was assessed by measuring nitric oxide in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells, RANKL-mediated TRAP activity in transformed osteoclasts, and TNF-α/IL-1β-mediated MMP-13 expression in SW1353 cells. Mice with collagen-induced arthritis were fed with RIAA for 2 weeks. Symptoms of joint swelling, arthritic index and joint damage were assessed. Results RIAA selectively inhibited the NF-κB pathway while having no effect on ERK1/2, p38 and JNK phosphorylation in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. RIAA also inhibited GSK-3α/β kinase activity and GSK-3β dependent phosphorylation of β-catenin in RAW 264.7 cells. In addition, RIAA inhibited NF-κB-mediated inflammatory markers in various cell models, including nitric oxide in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells, RANKL-mediated TRAP activity in transformed osteoclasts, and TNF-α/IL-1β-mediated MMP-13 expression in SW1353 human chondrosarcoma cells. Finally, in a mouse model of collagen-induced arthritis, RIAA ameliorated joint damage as evidenced by significant reduction of the arthritis index and histology score; at 250 mg/kg-body weight, RIAA had efficacy similar to that of 20 mg

  11. Adiponectin levels are reduced, independent of polymorphisms in the adiponectin gene, after supplementation with alpha-linolenic acid among healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Tracy L; Stevens, James R; Hickey, Matthew S

    2007-09-01

    Our first aim was to determine whether an isocaloric intervention using alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) in the form of flaxseed oil would alter adiponectin levels among overweight, otherwise healthy, males and females, and our second aim was to test for any potential modification of this intervention by 2 single nucleotide polymorphisms (276 and 45) in the adiponectin gene. Subjects included healthy adult males and females (approximately 81% female; average age, 38 years) with increased waist circumference (mean, 99 cm) and body mass index (mean, 30 kg/m(2)) who were free of chronic disease, not taking medications, and sedentary. Subjects met weekly with a registered dietician for 8 weeks. The control subjects (n = 27) were instructed not to alter their habitual diet and the ALA group (n = 30) was instructed to follow an enriched ALA diet by using flaxseed oil capsules (increasing ALA to 5% of total energy intake) and to lower their dietary fat consumption by a commensurate amount. Diets were analyzed using the Food Intake and Analysis System (v. 3.0, University of Texas School of Public Health, 1998). Fasting blood samples were obtained before and after the 8-week intervention. We found significant decreases (P = .02) in adiponectin (10.12 microg/mL pre, 9.23 microg/mL post) in the ALA group as compared with the control group (7.93 microg/mL pre, 8.10 microg/mL post) after the intervention. We also saw a decline in adiponectin in all genotype groups with the greatest decline among those carrying the rare T allele of single nucleotide polymorphism 276. There were no significant changes in fasting insulin, glucose, or quantitative insulin sensitivity check index values as a result of this intervention. In conclusion, this study suggests that supplementing with ALA for 8 weeks may lower adiponectin levels among healthy individuals, and this effect appears to be independent of polymorphisms in the adiponectin gene. Although the change in adiponectin in response to the

  12. Coulomb correction to elastic. alpha. -. alpha. scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bera, P.K.; Jana, A.K.; Haque, N.; Talukdar, B. (Department of Physics, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan-731235, West Bengal, India (IN))

    1991-02-01

    The elastic {alpha}-{alpha} scattering is treated within the framework of a generalized phase-function method (GPFM). This generalization consists in absorbing the effect of Coulomb interaction in the comparison functions for developing the phase equation. Based on values of scattering phase shifts computed by the present method, it is concluded that the GPFM provides an uncomplicated approach to rigorous Coulomb correction in the {alpha}-{alpha} scattering.

  13. Blueberries reduce pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha and IL-6 production in mouse macrophages by inhibiting NF Kappa B activation and the MAPK pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blueberries (BB) have been reported to attenuate atherosclerosis in apoE deficient (ApoE-/-) mice. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of BB in reducing pro-inflammatory cytokine production in mouse macrophages. ApoE-/- mice were fed AIN-93G diet (CD) or CD formulated to contain 1% fre...

  14. Intrahepatic expression of interferon alpha & interferon alpha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kemrilib

    Alpha m-RNA while 30% only expressed Interferon Alpha Receptor m-RNA. Responders and non-responders to Interferon therapy ... expression of IFN Alpha Receptor mRNA. Regardless of the response to interferon, histological .... generation reverse hybridisation, line probe assay. (Inno-LiPA HCV II; Innogenetics, Ghent,.

  15. Line width of Josephson flux flow oscillators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koshelets, V.P.; Dmitriev, P.N.; Sobolev, A.S.

    2002-01-01

    spacing of about 20 nV and extremely low differential resistance, recently observed in the IVC of the standard rectangular geometry. The obtained results have been compared with existing theories and FFO models in order to understand and possibly eliminate excess noise in the FFO. The intrinsic line width...... increases considerably at voltages above the boundary voltage because of the abrupt increase of the internal damping due to Josephson self-coupling. The influence of FFO parameters, in particular the differential resistances associated both with the bias current and with the applied magnetic field...

  16. Probing the critical behavior in the evolution of GDR width at very low temperatures in A∼100 mass region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dey, Balaram; Mondal, Debasish; Pandit, Deepak; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Pal, Surajit [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF-Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Bhattacharya, Srijit [Department of Physics, Barasat Govt. College, Barasat, N 24 Pgs, Kolkata 700124 (India); De, A. [Department of Physics, Raniganj Girls' College, Raniganj 713358 (India); Banerjee, K. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF-Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Dinh Dang, N. [Theoretical Nuclear Physics Laboratory, RIKEN Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako city, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Quang Hung, N. [School of Engineering, Tan Tao University, Tan Tao University Avenue, Tan Duc Ecity, Duc Hoa, Long An Province (Viet Nam); Banerjee, S.R., E-mail: srb@vecc.gov.in [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF-Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India)

    2014-04-04

    The influence of giant dipole resonance (GDR) induced quadrupole moment on GDR width at low temperatures is investigated experimentally by measuring GDR width systematically in the unexplored temperature range T=0.8–1.5 MeV, for the first time, in A∼100 mass region. The measured GDR widths, using alpha induced fusion reaction, for {sup 97}Tc confirm that the GDR width remains constant at the ground state value up to a critical temperature and increases sharply thereafter with increase in T. The data have been compared with the adiabatic Thermal Shape Fluctuation Model (TSFM), phenomenological Critical Temperature Fluctuation Model (CTFM) and microscopic Phonon Damping Model (PDM). Interestingly, CTFM and PDM give similar results and agree with the data, whereas the TSFM differs significantly even after incorporating the shell effects.

  17. Probing the critical behavior in the evolution of GDR width at very low temperatures in A∼100 mass region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, Balaram; Mondal, Debasish; Pandit, Deepak; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Pal, Surajit; Bhattacharya, Srijit; De, A.; Banerjee, K.; Dinh Dang, N.; Quang Hung, N.; Banerjee, S.R.

    2014-01-01

    The influence of giant dipole resonance (GDR) induced quadrupole moment on GDR width at low temperatures is investigated experimentally by measuring GDR width systematically in the unexplored temperature range T=0.8–1.5 MeV, for the first time, in A∼100 mass region. The measured GDR widths, using alpha induced fusion reaction, for 97 Tc confirm that the GDR width remains constant at the ground state value up to a critical temperature and increases sharply thereafter with increase in T. The data have been compared with the adiabatic Thermal Shape Fluctuation Model (TSFM), phenomenological Critical Temperature Fluctuation Model (CTFM) and microscopic Phonon Damping Model (PDM). Interestingly, CTFM and PDM give similar results and agree with the data, whereas the TSFM differs significantly even after incorporating the shell effects.

  18. Pulse width modulation inverter with battery charger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slicker, James M. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    An inverter is connected between a source of DC power and a three-phase AC induction motor, and a microprocessor-based circuit controls the inverter using pulse width modulation techniques. In the disclosed method of pulse width modulation, both edges of each pulse of a carrier pulse train are equally modulated by a time proportional to sin .theta., where .theta. is the angular displacement of the pulse center at the motor stator frequency from a fixed reference point on the carrier waveform. The carrier waveform frequency is a multiple of the motor stator frequency. The modulated pulse train is then applied to each of the motor phase inputs with respective phase shifts of 120.degree. at the stator frequency. Switching control commands for electronic switches in the inverter are stored in a random access memory (RAM) and the locations of the RAM are successively read out in a cyclic manner, each bit of a given RAM location controlling a respective phase input of the motor. The DC power source preferably comprises rechargeable batteries and all but one of the electronic switches in the inverter can be disabled, the remaining electronic switch being part of a flyback DC-DC converter circuit for recharging the battery.

  19. Interface width effect on the classical Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the weakly nonlinear regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L. F.; Ye, W. H.; Li, Y. J.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the interface width effects (i.e., the density gradient effects or the density transition layer effects) on the Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) in the weakly nonlinear (WN) regime are investigated by numerical simulation (NS). It is found that the interface width effects dramatically influence the linear growth rate in the linear growth regime and the mode coupling process in the WN growth regime. First, the interface width effects decrease the linear growth rate of the RTI, particularly for the short perturbation wavelengths. Second, the interface width effects suppress (reduce) the third-order feedback to the fundamental mode, which induces the nonlinear saturation amplitude (NSA) to exceed the classical prediction, 0.1λ. The wider the density transition layer is, the larger the NSA is. The NSA in our NS can reach a half of its perturbation wavelength. Finally, the interface width effects suppress the generation and the growth of the second and the third harmonics. The ability to suppress the harmonics' growth increases with the interface width but decreases with the perturbation wavelength. On the whole, in the WN regime, the interface width effects stabilize the RTI, except for an enhancement of the NSA, which is expected to improve the understanding of the formation mechanism for the astrophysical jets, and for the jetlike long spikes in the high energy density physics.

  20. A low-glycemic index diet and exercise intervention reduces TNF(alpha) in isolated mononuclear cells of older, obese adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelly, Karen R; Haus, Jacob M; Solomon, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Low-glycemic index diets and exercise independently improve glucose tolerance and reduce diabetes risk. However, the combined effect of a low-glycemic index diet and exercise on inflammation and glucose metabolism is not known. Therefore, we randomized 28 insulin-resistant adults (age: 66 ± 1 y; ...... and prevention of inflammation and hyperglycemia. A low-glycemic index diet has antiinflammatory and antidiabetogenic effects when combined with exercise in older, obese prediabetics.......Low-glycemic index diets and exercise independently improve glucose tolerance and reduce diabetes risk. However, the combined effect of a low-glycemic index diet and exercise on inflammation and glucose metabolism is not known. Therefore, we randomized 28 insulin-resistant adults (age: 66 ± 1 y......; BMI: 34.2 ± 0.7 kg · m(-2)) to a 12-wk, low (LGI = 40) or high- (HGI = 80) glycemic index diet plus aerobic exercise (5 d · wk(-1), 60 min · d(-1), 80-85% heart rate(max)) intervention. All food and fluids were provided during the study. Inflammation was assessed from cytokine (TNFα and IL-6...

  1. Coupled channel alpha decay theory for even- and odd-mass light and heavy nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauscher, E.A.

    1978-02-01

    Four major approaches to the theoretical calculation of alpha decay widths were examined for light and heavy, even- and odd-mass nuclei. Application of the microscopic shell model rate theory as well as macroscopic models utilizing the coupled-channel formalism were studied. Use of the R-matrix and S-matrix theories have been applied in order to overcome problems involving dependency on the connection radius and nuclear potential parameters of the relative and absolute alpha decay widths. 105 references

  2. Oral Supplementation with a Special Additive of Retinyl Palmitate and Alpha Tocopherol Reduces Growth Retardation in Young Pancreatic Duct Ligated Pigs Used as a Model for Children Suffering from Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Mößeler

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI is a disease of diverse aetiology—e.g., majority of patients suffering from cystic fibrosis (CF show PEI congenitally. Malnutrition and malabsorption of nutrients impair growth and nutritional status. As reduced fat digestion leads to a deficiency of fat-soluble vitamins the supplementation is standard, but absorption is a critical point in PEI-patients. The pancreatic duct ligated (PL pig is an established model for PEI in humans and has been proven to be a suitable model to compare different vitamin additives for supplementation. In a former study, PEI caused distinct growth retardation in young piglets, but did not affect growth in older ones. Our study hypothesised that this age-dependent effect is caused by exhausted body reserves of fat-soluble vitamins and, therefore, extra supply reduces growth retardation. PEI was induced by PL at the age of seven (PL-7 or 16 weeks (PL-16. Controls (C underwent a sham surgery. Some PL-7 pigs (PL-7 + Vit were fed a special vitamin additive. PEI reduced the mean final body weight (kg at 26 weeks of age significantly with lower effect in PL-16-pigs (C:117; PL-7:49.5; PL-7 + Vit:77.1; PL-16:96.4. Extra vitamin supply resulted in an increased growth and normalised serum concentration of alpha-tocopherol, underlining the importance of special supplementation in PEI-patients.

  3. Pathological prolongation of action potential duration as a cause of the reduced alpha-adrenoceptor-mediated negative inotropy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanae, Haruna; Hamaguchi, Shogo; Wakasugi, Yumi; Kusakabe, Taichi; Kato, Keisuke; Namekata, Iyuki; Tanaka, Hikaru

    2017-11-01

    Effect of pathological prolongation of action potential duration on the α-adrenoceptor-mediated negative inotropy was studied in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice myocardium. In streptozotocin-treated mouse ventricular myocardium, which had longer duration of action potential than that in control mice, the negative inotropic response induced by phenylephrine was smaller than that in control mice. 4-Aminopyridine prolonged the action potential duration and decreased the negative inotropy in control mice. Cromakalim shortened the action potential duration and increased the negative inotropy in streptozotocin-treated mice. These results suggest that the reduced α-adrenoceptor-mediated inotropy in the diabetic mouse myocardium is partly due to its prolonged action potential. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Reduced embryonic survival in rainbow trout resulting from paternal exposure to the environmental estrogen 17 alpha- ethynylestradiol during late sexual maturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Kim H. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States); Schultz, Irvin R. [Battelle PNNL, Sequin, WA (United States). Marine Science Lab; Nagler, James J. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States)

    2007-11-01

    Exposure of fishes to environmental estrogens is known to affect sexual development and spawning, but little information exists regarding effects on gametes. This study evaluated embryonic survival of offspring from male rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to 17a-ethynylestradiol (EE2)using an in vitro fertilization protocol. Males were exposed at either 1800 or 6700 degree days (8d) (i.e. 161 or 587 days post-fertilization (dpf)) to test for effects on testes linked to reproductive ontogeny. At 18008d, fish were beginning testicular differentiation and were exposed to 109 ng EE2/l for 21 days. At 67008d, fish have testes containing spermatocytes and spermatids and were exposed for 56 days to either 0.8, 8.3, or 65 ng EE2/l. Semen was collected at full sexual maturity in each group and used to fertilize eggs pooled from several non-exposed females. Significant decreases in embryonic survival were observed only with the 67008d exposure. In 0.8 and 8.3 ng EE2/l treatments, embryo survival was significantly reduced at 19 dpf when compared with the control. In contrast, an immediate decrease in embryonic survival at 0.5 dpf was observed in the 65 ng EE2/l treatment. Blood samples collected at spawning from 67008d exposed males revealed a significant decrease in 11-ketotestosterone and a significant increase in luteinizing hormone levels for the 65 ng EE2/l treatment when compared with the other treatment groups. Results indicate that sexually maturing male rainbow trout are susceptible to EE2 exposure with these fish exhibiting two possible mechanisms of reduced embryonic survival through sperm varying dependant

  5. Lake Basin Fetch and Maximum Length/Width

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Linear features representing the Fetch, Maximum Length and Maximum Width of a lake basin. Fetch, maximum length and average width are calcuated from the lake polygon...

  6. Direct measurement of the W boson width

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abazov, V.M.; /Dubna, JINR; Abbott, B.; /Oklahoma U.; Abolins, M.; /Michigan State U.; Acharya, B.S.; /Tata Inst.; Adams, M.; /Illinois U., Chicago; Adams, T.; /Florida State U.; Aguilo, E.; /Alberta U. /Simon Fraser U. /McGill U.; Ahsan, M.; /Kansas State U.; Alexeev, G.D.; /Dubna, JINR; Alkhazov, G.; /St. Petersburg, INP; Alton, A.; /Michigan U. /Northeastern U.

    2009-09-01

    We present a direct measurement of the width of the W boson using the shape of the transverse mass distribution of W {yields} e{nu} candidates selected in 1 fb{sup -1} of data collected with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. We use the same methods and data sample that were used for our recently published W boson mass measurement, except for the modeling of the recoil, which is done with a new method based on a recoil library. Our result, 2.028 {+-} 0.072 GeV, is in agreement with the predictions of the standard model and is the most precise direct measurement result from a single experiment to date.

  7. Regression methods to investigate the relationship between facial measurements and widths of the maxillary anterior teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isa, Zakiah Mohd; Tawfiq, Omar Farouq; Noor, Norliza Mohd; Shamsudheen, Mohd Iqbal; Rijal, Omar Mohd

    2010-03-01

    In rehabilitating edentulous patients, selecting appropriately sized teeth in the absence of preextraction records is problematic. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between some facial dimensions and widths of the maxillary anterior teeth to potentially provide a guide for tooth selection. Sixty full dentate Malaysian adults (18-36 years) representing 2 ethnic groups (Malay and Chinese), with well aligned maxillary anterior teeth and minimal attrition, participated in this study. Standardized digital images of the face, viewed frontally, were recorded. Using image analyzing software, the images were used to determine the interpupillary distance (IPD), inner canthal distance (ICD), and interalar width (IA). Widths of the 6 maxillary anterior teeth were measured directly from casts of the subjects using digital calipers. Regression analyses were conducted to measure the strength of the associations between the variables (alpha=.10). The means (standard deviations) of IPD, IA, and ICD of the subjects were 62.28 (2.47), 39.36 (3.12), and 34.36 (2.15) mm, respectively. The mesiodistal diameters of the maxillary central incisors, lateral incisors, and canines were 8.54 (0.50), 7.09 (0.48), and 7.94 (0.40) mm, respectively. The width of the central incisors was highly correlated to the IPD (r=0.99), while the widths of the lateral incisors and canines were highly correlated to a combination of IPD and IA (r=0.99 and 0.94, respectively). Using regression methods, the widths of the anterior teeth within the population tested may be predicted by a combination of the facial dimensions studied. (c) 2010 The Editorial Council of the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Alpha-mangostin from mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.)pericarp extract reduces high fat-diet induced hepatic steatosis in rats by regulating mitochondria function and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Shin-Yu; Chung, Pei-Chin; Owaga, Eddy E; Tsai, I-Jong; Wang, Pei-Yuan; Tsai, Jeng-I; Yeh, Tien-Shun; Hsieh, Rong-Hong

    2016-01-01

    potential, enhanced cellular oxygen consumption rate (OCR), decreased tROS (total ROS) and mitoROS (mitochondrial ROS) levels ; reduced Ca 2+ and cytochrome c (cyt c ) release from mitochondria, and reduced caspases 9 and 3 activities compared with control group. These findings demonstrate α-MG attenuated hepatic steatosis in high fat-diet fed rats potentially through enhanced cellular antioxidant capacity and improved mitochondrial functions as well as suppressed apoptosis of hepatocytes. The findings of study represent a novel nutritional approach on the use of α-MG in the prevention and management of NAFLD.

  9. Anti-Interleukin-1 Beta/Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha IgY Antibodies Reduce Pathological Allergic Responses in Guinea Pigs with Allergic Rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei-Xu, Hu; Wen-Yun, Zhou; Xi-Ling, Zhu; Zhu, Wen; Li-Hua, Wu; Xiao-Mu, Wu; Hui-Ping, Wei; Wen-Ding, Wang; Dan, He; Qin, Xiang; Guo-Zhu, Hu

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to determine whether the combined blockade of IL-1β and TNF-α can alleviate the pathological allergic inflammatory reaction in the nasal mucosa and lung tissues in allergic rhinitis (AR) guinea pigs. Healthy guinea pigs treated with saline were used as the healthy controls. The AR guinea pigs were randomly divided into (1) the AR model group treated with intranasal saline; (2) the 0.1% nonspecific IgY treatment group; (3) the 0.1% anti-TNF-α IgY treatment group; (4) the 0.1% anti-IL-1β IgY treatment group; (5) the 0.1% combined anti-IL-1β and TNF-α IgY treatment group; and (6) the fluticasone propionate treatment group. The inflammatory cells were evaluated using Wright's staining. Histopathology was examined using hematoxylin-eosin staining. The results showed that the number of eosinophils was significantly decreased in the peripheral blood, nasal lavage fluid, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (P guinea pigs. The data suggest that topical blockade of IL-1β and TNF-α could reduce pathological allergic inflammation in the nasal mucosa and lung tissues in AR guinea pigs.

  10. X irradiation combined with TNF alpha-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) reduces hypoxic regions of human gastric adenocarcinoma xenografts in SCID mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Momoko; Yasui, Hironobu; Ogura, Aki; Asanuma, Taketoshi; Inanami, Osamu; Kubota, Nobuo; Tsujitani, Michihiko; Kuwabara, Mikinori

    2008-01-01

    Our previous study showed that X irradiation induced the expression of death receptor DR5 on the cell surface in tumor cell lines under not only normoxia but also hypoxia. X irradiation combined with TNF α-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), which is the ligand of DR5, induced apoptosis in vitro (Takahashi et al., (2007) Journal of Radiation Research, 48: 461-468). In this report, we examined the in vivo antitumor efficacy of X irradiation combined with TRAIL treatment in tumor xenograft models derived from human gastric adenocarcinoma MKN45 and MKN28 cells in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. X irradiation combined with TRAIL synergistically suppressed the tumor growth rates in the xenograft models derived from MKN45 and MKN28 cells, which have wild type Tp53 and mutated Tp53, respectively, indicating that the antitumor effects occurred in a Tp53-independent manner. Histological analysis showed that the combination of X irradiation and TRAIL induced caspase-3-dependent apoptotic cell death. Moreover, the immunohistochemical detection of hypoxic regions using the hypoxic marker pimonidazole revealed that caspase-3-dependent apoptosis occurred in the hypoxic regions in the tumors. These results indicated that X irradiation combined with TRAIL may be a useful treatment to reduce tumor growth in not only normoxic but also hypoxic regions. (author)

  11. Characterizing graphs of maximum matching width at most 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Jisu; Ok, Seongmin; Suh, Geewon

    2017-01-01

    The maximum matching width is a width-parameter that is de ned on a branch-decomposition over the vertex set of a graph. The size of a maximum matching in the bipartite graph is used as a cut-function. In this paper, we characterize the graphs of maximum matching width at most 2 using the minor...

  12. GAP WIDTH STUDY IN LASER BUTT-WELDING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gong, Hui; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    In this paper the maximum allowable gap width in laser butt-welding is intensively studied. The gap width study (GWS) is performed on the material of SST of W1.4401 (AISI 316) under various welding conditions, which are the gap width : 0.00-0.50 mm, the welding speed : 0.5-2.0 m/min, the laser...

  13. Real time pulse width monitor for Intensified Charge Coupled Device (ICCD) electro-optic shutters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yates, G.J.

    1996-12-01

    A method is described or controlling and measuring the pulse width of electrical gate pulses used for optical shuttering of image intensifier. The intensifiers are coupled to high frame rate Charge-Coupled-Devices (CCD) or Focus-Projection Scan (FPS) vidicon TV cameras for readout and telemetry of time resolved image sequences. The shutter duration or gate width of individual shutters is measured in real time and encoded in the video frame corresponding to a given shutter interval. The shutter information is updated once catch video frame by strobing new data with each TV camera vertical sync pulse. This circuitry is used in conjunction with commercial video insertion/annotation equipment to provide die shutter width information in alpha numeric text form along with the time resolved video image on a frame-by-frame basis. The measurement technique and circuitry involving a combination of high speed digital counters and analog integrators for measurements in the Ins to 1024 ns range are described. The accuracy obtained is compared with measurements obtained using batch speed DSOs. The measured data are provided in 10-bit Binary (Bi) and four decades of Binary Coded Decimal (BCD) and also displayed on four digit seven segment displays. The control circuitry including digital and analog input means for gate width selection are described. The implementation of both measurement and control circuitry into an Intensified Shuttered CCD (ISCCD) radiometric system for recording fast shuttered images at RS-170 to 4 KHz frame rates is presented.

  14. Narrow alpha+ sup 2 sup 8 Si elastic-scattering states at high excitation in sup 3 sup 2 S

    CERN Document Server

    Kaellman, K M; Lönnroth, T; Manngaard, P; Goldberg, V Z; Pakhomov, A E; Pankratov, V V

    2003-01-01

    The excitation function and angular distributions of elastic alpha-particle scattering on sup 2 sup 8 Si have been measured in the laboratory energy range 6-28 MeV using a backscattering technique on a thick target, yielding a continuous energy distribution. More than 200 narrow states are observed, with widths in the range propor to 30-100 keV at excitation energies E sup * =13-32 MeV. Angular distributions at backward angles were measured, and angular momentum values of more than 83 states have been deduced. The analysis gives spin-parities J suppi, alpha-partial widths GAMMA subalpha and reduced widths of the narrow high-lying resonant states in sup 3 sup 2 S. The experimentally observed states display both the negative- and the positive-parity rotational-like sequences with seemingly no parity splitting, a finding which is at variance with most potential-model predictions. The deduced effective moment of inertia indicates a more extended structure than the ground-state configuration. The observed strength...

  15. Global synchronization of parallel processors using clock pulse width modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Ellavsky, Matthew R.; Franke, Ross L.; Gara, Alan; Gooding, Thomas M.; Haring, Rudolf A.; Jeanson, Mark J.; Kopcsay, Gerard V.; Liebsch, Thomas A.; Littrell, Daniel; Ohmacht, Martin; Reed, Don D.; Schenck, Brandon E.; Swetz, Richard A.

    2013-04-02

    A circuit generates a global clock signal with a pulse width modification to synchronize processors in a parallel computing system. The circuit may include a hardware module and a clock splitter. The hardware module may generate a clock signal and performs a pulse width modification on the clock signal. The pulse width modification changes a pulse width within a clock period in the clock signal. The clock splitter may distribute the pulse width modified clock signal to a plurality of processors in the parallel computing system.

  16. Beam-width spreading of vortex beams in free space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiwei; Li, Jinhong; Duan, Meiling

    2018-01-01

    Based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle and the definition of second-order moments of the Wigner distribution function, the analytical expression for the beam-width spreading of Gaussian Schell-model (GSM) vortex beams in free space are derived, and used to study the influence of beam parameters on the beam-width spreading of GSM vortex beams. With the increment of the propagation distance, the beam-width spreading of GSM vortex beams will increase; the bigger the topological charge, spatial correlation length, wavelength and waist width are, the smaller the beam-width spreading is.

  17. Skyrmion dynamics in width-varying nanotracks and implications for skyrmionic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xing; Kang, Wang; Zhu, Daoqian; Zhang, Xichao; Lei, Na; Zhang, Youguang; Zhou, Yan; Zhao, Weisheng

    2017-11-01

    A comprehensive study of the magnetic skyrmion dynamics in terms of size, velocity, energy, and stability in width-varying nanotracks is reported by micromagnetic simulations. We find that the diameter of a skyrmion reduces with the decrease in the nanotrack width in the spin Hall effect (SHE)-induced skyrmion motion. Accordingly, the skyrmion energy increases giving rise to the growing instability of the skyrmion. It is also numerically demonstrated that the velocity of the skyrmion varies during the motion, since the repulsive force of the nanotrack edges acting on the skyrmion as well as the driving force created by the SHE associated with the size of the skyrmion have a joint impact on the skyrmion motion dynamics in the width-varying nanotrack. In addition, one interesting finding reveals that skyrmions with small sizes, which may be inaccessible to typical approaches by means of directly injecting a spin-polarized current, could be obtained by utilizing this structure. This finding is potential for generating nanoscale skyrmions in skyrmionic applications with ultra-dense density. Finally, inspired by the skyrmion dynamics in the width-varying nanotrack, a general summary on the tradeoff between the nanotrack width (storage density) and the skyrmion velocity (data access speed) is given by further analyzing the skyrmion dynamics in parallel nanotracks with different widths, which may provide guidelines in designing racetrack-type skyrmionic applications.

  18. Statistical evaluation of metal fill widths for emulated metal fill in parasitic extraction methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    J-Me, Teh; Noh, Norlaili Mohd.; Aziz, Zalina Abdul

    2015-05-01

    In the chip industry today, the key goal of a chip development organization is to develop and market chips within a short time frame to gain foothold on market share. This paper proposes a design flow around the area of parasitic extraction to improve the design cycle time. The proposed design flow utilizes the usage of metal fill emulation as opposed to the current flow which performs metal fill insertion directly. By replacing metal fill structures with an emulation methodology in earlier iterations of the design flow, this is targeted to help reduce runtime in fill insertion stage. Statistical design of experiments methodology utilizing the randomized complete block design was used to select an appropriate emulated metal fill width to improve emulation accuracy. The experiment was conducted on test cases of different sizes, ranging from 1000 gates to 21000 gates. The metal width was varied from 1 x minimum metal width to 6 x minimum metal width. Two-way analysis of variance and Fisher's least significant difference test were used to analyze the interconnect net capacitance values of the different test cases. This paper presents the results of the statistical analysis for the 45 nm process technology. The recommended emulated metal fill width was found to be 4 x the minimum metal width.

  19. Circulating levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptor 2 are increased in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction relative to heart failure with reduced ejection fraction: evidence for a divergence in pathophysiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan N Putko

    Full Text Available Various pathways have been implicated in the pathogenesis of heart failure (HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF. Inflammation in response to comorbid conditions, such as hypertension and diabetes, may play a proportionally larger role in HFPEF as compared to HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFREF.This study investigated inflammation mediated by the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα axis in community-based cohorts of HFPEF patients (n = 100, HFREF patients (n = 100 and healthy controls (n = 50. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to investigate levels of TNFα, its two receptors (TNFR1 and TNFR2, and a non-TNFα cytokine, interleukin-6 (IL-6, in plasma derived from peripheral blood samples. Plasma levels of TNFα and TNFR1 were significantly elevated in HFPEF relative to controls, while levels of TNFR2 were significantly higher in HFPEF than both controls and HFREF. TNFα, TNFR1 and TNFR2 were each significantly associated with at least two of the following: age, estimated glomerular filtration rate, hypertension, diabetes, smoking, peripheral vascular disease or history of atrial fibrillation. TNFR2 levels were also significantly associated with increasing grade of diastolic dysfunction and severity of symptoms in HFPEF.Inflammation mediated through TNFα and its receptors, TNFR1 and TNFR2, may represent an important component of a comorbidity-induced inflammatory response that partially drives the pathophysiology of HFPEF.

  20. Solar harvesting by a heterostructured cell with built-in variable width quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, W.; Wang, H.; Mil'shtein, S.

    2018-02-01

    We propose cascaded heterostructured p-i-n solar cells, where inside of the i-region is a set of Quantum Wells (QWs) with variable thicknesses to enhance absorption of different photonic energies and provide quick relaxation for high energy carriers. Our p-i-n heterostructure carries top p-type and bottom n-type 11.3 Å thick AlAs layers, which are doped by acceptors and donor densities up to 1019/cm3. The intrinsic region is divided into 10 segments where each segment carries ten QWs of the same width and the width of the QWs in each subsequent segment gradually increases. The top segment consists of 10 QWs with widths of 56.5Å, followed by a segment with 10 wider QWs with widths of 84.75Å, followed by increasing QW widths until the last segment has 10 QWs with widths of 565Å, bringing the total number of QWs to 100. The QW wall height is controlled by alternating AlAs and GaAs layers, where the AlAs layers are all 11.3Å thick, throughout the entire intrinsic region. Configuration of variable width QWs prescribes sets of energy levels which are suitable for absorption of a wide range of photon energies and will dissipate high electron-hole energies rapidly, reducing the heat load on the solar cell. We expect that the heating of the solar cell will be reduced by 8-11%, enhancing efficiency. The efficiency of the designed solar cell is 43.71%, the Fill Factor is 0.86, the density of short circuit current (ISC) will not exceed 338 A/m2 and the open circuit voltage (VOC) is 1.51V.

  1. Influence of pulse width and target density on pulsed laser deposition of thin YBaCuO film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikram, S.

    1999-01-01

    We have studied the effects of temporal pulse width and target density on the deposition of thin films of YBaCuO. A 248nm excimer laser and an 825nm Ti-sapphire laser were used to conduct the experiments with pulse widths of 27 ns, 16 ns, and 150 fs, and target densities of 80% and 90%. Scanning electron microscope photomicrographs and profilometer traces show a striking difference between nanosecond and femtosecond laser irradiation. Shortening the pulse width reduced particulate formation, provided stoichiometry, and improved the film properties. Decreasing the target density raised the ablation rate, produced thicker but nonuniform films, and reduced particulate formation

  2. Influence of pulse width and target density on pulsed laser deposition of thin YBaCuO film.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vikram, S.

    1999-01-20

    We have studied the effects of temporal pulse width and target density on the deposition of thin films of YBaCuO. A 248nm excimer laser and an 825nm Ti-sapphire laser were used to conduct the experiments with pulse widths of 27 ns, 16 ns, and 150 fs, and target densities of 80% and 90%. Scanning electron microscope photomicrographs and profilometer traces show a striking difference between nanosecond and femtosecond laser irradiation. Shortening the pulse width reduced particulate formation, provided stoichiometry, and improved the film properties. Decreasing the target density raised the ablation rate, produced thicker but nonuniform films, and reduced particulate formation.

  3. Recent Advances in Global Measurement and Application of River Widths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavelsky, T.; Allen, G. H.

    2015-12-01

    Among variables relevant to river form and discharge that can be observed from space, river width is perhaps the simplest to measure. Width can be extracted directly from optical or radar imagery, and application of remotely sensed widths to problems in hydrology, fluvial geomorphology, and ecology dates back more than two decades. Despite this long heritage, until very recently remotely sensed width measurements have largely been made on an ad-hoc basis for individual studies over relatively small regions. Global studies that required river widths have largely relied on estimates from downstream hydraulic geometry relationships with basin area, which inevitably simplify width variability and may, in practice, underestimate the fraction of wide rivers and the total river surface area in many basins. Over the last two years, multiple new regional- and global-scale, satellite-derived river width datasets have been developed that have substantially improved our global understanding of river form. These datasets include the Global Width Database for Large Rivers (GWD-LR), which provides width measurements for rivers wider than ~180 m, and all rivers wider than ~300 m, based on the SRTM water mask and the Global River Widths from Landsat (GRWL), which provides measurements for rivers as narrow as 30 m and all rivers wider than ~100 m. Several regional-scale datasets have also been developed. These datasets will facilitate improvements to regional and global scale hydrodynamic models, will provide more robust information on global river surface area for gas flux studies, and constitute novel information on global patterns of fluvial geomorphology. These datasets represent the beginning, not the end, of global river width measurements, however, as in the future multitemporal width measurements can be combined with recently developed algorithms to estimate river discharge for many rivers, globally.

  4. The significance of biometric parameters in determining anterior teeth width

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strajnić Ljiljana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. An important element of prosthetic treatment of edentulous patients is selecting the size of anterior artificial teeth that will restore the natural harmony of one’s dentolabial structure as well as the whole face. The main objective of this study was to determine the correlation between the inner canthal distance (ICD and interalar width (IAW on one side and the width of both central incisors (CIW, the width of central and lateral incisors (CLIW, the width of anterior teeth (ATW, the width between the canine cusps (CCW, which may be useful in clinical practice. Methods. A total of 89 subjects comprising 23 male and 66 female were studied. Their age ranged from 19 to 34 years with the mean of 25 years. Only the subjects with the preserved natural dentition were included in the sample. All facial and intraoral tooth measurements were made with a Boley Gauge (Buffalo Dental Manufacturing Co., Brooklyn NY, USA having a resolution of 0.1mm. Results. A moderate correlation was established between the interalar width and combined width of anterior teeth and canine cusp width (r = 0.439, r = 0.374. A low correlation was established between the inner canthal distance and the width of anterior teeth and canine cusp width (r = 0.335, r = 0.303. The differences between the two genders were highly significant for all the parameters (p < 0.01. The measured facial distances and width of anterior teeth were higher in men than in women. Conclusion. The results of this study suggest that the examined interalar width and inner canthal distance cannot be considered reliable guidelines in the selection of artificial upper anterior teeth. However, they may be used as a useful additional factor combined with other methods for objective tooth selection. The final decision should be made while working on dentures fitting models with the patient’s consent.

  5. A Statistical Approach for Obtaining the Controlled Woven Fabric Width

    OpenAIRE

    Shaker Khubab; Umair Muhammad; Maqsood Muhammad; Nawab Yasir; Ahmad Sheraz; Rasheed Abher; Ashraf Munir; Basit Abdul

    2015-01-01

    A common problem faced in fabric manufacturing is the production of inconsistent fabric width on shuttleless looms in spite of the same fabric specifications. Weft-wise crimp controls the fabric width and it depends on a number of factors, including warp tension, temple type, fabric take-up pressing tension and loom working width. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of these parameters on the fabric width produced. Taguchi’s orthogonal design was used to optimise the weaving pa...

  6. A Statistical Approach for Obtaining the Controlled Woven Fabric Width

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaker Khubab

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A common problem faced in fabric manufacturing is the production of inconsistent fabric width on shuttleless looms in spite of the same fabric specifications. Weft-wise crimp controls the fabric width and it depends on a number of factors, including warp tension, temple type, fabric take-up pressing tension and loom working width. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of these parameters on the fabric width produced. Taguchi’s orthogonal design was used to optimise the weaving parameters for obtaining controlled fabric width. On the basis of signal to noise ratios, it could be concluded that controlled fabric width could be produced using medium temple type and intense take-up pressing tension at relatively lower warp tension and smaller loom working width. The analysis of variance revealed that temple needle size was the most significant factor affecting the fabric width, followed by loom working width and warp tension, whereas take-up pressing tension was least significant of all the factors investigated in the study.

  7. The effect of the negative binomial distribution on the line-width of the micromaser cavity field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kremid, A. M.

    2009-01-01

    The influence of negative binomial distribution (NBD) on the line-width of the negative binomial distribution (NBD) on the line-width of the micromaser is considered. The threshold of the micromaser is shifted towards higher values of the pumping parameter q. Moreover the line-width exhibits sharp dips 'resonances' when the cavity temperature reduces to a very low value. These dips are very clear evidence for the occurrence of the so-called trapping states regime in the micromaser. This statistics prevents the appearance of these trapping states, namely by increasing the negative binomial parameter q these dips wash out and the line-width becomes more broadening. For small values of the parameter q the line-width at large values of q randomly oscillates around its transition line. As q becomes large this oscillatory behavior occurs at rarely values of q. (author)

  8. Account of proton channels coupling in optical-shell description of partial proton widths of isobaric analog resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guba, V.G.; Urin, M.G.

    1983-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of partial proton width of isobaric analog resonances (IAR) for magic and near-magic (by neutrons) nuclei (at proton scattering on sup(207, 208Pb, 140 Ce, 138 Ba, 90 Zr) is conducted. Optical-shell model of nuclear reactions has been used. Quantitative interpretation of width is suggested on the base of numerical solution of integral equations for effective Coulomb field with account relation of 0 + -configurations proton-neutron hole both with continuum and with multiparticle configurations. Accountancy of relation of proton channels results in systematic 1.3-2.0 fold decrease of calculated values of widths. It permits to coordinate experimental and calculated values of width at reasonable values of parameters of optical potential. The results of calculation of reduced width are stable to variation of parameters of the model

  9. The determination of $\\alpha_s$ by the ALPHA collaboration

    CERN Document Server

    Bruno, Mattia

    2016-01-01

    We review the ALPHA collaboration strategy for obtaining the QCD coupling at high scale. In the three-flavor effective theory it avoids the use of perturbation theory at $\\alpha > 0.2$ and at the same time has the physical scales small compared to the cutoff $1/a$ in all stages of the computation. The result $\\Lambda_\\overline{MS}^{(3)}=332(14)$~MeV is translated to $\\alpha_\\overline{MS}(m_Z)=0.1179(10)(2)$ by use of (high order) perturbative relations between the effective theory couplings at the charm and beauty quark "thresholds". The error of this perturbative step is discussed and estimated as $0.0002$.

  10. Determination of normal maxillary transverse dimension by using intercanine width and interpalatal first molar width.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banker, Alka M; Pillai, Jayasankar P; Patel, Kinjal D

    2016-01-01

    Malocclusion in the vertical and sagittal planes is easy to observe whereas it is difficult to diagnose malocclusion in the transverse plane. There are yet no criteria defining a normal transverse occlusion. The aim of this study was to identify a ratio that defines a normal transverse occlusion. This was a retrospective study. A total sample of 151 maxillary dental models (M = 55, F = 96) in the age range of 12-16 years were randomly selected, with 73 models in control group and 78 in the study group. All the models were mixed up and given to an operator for the measurement of intercanine width (ICW) and inter-palatal molar width (IPMW). The data were statistically analyzed using SPSS software version 16.0. Chi-square test was performed to test the statistical significance difference between the groups at p ≤ 0.05. Nearly 98.60% of normal arches were found to have an IPMW to ICW ratio of 1:1 ± 0.05. On further analysis, it was found that when IPMW ≥37.45 mm, then the case may be considered to have normal arches, and if the ratio between IPMW to ICW is 1.15:1 ± 0.05 or more and IPMW is dimension.

  11. Description of width and spectra of two relativistic fermions bound states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidorov, A.V.; Skachkov, N.B.

    1979-01-01

    The formalism for relativistic description of two particles with spin 1/2 is constructed. Used is the two-particle three-dimensional equation, obtained by quasipotential approach. Quasipotential equation in the relativistic configurational space with OBEP potential is reduced to the system of partial equations which is the analog of nonrelativistic Hamada-Jonston system. WKB approach is used to calculate mass spectra and leptonic width of mesons in quark model. The results of the study can be applied to the calculation of mass spectra and widths of electromagnetic decays of systems of e + e - , μ + μ - , c anti c, b anti b, N anti N type

  12. Influence of lip closure on alveolar cleft width in patients with cleft lip and palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmelzle Rainer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The influence of surgery on growth and stability after treatment in patients with cleft lip and palate are topics still under discussion. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of early lip closure on the width of the alveolar cleft using dental casts. Methods A total of 44 clefts were investigated using plaster casts, 30 unilateral and 7 bilateral clefts. All infants received a passive molding plate a few days after birth. The age at the time of closure of the lip was 2.1 month in average (range 1-6 months. Plaster casts were obtained at the following stages: shortly after birth, prior to lip closure, prior to soft palate closure. We determined the width of the alveolar cleft before lip closure and prior to soft palate closure measuring the alveolar cleft width from the most lateral point of the premaxilla/anterior segment to the most medial point of the smaller segment. Results After lip closure 15 clefts presented with a width of 0 mm, meaning that the mucosa of the segments was almost touching one another. 19 clefts showed a width of up to 2 mm and 10 clefts were still over 2 mm wide. This means a reduction of 0% in 5 clefts, of 1-50% in 6 clefts, of 51-99% in 19 clefts, and of 100% in 14 clefts. Conclusions Early lip closure reduces alveolar cleft width. In most cases our aim of a remaining cleft width of 2 mm or less can be achieved. These are promising conditions for primary alveolar bone grafting to restore the dental bony arch.

  13. Stream water responses to timber harvest: Riparian buffer width effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton D. Clinton

    2011-01-01

    Vegetated riparian buffers are critical for protecting aquatic and terrestrial processes and habitats in southern Appalachian ecosystems. In this case study, we examined the effect of riparian buffer width on stream water quality following upland forest management activities in four headwater catchments. Three riparian buffer widths were delineated prior to cutting; 0m...

  14. Evolution of giant dipole resonance width at low temperatures ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The resonance width. GDR is defined as the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the GDR lineshape and is related to various damping mechanisms of the collective motion inside nuclear matter. The damping of giant collective vibration inside the nuclear medium occurs either due to escape of resonance energy by means ...

  15. A STATISTICAL APPROACH FOR OBTAINING THE CONTROLLED WOVEN FABRIC WIDTH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maqsood, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    A common problem faced in fabric manufacturing is the production of inconsistent fabric width on shuttleless looms in spite of the same fabric specifications. Weft-wise crimp controls the fabric width and it depends on a number of factors, including warp tension, temple type, fabric take-up pressing

  16. Enhancement of heat transfer using varying width twisted tape inserts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enhancement of heat transfer using varying width twisted tape inserts. ... International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology ... The present work shows the results obtained from experimental investigations of the augmentation of turbulent flow heat transfer in a horizontal tube by means of varying width twisted ...

  17. Controlling ρ width effects for a precise value of α in B→ρρ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Gronau

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available It has been pointed out that the currently most precise determination of the weak phase ϕ2=α of the Cabibbo–Kobayashi–Maskawa (CKM matrix achieved in B→ρρ decays is susceptible to a small correction at a level of (Γρ/mρ2 due to an I=1 amplitude caused by the ρ width. Using Breit–Wigner distributions for the two pairs of pions forming ρ mesons, we study the I=1 contribution to B→ρρ decay rates as function of the width and location of the ρ band. We find that in the absence of a particular enhancement of the I=1 amplitude reducing a single band to a width Γρ at SuperKEKB leads to results which are completely insensitive to the ρ width. If the I=1 amplitude is dynamically enhanced relative to the I=0,2 amplitude one could subject its contribution to a “magnifying glass” measurement using two separated ρ bands of width Γρ. Subtraction of the I=1 contribution from the measured decay rate would lead to a very precise determination of the I=0,2 amplitude needed for performing the isospin analysis.

  18. Laser cutting of various materials: Kerf width size analysis and life cycle assessment of cutting process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilbas, Bekir Sami; Shaukat, Mian Mobeen; Ashraf, Farhan

    2017-08-01

    Laser cutting of various materials including Ti-6Al-4V alloy, steel 304, Inconel 625, and alumina is carried out to assess the kerf width size variation along the cut section. The life cycle assessment is carried out to determine the environmental impact of the laser cutting in terms of the material waste during the cutting process. The kerf width size is formulated and predicted using the lump parameter analysis and it is measured from the experiments. The influence of laser output power and laser cutting speed on the kerf width size variation is analyzed using the analytical tools including scanning electron and optical microscopes. In the experiments, high pressure nitrogen assisting gas is used to prevent oxidation reactions in the cutting section. It is found that the kerf width size predicted from the lump parameter analysis agrees well with the experimental data. The kerf width size variation increases with increasing laser output power. However, this behavior reverses with increasing laser cutting speed. The life cycle assessment reveals that material selection for laser cutting is critical for the environmental protection point of view. Inconel 625 contributes the most to the environmental damages; however, recycling of the waste of the laser cutting reduces this contribution.

  19. Difference of CBD width on US vs. ERCP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Olga R; Suissa, Alain; Khamaysi, Iyad; Koren, Dorit; Gaitini, Diana

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between US and ERCP in the measurement of common bile duct (CBD) width after application of Compound and Harmonic imaging on ultrasound. We prospectively evaluated the CBD width as measured on endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and ultrasonography (US), applying Compound and Harmonic US techniques, on 100 patients. Furthermore, we retrospectively re-examined US and ERCP images of 48 patients who underwent ERCP and US during the same hospitalization period. The average difference in measurements by US compared to ERCP was 2.3 mm (P CBD width. There was a good correlation between ERCP and US measurements of CBD width (r = 0.73 for all patients and r = 0.88 for patients with intact gallbladder, P CBD width on US and ERCP of about 2 mm. The application of Compound and Harmonic techniques in the prospective study probably enabled a more accurate sonographic measurement.

  20. Three-dimensional evaluation of root dimensions and alveolar ridge width of maxillary lateral incisors in patients with unilateral agenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlRushaid, Sharifah; Chandhoke, Taranpreet; Utreja, Achint; Tadinada, Aditya; Allareddy, Veerasathpurush; Uribe, Flavio

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this retrospective case-control study was to measure the maxillary lateral incisor root dimensions and quantify the labial and palatal bone in patients with unilateral maxillary lateral incisor agenesis (MLIA) after orthodontic treatment and compare them to non-agenesis controls using cone beam computed tomography. The labiopalatal and mesiodistal root dimensions, mesiodistal coronal dimensions, and labiopalatal bone and alveolar ridge widths of the maxillary lateral incisor were assessed on posttreatment cone beam computed tomography scans of 15 patients (mean age 16.5 ± 3.4 years, 9 females and 6 males) with maxillary lateral incisor agenesis and 15 gender-matched patients (mean age 16.08 ± 3.23 years) with no dental agenesis or anterior Bolton discrepancy. The Mann-Whitney test was used to distinguish any differences in root width, crown width, or changes in labial or palatal bone width between the two groups. The median labiopalatal root width was narrower in the MLIA group at the level of the cementoenamel junction (CEJ) to 8 mm apical of the CEJ compared to controls (p ≤ 0.009). The mesiodistal root width was significantly reduced in the MLIA group at the CEJ and at 4 mm apical to the CEJ. The labiopalatal alveolar ridge width was significantly decreased at 2 mm apical to the CEJ in MLIA group. The mesiodistal crown width was significantly smaller in the MLIA group at both the incisal edge and at the crown midpoint. The bone thickness was similar in both groups. Coronal and root dimensions in patients with MLIA were reduced compared to controls. Alveolar ridge width was also reduced in patients with MLIA, although bone thickness was not different than controls.

