WorldWideScience

Sample records for alpha inhalation exposure

  1. Lung cancer risk from exposure to alpha particles and inhalation of other pollutants in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, F.J.

    1990-01-01

    The goal of these experiments is to establish a quantitative correlation between early DNA damage and cancer incidence in a way that would be helpful for assessing the carcinogenic risk of radon alone or in combination with specific indoor pollutants. Rat tracheal epithelium has been exposed in vivo to {sup 210}Po alpha particles in the presence and absence of NO{sub 2} or cigarette smoke. The major accomplishments so far are: the design and implementation of a tracheal implant to simulate radon alpha particle exposure, the measurement of DNA breaks in a small 7.0 mm segment of the trachea exposed to external x-irradiation, the measurement of the rate of repair of the x-ray induced tracheal DNA strand breaks, the measurement of DNA strand breaks following inhalation of cigarette smoke or NO{sub 2}, the measurement of tracheal DNA stand breaks following exposure to high doses {sup 210}Po alpha particle radiation, the assessment of the amount of mucous in the goblet cells and in the underlying mucous glands. So far we have been unable to detect DNA strand breaks in the tracheal epithelium as a result of exposure to NO{sub 2} cigarette smoke or {sup 210}Po alpha particles. We have developed a simple artificial' trachea consisting of rat tracheal epithelial cells growing on a basement membrane coated millipore filter. Experiments are proposed to utilize these artificial tracheas to eliminate the potential interference of increased mucous secretion and/or inflammation that can significantly affect the radiation dose from the alpha particles. 61 refs., 17 figs.

  2. Inhalation exposure methodology.

    OpenAIRE

    Phalen, R F; Mannix, R C; Drew, R T

    1984-01-01

    Modern man is being confronted with an ever-increasing inventory of potentially toxic airborne substances. Exposures to these atmospheric contaminants occur in residential and commercial settings, as well as in the workplace. In order to study the toxicity of such materials, a special technology relating to inhalation exposure systems has evolved. The purpose of this paper is to provide a description of the techniques which are used in exposing laboratory subjects to airborne particles and ga...

  3. Use of sulfur hexafluoride airflow studies to determine the appropriate number and placement of air monitors in an alpha inhalation exposure laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determination of the appropriate number and placement of air monitors in the workplace is quite subjective and is generally one of the more difficult tasks in radiation protection. General guidance for determining the number and placement of air sampling and monitoring instruments has been provided by technical reports such as Mishima, J. These two documents and other published guidelines suggest that some insight into sampler placement can be obtained by conducting airflow studies involving the dilution and clearance of the relatively inert tracer gas sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) in sampler placement studies and describes the results of a study done within the ITRI alpha inhalation exposure laboratories. The objectives of the study were to document an appropriate method for conducting SF6 dispersion studies, and to confirm the appropriate number and placement of air monitors and air samplers within a typical ITRI inhalation exposure laboratory. The results of this study have become part of the technical bases for air sampling and monitoring in the test room

  4. Use of sulfur hexafluoride airflow studies to determine the appropriate number and placement of air monitors in an alpha inhalation exposure laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, G.J.; Hoover, M.D.

    1995-12-01

    Determination of the appropriate number and placement of air monitors in the workplace is quite subjective and is generally one of the more difficult tasks in radiation protection. General guidance for determining the number and placement of air sampling and monitoring instruments has been provided by technical reports such as Mishima, J. These two documents and other published guidelines suggest that some insight into sampler placement can be obtained by conducting airflow studies involving the dilution and clearance of the relatively inert tracer gas sulfur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) in sampler placement studies and describes the results of a study done within the ITRI alpha inhalation exposure laboratories. The objectives of the study were to document an appropriate method for conducting SF{sub 6} dispersion studies, and to confirm the appropriate number and placement of air monitors and air samplers within a typical ITRI inhalation exposure laboratory. The results of this study have become part of the technical bases for air sampling and monitoring in the test room.

  5. Inhalation exposure systems: design, methods and operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Brian A

    2007-01-01

    The respiratory system, the major route for entry of oxygen into the body, provides entry for external compounds, including pharmaceutic and toxic materials. These compounds (that might be inhaled under environmental, occupational, medical, or other situations) can be administered under controlled conditions during laboratory inhalation studies. Inhalation study results may be controlled or adversely affected by variability in four key factors: animal environment; exposure atmosphere; inhaled dose; and individual animal biological response. Three of these four factors can be managed through engineering processes. Variability in the animal environment is reduced by engineering control of temperature, humidity, oxygen content, waste gas content, and noise in the exposure facility. Exposure atmospheres are monitored and adjusted to assure a consistent and known exposure for each animal dose group. The inhaled dose, affected by changes in respiration physiology, may be controlled by exposure-specific monitoring of respiration. Selection of techniques and methods for the three factors affected by engineering allows the toxicologic pathologist to study the reproducibility of the fourth factor, the biological response of the animal. PMID:17325967

  6. Whole-body nanoparticle aerosol inhalation exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jinghai; Chen, Bean T; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Frazer, Dave; Castranova, Vince; McBride, Carroll; Knuckles, Travis L; Stapleton, Phoebe A; Minarchick, Valerie C; Nurkiewicz, Timothy R

    2013-01-01

    Inhalation is the most likely exposure route for individuals working with aerosolizable engineered nano-materials (ENM). To properly perform nanoparticle inhalation toxicology studies, the aerosols in a chamber housing the experimental animals must have: 1) a steady concentration maintained at a desired level for the entire exposure period; 2) a homogenous composition free of contaminants; and 3) a stable size distribution with a geometric mean diameter generation of aerosols containing nanoparticles is quite challenging because nanoparticles easily agglomerate. This is largely due to very strong inter-particle forces and the formation of large fractal structures in tens or hundreds of microns in size (6), which are difficult to be broken up. Several common aerosol generators, including nebulizers, fluidized beds, Venturi aspirators and the Wright dust feed, were tested; however, none were able to produce nanoparticle aerosols which satisfy all criteria (5). A whole-body nanoparticle aerosol inhalation exposure system was fabricated, validated and utilized for nano-TiO2 inhalation toxicology studies. Critical components: 1) novel nano-TiO2 aerosol generator; 2) 0.5 m(3) whole-body inhalation exposure chamber; and 3) monitor and control system. Nano-TiO2 aerosols generated from bulk dry nano-TiO2 powders (primary diameter of 21 nm, bulk density of 3.8 g/cm(3)) were delivered into the exposure chamber at a flow rate of 90 LPM (10.8 air changes/hr). Particle size distribution and mass concentration profiles were measured continuously with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), and an electric low pressure impactor (ELPI). The aerosol mass concentration (C) was verified gravimetrically (mg/m(3)). The mass (M) of the collected particles was determined as M = (Mpost-Mpre), where Mpre and Mpost are masses of the filter before and after sampling (mg). The mass concentration was calculated as C = M/(Q*t), where Q is sampling flowrate (m(3)/min), and t is the sampling

  7. Risk estimates for exposure to alpha emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary scope of this report is to evaluate the risk of lung cancer from occupational exposure to short-lived daughters of radon and thoron. The Subcommittee on Risk Estimates considers that inhalation of radon and thoron daughters is the major radiation hazard from alpha radiation in uranium mining. The secondary scope of this report is the consideration of the applicability of the risk estimates derived from miners to the general public. The risk to members of the public from radium-226 in drinking water is also considered. Some research requirments are suggested

  8. Whole-Body Nanoparticle Aerosol Inhalation Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jinghai; Chen, Bean T.; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Frazer, Dave; Castranova, Vince; McBride, Carroll; Knuckles, Travis L.; Stapleton, Phoebe A.; Minarchick, Valerie C.; Nurkiewicz, Timothy R.

    2013-01-01

    Inhalation is the most likely exposure route for individuals working with aerosolizable engineered nano-materials (ENM). To properly perform nanoparticle inhalation toxicology studies, the aerosols in a chamber housing the experimental animals must have: 1) a steady concentration maintained at a desired level for the entire exposure period; 2) a homogenous composition free of contaminants; and 3) a stable size distribution with a geometric mean diameter < 200 nm and a geometric standard deviation σg < 2.5 5. The generation of aerosols containing nanoparticles is quite challenging because nanoparticles easily agglomerate. This is largely due to very strong inter-particle forces and the formation of large fractal structures in tens or hundreds of microns in size 6, which are difficult to be broken up. Several common aerosol generators, including nebulizers, fluidized beds, Venturi aspirators and the Wright dust feed, were tested; however, none were able to produce nanoparticle aerosols which satisfy all criteria 5. A whole-body nanoparticle aerosol inhalation exposure system was fabricated, validated and utilized for nano-TiO2 inhalation toxicology studies. Critical components: 1) novel nano-TiO2 aerosol generator; 2) 0.5 m3 whole-body inhalation exposure chamber; and 3) monitor and control system. Nano-TiO2 aerosols generated from bulk dry nano-TiO2 powders (primary diameter of 21 nm, bulk density of 3.8 g/cm3) were delivered into the exposure chamber at a flow rate of 90 LPM (10.8 air changes/hr). Particle size distribution and mass concentration profiles were measured continuously with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), and an electric low pressure impactor (ELPI). The aerosol mass concentration (C) was verified gravimetrically (mg/m3). The mass (M) of the collected particles was determined as M = (Mpost-Mpre), where Mpreand Mpost are masses of the filter before and after sampling (mg). The mass concentration was calculated as C = M/(Q*t), where Q is

  9. Inhalation of nitric oxide inhibits ADP-induced platelet aggregation and alpha-granule release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagberg, I A; Sølvik, U Ø; Opdahl, H; Roald, H E; Lyberg, T

    1999-01-01

    To gather further information about the effects on blood platelet activation of in vivo exposure to nitric oxide (NO), platelet reactivity was studied in blood from healthy, non-smoking male volunteers before and after 30 min inhalation of 40 ppm NO. Whole blood was stimulated in vitro with adenosine diphosphate or thrombin receptor activation peptide (TRAP-6). In an ex vivo perfusion model, non-anticoagulated blood was exposed to immobilised collagen at arterial blood flow conditions (2600 s(-1)). Blood samples from both the in vitro and ex vivo experiments were stained with fluorochrome-labelled Annexin-V and antibodies against CD42a, CD45, CD49b, CD61, CD62P and fibrinogen, and analysed with a three-colour flow cytometry technique. NO inhalation reduced the platelet activation response to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) stimulation by decreasing platelet-platelet aggregation, alpha-granule release and platelet-leukocyte conjugate formation. TRAP-stimulated platelet activation, collagen-induced platelet activation and thrombus growth was unaffected by NO inhalation. We therefore suggest an ADP receptor inhibitor mode of action of inhaled NO, selective on the newly suggested G protein- and phospholipase C-coupled P2Y1 receptor. Our results demonstrate that blood platelet activation in healthy subjects is modulated by inhalation of NO in therapeutically relevant doses, although the clinical impact of our findings remains unclear. PMID:16801117

  10. Conceptual model for assessment of inhalation exposure: Defining modifying factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielemans, E.; Schneider, T.; Goede, H.; Tischer, M.; Warren, N.; Kromhout, H.; Tongeren, M. van; Hemmen, J. van; Cherrie, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    The present paper proposes a source-receptor model to schematically describe inhalation exposure to help understand the complex processes leading to inhalation of hazardous substances. The model considers a stepwise transfer of a contaminant from the source to the receptor. The conceptual model is c

  11. Criteria for inhalation exposure systems utilizing concurrent flow spirometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Principles are given for the design and operation of a new class of inhalation exposure systems utilizing concurrent flow spirometry (CFS), a simple method for providing realtime measurement of respiratory volumes and rates during inhalation exposure by mouth or nose of individual experimental animals or man to aerosols or gases. This technique is especially useful for inhalation exposure of larger experimental animals, such as horses, where whole-body plethysmography is usually impractical. Difficulties encountered with conventional exposure systems in maintenance of uniform aerosol or gas concentrations and prevention of large pressure excursions in the exposure chamber during breathing are obviated by systems utilizing the principles of concurrent flow spirometry. For illustration, two exposure units with CFS are described, one for exposure of Beagle dogs and one for ponies. (U.S.)

  12. Carbon nanotube dosimetry: from workplace exposure assessment to inhalation toxicology

    OpenAIRE

    Erdely, Aaron; Dahm, Matthew; Chen, Bean T.; Zeidler-Erdely, Patti C.; Fernback, Joseph E.; Birch, M. Eileen; Evans, Douglas E.; Kashon, Michael L; Deddens, James A.; Hulderman, Tracy; Bilgesu, Suzan A; Battelli, Lori; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Leonard, Howard D.; McKinney, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Background Dosimetry for toxicology studies involving carbon nanotubes (CNT) is challenging because of a lack of detailed occupational exposure assessments. Therefore, exposure assessment findings, measuring the mass concentration of elemental carbon from personal breathing zone (PBZ) samples, from 8 U.S.-based multi-walled CNT (MWCNT) manufacturers and users were extrapolated to results of an inhalation study in mice. Results Upon analysis, an inhalable elemental carbon mass concentration ar...

  13. Microscopic dose to lung from inhaled alpha emitters in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of the short range of alpha particles in tissue, the degree of uniformity of irradiation of the lung varies greatly depending on the form of the inhaled material. Animal studies have shown that the degree of dose uniformity influences the risk of lung cancer. This study investigates the radiation dose distribution of plutonium in human lung. Numerical maps of tissue configuration and target cell locations are obtained from histological sections of human lung tissue stained to enhance the identification of putative cell types for parenchymal lung cancers, i.e. alveolar type II cells and Clara cells. Monte Carlo simulations are used to obtain dose distribution around individual particles, and these distributions are used to compute dose distribution in volumes of lung tissue. Lung dose is characterised both by the degree of non-uniformity of irradiation and the relative degree of irradiation of all tissue versus the special cells of interest. (authors)

  14. Personal exposure to inhalable cement dust among construction workers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, S.M.; Thomassen, Y.; Fechter-Rink, E.; Kromhout, H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective- A case study was carried out to assess cement dust exposure and its determinants among construction workers and for comparison among workers in cement and concrete production.Methods- Full-shift personal exposure measurements were performed and samples were analysed for inhalable dust and

  15. Inhalational and dermal exposures during spray application of biocides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger-Preiss, Edith; Boehncke, Andrea; Könnecker, Gustav; Mangelsdorf, Inge; Holthenrich, Dagmar; Koch, Wolfgang

    2005-01-01

    Data on inhalational and potential dermal exposures during spray application of liquid biocidal products were generated. On the one hand, model experiments with different spraying devices using fluorescent tracers were carried out to investigate the influence of parameters relevant to the exposure (e.g. spraying equipment, nozzle size, direction of application). On the other hand, measurements were performed at selected workplaces (during disinfection operations in food and feed areas; pest control operations for private, public and veterinary hygiene; wood protection and antifouling applications) after application of biocidal products such as Empire 20, Responsar SC, Omexan-forte, Actellic, Perma-forte; Fendona SC, Pyrethrum mist; CBM 8, Aldekol Des 03, TAD CID, Basileum, Basilit. The measurements taken in the model rooms demonstrated dependence of the inhalation exposure on the type of spraying device used, in the following order: "spraying with low pressure" < "airless spraying" < "fogging" indicating that the particle diameter of the released spray droplets is the most important parameter. In addition inhalation exposure was lowest when the spraying direction was downward. Also for the potential dermal exposure, the spraying direction was of particular importance: overhead spraying caused the highest contamination of body surfaces. The data of inhalational and potential dermal exposures gained through workplace measurements showed considerable variation. During spraying procedures with low-pressure equipments, dose rates of active substances inhaled by the operators ranged from 7 to 230 microg active substance (a.s.)/h. An increase in inhaled dose rates (6-33 mg a.s./h) was observed after use of high application volumes/time unit during wood protection applications indoors. Spraying in the veterinary sector using medium-pressure sprayers led to inhaled dose rates between 2 and 24mga.s./h. The highest inhaled dose rates were measured during fogging (114 mg a

  16. Role of inhalation in exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of aromatic compounds consisting of a biphenyl variously chlorinated. Industrial production of PCBs started in 1929 and stopped in the second half of the '70s in USA and in the late 80's and 90's in Europe. PCBs are ubiquitous pollutants. The way of human exposure to PCBs is a matter of discussion. Scientific data show that the greater exposure occurs through diet. However, other available data suggest a not marginal role of the inhalation exposure. The sources of PCBs to which population are exposed depend on the amount of redistribution of these compounds released in the environment. The aim of this work is to highlight numerous studies proving that the intake of PCBs by inhalation cannot be neglected, in particular in heavily industrialized areas and where the concentration of PCBs in the environmental matrices is particularly high

  17. Exposures from external radiation and from inhalation of resuspended material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the modelling of external exposures due to cesium released during the reactor accident of Chernobyl, gamma dose rates in air over open undisturbed sites are considered to be different according to the unsoluble fraction in the deposit. This is taken into account by forming different classes according to the distance from the Chernobyl NPP. The effect of the different migration behavior in these distance classes on the gamma dose rate in air is found to increase with time. Predictions of gamma dose rates in air are based on measurements of the nuclear weapons tests fallout. Various population groups in the CIS countries are defined according to their place of residence (rural or urban), their occupation or age (indoor resp. outdoor workers, pensioners, school-children, or preschool-children), and their kind of residence (wooden, brick, or multi-storey house). Model results for various population groups are compared with the results of TLD-measurements of individual external exposures. For the calculation of inhalation doses, the new ICRP model for the respiratory tract was used. The dose assessments were conducted for measured size resolved activity distributions of resuspended material, obtained at different locations and for several kinds of agricultural operations. Inhalation doses vary considerably with respect to different kinds of work. Tractor drivers receive much higher doses than other agricultural workers, especially when the cabin window of the tractor is open. Effective doses due to the inhalation of resuspended plutonium are assessed to be a few μSv per initial deposit of one kBq/m2. Inhalation doses from 137Cs are usually smaller by an order of magnitude than the doses from Pu, provided a high solubility is assumed for resuspended Cs

  18. Inhalation Exposure Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Wasiolek

    2006-06-05

    This analysis is one of the technical reports that support the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), referred to in this report as the biosphere model. ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes in detail the conceptual model as well as the mathematical model and its input parameters. This report documents development of input parameters for the biosphere model that are related to atmospheric mass loading and supports the use of the model to develop biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs). The biosphere model is one of a series of process models supporting the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for a Yucca Mountain repository. ''Inhalation Exposure Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model'' is one of five reports that develop input parameters for the biosphere model. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the biosphere model is presented in Figure 1-1 (based on BSC 2006 [DIRS 176938]). This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling and how this analysis report contributes to biosphere modeling. This analysis report defines and justifies values of atmospheric mass loading for the biosphere model. Mass loading is the total mass concentration of resuspended particles (e.g., dust, ash) in a volume of air. Mass loading values are used in the air submodel of the biosphere model to calculate concentrations of radionuclides in air inhaled by a receptor and concentrations in air surrounding crops. Concentrations in air to which the receptor is exposed are then used in the inhalation submodel to calculate the dose contribution to the receptor from inhalation of contaminated airborne particles. Concentrations in air surrounding plants are used in the plant submodel to calculate the concentrations of radionuclides in foodstuffs contributed from uptake by foliar interception. This

  19. Inhalation Exposure Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This analysis is one of the technical reports that support the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), referred to in this report as the biosphere model. ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes in detail the conceptual model as well as the mathematical model and its input parameters. This report documents development of input parameters for the biosphere model that are related to atmospheric mass loading and supports the use of the model to develop biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs). The biosphere model is one of a series of process models supporting the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for a Yucca Mountain repository. ''Inhalation Exposure Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model'' is one of five reports that develop input parameters for the biosphere model. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the biosphere model is presented in Figure 1-1 (based on BSC 2006 [DIRS 176938]). This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling and how this analysis report contributes to biosphere modeling. This analysis report defines and justifies values of atmospheric mass loading for the biosphere model. Mass loading is the total mass concentration of resuspended particles (e.g., dust, ash) in a volume of air. Mass loading values are used in the air submodel of the biosphere model to calculate concentrations of radionuclides in air inhaled by a receptor and concentrations in air surrounding crops. Concentrations in air to which the receptor is exposed are then used in the inhalation submodel to calculate the dose contribution to the receptor from inhalation of contaminated airborne particles. Concentrations in air surrounding plants are used in the plant submodel to calculate the concentrations of radionuclides in foodstuffs contributed from uptake by foliar interception. This report is concerned primarily with the

  20. Comparison of the effects of inhaled alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides on pulmonary function in the dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alterations of pulmonary function in representative groups of dogs developing nonneoplastic lung disease, after single inhalation exposures to cerium-144 or plutonium-238 in relatively insoluble particulate forms, were compared. The inhaled particles had similar aerodynamic diameters and effective half-lives of retention in the lung. The mean initial lung burdens of the 144Ce- and 238Pu-exposed groups were 51 and 0.65 μCi/kg of body weight, respectively. Because of the respective ranges of the beta emissions from 144Ce and the alpha emissions from 238Pu, the lungs of the 144Ce-exposed dogs were relatively uniformly irradiated, whereas only approximately 6% of the lung tissue of rates to the 238Pu-exposed dogs was irradiated. The calculated average dose rates to the irradiated tissue were similar for both radionuclides. Pulmonary function was measured serially without sedation. Both groups developed progressive, restrictive lung disease, which ended in death from pulmonary failure. Dogs that inhaled 144Ce had an early reduction of CO diffusing capacity followed by a progressive mechanical and gas-exchange impairment similar to that reported for dogs and men exposed to external irradiation. Dogs that inhaled 238Pu had increased respiratory frequencies which often persisted for months before mechanical and gas-exchange abnormalities became evident

  1. Inhalation Exposure Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This analysis is one of 10 reports that support the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN) biosphere model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes in detail the conceptual model as well as the mathematical model and its input parameters. This report documents development of input parameters for the biosphere model that are related to atmospheric mass loading and supports the use of the model to develop biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs). The biosphere model is one of a series of process models supporting the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for a Yucca Mountain repository. Inhalation Exposure Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model is one of five reports that develop input parameters for the biosphere model. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling, and the plan for development of the biosphere abstraction products for TSPA, as identified in the Technical Work Plan for Biosphere Modeling and Expert Support (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169573]). This analysis report defines and justifies values of mass loading for the biosphere model. Mass loading is the total mass concentration of resuspended particles (e.g., dust, ash) in a volume of air. Mass loading values are used in the air submodel of ERMYN to calculate concentrations of radionuclides in air inhaled by a receptor and concentrations in air surrounding crops. Concentrations in air to which the receptor is exposed are then used in the inhalation submodel to calculate the dose contribution to the receptor from inhalation of contaminated airborne particles. Concentrations in air surrounding plants are used in the plant submodel to calculate the concentrations of radionuclides in foodstuffs contributed from uptake by foliar interception

  2. Inhalation Exposure Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Rautenstrauch

    2004-09-10

    This analysis is one of 10 reports that support the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN) biosphere model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes in detail the conceptual model as well as the mathematical model and its input parameters. This report documents development of input parameters for the biosphere model that are related to atmospheric mass loading and supports the use of the model to develop biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs). The biosphere model is one of a series of process models supporting the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for a Yucca Mountain repository. Inhalation Exposure Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model is one of five reports that develop input parameters for the biosphere model. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling, and the plan for development of the biosphere abstraction products for TSPA, as identified in the Technical Work Plan for Biosphere Modeling and Expert Support (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169573]). This analysis report defines and justifies values of mass loading for the biosphere model. Mass loading is the total mass concentration of resuspended particles (e.g., dust, ash) in a volume of air. Mass loading values are used in the air submodel of ERMYN to calculate concentrations of radionuclides in air inhaled by a receptor and concentrations in air surrounding crops. Concentrations in air to which the receptor is exposed are then used in the inhalation submodel to calculate the dose contribution to the receptor from inhalation of contaminated airborne particles. Concentrations in air surrounding plants are used in the plant submodel to calculate the concentrations of radionuclides in foodstuffs contributed from uptake by foliar interception.

  3. Prenatal Inhalation Exposure to Evaporative Condensates of Gasoline with 15% Ethanol and Evaluation of Sensory Function in Adult Rat Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    The introduction of ethanol-blended automotive fuels has raised concerns about potential health effects from inhalation exposure to the combination of ethanol and gasoline hydrocarbon vapors. Previously, we evaluated effects of prenatal inhalation exposure to 100% ethanol (E100) ...

  4. STOP-EXPOSURE STUDIES OF INHALED CHLORINE PROVIDE IMPORTANT INSIGHTS ON PATHOGENESIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of a project to inform approaches for risk assessment of inhaled irritants of interest to homeland security, a set of acute (Peay et aI., SOT 2010) and subacute (George et aI., SOT 2010) studies of inhaled chlorine (CI2) in female F344 rats was performed. The exposure des...

  5. Patterns of secretion of transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) in experimental silicosis. Acute and subacute effects of cristobalite exposure in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Absher, M; Sjöstrand, M; Baldor, L C; Hemenway, D R; Kelley, J

    1993-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) a cytokine having potent mitogenic activity for epithelial and mesenchymal cells, may play a role in the lung remodeling of silicosis. Lung macrophages are among the major cells producing TGF-alpha in a lung tissue. A pivotal event in the cascade of pathologic events leading to pulmonary silicosis is the interaction between inhaled silica and macrophages. TGF-alpha may be critical in directing the proliferation of type II pneumocytes that characterize silicosis. An inhalation model of brief exposure of pathogen-restricted male rats to 25 mg/M3 cristobalite, a highly reactive form of silicon dioxide was used to study experimental silicosis. This model is characterized by a rapid, intense, and sustained increase in macrophages, neutrophils, and lymphocytes in both alveolar and interstitial compartments of the lung. TGF-alpha was measured in an A431 cell proliferation assay made specific with the use of anti-TGF-alpha neutralizing antiserum in epithelial lining fluid (ELF) and conditioned media harvested from cultured alveolar and interstitial macrophages. Soluble TGF-alpha levels found in ELF were slightly elevated above control values during the exposure period, then increased 5-fold during the 20 weeks after the 8-day exposure period. Secretion of TGF-alpha by macrophages was elevated during exposure to cristobalite but then fell during the early post exposure period. Marked elevations in TGF-alpha secretion from both interstitial and alveolar macrophages (10- and 12-fold, respectively) occurred 8-16 weeks after cessation of exposure.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Inhalants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or LSD. But you may not realize the dangers of substances in your own home. Household products such as glues, hair sprays, paints and lighter fluid can be drugs for kids in search of a quick high. Many young people ... need to know the dangers. Even inhaling once can disrupt heart rhythms and ...

  7. Inhalants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Listen Drug Facts Alcohol Anabolic Steroids Bath Salts Cocaine Cough and Cold Medicine (DXM and Codeine Syrup) Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy or Molly) Methamphetamine (Meth) Prescription Drugs Salvia Spice Brain and Addiction Tobacco, Nicotine, & E-Cigarettes HIV/AIDS ...

  8. Uncertainties in exposures, contamination level and doses after inhalation of actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In France, after occupational exposure to radioactive aerosols, committed doses are currently calculated by an ascending approach from biological data to estimate the initial contamination using dose per unit intake (DPUI). Specific DPUI can be calculated depending on the contamination. This paper is an overview on uncertainties in exposure level, biokinetics of radionuclides and doses after inhalation exposure to aerosol containing actinides. Data reported in the literature and those obtained in studies which are still in progress are described. A comparison of the uncertainties has been done after an ascending and a descending approach. In this later case, aerosol deposition within the respiratory tract is estimated from air sampling at the work place (estimate of the activity of the aerosol). The largest uncertainties were calculated after a descending application of the models. The results here reported pointed out the need of the knowledge of the uncertainties for a realistic interpretation of the results obtained after dose calculation, as well as the application limits of some ICRP models. Moreover, difficulties to estimate risk of cancer from doses are pointed out, which are mainly associated with the heterogeneity of the distribution of alpha dose within the different target regions of the respiratory tract. (authors)

  9. Ingestion, inhalation, and dermal exposures to chloroform and trichloroethene from tap water.

    OpenAIRE

    Weisel, C P; Jo, W K

    1996-01-01

    Individuals are exposed to volatile compounds present in tap water by ingestion, inhalation, and dermal absorption. Traditional risk assessments for water often only consider ingestion exposure to toxic chemicals, even though showering has been shown to increase the body burden of certain chemicals due to inhalation exposure and dermal absorption. We collected and analyzed time-series samples of expired alveolar breath to evaluate changes in concentrations of volatile organic compounds being ...

  10. Trends in wood dust inhalation exposure in the UK, 1985-2005.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galea, K.S.; van Tongeren, M.; Sleeuwenhoek, A.J.; While, D.; Graham, M.; Bolton, A.; Kromhout, H.; Cherrie, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Wood dust data held in the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) National Exposure DataBase (NEDB) were reviewed to investigate the long-term changes in inhalation exposure from 1985 to 2005. In addition, follow-up sampling measurements were obtained from selected companies where exposure me

  11. Effects of physico-chemical properties of actinide oxides on tumour induction after inhalation exposure in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritsch, P.; Dudoignon, N.; Ramounet, B.; Guezingar-Liebard, F.; Matton, S.; Lizon, C.; Massiot, P. [CEA, DSV/DRR/SRCA/LRT, Bruyeres le Chatel (France). Laboratoire de Radiotoxicologie

    2000-07-01

    This review described results obtained with new methods in authors' laboratory to measure dissolution parameters of inhaled actinide oxides and the distribution of {alpha}-delivered dose within lungs in relation to their tumor induction in rats. The oxides were industrial PuO{sub 2} (>50% of {alpha}, due to {sup 238}Pu), {sup 237}NpO{sub 2} and 2 different (U, Pu)O{sub 2} containing about 5% industrial Pu. The aerodynamic median activity diameter of their aerosols with authors' specific device measured with a cascade impactor were similar to each other (1.7-3.6 {mu}m {sigma}g). Their chemical composition was characterized using scanning transmission electron microscopy by energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry on alveolar macrophages which had phagocytosed them. Measurements of dissolution parameters after inhalation exposure in the rat and after in vitro incubation respectively revealed that the f{sub r} values were in the range of 2 x 10{sup -2}-1 x 10{sup -4}, indicating oxides behaved as a type S compound, and that the values were quite different from those above, suggesting S{sub s} should be considered as a variable for dose calculation, depending on time after inhalation. An autoradiographic method using solid tract detector and lung frozen sections revealed that aggeregations involving interstitial macrophages were often associated with fibrosis and/or preneoplastic lesions, which was explainable of a threshold in the dose-effect relationship for lung cancer occurrence. Results showed that, on inhalation of the oxides, risk assessment for lung tumor induction at low doses can not be extrapolated from that at high doses. (K.H.)

  12. Dearomatized white spirit inhalation exposure causes long-lasting neurophysiological changes in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, S. P.; Simonsen, L.; Hass, Ulla;

    1996-01-01

    Dearomatized white spirit inhalation exposure causes long-lasting neurophysioloical changes in rats. NEUROTOXICOL TERATOL 18(1), 67-76, 1996. -Exposure for 6 h per day, 5 days per week, during a period of 6 months to the organic solvent dearomatized white spirit (0, 400, and 800 ppm) was studied ...

  13. SUBCHRONIC INHALATION EXPOSURE OF RATS TO LIBBY AMPHIBOLE AND AMOSITE ASBESTOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to Libby amphibole (LA) is associated with significant increases in asbestosis, lung cancer, and mesothelioma. To support biological potency assessment and dosimetry model development, a subchronic nose-only inhalation exposure study (6 hr/d, 5 d/wk, 13 wk) was conducted...

  14. Gestational Exposure to Inhaled Vapors of Ethanol and Gasoline-Ethanol Blends in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US automotive fleet is powered primarily by gasoline-ethanol fuel blends containing up to 10% ethanol (ElO). Uncertainties regarding the health risks associated with exposure to ElO prompted assessment of the effects of prenatal exposure to inhaled vapors of gasoline-ethanol ...

  15. Role of protracted exposure on the toxicology of inhaled 239PuO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were initiated to examine in rats the effects of a protracted exposure to inhaled 239PuO2. Graphs are presented to show effect of multiple exposures to 239PuO2 on the deposition and clearance of 239Pu in the alveoli

  16. Tumorigenic responses from single or repeated inhalation exposures to relatively insoluble aerosols of Ce-144

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human occupational or environmental inhalation exposures may involve repeated or chronic exposures, but most laboratory studies of inhaled radionuclides have involved single exposures. This study was designed to compare the biological effects of repeated inhalation exposures of dogs to a relatively insoluble form of 144Ce with existing data for singly-exposed dogs that had the same cumulative dose to the lungs two years after exposure. To date, the biological effects observed in these repeatedly-exposed dogs have been substantially different from those seen in singly-exposed dogs, particularly during the first 5 years after the initial exposure. Although pulmonary hemangiosarcoma was the prominent biological effect seen in singly-exposed dogs between 2 and 4 years after exposure, no lung tumors were seen during the 5 years after the first of the repeated exposures. This response plus other clinical observations are discussed in relation to the patterns of dose rate and cumulative dose for the different exposure conditions. (H.K.)

  17. Effects of combined exposure of F344 rats to radiation and chronically inhaled cigarette smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finch, G.L.; Nikula, K.J.; Barr, E.B. [and others

    1995-12-01

    Nuclear workers may be exposed to radiation in various forms, such as low-LET {gamma}-irradiation or {alpha}-irradiation from inhaled {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} particles. These workers may then have increased risk for lung cancer compared to the general population. Of additional concern is the possibility that interactions between radiation and other carcinogens may increase the risk of cancer induction, compared to the risks from either type of agent alone. An important and common lung carcinogen is cigarette smoke. The purpose of this project is to better determine the combined effects of chronically inhaled cigarette smoke and either inhaled {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} or external, thoracic X-irradiation on the induction of lung cancer in rats. Histologic and dosimetric evaluations of rats in the CS + {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} study continue, and the study of CS + X rays is beginning.

  18. Achieving consistent multiple daily low-dose Bacillus anthracis spore inhalation exposures in the rabbit model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy E Barnewall

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Repeated low-level exposures to Bacillus anthracis could occur before or after the remediation of an environmental release. This is especially true for persistent agents such as Bacillus anthracis spores, the causative agent of anthrax. Studies were conducted to examine aerosol methods needed for consistent daily low aerosol concentrations to deliver a low-dose (less than 106 colony forming units (CFU of B. anthracis spores and included a pilot feasibility characterization study, acute exposure study, and a multiple fifteen day exposure study. This manuscript focuses on the state-of-the-science aerosol methodologies used to generate and aerosolize consistent daily low aerosol concentrations and resultant low inhalation doses. The pilot feasibility characterization study determined that the aerosol system was consistent and capable of producing very low aerosol concentrations. In the acute, single day exposure experiment, targeted inhaled doses of 1 x 102, 1 x 103, 1 x 104, and 1 x 105 CFU were used. In the multiple daily exposure experiment, rabbits were exposed multiple days to targeted inhaled doses of 1 x 102, 1 x 103, and 1 x 104 CFU. In all studies, targeted inhaled doses remained fairly consistent from rabbit to rabbit and day to day. The aerosol system produced aerosolized spores within the optimal mass median aerodynamic diameter particle size range to reach deep lung alveoli. Consistency of the inhaled dose was aided by monitoring and recording respiratory parameters during the exposure with real-time plethysmography. Overall, the presented results show that the animal aerosol system was stable and highly reproducible between different studies and multiple exposure days.