  1. Three-dimensional evaluation of root dimensions and alveolar ridge width of maxillary lateral incisors in patients with unilateral agenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifah AlRushaid

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this retrospective case-control study was to measure the maxillary lateral incisor root dimensions and quantify the labial and palatal bone in patients with unilateral maxillary lateral incisor agenesis (MLIA after orthodontic treatment and compare them to non-agenesis controls using cone beam computed tomography. Methods The labiopalatal and mesiodistal root dimensions, mesiodistal coronal dimensions, and labiopalatal bone and alveolar ridge widths of the maxillary lateral incisor were assessed on posttreatment cone beam computed tomography scans of 15 patients (mean age 16.5 ± 3.4 years, 9 females and 6 males with maxillary lateral incisor agenesis and 15 gender-matched patients (mean age 16.08 ± 3.23 years with no dental agenesis or anterior Bolton discrepancy. The Mann-Whitney test was used to distinguish any differences in root width, crown width, or changes in labial or palatal bone width between the two groups. Results The median labiopalatal root width was narrower in the MLIA group at the level of the cementoenamel junction (CEJ to 8 mm apical of the CEJ compared to controls (p ≤ 0.009. The mesiodistal root width was significantly reduced in the MLIA group at the CEJ and at 4 mm apical to the CEJ. The labiopalatal alveolar ridge width was significantly decreased at 2 mm apical to the CEJ in MLIA group. The mesiodistal crown width was significantly smaller in the MLIA group at both the incisal edge and at the crown midpoint. The bone thickness was similar in both groups. Conclusions Coronal and root dimensions in patients with MLIA were reduced compared to controls. Alveolar ridge width was also reduced in patients with MLIA, although bone thickness was not different than controls.

  2. Lyman Alpha Control

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, Daniel Stefaniak

    2015-01-01

    This document gives an overview of how to operate the Lyman Alpha Control application written in LabVIEW along with things to watch out for. Overview of the LabVIEW code itself as well as the physical wiring of and connections from/to the NI PCI-6229 DAQ box is also included. The Lyman Alpha Control application is the interface between the ALPHA sequencer and the HighFinesse Wavelength Meter as well as the Lyman Alpha laser setup. The application measures the wavelength of the output light from the Lyman Alpha cavity through the Wavelength Meter. The application can use the Wavelength Meter’s PID capabilities to stabilize the Lyman Alpha laser output as well as switch between up to three frequencies.

  3. New ALPHA-2 magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    On 21 June, members of the ALPHA collaboration celebrated the handover of the first solenoid designed for the ALPHA-2 experiment. The magnet has since been successfully installed and is working well.   Khalid Mansoor, Sumera Yamin and Jeffrey Hangst in front of the new ALPHA-2 solenoid. “This was the first of three identical solenoids that will be installed between now and September, as the rest of the ALPHA-2 device is installed and commissioned,” explains ALPHA spokesperson Jeffrey Hangst. “These magnets are designed to allow us to transfer particles - antiprotons, electrons and positrons - between various parts of the new ALPHA-2 device by controlling the transverse size of the particle bunch that is being transferred.” Sumera Yamin and Khalid Mansoor, two Pakistani scientists from the National Centre for Physics in Islamabad, came to CERN in February specifically to design and manufacture these magnets. “We had the chance to work on act...

  4. Cortical Alpha Activity in Schizoaffective Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Moeini

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Electrophysiological studies have identified abnormal oscillatory activities in the cerebral cortex in schizophrenia and mood disorders. Biological and pathophysiological evidence suggests specific deficits in serotonin (5-HT receptor function in schizoaffective disorder (SA, a clinical syndrome with characteristics of both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. This study investigated alpha oscillations in patients with SA.Method: Electroencephalography was used to measure ongoing and evoked alpha oscillations in 38 adults meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders–Fourth Edition (DSM–IV criteria for SA, and in 39 healthy controls.Results: Spontaneous alpha power of the participants with SA was significantly lower than that of healthy participants [F (1, 75 = 8.81, P < 0.01]. Evoked alpha activity was also decreased in SA compared to controls [F (1, 75 = 5.67, P = 0.025].Conclusion: A strong reduction of alpha power in the posterior regions may reflect abnormality in the thalamocortical circuits. It is shown that hypoxia and reduced cerebral blood flow is associated with reduced alpha activity among different regions of the brain. Therefore, it can be concluded that greatly decreased alpha activity, particularly in centro-parietal and occipital regions, is related to SA symptoms such as hallucinations.

  5. Alpha Shapes and Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Pawel; Sterner, Henrik; Sterner, Peter

    2009-01-01

    We provide a unified description of (weighted) alpha shapes, beta shapes and the corresponding simplicialcomplexes. We discuss their applicability to various protein-related problems. We also discuss filtrations of alpha shapes and touch upon related persistence issues.We claim that the full...... potential of alpha-shapes and related geometrical constructs in protein-related problems yet remains to be realized and verified. We suggest parallel algorithms for (weighted) alpha shapes, and we argue that future use of filtrations and kinetic variants for larger proteins will need such implementation....

  6. Production of alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor (human).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, R H; Van Beveren, S M; Shearer, M A; Coan, M H; Brockway, W J

    1990-03-01

    A method for large scale isolation of alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor (alpha 1-PI) is described. This method employs waste Cohn Fraction IV-1 as the starting material and involves fractional precipitation with polyethylene glycol followed by ion exchange chromatography on diethylaminoethanol (DEAE)-Sepharose. The process also incorporates a ten hour, at 60 degrees C, heat-treatment step to reduce or eliminate the risk of transmission of viral disease. The final product, having a purity of approximately 60%, is freeze-dried. This preparation behaves almost identically to the alpha 1-PI in plasma and is suitable for replacement therapy in hereditary emphysema.

  7. Targeted Alpha Therapy: From Alpha to Omega

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, Barry J; Clarke, Raymond; Huang Chenyu

    2013-01-01

    This review covers the broad spectrum of Targeted Alpha Therapy (TAT) research in Australia; from in vitro and in vivo studies to clinical trials. The principle of tumour anti-vascular alpha therapy (TAVAT) is discussed in terms of its validation by Monte Carlo calculations of vascular models and the potential role of biological dosimetry is examined. Summmary of this review is as follows: 1. The essence of TAT 2. Therapeutic objectives 3. TAVAT and Monte Carlo microdosimetry 4. Biological dosimetry 5. Preclinical studies 6. Clinical trials 7. What next? 8. Obstacles. (author)

  8. Nightside studies of coherent HF Radar spectral width behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Woodfield

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available A previous case study found a relationship between high spectral width measured by the CUTLASS Finland HF radar and elevated electron temperatures observed by the EISCAT and ESR incoherent scatter radars in the post-midnight sector of magnetic local time. This paper expands that work by briefly re-examining that interval and looking in depth at two further case studies. In all three cases a region of high HF spectral width (>200 ms-1 exists poleward of a region of low HF spectral width (<200 ms-1. Each case, however, occurs under quite different geomagnetic conditions. The original case study occurred during an interval with no observed electrojet activity, the second study during a transition from quiet to active conditions with a clear band of ion frictional heating indicating the location of the flow reversal boundary, and the third during an isolated sub-storm. These case studies indicate that the relationship between elevated electron temperature and high HF radar spectral width appears on closed field lines after 03:00 magnetic local time (MLT on the nightside. It is not clear whether the same relationship would hold on open field lines, since our analysis of this relationship is restricted in latitude. We find two important properties of high spectral width data on the nightside. Firstly the high spectral width values occur on both open and closed field lines, and secondly that the power spectra which exhibit high widths are both single-peak and multiple-peak. In general the regions of high spectral width (>200 ms-1 have more multiple-peak spectra than the regions of low spectral widths whilst still maintaining a majority of single-peak spectra. We also find that the region of ion frictional heating is collocated with many multiple-peak HF spectra. Several mechanisms for the generation of high spectral width have been proposed which would produce multiple-peak spectra, these are discussed in relation to the data presented here. Since the

  9. Influence of pulse width and detuning on coherent phonon generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kazutaka G.; Shikano, Yutaka; Kayanuma, Yosuke

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the coherent phonon generation mechanism by irradiation of an ultrashort pulse with a simple two-level model. Our derived formulation shows that both impulsive stimulated Raman scattering (ISRS) and impulsive absorption (IA) simultaneously occur, and phonon wave packets are generated in the electronic ground and excited states by ISRS and IA, respectively. We identify the dominant process from the amplitude of the phonon oscillation. For short pulse widths, ISRS is very small and becomes larger as the pulse width increases. We also show that the initial phase is dependent on the pulse width and the detuning.

  10. Nightside studies of coherent HF Radar spectral width behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Woodfield

    Full Text Available A previous case study found a relationship between high spectral width measured by the CUTLASS Finland HF radar and elevated electron temperatures observed by the EISCAT and ESR incoherent scatter radars in the post-midnight sector of magnetic local time. This paper expands that work by briefly re-examining that interval and looking in depth at two further case studies. In all three cases a region of high HF spectral width (>200 ms-1 exists poleward of a region of low HF spectral width (<200 ms-1. Each case, however, occurs under quite different geomagnetic conditions. The original case study occurred during an interval with no observed electrojet activity, the second study during a transition from quiet to active conditions with a clear band of ion frictional heating indicating the location of the flow reversal boundary, and the third during an isolated sub-storm. These case studies indicate that the relationship between elevated electron temperature and high HF radar spectral width appears on closed field lines after 03:00 magnetic local time (MLT on the nightside. It is not clear whether the same relationship would hold on open field lines, since our analysis of this relationship is restricted in latitude. We find two important properties of high spectral width data on the nightside. Firstly the high spectral width values occur on both open and closed field lines, and secondly that the power spectra which exhibit high widths are both single-peak and multiple-peak. In general the regions of high spectral width (>200 ms-1 have more multiple-peak spectra than the regions of low spectral widths whilst still maintaining a majority of single-peak spectra. We also find that the region of ion frictional heating is collocated with many multiple-peak HF spectra. Several mechanisms for the generation of high spectral width have been proposed which would produce multiple-peak spectra, these are discussed in relation to

  11. The effect of scattering interference term on the practical width

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins do Amaral, C.; Martinez, A.S.

    2001-01-01

    The practical width Γ p has an important application in the characterization of the resonance type for the calculation of neutron average cross sections. Previous treatments ignore the interference term χζ,x for the Doppler broadening function in the practical width calculation. In the present paper, a rational approximation for the χζ,x function is derived, using a modified asymptotic Pade method. A new approximation for Γ p is obtained. The results which are presented here provide evidence that the practical width as a function of temperature varies considerably with the inclusion of the interference term χζ,x

  12. Finite-width plasmonic waveguides with hyperbolic multilayer cladding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia E; Shalaginov, Mikhail Y; Ishii, Satoshi; Boltasseva, Alexandra; Kildishev, Alexander V

    2015-04-20

    Engineering plasmonic metamaterials with anisotropic optical dispersion enables us to tailor the properties of metamaterial-based waveguides. We investigate plasmonic waveguides with dielectric cores and multilayer metal-dielectric claddings with hyperbolic dispersion. Without using any homogenization, we calculate the resonant eigenmodes of the finite-width cladding layers, and find agreement with the resonant features in the dispersion of the cladded waveguides. We show that at the resonant widths, the propagating modes of the waveguides are coupled to the cladding eigenmodes and hence, are strongly absorbed. By avoiding the resonant widths in the design of the actual waveguides, the strong absorption can be eliminated.

  13. Alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolk, Jan; Seersholm, Niels; Kalsheker, Noor

    2006-01-01

    The Alpha One International Registry (AIR), a multinational research program focused on alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency, was formed in response to a World Health Organization recommendation. Each of the nearly 20 participating countries maintains a national registry of patients with AAT defic...... epidemiology, inflammatory and signalling processes, therapeutic advances, and lung imaging techniques....

  14. Alpha clustering in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgson, P.E.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of nucleon clustering in nuclei are described, with reference to both nuclear structure and nuclear reactions, and the advantages of using the cluster formalism to describe a range of phenomena are discussed. It is shown that bound and scattering alpha-particle states can be described in a unified way using an energy-dependent alpha-nucleus potential. (author)

  15. Relationship between width of greater trochanters and width of iliac wings in tronchanteric bursitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viradia, Neal K; Berger, Alex A; Dahners, Laurence E

    2011-09-01

    Trochanteric bursitis is a common disorder that is characterized by inflammation of the bursa, superficial to the greater trochanter of the femur, leading to pain in the lateral hip, and often occurs because of acute trauma or repetitive friction involving the iliotibial band, the greater trochanter, and the bursa. In the study reported here, we hypothesized that the increased incidence of bursitis may be the result of the increased prominence of the trochanter in relation to the wings of the iliac crest. Distances between the outermost edges of trochanters and iliac wings were measured in 202 patients from the University of North Carolina Health Care System-101 without a known diagnosis and 101 with a clinical diagnosis of trochanteric bursitis. To determine significance, t tests for nonpaired data were used. Mean (SD) difference between trochanter and iliac wing widths was 28 (20) mm in the group diagnosed with trochanteric bursitis and 17 (18) mm in the control group. The difference between the groups in this regard was significant (Pbursitis group and 1.05 (.06) in the control group. The difference between these groups was significant (Pbursitis.

  16. Line Width Recovery after Vectorization of Engineering Drawings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gramblička Matúš

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Vectorization is the conversion process of a raster image representation into a vector representation. The contemporary commercial vectorization software applications do not provide sufficiently high quality outputs for such images as do mechanical engineering drawings. Line width preservation is one of the problems. There are applications which need to know the line width after vectorization because this line attribute carries the important semantic information for the next 3D model generation. This article describes the algorithm that is able to recover line width of individual lines in the vectorized engineering drawings. Two approaches are proposed, one examines the line width at three points, whereas the second uses a variable number of points depending on the line length. The algorithm is tested on real mechanical engineering drawings.

  17. The effect of buffer zone width on biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navntoft, Søren; Sigsgaard, Lene; Kristensen, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    attention in previous studies. In this paper we report on finding for syrphids, spiders and carabids, three taxonomic groups with different mobility, all important for conservation biological control. For all groups we found an effect of buffer zone width on their density. A buffer width of 6m......Field margin management for conservation purposes is a way to protect both functional biodiversity and biodiversity per se without considerable economical loss as field margins are less productive. However, the effect of width of the buffer zone on achievable biodiversity gains has received little...... was the narrowest that consistently promoted a higher abundance or activity of arthropods within the field area (outside the hedge bottom). However, a further increase in buffer width always increased the abundance and activity of arthropods a little more....

  18. Estimating the Spectral Width of a Narrowband Optical Signal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lading, Lars; Skov Jensen, A.

    1980-01-01

    Methods for estimating the spectral width of a narrowband optical signal are investigated. Spectral analysis and Fourier spectroscopy are compared. Optimum and close-to-optimum estimators are developed under the constraint of having only one photodetector.......Methods for estimating the spectral width of a narrowband optical signal are investigated. Spectral analysis and Fourier spectroscopy are compared. Optimum and close-to-optimum estimators are developed under the constraint of having only one photodetector....

  19. SM Higgs decay branching ratios and total Higgs width

    CERN Multimedia

    Daniel Denegri

    2001-01-01

    Upper: Higgs decay ratios as a function of Higgs mass. The largest branching ratio is not necessarily the most usefull one. The most usefull ones are gamma gamma bbar ZZ and WW as in those modes latter signal to background ratios can be achieved. Lower: Total Higgs decay width versus Higgs mass. At low masses the natural width is extremely small, thus observability depends on instrumental resolution primarily.

  20. Study of partial width fluctuations for 232Th radiative capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nifenecker, H.; Hazoni, Y.; Michaudon, A.; Paya, D.

    1962-01-01

    The partial widths of radiative capture at the excited level at 1 MeV in 233 Th were measured. This measurement was achieved on 7 neutron resonances of 232 Th from 20 to 175 eV. The normalization methods used for deducing these widths are described. The most probable value of the number of degrees of freedom is found to be 4 and the probability that ν ≤ 1 is found to be 16 per cent. (authors) [fr

  1. Width of electromagnetic wave instability spectrum in tungsten plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinkevich, A.B.

    1995-01-01

    Based on the study of high-frequency signal modulation and spectrum analysis of the envelope a measurement of spectrum width for electromagnetic wave instability was carried out under conditions of current pulse action on tungsten plate in magnetic field. The existence of amplitude-frequency wave modulation was revealed. The width of current disturbance spectrum in a specimen was evaluated. Current disturbances are shown to cause the instability of electromagnetic wave. 11 refs.; 6 figs

  2. Quantum numbers and decay widths of the psi (3684)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luth, V.; Boyarski, A.M.; Lynch, H.L.; Breidenbach, M.; Bulos, F.; Feldman, G.J.; Fryberger, D.; Hanson, G.; Hartill, D.L.; Jean-Marie, B.; Larsen, R.R.; Luke, D.; Morehouse, C.C.; Paterson, J.M.; Perl, M.L.; Pun, T.P.; Rapidis, P.; Richter, B.; Schwitters, R.F.; Tanenbaum, W.; Vannucci, F.; Abrams, G.S.; Chinowsky, W.; Friedberg, C.E.; Goldhaber, G.; Kadyk, J.A.; Litke, A.M.; Lulu, B.A.; Pierre, F.M.; Sadoulet, B.; Trilling, G.H.; Whitaker, J.S.; Winkelmann, F.C.; Wiss, J.E.

    1975-01-01

    Cross sections for e + e - →hadrons, e + e - , and μ + μ - near 3684 MeV are presented. The psi(3684) resonance is established as having the assignment J/sup PC/=1 -- . The mass is 3684+-5 MeV. The partial width for decay to electrons is GAMMA/sube/=2.1+-0.3 keV and the total width is GAMMA=228+-56 keV

  3. Comprehensive intermaxillary tooth width proportion of Bangkok residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somchai Manopatanakul

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Proper occlusion depends on the correct width ratio between upper and lower teeth, known as Bolton's ratio. In fact, this ratio can be calculated for each pair of teeth from the central incisor to the first permanent molar. This set of ratios, known as comprehensive cumulative percentage ratios (CPRs, can be used not only to determine which tooth or teeth have a tooth width discrepancy, but can also enable the partial graphical analysis of tooth width discrepancy when there is agenesis of certain permanent teeth. Although CPRs have been calculated for Caucasians, tooth width is known to vary depending on racial origin. Therefore, a test of differences between racial groups should be carried out. If these ratios of the Caucasians and Bangkokians are significantly different, the ratio of the Bangkokians is recommended. The objective of this study was to measure tooth size disproportion for Thai patients and to calculate a corresponding set of CPRs. Thirty-seven pairs of dental models were made from a group of Bangkok residents with normal occlusion. Mesiodistal tooth width was measured for each model. The intra- and inter-examiner measurement errors were ascertained as insignificant (p > 0.05. CPRs were then calculated and compared to those derived from other studies. Ten of thirteen CPRs were significantly different from corresponding values derived from Caucasians. We conclude that tooth width ratios vary between different racial groups, and therefore that these should be calculated specifically for each patient racial group.

  4. Stieltjes-moment-theory technique for calculating resonance width's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazi, A.U.

    1978-12-01

    A recently developed method for calculating the widths of atomic and molecular resonances is reviewed. The method is based on the golden-rule definition of the resonance width, GAMMA(E). The method uses only square-integrable, L 2 , basis functions to describe both the resonant and the non-resonant parts of the scattering wave function. It employs Stieltjes-moment-theory techniques to extract a continuous approximation for the width discrete representation of the background continuum. Its implementation requires only existing atomic and molecular structure codes. Many-electron effects, such as correlation and polarization, are easily incorporated into the calculation of the width via configuration interaction techniques. Once the width, GAMMA(E), has been determined, the energy shift can be computed by a straightforward evaluation of the required principal-value integral. The main disadvantage of the method is that it provides only the total width of a resonance which decays into more than one channel in a multichannel problem. A review of the various aspects of the theory is given first, and then representative results that have been obtained with this method for several atomic and molecular resonances are discussed. 28 references, 3 figures, 4 tables

  5. Effects of interventions on normalizing step width during self-paced dual-belt treadmill walking with virtual reality, a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oude Lansink, I L B; van Kouwenhove, L; Dijkstra, P U; Postema, K; Hijmans, J M

    2017-10-01

    Step width is increased during dual-belt treadmill walking, in self-paced mode with virtual reality. Generally a familiarization period is thought to be necessary to normalize step width. The aim of this randomised study was to analyze the effects of two interventions on step width, to reduce the familiarization period. We used the GRAIL (Gait Real-time Analysis Interactive Lab), a dual-belt treadmill with virtual reality in the self-paced mode. Thirty healthy young adults were randomly allocated to three groups and asked to walk at their preferred speed for 5min. In the first session, the control-group received no intervention, the 'walk-on-the-line'-group was instructed to walk on a line, projected on the between-belt gap of the treadmill and the feedback-group received feedback about their current step width and were asked to reduce it. Interventions started after 1min and lasted 1min. During the second session, 7-10days later, no interventions were given. Linear mixed modeling showed that interventions did not have an effect on step width after the intervention period in session 1. Initial step width (second 30s) of session 1 was larger than initial step width of session 2. Step width normalized after 2min and variation in step width stabilized after 1min. Interventions do not reduce step width after intervention period. A 2-min familiarization period is sufficient to normalize and stabilize step width, in healthy young adults, regardless of interventions. A standardized intervention to normalize step width is not necessary. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. 5alphaDH-DOC (5alpha-dihydro-deoxycorticosterone) activates androgen receptor in castration-resistant prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Motohide; Honma, Seijiro; Chung, Suyoun; Takata, Ryo; Furihata, Mutsuo; Nishimura, Kazuo; Nonomura, Norio; Nasu, Yasutomo; Miki, Tsuneharu; Shuin, Taro; Fujioka, Tomoaki; Okuyama, Akihiko; Nakamura, Yusuke; Nakagawa, Hidewaki

    2010-08-01

    Prostate cancer often relapses during androgen-depletion therapy, even under the castration condition in which circulating androgens are drastically reduced. High expressions of androgen receptor (AR) and genes involved in androgen metabolism indicate a continued role for AR in castration-resistant prostate cancers (CRPCs). There is increasing evidence that some amounts of 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and other androgens are present sufficiently to activate AR within CRPC tissues, and enzymes involved in the androgen and steroid metabolism, such as 5alpha-steroid reductases, are activated in CRPCs. In this report, we screened eight natural 5alphaDH-steroids to search for novel products of 5alpha-steroid reductases, and identified 11-deoxycorticosterone (DOC) as a novel substrate for 5alpha-steroid reductases in CRPCs. 11-Deoxycorticosterone (DOC) and 5alpha-dihydro-deoxycorticosterone (5alphaDH-DOC) could promote prostate cancer cell proliferation through AR activation, and type 1 5alpha-steroid reductase (SRD5A1) could convert from DOC to 5alphaDH-DOC. Sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric analysis detected 5alphaDH-DOC in some clinical CRPC tissues. These findings implicated that under an extremely low level of DHT, 5alphaDH-DOC and other products of 5alpha-steroid reductases within CRPC tissues might activate the AR pathway for prostate cancer cell proliferation and survival under castration.

  7. Optimal caliper width for propensity score matching of three treatment groups: a Monte Carlo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongji; Cai, Hongwei; Li, Chanjuan; Jiang, Zhiwei; Wang, Ling; Song, Jiugang; Xia, Jielai

    2013-01-01

    Propensity score matching is a method to reduce bias in non-randomized and observational studies. Propensity score matching is mainly applied to two treatment groups rather than multiple treatment groups, because some key issues affecting its application to multiple treatment groups remain unsolved, such as the matching distance, the assessment of balance in baseline variables, and the choice of optimal caliper width. The primary objective of this study was to compare propensity score matching methods using different calipers and to choose the optimal caliper width for use with three treatment groups. The authors used caliper widths from 0.1 to 0.8 of the pooled standard deviation of the logit of the propensity score, in increments of 0.1. The balance in baseline variables was assessed by standardized difference. The matching ratio, relative bias, and mean squared error (MSE) of the estimate between groups in different propensity score-matched samples were also reported. The results of Monte Carlo simulations indicate that matching using a caliper width of 0.2 of the pooled standard deviation of the logit of the propensity score affords superior performance in the estimation of treatment effects. This study provides practical solutions for the application of propensity score matching of three treatment groups.

  8. Effect of Channel Length and Width on NBTI in Ultra Deep Sub-Micron PMOSFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yan-Rong; Ma, Xiao-Hua; Hao, Yue; Tian, Wen-Chao

    2010-03-01

    The effects of channel length and width on the degradation of negative bias temperature instability (NBTI) are studied. With the channel length decreasing, the NBTI degradation increases. As the channel edges have more damage and latent damage for the process reasons, the device can be divided into three parts: the gate and source overlap region, the middle channel region, and the gate and drain overlap region. When the NBTI stress is applied, the non-uniform distribution of the generated defects in the three parts will be generated due to the inhomogeneous degradation. With the decreasing channel length, the channel edge regions will take up a larger ratio to the middle channel region and the degradation of NBTI is enhanced. The channel width also plays an important role in the degradation of NBTI. There is an inflection point during the decreasing channel width. There are two particular factors: the lower vertical electric field effect for the thicker gate oxide thickness of the shallow trench isolation (STI) edge and the STI mechanical stress effecting on the NBTI degradation. The former reduces and the latter intensifies the degradation. Under the mutual compromise of the both factors, when the effect of the STI mechanical stress starts to prevail over the lower vertical electric field effect with the channel width decreasing, the inflection point comes into being.

  9. Measurement of width and step-height of photolithographic product patterns by using digital holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Ju Yeop; Kang, Sung Hoon; Ma, Hye Joon; Jung, Hyun Chul; Hong, Chung Ki; Kim, Kyeong Suk; Kwon, Ik Hwan; Yang, Seung Pil

    2016-01-01

    The semiconductor industry is one of the key industries of Korea, which has continued growing at a steady annual growth rate. Important technology for the semiconductor industry is high integration of devices. This is to increase the memory capacity for unit area, of which key is photolithography. The photolithography refers to a technique for printing the shadow of light lit on the mask surface on to wafer, which is the most important process in a semiconductor manufacturing process. In this study, the width and step-height of wafers patterned through this process were measured to ensure uniformity. The widths and inter-plate heights of the specimens patterned using photolithography were measured using transmissive digital holography. A transmissive digital holographic interferometer was configured, and nine arbitrary points were set on the specimens as measured points. The measurement of each point was compared with the measurements performed using a commercial device called scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Alpha Step. Transmission digital holography requires a short measurement time, which is an advantage compared to other techniques. Furthermore, it uses magnification lenses, allowing the flexibility of changing between high and low magnifications. The test results confirmed that transmissive digital holography is a useful technique for measuring patterns printed using photolithography

  10. Temporary roads : nature-friendly construction method cuts road width by half and saves money

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godfrey, B.

    2010-10-15

    This article discussed a new method for building low-disturbance temporary roads that entails mulching trees and using the resulting wood-fibre material for the road bed. The size of the mulch is adjusted for conditions. A specialized whole-tree mulcher is used after the access area is logged and the felled trees cleared away. The mulcher mulches a whole tree to specs and then moves on to the next tree. Merchantable wood is removed and sold. The process is suited to flat or gently sloping areas at higher elevations, and it reduces the width of a conventional clay-based right-of-way by 50 percent. Clay-built roads require extensive ditch drainage, increasing the width needed, but moisture drains directly through mulch-based roads, which also leave the underlying root zone undisturbed, so no drainage ditches are needed. The new method reduces disturbance resulting from road width, makes use of materials that would otherwise go unused, eliminates the need to import large quantities of fill, and eliminates the risk of introducing new species to the roadway area during the reclamation process. The mulch road bed has a depth of 8 to 20 inches. Leaving the root bed undisturbed adds to the load-bearing integrity of the road. The mulch method also cuts overall access costs. The construction cost is slightly more than for clay-based roads, but the severely reduced reclamation cost results in big savings. 1 ref., 3 figs.

  11. Alpha Thalassemia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the body has a problem producing alpha globin Beta thalassemia : when the body has a problem producing beta ... Transfusion Blood Test: Hemoglobin Electrophoresis Sickle Cell Disease Beta Thalassemia Blood All About Genetics Prenatal Genetic Counseling Genetic ...

  12. Capacitor charging FET switcher with controller to adjust pulse width

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalka, Alex M.

    1986-01-01

    A switching power supply includes an FET full bridge, a controller to drive the FETs, a programmable controller to dynamically control final output current by adjusting pulse width, and a variety of protective systems, including an overcurrent latch for current control. Power MOSFETS are switched at a variable frequency from 20-50 kHz to charge a capacitor load from 0 to 6 kV. A ferrite transformer steps up the DC input. The transformer primary is a full bridge configuration with the FET switches and the secondary is fed into a high voltage full wave rectifier whose output is connected directly to the energy storage capacitor. The peak current is held constant by varying the pulse width using predetermined timing resistors and counting pulses. The pulse width is increased as the capacitor charges to maintain peak current. A digital ripple counter counts pulses, and after the desired number is reached, an up-counter is clocked. The up-counter output is decoded to choose among different resistors used to discharge a timing capacitor, thereby determining the pulse width. A current latch shuts down the supply on overcurrent due to either excessive pulse width causing transformer saturation or a major bridge fault, i.e., FET or transformer failure, or failure of the drive circuitry.

  13. alpha-MSH in systemic inflammation. Central and peripheral actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catania, A; Delgado, R; Airaghi, L; Cutuli, M; Garofalo, L; Carlin, A; Demitri, M T; Lipton, J M

    1999-10-20

    Until recently, inflammation was believed to arise from events taking place exclusively in the periphery. However, it is now clear that central neurogenic influences can either enhance or modulate peripheral inflammation. Therefore, it should be possible to improve treatment of inflammation by use of antiinflammatory agents that reduce peripheral host responses and inhibit proinflammatory signals in the central nervous system (CNS). One such strategy could be based on alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH). Increases in circulating TNF-alpha and nitric oxide (NO), induced by intraperitoneal administration of endotoxin in mice, were modulated by central injection of a small concentration of alpha-MSH. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity and iNOS mRNA in lungs and liver were likewise modulated by central alpha-MSH. Increase in lung myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity was significantly less in lungs of mice treated with central alpha-MSH. Proinflammatory agents induced by endotoxin were significantly greater after blockade of central alpha-MSH. The results suggest that antiinflammatory influences of neural origin that are triggered by alpha-MSH could be used to treat systemic inflammation. In addition to its central influences, alpha-MSH has inhibitory effects on peripheral host cells, in which it reduces release of proinflammatory mediators. alpha-MSH reduces chemotaxis of human neutrophils and production of TNF-alpha, neopterin, and NO by monocytes. In research on septic patients, alpha-MSH inhibited release of TNF-alpha, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), and interleukin-8 (IL-8) in whole blood samples in vitro. Combined central and peripheral influences can be beneficial in treatment of sepsis.

  14. ALPHA-2: the sequel

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    While many experiments are methodically planning for intense works over the long shutdown, there is one experiment that is already working at full steam: ALPHA-2. Its final components arrived last month and will completely replace the previous ALPHA set-up. Unlike its predecessor, this next generation experiment has been specifically designed to measure the properties of antimatter.   The ALPHA team lower the new superconducting solenoid magnet into place. The ALPHA collaboration is working at full speed to complete the ALPHA-2 set-up for mid-November – this will give them a few weeks of running before the AD shutdown on 17 December. “We really want to get some experience with this device this year so that, if we need to make any changes, we will have time during the long shutdown in which to make them,” says Jeffrey Hangst, ALPHA spokesperson. “Rather than starting the 2014 run in the commissioning stage, we will be up and running from the get go.&...

  15. Crossing symmetry in Alpha space

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    The conformal bootstrap program aims to catalog all conformal field theories (second-order phase transitions) in D dimensions. Despite its ambitious scope much progress has been made over the past decade, e.g. in computing critical exponents for the 3D O(N) models to high precision. At this stage, analytic methods to explore the CFT landscape are not as well developed. In this talk I will describe a new mathematical framework for the bootstrap known as "alpha space", which reduces crossing symmetry to a set of integral equations. Based on arXiv:1702.08471 (with Balt van Rees) and arXiv:1703.08159.

  16. Impact of Increased Football Field Width on Player High-Speed Collision Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Jacob R; Khalsa, Siri S; Smith, Brandon W; Park, Paul

    2017-07-01

    High-acceleration head impact is a known risk for mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) based on studies using helmet accelerometry. In football, offensive and defensive players are at higher risk of mTBI due to increased speed of play. Other collision sport studies suggest that increased playing surface size may contribute to reductions in high-speed collisions. We hypothesized that wider football fields lead to a decreased rate of high-speed collisions. Computer football game simulation was developed using MATLAB. Four wide receivers were matched against 7 defensive players. Each offensive player was randomized to one of 5 typical routes on each play. The ball was thrown 3 seconds into play; ball flight time was 2 seconds. Defensive players were delayed 0.5 second before reacting to ball release. A high-speed collision was defined as the receiver converging with a defensive player within 0.5 second of catching the ball. The simulation counted high-speed collisions for 1 team/season (65 plays/game for 16 games/season = 1040 plays/season) averaged during 10 seasons, and was validated against existing data using standard field width (53.3 yards). Field width was increased in 1-yard intervals up to 58.3 yards. Using standard field width, 188 ± 4 high-speed collisions were seen per team per season (18% of plays). When field width increased by 3 yards, high-speed collision rate decreased to 135 ± 3 per team per season (28% decrease; P football field width can lead to substantial decline in high-speed collisions, with potential for reducing instances of mTBI in football players. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Expression of triplicated and quadruplicated alpha globin genes in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestri, R; Pieragostini, E; Yang, F; di Gregorio, P; Rando, A; Masina, P

    1991-01-01

    In the sheep alpha alpha alpha globin gene haplotype, the three genes display from the 5' to the 3' end the percentage efficiencies of about 30:14:6, as indicated by the amounts of the three types of alpha chain produced in the alpha alpha alpha/alpha alpha alpha homozygotes. The 3' gene in the alpha alpha alpha alpha haplotype appears to have an efficiency around 1%, as suggested by analysis of one quadruple alpha homozygote. Moreover, the total outputs of the alpha alpha alpha as well as of the alpha alpha alpha alpha haplotypes do not substantially differ from that of the common alpha alpha haplotype.

  18. Modelling the widths of fission observables in GEF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt K.-H.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The widths of the mass distributions of the different fission channels are traced back to the probability distributions of the corresponding quantum oscillators that are coupled to the heat bath, which is formed by the intrinsic degrees of freedom of the fissioning system under the influence of pairing correlations and shell effects. Following conclusion from stochastic calculations of Adeev and Pashkevich, an early freezing due to dynamical effects is assumed. It is shown that the mass width of the fission channels in low-energy fission is strongly influenced by the zero-point motion of the corresponding quantum oscillator. The observed variation of the mass widths of the asymmetric fission channels with excitation energy is attributed to the energy-dependent properties of the heat bath and not to the population of excited states of the corresponding quantum oscillator.

  19. Form factors and radiation widths of the giant multipole resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisov, V.Yu.

    1990-01-01

    Simple analytic relations for the form factors of inelastic electron scattering in the Born approximation and radiation widths of the isovector and isoscalar giant multipole resonances are derived. The dynamic relationship between the volume and surface density vibrations were taken into account in this calculation. The form factors in the Born approximation were found to be in satisfactory agreement with experimental data in the region of small transferred momenta. The radiation widths of isoscalar multipole resonances increase when the number of nucleons increase as A 1/3 , and for isovector resonances this dependence has the form f(A)A 1/3 , where f(A) is a slowly increasing function of A. Radiation widths well fit the experimental data

  20. Analysis of edge stability for models of heat flux width

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Makowski

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Detailed measurements of the ne, Te, and Ti profiles in the vicinity of the separatrix of ELMing H-mode discharges have been used to examine plasma stability at the extreme edge of the plasma and assess stability dependent models of the heat flux width. The results are strongly contrary to the critical gradient model, which posits that a ballooning instability determines a gradient scale length related to the heat flux width. The results of this analysis are not sensitive to the choice of location to evaluate stability. Significantly, it is also found that the results are completely consistent with the heuristic drift model for the heat flux width. Here the edge pressure gradient scales with plasma density and is proportional to the pressure gradient inferred from the equilibrium in accordance with the predictions of that theory.

  1. Fast and Robust Nanocellulose Width Estimation Using Turbidimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Michiko; Saito, Tsuguyuki; Nishiyama, Yoshiharu; Iwamoto, Shinichiro; Yano, Hiroyuki; Isogai, Akira; Endo, Takashi

    2016-10-01

    The dimensions of nanocelluloses are important factors in controlling their material properties. The present study reports a fast and robust method for estimating the widths of individual nanocellulose particles based on the turbidities of their water dispersions. Seven types of nanocellulose, including short and rigid cellulose nanocrystals and long and flexible cellulose nanofibers, are prepared via different processes. Their widths are calculated from the respective turbidity plots of their water dispersions, based on the theory of light scattering by thin and long particles. The turbidity-derived widths of the seven nanocelluloses range from 2 to 10 nm, and show good correlations with the thicknesses of nanocellulose particles spread on flat mica surfaces determined using atomic force microscopy. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Total Space in Resolution Is at Least Width Squared

    OpenAIRE

    Bonacina, Ilario

    2016-01-01

    Given an unsatisfiable k-CNF formula phi we consider two complexity measures in Resolution: width and total space. The width is the minimal W such that there exists a Resolution refutation of phi with clauses of at most W literals. The total space is the minimal size T of a memory used to write down a Resolution refutation of phi where the size of the memory is measured as the total number of literals it can contain. We prove that T = Omega((W - k)^2).

  3. Efficient algorithms for estimating the width of nearly normal distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akerlof, C.W.

    1983-01-01

    Typical physics data samples often conform to Gaussian distributions with admixtures of more slowly varying backgrounds. Under such circumstances the standard deviation is known to be a poor statistical measure of distribution width. As an alternative, the performance of Gini's mean difference is compared with the standard deviation and the mean deviation. Variants which sum over subsets of all possible pairs are shown to have statistical efficiencies comparable to the mean difference and mean deviation but do not require extensive data storage or a priori knowledge of the sample mean. These statistics are reasonable candidates for monitoring the distribution width of a real time data stream. (orig.)

  4. alpha-MSH and its receptors in regulation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha production by human monocyte/macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taherzadeh, S; Sharma, S; Chhajlani, V; Gantz, I; Rajora, N; Demitri, M T; Kelly, L; Zhao, H; Ichiyama, T; Catania, A; Lipton, J M

    1999-05-01

    The hypothesis that macrophages contain an autocrine circuit based on melanocortin [ACTH and alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH)] peptides has major implications for neuroimmunomodulation research and inflammation therapy. To test this hypothesis, cells of the THP-1 human monocyte/macrophage line were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the presence and absence of alpha-MSH. The inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha was inhibited in relation to alpha-MSH concentration. Similar inhibitory effects on TNF-alpha were observed with ACTH peptides that contain the alpha-MSH amino acid sequence and act on melanocortin receptors. Nuclease protection assays indicated that expression of the human melanocortin-1 receptor subtype (hMC-1R) occurs in THP-1 cells; Southern blots of RT-PCR product revealed that additional subtypes, hMC-3R and hMC-5R, also occur. Incubation of resting macrophages with antibody to hMC-1R increased TNF-alpha concentration; the antibody also markedly reduced the inhibitory influence of alpha-MSH on TNF-alpha in macrophages treated with LPS. These results in cells known to produce alpha-MSH at rest and to increase secretion of the peptide when challenged are consistent with an endogenous regulatory circuit based on melanocortin peptides and their receptors. Targeting of this neuroimmunomodulatory circuit in inflammatory diseases in which myelomonocytic cells are prominent should be beneficial.

  5. Effects of Pulse Width and Electrode Placement on the Efficacy and Cognitive Effects of Electroconvulsive Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sackeim, Harold A.; Prudic, Joan; Nobler, Mitchell S.; Fitzsimons, Linda; Lisanby, Sarah H.; Payne, Nancy; Berman, Robert M.; Brakemeier, Eva-Lotta; Perera, Tarique; Devanand, D. P.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND While electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in major depression is effective, cognitive effects limit its use. Reducing the width of the electrical pulse and using the right unilateral electrode placement may decrease adverse cognitive effects, while preserving efficacy. METHODS In a double-masked study, we randomly assigned 90 depressed patients to right unilateral ECT at 6 times seizure threshold or bilateral ECT at 2.5 times seizure threshold, using either a traditional brief pulse (1.5 ms) or an ultrabrief pulse (0.3 ms). Depressive symptoms and cognition were assessed before, during, and immediately, two, and six months after therapy. Patients who responded were followed for a one-year period. RESULTS The final remission rate for ultrabrief bilateral ECT was 35 percent, compared with 73 percent for ultrabrief unilateral ECT, 65 percent for standard pulse width bilateral ECT, and 59 percent for standard pulse width unilateral ECT (all P’stherapy. Both the ultrabrief stimulus and right unilateral electrode placement produced less short- and long-term retrograde amnesia. Patients rated their memory deficits as less severe following ultrabrief right unilateral ECT compared to each of the other three conditions (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS The use of an ultrabrief stimulus markedly reduces adverse cognitive effects, and when coupled with markedly suprathreshold right unilateral ECT, also preserves efficacy. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00487500.) PMID:19756236

  6. New advanced in alpha spectrometry by liquid scintillation methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDowell, W.J.; Case, G.N.

    1979-01-01

    Although the ability to count alpha particles by liquid scintillation methods has been long recognized, limited use has been made of the method because of problems of high background and alpha energy identification. In recent years some new developments in methods of introducing the alpha-emitting nuclide to the scintillator, in detector construction, and in electronics for processing the energy analog and time analog signals from the detector have allowed significant alleviation of the problems of alpha spectrometry by liquid scintillation. Energy resolutions of 200 to 300 keV full peak width at half maximum and background counts of < 0.01 counts/min with rejection with rejection of > 99% of all beta plus gamma interference is now possible. Alpha liquid scintillation spectrometry is now suitable for a wide range of applications, from the accurate quantitative determination of relatively large amounts of known nuclides in laboratory-generated samples to the detection and identification of very small, subpicocurie amounts of alpha emitters in environmental-type samples. Suitable nuclide separation procedures, sample preparation methods, and instrument configurations are available for a variety of analyses.

  7. Precision determination of the strong interaction shift and width in pionic hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anagnostopoulos, D.F.; Covita, D.D.S.; Santos, J.M.F. dos; Veloso, J.F.C.A.; Fuhrmann, H.; Gruber, A.; Hirtl, A.; Ishiwatari, T.; Marton, J.; Schmid, P.; Zmeskal, J.; Gotta, D.; Hennebach, M.; Nekipelov, M.; Indelicato, P.; Jensen, T.; Bigot, E.O. Le; Trassinelli, M.; Simons, L.M.

    2005-01-01

    The new pionic hydrogen experiment at PSI aims at an improvement in the determination of the strong interaction ground state shift and width of the pionic hydrogen atom. High precision x-ray crystal spectroscopy is used to extract isospin separated scattering lengths with accuracies on the percent level. Compared to previous efforts, the energy resolution and statistics could be improved considerably and the background is much reduced. The response function of the Johann-type crystal spectrometer has been determined with a novel method with unprecedented accuracy. The inherent difficulties of the exotic atom's method result, from the fact that the formation of a sufficient amount of pionic hydrogen atoms requires a hydrogen target pressure of several bar at least. For the extraction of a strong interaction shift, an extrapolation method to vacuum conditions proved to be successful. This contribution mostly discusses the strategy to extract a result for the strong interaction width from the data.(author)

  8. Monte Carlo alpha calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brockway, D.; Soran, P.; Whalen, P.

    1985-01-01

    A Monte Carlo algorithm to efficiently calculate static alpha eigenvalues, N = ne/sup ..cap alpha..t/, for supercritical systems has been developed and tested. A direct Monte Carlo approach to calculating a static alpha is to simply follow the buildup in time of neutrons in a supercritical system and evaluate the logarithmic derivative of the neutron population with respect to time. This procedure is expensive, and the solution is very noisy and almost useless for a system near critical. The modified approach is to convert the time-dependent problem to a static ..cap alpha../sup -/eigenvalue problem and regress ..cap alpha.. on solutions of a/sup -/ k/sup -/eigenvalue problem. In practice, this procedure is much more efficient than the direct calculation, and produces much more accurate results. Because the Monte Carlo codes are intrinsically three-dimensional and use elaborate continuous-energy cross sections, this technique is now used as a standard for evaluating other calculational techniques in odd geometries or with group cross sections.

  9. Downstream flow top width prediction in a river system | Choudhury ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ANFIS, ARIMA and Hybrid Multiple Inflows Muskingum models (HMIM) were applied to simulate and forecast downstream discharge and flow top widths in a river system. The ANFIS model works on a set of linguistic rules while the ARIMA model uses a set of past values to predict the next value in a time series. The HMIM ...

  10. Crack width analysis of steel fibers reinforced concrete beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šahinagić-Isović Merima

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibre reinforced concrete in recent years has grown from experimental material to a practical usable material, due to its positive properties such as increased tensile strength, bending strength, toughness etc. However, still there are many unanswered questions that are the subject of many research. In this paper results and analysis of crack width of concrete beams with steel fibres are presented. This analysis considers influence of steel fibre addition on the crack width of reinforced concrete beams (dimensions 15/28/300 cm loaded up to fracture during short-term ultimate static load with one unloading cycle. Concrete beams were made of two types of concrete: ordinary strength concrete (OSC - C30/37 and high strength concrete (HSC - C60/70, with and without 0.45% of steel fibres. The results indicate that there is a significant influence of fibre addition on crack width, especially for ordinary concrete. At the end, empirical calculations of the concrete elements' crack width with steel fibres according to the recommendations of RILEM and ACI building code are given.

  11. Detonation cell widths in hydrogen-air-diluent mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamps, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper I report on the influence of steam and carbon dioxide on the detonability of hydrogen-air mixtures. Data were obtained on the detonation cell width in a heated detonation tube that is 0.43 m in diameter and 13.1 m long. The detonation cell widths were correlated using a characteristic length calculated from a chemical kinetic model. The addition of either diluent to a hydrogen-air mixture increased the cell width for all equivalence ratios. For equal diluent concentrations, however, carbon dioxide not only yielded larger increases in the cell width than steam, but its efficacy relative to steam was predicted to increase with increasing concentration. The range of detonable hydrogen concentrations in a hydrogen-air mixture initially at 1 atm pressure was found to be between 11.6 percent and 74.9 percent for mixtures at 20 degree C and 9.4 percent and 76.9 percent for mixtures at 100 degree C. The detonation limit was between 38.8 percent and 40.5 percent steam for a stoichiometric hydrogen-air-steam mixture initially at 100 degree C and 1 atm. 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  12. Prediction of concentrated flow width in ephemeral gully channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachtergaele, J.; Poesen, J.; Sidorchuk, A.; Torri, D.

    2002-07-01

    Empirical prediction equations of the form W = aQb have been reported for rills and rivers, but not for ephemeral gullies. In this study six experimental data sets are used to establish a relationship between channel width (W, m) and flow discharge (Q, m3 s-1) for ephemeral gullies formed on cropland. The resulting regression equation (W = 2·51 Q0·412; R2 = 0·72; n = 67) predicts observed channel width reasonably well. Owing to logistic limitations related to the respective experimental set ups, only relatively small runoff discharges (i.e. Q channel width was attributed to a calculated peak runoff discharge on sealed cropland, the application field of the regression equation was extended towards larger discharges (i.e. 5 × 10channels revealed that the discharge exponent (distribution over the wetted perimeter between rills, gullies and rivers, (ii) a decrease in probability of a channel formed in soil material with uniform erosion resistance from rills over gullies to rivers and (iii) a decrease in average surface slope from rills over gullies to rivers.channel width equation for concentrated flow on cropland. For the frozen soils the equation

  13. Echo width of foam supports used in scattering measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel-Hansen, Jørgen; Solodukhov, V. V.

    1979-01-01

    Theoretically and experimentally determined echo widths of dielectric cylinders having circular, triangular, and quadratic cross sections have been compared. The cylinders were made of foam material having a relative dielectric constant of about 1.035. The purpose of the investigation was to find...

  14. Joint space width in dysplasia of the hip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Steffen; Sonne-Holm, Stig; Søballe, K

    2005-01-01

    . Neither subjects with dysplasia nor controls had radiological signs of ongoing degenerative disease at admission. The primary radiological discriminator of degeneration of the hip was a change in the minimum joint space width over time. There were no significant differences between these with dysplasia...

  15. Femoral Intercondylar Notch (ICN) width in Nigerians: Its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is suggested that the difference could be the result of dominant use of one foot over the other or to occupational habit. This needs further investigation. The Femoral Intercondylar Notch (ICN) width is not related to Femur length as no relationship was found to exist between the two (p > 0.05). We conclude that since ...

  16. Utility Interfaced Pulse-Width Modulation of Solar Fed Voltage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes a utility interfaced pulse-width modulation of solar-fed voltage source single phase full bridge inverter. The proposed system has to do with the conversion of solar energy into electrical energy; boosting the dc power; inversion of the dc to ac and then synchronization of the inverter output with the utility, ...

  17. Frequency width of open channels in multiple scattering media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, J.; Goorden, S.A.; Mosk, Allard

    2016-01-01

    We report optical measurements of the spectral width of open transmission channels in a three-dimensional diffusive medium. The light transmission through a sample is enhanced by efficiently coupling to open transmission channels using repeated digital optical phase conjugation. The spectral

  18. Writer identification using directional ink-trace width measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, A. A.; Smit, J.; Bulacu, M. L.; Schomaker, L. R. B.

    As suggested by modern paleography, the width of ink traces is a powerful source of information for off-line writer identification, particularly if combined with its direction. Such measurements can be computed using simple, fast and accurate methods based on pixel contours, the combination of which

  19. The effect of buffer zone width on biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navntoft, Søren; Sigsgaard, Lene; Kristensen, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    Field margin management for conservation purposes is a way to protect both functional biodiversity and biodiversity per se without considerable economical loss as field margins are less productive. However, the effect of width of the buffer zone on achievable biodiversity gains has received little...