  19. Influence of exhaled air on inhalation exposure delivered through a directed-flow nose-only exposure system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, O R; James, R A; Asgharian, B

    2006-01-01

    In order to conserve material that is available in limited quantities, "directed-flow" nose-only exposure systems have at times been run at flow rates close to the minute ventilation of the animal. Such low-flow-rate conditions can contribute to a decrease of test substance concentration in inhaled air; near the animal nose, exhaled air and the directed flow of exposure air move in opposite directions. With a Cannon "directed-flow" nose-only exposure system (Lab Products, Maywood, NJ), we investigated the extent to which exposure air plus exhaled air can be inhaled by an animal. A mathematical model and a mechanical simulation of respiration were adopted to predict for a male Fischer 344 rat the concentration of test substance in inhaled air. The mathematical model was based on the assumption of instantaneous mixing. The mechanical simulation of respiration used a Harvard respirator. When the system was operated at an exposure air flow rate greater than 2.5 times the minute ventilation of the animal, the concentration of test substance in the inhaled air was reduced by less than 10%. Under these conditions, the circular jet of air exiting the exposure air delivery tube tended to reach the animal's nose with little dispersion. For exposure air flow rates less than 2 times the minute ventilation, we predict that the interaction of exhaled air and exposure air can be minimized by proportionally reducing the delivery tube diameter. These findings should be applicable to similar "directed-flow" nose-only exposure systems.

  20. Quantitative assessment of inhalation exposure and deposited dose of aerosol from nanotechnology-based consumer sprays†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarenko, Yevgen; Lioy, Paul J.; Mainelis, Gediminas

    2015-01-01

    This study provides a quantitative assessment of inhalation exposure and deposited aerosol dose in the 14 nm to 20 μm particle size range based on the aerosol measurements conducted during realistic usage simulation of five nanotechnology-based and five regular spray products matching the nano-products by purpose of application. The products were also examined using transmission electron microscopy. In seven out of ten sprays, the highest inhalation exposure was observed for the coarse (2.5–10 μm) particles while being minimal or below the detection limit for the remaining three sprays. Nanosized aerosol particles (14–100 nm) were released, which resulted in low but measurable inhalation exposures from all of the investigated consumer sprays. Eight out of ten products produced high total deposited aerosol doses on the order of 101–103 ng kg−1 bw per application, ~85–88% of which were in the head airways, only <10% in the alveolar region and <8% in the tracheobronchial region. One nano and one regular spray produced substantially lower total deposited doses (by 2–4 orders of magnitude less), only ~52–64% of which were in the head while ~29–40% in the alveolar region. The electron microscopy data showed nanosized objects in some products not labeled as nanotechnology-based and conversely did not find nano-objects in some nano-sprays. We found no correlation between nano-object presence and abundance as per the electron microscopy data and the determined inhalation exposures and deposited doses. The findings of this study and the reported quantitative exposure data will be valuable for the manufacturers of nanotechnology-based consumer sprays to minimize inhalation exposure from their products, as well as for the regulators focusing on protecting the public health. PMID:25621175

  1. Effects of combined exposure of F344 rats to inhaled Plutonium-239 dioxide and a chemical carcinogen (NNK)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundgren, D.L.; Carlton, W.W. [Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States); Griffith, W.C. [and others

    1995-12-01

    Workers in nuclear weapons facilities have a significant potential for exposure to chemical carcinogens and to radiation from external sources or from internally deposited radionuclides such as {sup 239}Pu. Although the carcinogenic effects of inhaled {sup 239}Pu and many chemicals have been studied individually, very little information is available on their combined effects. One chemical carcinogen that workers could be exposed to via tobacco smoke is the tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(N-methyl-n-nitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), a product of tobacco curing and the pyrolysis of nicotine in tobacco. NNK causes lung tumors in rats, regardless of the route of administration and to a lesser extent liver, nasal, and pancreatic tumors. From the results presented, it can be concluded that exposure to a chemical carcinogen (NNK) in combination with {alpha}-particle radiation from inhaled {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} acts in, at best, an additive manner in inducing lung cancer in rats.

  2. Inhalation toxicology of repeated exposures to 244CmO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rats have been exposed to inhaled 244CmO2 at 70 and 280 days of age (IAD, approx. 350 nCi) and at ten 3-week intervals (IAD, approx. 35 nCi per exposure). Autoradiographs are being examined for lung, liver and bone microdosimetry

  3. TWO-WEEK INHALATION EXPOSURE OF RATS TO LIBBY AMPHIBOLE (LA) AND AMOSITE ASBESTOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relative potency of LA compared to UICC amosite was assessed in a subacute inhalation study designed to set exposure levels for a future subchronic study. Male F344 rats (n=7/group) were exposed nose-only to air (control), 3 concentrations of LA, or I concentration of amosite...

  4. Dose assessment to inhalation exposure of indoor 222Rn daughters in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, C W; Chang, S Y; Lee, B H

    1992-10-01

    Long-term, average indoor 222Rn concentrations were measured in 12 residential areas by passive CR-39 radon cups. Corresponding equilibrium-equivalent concentration of radon daughters were derived. The resulting effective dose equivalent for the Korean population due to inhalation exposure of this equilibrium-equivalent concentration of radon daughters was then evaluated.

  5. Dermal and inhalation exposure to methylene bisphenyl isocyanate (MDI) in iron foundry workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liljelind, I; Norberg, C; Egelrud, L; Westberg, H; Eriksson, K; Nylander-French, L A

    2010-01-01

    Diisocyanates are a group of chemically reactive agents, which are used in the production of coatings, adhesives, polyurethane foams, and parts for the automotive industry and as curing agents for cores in the foundry industry. Dermal and inhalation exposure to methylene bisphenyl isocyanate (MDI) is associated with respiratory sensitization and occupational asthma. However, limited research has been performed on the quantitative evaluation of dermal and inhalation exposure to MDI in occupationally exposed workers. The objective of this research was to quantify dermal and inhalation exposure levels in iron foundry workers. Workers involved in mechanized moulding and mechanized production of cores were monitored: 12 core makers, 2 core-sand preparers, and 5 core installers. Personal breathing-zone levels of MDI were measured using impregnated filter sampling. Dermal exposure to MDI was measured using a tape-strip technique. Three or five consecutive tape-strip samples were collected from five exposed skin areas (right and left forefingers, left and right wrists, and forehead). The average personal air concentration was 0.55 microg m(-3), 50-fold lower than the Swedish occupational exposure limit of 30 microg m(-3). The core makers had an average exposure of 0.77 microg m(-3), which was not significantly different from core installers' and core-sand preparers' average exposure of 0.16 microg m(-3) (P = 0.059). Three core makers had a 10-fold higher inhalation exposure than the other core makers. The core makers' mean dermal exposure at different skin sites varied from 0.13 to 0.34 microg while the two other groups' exposure ranged from 0.006 to 0.062 microg. No significant difference was observed in the MDI levels between the skin sites in a pairwise comparison, except for left forefinger compared to left and right wrist (P < 0.05). In addition, quantifiable but decreasing levels of MDI were observed in the consecutive tape strip per site indicating MDI penetration

  6. Strategies to determine and control the contributions of indoor air pollution to total inhalation exposure (STRATEX)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cochet, C.; Fernandes, E.O.; Jantunen, M.;

    ECA-IAQ (European Collaborative Action, Urban Air, Indoor Environment and Human Exposure), 2006. Strategies to determine and control the contributions of indoor air pollution to total inhalation exposure (STRATEX), Report No 25. EUR 22503 EN. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the Eu...... strategies described should be considered as a framework. This framework may have to be adapted to specific situations by policy makers, risk assessors, and risk managers....

  7. Comparison of sarin and cyclosarin toxicity by subcutaneous, intravenous and inhalation exposure in Gottingen minipigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulet, Stanley W; Sommerville, Douglas R; Miller, Dennis B; Scotto, Jacqueline A; Muse, William T; Burnett, David C

    2014-02-01

    Sexually mature male and female Gottingen minipigs were exposed to various concentrations of GB and GF vapor via whole-body inhalation exposures or to liquid GB or GF via intravenous or subcutaneous injections. Vapor inhalation exposures were for 10, 60 or 180 min. Maximum likelihood estimation was used to calculate the median effect levels for severe effects (ECT50 and ED50) and lethality (LCT50 and LD50). Ordinal regression was used to model the concentration × time profile of the agent toxicity. Contrary to that predicted by Haber's rule, LCT50 values increased as the duration of the exposures increased for both nerve agents. The toxic load exponents (n) were calculated to be 1.38 and 1.28 for GB and GF vapor exposures, respectively. LCT50 values for 10-, 60- and 180-min exposures to vapor GB in male minipigs were 73, 106 and 182 mg min/m(3), respectively. LCT50 values for 10-, 60 - and 180-min exposures to vapor GB in female minipigs were 87, 127 and 174 mg min/m(3), respectively. LCT50 values for 10-, 60- and 180-min exposures to vapor GF in male minipigs were 218, 287 and 403 mg min/m(3), respectively. LCT50 values for 10-, 60- and 180-min exposures in female minipigs were 183, 282 and 365 mg min/m(3), respectively. For GB vapor exposures, there was a tenuous gender difference which did not exist for vapor GF exposures. Surprisingly, GF was 2-3 times less potent than GB via the inhalation route of exposure regardless of exposure duration. Additionally GF was found to be less potent than GB by intravenous and subcutaneous routes.

  8. Effect of alpha irradiation of the lungs from inhaled 239PuO2 on the immunity of mice to Listeria monocytogenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pulmonary clearance of inhaled Listeria monocytogenes from the lungs of nonimmunized and immunized mice was observed 3 to 4 or 26 wks after prior exposure to 239PuO2 to achieve initial lung burdens of 2.6, 5.0 and 11.9 nanocuries (nCi). Mice from 239PuO2 and sham-exposed groups were immunized against L. monocytogenes and 1 wk later challenged via the respiratory route. Pulmonary clearance was suppressed in mice with an 11.9 nCi initial lung burden of 239Pu 26 wk after 239PuO2 inhalation but not in the mice with initial lung burdens of 2.6 and 5.0 nCi at 4 to 5 or 27 wk after 239PuO2 exposure. Mice with a mean initial lung burden of 11.9 nCi of 239Pu, which were immunized against L. monocytogenes 26 wk after 239PuO2 inhalation, had a decreased survival after respiratory challenge with L. monocytogenes when compared to immunized control animals. Body weight gain and hematological differences did not correlate with suppressed pulmonary clearance or decreased survival. Pulmonary lavage studies indicated that fewer alveolar macrophages were recoverable from mice with a mean initial lung burden of 11.9 nCi of 239Pu 26 wk after 239PuO2 inhalation. It was concluded that an initial lung burden of 11.9 nCi of 239Pu which delivered approximately 700 rads of alpha radiation to the lungs of mice resulted in decreased pulmonary clearance and decreased survival of mice which had been immunized against L. monocytogenes

  9. Repeated inhalation exposure of Beagle dogs to aerosols of 239PuO2. XII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beagle dogs were exposed once or semi-annually for 10 yr by inhalation to aerosols of 239PuO2 to study the relative doses and effects of these two types of exposures. All exposures have been completed. Dogs exposed at high levels died predominantly of radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis. Dogs exposed at lower levels, either once or repeatedly, are dying of a variety of causes including lung cancer. Dogs have survived up to 11 yr after their first exposure. Preliminary results suggest that single and repeated exposures cause similar health effects for equal accumulated radiation doses. (author)

  10. Proposed retention model for human inhalation exposure to 241AmO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dosimetry model based on a four-year study in Beagle dogs was developed to predict patterns of absorbed radiation doses for people exposed by inhalation to 241AmO2. Following a single inhalation exposure to one of three sizes of monodisperse or a polydisperse aerosol of 241AmO2, pairs of dogs were sacrificed at 8, 32, 64 and 256 days, and 2 and 4 years. For about 80% of the initial lung burden, the retention halftimes were 11, 18, 26 and 27 days for the 0.75, 1.5 and 3.0 μm aerodynamic diameter and the 1.8 μm activity median aerodynamic diameter aerosols, respectively. For the remaining 20% of the initial lung burden, the retention halftimes were between 200 to 300 days with no apparent particle size influence. Additional 241Am metabolic studies reported in the literature using inhalation exposure or injection of the citrate complex were synthesized in the model as were eleven reported cases of human inhalation exposure. This model is compared to the ICRP II and TGLD lung models, both developed by analogy to Pu metabolism. The proposed model differs from these latter models in two important areas: (a) lung retention of 241AmO2 could not be adapted to the classifications used in these models, and (b) the fractional translocation from lung to other organs is 2 to 8 times larger. These factors considerably alter the predicted radiation dose distribution among organs and lead to the conclusion that derived radiation protection standards for 241AmO2 inhalation exposure should be modified. (author)

  11. Impact of non-constant concentration exposure on lethality of inhaled hydrogen cyanide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Lisa M; Sommerville, Douglas R; Channel, Stephen R

    2014-03-01

    The ten Berge model, also known as the toxic load model, is an empirical approach in hazard assessment modeling for estimating the relationship between the inhalation toxicity of a chemical and the exposure duration. The toxic load (TL) is normally expressed as a function of vapor concentration (C) and duration (t), with TL equaling C(n) × t being a typical form. Hypothetically, any combination of concentration and time that yields the same "toxic load" will give a constant biological response. These formulas have been developed and tested using controlled, constant concentration animal studies, but the validity of applying these assumptions to time-varying concentration profiles has not been tested. Experiments were designed to test the validity of the model under conditions of non-constant acute exposure. Male Sprague-Dawley rats inhaled constant or pulsed concentrations of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) generated in a nose-only exposure system for 5, 15, or 30 min. The observed lethality of HCN for the 11 different C versus t profiles was used to evaluate the ability of the model to adequately describe the lethality of HCN under the conditions of non-constant inhalation exposure. The model was found to be applicable under the tested conditions, with the exception of the median lethality of very brief, high concentration, discontinuous exposures.

  12. Metabolomic changes in murine serum following inhalation exposure to gasoline and diesel engine emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brower, Jeremy B; Doyle-Eisele, Melanie; Moeller, Benjamin; Stirdivant, Steven; McDonald, Jacob D; Campen, Matthew J

    2016-04-01

    The adverse health effects of environmental exposure to gaseous and particulate components of vehicular emissions are a major concern among urban populations. A link has been established between respiratory exposure to vehicular emissions and the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the mechanisms driving this interaction remain unknown. Chronic inhalation exposure to mixed vehicle emissions has been linked to CVD in animal models. This study evaluated the temporal effects of acute exposure to mixed vehicle emissions (MVE; mixed gasoline and diesel emissions) on potentially active metabolites in the serum of exposed mice. C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to a single 6-hour exposure to filtered air (FA) or MVE (100 or 300 μg/m(3)) by whole body inhalation. Immediately after and 18 hours after the end of the exposure period, animals were sacrificed for serum and tissue collection. Serum was analyzed for metabolites that were differentially present between treatment groups and time points. Changes in metabolite levels suggestive of increased oxidative stress (oxidized glutathione, cysteine disulfide, taurine), lipid peroxidation (13-HODE, 9-HODE), energy metabolism (lactate, glycerate, branched chain amino acid catabolites, butrylcarnitine, fatty acids), and inflammation (DiHOME, palmitoyl ethanolamide) were observed immediately after the end of exposure in the serum of animals exposed to MVE relative to those exposed to FA. By 18 hours post exposure, serum metabolite differences between animals exposed to MVE versus those exposed to FA were less pronounced. These findings highlight complex metabolomics alterations in the circulation following inhalation exposure to a common source of combustion emissions. PMID:27017952

  13. Inhale while Dreaming: Human Exposure to Pollutants while Sleeping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corsi, Richard; Spilak, Michal; Boor, E., Brandon;

    2012-01-01

    Humans spend approximately 1/3 of their total life asleep, typically on a mattress or other bedding. Despite the fact that there is no other location where most of humanity spends more time, this microenvironment has received little attention from the standpoint of human exposure to a wide range ...

  14. Range-Finding Risk Assessment of Inhalation Exposure to Nanodiamonds in a Laboratory Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antti J. Koivisto

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study considers fundamental methods in occupational risk assessment of exposure to airborne engineered nanomaterials. We discuss characterization of particle emissions, exposure assessment, hazard assessment with in vitro studies, and risk range characterization using calculated inhaled doses and dose-response translated to humans from in vitro studies. Here, the methods were utilized to assess workers’ risk range of inhalation exposure to nanodiamonds (NDs during handling and sieving of ND powder. NDs were agglomerated to over 500 nm particles, and mean exposure levels of different work tasks varied from 0.24 to 4.96 µg·m−3 (0.08 to 0.74 cm−3. In vitro-experiments suggested that ND exposure may cause a risk for activation of inflammatory cascade. However, risk range characterization based on in vitro dose-response was not performed because accurate assessment of delivered (settled dose on the cells was not possible. Comparison of ND exposure with common pollutants revealed that ND exposure was below 5 μg·m−3, which is one of the proposed exposure limits for diesel particulate matter, and the workers’ calculated dose of NDs during the measurement day was 74 ng which corresponded to 0.02% of the modeled daily (24 h dose of submicrometer urban air particles.

  15. EXPOSURE TO ACROLEIN BY INHALATION CAUSES PLATELET ACTIVATION

    OpenAIRE

    Sithu, Srinivas D.; Srivastava, Sanjay; Siddiqui, Maqsood A; Vladykovskaya, Elena; Riggs, Daniel W.; Conklin, Daniel J.; Haberzettl, Petra; O’Toole, Timothy E.; Bhatnagar, Aruni; D’Souza, Stanley E.

    2010-01-01

    Acrolein is a common air pollutant that is present in high concentrations in wood, cotton, and tobacco smoke, automobile exhaust and industrial waste and emissions. Exposure to acrolein containing environmental pollutants such as tobacco smoke and automobile exhaust has been linked to the activation of the coagulation and hemostasis pathways and thereby to the predisposition of thrombotic events in human. To examine the effects of acrolein on platelets, adult male C57Bl/6 mice were subjected ...

  16. Dermal & inhalation exposure of operators during fungicide application in vineyards. Evaluation of coverall performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakirakis, Angelos N; Kasiotis, Konstantinos M; Charistou, Agathi N; Arapaki, Niki; Tsatsakis, Aristidis; Tsakalof, Andreas; Machera, Kyriaki

    2014-02-01

    In the present study the dermal and the inhalation exposure of five operators during fungicide applications in vineyards were determined. The produced exposure datasets can be used as surrogate for the estimation of the actual and the potential dermal as well as inhalation operator exposure levels for this application scenario. The dermal exposure was measured using the whole body dosimetry method while the inhalation exposure with the use of personal air sampling devices with XAD tubes located on the operator's breathing zone. Ten field trials were carried out by 5 different operators using a tractor assisted hand-held lance with spray gun at the Tanagra region of Viotia, Greece. An in-house GC-ECD analytical method was developed and validated for the determination of penconazole, which was the active substance (a.s.) of the fungicide formulation used in field trials. The mean recovery of field-fortified samples was 81%. The operator exposure results showed expected variability and were compared to those derived from the German model for prediction of operator exposure. The comparison of the 75th percentile values for an operator wearing personal protection equipment has shown that the measured levels were 2.2 times lower than those estimated by the German model. The levels of actual dermal exposure ranged from 2 to 19 mg/kg a.s. applied. The protection provided by the two types of coveralls was evaluated and in comparison to the existing reduction factors used for other types of PPE (coveralls) was found satisfactory for the operator under the conditions of the specific applications. PMID:24140699

  17. Acute Inhalation Exposure to Titanium Ethanolate as a Possible Cause of Metal Fume Fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ahmadimanesh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Occupational inhalation exposure to noxious agents is not uncommon. Herein, we present a 26-year-old male student who had accidental acute inhalation exposure to a large quantity of titanium ethanolate and hydrogen chloride in chemistry lab. He was referred to the emergency department of our hospital with low-grade fever, dyspnea, headache, fatigue and myalgia. After 24 hrs of symptomatic treatment (oxygen therapy and acetaminophen, the fever was subsided and the patient discharged home in a good clinical condition. The presented symptoms could be interpreted as a form of metal fume fever. It can therefore be concluded that organo-metallic compound of titanium metal may have the potential to produce metal fume fever in human.

  18. A murine inhalation model to characterize pulmonary exposure to dry Aspergillus fumigatus conidia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda D Buskirk

    Full Text Available Most murine models of fungal exposure are based on the delivery of uncharacterized extracts or liquid conidia suspensions using aspiration or intranasal approaches. Studies that model exposure to dry fungal aerosols using whole body inhalation have only recently been described. In this study, we aimed to characterize pulmonary immune responses following repeated inhalation of conidia utilizing an acoustical generator to deliver dry fungal aerosols to mice housed in a nose only exposure chamber. Immunocompetent female BALB/cJ mice were exposed to conidia derived from Aspergillus fumigatus wild-type (WT or a melanin-deficient (Δalb1 strain. Conidia were aerosolized and delivered to mice at an estimated deposition dose of 1×105 twice a week for 4 weeks (8 total. Histopathological and immunological endpoints were assessed 4, 24, 48, and 72 hours after the final exposure. Histopathological analysis showed that conidia derived from both strains induced lung inflammation, especially at 24 and 48 hour time points. Immunological endpoints evaluated in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF and the mediastinal lymph nodes showed that exposure to WT conidia led to elevated numbers of macrophages, granulocytes, and lymphocytes. Importantly, CD8+ IL17+ (Tc17 cells were significantly higher in BALF and positively correlated with germination of A. fumigatus WT spores. Germination was associated with specific IgG to intracellular proteins while Δalb1 spores elicited antibodies to cell wall hydrophobin. These data suggest that inhalation exposures may provide a more representative analysis of immune responses following exposures to environmentally and occupationally prevalent fungal contaminants.

  19. A murine inhalation model to characterize pulmonary exposure to dry Aspergillus fumigatus conidia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buskirk, Amanda D; Green, Brett J; Lemons, Angela R; Nayak, Ajay P; Goldsmith, W Travis; Kashon, Michael L; Anderson, Stacey E; Hettick, Justin M; Templeton, Steven P; Germolec, Dori R; Beezhold, Donald H

    2014-01-01

    Most murine models of fungal exposure are based on the delivery of uncharacterized extracts or liquid conidia suspensions using aspiration or intranasal approaches. Studies that model exposure to dry fungal aerosols using whole body inhalation have only recently been described. In this study, we aimed to characterize pulmonary immune responses following repeated inhalation of conidia utilizing an acoustical generator to deliver dry fungal aerosols to mice housed in a nose only exposure chamber. Immunocompetent female BALB/cJ mice were exposed to conidia derived from Aspergillus fumigatus wild-type (WT) or a melanin-deficient (Δalb1) strain. Conidia were aerosolized and delivered to mice at an estimated deposition dose of 1×105 twice a week for 4 weeks (8 total). Histopathological and immunological endpoints were assessed 4, 24, 48, and 72 hours after the final exposure. Histopathological analysis showed that conidia derived from both strains induced lung inflammation, especially at 24 and 48 hour time points. Immunological endpoints evaluated in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and the mediastinal lymph nodes showed that exposure to WT conidia led to elevated numbers of macrophages, granulocytes, and lymphocytes. Importantly, CD8+ IL17+ (Tc17) cells were significantly higher in BALF and positively correlated with germination of A. fumigatus WT spores. Germination was associated with specific IgG to intracellular proteins while Δalb1 spores elicited antibodies to cell wall hydrophobin. These data suggest that inhalation exposures may provide a more representative analysis of immune responses following exposures to environmentally and occupationally prevalent fungal contaminants. PMID:25340353

  20. Effects of prenatal inhalation exposure to copper nanoparticles on murine dams and offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Adamcakova-Dodd, Andrea; Monick, Martha M.; Powers, Linda S.; Gibson-Corley, Katherine N.; Thorne, Peter S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Increasing numbers of individuals may be exposed to nanomaterials during pregnancy. The overarching goal of this investigation was to determine if prenatal inhalation exposure to copper nanoparticles (Cu NPs) has an effect on dams and offspring, including an analysis of inflammatory markers (Th1/Th2 cytokine profiles). Methods Physicochemical characterization of Cu NPs was performed. Pregnant and non-pregnant mice (C57Bl/6 J) were exposed to Cu NPs or laboratory air in the whole-bo...

  1. Commuter exposure to inhalable, thoracic and alveolic particles in various transportation modes in Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pramod; Gupta, N C

    2016-01-15

    A public health concern is to understand the linkages between specific pollution sources and adverse health impacts. Commuting can be viewed as one of the significant-exposure activity in high-vehicle density areas. This paper investigates the commuter exposure to inhalable, thoracic and alveolic particles in various transportation modes in Delhi, India. Air pollution levels are significantly contributed by automobile exhaust and also in-vehicle exposure can be higher sometime than ambient levels. Motorcycle, auto rickshaw, car and bus were selected to study particles concentration along two routes in Delhi between Kashmere Gate and Dwarka. The bus and auto rickshaw were running on compressed natural gas (CNG) while the car and motorcycle were operated on gasoline fuel. Aerosol spectrometer was employed to measure inhalable, thoracic and alveolic particles during morning and evening rush hours for five weekdays. From the study, we observed that the concentration levels of these particles were greatly influenced by transportation modes. Concentrations of inhalable particles were found higher during morning in auto rickshaw (332.81 ± 90.97 μg/m(3)) while the commuter of bus exhibited higher exposure of thoracic particles (292.23 ± 110.45 μg/m(3)) and car commuters were exposed to maximum concentrations of alveolic particles (222.37 ± 26.56 μg/m(3)). We observed that in evening car commuters experienced maximum concentrations of all sizes of particles among the four commuting modes. Interestingly, motorcycle commuters were exposed to lower levels of inhalable and thoracic particles during morning and evening hours as compared to other modes of transport. The mean values were found greater than the median values for all the modes of transport suggesting that positive skewed distributions are characteristics of naturally occurring phenomenon.

  2. Exposure to inhalable dust and endotoxin among Danish livestock farmers: results from the SUS cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Basinas, I.; Sigsgaard, T.; Heederik, D; Takai, H.; Omland, O; Andersen, N. T.; Wouters, I.M.; Bonlokke, J.H.; Kromhout, H; V. Schlünssen

    2012-01-01

    Studies on personal dust and endotoxin concentrations among animal farmers have been either small or limited to a few sectors in their investigations. The present study aimed to provide comparable information on the levels and variability of exposure to personal dust and endotoxin in different types of animal farmers. 507 personal inhalable dust samples were collected from 327 farmers employed in 54 pig, 26 dairy, 3 poultry, and 3 mink farms in Denmark. Measurements in pig and dairy farmers w...

  3. Inhalation Exposure of Organophosphate Pesticides by Vegetable Growers in the Bang-Rieng Subdistrict in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Somsiri Jaipieam; Parichart Visuthismajarn; Wattasit Siriwong; Marija Borjan; Mark G. Robson

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated inhalation exposure to organophosphate pesticides (OPPs) and evaluated the associated health risks to vegetable growers living in the Bang-Rieng agricultural community. Air samples were collected by using personal sampling pumps with sorbent tubes placed in the vegetable growers' breathing zone. Samples were collected during both wet and dry seasons. Residues of organophosphate pesticides, that is, chlorpyrifos, dicrotofos, and profenofos, were analyzed from 33 veg...

  4. Applicability of a modified MCE filter method with Button Inhalable Sampler for monitoring personal bioaerosol inhalation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhenqiang; Xu, Hong; Yao, Maosheng

    2013-05-01

    In this study, a "modified" mixed cellulose ester (MCE) filter culturing method (directly placing filter on agar plate for culturing without extraction) was investigated in enumerating airborne culturable bacterial and fungal aerosol concentration and diversity both in different environments. A Button Inhalable Sampler loaded with a MCE filter was operated at a flow rate of 5 L/min to collect indoor and outdoor air samples using different sampling times: 10, 20, and 30 min in three different time periods of the day. As a comparison, a BioStage impactor, regarded as the gold standard, was operated in parallel at a flow rate of 28.3 L/min for all tests. The air samples collected by the Button Inhalable Sampler were directly placed on agar plates for culturing, and those collected by the BioStage impactor were incubated directly at 26 °C. The colony forming units (CFUs) were manually counted and the culturable concentrations were calculated both for bacterial and fungal aerosols. The bacterial CFUs developed were further washed off and subjected to polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) for diversity analysis. For fungal CFUs, microscopy method was applied to studying the culturable fungal diversity obtained using different methods. Experimental results showed that the performance of two investigated methods varied with sampling environments and microbial types (culturable bacterial and fungal aerosols). For bacterial aerosol sampling, both methods were shown to perform equally well, and in contrast the "modified" MCE filter method was demonstrated to enumerate more culturable fungal aerosols than the BioStage impactor. In general, the microbial species richness (number of gel bands) was observed to increase with increasing collection time. For both methods, the DGGE gel patterns were observed to vary with sampling time and environment despite of similar number of gel bands. In addition, an increase in sampling time from 20 to 30 min

  5. Increased Non-conducted P-wave Arrhythmias after a Single Oil Fly Ash Inhalation Exposure in Hypertensive Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to combustion-derived fine particulate matter (PM) is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality especially in individuals with cardiovascular disease, including hypertension. PM inhalation causes several adverse changes in cardiac function that ar...

  6. Community exposures to airborne agricultural pesticides in California: ranking of inhalation risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sharon; McLaughlin, Robert; Harnly, Martha; Gunier, Robert; Kreutzer, Richard

    2002-12-01

    We assessed inhalation risks to California communities from airborne agricultural pesticides by probability distribution analysis using ambient air data provided by the California Air Resources Board and the California Department of Pesticide Regulation. The pesticides evaluated include chloropicrin, chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos, S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate, diazinon, 1,3-dichloropropene, dichlorvos (naled breakdown product), endosulfan, eptam, methidathion, methyl bromide, methyl isothiocyanate (MITC; metam sodium breakdown product), molinate, propargite, and simazine. Risks were estimated for the median and 75th and 95th percentiles of probability (50, 25, and 5% of the exposed populations). Exposure estimates greater than or equal to noncancer reference values occurred for 50% of the exposed populations (adults and children) for MITC subchronic and chronic exposures, methyl bromide subchronic exposures (year 2000 monitoring), and 1,3-dichloropropene subchronic exposures (1990 monitoring). Short-term chlorpyrifos exposure estimates exceeded the acute reference value for 50% of children (not adults) in the exposed population. Noncancer risks were uniformly higher for children due to a proportionately greater inhalation rate-to-body weight ratio compared to adults and other factors. Target health effects of potential concern for these exposures include neurologic effects (methyl bromide and chlorpyrifos) and respiratory effects (1,3-dichloropropene and MITC). The lowest noncancer risks occurred for simazine and chlorothalonil. Lifetime cancer risks of one-in-a-million or greater were estimated for 50% of the exposed population for 1,3-dichloropropene (1990 monitoring) and 25% of the exposed populations for methidathion and molinate. Pesticide vapor pressure was found to be a better predictor of inhalation risk compared to other methods of ranking pesticides as potential toxic air contaminants. PMID:12460795

  7. [Interaction between benzene and toluene in long term inhalation exposure in rats (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradiski, D; Bonnet, P; Duprat, P; Zissu, D; Magadur, J L; Guenier, J P

    1981-07-01

    Industrial chemicals are seldom used as pure substances; hazards resulting from exposure to mixtures have, however not been solved. Our study deals with chronic inhalation toxicity of a mixture of benzene and toluene; few studies have been completed on this subject. Our results show: - leucopenia with benzene alone, at a concentration of 50 p.p.m., that is not detectable in the presence of toluene; - metabolic variations consisting in: a decrease in the phenol urinary rate versus time with benzene alone; a sharp decrease of this rate from the third month of exposure on, in presence of toluene.

  8. 5-Day repeated inhalation and 28-day post-exposure study of graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jae Hoon; Han, Sung Gu; Kim, Jin Kwon; Kim, Boo Wook; Hwang, Joo Hwan; Lee, Jong Seong; Lee, Ji Hyun; Baek, Jin Ee; Kim, Tae Gyu; Kim, Keun Soo; Lee, Heon Sang; Song, Nam Woong; Ahn, Kangho; Yu, Il Je

    2015-01-01

    Graphene has recently been attracting increasing attention due to its unique electronic and chemical properties and many potential applications in such fields as semiconductors, energy storage, flexible electronics, biosensors and medical imaging. However, the toxicity of graphene in the case of human exposure has not yet been clarified. Thus, a 5-day repeated inhalation toxicity study of graphene was conducted using a nose-only inhalation system for male Sprague-Dawley rats. A total of three groups (20 rats per group) were compared: (1) control (ambient air), (2) low concentration (0.68 ± 0.14 mg/m(3) graphene) and (3) high concentration (3.86 ± 0.94 mg/m(3) graphene). The rats were exposed to graphene for 6 h/day for 5 days, followed by recovery for 1, 3, 7 or 28 days. The bioaccumulation and macrophage ingestion of the graphene were evaluated in the rat lungs. The exposure to graphene did not change the body weights or organ weights of the rats after the 5-day exposure and during the recovery period. No statistically significant difference was observed in the levels of lactate dehydrogenase, protein and albumin between the exposed and control groups. However, graphene ingestion by alveolar macrophages was observed in the exposed groups. Therefore, these results suggest that the 5-day repeated exposure to graphene only had a minimal toxic effect at the concentrations and time points used in this study.

  9. Biological effects of short-term, high-concentration exposure to methyl isocyanate. I. Study objectives and inhalation exposure design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodd, D.E.; Frank, F.R.; Fowler, E.H.; Troup, C.M.; Milton, R.M.

    1987-06-01

    Early reports from India indicated that humans were dying within minutes to a few hours from exposure to methyl isocyanate (MIC). Attempts to explain the cause(s) of these rapid mortalities is where Union Carbide Corporation concentrated its post-Bhopal toxicologic investigations. The MIC studies involving rats and guinea pigs focused primarily on the consequences of acute pulmonary damage. All MIC inhalation exposures were acute, of short duration (mainly 15 min), and high in concentration. MIC vapors were statically generated in a double chamber exposure design. Precautionary measures taken during exposures are discussed. Guinea pigs were more susceptible than rats to MIC exposure-related early mortality. A greater than one order of magnitude difference was observed between an MIC concentration that caused no early mortality in rats (3506 ppm) and an MIC concentration that caused partial (6%) early mortality in guinea pigs (225 ppm) for exposures of 10 to 15 min duration. For both species, the most noteworthy clinical signs during exposure were lacrimation, blepharospasm, and mouth breathing. Fifteen minute LC/sub 50/ tests with 14-day postexposure follow-up were conducted, and the LC/sub 50/ (95% confidence limit) values were 171 (114-256) ppm for rats and 112 (61-204) ppm for guinea pigs. Target exposure concentrations for the toxicologic investigations of MIC-induced early mortality were established. A short summary of pertinent results of Union Carbide Corporation's post-Bhopal toxicologic investigations is presented.

  10. Hematotoxicity and concentration-dependent conjugation of phenol in mice following inhalation exposure to benzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, M S; Nerland, D E

    1991-04-01

    Benzene is metabolized to one or more hematotoxic species. Saturation of benzene metabolism could limit the production of toxic species. Saturation of phase II enzymes involved in the conjugation of the phenolic metabolites of benzene also could affect the hematotoxicity of benzene. To investigate the latter possibility, we exposed male Swiss mice, via the inhalation route, to various concentrations of benzene for 6 h per day for 5 days. Following termination of the final exposure the mice were killed and the levels of phenylsulfate and phenylglucuronide in the blood determined. Spleen weights were recorded and the number of white blood cells counted. At low benzene exposure concentrations phenylsulfate is the major conjugated form of phenol in the blood. At high exposure concentrations, phenylglucuronide is the predominant species. The reductions in spleen weight and white blood cell numbers correlated with the concentration of phenylsulfate in the blood, but are most probably not causally related.

  11. Nanomaterial inhalation exposure from nanotechnology-based cosmetic powders: a quantitative assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study we quantified exposures to airborne particles ranging from 14 nm to 20 μm due to the use of nanotechnology-based cosmetic powders. Three nanotechnology-based and three regular cosmetic powders were realistically applied to a mannequin’s face while measuring the concentration and size distribution of inhaled aerosol particles. Using these data we calculated that the highest inhaled particle mass was in the coarse aerosol fraction (2.5–10 μm), while particles <100 nm made minimal contribution to the inhaled particle mass. For all powders, 85–93 % of aerosol deposition occurred in the head airways, while <10 % deposited in the alveolar and <5 % in the tracheobronchial regions. Electron microscopy data suggest that nanomaterials were likely distributed as agglomerates across the entire investigated aerosol size range (14 nm–20 μm). Thus, investigation of nanoparticle health effects should consider not only the alveolar region, but also other respiratory system regions where substantial nanomaterial deposition during the actual nanotechnology-based product use would occur.