  20. Influence of MLC leaf width on biologically adapted IMRT plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roedal, Jan; Soevik, Aaste; Malinen, Eirik (Dept. of Medical Physics, The Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo Univ. Hospital, Oslo (Norway)), E-mail: jan.rodal@radiumhospitalet.no

    2010-10-15

    Introduction. High resolution beam delivery may be required for optimal biology-guided adaptive therapy. In this work, we have studied the influence of multi leaf collimator (MLC) leaf widths on the treatment outcome following adapted IMRT of a hypoxic tumour. Material and methods. Dynamic contrast enhanced MR images of a dog with a spontaneous tumour in the nasal region were used to create a tentative hypoxia map following a previously published procedure. The hypoxia map was used as a basis for generating compartmental gross tumour volumes, which were utilised as planning structures in biologically adapted IMRT. Three different MLCs were employed in inverse treatment planning, with leaf widths of 2.5 mm, 5 mm and 10 mm. The number of treatment beams and the degree of step-and-shoot beam modulation were varied. By optimising the tumour control probability (TCP) function, optimal compartmental doses were derived and used as target doses in the inverse planning. Resulting IMRT dose distributions and dose volume histograms (DVHs) were exported and analysed, giving estimates of TCP and compartmental equivalent uniform doses (EUDs). The impact of patient setup accuracy was simulated. Results. The MLC with the smallest leaf width (2.5 mm) consistently gave the highest TCPs and compartmental EUDs, assuming no setup error. The difference between this MLC and the 5 mm MLC was rather small, while the MLC with 10 mm leaf width gave considerably lower TCPs. When including random and systematic setup errors, errors larger than 5 mm gave only small differences between the MLC types. For setup errors larger than 7 mm no differences were found between non-uniform and uniform dose distributions. Conclusions. Biologically adapted radiotherapy may require MLCs with leaf widths smaller than 10 mm. However, for a high probability of cure it is crucial that accurate patient setup is ensured.

  1. Modeling of dislocation channel width evolution in irradiated metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Peter J.; Benensky, Kelsa M.; Zinkle, Steven J.

    2018-02-01

    Defect-free dislocation channel formation has been reported to promote plastic instability during tensile testing via localized plastic flow, leading to a distinct loss of ductility and strain hardening in many low-temperature irradiated materials. In order to study the underlying mechanisms governing dislocation channel width and formation, the channel formation process is modeled via a simple stochastic dislocation-jog process dependent upon grain size, defect cluster density, and defect size. Dislocations traverse a field of defect clusters and jog stochastically upon defect interaction, forming channels of low defect-density. Based upon prior molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and in-situ experimental transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations, each dislocation encounter with a dislocation loop or stacking fault tetrahedron (SFT) is assumed to cause complete absorption of the defect cluster, prompting the dislocation to jog up or down by a distance equal to half the defect cluster diameter. Channels are predicted to form rapidly and are comparable to reported TEM measurements for many materials. Predicted channel widths are found to be most strongly dependent on mean defect size and correlated well with a power law dependence on defect diameter and density, and distance from the dislocation source. Due to the dependence of modeled channel width on defect diameter and density, maximum channel width is predicted to slowly increase as accumulated dose increases. The relatively weak predicted dependence of channel formation width with distance, in accordance with a diffusion analogy, implies that after only a few microns from the source, most channels observed via TEM analyses may not appear to vary with distance because of limitations in the field-of-view to a few microns. Further, examinations of the effect of the so-called "source-broadening" mechanism of channel formation showed that its effect is simply to add a minimum thickness to the channel

  2. Flavonoids-induced accumulation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha/2alpha is mediated through chelation of iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung-Soo; Bae, Insoo; Lee, Yong J

    2008-04-15

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1alpha) is the regulatory subunit of the heterodimeric transcription factor HIF-1 that is the key regulator of cellular response to low oxygen tension. Under normoxic conditions, HIF-1alpha is continuously degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway through pVHL (von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor protein). Under hypoxic conditions, HIF-1alpha is stabilized and induces the transcription of HIF-1 target genes. Quercetin, a flavonoid with anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and kinase modulating properties, has been found to induce HIF-1alpha accumulation and VEGF secretion in normoxia. In this study, the molecular mechanisms of quercetin-mediated HIF-1alpha accumulation were investigated. Previous studies have shown that, in addition to being induced by hypoxia, HIF-1alpha can be induced through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and p53 signaling pathways. But our study revealed, through p53 mutant-type as well as p53 null cell lines, that neither the PI3K/Akt nor the p53 signaling pathway is required for quercetin-induced HIF-1alpha accumulation. And we observed that HIF-1alpha accumulated by quercetin is not ubiquitinated and the interaction of HIF-1alpha with pVHL is reduced, compared with HIF-1alpha accumulated by the proteasome inhibitor MG132. The use of quercetin's analogues showed that only quercetin and galangin induce HIF-1/2alpha accumulation and this effect is completely reversed by additional iron ions. This is because quercetin and galangin are able to chelate cellular iron ions that are cofactors of HIF-1/2alpha proline hydroxylase (PHD). These data suggest that quercetin inhibits the ubiquitination of HIF-1/2alpha in normoxia by hindering PHD through chelating iron ions.

  3. Monte Carlo alpha deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talley, T.L.; Evans, F.

    1988-01-01

    Prior work demonstrated the importance of nuclear scattering to fusion product energy deposition in hot plasmas. This suggests careful examination of nuclear physics details in burning plasma simulations. An existing Monte Carlo fast ion transport code is being expanded to be a test bed for this examination. An initial extension, the energy deposition of fast alpha particles in a hot deuterium plasma, is reported. The deposition times and deposition ranges are modified by allowing nuclear scattering. Up to 10% of the initial alpha particle energy is carried to greater ranges and times by the more mobile recoil deuterons. 4 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Buffett’s Alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Kabiller, David; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    Berkshire Hathaway has realized a Sharpe ratio of 0.76, higher than any other stock or mutual fund with a history of more than 30 years, and Berkshire has a significant alpha to traditional risk factors. However, we find that the alpha becomes insignificant when controlling for exposures to Betting......-Against-Beta and Quality-Minus-Junk factors. Further, we estimate that Buffett’s leverage is about 1.6-to-1 on average. Buffett’s returns appear to be neither luck nor magic, but, rather, reward for the use of leverage combined with a focus on cheap, safe, quality stocks. Decomposing Berkshires’ portfolio into ownership...

  5. The dosimetric impact of leaf interdigitation and leaf width on VMAT treatment planning in Pinnacle: comparing Pareto fronts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kesteren, Z; Janssen, T M; Damen, E; van Vliet-Vroegindeweij, C

    2012-05-21

    To evaluate in an objective way the effect of leaf interdigitation and leaf width on volumetric modulated arc therapy plans in Pinnacle. Three multileaf collimators (MLCs) were modeled: two 10 mm leaf width MLCs, with and without interdigitating leafs, and a 5 mm leaf width MLC with interdigitating leafs. Three rectum patients and three prostate patients were used for the planning study. In order to compare treatment techniques in an objective way, a Pareto front comparison was carried out. 200 plans were generated in an automated way, per patient per MLC model, resulting in a total of 3600 plans. From these plans, Pareto-optimal plans were selected which were evaluated for various dosimetric variables. The capability of leaf interdigitation showed little dosimetric impact on the treatment plans, when comparing the 10 mm leaf width MLC with and without leaf interdigitation. When comparing the 10 mm leaf width MLC with the 5 mm leaf width MLC, both with interdigitating leafs, improvement in plan quality was observed. For both patient groups, the integral dose was reduced by 0.6 J for the thin MLC. For the prostate patients, the mean dose to the anal sphincter was reduced by 1.8 Gy and the conformity of the V(95%) was reduced by 0.02 using the thin MLC. The V(65%) of the rectum was reduced by 0.1% and the dose homogeneity with 1.5%. For rectum patients, the mean dose to the bowel was reduced by 1.4 Gy and the mean dose to the bladder with 0.8 Gy for the thin MLC. The conformity of the V(95%) was equivalent for the 10 and 5 mm leaf width MLCs for the rectum patients. We have objectively compared three types of MLCs in a planning study for prostate and rectum patients by analyzing Pareto-optimal plans which were generated in an automated way. Interdigitation of MLC leafs does not generate better plans using the SmartArc algorithm in Pinnacle. Changing the MLC leaf width from 10 to 5 mm generates better treatment plans although the clinical relevance remains

  6. The dosimetric impact of leaf interdigitation and leaf width on VMAT treatment planning in Pinnacle: comparing Pareto fronts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Kesteren, Z; Janssen, T M; Damen, E; Van Vliet-Vroegindeweij, C

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate in an objective way the effect of leaf interdigitation and leaf width on volumetric modulated arc therapy plans in Pinnacle. Three multileaf collimators (MLCs) were modeled: two 10 mm leaf width MLCs, with and without interdigitating leafs, and a 5 mm leaf width MLC with interdigitating leafs. Three rectum patients and three prostate patients were used for the planning study. In order to compare treatment techniques in an objective way, a Pareto front comparison was carried out. 200 plans were generated in an automated way, per patient per MLC model, resulting in a total of 3600 plans. From these plans, Pareto-optimal plans were selected which were evaluated for various dosimetric variables. The capability of leaf interdigitation showed little dosimetric impact on the treatment plans, when comparing the 10 mm leaf width MLC with and without leaf interdigitation. When comparing the 10 mm leaf width MLC with the 5 mm leaf width MLC, both with interdigitating leafs, improvement in plan quality was observed. For both patient groups, the integral dose was reduced by 0.6 J for the thin MLC. For the prostate patients, the mean dose to the anal sphincter was reduced by 1.8 Gy and the conformity of the V 95% was reduced by 0.02 using the thin MLC. The V 65% of the rectum was reduced by 0.1% and the dose homogeneity with 1.5%. For rectum patients, the mean dose to the bowel was reduced by 1.4 Gy and the mean dose to the bladder with 0.8 Gy for the thin MLC. The conformity of the V 95% was equivalent for the 10 and 5 mm leaf width MLCs for the rectum patients. We have objectively compared three types of MLCs in a planning study for prostate and rectum patients by analyzing Pareto-optimal plans which were generated in an automated way. Interdigitation of MLC leafs does not generate better plans using the SmartArc algorithm in Pinnacle. Changing the MLC leaf width from 10 to 5 mm generates better treatment plans although the clinical relevance remains to be proven

  7. The effect of increased intra-abdominal pressure on orbital subarachnoid space width and intraocular pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-meng Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with the trans-lamina cribrosa pressure difference theory, decreasing the trans-lamina cribrosa pressure difference can relieve glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Increased intracranial pressure can also reduce optic nerve damage in glaucoma patients, and a safe, effective and noninvasive way to achieve this is by increasing the intra-abdominal pressure. The purpose of this study was to observe the changes in orbital subarachnoid space width and intraocular pressure at elevated intra-abdominal pressure. An inflatable abdominal belt was tied to each of 15 healthy volunteers, aged 22–30 years (12 females and 3 males, at the navel level, without applying pressure to the abdomen, before they laid in the magnetic resonance imaging machine. The baseline orbital subarachnoid space width around the optic nerve was measured by magnetic resonance imaging at 1, 3, 9, and 15 mm behind the globe. The abdominal belt was inflated to increase the pressure to 40 mmHg (1 mmHg = 0.133 kPa, then the orbital subarachnoid space width was measured every 10 minutes for 2 hours. After removal of the pressure, the measurement was repeated 10 and 20 minutes later. In a separate trial, the intraocular pressure was measured for all the subjects at the same time points, before, during and after elevated intra-abdominal pressure. Results showed that the baseline mean orbital subarachnoid space width was 0.88 ± 0.1 mm (range: 0.77–1.05 mm, 0.77 ± 0.11 mm (range: 0.60–0.94 mm, 0.70 ± 0.08 mm (range: 0.62–0.80 mm, and 0.68 ± 0.08 mm (range: 0.57–0.77 mm at 1, 3, 9, and 15 mm behind the globe, respectively. During the elevated intra-abdominal pressure, the orbital subarachnoid space width increased from the baseline and dilation of the optic nerve sheath was significant at 1, 3 and 9 mm behind the globe. After decompression of the abdominal pressure, the orbital subarachnoid space width normalized and returned to the baseline value. There was no

  8. The effect of increased intra-abdominal pressure on orbital subarachnoid space width and intraocular pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Su-Meng; Wang, Ning-Li; Zuo, Zhen-Tao; Chen, Wei-Wei; Yang, Di-Ya; Li, Zhen; Cao, Yi-Wen

    2018-02-01

    In accordance with the trans-lamina cribrosa pressure difference theory, decreasing the trans-lamina cribrosa pressure difference can relieve glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Increased intracranial pressure can also reduce optic nerve damage in glaucoma patients, and a safe, effective and noninvasive way to achieve this is by increasing the intra-abdominal pressure. The purpose of this study was to observe the changes in orbital subarachnoid space width and intraocular pressure at elevated intra-abdominal pressure. An inflatable abdominal belt was tied to each of 15 healthy volunteers, aged 22-30 years (12 females and 3 males), at the navel level, without applying pressure to the abdomen, before they laid in the magnetic resonance imaging machine. The baseline orbital subarachnoid space width around the optic nerve was measured by magnetic resonance imaging at 1, 3, 9, and 15 mm behind the globe. The abdominal belt was inflated to increase the pressure to 40 mmHg (1 mmHg = 0.133 kPa), then the orbital subarachnoid space width was measured every 10 minutes for 2 hours. After removal of the pressure, the measurement was repeated 10 and 20 minutes later. In a separate trial, the intraocular pressure was measured for all the subjects at the same time points, before, during and after elevated intra-abdominal pressure. Results showed that the baseline mean orbital subarachnoid space width was 0.88 ± 0.1 mm (range: 0.77-1.05 mm), 0.77 ± 0.11 mm (range: 0.60-0.94 mm), 0.70 ± 0.08 mm (range: 0.62-0.80 mm), and 0.68 ± 0.08 mm (range: 0.57-0.77 mm) at 1, 3, 9, and 15 mm behind the globe, respectively. During the elevated intra-abdominal pressure, the orbital subarachnoid space width increased from the baseline and dilation of the optic nerve sheath was significant at 1, 3 and 9 mm behind the globe. After decompression of the abdominal pressure, the orbital subarachnoid space width normalized and returned to the baseline value. There was no significant difference in the

  9. H-alpha as a Luminosity Class Diagnostic for K- and M-type Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Jennings, Jeff; Levesque, Emily M.

    2016-01-01

    We have identified the H-alpha absorption feature as a new spectroscopic diagnostic of luminosity class in K- and M-type stars. From high-resolution spectra of 19 stars with well-determined physical properties (including effective temperatures and stellar radii), we measured equivalent widths for H-alpha and the Ca II triplet and examined their dependence on both luminosity class and stellar radius. H-alpha shows a strong relation with both luminosity class and radius that extends down to lat...

  10. Fan-less long range alpha detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacArthur, Duncan W.; Bounds, John A.

    1994-01-01

    A fan-less long range alpha detector which operates by using an electrical field between a signal plane and the surface or substance to be monitored for air ions created by collisions with alpha radiation. Without a fan, the detector can operate without the possibility of spreading dust and potential contamination into the atmosphere. A guard plane between the signal plane and the electrically conductive enclosure and maintained at the same voltage as the signal plane, reduces leakage currents. The detector can easily monitor soil, or other solid or liquid surfaces.

  11. [Voluntary alpha-power increasing training impact on the heart rate variability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazanova, O M; Balioz, N V; Muravleva, K B; Skoraia, M V

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the effect of the alpha EEG power increasing training at heart rate variability (HRV) as the index of the autonomic regulation of cognitive functions there were follow tasks: (1) to figure out the impact of biofeedback in the voluntary increasing the power in the individual high-frequency alpha-band effect on heart rate variability and related characteristics of cognitive and emotional spheres, (2) to determine the nature of the relationship between alpha activity indices and heart rate variability, depending on the alpha-frequency EEG pattern at rest (3) to examine how the individual alpha frequency EEG pattern is reflected in changes HRV as a result of biofeedback training. Psychometric indicators of cognitive performance, the characteristics of the alpha-EEG activity and heart rate variability (HRV) as LF/HF and pNN50 were recorded in 27 healthy men aged 18-34 years, before, during, and after 10 sessions of training of voluntary increase in alpha power in the individual high-frequency alpha band with eyes closed. To determine the biofeedback effect on the alpha power increasing training, data subjects are compared in 2 groups: experimental (14) with the real and the control group (13 people)--with mock biofeedback. The follow up effect of trainings was studied through month over the 10 training sessions. Results showed that alpha biofeedback training enhanced the fluency and accuracy in cognitive performance, decreased anxiety and frontal EMG, increased resting frequency, width and power in individual upper alpha range only in participants with low baseline alpha frequency. While mock biofeedback increased resting alpha power only in participants with high baseline resting alpha frequency and did change neither cognitive performance, nor HRV indices. Biofeedback training eliminated the alpha power decrease in response to arithmetic task in both with high and low alpha frequency participants and this effect was followed up over the month. Mock

  12. Case Study - Alpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Leybourne

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This case study was developed from an actual scenario by Dr. Steve Leybourne of Boston University.  The case documents the historical evolution of an organization, and has been used successfully in courses dealing with organizational and cultural change, and the utilization of ‘soft skills’ in project-based management. This is a short case, ideal for classroom use and discussion.  The issues are easily accessible to students, and there is a single wide ranging question that allows for the inclusion of many issues surrounding strategic decision-making, and behavioural and cultural change. Alpha was one of the earlier companies in the USA to invest in large, edge-of-town superstores, with plentiful free vehicle parking, selling food and related household products. Alpha was created in the 1950s as a subsidiary of a major publicly quoted retail group.  It started business by opening a string of very large discount stores in converted industrial and warehouse premises in the south of the United States. In the early days shoppers were offered a limited range of very competitively priced products. When Alpha went public in 1981 it was the fourth largest food retailer in the US, selling an ever-widening range of food and non-food products.  Its success continued to be based on high volume, low margins and good value for money, under the slogan of ‘Alpha Price.’

  13. Alpha-mannosidosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgwardt, Line; Stensland, Hilde Monica Frostad Riise; Olsen, Klaus Juul

    2015-01-01

    of the three subgroups of genotype/subcellular localisation and the clinical and biochemical data were done to investigate the potential relationship between genotype and phenotype in alpha-mannosidosis. Statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS software. Analyses of covariance were performed...

  14. Genetic and biosynthetic studies of families carrying hemoglobin J alpha Mexico: association of alpha-thalassemia with HbJ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabuchet, G; Benabadji, M; Labie, D

    1978-06-09

    Hemoglobin J Mexico, an alpha chain mutant, was studied in eight unrelated Algerian families. The quantities of the abnormal hemoglobin in 116 subjects are trimodally distributed: 55% in homozygotes, 31% and 38% in heterozygotes. Both hematological data and the alpha/beta chain biosynthetic ratio are normal in heterozygotes with 31% Hb J and in homozygotes. In contrast, the MCV and MCH as well as the alpha/beta biosynthetic ratio are slightly reduced in heterozygotes with 38% Hb J and in their relatives carrying Hb A. The elevated expression of alphaJ chains in heterozygotes with 38% Hb J may be due to an alpha thalassemia gene trans to the alphaJ locus.

  15. Synthetic Control over Quantum Well Width Distribution and Carrier Migration in Low-Dimensional Perovskite Photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proppe, Andrew H; Quintero-Bermudez, Rafael; Tan, Hairen; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Kelley, Shana O; Sargent, Edward H

    2018-02-28

    Metal halide perovskites have achieved photovoltaic efficiencies exceeding 22%, but their widespread use is hindered by their instability in the presence of water and oxygen. To bolster stability, researchers have developed low-dimensional perovskites wherein bulky organic ligands terminate the perovskite lattice, forming quantum wells (QWs) that are protected by the organic layers. In thin films, the width of these QWs exhibits a distribution that results in a spread of bandgaps in the material arising due to varying degrees of quantum confinement across the population. Means to achieve refined control over this QW width distribution, and to examine and understand its influence on photovoltaic performance, are therefore of intense interest. Here we show that moving to the ligand allylammonium enables a narrower distribution of QW widths, creating a flattened energy landscape that leads to ×1.4 and ×1.9 longer diffusion lengths for electrons and holes, respectively. We attribute this to reduced ultrafast shallow hole trapping that originates from the most strongly confined QWs. We observe an increased PCE of 14.4% for allylammonium-based perovskite QW photovoltaics, compared to 11-12% PCEs obtained for analogous devices using phenethylammonium and butylammonium ligands. We then optimize the devices using mixed-cation strategies, achieving 16.5% PCE for allylammonium devices. The devices retain 90% of their initial PCEs after >650 h when stored under ambient atmospheric conditions.

  16. Combined influence of implant diameter and alveolar ridge width on crestal bone stress: a quantitative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wonjae; Jang, Yoon-Je; Kyung, Hee-Moon

    2009-01-01

    To quantitatively evaluate the combined influence of implant diameter and alveolar ridge width on crestal bone stress. ITI solid-screw implants, 10 mm in length and 3.3, 4.1, and 4.8 mm in diameter, and the alveolar bone were modeled using axisymmetric finite elements. Four different alveolar ridge geometries were selected for each implant: 5-, 6-, 7-, and 8-mm-wide ridges for the 3.3-mm implants; 6-, 7-, 8-, and 9-mm-wide ridges for the 4.1-mm implants; and 7-, 8-, 9-, and 10-mm-wide ridges for the 4.8-mm implants. A nonaxial oblique load of 100 N was applied at 30 degrees to the implant axis. Regression analysis was used to avoid ambiguity when estimating the peak stress occurring at the coronal contact point between the implant and the crestal bone, ie, the singularity point. Peak stresses were dependent on both implant diameter and alveolar ridge width. Substantially lower stresses were recorded around the implants placed in narrower ridges. A regression analysis may be used to quantify the peak stress at the singularity point. An implant with a diameter that is at least half the ridge width is recommended to reduce the stress concentration in the crestal bone.

  17. Simple discretization method for autoionization widths. III. Molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macas, A.; Martn, F.; Riera, A.; Yanez, M.

    1987-01-01

    We apply a new method to calculate widths of two-electron Feshbach resonances, which was described in detail and applied to atomic systems in preceding articles (this issue), to molecular and quasimolecular autoionizing states. For simplicity in the programming effort, we restrict our calculations to the small-R region where one-centered expansions are sufficiently accurate to describe the wave functions. As test cases, positions and widths for the H 2 , He 2 /sup 2+/, HeH + , and LiHe/sup 3+/ resonances of lowest energy are computed for R<0.6 a.u. The advantage of using block-diagonalization techniques to define diabatic resonant states instead of generalizing the Feshbach formalism is pointed out

  18. A Direct Measurement of the $W$ Decay Width

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vine, Troy [Univ. of College, London (United Kingdom)

    2008-08-01

    A direct measurement of the W boson total decay width is presented in proton-antiproton collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV using data collected by the CDF II detector. The measurement is made by fitting a simulated signal to the tail of the transverse mass distribution in the electron and muon decay channels. An integrated luminosity of 350 pb-1 is used, collected between February 2002 and August 2004. Combining the results from the separate decay channels gives the decay width as 2.038 ± 0.072 GeV in agreement with the theoretical prediction of 2.093 ± 0.002 GeV. A system is presented for the management of detector calibrations using a relational database schema. A description of the implementation and monitoring of a procedure to provide general users with a simple interface to the complete set of calibrations is also given.

  19. Determination of the width of the top quark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abazov, V M; Abbott, B; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Ancu, L S; Aoki, M; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Askew, A; Åsman, B; Atramentov, O; Avila, C; BackusMayes, J; Badaud, F; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Baringer, P; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bazterra, V; Beale, S; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Begel, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bellantoni, L; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Blazey, G; Blessing, S; Bloom, K; Boehnlein, A; Boline, D; Bolton, T A; Boos, E E; Borissov, G; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brandt, O; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brown, D; Brown, J; Bu, X B; Buchholz, D; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Bunichev, V; Burdin, S; Burnett, T H; Buszello, C P; Calpas, B; Camacho-Pérez, E; Carrasco-Lizarraga, M A; Casey, B C K; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Chen, G; Chevalier-Théry, S; Cho, D K; Cho, S W; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Christoudias, T; Cihangir, S; Claes, D; Clutter, J; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corcoran, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M-C; Croc, A; Cutts, D; Ćwiok, M; Das, A; Davies, G; De, K; de Jong, S J; De la Cruz-Burelo, E; Déliot, F; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; DeVaughan, K; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Dominguez, A; Dorland, T; Dubey, A; Dudko, L V; Duggan, D; Duperrin, A; Dutt, S; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Eno, S; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Facini, G; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Garcia-Bellido, A; Gavrilov, V; Gay, P; Geist, W; Geng, W; Gerbaudo, D; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Y; Ginther, G; Golovanov, G; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greder, S; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grenier, G; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Grohsjean, A; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guo, F; Guo, J; Gutierrez, G; Gutierrez, P; Haas, A; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Han, L; Harder, K; Harel, A; Hauptman, J M; Hays, J; Head, T; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegab, H; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Heredia-De la Cruz, I; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hoang, T; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hohlfeld, M; Hossain, S; Hubacek, Z; Huske, N; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jamin, D; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, M; Johnston, D; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Joshi, J; Juste, A; Kaadze, K; Kajfasz, E; Karmanov, D; Kasper, P A; Katsanos, I; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Y N; Khatidze, D; Kirby, M H; Kohli, J M; Kozelov, A V; Kraus, J; Kumar, A; Kupco, A; Kurča, T; Kuzmin, V A; Kvita, J; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G; Lebrun, P; Lee, H S; Lee, S W; Lee, W M; Lellouch, J; Li, L; Li, Q Z; Lietti, S M; Lim, J K; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Lobodenko, A; Lokajicek, M; Love, P; Lubatti, H J; Luna-Garcia, R; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Mackin, D; Madar, R; Magaña-Villalba, R; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Maravin, Y; Martínez-Ortega, J; McCarthy, R; McGivern, C L; Meijer, M M; Melnitchouk, A; Menezes, D; Mercadante, P G; Merkin, M; Meyer, A; Meyer, J; Mondal, N K; Muanza, G S; Mulhearn, M; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Nayyar, R; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Neustroev, P; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; Obrant, G; Orduna, J; Osman, N; Osta, J; Otero y Garzón, G J; Owen, M; Padilla, M; Pangilinan, M; Parashar, N; Parihar, V; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Penning, B; Perfilov, M; Peters, K; Peters, Y; Petrillo, G; Pétroff, P; Piegaia, R; Piper, J; Pleier, M-A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pol, M-E; Polozov, P; Popov, A V; Prewitt, M; Price, D; Protopopescu, S; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rangel, M S; Ranjan, K; Ratoff, P N; Razumov, I; Renkel, P; Rich, P; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F; Rominsky, M; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Safronov, G; Sajot, G; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Sanghi, B; Santos, A S; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schliephake, T; Schlobohm, S; Schwanenberger, C; Schwienhorst, R; Sekaric, J; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shary, V; Shchukin, A A; Shivpuri, R K; Simak, V; Sirotenko, V; Skubic, P; Slattery, P; Smirnov, D; Smith, K J; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Sonnenschein, L; Sopczak, A; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Spurlock, B; Stark, J; Stolin, V; Stoyanova, D A; Strauss, E; Strauss, M; Strom, D; Stutte, L; Svoisky, P; Takahashi, M; Tanasijczuk, A; Taylor, W; Titov, M; Tokmenin, V V; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Tuts, P M; Uvarov, L; Uvarov, S; Uzunyan, S; Van Kooten, R; van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vasilyev, I A; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S

    2011-01-14

    We extract the total width of the top quark, Γ(t), from the partial decay width Γ(t → Wb) measured using the t-channel cross section for single top-quark production and from the branching fraction B(t → Wb) measured in tt events using up to 2.3  fb(-1) of integrated luminosity collected by the D0 Collaboration at the Tevatron pp Collider. The result is Γ(t) = 1.99(-0.55)(+0.69)  GeV, which translates to a top-quark lifetime of τ(t) = (3.3(-0.9)(+1.3)) × 10(-25)   s. Assuming a high mass fourth generation b' quark and unitarity of the four-generation quark-mixing matrix, we set the first upper limit on |V(tb')| < 0.63 at 95% C.L.

  20. The SOL width and the MHD interchange instability in tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerner, W. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Pogutse, O. [Kurchatov institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1994-07-01

    Instabilities in the SOL plasma can strongly influence the SOL plasma behaviour and in particular the SOL width. The SOL stability analysis shows that there exists a critical ratio of the thermal energy and the magnetic energy. If the SOL beta is greater than this critical value, the magnetic field cannot prevent the plasma displacement and a strong MHD instability in the SOL occurs. In the opposite case only slower resistive instabilities can develop. A theoretical investigation of the SOL plasma stability is presented for JET single-null and double-null divertor configurations. The dependence of the stability threshold on the SOL beta and on the sheath resistance is established. Applying a simple mixing length argument gives the scaling of the SOL width. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  1. Numerical Solution of the Modified Equal Width Wave Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seydi Battal Gazi Karakoç

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerical solution of the modified equal width wave equation is obtained by using lumped Galerkin method based on cubic B-spline finite element method. Solitary wave motion and interaction of two solitary waves are studied using the proposed method. Accuracy of the proposed method is discussed by computing the numerical conserved laws 2 and ∞ error norms. The numerical results are found in good agreement with exact solution. A linear stability analysis of the scheme is also investigated.

  2. Pulse-Width-Modulating Driver for Brushless dc Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, Phil M.

    1991-01-01

    High-current pulse-width-modulating driver for brushless dc motor features optical coupling of timing signals from low-current control circuitry to high-current motor-driving circuitry. Provides high electrical isolation of motor-power supply, helping to prevent fast, high-current motor-driving pulses from being coupled through power supplies into control circuitry, where they interfere with low-current control signals.

  3. Synchronization Technique for Random Switching Frequency Pulse-Width Modulation

    OpenAIRE

    Apinan Aurasopon; Worawat Sa-ngiavibool

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a synchronized random switching frequency pulse width modulation (SRSFPWM). In this technique, the clock signal is used to control the random noise frequency which is produced by the feedback voltage of a hysteresis circuit. These make the triangular carrier frequency equaling to the random noise frequency in each switching period with the symmetrical positive and negative slopes of triangular carrier. Therefore, there is no error voltage in PWM signal. The PSpice simulate...

  4. Penning ionization widths by Fano-algebraic diagrammatic construction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Renjie; Narevicius, Edvardas; Averbukh, Vitali

    2018-03-01

    We present an ab initio theory and computational method for Penning ionization widths. Our method is based on the Fano theory of resonances, algebraic diagrammatic construction (ADC) scheme for many-electron systems, and Stieltjes imaging procedure. It includes an extension of the Fano-ADC scheme [V. Averbukh and L. S. Cederbaum, J. Chem. Phys. 123, 204107 (2005)] to triplet excited states. Penning ionization widths of various He*-H2 states are calculated as a function of the distance R between He* and H2. We analyze the asymptotic (large-R) dependences of the Penning widths in the region where the well-established electron transfer mechanism of the decay is suppressed by the multipole- and/or spin-forbidden energy transfer. The R-12 and R-8 power laws are derived for the asymptotes of the Penning widths of the singlet and triplet excited states of He*(1s2s1,3S), respectively. We show that the electron transfer mechanism dominates Penning ionization of He*(1s2s 3S)-H2 up until the He*-H2 separation is large enough for the radiative decay of He* to become the dominant channel. The same mechanism also dominates the ionization of He*(1s2s 1S)-H2 when R < 5 Å. We estimate that the regime of energy transfer in the He*-H2 Penning ionization cannot be reached by approaching zero collisional temperature. However, the multipole-forbidden energy transfer mechanism can become important for Penning ionization in doped helium droplets.

  5. Pole mass, width, and propagators of unstable fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kniehl, B.A.; Sirlin, A.

    2008-01-01

    The concepts of pole mass and width are extended to unstable fermions in the general framework of parity-nonconserving gauge theories, such as the Standard Model. In contrast with the conventional on-shell definitions, these concepts are gauge independent and avoid severe unphysical singularities, properties of great importance since most fundamental fermions in nature are unstable particles. General expressions for the unrenormalized and renormalized dressed propagators of unstable fermions and their field-renormalization constants are presented. (orig.)

  6. Balance (perceived and actual) and preferred stance width during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, John; Hsiao, Katherine T; Hsiao-Wecksler, Elizabeth T

    2008-05-01

    Pregnant women often remark that their balance degrades during pregnancy; however, it appears that no studies have documented the gravida's perception of her balance nor measured direction-specific changes in balance throughout pregnancy or after delivery. Thirty women, fifteen pregnant and fifteen non-pregnant controls, were tested monthly and through 6-month postpartum. For each session, perceived degradation in sense of balance, laboratory-based balance measures, stance width, and the number of falls since the previous session were recorded. Laboratory-based balance measures, quantified by direction-specific measures of postural sway, were computed from ten 30s quiet-standing trials on a stationary force platform. Repeated-measures analysis of variance, paired t-tests, and Pearson correlations were use to examine group and time effects. For the pregnant group, perceived balance degradation and stance width were highly correlated (r = 0.94). Both increased during pregnancy (P r > 0.72) and also decreased significantly between the third trimester and postpartum (P pregnancy, but increased after delivery. Contrary to recent work suggesting fall rates of 25%, only 13% of our subjects (n = 2) fell during pregnancy. Perceived degradation in balance during pregnancy was strongly related to increasing postural sway instability in the anterior-posterior direction. Lateral stability was maintained during pregnancy and likely accomplished by increasing stance width.

  7. Predictors of the peak width for networks with exponential links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troutman, B.M.; Karlinger, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    We investigate optimal predictors of the peak (S) and distance to peak (T) of the width function of drainage networks under the assumption that the networks are topologically random with independent and exponentially distributed link lengths. Analytical results are derived using the fact that, under these assumptions, the width function is a homogeneous Markov birth-death process. In particular, exact expressions are derived for the asymptotic conditional expectations of S and T given network magnitude N and given mainstream length H. In addition, a simulation study is performed to examine various predictors of S and T, including N, H, and basin morphometric properties; non-asymptotic conditional expectations and variances are estimated. The best single predictor of S is N, of T is H, and of the scaled peak (S divided by the area under the width function) is H. Finally, expressions tested on a set of drainage basins from the state of Wyoming perform reasonably well in predicting S and T despite probable violations of the original assumptions. ?? 1989 Springer-Verlag.

  8. Measurement of the mass and width of the W boson

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G.; Akesson, P.F.; Alexander, G.; Anagnostou, G.; Anderson, K.J.; Asai, S.; Axen, D.; Bailey, I.; Barberio, E.; Barillari, T.; Barlow, R.J.; Batley, R.J.; Bechtle, P.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bell, P.J.; Bella, G.; Bellerive, A.; Benelli, G.; Bethke, S.; Biebel, O.; Boeriu, O.; Bock, P.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Brown, Robert M.; Burckhart, H.J.; Campana, S.; Capiluppi, P.; Carnegie, R.K.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, D.G.; Ciocca, C.; Csilling, A.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Etzion, E.; Fabbri, F.; Ferrari, P.; Fiedler, F.; Fleck, I.; Ford, M.; Frey, A.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, John William; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Giunta, Marina; Goldberg, J.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Gunther, P.O.; Gupta, A.; Hajdu, C.; Hamann, M.; Hanson, G.G.; Harel, A.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hill, J.C.; Horvath, D.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Ishii, K.; Jeremie, H.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Kanzaki, J.; Karlen, D.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kramer, T.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kuhl, T.; Kupper, M.; Lafferty, G.D.; Landsman, H.; Lanske, D.; Lellouch, D.; Letts, J.; Levinson, L.; Lillich, J.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Lu, J.; Ludwig, A.; Ludwig, J.; Mader, W.; Marcellini, S.; Martin, A.J.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McKenna, J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Menges, W.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Meyer, Niels T.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Mohr, W.; Mori, T.; Mutter, A.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Nanjo, H.; Neal, H.A.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oh, A.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Pahl, C.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Pooth, O.; Przybycien, M.; Quadt, A.; Rabbertz, K.; Rembser, C.; Renkel, P.; Roney, J.M.; Rossi, A.M.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sarkisyan, E.K.G.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schorner-Sadenius, T.; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Sherwood, P.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Spano, F.; Stahl, A.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Tarem, S.; Tasevsky, M.; Teuscher, R.; Thomson, M.A.; Torrence, E.; Toya, D.; Tran, P.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Ueda, I.; Ujvari, B.; Vollmer, C.F.; Vannerem, P.; Vertesi, R.; Verzocchi, M.; Voss, H.; Vossebeld, J.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wengler, T.; Wermes, N.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wolf, G.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Zer-Zion, D.; Zivkovic, Lidija

    2006-01-01

    The mass and width of the W boson are measured using e+e- -> W+W- events from the data sample collected by the OPAL experiment at LEP at centre-of-mass energies between 170 GeV and 209 GeV. The mass (mw) and width (gw) are determined using direct reconstruction of the kinematics of W+W- -> qqbarlv and W+W- -> qqbarqqbar events. When combined with previous OPAL measurements using W+W- -> lvlv events and the dependence on mw of the WW production cross-section at threshold, the results are determined to be mw = 80.415 +- 0.042 +- 0.030 +- 0.009 GeV gw = 1.996 +- 0.096 +- 0.102 +- 0.003 GeV where the first error is statistical, the second systematic and the third due to uncertainties in the value of the LEP beam energy. By measuring mw with several different jet algorithms in the qqbarqqbar channel, a limit is also obtained on possible final-state interactions due to colour reconnection effects in W+W- -> qqbarqqbar events. The consistency of the results for the W mass and width with those inferred from other ele...

  9. Stark widths regularities within spectral series of sodium isoelectronic sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trklja, Nora; Tapalaga, Irinel; Dojčinović, Ivan P.; Purić, Jagoš

    2018-02-01

    Stark widths within spectral series of sodium isoelectronic sequence have been studied. This is a unique approach that includes both neutrals and ions. Two levels of problem are considered: if the required atomic parameters are known, Stark widths can be calculated by some of the known methods (in present paper modified semiempirical formula has been used), but if there is a lack of parameters, regularities enable determination of Stark broadening data. In the framework of regularity research, Stark broadening dependence on environmental conditions and certain atomic parameters has been investigated. The aim of this work is to give a simple model, with minimum of required parameters, which can be used for calculation of Stark broadening data for any chosen transitions within sodium like emitters. Obtained relations were used for predictions of Stark widths for transitions that have not been measured or calculated yet. This system enables fast data processing by using of proposed theoretical model and it provides quality control and verification of obtained results.

  10. Interference in the gg→h→γγ On-Shell Rate and the Higgs Boson Total Width.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, John; Carena, Marcela; Harnik, Roni; Liu, Zhen

    2017-11-03

    We consider interference between the Higgs signal and QCD background in gg→h→γγ and its effect on the on-shell Higgs rate. The existence of sizable strong phases leads to destructive interference of about 2% of the on-shell cross section in the standard model. This effect can be enhanced by beyond the standard model physics. In particular, since it scales differently from the usual rates, the presence of interference allows indirect limits to be placed on the Higgs width in a novel way, using on-shell rate measurements. Our study motivates further QCD calculations to reduce uncertainties. We discuss possible width-sensitive observables, both using total and differential rates and find that the HL-LHC can potentially indirectly constrain widths of order tens of MeV.

  11. Poster — Thur Eve — 02: Measurement of CT radiation profile width using Fuji CR imaging plate raw data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjarnason, T A [Diagnostic Imaging Services, Interior Health, Kelowna (Canada); Department of Radiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada); Yang, C J [Sindi Ahluwalia Hawkins Centre for the Southern Interior, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Kelowna (Canada)

    2014-08-15

    Measuring the CT collimation width and assessing the shape of the overall profile is a relatively straightforward quality control (QC) measure that impacts both image quality and patient dose, and is often required at acceptance and routine testing. Most CT facilities have access to computed radiography (CR) systems, so performing CT collimation profile assessments using CR plates requires no additional equipment. Previous studies have shown how to effectively use CR plates to measure the radiation profile width. However, a major limitation of the previous work is that the full dynamic range of CR detector plates are not used, since the CR processing technology reduces the dynamic range of the DICOM output to 2{sup 10}, requiring the sensitivity and latitude settings of CR reader to be adjusted to prevent clipping of the CT profile data. Such adjustments to CR readers unnecessarily complicate the QC procedure. These clipping artefacts hinder the ability to accurately assess CT collimation width because the full-width at half maximum value of the penumbras are not properly determined if the maximum dose of the profile is not available. Furthermore, any inconsistencies in the radiation profile shape are lost if the profile plateau is clipped off. In this work we developed an opensource Matlab script for straightforward CT profile width measurements using raw CR data that also allows assessment of the profile shape without clipping, and applied this approach during CT QC.

  12. Demystifying AlphaGo Zero as AlphaGo GAN

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Xiao; Wu, Jiasong; Zhou, Ling

    2017-01-01

    The astonishing success of AlphaGo Zero\\cite{Silver_AlphaGo} invokes a worldwide discussion of the future of our human society with a mixed mood of hope, anxiousness, excitement and fear. We try to dymystify AlphaGo Zero by a qualitative analysis to indicate that AlphaGo Zero can be understood as a specially structured GAN system which is expected to possess an inherent good convergence property. Thus we deduct the success of AlphaGo Zero may not be a sign of a new generation of AI.

  13. $\\alpha$-Representation for QCD

    OpenAIRE

    Tuan, Richard Hong

    1998-01-01

    An $\\alpha$-parameter representation is derived for gauge field theories.It involves, relative to a scalar field theory, only constants and derivatives with respect to the $\\alpha$-parameters. Simple rules are given to obtain the $\\alpha$-representation for a Feynman graph with an arbitrary number of loops in gauge theories in the Feynman gauge.

  14. Alpha Theta Meditation: Phenomenological, neurophysiologic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alpha Theta Meditation: Phenomenological, neurophysiologic, mindfulness, mood, health and sport implications. ... the single alpha theta meditation was associated with elevated alpha and theta activity, as well as decrease in negative mood perceptions, especially with regard to anxiety, sadness and confusion scores.

  15. Reduction of the ionization loss distribution width of several simultaneous relativistic particles traversing a scintillation counter

    CERN Document Server

    Aderholz, M; Matthewson, R

    1975-01-01

    A Poisson distribution of number of electrons at the input stages of a photomultiplier has been folded into a Landau-Symon distribution of ionization losses in a plastic scintillator and a distribution of the smallest value out of n detectors was derived analytically for m simultaneous particles. A group of four identical scintillation counters was constructed and the smallest of the four output pulses was used for selective triggering of the bubble chamber flash with the greater precision engendered by the considerably reduced distribution width. (22 refs).

  16. HETDEX: The Physical Properties of Lyman-alpha Emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronwall, Caryl; Blanc, G.; Ciardullo, R.; Finkelstein, S.; Gawiser, E.; Gebhardt, K.; HETDEX Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Beginning in Fall 2012, the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX) will map out 300 square degrees via a blind integral-field spectroscopic survey which will detect 800,000 Lyman-alpha emitters (LAEs) at 1.9 LAE power spectrum, but these emission-line sources are also important probes of galaxy evolution. LAEs are observed "in the act" of formation with low mass, little dust, very young ages, and a two-dimensional clustering scale-length that implies that they are the progenitors of today's Milky Way type galaxies. The unprecedented size of the HETDEX survey will allow us to explore the 3-D clustering of these objects and to measure their halo masses as a function of redshift. We will also be able to explore the physical properties of LAEs over a wide range of environments, and study how their luminosity functions, equivalent width distributions, and star formation rates change with galaxy density and redshift. In preparation for HETDEX, we undertook a 3 year pilot survey to test the feasibility of the experiment and design an optimal observing strategy. These observations were performed with a proto-type HETDEX spectrograph (VIRUS-P) on the McDonald 2.7-m telescope, and covered Ly-alpha in the redshift range 1.9 < z < 3.8. This survey discovered 104 Ly-alpha emitting galaxies in 169 sq. arcmin of sky, and reached objects with Ly-alpha line luminosities as faint as 3 x 1042 ergs/s. We will present the Ly-alpha luminosity function, equivalent width distributions, and star formation rates measured for this sample and discuss the implications of the pilot survey results for HETDEX.

  17. Numerical investigation of edge plasma phenomena in an enhanced D-alpha discharge at Alcator C-Mod: Parallel heat flux and quasi-coherent edge oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, D. A.; D’Ippolito, D. A.; Myra, J. R.; LaBombard, B.; Terry, J. L.; Zweben, S. J.

    2012-01-01

    Reduced-model scrape-off layer turbulence (SOLT) simulations of an enhanced D-alpha (EDA) H-mode shot observed in the Alcator C-Mod tokamak were conducted to compare with observed variations in the scrape-off-layer (SOL) width of the parallel heat flux profile. In particular, the role of the competition between sheath- and conduction-limited parallel heat fluxes in determining that width was studied for the turbulent SOL plasma that emerged from the simulations. The SOL width decreases with increasing input power and with increasing separatrix temperature in both the experiment and the simulation, consistent with the strong temperature dependence of the parallel heat flux in balance with the perpendicular transport by turbulence and blobs. The particularly strong temperature dependence observed in the case analyzed is attributed to the fact that these simulations produce SOL plasmas which are in the conduction-limited regime for the parallel heat flux. A persistent quasi-coherent (QC) mode dominates the SOLT simulations and bears considerable resemblance to the QC mode observed in C-Mod EDA operation. The SOLT QC mode consists of nonlinearly saturated wave-fronts located just inside the separatrix that are convected poloidally by the mean flow, continuously transporting particles and energy and intermittently emitting blobs into the SOL.

  18. Analysis Of The Effect Of Flow Channel Width On The Performance Of PEMFC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Eker

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, it was analysed the effect of different channel width on performance of PEM fuel cell. Current density were measured on the single cells of parallel flow fields that has 25 cm² active layer, using three different kinds of channel width. The cell width and the channel height remain constant.The results show that increasing the channel width while the cell width remains constant decreases the current density.

  19. Alpha scintillation radon counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, H.F. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Radon counting chambers which utilize the alpha-scintillation properties of silver activated zinc sulfide are simple to construct, have a high efficiency, and, with proper design, may be relatively insensitive to variations in the pressure or purity of the counter filling. Chambers which were constructed from glass, metal, or plastic in a wide variety of shapes and sizes were evaluated for the accuracy and the precision of the radon counting. The principles affecting the alpha-scintillation radon counting chamber design and an analytic system suitable for a large scale study of the 222 Rn and 226 Ra content of either air or other environmental samples are described. Particular note is taken of those factors which affect the accuracy and the precision of the method for monitoring radioactivity around uranium mines

  20. Combining Alphas via Bounded Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zura Kakushadze

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We give an explicit algorithm and source code for combining alpha streams via bounded regression. In practical applications, typically, there is insufficient history to compute a sample covariance matrix (SCM for a large number of alphas. To compute alpha allocation weights, one then resorts to (weighted regression over SCM principal components. Regression often produces alpha weights with insufficient diversification and/or skewed distribution against, e.g., turnover. This can be rectified by imposing bounds on alpha weights within the regression procedure. Bounded regression can also be applied to stock and other asset portfolio construction. We discuss illustrative examples.

  1. Evolution of giant dipole resonance width at low temperatures ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    techniques. Several experiments have been performed by bombarding 7–12 MeV/nucleon alpha beam on various targets (63Cu, 115In and 197Au) and new datasets ... appears to be constant at its ground state value until a critical temperature is reached and subse- ..... it was 38.6 MeV for 63Cu at 35 MeV incident energy.

  2. Beam manipulating by metallic nano-slits with variant widths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haofei; Wang, Changtao; Du, Chunlei; Luo, Xiangang; Dong, Xiaochun; Gao, Hongtao

    2005-09-05

    A novel method is proposed to manipulate beam by modulating light phase through a metallic film with arrayed nano-slits, which have constant depth but variant widths. The slits transport electro-magnetic energy in the form of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) in nanometric waveguides and provide desired phase retardations of beam manipulating with variant phase propagation constant. Numerical simulation of an illustrative lens design example is performed through finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method and shows agreement with theory analysis result. In addition, extraordinary optical transmission of SPPs through sub-wavelength metallic slits is observed in the simulation and helps to improve elements' energy using factor.

  3. Width of the confining string in Yang-Mills theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gliozzi, F; Pepe, M; Wiese, U-J

    2010-06-11

    We investigate the transverse fluctuations of the confining string connecting two static quarks in (2+1)D SU(2) Yang-Mills theory using Monte Carlo calculations. The exponentially suppressed signal is extracted from the large noise by a very efficient multilevel algorithm. The resulting width of the string increases logarithmically with the distance between the static quark charges. Corrections at intermediate distances due to universal higher-order terms in the effective string action are calculated analytically. They accurately fit the numerical data.

  4. Bernstein width of a class of functions of finite smoothness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryavtsev, S. N.

    1999-04-01

    A weak asymptotic formula is obtained for the Bernstein n-width in the space L_q(I^d) of the class F_p^{l,\\omega }(I^d) of functions on the cube I^d such that their generalized partial derivatives up to order l belong to L_p(I^d) and the moduli of continuity in the space L_p(I^d) of all their derivatives of order l are majorized by a fixed modulus of continuity \\omega.

  5. Orbit width scaling of TAE instability growth rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, H.V.; Berk, H.L.; Breizman, B.N.

    1995-07-01

    The growth rate of Toroidal Alfven Eigenmodes (TAE) driven unstable by resonant coupling of energetic charged particles is evaluated in the ballooning limit over a wide range of parameters. All damping effects are ignored. Variations in orbit width, aspect ratio, and the ratio of alfven velocity to energetic particle birth velocity, are explored. The relative contribution of passing and trapped particles, and finite Larmor radius effects, are also examined. The phase space location of resonant particles with interact strongly with the modes is described. The accuracy of the analytic results with respect to growth rate magnitude and parametric dependence is investigated by comparison with numerical results.

  6. Energy detection UWB system based on pulse width modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Cui

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A new energy detection ultra-wideband system based on pulse width modulation is proposed. The bit error rate (BER performance of this new system is slightly worst than that of a pulse position modulation (PPM system in additive white Gaussian noise channels. In multipath channels, this system does not suffer from cross-modulation interference as PPM, so it can achieve better BER performance than PPM when cross-modulation interference occurs. In addition, when synchronisation errors occur, this system is more robust than PPM.

  7. Pulse-width modulated DC-DC power converters

    CERN Document Server

    Kazimierczuk, Marian K

    2008-01-01

    This book studies switch-mode power supplies (SMPS) in great detail. This type of converter changes an unregulated DC voltage into a high-frequency pulse-width modulated (PWM) voltage controlled by varying the duty cycle, then changes the PWM AC voltage to a regulated DC voltage at a high efficiency by rectification and filtering. Used to supply electronic circuits, this converter saves energy and space in the overall system. With concept-orientated explanations, this book offers state-of-the-art SMPS technology and promotes an understanding of the principle operations of PWM converters,

  8. Crack widths in concrete with fibers and main reinforcement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Frede; Ulfkjær, Jens Peder; Brincker, Rune

    2015-01-01

    of the analytical model is to assume that the response of the structure can be described by the cracking response located within a fracture band. The model follows ideas previously used by other researchers in order to describe the fracture mechanics of concrete beams. These ideas are extended in this model to take...... relation is taken into account according to the crack width profile. Pullout of the main reinforcement is taken into account by assuming development of zones around the crack with constant friction stresses. In order to evaluate the capability of the model to produce reliable results, results are compared...

  9. New insights on dyke width and upward velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taisne, B.; Jaupart, C.; Tait, S.

    2012-04-01

    Striking observations have been made that challenge our understanding of magma migration through the Earth's crust. How may a volatile rich magma stall at shallow depth as a growing crypto-dome such as during the 1980 Mount Saint Helens eruption? How can we explain the width of the 2005 mega-dyke intrusion in Afar, that attained more than 8 meters with a very small amount of magma emitted at the surface? We show that changes in the geometry and the dynamics of the propagation can be attributed to density variations in the host rocks, to solidification, to volatile exsolution and expansion or to changes in the input flux of magma at depth. We focus on the relationship between dyke width and ascent rate. Shallow levels are commonly made of low density rocks or volcanic deposits with strong impact on dyke ascent. The dynamics and width of the upper part of the dyke (the nose region) are determined by a local buoyancy balance, independently of the total buoyancy of the magma column between source and tip. In such conditions, the dyke swells and slows down and, in some cases, may not breach the surface. Using laboratory experiments we show that solidification of the magma may lead to a regime of intermittent propagation, even with constant physical conditions at the source. Interestingly the time between two steps can be related to the input flux at the source region. With volatile-bearing magmas, dyke propagation proceeds in two markedly different ways depending on whether or not fragmentation occurs. With no fragmentation, magma expansion leads to acceleration and thinning of the dyke. With fragmentation, the sharp drop of head loss that occurs in gas-rich fragmented material generates large internal overpressure and swelling of the nose region, leading to deceleration of the dyke. All the above effects lead to rapid and large changes of ascent rate. Large variations of magma flux at the source would be required to have similar impacts on dyke propagation. In an

  10. Genetic evidence that HNF-1alpha-dependent transcriptional control of HNF-4alpha is essential for human pancreatic beta cell function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sara K; Párrizas, Marcelina; Jensen, Maria L

    2002-01-01

    , and consequently in reduced HNF-1alpha-dependent activation. These findings provide genetic evidence that HNF-1alpha serves as an upstream regulator of HNF-4alpha and interacts directly with the P2 promoter in human pancreatic cells. Furthermore, they indicate that this regulation is essential to maintain normal...... in human islets and exocrine cells is primarily mediated by the P2 promoter. Furthermore, we describe a G --> A mutation in a conserved nucleotide position of the HNF-1alpha binding site of the P2 promoter, which cosegregates with MODY. The mutation results in decreased affinity for HNF-1alpha...

  11. Measurement of the Higgs decay width in the diphoton channel

    CERN Document Server

    Adolfsson, Jonatan

    2014-01-01

    In this note, a projected measurement of the Higgs decay width ($\\Gamma_{H}$) is presented, based on interference in the diphoton channel. Two different hypotheses were tested. Hypothesis A assumes that the $H\\to\\gamma\\gamma$ cross-section is proportional to $\\Gamma_{H}^{-1}$, whereas hypothesis B assumes that this cross-section is constant and instead uses the overall change in $m_{\\gamma\\gamma}$ line shape. Events were simulated using Sherpa 2.1, and were used to produce test statistics in order to obtain a 95 % confidence limit of $\\Gamma_{H}$. The standard model width was tested using Asimov data sets, which were validated using pseudo-experiments for the integrated luminosities of Run 1, Run 2 and HL-LHC. The obtained limits are significantly improved with respect to previous studies, but further validations of the test are required. The expected limits for 300 fb$^{-1}$ are $1.19\\times\\Gamma_{H\\,SM}$ for hypothesis A and $24\\times\\Gamma_{H\\,SM}$ for hypothesis B.

  12. Baryon Masses and Hadronic Decay Widths with Explicit Pionic Contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R. A.; Plessas, W.; Schweiger, W.; Canton, L.

    2017-01-01

    We report results from studies of baryon ground and resonant states by taking explicit mesonic degrees of freedom into account. We are following a relativistic coupled-channels approach relying on a Poincaré-invariant mass operator in matrix form. Generally, it corresponds to a bare particle that is coupled to a number of further mesonic channels. Here we present results, where the bare particle is either a bare nucleon or a bare Delta coupled to pion–nucleon and pion–Delta channels, respectively. For the pion–baryon vertices we employ coupling constants and form factors from different models in the literature. From the mass-operator eigenvalue equation we obtain the pion-dressing effects on the nucleon mass as well as the mass and pion-decay width of the Delta. The dressed masses become smaller than the bare ones, and a finite width of the Delta is naturally generated. The results are relevant for the construction of constituent-quark models for baryons, which have so far not included explicit mesonic degrees of freedom, but have rather relied on three-quark configurations only. (author)

  13. Direct top-quark width measurement at CDF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaltonen, T; Álvarez González, B; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Appel, J A; Apresyan, A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Asaadi, J; Ashmanskas, W; Auerbach, B; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Barria, P; Bartos, P; Bauce, M; Bauer, G; Bedeschi, F; Beecher, D; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bizjak, I; Bland, K R; Blocker, C; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Brigliadori, L; Brisuda, A; Bromberg, C; Brucken, E; Bucciantonio, M; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buzatu, A; Cabrera, S; Calancha, C; Camarda, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carls, B; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Carron, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavaliere, V; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Corbo, M; Cordelli, M; Cox, C A; Cox, D J; Crescioli, F; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Dagenhart, D; d'Ascenzo, N; Datta, M; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; De Lorenzo, G; Dell'Orso, M; Deluca, C; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; Devoto, F; d'Errico, M; Di Canto, A; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; D'Onofrio, M; Donati, S; Dong, P; Dorigo, T; Ebina, K; Elagin, A; Eppig, A; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Ershaidat, N; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Ferrazza, C; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Frank, M J; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garcia, J E; Garfinkel, A F; Garosi, P; Gerberich, H; Gerchtein, E; Giagu, S; Giakoumopoulou, V; Giannetti, P; Gibson, K; Ginsburg, C M; Giokaris, N; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldin, D; Goldschmidt, N; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Hamaguchi, A; Han, J Y; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, D; Hare, M; Harr, R F; Hatakeyama, K; Hays, C; Heck, M; Heinrich, J; Herndon, M; Hewamanage, S; Hidas, D; Hocker, A; Hopkins, W; Horn, D; Hou, S; Hughes, R E; Hurwitz, M; Husemann, U; Hussain, N; Hussein, M; Huston, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeon, E J; Jha, M K; Jindariani, S; Johnson, W; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Ketchum, W; Keung, J; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, H W; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Klimenko, S; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krop, D; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kuhr, T; Kurata, M; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; LeCompte, T; Lee, E; Lee, H S; Lee, J S; Lee, S W; Leo, S; Leone, S; Lewis, J D; Lin, C-J; Linacre, J; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, C; Liu, Q; Liu, T; Lockwitz, S; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Lucchesi, D; Lueck, J; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Makhoul, K; Maksimovic, P; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A; Margaroli, F; Marino, C; Martínez, M; Martínez-Ballarín, R; Mastrandrea, P; Mathis, M; Mattson, M E; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Menzione, A; Mesropian, C; Miao, T; Mietlicki, D; Mitra, A; Miyake, H; Moed, S; Moggi, N; Mondragon, M N; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M J; Morlock, J; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagai, Y; Naganoma, J; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Nett, J; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nodulman, L; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Oakes, L; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Orava, R; Ortolan, L; Pagan Griso, S; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Paramonov, A A; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Pianori, E; Pilot, J; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Potamianos, K; Poukhov, O; Prokoshin, F; Pronko, A; Ptohos, F; Pueschel, E; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rahaman, A; Ramakrishnan, V; Ranjan, N; Redondo, I; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rodriguez, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Santi, L; Sartori, L; Sato, K; Saveliev, V; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T

    2010-12-03

    We present a measurement of the top-quark width in the lepton+jets decay channel of tt events produced in p p collisions at Fermilab's Tevatron collider and collected by the CDF II detector. From a data sample corresponding to 4.3 fb(-1) of integrated luminosity, we identify 756 candidate events. The top-quark mass and the mass of the hadronically decaying W boson that comes from the top-quark decay are reconstructed for each event and compared with templates of different top-quark widths (Γ(t)) and deviations from nominal jet energy scale (Δ(JES)) to perform a simultaneous fit for both parameters, where Δ(JES) is used for the in situ calibration of the jet energy scale. By applying a Feldman-Cousins approach, we establish an upper limit at 95% confidence level (CL) of Γ(t) quark mass of 172.5 GeV/c(2), which are consistent with the standard model prediction.

  14. Tooth width predictions in a sample of Black South Africans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M I; Seedat, A K; Hlongwa, P

    2007-07-01

    Space analysis during the mixed dentition requires prediction of the mesiodistal widths of the unerupted permanent canines and premolars and prediction tables and equations may be used for this purpose. The Tanaka and Johnston prediction equations, which were derived from a North American White sample, is one example which is widely used. This prediction equation may be inapplicable to other race groups due to racial tooth size variability. Therefore the purpose of this study was to derive prediction equations that would be applicable to Black South African subjects. One hundred and ten pre-treatment study casts of Black South African subjects were analysed from the Department of Orthodontics' records at the University of Limpopo. The sample was equally divided by gender with all subjects having Class I molar relationship and relatively well aligned teeth. The mesiodistal widths of the maxillary and mandibular canines and premolars were measured with a digital vernier calliper and compared with the measurements predicted with the Tanaka and Johnston equations. The relationship between the measured and predicted values were analysed by correlation and regression analyses. The results indicated that the Tanaka and Johnston prediction equations were not fully applicable to the Black South African sample. The equations tended to underpredict the male sample, while slight overprediction was observed in the female sample. Therefore, new equations were formulated and proposed that would be accurate for Black subjects.

  15. Determination of the width of the top quark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abazov, Victor Mukhamedovich; /Dubna, JINR; Abbott, Braden Keim; /Oklahoma U.; Abolins, Maris A.; /Michigan State U.; Acharya, Bannanje Sripath; /Tata Inst.; Adams, Mark Raymond; /Illinois U., Chicago; Adams, Todd; /Florida State U.; Alexeev, Guennadi D.; /Dubna, JINR; Alkhazov, Georgiy D.; /St. Petersburg, INP; Alton, Andrew K.; /Michigan U. /Augustana Coll., Sioux Falls; Alverson, George O.; /Northeastern U.; Alves, Gilvan Augusto; /Rio de Janeiro, CBPF /Nijmegen U.

    2010-09-01

    We extract the total width of the top quark, {Lambda}{sub t}, from the partial decay width {Lambda}(t {yields} Wb) measured using the t-channel cross section for single top quark production and from the branching fraction B(t {yields} Wb) measured in t{bar t} events using up to 2.3 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity collected by the D0 Collaboration at the Tevatron p{bar p} Collider. The result is {Lambda}{sub t} = 1.99{sub -0.55}{sup +0.69} GeV, which translates to a top-quark lifetime of {tau}{sub t} = (3.3{sub -0.9}{sup +1.3}) x 10{sup -25} s. Assuming a high mass fourth generation b{prime} quark and unitarity of the four-generation quark-mixing matrix, we set the first upper limit on |V{sub tb{prime}}| < 0.63 at 95% C.L.

  16. Analysis of single event transient pulse-width in 65 nm commercial radiation-hardened logic cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haisong; Wu, Longsheng; Yang, Bo; Jiang, Yihu

    2017-08-01

    With the critical charge reduced to generate a single event effect (SEE) and high working frequency for a nanometer integrated circuit, the single event effect (SET) becomes increasingly serious for high performance SOC and DSP chips. To analyze the radiation-hardened method of SET for the nanometer integrated circuit, the n+ guard ring and p+ guard ring have been adopted in the layout for a 65 nm commercial radiation-hardened standard cell library. The weakest driving capacity inverter cell was used to evaluate the single event transient (SET) pulse-width distribution. We employed a dual-lane measurement circuit to get more accurate SET’s pulse-width. Six kinds of ions, which provide LETs of 12.5, 22.5, 32.5, 42, 63, and 79.5 {MeV}\\cdot {{cm}}2/{mg}, respectively, have been utilized to irradiate the SET test circuit in the Beijing Tandem Accelerator Nuclear Physics National Laboratory. The testing results reveal that the pulse-width of most SETs is shorter than 400 ps in the range of LETeff from 12.5 {MeV}\\cdot {{cm}}2/{mg} to 79.5 {MeV}\\cdot {{cm}}2/{mg} and the pulse-width presents saturation tendency when the effective linear energy transfer (LETeff) value is larger than 40 {MeV}\\cdot {{cm}}2/{mg}. The test results also show that the hardened commercial standard cell’s pulse-width concentrates on 33 to 264 ps, which decreases by 40% compared to the pulse-width of the 65 nm commercial unhardened standard cell.

  17. Measuring ventricular width on cranial computed tomography. Feasibility of dose reduction in a custom-made adult phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daubner, D.; Cerhova, J.; Linn, J. [Dresden Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Neuroradiology; Spieth, S. [Dresden Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Kirchhof, K. [Chemnitz Hospital (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuradiology

    2016-01-15

    To estimate feasible dose reduction to reliably measure ventricular width in adults with hydrocephalus in follow-up cranial computed tomography (CCT) using a custom-made phantom. A gelatine-filled adult calvarium with embedded central fibers of two carrots representing the lateral ventricles was used as a phantom. The phantom was scanned 11 times with two CT scanners (LightSpeed Ultra, GE and Somatom Sensation, Siemens), using tube currents of 380/400, 350, 300, 250, 200, 150 and 100 mA, and tube voltages of 140, 120, 100 and 80 kV. The width of the carrots was measured at four sites in consensus decision of two principle investigators blinded to the scan parameters. Values measured at 380/400 mA and 140 kV served as a reference for the width of the ventricles. Measurements received 1 point if they did not differ more than 0.5 mm from the reference values. A maximum score of 4 could be achieved. The relationship between the correct width measurement of the carrots (lateral ventricles) and the radiation dose can be described by a quadratic regression function. Pixel noise increases and accuracy of measurements decreases with a lower radiation dose. Starting from a tube current of 380/400 mA and a tube voltage of 140 kV, the dose can be reduced by 76 % for LightSpeed Ultra and by 80 % for Somatom Sensation provided that a margin of error of 37.5 % (score = 2.5) for correct width measurement of the carrots is accepted. Lowering the radiation dose by up to 48 % for LightSpeed Ultra and by 52 % for Somatom Sensation, compared to the standard protocol (120 kV and 400 mA) still allowed reliable measurements of ventricular widths in this model.

  18. Glitazones and alpha-glucosidase inhibitors as the second-line oral anti-diabetic agents added to metformin reduce cardiovascular risk in Type 2 diabetes patients: a nationwide cohort observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Cheng-Wei; Yu, Chu-Leng; Lin, Jiunn-Cherng; Hsieh, Yu-Cheng; Lin, Che-Chen; Hung, Chen-Ying; Li, Cheng-Hung; Liao, Ying-Chieh; Lo, Chu-Pin; Huang, Jin-Long; Lin, Ching-Heng; Wu, Tsu-Juey

    2018-01-24

    Metformin is the standard first-line drug for patients with Type 2 diabetes (T2DM). However, the optimal second-line oral anti-diabetic agent (ADA) remains unclear. We investigated the cardiovascular risk of various ADAs used as add-on medication to metformin in T2DM patients from a nationwide cohort. T2DM patients using different add-on oral ADAs after an initial metformin therapy of > 90 days were identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Database. Five classes of ADAs, including sulphonylureas (SU), glinides, thiazolidinediones (TZD), alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (AGI), and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4I) were selected for analysis. The reference group was the SU added to metformin. Patients were excluded if aged cardiovascular event (MACE) including ACS, ischemic/hemorrhagic stroke, and death. A Cox regression model was used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) for MACE. A total of 26,742 patients receiving their add-on drug to metformin of either SU (n = 24,277), glinides (n = 962), TZD (n = 581), AGI (n = 808), or DPP-4I (n = 114) were analyzed. After a mean follow-up duration of 6.6 ± 3.4 years, a total of 4775 MACEs occurred. Compared with the SU+metformin group (reference), the TZD+metformin (adjusted HR: 0.66; 95% CI 0.50-0.88, p = 0.004) and AGI+metformin (adjusted HR: 0.74; 95% CI 0.59-0.94, p = 0.01) groups showed a significantly lower risk of MACE. Both TZD and AGI, when used as an add-on drug to metformin were associated with lower MACE risk when compared with SU added to metformin in this retrospective cohort study. Trial registration CE13152B-3. Registered 7 Mar, 2013, retrospectively registered.

  19. Treatment of alpha bearing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This report deals with the current state of the art of alpha waste treatment, which is an integral part of the overall nuclear waste management system. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) defines alpha bearing waste as 'waste containing one or more alpha emitting radionuclides, usually actinides, in quantities above acceptable limits'. The limits are established by national regulatory bodies. The limits above which wastes are considered as alpha contaminated refer to the concentrations of alpha emitters that need special consideration for occupational exposures and/or potential safety, health, or environmental impact during one or more steps from generation through disposal. Owing to the widespread use of waste segregation by source - that is, based upon the 'suspect origin' of the material - significant volumes of waste are being handled as alpha contaminated which, in fact, do not require such consideration by reason of risk or environmental concern. The quantification of de minimis concepts by national regulatory bodies could largely contribute to the safe reduction of waste volumes and associated costs. Other factors which could significantly contribute to the reduction of alpha waste arisings are an increased application of assaying and sorting, instrumentation and the use of feedback mechanisms to control or modify the processes which generate these wastes. Alpha bearing wastes are generated during fabrication and reprocessing of nuclear fuels, decommissioning of alpha contaminated facilities, and other activities. Most alpha wastes are contact handled, but a small portion may require shielding or remote handling because of high levels of neutron (n), beta (β), or gamma (γ) emissions associated with the waste material. This report describes the sources and characteristics of alpha wastes and strategies for alpha waste management. General descriptions of treatment processes for solid and liquid alpha wastes are included. 71 refs, 14 figs, 9 tabs

  20. Requirements to gap widths and clamping for CO2 laser butt welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gong, Hui; Juhl, Thomas Winther

    1999-01-01

    In the experimental study of fixturing and gap width requirements a clamping device for laser butt welding of steel sheets has been developed and tested. It has fulfilled the work and made the gap width experiments possible.It has shown that the maximum allowable gap width to some extent is inver......In the experimental study of fixturing and gap width requirements a clamping device for laser butt welding of steel sheets has been developed and tested. It has fulfilled the work and made the gap width experiments possible.It has shown that the maximum allowable gap width to some extent...

  1. The alpha effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    Much of the recent interest in RAM system reliability stems from concern over alpha particle soft error rates reported for the initial 64 k RAMs. With increasing memory density likely in the next few years the problem of soft errors is rearing its head again. A few years ago ITT carried out experiments on 16k RAMs and found no significant problems. However, recent tests have shown a raise in the number of soft errors with 64k RAMs, and the launch of 256k and 512k memories is likely to make the problem acute

  2. Alpha-mannosidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilssen Øivind

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Alpha-mannosidosis is an inherited lysosomal storage disorder characterized by immune deficiency, facial and skeletal abnormalities, hearing impairment, and intellectual disability. It occurs in approximately 1 of 500,000 live births. The children are often born apparently normal, and their condition worsens progressively. Some children are born with ankle equinus or develop hydrocephalus in the first year of life. Main features are immune deficiency (manifested by recurrent infections, especially in the first decade of life, skeletal abnormalities (mild-to-moderate dysostosis multiplex, scoliosis and deformation of the sternum, hearing impairment (moderate-to-severe sensorineural hearing loss, gradual impairment of mental functions and speech, and often, periods of psychosis. Associated motor function disturbances include muscular weakness, joint abnormalities and ataxia. The facial trait include large head with prominent forehead, rounded eyebrows, flattened nasal bridge, macroglossia, widely spaced teeth, and prognathism. Slight strabismus is common. The clinical variability is significant, representing a continuum in severity. The disorder is caused by lysosomal alpha-mannosidase deficiency. Alpha-mannosidosis is inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion and is caused by mutations in the MAN2B1 gene located on chromosome 19 (19 p13.2-q12. Diagnosis is made by measuring acid alpha-mannosidase activity in leukocytes or other nucleated cells and can be confirmed by genetic testing. Elevated urinary secretion of mannose-rich oligosaccharides is suggestive, but not diagnostic. Differential diagnoses are mainly the other lysosomal storage diseases like the mucopolysaccharidoses. Genetic counseling should be given to explain the nature of the disease and to detect carriers. Antenatal diagnosis is possible, based on both biochemical and genetic methods. The management should be pro-active, preventing complications and treating

  3. Spot: a new Monte Carlo solver for fast alpha particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, M.; Eriksson, L.G.; Basiuk, V.; Imbeaux, F.

    2004-01-01

    The predictive transport code CRONOS has been augmented by an orbit following Monte Carlo code, SPOT (Simulation of Particle Orbits in a Tokamak). The SPOT code simulates the dynamics of nonthermal particles, and takes into account effects of finite orbit width and collisional transport of fast ions. Recent developments indicate that it might be difficult to avoid, at least transiently, current holes in a reactor. They occur already on existing tokamaks during advanced tokamak scenarios. The SPOT code has been used to study the alpha particle behaviour in the presence of current holes for both JET and ITER relevant parameters. (authors)

  4. Endocytosis of GPI-linked membrane folate receptor-alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijnboutt, S; Jansen, G; Posthuma, G; Hynes, J B; Schornagel, J H; Strous, G J

    1996-01-01

    GPI-linked membrane folate receptors (MFRs) have been implicated in the receptor-mediated uptake of reduced folate cofactors and folate-based chemotherapeutic drugs. We have studied the biosynthetic transport to and internalization of MFR isoform alpha in KB-cells. MFR-alpha was synthesized as a 32-kD protein and converted in a maturely glycosylated 36-38-kD protein 1 h after synthesis. 32-kD MFR-alpha was completely soluble in Triton X-100 at 0 degree C. In contrast, only 33% of the 36-38-kD species could be solubilized at these conditions whereas complete solubilization was obtained in Triton X-100 at 37 degrees C or in the presence of saponin at 0 degree C. Similar solubilization characteristics were found when MFR-alpha at the plasma membrane was labeled with a crosslinkable 125I-labeled photoaffinity-analog of folic acid as a ligand. Triton X-100-insoluble membrane domains containing MFR-alpha could be separated from soluble MFR-alpha on sucrose flotation gradients. Only Triton X-100 soluble MFR-alpha was internalized from the plasma membrane. The reduced-folate-carrier, an integral membrane protein capable of translocating (anti-)folates across membranes, was completely excluded from the Triton X-100-resistant membrane domains. Internalized MFR-alpha recycled slowly to the cell surface during which it remained soluble in Triton X-100 at 0 degree C. Using immunoelectron microscopy, we found MFR-alpha along the entire endocytic pathway: in clathrin-coated buds and vesicles, and in small and large endosomal vacuoles. In conclusion, our data indicate that a large fraction, if not all, of internalizing MFR-alpha bypasses caveolae.

  5. Comment on Extracting alpha from B to rho rho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falk, A

    2003-10-29

    Recent experimental results on B {yields} {rho}{rho} decays indicate that the CP asymmetry S{sub {rho}{sup +}{rho}{sup -}} will give an interesting determination of {alpha} = arg[-(V{sub td}V*{sub tb})/(V{sub ud}V*{sub ub})]. In the limit when the {rho} width is neglected, the B {yields} {pi}{pi} isospin analysis can also be applied to B {yields} {rho}{rho}, once an angular analysis is used to separate transversity modes. The present bound on the shift of S{sub {rho}{sup +}{rho}{sup -}} from the true sin 2{alpha} is already stronger than it is for S{sub {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}}. The authors point out a subtle violation of the isospin relations when the two {rho} mesons are observed with different invariant masses, and how to constrain this effect experimentally.

  6. High prevalence of alpha-thalassemia among individuals with microcytosis and hypochromia without anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Borges

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the contribution of alpha-thalassemia to microcytosis and hypochromia, 339 adult outpatients seen at Unicamp University Hospital (with the exception of the Clinical Hematology outpatient clinics, who showed normal hemoglobin (Hb levels and reduced mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin, were analyzed. Ninety-eight were Blacks (28.9% and 241 were Caucasians (71.1%. In all cases, Hb A2 and F levels were either normal or low. The most common deletional and nondeletional forms of alpha-thalassemia [-alpha3.7, -alpha4.2, --MED, -(alpha20.5, alphaHphIalpha, alphaNcoIalpha, aaNcoI and alphaTSAUDI] were investigated by PCR and restriction enzyme analyses. A total of 169 individuals (49.9% presented alpha-thalassemia: 145 (42.8% were heterozygous for the -alpha3.7 deletion (-alpha3.7/aa and 18 (5.3% homozygous (-alpha3.7/-alpha3.7, 5 (1.5% were heterozygous for the nondeletional form alphaHphIalpha (alphaHphIalpha/aa, and 1 (0.3% was a --MED carrier (--MED/aa. Among the Blacks, 56 (57.1% showed the -alpha3.7/aa genotype, whereas 12 (12.2% were -alpha3.7/-alpha3.7 and 1 (1.0% was an alphaHphIalpha carrier; among the Caucasians, 89 (36.9% were -alpha3.7/aa, 6 (2.5% had the -alpha3.7/-alpha3.7 genotype, 4 (1.7% presented the nondeletional form (alphaHphIalpha/aa, and 1 (0.4% was a --MED carrier. These results demonstrate that alpha-thalassemia, mainly through the -alpha3.7 deletion, is an important cause of microcytosis and hypochromia in individuals without anemia. These data are of clinical relevance since these hematological alterations are often interpreted as indicators of iron deficiency.

  7. Alpha activity measurement with lsc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrin, R. I.; Dulama, C. N.; Ciocirlan, C. N.; Toma, A.; Stoica, S. M.; Valeca, M.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, we showed that the alpha activity in liquid samples can be measured using a liquid scintillation analyzer without alpha/beta discrimination capability. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the performances of the method and to optimize the procedure of the sample preparation. A series of tests was performed to validate the procedure of alpha emitting radionuclides extraction in aqueous samples with Actinide Resin, especially regarding to the contact time required to extract all alpha nuclides. The main conclusions were that a minimum 18 hours stirring time is needed to achieve a percent recovery of the alpha nuclides grater than 90% and that the counting efficiency of alphas measurements with LSC is nearly 100%. (authors)

  8. Proceedings, High-Precision $\\alpha_s$ Measurements from LHC to FCC-ee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    d' Enterria, David [CERN; Skands, Peter Z. [Monash U.

    2015-01-01

    This document provides a writeup of all contributions to the workshop on "High precision measurements of $\\alpha_s$: From LHC to FCC-ee" held at CERN, Oct. 12--13, 2015. The workshop explored in depth the latest developments on the determination of the QCD coupling $\\alpha_s$ from 15 methods where high precision measurements are (or will be) available. Those include low-energy observables: (i) lattice QCD, (ii) pion decay factor, (iii) quarkonia and (iv) $\\tau$ decays, (v) soft parton-to-hadron fragmentation functions, as well as high-energy observables: (vi) global fits of parton distribution functions, (vii) hard parton-to-hadron fragmentation functions, (viii) jets in $e^\\pm$p DIS and $\\gamma$-p photoproduction, (ix) photon structure function in $\\gamma$-$\\gamma$, (x) event shapes and (xi) jet cross sections in $e^+e^-$ collisions, (xii) W boson and (xiii) Z boson decays, and (xiv) jets and (xv) top-quark cross sections in proton-(anti)proton collisions. The current status of the theoretical and experimental uncertainties associated to each extraction method, the improvements expected from LHC data in the coming years, and future perspectives achievable in $e^+e^-$ collisions at the Future Circular Collider (FCC-ee) with $\\cal{O}$(1--100 ab$^{-1}$) integrated luminosities yielding 10$^{12}$ Z bosons and jets, and 10$^{8}$ W bosons and $\\tau$ leptons, are thoroughly reviewed. The current uncertainty of the (preliminary) 2015 strong coupling world-average value, $\\alpha_s(m_Z)$ = 0.1177 $\\pm$ 0.0013, is about 1\\%. Some participants believed this may be reduced by a factor of three in the near future by including novel high-precision observables, although this opinion was not universally shared. At the FCC-ee facility, a factor of ten reduction in the $\\alpha_s$ uncertainty should be possible, mostly thanks to the huge Z and W data samples available.

  9. Effect of Arm Position on Width of the Subacromial Space of Upper String Musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithson, Elliot V; Reed Smith, Elizabeth; McIlvain, Gary; Timmons, Mark K

    2017-09-01

    Musicians often end their musical career due to musculoskeletal injury. A leading source of shoulder pain in upper string musicians is rotator cuff disease (RCD). Multiple factors contribute to its development. Compressive overload of the soft tissues of the subacromial space resulting from a decrease in the width of the subacromial space has been identified as an extrinsic factor contributing to RCD development. The purpose of this study was to characterize the width of the subacromial space by measuring acromial-humeral distance (AHD) of upper string musicians, while their arms are in standard playing positions. Experienced musicians (n=23) were recruited from local communities. Shoulder ultrasound images were collected using standard imaging techniques. Images were collected and the AHD measured while the musician's arm was in positions associated with playing the violin. On the right side, the arm position main effect was significant (pstring position (8.8±1.9 mm) was less than the 1st string (11.3±1.4 mm) and resting (11.7±1.3 mm) positions. There was no difference in AHD between resting (10.0±5.8 mm) and instrument-support positions (10.6±1.5 mm). The resting AHD was smaller (p=0.04) on the right side compared to the left (12.2±1.4 mm). There was not statistically significant difference (p=0.138) in the occupation ratio (supraspinatus tendon thickness/AHD) between the right (mean 0.543±0.80 mm) and left sides (mean 0.510±0.087 mm). The AHD measurement decreased in the playing positions compared to resting positions. Treatment interventions that help musicians maximize the width of their subacromial space might help reduce the prevalence of shoulder pain in this population.

  10. Interannual Variability of the Meridional Width of the Baiu Rainband in June and the Associated Large-Scale Atmospheric Circulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, K.; Tomita, T.

    2016-12-01

    part of the North Pacific subtropical high. This anomalous anticyclone (cyclone) enhances (reduces) the moisture transport from Southeast Asia to Japan and biases the southern edge of baiu rainband northward (southward). Thus, the meridional width of baiu rainband has the interannual variability.

  11. Influence of alpha-escin on skeletal changes in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pytlik, M; Cegieła, U; Janiec, W

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the influence of alpha-escin (35 mg/kg per os daily; administered for 4 weeks) on the development of osteopenia caused by bilateral ovariectomy in 3-month-old female Wistar rats. The experiments were carried out on four groups of animals: I (C)--control sham operated rats, II (OVX)--ovariectomized rats, III (E)--sham operated rats which were administered alpha-escin, IV (OVX + E)--ovariectomized rats which were given alpha-escin. In all groups body weight growth, masses, length and tibia diameter were determined as well as histological specimens of right femur and tibia slices were used for histometric measurements including: the transverse cross-section area of the tibial shaft cortex, transverse cross-section area of the tibial marrow cavity, periosteal osteoid width, endosteal osteoid width, periosteal thickness growth in the tibia, endosteal thickness growth in the tibia, epiphyseal and metaphyseal trabeculae thickness in the femur and epiphyseal cartilage width. Bilateral ovariectomy in matured female rats caused osteopenic skeletal changes. alpha-Escin (35 mg/kg per os daily) administered to the ovariectomized rats for the following 28 days decreased only a little the development of osteopenic skeletal changes caused by bilateral ovariectomy.

  12. Blood pressure, risk of ischemic cerebrovascular and ischemic heart disease, and longevity in alpha(1)-antitrypsin deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Morten; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Sillesen, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    Because elastase in alpha(1)-antitrypsin deficiency may attack elastin in the arterial wall, we tested whether alpha(1)-antitrypsin deficiency is associated with reduced blood pressure, risk of ischemic cerebrovascular (ICVD) and ischemic heart disease (IHD), and longevity.......Because elastase in alpha(1)-antitrypsin deficiency may attack elastin in the arterial wall, we tested whether alpha(1)-antitrypsin deficiency is associated with reduced blood pressure, risk of ischemic cerebrovascular (ICVD) and ischemic heart disease (IHD), and longevity....

  13. Lateral ridge split and immediate implant placement in moderately resorbed alveolar ridges: How much is the added width?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Rahpeyma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lateral ridge split technique is a way to solve the problem of the width in narrow ridges with adequate height. Simultaneous insertion of dental implants will considerably reduce the edentulism time. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five patients who were managed with ridge splitting technique were enrolled. Thirty-eight locations in both jaws with near equal distribution in quadrants received 82 dental fixtures. Beta Tricalcium phosphate (Cerasorb® was used as biomaterial to fill the intercortical space. Submerged implants were used and 3 months later healing caps were placed. Direct bone measurements before and after split were done with a Collis. Patients were clinically re-evaluated at least 6 months after implant loading. All the data were analyzed by Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS software version 11.5 (SPSS Inc, Chicago Illinois, USA. Frequency of edentulous spaces and pre/post operative bone width was analyzed. Paired t-test was used for statistical analysis. Difference was considered significant if P value was less than 0.05. Results: Mean value for presplit width was 3.2 ± 0.34 mm while post-split mean width was 5.57 ± 0.49 mm. Mean gain in crest ridge after ridge splitting was 2 ± 0.3 mm. Statistical analysis showed significant differences in width before and after operation ((P < 0.05. All implants (n = 82 survived and were in full function at follow up (at least 6 months after implant loading. Conclusion: Ridge splitting technique in both jaws showed the predictable outcomes, if appropriate cases selected and special attention paid to details; then the waiting time between surgery and beginning of prosthodontic treatment can be reduced to 3 month.

  14. A SUCCESSFUL BROADBAND SURVEY FOR GIANT Ly{alpha} NEBULAE. II. SPECTROSCOPIC CONFIRMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prescott, Moire K. M. [Department of Physics, University of California, Broida Hall, Mail Code 9530, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, Buell T., E-mail: mkpresco@physics.ucsb.edu [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Using a systematic broadband search technique, we have carried out a survey for large Ly{alpha} nebulae (or Ly{alpha} {sup b}lobs{sup )} at 2 {approx}< z {approx}< 3 within 8.5 deg{sup 2} of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey Booetes field, corresponding to a total survey comoving volume of Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 8} h {sup -3} {sub 70} Mpc{sup 3}. Here, we present our spectroscopic observations of candidate giant Ly{alpha} nebulae. Of 26 candidates targeted, 5 were confirmed to have Ly{alpha} emission at 1.7 {approx}< z {approx}< 2.7, 4 of which were new discoveries. The confirmed Ly{alpha} nebulae span a range of Ly{alpha} equivalent widths, colors, sizes, and line ratios, and most show spatially extended continuum emission. The remaining candidates did not reveal any strong emission lines, but instead exhibit featureless, diffuse, blue continuum spectra. Their nature remains mysterious, but we speculate that some of these might be Ly{alpha} nebulae lying within the redshift desert (i.e., 1.2 {approx}< z {approx}< 1.6). Our spectroscopic follow-up confirms the power of using deep broadband imaging to search for the bright end of the Ly{alpha} nebula population across enormous comoving volumes.

  15. Measurement of differential (n,x{alpha}) cross section using 4{pi} gridded ionization chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanami, Toshiya; Baba, Mamoru; Matsuyama, Shigeo; Kiyosumi, Takehide; Nauchi, Yasushi; Saito, Keiichiro; Hirakawa, Naohiro [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Kawano, Toshihiko

    1997-03-01

    We carried out the measurements of high resolution {alpha} emission spectra of {sup 58}Ni and {sup nat}Ni between 4.5 and 6.5 MeV, and {sup 12}C(n,x{alpha}) cross section using a 4{pi} gridded ionization chamber. In Ni measurement, overall energy resolution was improved to around 200 keV by optimizing a sample thickness and a neutron source width. Measured alpha spectra showed separate peaks corresponding to the ground and low-lying excited states of the residual nucleus ({sup 55}Fe). These results were compared with another direct measurement and statistical model calculations. In {sup 12}C measurement, GIC was applied for (n,x{alpha}) reactions of light nuclei. This application is difficult to (n,x{alpha}) cross sections of light nuclei, because of the influences of large recoil energy and multi-body break-up. We developed new methods which eliminate the effects of recoil nuclei and multi-body break-up and applied them to {sup 12}C(n,x{alpha}) reaction at En=14.1 MeV. In our experiment, the {sup 12}C(n,{alpha}{sub 0}){sup 9}Be angular differential cross section and {sup 12}C(n,n`3{alpha}) cross section were obtained. (author)

  16. Quercetin suppresses hypoxia-induced accumulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) through inhibiting protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dae-Hee; Lee, Yong J

    2008-10-01

    Quercetin, a ubiquitous bioactive plant flavonoid, has been shown to inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells and induce the accumulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) in normoxia. In this study, under hypoxic conditions (1% O(2)), we examined the effect of quercetin on the intracellular level of HIF-1alpha and extracellular level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in a variety of human cancer cell lines. Surprisingly, we observed that quercetin suppressed the HIF-1alpha accumulation during hypoxia in human prostate cancer LNCaP, colon cancer CX-1, and breast cancer SkBr3 cells. Quercetin treatment also significantly reduced hypoxia-induced secretion of VEGF. Suppression of HIF-1alpha accumulation during treatment with quercetin in hypoxia was not prevented by treatment with 26S proteasome inhibitor MG132 or PI3K inhibitor LY294002. Interestingly, hypoxia (1% O(2)) in the presence of 100 microM quercetin inhibited protein synthesis by 94% during incubation for 8 h. Significant quercetin concentration-dependent inhibition of protein synthesis and suppression of HIF-1alpha accumulation were observed under hypoxic conditions. Treatment with 100 microM cycloheximide, a protein synthesis inhibitor, replicated the effect of quercetin by inhibiting HIF-1alpha accumulation during hypoxia. These results suggest that suppression of HIF-1alpha accumulation during treatment with quercetin under hypoxic conditions is due to inhibition of protein synthesis. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Energy and energy width measurement in the FNAL antiproton accumulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Church, M.; Hsueh, S.; Rapidis, P.; Werkema, S.

    1991-10-01

    The Fermilab Antiproton Accumulator has recently been used to produce Charmonium resonances (charm quark, anti-charm quark bound states) in proton-antiproton annihilations using an internal H 2 gas jet target. A measurement of the resonance mass and width may be obtained from a precise knowledge of the antiproton beam energy and energy spread. The beam energy is measured to an accuracy of 1 part in 10 4 in the range 6.3 Gev to 4.1 Gev by measuring the orbit length and revolution frequency of the beam. The beam momentum spread is measured to an accuracy of 10% by measuring the beam frequency spread and the parameter η = (P beam /F rev )·(dF rev /dP beam ). These two measurement techniques are described in this report

  18. Energy and energy width measurement in the FNAL antiproton accumulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Church, M.; Hsueh, S.; Rapidis, P.; Werkema, S.

    1991-10-01

    The Fermilab Antiproton Accumulator has recently been used to produce Charmonium resonances (charm quark, anti-charm quark bound states) in proton-antiproton annihilations using an internal H{sub 2} gas jet target. A measurement of the resonance mass and width may be obtained from a precise knowledge of the antiproton beam energy and energy spread. The beam energy is measured to an accuracy of 1 part in 10{sup 4} in the range 6.3 Gev to 4.1 Gev by measuring the orbit length and revolution frequency of the beam. The beam momentum spread is measured to an accuracy of 10% by measuring the beam frequency spread and the parameter {eta} = (P{sub beam}/F{sub rev}){center_dot}(dF{sub rev}/dP{sub beam}). These two measurement techniques are described in this report.

  19. Free-edge delamination - Laminate width and loading conditions effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Chamis, Christos C.

    1989-01-01

    The width and loading conditions effects on free-edge stress fields in composite laminates are investigated using a three-dimensional finite element analysis. This analysis includes a special free-edge region refinement or superelement with progressive substructuring (mesh refinement) and finite thickness interply layers. The different loading conditions include in-plane and out-of-plane bending, combined axial tension and in-plane shear, twisting, uniform temperature and uniform moisture. Results obtained indicate that: axial tension causes the smallest magnitude of interlaminar free edge stress compared to other loading conditions; free-edge delamination data obtained from laboratory specimens cannot be scaled to structural components; and composite structural components are not likely to delaminate.

  20. Measurement of {alpha}{sub s} with radiative hadronic events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbiendi, G.; Braibant, S.; Capiluppi, P.; Ciocca, C.; Cuffiani, M.; Dallavalle, M.; Fabbri, F.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Marcellini, S.; Michelini, A.; Rossi, A.M. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Bologna and INFN, Bologna (Italy); Ainsley, C.; Batley, R.J.; Carter, J.R.; Hill, J.C.; Thomson, M.A.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R. [Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Aakesson, P.F.; Burckhart, H.J.; De Roeck, A.; Ferrari, P.; Frey, A.; Gruwe, M.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkings, R.; Meijers, F.; Oh, A.; Plane, D.E.; Rembser, C.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schroeder, M.; Smith, A.M.; Wells, P.S.; Wengler, T. [CERN, European Organisation for Nuclear Research, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Alexander, G.; Bella, G.; Etzion, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Tsur, E. [Tel Aviv Univ., Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv (Israel); Anagnostou, G.; Bell, P.J.; Charlton, D.G.; Hawkes, C.M.; Jovanovic, P.; O' Neale, S.W.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wilson, J.A. [Univ. of Birmingham, School of Physics and Astronomy, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Anderson, K.J.; Gupta, A.; Merritt, F.S.; Oreglia, M.J.; Pilcher, J.E.; Teuscher, R. [Univ. of Chicago, Enrico Fermi Institute and Department of Physics, Chicago, IL (United States); Asai, S.; Ishii, K.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Kobayashi, T.; Komamiya, S.; Mashimo, T.; Mihara, S.; Mori, T.; Nanjo, H.; Orito, S.; Saeki, T.; Toya, D.; Ueda, I.; Yamashita, S. [Univ. of Tokyo, International Centre for Elementary Particle Physics and Department of Physics, Tokyo (Japan)]|[Kobe Univ., Kobe (Japan); Axen, D.; McKenna, J. [Univ. of British Columbia, Department of Physics, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Bailey, I.; Karlen, D.; Keeler, R.K.; McPherson, R.A.; Roney, J.M.; Sobie, R. [Univ. of Victoria, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 3055, Victoria, BC (Canada); Barberio, E. [CERN, European Organisation for Nuclear Research, Geneva 23 (Switzerland)]|[Univ. of Melbourne, Victoria (Australia)] [and others

    2008-01-15

    Hadronic final states with a hard isolated photon are studied using data taken at centre-of-mass energies around the mass of the Z boson with the OPAL detector at LEP. The strong coupling {alpha}{sub s} is extracted by comparing data and QCD predictions for event shape observables at average reduced centre-of-mass energies ranging from 24 GeV to 78 GeV, and the energy dependence of {alpha}{sub s} is studied. Our results are consistent with the running of {alpha}{sub s} as predicted by QCD and show that within the uncertainties of our analysis event shapes in hadronic Z decays with hard and isolated photon radiation can be described by QCD at reduced centre-of-mass energies. Combining all values from different event shape observables and energies gives {alpha}{sub s}(M{sub Z})=0.1182{+-}0.0015(stat.){+-}0.0101(syst.). (orig.)

  1. Measurement of inner wall limiter SOL widths in KSTAR tokamak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.G. Bak

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Scrape-off layer (SOL widths λq are presented from the KSTAR tokamak using fast reciprocating Langmuir probe assembly (FRLPA measurements at the outboard mid-plane (OMP and the infra-Red (IR thermography at inboard limiter tiles in moderately elongated (κ = 1.45 – 1.55 L-mode inner wall-limited (IWL plasmas under experimental conditions such as BT = 2.0 T, PNBI = 1.4 – 1.5 MW, line averaged densities 2.5 – 5.1 × 1019 m−3 and plasma current Ip = 0.4 − 0.7 MA. There is clear evidence for a double exponential structure in q||(r from the FRLPA such that, for example at Ip = 0.6 MA, a narrow feature, λq,near (=3.5 mm is found close to the LFCS, followed by a broader width, λq,main (=57.0 mm. Double exponential profiles (λq,near = 1.5 – 2.8 mm, λq,main = 17.0 – 35.0 mm can be also observed in the IR heat flux mapped to the OMP throughout the range of Ip investigated. In addition, analysis of SOL turbulence statistics obtained with the FRLPA shows high relative fluctuation levels and positively skewed distributions in electron temperature and ion particle flux across the SOL, with both properties increasing for longer distance from the LCFS, as often previously observed in the tokamaks. Interestingly, the fluctuation character expressed in terms of spectral distributions remains unchanged in passing from the narrow to the broad SOL heat flux channel.

  2. Variable Width Riparian Model Enhances Landscape and Watershed Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abood, S. A.; Spencer, L.

    2017-12-01

    Riparian areas are ecotones that represent about 1% of USFS administered landscape and contribute to numerous valuable ecosystem functions such as wildlife habitat, stream water quality and flows, bank stability and protection against erosion, and values related to diversity, aesthetics and recreation. Riparian zones capture the transitional area between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems with specific vegetation and soil characteristics which provide critical values/functions and are very responsive to changes in land management activities and uses. Two staff areas at the US Forest Service have coordinated on a two phase project to support the National Forests in their planning revision efforts and to address rangeland riparian business needs at the Forest Plan and Allotment Management Plan levels. The first part of the project will include a national fine scale (USGS HUC-12 digits watersheds) inventory of riparian areas on National Forest Service lands in western United States with riparian land cover, utilizing GIS capabilities and open source geospatial data. The second part of the project will include the application of riparian land cover change and assessment based on selected indicators to assess and monitor riparian areas on annual/5-year cycle basis.This approach recognizes the dynamic and transitional nature of riparian areas by accounting for hydrologic, geomorphic and vegetation data as inputs into the delineation process. The results suggest that incorporating functional variable width riparian mapping within watershed management planning can improve riparian protection and restoration. The application of Riparian Buffer Delineation Model (RBDM) approach can provide the agency Watershed Condition Framework (WCF) with observed riparian area condition on an annual basis and on multiple scales. The use of this model to map moderate to low gradient systems of sufficient width in conjunction with an understanding of the influence of distinctive landscape

  3. Molecular characterization of alpha 1- and alpha 2-adrenoceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, J K; Pearson, W R; Lynch, K R

    1991-02-01

    Three 'alpha 1-adrenoceptors' and three 'alpha 2-adrenoceptors' have now been cloned. How closely do these receptors match the native receptors that have been identified pharmacologically? What are the properties of these receptors, and how do they relate to other members of the cationic amine receptor family? Kevin Lynch and his colleagues discuss these questions in this review.

  4. Experimental Investigation on the Influence of a Double-Walled Confined Width on the Velocity Field of a Submerged Waterjet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolong Ding

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The current research on confined submerged waterjets mainly focuses on the flow field of the impinging jet and wall jet. The double-sided wall vertically confined waterjet, which is widely used in many fields such as mining, cleaning and surface strengthening, has rarely been studied so far. In order to explore the influence of a double-sided wall confined width on the velocity field of submerged waterjet, an experiment was conducted with the application of 2D particle image velocimetry (PIV technology. The distribution of mean velocity and turbulent velocity in both horizontal and vertical planes was used to characterize the flow field under various confined widths. The results show that the vertical confinement has an obvious effect on the decay rate of the mean centerline velocity. When the confined width changes from 15 to 5, the velocity is reduced by 20%. In addition, with the decrease of the confined width, the jet has a tendency to spread horizontally. The vertically confined region induces a space hysteresis effect which changes the location of the transition region moving downstream. There are local negative pressure zones separating the fluid and the wall. This study of a double-walled confined jet provides some valuable information with respect to its mechanism and industrial application.