  12. Toxic effect in the lungs of rats after inhalation exposure to benzalkonium chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosław Świercz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Benzalkonium chloride (BAC is a quaternary ammonium compound (QAC toxic to microorganisms. Inhalation is one of the major possible routes of human exposure to BAC. Materials and Methods: Experiments were performed on female Wistar rats. The rats were exposed to aerosol of BAC water solution at the target concentration of 0 (control group and 35 mg/m3 for 5 days (6 h/day and, after a 2-week interval, the animals were challenged (day 21 with BAC aerosol at the target concentration of 0 (control group and 35 mg/m3 for 6 h. Results: Compared to the controls, the animals exposed to BAC aerosol were characterized by lower food intake and their body weight was significantly smaller. As regards BAC-exposed group, a significant increase was noted in relative lung mass, total protein concentration, and MIP-2 in BALF both directly after the termination of the exposure and 18 h afterwards. Significantly higher IL-6 and IgE concentrations in BALF and a decrease in the CC16 concentration in BALF were found in the exposed group immediately after the exposure. The leukocyte count in BALF was significantly higher in the animals exposed to BAC aerosol compared to the controls. In the lungs of rats exposed to BAC the following effects were observed: minimal perivascular, interstitial edema, focal aggregates of alveolar macrophages, interstitial mononuclear cell infiltrations, thickened alveolar septa and marginal lipoproteinosis. Conclusion: Inhalation of BAC induced a strong inflammatory response and a damage to the blood-air barrier. Reduced concentrations of CC16, which is an immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory protein, in combination with increased IgE concentrations in BALF may be indicative of the immuno-inflammatory response in the animals exposed to BAC aerosol by inhalation. Histopathological examinations of tissue samples from the BAC-exposed rats revealed a number of pathological changes found only in the lungs.

  13. Deposition of inhaled particles in the respiratory tract as a function of age at exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A respiratory tract deposition model was developed that would accommodate age 1 month to adulthood as an initial step in calculating radiation dose following inhalation during environmental exposures. The approach to changing respiratory tract and physiological parameters to be applicable to children was to derive an analytical function describing the ratio of the child value to the value for a reference adult with the desired characteristics. A computer program was written to carry out the tracing of airflow through the respiratory tract and deposition in each of the sections for monodispersed particles of known density and diameter. 7 references

  14. A Comparison of "Total Dust" and Inhalable Personal Sampling for Beryllium Exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, Colleen M. [Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States). School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine

    2012-05-09

    In 2009, the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) reduced the Beryllium (Be) 8-hr Time Weighted Average Threshold Limit Value (TLV-TWA) from 2.0 μg/m3 to 0.05 μg/m3 with an inhalable 'I' designation in accordance with ACGIH's particle size-selective criterion for inhalable mass. Currently, per the Department of Energy (DOE) requirements, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is following the Occupational Health and Safety Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) of 2.0 μg/m3 as an 8-hr TWA, which is also the 2005 ACGIH TLV-TWA, and an Action Level (AL) of 0.2 μg/m3 and sampling is performed using the 37mm (total dust) sampling method. Since DOE is considering adopting the newer 2009 TLV guidelines, the goal of this study was to determine if the current method of sampling using the 37mm (total dust) sampler would produce results that are comparable to what would be measured using the IOM (inhalable) sampler specific to the application of high energy explosive work at LLNL's remote experimental test facility at Site 300. Side-by-side personal sampling using the two samplers was performed over an approximately two-week period during chamber re-entry and cleanup procedures following detonation of an explosive assembly containing Beryllium (Be). The average ratio of personal sampling results for the IOM (inhalable) vs. 37-mm (total dust) sampler was 1.1:1 with a P-value of 0.62, indicating that there was no statistically significant difference in the performance of the two samplers. Therefore, for the type of activity monitored during this study, the 37-mm sampling cassette would be considered a suitable alternative to the IOM sampler for collecting inhalable particulate matter, which is important given the many practical and economic advantages that it presents. However, similar comparison studies would be necessary for this conclusion to be

  15. SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS FOR APPLICATION OF THE INHALATION EXPOSURE METHODOLOGY (IEM) TO STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Inhalation Exposure Methodology (IEM) is an integrated system of computer programs that simulates the atmospheric transport of and the resulting human exposures to pollutants released from one or more sources at an industrial complex. The study was undertaken to determine the...

  16. Inhalation exposure or body burden? Better way of estimating risk--An application of PBPK model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Dipanjali; Dutta, Chirasree; Sen, Subha

    2016-01-01

    We aim to establish a new way for estimating the risk from internal dose or body burden due to exposure of benzene in human subject utilizing physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model. We also intend to verify its applicability on human subjects exposed to different levels of benzene. We estimated personal inhalation exposure of benzene for two occupational groups namely petrol pump workers and car drivers with respect to a control group, only environmentally exposed. Benzene in personal air was pre-concentrated on charcoal followed by chemical desorption and analysis by gas chromatography equipped with flame ionization detector (GC-FID). We selected urinary trans,trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA) as biomarker of benzene exposure and measured its concentration using solid phase extraction followed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Our estimated inhalation exposure of benzene was 137.5, 97.9 and 38.7 μg/m(3) for petrol pump workers, car drivers and environmentally exposed control groups respectively which resulted in urinary t,t-MA levels of 145.4±55.3, 112.6±63.5 and 60.0±34.9 μg g(-1) of creatinine, for the groups in the same order. We deduced a derivation for estimation of body burden from urinary metabolite concentration using PBPK model. Estimation of the internal dose or body burden of benzene in human subject has been made for the first time by the measurement of t,t-MA as a urinary metabolite using physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model as a tool. The weight adjusted total body burden of benzene was estimated to be 17.6, 11.1 and 5.0 μg kg(-1) of body weight for petrol pump workers, drivers and the environmentally exposed control group, respectively using this method. We computed the carcinogenic risk using both the estimated internal benzene body burden and external exposure values using conventional method. Our study result shows that internal dose or body burden is not proportional to level of exposure rather have a

  17. Inhalational exposure to dimethyl sulfate vapor followed by reactive airway dysfunction syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghabiklooei Abbas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dimethyl sulfate (DMS is an oily liquid used as a solvent, stabilizer, sulfonation agent, and catalyst. Exposure to DMS primarily happens in the workplace via inhalational contact and damages the upper and lower airways. Our manuscript reports a case of DMS-related reactive airway dysfunction syndrome ( RADS. The patient was a healthy 29-year-old man who was referred to our ER after accidental exposure to the vapor of DMS with the complaint of dyspnea, dry cough, photophobia, and hoarseness. His vital signs were normal except for a low-grade fever. Redness of the pharynx, conjunctivitis, and cholinergic signs and symptoms were present. Conservative management with O 2 and fluid therapy was initiated. Twenty hours later, the patient became drowsy and his respiratory symptoms exacerbated; chest X-ray revealed haziness in the base of the right lung and prominence of the vessels of the lung hillum. After 1 week, the liver transaminases rose and C-reactive protein elevated (2+. The patient got better with conservative treatment and was discharged after 9 days; however, exertional dyspnea, wheezing, and thick white sputum persisted and therefore, reactive airway dysfunction syndrome (RADS related to DMS vapor was confirmed which was treated by prednisolone. Exertional dyspnea continued up to 10 months. Hoarseness lasted for 6 months. This case shows that DMS vapor inhalation can cause RADS especially in the chemical workers who continue working in the contaminated place despite the relatively good air conditioning.

  18. Lung changes in rats following inhalation exposure to volcanic ash for two years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wehner, A.P.; Dagle, G.E.; Clark, M.L.; Buschbom, R.L.

    1986-08-01

    Rats were exposed by inhalation to 5 or 50 mg/m/sup 3/ Mount St. Helens volcanic ash, to 50 mg/m/sup 3/ quartz (positive controls), or to filtered room air (sham-exposed controls), for 6 hr/day, 5 days/week, for up to 24 months to investigate biological effects of chronic inhalation exposure to volcanic ash under controlled laboratory conditions. Exposure-related lung changes comprised accelerated respiratory frequency; alveolar macrophage accumulation; interstitial reaction; lymphoreticular reaction in peribronchiolar regions and in mediastinal lymph nodes; alveolar proteinosis in the 50- mg/m/sup 3/ ash- or quartz-exposed groups; increase in fresh lung weights; decreased body weight and increased mortality in the quartz-exposed group; and epidermoid carcinomas especially in the quartz-exposed females and, to a lesser extent, in the 50-mg/m/sup 3/ ash-exposed females. The observed changes reflect significant dose-response and agent-response relationships.

  19. Alcohol Exposure Alters Mouse Lung Inflammation in Response to Inhaled Dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill A. Poole

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol exposure is associated with increased lung infections and decreased mucociliary clearance. Occupational workers exposed to dusts from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs are at risk for developing chronic inflammatory lung diseases. Agricultural worker co-exposure to alcohol and organic dust has been established, although little research has been conducted on the combination effects of alcohol and organic dusts on the lung. Previously, we have shown in a mouse model that exposure to hog dust extract (HDE collected from a CAFO results in the activation of protein kinase C (PKC, elevated lavage fluid cytokines/chemokines including interleukin-6 (IL-6, and the development of significant lung pathology. Because alcohol blocks airway epithelial cell release of IL-6 in vitro, we hypothesized that alcohol exposure would alter mouse lung inflammatory responses to HDE. To test this hypothesis, C57BL/6 mice were fed 20% alcohol or water ad libitum for 6 weeks and treated with 12.5% HDE by intranasal inhalation method daily during the final three weeks. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF, tracheas and lungs were collected. HDE stimulated a 2–4 fold increase in lung and tracheal PKCε (epsilon activity in mice, but no such increase in PKCε activity was observed in dust-exposed mice fed alcohol. Similarly, alcohol-fed mice demonstrated significantly less IL-6 in lung lavage in response to dust than that observed in control mice instilled with HDE. TNFα levels were also inhibited in the alcohol and HDE-exposed mouse lung tissue as compared to the HDE only exposed group. HDE-induced lung inflammatory aggregates clearly present in the tissue from HDE only exposed animals were not visually detectable in the HDE/alcohol co-exposure group. Statistically significant weight reductions and 20% mortality were also observed in the mice co-exposed to HDE and alcohol. These data suggest that alcohol exposure depresses the ability

  20. Hepatotoxic Alterations Induced by Subchronic Exposure of Rats to Formulated Fenvalerate (20% EC) by Nose Only Inhalation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    U. MANI; A. K. PRASAD; V. SURESHKUMAR; P. KUMAR; KEWAL LAL; B. K. MAJI; K. K. DUTTA

    2004-01-01

    Fenvalerate (20% EC) is a synthetic pyrethroid, which is commonly used in India by farmers for the protection of many food and vegetable crops against a wide variety of insects. However, its inhalation toxicity data is very limited in the literature due to the fact that the exposure levels associated with these effects were usually not reported. Hence, inhalation exposure was carried out to investigate the hepatotoxic effects. Method Adult male rats were exposed to fen for 4 h/day, 5 days a week for 90 days by using Flow Past Nose Only Inhalation Chamber. Sham treated control rats were exposed to compressed air in the inhalation chamber for the same period. Results The results indicated hepatomegaly, increased activities of serum clinical enzymes (indicative of liver damage/dysfunction) along with pronounced histopathological damage of liver. Conclusion The hepatotoxic potential of formulated Fen (20% EC) in rats exposed by nose only inhalation is being reported for the first time and warrant adequate safety measures for human beings exposed to this insecticide, particularly by inhalation route.

  1. Comparative study of the pharmacokinetics of carbon tetrachloride in the rat following repeated inhalation exposures of 8 and 11.5 hr/day

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate whether exposure to inhaled vapors for periods longer than 8 hr/day could affect the rates and routes of elimination, male Sprague-Dawley rats were repeatedly exposed to 100 ppm of radiolabeled carbon tetrachloride (14CCl4) in a closed-loop chamber. One group was exposed for 8 hr/day for 5 days and another group for 11.5 hr/day for 4 days. Two other groups were exposed for either 8 hr/day for 10 of 12 consecutive days or 11.5 hr/day for 7 of 10 days. The elimination of 14C activity was measured in the expired air, urine, and feces for up to 100 hr following exposure and the pharmacokinetic parameters were determined. Following 2 weeks of exposure to the 8-hr/day schedule, 14CCl4 in the breath and 14C activity in the feces comprised 45 and 48% of the total 14C excreted, respectively. Following 2 weeks of exposure to the 11.5-hr/day schedule, the values were 32 and 62%, respectively, indicating that repeated exposure to the longer schedule altered the route of elimination of CCl4. Regardless of the period of exposure, less than 8% of the inhaled 14CCl4 was excreted in the urine and less than 2% was exhaled in the breath as the 14CO2 metabolite. Approximately 97-98% of the 14C activity in the expired air was 14CCl4. The quantities of 14C noted in the feces and urine suggest that more than 60% of the inhaled CCl4 was metabolized. Elimination of 14CCl4 and 14CO2 in the breath followed a two-compartment, first-order pharmacokinetic model (r2 = 0.98). For rats exposed 8 hr/day and 11.5 hr/day for 2 weeks, the average half-lives for elimination of 14CCl4 in the breath for the fast (alpha) and slow (beta) phases averaged 96 and 455 min, and 89 and 568 min, respectively. The average alpha and beta half-lives for elimination of 14CO2 in the breath

  2. Exposure-response relationships for inhalant wheat allergen exposure and asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baatjies, R; Meijster, T; Heederik, D; Jeebhay, M F

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A few studies have investigated exposure-response relationships for sensitisation to wheat, work-related symptoms and wheat allergen exposure. IgG4 is suggested to protect against the development of allergic sensitisation. The main aim of this current study was to explore the nature of e

  3. Benzothiazoles in indoor air from Albany, New York, USA, and its implications for inhalation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yanjian; Xue, Jingchuan; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2016-07-01

    Benzothiazole and its derivatives (collectively referred to BTHs) are used widely in many consumer (e.g., textiles) and industrial (e.g., rubber) products. Very little is known about the occurrence of BTHs in indoor air and the inhalation exposure of humans to these substances. In this study, 81 indoor air samples collected from various locations in Albany, New York, USA, in 2014 were analyzed for BTHs by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). BTHs were found in all indoor air samples, and the overall concentrations in bulk air (vapor plus particulate phases) were in the range of 4.36-2229ng/m(3) (geometric mean: 32.7ng/m(3)). The highest concentrations (geometric mean: 148ng/m(3)) were found in automobiles, followed by homes (49.5)>automobile garages (46.0)>public places, e.g., shopping malls (24.2)>barbershops (18.9) >offices (18.8)>laboratories (15.1). The estimated geometric mean daily intake (EDI) of BTHs for infants, toddlers, children, teenagers, and adults through indoor air inhalation from homes was 27.7, 26.3, 17.9, 10.5, and 7.77ng/kg-bw/day, respectively. The estimated contribution of indoor air to total BTHs intake was approximately 10%. This is the first study on the occurrence of BTHs in indoor air. PMID:26954474

  4. Propositions for the implementation and reinforcement of surveillance activities of exposure and risks associated to radon inhalation; Propositions pour la mise en place et le renforcement d'activites de surveillance des expositions et des risques associes a l'inhalation du radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-10-01

    This report treats exclusively of exposure by inhalation. It expresses the propositions relative to the implantation and the development of an information network allowing to characterize the radon exposures by inhalation and associated risks. (N.C.)

  5. Management of a Patient With Faciocervical Burns and Inhalational Injury Due to Hydrofluoric Acid Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuanhai, Zhang; Xingang, Wang; Liangfang, Ni; Chunmao, Han

    2014-05-01

    Hydrofluoric acid, a highly dangerous substance, can cause tissue damage and systemic toxicity by its unique mechanisms. Many cases of severe faciocervical burns due to hydrofluoric acid exposure are lethal. Herein, we present a case of 37-year-old man who suffered from hydrofluoric acid burns to his face, anterior neck, lips, and nasal cavity. On admission, this patient coughed with much sputum, and the chest auscultation detected rough breath sounds, wheezes, and very weak heart sounds, indicating possible inhalation injury. This case highlights the extreme complexity of managing this kind of injury. Timely and accurate wound treatment and respiratory tract care, as well as active systematic support treatment, played vital roles in the management of this patient.

  6. Breathing rates and daily activities: parameters of exposure to inhaled substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The intake of inhaled toxic substances is based upon the air volumes breathed every day by people under exposure to gases and aerosols. On the occasion of the revision of the respiratory tract model by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), modern standards have been assessed for average inspired air volumes according to age and sex. Recent data of breathing rates as a function of physical activity have been recorded, and economical surveys recently published by the National Institute of Statistics and Economical studies (INSEE) provided time budgets and activities of specific categories of the population. The results were calculated for adults and children, 3 months, 1, 5, 10 and 15 years old. These values are slightly different from those formerly published by ICRP and the United Nations scientific committee on the effects of atomic radiation (UNSCEAR). (author). 27 refs., 6 tabs

  7. Evaluation of semi-generic PBTK modeling for emergency risk assessment after acute inhalation exposure to volatile hazardous chemicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olie, J. Daniël N; Bessems, Jos G.; Clewell, Harvey J.; Meulenbelt, Jan; Hunault, Claudine C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physiologically Based Toxicokinetic Models (PBTK) may facilitate emergency risk assessment after chemical incidents with inhalation exposure, but they are rarely used due to their relative complexity and skill requirements. We aimed to tackle this problem by evaluating a semi-generic PBT

  8. Kinetics of sarin (GB) following a single sublethal inhalation exposure in the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalley, Christopher E; McGuire, Jeffrey M; Miller, Dennis B; Jakubowski, Edward M; Mioduszewski, Robert J; Thomson, Sandra A; Lumley, Lucille A; McDonough, John H; Shih, Tsung-Ming A

    2007-06-01

    To improve toxicity estimates from sublethal exposures to chemical warfare nerve agents (CWNA), it is necessary to generate mathematical models of the absorption, distribution, and elimination of nerve agents. However, current models are based on representative data sets generated with different routes of exposure and in different species and are designed to interpolate between limited laboratory data sets to predict a wide range of possible human exposure scenarios. This study was performed to integrate CWNA sublethal toxicity data in male Duncan Hartley guinea pigs. Specific goal was to compare uptake and clearance kinetics of different sublethal doses of sarin (either 0.1 x or 0.4 x LC50) in blood and tissues of guinea pigs exposed to agent by acute whole-body inhalation exposure after the 60-min LC50 was determined. Arterial catheterization allowed repeated blood sampling from the same animal at various time periods. Blood and tissue levels of acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, and regenerated sarin (rGB) were determined at various time points during and following sarin exposure. The following pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated from the graph of plasma or RBC rGB concentration versus time: time to reach the maximal concentration; maximal concentration; mean residence time; clearance; volume of distribution at steady state; terminal elimination-phase rate constant; and area under plasma concentration time curve extrapolated to infinity using the WinNonlin analysis program 5.0. Plasma and RBC t(1/2) for rGB was also calculated. Data will be used to develop mathematical model of absorption and distribution of sublethal sarin doses into susceptible tissues.

  9. Exposure-response relations of alpha-amylase sensitisation in British bakeries and flour mills

    OpenAIRE

    Nieuwenhuijsen, M.J.; Heederik, D.J.J.; Doekes, G; Venables, K M; Newman Taylor, A. J.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the levels of exposure to fungal alpha-amylase in British bakeries and flour mills, and to describe the relation between exposure to alpha-amylase and sensitisation to fungal alpha- amylase. METHODS: 495 personal flour dust samples were taken in seven British bakeries and flour mills and analysed for alpha-amylase with an immunoassay. Workers at the sites were asked to fill out questionnaires on work related symptoms, smoking history, and work history, and they w...

  10. Depleted uranium contamination by inhalation exposure and its detection after {approx} 20 years: Implications for human health assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrish, Randall R. [Department of Geology, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); NERC Isotope Geosciences Laboratory, British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Notts, NG12 5GG (United Kingdom)], E-mail: rrp@nigl.nerc.ac.uk; Horstwood, Matthew [NERC Isotope Geosciences Laboratory, British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Notts, NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Arnason, John G. [Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, University at Albany, 1400 Washington Avenue, Albany NY 12222 (United States); Chenery, Simon [British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Notts, NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Brewer, Tim [Department of Geology, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Lloyd, Nicholas S. [Department of Geology, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Notts, NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Carpenter, David O. [Institute for Health and the Environment, University at Albany, Five University Place, Room A217, Rensselaer, NY 12144-3456 (United States)

    2008-02-01

    Inhaled depleted uranium (DU) aerosols are recognised as a distinct human health hazard and DU has been suggested to be responsible in part for illness in both military and civilian populations that may have been exposed. This study aimed to develop and use a testing procedure capable of detecting an individual's historic milligram-quantity aerosol exposure to DU up to 20 years after the event. This method was applied to individuals associated with or living proximal to a DU munitions plant in Colonie New York that were likely to have had a significant DU aerosol inhalation exposure, in order to improve DU-exposure screening reliability and gain insight into the residence time of DU in humans. We show using sensitive mass spectrometric techniques that when exposure to aerosol has been unambiguous and in sufficient quantity, urinary excretion of DU can be detected more than 20 years after primary DU inhalation contamination ceased, even when DU constitutes only {approx} 1% of the total excreted uranium. It seems reasonable to conclude that a chronically DU-exposed population exists within the contamination 'footprint' of the munitions plant in Colonie, New York. The method allows even a modest DU exposure to be identified where other less sensitive methods would have failed entirely. This should allow better assessment of historical exposure incidence than currently exists.

  11. Effect of repeated benzene inhalation exposures on benzene metabolism, binding to hemoglobin, and induction of micronuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabourin, P J; Sun, J D; MacGregor, J T; Wehr, C M; Birnbaum, L S; Lucier, G; Henderson, R F

    1990-05-01

    Metabolism of benzene is thought to be necessary to produce the toxic effects, including carcinogenicity, associated with benzene exposure. To extrapolate from the results of rodent studies to potential health risks in man, one must know how benzene metabolism is affected by species, dose, dose rate, and repeated versus single exposures. The purpose of our studies was to determine the effect of repeated inhalation exposures on the metabolism of [14C]benzene by rodents. Benzene metabolism was assessed by characterizing and quantitating urinary metabolites, and by quantitating 14C bound to hemoglobin and micronuclei induction. F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice were exposed, nose-only, to 600 ppm benzene or to air (control) for 6 hr/day, 5 days/week for 3 weeks. On the last day, both benzene-pretreated and control animals were exposed to 600 ppm, 14C-labeled benzene for 6 hr. Individual benzene metabolites in urine collected for 24 hr after the exposure were analyzed. There was a significant decrease in the respiratory rate of mice (but not rats) pretreated with benzene which resulted in lower levels of urinary [14C]benzene metabolites. The analyses indicated that the only effects of benzene pretreatment on the metabolite profile in rat or mouse urine were a slight shift from glucuronidation to sulfation in mice and a shift from sulfation to glucuronidation in rats. Benzene pretreatment also had no effect, in either species, on formation of [14C]benzene-derived hemoglobin adducts. Mice and rats had similar levels of hemoglobin adduct binding, despite the higher metabolism of benzene by mice. This indicates that hemoglobin adduct formation occurs with higher efficiency in rats. After 1 week of exposure to 600 ppm benzene, the frequency of micronucleated, polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs) in mice was significantly increased. Exposure to the same level of benzene for an additional 2 weeks did not further increase the frequency of micronuclei in PCEs. These results indicate

  12. Assessment of potential dermal and inhalation exposure of workers to the insecticide imidacloprid using whole-body dosimetry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lidong Cao; BO Chen; Li Zheng; Dongwei Wang; Feng Liu; Qiliang Huang

    2015-01-01

    In China,although improvements to the pesticide registration process have been made in last thirty years,no occupational exposure data are required to obtain a commercial license for a pesticide product.Consequently,notably little research has been conducted to establish an exposure assessment procedure in China.The present study monitored the potential dermal operator exposure from knapsack electric sprayer wheat field application of imidacloprid in Liaocheng City,Shandong Province and in Xinxiang City,Henan Province,China,using whole-body dosimetry.The potential inhalation exposure was determined using a personal air pump and XAD-2 sample tubes.The analytical method was developed and validated,including such performance parameters as limits of detection and quantification,linear range,recovery and precision.The total potential dermal and inhalation exposures were 14.20,16.80,15.39 and 20.78 mL/hr,respectively,for the four operators in Liaocheng and Xinxiang,corresponding to 0.02% to 0.03% of the applied volume of spray solution.In all trials,the lower part (thigh,lower leg) of the body was the most contaminated,accounting for approximately 76% to 88% of the total exposure.The inhalation exposure was less than 1% of the total exposure.Such factors as the application pattern,crop type,spray equipment,operator experience and climatic conditions have been used to explain the exposure distribution over the different parts of the body.As indicated by the calculated Margin of Exposure,the typical wheat treatment scenarios when a backpack sprayer was used are considered to be safe in terms of imidacloprid exposure.

  13. Quantitative monitoring of dermal and inhalation exposure to 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate monomer and oligomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fent, Kenneth W; Jayaraj, Karupiah; Ball, Louise M; Nylander-French, Leena A

    2008-04-01

    Respiratory sensitization and occupational asthma are associated with exposure to 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) in both monomeric and oligomeric forms. The monomer and polymers of diisocyanates differ significantly in their rates of absorption into tissue and their toxicity, and hence may differ in their contribution to sensitization. We have developed and evaluated a liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method capable of quantifying HDI and its oligomers (uretidone, biuret, and isocyanurate) in air, tape-stripped skin, and paint samples collected in the automotive refinishing industry. To generate analytical standards, urea derivatives of HDI, biuret, and isocyanurate were synthesized by reaction with 1-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazine and purified. The urea derivatives were shown to degrade on average by less than 2% per week at -20 degrees C over a 2 month period in occupational samples. The average recovery of HDI and its oligomers from tape was 100% and the limits of detection were 2 and 8 fmol microl(-1), respectively. Exposure assessments were performed on 13 automotive spray painters to evaluate the LC-MS method and the sampling methods under field conditions. Isocyanurate was the most abundant component measured in paint tasks, with median air and skin concentrations of 2.4 mg m(-3) and 4.6 microg mm(-3), respectively. Log-transformed concentrations of HDI (r = 0.79, p < 0.0001) and of isocyanurate (r = 0.71, p < 0.0001) in the skin of workers were correlated with the log-transformed product of air concentration and painting time. The other polyisocyanates were detected on skin for less than 25% of the paint tasks. This LC-MS method provides a valuable tool to investigate inhalation and dermal exposures to specific polyisocyanates and to explore relative differences in the exposure pathways. PMID:18385871

  14. Considerations in deriving quantitative cancer criteria for inorganic arsenic exposure via inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ari S; Beyer, Leslie A; Zu, Ke

    2015-01-01

    The inhalation unit risk (IUR) that currently exists in the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (US EPA's) Integrated Risk Information System was developed in 1984 based on studies examining the relationship between respiratory cancer and arsenic exposure in copper smelters from two US locations: the copper smelter in Anaconda, Montana, and the American Smelting And Refining COmpany (ASARCO) smelter in Tacoma, Washington. Since US EPA last conducted its assessment, additional data have become available from epidemiology and mechanistic studies. In addition, the California Air Resources Board, Texas Commission of Environmental Quality, and Dutch Expert Committee on Occupational Safety have all conducted new risk assessments. All three analyses, which calculated IURs based on respiratory/lung cancer mortality, generated IURs that are lower (i.e., less restrictive) than the current US EPA value of 4.3×10(-3) (μg/m(3))(-1). The IURs developed by these agencies, which vary more than 20-fold, are based on somewhat different studies and use different methodologies to address uncertainties in the underlying datasets. Despite these differences, all were developed based on a cumulative exposure metric assuming a low-dose linear dose-response relationship. In this paper, we contrast and compare the analyses conducted by these agencies and critically evaluate strengths and limitations inherent in the data and methodologies used to develop quantitative risk estimates. In addition, we consider how these data could be best used to assess risk at much lower levels of arsenic in air, such as those experienced by the general public. Given that the mode of action for arsenic supports a threshold effect, and epidemiological evidence suggests that the arsenic concentration in air is a reliable predictor of lung/respiratory cancer risk, we developed a quantitative cancer risk analysis using a nonlinear threshold model. Applying a nonlinear model to occupational data, we

  15. 1,2-Dichloropropane (DCP): Kinetics and metabolism in Fischer 344 rat following oral and inhalation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DCP is utilized as a chemical intermediate and chemical processing solvent. 14C-DCP was administered orally to groups of 4 rats/sex as a single dose of 1 or 100 mg/kg and as a multiple 1 mg/kg non-radiolabeled dose for 7 days followed by a single 1 mg 14C-DCP/kg dose on day 8. In addition, 4 rats/sex were exposed to 14C-DCP vapors for a 6 hr period in a head-only inhalation chamber at target concentrations of 5, 50, and 100 ppm. DCP was rapidly absorbed, metabolized and excreted after oral or inhalation exposure. The principal routes of elimination (oral and inhalation) were via the urine (37-65%) and as expired CO2 (16-36%). The tissues/carcass, feces, cage wash and expired organics contained less than 11, 9.7 3.8 and 0.14-16% of the dose, respectively. The major urinary metabolites, from the oral and inhalation exposures were identified as three N-acetylcysteine conjugates of DCP, N-acetyl-S-(2-hydroxypropyl)-L-cysteine, N-acetyl-S-(2-oxypropyl)-L-cysteine, and N-acetyl-S-(1-carboxyethyl)-L-cysteine. The majority (61-87%) of the expired volatile organic material was parent DCP in all samples analyzed. Increasing dose/concentration of 14C-DCP resulted in an increase in the percentage of exhaled 14C volatile organics. The peak DCP blood concentration (inhalation exposure) increased disproportionately to dose. However, upon termination of exposure, DCP was rapidly eliminated from the blood (t1/2=24-30 min). In all treatment groups the majority of the radioactivity was eliminated by 24 hr post-dosing, and no meaningful differences were noted between sexes

  16. Pleural and parenchymal responses in rats to short-term inhalation exposures to erionite, crocidolite, chrysotile, silica, and titanium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short-term inhalation studies have been conducted with a variety of dusts, which were previously tested in long-term inhalation and in vitro studies. These studies were undertaken to determine whether short-term inhalation results would mirror those of the previous experiments with the same materials. Lung and pleural tissues were examined by light and electron microscopy to determine numerical and morphological changes in fixed and free cell populations. Male Fischer 344 rats were exposed to an atmosphere containing 10 mg/m3 of either Union International Contre le Cancer (UICC) crocidolite, UICC chrysotile B, erionite (Rome, OR), silica (Min-U-Sil), or titanium dioxide (BDH Poole) for periods of 1, 2, 4, 8, or 12 wk (7 h/day for 5 days/wk). Another group of animals was exposed for 12 wk and allowed to recover for 12 mo. Inhalation of the dusts resulted in a diversity of responses, including Type II cell hyperplasia, elevated number of dust-containing alveolar macrophages, focal and diffuse interstitial fibrosis, lymphocytic infiltration, and pleural fibrosis. The parenchymal response was not associated with the development of neoplastic lesions; however, erionite exposure was linked to tumors of mesothelial origin. The overall biological activity seen in previous in vitro studies with similar dust samples correlated with the changes seen in this study. However, the diversity of the sort- term inhalation responses was not reflected in the in vitro studies. In relation to long-term inhalation studies, the short-term investigations only reflected the fibrotic nature of the dusts and did not reveal a neoplastic potential of the dust, except for mesothellomas associated with erionite exposure. (author)

  17. Assessment of the mode of action for hexavalent chromium-induced lung cancer following inhalation exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • No published or well recognized MOA for Cr(VI)-induced lung tumors exists. • MOA analysis for Cr(VI)-induced lung cancer was conducted to inform risk assessment. • Cr(VI) epidemiologic, toxicokinetic, toxicological, mechanistic data were evaluated. • Weight of evidence does not support a mutagenic MOA for Cr(VI)-induced lung cancer. • Non-linear approaches should be considered for evaluating Cr(VI) lung cancer risk. - Abstract: Inhalation of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is associated with increased lung cancer risk among workers in several industries, most notably chromate production workers exposed to high concentrations of Cr(VI) (≥100 μg/m3), for which clear exposure–response relationships and respiratory irritation and tissue damage have been reported. Data from this industry are used to assess lung cancer risk associated with environmental and current occupational exposures, occurring at concentrations that are significantly lower. There is considerable uncertainty in the low dose extrapolation of historical occupational epidemiology data to assess risk at current exposures because no published or well recognized mode of action (MOA) for Cr(VI)-induced lung tumors exists. We conducted a MOA analysis for Cr(VI)-induced lung cancer evaluating toxicokinetic and toxicological data in humans and rodents and mechanistic data to assess plausibility, dose–response, and temporal concordance for potential MOAs. Toxicokinetic data support that extracellular reduction of Cr(VI), which limits intracellular absorption of Cr(VI) and Cr(VI)-induced toxicity, can be overwhelmed at high exposure levels. In vivo genotoxicity and mutagenicity data are mostly negative and do not support a mutagenic MOA. Further, both chronic bioassays and the epidemiologic literature support that lung cancer occurs at exposures that cause tissue damage. Based on this MOA analysis, the overall weight of evidence supports a MOA involving deposition and accumulation of

  18. Inhalation exposure to chloramine T induces DNA damage and inflammation in lung of Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Ilseob; Seo, Gyun-Baek; Oh, Eunha; Lee, Mimi; Kwon, Jung-Taek; Sul, Donggeun; Lee, Byung-Woo; Yoon, Byung-Il; Kim, Pilje; Choi, Kyunghee; Kim, Hyun-Mi

    2013-01-01

    Chloramine T has been widely used as a disinfectant in many areas such as kitchens, laboratories and hospitals. It has been also used as a biocide in air fresheners and deodorants which are consumer products; however, little is known about its toxic effects by inhalation route. This study was performed to identify the subacute inhalation toxicity of chloramine T under whole-body inhalation exposure conditions. Male and female groups of rats were exposed to chloramine T at concentrations of 0.2, 0.9 and 4.0 mg/m³ for 6 hr/day, 5 days/week during 4 weeks. After 28-day repeated inhalation of chloramine T, there were dose-dependently significant DNA damage in the rat tissues evaluated and inflammation was histopathologically noted around the terminal airways of the lung in both genders. As a result of the expression of three types of antioxidant enzymes (SOD-2, GPx-1, PRX-1) in rat's lung after exposure, there was no significant change of all antioxidant enzymes in the male and female rats. The results showed that no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) was 0.2 mg/m³ in male rats and 0.9 mg/m³ in female rats under the present experimental condition.

  19. Combustion-derived nanoparticles: A review of their toxicology following inhalation exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mills Nicholas

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review considers the molecular toxicology of combustion-derived nanoparticles (CDNP following inhalation exposure. CDNP originate from a number of sources and in this review we consider diesel soot, welding fume, carbon black and coal fly ash. A substantial literature demonstrates that these pose a hazard to the lungs through their potential to cause oxidative stress, inflammation and cancer; they also have the potential to redistribute to other organs following pulmonary deposition. These different CDNP show considerable heterogeneity in composition and solubility, meaning that oxidative stress may originate from different components depending on the particle under consideration. Key CDNP-associated properties of large surface area and the presence of metals and organics all have the potential to produce oxidative stress. CDNP may also exert genotoxic effects, depending on their composition. CDNP and their components also have the potential to translocate to the brain and also the blood, and thereby reach other targets such as the cardiovascular system, spleen and liver. CDNP therefore can be seen as a group of particulate toxins unified by a common mechanism of injury and properties of translocation which have the potential to mediate a range of adverse effects in the lungs and other organs and warrant further research.