  5. How does floodplain width affect floodplain river ecology? A preliminary exploration using simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Mary E.; Parker, Gary; Dietrich, William E.; Sun, Adrian

    1995-09-01

    Hydraulic food chain models allow us to explore the linkages of river discharge regimes and river-floodplain morphology to the structure and dynamics of modeled food webs. Physical conditions (e.g. depth, width, velocity) that vary with river discharge affect the performance (birth, growth, feeding, movement, or death rates) of organisms or trophic groups. Their performances in turn affect their impacts on food webs and ecosystems in channel and floodplain habitats. Here we explore the impact of floodplain width (modeled as 1 ×, 10× and 40× the channel width) on a food web with two energy sources (detritus and vegetation), invertebrates that consume these, a size structured fish population which consumes invertebrates and in which larger fish cannibalize small fish, and birds which feed on large fish. Hydraulic linkages to trophic dynamics are assumed to be mediated in three ways: birds feed efficiently only in shallow water; plant carrying capacity varies non-linearly with water velocity, and mobile and drifting organisms are diluted and concentrated with spillover of river discharge to the floodplain, and its reconfinement to the channel. Aspects of this model are based on field observations of Junk and Bailey from the Amazon, of Sparks from the Mississippi, and on our observations of the Fly River in Papua New Guinea. The model produced several counter-intuitive results. Biomass of invertebrates and fish increased with floodplain width, but much more rapidly from 1 × to 10 × floodplains than from 10 × to 40 × floodplains. For birds, maximum biomass occurred on the 10× floodplain. Initially high bird biomass on the 40 × floodplain declined to extinction over time, because although favorable fishing conditions (shallow water) were most prolonged on the widest floodplain, this advantage was more than offset by the greater dilution of prey after spillover. Bird predation on large fish sometimes increased their biomass, by reducing cannibalism and thereby

  6. ESTIMA, Neutron Width Level Spacing, Neutron Strength Function of S- Wave, P-Wave Resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fort, E.

    1982-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: ESTIMA calculates level spacing and neutron strength function of a mixed sequence of s- and p-wave resonances given a set of neutron widths as input parameters. Three algorithms are used, two of which calculate s-wave average parameters and assume that the reduced widths obey a Porter-Thomas distribution truncated by a minimum detection threshold. The third performs a maximum likelihood fit to a truncated chi-squared distribution of any specified number of degrees of freedom, i.e. it can be used for calculating s-wave or p-wave average parameters. Resonances of undeclared angular orbital momentum are divided into groups of probable s-wave and probable p-wave by a simple application of Bayes' Theorem. 2 - Method of solution: Three algorithms are used: i) GAMN method, based on simple moments properties of a Porter-Thomas distribution. ii) Missing Level Estimator, a simplified version of the algorithm used by the program BAYESZ. iii) ESTIMA, a maximum likelihood fit. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: A maximum of 400 resonances is allowed in the version available from NEADB, however this restriction can be relaxed by increasing array dimensions

  7. Alpha wastes treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thouvenot, P.

    2000-01-01

    Alter 2004, the alpha wastes issued from the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique installations will be sent to the CEDRA plant. The aims of this installation are decontamination and wastes storage. Because of recent environmental regulations concerning ozone layer depletion, the use of CFC 113 in the decontamination unit, as previously planned, is impossible. Two alternatives processes are studied: the AVD process and an aqueous process including surfactants. Best formulations for both processes are defined issuing degreasing kinetics. It is observed that a good degreasing efficiency is linked to a good decontamination efficiency. Best results are obtained with the aqueous process. Furthermore, from the point of view of an existing waste treatment unit, the aqueous process turns out to be more suitable than the AVD process. (author)

  8. Biodegradable films containing {alpha}-tocopherol/{beta}-cyclodextrin complex; Filmes biodegradaveis contendo {alpha}-tocoferol complexado em {beta}-ciclodextrina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motta, Caroline; Martelli, Silvia M.; Soldi, Valdir, E-mail: vsoldi@qmc.ufsc.br [Lab. de Materiais Polimericos (POLIMAT), Dept. de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Barreto, Pedro L.M. [Lab. de Reologia (REOLAB), Dept. de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Alimentos, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The growing environmental concern about pollution and the need to reduce dependence of plastic industry in relation to non-renewable resources has increased the interest of both researchers and industry in the use of biopolymers. In this work {beta}-cyclodextrin/{alpha}-tocopherol complexes were prepared and characterized. In order to obtain polymeric active biofilms, the {beta}-cyclodextrin/{alpha}-tocopherol complex was incorporated into a polymeric matrix of carboxymethylcellulose. The {beta}-cyclodextrin/{alpha}-tocopherol complex was characterized through of X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis. The physicochemical properties of the films incorporated with the complex were evaluated through mechanical and colorimetric analysis and moisture sorption isotherm. (author)

  9. Application of Bayesian neural network modeling to characterize the interrelationship between microstructure and mechanical property in alpha+beta-titanium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koduri, Santhosh K.

    Titanium alloys, especially alpha+beta titanium alloys are used extensively in the aerospace industry because of their attractive balance of properties. The mechanical properties of these materials are very much sensitive to their microstructure. Microstructure in these alloys can be controlled essentially through alloy composition and various thermomechanical processing routes. Microstructures in these alloys are characterized in terms of size, distribution and volume fraction of both alpha (HCP crystal structure) and beta (BCC crystal structure) phases. The above-mentioned features can coexist and span different length scales. The interrelationships between the microstructure and mechanical properties are characterized qualitatively in the literature. Physics based models are difficult to implement due to the presence of a wide variety of microstructural features with different length scales and mutual interaction of these features. The modeling of such properties is much more complex when composition is added as an additional degree of freedom. In this work neural network models with a Bayesian framework have been employed to characterize the microstructure and mechanical property interrelationships in alpha+beta Ti alloys based on Ti-xAl-yV (4.76 alpha+beta Ti alloys based on Ti-xAl-yV (4.76alloys are subjected to various heat treatments and thermomechanical processing conditions such as beta annealing and alpha+beta processing to obtain a range of microstructure and mechanical properties. The important microstructural features in alpha+beta processed alpha+beta titanium alloys are equiaxed alpha grain size, volume fraction of equiaxed alpha grains, width of the alpha lamellae in transformed beta matrix and important features in beta heat treated alpha+beta titanium alloys are size of alpha colony, width of the alpha lamellae, prior beta grain size, volume fraction of colony and grain boundary alpha thickness. A database is populated with the above

  10. Mind Your p's and Alphas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallings, William M.

    In the educational research literature alpha, the a priori level of significance, and p, the a posteriori probability of obtaining a test statistic of at least a certain value when the null hypothesis is true, are often confused. Explanations for this confusion are offered. Paradoxically, alpha retains a prominent place in textbook discussions of…

  11. Summary of Alpha Particle Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medley, S.S.; White, R.B.; Zweben, S.J.

    1998-08-19

    This paper summarizes the talks on alpha particle transport which were presented at the 5th International Atomic Energy Agency's Technical Committee Meeting on "Alpha Particles in Fusion Research" held at the Joint European Torus, England in September 1997.

  12. Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis of alpha and theta EEG rhythms with musical stimuli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maity, Akash Kumar; Pratihar, Ruchira; Mitra, Anubrato; Dey, Subham; Agrawal, Vishal; Sanyal, Shankha; Banerjee, Archi; Sengupta, Ranjan; Ghosh, Dipak

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • EEG was done to record the brain electrical activity of 10 subjects in response to simple acoustical tanpura stimuli. • Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) technique used to make the EEG signal free from blink and other muscular artifacts. • Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (MFDFA) performed to assess the complexity of extracted alpha and theta brain rhythms. • The findings show spectral width i.e. complexity of alpha and theta rhythms increase in all the seven frontal locations studied, under the effect of musical stimuli. - Abstract: Electroencephalography (EEG) was performed on 10 participants using a simple acoustical stimuli i.e. a tanpura drone. The tanpura drone is free from any semantic content and is used with a hypothesis that it provides a specific resting environment for the listeners. The EEG data was extracted for all the frontal electrodes viz. F3, F4, F7, F8, Fp1, Fp2 and Fz. Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) was applied on the acquired raw EEG signal to make it free from blink as well as other muscular artifacts. Wavelet Transform (WT) technique was used to segregate alpha and theta waves from the denoised EEG signal. Non-linear analysis in the form of Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (MFDFA) was carried out on the extracted alpha and theta time series data to study the variation of their complexity. It was found that in all the frontal electrodes alpha as well as theta complexity increases as is evident from the increase of multifractal spectral width. This study is entirely new and gives interesting data regarding neural activation of the alpha and theta brain rhythms while listening to simple acoustical stimuli. The importance of this study lies in the context of emotion quantification using multifractal spectral width as a parameter as well as in the field of cognitive music therapy. The results are discussed in detail.

  13. Proteinaceous alpha-araylase inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Birte; Fukuda, Kenji; Nielsen, P.K.

    2004-01-01

    Proteins that inhibit alpha-amylases have been isolated from plants and microorganisms. These inhibitors can have natural roles in the control of endogenous a-amylase activity or in defence against pathogens and pests; certain inhibitors are reported to be antinutritional factors. The alpha-amylase...... inhibitors belong to seven different protein structural families, most of which also contain evolutionary related proteins without inhibitory activity. Two families include bifunctional inhibitors acting both on alpha-amylases and proteases. High-resolution structures are available of target alpha-amylases...... in complex with inhibitors from five families. These structures indicate major diversity but also some similarity in the structural basis of alpha-amylase inhibition. Mutational analysis of the mechanism of inhibition was performed in a few cases and various protein engineering and biotechnological...

  14. Alpha 2-adrenergic receptor turnover in adipose tissue and kidney: irreversible blockade of alpha 2-adrenergic receptors by benextramine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taouis, M.; Berlan, M.; Lafontan, M.

    1987-01-01

    The recovery of post- and extrasynaptic alpha 2-adrenergic receptor-binding sites was studied in vivo in male golden hamsters after treatment with an irreversible alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist benextramine, a tetramine disulfide that possesses a high affinity for alpha 2-binding sites. The kidney alpha 2-adrenergic receptor number was measured with (/sup 3/H)yohimbine, whereas (/sup 3/H)clonidine was used for fat cell and brain membrane alpha 2-binding site identification. Benextramine treatment of fat cell, kidney, and brain membranes reduced or completely suppressed, in an irreversible manner, (/sup 3/H) clonidine and (/sup 3/H)yohimbine binding without modifying adenosine (A1-receptor) and beta-adrenergic receptor sites. This irreversible binding was also found 1 and 2 hr after intraperitoneal administration of benextramine to the hamsters. Although it bound irreversibly to peripheral and central alpha 2-adrenergic receptors on isolated membranes, benextramine was unable to cross the blood-brain barrier of the hamster at the concentrations used (10-20 mg/kg). After the irreversible blockade, alpha 2-binding sites reappeared in kidney and adipose tissue following a monoexponential time course. Recovery of binding sites was more rapid in kidney than in adipose tissue; the half-lives of the receptor were 31 and 46 hr, respectively in the tissues. The rates of receptor production were 1.5 and 1.8 fmol/mg of protein/hr in kidney and adipose tissue. Reappearance of alpha 2-binding sites was associated with a rapid recovery of function (antilipolytic potencies of alpha 2-agonists) in fat cells inasmuch as occupancy of 15% of (/sup 3/H)clonidine-binding sites was sufficient to promote 40% inhibition of lipolysis. Benextramine is a useful tool to estimate turnover of alpha 2-adrenergic receptors under normal and pathological situations.

  15. First Metatarsal Head and Medial Eminence Widths with and Without Hallux Valgus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Robin C; Nagesh, Darshan; Park, Hannah K; Grady, John

    2016-09-02

    Resection of the medial eminence in hallux valgus surgery is common. True hypertrophy of the medial eminence in hallux valgus is debated. No studies have compared metatarsal head width in patients with hallux valgus and control patients. We reviewed 43 radiographs with hallux valgus and 27 without hallux valgus. We measured medial eminence width, first metatarsal head width, and first metatarsal shaft width in patients with and without radiographic hallux valgus. Medial eminence width was 1.12 mm larger in patients with hallux valgus (P hallux valgus (P hallux valgus. However, frontal plane rotation of the first metatarsal likely accounts for this difference.

  16. Maxillary arch width and buccal corridor changes with Damon and conventional brackets: A retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shook, Corey; Kim, Sohyon Michelle; Burnheimer, John

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of Damon self-ligating and conventional bracket systems on buccal corridor widths and areas. A retrospective sample of consecutively treated patients using either conventional (CG, n  =  45) or Damon self-ligating (SL, n  =  39) brackets was analyzed to determine any differences in buccal corridor widths and areas both within and between groups. Pretreatment and posttreatment frontal photographs were transferred to Photoshop CC, standardized using intercanthal width, and linear and area measurements were performed with tools in Photoshop CC. Ratios were then calculated for statistical analysis. Relationships between arch widths and buccal corridors were also examined. There were no significant differences in the posttreatment intercanine or intermolar widths either within or between the CG and SL groups. There were no significant differences in any buccal corridor width or area measurement either within or between the CG and SL groups. There were strong correlations with the intercanine width and the corresponding buccal corridor smile width measurements. There was an inverse correlation with the buccal corridor area in relation to the canine and the total smile width. It is likely that posttreatment increases in arch width can be seen in patients treated with either a conventional bracket system or the Damon system. It is highly unlikely that there is any significant difference in buccal corridor width or area in patients treated with the Damon self-ligating system or a conventional bracket system.

  17. DNA methyltransferase 1/3a overexpression in sporadic breast cancer is associated with reduced expression of estrogen receptor-alpha/breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 and poor prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhaojin; Xiao, Qinghuan; Zhao, Lin; Ren, Jie; Bai, Xuefeng; Sun, Mingli; Wu, Huizhe; Liu, Xiaojian; Song, Zhiguo; Yan, Yuanyuan; Mi, Xiaoyi; Wang, Enhua; Jin, Feng; Wei, Minjie

    2015-09-01

    DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs), including DNMT1, 3a, and 3b, play an important role in the progression of many malignant tumors. However, it remains unclear whether expression of DNMTs is associated with the development of breast cancer. This study aimed to explore the clinical significance of DNMT proteins in sporadic breast cancer. We investigated the expression of DNMT1, 3a, and 3b in 256 breast cancer and 36 breast fibroadenoma, using immunohistochemistry. The expression of DNMT1 and 3a was significantly higher in breast cancer than in fibroadenoma. In breast cancer, the expression of DNMT1 was significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis (P = 0.020), and the expression of DNMT3a and 3b was significantly correlated with advanced clinical stages (P = 0.046 and 0.012, respectively). Overexpression of DNMT1/3a was correlated with promoter hypermethylation and reduced expression of ERα and BRCA1. The expression levels of DNMT1 or DNMT3a were associated with a significantly shorter DFS or OS in a subgroup of breast cancer patients (patients with the age ≤50 years old, ERα-negative status, or HER2-postive status). The expression of DNMT1 or a combined expression of DNMT1 and 3a was associated with poor prognosis in patients who received chemotherapy and endocrine therapy, but not in patients who received chemotherapy alone. These findings suggest that DNMT1 and 3a may be involved in the progression and prognosis of sporadic breast cancer. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Alpha intrusion on ovenight polysomnogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahapetian R

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. A 30 year-old Army veteran with a past medical history significant for chronic lumbar back pain stemming from a fall-from-height injury sustained in 2006 was referred to the sleep laboratory for evaluation of chronic fatigue and excessive daytime hypersomnolence. His Epworth sleepiness scale score was 16. He denied a history of snoring and witnessed apnea. Body Mass Index (BMI was 25.7 kg/m2. His main sleep related complaints were frequent nocturnal arousals, poor sleep quality, un-refreshing sleep, prolonged latency to sleep onset, and nightmares. An In-lab attended diagnostic polysomnogram was performed. Sleep efficiency was reduced (73% and overall arousal index was not significantly elevated (3.2 events/hour. The sleep study showed rapid eye movement (REM related sleep disordered breathing that did not meet diagnostic criteria for sleep apnea. There was no evidence for period limb movement disorder. However, the study was significant for alpha wave intrusion in stage N2 non-REM and stage ...

  19. Diabetes and alpha lipoic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issy eLaher

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a multi-faceted metabolic disorder where there is increased oxidative stress that contributes to the pathogenesis of this debilitating disease. This has prompted several investigations into the use of antioxidants as a complementary therapeutic approach. Alpha lipoic acid, a naturally occurring dithiol compound which plays an essential role in mitochondrial bioenergetic reactions, has gained considerable attention as an antioxidant for use in managing diabetic complications. Lipoic acid quenches reactive oxygen species, chelates metal ions, and reduces the oxidized forms of other antioxidants such as vitamin C, vitamin E and glutathione. It also boosts antioxidant defense system through Nrf2-mediated antioxidant gene expression and by modulation of peroxisome proliferator activated receptors-regulated genes. ALA inhibits nuclear factor kappa B and activates AMPK in skeletal muscles, which in turn have a plethora of metabolic consequences. These diverse actions suggest that a lipoic acid acts by multiple mechanisms, many of which have only been uncovered recently. In this review we briefly summarize the known biochemical properties of lipoic acid and then discussed the oxidative mechanisms implicated in diabetic complications and the mechanisms by which lipoic acid may ameliorate these reactions. The findings of some of the clinical trials in which lipoic acid administration has been tested in diabetic patients during the last 10 years are summarized. It appears that the clearest benefit of lipoic acid supplementation is in patients with diabetic neuropathy.

  20. Modeling speed and width parameters of vehicle tires for prediction of the reduction in vehicle noise pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Esmael Forouhid

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Safe driving requires the ability of the driver to receive the messages and complying with them. The most significant consequences of noise pollution are on the human auditory system. Disorders in the auditory system can have harmful side effects for human health. By reducing this kind of pollution in large cities, the quality of life, which is one of the biggest goals of the governments, can be considerably increased. Hence, in the present research, some parameters of vehicle tires were examined as a source of noise pollution, and the results can be taken into consideration in noise pollution reduction. Material and Method: Several vehicles with different tire width were selected for measuring sound level. The sound levels were measured for moving vehicles with the use of the Statistical Pass By Method (SPB, ISO 11819-1. Following sound level measurements for moving vehicles and by considering tire width, mathematical model of noise level was predicted on the basis of the obtained information and by usage of SPSS program and considering vehicle tire parameters. Result: The result of this study showed that the vehicle speed and tire width can affect different sound levels emitted by moving tire on road surface. The average speed of vehicles can play an important role in the noise pollution. By increasing speed, rotation of the the tires on the asphalt is increased, as it is a known factors for noise pollution. Moreover, changing the speed of vehicles is accompanied with abnormal sounds of vehicle engine. According to regression model analysis, the obtained value of R2 for the model is 0.8367 which represents the coefficient of determination. Conclusion: The results suggest the main role of the vehicle speed and tire width in increasing the noise reaches to the drivers and consequent noise pollution, which demonstrates the necessity for noise control measures. According to the obtained model, it is understood that changes in noise

  1. Inhibition of systemic inflammation by central action of the neuropeptide alpha-melanocyte- stimulating hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado Hernàndez, R; Demitri, M T; Carlin, A; Meazza, C; Villa, P; Ghezzi, P; Lipton, J M; Catania, A

    1999-01-01

    The neuropeptide alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) reduces fever and acute inflammation in the skin when administered centrally. The aim of the present research was to determine whether central alpha-MSH can also reduce signs of systemic inflammation in mice with endotoxemia. Increases in serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha and nitric oxide, induced by intraperitoneal administration of endotoxin, were modulated by central injection of a small concentration of alpha-MSH. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity and iNOS mRNA in lungs and liver were likewise modulated by central alpha-MSH. Lung myeloperoxidase activity, a marker of neutrophil infiltration, was increased in endotoxemic mice; the increase was significantly less in lungs of mice treated with central alpha-MSH. Intraperitoneal administration of the small dose of alpha-MSH that was effective centrally did not alter any of the markers of inflammation. In experiments using immunoneutralization of central alpha-MSH, we tested the idea that endogenous peptide induced within the brain during systemic inflammation modulates host responses to endotoxic challenge in peripheral tissues. The data showed that proinflammatory agents induced by endotoxin in the circulation, lungs, and liver were significantly greater after blockade of central alpha-MSH. The results suggest that anti-inflammatory influences of neural origin that are triggered by alpha-MSH could be used to treat systemic inflammation.

  2. Width of gene expression profile drives alternative splicing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Wegmann

    Full Text Available Alternative splicing generates an enormous amount of functional and proteomic diversity in metazoan organisms. This process is probably central to the macromolecular and cellular complexity of higher eukaryotes. While most studies have focused on the molecular mechanism triggering and controlling alternative splicing, as well as on its incidence in different species, its maintenance and evolution within populations has been little investigated. Here, we propose to address these questions by comparing the structural characteristics as well as the functional and transcriptional profiles of genes with monomorphic or polymorphic splicing, referred to as MS and PS genes, respectively. We find that MS and PS genes differ particularly in the number of tissues and cell types where they are expressed.We find a striking deficit of PS genes on the sex chromosomes, particularly on the Y chromosome where it is shown not to be due to the observed lower breadth of expression of genes on that chromosome. The development of a simple model of evolution of cis-regulated alternative splicing leads to predictions in agreement with these observations. It further predicts the conditions for the emergence and the maintenance of cis-regulated alternative splicing, which are both favored by the tissue specific expression of splicing variants. We finally propose that the width of the gene expression profile is an essential factor for the acquisition of new transcript isoforms that could later be maintained by a new form of balancing selection.

  3. Method for Assessment of Changes in the Width of Cracks in Cement Composites with Use of Computer Image Processing and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczak, Kamil; Jakubowski, Jacek; Fiołek, Przemysław

    2017-06-01

    Crack width measurement is an important element of research on the progress of self-healing cement composites. Due to the nature of this research, the method of measuring the width of cracks and their changes over time must meet specific requirements. The article presents a novel method of measuring crack width based on images from a scanner with an optical resolution of 6400 dpi, subject to initial image processing in the ImageJ development environment and further processing and analysis of results. After registering a series of images of the cracks at different times using SIFT conversion (Scale-Invariant Feature Transform), a dense network of line segments is created in all images, intersecting the cracks perpendicular to the local axes. Along these line segments, brightness profiles are extracted, which are the basis for determination of crack width. The distribution and rotation of the line of intersection in a regular layout, automation of transformations, management of images and profiles of brightness, and data analysis to determine the width of cracks and their changes over time are made automatically by own code in the ImageJ and VBA environment. The article describes the method, tests on its properties, sources of measurement uncertainty. It also presents an example of application of the method in research on autogenous self-healing of concrete, specifically the ability to reduce a sample crack width and its full closure within 28 days of the self-healing process.

  4. ALPHA freezes antiprotons

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Laboratories like CERN can routinely produce many different types of antiparticles. In 1995, the PS210 experiment formed the first antihydrogen atoms and a few years later, in 2002, ATRAP and ATHENA were already able to produce several thousand of them. However, no experiment in the world has succeeded in ‘trapping’ these anti-atoms in order to study them. This is the goal of the ALPHA experiment, which has recently managed to cool down the antiprotons to just a few Kelvin. This represents a major step towards trapping the anti-atom, thus opening a new avenue into the investigation of antimatter properties.   Members of the ALPHA collaboration working on the apparatus in the Antiproton Decelerator experimental hall at CERN. Just like the atom, the anti-atom is neutral. Unlike the atom, the anti-atom is made up of antiprotons (as opposed to protons in the atom) and positrons (as opposed to electrons). In order to thoroughly study the properties of the anti-atoms, scien...

  5. Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bals, Robert

    2010-10-01

    Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is a rare genetic disorder associated with the development of liver and lung disease. AAT is a 52-kD glycoprotein, produced mainly by hepatocytes and secreted into the blood. Agglomeration of the AAT-protein in hepatocytes can result in liver disease. Exposure to smoke is the major risk factor for the development of lung disease characterised as early chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD). Diagnosis is based on the analysis of the AAT genotype and phenotype. The measurement of the AAT serum level is useful as screening test. Liver biopsy is not necessary to establish the diagnosis. Therapy for AAT-related liver disease is supportive, a specific therapy is not available. AATD is a rare condition (1:5000-10000) and, as a consequence, data and information on diagnosis and treatment are not easily accessible. This chapter provides a comprehensive overview on AATD, covering basic biology, diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Numerical prediction and performance experiment in a deep-well centrifugal pump with different impeller outlet width

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Weidong; Zhou, Ling; Lu, Weigang; Pei, Bing; Lang, Tao

    2013-01-01

    The existing research of the deep-well centrifugal pump mainly focuses on reduce the manufacturing cost and improve the pump performance, and how to combine above two aspects together is the most difficult and important topic. In this study, the performances of the deep-well centrifugal pump with four different impeller outlet widths are studied by the numerical, theoretical and experimental methods in this paper. Two stages deep-well centrifugal pump equipped with different impellers are simulated employing the commercial CFD software to solve the Navier-Stokes equations for three-dimensional incompressible steady flow. The sensitivity analyses of the grid size and turbulence model have been performed to improve numerical accuracy. The flow field distributions are acquired and compared under the design operating conditions, including the static pressure, turbulence kinetic energy and velocity. The prototype is manufactured and tested to certify the numerical predicted performance. The numerical results of pump performance are higher than the test results, but their change trends have an acceptable agreement with each other. The performance results indicted that the oversize impeller outlet width leads to poor pump performances and increasing shaft power. Changing the performance of deep-well centrifugal pump by alter impeller outlet width is practicable and convenient, which is worth popularizing in the engineering application. The proposed research enhances the theoretical basis of pump design to improve the performance and reduce the manufacturing cost of deep-well centrifugal pump.

  7. What Powers Lyman alpha Blobs?

    OpenAIRE

    Ao, Y.; Matsuda, Y.; Beelen, A.; Henkel, C.; Cen, R.; De Breuck, C.; Francis, P.; Kovacs, A.; Lagache, G.; Lehnert, M.; Mao, M.; Menten, K. M.; Norris, R.; Omont, A.; Tatemastu, K.

    2015-01-01

    Lyman alpha blobs (LABs) are spatially extended lyman alpha nebulae seen at high redshift. The origin of Lyman alpha emission in the LABs is still unclear and under debate. To study their heating mechanism(s), we present Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) observations of the 20 cm radio emission and Herschel PACS and SPIRE measurements of the far-infrared (FIR) emission towards the four LABs in the protocluster J2143-4423 at z=2.38. Among the four LABs, B6 and B7 are detected in the rad...

  8. Alpha heating in toroidal devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miley, G.H.

    1978-01-01

    Ignition (or near-ignition) by alpha heating is a key objective for the achievement of economic fusion reactors. While good confinement of high-energy alphas appears possible in larger reactors, near-term tokamak-type ignition experiments as well as some concepts for small reactors (e.g., the Field-Reversed Mirror or FRM) potentially face marginal situations. Consequently, there is a strong motivation to develop methods to evaluate alpha losses and heating profiles in some detail. Such studies for a TFTR-size tokamak and for a small FRM are described here.

  9. Application of chaotic pulse width modulation control for suppressing electromagnetic interference in a half-bridge converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhong Song

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available It was proposed in the former research that chaos control can be used to suppress electromagnetic interference (EMI in DC–DC converters. Analysis on a half-bridge converter is detailed in this study. Here, the practical example of the power supply of personal computers is given to show that, with an external chaotic signal to a pulse width modulation control circuit, the proposed approach can reduce EMI by reducing the amplitudes of power signals such as transformer current and output inductor currents at multiples of fundamental frequency.

  10. Frontal alpha asymmetry neurofeedback for the reduction of negative affect and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennella, Rocco; Patron, Elisabetta; Palomba, Daniela

    2017-05-01

    Frontal alpha asymmetry has been proposed to underlie the balance between approach and withdrawal motivation associated to each individual's affective style. Neurofeedback of EEG frontal alpha asymmetry represents a promising tool to reduce negative affect, although its specific effects on left/right frontal activity and approach/withdrawal motivation are still unclear. The present study employed a neurofeedback training to increase frontal alpha asymmetry (right - left), in order to evaluate discrete changes in alpha power at left and right sites, as well as in positive and negative affect, anxiety and depression. Thirty-two right-handed females were randomly assigned to receive either the neurofeedback on frontal alpha asymmetry, or an active control training (N = 16 in each group). The asymmetry group showed an increase in alpha asymmetry driven by higher alpha at the right site (p neurofeedback for the reduction of negative affect and anxiety in clinical settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Alpha motion based on a motion detector, but not on the Müller-Lyer illusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masahiro

    2014-07-01

    This study examined the mechanism of alpha motion, the apparent motion of the Müller-Lyer figure's shaft that occurs when the arrowheads and arrow tails are alternately presented. The following facts were found: (a) reduced exposure duration decreased the amount of alpha motion, and this phenomenon was not explainable by the amount of the Müller-Lyer illusion; (b) the motion aftereffect occurred after adaptation to alpha motion; (c) occurrence of alpha motion became difficult when the temporal frequency increased, and this characteristic of alpha motion was similar to the characteristic of a motion detector that motion detection became difficult when the temporal frequency increased from the optimal frequency. These findings indicated that alpha motion occurs on the basis of a motion detector but not on the Müller-Lyer illusion, and that the mechanism of alpha motion is the same as that of general motion perception.

  12. Alveolar bone width preservation after decoronation of ankylosed anterior incisors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shaul; Schwarz-Arad, Dvorah; Ashkenazi, Malka

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the alteration of alveolar ridge dimensions after decoronation procedures in children and adolescents at least 1 year after surgery. Twelve children who underwent decoronation of ankylosed maxillary anterior incisors with at least 1 year after surgery follow-up were recalled for reevaluation. All decoronations were performed when the ankylosed teeth were submerged 1-1.5 mm. During the recall appointment, impressions of the upper arch were obtained. The bucco-palatal alveolar dimensions of the decoronated teeth were measured on the cast at the mid-mesiodistal distance from the missing tooth and were compared with the distance from the contralateral healthy incisor. Overall, 12 children (9 male and 3 female) were reevaluated up to 82 months after decoronation (mean, 49.58 ± 24 months). The mean age of the patients at the time of trauma was 9.83 ± 2.8 years. The average bucco-palatal dimension of the alveolar ridge at the mid-decoronation area was 9 ± 1 mm compared with 10.17 ± 0.9 mm at the contralateral homologous tooth (difference of 1.67 ± 1.12, P = .004). The findings show a positive statistical correlation between the duration of the follow-up period and the bucco-palatal dimension of the alveolar ridge (P = .027). Although decoronation of ankylosed young permanent incisors resulted in a decrease in the bucco-palatal dimension with time, it did not prevent additional alveolar growth that occurs with age in a developing child and thus may help maintain the alveolar bone ridge width, height, and continuity and assist in future rehabilitation with less invasive ridge augmentation procedures required for implant placement. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Errors when shock waves interact due to numerical shock width

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, R.

    1993-03-04

    A simple test problem proposed by Noh, a strong shock reflecting from a rigid wall, demonstrates a generic problem with numerical shock capturing algorithms at boundaries that Noh called ``excess wall heating.`` We show that the same type of numerical error occurs in general when shock waves interact. The underlying cause is the non-uniform convergence to the hyperbolic solution of the inviscid limit of the solution to the PDEs with viscosity. The error can be understood from an analysis of the asymptotic solution. For a propagating shock, there is a difference in the total energy of the parabolic wave relative to the hyperbolic shock. Moreover, the relative energy depends on the strength of the shock. The error when shock waves interact is due to the difference in the relative energies between the incoming and outgoing shock waves. It is analogous to a phase shift in a scattering matrix. A conservative differencing scheme correctly describes the Hugoniot jump conditions for a steady propagating shock. Therefore, the error from the asymptotics occurs in the transient when the waves interact. The entropy error that occurs in the interaction region remains localized but does not dissipate. A scaling argument shows that as the viscosity coefficient goes to zero, the error shrinks in spatial extend but is constant in magnitude. Noh`s problem of the reflection of a shock from a rigid wall is equivalent to the symmetric impact of two shock waves of the opposite family. The asymptotic argument shows that the same type of numerical error would occur when the shocks are of unequal strength. Thus, Noh`s problem is indicative of a numerical error that occurs when shocks interact due to the numerical shock width.

  14. Errors when shock waves interact due to numerical shock width

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, R.

    1993-03-04

    A simple test problem proposed by Noh, a strong shock reflecting from a rigid wall, demonstrates a generic problem with numerical shock capturing algorithms at boundaries that Noh called excess wall heating.'' We show that the same type of numerical error occurs in general when shock waves interact. The underlying cause is the non-uniform convergence to the hyperbolic solution of the inviscid limit of the solution to the PDEs with viscosity. The error can be understood from an analysis of the asymptotic solution. For a propagating shock, there is a difference in the total energy of the parabolic wave relative to the hyperbolic shock. Moreover, the relative energy depends on the strength of the shock. The error when shock waves interact is due to the difference in the relative energies between the incoming and outgoing shock waves. It is analogous to a phase shift in a scattering matrix. A conservative differencing scheme correctly describes the Hugoniot jump conditions for a steady propagating shock. Therefore, the error from the asymptotics occurs in the transient when the waves interact. The entropy error that occurs in the interaction region remains localized but does not dissipate. A scaling argument shows that as the viscosity coefficient goes to zero, the error shrinks in spatial extend but is constant in magnitude. Noh's problem of the reflection of a shock from a rigid wall is equivalent to the symmetric impact of two shock waves of the opposite family. The asymptotic argument shows that the same type of numerical error would occur when the shocks are of unequal strength. Thus, Noh's problem is indicative of a numerical error that occurs when shocks interact due to the numerical shock width.

  15. Alpha Emitting Radionuclides and Radiopharmaceuticals for Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chérel, Michel; Barbet, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Today, cancer treatments mainly rely on surgery or external beam radiation to remove or destroy bulky tumors. Chemotherapy is given when tumours cannot be removed or when dissemination is suspected. However, these approaches cannot permanently treat all cancers and relapse occurs in up to 50% of the patients’ population. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) are effective against some disseminated and metastatic diseases, although they are rarely curative. Most preclinical and clinical developments in this field have involved electron-emitting radionuclides, particularly iodine-131, yttrium-90 and lutetium-177. The large range of the electrons emitted by these radionuclides reduces their efficacy against very small tumour cell clusters or isolated tumour cells present in residual disease and in many haematological tumours (leukaemia, myeloma). The range of alpha particles in biological tissues is very short, less than 0.1 mm, which makes alpha emitters theoretically ideal for treatment of such isolated tumour cells or micro-clusters of malignant cells. Thus, over the last decade, a growing interest for the use of alpha-emitting radionuclides has emerged. Research on targeted alpha therapy (TAT) began years ago in Nantes through cooperation between Subatech, a nuclear physics laboratory, CRCNA, a cancer research centre with a nuclear oncology team and ITU (Karlsruhe, Germany). CD138 was demonstrated as a potential target antigen for Multiple Myeloma, which is a target of huge clinical interest particularly suited for TAT because of the disseminated nature of the disease consisting primarily of isolated cells and small clusters of tumour cells mainly localized in the bone marrow. Thus anti-CD138 antibodies were labelled with bismuth-213 from actinium-225/bismuth-213 generators provided by ITU and used to target multiple myeloma cells. In vitro studies showed cell cycle arrest, synergism with chemotherapy and very little induction

  16. PGC-1alpha deficiency causes multi-system energy metabolic derangements: muscle dysfunction, abnormal weight control and hepatic steatosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa C Leone

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The gene encoding the transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha was targeted in mice. PGC-1alpha null (PGC-1alpha(-/- mice were viable. However, extensive phenotyping revealed multi-system abnormalities indicative of an abnormal energy metabolic phenotype. The postnatal growth of heart and slow-twitch skeletal muscle, organs with high mitochondrial energy demands, is blunted in PGC-1alpha(-/- mice. With age, the PGC-1alpha(-/- mice develop abnormally increased body fat, a phenotype that is more severe in females. Mitochondrial number and respiratory capacity is diminished in slow-twitch skeletal muscle of PGC-1alpha(-/- mice, leading to reduced muscle performance and exercise capacity. PGC-1alpha(-/- mice exhibit a modest diminution in cardiac function related largely to abnormal control of heart rate. The PGC-1alpha(-/- mice were unable to maintain core body temperature following exposure to cold, consistent with an altered thermogenic response. Following short-term starvation, PGC-1alpha(-/- mice develop hepatic steatosis due to a combination of reduced mitochondrial respiratory capacity and an increased expression of lipogenic genes. Surprisingly, PGC-1alpha(-/- mice were less susceptible to diet-induced insulin resistance than wild-type controls. Lastly, vacuolar lesions were detected in the central nervous system of PGC-1alpha(-/- mice. These results demonstrate that PGC-1alpha is necessary for appropriate adaptation to the metabolic and physiologic stressors of postnatal life.

  17. The dynamics of channel slope, width, and sediment transport in tectonically actively river systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanites, B.

    2016-12-01

    River profiles form the framework of mountainous landscapes. As such, their dynamics constitute a vital link in the interaction among the atmosphere, lithosphere, and biosphere as they control the topographic response to tectonics and climate. River dynamics in such regions are a result of the interactions of tectonics, rock-type, water discharge, and sediment. Here I present a new method for modeling the influence of channel width and sediment supply on river profile evolution. The approach balances computational efficiency with the complexities of channel geometry-sediment transport tradeoffs by utilizing a channel optimization algorithm coupled with a 1-D river profile model. Through a series of numerical experiments, I show that current models quantifying river dynamics to tectonic and climatic changes likely over predict the topographic response in a number of mountainous landscapes, especially if sediment is an important control on river dynamics. The main model experiment quantifies the impact of a 5-fold increase in rock-uplift on river profile and channel geometry for three erosion models: (1) a shear-stress detachment limited model, (2) a sediment cover-shear stress model, and (3) a saltation abrasion model. The detachment limited model shows the greatest sensitivity to rock-uplift, showing a 4-fold increase in fluvial relief following the increase in rock-uplift. If channel width is held static and not allowed to change in repsonse to the transient adjustment, the relief increases by 5-fold. For the sediment cover model, fluvial relief increases only 2.5 fold. The reason for the reduced topographic response is that channel width changes increase both the erosion potential (i.e. shear stress) as well as the frequency of bedrock exposure. The saltation abrasion model results in a 1.5-fold increase in fluvial relief. Further model experiments explore the morphological predictions of a river flowing over a fold showing diagnostic signatures in the morphology

  18. Red cell distribution width in type 2 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nada, Aml Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    To study the indices of some elements of the complete blood count, in type 2 diabetic patients, in comparison with nondiabetic healthy controls; and to find out the effects of glycemic control and different medications on these indices. To the best of our knowledge, this study is novel in our environment and will serve as a foundation for other researchers in this field. This retrospective study included 260 type 2 diabetic patients on treatment and 44 healthy control subjects. Sex, age, weight, height, blood pressure, complete blood count, fasting plasma glucose, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and lipid profile data, were available for all of the study population. For diabetic patients, data on duration of diabetes and all medications were also available. Red cell distribution width (RDW) was significantly higher in diabetic patients than in control subjects (P=0.008). It was also higher in patients with uncontrolled glycemia (HbA1c >7%) than those with good control (HbA1c ≤7%; P=0.035). Mean platelet volume (MPV) was comparable in both diabetic patients and healthy controls (P=0.238). RDW and MPV did not significantly correlate with fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, or duration of diabetes. Both aspirin and clopidogrel did not show a significant effect on MPV. Both insulin and oral hypoglycemic agents did not show a significant effect on RDW, mean corpuscular volume, MPV, platelet count, or white blood cell count. Diabetic patients treated with indapamide or the combined thiazides and angiotensin receptor blockers showed no significant difference in RDW when compared with the control subjects. RDW, which is recently considered as an inflammatory marker with a significant predictive value of mortality in diseased and healthy populations, is significantly higher in diabetic patients than healthy subjects and is particularly higher in uncontrolled glycemia. None of the studied hypoglycemic agents showed a significant effect on RDW. Diabetic hypertensive patients receiving

  19. Red cell distribution width in type 2 diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada AM

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aml Mohamed Nada Department of Internal Medicine, Unit of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt Objective: To study the indices of some elements of the complete blood count, in type 2 diabetic patients, in comparison with nondiabetic healthy controls; and to find out the effects of glycemic control and different medications on these indices. To the best of our knowledge, this study is novel in our environment and will serve as a foundation for other researchers in this field. Methods: This retrospective study included 260 type 2 diabetic patients on treatment and 44 healthy control subjects. Sex, age, weight, height, blood pressure, complete blood count, fasting plasma glucose, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, and lipid profile data, were available for all of the study population. For diabetic patients, data on duration of diabetes and all medications were also available. Results: Red cell distribution width (RDW was significantly higher in diabetic patients than in control subjects (P=0.008. It was also higher in patients with uncontrolled glycemia (HbA1c >7% than those with good control (HbA1c ≤7%; P=0.035. Mean platelet volume (MPV was comparable in both diabetic patients and healthy controls (P=0.238. RDW and MPV did not significantly correlate with fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, or duration of diabetes. Both aspirin and clopidogrel did not show a significant effect on MPV. Both insulin and oral hypoglycemic agents did not show a significant effect on RDW, mean corpuscular volume, MPV, platelet count, or white blood cell count. Diabetic patients treated with indapamide or the combined thiazides and angiotensin receptor blockers showed no significant difference in RDW when compared with the control subjects. Conclusion: RDW, which is recently considered as an inflammatory marker with a significant predictive value of mortality in diseased and healthy populations, is significantly higher in

  20. Comparison of tibiofemoral joint space width measurements from standing CT and fixed flexion radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Neil A; Frick, Eric; Duryea, Jeffrey; Nevitt, Michael C; Niu, Jingbo; Torner, James C; Felson, David T; Anderson, Donald D

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this project was to determine the relationship between medial tibiofemoral joint space width measured on fixed-flexion radiographs and the three-dimensional joint space width distribution on low-dose, standing CT (SCT) imaging. At the 84-month visit of the Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study, 20 participants were recruited. A commercial SCT scanner for the foot and ankle was modified to image knees while standing. Medial tibiofemoral joint space width was assessed on radiographs at fixed locations from 15% to 30% of compartment width using validated software and on SCT by mapping the distances between three-dimensional subchondral bone surfaces. Individual joint space width values from radiographs were compared with three-dimensional joint space width values from corresponding sagittal plane locations using paired t-tests and correlation coefficients. For the four medial-most tibiofemoral locations, radiographic joint space width values exceeded the minimal joint space width on SCT by a mean of 2.0 mm and were approximately equal to the 61st percentile value of the joint space width distribution at each respective sagittal-plane location. Correlation coefficients at these locations were 0.91-0.97 and the offsets between joint space width values from radiographs and SCT measurements were consistent. There were greater offsets and variability in the offsets between modalities closer to the tibial spine. Joint space width measurements on fixed-flexion radiographs are highly correlated with three-dimensional joint space width from SCT. In addition to avoiding bony overlap obscuring the joint, a limitation of radiographs, the current study supports a role for SCT in the evaluation of tibiofemoral OA. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:1388-1395, 2017. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Pulse Width-Dependent Effects of Intestinal Electrical Stimulation for Obesity: Role of Gastrointestinal Motility and Hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shiying; Chen, Jiande D Z

    2017-01-01

    The goals of this experiment were to study therapeutic potential of intestinal electrical stimulation (IES) for obesity, its mechanisms involving gastrointestinal motility and hormones, and role of pulse width in diet-induced obese rats. In a 4-week study, rats equipped with one pair of electrodes at the duodenum were assigned to receive either a sham or IES of varied pulse widths in a sequential way. Food intake was measured daily and body weight measured weekly. Blood samples were collected for the measurement of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Solid gastric emptying (GE) and small bowel transit (SIT) tests were performed at the end of the experiment. The results of the study were as follows: (1) Daily food intake, not affected by IES of 0.3 ms, was pulse width-dependently reduced by 1.9 g with 1 ms and by 5.7 g with 3 ms. Accordingly, body weight was pulse width-dependently reduced by 2.4 g with 1 ms and by 12.8 g with 3 ms compared to a gain of 5.6 g in sham. (2) GLP-1 level was elevated by both 0.3 and 3 ms at 15 min, but was elevated only with 3 ms at 60 min. (3) GE was delayed to 52.3 % by IES of 3 ms but not 0.3 ms, compared to that at 64.4 % with sham IES. (4) Compared to the geometric center of 7.0 with sham IES, SIT was accelerated by 3 ms to 7.8 but not by 0.3 ms. IES pulse width-dependently reduces food intake and body weight, attributed to the delay of gastric emptying and the acceleration of small bowel transit, as well as the enhancement of GLP-1 secretion.

  2. Evaluation of width and width uniformity of near-field electrospinning printed micro and sub-micrometer lines based on optical image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Libo; Xia, Yong; Hebibul, Rahman; Wang, Jiuhong; Zhou, Xiangyang; Hu, Yingjie; Li, Zhikang; Luo, Guoxi; Zhao, Yulong; Jiang, Zhuangde

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents an experimental study using image processing to investigate width and width uniformity of sub-micrometer polyethylene oxide (PEO) lines fabricated by near-filed electrospinning (NFES) technique. An adaptive thresholding method was developed to determine the optimal gray values to accurately extract profiles of printed lines from original optical images. And it was proved with good feasibility. The mechanism of the proposed thresholding method was believed to take advantage of statistic property and get rid of halo induced errors. Triangular method and relative standard deviation (RSD) were introduced to calculate line width and width uniformity, respectively. Based on these image processing methods, the effects of process parameters including substrate speed (v), applied voltage (U), nozzle-to-collector distance (H), and syringe pump flow rate (Q) on width and width uniformity of printed lines were discussed. The research results are helpful to promote the NFES technique for fabricating high resolution micro and sub-micro lines and also helpful to optical image processing at sub-micro level.

  3. Neutron-induced alpha radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Marco Antonio Stanojev

    2008-01-01

    A new radiography technique to inspect thin samples was developed. Low energy alpha particles, generated by a boron based screen under thermal neutron irradiation, are used as penetrating radiation. The solid state nuclear track detector CR-39 has been used to register the image. The interaction of the α - particles with the CR-39 gives rise to damages which under an adequate chemical etching became tracks the basic units forming the image. A digital system was developed for data acquisition and data analysis as well as for image processing. The irradiation and etching conditions to obtain the best radiography are 1,3 hours and 25 minutes at 70 deg C respectively. For such conditions samples having 10 μm in thickness can be inspected with a spatial resolution of 32 μm. The use of the digital system has reduced the time spent for data acquisition and data analysis and has improved the radiography image visualization. Furthermore, by using the digital system, it was possible to study several new parameters regarding the tracks which are very important to understand and study the image formation theory in solid state nuclear track detectors, the one used in this thesis. Some radiography images are also shown which demonstrate the potential of the proposed radiography technique. When compared with the other radiography techniques already in use to inspect thin samples, the present one developed in the present paper allows a smaller time to obtain the image, it is not necessary to handle liquid radioactive substances, the detector is insensitive to β, γ, X-ray and visible light. (author)

  4. Classification of alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michel, M. C.; Kenny, B.; Schwinn, D. A.

    1995-01-01

    Two alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtypes (alpha 1A and alpha 1B) have been detected in various tissues by pharmacological techniques, and three distinct cDNAs encoding alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtypes have been cloned. The profile of an increasing number of subtype-selective compounds at cloned and endogenous

  5. Characterization of salivary alpha-amylase binding to Streptococcus sanguis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scannapieco, F.A.; Bergey, E.J.; Reddy, M.S.; Levine, M.J. (State Univ. of New York, Buffalo (USA))

    1989-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the major salivary components which interact with oral bacteria and to determine the mechanism(s) responsible for their binding to the bacterial surface. Strains of Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus mutans, and Actinomyces viscosus were incubated for 2 h in freshly collected human submandibular-sublingual saliva (HSMSL) or parotid saliva (HPS), and bound salivary components were eluted with 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate. By sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western transfer, alpha-amylase was the prominent salivary component eluted from S. sanguis. Studies with {sup 125}I-labeled HSMSL or {sup 125}I-labeled HPS also demonstrated a component with an electrophoretic mobility identical to that of alpha-amylase which bound to S. sanguis. Purified alpha-amylase from human parotid saliva was radiolabeled and found to bind to strains of S. sanguis genotypes 1 and 3 and S. mitis genotype 2, but not to strains of other species of oral bacteria. Binding of ({sup 125}I)alpha-amylase to streptococci was saturable, calcium independent, and inhibitable by excess unlabeled alpha-amylases from a variety of sources, but not by secretory immunoglobulin A and the proline-rich glycoprotein from HPS. Reduced and alkylated alpha-amylase lost enzymatic and bacterial binding activities. Binding was inhibited by incubation with maltotriose, maltooligosaccharides, limit dextrins, and starch.

  6. Characterization of salivary alpha-amylase binding to Streptococcus sanguis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scannapieco, F.A.; Bergey, E.J.; Reddy, M.S.; Levine, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the major salivary components which interact with oral bacteria and to determine the mechanism(s) responsible for their binding to the bacterial surface. Strains of Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus mutans, and Actinomyces viscosus were incubated for 2 h in freshly collected human submandibular-sublingual saliva (HSMSL) or parotid saliva (HPS), and bound salivary components were eluted with 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate. By sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western transfer, alpha-amylase was the prominent salivary component eluted from S. sanguis. Studies with 125 I-labeled HSMSL or 125 I-labeled HPS also demonstrated a component with an electrophoretic mobility identical to that of alpha-amylase which bound to S. sanguis. Purified alpha-amylase from human parotid saliva was radiolabeled and found to bind to strains of S. sanguis genotypes 1 and 3 and S. mitis genotype 2, but not to strains of other species of oral bacteria. Binding of [ 125 I]alpha-amylase to streptococci was saturable, calcium independent, and inhibitable by excess unlabeled alpha-amylases from a variety of sources, but not by secretory immunoglobulin A and the proline-rich glycoprotein from HPS. Reduced and alkylated alpha-amylase lost enzymatic and bacterial binding activities. Binding was inhibited by incubation with maltotriose, maltooligosaccharides, limit dextrins, and starch

  7. Benchmarks for targeted alpha therapy for cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, J.B.

    2011-01-01

    production centres could ensure adequate supply of Ac-225 for international distribution and At-211 for local distribution. The phase 2 trial for AML at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center uses TAT as an adjuvant therapy; chemotherapy to reduce the bulk of disease, TAT to control the residual disease. This approach seems appropriate for many applications. However, the melanoma TAT trial at Sydney showed significant efficacy in the phase I trial achieving 10% near complete or partial response, 40% stable disease and 13% long term survival of 2-5 years, without any evidence of adverse events. The Duke GBM study achieved a median survival of 52 weeks for GBM. The potential of TAT to reduce solid tumours by tumour antivascular alpha therapy means that TAT could be used to eliminate micrometastases in high risk primary cancer patients, cause tumour regression with curative intent for medium stage patients and be a significant palliative therapy for end stage patients.

  8. Pulse-width-modulated device for precision temperature control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyser, R. C.

    1972-01-01

    Temperature controller is described which reduces difference between temperature oscillations about control point. Standard temperature-sensitive resistor element is utilized which is highly stable and reproducible. Temperature sensing circuitry is conventional dc bridge with power supplied by battery or highly regulated supply source.

  9. Contribution to the study of the alpha-alpha interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darriulat, Pierre

    1965-01-01

    The new variable energy cyclotron at Berkeley that can accelerate an alpha beam up to an energy of 130 MeV and the mass production of lithium diffused junctions have enabled us to perform 2 series of measurement, in the first one we use alpha beams with an energy ranging between 50 and 120 MeV to study alpha-alpha forces in the second one we use the flexibility of the variable energy cyclotron the resonances around 40 MeV, region that can not yet be reached by tandem accelerators. This work is divided into 6 chapters. The first chapter is dedicated to the formalism of partial wave analysis and the theory of the compound nucleus. In the second chapter the author presents the 88 cyclotron at Berkeley and the diffusion chamber, the alpha detectors are lithium diffused junctions made of silicon. The third chapter deals with the experimental methods used and the issue of the reduction of the volume of data. In the fourth chapter the results obtained in the upper part of the energy range are described in terms of complex shifts that allow the description of the α-α interaction at high energy. The very low impact parameter has enabled us to find 2 new components (l=6 and l=8) of the rotational spectrum and to define a more accurate phenomenological potential. The fifth chapter is dedicated to the narrow resonances we have found between 12 and 27 MeV. We present in the last chapter a calculation of the binding energy of C 12 in which we have considered the 12 C nucleus as formed by 3 alpha particles interacting with each other through the phenomenological potential defined above

  10. Antibody Probes to Estrogen Receptor-Alpha Transcript-Specific Upstream Peptides: Alternate ER-Alpha Promoter Use and Breast Cancer Etiology/Outcome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pentecost, Brian

    2002-01-01

    Positive Estrogen Receptor alpha (ER) status correlates with a reduced incidence of breast cancer recurrence in the first years after resection of tumors, and predicts a favorable response to adjuvant anti-estrogens...

  11. Distortion in simulated alpha and FWHM measurements on OS-40 oscilloscopes linked in series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, T.L.

    1975-01-01

    When a prompt diagnostic signal of the type recorded in underground nuclear tests is fed into a chain of OS-40 amplifiers linked in series, it is not recorded exactly the same from one oscilloscope to the next. This report describes a study in which a particular configuration of OS-40 oscilloscopes was used to record simulated alpha signals ranging from 2000 to more than 4000 μsec -1 and pulses having a FWHM of approximately 10 nsec. Alpha values of less than or equal to 2000 μsec -1 were recorded adequately by the stacked oscilloscopes, whereas for alpha values of 4000 μsec -1 and greater, serious degradation in the data was observed on all but the first scope in the chain. Peak width studies seem to indicate some broadening in the recorded FWHM the farther one proceeds along the oscillator chain.(U.S.)

  12. Workshop on Precision Measurements of $\\alpha_s$

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bethke, Siegfried; /Munich, Max Planck Inst.; Hoang, Andre H.; /Vienna U.; Kluth, Stefan; /Munich, Max Planck Inst.; Schieck, Jochen; /Munich U.; Stewart, Iain W.; Aoki, S.; Beneke, M.; Bethke, S.; Blumlein, J.; Brambilla, N.; Brodsky, S.; /MIT, LNS

    2011-10-01

    These are the proceedings of the Workshop on Precision Measurements of {alpha}{sub s} held at the Max-Planck-Institute for Physics, Munich, February 9-11, 2011. The workshop explored in depth the determination of {alpha}{sub s}(m{sub Z}) in the {ovr MS} scheme from the key categories where high precision measurements are currently being made, including DIS and global PDF fits, {tau}-decays, electro-weak precision observables and Z-decays, event-shapes, and lattice QCD. These proceedings contain a short summary contribution from the speakers, as well as the lists of authors, conveners, participants, and talks.

  13. Temperature dependence of the in situ widths of a rotating condensate in one dimensional optical potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, Ahmed S.; Soliman, Shemi S.M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a conventional method of quantum statistical mechanics is used to study the temperature dependence of the in situ widths of a rotating condensate bosons in 1D optical potential. We trace the experimentally accessible parameters for which the temperature dependence of the in situ widths becomes perceivable. The calculated results showed that the temperature dependence of the in situ widths is completely different from that of a rotating condensate or trapped bosons in the optical lattice separately. The z-width shows distinct behavior from x- and y-widths due to the rotation effect. The obtained results provide useful qualitative theoretical results for future Bose Einstein condensation experiments in such traps. - Highlights: • The temperature dependence of the in situ widths of a rotating condensate boson in 1D optical potential is investigated. • We trace the experimentally accessible parameters for which the in situ widths become perceivable. • The above mentioned parameters exhibit a characteristic rotation rate and optical potential depth dependence. • Characteristic dependence of the effective widths on temperature is investigated. • Our results provide useful qualitatively and quantitative theoretical results for experiments in various traps.

  14. Temperature dependence of the in situ widths of a rotating condensate in one dimensional optical potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, Ahmed S., E-mail: ahmedhassan117@yahoo.com; Soliman, Shemi S.M.

    2016-01-08

    In this paper, a conventional method of quantum statistical mechanics is used to study the temperature dependence of the in situ widths of a rotating condensate bosons in 1D optical potential. We trace the experimentally accessible parameters for which the temperature dependence of the in situ widths becomes perceivable. The calculated results showed that the temperature dependence of the in situ widths is completely different from that of a rotating condensate or trapped bosons in the optical lattice separately. The z-width shows distinct behavior from x- and y-widths due to the rotation effect. The obtained results provide useful qualitative theoretical results for future Bose Einstein condensation experiments in such traps. - Highlights: • The temperature dependence of the in situ widths of a rotating condensate boson in 1D optical potential is investigated. • We trace the experimentally accessible parameters for which the in situ widths become perceivable. • The above mentioned parameters exhibit a characteristic rotation rate and optical potential depth dependence. • Characteristic dependence of the effective widths on temperature is investigated. • Our results provide useful qualitatively and quantitative theoretical results for experiments in various traps.

  15. The temperature dependence of the width of the giant-dipole resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ormand, W.E.; Bortignon, P.F.; Broglia, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    The giant-dipole resonance (GDR) in 120 Sn and 208 Pb is studied as a function of excitation energy, angular momentum, and intrinsic width within the context of the adiabatic model. Theoretical evaluations of the full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM) for the GDR strength function are compared with recent experimental data and are found to be in good agreement. (orig.)

  16. The effect of interaural-time-difference fluctuations on apparent source width

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Käsbach, Johannes; May, Tobias; Oskarsdottir, Gudrun

    2014-01-01

    For the perception of spaciousness, the temporal fluctuations of the interaural time differences (ITDs) and interaural level differences (ILDs) provide important binaural cues. One major characteristic of spatial perception is apparent source width (ASW), which describes the perceived width of a ...

  17. Case study: Equivalent widths of the Middle Rio Grande, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudia Leon; Pierre Y. Julien; Drew C. Baird

    2009-01-01

    Successive reaches of the Rio Grande have maintained equivalent channel widths of 50 and 250 m, respectively, over long periods of time. It is hypothesized that alluvial channels adjust bed slope to match the long-term changes in channel width. Analytical relationships show that wider river reaches develop steeper slopes. A modeling approach using daily water and...

  18. Analysis of equivalent widths of alluvial channels and application for instream habitat in the Rio Grande

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudia A. Leon

    2003-01-01

    Rivers are natural systems that adjust to variable water and sediment discharges. Channels with spatial variability in width that are managed to maintain constant widths over a period of time are able to transport the same water and sediment discharges by adjusting the bed slope. Methods developed to de ne equilibrium hydraulic geometry characteristics of alluvial...

  19. Suppression of high-frequency perturbations in pulse-width modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    A method suppresses high-frequency perturbations in a pulse-width modulated signal. The pulse-width modulation may superpose a carrier signal onto an input signal having a predetermined modulation frequency. The carrier signals may be phase-shifted. The resulting modulated signals may...

  20. Modeling wildland fire containment with uncertain flame length and fireline width

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romain Mees; David Strauss; Richard Chase

    1993-01-01

    We describe a mathematical model for the probability that a fireline succeeds in containing a fire. The probability increases as the fireline width increases, and also as the fire's flame length decreases. More interestingly, uncertainties in width and flame length affect the computed containment probabilities, and can thus indirectly affect the optimum allocation...

  1. A New Selective Harmonic Elimination Pulse- Width and Amplitude Modulation (SHEPWAM) for Drive Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghoreishy, Hoda; Varjani, Ali Yazdian; Mohamadian, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    Compared to the conventional selective harmonic elimination-pulse width modulation (SHE-PWM), the selective harmonic elimination-pulse width and amplitude modulation (SHE-PWAM) control strategy results in significant improvements in the performance of CHB inverters. This fact is due to considerin...

  2. Analytical model for double split ring resonators with arbitrary ring width

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Jensen, Thomas; Krozer, Viktor

    2008-01-01

    For the first time, the analytical model for a double split ring resonator with unequal width rings is developed. The proposed models for the resonators with equal and unequal widths are based on an impedance matrix representation and provide the prediction of performance in a wide frequency range...

  3. Effects of strip and full-width tillage on soil carbon IV oxide-carbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... determine the effects of strip tillage and full-width tillage treatments on soil carbon IV oxide-carbon (CO2-C) fluxes, bacterial and fungal populations in growing period of sunflower (Helianthus annus). A row-crop rotary hoe with C type blades was used to create three strip widths by changing the connection of blades of the ...

  4. Conditioning of alpha bearing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Alpha bearing wastes are generated during the reprocessing of spent fuel, mixed oxide fuel fabrication, decommissioning and other activities. The safe and effective management of these wastes is of particular importance owing to the radiotoxicity and long lived characteristics of certain transuranic (TRU) elements. The management of alpha bearing wastes involves a number of stages which include collection, characterization, segregation, treatment, conditioning, transport, storage and disposal. This report describes the currently available matrices and technologies for the conditioning of alpha wastes and relates them to their compatibility with the other stages of the waste management process. The selection of a specific immobilization process is dependent on the waste treatment state and the subsequent handling, transport, storage and disposal requirements. The overall objectives of immobilization are similar for all waste producers and processors, which are to produce: (a) Waste forms with sufficient mechanical, physical and chemical stability to satisfy all stages of handling, transport and storage (referred to as the short term requirements), and (b) Waste forms which will satisfy disposal requirements and inhibit the release of radionuclides to the biosphere (referred to as the long term requirements). Cement and bitumen processes have already been successfully applied to alpha waste conditioning on the industrial scale in many of the IAEA Member States. Cement systems based on BFS and pozzolanic cements have emerged as the principal encapsulation matrices for the full range of alpha bearing wastes. Alternative technologies, such as polymers and ceramics, are being developed for specific waste streams but are unlikely to meet widespread application owing to cost and process complexity. The merits of alpha waste conditioning are improved performance in transport, storage and disposal combined with enhanced public perception of waste management operations. These

  5. Reliability of permanent mandibular first molars and incisors widths as predictor for the width of permanent mandibular and maxillary canines and premolars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhulika Mittar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Preventive measures are necessary to prevent a potential irregularity from progressing into a more severe malocclusion. The determination of the tooth size-arch length discrepancy in mixed dentition requires an accurate prediction of the mesiodistal widths of the unerupted permanent teeth. Materials and Methods: For the study, 200 subjects in the age group of 16-25 years were selected from various colleges of M. M. University. The mesiodistal width of permanent mandibular incisors, first molars, canines and premolars of both arches were measured on the subject cast using an electronic digital caliper. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference between mesiodistal tooth widths of males and females. Linear regression equation was determined to predict the sum of mandibular and maxillary permanent canines and premolars using mandibular first molars plus the four mandibular incisors as predictors. Results: There was no significant difference between the actual and predicted width of sum of permanent canines and premolars using regression equations. The predicted widths of both arches using Tanaka and Johnston equations showed significant differences. Determined regression equations for males were accurate in male samples and determined regression equation for females were accurate in female samples for both arches.

  6. Rapid quantification of alpha emitters in low- and intermediate-level dry radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tae-Hong Park; Eul-Hye Jeon; Yong Sul Choi; Jong-Ho Park; Hong Joo Ahn; Yong Jun Park

    2016-01-01

    We developed a rapid quantification method of Pu, Am, and Cm in low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste using TRU resin, alpha spectrometry, and thermal ionization mass spectrometry for radioactive waste disposal. In particular, we focused on the optimization of sample preparation methods for alpha spectrometry and mass spectrometry to reduce the analysis time. The optimized method used Am and Pu stripping solutions for micro-coprecipitation and showed good recovery and alpha spectrum resolution for alpha counting. In addition, appropriate selection of Pu elution solution decreased the sample preparation time for thermal ionization mass spectrometry measurements. (author)

  7. Analysis of cadmium in high alpha solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, L.W.; Overman, L.A.; Hodgens, H.F.

    1977-07-01

    Cadmium nitrate is occasionally used as a neutron poison for convenience in the separation of uranium, neptunium, and plutonium. As the classical methods of analysis for cadmium are very time-consuming, a method to isolate it in solution using solvent extraction of uranium, neptunium, and plutonium with TBP in an n-paraffin hydrocarbon was investigated. After removal of the radionuclides, the cadmium is determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Precision of the method at the 95 percent confidence level is +-2.4 percent. Alpha content of the solutions was typically reduced from 1-10 x 10 11 dis/(min ml) 238 Pu to 1-15 x 10 4 dis/(min ml). Analysis time was typically reduced from approximately 24 hours per sample to less than 1 hour

  8. Inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-alpha with anti-diabetic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuzawa, M; Satoh, J; Qiang, X; Miyaguchi, S; Sakata, Y; Nakazawa, T; Ikehata, F; Ohta, S; Toyota, T

    1999-03-01

    It has recently been indicated that tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) production is increased under chronic hyperglycemia and TNF-alpha has harmful effects on insulin sensitivity and possibly on chronic diabetic complications. Therefore it will be favorable for diabetes treatment if anti-diabetic agents also have anti-TNF-alpha activities. In this study, we have investigated effects of hypoglycemic sulfonylureas (gliclazide and glibenclamide) and a thiazolidinedione (troglitazone) on lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-alpha production, which was evaluated by immunoassay and bioassay, in vivo using mice and partly in vitro using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Gliclazide significantly inhibited TNF-alpha production in vivo and also in vitro at a concentration of 10(-3) mol/l. However, glibenclamide had neither effect on TNF-alpha production nor action. On the other hand, troglitazone inhibited action rather than production of TNF-alpha in vivo. In vitro troglitazone (10(-4) mol/l) significantly reduced cytolytic activity of TNF-alpha against LM cells. These results indicate that gliclazide and troglitazone have inhibitory effect on TNF-alpha.

  9. Gefitinib circumvents hypoxia-induced drug resistance by the modulation of HIF-1alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rho, Jin Kyung; Choi, Yun Jung; Lee, Jin Kyung; Ryoo, Baek-Yeol; Na, Im Ii; Yang, Sung Hyun; Kim, Cheol Hyeon; Yoo, Young Do; Lee, Jae Cheol

    2009-03-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) is a transcriptional factor which is activated by hypoxia and associated with cell survival, proliferation and drug resistance. Recent studies have shown that the down-stream molecules of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signal are involved in the hypoxia-dependent or -independent HIF-1alpha protein accumulation. Thus, we hypothesized that an EGFR-TK inhibitor, gefitinib, might circumvent the hypoxia-induced drug resistance via the regulation of HIF-1alpha expression. In our data, treatment of gefitinib suppressed induced HIF-1alpha by hypoxia. This action of gefitinib was caused by reduced protein stability without any change in the level of HIF-1alpha mRNA. The effect of gefitinib on down-regulation of HIF-1alpha was reversed by transfection of constitutively active form of Akt. The cellular response to gefitinib was similar in both normoxia and hypoxia condition. However, the response to conventional chemotherapeutic drugs decreased >50% under hypoxia condition and they did not change HIF-1alpha expression. In addition, the suppression of HIF-1alpha using siRNA overcame partially hypoxia-induced drug resistance. In conclusion, gefitinib was able to circumvent hypoxia-induced drug resistance suggesting that the effective suppression of HIF-1alpha by the inhibition of EGFR-Akt pathway may overcome the hypoxia-induced drug resistance.

  10. Alpha-synuclein suppression by targeted small interfering RNA in the primate substantia nigra.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison L McCormack

    Full Text Available The protein alpha-synuclein is involved in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders. Its toxic potential appears to be enhanced by increased protein expression, providing a compelling rationale for therapeutic strategies aimed at reducing neuronal alpha-synuclein burden. Here, feasibility and safety of alpha-synuclein suppression were evaluated by treating monkeys with small interfering RNA (siRNA directed against alpha-synuclein. The siRNA molecule was chemically modified to prevent degradation by exo- and endonucleases and directly infused into the left substantia nigra. Results compared levels of alpha-synuclein mRNA and protein in the infused (left vs. untreated (right hemisphere and revealed a significant 40-50% suppression of alpha-synuclein expression. These findings could not be attributable to non-specific effects of siRNA infusion since treatment of a separate set of animals with luciferase-targeting siRNA produced no changes in alpha-synuclein. Infusion with alpha-synuclein siRNA, while lowering alpha-synuclein expression, had no overt adverse consequences. In particular, it did not cause tissue inflammation and did not change (i the number and phenotype of nigral dopaminergic neurons, and (ii the concentrations of striatal dopamine and its metabolites. The data represent the first evidence of successful anti-alpha-synuclein intervention in the primate substantia nigra and support further development of RNA interference-based therapeutics.

  11. Decrease of alpha-chains in beta-thalassemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Papadaki

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the pathophysiology of beta-thalassemia, globin chain imbalance plays a central role in predicting red blood cell (RBC life span and disease severity. Strategies to improve globin chain imbalance are therefore a legitimate target in the management of this incurable genetic disorder. Classical gene addition with the available retroviral vectors can alter one of the two variables while combined reduction of achains could provide a more potent therapeutic effect. We developed foamy virus (FV vectors for the production of beta-globin and vectors targeting the a-globin transcript using the shRNA technology. Using FVderived vectors, we expressed human anti-a-globin short hairpin RNAs, off a potent PolIII promoter (H1; of the 4 different shRNAs tested, alpha-globin mRNA reduction varied from 6.3 to 54% of the control CD34+ cells. Similarly, vectors developed for the mouse alpha-globin, resulted in a significant reduction (range 15-28% of the control of aglobin in erythroid colonies of Lin- cells. To assay vector performance in vivo, we investigated the hematological parameters in thal3+/- mice transpalnted with FV-transduced Lin- cells, transduced with anti-alpha-globin shRNA. Despite low chimerism and low vector copy numbers (<0.5 per cell, we observed a 10% reduction in red cell distribution width, a marker for distorted erythropoiesis. We finally developed a combination FV vector expressing beta-globin off a HS40 enhancer and anti-alpha-globin shRNA and tested its performance in human CD34+ cells from a thalassemic patient. Globin chain imbalance was ameliorated from a beta/alpha ratio of 0.12 to the level of 0.5, clearly indicating a therapeutic benefit. Overall, shRNA control of alpha-globin excess is a feasible target but requires improvements since the RNAi effect is tough to predict and should ideally be combined with controllable elements.

  12. An inter-hemispheric, statistical study of nightside spectral width distributions from coherent HF scatter radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Woodfield

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A statistical investigation of the Doppler spectral width parameter routinely observed by HF coherent radars has been conducted between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres for the nightside ionosphere. Data from the SuperDARN radars at Thykkvibær, Iceland and Syowa East, Antarctica have been employed for this purpose. Both radars frequently observe regions of high (>200 ms-1 spectral width polewards of low (<200 ms-1 spectral width. Three years of data from both radars have been analysed both for the spectral width and line of sight velocity. The pointing direction of these two radars is such that the flow reversal boundary may be estimated from the velocity data, and therefore, we have an estimate of the open/closed field line boundary location for comparison with the high spectral widths. Five key observations regarding the behaviour of the spectral width on the nightside have been made. These are (i the two radars observe similar characteristics on a statistical basis; (ii a latitudinal dependence related to magnetic local time is found in both hemispheres; (iii a seasonal dependence of the spectral width is observed by both radars, which shows a marked absence of latitudinal dependence during the summer months; (iv in general, the Syowa East spectral width tends to be larger than that from Iceland East, and (v the highest spectral widths seem to appear on both open and closed field lines. Points (i and (ii indicate that the cause of high spectral width is magnetospheric in origin. Point (iii suggests that either the propagation of the HF radio waves to regions of high spectral width or the generating mechanism(s for high spectral width is affected by solar illumination or other seasonal effects. Point (iv suggests that the radar beams from each of the radars are subject either to different instrumental or propagation effects, or different geophysical conditions due to their locations, although we suggest that this result is more likely to

  13. An inter-hemispheric, statistical study of nightside spectral width distributions from coherent HF scatter radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Woodfield

    Full Text Available A statistical investigation of the Doppler spectral width parameter routinely observed by HF coherent radars has been conducted between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres for the nightside ionosphere. Data from the SuperDARN radars at Thykkvibær, Iceland and Syowa East, Antarctica have been employed for this purpose. Both radars frequently observe regions of high (>200 ms-1 spectral width polewards of low (<200 ms-1 spectral width. Three years of data from both radars have been analysed both for the spectral width and line of sight velocity. The pointing direction of these two radars is such that the flow reversal boundary may be estimated from the velocity data, and therefore, we have an estimate of the open/closed field line boundary location for comparison with the high spectral widths. Five key observations regarding the behaviour of the spectral width on the nightside have been made. These are (i the two radars observe similar characteristics on a statistical basis; (ii a latitudinal dependence related to magnetic local time is found in both hemispheres; (iii a seasonal dependence of the spectral width is observed by both radars, which shows a marked absence of latitudinal dependence during the summer months; (iv in general, the Syowa East spectral width tends to be larger than that from Iceland East, and (v the highest spectral widths seem to appear on both open and closed field lines. Points (i and (ii indicate that the cause of high spectral width is magnetospheric in origin. Point (iii suggests that either the propagation of the HF radio waves to regions of high spectral width or the generating mechanism(s for high spectral width is affected by solar illumination or other seasonal effects. Point (iv suggests that the radar beams from each of the radars are subject either to different instrumental or propagation effects, or different geophysical conditions due to their locations, although we suggest that this

  14. Improved Alpha Testing Using Hashed Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyman, Chris; McGuire, Morgan

    2017-08-14

    We further describe and analyze the idea of hashed alpha testing from Wyman and McGuire [1], which builds on stochastic alpha testing and simplifies stochastic transparency. Typically, alpha testing provides a simple mechanism to mask out complex silhouettes using simple proxy geometry with applied alpha textures. While widely used, alpha testing has a long-standing problem: geometry can disappear entirely as alpha mapped polygons recede with distance. As foveated rendering for virtual reality spreads, this problem worsens as peripheral minification and prefiltering introduce this problem on nearby objects.

  15. ALPHA,·ANTITRYPSIN DEFICIENCY*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1971-02-06

    Feb 6, 1971 ... Lieberman," in fact, found that 15·2% of 66 patients hospitalized with pulmonary emphysema had heterozygous alpha,-antitrypsin deficiency. The over-all incidence of the deficiency was 25'8% in this group. Of patients under the age of 50 years, 47·8% had deficient levels. If such observations are confirmed ...

  16. Alpha sources deposit by sublimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoudry, F.; Eloy, J.F.

    1983-09-01

    We studied and realized a device able to perform some very thin substracts used for alpha spectrometry measurements. Sources are prepared by sublimation of the sample in a vacuum container. The energy required for this sublimation is furnished by a laser beam [fr

  17. Computer-aided system for measuring the mandibular cortical width on panoramic radiographs in osteoporosis diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arifin, Agus Zainal; Asano, Akira; Taguchi, Akira; Nakamoto, Takashi; Ohtsuka, Masahiko; Tanimoto, Keiji

    2005-04-01

    Osteoporotic fractures are associated with substantial morbidity, increased medical cost and high mortality risk. Several equipments of bone assessment have been developed to identify individuals, especially postmenopausal women, with high risk of osteoporotic fracture; however, a large segment of women with low skeletal bone mineral density (BMD), namely women with high risk of osteoporotic fractures, cannot be identified sufficiently because osteoporosis is asymptomatic. Recent studies have been demonstrating that mandibular inferior cortical width manually measured on panoramic radiographs may be useful for the identification of women with low BMD. Automatic measurement of cortical width may enable us to identify a large number of asymptomatic women with low BMD. The purpose of this study was to develop a computer-aided system for measuring the mandibular cortical width on panoramic radiographs. Initially, oral radiologists determined the region of interest based on the position of mental foramen. Some enhancing image techniques were applied so as to measure the cortical width at the best point. Panoramic radiographs of 100 women who had BMD assessments of the lumbar spine and femoral neck were used to confirm the efficacy of our new system. Cortical width measured with our system was compared with skeletal BMD. There were significant correlation between cortical width measured with our system and skeletal BMD. These correlations were similar with those between cortical width manually measured by the dentist and skeletal BMD. Our results suggest that our new system may be useful for mass screening of osteoporosis.

  18. Relationship between width and length ratios of upper anterior teeth in young Chilean population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Troncoso-Pazos

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Knowledge about the size and proportion of upper anterior teeth allows dental rehabilitation taking into consideration the local parameters of a population. The aim of this research is to determine the width, length and the relationship between width and length of central incisor, lateral incisor and canine teeth in both sexes in young Chilean population. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was performed. Study subjects included 187 dentistry students from two Chilean cities (mean age 21.35±2.7 years, 52.9% men. The teeth width and height were measured and the width/height ratio was calculated. Differences in measurements according to sex was analyzed (p<0.05; STATA v.10.0. Results: The width and height of the teeth were statistically and proportionally larger in men (p<0.05. The width/height ratio of lateral and canine incisors was significantly higher in women (p<0.05. Conclusion: In a sample of young Chileans, upper anterior teeth were longer and wider in men. However, the width/height ratio of teeth was found to be significantly higher in women.

  19. Influence of pulse width in laser assisted texturing on moly-chrome films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezhilmaran, V.; Vijayaraghavan, L.; Vasa, N. J.; Krishnan, Sivarama

    2018-02-01

    Continuous micro-channels were formed on the surface of the automotive piston rings using two different lasers, namely nanosecond and femtosecond pulsed laser. Tribology measurements were conducted to compare the friction properties of the samples fabricated with the laser pulse width of nanosecond and femtosecond order. The femtosecond laser ablation comparatively minimized the re-deposition layer, heat affected zone around the micro-channel compared to the nanosecond laser ablation. Owing to the localized material ablation, the compressive residual stress was not altered with femtosecond laser processing. The friction test was conducted using reciprocating type friction measurement setup for the loads ranging from 10 to 130 N. The friction coefficients of all the textured samples were reduced compared to the non-textured samples. Furthermore, it is observed that the average friction coefficient was low with the femtosecond laser textured samples compared to that of the nanosecond laser textured samples of the same dimensions. The results show that the thermally induced defects while using the nanosecond laser ablation might have influenced the tribological properties.

  20. Association of erythrocyte deformability with red blood cell distribution width in metabolic diseases and thalassemia trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayá, Amparo; Alis, Rafael; Suescún, Marta; Rivera, Leonor; Murado, Julian; Romagnoli, Marco; Solá, Eva; Hernandez-Mijares, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Increased red blood distribution width (RDW) in anemia is related to disturbances in the cellular surface/volume ratio, usually accompanied by morphological alterations, while it has been shown in inflammatory diseases that the activity of pro-inflammatory cytokines disturbing erythropoiesis increases RDW. Recently it has been reported that higher RDW is related with decreased erythrocyte deformability, and that it could be related with the association of RDW and increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. In order to analyze the influence of morphological alterations and proinflammatory status on the relationship between RDW and erythrocyte deformability, we analyzed erythrocyte deformability along with RDW and other hematological and biochemical parameters in 36 α-thalassemia, 20 β-thalassemia, 20 δβ-thalassemia trait carriers, 61 metabolic syndrome patients and 76 morbidly obese patients. RDW correlated inversely with erythrocyte deformability in minor β-thalassemia (r =-0.530, p thalassemia is often accompanied by more marked cell-shaped perturbations than other thalassemia traits. This could be the reason for this negative association only in this setting. Higher anisocytosis seems to be associated with greater morphologic alterations (shape/volume), which reduce erythrocyte deformability. The proinflammatory profile in metabolic patients can be related to the positive association of RDW with erythrocyte deformability found in these patients. However, further research is needed to explain the mechanisms underlying this association.

  1. Dosimetric consequences of pencil beam width variations in scanned beam particle therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanrion, M A; Ammazzalorso, F; Wittig, A; Engenhart-Cabillic, R; Jelen, U

    2013-01-01

    Scanned ion beam delivery enables the highest degree of target dose conformation attainable in external beam radiotherapy. Nominal pencil beam widths (spot sizes) are recorded during treatment planning system commissioning. Due to changes in the beam-line optics, the actual spot sizes may differ from these commissioning values, leading to differences between planned and delivered dose. The purpose of this study was to analyse the dosimetric consequences of spot size variations in particle therapy treatment plans. For 12 patients with skull base tumours and 12 patients with prostate carcinoma, scanned-beam carbon ion and proton treatment plans were prepared and recomputed simulating spot size changes of (1) ±10% to simulate the typical magnitude of fluctuations, (2) ±25% representing the worst-case scenario and (3) ±50% as a part of a risk analysis in case of fault conditions. The primary effect of the spot size variation was a dose deterioration affecting the target edge: loss of target coverage and broadening of the lateral penumbra (increased spot size) or overdosage and contraction of the lateral penumbra (reduced spot size). For changes ⩽25%, the resulting planning target volume mean 95%-isodose line coverage (CI-95%) deterioration was ranging from negligible to moderate. In some cases changes in the dose to adjoining critical structures were observed. (paper)

  2. Arch width changes from 6 weeks to 45 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishara, S E; Jakobsen, J R; Treder, J; Nowak, A

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate on a longitudinal basis, the changes in intercanine and intermolar widths over a 45-year span. The subjects in this study were from two pools of normal persons: (1) 28 male and 33 female infants evaluated longitudinally at approximately 6 weeks, 1 year, and 2 years of age (before the complete eruption of the deciduous dentition); and (2) 15 male and 15 female subjects from the Iowa facial growth study evaluated at ages 3, 5, 8, 13, 26, and 45. Arch width measurements on maxillary and mandibular dental casts were obtained independently by two investigators. Intraexaminer and interexaminer reliability were predetermined at 0.5 mm. From the findings in the current study, the following conclusions can be made: (1) Between 6 weeks and 2 years of age, i.e., before the complete eruption of the deciduous dentition, there were significant increases in the maxillary and mandibular anterior and posterior arch widths in both male and female infants. (2) Intercanine and intermolar widths significantly increased between 3 and 13 years of age in both the maxillary and mandibular arches. After the complete eruption of the permanent dentition, there was a slight decrease in the dental arch widths, more in the intercanine than in the intermolar widths. (3) Mandibular intercanine width, on the average, was established by 8 years of age, i.e., after the eruption of the four incisors. After the eruption of the permanent dentition, the clinician should either expect no changes or a slight decrease in arch widths. In conclusion, although the dental arch widths undergo changes from birth until midadulthood, the magnitude as well as the direction of these changes do not provide a scientific basis for expanding the arches, in the average patient, beyond its established dimensions at the time of the complete eruption of the canines and molars. Both patients and clinicians should be aware of these limitations.

  3. Prostaglandin F2alpha elevates blood pressure and promotes atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Ying; Lucitt, Margaret B; Stubbe, Jane

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about prostaglandin F(2alpha) in cardiovascular homeostasis. Prostaglandin F(2alpha) dose-dependently elevates blood pressure in WT mice via activation of the F prostanoid (FP) receptor. The FP is expressed in preglomerular arterioles, renal collecting ducts, and the hypothalamus...... that exhibit mild polyuria and polydipsia. Atherogenesis is retarded by deletion of the FP, despite the absence of detectable receptor expression in aorta or in atherosclerotic lesions in Ldlr KOs. Although vascular TNF(alpha), inducible nitric oxide enzyme and TGF(beta) are reduced and lesional macrophages...... are depleted in the FP/Ldlr double KOs, this result reflects the reduction in lesion burden, as the FP is not expressed on macrophages and its deletion does not alter macrophage cytokine generation. Blockade of the FP offers an approach to the treatment of hypertension and its attendant systemic vascular...

  4. The Role of alpha-Glucosidase in Germinating Barley Grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanley, Duncan; Rejzek, Martin; Næsted, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    The importance of alpha-glucosidase in the endosperm starch metabolism of barley (Hordeum vulgare) seedlings is poorly understood. The enzyme converts maltose to glucose (Glc), but in vitro studies indicate that it can also attack starch granules. To discover its role in vivo, we took complementary...... chemical-genetic and reverse-genetic approaches. We identified iminosugar inhibitors of a recombinant form of an alpha-glucosidase previously discovered in barley endosperm (ALPHA-GLUCOSIDASE97 [HvAGL97]), and applied four of them to germinating grains. All four decreased the Glc-to-maltose ratio...... in the endosperm 10 d after imbibition, implying inhibition of maltase activity. Three of the four inhibitors also reduced starch degradation and seedling growth, but the fourth did not affect these parameters. Inhibition of starch degradation was apparently not due to inhibition of amylases. Inhibition...

  5. Performance Test of Alpha Spectrometry for Environmental Radioactivity Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jung Youn; Yoon, Jong-Ho; Han, Ki-Tek; Ahn, Gil Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Environmental samples are analyzed by various methods such as, ICP-MS (inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry), AMS (accelerator mass spectrometry) TIMS (thermal ionization mass spectrometry), HRGS (high resolution gamma spectrometry) and alpha /beta particle analysis. In this study, we will described the result of performance test using alpha spectrometry for analyzing environmental samples. Measurement data of the U activity using SRM based on extraction chromatography with UTEVA resin. It should be effective way to separate of uranium isotope for the measurement of alpha spectrometry. But, the result of this measurement data is higher than another recovery data. Also concentration of U data is lack of consistency. We leave out of consideration many effect of factors about influence in the experiment process. In the future work, we will try to reduce the step of experiment process and reflect the uncertainty factors

  6. Diffusion in a two-dimensional channel with curved midline and varying width: Reduction to an effective one-dimensional description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, R. Mark

    2009-12-01

    Diffusion in a narrow two-dimensional channel with a midline that need not be straight and a width that may vary is reduced to an effective one-dimensional equation of motion. This equation takes the form of the Fick-Jacobs equation with a spatially varying effective diffusivity. The effective diffusivity includes a contribution that comes from the slope of the midline as well as the usual term stemming from variations in the channel width along the length of the channel. Our derivation of our equation of motion is completely rigorous and is based on an asymptotic expansion in a small dimensionless parameter that characterizes the channel width. For a channel that has a straight midline or wall, our equation of motion reduces to Zwanzig’s equation [R. Zwanzig, J. Phys. Chem. 96, 3926 (1992)]. Our derivation therefore provides a rigorous proof of the validity of the latter equation. Finally, the equation of motion is solved analytically for channels with curved midline and constant width.

  7. Short term integrative meditation improves resting alpha activity and stroop performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yaxin; Tang, Yi-Yuan; Tang, Rongxiang; Posner, Michael I

    2014-12-01

    Our previous research showed that short term meditation training reduces the time to resolve conflict in the flanker task. Studies also show that resting alpha increases with long term meditation practice. The aim of this study is to determine whether short term meditation training both increases resting alpha activity and reduces the time to resolve conflict in the Stroop task and whether these two effects are related. Forty-three Chinese undergraduates were randomly assigned an experiment group given 5 days meditation training using integrative body-mind training (IBMT) and a relaxation training control. After training, only the IBMT group showed decreased conflict reaction time (RT), and increased resting mean alpha power. Moreover, the higher the enhancement of resting alpha power, the stronger the improvement of conflict RT. The results indicate that short term meditation diffusely enhances alpha and improves the ability to deal with conflict and moreover these two effects are positively related.

  8. The ρ radiative decay width: A measurement at 200 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capraro, L.; Levy, P.; Querrou, M.; Hecke, B. van; Verbeken, M.; Amendolia, S.R.; Batignani, G.; Bedeschi, A.; Bellamy, E.H.; Bertolucci, E.; Bosisio, L.; Bottigli, U.; Bradaschia, C.; Fidecaro, F.; Foa, L.; Focardi, E.; Giannetti, P.; Giorgi, M.A.; Marrocchesi, P.S.; Menzione, A.; Ristori, L.; Scribano, A.; Stefanini, A.; Tonelli, G.; Beck, G.A.; Bologna, G.; D'Ettorre Piazzoli, B.; Mannocchi, G.; Picchi, P.; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Frascati; Budinich, M.; Liello, F.; Paver, N.; Rolandi, L.; Green, M.G.; March, P.V.; Landon, M.P.J.; Strong, J.A.; Tenchini, R.

    1987-01-01

    The ρ - radiative decay width has been measured by studying the production of ρ - via the Primakoff effect by 200 GeV incident π - on Cu and Pb targets. This width was obtained by fitting the measured dσ/dt for ρ production with the theoretical coherent differential cross section including both the electromagnetic and strong contributions. The measured radiative width value is 81±4±4 keV: it is consistent with the ratio Γ(ρ → πγ)/Γ(ω → πγ) ∝ 1/9 as expected from the vector dominance and the quark model. (orig.)

  9. Clinical Utility of Red Cell Distribution Width in Alcoholic and Non-alcoholic Liver Cirrhosis

    OpenAIRE

    Milić, Sandra; Mikolašević, Ivana; Radić, Mladen; Hauser, Goran; Štimac, Davor

    2011-01-01

    Red blood cell distribution width (RDW) is a measure of the variation of red blood cell width that is reported as a part of standard complete blood count. Red blood cell distribution width results are often used together with mean corpuscular volume (MCV) results to figure out mixed anemia. The aim of our study was to compare the values of RDW in alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver cirrhosis and to determine if RDW follows the severity of disease according to Child-Pugh score. We re...

  10. Nonlinear feedback control for high alpha flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalford, Harold

    1990-01-01

    Analytical aerodynamic models are derived from a high alpha 6 DOF wind tunnel model. One detail model requires some interpolation between nonlinear functions of alpha. One analytical model requires no interpolation and as such is a completely continuous model. Flight path optimization is conducted on the basic maneuvers: half-loop, 90 degree pitch-up, and level turn. The optimal control analysis uses the derived analytical model in the equations of motion and is based on both moment and force equations. The maximum principle solution for the half-loop is poststall trajectory performing the half-loop in 13.6 seconds. The agility induced by thrust vectoring capability provided a minimum effect on reducing the maneuver time. By means of thrust vectoring control the 90 degrees pitch-up maneuver can be executed in a small place over a short time interval. The agility capability of thrust vectoring is quite beneficial for pitch-up maneuvers. The level turn results are based currently on only outer layer solutions of singular perturbation. Poststall solutions provide high turn rates but generate higher losses of energy than that of classical sustained solutions.

  11. Alpha-contaminated waste from reprocessing of nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumner, W.

    1982-01-01

    The anticipated alpha-waste production rates from the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing plant is discussed. The estimated alpha-waste production rate from the 1500 metric ton/year plant is about 85,000 ft 3 /year at the 10 nCi/g limit. Most of this waste is estimated to come from the separation facility, and the major waste sources were cladding, which was 27%, and low-level contact-handled general process trash, which was estimated at 32% of the total. It was estimated that 45% of the waste was combustible and 72% of the waste was compactible. These characteristics could have a significant impact on the final volumes as disposed. Changing the alpha-waste limit from 10 nCi/g to 100 nCi/g was estimated to reduce the amount of alpha waste produced by about 20%. Again, the uncertainty in this value obviously has to be substantial. One has to recognize that these estimates were just that; they were not based on any operating experience. The total plutonium losses to waste, including the high-level waste, was estimated to be 1.5%. The cladding waste was estimated to be contaminated with alpha emitters to the extent of 10 4 to 10 5 nCi/g

  12. Portable Neutron Generator with 9-Section Silicon $\\alpha $-Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Bystritsky, V M; Kadyshevskij, V G; Khasaev, T O; Kobzev, A P; Presnyakov, Yu K; Rogov,Yu N; Ryzhkov, V I; Sapozhnikov, M G; Sissakian, A N; Slepnev, V M; Zamyatin, N I

    2006-01-01

    The characteristics of the portable neutron generator with a built-in $\\alpha $-detector are presented. Based on the "tagged" neutron method (TNM) the generator ~is being used for identification of ~the hidden chemical compounds. One of the special features of such generators compared to generators traditionally used and produced in industry is that the generator is a source of monoenergetic "tagged" 14.1 MeV neutrons produced in the binary nuclear reaction $d+t \\to \\alpha $ (3.5 MeV) $+n$ (14.1~MeV). Unambiguous information about the time and direction of the neutron emitted from the target can be obtained by recording an $\\alpha $ particle by the multi-pixel $\\alpha $-detector placed inside the neutron tube. The study of the "tagged" neutron method (TNM) shows that the use of the ($\\alpha $--$\\gamma $) coincidence reduces the gamma background induced by scattered neutrons by a factor of more than 200, which allows the detection and identification of small quantities of explosives, drugs, and toxic agents. T...

  13. Calibration of sources for alpha spectroscopy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, I.S.M.; Goncalez, O.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the calibration methodology for measuring the total alpha activity of plane and thin sources with the Alpha Spectrometer for Silicon Detector in the Nuclear Measures and Dosimetry laboratory at IEAv/CTA. (author)

  14. FIRE HOSE INSTABILITY DRIVEN BY ALPHA PARTICLE TEMPERATURE ANISOTROPY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matteini, L.; Schwartz, S. J. [Department of Physics, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Hellinger, P. [Astronomical Institute, CAS, Prague (Czech Republic); Landi, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, Firenze (Italy)

    2015-10-10

    We investigate properties of a solar wind-like plasma, including a secondary alpha particle population exhibiting a parallel temperature anisotropy with respect to the background magnetic field, using linear and quasi-linear predictions and by means of one-dimensional hybrid simulations. We show that anisotropic alpha particles can drive a parallel fire hose instability analogous to that generated by protons, but that, remarkably, can also be triggered when the parallel plasma beta of alpha particles is below unity. The wave activity generated by the alpha anisotropy affects the evolution of the more abundant protons, leading to their anisotropic heating. When both ion species have sufficient parallel anisotropies, both of them can drive the instability, and we observe the generation of two distinct peaks in the spectra of the fluctuations, with longer wavelengths associated to alphas and shorter ones to protons. If a non-zero relative drift is present, the unstable modes propagate preferentially in the direction of the drift associated with the unstable species. The generated waves scatter particles and reduce their temperature anisotropy to a marginally stable state, and, moreover, they significantly reduce the relative drift between the two ion populations. The coexistence of modes excited by both species leads to saturation of the plasma in distinct regions of the beta/anisotropy parameter space for protons and alpha particles, in good agreement with in situ solar wind observations. Our results confirm that fire hose instabilities are likely at work in the solar wind and limit the anisotropy of different ion species in the plasma.

  15. Pentoxifylline inhibits tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha)-induced T-lymphoma cell adhesion to endothelioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, J M; Vanscheidt, W; Pilarski, K A; Weyl, A; Peschen, M; Schöpf, E; Vestweber, D; Simon, J C

    1995-05-01

    Pentoxifylline, a methylxanthine derivative, has been shown to inhibit T-cell-mediated cutaneous immune response by yet ill-understood mechanisms. Because cell adhesion to endothelial cells is a critical step in the initiation of such immune responses, we analyzed whether pentoxifylline would affect this process. To address this issue, adhesion of mouse T-lymphoma cells (TK-1) to mouse endothelioma cells (eEnd.2), either untreated or stimulated with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha), was studied. Pentoxifylline reduced the ability of endothelioma cells stimulated with different concentrations of TNF alpha, but not of untreated endothelioma cells, to bind T-lymphoma cells in dose-dependent (10(-5)-10(-3) M) fashion. Selective incubation of either endothelioma cells or T-lymphoma cells revealed that pentoxifylline acted exclusively on the endothelioma cells, even when added after TNF alpha stimulation. We questioned whether pentoxifylline suppressed T-lymphoma cell/endothelioma cell interactions by interfering with adhesion molecules expressed by either cell. However, as determined by flow cytometry, pentoxifylline did not alter TNF alpha-induced upregulation of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 or vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1 on endothelioma cells nor did it affect constitutive CD11a, CD18, or alpha 4-integrin expression on T-lymphoma cells, suggesting that rather than affecting quantitative expression of these adhesion molecules, pentoxifylline might modulate their avidity. We conclude that pentoxifylline in therapeutically achievable concentrations is a potent inhibitor of TNF alpha-induced T-lymphoma cell adhesion to endothelioma cells. This finding may account, at least in part, for the recently discovered anti-inflammatory action of pentoxifylline.

  16. The socially-isolated mouse: a model to study the putative role of allopregnanolone and 5alpha-dihydroprogesterone in psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidotti, A; Dong, E; Matsumoto, K; Pinna, G; Rasmusson, A M; Costa, E

    2001-11-01

    Allopregnanolone (3alpha,5alpha-TH PROG) and 5alpha-dihydroprogesterone (5alpha-DH PROG), the two most important neuroactive steroids synthesized in the brain, potently modulate neuronal activity by allosterically regulating GABA action at GABA(A) receptors or by changing specific GABA(A) receptor subunit gene expression, respectively. We recently reported [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95 (1998) 3239] that in patients with severe depression there is a decrease in the CSF levels of 3alpha,5alpha-TH PROG, which is normalized by treatment with drugs (i.e. fluoxetine) that improve psychopathology. The mechanism by which fluoxetine and other selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors normalize 3alpha,5alpha-TH PROG CSF levels appears to involve a direct stimulation of 3alpha-hydroxysteroidoxidoreductase (3alpha-HSD), an enzyme that catalyses the reduction of 5alpha-DH PROG into 3alpha,5alpha-TH PROG. Here, we propose the use of socially-isolated mice that have a downregulation of 3alpha,5alpha-TH PROG and of 5alpha-DH PROG expression to establish a model to study the behavioral consequences of this deficiency. After 4-6 weeks of isolation, these mice exhibit increased anxiety and aggressive behavior and also a decreased response to the administration of GABA-mimetic drugs. In these mice, the decrease in 3alpha,5alpha-TH PROG is selectively normalized by the use of fluoxetine in doses that reduce behavioral abnormalities. In addition, the expression of 5alpha-reductase Type I mRNA and protein was lower in socially-isolated mice than that in group-housed mice whereas 3alpha-HSD mRNA expression remained unchanged. The results of these studies may enable us to design drugs that specifically affect neurosteroidogenic enzymatic activities and may provide an efficacious treatment for the psychopathologies associated with psychiatric disorders.

  17. Influence of Malaria on Serum Alpha-Tocopherol Levels in Children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tocopherol levels in children with malaria is significantly reduced. Further studies, possibly including clinical trials, are recommended to further evaluate these observations of ours. (Key Words: Serum alpha-tocopherol, malaria, children. Sahel Medical ...

  18. Effect of dietary alpha-tocopherol supplementation and gamma-irradiation on alpha-tocopherol retention and lipid oxidation in cooked minced chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvin, K.; Morrissey, P.A.; Buckley, D.J.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of dietary alpha-tocopherol supplementation and gamma-irradiation on alpha-tocopherol retention and lipid oxidation in cooked minced chicken during refrigerated storage were studied. Minced breast and thigh meat from broilers fed diets supplemented with 100, 200 or 400 mg alpha-tocopheryl acetate/kg feed was irradiated at 2.5 or 4.0 kGy. Cooked irradiated and unirradiated meat was stored at 4 degrees C for 5 days. alpha-Tocopherol concentrations increased with increasing dietary supplementation. Concentrations decreased during storage, but retention was not affected by irradiation. Lipid stability was determined by measuring the formation of thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances (TBARS) and cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) during storage. TBARS and COPs increased during storage and were reduced by increasing levels of dietary alpha-tocopheryl acetate supplementation. Irradiation accelerated TBARS formation during storage, but this was prevented by supplementation with 200 mg alpha-tocopheryl acetate/kg feed. Irradiation tended to increase COPs during storage, although no consistent effects were observed. In general supplementation with over 400 mg alpha-tocopheryl acetate/kg feed may be required to control cholesterol oxidation in minced chicken. The results suggest that, overall, irradiation had little effect on lipid stability in alpha-tocopherol-supplemented meat following cooking and storage

  19. Enzyme replacement therapy for alpha-mannosidosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgwardt, Line Gutte; Dali, Christine I.; Fogh, J

    2013-01-01

    Alpha-mannosidosis (OMIM 248500) is a rare lysosomal storage disease (LSD) caused by alpha-mannosidase deficiency. Manifestations include intellectual disabilities, facial characteristics and hearing impairment. A recombinant human alpha-mannosidase (rhLAMAN) has been developed for weekly intrave...... intravenous enzyme replacement therapy (ERT). We present the preliminary data after 12 months of treatment....