  20. Inhalable β(1→3)glucans as a non-allergenic exposure factor in Dutch bakeries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuurman, B.; Meijster, T.; Heederik, D.; Doekes, G.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To obtain an overview of inhalable β(1→3)glucans levels in Dutch industrial bakeries and explore possible associations with reported respiratory health effects in bakery workers. Methods: β(1→3)glucan levels were analysed in 186 personal inhalable dust measurements obtained from a random

  1. INHALATION EXPOSURE OF RATS TO LIBBY AMPHIBOLE (LA) AND AMOSITE ASBESTOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhalation toxicology studies are being conducted to inform the risk assessment ofLibby amphibole. The overall purpose of these studies is to compare the toxicity of inhaled Libby amphibole fibers to a positive control fiber sample (UICC amosite). A 2-week study was conducted to ...

  2. Consumer inhalation exposure to formaldehyde from the use of personal care products/cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Marc-André; Meuling, Wim J A; Engel, Roel; Coroama, Manuela C; Renner, Gerald; Pape, Wolfgang; Nohynek, Gerhard J

    2012-06-01

    We measured consumer exposure to formaldehyde (FA) from personal care products (PCP) containing FA-releasing preservatives. Six study subjects applied facial moisturiser, foundation, shower gel, shampoo, deodorant, hair conditioner, hair styling gel or body lotion at the 90th percentile amount of EU PCP consumer use. FA air concentrations were measured in the empty room, in the presence of study subjects prior to PCP use, and for one hour (breathing zone, area monitoring) after PCP use. The mean FA air concentration in the empty bathroom was 1.32 ± 0.67 μg/m³, in the presence of subjects it was 2.33 ± 0.86 μg/m³). Except for body lotion and hair conditioner (6.2 ± 0.1.9 or 4.5 ± 0.1.5 μg/m³, respectively), mean 1-h FA air concentrations after PCP use were similar to background. Peak FA air concentrations, ranging from baseline values (2.2 μg/m³; shower gel) to 11.5 μg/m³ (body lotion), occurred during 0-5 to 5-10 min after PCP use. Despite of exaggerated exposure conditions, FA air levels were a fraction of those considered to be safe (120 μg/m³), occurring in indoor air (22-124 μg/m³) or expired human breath (1.4-87 μg/m³). Overall, our data yielded evidence that inhalation of FA from the use of PCP containing FA-releasers poses no risk to human health.

  3. Respiratory Cancer and Inhaled Inorganic Arsenic in Copper Smelters Workers: A Linear Relationship with Cumulative Exposure that Increases with Concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Lubin, Jay H.; Moore, Lee E.; Fraumeni, Joseph F; Cantor, Kenneth P

    2008-01-01

    Background Inhalation of high levels of airborne inorganic arsenic is a recognized cause of respiratory cancer. Although multiple epidemiologic studies have demonstrated this association, there have been few analyses of the mathematical relationship between cumulative arsenic exposure and risk of respiratory cancer, and no assessment as to whether and how arsenic concentration may modify this association. Objectives The objective is an evaluation of the shape of the relationship between respi...

  4. Biological characterization of radiation exposure and dose estimates for inhaled uranium milling effluents. Annual progress report, April 1981-March 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problems addressed are the protection of uranium will workers from occupational exposure to uranium through routine bioassay programs and the assessment of accidental worker exposures. Comparisons of chemical properties and the biological behavior of refined uranium ore (yellowcake) are made to identify important properties that influence uranium distribution patterns among organs. These studies will facilitate calculations of organ doses for specific exposures and associated health risk estimates and will identify important bioassay procedures to improve evaluations of human exposures. Sampling of airborne yellowcake at four uranium mills showed that aerosols were heterogeneous, changed with time and contained approx. 50% of the airborne uranium in particles greater than 12 μm aerodynamic diameter. Results are related to specific packaging steps and to predictions of appreciable upper respiratory tract deposition rates for the aerosols, if inhaled by a worker without respiratory protection. Previously used in vitro dissolution techniques were evaluated and the uses of the results for interpreting urinary bioassay data are described. Preliminary results from an inhalation experiment using rats indicate that the clearance patterns of inhaled uranium from lung agreed quantitatively with results from in vitro dissolution and infrared analyses of the yellowcake used. Preliminary results from an experiment to simulate contamination of a wound by yellowcake showed that more of the implanted dose of a less soluble form of yellowcake was retained at the wound site than of a more soluble form at 32 days after implantation. The results did not quantitatively agree with in vitro dissolution results. A two-year study of yellowcake from two mills was initiated. Twenty Beagle dogs were exposed by nose-only inhalation to a more soluble form of yellowcake and 20 to a less soluble form

  5. Effective dose scaling factors for use with cascade impactor sampling data in tenorm inhalation exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwang Pyo; Wu, Chang-Yu; Birky, Brian K; Bolch, Wesley E

    2005-10-01

    When assessing the effective dose to workers following radio-aerosol inhalation exposures, significant reductions in dose uncertainty can be achieved through direct measurement of the particle-size distribution. The University of Washington Mark III cascade impactor is one such air sampling device that permits the user to determine aerosol mass and radioactivity concentrations as a function of particle size within eight different size intervals (each corresponding to a different impactor stage or end filter). Traditionally, dose assessments made using the LUDEP code or other internal dosimetry software utilize this air sampling information by assigning the radioactivity measured at each stage as concentrated at a single representative size central to the size interval. In this study, we explore more realistic assumptions that the measured radioactivity distributes uniformly, linearly increases, or linearly decreases across the particle size interval for each impactor stage. The concept of an effective dose scaling factor, SF(E), is thus introduced whereby (1) the former approach can be used (which requires less computational effort using the LUDEP code), and (2) the resulting values of effective dose per stage can then be rescaled to values appropriate to a linear radioactivity distribution per stage. For a majority of (238)U-series radionuclides, particle size ranges, and absorption classes, differences in these two approaches are less than 10%, and thus no corrections in effective dose per particle stage are needed. Significant corrections, however, were noted in select cases. For uniform or linearly decreasing radioactivity distributions, end-filter particles (0.03 to 0.35 microm) of type F, M, or S radionuclides were assigned values of SF(E) ranging from 1.15 to 1.44, while 3(rd) stage particles (4.5 to 12 microm) of type M and S radionuclides were assigned values of SF(E) ranging from 1.11 to 1.53. When the cascade impactor measurements indicate a linear

  6. Effects of smoking cessation, acute re-exposure and nicotine replacement in smokers on AIR® inhaled insulin pharmacokinetics and glucodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Alan X; de la Peña, Amparo; Yeo, Kwee P; Chan, Clark; Loh, Mei T; Wise, Stephen D; Silverman, Bernard L; Muchmore, Douglas B

    2008-01-01

    Aims To explore the effects of smoking cessation and acute smoking re-exposure on the pharmacokinetic (PK) and glucodynamic (GD) profiles of AIR® inhaled insulin (AIR Insulin) with or without nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). Methods Nondiabetic smokers (n = 24) with normal pulmonary function completed a two-phase (four-period), open-label, randomized euglycaemic clamp study. During the initial study phase, subjects underwent glucose clamps following AIR Insulin dosing, shortly after smoking, 8–12 h after smoking, or following subcutaneous insulin lispro shortly after smoking. AIR Insulin PK and GD were again assessed during and after a 4-week smoking-cessation period with or without NRT. In the last study period, subjects smoked one cigarette shortly before final AIR Insulin dosing and glucose clamp, to study the effect of acute smoking re-exposure on inhaled insulin PK and GD. Results Compared with the preceding active smoking phase, the administration of AIR Insulin in nondiabetic subjects undergoing a 4-week period of smoking abstinence resulted in a decrease in PK and GD of approximately 25% (P = 0.008 for both), an effect which was greater in subjects using NRT. Following rechallenge with a single cigarette (without NRT), GD response to AIR Insulin increased significantly (P = 0.006) towards precessation levels, relative to smoking abstinence. In subjects using NRT, however, the increase in GD was less pronounced. Conclusion Smoking, smoking cessation and acute re-exposure with a single cigarette are associated with clinically significant alterations in AIR Insulin pharmacokinetics and glucodynamics. AIR Insulin should not be used by smokers or those at risk for recidivism. What is already known about this subject Only one other study (Becker et al.) has reported on the influence of smoking cessation and smoking resumption on inhaled insulin pharmacokinetics and glucodynamics, concluding that the rapid changes associated with smoking resumption carry the

  7. Analysis of intervention strategies for inhalation exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and associated lung cancer risk based on a Monte Carlo population exposure assessment model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zhou

    Full Text Available It is difficult to evaluate and compare interventions for reducing exposure to air pollutants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, a widely found air pollutant in both indoor and outdoor air. This study presents the first application of the Monte Carlo population exposure assessment model to quantify the effects of different intervention strategies on inhalation exposure to PAHs and the associated lung cancer risk. The method was applied to the population in Beijing, China, in the year 2006. Several intervention strategies were designed and studied, including atmospheric cleaning, smoking prohibition indoors, use of clean fuel for cooking, enhancing ventilation while cooking and use of indoor cleaners. Their performances were quantified by population attributable fraction (PAF and potential impact fraction (PIF of lung cancer risk, and the changes in indoor PAH concentrations and annual inhalation doses were also calculated and compared. The results showed that atmospheric cleaning and use of indoor cleaners were the two most effective interventions. The sensitivity analysis showed that several input parameters had major influence on the modeled PAH inhalation exposure and the rankings of different interventions. The ranking was reasonably robust for the remaining majority of parameters. The method itself can be extended to other pollutants and in different places. It enables the quantitative comparison of different intervention strategies and would benefit intervention design and relevant policy making.

  8. Dominant lethal study in CD-1 mice following inhalation exposure to 1,3-butadiene: Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackett, P.L.; Mast, T.J.; Brown, M.G.; Clark, M.L.; Evanoff, J.J.; Rowe, S.E.; McClanahan, B.J.; Buschbom, R.L.; Decker, J.R.; Rommereim, R.L.; Westerberg, R.B.

    1988-04-01

    The effects of whole-body inhalation exposures to 1,3-butadiene on the reproductive system was evaluated. The results of dominant lethality in CD-1 male mice that were exposed to 1,3-butadiene are described. Subsequent to exposure, males were mated with two unexposed females. Mating was continued for 8 weeks with replacement of two females each week. Gravid uteri were removed, and the total number, position and status of implantations were determined. The mice were weighed prior to exposure and at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 weeks after exposure and at sacrifice. The animals were observed for mortality, morbidity and signs of toxicity throughout the study. 19 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs.

  9. Pollution level, inhalation exposure and lung cancer risk of ambient atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Taiyuan, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passive air samplers were deployed to collect both gas and particulate phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Taiyuan between 2009 and 2010. Annual average concentrations of BaP equivalent concentration (B[a]Peq) in background, rural and urban areas were 2.90 ± 0.29, 23.2 ± 30.8 and 27.4 ± 28.1 ng/m3, respectively, with higher concentration in the winter than in other seasons. The median B[a]Peq concentrations of annual inhalation exposure were estimated to be in the range of 103–347 ng/d for all population groups in rural as well as in urban areas. The median values of incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) induced by whole year inhalation exposure for all groups were basically larger than 10−6, with higher values in winter than in other seasons and in urban than in rural area. In the same season and area, the ILCR of adults was larger than other age groups and that of females was a little higher than males. - Highlights: ► The median values of ILCR were higher in winter than in other seasons. ► The median values of ILCR were higher in urban than in rural area. ► In the same season and area, the ILCR of adults was larger than other age groups. ► In the same season and area, the ILCR of females was a little higher than males. ► Exposure level and the cancer slope factor influenced the ILCR greatly. - The inhalation exposure and lung cancer risk of ambient atmospheric PAHs changed for different seasons, areas and population groups in Taiyuan, China.

  10. Measurement of human CYP1A2 induction by inhalation exposure to benzo(a)pyrene based on in vivo isotope breath method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xiaoli; Shen, Guofeng; Yang, Hongbiao; Lambert, George; Wei, Fusheng; Zhang, Junfeng Jim

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) is an enzyme involved in the metabolic activation of certain carcinogens, and inducible by toxic substrates. To date, few studies have investigated in vivo CYP1A2 induction in humans and its relationship to polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) like benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). Non-smoking healthy male coke-oven workers (n = 30) were recruited as 'exposure' group, and non-smoking healthy office workers in the same city (n = 10) were selected as 'control' group, to test whether high inhalation exposure to PAHs can induce CYP1A2 activity in human livers. Significantly higher inhalation exposure of PAHs were found among the exposure group compared to the control. Inhalation BaP exposure concentration in the exposure group was more than 30 times higher than the control group (p < 0.001). However, the exposure group did not exhale significant higher levels of (13)CO2/(12)CO2 in breath samples (p = 0.81), and no significant relationship was found between the inhaled BaP concentration and the (13)CO2/(12)CO2 ratio (p = 0.91). A significant association was found between the (13)CO2/(12)CO2 exhalation and dietary BaP intake level. Hepatic CYP1A2 activity/induction level was not effected by inhaled BaP but was altered by ingestion of BaP. PMID:26552516

  11. Organ weight changes in mice after long-term inhalation exposure to manganese oxides nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeman, T.; Buchtová, M.; Dočekal, B.; Míšek, I.; Navrátil, J.; Mikuška, P.; Šerý, O.; Večeřa, Z.

    2015-05-01

    Recently, it has been proven that manganese from inhaled particles of manganese compounds can accumulate in the internal organs of laboratory animals. Nevertheless, there were only a few researches dealing with changes in body morphology induced by inhalation of these particles, even though results of some studies indicate existence of such changes. The aim of our research was to assess the effect of inhaled manganese oxides nanoparticles on weight of internal organs. For this purpose a long-term inhalation experiment on laboratory mice was performed, during which the mice were exposed to MnO.Mn2O3 nanoparticles in concentration 2 × 106 particles/cm3 for 17 weeks, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Manganese oxides nanoparticles were synthesized continuously via aerosol route in a hot wall tube flow reactor using thermal decomposition of metal organic precursor manganese(II)acetylacetonate in the flow tube reactor at temperature 750 °C in the presence of 30 vol% of oxygen. It was proven that inhaled nanoparticles can influence the weight of internal organs of mice. Moreover, it was discovered that the resulting change in weight of selected organs is disproportional. The mice from the experimental group had statistically significantly lighter kidneys, liver and spleen and heavier pancreas compared to the mice from the control group.

  12. Inhaled Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medications > Long-Term Control Medications > Inhaled Steroids Inhaled Steroids What are some common inhaled steroids? How are ... more about steroids? What are some common inhaled steroids? Common inhaled steroids include: Asmanex ® (mometasone) Alvesco ® (ciclesonide) ...

  13. Stevioside counteracts the alpha-cell hypersecretion caused by long-term palmitate exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hong, J; Chen, L; Jeppesen, P B;

    2006-01-01

    Long-term exposure to fatty acids impairs beta-cell function in type 2 diabetes, but little is known about the chronic effects of fatty acids on alpha-cells. We therefore studied the prolonged impact of palmitate on alpha-cell function and on the expression of genes related to fuel metabolism. We...

  14. Airborne exposure to inhalable hexavalent chromium in welders and other occupations: Estimates from the German MEGA database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesch, Beate; Kendzia, Benjamin; Hauptmann, Kristin; Van Gelder, Rainer; Stamm, Roger; Hahn, Jens-Uwe; Zschiesche, Wolfgang; Behrens, Thomas; Weiss, Tobias; Siemiatycki, Jack; Lavoué, Jerome; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Brüning, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    This study aimed to estimate occupational exposure to inhalable hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) using the exposure database MEGA. The database has been compiling Cr(VI) concentrations and ancillary data about measurements at German workplaces. We analysed 3659 personal measurements of inhalable Cr(VI) collected between 1994 and 2009. Cr(VI) was determined spectrophotometrically at 540 nm after reaction with diphenylcarbazide. We assigned the measurements to pre-defined at-risk occupations using the information provided about the workplaces. Two-thirds of the measurements were below the limit of quantification (LOQ) and multiply imputed according to the distribution above LOQ. The 75th percentile value was 5.2 μg/m(3) and the 95th percentile was 57.2 μg/m(3). We predicted the geometric mean for 2h sampling in the year 2000, and the time trend of Cr(VI) exposure in these settings with and without adjustment for the duration of measurements. The largest dataset was available for welding (N = 1898), which could be further detailed according to technique. The geometric means were above 5 μg/m(3) in the following situations: spray painting, shielded metal arc welding, and flux-cored arc welding if applied to stainless steel. The geometric means were between 1 μg/m(3) and 5 μg/m(3) for gas metal arc welding of stainless steel, cutting, hard-chromium plating, metal spraying and in the chemical chromium industry. The exposure profiles described here are useful for epidemiologic and industrial health purposes. Exposure to Cr(VI) varies not only between occupations, but also within occupations as shown for welders. In epidemiologic studies, it would be desirable to collect exposure-specific information in addition to the job title. PMID:25979374

  15. Inhalation Exposures to Particulate Matter and Carbon Monoxide during Ethiopian Coffee Ceremonies in Addis Ababa: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Keil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The unique Ethiopian cultural tradition of the coffee ceremony increases inhalation exposures to combustion byproducts. This pilot study evaluated exposures to particulate matter and carbon monoxide in ten Addis Ababa homes during coffee ceremonies. For coffee preparers the geometric mean (57 μg/m3 and median (72 μg/m3 contributions to an increase in a 24-hour time-weighted average exposure were above World Health Organization (WHO guidelines. At 40% of the study sites the contribution to the 24-hour average exposure was greater than twice the WHO guideline. Similar exposure increases existed for ceremony participants. Particulate matter concentrations may be related to the use of incense during the ceremony. In nearly all homes the WHO guideline for a 60-minute exposure to carbon monoxide was exceeded. Finding control measures to reduce these exposures will be challenging due to the deeply engrained nature of this cultural practice and the lack of availability of alternative fuels.

  16. 40 CFR 79.60 - Good laboratory practices (GLP) standards for inhalation exposure health effects testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Testing Requirements for Registration § 79.60 Good laboratory practices (GLP) standards for inhalation... have immediately available manuals and standard operating procedures relative to the laboratory... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Good laboratory practices...

  17. Community exposures to airborne agricultural pesticides in California: ranking of inhalation risks.

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sharon; McLaughlin, Robert; Harnly, Martha; Gunier, Robert; Kreutzer, Richard

    2002-01-01

    We assessed inhalation risks to California communities from airborne agricultural pesticides by probability distribution analysis using ambient air data provided by the California Air Resources Board and the California Department of Pesticide Regulation. The pesticides evaluated include chloropicrin, chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos, S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate, diazinon, 1,3-dichloropropene, dichlorvos (naled breakdown product), endosulfan, eptam, methidathion, methyl bromide, methyl isot...

  18. Dietary and inhalation exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and urinary excretion of monohydroxy metabolites – A controlled case study in Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daily dietary and inhalation exposures to 16 parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and urinary excretion of 13 monohydroxy metabolites (OHPAHs) were monitored for 12 non-smoking university students in Beijing, China, during a controlled feeding experiment. The relationship between the urinary excretion of OHPAHs and the uptake of PAHs was investigated. The results suggest severe exposure of the subjects to PAHs via both dietary and inhalation pathways. Large increase of most urinary OHPAHs occurred after the ingestion of lamb kabob. Higher concentrations of OHPAHs were observed for female subjects, with the intakes of parent PAHs lower than those by males, likely due to the gender differences in metabolism. It appears that besides 1-PYR, metabolites of PHE could also be used as biomarkers to indicate the short-term dietary exposure to PAHs and urinary 3-BaA may serve as the biomarker for inhalation intake of high molecular weight PAHs. Highlights: • The dependence of urinary OHPAHs on PAH intake was explored. • Consumption of lamb kabob resulted in large increase of most urinary OHPAHs. • Gender differences in PAH metabolism was observed. • Urinary metabolites of PHE and PYR can be used as biomarkers for dietary PAH intake. • Urinary 3-BaA may serve as the indicator for the inhalation exposure to BaPeq. -- Severe exposure to PAHs via dietary and inhalation pathways indicated by the intake of parent PAHs as well as the urinary excretion of OHPAHs, was observed for students in Beijing

  19. A practical alpha particle irradiator for studying internal alpha particle exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ki-Man; Lee, Ui-Seob; Kim, Eun-Hee

    2016-09-01

    An alpha particle irradiator has been built in the Radiation Bioengineering Laboratory at Seoul National University (SNU) to investigate the cellular responses to alpha emissions from radon and the progeny. This irradiator is designed to have the energy of alpha particles entering target cells similar to that of alpha emissions from the radon progeny Po-218 and Po-214 residing in the human respiratory tract. For the SNU alpha particle irradiator, an irradiation system is equipped with cell dishes of 4µm thick Mylar bottom and a special setup of cells on slide for gamma-H2AX assay. Dose calibration for the alpha particle irradiator was performed by dual approaches, detection and computer simulation, in consideration of the source-to-target distance (STD) and the size of a cell dish. The uniformity of dose among cells in a dish is achieved by keeping the STD and the size of cell dish in certain ranges. The performance of the SNU alpha particle irradiator has been proven to be reliable through the gamma-H2AX assay with the human lung epithelial cells irradiated. PMID:27475622

  20. Alpha One Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tested Find Support Find Doctor What Is Alpha-1? Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency (Alpha-1) is a ... results for inhaled augmentation More News Our Number One Goal: Find a cure for Alpha-1. Website ...

  1. Histomorphological and Histochemical Alterations Following Short-term Inhalation Exposure to Sulfur Mustard on Visceral Organs of Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. C. PANT; R. VIJAYARAGHAVAN

    1999-01-01

    Toxic effects of inhaled sulfur mustard (SM) on the histology of visceral organs was investigated by exposing mice to 84.6mg/m3 for 1 h duration, using controlled single exposure conditions. A progressive fall in body weight from third day onwards was noticed. Light microscopic examination of the pulmonary tissue of these animals at 6 h post exposure revealed that the tracheobronchial epithelium remained intact, but was infiltrated by inflammatorv cells. By 24 h post exposure, the mucosecretory cells were destroyed. The inflammatory reaction was maximum at 48 h. Bv 7th day post exposure there was swelling and vacuolation of lung parenchymal cells and thrombi formation. In addition SM caused congestion and hemorrhage at alveolar level. SM also caused granulovacuolar degeneration with perinuclear clumping of the cytoplasm of hepatocytes and renal parenchymal cells. Renal lesions were characterized by congestion and hemorrhage. Among visceral tissues, maximum atrophy was observed in spleen. Distribution of lesions increased with post exposure period. The maximum lesions were observed at 7th day post-exposure.

  2. Effect of short-term stainless steel welding fume inhalation exposure on lung inflammation, injury, and defense responses in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many welders have experienced bronchitis, metal fume fever, lung function changes, and an increase in the incidence of lung infection. Questions remain regarding the possible mechanisms associated with the potential pulmonary effects of welding fume exposure. The objective was to assess the early effects of stainless steel (SS) welding fume inhalation on lung injury, inflammation, and defense responses. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to gas metal arc-SS welding fume at a concentration of 15 or 40 mg/m3 x 3 h/day for 1, 3, or 10 days. The control group was exposed to filtered air. To assess lung defense responses, some animals were intratracheally inoculated with 5 x 104Listeria monocytogenes 1 day after the last exposure. Welding particles were collected during exposure, and elemental composition and particle size were determined. At 1, 4, 6, 11, 14, and 30 days after the final exposure, parameters of lung injury (lactate dehydrogenase and albumin) and inflammation (PMN influx) were measured in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. In addition, particle-induced effects on pulmonary clearance of bacteria and macrophage function were assessed. SS particles were composed of Fe, Cr, Mn, and Ni. Particle size distribution analysis indicated the mass median aerodynamic diameter of the generated fume to be 0.255 μm. Parameters of lung injury were significantly elevated at all time points post-exposure compared to controls except for 30 days. Interestingly, no significant difference in lung PMNs was observed between the SS and control groups at 1, 4, and 6 days post-exposure. After 6 days post-exposure, a dramatic increase in lung PMNs was observed in the SS group compared to air controls. Lung bacteria clearance and macrophage function were reduced and immune and inflammatory cytokines were altered in the SS group. In summary, short-term exposure of rats to SS welding fume caused significant lung damage and suppressed lung defense responses to bacterial infection, but

  3. The systemic exposure to inhaled beclometasone/formoterol pMDI with valved holding chamber is independent of age and body size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govoni, Mirco; Piccinno, Annalisa; Lucci, Germano;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Asthma guidelines recommend prescription of inhaled corticosteroids at a reduced dosage in children compared to older patients in order to minimize the systemic exposure and risk of unwanted side effects. In children, pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDI) are recommended in combina......BACKGROUND: Asthma guidelines recommend prescription of inhaled corticosteroids at a reduced dosage in children compared to older patients in order to minimize the systemic exposure and risk of unwanted side effects. In children, pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDI) are recommended...... in combination with a valved holding chamber (VHC) to overcome the problem of coordinating inhalation with actuation. However, the influence of age and body size on the systemic exposure of drugs to be administered via a pMDI with VHC is still not fully elucidated. Therefore, we aimed to compare the systemic...... pMDI with AeroChamber Plus™. RESULTS: The systemic exposure in children in comparison to adolescents was equivalent for formoterol while it was halved for beclometasone-17-monopropionate in accordance with the halved dose of beclometasone administered in children (90% CIs within 0...

  4. Alpha-risk: a European project on the quantification of risks associated with multiple radiation exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurier, D.; Monchaux, G.; Tirmarche, M. [Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety, 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France); Darby, S. [Cancer Research UK, Oxford (United Kingdom); Cardis, E. [International Agency for Research on Cancer, 69 - Lyon (France); Binks, K. [Westlakes Scientific Consulti ng Ltd, Moor Row (United Kingdom); Hofmann, W. [Salzburg Univ. (Austria); Muirhead, C. [Health Protection Agency, Chilton (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    The Alpha-Risk research project is being conducted within the Sixth European Framework Programme (EC-FP6, 2005 -2008). It aims to improve the quantification of risks associated with multiple exposures, taking into account the contribution of different radionuclides and external exposure using specific organ dose calculations. The Alpha-Risk Consortium involves 18 partners from 9 countries, and is coordinated by the IRSN. Its composition allows a multidisciplinary collaboration between researchers in epidemiology, dosimetry, statistics, modelling and risk assessment. Alpha-Risk brings together major epidemiological studies in Europe, which are able to evaluate long-term health effects of internal exposure from radionuclides. It includes large size cohort and case-control studies, with accurate registration of individual annual exposures: uranium miner studies, studies on lung cancer and indoor radon exposure, and studies of lung cancer and leukaemia among nuclear workers exposed to transuranic nuclides (mainly uranium and plutonium), for whom organ doses will be reconstructed individually. The contribution of experts in dosimetry will allow the calculation of organ doses in presence of multiple exposures (radon decay products, uranium dust and external gamma exposure). Expression of the risk per unit organ dose will make it possible to compare results with those from other populations exposed to external radiation. The multidisciplinary approach of Alpha-Risk promotes the development of coherent and improved methodological approaches regarding risk modelling. A specific work - package is dedicated to the integration of results and their use for risk assessment, especially for radon. Alpha-Risk will contribute to a better understanding of long-term health risks following chronic low doses from internal exposures. The project also has the great potential to help resolve major public health concerns about the effects of low and/or protracted exposures, especially

  5. Development of an Inhalational Bacillus anthracis Exposure Therapeutic Model in Cynomolgus Macaques

    OpenAIRE

    Henning, Lisa N.; Comer, Jason E.; Stark, Gregory V.; Ray, Bryan D.; Tordoff, Kevin P.; Knostman, Katherine A. B.; Meister, Gabriel T.

    2012-01-01

    Appropriate animal models are required to test medical countermeasures to bioterrorist threats. To that end, we characterized a nonhuman primate (NHP) inhalational anthrax therapeutic model for use in testing anthrax therapeutic medical countermeasures according to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Animal Rule. A clinical profile was recorded for each NHP exposed to a lethal dose of Bacillus anthracis Ames spores. Specific diagnostic parameters were detected relatively early in disease pr...

  6. Health Outcomes of Exposure to Biological and Chemical Components of Inhalable and Respirable Particulate Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Oyewale Mayowa Morakinyo; Matlou Ingrid Mokgobu; Murembiwa Stanley Mukhola; Raymond Paul Hunter

    2016-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) is a key indicator of air pollution and a significant risk factor for adverse health outcomes in humans. PM is not a self-contained pollutant but a mixture of different compounds including chemical and biological fractions. While several reviews have focused on the chemical components of PM and associated health effects, there is a dearth of review studies that holistically examine the role of biological and chemical components of inhalable and respirable PM in disease...

  7. Effects of inhaled acid aerosols on lung mechanics: an analysis of human exposure studies.

    OpenAIRE

    Utell, M J

    1985-01-01

    There exist significant gaps in our understanding of human health effects from inhalation of pollutants associated with acid precipitation. Controlled clinical studies examine effects of criteria pollutants almost exclusively by assessing changes in lung mechanics. One constituent of acid precipitation, sulfuric acid aerosols, has been shown to induce bronchoconstriction in exercising extrinsic asthmatics at near ambient levels. These asthmatics may be an order of magnitude more sensitive to ...

  8. Mimicking exposures to acute and lifetime concentrations of inhaled silver nanoparticles by two different in vitro approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Herzog

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the emerging market of nano-sized products, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs are widely used due to their antimicrobial properties. Human interaction with Ag NPs can occur through the lung, skin, gastrointestinal tract, and bloodstream. However, the inhalation of Ag NP aerosols is a primary concern. To study the possible effects of inhaled Ag NPs, an in vitro triple cell co-culture model of the human alveolar/airway barrier (A549 epithelial cells, human peripheral blood monocyte derived dendritic and macrophage cells together with an air–liquid interface cell exposure (ALICE system was used in order to reflect a real-life exposure scenario. Cells were exposed at the air–liquid interface (ALI to 0.03, 0.3, and 3 µg Ag/cm2 of Ag NPs (diameter 100 nm; coated with polyvinylpyrrolidone: PVP. Ag NPs were found to be highly aggregated within ALI exposed cells with no impairment of cell morphology. Furthermore, a significant increase in release of cytotoxic (LDH, oxidative stress (SOD-1, HMOX-1 or pro-inflammatory markers (TNF-α, IL-8 was absent. As a comparison, cells were exposed to Ag NPs in submerged conditions to 10, 20, and 30 µg Ag/mL. The deposited dose per surface area was estimated by using a dosimetry model (ISDD to directly compare submerged vs ALI exposure concentrations after 4 and 24 h. Unlike ALI exposures, the two highest concentrations under submerged conditions promoted a cytotoxic and pro-inflammatory response after 24 h. Interestingly, when cell cultures were co-incubated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, no synergistic inflammatory effects were observed. By using two different exposure scenarios it has been shown that the ALI as well as the suspension conditions for the lower concentrations after 4 h, reflecting real-life concentrations of an acute 24 h exposure, did not induce any adverse effects in a complex 3D model mimicking the human alveolar/airway barrier. However, the highest concentrations used in the ALI setup, as well

  9. Health Risk Assessment for Inhalation Exposure to Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether at Petrol Stations in Southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Dalin; Yang, Jianping; Liu, Yungang; Zhang, Wenjuan; Peng, Xiaowu; Wei, Qinzhi; Yuan, Jianhui; Zhu, Zhiliang

    2016-01-01

    Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), a well known gasoline additive, is used in China nationwide to enhance the octane number of gasoline and reduce harmful exhaust emissions, yet  little is known regarding the potential health risk associated with occupational exposure to MTBE in petrol stations. In this study, 97 petrol station attendants (PSAs) in southern China were recruited for an assessment of the health risk associated with inhalation exposure to MTBE. The personal exposure levels of MTBE were analyzed by Head Space Solid Phase Microextraction GC/MS, and the demographic characteristics of the PSAs were investigated. Cancer and non-cancer risks were calculated with the methods recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. The results showed that the exposure levels of MTBE in operating workers were much higher than among support staff (p < 0.01) and both were lower than 50 ppm (an occupational threshold limit value). The calculated cancer risks (CRs) at the investigated petrol stations was 0.170 to 0.240 per 106 for operating workers, and 0.026 to 0.049 per 106 for support staff, which are below the typical target range for risk management of 1 × 10−6 to 1 × 10−4; The hazard quotients (HQs) for all subjects were <1. In conclusion, our study indicates that the MTBE exposure of PSAs in southern China is in a low range which does not seem to be a significant health risk. PMID:26861375

  10. Health Risk Assessment for Inhalation Exposure to Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether at Petrol Stations in Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Dalin; Yang, Jianping; Liu, Yungang; Zhang, Wenjuan; Peng, Xiaowu; Wei, Qinzhi; Yuan, Jianhui; Zhu, Zhiliang

    2016-02-06

    Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), a well known gasoline additive, is used in China nationwide to enhance the octane number of gasoline and reduce harmful exhaust emissions, yet little is known regarding the potential health risk associated with occupational exposure to MTBE in petrol stations. In this study, 97 petrol station attendants (PSAs) in southern China were recruited for an assessment of the health risk associated with inhalation exposure to MTBE. The personal exposure levels of MTBE were analyzed by Head Space Solid Phase Microextraction GC/MS, and the demographic characteristics of the PSAs were investigated. Cancer and non-cancer risks were calculated with the methods recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. The results showed that the exposure levels of MTBE in operating workers were much higher than among support staff (p operating workers, and 0.026 to 0.049 per 10⁶ for support staff, which are below the typical target range for risk management of 1 × 10(-6) to 1 × 10(-4); The hazard quotients (HQs) for all subjects were exposure of PSAs in southern China is in a low range which does not seem to be a significant health risk.

  11. Health Risk Assessment for Inhalation Exposure to Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether at Petrol Stations in Southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalin Hu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE, a well known gasoline additive, is used in China nationwide to enhance the octane number of gasoline and reduce harmful exhaust emissions, yet  little is known regarding the potential health risk associated with occupational exposure to MTBE in petrol stations. In this study, 97 petrol station attendants (PSAs in southern China were recruited for an assessment of the health risk associated with inhalation exposure to MTBE. The personal exposure levels of MTBE were analyzed by Head Space Solid Phase Microextraction GC/MS, and the demographic characteristics of the PSAs were investigated. Cancer and non-cancer risks were calculated with the methods recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. The results showed that the exposure levels of MTBE in operating workers were much higher than among support staff (p < 0.01 and both were lower than 50 ppm (an occupational threshold limit value. The calculated cancer risks (CRs at the investigated petrol stations was 0.170 to 0.240 per 106 for operating workers, and 0.026 to 0.049 per 106 for support staff, which are below the typical target range for risk management of 1 × 10−6 to 1 × 10−4; The hazard quotients (HQs for all subjects were <1. In conclusion, our study indicates that the MTBE exposure of PSAs in southern China is in a low range which does not seem to be a significant health risk.