  20. THE ALPHA/BETA-HYDROLASE FOLD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OLLIS, DL; CHEAH, E; CYGLER, M; FROLOW, F; FRANKEN, SM; HAREL, M; REMINGTON, SJ; SILMAN, [No Value; SCHRAG, J; SUSSMAN, JL; VERSCHUEREN, KHG; GOLDMAN, A

    We have identified a new protein fold-the alpha/beta-hydrolase fold-that is common to several hydrolytic enzymes of widely differing phylogenetic origin and catalytic function. The core of each enzyme is similar: an alpha/beta-sheet, not barrel, of eight beta-sheets connected by alpha-helices. These

  1. Limits on estimating the width of thin tubular structures in 3D images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wörz, Stefan; Rohr, Karl

    2006-01-01

    This work studies limits on estimating the width of thin tubular structures in 3D images. Based on nonlinear estimation theory we analyze the minimal stochastic error of estimating the width. Given a 3D analytic model of the image intensities of tubular structures, we derive a closed-form expression for the Cramér-Rao bound of the width estimate under image noise. We use the derived lower bound as a benchmark and compare it with three previously proposed accuracy limits for vessel width estimation. Moreover, by experimental investigations we demonstrate that the derived lower bound can be achieved by fitting a 3D parametric intensity model directly to the image data.

  2. Thermal conductivity engineering in width-modulated silicon nanowires and thermoelectric efficiency enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zianni, Xanthippi

    2018-03-01

    Width-modulated nanowires have been proposed as efficient thermoelectric materials. Here, the electron and phonon transport properties and the thermoelectric efficiency are discussed for dimensions above the quantum confinement regime. The thermal conductivity decreases dramatically in the presence of thin constrictions due to their ballistic thermal resistance. It shows a scaling behavior upon the width-modulation rate that allows for thermal conductivity engineering. The electron conductivity also decreases due to enhanced boundary scattering by the constrictions. The effect of boundary scattering is weaker for electrons than for phonons and the overall thermoelectric efficiency is enhanced. A ZT enhancement by a factor of 20-30 is predicted for width-modulated nanowires compared to bulk silicon. Our findings indicate that width-modulated nanostructures are promising for developing silicon nanostructures with high thermoelectric efficiency.

  3. Optimum filters with time width constraints for liquid argon total-absorption detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatti, E.; Radeka, V.

    1977-10-01

    Optimum filter responses are found for triangular current input pulses occurring in liquid argon ionization chambers used as total absorption detectors. The filters considered are subject to the following constraints: finite width of the output pulse having a prescribed ratio to the width of the triangular input current pulse and zero area of a bipolar antisymmetrical pulse or of a three lobe pulse, as required for high event rates. The feasibility of pulse shaping giving an output equal to, or shorter than, the input one is demonstrated. It is shown that the signal-to-noise ratio remains constant for the chamber interelectrode gap which gives an input pulse width (i.e., electron drift time) greater than one third of the required output pulse width

  4. Total Ionizing Dose Test Report for the UC1823A Pulse Width Modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dakai; Forney, James

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the total ionizing dose susceptibility for the UC1823A pulse width modulator manufactured by Texas Instruments, Inc. The part is suspected to be vulnerable to enhanced low dose rate sensitivity (ELDRS).

  5. Correlation of masseter muscle thickness and intermolar width - an ultrasonography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tircoveluri, Saritha; Singh, Johar Rajvinder; Rayapudi, Naveen; Karra, Arjun; Begum, Mohammadi; Challa, Padmalatha

    2013-04-01

    To determine the association between the thickness of masseter muscle and the maxillary dental arch width. To explore the influence of gender on masseter muscle thickness. Seventy subjects (35 females and 35 males) of age 18 to 25 years were selected for the study based on class I molar relationship. The masseter muscle thickness of the right and left sides in every subject were found out through ultrasound scanning of the muscle, in both relaxed and clenched states. The maxillary dental arch width was measured on the study model with an electronic caliper. Student t test, Pearson's Correlation Coefficient was performed to assess the sample. Masseter Muscle Thickness showed a positive correlation with Maxillary Dental Arch Width r ≤0.74. The masseter muscle thickness is greater in male subjects in both relaxed (0.001Challa P L. Correlation of Masseter Muscle Thickness and Intermolar Width - An Ultrasonography Study. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(2):28-34.

  6. Factors determining variations in otolith microincrement width of demersal juvenile Baltic cod Gadus morhua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüssy, Karin; Mosegaard, Henrik; Hinrichsen, H.H.

    2003-01-01

    Pelagic and demersal juvenile Baltic cod Gadus morhua L. were collected on the slope and the top of Rønne bank in the Baltic Sea during 2 cruises in November and December 1998. The objective of this study was to evaluate distinct changes in otolith increment width observed in demersal juveniles...... by comparison with laboratory-reared individuals, and to investigate the factors determining variation in these increments. The different increment-width patterns were identified with a method based on the widths of consecutive increments. Otolith increment widths of juvenile cod were found to be highly...... on otolith growth rates of juvenile cod reared in the laboratory under different conditions. In this model, otolith growth rate was expressed as a function of rearing temperature and fish dry weight. Otolith growth of the field samples was calculated using ambient temperatures obtained from a 3D...

  7. Ab initio calculation of ICD widths in photoexcited HeNe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jabbari, G.; Klaiman, S.; Chiang, Y.-C.; Gokhberg, K., E-mail: kirill@pci.uni-heidelberg.de [Theoretische Chemie, Physikalisch-Chemisches Institut, Universität Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 229, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Trinter, F.; Jahnke, T. [Institut für Kernphysik, Goethe-Universität Frankfurt, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, D-60438 Frankfurt (Germany)

    2014-06-14

    Excitation of HeNe by synchrotron light just below the frequency of the 1s → 3p transition of isolated He has been recently shown to be followed by resonant interatomic Coulombic decay (ICD). The vibrationally resolved widths of the ICD states were extracted with high precision from the photoion spectra. In this paper, we report the results of ab initio calculations of these widths. We show that interaction between electronic states at about the equilibrium distance of HeNe makes dark states of He accessible for the photoexcitation and subsequent electronic decay. Moreover, the values of the calculated widths are shown to be strongly sensitive to the presence of the non-adiabatic coupling between the electronic states participating in the decay. Therefore, only by considering the complete manifold of interacting decaying electronic states a good agreement between the measured and computed ICD widths can be achieved.

  8. Nature of the pygmy dipole resonance in Ce-140 studied in (alpha, alpha 'gamma) experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savran, D.; Babilon, M.; van den Berg, A.M.; Harakeh, M.N.; Hasper, J.; Matic, A.; Wörtche, H.J.; Zilges, A.

    2006-01-01

    A concentration of electric-dipole excitations below the particle threshold, which is frequently denoted as the pygmy dipole resonance, has been studied in the semimagic nucleus Ce-140 in (alpha, alpha(')gamma) experiments at E-alpha=136 MeV. The technique of alpha-gamma coincidence experiments

  9. Role of the cholinergic nervous system in rheumatoid arthritis: aggravation of arthritis in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha7 subunit gene knockout mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Maanen, Marjolein A.; Stoof, Susanne P.; Larosa, Gregory J.; Vervoordeldonk, Margriet J.; Tak, Paul P.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The alpha7 subunit of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (alpha7nAChR) can negatively regulate the synthesis and release of proinflammatory cytokines by macrophages and fibroblast-like synoviocytes in vitro. In addition, stimulation of the alpha7nAChR can reduce the severity of arthritis

  10. Changes in soft tissue nasal widths associated with rapid maxillary expansion in prepubertal and postpubertal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bret M; McNamara, James A; Bandeen, Roger L; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2010-11-01

    To evaluate changes in the soft tissue width of the nose induced by rapid maxillary expansion (RME). Data on greater alar cartilage (GAC) and alar base (AB) widths were compared with a normative sample within the same age range. This prospective study consisted of an RME sample of 79 patients treated with an RME protocol. Mean age at the start of RME treatment was 13.5 years; average duration of treatment was 6.7 months. Patients were grouped into prepubertal and postpubertal groups based on their cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) stage. AB and GAC widths were determined at three separate time points. The normative sample consisted of 437 orthodontically untreated whites, aged 10-16 years. A repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine group differences. In addition, independent sample t-tests were used to compare posttreatment nasal width values vs the untreated normative sample. Increases in AB and GAC widths of the nose in the RME sample were less than 1.5 mm. No significant differences were noted in width changes between the prepubertal and postpubertal subgroups. Comparisons of T3 values showed that on average nasal width increases were greater in the RME group than in untreated norms by 1.7 mm for the GAC measure (statistically significant), and by less than 1 mm for the AB measure. RME has no significant clinical effects on the widths of the apical base and the greater alar cartilage of the nose; no differences were observed between the two maturational subgroups.

  11. Measurment of the masses and widths of [ital L]=1 charmed mesons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frabetti, P.L.; Cheung, H.W.K.; Cumalat, J.P.; Dallapiccola, C.; Ginkel, J.F.; Greene, S.V.; Johns, W.E.; Nehring, M.S.; Butler, J.N.; Cihangir, S.; Gaines, I.; Garbincius, P.H.; Garren, L.; Gourlay, S.A.; Harding, D.J.; Kasper, P.; Kreymer, A.; Lebrun, P.; Shukla, S.; Vittone, M.; Bianco, S.; Fabbri, F.L.; Sarwar, S.; Zallo, A.; Culbertson, R.; Gardner, R.W.; Greene, R.; Wiss, J.; Alimonti, G.; Bellini, G.; Caccianiga, B.; Cinquini, L.; Di Corato, M.; Giammarchi, M.; Inzani, P.; Leveraro, F.; Malvezzi, S.; Menasce, D.; Meroni, E.; Moroni, L.; Pedrini, D.; Perasso, L.; Sala, A.; Sala, S.; Torretta, D.; Buchholz, D.; Claes, D.; Gobbi, B.; O' Reilly, B.; Bishop, J.M.; Cason, N.M.; Kennedy, C.J.; Kim, G.N.; Lin, T.F.; Puseljic, D.L.; Ruchti, R.C.; Shephard, W.D.; Swiatek, J.A.; Wu, Z.Y.; Arena, V.; Boca, G.; Castoldi, C.; Gianini, G.; Ratti, S.P.; Riccardi, C.; Vitulo, P.; Lopez, A.; Grim, G.P.; Paolone, V.S.; Yager, P.M.; Wilson, J.R.; Sheldon, P.D.; Davenport, F.; Filaseta, J.F.; Blacket; (E687 Collaboration)

    1994-01-17

    We report the measurement of masses and widths of the following [ital L]=1 charm mesons by the E687 Collaboration at Fermilab: a [ital D][sub 2][sup *0] state of mass (width) 2453[plus minus]3[plus minus]2 (25[plus minus]10[plus minus]5) MeV/[ital c][sup 2] decaying to [ital D][sup +][pi][sup [minus

  12. Effect of width and boundary conditions on meeting maneuvers on two-way separated cycle tracks

    OpenAIRE

    García García, Alfredo; Agustin Gomez, Fernando; Llorca Garcia, Carlos; Angel-Domenech, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Cycle track design guidelines are rarely based on scientific studies. In the case of off-road two-way cycle tracks, a minimum width must facilitate both passing and meeting maneuvers, being meeting maneuvers the most frequent. This study developed a methodology to observe meeting maneuvers using an instrumented bicycle, equipped with video cameras, a GPS tracker, laser rangefinders and speed sensors. This bicycle collected data on six two-way cycle tracks ranging 13-2.15 m width delimitated b...

  13. Study of the fluctuations of the partial and total radiative widths by neutron capture resonance method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huynh, V.D.

    1965-06-01

    Radiative capture experiments by neutron time-of-flight methods have been made for following studies: distribution of partial radiative widths, effects of correlation between different radiative transitions, fluctuations of total radiative widths Γ γ from resonance to resonance, variation of Γ γ with number of mass and the search for the existence of potential capture. Also, some other experiments with the use of neutron capture gamma-rays spectra have been investigated. (author) [fr

  14. Study of curved crystal spectrometer and investigation of variation of line width

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javahery, R.

    1975-01-01

    In this study different types of spectrometer curved crystals, NaI(T1) scintillation detectors, and semiconductors are compared for efficiency and line width. Although the efficiencies of curved crystal spectrometers are very low, their resolution is better than any other α and γ rays spectrometer. The design, the automation for crystal rotation and automation for angular position reading are briefly explained. For curved crystal spectrometer, the calibration curve is obtained and the line width versus the diaphragm aperture is measured

  15. Progressive changes in arch width from primary to early mixed dentition period: A longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    S Sangwan; H S Chawla; A Goyal; K Gauba; U Mohanty

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The present study was conducted to evaluate, on a longitudinal basis, the changes in intercanine and intermolar widths form the primary to the early mixed dentition periods. Materials and Methods: A total of 38 children aged 4-5 years, with normal occlusion without any proximal caries or any dental anomalies, were selected. The impressions were recorded and casts were prepared. Intercanine and intermolar widths were measured on these dental casts with the help of a digital vernier ...

  16. Quark-mixing renormalization effects on the W-boson partial decay widths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almasy, A.A.; Kniehl, B.A.; Sirlin, A.

    2008-10-01

    We briefly review existing proposals for the renormalization of the Cabibbo- Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix and study their numerical effects on the W-boson partial decay widths. The differences between the decay widths predicted by the various renormalization schemes are generally negligible, while their deviations from the MS results are very small, except for W + → u anti b and W + →c anti b, where they reach approximately 4%. (orig.)

  17. 16 CFR 500.12 - Measurement of commodities by length and width, how expressed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... square foot (929 cm2) be expressed in terms of length and width in linear measure. The customary inch... of 1 square foot (929 cm2) or more, but less than 4 square feet (37.1 dm2), be expressed in terms of... (10.16 cm) or less, the declaration of net quantity shall be expressed in terms of width and length in...

  18. Alternative splicing of T cell receptor (TCR) alpha chain transcripts containing V alpha 1 or V alpha 14 elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahotka, C; Hansen-Hagge, T E; Bartram, C R

    1995-10-01

    Human acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell lines represent valuable tools to investigate distinct steps of the complex regulatory pathways underlying T cell receptor recombination and expression. A case in point are V delta 2D delta 3 and subsequent V delta 2D delta 3J alpha rearrangements observed in human leukemic pre-B cells as well as in normal lymphopoiesis. The functional expression of these unusual (VD) delta (JC) alpha hybrids is almost exclusively prevented by alternative splicing events. In this report we show that alternative splicing at cryptic splice donor sites within V elements is not a unique feature of hybrid TCR delta/alpha transcripts. Among seven V alpha families analyzed by RT-PCR, alternatively spliced products were observed in TCR alpha recombinations containing V alpha 1 or V alpha 14 elements. In contrast to normal peripheral blood cells and thymocytes, the leukemia cell line JM expressing functional V alpha 1J alpha 3C alpha transcripts lacked evidence of aberrant TCR alpha RNA species.

  19. Effect of Pilates Training on Alpha Rhythm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Zhijie; Sun, Hongmin; Lu, Chengbiao; Yao, Li; Chen, Shengyong; Li, Xiaoli

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the effect of Pilates training on the brain function was investigated through five case studies. Alpha rhythm changes during the Pilates training over the different regions and the whole brain were mainly analyzed, including power spectral density and global synchronization index (GSI). It was found that the neural network of the brain was more active, and the synchronization strength reduced in the frontal and temporal regions due to the Pilates training. These results supported that the Pilates training is very beneficial for improving brain function or intelligence. These findings maybe give us some line evidence to suggest that the Pilates training is very helpful for the intervention of brain degenerative diseases and cogitative dysfunction rehabilitation. PMID:23861723

  20. Effect of Pilates Training on Alpha Rhythm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijie Bian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of Pilates training on the brain function was investigated through five case studies. Alpha rhythm changes during the Pilates training over the different regions and the whole brain were mainly analyzed, including power spectral density and global synchronization index (GSI. It was found that the neural network of the brain was more active, and the synchronization strength reduced in the frontal and temporal regions due to the Pilates training. These results supported that the Pilates training is very beneficial for improving brain function or intelligence. These findings maybe give us some line evidence to suggest that the Pilates training is very helpful for the intervention of brain degenerative diseases and cogitative dysfunction rehabilitation.

  1. Alpha Radiation Effects on Silicon Oxynitride Waveguides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morichetti, Francesco; Grillanda, Stefano; Manandhar, Sandeep; Shutthanandan, Vaithiyalingam; Kimerling, Lionel; Melloni, Andrea; Agarwal, Anuradha M.

    2016-09-21

    Photonic technologies are today of great interest for use in harsh environments, such as outer space, where they can potentially replace current communication systems based on radiofrequency components. However, very much alike to electronic devices, the behavior of optical materials and circuits can be strongly altered by high-energy and high-dose ionizing radiations. Here, we investigate the effects of alpha () radiation with MeV-range energy on silicon oxynitride (SiON) optical waveguides. Irradiation with a dose of 5×1015 cm-2 increases the refractive index of the SiON core by nearly 10-2, twice as much that of the surrounding silica cladding, leading to a significant increase of the refractive index contrast of the waveguide. The higher mode confinement induced by -radiation reduces the loss of tightly bent waveguides. We show that this increases the quality factor of microring resonators by 20%, with values larger than 105 after irradiation.

  2. Expression of the neuronal adaptor protein X11alpha protects against memory dysfunction in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mitchell, Jacqueline C

    2010-01-01

    X11alpha is a neuronal-specific adaptor protein that binds to the amyloid-beta protein precursor (AbetaPP). Overexpression of X11alpha reduces Abeta production but whether X11alpha also protects against Abeta-related memory dysfunction is not known. To test this possibility, we crossed X11alpha transgenic mice with AbetaPP-Tg2576 mice. AbetaPP-Tg2576 mice produce high levels of brain Abeta and develop age-related defects in memory function that correlate with increasing Abeta load. Overexpression of X11alpha alone had no detectable adverse effect upon behavior. However, X11alpha reduced brain Abeta levels and corrected spatial reference memory defects in aged X11alpha\\/AbetaPP double transgenics. Thus, X11alpha may be a therapeutic target for Alzheimer\\'s disease.

  3. Alpha-wave frequency characteristics in health and insomnia during sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabedal, Justus T C; Riedl, Maik; Penzel, Thomas; Wessel, Niels

    2016-06-01

    Appearances of alpha waves in the sleep electrencephalogram indicate physiological, brief states of awakening that lie in between wakefulness and sleep. These microstates may also cause the loss in sleep quality experienced by individuals suffering from insomnia. To distinguish such pathological awakenings from physiological ones, differences in alpha-wave characteristics between transient awakening and wakefulness observed before the onset of sleep were studied. In polysomnographic datasets of sleep-healthy participants (n = 18) and patients with insomnia (n = 10), alpha waves were extracted from the relaxed, wake state before sleep onset, wake after sleep-onset periods and arousals of sleep. In these, alpha frequency and variability were determined as the median and standard deviation of inverse peak-to-peak intervals. Before sleep onset, patients with insomnia showed a decreased alpha variability compared with healthy participants (P insomnia, alpha variability increased for short wake after sleep-onset periods. Major differences between the two groups were encountered during arousal. In particular, the alpha frequency in patients with insomnia rebounded to wake levels, while the frequency in healthy participants remained at the reduced level of short wake after sleep-onset periods. Reductions in alpha frequency during wake after sleep-onset periods may be related to the microstate between sleep and wakefulness that was described for such brief awakenings. Reduced alpha variability before sleep may indicate a dysfunction of the alpha generation mechanism in insomnia. Alpha characteristics may also prove valuable in the study of other sleep and attention disorders. © 2016 European Sleep Research Society.

  4. An efficient forward model of the climate controls on interannual variation in tree-ring width

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolwinski-Ward, Susan E. [University of Arizona, Program in Applied Mathematics, Tucson, AZ (United States); Evans, Michael N. [University of Maryland, Department of Geology, College Park, MD (United States); Hughes, Malcolm K. [University of Arizona, Laboratory of Tree Ring Research, Tucson, AZ (United States); Anchukaitis, Kevin J. [Columbia University, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Pallisades, NY (United States)

    2011-06-15

    We present a simple, efficient, process-based forward model of tree-ring growth, called Vaganov-Shashkin-Lite (VS-Lite), that requires as inputs only latitude and monthly temperature and precipitation. Simulations of six bristlecone pine ring-width chronologies demonstrate the interpretability of model output as an accurate representation of the climatic controls on growth. Ensemble simulations by VS-Lite of two networks of North American ring-width chronologies correlate with observations at higher significance levels on average than simulations formed by regression of ring width on the principal components of the same monthly climate data. VS-Lite retains more skill outside of calibration intervals than does the principal components regression approach. It captures the dominant low- and high-frequency spatiotemporal ring-width signals in the network with an inhomogeneous, multivariate relationship to climate. Because continuous meteorological data are most widely available at monthly temporal resolution, our model extends the set of sites at which forward-modeling studies are possible. Other potential uses of VS-Lite include generation of synthetic ring-width series for pseudo-proxy studies, as a data level model in data assimilation-based climate reconstructions, and for bias estimation in actual ring-width index series. (orig.)

  5. Occlusal Classification in Relation to Original Cleft Width in Patients With Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Andrew H; Patel, Kamlesh B; Maschhoff, Clayton W; Huebener, Donald V; Skolnick, Gary B; Naidoo, Sybill D; Woo, Albert S

    2015-09-01

    To determine a correlation between the width of the cleft palate measured at the time of lip adhesion, definitive lip repair, and palatoplasty and the subsequent occlusal classification of patients born with unilateral cleft lip and palate. Retrospective, observational study. Referral, urban, children's hospital Participants : Dental models and records of 270 patients were analyzed. None. Angle occlusion classification. The mean age at which occlusal classification was determined was 11 ± 0.3 years. Of the children studies, 84 were diagnosed with Class I or II occlusion, 67 were diagnosed with Class III occlusion, and 119 were lost to follow up or transferred care. Mean cleft widths were significantly larger in subjects with Class III occlusion for all measures at time of lip adhesion and definitive lip repair (P cleft widths were significantly greater at the alveolus (P = .025) but not at the midportion of the hard palate (P = .35) or posterior hard palate (P = .10). Cleft widths from the lip through to the posterior hard palate are generally greater in children who are diagnosed with Class III occlusion later in life. Notably, the alveolar cleft width is significantly greater at each time point for patients who went on to develop Class III occlusion. There were no significant differences in cleft widths between patients diagnosed later with Class I and Class II occlusions.

  6. Influence of slot width on the performance of multi-stage overtopping wave energy converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirirat Jungrungruengtaworn

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A two-dimensional numerical investigation is performed to study the influence of slot width of multi-stage stationary floating overtopping wave energy devices on overtopping flow rate and performance. The hydraulic efficiency based on captured crest energy of different device layouts is compared with that of single-stage device to determine the effect of the geometrical design. The results show optimal trends giving a huge increase in overtopping energy. Plots of efficiency versus the relative slot width show that, for multi-stage devices, the greatest hydraulic efficiency is achieved at an intermediate value of the variable within the parametric range considered, relative slot width of 0.15 and 0.2 depending on design layouts. Moreover, an application of adaptive slot width of multi-stage device is investigated. The numerical results show that the overall hydraulic efficiency of non-adaptive and adaptive slot devices are approximately on par. The effect of adaptive slot width on performance can be negligible. Keywords: Wave energy converter, Overtopping, Multi-stage, Slot width

  7. Anomalous width variation of rarefactive ion acoustic solitary waves in the context of auroral plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Ghosh

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of dynamic, large amplitude solitary waves in the auroral regions of space is well known. Since their velocities are of the order of the ion acoustic speed, they may well be considered as being generated from the nonlinear evolution of ion acoustic waves. However, they do not show the expected width-amplitude correlation for K-dV solitons. Recent POLAR observations have actually revealed that the low altitude rarefactive ion acoustic solitary waves are associated with an increase in the width with increasing amplitude. This indicates that a weakly nonlinear theory is not appropriate to describe the solitary structures in the auroral regions. In the present work, a fully nonlinear analysis based on Sagdeev pseudopotential technique has been adopted for both parallel and oblique propagation of rarefactive solitary waves in a two electron temperature multi-ion plasma. The large amplitude solutions have consistently shown an increase in the width with increasing amplitude. The width-amplitude variation profile of obliquely propagating rarefactive solitary waves in a magnetized plasma have been compared with the recent POLAR observations. The width-amplitude variation pattern is found to fit well with the analytical results. It indicates that a fully nonlinear theory of ion acoustic solitary waves may well explain the observed anomalous width variations of large amplitude structures in the auroral region.

  8. Determination of radium-226 by high-resolution alpha spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sill, C.W.

    1983-01-01

    The determination of radium-226 by alpha spectrometry has been investigated critically to determine experimental conditions under which high resolution and accurate and reliable results can be obtained. Refractory solids such as soils, ores, and tailings from uranium mills are dissolved completely by fusion with potassium fluoride in the presence of barium-133 tracer. The fluoride cake is then transposed with sulfuric acid to a pyrosulfate fusion with simultaneous volatilization of all silica and fluoride. Radium is precipitated with barium already present in the sample by addition of lead perchlorate to a dilute hydrochloric acid solution of the pyrosulfate cake. The resulting insoluble sulfates are dissolved in an alkaline solution of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid, and the radium and barium sulfates are reprecipitated with acetic acid. The precipitate is mounted on a membrane filter and analyzed by alpha spectrometry. Water samples are partially evaporated and treated similarly. Resolution of the subsequent alpha spectra is much better than has been achieved previously from barium sulfate, and is almost as good as is obtainable with actinides electrodeposited on polished steel plates. The resolution is about 60 keV full-width-half-maximum with 100 μg of barium on a 1-inch filter with a 450 mm 2 detector at 20% counting efficiency. Recovery is about 97% and accuracy is generally as good as the counting statistics obtained will permit. Grossly inaccurate results can be obtained under certain conditions when barium-133 tracer is used to determine the chemical yield of radium-226. Severe contamination of the surface-barrier detector by polonium-210 and by recoil products of the radium isotopes being counted is demonstrated, amd methods for virtual elimination of both problems are discussed

  9. Distance-dependent penumbra and MLC-width: new insights in determinants of healthy tissue sparing in stereotactic irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bratengeier Klaus

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available For stereotactic irradiation, both, penumbra and MLC leaf width make an impact on the sparing of healthy tissue around the target. Mostly, MLC design is regarded as the one influenceable parameter. However, also penumbra can be varied by choosing different distances between the source of radiation and the patient. The authors investigate the distance- dependent penumbra effects of idealized collimators as well as for real 5 mm MLCs. Test objects are small spherical targets of varying diameters to be irradiated under differing prescription conditions. A method to calculate exact stereotactic radial dose distributions from beam profiles or 2D dose distributions of single beams is developed for circular and MLC shaped targets. Also, a planning study is performed using a Pinnacle3™ planning system. Also, in a theoretical analysis perfect top hat profile beams and beams with varying penumbra are compared for better understanding of penumbra effects with respect to radial dose distributions. It is shown, that the penumbra changes for small targets are more relevant than the beam shaping by 5 mm MLCs. Quasi-isotropic irradiated MLC shaped (quadratic beams at virtual SAD 700 mm produce steeper radial dose decrease than ideal circular beam shapes with a penumbra typical for SAD 1000 mm. A reduced source-to-patient distance allows better sparing of healthy tissue because of two reasons: The smaller effective leaf width but even more due to steeper penumbra. First, the authors suggest for future recommendations on stereotactic irradiations to specify not only MLC widths but also penumbra characteristics. Second, a so-called “virtual isocentre” could be useful to take advantage of the penumbra effect: Dependent on gantry angle and isocentric couch angle, the couch should be steered automatically in a way that the central axes of all beams always intersect in the same point at the same distance from the source.

  10. Alpha particles detection in nitrocellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero C, M.

    1976-01-01

    The method for the manufacturing of the detection films follows these steps: preparation of the mass which includes nitrocellulose in the form of cotton as raw material ethyl acetate, cellosolve acetate, isopropyl and butyl alcohols as solvents and dioctyl phtalate as plasticiser; dilution of the paste; pouring of the diluted mass; and drying of the detection films. The results obtained experimentally are: The determination of the development times of the different thicknesses of the manufactured films. Response linearity of the detectors, variation of the number of tracks according to the distance of the source to the detector. Sizes of the diameter of the tracks depending of the distance detector-alpha emmission source. As a conclusion we can say the the nitrocellulose detectors are specific for alpha radiation; the more effective thicknesses in uranium prospecting works were those of 60 microns, since for the laboratory works the thicknesses of 30 to 40 microns were the ideal; the development technique of the detection films is simple and cheap and can be realized even in another place than the laboratory; this way of the manufacturing of nitrocellulose detection film sensitive to alpha nuclear radiation is open to future research. (author)

  11. Measurement and analysis of $\\alpha$ particle induced reactions on yttrium

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, N L; Chintalapudi, S N

    2000-01-01

    Excitation functions for /sup 89/Y[( alpha ,3n); ( alpha ,4n); ( alpha , p3n); ( alpha , alpha n); ( alpha , alpha 2n)] reactions were measured up to 50 MeV using stacked foil activation technique and HPGe gamma ray spectroscopy method. The experimental data were compared with calculations considering equilibrium as well as preequilibrium reactions according to the hybrid model of Blann (ALICE/90). For ( alpha , xnyp) type of reactions, the precompound contributions are described by the model. There seems to be indications of direct inelastic scattering effects in ( alpha , alpha xn) type of reactions. To the best of our knowledge, the excitation functions for ( alpha ,4n), ( alpha , p3n), ( alpha , alpha n) and ( alpha , alpha 2n) reactions were measured for the first time. (23 refs).

  12. Measurement and analysis of alpha particle induced reactions on yttrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, N.L.; Gadkari, M.S. [Baroda Univ. (India). Dept. of Physics; Chintalapudi, S.N. [IUC-DAEF Calcutta Centre, Calcutta (India)

    2000-05-01

    Excitation functions for {sup 89}Y[({alpha},3n);({alpha},4n);({alpha},p3n);({alpha},{alpha}n);({alpha},{alpha}2n)] reactions were measured up to 50 MeV using stacked foil activation technique and HPGe gamma ray spectroscopy method. The experimental data were compared with calculations considering equilibrium as well as preequilibrium reactions according to the hybrid model of Blann (ALICE/90). For ({alpha},xnyp) type of reactions, the precompound contributions are described by the model. There seems to be indications of direct inelastic scattering effects in ({alpha},{alpha}xn) type of reactions. To the best of our knowledge, the excitation functions for ({alpha},4n), ({alpha},p3n), ({alpha},{alpha}n) and ({alpha},{alpha}2n) reactions were measured for the first time. (orig.)

  13. Cosmology from clustering of Lyman-alpha galaxies: breaking non-gravitational Lyman-alpha radiative transfer degeneracies using the bispectrum

    OpenAIRE

    Greig, Bradley; Komatsu, Eiichiro; Wyithe, J. Stuart B.

    2012-01-01

    Large surveys for Lyman-alpha emitting (LAE) galaxies have been proposed as a new method for measuring clustering of the galaxy population at high redshift with the goal of determining cosmological parameters. However, Lyman-alpha radiative transfer effects may modify the observed clustering of LAE galaxies in a way that mimics gravitational effects, potentially reducing the precision of cosmological constraints. For example, the effect of the linear redshift-space distortion on the power spe...

  14. Interferon Alpha in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy B. Niewold

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The pleiotropic cytokine interferon alpha is involved in multiple aspects of lupus etiology and pathogenesis. Interferon alpha is important under normal circumstances for antiviral responses and immune activation. However, heightened levels of serum interferon alpha and expression of interferon response genes are common in lupus patients. Lupus-associated autoantibodies can drive the production of interferon alpha and heightened levels of interferon interfere with immune regulation. Several genes in the pathways leading to interferon production or signaling are associated with risk for lupus. Clinical and cellular manifestations of excess interferon alpha in lupus combined with the genetic risk factors associated with interferon make this cytokine a rare bridge between genetic risk and phenotypic effects. Interferon alpha influences the clinical picture of lupus and may represent a therapeutic target. This paper provides an overview of the cellular, genetic, and clinical aspects of interferon alpha in lupus.

  15. Novel alpha-mannosidase inhibitors; Nye alfa-mannosidaseinhibitorer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farr, R.A.; Kang, M.S.; Peet, N.P.; Sunkara, S.P.

    1997-05-20

    [4S-(4{alpha}, 4a{beta}, 6{alpha}, 7{alpha}, 7a{alpha})]-Octahydro-1H-1-pyridine-4,5,6,7-tetrols and [4R-(4{alpha}, 4a{alpha}, 5{alpha}, 6{beta}, 7{beta}, 7a{beta})]-octahydro-1H-1-pyridine-4,5,6,7-tetrols are useful inhibitors of alpha-mannosidase and are useful immunostimulants, chemoprotective and radioprotective agents and antimetastatic agents.

  16. The effect of laser pulse width on laser-induced damage at K9 and UBK7 components surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xinda; Ba, Rongsheng; Zheng, Yinbo; Yuan, Jing; Li, Wenhong; Chen, Bo

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we investigated the effects of laser pulse width on laser-induced damage. We measured the damage threshold of K9 glass and UBK7 glass optical components at different pulse width, then analysis pulse-width dependence of damage threshold. It is shown that damage threshold at different pulse width conforms to thermal restriction mechanism, Because of cm size laser beam, defect on the optical component surface leads to laser-induced threshold decreased.

  17. Reducing the width of confidence intervals for the difference between two population means by inverting adaptive tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gorman, Thomas W

    2018-05-01

    In the last decade, it has been shown that an adaptive testing method could be used, along with the Robbins-Monro search procedure, to obtain confidence intervals that are often narrower than traditional confidence intervals. However, these confidence interval limits require a great deal of computation and some familiarity with stochastic search methods. We propose a method for estimating the limits of confidence intervals that uses only a few tests of significance. We compare these limits to those obtained by a lengthy Robbins-Monro stochastic search and find that the proposed method is nearly as accurate as the Robbins-Monro search. Adaptive confidence intervals that are produced by the proposed method are often narrower than traditional confidence intervals when the distributions are long-tailed, skewed, or bimodal. Moreover, the proposed method of estimating confidence interval limits is easy to understand, because it is based solely on the p-values from a few tests of significance.

  18. Improving the quality factor of an RF spiral inductor with non-uniform metal width and non-uniform coil spacing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Pei; Zhang Wanrong; Huang Lu; Jin Dongyue; Xie Hongyun

    2011-01-01

    An improved inductor layout with non-uniform metal width and non-uniform spacing is proposed to increase the quality factor (Q factor). For this inductor layout, from outer coil to inner coil, the metal width is reduced by an arithmetic-progression step, while the metal spacing is increased by a geometric-progression step. An improved layout with variable width and changed spacing is of benefit to the Q factor of RF spiral inductor improvement (approximately 42.86%), mainly due to the suppression of eddy-current loss by weakening the current crowding effect in the center of the spiral inductor. In order to increase the Q factor further, for the novel inductor, a patterned ground shield is used with optimized layout together. The results indicate that, in the range of 0.5 to 16 GHz, the Q factor of the novel inductor is at an optimum, which improves by 67% more than conventional inductors with uniform geometry dimensions (equal width and equal spacing), is enhanced by nearly 23% more than a PGS inductor with uniform geometry dimensions, and improves by almost 20% more than an inductor with an improved layout. (semiconductor devices)

  19. Improving the quality factor of an RF spiral inductor with non-uniform metal width and non-uniform coil spacing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Shen; Wanrong, Zhang; Lu, Huang; Dongyue, Jin; Hongyun, Xie

    2011-06-01

    An improved inductor layout with non-uniform metal width and non-uniform spacing is proposed to increase the quality factor (Q factor). For this inductor layout, from outer coil to inner coil, the metal width is reduced by an arithmetic-progression step, while the metal spacing is increased by a geometric-progression step. An improved layout with variable width and changed spacing is of benefit to the Q factor of RF spiral inductor improvement (approximately 42.86%), mainly due to the suppression of eddy-current loss by weakening the current crowding effect in the center of the spiral inductor. In order to increase the Q factor further, for the novel inductor, a patterned ground shield is used with optimized layout together. The results indicate that, in the range of 0.5 to 16 GHz, the Q factor of the novel inductor is at an optimum, which improves by 67% more than conventional inductors with uniform geometry dimensions (equal width and equal spacing), is enhanced by nearly 23% more than a PGS inductor with uniform geometry dimensions, and improves by almost 20% more than an inductor with an improved layout.

  20. The Effects of Curcumin on Alpha Amylase in Diabetics Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Najafian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background One of the therapeutic approaches to lower postprandial blood glucose is to inhibition breakdown of starch by inhibiting carbohydrate hydrolysis enzymes. Alpha-amylase catalyzes the hydrolysis of α-(1, 4-D-glycosidic linkages of starch and other glucose polymers. Inhibitors of this enzyme could be used in the treatment of diabetes. Objectives Based on this purpose we examined the effect of curcumin on alpha amylase and its IC50 and Ki. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, 60 rats were divided into two major groups, normal and diabetic, and each was subsequently divided into five subgroups. One of them as control group that received grape seed oil and four of them as experimental groups that received curcumin at 10, 20, 40 and 80 mg/kg (each group include six rats. Blood glucose levels were measured every three days. Serum insulin levels were measured three times, in the first day, middle and end of the experimental period. The activity of serum alpha amylase was measured in the end of experimental period. Results The results showed that curcumin is a competitive inhibitor for alpha amylase with IC50 = 51.32 µM and Ki = 20.17 µM. In both diabetic and normal groups in all doses nearly dose dependent manner reduced blood glucose and insulin levels. In both diabetic and normal groups decreased levels of serum alpha amylase activity. Conclusions It may be concluded that curcumin is a potent inhibitor of alpha amylase and has beneficial effects in the treatment of overweight and diabetes

  1. Evaluation of Maxillary Interpremolar, Molar Width by DRNA Indices and Arch Dimension, Arch Form in Maratha Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Dungarwal

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: Significant correlation was found between the sum of maxillary incisors and interpremolar width but not with the intermolar width while sum of mandibular incisors showed significant correlation with the interpremolar and intermolar arch width. There is no single arch form unique to any of the ethnic groups. A new formula is proposed to determine the premolar and molar index.

  2. Alluvial cover controlling the width, slope and sinuosity of bedrock channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turowski, Jens Martin

    2018-02-01

    Bedrock channel slope and width are important parameters for setting bedload transport capacity and for stream-profile inversion to obtain tectonics information. Channel width and slope development are closely related to the problem of bedrock channel sinuosity. It is therefore likely that observations on bedrock channel meandering yields insights into the development of channel width and slope. Active meandering occurs when the bedrock channel walls are eroded, which also drives channel widening. Further, for a given drop in elevation, the more sinuous a channel is, the lower is its channel bed slope in comparison to a straight channel. It can thus be expected that studies of bedrock channel meandering give insights into width and slope adjustment and vice versa. The mechanisms by which bedrock channels actively meander have been debated since the beginning of modern geomorphic research in the 19th century, but a final consensus has not been reached. It has long been argued that whether a bedrock channel meanders actively or not is determined by the availability of sediment relative to transport capacity, a notion that has also been demonstrated in laboratory experiments. Here, this idea is taken up by postulating that the rate of change of both width and sinuosity over time is dependent on bed cover only. Based on the physics of erosion by bedload impacts, a scaling argument is developed to link bedrock channel width, slope and sinuosity to sediment supply, discharge and erodibility. This simple model built on sediment-flux-driven bedrock erosion concepts yields the observed scaling relationships of channel width and slope with discharge and erosion rate. Further, it explains why sinuosity evolves to a steady-state value and predicts the observed relations between sinuosity, erodibility and storm frequency, as has been observed for meandering bedrock rivers on Pacific Arc islands.

  3. The nose shape as a predictor of maxillary central and lateral incisor width.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sülün, Tonguç; Ergin, Ugur; Tuncer, Necat

    2005-09-01

    One of the primary aspects of complete denture prosthodontics is determining the correct proportion for the maxillary central incisor width to the lateral incisor width. It has been suggested that the anatomy of the patient's nose is a reliable guide for deciding this ratio. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis about the relationship between the shape of the nose and the proportion of the central incisor width (CIW) to the lateral incisor width (LIW). The CIW and LIW from a total of 138 subjects (73 males, 65 females) were measured intraorally. The interalar width (IAW) and the width of the root of the nose (WRN) were measured on standard photographs of the subjects. Spearman's rho test was used to analyze the correlation between the proportions of the CIW to the LIW and the IAW to the WRN. The Mann-Whitney Utest was applied to test for any possible gender differences. The IAW, the WRN, and the nose angle (NA) were statistically significantly wider in male subjects than in female subjects. The correlation between IAW/WRN, NA, and CIW/LIW was statistically significant only in female subjects. In the general population, the only statistically significant relationship was between CIW/LIW on the left side and IAW/WRN. Within the results of the IAW, WRN, and NA measurements, we suggest that males have wider, more triangular-shaped noses than females. The proportion of IAW to WRN seems to be a reliable guide for deciding the proportion of the maxillary central incisor width to the lateral incisor.

  4. Higher education moderates the effect of T2 lesion load and third ventricle width on cognition in multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Pinter

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous work suggested greater intellectual enrichment might moderate the negative impact of brain atrophy on cognition. This awaits confirmation in independent cohorts including investigation of the role of T2-lesion load (T2-LL, which is another important determinant of cognition in MS. We here thus aimed to test this cognitive reserve hypothesis by investigating whether educational attainment (EA moderates the negative effects of both brain atrophy and T2-LL on cognitive function in a large sample of MS patients. METHODS: 137 patients participated in the study. Cognition was assessed by the "Brief Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological Tests." T2-LL, normalized brain volume (global volume loss and third ventricle width (regional volume loss served as MRI markers. RESULTS: Both T2-LL and atrophy predicted worse cognition, with a stronger effect of T2-LL. Higher EA (as assessed by years of education also predicted better cognition. Interactions showed that the negative effects of T2-LL and regional brain atrophy were moderated by EA. CONCLUSIONS: In a cohort with different stages of MS, higher EA attenuated the negative effects of white matter lesion burden and third ventricle width (suggestive of thalamic atrophy on cognitive performance. Actively enhancing cognitive reserve might thus be a means to reduce or prevent cognitive problems in MS in parallel to disease modifying drugs.

  5. Numerical study of the influence of the hinge gap width on the hinge flow fields of bileaflet mechanical heart valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Helene; Ge, Liang; Sotiropoulos, Fotis; Yoganathan, Ajit

    2008-11-01

    Previous clinical and in-vitro studies have shown that the complex non-physiologic hemodynamics occurring in the hinge region of bileaflet mechanical heart valves promotes blood cell damage and thrombus formation. Modifying the hinge design could improve the flow and thus reduce the associated blood cell trauma. This study aims at investigating numerically the effect of the hinge gap width on the flow field. The governing equations are solved using a Cartesian sharp interface immersed boundary method coupled with a hybrid staggered/non staggered control volume approach. The hinge dimensions are obtained from MicroComputed Tomography of a clinical valve. The leaflet motion and inlet velocity profile are imposed based on the Fluid-Structure Interaction simulations of the bulk flow of a valve placed under aortic physiologic conditions. 3D pulsatile flows through two hinge designs are presented along with their Lagrangian analysis. The hinge gap width is shown to have a strong influence on the flow, and thus on blood cell trauma.

  6. Influence of ocular features and incision width on surgically induced astigmatism after cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu-Wen; Su, Tai-Yuan; Chen, Yao-Lin

    2015-02-01

    To identify factors associated with surgically induced astigmatism (SIA) following phacoemulsification. Six hundred five eyes underwent phacoemulsification with a 2.2-mm (the 2.2-mm group, n = 248) or 2.75-mm (the 2.75-mm group, n = 357) superior limbal incision. Preoperative axial length, anterior chamber depth, corneal curvature, and intra-ocular pressure were measured. Corneal curvature and intraocular pressure were measured at 1 day, 1 week, and 1, 2, and 3 months postoperatively. SIA, corneal flattening, and torque were calculated using the Alpins method. The effect of preoperative corneal astigmatism meridian on SIA was also examined. Differences in SIA between the 2.2- and 2.75-mm groups were explored, and correlations between SIA and preoperative corneal astigmatism, anterior chamber depth, axial length, age, and intraocular pressure were analyzed. SIA, corneal flattening, and torque were smaller in the 2.2-mm group than in the 2.75-mm group at 1 week (P = .003, .006, and .014, respectively), but not statistically different thereafter. Higher preoperative corneal astigmatism, older age, and shallower anterior chamber depth were associated with greater SIA in both groups. The effect of astigmatism meridian on SIA was more noticeable in the 2.75-mm group. Shorter axial length and lower intraocular pressures were associated with greater SIA in the 2.75-mm group but not in the 2.2-mm group. Reducing limbal incision width and considering patient age, the meridian and magnitude of corneal astigmatism, anterior chamber depth, axial length, and intraocular pressure, and adjusting the flattening component of SIA input for toric intraocular lens power calculation could potentially improve the astigmatism control in refractive lens surgery. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. Association of Adiposity Indices with Platelet Distribution Width and Mean Platelet Volume in Chinese Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Hou

    Full Text Available Hypoxia is a prominent characteristic of inflammatory tissue lesions. It can affect platelet function. While mean platelet volume (MPV and platelet distribution width (PDW are sample platelet indices, they may reflect subcinical platelet activation. To investigated associations between adiposity indices and platelet indices, 17327 eligible individuals (7677 males and 9650 females from the Dongfeng-Tongji Cohort Study (DFTJ-Cohort Study, n=27009 were included in this study, except for 9682 individuals with missing data on demographical, lifestyle, physical indicators and diseases relative to PDW and MPV. Associations between adiposity indices including waist circumstance (WC, waist-to-height ratio (WHtR, body mass index (BMI, and MPV or PDW in the participants were analyzed using multiple logistic regressions. There were significantly negative associations between abnormal PDW and WC or WHtR for both sexes (ptrend<0.001 for all, as well as abnormal MPV and WC or WHtR among female participants (ptrend<0.05 for all. In the highest BMI groups, only females with low MPV or PDW were at greater risk for having low MPV (OR=1.33, 95% CI=1.10, 1.62 ptrend<0.001 or PDW (OR=1.34, 95% CI=1.14, 1.58, ptrend<0.001 than those who had low MPV or PDW in the corresponding lowest BMI group. The change of PDW seems more sensitive than MPV to oxidative stress and hypoxia. Associations between reduced PDW and MPV values and WC, WHtR and BMI values in Chinese female adults may help us to further investigate early changes in human body.

  8. Footwear width and balance-recovery reactions: A new approach to improving lateral stability in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Takeshi; Cheng, Kenneth C; McKay, Sandra M; Maki, Brian E

    Age-related difficulty in controlling lateral stability is of crucial importance because lateral falls increase risk of debilitating hip-fracture injury. This study examined whether a small increase in footwear sole width can improve ability of older adults to regain lateral stability subsequent to balance perturbation. The study involved sixteen healthy, ambulatory, community-dwelling older adults (aged 65-78). Widened base-of-support (WBOS) footwear was simulated by affixing polystyrene-foam blocks (20mm wide) on the medial and lateral sides of rubber overshoes; unaltered overshoes were worn in normal (NBOS) trials. Balance perturbations were applied using a motion platform. Gait, mobility and agility tests revealed no adverse effects of wearing the WBOS footwear. Lateral-perturbation tests showed that the WBOS footwear improved ability to stabilize the body without stepping (p=0.002). Depending on the perturbation magnitude, the frequency of stepping was reduced by up to 25% (64% of NBOS trials vs 39% of WBOS trials). In addition, the WBOS footwear appeared to improve ability to maintain lateral stability during forward-step reactions, as evidenced by reduced incidence of additional lateral steps (p=0.04) after stepping over an obstacle in response to a forward-fall perturbation. A small increase in sole width can improve certain aspects of lateral stability in older adults, without compromising mobility and agility. This finding supports the viability of WBOS footwear as an intervention to improve balance. Further research is needed to test populations with more severe balance impairments, examine user compliance, and determine if WBOS footwear actually reduces falling risk in daily life.

  9. Modified Synchronous Reference Frame Based Shunt Active Power Filter with Fuzzy Logic Control Pulse Width Modulation Inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleiman Musa

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Harmonic distortion in power networks has greatly reduced power quality and this affects system stability. In order to mitigate this power quality issue, the shunt active power filter (SAPF has been widely applied and it is proven to be the best solution to current harmonics. This paper evaluates the performance of the modified synchronous reference frame extraction (MSRF algorithm with fuzzy logic controller (FLC based current control pulse width modulation (PWM inverter of three-phase three-wire SAPF to mitigate current harmonics. The proposed FLC is designed with a reduced amount of membership functions (MFs and rules, and thus significantly reduces the computational time and memory size. Modeling and simulations of SAPF are carried out using MATLAB/Simulink R2012a with the power system toolbox under steady-state condition, and this is followed with hardware implementation using a TMS320F28335 digital signal processor (DSP, Specrum Digital Inc., Stafford, TX, USA. The results obtained demonstrate a good and satisfactory response to mitigate the harmonics in the system. The total harmonic distortion (THD for the system has been reduced from 25.60% to 0.92% and 1.41% in the simulation study with and without FLC, respectively. Similarly for the experimental study, the SAPF can compensate for the three-phase load current by reducing THD to 5.07% and 7.4% with and without FLC, respectively.