  12. Medical countermeasure against respiratory toxicity and acute lung injury following inhalation exposure to chemical warfare nerve agent VX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To develop therapeutics against lung injury and respiratory toxicity following nerve agent VX exposure, we evaluated the protective efficacy of a number of potential pulmonary therapeutics. Guinea pigs were exposed to 27.03 mg/m3 of VX or saline using a microinstillation inhalation exposure technique for 4 min and then the toxicity was assessed. Exposure to this dose of VX resulted in a 24-h survival rate of 52%. There was a significant increase in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) protein, total cell number, and cell death. Surprisingly, direct pulmonary treatment with surfactant, liquivent, N-acetylcysteine, dexamethasone, or anti-sense syk oligonucleotides 2 min post-exposure did not significantly increase the survival rate of VX-exposed guinea pigs. Further blocking the nostrils, airway, and bronchioles, VX-induced viscous mucous secretions were exacerbated by these aerosolized treatments. To overcome these events, we developed a strategy to protect the animals by treatment with atropine. Atropine inhibits muscarinic stimulation and markedly reduces the copious airway secretion following nerve agent exposure. Indeed, post-exposure treatment with atropine methyl bromide, which does not cross the blood-brain barrier, resulted in 100% survival of VX-exposed animals. Bronchoalveolar lavage from VX-exposed and atropine-treated animals exhibited lower protein levels, cell number, and cell death compared to VX-exposed controls, indicating less lung injury. When pulmonary therapeutics were combined with atropine, significant protection to VX-exposure was observed. These results indicate that combinations of pulmonary therapeutics with atropine or drugs that inhibit mucous secretion are important for the treatment of respiratory toxicity and lung injury following VX exposure

  13. Comparison of the effects of inhaled alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides on pulmonary function of the dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulmonary function changes of representative dogs after inhalation of a relatively insoluble form of 144Ce in fused aluminosilicate particles and 238PuO2 were compared. Both radionuclide forms had approximately the same effective half-life, but the 238PuO2 irradiated 11 percent of the lung while the 144Ce irradiated 100 percent. Both groups developed restrictive lung disease progressing to pulmonary failure but the sequence of functional changes differed. The first change in dogs that inhaled 144Ce was a reduced CO diffusing capacity followed later by changes in breathing pattern, lung compliance and alveolar-capillary O2 exchange. The first change in dogs that inhaled 238PuO2 was an increase in respiratory frequency which persisted for several months before nearly simultaneous changes in diffusing capacity, compliance and gas mixing. An impairment in alveolar-capillary O2 exchange occurred later in dogs that inhaled 238PuO2. Functional alterations of both groups in pulmonary failure were similar. The differences in the pattern of functional changes were thought to be related to differences in dose pattern, but the exact relationships are unknown

  14. Radiation exposure and radiation risk due to inhalation or ingestion of actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of the lung model following the ICRP recommendations (ICRP 19) dose commitments and dose factors have been calculated for the lung, lymphatic tissue, bone and liver due to single uptake of radioactive nuclides by inhalation or ingestion. These calculations have been performed for the most important isotopes of thorium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium, curium and for mixtures of plutonium. Analogies between dose and dose rate due to single and continuous intake of radioactive nuclides are discussed. Finally estimations of the collective and individual risk are made. (orig.)

  15. Acute symptoms during non-inhalation exposure to combinations of toluene, trichloroethylene, and n-hexane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Jesper

    1999-01-01

    To study the acute effect of exposure to a mixture of three commonly used solvents in humans using a route of exposure not involving the nose and lungs, in this case a gastrointestinal application....

  16. Inhalation Exposure of Organophosphate Pesticides by Vegetable Growers in the Bang-Rieng Sub district in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated inhalation exposure to organophosphate pesticides (OPPs) and evaluated the associated health risks to vegetable growers living in the Bang-Rieng agricultural community. Air samples were collected by using personal sampling pumps with sorbent tubes placed in the vegetable growers' breathing zone. Samples were collected during both wet and dry seasons. Residues of organophosphate pesticides, that is, chloropyrifos, dicrotofos, and profenofos, were analyzed from 33 vegetable growers and 17 reference subjects. Results showed that median concentrations of OPPs in air in farm areas were in the range of 0.022-0.056 mg/m3 and air in nonfarm areas in the range of 3. The concentration of the three pesticides in the vegetable growers was significantly higher than that of the references during both seasons. The results also indicate that the vegetable growers may be at risk for acute adverse effects via the inhalation of chloropyrifos and dicrotofos during pesticide application, mixing, loading, and spraying. It is suggested that authorities and the community should implement appropriate strategies concerning risk reduction and risk management.

  17. Plutonium-aerosol emission rates and potential inhalation exposure during cleanup and treatment test at Area 11, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Cleanup and Treatment (CAT) test was conducted in 1981 at Area 11, Nevada Test Site. Its purpose was to evaluate the effectiveness of using a large truck-mounted vacuum cleaner similar to those used to clean paved streets for cleaning radiological contamination from the surface of desert soils. We found that four passes with the vehicle removed 97% of the alpha contamination and reduced resuspension by 99.3 to 99.7%. Potential exposure to cleanup workers was slight when compared to natural background exposure. 7 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  18. Measurement methods and optimization of radiation protection: the case of internal exposure by inhalation to natural uranium compounds; Methodes de mesure et optimisation de la radioprotection: le cas des expositions internes par inhalation aux composes d'uranium naturel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degrange, J.P. [Centre d' Etudes sur l' Evaluation de la Protection dans le domaine Nucleaire (CEPN), 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Gibert, B. [Societe pour la Conversion de l' Uranium en Metal et Hexafluorure (COMURHEX), 11 - Narbonne (France)

    1998-07-01

    The aim of this presentation is to discuss the ability of different measurement methods (air sampling and biological examinations) to answer to demands in the particular case of internal exposure by inhalation to natural uranium compounds. The realism and the sensitivity of each method are studied, on the base of new dosimetric models of the ICRP. The ability of analysis of these methods in order to optimize radiation protection are then discussed. (N.C.)

  19. Degeneration and regeneration of the olfactory epithelium following inhalation exposure to methyl bromide: pathology, cell kinetics, and olfactory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtt, M E; Thomas, D A; Working, P K; Monticello, T M; Morgan, K T

    1988-06-30

    The effects of acute inhalation exposure to methyl bromide (MeBr) on the olfactory epithelium of male F-344 rats was investigated by morphologic examination of animals killed at varying timepoints during and following exposure to 200 ppm MeBr 6 hr/day for 5 days. Cell replication rate and histopathology were used to assess the kinetics of repair. In addition, olfactory function, using the buried food pellet test, was assessed and the result compared with morphological recovery. Extensive destruction of the olfactory epithelium was evident in animals killed directly after a single 6-hr exposure to MeBr. Histologic features of these lesions indicate that the primary, or most severe, effect of MeBr exposure was on the sustentacular cells and mature sensory cells; basal cells were generally unaffected. By Day 3, despite continued exposure, there was replacement of the olfactory epithelium by a squamous cell layer that increased in thickness and basophilic cytoplasmic staining over the next 2 days of exposure. One week postexposure, the epithelial region was covered by a layer of polyhedral, basophilic cells, and from 2 to 10 weeks postexposure, the epithelium exhibited progressive reorganization to reform the original olfactory epithelium pattern. By Week 10, 75-80% of the olfactory epithelium appeared morphologically normal. Cell replication showed a single peak of olfactory epithelial cell proliferation at Day 3 of exposure, with a labeling index of 14.5% compared to 0.7% in controls. Cell replication rates returned gradually to control levels by Week 10 postexposure. Behavioral tests of olfactory function in animals after a single 6-hr exposure to 200 ppm MeBr demonstrated a loss of the sense of smell, with recovery of this function by Day 6. Exposure to 90 ppm caused no observable effect on olfactory function or morphology. These findings demonstrate that the olfactory mucosa is highly sensitive to the toxic effects of MeBr and that olfactory epithelial cell

  20. Inhalational Lung Disease

    OpenAIRE

    S Kowsarian; Farzaneh; F Jamshidiha

    2010-01-01

    Inhalational lung diseases are among the most important occupational diseases. Pneumoconiosis refers to a group of lung diseases result from inhalation of usually inorganic dusts such as silicon dioxide, asbestos, coal, etc., and their deposition in the lungs. The resultant pulmonary disorders depend on the susceptibility of lungs; size, concentration, solubility and fibrogenic properties of the inhaled particles; and duration of exposure. Radiographic manifestations of pneumoconiosis become ...

  1. Dermal, inhalation, and internal exposure to 1,6-HDI and its oligomers in car body repair shop workers and industrial spray painters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronk, A.; Yu, F.; Vlaanderen, J.; Tielemans, E.; Preller, L.; Bobeldijk, I.; Deddens, J.A.; Latza, U.; Baur, X.; Heederik, D.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: To study inhalation and dermal exposure to hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) and its oligomers as well as personal protection equipment (PPE) use during task performance in conjunction with urinary hexamethylene diamine (HDA) in car body repair shop workers and industrial spray painters.

  2. Pulmonary exposure to carbon black by inhalation or instillation in pregnant mice: Effects on liver DNA strand breaks in dams and offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Petra; Hougaard, Karin Sørig; Boisen, Anne Mette Z.; Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun; Jensen, Keld Alstrup; Møller, Peter; Brunborg, Gunnar; Gutzkow, Kristine Bjerve; Andersen, Ole; Loft, Steffen; Vogel, Ulla; Wallin, Håkan

    2012-01-01

    Effects of maternal pulmonary exposure to carbon black (Printex 90) on gestation, lactation and DNA strand breaks were evaluated. Time-mated C57BL/6BomTac mice were exposed by inhalation to 42 mg/m3 Printex 90 for 1 h/day on gestation days (GD) 8-18, or by four intratracheal instillations on GD 7, 10, 15 and 18, with total doses of 11, 54 and 268 (μg/animal. Dams were monitored until weaning and some offspring until adolescence. Inflammation was assessed in maternal bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) 3-5 days after exposure, and at weaning. Levels of DNA strand breaks were assessed in maternal BAL cells and liver, and in offspring liver. Persistent lung inflammation was observed in exposed mothers. Inhalation exposure induced more DNA strand breaks in the liver of mothers and their offspring, whereas intratracheal instillation did not. Neither inhalation nor instillation affected gestation and lactation. Maternal inhalation exposure to Printex 90-induced liver DNA damage in the mothers and the in utero exposed offspring. PMID:21649560

  3. Natural inhalation exposure to coal smoke and wood smoke induces lung cancer in mice and rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, C.K.; Quan, N.Y.; Cao, S.R.; He, X.Z.; Ma, F. (Institute of Environmental Health and Engineering, Beijing (China))

    1988-06-01

    In a rural area with a high mortality rate of lung cancer in humans, mice and rats were placed in an environment in which they inhaled coal smoke and wood smoke in indoor air for 15 to 19 months. The incidences of lung cancer in mice in the control group, wood group, and coal group were 17.0% (29/171), 45.8% (81/177), and 89.5% (188/210), respectively: in rats the incidences were 0.9% (1/110), 0 (0/110), and 67.2% (84/125), respectively. In addition, the pollutants in the air were analyzed. The results indicate that coal smoke is a highly significant risk factor for lung cancer in humans in Xuan Wei County of Yun Nan Province in China.

  4. An evaluation of changes and recovery in the olfactory epithelium in mice after inhalation exposure to methylethylketoxime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Paul E; Bolte, Henry F; Derelanko, Michael J; Hardisty, Jerry F; Rinehart, William E

    2002-12-01

    Methylethylketoxime, also known as MEKO or 2-butanone oxime (CAS No. 96-29-7), is a clear, colorless to light yellow liquid at room temperature. It is an industrial antioxidant used as an antiskinning agent in alkyd paint, an industrial blocking agent for urethane polymers, and a corrosion inhibitor in industrial boilers, and can be found in some adhesives and silicone caulking products. Male CD-1 mice were exposed 6 h/day, 5 days/wk, for 1, 2, 4, or 13 wk via whole-body inhalation exposures to MEKO vapor concentrations of 0, 3 +/- 0.1, 10 +/- 0.3, 30 +/- 1, or 100 +/- 2 ppm (10 mice/group/interval). Satellite animals were removed after 1, 2, 4, or 13 wk of exposure and allowed to recover for 4 or 13 wk (5 mice/group/interval). After termination, the nasal turbinates were evaluated microscopically, and cross-sectional nasal maps of the lesions were prepared. At the end of the 1-, 2-, 4-, and 13-wk exposure periods, degeneration of the olfactory epithelium lining the dorsal meatus was seen in the anterior region of the nasal cavity. In a few instances, the olfactory epithelium covering the tips of the nasoturbinal scrolls projecting into the dorsal region of the nasal cavity was also degenerated. Large areas of olfactory epithelium lying laterally and posteriorly were unaffected. In general, approximately 10% or less of the total olfactory tissue was affected. In several instances, the degenerated olfactory epithelium was reepithelialized by squamous/squamoid and/or respiratory types of epithelium. Degeneration, which was dose related in incidence and severity, was seen in mice exposed to 30 and 100 ppm after 1 wk of exposure and in several mice exposed to 10 ppm after 13 wk of exposure. The incidence and severity of the degeneration present after 1 wk of exposure did not increase with the longer exposures. The olfactory degeneration was reversible. Recovery was complete within 4 wk following exposures at 10 ppm and nearly complete within 13 wk after exposures at 30

  5. Comparative evaluation of nose-only vs. whole-body inhalation exposures for rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two types of rat exposure chambers, nose-only and whole-body chambers, were evaluated simultaneously for the temporal and spatial distribution of the same test aerosols within the chambers, both with and without animals present. Results indicated that both types of exposure chambers performed well, with coefficients of variation less than 10% for both temporal and spatial variations. (author)

  6. Inhalation exposure to isocyanates of car body repair shop workers and industrial spray painters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronk, A.; Tielemans, E.; Skarping, G.; Bobeldijk, I.; Hemmen, J. van; Heederik, D.; Preller, L.

    2006-01-01

    As part of a large-scale epidemiological study, occupational isocyanate exposure was assessed in spray-painting environments. The aim was to assess which compounds contribute to isocyanate exposure in car body repair shops and industrial painting companies, and to identify tasks with high risk of is

  7. ESTIMATED RATE OF FATAL AUTOMOBILE ACCIDENTS ATTRIBUTABLE TO ACUTE SOLVENT EXPOSURE AT LOW INHALED CONCENTRATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acute solvent exposures may contribute to automobile accidents because they increase reaction time and decrease attention, in addition to impairing other behaviors. These effects resemble those of ethanol consumption, both with respect to behavioral effects and neurological mecha...

  8. Assessment of radon progeny inhalation exposure from low-level wastes of phosphate mining in Florida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The redistribution of naturally-occurring uranium series radionuclides as a result of phosphate mining, processing, product use, and waste disposal presents several potential radiation pathways to man. Of particular importance is exposure to radon-222 progeny in structures built on reclaimed lands in Florida. Indoor radon daughter sampling data from Polk County were analyzed, and the data categorized by land and structure type. The average population-weighted concentration in about 4400 homes was determined to be about 0.009 working level (WL) in addition to a background of 0.0003 WL. It was also determined that the average annual cumulative indoor exposure on reclaimed land was approximately 0.02 working level months (WLM). A relatively small number of houses on high-activity overburden accounted for 38% of the total population exposure. A generally applicable model is proposed to relate lund cancer risk to the average annual exposure, the risk coefficient, the expected lung cancer mortality from all other causes, the duration of the exposure and the number of years for observation of the effects. Health risk estimates were performed for present levels and population size, and also for several scenarios anticipating new growth and construction - with and without imposed standards to limit indoor radon progeny levels. The model suggests that for an equilibrium condition, about one additional case of radiogenic lung cancer every two years in the Polk County population might be expected

  9. Environmental arsenic exposure, selenium and sputum alpha-1 antitrypsin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burgess, Jefferey L; Kurzius-Spencer, Margaret; Poplin, Gerald S;

    2014-01-01

    this relationship is modified by selenium. A total of 55 subjects were evaluated in Ajo and Tucson, Arizona. Tap water and first morning void urine were analyzed for arsenic species, induced sputum for AAT and toenails for selenium and arsenic. Household tap-water arsenic, toenail arsenic and urinary inorganic...... arsenic and metabolites were significantly higher in Ajo (20.6±3.5 μg/l, 0.54±0.77 μg/g and 27.7±21.2 μg/l, respectively) than in Tucson (3.9±2.5 μg/l, 0.16±0.20 μg/g and 13.0±13.8 μg/l, respectively). In multivariable models, urinary monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) was negatively, and toenail selenium...... positively associated with sputum AAT (P=0.004 and P=0.002, respectively). In analyses stratified by town, these relationships remained significant only in Ajo, with the higher arsenic exposure. Reduction in AAT may be a means by which arsenic induces respiratory disease, and selenium may protect against...

  10. Development of an inhalational Bacillus anthracis exposure therapeutic model in cynomolgus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Lisa N; Comer, Jason E; Stark, Gregory V; Ray, Bryan D; Tordoff, Kevin P; Knostman, Katherine A B; Meister, Gabriel T

    2012-11-01

    Appropriate animal models are required to test medical countermeasures to bioterrorist threats. To that end, we characterized a nonhuman primate (NHP) inhalational anthrax therapeutic model for use in testing anthrax therapeutic medical countermeasures according to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Animal Rule. A clinical profile was recorded for each NHP exposed to a lethal dose of Bacillus anthracis Ames spores. Specific diagnostic parameters were detected relatively early in disease progression, i.e., by blood culture (∼37 h postchallenge) and the presence of circulating protective antigen (PA) detected by electrochemiluminescence (ECL) ∼38 h postchallenge, whereas nonspecific clinical signs of disease, i.e., changes in body temperature, hematologic parameters (ca. 52 to 66 h), and clinical observations, were delayed. To determine whether the presentation of antigenemia (PA in the blood) was an appropriate trigger for therapeutic intervention, a monoclonal antibody specific for PA was administered to 12 additional animals after the circulating levels of PA were detected by ECL. Seventy-five percent of the monoclonal antibody-treated animals survived compared to 17% of the untreated controls, suggesting that intervention at the onset of antigenemia is an appropriate treatment trigger for this model. Moreover, the onset of antigenemia correlated with bacteremia, and NHPs were treated in a therapeutic manner. Interestingly, brain lesions were observed by histopathology in the treated nonsurviving animals, whereas this observation was absent from 90% of the nonsurviving untreated animals. Our results support the use of the cynomolgus macaque as an appropriate therapeutic animal model for assessing the efficacy of medical countermeasures developed against anthrax when administered after a confirmation of infection. PMID:22956657

  11. Alpha-risk or quantification of risks associated with chronic exposure to Alpha emitters; Alpha-risk ou la quantification du risque associe a une exposition chronique aux emeteurs ALPHA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timarche, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, DS, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2010-07-15

    This article discusses the results obtained by a European research program on long term health risks associated with a chronic internal contamination by alpha radiation emitters. The researchers outlined that, in the case of an exposure to radon, the lung cancer risk, with respect to the cumulative dose, progressively reduces once the exposure has stopped. They also notice that this risk is present for smokers as well as for not smokers

  12. Selective Cognitive Deficits in Adult Rats after Prenatal Exposure to Inhaled Ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased use of ethanol blends in gasoline suggests a need to assess the potential public health risks of exposure to these fuels. Ethanol consumed during pregnancy is a teratogen. However, little is known about the potential developmental neurotoxicity of ethanol delivered by i...

  13. Contact and respiratory sensitizers can be identified by cytokine profiles following inhalation exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, W.H. de; Arts, J.H.E.; Klerk, A. de; Schijf, M.A.; Ezendam, J.; Kuper, C.F.; Loveren, H. van

    2009-01-01

    There are currently no validated animal models that can identify low molecular weight (LMW) respiratory sensitizers. The Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) is a validated animal model developed to detect contact sensitizers using skin exposure, but all LMW respiratory sensitizers tested so far were also

  14. Cellulosic building insulation versus mineral wool, fiberglass or perlite: installer's exposure by inhalation of fibers, dust, endotoxin and fire-retardant additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breum, N O; Schneider, T; Jørgensen, O; Valdbjørn Rasmussen, T; Skibstrup Eriksen, S

    2003-11-01

    A task-specific exposure matrix was designed for workers installing building insulation materials. A priori, a matrix element was defined by type of task (installer or helper), type of work area (attic spaces or wall cavities) and type of insulation material (slabs from mineral wool, fiberglass or flax; loose-fill cellulosic material or perlite). In the laboratory a mock-up (full scale) of a one-family house was used for simulated installation of insulation materials (four replicates per matrix element). Personal exposure to dust and fibers was measured. The dust was analyzed for content of endotoxin and some trace elements (boron and aluminum) from fire-retardant or mold-resistant additives. Fibers were characterized as WHO fibers or non-WHO fibers. In support of the exposure matrix, the dustiness of all the materials was measured in a rotating drum tester. For installers in attic spaces, risk of exposure was low for inhalation of dust and WHO fibers from slab materials of mineral wool or fiberglass. Slab materials from flax may cause high risk of exposure to endotoxin. The risk of exposure by inhalation of dust from loose-fill materials was high for installers in attic spaces and for some of the materials risk of exposure was high for boron and aluminum. Exposure by inhalation of cellulosic WHO fibers was high but little is known about the health effects and a risk assessment is not possible. For the insulation of walls, the risk of installers' exposure by inhalation of dust and fibers was low for the slab materials, while a high risk was observed for loose-fill materials. The exposure to WHO fibers was positively correlated to the dust exposure. A dust level of 6.1 mg/m3 was shown to be useful as a proxy for screening exposure to WHO fibers in excess of 10(6) fibers/m3. In the rotating drum, slabs of insulation material from mineral wool or fiberglass were tested as not dusty. Cellulosic loose-fill materials were tested as very dusty, and perlite proved to be

  15. Respiratory Disorders Associated with Occupational Inhalational Exposure to Bioaerosols among Wastewater Treatment Workers of Petrochemical Complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Jahangiri, M; Neghab, M; G Nasiri; M Aghabeigi; V Khademian; Rostami, R.; V Kargar; J Rasooli

    2015-01-01

    Background: Workers in wastewater treatment plants are exposed to a wide range of chemicals as well as biological contaminants.Objective: To ascertain whether exposure to bio-aerosols under the normal working conditions in wastewater treatment plants is associated with any significant changes in the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and lung function capacities.Methods: 198 employees of wastewater treatment plants and 99 unexposed persons were studied. American thoracic society (ATS) standar...

  16. Effects of inhalation exposure to SRC-II heavy and middle distillates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, D.L.; Miller, R.A.; Weimer, W.C.; Ragan, H.A.; Buschbom, R.L.; Mahlum, D.D.

    1984-11-01

    To expand the data base on potential health effects of coal liquefaction materials, we have performed studies with both solvent refined coal (SRC)-II heavy distillate (HD) and middle distillate (MD). Weight gain for exposed animals was less than that of controls and was dose-related, ranging from no significant difference for animals in the low-exposure group to failure to gain in the high-dose animals. Liver weights increased significantly over controls, and thymus weights decreased for animals sacrificed at 5 and 13 weeks. After both exposure periods, there were significant treatment-related decreases in erythrocyte parameters and in certain types of white blood cells (WBC). Bone marrow cellularity, and numbers of megakaryocytes consistently decreased, suggesting that bone marrow is a target tissue for high-boiling coal liquids. Microscopic evaluation of tissue indicated exposure-related changes is listed. In contrast to the reported mutagenic and carcinogenic effects observed for the high-boiling coal liquids, middle-boiling-range materials lacked such activity in these assays. These data demonstrate a great deal of similarity in the kinds of effects observed following exposure to middle- and high-boiling-range coal liquids. However, the significance of changes in organ weights and peripheral blood parameters are not always readily apparent following a subchronic study. Because of this, we exposed animals to HD in a manner similar to that for the subchronic experiment and have followed these animals throughout their lives for the development of adverse effects such as reduced longevity and the appearance of tumors. Results from this study will be available for mice in FY 1985 and for rats in FY 1986.

  17. Hematological responses after inhaling {sup 238}PuO{sub 2}: An extrapolation from beagle dogs to humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, B.R.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Welsh, C.A.; Angerstein, D.A.

    1994-11-01

    The alpha emitter plutonium-238 ({sup 238}Pu), which is produced in uranium-fueled, light-water reactors, is used as a thermoelectric power source for space applications. Inhalation of a mixed oxide form of Pu is the most likely mode of exposure of workers and the general public. Occupational exposures to {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} have occurred in association with the fabrication of radioisotope thermoelectric generators. Organs and tissue at risk for deterministic and stochastic effects of {sup 238}Pu-alpha irradiation include the lung, liver, skeleton, and lymphatic tissue. Little has been reported about the effects of inhaled {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} on peripheral blood cell counts in humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate hematological responses after a single inhalation exposure of Beagle dogs to alpha-emitting {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} particles and to extrapolate results to humans.

  18. In vivo genotoxicity evaluation of lung cells from Fischer 344 rats following 28 days of inhalation exposure to MWCNTs, plus 28 days and 90 days post-exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Sik; Sung, Jae Hyuck; Choi, Byung Gil; Ryu, Hyeon Yeol; Song, Kyung Seuk; Shin, Jae Hoon; Lee, Jong Seong; Hwang, Joo Hwan; Lee, Ji Hyun; Lee, Gun Ho; Jeon, Kisoo; Ahn, Kang Ho; Yu, Il Je

    2014-03-01

    Despite their useful physico-chemical properties, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) continue to cause concern over occupational and human health due to their structural similarity to asbestos. Thus, to evaluate the toxic and genotoxic effect of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on lung cells in vivo, eight-week-old rats were divided into four groups (each group = 25 animals), a fresh air control (0 mg/m(3)), low (0.17 mg/m(3)), middle (0.49 mg/m(3)), and high (0.96 mg/m(3)) dose group, and exposed to MWCNTs via nose-only inhalation 6 h per day, 5 days per week for 28 days. The count median length and geometric standard deviation for the MWCNTs determined by TEM were 330.18 and 1.72 nm, respectively, and the MWCNT diameters ranged from 10 to 15 nm. Lung cells were isolated from five male and five female rats in each group on day 0, day 28 (only from males) and day 90 following the 28-day exposure. The total number of animals used was 15 male and 10 female rats for each concentration group. To determine the genotoxicity of the MWCNTs, a single cell gel electrophoresis assay (Comet assay) was conducted on the rat lung cells. As a result of the exposure, the olive tail moments were found to be significantly higher (p air control. In addition, the high-dose exposed male and middle and high-dose exposed female rats retained DNA damage, even 90 days post-exposure (p < 0.05). To investigate the mode of genotoxicity, the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and inflammatory cytokine levels (TNF-α, TGF- β, IL-1, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-12 and IFN-γ) were also measured. For the male rats, the H2O2 levels were significantly higher in the middle (0 days post-exposure) and high- (0 days and 28 days post-exposure) dose groups (p < 0.05). Conversely, the female rats showed no changes in the H2O2 levels. The inflammatory cytokine levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid did not show any statistically significant difference

  19. Internal Exposure of a Seoul Subway Passenger due to Radon Inhalation: Before and After PSD Installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon is the major source of public exposure to natural radiation and is also known to cause lung cancer. Platform screen doors (PSD) were installed primarily for passenger's safety purposes. Radon concentration and aerosol distribution have been changed since PSD installation. In this study, we have assessed the annual effective dose of regular subway passengers, before and after PSD installation, by employing current available data on air concentration of radon in Seoul subways with aerosol size distributions taken into account. ICRP recommends that the reference value for internal dose from radon be between 1.0 and 20.0 mSv. Korean Ministry of Environment enacted the indoor radon regulation, which requires the indoor radon level should not exceed 148 Bq/m3. Radon concentrations in Seoul subways and annual dose estimates meet the requirements

  20. Personal exposure to grass pollen: relating inhaled dose to background concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peel, Robert George; Hertel, Ole; Smith, Matt;

    2013-01-01

    . A 2003 World Health Organization report highlighted the need for an improved understanding of the relation between monitoring station data and actual exposure. Objective: To investigate the relation between grass pollen dose and background concentrations measured at a monitoring station, to assess...... the fidelity of monitoring station data as a qualitative proxy for dose, and to evaluate the ratio of dose rate to background concentration. Methods: Grass pollen dose data were collected in Aarhus, Denmark, in an area where grass pollen sources were prevalent, using Nasal Air Samplers. Sample collection...... of day when grass species likely to be present in the area are expected to flower. From 4 to 8 PM, dose rate and background concentration data were found to be strongly and significantly correlated (r(s) = 0.81). Averaged dose rate and background concentration data showed opposing temporal trends...

  1. Systemic exposure to inhaled beclometasone/formoterol DPI is age and body size dependent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chawes, B L; Govoni, M; Kreiner-Møller, E;

    2014-01-01

    . RESULTS: The systemic exposure (AUC) for children versus adults was almost doubled for formoterol and similar for B17MP despite the halved BDP dose administered in children. In adolescents the AUC for formoterol and B17MP were approximately one third higher than in adults for both compounds. Upon...... normalization for the BDP/formoterol dose in the three populations the AUC and peak concentration (C(max)) correlated inversely with age and body surface area of the patients (r ≤ -0.53; p ... inversely with age and body size suggesting that dry powder dosage regimens should be adjusted for age and body size to avoid high systemic drug levels in children....

  2. Combined Inhaled Diesel Exhaust Particles and Allergen Exposure Alter Methylation of T Helper Genes and IgE Production In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinming; Ballaney, Manisha; Al-alem, Umaima; Quan, Chunli; Jin, Ximei; Perera, Frederica; Chen, Lung-Chi; Miller, Rachel L.

    2008-01-01

    Changes in methylation of CpG sites at the interleukin (IL)-4 and interferon (IFN)-γ promoters are associated with T helper (Th) 2 polarization in vitro. No previous studies have examined whether air pollution or allergen exposure alters methylation of these two genes in vivo. We hypothesized that diesel exhaust particles (DEP) would induce hypermethylation of the IFN-γ promoter and hypomethylation of IL-4 in CD4+ T cells among mice sensitized to the fungus allergen Aspergillus fumigatus.We also hypothesized that DEP-induced methylation changes would affect immunoglobulin (Ig) E regulation. BALB/c mice were exposed to a 3-week course of inhaled DEP exposure while undergoing intranasal sensitization to A. fumigatus. Purified DNA from splenic CD4+ cells underwent bisulfite treatment, PCR amplification, and pyrosequencing. Sera IgE levels were compared with methylation levels at several CpG sites in the IL-4 and IFN-γ promoter. Total IgE production was increased following intranasal sensitization A. fumigatus. IgE production was augmented further following combined exposure to A. fumigatus and DEP exposure. Inhaled DEP exposure and intranasal A. fumigatus induced hypermethylation at CpG−45, CpG−53, CpG−205 sites of the IFN-γ promoter and hypomethylation at CpG−408 of the IL-4 promoter. Altered methylation of promoters of both genes was correlated significantly with changes in IgE levels. This study is the first to demonstrate that inhaled environmental exposures influence methylation of Th genes in vivo, supporting a new paradigm in asthma pathogenesis. PMID:18042818

  3. Lessons learned from case studies of inhalation exposures of workers to radioactive aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various Department of Energy requirements, rules, and orders mandate that lessons learned be identified, evaluated, shared, and incorporated into current practices. The recently issued, nonmandatory DOE standard for Development of DOE Lessons Learned Program states that a DOE-wide lessons learned program will open-quotes help to prevent recurrences of negative experiences, highlight best practices, and spotlight innovative ways to solve problems or perform work more safely, efficiently, and cost effectively.close quotes Additional information about the lessons learned program is contained in the recently issued DOE handbook on Implementing U.S. Department of Energy Lessons Learned Programs and in October 1995 DOE SAfety Notice on Lessons Learned Programs. This report summarizes work in progress at ITRI to identify lessons learned for worker exposures to radioactive aerosols, and describes how this work will be incorporated into the DOE lessons learned program, including a new technical guide for measuring, modeling, and mitigating airborne radioactive particles. Follow-on work is focusing on preparation of open-quotes lessons learnedclose quotes training materials for facility designers, managers, health protection professionals, line supervisors, and workers

  4. Lessons learned from case studies of inhalation exposures of workers to radioactive aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoover, M.D.; Fencl, A.F.; Newton, G.J. [and others

    1995-12-01

    Various Department of Energy requirements, rules, and orders mandate that lessons learned be identified, evaluated, shared, and incorporated into current practices. The recently issued, nonmandatory DOE standard for Development of DOE Lessons Learned Program states that a DOE-wide lessons learned program will {open_quotes}help to prevent recurrences of negative experiences, highlight best practices, and spotlight innovative ways to solve problems or perform work more safely, efficiently, and cost effectively.{close_quotes} Additional information about the lessons learned program is contained in the recently issued DOE handbook on Implementing U.S. Department of Energy Lessons Learned Programs and in October 1995 DOE SAfety Notice on Lessons Learned Programs. This report summarizes work in progress at ITRI to identify lessons learned for worker exposures to radioactive aerosols, and describes how this work will be incorporated into the DOE lessons learned program, including a new technical guide for measuring, modeling, and mitigating airborne radioactive particles. Follow-on work is focusing on preparation of {open_quotes}lessons learned{close_quotes} training materials for facility designers, managers, health protection professionals, line supervisors, and workers.

  5. Assessment of Exposure to Polybrominated Dipheny Ethers via Inhalation and Diet in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Li; CAO Dan; LI Lu Xi; ZHAO Yan; XIE Chang Ming; ZHANG Yun Hui

    2014-01-01

    Objective This paper is to assess the current status of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) contamination in the environment in China and estimate the exposure to PBDEs in non-occupational populations. Methods A total of 80 research papers published from January 2001 to October 2013 were selected. Geographic information system (GIS) was used in mapping PBDE concentrations and distributions in environmental media. Ni’s model was applied to calculate∑PBDE-intake via the intakes of contaminated food, water and air in the Pearl River Delta and Yangtze River Delta. Results BDE-209 was found to be the major PBDE congener in the environmental media and food in China. PBDE concentrations varied among different areas, among which the contamination in Guangdong Province was most serious. Daily intake of∑PBDEs was 225.1-446.0 ng/d for adults in the Pearl River Delta, which was higher than the intake for those living in the Yangtze River Delta (148.9-369.8 ng/d). Conclusion PBDEs are ubiquitous in the environment of China. The estimated PBDEs daily dietary intake is comparable with that in European countries.

  6. Differential electrocardiogram efffects in normal and hypertensive rats after inhalation exposure to transition metal rich particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhalation of particulate matter (PM) associated with air pollution causes adverse effects on cardiac function including heightened associations with ischemic heart disease, dysrhythmias, heart failure, and cardiac arrest. Some of these effects have been attributable to transitio...

  7. Differential effects of inhalation exposure to PM2.5 on hypothalamic monoamines and corticotrophin releasing hormone in lean and obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Priya; Sirivelu, Madhu P; Weiss, Kathryn A; Wagner, James G; Harkema, Jack R; Morishita, Masako; Mohankumar, P S; Mohankumar, Sheba M J

    2013-05-01

    Acute exposure to airborne pollutants, especially particulate matter (PM2.5) is known to increase hospital admissions for cardiovascular conditions, increase cardiovascular related mortality and predispose the elderly and obese individuals to cardiovascular conditions. The mechanisms by which PM2.5 exposure affects the cardiovascular system is not clear. Since the autonomic system plays an important role in cardiovascular regulation, we hypothesized that PM2.5 exposure most likely activates the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus to cause an increase in sympathetic nervous system and/or stress axis activity. We also hypothesized that these changes may be sustained in obese rats predisposing them to higher cardiovascular risk. To test this, adult male Brown Norway (BN) rats were subjected to one day or three days of inhalation exposures to filtered air (FA) or concentrated air particulate (CAP) derived from ambient PM2.5. Corpulent JCR-LA rats were exposed to FA or CAP for four days. Animals were sacrificed 24h after the last inhalation exposure. Their brains were removed, frozen and sectioned. The PVN and median eminence (ME) were microdissected. PVN was analyzed for norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA) and 5-hydroxy-indole acetic acid (5-HIAA) levels using HPLC-EC. ME was analyzed for corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) levels by ELISA. One day exposure to CAP increased NE levels in the PVN and CRH levels in the ME of BN rats. Repeated exposures to CAP did not affect NE levels in the PVN of BN rats, but increased NE levels in JCR/LA rats. A similar pattern was observed with 5-HIAA levels. DA levels on the other hand, were unaffected in both BN and JCR/LA strains. These data suggest that repeated exposures to PM2.5 continue to stimulate the PVN in obese animals but not lean rats.