  10. Alpha particle studies during JET DT experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The 1997 DT experiment (DTE1) at the Joint European Torus included studies of the behaviour of alpha particles in high temperature plasmas. Clear alpha particle heating was observed in a series of otherwise similar 10MW hot-ion H-modes by scanning the DT mixture from 0%T to 93%T. Maxima in central temperature and energy content were obtained which corresponded with the maximum in fusion yield. Alfven Eigenmodes (AEs) have been detected in JET, driven by NBI or ICRH fast ions. However, in agreement with theory, no AE activity was observed in DT plasmas which could be attributed to alpha particle drive, except in the afterglow of some Optimised Shear pulses. Ion Cyclotron Emission (ICE) was detected at harmonics of the alpha particle cyclotron frequency at the outer edge of the plasma. The ICE is interpreted as being close to magnetoacoustic cyclotron instability, driven by inverted alpha distributions at the plasma edge. The high-energy neutral particle spectra showed features, which are ascribed to a mixture of alphas, neutralised by helium-like impurities, and deuterons, born from elastic collisions with alpha particles and neutralised by hydrogen-like impurities. The results of all these studies are consistent with classical alpha particle trapping and slowing-down. Future DT experiments will aim to increase alpha particle pressure, so interactions with plasma instabilities can be studied. The measurement of knock-on neutral triton spectra offers a clean way to determine confined alpha densities in these future experiments. (author)

  11. Alpha particle studies during JET DT experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The 1997 DT experiment (DTE1) at the Joint European Torus included studies of the behaviour of alpha particles in high temperature plasmas. Clear alpha particle heating was observed in a series of otherwise similar 10MW hot-ion H-modes by scanning the DT mixture from 0%T to 93%T. Maxima in central temperature and energy content were obtained which corresponded with the maximum in fusion yield. Alfven Eigenmodes (AEs) have been detected in JET, driven by NBI or ICRH fast ions. However, in agreement with theory, no AE activity was observed in DT plasmas which could be attributed to alpha particle drive, except in the afterglow of some Optimised Shear pulses. Ion Cyclotron Emission (ICE) was detected at harmonics of the alpha particle cyclotron frequency at the outer edge of the plasma. The ICE is interpreted as being close to magnetoacoustic cyclotron instability, driven by inverted alpha distributions at the plasma edge. The high-energy neutral particle spectra showed features, which are ascribed to a mixture of alphas, neutralised by helium-like impurities, and deuterons, born from elastic collisions with alpha particles and neutralised by hydrogen-like impurities. The results of all these studies are consistent with classical alpha particle trapping and slowing-down. Future DT experiments will aim to increase alpha particle pressure, so interactions with plasma instabilities can be studied. The measurement of knock-on neutral triton spectra offers a clean way to determine confined alpha densities in these future experiments. (author)

  12. Limits on the Higgs boson lifetime and width from its decay to four charged leptons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Asilar, E.; Bergauer, T.; Brandstetter, J.; Brondolin, E.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Flechl, M.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Knünz, V.; König, A.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Matsushita, T.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schieck, J.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Cornelis, T.; de Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Lauwers, J.; Luyckx, S.; Ochesanu, S.; Rougny, R.; van de Klundert, M.; van Haevermaet, H.; van Mechelen, P.; van Remortel, N.; van Spilbeeck, A.; Abu Zeid, S.; Blekman, F.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; de Bruyn, I.; Deroover, K.; Heracleous, N.; Keaveney, J.; Lowette, S.; Moreels, L.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Strom, D.; Tavernier, S.; van Doninck, W.; van Mulders, P.; van Onsem, G. P.; van Parijs, I.; Barria, P.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; de Lentdecker, G.; Delannoy, H.; Fasanella, G.; Favart, L.; Gay, A. P. R.; Grebenyuk, A.; Lenzi, T.; Léonard, A.; Maerschalk, T.; Marinov, A.; Perniè, L.; Randle-Conde, A.; Reis, T.; Seva, T.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Yonamine, R.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, F.; Beernaert, K.; Benucci, L.; Cimmino, A.; Crucy, S.; Dobur, D.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Gul, M.; McCartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Poyraz, D.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salva, S.; Sigamani, M.; Strobbe, N.; Tytgat, M.; van Driessche, W.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Beluffi, C.; Bondu, O.; Brochet, S.; Bruno, G.; Castello, R.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; da Silveira, G. G.; Delaere, C.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Jafari, A.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Mertens, A.; Nuttens, C.; Perrini, L.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Popov, A.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Beliy, N.; Hammad, G. H.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Hamer, M.; Hensel, C.; Mora Herrera, C.; Moraes, A.; Pol, M. E.; Rebello Teles, P.; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; da Costa, E. M.; de Jesus Damiao, D.; de Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca de Souza, S.; Huertas Guativa, L. M.; Malbouisson, H.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Ahuja, S.; Bernardes, C. A.; de Souza Santos, A.; Dogra, S.; Tomei, T. R. Fernandez Perez; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Moon, C. S.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Romero Abad, D.; Ruiz Vargas, J. C.; Aleksandrov, A.; Genchev, V.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Piperov, S.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Ahmad, M.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Du, R.; Jiang, C. H.; Plestina, R.; Romeo, F.; Shaheen, S. M.; Tao, J.; Wang, C.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, H.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Zou, W.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Polic, D.; Puljak, I.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Micanovic, S.; Sudic, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Bodlak, M.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; El-Khateeb, E.; Elkafrawy, T.; Mohamed, A.; Salama, E.; Calpas, B.; Kadastik, M.; Murumaa, M.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Veelken, C.; Eerola, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Favaro, C.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Machet, M.; Malcles, J.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Zghiche, A.; Antropov, I.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Cadamuro, L.; Chapon, E.; Charlot, C.; Dahms, T.; Davignon, O.; Filipovic, N.; Florent, A.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Lisniak, S.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Miné, P.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Ortona, G.; Paganini, P.; Regnard, S.; Salerno, R.; Sauvan, J. B.; Sirois, Y.; Strebler, T.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Aubin, A.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Buttignol, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Chanon, N.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Coubez, X.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Goetzmann, C.

    2015-10-01

    Constraints on the lifetime and width of the Higgs boson are obtained from H →Z Z →4 ℓ events using data recorded by the CMS experiment during the LHC run 1 with an integrated luminosity of 5.1 and 19.7 fb-1 at a center-of-mass energy of 7 and 8 TeV, respectively. The measurement of the Higgs boson lifetime is derived from its flight distance in the CMS detector with an upper bound of τH3.5 ×10-9 MeV . The measurement of the width is obtained from an off-shell production technique, generalized to include anomalous couplings of the Higgs boson to two electroweak bosons. From this measurement, a joint constraint is set on the Higgs boson width and a parameter fΛ Q that expresses an anomalous coupling contribution as an on-shell cross-section fraction. The limit on the Higgs boson width is ΓH<46 MeV with fΛ Q unconstrained and ΓH<26 MeV for fΛ Q=0 at the 95% C.L. The constraint fΛ Q<3.8 ×10-3 at the 95% C.L. is obtained for the expected standard model Higgs boson width.

  13. Effect of serial extraction alone on crowding: relationships between tooth width, arch length, and crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshihara, T; Matsumoto, Y; Suzuki, J; Sato, N; Oguchi, H

    1999-12-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of serial extraction alone on crowding. We also investigated the relationships between tooth width, arch length, and irregularity index. Maxillary dental casts from 32 subjects who had undergone only serial extraction were analyzed at 3 stages: before deciduous canines extraction, after first premolars extraction, and at the end of the observation period. The mean of the irregularity index decreased significantly as serial extraction proceeded and further decreased during the observation period. In cases where the width of the incisor was more than 2 standard deviations above the means for the control subjects, there was a significant correlation between tooth width of the lateral incisors and irregularity index before extraction as well as a significant correlation between the summation of tooth widths of the central and lateral incisors and irregularity index at that time. There was a significant negative correlation between arch length discrepancy and irregularity index before extraction and also a significant correlation between arch length discrepancy and correction of the irregularity index from before deciduous canines extraction to after first premolars extraction. These results suggest that tooth width and arch length discrepancy might preferentially affect the degree of anterior crowding in cases of severe crowding. There was no aggravation of the average crowding level during the observation period in the present study. The present study quantitatively suggested that serial extraction was useful for the purpose of correcting crowding in most cases.

  14. The dynamics of growth of width in distance, velocity and acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, T; Kneip, A; Ziegler, P; Largo, R; Molinari, L; Prader, A

    1991-01-01

    In this paper the dynamics and intensity of the growth of bihumeral and biiliac width and of humerus and femur bicondylar diameter are studied and compared, and sex differences are established. The analysis is based on a newly introduced statistical tool, the structural average curve for distance, velocity and acceleration. It accounts for individual developmental tempo and allows pooling data for a sample of subjects. In all four variables studied, a sharp decline in velocity after birth is followed by a more gradual decline in infancy and childhood. A mid-growth spurt (MS) at about age 7 can be found in all variables, of about equal timing and intensity for the two sexes. The pubertal spurt (PS) is earlier for girls, and less intense except for biiliac width. The study shows a characteristic pattern across variables of width regarding the intensity of growth in different periods. The accentuated MS and PS for bihumeral width, contrasting with relatively early and small PS for the bicondylar width of femur, are remarkable.

  15. Linear intra-bone geometry dependencies of the radius: Radius length determination by maximum distal width

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumbach, S.F.; Krusche-Mandl, I.; Huf, W.; Mall, G.; Fialka, C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the study was to investigate possible linear intra-bone geometry dependencies by determining the relation between the maximum radius length and maximum distal width in two independent populations and test for possible gender or age effects. A strong correlation can help develop more representative fracture models and osteosynthetic devices as well as aid gender and height estimation in anthropologic/forensic cases. Methods: First, maximum radius length and distal width of 100 consecutive patients, aged 20–70 years, were digitally measured on standard lower arm radiographs by two independent investigators. Second, the same measurements were performed ex vivo on a second cohort, 135 isolated, formalin fixed radii. Standard descriptive statistics as well as correlations were calculated and possible gender age influences tested for both populations separately. Results: The radiographic dataset resulted in a correlation of radius length and width of r = 0.753 (adj. R 2 = 0.563, p 2 = 0.592) and side no influence on the correlation. Radius length–width correlation for the isolated radii was r = 0.621 (adj. R 2 = 0.381, p 2 = 0.598). Conclusion: A relatively strong radius length–distal width correlation was found in two different populations, indicating that linear body proportions might not only apply to body height and axial length measurements of long bones but also to proportional dependency of bone shapes in general.

  16. Limits on the Higgs boson lifetime and width from its decay to four charged leptons

    CERN Document Server

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Aşılar, Ece; Bergauer, Thomas; Brandstetter, Johannes; Brondolin, Erica; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Flechl, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Knünz, Valentin; König, Axel; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Matsushita, Takashi; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schieck, Jochen; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Lauwers, Jasper; Luyckx, Sten; Ochesanu, Silvia; Rougny, Romain; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Abu Zeid, Shimaa; Blekman, Freya; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; De Bruyn, Isabelle; Deroover, Kevin; Heracleous, Natalie; Keaveney, James; Lowette, Steven; Moreels, Lieselotte; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Strom, Derek; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Van Parijs, Isis; Barria, Patrizia; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Delannoy, Hugo; Fasanella, Giuseppe; Favart, Laurent; Gay, Arnaud; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Lenzi, Thomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Maerschalk, Thierry; Marinov, Andrey; Perniè, Luca; Randle-conde, Aidan; Reis, Thomas; Seva, Tomislav; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Yonamine, Ryo; Zenoni, Florian; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Beernaert, Kelly; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Crucy, Shannon; Dobur, Didar; Fagot, Alexis; Garcia, Guillaume; Gul, Muhammad; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Poyraz, Deniz; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Sigamani, Michael; Strobbe, Nadja; Tytgat, Michael; Van Driessche, Ward; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Beluffi, Camille; Bondu, Olivier; Brochet, Sébastien; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; Delaere, Christophe; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Jafari, Abideh; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Mertens, Alexandre; Nuttens, Claude; Perrini, Lucia; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Popov, Andrey; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Beliy, Nikita; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Hamer, Matthias; Hensel, Carsten; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, Ewerton; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Huertas Guativa, Lina Milena; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ahuja, Sudha; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Souza Santos, Angelo; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Moon, Chang-Seong; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Romero Abad, David; Ruiz Vargas, José Cupertino; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Genchev, Vladimir; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Ahmad, Muhammad; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Cheng, Tongguang; Du, Ran; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Plestina, Roko; Romeo, Francesco; Shaheen, Sarmad Masood; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Chunjie; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Huaqiao; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Micanovic, Sasa; Sudic, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Bodlak, Martin; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael

    2015-10-22

    Constraints on the lifetime and width of the Higgs boson are obtained from $\\mathrm{H} \\to \\mathrm{ZZ} \\to 4\\ell$ events using data recorded by the CMS experiment during the LHC run 1 with an integrated luminosity of 5.1 and 19.7 fb$^{-1}$ at a center-of-mass energy of 7 and 8 TeV, respectively. The measurement of the Higgs boson lifetime is derived from its flight distance in the CMS detector with an upper bound of $\\tau_{\\mathrm{H}} $ lower than $ 1.9 \\times 10^{-13}$ s at the 95% confidence level (CL), corresponding to a lower bound on the width of $\\Gamma_{\\mathrm{H}} $ larger than $ 3.5 \\times 10^{-9} $ MeV. The measurement of the width is obtained from an off-shell production technique, generalized to include anomalous couplings of the Higgs boson to two electroweak bosons. From this measurement, a joint constraint is set on the Higgs boson width and a parameter $f_{\\Lambda Q}$ that expresses an anomalous coupling contribution as an on-shell cross-section fraction. The limit on the Higgs boson width is ...

  17. Stochastic Mixed-Effects Parameters Bertalanffy Process, with Applications to Tree Crown Width Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petras Rupšys

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A stochastic modeling approach based on the Bertalanffy law gained interest due to its ability to produce more accurate results than the deterministic approaches. We examine tree crown width dynamic with the Bertalanffy type stochastic differential equation (SDE and mixed-effects parameters. In this study, we demonstrate how this simple model can be used to calculate predictions of crown width. We propose a parameter estimation method and computational guidelines. The primary goal of the study was to estimate the parameters by considering discrete sampling of the diameter at breast height and crown width and by using maximum likelihood procedure. Performance statistics for the crown width equation include statistical indexes and analysis of residuals. We use data provided by the Lithuanian National Forest Inventory from Scots pine trees to illustrate issues of our modeling technique. Comparison of the predicted crown width values of mixed-effects parameters model with those obtained using fixed-effects parameters model demonstrates the predictive power of the stochastic differential equations model with mixed-effects parameters. All results were implemented in a symbolic algebra system MAPLE.

  18. The Width of High Burnup Structure in LWR UO2 Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Yang-Hyun; Lee, Byung-Ho; Oh, Jae-Yong; Sohn, Dong-Seong

    2007-01-01

    The measured data available in the open literature on the width of high burnup structure (HBS) in LWR UO 2 fuel were analyzed in terms of pellet average burnup, enrichment, and grain size. Dependence of the HBS width on pellet average burnup was shown to be divided into three regions; while the HBS width is governed by accumulation of fission damage (i.e., burnup) for burnup below 60 GWd/tU, it seems to be restricted to some limiting value of around 1.5 mm for burnup above 75 GWd/tU due to high temperature which might have caused extensive annealing of irradiation damage. As for intermediate burnup between 60 and 75 GWd/tU, although temperature would not have been so high as to induce extensive annealing, the microstructural damage could have been partly annealed, resulting in the reduction of the HBS width. It was found that both enrichment and grain size also affects the HBS width. However, as long as the pellet average burnup is lower than about 75 GWd/tU, the effect does not appear to be significant for the enrichment and grain size that are typically used in current LWR fuel. (authors)

  19. Critical width of tidal flats triggers marsh collapse in the absence of sea-level rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariotti, Giulio; Fagherazzi, Sergio

    2013-04-02

    High rates of wave-induced erosion along salt marsh boundaries challenge the idea that marsh survival is dictated by the competition between vertical sediment accretion and relative sea-level rise. Because waves pounding marshes are often locally generated in enclosed basins, the depth and width of surrounding tidal flats have a pivoting control on marsh erosion. Here, we show the existence of a threshold width for tidal flats bordering salt marshes. Once this threshold is exceeded, irreversible marsh erosion takes place even in the absence of sea-level rise. This catastrophic collapse occurs because of the positive feedbacks among tidal flat widening by wave-induced marsh erosion, tidal flat deepening driven by wave bed shear stress, and local wind wave generation. The threshold width is determined by analyzing the 50-y evolution of 54 marsh basins along the US Atlantic Coast. The presence of a critical basin width is predicted by a dynamic model that accounts for both horizontal marsh migration and vertical adjustment of marshes and tidal flats. Variability in sediment supply, rather than in relative sea-level rise or wind regime, explains the different critical width, and hence erosion vulnerability, found at different sites. We conclude that sediment starvation of coastlines produced by river dredging and damming is a major anthropogenic driver of marsh loss at the study sites and generates effects at least comparable to the accelerating sea-level rise due to global warming.

  20. Scale orientated analysis of river width changes due to extreme flood hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Krapesch

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the morphological effects of extreme floods (recurrence interval >100 years and examines which parameters best describe the width changes due to erosion based on 5 affected alpine gravel bed rivers in Austria. The research was based on vertical aerial photos of the rivers before and after extreme floods, hydrodynamic numerical models and cross sectional measurements supported by LiDAR data of the rivers. Average width ratios (width after/before the flood were calculated and correlated with different hydraulic parameters (specific stream power, shear stress, flow area, specific discharge. Depending on the geomorphological boundary conditions of the different rivers, a mean width ratio between 1.12 (Lech River and 3.45 (Trisanna River was determined on the reach scale. The specific stream power (SSP best predicted the mean width ratios of the rivers especially on the reach scale and sub reach scale. On the local scale more parameters have to be considered to define the "minimum morphological spatial demand of rivers", which is a crucial parameter for addressing and managing flood hazards and should be used in hazard zone plans and spatial planning.

  1. CORRELATION OF H-MODE BARRIER WIDTH AND NEUTRAL PENTRATION LENGTH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GROEBNER, R.J.; MAHDAVI, M.A.; LEONARD, A.W.; OSBORNE, T.H.; WOLF, N.S.; PORTER, G.D.; STANGEBY, P.C.; BROOKS, N.H.; COLCHIN, R.J.; HEIDBRINK, W.W.; LUCE, T.C.; MCKEE, G.R.; OWEN, L.W.; WANG, G.; WHYTE, D.G.

    2002-01-01

    OAK A271 CORRELATION OF H-MODE BARRIER WIDTH AND NEUTRAL PENTRATION LENGTH. Pedestal studies in DIII-D find a good correlation between the width of the region of steep gradient in the H-mode density and the neutral penetration length. These results are obtained by comparing experimental density profiles to the predictions of an analytic model for the profile, obtained from the particle continuity equations for electrons and deuterium atoms. In its range of validity (edge temperature between 40-500 eV), the analytic model quantitatively predicts the observed decrease of the width as the pedestal density increases, the observed strong increase of the gradient of the density as the pedestal density increases and the observation that L-mode and H-mode profiles with the same pedestal density have very similar shapes. The width of the density barrier, measured from the edge of the electron temperature barrier, is the lower limit for the observed width of the temperature barrier. These results support the hypothesis that particle fueling provides a dominant control for the size of the H-mode transport barrier

  2. Assessment of Upper and Lower Pharyngeal Airway Width in Skeletal Class I, II and III Malocclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalu Jain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is a close relationship between the dimensions of airway and the sagittal skeletal malocclusion which makes it reasonable to expect that width of airway is a reflection of determining patency of airway in different skeletal malocclusion groups. So, aim of this study was to assess the upper and lower pharyngeal airway width in skeletal Class I, II and III malocclusion groups and also to evaluate sexual dimorphism in western Uttar Pradesh population. Materials and methods: A sample of 150 subjects in the age group of 18 to 25 years, from Western Uttar Pradesh adult population was selected on the basis of skeletal Class I, II and III malocclusion. Digital lateral cephalograms were taken in natural head position. Nine variables were selected which included four upper and five lower pharyngeal airway variables. Results: Upper and lower pharynx showed statistical significant difference among the skeletal Class I, II and III malocclusion and also between males and females. Conclusion: Wider upper and lower pharyngeal airway width was seen in males than in females in both skeletal Class I as well as Class III malocclusion groups respectively. Skeletal Class III malocclusion subjects had the widest airway width as compared to skeletal Class I malocclusion group. Skeletal Class II malocclusion, airway width was found to be narrowest.

  3. A microelectrostatic repulsive-torque rotation actuator with two-width fingers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Chao; He, Siyuan

    2015-01-01

    A microelectrostatic repulsive-torque rotation actuator with two-width fingers is presented. The actuator consists of finger-shaped electrodes and is made of two thin film layers, i.e. one movable layer and one fixed layer. There are two types of finger electrodes, namely constant-width and two-width fingers. The two-width finger has a narrow lower segment and a wide top segment. The constant-width finger has only the narrow lower segment. Each rotation finger has its corresponding aligned and unaligned fixed fingers. The electrostatic repulsive torque is generated and acts on the rotation fingers to rotate them up and away from the substrate. As a result, rotation is not limited by the gap between the movable and fixed layers and the ‘pull-in’ instability is avoided. Thus a large out-of-plane rotation and high operational stability can be achieved. The actuator is suitable for two-layer surface micromachining. The model of the actuator is developed. Prototypes are fabricated and tested. The experimental tests show that the actuator achieved a mechanical rotation of 7.65° at a driving voltage of 150 V. The settling time for a mechanical rotation of 5° is 5.7 ms. (paper)

  4. Determination of the Ds0(2317) width with the PANDA detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mertens, Marius Christian

    2012-01-01

    The D s0 *(2317) meson which was discovered at BaBar in 2003 has the interesting properties of a surprisingly narrow width and a mass just below the DK threshold. Different theoretical models try to explain the nature of its properties. A precise knowledge of the width is an important criterion to evaluate these models. However, only an upper limit of 3.8 MeV is known so far. A suitable method to determine the width of particles which are significantly narrower than the experimental mass resolution is to measure the production cross section as a function of the center of mass energy. The shape of this excitation function allows to deduce the width. At PANDA, the measurement of the production cross section will be possible in antiproton-proton collisions. The PANDA experiment at the future FAIR facility is designed to combine precisely adjustable beam momenta and high luminosities which make it an excellent tool for this kind of measurement. In the following we will describe the experimental procedure to carry out this measurement with the PANDA detector in order to achieve a resolution in the order of 0.1 MeV for the width of the D s0 *(2317).

  5. Precision measurement of the mass and width of the W boson at CDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malik, Sarah Alam [Univ. College London, Bloomsbury (United Kingdom)

    2009-09-01

    A precision measurement of the mass and width of the W boson is presented. The W bosons are produced in proton antiproton collisions occurring at a centre of mass energy of 1.96 TeV at the Tevatron accelerator. The data used for the analyses is collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) and corresponds to an average integrated luminosity of 350 pb-1 for the W width analysis for the electron and muon channels and an average integrated luminosity of 2350 pb-1 for the W mass analysis. The mass and width of the W boson is extracted by fitting to the transverse mass distribution, with the peak of the distribution being most sensitive to the mass and the tail of the distribution sensitive to the width. The W width measurement in the electron and muon channels is combined to give a final result of 2032 ± 73 MeV. The systematic uncertainty on the W mass from the recoil of the W boson against the initial state gluon radiation is discussed. A systematic study of the recoil in Z → e+e- events where one electron is reconstructed in the central calorimeter and the other in the plug calorimeter and its effect on the W mass is presented for the first time in this thesis.

  6. The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS)

    CERN Document Server

    Alcaraz, J; Ambrosi, G; Anderhub, H; Ao, L; Arefev, A; Azzarello, P; Babucci, E; Baldini, L; Basile, M; Barancourt, D; Barão, F; Barbier, G; Barreira, G; Battiston, R; Becker, R; Becker, U; Bellagamba, L; Bene, P; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Biland, A; Bizzaglia, S; Blasko, S; Bölla, G; Boschini, M; Bourquin, Maurice; Brocco, L; Bruni, G; Buénerd, M; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Cai, X D; Camps, C; Cannarsa, P; Capell, M; Casadei, D; Casaus, J; Castellini, G; Cecchi, C; Chang, Y H; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chen, Z G; Chernoplekov, N A; Tzi Hong Chiueh; Chuang, Y L; Cindolo, F; Commichau, V; Contin, A; Crespo, P; Cristinziani, M; Cunha, J P D; Dai, T S; Deus, J D; Dinu, N; Djambazov, L; Dantone, I; Dong, Z R; Emonet, P; Engelberg, J; Eppling, F J; Eronen, T; Esposito, G; Extermann, P; Favier, Jean; Fiandrini, E; Fisher, P H; Flügge, G; Fouque, N; Galaktionov, Yu; Gervasi, M; Giusti, P; Grandi, D; Grimm, O; Gu, W Q; Hangarter, K; Hasan, A; Hermel, V; Hofer, H; Huang, M A; Hungerford, W; Ionica, M; Ionica, R; Jongmanns, M; Karlamaa, K; Karpinski, W; Kenney, G; Kenny, J; Kim, W; Klimentov, A; Kossakowski, R; Koutsenko, V F; Kraeber, M; Laborie, G; Laitinen, T; Lamanna, G; Laurenti, G; Lebedev, A; Lee, S C; Levi, G; Levchenko, P M; Liu, C L; Liu, H T; Lopes, I; Lu, G; Lü, Y S; Lübelsmeyer, K; Luckey, D; Lustermann, W; Maña, C; Margotti, A; Mayet, F; McNeil, R R; Meillon, B; Menichelli, M; Mihul, A; Mourao, A; Mujunen, A; Palmonari, F; Papi, A; Park, I H; Pauluzzi, M; Pauss, Felicitas; Perrin, E; Pesci, A; Pevsner, A; Pimenta, M; Plyaskin, V; Pozhidaev, V; Postolache, V; Produit, N; Rancoita, P G; Rapin, D; Raupach, F; Ren, D; Ren, Z; Ribordy, M; Richeux, J P; Riihonen, E; Ritakari, J; Röser, U; Roissin, C; Sagdeev, R; Sartorelli, G; Schwering, G; Scolieri, G; Seo, E S; Shoutko, V; Shoumilov, E; Siedling, R; Son, D; Song, T; Steuer, M; Sun, G S; Suter, H; Tang, X W; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tornikoski, M; Torsti, J; Ulbricht, J; Urpo, S; Usoskin, I; Valtonen, E; Vandenhirtz, J; Velcea, F; Velikhov, E P; Verlaat, B; Vetlitskii, I; Vezzu, F; Vialle, J P; Viertel, Gert M; Vitè, Davide F; Gunten, H V; Wallraff, W; Wang, B C; Wang, J Z; Wang, Y H; Wiik, K; Williams, C; Wu, S X; Xia, P C; Yan, J L; Yan, L G; Yang, C G; Yang, M; Ye, S W; Yeh, P; Xu, Z Z; Zhang, H Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, D X; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, W Z; Zhuang, H L; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, B

    2002-01-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is a large acceptance (0.65 sr m sup 2) detector designed to operate in the International Space Station (ISS) for three years. The purposes of the experiment are to search for cosmic antimatter and dark matter and to study the composition and energy spectrum of the primary cosmic rays. A 'scaled-down' version has been flown on the Space Shuttle Discovery for 10 days in June 1998. The complete AMS is programmed for installation on the ISS in October 2003 for an operational period of 3 yr. This contribution reports on the experimental configuration that will be installed on the ISS.

  7. Targeted alpha therapy for cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Barry J [Centre for Experimental Radiation Oncology, St George Cancer Care Centre, Gray St, Kogarah 2217, NSW (Australia); Raja, Chand [Centre for Experimental Radiation Oncology, St George Cancer Care Centre, Gray St, Kogarah 2217, NSW (Australia); Rizvi, Syed [Centre for Experimental Radiation Oncology, St George Cancer Care Centre, Gray St, Kogarah 2217, NSW (Australia); Li Yong [Centre for Experimental Radiation Oncology, St George Cancer Care Centre, Gray St, Kogarah 2217, NSW (Australia); Tsui, Wendy [Centre for Experimental Radiation Oncology, St George Cancer Care Centre, Gray St, Kogarah 2217, NSW (Australia); Zhang, David [Centre for Experimental Radiation Oncology, St George Cancer Care Centre, Gray St, Kogarah 2217, NSW (Australia); Song, Emma [Centre for Experimental Radiation Oncology, St George Cancer Care Centre, Gray St, Kogarah 2217, NSW (Australia); Qu, C F [Centre for Experimental Radiation Oncology, St George Cancer Care Centre, Gray St, Kogarah 2217, NSW (Australia); Kearsley, John [Centre for Experimental Radiation Oncology, St George Cancer Care Centre, Gray St, Kogarah 2217, NSW (Australia); Graham, Peter [Centre for Experimental Radiation Oncology, St George Cancer Care Centre, Gray St, Kogarah 2217, NSW (Australia); Thompson, John [Sydney Melanoma Unit, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown 2050 NSW (Australia)

    2004-08-21

    Targeted alpha therapy (TAT) offers the potential to inhibit the growth of micrometastases by selectively killing isolated and preangiogenic clusters of cancer cells. The practicality and efficacy of TAT is tested by in vitro and in vivo studies in melanoma, leukaemia, colorectal, breast and prostate cancers, and by a phase 1 trial of intralesional TAT for melanoma. The alpha-emitting radioisotope used is Bi-213, which is eluted from the Ac-225 generator and chelated to a cancer specific monoclonal antibody (mab) or protein (e.g. plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 PAI2) to form the alpha-conjugate (AC). Stable alpha-ACs have been produced which have been tested for specificity and cytotoxicity in vitro against melanoma (9.2.27 mab), leukaemia (WM60), colorectal (C30.6), breast (PAI2, herceptin), ovarian (PAI2, herceptin, C595), prostate (PAI2, J591) and pancreatic (PAI2, C595) cancers. Subcutaneous inoculation of 1-1.5 million human cancer cells into the flanks of nude mice causes tumours to grow in all mice. Tumour growth is compared for untreated controls, nonspecific AC and specific AC, for local (subcutaneous) and systemic (tail vein or intraperitoneal) injection models. The {sup 213}Bi-9.2.27 AC is injected into secondary skin melanomas in stage 4 patients in a dose escalation study to determine the effective tolerance dose, and to measure kinematics to obtain the equivalent dose to organs. In vitro studies show that TAT is one to two orders of magnitude more cytotoxic to targeted cells than non-specific ACs, specific beta emitting conjugates or free isotopes. In vivo local TAT at 2 days post-inoculation completely prevents tumour formation for all cancers tested so far. Intra-lesional TAT can completely regress advanced sc melanoma but is less successful for breast and prostate cancers. Systemic TAT inhibits the growth of sc melanoma xenografts and gives almost complete control of breast and prostate cancer tumour growth. Intralesional doses up to 450 {mu

  8. The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (ams)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionica, Maria

    2004-01-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS), once installed on the International Space Station will provide precise measurements of the cosmic ray spectra up to TeV energy range, and will search for cosmological antimatter and missing matter. A prototype version of the detector was operated successfully on the space shuttle Discovery in June 1998 (STS-91). Here we briefly report on the design of the AMS apparatus and present the results of the measurements of the fluxes of proton, electron, positron and helium from the STS-91 flight.

  9. The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcaraz, J.; Alpat, B.; Ambrosi, G.; Anderhub, H.; Ao, L.; Arefiev, A.; Azzarello, P.; Babucci, E.; Baldini, L.; Basile, M.; Barancourt, D.; Barao, F.; Barbier, G.; Barreira, G.; Battiston, R.; Becker, R.; Becker, U.; Bellagamba, L.; Bene, P.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Biland, A.; Bizzaglia, S.; Blasko, S.; Boella, G.; Boschini, M.; Bourquin, M.; Brocco, L.; Bruni, G.; Buenerd, M.; Burger, J.D.; Burger, W.J.; Cai, X.D.; Camps, C.; Cannarsa, P.; Capell, M.; Casadei, D.; Casaus, J.; Castellini, G.; Cecchi, C.; Chang, Y.H.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, H.S.; Chen, Z.G.; Chernoplekov, N.A.; Chiueh, T.H.; Chuang, Y.L.; Cindolo, F.; Commichau, V.; Contin, A.; Crespo, P.; Cristinziani, M.; Cunha, J.P. da; Dai, T.S.; Deus, J.D.; Dinu, N.; Djambazov, L.; DAntone, I.; Dong, Z.R.; Emonet, P.; Engelberg, J.; Eppling, F.J.; Eronen, T.; Esposito, G.; Extermann, P.; Favier, J.; Fiandrini, E.; Fisher, P.H.; Fluegge, G.; Fouque, N.; Galaktionov, Yu.; Gervasi, M.; Giusti, P.; Grandi, D.; Grimm, O.; Gu, W.Q.; Hangarter, K.; Hasan, A.; Hermel, V.; Hofer, H.; Huang, M.A.; Hungerford, W.; Ionica, M.; Ionica, R.; Jongmanns, M.; Karlamaa, K.; Karpinski, W.; Kenney, G.; Kenny, J.; Kim, W.; Klimentov, A.; Kossakowski, R.; Koutsenko, V.; Kraeber, M.; Laborie, G.; Laitinen, T.; Lamanna, G.; Laurenti, G.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, S.C.; Levi, G.; Levtchenko, P.; Liu, C.L.; Liu, H.T.; Lopes, I.; Lu, G.; Lu, Y.S.; Luebelsmeyer, K.; Luckey, D.; Lustermann, W.; Mana, C.; Margotti, A.; Mayet, F.; McNeil, R.R.; Meillon, B.; Menichelli, M.; Mihul, A.; Mourao, A.; Mujunen, A.; Palmonari, F.; Papi, A.; Park, I.H.; Pauluzzi, M.; Pauss, F.; Perrin, E.; Pesci, A.; Pevsner, A.; Pimenta, M.; Plyaskin, V.; Pojidaev, V.; Postolache, V.; Produit, N.; Rancoita, P.G.; Rapin, D.; Raupach, F.; Ren, D.; Ren, Z.; Ribordy, M.; Richeux, J.P.; Riihonen, E.; Ritakari, J.; Roeser, U.; Roissin, C.; Sagdeev, R.; Sartorelli, G.; Schultz von Dratzig, A.; Schwering, G.; Scolieri, G.; Seo, E.S.; Shoutko, V.; Shoumilov, E.; Siedling, R.; Son, D.; Song, T.; Steuer, M.; Sun, G.S.; Suter, H.; Tang, X.W.; Ting, S.C.C.Samuel C.C.; Ting, S.M.; Tornikoski, M.; Torsti, J.; Tr umper, J.; Ulbricht, J.; Urpo, S.; Usoskin, I.; Valtonen, E.; Vandenhirtz, J.; Velcea, F.; Velikhov, E.; Verlaat, B.; Vetlitsky, I.; Vezzu, F.; Vialle, J.P.; Viertel, G.; Vite, D.; Gunten, H. Von; Wicki, S.W.S. Waldmeier; Wallraff, W.; Wang, B.C.; Wang, J.Z.; Wang, Y.H.; Wiik, K.; Williams, C.; Wu, S.X.; Xia, P.C.; Yan, J.L.; Yan, L.G.; Yang, C.G.; Yang, M.; Ye, S.W.; Yeh, P.; Xu, Z.Z.; Zhang, H.Y.; Zhang, Z.P.; Zhao, D.X.; Zhu, G.Y.; Zhu, W.Z.; Zhuang, H.L.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, B.

    2002-01-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is a large acceptance (0.65 sr m 2 ) detector designed to operate in the International Space Station (ISS) for three years. The purposes of the experiment are to search for cosmic antimatter and dark matter and to study the composition and energy spectrum of the primary cosmic rays. A 'scaled-down' version has been flown on the Space Shuttle Discovery for 10 days in June 1998. The complete AMS is programmed for installation on the ISS in October 2003 for an operational period of 3 yr. This contribution reports on the experimental configuration that will be installed on the ISS

  10. Determination of alpha_s at NLO*+NNLL from a global fit of the low-z parton-to-hadron fragmentation functions in e+e- and DIS collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez-Ramos, Redamy

    2015-01-01

    The QCD coupling alpha_s is determined from a combined analysis of experimental e+e- and e-p jet data confronted to theoretical predictions of the energy evolution of the parton-to-hadron fragmentation functions (FFs) moments --multiplicity, peak, width, skewness-- at low fractional hadron momentum z. The impact of approximate next-to-leading order (NLO*) corrections plus next-to-next-to-leading log (NNLL) resummations, compared to previous LO+NLL calculations, is discussed. A global fit of the full set of existing data, amounting to 360 FF moments at collision energies sqrt(s)~1--200 GeV, results in alpha_s(m_Z^2)=0.1189^{+0.0025}_{-0.0014} at the Z mass.

  11. Down-regulating alpha-galactosidase enhances freezing tolerance in transgenic petunia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennycooke, Joyce C; Jones, Michelle L; Stushnoff, Cecil

    2003-10-01

    Alpha-galactosidase (alpha-Gal; EC 3.2.1.22) is involved in many aspects of plant metabolism, including hydrolysis of the alpha-1,6 linkage of raffinose oligosaccharides during deacclimation. To examine the relationship between endogenous sugars and freezing stress, the expression of alpha-Gal was modified in transgenic petunia (Petunia x hybrida cv Mitchell). The tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) Lea-Gal gene under the control of the Figwort Mosaic Virus promoter was introduced into petunia in the sense and antisense orientations using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. RNA gel blots confirmed that alpha-Gal transcripts were reduced in antisense lines compared with wild type, whereas sense plants had increased accumulation of alpha-Gal mRNAs. alpha-Gal activity followed a similar trend, with reduced activity in antisense lines and increased activity in all sense lines evaluated. Raffinose content of nonacclimated antisense plants increased 12- to 22-fold compared with wild type, and 22- to 53-fold after cold acclimation. Based upon electrolyte leakage tests, freezing tolerance of the antisense lines increased from -4 degrees C for cold-acclimated wild-type plants to -8 degrees C for the most tolerant antisense line. Down-regulating alpha-Gal in petunia results in an increase in freezing tolerance at the whole-plant level in nonacclimated and cold-acclimated plants, whereas overexpression of the alpha-Gal gene caused a decrease in endogenous raffinose and impaired freezing tolerance. These results suggest that engineering raffinose metabolism by transformation with alpha-Gal provides an additional method for improving the freezing tolerance of plants.

  12. Biological width formation to immediate implants placed at different level in relation to the crestal bone: an experimental study in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, Bruno; López Marí, Marta; Maté Sánchez de Val, José Eduardo; Iezzi, Giovanna; Bravo González, Luis Alberto; Calvo Guirado, José Luis

    2015-07-01

    Evaluate differences in bone remodeling, soft tissue reactions and biological width formation around immediate implants placed at different level in relation to the crestal bone in beagle dogs. The mandibular second, third and fourth premolars of six beagle dogs were extracted, and three implants were placed in the right side of each dog. Healing abutments were adjusted (n = 18). After 4 weeks, the procedure was repeated on the left side of the mandible (n = 18). Randomly, three implants were placed at crestal level (control group), and three implants were placed 2 mm subcrestally (test group) in relation to the crestal bone in each animal. The dogs were sacrificed after 8 weeks from the first surgical procedure, and biopsies were obtained. Samples were processed for ground sectioning. Histometric analysis was carried out to compare buccal and lingual bone resorption, soft tissue behavior and biological width formation in both groups. Crestal bone resorption was higher in the test group when considering the difference of 2 mms (IS-B = 2.05 ± 0.36 mm, control; 1.75 (+2) ± 0.38 mm, test). However, the dimensions of the biological width were similar for both groups (PM-C = 3.34 ± 0.53 mm, control; 3.13 ± 0.55 mm, test). The alterations that occurred in the peri-implant soft tissues may be related to the hard tissue remodeling, showing similar quantitative findings in the biological width formation in both groups. Even though the subcrestal placement might reduce the distance from the implant shoulder to the first bone-to-implant contact and reestablish the biological width dimension in a most coronal position, it might not have any effect on minimizing the marginal bone loss. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Genomic scale analysis of racial impact on response to IFN-alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pos, Zoltan; Selleri, Silvia; Spivey, Tara L; Wang, Jeanne K; Liu, Hui; Worschech, Andrea; Sabatino, Marianna; Monaco, Alessandro; Leitman, Susan F; Falus, Andras; Wang, Ena; Alter, Harvey J; Marincola, Francesco M

    2010-01-12

    Limited responsiveness to IFN-alpha in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected African-Americans compared to European Americans (AAs vs. EAs) hinders the management of HCV. Here, we studied healthy non-HCV-infected AA and EA subjects to test whether immune cell response to IFN-alpha is determined directly by race. We compared baseline and IFN-alpha-induced signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-1, STAT-2, STAT-3, STAT-4, and STAT-5 protein and phosphorylation levels in purified T cells, global transcription, and a genomewide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) profile of healthy AA and EA blood donors. In contrast to HCV-infected individuals, healthy AAs displayed no evidence of reduced STAT activation or IFN-alpha-stimulated gene expression compared to EAs. Although >200 genes reacted to IFN-alpha treatment, race had no impact on any of them. The only gene differentially expressed by the two races (NUDT3, P racial attribution of most donors, and numerous race-associated SNPs were identified within loci involved in IFN-alpha signaling, although they clearly did not affect responsiveness in the absence of HCV. We conclude that racial differences observed in HCV-infected patients in the responsiveness to IFN-alpha are unrelated to inherent racial differences in IFN-alpha signaling and more likely due to polymorphisms affecting the hosts' response to HCV, which in turn may lead to a distinct disease pathophysiology responsible for altered IFN signaling and treatment response.

  14. Alterations in lysosomal and proteasomal markers in Parkinson's disease: relationship to alpha-synuclein inclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yaping; Dodiya, Hemraj; Aebischer, Patrick; Olanow, C Warren; Kordower, Jeffrey H

    2009-09-01

    We explored the relationship between ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) and lysosomal markers and the formation of alpha-synuclein (alpha-syn) inclusions in nigral neurons in Parkinson disease (PD). Lysosome Associated Membrane Protein 1(LAMP1), Cathepsin D (CatD), and Heat Shock Protein73 (HSP73) immunoreactivity were significantly decreased within PD nigral neurons when compared to age-matched controls. This decrease was significantly greater in nigral neurons that contained alpha-syn inclusions. Immunoreactivity for 20S proteasome was similarly reduced in PD nigral neurons, but only in cells that contained inclusions. In aged control brains, there is staining for alpha-syn protein, but it is non-aggregated and there is no difference in LAMP1, CatD, HSP73 or 20S proteasome immunoreactivity between alpha-syn positive or negative neuromelanin-laden nigral neurons. Targeting over-expression of mutant human alpha-syn in the rat substantia nigra using viral vectors revealed that lysosomal and proteasomal markers were significantly decreased in the neurons that displayed alpha-syn-ir inclusions. These findings suggest that alpha-syn aggregation is a key feature associated with decline of proteasome and lysosome and support the hypothesis that cell degeneration in PD involves proteosomal and lysosomal dysfunction, impaired protein clearance, and protein accumulation and aggregation leading to cell death.

  15. The Impact of the Spectral Band Number and Width on the Oil Pollution Diagnostics on Earth Surface by Laser Fluorescence Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Fedotov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the remote sensing methods is the most promising for day-to-day control of oil pollution. The laser-induced fluorescence method provides efficient detection and classification of oil pollutions. To monitor oil pollutions on the earth surface is more complicated than on the water one because of lower fluorescence intensity and interfering fluorescence of natural objects available on the earth surface.Properties of oil pollution classifiers depend largely on the number and positions of spectral bands of fluorescence registration. Reducing the number of spectral bands allows us to diminish computation complexity and cost of equipment. In some cases the reduction increases classification accuracy. The number of spectral bands can be reduced through increasing their width.The paper presents mathematical modeling of oil pollution detection and classification. The experimentally obtained fluorescence spectra of oil pollutions on different substrates were used as input data. The k-nearest neighbors algorithm was used to detect and classify oil pollutions. Cross validation was applied in mathematical modeling.The mathematical modeling results have shown that for oil pollutions detection using over 8 spectral bands (band width less than 50 nm a classification error rate does not depend on the further increasing number of the spectral bands.As to the type classification of oil pollutions (4 classes, an increasing width of the spectral bands up to 60 nm (the number of spectral bands reduced up 7 does not lead to a significantly decreasing overall classification accuracy.In the case of the sort classification of oil pollutions (8 classes a local maximum of the overall accuracy has been observed at 25-30 nm width of the spectral band (14-16 spectral bands. The spectral resolution improvement (increasing the number of bands does give an essentially increasing accuracy.The paper has shown that to detect and classify oil pollutions on the earth surface

  16. Solutal Marangoni convection in a Hele-Shaw geometry: Impact of orientation and gap width

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köllner, T.; Schwarzenberger, K.; Eckert, K.; Boeck, T.

    2015-03-01

    We study Marangoni roll cell convection in a ternary mass transfer system composed of cyclohexanol, water and butanol (transferred species) placed in a Hele-Shaw cell. A detailed comparison of experimental and numerical results is carried out for four different cases including horizontal and vertical orientation as well as small and large gap width of the Hele-Shaw cell. The numerical simulations are based on a common gap-averaged model. For the small gap width, the numerical results qualitatively represent the experimental results. However, by comparison with the experiments, the time evolution in the simulation appears generally retarded. The results show that three-dimensional flow effects have to be expected in particular for a horizontal orientation and a large gap width.

  17. Cenozoic tectonics of western North America controlled by evolving width of Farallon slab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellart, W P; Stegman, D R; Farrington, R J; Freeman, J; Moresi, L

    2010-07-16

    Subduction of oceanic lithosphere occurs through two modes: subducting plate motion and trench migration. Using a global subduction zone data set and three-dimensional numerical subduction models, we show that slab width (W) controls these modes and the partitioning of subduction between them. Subducting plate velocity scales with W(2/3), whereas trench velocity scales with 1/W. These findings explain the Cenozoic slowdown of the Farallon plate and the decrease in subduction partitioning by its decreasing slab width. The change from Sevier-Laramide orogenesis to Basin and Range extension in North America is also explained by slab width; shortening occurred during wide-slab subduction and overriding-plate-driven trench retreat, whereas extension occurred during intermediate to narrow-slab subduction and slab-driven trench retreat.

  18. Analysis of bus width and delay on a fully digital signum nonlinearity chaotic oscillator

    KAUST Repository

    Mansingka, Abhinav S.

    2012-07-29

    This paper introduces the first fully digital implementation of a 3rd order ODE-based chaotic oscillator with signum nonlinearity. A threshold bus width of 12-bits for reliable chaotic behavior is observed, below which the system output becomes periodic. Beyond this threshold, the maximum Lyapunov exponent (MLE) is shown to improve up to a peak value at 16-bits and subsequently decrease with increasing bus width. The MLE is also shown to gradually increase with number of introduced internal delay cycles until a peak value at 14 cycles, after which the system loses chaotic properties. Introduced external delay cycles are shown to rotate the attractors in 3-D phase space. Bus width and delay elements can be independently modulated to optimize the system to suit specifications. The experimental results of the system show low area and high performance on a Xilinx Virtex 4 FPGA with throughput of 13.35 Gbits/s for a 32-bit implementation.

  19. In vivo diffusion analysis with quantum dots and dextrans predicts the width of brain extracellular space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Robert G.; Nicholson, Charles

    2006-04-01

    Diffusion within the extracellular space (ECS) of the brain is necessary for chemical signaling and for neurons and glia to access nutrients and therapeutics; however, the width of the ECS in living tissue remains unknown. We used integrative optical imaging to show that dextrans and water-soluble quantum dots with Stokes-Einstein diameters as large as 35 nm diffuse within the ECS of adult rat neocortex in vivo. Modeling the ECS as fluid-filled "pores" predicts a normal width of 38-64 nm, at least 2-fold greater than estimates from EM of fixed tissue. ECS width falls below 10 nm after terminal ischemia, a likely explanation for the small ECS visualized in electron micrographs. Our results will improve modeling of neurotransmitter spread after spillover and ectopic release and establish size limits for diffusion of drug delivery vectors such as viruses, liposomes, and nanoparticles in brain ECS. drug delivery | integrative optical imaging | nanoparticles | restricted diffusion | somatosensory cortex

  20. Damping width of giant dipole resonances of cold and hot nuclei: A macroscopic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mughabghab, S.F.; Sonzogni, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    A phenomenological macroscopic model of the giant dipole resonance (GDR) damping width of cold and hot nuclei with ground-state spherical and near-spherical shapes is developed. The model is based on a generalized Fermi liquid model which takes into account the nuclear surface dynamics. The temperature dependence of the GDR damping width is accounted for in terms of surface and volume components. Parameter-free expressions for the damping width and the effective deformation are obtained. The model is validated with GDR measurements of the following nuclides: 39,40 K, 42 Ca, 45 Sc, 59,63 Cu, 109-120 Sn, 147 Eu, 194 Hg, and 208 Pb, and is compared with the predictions of other models