  8. Inhalation Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Coşkun Araz; Arash Pirat

    2011-01-01

    Despite significant advances in wound care of patients with burn injuries, inhalation injury remains as an important contributor to morbidity and mortality in these patients. Unfortunately, there are limited studies that have focused on the diagnosis, grading, pathophysiology, and therapy of inhalation injury, therefore a widely accepted consensus is lacking on these topics. Inhalation injury is generally defined as the inhalation of thermal or chemical irritants and can be divided into three...

  9. Inhalant Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... she is likely to try other kinds of drugs, especially alcohol and marijuana. Symptoms How can I tell if my child is abusing inhalants? It can be hard to recognize the signs of inhalant abuse. Teenagers who use inhalants may have some of the ...

  10. Short inhalation exposures of the isolated and perfused rat lung to respirable dry particle aerosols; the detailed pharmacokinetics of budesonide, formoterol, and terbutaline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Per; Eirefelt, Stefan J; Andersson, Paul; Blomgren, Anders; Ryrfeldt, Ake; Gerde, Per

    2008-06-01

    There is an increasing interest in using the lung as a route of entry for both local and systemic administration of drugs. However, because adequate technologies have been missing in the preclinical setting, few investigators have addressed the detailed disposition of drugs in the lung following short inhalation exposures to highly concentrated dry powder aerosols. New methods are needed to explore the disposition of drugs after short inhalation exposures, thus mimicking a future clinical use. Our aim was to study the pulmonary disposition of budesonide, formoterol, and terbutaline, which are clinically used for the treatment of bronchial asthma. Using the recently developed DustGun aerosol technology, we exposed by inhalation for approximately 1 min the isolated and perfused rat lung (IPL) to respirable dry particle aerosols of the three drugs at high concentrations. The typical aerosol concentration was 1 mug/mL, and the particle size distribution of the tested substances varied with a MMAD ranging from 2.3 to 5.3 mum. The IPL was perfused in single pass mode and repeated samples of the perfusate were taken for up to 80 min postexposure. The concentration of drug in perfusate and in lung extracts was measured using LC-MS/MS. The deposited dose was determined by adding the amounts of drug collected in perfusate to the amount extracted from the tissues at 80 min. Deposited amounts of budesonide, formoterol fumarate, and terbutaline sulphate were 23 +/- 17, 36 +/- 8, and 60 +/- 3.2 mug (mean +/- SD, n = 3), respectively. Retention in lung tissues at the end of the perfusion period expressed as fraction of deposited dose was 0.19 +/- 0.05, 0.19 +/- 0.06, and 0.04 +/- 0.01 (mean +/- SD, n = 3) for budesonide, formoterol, and terbutaline, respectively. Each short inhalation exposure to the highly concentrated aerosols consumed 1-3 mg powder. Hence, this system can be particularly useful for obtaining a detailed pharmacokinetic characterization of inhaled compounds in

  11. Biological characterization of radiation exposure and dose estimates for inhaled uranium milling effluents. Annual progress report April 1, 1982-March 31, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problems addressed are the protection of uranium mill workers from occupational exposure to uranium through routine bioassay programs and the assessment of accidental worker exposures. Comparisons of chemical properties and the biological behavior of refined uranium ore (yellowcake) are made to identify important properties that influence uranium distribution patterns among organs. These studies will facilitate calculations of organ doses for specific exposures and associated health risk estimates and will identify important bioassay procedures to improve evaluations of human exposures. A quantitative analytical method for yellowcake was developed based on the infrared absorption of ammonium diuranate and U3O8 mixtures in KBr. The method was applied to yellowcake samples obtained from six operating mills. The composition of yellowcake from the six mills ranged from nearly pure ammonium diuranate to nearly pure U3O8. The composition of yellowcake samples taken from lots from the same mill was only somewhat less variable. Because uranium mill workers might be exposed to yellowcake either by contamination of a wound or by inhalation, a study of retention and translocation of uranium after subcutaneous implantation in rats was done. The results showed that 49% of the implanted yellowcake cleared from the body with a half-time (T sub 1/2) in the body of 0.3 days, and the remainder was cleared with a T sub 1/2 of 11 to 30 days. Exposures of Beagle dogs by nose-only inhalation to aerosols of commercial yellowcake were completed. Biochemical indicators of kidney dysfunction that appeared in blood and urine 4 to 8 days after exposure to the more soluble yellowcake showed significant changes in dogs, but levels returned to normal by 16 days after exposure. No biochemical evidence of kidney dysfunction was observed in dogs exposed to the less soluble yellowcake form. 18 figures, 9 tables

  12. Substance use - inhalants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substance abuse - inhalants; Drug abuse - inhalants; Drug use - inhalants; Glue - inhalants ... consumered.org/learn/inhalant-abuse National Institute on Drug Abuse -- www.teens.drugabuse.gov/drug-facts/inhalants SMART ...

  13. A Review of the Diagnosis and Treatment of Ochratoxin A Inhalational Exposure Associated with Human Illness and Kidney Disease including Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janette H. Hope

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A (OTA exposure via ingestion and inhalation has been described in the literature to cause kidney disease in both animals and humans. This paper reviews Ochratoxin A and its relationship to human health and kidney disease with a focus on a possible association with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS in humans. Prevention and treatment strategies for OTA-induced illness are also discussed, including cholestyramine, a bile-acid-binding resin used as a sequestrant to reduce the enterohepatic recirculation of OTA.

  14. Differential Responses upon Inhalation Exposure to Biodiesel versus Diesel Exhaust on Oxidative Stress, Inflammatory and Immune Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel (BD) exhaust may have reduced adverse health effects due to lower mass emissions and reduced production of hazardous compounds compared to diesel exhaust. To investigate this possibility, we compared adverse effects in lungs and liver of BALB/cJ mice after inhalation ex...

  15. Mechanistic model of radon-induced lung cancer risk at low exposure levels based on cellular alpha particle hits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, Hofmann; Hatim, Fakir [Salzburg Univ., Div. of Physics and Biophysics, Dept. of Material Science (Austria); Lucia-Adina, Truta-Popa [Babes-Bolyai Univ., Faculty of Physics (Romania)

    2006-07-01

    To explore the role of the multiplicity of cellular hits by radon progeny alpha particles for lung cancer incidence, the number of single and multiple alpha particle hits were computed for basal and secretory cells in the bronchial epithelium of human airway bifurcations employing Monte Carlo methods. Hot spots of alpha particle hits were observed at the branching points of bronchial airway bifurcations, suggesting that multiple alpha particle hits may occur primarily at carinal ridges. Random alpha particle intersections of bronchial cells during a given exposure period, selected from a Poisson distribution, were simulated by an initiation-promotion model, based on experimentally observed cellular transformation and survival functions. To consider potential bystander effects, which have been observed in cellular in vitro studies, alpha particle interactions were also simulated for larger sensitive target volumes in bronchial epithelium, consisting of a collection of cells. Lung cancer risk simulations indicated that cancer induction for continuous exposures is related to the cycle time of an irradiated cell, thus exhibiting a distinct dose-rate effect. While the dominant role of single hits leads to a linear dose-response relationship at low radon exposure levels, predicted lung cancer risk for a collection of interacting cells exhibits a linear-quadratic response, suggesting that bystander effects, if operating at all under in vivo irradiations, may be restricted to a small number of adjacent cells. (author)

  16. Inhaled americium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project includes experiments to determine the effects of Zn-DTPA therapy on the retention, translocation and biological effects of inhaled 241AmO2. Beagle dogs that received inhalation exposure to 241AmO2 developed leukopenia, clincial chemistry changes associated with hepatocellular damage, and were euthanized due to respiratory insufficiency caused by radiation pneumonitis 120 to 131 days after pulmonary deposition of 22 to 65 μCi 241Am. Another group of dogs that received inhalation exposure to 241AmO2 and were treated daily with Zn-DTPA had initial pulmonary deposition of 19 to 26 μCi 241Am. These dogs did not develop respiratory insufficiency, and hematologic and clinical chemistry changes were less severe than in the non-DTPA-treated dogs

  17. Environmentally relevant exposure to 17{alpha}-ethinylestradiol affects the telencephalic proteome of male fathead minnows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martyniuk, Christopher J., E-mail: cmartyn@unb.ca [Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 32611 (United States); Kroll, Kevin J.; Doperalski, Nicholas J.; Barber, David S.; Denslow, Nancy D. [Department of Physiological Sciences and Center for Environmental and Human Toxicology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 32611 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    Estrogens are key mediators of neuronal processes in vertebrates. As such, xenoestrogens present in the environment have the potential to alter normal central nervous system (CNS) function. The objectives of the present study were (1) to identify proteins with altered abundance in the male fathead minnow telencephalon as a result of low-level exposure to17{alpha}-ethinylestradiol (EE{sub 2}), and (2) to better understand the underlying mechanisms of 17{beta}-estradiol (E{sub 2}) feedback in this important neuroendocrine tissue. Male fathead minnows exposed to a measured concentration of 5.4 ng EE{sub 2}/L for 48 h showed decreased plasma E{sub 2} levels of approximately 2-fold. Of 77 proteins that were quantified statistically, 14 proteins were down-regulated after EE{sub 2} exposure, including four histone proteins, ATP synthase, H+ transporting subunits, and metabolic proteins (lactate dehydrogenase B4, malate dehydrogenase 1b). Twelve proteins were significantly induced by EE{sub 2} including microtubule-associated protein tau (Mapt), astrocytic phosphoprotein, ependymin precursor, and calmodulin. Mapt showed an increase in protein abundance but a decrease in mRNA expression after EE{sub 2} exposure{sub ,} suggesting there may be a negative feedback response in the telencephalon to decreased mRNA transcription with increasing Mapt protein abundance. These results demonstrate that a low, environmentally relevant exposure to EE{sub 2} can rapidly alter the abundance of proteins involved in cell differentiation and proliferation, neuron network morphology, and long-term synaptic potentiation. Together, these findings provide a better understanding of the molecular responses underlying E{sub 2} feedback in the brain and demonstrate that quantitative proteomics can be successfully used in ecotoxicology to characterize affected cellular pathways and endocrine physiology.

  18. Measure of exposure of short-lived radon products using an alpha spectrometer for measuring indoor aerosol activity concentration and dose evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new italian law introduces the regulation of occupational exposure to radon. To evaluate the inhalation of radon daughters by the workers a sampling device has been assembled with the aim of evaluation of unattached and aerosol attached radon daughters' fractions. The instrument, based on selection of the aerosuspended particles by means of a wire screen type battery and subsequent collection on a total filter, allows to describe the behaviour of both fractions using defined temporal pattern of collecting particles and counting them by alpha spectroscopy. A measurement campaign to test the radon daughter dichotomous spectrometer in comparison with a commercial Radon Working Level meter, has been performed in a research laboratory of central Italy affected by high radon concentrations. The radon concentration during the measurement campaign has been also measured. The equilibrium factor Feq ad the attachment factor fp have been evaluated during 3 days campaign. Using the measured mean parameters (radon concentration, Feq, fp) the dose evaluation for workers using dosimetric approach has been performed. A comparison between the epidemiologic approach, based on the radon concentration, and dosimetric approach is also presented

  19. Inhaled plutonium nitrate in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beagle dogs given a single inhalation exposure to 239Pu(NO3)4 are being observed for life-span dose-effect relationships. Lymphopenia occurred at the two highest dosage levels as early as 1 mo following exposure and was associated with neutropenia and reduction in numbers of circulatory monocytes by 4 mo postexposure. Radiation pneumonitis developed in one dog at the highest dosage level at 14 mo postexposure. More rapid translocation to skeleton and liver occurred following inhalation of 238Pu(NO3)4 than after 239Pu(NO3)4 inhalation

  20. Inhalational Lung Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Kowsarian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Inhalational lung diseases are among the most important occupational diseases. Pneumoconiosis refers to a group of lung diseases result from inhalation of usually inorganic dusts such as silicon dioxide, asbestos, coal, etc., and their deposition in the lungs. The resultant pulmonary disorders depend on the susceptibility of lungs; size, concentration, solubility and fibrogenic properties of the inhaled particles; and duration of exposure. Radiographic manifestations of pneumoconiosis become apparent several years after exposure to the particles. However, for certain types of dusts, e.g., silicone dioxide crystal and beryllium, heavy exposure within a short period can cause an acute disease. Pulmonary involvement in asbestosis is usually in the lower lobes. On the contrary, in silicosis and coal worker pneumoconiosis, the upper lobes are involved predominantly. For imaging evaluation of pneumoconiosis, high-resolution computed tomography (CT is superior to conventional chest x-ray. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and positron emission tomography (PET scan are helpful in those with suspected tumoral lesions. In this essay, we reviewed the imaging aspects of inhalational lung disease.

  1. Phthalate esters (PAEs) in indoor PM10/PM2.5 and human exposure to PAEs via inhalation of indoor air in Tianjin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Leibo; Wang, Fumei; Ji, Yaqin; Jiao, Jiao; Zou, Dekun; Liu, Lingling; Shan, Chunyan; Bai, Zhipeng; Sun, Zengrong

    2014-03-01

    In this study, filter samples of six Phthalate esters (PAEs) in indoor PM10 and PM2.5 were collected from thirteen homes in Tianjin, China. The results showed that the concentrations of Σ6PAEs in indoor PM10 and PM2.5 were in the range of 13.878-1591.277 ng m-3 and 7.266-1244.178 ng m-3, respectively. Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) was the most abundant compounds followed by di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) in indoor PM10 and PM2.5. Whereas DBP and dimethyl phthalate (DMP) were the predominant compounds in indoor air (gas-phase + particle-phase), the median values were 573.467 and 368.364 ng m-3 respectively. The earlier construction time, the lesser indoor area, the old decoration, the very crowded items coated with plastic and a lower frequency of dusting may lead to a higher level of PAEs in indoor environment. The six PAEs in indoor PM10 and PM2.5 were higher in summer than those in winter. The daily intake (DI) of six PAEs for five age groups through air inhalation in indoor air in Tianjin was estimated. The results indicated that the highest exposure dose was DBP in every age group, and infants experienced the highest total DIs (median: 664.332 ng kg-bw-1 day-1) to ∑6PAEs, whereas adults experienced the lowest total DIs (median: 155.850 ng kg-bw-1 day-1) to ∑6PAEs. So, more attention should be paid on infants in the aspect of indoor inhalation exposure to PAEs.

  2. α-干扰素雾化吸入治疗毛细支气管炎临床效果研究%Study on the clinical effect of alpha interferon atomization inhalation in the treatment of bronchiolitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康清华

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To explore the clinical effect of alpha interferon atomization inhalation in the treatment of bronchiolitis. Methods:56 patients with bronchiolitis were selected from December 2012 to December 2013.Acording to random distribution and the voluntary principle,all patients were divided into A group and B group.Basis on patients of the two groups were treated by comprehensive treatment,28 cases of A group were treated by alpha interferon atomization inhalation adjuvant therapy,28 cases of B patients were treated by intramuscular injection of alpha interferon adjuvant therapy.We compared the treatment effects of two groups.Results:After the treatment,the overall threatment effective rate of A group was 96.43%,it was much higher than 85.41% of B group,and the comparison between the two groups in P<0.05,the difference has statistics significance.Conclusion:Alpha interferon atomization inhalation has better curative effect in the treatment of bronchiolitis disease when it is compared with intramuscular injection.%目的:探究雾化吸入α-干扰素治疗毛细支气管炎的临床效果。方法:收治毛细支气管炎患者56例,按照随机分配与自愿的原则,将其平均分为A组和B组。在两组均进行综合性治疗的基础上,A组采用雾化吸入α-干扰素的方式辅助治疗,B组则采用肌内注射α-干扰素的方式辅助治疗,对比两组的治疗效果。结果:经相应治疗后,A组的治疗总有效率96.43%,远高于B组的85.41%,两组比较P<0.05,差异有统计学意义。结论:相比肌内注射,雾化吸入α-干扰素治疗毛细支气管炎具有更好的治疗疗效。

  3. Design, assembly, and validation of a nose-only inhalation exposure system for studies of aerosolized viable influenza H5N1 virus in ferrets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton Sara B

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The routes by which humans acquire influenza H5N1 infections have not been fully elucidated. Based on the known biology of influenza viruses, four modes of transmission are most likely in humans: aerosol transmission, ingestion of undercooked contaminated infected poultry, transmission by large droplets and self-inoculation of the nasal mucosa by contaminated hands. In preparation of a study to resolve whether H5N1 viruses are transmissible by aerosol in an animal model that is a surrogate for humans, an inhalation exposure system for studies of aerosolized H5N1 viruses in ferrets was designed, assembled, and validated. Particular attention was paid towards system safety, efficacy of dissemination, the viability of aerosolized virus, and sampling methodology. Results An aerosol generation and delivery system, referred to as a Nose-Only Bioaerosol Exposure System (NBIES, was assembled and function tested. The NBIES passed all safety tests, met expected engineering parameters, required relatively small quantities of material to obtain the desired aerosol concentrations of influenza virus, and delivered doses with high-efficacy. Ferrets withstood a mock exposure trial without signs of stress. Conclusions The NBIES delivers doses of aerosolized influenza viruses with high efficacy, and uses less starting material than other similar designs. Influenza H5N1 and H3N2 viruses remain stable under the conditions used for aerosol generation and sample collection. The NBIES is qualified for studies of aerosolized H5N1 virus.

  4. Children's phthalate intakes and resultant cumulative exposures estimated from urine compared with estimates from dust ingestion, inhalation and dermal absorption in their homes and daycare centers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Bekö

    Full Text Available Total daily intakes of diethyl phthalate (DEP, di(n-butyl phthalate (DnBP, di(isobutyl phthalate (DiBP, butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP and di(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP were calculated from phthalate metabolite levels measured in the urine of 431 Danish children between 3 and 6 years of age. For each child the intake attributable to exposures in the indoor environment via dust ingestion, inhalation and dermal absorption were estimated from the phthalate levels in the dust collected from the child's home and daycare center. Based on the urine samples, DEHP had the highest total daily intake (median: 4.42 µg/d/kg-bw and BBzP the lowest (median: 0.49 µg/d/kg-bw. For DEP, DnBP and DiBP, exposures to air and dust in the indoor environment accounted for approximately 100%, 15% and 50% of the total intake, respectively, with dermal absorption from the gas-phase being the major exposure pathway. More than 90% of the total intake of BBzP and DEHP came from sources other than indoor air and dust. Daily intake of DnBP and DiBP from all exposure pathways, based on levels of metabolites in urine samples, exceeded the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI for 22 and 23 children, respectively. Indoor exposures resulted in an average daily DiBP intake that exceeded the TDI for 14 children. Using the concept of relative cumulative Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI(cum, which is applicable for phthalates that have established TDIs based on the same health endpoint, we examined the cumulative total exposure to DnBP, DiBP and DEHP from all pathways; it exceeded the tolerable levels for 30% of the children. From the three indoor pathways alone, several children had a cumulative intake that exceeded TDI(cum. Exposures to phthalates present in the air and dust indoors meaningfully contribute to a child's total intake of certain phthalates. Such exposures, by themselves, may lead to intakes exceeding current limit values.

  5. Risk assessment for nickel and nickel compounds in the ambient air from exposure by inhalation. Review of the European situation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepicard, S.; Schneider, T. [Centre d`Etude sur l`Evaluation de la Protection dans le Domaine Nucleaire, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Fritsch, P.; Maximilien, R. [Commissariat a l`Energie Atomique, Brussels (Belgium). Dept. des Sciences du Vivant; Deloraine, A. [Centre Rhone-Alpes d`Epidemiologie et de Prevention Sanitaire (France)

    1997-12-01

    The objective of this report is to evaluate the risk associated with exposure to nickel in the ambient air, for the general public. The document is divided into three parts, comprising: A review of the regulatory context, a description of the physical and chemical characteristics of nickel and certain nickel compounds, a description of certain industrial processes involving nickel, and the characterization of human exposure (emissions, immissions, transport in the atmosphere); a risk assessment on the basis of human (occupational exposure) and animal data related to the presumed risk of lung cancer; an assessment of the risk associated with exposure to nickel in the ambient air for the general public. (R.P.) 55 refs.

  6. Development of an animal model, techniques, and an exposure system to study the effects of asbestos cement dust inhalation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wehner, A.P.; Dagle, G.E.; Cannon, W.C.

    1978-01-01

    An aerosol exposure system and procedures for delivering asbestos cement (AC) dust to the lungs of hamsters are described. Groups of hamsters were exposed to AC aerosol concentrations of 1 and 10 ..mu..g/liter, respectively, 3 hr/day, 5 days/week, for 3 and 6 months and were sacrificed for histopathologic examination. One subgroup from both the 1- and the 10-..mu..g/liter exposure group was withdrawn from exposure after 3 months and sacrified after a 3-month recovery period to determine whether or not some of the histologic changes might be reversible. There was an apparent dose--response relationship between AC exposure and the number of asbestos bodies and small randomly distributed foci of alveolar macrophages. No other treatment-related lesions were observed. The 3-month recovery period had no apparent effect.

  7. Inhalation Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coşkun Araz

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite significant advances in wound care of patients with burn injuries, inhalation injury remains as an important contributor to morbidity and mortality in these patients. Unfortunately, there are limited studies that have focused on the diagnosis, grading, pathophysiology, and therapy of inhalation injury, therefore a widely accepted consensus is lacking on these topics. Inhalation injury is generally defined as the inhalation of thermal or chemical irritants and can be divided into three types of injury: thermal injury, which is mostly restricted to the upper airway; chemical injury, which affects tracheobronchial tree; and systemic toxicity owing to toxic gases such as carbon monoxide. Inhalation injury increases the burn injury associated morbidity and mortality by causing airway problems and respiratory failure during the early phase and by contributing to the development of pneumonia and atelectasis during the late phase. Additionally, systemic effects of toxic gases such as carbon monoxide may also adversely affect the early and long-term outcome in burn victims. The early diagnosis and therapy of these problems plays a key role in improving the outcome of burn patients. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl: 37-45

  8. Does exposure to inhalation anesthesia gases change the ratio of X-bearing sperms and Y-bearing Sperms? A worth exploring project into an uncharted domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Deepak; Mckelvey, George; Kaminski, Edward; Zestos, Maria Markakis

    2016-09-01

    According to recent surveys performed in United States and India, anesthesia care providers were observed to have sired female offspring in a higher proportion than male offspring as their firstborn progeny; however, the reasons for the skew are not clear. Our hypothesis is that the underlying biological evidence may be elucidated by unraveling differences (if any) between the concentrations of X-bearing sperms and Y-bearing sperms in the semen samples obtained from males exposed to varied levels of anesthetics in their lifetimes. Therefore, the objectives of the envisaged study would be to conduct a three-stage investigative study on in-vitro human semen samples to determine (a) X-bearing sperms and Y-bearing sperms concentrations' ratio in male pediatric anesthesia care providers' semen samples, (b) changes in X-bearing sperms and Y-bearing sperms concentrations' ratios between the pre-rotation and post-rotation semen samples of male medical student volunteers/observers, and (c) changes in X-bearing sperms and Y-bearing sperms concentrations' ratios between the pre-operative and post-operative day-3 semen samples of male patients presenting for outpatient procedures under inhalational anesthesia. The expected outcomes would be (a) linear and positive correlation of the anesthetic gas usage (exposure) with increased X-bearing sperms/Y-bearing sperms ratio in post-anesthesia day 3 sample as compared to the baseline preoperative sample, (b) linear and positive correlation of the anesthetic gas usage (exposure) with increased X-bearing sperms/Y-bearing sperms ratio in post-rotation sample as compared to the baseline sample, and (c) observation of high X-bearing sperms/Y-bearing sperms ratio in the pediatric anesthesia care providers. In summary, effects (if any) of occupational or personal exposure to inhalational anesthetic gases on the X-bearing sperms and Y-bearing sperms ratio is a worthy project wherein lots of questions that have arisen over decades could find

  9. Clinical and immunological responses to occupational exposure to alpha-amylase in the baking industry.

    OpenAIRE

    Brisman, J.; Belin, L

    1991-01-01

    alpha-Amylase is a starch cleaving enzyme often used in the baking industry as a flour additive. It is usually of fungal origin, produced by Aspergillus oryzae. One previous report has shown IgE antibodies and positive skin prick test against alpha-amylase in asthmatic bakers. This paper describes four alpha-amylase sensitised index cases with occupational asthma or rhinitis and the results of a cross sectional study of 20 workers from the same factory who were also exposed to alpha-amylase p...

  10. Interaction of exposure concentration and duration in determining the apoptosis of testis in rats after cigarette smoke inhalation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan He

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of differences in smoke concentration and exposure duration in Sprague Dawley rats to determine variation in type and severity of the testis apoptosis were evaluated. The daily dosages were 10, 20 and 30 non-filter cigarettes for a period of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 12 weeks. Mainstream smoke exposure suppressed body weight gain in all regimens. A dose-related increase in plasma nicotine concentration was observed in smoke-exposed groups for 4, 6, 8 and 12 week regimens. Histopathological examination of the exposed groups showed disturbances in the stages of spermatogenesis, tubules atrophying and these appeared to be dose-related. Cytoplasmic caspase-3 immunostaining was detected both in Sertoli cells and germ cells in smoke-exposure groups. An increase in TUNEL-positive cells of testicular cells was observed after 6 weeks of cigarette exposure. The results indicate that cigarette exposure concentration and duration have interaction effect to induce apoptosis in the rat testes.

  11. Differences in Salivary Alpha-Amylase and Cortisol Responsiveness following Exposure to Electrical Stimulation versus the Trier Social Stress Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshihiro Maruyama; Aimi Kawano; Shizuko Okamoto; Tomoko Ando; Yoshinobu Ishitobi; Yoshihiro Tanaka; Ayako Inoue; Junko Imanaga; Masayuki Kanehisa; Haruka Higuma; Taiga Ninomiya; Jusen Tsuru; Hiroaki Hanada; Jotaro Akiyoshi

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cortisol is an essential hormone in the regulation of the stress response along the HPA axis, and salivary cortisol has been used as a measure of free circulating cortisol levels. Recently, salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) has also emerged as a novel biomarker for psychosocial stress responsiveness within the sympathetic adrenomedullary (SAM) system. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We measured sAA and salivary cortisol in healthy volunteers after exposure to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) an...

  12. Differences in Salivary Alpha-Amylase and Cortisol Responsiveness following Exposure to Electrical Stimulation versus the Trier Social Stress Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Maruyama, Yoshihiro; Kawano, Aimi; Okamoto, Shizuko; Ando, Tomoko; Ishitobi, Yoshinobu; Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Inoue, Ayako; Imanaga, Junko; Kanehisa, Masayuki; Higuma, Haruka; Ninomiya, Taiga; Tsuru, Jusen; Hanada, Hiroaki; Akiyoshi, Jotaro

    2012-01-01

    Background Cortisol is an essential hormone in the regulation of the stress response along the HPA axis, and salivary cortisol has been used as a measure of free circulating cortisol levels. Recently, salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) has also emerged as a novel biomarker for psychosocial stress responsiveness within the sympathetic adrenomedullary (SAM) system. Principal Findings We measured sAA and salivary cortisol in healthy volunteers after exposure to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and ...

  13. Modulation of tumor necrosis factor {alpha} expression in mouse brain after exposure to aluminum in drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsunoda, M.; Sharma, R.P. [Georgia Univ., Athens (Greece). College of Veterinary Medicine

    1999-11-01

    Aluminum, a known neurotoxic substance and a ground-water pollutant, is a possible contributing factor in various nervous disorders including Alzheimer's disease. It has been hypothesized that cytokines are involved in aluminum neurotoxicity. We investigated the alterations in mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor {alpha} (TNF{alpha}), interleukin-1{beta} (IL-1{beta}), and interferon {gamma} (IFN{gamma}), cytokines related to neuronal damage, in cerebrum and peripheral immune cells of mice after exposure to aluminum through drinking water. Groups of male BALB/c mice were administered aluminum ammonium sulfate in drinking water ad libitum at 0, 5, 25, and 125 ppm aluminum for 1 month. An additional group received 250 ppm ammonium as ammonium sulfate. After treatment, the cerebrum, splenic macrophages and lymphocytes were collected. The expression of TNF{alpha} mRNA in cerebrum was significantly increased among aluminum-treated groups compared with the control, in a dose-dependent manner. Other cytokines did not show any aluminum-related effects. In peripheral cells, there were no significant differences of cytokine mRNA expressions among treatment groups. Increased expression of TNF{alpha} mRNA by aluminum in cerebrum may reflect activation of microglia, a major source of TNF{alpha} in this brain region. Because the aluminum-induced alteration in cytokine message occurred at aluminum concentrations similar to those noted in contaminated water, these results may be relevant in considering the risk of aluminum neurotoxicity in drinking water. (orig.)

  14. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ammonia - Noncancer Inhalation (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) has finalized the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) Assessment of Ammonia (Noncancer Inhalation). This assessment addresses the potential noncancer human health effects from long-term inhalation exposure to ammon...

  15. Effectiveness of personal protective equipment: Relevance of dermal and inhalation exposure to chlorpyrifos among pest control operators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagt, K. van der; Tielemans, E.; Links, I.; Brouwer, D.; Hemmen, J. van

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of a custom fit personal protective equipment (PPE) program aimed at reducing occupational exposure to pesticides. The intervention study was carried out on 15 pest control operators (PCOs) during mixing/loading and application of chlorpyrifos. Each worker was m

  16. Inhalation Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... increase mortality 30% to 40% when patients with cutaneous burns and inhalation injury are compared with patients ... nasal hairs • Facial burns • Burns around the mouth • Mineral spirits – 104º F – paint thinner, brush cleaner. • Redness, ...

  17. Impact of inhalational exposure to ethanol fuel on the pharmacokinetics of verapamil, ibuprofen and fluoxetine as in vivo probe drugs for CYP3A, CYP2C and CYP2D in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Juciane Lauren Cavalcanti; Lanchote, Vera Lucia; Pereira, Maria Paula Marques; Capela, Jorge Manuel Vieira; de Moraes, Natália Valadares; Lepera, José Salvador

    2015-10-01

    Occupational toxicology and clinical pharmacology integration will be useful to understand potential exposure-drug interaction and to shape risk assessment strategies in order to improve occupational health. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of exposure to ethanol fuel on in vivo activities of cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzymes CYP3A, CYP2C and CYP2D by the oral administration of the probe drugs verapamil, ibuprofen and fluoxetine. Male Wistar rats exposed to filtered air or to 2000 ppm ethanol in a nose-only inhalation chamber during (6 h/day, 5 days/week, 6 weeks) received single oral doses of 10 mg/kg verapamil or 25 mg/kg ibuprofen or 10 mg/kg fluoxetine. The enantiomers of verapamil, norverapamil, ibuprofen and fluoxetine in plasma were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The area under the curve plasma concentration versus time extrapolated to infinity (AUC(0-∞)) was calculated using the Gauss-Laguerre quadrature. Inhalation exposure to ethanol reduces the AUC of both verapamil (approximately 2.7 fold) and norverapamil enantiomers (>2.5 fold), reduces the AUC(0-∞) of (+)-(S)-IBU (approximately 2 fold) and inhibits preferentially the metabolism of (-)-(R)-FLU. In conclusion, inhalation exposure of ethanol at a concentration of 2 TLV-STEL (6 h/day for 6 weeks) induces CYP3A and CYP2C but inhibits CYP2D in rats.

  18. Biodistribution of the GATA-3-specific DNAzyme hgd40 after inhalative exposure in mice, rats and dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turowska, Agnieszka [sterna biologicals GmbH and Co. KG, Marburg (Germany); Librizzi, Damiano [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Giessen and Marburg GmbH, Baldingerstrasse, 35043 Marburg (Germany); Baumgartl, Nadja [Institute of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiochemistry-Molecular Diagnostics, Philipps University of Marburg (Germany); Kuhlmann, Jens; Dicke, Tanja [sterna biologicals GmbH and Co. KG, Marburg (Germany); Merkel, Olivia [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Wayne State University, Detroit (United States); Homburg, Ursula [sterna biologicals GmbH and Co. KG, Marburg (Germany); Höffken, Helmut [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Giessen and Marburg GmbH, Baldingerstrasse, 35043 Marburg (Germany); Renz, Harald [Institute of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiochemistry-Molecular Diagnostics, Philipps University of Marburg (Germany); Garn, Holger, E-mail: garn@staff.uni-marburg.de [Institute of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiochemistry-Molecular Diagnostics, Philipps University of Marburg (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    The DNAzyme hgd40 was shown to effectively reduce expression of the transcription factor GATA-3 RNA which plays an important role in the regulation of Th2-mediated immune mechanisms such as in allergic bronchial asthma. However, uptake, biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of hgd40 have not been investigated yet. We examined local and systemic distribution of hgd40 in naive mice and mice suffering from experimental asthma. Furthermore, we evaluated the pharmacokinetics as a function of dose following single and repeated administration in rats and dogs. Using intranasal administration of fluorescently labeled hgd40 we demonstrated that the DNAzyme was evenly distributed in inflamed asthmatic mouse lungs within minutes after single dose application. Systemic distribution was investigated in mice using radioactive labeled hgd40. After intratracheal application, highest amounts of hgd40 were detected in the lungs. High amounts were also detected in the bladder indicating urinary excretion as a major elimination pathway. In serum, low systemic hgd40 levels were detected already at 5 min post application (p.a.), subsequently decreasing over time to non-detectable levels at 2 h p.a. As revealed by Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography, trace amounts of hgd40 were detectable in lungs up to 7 days p.a. Also in the toxicologically relevant rats and dogs, hgd40 was detectable in blood only shortly after inhalative application. The plasma pharmacokinetic profile was dose and time dependent. Repeated administration did not lead to drug accumulation in plasma of dogs and rats. These pharmacokinetic of hgd40 provide guidance for clinical development, and support an infrequent and convenient dose administration regimen. - Highlights: • Local and systemic distribution of GATA-3-specific DNAzyme hgd40 was investigated. • Pharmacokinetics of hgd40 was tested in rats and dogs. • hgd40 dissolved in PBS was easily taken up into the lungs after local application. • No

  19. Evaluation of Pulmonary and Systemic Toxicity of Oil Dispersant (COREXIT EC9500A®) Following Acute Repeated Inhalation Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Jenny R; Anderson, Stacey E; Hong Kan; Kristine Krajnak; Thompson, Janet A.; Allison Kenyon; Goldsmith, William T; Walter McKinney; Frazer, David G.; Mark Jackson; Jeffrey S. Fedan

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Oil spill cleanup workers come into contact with numerous potentially hazardous chemicals derived from the oil spills, as well as chemicals applied for mitigation of the spill, including oil dispersants. In response to the Deepwater Horizon Macondo well oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010, a record volume of the oil dispersant, COREXIT EC9500A, was delivered via aerial applications, raising concern regarding potential health effects that may result from pulmonary exposure to ...

  20. Functional evidence of persistent airway obstruction in rats following a two-hour inhalation exposure to methyl isocyanate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, M.A.; Fitzgerald, S.; Menache, M.G.; Costa, D.L.; Bucher, J.R.

    1987-06-01

    Pulmonary function was assessed in male, F344 rats 1,2,4,7 and 13 weeks after a single 2-hr exposure to 0, 3, 10, or 30 ppm methyl isocyanate. No significant changes were observed in the rats exposed to 3 ppm through 13 weeks. Diffusing capacity (DL/sub co/), quasistatic lung compliance, and homogeneity of ventilation, as determined by multibreath nitrogen washout, were depressed in the rats exposed to 10 and 30 ppm by 1 week after exposure. None of the rats exposed to 30 ppm survived beyond 1 week. By 13 weeks, dramatic increases in lung volumes were observed in the rats exposed to 10 ppm, while DL/sub co/ and lung compliance were only mildly affected. However, volume-specific DL/sub co/ and compliance were depressed in the rats exposed to 10 ppm, suggesting that lung hyperinflation or other compensatory means of increasing lung size occurred in response to the methyl isocyanate-induced lung lesion. This group also exhibited increased expiratory times during tidal breathing and severely impaired distribution of ventilated air. Collectively, these results suggest the development and likely progression of a severe, obstructive airway lesion with associated gas trapping, and the existence of a pronounced concentration-response relationship between 3 and 10 ppm methyl isocyanate exposures.

  1. Immunohistochemical study on cellular origins of rat lung tumors induced by inhalation exposures to plutonium dioxide aerosols as compared to those by X-ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immunohistochemical examinations were performed on rat pulmonary tumors induced by inhalation exposures to 239PuO2 aerosols, or by X-ray-irradiation to identify and compare cellular origins or, in turn, target cells at risk for radiation carcinogenesis. Both plutonium-induced and X-ray-induced pulmonary tumors appeared to occur from the lower respiratory tract epithelium through bronchioles into alveoli, and were histopathologically diagnosed as adenoma, adenocarcinoma, adenosquamous carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemical staining of neoplastic lesions using rabbit polyclonal antibodies to rat surfactant apoprotein A specific for alveolar type II pneumocytes, and Clara cell antigen specific for nonciliated bronchiolar Clara cells, showed that most of the adenomatous and adenocarcinomatous lesions from plutonium-exposed or X-irradiated rats were positive for either or both antigens, while, in contrast, adenosquamous and squamous lesions were mostly negative for both antigens. Even though there were some differences in the proportions and distributions of immunoreactive cells between plutonium- and X-ray-induced tumors and among neoplastic lesions, the results indicate that radiation-induced pulmonary adenomas and adenocarcinomas mostly originate from either alveolar type II pneumocytes or bronchiolar Clara cells, while adenosquamous and squamous carcinomas may be derived from the other epithelial cell components, or might have lost specific antigenicity during their transforming differentiation. (author)

  2. Immunohistochemical study on cellular origins of rat lung tumors induced by inhalation exposures to plutonium dioxide aerosols as compared to those by X-ray irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oghiso, Yoichi; Yamada, Yutaka [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    2002-09-01

    Immunohistochemical examinations were performed on rat pulmonary tumors induced by inhalation exposures to {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} aerosols, or by X-ray-irradiation to identify and compare cellular origins or, in turn, target cells at risk for radiation carcinogenesis. Both plutonium-induced and X-ray-induced pulmonary tumors appeared to occur from the lower respiratory tract epithelium through bronchioles into alveoli, and were histopathologically diagnosed as adenoma, adenocarcinoma, adenosquamous carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemical staining of neoplastic lesions using rabbit polyclonal antibodies to rat surfactant apoprotein A specific for alveolar type II pneumocytes, and Clara cell antigen specific for nonciliated bronchiolar Clara cells, showed that most of the adenomatous and adenocarcinomatous lesions from plutonium-exposed or X-irradiated rats were positive for either or both antigens, while, in contrast, adenosquamous and squamous lesions were mostly negative for both antigens. Even though there were some differences in the proportions and distributions of immunoreactive cells between plutonium- and X-ray-induced tumors and among neoplastic lesions, the results indicate that radiation-induced pulmonary adenomas and adenocarcinomas mostly originate from either alveolar type II pneumocytes or bronchiolar Clara cells, while adenosquamous and squamous carcinomas may be derived from the other epithelial cell components, or might have lost specific antigenicity during their transforming differentiation. (author)

  3. Development of linear and threshold no significant risk levels for inhalation exposure to titanium dioxide using systematic review and mode of action considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Chad M; Suh, Mina; Mittal, Liz; Wikoff, Daniele S; Welsh, Brian; Proctor, Deborah M

    2016-10-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has been characterized as a poorly soluble particulate (PSP) with low toxicity. It is well accepted that low toxicity PSPs such as TiO2 induce lung tumors in rats when deposition overwhelms particle clearance mechanisms. Despite the sensitivity of rats to PSPs and questionable relevance of PSP-induced tumors to humans, TiO2 is listed as a possible human carcinogen by some agencies and regulators. Thus, environmental toxicity criteria for TiO2 are needed for stakeholders to evaluate potential risks from environmental exposure and regulatory compliance. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to characterize the available data and identify candidate datasets upon which toxicity values could be derived. Key to this assessment, a survey of mechanistic data relevant for lung cancer was used to support quantitative inhalation risk assessment approaches. A total of 473 human studies were identified, 7 of which were epidemiological studies that met inclusion criteria to quantitatively characterize carcinogenic endpoints in humans. None of these studies supported derivation of toxicity criteria; therefore, animal data were used to derived safety values for TiO2 using different dose-metrics (regional deposited dose ratios, TiO2 particle surface area lung burden, and volumetric overload of alveolar macrophages), benchmark dose modeling, and different low-dose extrapolation approaches. Based on empirical evidence and mechanistic support for nonlinear mode of action involving particle overload, chronic inflammation and cell proliferation, a no significant risk level (NSRL) of 300 μg/day was derived. By comparison, low-dose linear extrapolation from tumor incidence in the rat lung resulted in an NSRL value of 44 μg/day. These toxicity values should be useful for stakeholders interested in assessing risks from environmental exposure to respirable TiO2.

  4. [Quantitative evaluation of health risk associated with occupational inhalation exposure to vinyl chloride at production plants in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymczak, W

    1997-01-01

    Vinyl chloride is classified by the IARC in group 1-human carcinogens. In Poland occupational exposure to vinyl chloride is found among workers employed in many branches of industry, among others in the industry of vinyl chloride synthesis and polymerization as well as in the plastics, footwear, rubber, pharmaceutical and metallurgical industries. Concentrations observed range from the noon-determinable level to 90 mg/m3, at the MAC value equal to 5 mg/m3. Neoplasm of liver is a major carcinogenic effect of vinyl chloride. Hence, the health assessment focused on this critical risk. Four different linear dose-response models, developed by several authors and based on results of different epidemiological studies, were used to characterise the extent of cancer risk depending on the level of vinyl chloride concentrations. The estimated risk related to a forty-year employment under exposure equal to MAC values (5 mg/m3) fell within the range from 2.9.10(-4) to 2.6.10(-3). As the figures depict it did not exceed the acceptable level (10(-3)). PMID:9273438

  5. Short-term exposure to 17alpha-ethynylestradiol decreases the fertility of sexually maturing male rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, Irv R.; Skillman, Ann D.; Nicolas, Jean-Marc; Cyr, Daniel G.; Nagler, James J.

    2003-06-01

    The synthetic estrogen 17alpha-ethynylestradiol (EE2) is a commonly used oral contraceptive that has been increasingly detected in sewage effluents. This study determined whether EE2 exposure adversely affected reproduction in sexually maturing male rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). We exposed male trout to graded water concentrations of EE2 (10, 100, and 1,000 ng/ L) for 62 d leading up to the time of spawning. Semen and blood plasma samples were removed from each fish. Semen was used to fertilize groups of eggs from one nonexposed female. As a measure of fertility, eggs were incubated for 28 d after fertilization to determine the proportion that attained the eyed stage of embryonic development. Additional endpoints also measured included sperm motility, spermatocrit, gonadosomatic and hepatosomatic indices, testis histology, and circulating plasma levels of the sex steroids 17alpha, 20beta-dihydroxyprogesterone (17,20-DHP) and 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT). Exposure to 1,000 ng/L of EE2 caused complete mortality of the treatment group by day 57. Exposure to lower EE2 water concentrations (10 and 100 ng/L) caused an increase in sperm density, while a significant reduction in testis mass was observed only in the 100-ng/L exposure group. Most significantly, semen harvested from fish exposed to 10 and 100 ng/L EE2 caused an approximately 50% reduction in the number of eggs attaining the eyed stage of embryonic development. Plasma levels of 17,20-DHP in exposed fish were roughly twice the level of the controls, while levels of 11-KT were significantly reduced in fish exposed to 100 ng/L EE2. These results suggest that sexually maturing male rainbow trout are susceptible to detrimental reproductive effects of short-term exposures to environmentally relevant levels of EE2.

  6. In vivo assessments of pulmonary toxicity following exposure to inhaled fibers: Utilization of bronchoalvelolar lavage (BAL) and fixed lung tissue to assess fiber deposition patterns and early cellular responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a great need for the development of a rapid and reliable short-term bioassay to evaluate the toxicity of inhaled particles and fibers. We have hypothesized that the pulmonary toxicity of particulates can be assessed by exposing animals to aerosols for short duration (1-5 days) and measuring a variety of biochemical, cellular and histopathologic endpoints at several time point postexposure. In this presentation, we have attempted to test the efficacy of our shortterm inhalation bioassay, by exposing rats to various doses of either α-quartz silica or crocidolite asbestos, known fibrogenic materials, as well as wollastonite fibers or carbonyl iron particles. Following exposures, fluids and cells from sham and dust exposed rats were recovered by lavage (BAL) and measured for enzymes, protein, cellular differentials an cytochemical analysis. Pulmonary macrophages were cultured and studied for morphology, chemotaxis and phagocytosis. The lungs of additional animals were fixed for light microscopic histopathology and autoradiography, as well as scanning and transmission electron microscopy, where particle/fiber deposition and translocation were assessed. The results from biochemical and cellular studies support the conclusion that silica and crocidolite are substantially more toxic to the lungs than wollastonite or carbonyl iron, and serves to lend support to the establishment of this method as a reliable shortterm bioassay for evaluating the lung toxicity following inhalation of a variety of inhaled materials

  7. Exposure assessment to alpha- and beta-pinene, delta(3)-carene and wood dust in industrial production of wood pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edman, K; Lofstedt, H; Berg, P; Eriksson, K; Axelsson, S; Bryngelsson, I; Fedeli, C

    2003-04-01

    The main aim of the study was to measure the exposure to monoterpenes (alpha- and beta-pinene and Delta(3)-carene) and wood dust during industrial production of wood pellets and briquettes. Additional aims were to compare the results from wood dust sampled on a filter with real time measurements using a direct reading instrument and to identify peak exposures to dust. Twenty-four men working at six companies involved in industrial production of wood pellets and briquettes participated in the study. Monoterpenes were measured by diffusive sampling and wood dust was measured as total dust. A data logger (DataRAM) was used for continuous monitoring of dust concentration for 18 of the participants. The sampling time was approximately 8 h. The personal exposure to monoterpenes ranged from 0.64 to 28 mg/m(3) and a statistically significant (Kruskal-Wallis test, P = 0.0002) difference in levels of monoterpenes for workers at different companies was seen. In the companies the personal exposure to wood dust varied between 0.16 and 19 mg/m(3) and for 10 participants the levels exceeded the present Swedish occupational exposure limit (OEL) of 2 mg/m(3). The levels of wood dust during the morning shift were significantly (Mann-Whitney test, P = 0.04) higher compared with the afternoon shift. Continuous registration of dust concentration showed peak values for several working operations, especially cleaning of truck engines with compressed air. For 24 workers in six companies involved in industrial production of wood pellets the personal exposure to monoterpenes was low and to wood dust high compared with the present Swedish OEL and previous studies in Swedish wood industries. Since the DataRAM can identify critical working tasks with high wood dust exposure a reduction in exposure levels could probably be achieved by changes in working routines and by the use of protective equipment.

  8. Predicting decay in free-radical concentration in L-. alpha. -alanine following high-LET radiation exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, J.W. (Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)); Olsen, K.J. (University Hospital of Copenhagen, Herlev (Denmark))

    1989-01-01

    Efforts have been made to develop a model that will predict time-dependent decay in radiation-induced free-radical concentration in L-{alpha}-alanine following heavy-charged-particle exposures. The decay rate depends on radiation quality, dose and dose-rate. For low doses, the decay-rate is approx. 0.5 and 1.5% per year following {sup 60}Co {gamma}-ray exposures and Linac-produced X-ray or electron exposures. Decay rates, however, have been found to increase as measured from low average doses, sparse single tracks, of heavy charged particles. We have compared measured decay after exposures to low average doses from high-LET particles with predicted decay calculated as function of particle velocity and charge and detector parameters. The predicted decay is obtained by folding measured decay after Linac-produced electron exposures of very high doses into the calculated dose distribution around the heavy ion's path. Preliminary results show agreement between the experimental data and results obtained from this model, within the experimental uncertainty. (author).

  9. Comparative Iron Oxide Nanoparticle Cellular Dosimetry and Response in Mice by the Inhalation and Liquid Cell Culture Exposure Routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teeguarden, Justin G.; Mikheev, Vladimir B.; Minard, Kevin R.; Forsythe, William C.; Wang, Wei; Sharma, Gaurav; Karin, Norman J.; Tilton, Susan C.; Waters, Katrina M.; Asgharian, Bahman; Price, Owen; Pounds, Joel G.; Thrall, Brian D.

    2014-01-01

    quantitative comparison of in vitro and in vivo systems advance their use for hazard assessment and extrapolation to humans. The mildly inflammogentic cellular doses experienced by mice were similar those calculated for humans exposed to the same at the existing permissible exposure limit of 10 mg/m3 iron oxide (as Fe).

  10. Biological stress responses induced by alpha radiation exposure in Lemna minor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Hoeck, A.; Horemans, N.; Van Hees, M.; Nauts, R. [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN (Belgium); Knapen, D.; Blust, R. [University of Antwerp (Belgium)

    2014-07-01

    To enhance the robustness of radiation protection criteria for biota, additional information on the biological impact of radionuclides on non-human biota is needed. In particular the effects of alpha emitting isotopes have been poorly studied within a radioecological contextual though they exhibit a high linear energy transfer which can cause significant biological damage when taken up by organisms. Therefore, it is not only essential to measure alpha radiation toxicity, but also try to understand the underlying mechanisms of this stressor. The current study aimed to contribute to a better knowledge of the fundamental processes regulating alpha radiation stress response mechanisms in higher plants. {sup 241}Am was primarily selected as it is an almost pure alpha emitter and, as a daughter nuclide of {sup 241}Pu, it will become one of the dominant pollutants in plutonium affected areas. The aquatic macrophyte Lemna minor has proven its value in eco-toxicological research as representative of higher aquatic plants (OECD guideline nr. 221) and will be used to analyze alpha radiation stress in plant systems. An individual growth inhibition test was set up by means of single dose-response curve in order to identify the Effective Dose Rates (EDR-values) for frond size and biomass. As the mean path length is small for alpha particles, the accumulation of the radionuclide inside species represents almost exclusively the dosimetry. Therefore, quantification of {sup 241}Am uptake and {sup 241}Am distribution were evaluated separately for roots and fronds taking the activity concentrations of growth medium into account. Taken together with the respective dose conversion coefficients from the ERICA tool, this allowed to construct an accurate dosimetric model to determine internal and external dose rates. Different standard media were tested on growth rate and biomass to analyse the amount of {sup 241}Am taken up by the plants exposed from 2.5 to 100 kBq/L. From these

  11. Control of the risk of exposure to alpha emitting radionuclides in French nuclear power plants: example of Cattenom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Guen, B; Roupioz, A; Rabu, B; Bouvy, A; Labouglie, J F; Garcier, Y

    2003-01-01

    Control of the risk of internal exposure of EDF PWR plant maintenance workers by alpha-emitting radioactive elements is based on identification and quantification of the contamination of the systems. In 2001, an experiment carried out at Cattenom Power Plant during a unit outage in the presence of a leaking fuel cladding, based on measurement of alpha-emitting radioactive elements, made it possible to determine a realistic particle resuspension coefficient. A resuspension coefficient of 10(-6) m(-1) was adopted for operational radiological protection. An appropriate monitoring system for workers was set in place in collaboration with the occupational medicine and radiological protection department. It was based on prior estimation of the level of alpha contamination, and confirmed by swipe measurements, atmospheric surveillance by monitors, and collective analysis by nose blow samples from workers selected on the basis of their workstations, as well as supplementary individual measurements (monitoring of faeces). This surveillance made it possible to validate an appropriate work area monitoring system. PMID:14526975

  12. Increased intestinal permeability correlates with sigmoid mucosa alpha-synuclein staining and endotoxin exposure markers in early Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher B Forsyth

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Parkinson's disease (PD is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder of aging. The pathological hallmark of PD is neuronal inclusions termed Lewy bodies whose main component is alpha-synuclein protein. The finding of these Lewy bodies in the intestinal enteric nerves led to the hypothesis that the intestine might be an early site of PD disease in response to an environmental toxin or pathogen. One potential mechanism for environmental toxin(s and proinflammatory luminal products to gain access to mucosal neuronal tissue and promote oxidative stress is compromised intestinal barrier integrity. However, the role of intestinal permeability in PD has never been tested. We hypothesized that PD subjects might exhibit increased intestinal permeability to proinflammatory bacterial products in the intestine. To test our hypothesis we evaluated intestinal permeability in subjects newly diagnosed with PD and compared their values to healthy subjects. In addition, we obtained intestinal biopsies from both groups and used immunohistochemistry to assess bacterial translocation, nitrotyrosine (oxidative stress, and alpha-synuclein. We also evaluated serum markers of endotoxin exposure including LPS binding protein (LBP. Our data show that our PD subjects exhibit significantly greater intestinal permeability (gut leakiness than controls. In addition, this intestinal hyperpermeability significantly correlated with increased intestinal mucosa staining for E. coli bacteria, nitrotyrosine, and alpha-synuclein as well as serum LBP levels in PD subjects. These data represent not only the first demonstration of abnormal intestinal permeability in PD subjects but also the first correlation of increased intestinal permeability in PD with intestinal alpha-synuclein (the hallmark of PD, as well as staining for gram negative bacteria and tissue oxidative stress. Our study may thus shed new light on PD pathogenesis as well as provide a new method for

  13. mRNAs and miRNAs in whole blood associated with lung hyperplasia, fibrosis, and bronchiolo-alveolar adenoma and adenocarcinoma after multi-walled carbon nanotube inhalation exposure in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder-Talkington, Brandi N; Dong, Chunlin; Sargent, Linda M; Porter, Dale W; Staska, Lauren M; Hubbs, Ann F; Raese, Rebecca; McKinney, Walter; Chen, Bean T; Battelli, Lori; Lowry, David T; Reynolds, Steven H; Castranova, Vincent; Qian, Yong; Guo, Nancy L

    2016-01-01

    Inhalation exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) in mice results in inflammation, fibrosis and the promotion of lung adenocarcinoma; however, the molecular basis behind these pathologies is unknown. This study determined global mRNA and miRNA profiles in whole blood from mice exposed by inhalation to MWCNT that correlated with the presence of lung hyperplasia, fibrosis, and bronchiolo-alveolar adenoma and adenocarcinoma. Six-week-old, male, B6C3F1 mice received a single intraperitoneal injection of either the DNA-damaging agent methylcholanthrene (MCA, 10 µg g(-1) body weight) or vehicle (corn oil). One week after injections, mice were exposed by inhalation to MWCNT (5 mg m(-3), 5 hours per day, 5 days per week) or filtered air (control) for a total of 15 days. At 17 months post-exposure, mice were euthanized and examined for the development of pathological changes in the lung, and whole blood was collected and analyzed using microarray analysis for global mRNA and miRNA expression. Numerous mRNAs and miRNAs in the blood were significantly up- or down-regulated in animals developing pathological changes in the lung after MCA/corn oil administration followed by MWCNT/air inhalation, including fcrl5 and miR-122-5p in the presence of hyperplasia, mthfd2 and miR-206-3p in the presence of fibrosis, fam178a and miR-130a-3p in the presence of bronchiolo-alveolar adenoma, and il7r and miR-210-3p in the presence of bronchiolo-alveolar adenocarcinoma, among others. The changes in miRNA and mRNA expression, and their respective regulatory networks, identified in this study may potentially serve as blood biomarkers for MWCNT-induced lung pathological changes.

  14. Effects of cigarette smoke exposure on nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits {alpha}7 and {beta}2 in the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) brainstem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machaalani, Rita, E-mail: rita.machaalani@sydney.edu.au [Department of Medicine, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Bosch Institute, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, NSW 2145 (Australia); Say, Meichien [Department of Medicine, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Bosch Institute, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Waters, Karen A. [Department of Medicine, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Bosch Institute, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, NSW 2145 (Australia)

    2011-12-15

    It is postulated that nicotine, as the main neurotoxic constituent of cigarette smoke, influences SIDS risk through effects on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in brainstem nuclei that control respiration and arousal. This study compared {alpha}7 and {beta}2 nAChR subunit expression in eight nuclei of the caudal and rostral medulla and seven nuclei of the pons between SIDS (n = 46) and non-SIDS infants (n = 14). Evaluation for associations with known SIDS risk factors included comparison according to whether infants had a history of exposure to cigarette smoke in the home, and stratification for sleep position and gender. Compared to non-SIDS infants, SIDS infants had significantly decreased {alpha}7 in the caudal nucleus of the solitary tract (cNTS), gracile and cuneate nuclei, with decreased {beta}2 in the cNTS and increased {beta}2 in the facial. When considering only the SIDS cohort: 1-cigarette smoke exposure was associated with increased {alpha}7 in the vestibular nucleus and increased {beta}2 in the rostral dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, rNTS and Cuneate, 2-there was a gender interaction for {alpha}7 in the gracile and cuneate, and {beta}2 in the cNTS and rostral arcuate nucleus, and 3-there was no effect of sleep position on {alpha}7, but prone sleep was associated with decreased {beta}2 in three nuclei of the pons. In conclusion, SIDS infants demonstrate differences in expression of {alpha}7 and {beta}2 nAChRs within brainstem nuclei that control respiration and arousal, which is independent on prior history of cigarette smoke exposure, especially for the NTS, with additional differences for smoke exposure ({beta}2), gender ({alpha}7 and {beta}2) and sleep position ({beta}2) evident. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The 'normal' response to smoke exposure is decreased {alpha}7 and {beta}2 in certain nuclei. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SIDS infants have decreased {alpha}7 in cNTS, Grac and Cun. Black

  15. Evaluation of the fate and pathological response in the lung and pleura of brake dust alone and in combination with added chrysotile compared to crocidolite asbestos following short-term inhalation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, D.M., E-mail: davidb@itox.ch [Consultant in Toxicology, Geneva (Switzerland); Rogers, R.A., E-mail: rarogers5@yahoo.com [Rogers Imaging, Needham, MA (United States); Sepulveda, R. [Rogers Imaging, Needham, MA (United States); Kunzendorf, P., E-mail: Peter.Kunzendorf@GSA-Ratingen.de [GSA Gesellschaft für Schadstoffanalytik mbH, Ratingen (Germany); Bellmann, B. [Fraunhofer Institute for Toxicology and Experimental Medicine, Hannover (Germany); Ernst, H., E-mail: Heinrich.ernst@item.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Toxicology and Experimental Medicine, Hannover (Germany); Creutzenberg, O. [Fraunhofer Institute for Toxicology and Experimental Medicine, Hannover (Germany); Phillips, J.I., E-mail: jim.phillips@nioh.nhls.ac.za [National Institute for Occupational Health, National Health Laboratory Service, Johannesburg South Africa and Department of Biomedical Technology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg (South Africa)

    2015-02-15

    This study was designed to provide an understanding of the biokinetics and potential toxicology in the lung and pleura following inhalation of brake dust following short term exposure in rats. The deposition, translocation and pathological response of brake-dust derived from brake pads manufactured with chrysotile were evaluated in comparison to the amphibole, crocidolite asbestos. Rats were exposed by inhalation 6 h/day for 5 days to either brake-dust obtained by sanding of brake-drums manufactured with chrysotile, a mixture of chrysotile and the brake-dust or crocidolite asbestos. The chrysotile fibers were relatively biosoluble whereas the crocidolite asbestos fibers persisted through the life-time of the animal. This was reflected in the lung and the pleura where no significant pathological response was observed at any time point in the brake dust or chrysotile/brake dust exposure groups through 365 days post exposure. In contrast, crocidolite asbestos produced a rapid inflammatory response in the lung parenchyma and the pleura, inducing a significant increase in fibrotic response in both of these compartments. Crocidolite fibers were observed embedded in the diaphragm with activated mesothelial cells immediately after cessation of exposure. While no chrysotile fibers were found in the mediastinal lymph nodes, crocidolite fibers of up to 35 μm were observed. These results provide support that brake-dust derived from chrysotile containing brake drums would not initiate a pathological response in the lung or the pleural cavity following short term inhalation. - Highlights: • Evaluated brake dust w/wo added chrysotile in comparison to crocidolite asbestos. • Persistence, translocation, pathological response in the lung and pleural cavity. • Chrysotile cleared rapidly from the lung while the crocidolite asbestos persisted. • No significant pathology in lung or pleural cavity observed at any time point in the brake-dust groups. • Crocidolite quickly

  16. Evaluation of the fate and pathological response in the lung and pleura of brake dust alone and in combination with added chrysotile compared to crocidolite asbestos following short-term inhalation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was designed to provide an understanding of the biokinetics and potential toxicology in the lung and pleura following inhalation of brake dust following short term exposure in rats. The deposition, translocation and pathological response of brake-dust derived from brake pads manufactured with chrysotile were evaluated in comparison to the amphibole, crocidolite asbestos. Rats were exposed by inhalation 6 h/day for 5 days to either brake-dust obtained by sanding of brake-drums manufactured with chrysotile, a mixture of chrysotile and the brake-dust or crocidolite asbestos. The chrysotile fibers were relatively biosoluble whereas the crocidolite asbestos fibers persisted through the life-time of the animal. This was reflected in the lung and the pleura where no significant pathological response was observed at any time point in the brake dust or chrysotile/brake dust exposure groups through 365 days post exposure. In contrast, crocidolite asbestos produced a rapid inflammatory response in the lung parenchyma and the pleura, inducing a significant increase in fibrotic response in both of these compartments. Crocidolite fibers were observed embedded in the diaphragm with activated mesothelial cells immediately after cessation of exposure. While no chrysotile fibers were found in the mediastinal lymph nodes, crocidolite fibers of up to 35 μm were observed. These results provide support that brake-dust derived from chrysotile containing brake drums would not initiate a pathological response in the lung or the pleural cavity following short term inhalation. - Highlights: • Evaluated brake dust w/wo added chrysotile in comparison to crocidolite asbestos. • Persistence, translocation, pathological response in the lung and pleural cavity. • Chrysotile cleared rapidly from the lung while the crocidolite asbestos persisted. • No significant pathology in lung or pleural cavity observed at any time point in the brake-dust groups. • Crocidolite quickly

  17. Buffett's Alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Kabiller, David; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    Berkshire Hathaway has realized a Sharpe ratio of 0.76, higher than any other stock or mutual fund with a history of more than 30 years, and Berkshire has a significant alpha to traditional risk factors. However, we find that the alpha becomes insignificant when controlling for exposures to Betting...

  18. Is the human nasal cavity at risk from inhaled radionuclides?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a series of three life-span studies in which beagle dogs inhaled relatively soluble forms of beta-emitting radionuclides, a number of cancers of the nasal cavity have arisen at long times after the inhalation exposure. No such cancers were observed in the control dogs. Data obtained in other studies involving serial sacrifice of dogs that received these radionuclides in similar forms have shown that high local concentrations of the radionuclides can persist in nasal turbinates for long periods of time, depending on the physical half-life of the radionuclide inhaled. Several nasal carcinomas have also been observed in dogs injected with 137CsCl in which the relative concentrations of beta activity in the turbinate region were not as pronounced as in the above studies. Similar risks of sinonasal cancer were calculated for dogs in each of these studies regardless of differences in radionuclide, dosimetry, and route of administration. Since sinonasal cancers have occurred in people exposed to alpha-emitting radionuclides, it is reasonable to assume this could occur with beta emitters as well. Radiation protection guidelines should account for the sinonasal region being at risk. 23 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs

  19. Inhalation injury after capsaicin exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, James Jason; Skolnick, Judah

    2006-03-01

    Pepper spray is defined as a non-lethal agent used in riot control and personal self-defense. Oleoresin capsicum (OC), derived from the fruit of plants in the Capsicum genus, commonly referred to as hot peppers or chilies, is the active agent used in many of these defense sprays. Although generally assumed to be safe and effective, the consequences of OC cannot be predicted with certainty. Nationwide there have been numerous reports of pepper spray-related injuries, including officers injured in pepper spray-related training exercises. This report details one officer's experience. PMID:16578994

  20. Zinc toxicology following particulate inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Ross G

    2008-04-01

    The current mini-review describes the toxic effects of zinc inhalation principally in the workplace and associated complications with breathing and respiration. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Criteria were used to specifically select articles. Most of the commercial production of zinc involves the galvanizing of iron and the manufacture of brass. The recommended daily allowance for adults is 15 mg zinc/day. Metal fume fever associated with inhalation of fumes of ZnO is characterized by fatigue, chills, fever, myalgias, cough, dyspnea, leukocytosis, thirst, metallic taste and salivation. ZnCl(2) inhalation results in edema in the alveolar surface and the protein therein the lavage fluid is elevated. Particular pathological changes associated with zinc intoxication include: pale mucous membranes; jaundice; numerous Heinz bodies; and marked anemia. Adequate ambient air monitors for permissible exposure limits, excellent ventilation and extraction systems, and approved respirators are all important in providing adequate protection. PMID:20040991

  1. Zinc toxicology following particulate inhalation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooper Ross

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The current mini-review describes the toxic effects of zinc inhalation principally in the workplace and associated complications with breathing and respiration. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Criteria were used to specifically select articles. Most of the commercial production of zinc involves the galvanizing of iron and the manufacture of brass. The recommended daily allowance for adults is 15 mg zinc/day. Metal fume fever associated with inhalation of fumes of ZnO is characterized by fatigue, chills, fever, myalgias, cough, dyspnea, leukocytosis, thirst, metallic taste and salivation. ZnCl 2 inhalation results in edema in the alveolar surface and the protein therein the lavage fluid is elevated. Particular pathological changes associated with zinc intoxication include: pale mucous membranes; jaundice; numerous Heinz bodies; and marked anemia. Adequate ambient air monitors for permissible exposure limits, excellent ventilation and extraction systems, and approved respirators are all important in providing adequate protection.

  2. Inhaled plutonium oxide in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project is concerned with long-term experiments to determine the lifespan dose-effect relationships of inhaled 239PuO2 and 238PuO2 in beagles. Beagle dogs given a single exposure to 239PuO2 or 238PuO2 aerosols are being observed for lifespan dose-effect relationships. The 239Pu body burden of the nine dogs that died of pulmonary-fibrosis-induced respiratory insufficiency during the first 3 yr after exposure was 1 to 12μCi. Nineteen of the dogs exposed to 238Pu haved died during the first 7-1/2 yr after exposure due to bone and/or lung tumors; their body burdens at death ranged from 0.7 to 10μCi. Chronic lymphopenia was the earliest observed effect after inhalation of 239PuO2 or 238PuO2

  3. TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA AS BIOMARKERS OF EXPOSURE TO INDOOR POLLUTANTS AMONG PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN IN KLANG VALLEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Jalaludin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Poor indoor air quality can be particularly harmful to children and interfere with the growth of their lung function as they spend much of their time indoors. In order to understand the mechanism of exposure in the airways, biomarkers were used as a surrogate for biological responses towards indoor air pollutants. This study aims to investigate the association between indoor air pollutants (PM2.5, PM10 and NO2 among school children in different area of urban and rural site in Klang Valley. A cross sectional comparative study was conducted among 430 healthy schoolchildren from a national primary school. Methods involved questionnaires based on American Thoracic Society and sputum samples for biomarkers assay. Indoor exposure to PM2.5 and PM10 (Dust Trak Aerosol Monitor and NO2 (LaMotte Air Sampler were measured in the classroom. Mean concentration of PM2.5 (50.72 µg/m3 in urban schools were significantly higher compared to rural (28.36 µg/m3 school. Similar trend found in indoor level of PM10 in urban and rural schools with 87.04 µg/m3 and 56.76 µg/m3 respectively. The mean exposure level of NO2 of urban schools (0.12 ppm is nearly 4 times higher than the level in rural areas (0.032 ppm. A significant association was found between indoor air concentrations (PM2.5 and PM10 with TNF-alpha level. Children from rural areas are exposed to less air pollutants compared to those from urban area and this study also suggests that higher exposure to PM2.5, PM10 and NO2 are associated with increasing of TNF-alpha level.

  4. Variability in PuO{sub 2} Intake by Inhalation: Implications for Worker Protection at the US Department of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, B.R.; Fencl, A.F

    1999-07-01

    This paper describes the stochastic exposure (SE) paradigm where, at most, small numbers of airborne toxic particles are presented for inhalation. The focus is on alpha-emitting plutonium dioxide (PuO{sub 2}) particles that may be inhaled by Department of Energy (DOE) workers. Consideration of the SE paradigm is important because intake of only a few highly radioactive PuO{sub 2} particles such as {sup 238}PuO{sub 2}, could greatly exceed the annual limit on intake (ALI) used to control worker exposure. For the SE paradigm, credible intake distributions evaluated over the population at risk are needed, rather than unreliable point estimates of intake. Credible distributions of radiation doses and health risks are also needed. Because there are limited data on humans who inhaled PuO{sub 2}, these distributions must be calculated. Calculated distributions are presented that relate to the intake of radioactivity via inhaling polydisperse PuO{sub 2} particles. The results indicate that a large variability in radioactivity intake is expected when relatively small numbers of PuO{sub 2} particles are inhaled. For the SE paradigm, one cannot know how many PuO{sub 2} particles were inhaled by an individual involved in a given inhalation exposure scenario. Thus, rather than addressing questions such as 'Did the calculated worker's intake of {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} exceed the ALI?', it is better to address questions such as 'What is the probability that {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} intake by a given worker occurred and exceeded the ALI?' Mathematical tools for addressing the latter question are presented, and examples of their applications are provided, with emphasis on possible DOE worker exposures at the Rocky Flats facility near Denver, Colorado. The alpha-emitting isotopes {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu, {sup 240}Pu and {sup 242}Pu are found at Rocky Flats. Although {sup 238}Pu is thought to be present in relatively small amounts there, intake via inhalation of only

  5. Accelerated alpha-decay of 232U isotope achieved by exposure of its aqueous solution with gold nanoparticles to laser radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Simakin, A V

    2011-01-01

    Experimental results are presented on laser-induced accelerated alpha-decay of Uranium-232 nuclei under laser exposure of Au nanoparticles in aqueous solutions of its salt. It is demonstrated that the decrease of alpha-activity strongly depends on the peak intensity of the laser radiation in the liquid and is highest at several terawatt per square centimeter. The decrease of alpha-activity of the exposed solutions is accompanied by the deviation of gamma-activities of daughter nuclides of Uranium-232 from their equilibrium values. Possible mechanisms of the laser influence on the alpha-activity are discussed on the basis of the amplification of the electric field of laser wave on metallic nanoparticles.

  6. Differences in salivary alpha-amylase and cortisol responsiveness following exposure to electrical stimulation versus the Trier Social Stress Tests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiro Maruyama

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cortisol is an essential hormone in the regulation of the stress response along the HPA axis, and salivary cortisol has been used as a measure of free circulating cortisol levels. Recently, salivary alpha-amylase (sAA has also emerged as a novel biomarker for psychosocial stress responsiveness within the sympathetic adrenomedullary (SAM system. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We measured sAA and salivary cortisol in healthy volunteers after exposure to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST and electric stimulation stress. One hundred forty-nine healthy volunteers participated in this study. All subjects were exposed to both the TSST and electric stimulation stress on separate days. We measured sAA and salivary cortisol levels three times immediately before, immediately after, and 20 min after the stress challenge. The State (STAI-S and Trait (STAI-T versions of the Spielberger Anxiety Inventory test and the Profile of Mood State (POMS tests were administered to participants before the electrical stimulation and TSST protocols. We also measured HF, LF and LF/HF Heart Rate Variability ratio immediately after electrical stimulation and TSST exposure. Following TSST exposure or electrical stimulation, sAA levels displayed a rapid increase and recovery, returning to baseline levels 20 min after the stress challenge. Salivary cortisol responses showed a delayed increase, which remained significantly elevated from baseline levels 20 min after the stress challenge. Analyses revealed no differences between men and women with regard to their sAA response to the challenges (TSST or electric stimulations, while we found significantly higher salivary cortisol responses to the TSST in females. We also found that younger subjects tended to display higher sAA activity. Salivary cortisol levels were significantly correlated with the strength of the applied electrical stimulation. CONCLUSIONS: These preliminary results suggest that the HPA axis (but not the SAM

  7. Pulmonary immune response of dogs after exposure to 239PuO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study evaluated the cell-mediated (CMI) and humoral immune responses in four Beagle dogs five to six years after single inhalation exposures to different monodisperse 239PuO2 aerosols (0.72-1.4μm activity median aerodynamic diameter). These exposures resulted in initial lung burdens ranging from 19 to 35kBq. The immune responses induced by lung immunization of dogs that had inhaled 239PuO2 were not suppressed by large doses of chronic alpha irradiation of the lungs and tracheobronchial lymph nodes, indicating that local pulmonary immune responses are preserved despite severe radiation-induced alteration of these tissues. (author)

  8. Determination of internal exposure of the RSFSR population by U and Th isotope alpha particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increased use of underground drinking water makes the incorporation of natural uranium and radium nuclides into human organisms of several regions of the RSFSR comparable to that by ingestion. The share of the drinking water to the annual mean dose equivalents of internal exposure amounts to 0.5-0.7 μSv by U and Th. The mean concentrations of U and Th isotopes in the teeth of the RSFSR population, adults as well as children, is 171 +- 24 mBq/kg for 238U, 50 +- 10 mBq/kg for 232Th and 230Th, resp., and 120 +- 20 mBq/kg for 228Th. There is a decreasing tendency of the 238U concentration in the teeth of the children. The annual radiation doses in the bone cells are 43 x 10-7 and 96 x 10-7 Gy for U and Th isotopes, respectively

  9. Passive inhalation of cannabis smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, B.; Mason, P.A.; Moffat, A.C.; King, L.J.; Marks, V.

    1984-09-01

    Six volunteers each smoked simultaneously, in a small unventilated room (volume 27 950 liter), a cannabis cigarette containing 17.1 mg delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). A further four subjects - passive inhalers - remained in the room during smoking and afterwards for a total of 3 h. Blood and urine samples were taken from all ten subjects and analyzed by radioimmunoassay for THC metabolites. The blood samples from the passive subjects taken up to 3 h after the start of exposure to cannabis smoke showed a complete absence of cannabinoids. In contrast, their urine samples taken up to 6 h after exposure showed significant concentrations of cannabinoid metabolites (less than or equal to 6.8 ng ml-1). These data, taken with the results of other workers, show passive inhalation of cannabis smoke to be possible. These results have important implications for forensic toxicologists who are frequently called upon to interpret cannabinoid levels in body fluids.

  10. Acute Respiratory Distress Due to Methane Inhalation

    OpenAIRE

    Jo, Jun Yeon; Kwon, Yong Sik; Lee, Jin Wook; Park, Jae Seok; Rho, Byung Hak; Choi, Won-Il

    2013-01-01

    Inhalation of toxic gases can lead to pneumonitis. It has been known that methane gas intoxication causes loss of consciousness or asphyxia. There is, however, a paucity of information about acute pulmonary toxicity from methane gas inhalation. A 21-year-old man was presented with respiratory distress after an accidental exposure to methane gas for one minute. He came in with a drowsy mentality and hypoxemia. Mechanical ventilation was applied immediately. The patient's symptoms and chest rad...

  11. Inhalation exposures due to radon and thoron ((222)Rn and (220)Rn): Do they differ in high and normal background radiation areas in India?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Rosaline; Sapra, B K; Prajith, R; Rout, R P; Jalaluddin, S; Mayya, Y S

    2015-09-01

    In India, High Background Radiation Areas (HBRAs) due to enhanced levels of naturally occurring radionuclides in soil (thorium and, to a lesser extent, uranium), are located along some parts of the coastal tracts viz. the coastal belt of Kerala, Tamilnadu and Odisha. It is conjectured that these deposits will result in higher emissions of radon isotopes ((222)Rn and (220)Rn) and their daughter products as compared to Normal Background Radiation Areas (NBRAs). While the annual external dose rates contributed by gamma radiations in these areas are about 5-10 times higher, the extent of increase in the inhalation dose rates attributable to (222)Rn and (220)Rn and their decay products is not well quantified. Towards this, systematic indoor surveys were conducted wherein simultaneous measurements of time integrated (222)Rn and (220)Rn gas and their decay product concentrations was carried out in around 800 houses in the HBRAs of Kerala and Odisha to estimate the inhalation doses. All gas measurements were carried out using pin-hole cup dosimeters while the progeny measurements were with samplers and systems based on the Direct radon/thoron Progeny sensors (DRPS/DTPS). To corroborate these passive measurements of decay products concentrations, active sampling was also carried out in a few houses. The results of the surveys provide a strong evidence to conclude that the inhalation doses due to (222)Rn and (220)Rn gas and their decay products in these HBRAs are in the same range as observed in the NBRAs in India. PMID:26065929

  12. Pulmonary effects of inhaled diesel exhaust in aged mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulmonary morbidity and mortality resulting from exposure to fine particulate matter (PM) increases with age. The present studies analyzed potential mechanisms underlying increased susceptibility of the elderly to PM using diesel exhaust (DE) as a model. Mice (2 m and 18 m) were exposed to DE (0, 300, and 1000 μg/m3) for 3 h once (single) or 3 h/day for 3 days (repeated). Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL), serum and lung tissue were collected 0 and 24 h later. Exposure to DE resulted in structural alterations in the lungs of older but not younger mice, including patchy thickening of the alveolar septa and inflammatory cell localization in alveolar spaces. These effects were most pronounced 24 h after a single exposure to the higher dose of DE. Significant increases in BAL nitrogen oxides were also noted in older mice, as well as expression of lipocalin 24p3, an oxidative stress marker in the lung with no effects in younger mice. Following DE inhalation, expression of Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNFα) was upregulated in lungs of both younger and older mice; however, this was attenuated in older animals. Whereas exposure to DE resulted in increases in lung Interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression in both older and younger mice, IL-8 increased only in older animals. In younger mice, constitutive expression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) decreased after DE exposure, while in older mice, constitutive MnSOD was not detectable and DE had no effect on expression of this antioxidant. Taken together, these results suggest that altered generation of inflammatory mediators and MnSOD may contribute to increased susceptibility of older mice to inhaled DE.

  13. Late-occurring pulmonary pathologies following inhalation of mixed oxide (uranium + plutonium oxide) aerosol in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, N M; Van der Meeren, A; Fritsch, P; Abram, M-C; Bernaudin, J-F; Poncy, J L

    2010-09-01

    Accidental exposure by inhalation to alpha-emitting particles from mixed oxide (MOX: uranium and plutonium oxide) fuels is a potential long-term health risk to workers in nuclear fuel fabrication plants. For MOX fuels, the risk of lung cancer development may be different from that assigned to individual components (plutonium, uranium) given different physico-chemical characteristics. The objective of this study was to investigate late effects in rat lungs following inhalation of MOX aerosols of similar particle size containing 2.5 or 7.1% plutonium. Conscious rats were exposed to MOX aerosols and kept for their entire lifespan. Different initial lung burdens (ILBs) were obtained using different amounts of MOX. Lung total alpha activity was determined by external counting and at autopsy for total lung dose calculation. Fixed lung tissue was used for anatomopathological, autoradiographical, and immunohistochemical analyses. Inhalation of MOX at ILBs ranging from 1-20 kBq resulted in lung pathologies (90% of rats) including fibrosis (70%) and malignant lung tumors (45%). High ILBs (4-20 kBq) resulted in reduced survival time (N = 102; p plutonium oxide alone (1.9% Gy). Staining with antibodies against Surfactant Protein-C, Thyroid Transcription Factor-1, or Oct-4 showed differential labeling of tumor types. In conclusion, late effects following MOX inhalation result in similar risk for development of lung tumors as compared with industrial plutonium oxide.

  14. Fluticasone Oral Inhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medications a certain amount of time before and after you inhale fluticasone inhalation. If you were taking an ... your steroid dose starting at least 1 week after you begin to use fluticasone.Fluticasone helps to prevent ...

  15. Olodaterol Oral Inhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... inhalation is used to control wheezing, shortness of breath, coughing, and chest tightness caused by chronic obstructive ... bottom of the clear base. Fill in the expiration date on the inhaler label, which is 3 ...

  16. Non-linear relationship of cell hit and transformation probabilities in low dose of inhaled radon progenies

    CERN Document Server

    Balásházy, Imre; Madas, Balázs Gergely; Hofmann, Werner

    2013-01-01

    Cellular hit probabilities of alpha particles emitted by inhaled radon progenies in sensitive bronchial epithelial cell nuclei were simulated at low exposure levels to obtain useful data for the rejection or in support of the linear-non-threshold (LNT) hypothesis. In this study, local distributions of deposited inhaled radon progenies in airway bifurcation models were computed at exposure conditions, which are characteristic of homes and uranium mines. Then, maximum local deposition enhancement factors at bronchial airway bifurcations, expressed as the ratio of local to average deposition densities, were determined to characterize the inhomogeneity of deposition and to elucidate their effect on resulting hit probabilities. The results obtained suggest that in the vicinity of the carinal regions of the central airways the probability of multiple hits can be quite high even at low average doses. Assuming a uniform distribution of activity there are practically no multiple hits and the hit probability as a funct...

  17. Experimental long-term exposures of fish to low dose rate gamma- or alpha-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While it is well known that α-radiation is much more damaging than γ-radiation (on an equal absorbed dose basis) to man and mammals, there are no data available to compare the effects of these radiations on fish. As many authorised disposals of radioactivity are made to sea or rivers and include α- and γ-emitters it is important that such data is obtained so that estimates of the combined biological damaging effects may be made. This paper describes experiments made to examine the comparative effects of chronic exposure to α- or γ-radiation on reproductive endpoints in a representative fish, the zebrafish Danio rerio. Fish were exposed to γ-radiation or α-radiation for approximately 1 year. The fish were allowed to breed once per week and for each breeding opportunity the total numbers of eggs, numbers of eggs viable at 24 hours and eggs hatching successfully were recorded. Dose rate groups were 300, 1000 or 7400μGy h-1 for γ-radiation and 9.6, 19, 84 and 214μGy h-1 for α-radiation. None of the α-radiation groups showed significant effects on any measure of egg production while among γ-radiation groups only the highest, 7400μGy h-1 group showed an effect. This was a rapid decrease in total number of eggs and viable eggs laid per opportunity, leading to a failure to lay any after 20 weekly opportunities. There was, however, no significant decrease in any group in the hatch rate of eggs which were viable at 24 hours. Comparison of the highest α-radiation dose rate which produced no effect (214μGy h-1) and the γ-radiation dose rate which had a significant effect (7400μGy h-1) gives a relative biological effect (RBEα) of <35. (author)

  18. Tritiated thymidine-labeled bronchioloalveolar cells and radiation dose following inhalation of plutonium in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this study is to show the relationship of inhaled Pu particle distribution and alveolar-bronchiolar target-cell response with respect to the formation of pulmonary carcinoma. The proliferation of type 2 alveolar epithelium and nonciliated bronchiolar epithelium appears critical in the induction of lung tumors associated from inhaled 239PuO2. Female, Wistar rats were either sham-exposed (40 rats) or given a single inhalation to 169Yb-239PuO2 (99 rats, ILB, 3.9 +/- 1.2 kBq) and examined at 20 time intervals from 1 day to 700 days postexposure for Pu particle distribution in airways by SEM quantitative autoradiography and for cell labeling with tritiated thymidine. Initially, deposited Pu particles were rapidly cleared from the surface of the trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles within a few days. Thereafter, about 5 times more alpha track exposure to the bronchiolar epithelium was delivered from Pu particles found in peribronchiolar alveoli than from Pu particles being cleared from bronchiolar surfaces. Exposure of bronchiolar epithelium at later times was due mostly to the formation of peribronchiolar Pu particle aggregates. A maximal increase in labeled alveolar wall cells was seen at 60 days after exposure, decreasing gradually to control levels by 400 days. Cell labeling in focal alveolar regions of Pu aggregation was about 5 fold higher. Increased bronchiolar epithelium labeling appeared in two phases. The first phase was seen 15 days after exposure, associated with initial deposition and clearance of Pu particles. The second phase slowly reached a maximum at 250 days and was associated with peribronchiolar Pu aggregate formation. The temporal-spatial dose-distribution pattern for inhaled Pu particles is an important aspect of Pu-induced pulmonary carcinogenesis

  19. Exposure to Folate Receptor Alpha Antibodies during Gestation and Weaning Leads to Severe Behavioral Deficits in Rats: A Pilot Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey M Sequeira

    Full Text Available The central nervous system continues to develop during gestation and after birth, and folate is an essential nutrient in this process. Folate deficiency and folate receptor alpha autoantibodies (FRα-AuAb have been associated with pregnancy-related complications and neurodevelopmental disorders. In this pilot study, we investigated the effect of exposure to FRα antibodies (Ab during gestation (GST, the pre-weaning (PRW, and the post weaning (POW periods on learning and behavior in adulthood in a rat model. In the open field test and novel object recognition task, which examine locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavior, deficits in rats exposed to Ab during gestation and pre-weaning (GST+PRW included more time spent in the periphery or corner areas, less time in the central area, frequent self-grooming akin to stereotypy, and longer time to explore a novel object compared to a control group; these are all indicative of increased levels of anxiety. In the place avoidance tasks that assess learning and spatial memory formation, only 30% of GST+PRW rats were able to learn the passive place avoidance task. None of these rats learned the active place avoidance task indicating severe learning deficits and cognitive impairment. Similar but less severe deficits were observed in rats exposed to Ab during GST alone or only during the PRW period, suggesting the extreme sensitivity of the fetal as well as the neonatal rat brain to the deleterious effects of exposure to Ab during this period. Behavioral deficits were not seen in rats exposed to antibody post weaning. These observations have implications in the pathology of FRα-AuAb associated with neural tube defect pregnancy, preterm birth and neurodevelopmental disorders including autism.

  20. Use of studies with laboratory animals to assess the potential early health effects of combined internal alpha and beta irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential health impacts of radionuclides released in nuclear accidents are of major concern to the public and to regulatory and other governmental agencies. One mode of potential exposure is by inhalation of airborne radionuclides, which could lead to combined internal irradiation by high (alpha) and low (beta) linear energy transfer (LET) radiations. Epidemiological data for health effects of human inhalation exposure are too limited to derive reliable estimates of risks of potential health effects. However, results of studies in which beagle dogs were exposed by inhalation to insoluble radioactive aerosols can be used to estimate expected effects in humans. Data for mortality from radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis caused by internal irradiation of dog lungs by alpha or beta radiations are used to derive the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of alpha irradiation compared to beta irradiation; predict the expected combined effects of alpha and beta irradiation of dog lungs; and extrapolate the results to humans. The extrapolation to humans assumed that, for similar ages at exposure, dog and human lungs have similar sensitivities to lung irradiation. Results of theoretical calculations related to mortality from early effects indicated that the synergistic effects of high- and low-LET radiations should depend on the percentages of the total dose contributed by high- and low-LET radiations, and for very low or very high doses, synergistic effects should be negligible. 23 refs., 8 figs

  1. Part 1. Biologic responses in rats and mice to subchronic inhalation of diesel exhaust from U.S. 2007-compliant engines: report on 1-, 3-, and 12-month exposures in the ACES bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdonald, Jacob D; Doyle-Eisele, Melanie; Gigliotti, Andrew; Miller, Rodney A; Seilkop, Steve; Mauderly, Joe L; Seagrave, JeanClare; Chow, Judith; Zielinska, Barbara

    2012-09-01

    The Health Effects Institute and its partners conceived and funded a program to characterize the emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines compliant with the 2007 and 2010 on-road emissions standards in the United States and to evaluate indicators of lung toxicity in rats and mice exposed repeatedly to diesel exhaust (DE*) from 2007-compliant engines. The preliminary hypothesis of this Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES) was that 2007-compliant on-road diesel emissions ". . . will not cause an increase in tumor formation or substantial toxic effects in rats and mice at the highest concentration of exhaust that can be used . . . although some biological effects may occur." This hypothesis is being tested at the Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute (LRRI) by exposing rats by chronic inhalation as a carcinogenicity bioassay, measuring indicators of pulmonary toxicity in rats after 1, 3, 12, and 24-30 months of exposure (final time point depends on the survival of animals), and measuring similar indicators of pulmonary toxicity in mice after 1 and 3 months of exposure. This report provides results of exposures through 3 months in rats and mice. Emissions from a 2007-compliant, 500-horsepower-class engine and aftertreatment system operated on a variable-duty cycle were used to generate the animal inhalation test atmospheres. Four treatment groups were exposed to one of three concentrations (dilutions) of exhaust combined with crankcase emissions, or to clean air as a negative control. Dilutions of exhaust were set to yield average integrated concentrations of 4.2, 0.8, and 0.1 ppm nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Exposure atmospheres were analyzed by daily measurements of key components and periodic detailed physical-chemical characterizations. Exposures were conducted 16 hr/dy (overnight), 5 dy/wk. Rats were evaluated for hematology, serum chemistry, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), lung cell proliferation, and histopathology after 1 month of exposure, and the same

  2. Indoor exposure to environmental cigarette smoke, but not other inhaled particulates associates with respiratory symptoms and diminished lung function in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hersoug, Lars-Georg; Husemoen, Lise L N; Sigsgaard, Torben;

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) can induce airway inflammation and exacerbation of asthma. However, there is limited knowledge about the effects of exposure to indoor sources of PM. We investigated the associations between self-reported exposure to indoor sources of PM and lower airway sympto...

  3. Inhaled fluticasone propionate impairs pulmonary clearance of Klebsiella Pneumoniae in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patterson Craig M

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent trials demonstrate increased pneumonia risk in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients treated with the inhaled corticosteroid (ICS fluticasone propionate (FP. There is limited work describing FP effects on host defenses against bacterial pneumonia. Methods C57BL/6 mice received daily, nose-only exposure to nebulized FP or vehicle for 8 days, followed by pulmonary challenge with Klebsiella pneumoniae. Bacterial burden, phagocytosis, leukocyte recruitment, cytokine expression, nitric oxide release, and survival were measured. Results Inhaled FP increased bacterial burden in lungs and blood 48 h after infection but affected neither in vivo phagocytosis of bacteria by alveolar macrophages (AM nor alveolar neutrophil recruitment. AM from FP-treated mice showed impaired expression of infection induced TNF-alpha, IP-10 (CXCL-10, and interleukin 6 (IL-6, and AM also showed a trend towards impaired intracellular pathogen control following in vivo infection. In vitro FP treatment resulted in a dose-dependent impairment of cytokine expression by AM. Furthermore, infection-induced nitric oxide (but not hydrogen peroxide production was impaired by FP in vivo and in vitro. FP decreased survival in this model. Conclusions Exposure to inhaled FP impairs pulmonary clearance of K. pneumoniae in mice, an effect associated with greater systemic bacteremia and death. Decreased AM cytokine and nitric oxide expression parallel the failure to control infection. These results support the study of ICS effects on human pulmonary host defenses.

  4. Inhalation of natural radiation. Lung cancer from radon; Inhalation natuerlicher Strahlung. Lungenkrebs durch Radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueske-Hohlfeld, I.; Kreienbock, L.; Wichmann, H.E.

    2006-07-01

    Radon is a natural noble gas contained in all soils, rocks, water and air. It is an alpha emitter and decays into other radioactive elements. Through cracks and leaks, it may easily enter in buildings. Inhalation of radon and its radioactive decay products is one of the main causes of lung cancer, second only to tobacco smoke. (orig.)

  5. Possible risk and probability of causation of bone and liver cancer due to the occupational alpha-ray exposure of workers at the previous WISMUT Uranium Mining Company; Moegliches Risiko und Verursachungs-Wahrscheinlichkeit von Knochen-und Leberkrebs durch die berufliche Alphastrahlen-Exposition von Beschaeftigten der ehemaligen WISMUT-AG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobi, W.; Roth, P. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit Neuherberg GmbH, Oberschleissheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlenschutz; Nosske, D. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Neuherberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Strahlenhygiene

    1998-03-01

    For the calculation of the excess relative risk and the corresponding probability of causation the incidence data on bone and liver cancer from the DDR Cancer Registry are used as normal background rate. The application of these risk models to the exposure conditions of WISMUT workers takes into regard the inhalation of radon-222 and its progeny (including lead-210), the inhalation of U-containing or dust with large particle sizes and the external gamma radiation at the workplace. In addition, the possible risk contribution by drinking radioactive spring waters in these mines is discussed. In an annex the resulting risk values for bone and liver cancer per unit of exposure are tabulated as function of the time since exposure. As examples the resulting values of the excess absolute and relative risk and of the corresponding probability of causation as function of age at exposure and age at incidence are given for reference values of the annual radiation exposure of these miners. With respect to the time response the results indicate that a persistent relative risk model, like it has been derived by UNSCEAR for solid cancers on the basis of the LSS data from the atomic bomb survivors, seems to be not appropriate for bone and liver cancer induced by alpha radiation. - Finally it is recommended to apply the risk models for bone and liver cancer which are outlined in this report, for the decision-making on the compensation of WISMUT workers. (orig./GL) [Deutsch] Zur Berechnung des relativen Risikos und der daraus folgenden Verursachungs-Wahrscheinlichkeit werden als Normalwerte die Inzidenzdaten fuer Knochen- und Leberkrebs im DDR-Krebsregister herangezogen. Bei der Anwendung dieser Risikomodelle auf die Exposition von WISMUT-Beschaeftigten werden die Inhalation von Radon-222 und seinen Zerfallsprodukten (einschliesslich Blei-210), die Inhalation von grobdispersem Uran-haltigen Gesteinsstaub sowie die externe Gamma-Strahlung beruecksichtigt. Zusaetzlich wird auch der

  6. Behavioral changes in mice following benzene inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, H L; Dempster, A M; Snyder, C A

    1981-01-01

    Although benzene is an important occupational health hazard and a carcinogen, the possibility that behavioral changes may forewarn of the later-occurring hematological changes has not been investigated. A time-sampling protocol was used to quantify the occurrence of 7 categories of behavior in the homecage following daily 6-hr exposures to two strains of adult mice (CD1 and C57BL/6J). The behavioral categories were stereotypic behavior, sleeping, resting, eating, grooming, locomotion, and fighting. The inhalation exposures were designed to reflect occupational exposure. Dynamic vapor exposure techniques in standard inhalation chambers were employed. Exposure to 300 or 900 ppm benzene increased the occurrence of eating and grooming and reduced the number of mice that were sleeping or resting. The responses to benzene of both the CD1 and the C57 strains were similar. The positive findings with benzene inhalation indicate the utility of behavioral investigations into the toxicology of inhaled organic solvents. The methods described herein illustrate an objective observation of animal behavior that is capable of documenting toxicity and of guiding detailed follow-up studies aimed at mechanism of action.

  7. Four weeks' inhalation exposure of Long Evans rats to 4-tert-butyltoluene: Effect on evoked potentials, behaviour and brain neurochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lam, Henrik Rye; Ladefoged, Ole; Østergaard, Grete;

    2000-01-01

    maze and eight-arm maze failed to demonstrate any TBT induced effects. Exposure was followed by a 5 months exposure-free period prior to gross regional and subcellular (synaptosomal) neurochemical investigations of the brain. TBT reduced the NA concentration in whole brain minus cerebellum...

  8. Effect of inhaled chromium on pulmonary AlAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, M.D.; Siso, M.; Baker, K.; Chen, L.C.; Schlesinger, R.B. [New York University, Tuxedo Park, NY (United States). School of Medicine, Dept. of Environmental Medicine

    2002-07-01

    A major health hazard to coal miners is development of emphysema following long-term exposure to coal dust. One mechanism underlying development of emphysema is the oxidation of critical methionine (Met) residues in antiproteolytic factor, alpha1-antitrypsin (AlAT) resulting in a protease-antiprotease imbalance in the lung. Several studies have documented an association between the incidence and severity of emphysema among miners and their exposure to crystalline silica (SiO{sub 2}). However, what remains unclear is the role of other co-inhaled nonemphysematogenic nonoxidant inorganic constituent in disease pathogenesis. We hypothesize that in miners, inhaled trivalent chromium (Cr{sup 3+}, the only form of Cr in coal) may potentially affect lung AlAT activity in situ via Cr complexing with Met residues, and thereby exacerbate any SiO{sub 2}-induced imbalance. To ascertain if Cr{sup 3+} could, in fact, affect AlAT activity, in vitro studies were done to assess elastase inhibitory activity following AlAT incubation with soluble Cr{sup 3+}. In addition, to determine if Cr{sup 3+} found in the lungs as detoxification products of inhaled hexavalent Cr could affect AlAT in situ, lavages from the lungs of chromate-exposed rats were also analyzed for elastase inhibitory activity The in vitro results indicate that Cr{sup 3+} ions clearly inhibited AlAT function, with an IC50 of 1.1 mM being estimated under the experimental conditions used. The in vivo results indicate that long-term inhalation (12 wk or longer) of chromate-bearing atmospheres also gave rise to significant (i.e., 50-70%) inhibition of the antielastase activity of AlAT. Together, these results clearly suggest that the Cr{sup 3+} present in coal dusts could potentially act to inhibit AlAT activity in the lungs of miners and thereby promote the emphysema togenicity of SiO{sub 2} or of other emphysematogens present as coconstituents in these dusts.

  9. Inhalant Abuse and Dextromethorphan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storck, Michael; Black, Laura; Liddell, Morgan

    2016-07-01

    Inhalant abuse is the intentional inhalation of a volatile substance for the purpose of achieving an altered mental state. As an important, yet underrecognized form of substance abuse, inhalant abuse crosses all demographic, ethnic, and socioeconomic boundaries, causing significant morbidity and mortality in school-aged and older children. This review presents current perspectives on epidemiology, detection, and clinical challenges of inhalant abuse and offers advice regarding the medical and mental health providers' roles in the prevention and management of this substance abuse problem. Also discussed is the misuse of a specific "over-the-counter" dissociative, dextromethorphan. PMID:27338970

  10. Formoterol Oral Inhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevespi Aerosphere® (as a combination product containing Glycopyrrolate, Formoterol) ... Formoterol inhalation powder (Foradil) and nebulizer solution (Perforomist) are used to treat wheezing, shortness of breath, and ...

  11. Activation of Alveolar Macrophages after Plutonium Oxide Inhalation in Rats: Involvement in the Early Inflammatory Response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alveolar macrophages play an important role in the distribution, clearance and inflammatory reactions after particle inhalation, which may influence long-term events such as fibrosis and tumorigenesis. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the early inflammatory events after plutonium oxide inhalation in rats and involvement of alveolar macrophages. Lung changes were studied from 3 days to 3 months after inhalation of PuO2 or different isotopic compositions (70% or 97% 239Pu) and initial lung deposits (range 2.1 to 43.4 kBq/rat). Analyses of bronchoalveolar lavages showed early increases in the numbers of granulocytes, lymphocytes and multi-nucleated macrophages. The activation of macrophages was evaluated ex vivo by measurement of inflammatory mediator levels in culture supernatants. TNF-alpha and chemokine MCP-1, MIP-2 and CINC-1 production was elevated from 7 days after inhalation and remained so up to 3 months. In contrast, IL-1 beta, IL-6 and IL-10 production was unchanged. At 6 weeks, pulmonary macrophage numbers and activation state were increased as observed from an immunohistochemistry study of lung sections with anti-ED1. Similarly, histological analyses of lung sections also showed evidence of inflammatory responses. In conclusion, our results indicate early inflammatory changes in the lungs of PuO2-contaminated animals and the involvement of macrophages in this process. A dose-effect relationship was observed between the amount of radionuclide inhaled or retained at the time of analysis and inflammatory mediator production by alveolar macrophages 14 days after exposure. For similar initial lung deposits, the inflammatory manifestation appears higher for 97% 239Pu than for 70% 239Pu. (authors)

  12. Activation of Alveolar Macrophages after Plutonium Oxide Inhalation in Rats: Involvement in the Early Inflammatory Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Meeren, A.; Tourdes, F.; Gremy, O.; Grillon, G.; Abram, M.C.; Poncy, J.L.; Griffiths, N. [CEA, DSV, DRR, SRCA, Centre DAM Ile de France, F-91297 Bruyeres Le Chatel, Arpajon (France)

    2008-07-01

    Alveolar macrophages play an important role in the distribution, clearance and inflammatory reactions after particle inhalation, which may influence long-term events such as fibrosis and tumorigenesis. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the early inflammatory events after plutonium oxide inhalation in rats and involvement of alveolar macrophages. Lung changes were studied from 3 days to 3 months after inhalation of PuO{sub 2} or different isotopic compositions (70% or 97% {sup 239}Pu) and initial lung deposits (range 2.1 to 43.4 kBq/rat). Analyses of bronchoalveolar lavages showed early increases in the numbers of granulocytes, lymphocytes and multi-nucleated macrophages. The activation of macrophages was evaluated ex vivo by measurement of inflammatory mediator levels in culture supernatants. TNF-alpha and chemokine MCP-1, MIP-2 and CINC-1 production was elevated from 7 days after inhalation and remained so up to 3 months. In contrast, IL-1 beta, IL-6 and IL-10 production was unchanged. At 6 weeks, pulmonary macrophage numbers and activation state were increased as observed from an immunohistochemistry study of lung sections with anti-ED1. Similarly, histological analyses of lung sections also showed evidence of inflammatory responses. In conclusion, our results indicate early inflammatory changes in the lungs of PuO{sub 2}-contaminated animals and the involvement of macrophages in this process. A dose-effect relationship was observed between the amount of radionuclide inhaled or retained at the time of analysis and inflammatory mediator production by alveolar macrophages 14 days after exposure. For similar initial lung deposits, the inflammatory manifestation appears higher for 97% {sup 239}Pu than for 70% {sup 239}Pu. (authors)

  13. Age and heat exposure-dependent changes in antioxidant enzymes activities in rat's liver and brain mitochondria: role of alpha-tocopherol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojkovski, V; Hadzi-Petrushev, N; Ilieski, V; Sopi, R; Gjorgoski, I; Mitrov, D; Jankulovski, N; Mladenov, M

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the role of mitochondrial antioxidant capacity during increased susceptibility to heat accompanied by the aging, young and aged Wistar rats were exposed on heat for 60 min. After heat exposure, hepatic and brain mitochondria were isolated. Our results revealed changes in antioxidant enzyme activities in liver and brain mitochondria from young and to a greater extent in aged rats. Our measurements of MnSOD, GPx and GR activity indicate greater reactive oxygen species production from the mitochondria of aged heat exposed in comparison to young heat exposed rats. Also in the aged rats, the effect of alpha-tocopherol treatment in the prevention of oxidative stress occurred as a result of heat exposure, is less pronounced. Taken together, our data suggest that mitochondria in aged rats are more vulnerable and less able to prevent oxidative changes that occur in response to acute heat exposure.

  14. A survey of occupational exposure to inhalable wood dust among workers in small- and medium-scale wood-processing enterprises in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayalew, Eyasu; Gebre, Yonas; De Wael, Karolien

    2015-03-01

    A study of wood dust exposure in 20 small- and medium-scale wood-processing enterprises was performed in Ethiopia. Sampling was conducted daily from January to June, 2013 and a total of 360 samples from 113 workers were collected with Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM) personal samplers. Eight-hour time-weighted average exposure to wood dust ranged from 0.24 to 23.3mg m(-3) with a geometric mean (GM) of 6.82mg m(-3) and a geometric standard deviation of 1.82. Although Ethiopia did not have any defined standard of Occupational Exposure Limit for wood dust exposure, 71% of the measurements exceeded the limit of 5mg m(-3) set by the European Union (EU). Higher than the EU exposure limit was measured while workers perform sanding and sawing activities with a GM of 9.72 and 7.60mg m(-3), respectively. In conclusion, wood workers in the small- and medium-scale enterprises are at a higher risk of developing different respiratory health problems with continuous exposure trends. PMID:25349370

  15. Biomonitoring of the adverse effects induced by the chronic exposure to lead and cadmium on kidney function: Usefulness of alpha-glutathione S-transferase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcon, Guillaume [LCE EA2598, Toxicologie Industrielle et Environnementale, Maison de la Recherche en Environnement Industriel de Dunkerque 2, 189A, Avenue Maurice Schumann, 59140 Dunkerque (France); Leleu, Bruno [Laboratoire Universitaire de Medecine du Travail et Environnement, Faculte de Medecine - Pole Recherche, 01, place de Verdun, 59045 Lille Cedex (France); Marez, Thierry [LCE EA2598, Toxicologie Industrielle et Environnementale, Maison de la Recherche en Environnement Industriel de Dunkerque 2, 189A, Avenue Maurice Schumann, 59140 Dunkerque (France); Zerimech, Farid [Laboratoire de Biochimie et de Biologie Moleculaire, Hopital Huriez, 01, Place de Verdun, 59045 Lille Cedex (France); Haguenoer, Jean-Marie [Laboratoire de Toxicologie, Sante Publique et Environnement, Faculte des Sciences Pharmaceutiques et Biologiques, 03, Rue du Pr. Laguesse, BP 83, 59006 Lille Cedex (France); Furon, Daniel [Laboratoire Universitaire de Medecine du Travail et Environnement, Faculte de Medecine - Pole Recherche, 01, place de Verdun, 59045 Lille Cedex (France); Shirali, Pirouz [LCE EA2598, Toxicologie Industrielle et Environnementale, Maison de la Recherche en Environnement Industriel de Dunkerque 2, 189A, Avenue Maurice Schumann, 59140 Dunkerque (France)]. E-mail: Pirouz.Shirali@univ-littoral.fr

    2007-05-15

    A successful prevention of renal diseases induced by occupational exposure to lead (Pb) and/or cadmium (Cd) largely relies on the capability to detect nephrotoxic effects at a stage when they are still reversible or at least not yet compromising renal function. Hence, the aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the usefulness of a set of early biological markers of oxidative stress or nephrotoxicity for the biomonitoring of workers occupationally exposed to Pb and/or Cd in a non-ferrous metal smelter, and gender, age, socioeconomic status, smoking habits, and drug use-matched control individuals. In exposed subjects, mean levels of Pb in blood and urine were also 387.1 {+-} 99.1 {mu}g Pb/L (1.868 {+-} 0.478 {mu}mol Pb/L) and 217.7 {+-} 117.7 {mu}g Pb/g creatinine (1.051 {+-} 0.568 {mu}mol Pb/g creatinine), and mean levels of Cd in blood and urine were 3.26 {+-} 2.11 {mu}g Cd/L (0.029 {+-} 0.019 {mu}mol Cd/L) and 2.51 {+-} 1.89 {mu}g Cd/g creatinine (0.022 {+-} 0.017 {mu}mol Cd/g creatinine), suggesting thereby relatively low occupational exposure levels. Statistically significant variations in zinc protoporphyrin, malondialdehyde, retinol binding protein, alpha-glutathione S-transferase, and urinary protein levels were reported between the two groups, and were closely correlated with Pb and/or Cd exposure levels. Variations in {alpha}GST levels were closely associated with Pb exposure. Taken together, these results suggest the use of alpha-glutathione S-transferase excretion in urine as a hallmark of early changes in the proximal tubular integrity.

  16. Inhalants in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, R; Ferrando, D

    1995-01-01

    In Peru, the prevalence and consequences of inhalant abuse appear to be low in the general population and high among marginalized children. Inhalant use ranks third in lifetime prevalence after alcohol and tobacco. Most of the use appears to be infrequent. Among marginalized children, that is, children working in the streets but living at home or children living in the street, the problem of inhalant abuse is a serious problem. Among children working in the streets but living at home, the lifetime prevalence rate for inhalant abuse is high, ranging from 15 to 45 percent depending on the study being cited. For children living in the streets, the use of inhalant is even more severe. As mentioned earlier in this chapter, most of these street children use inhalants on a daily basis. The lack of research on the problem of inhalant abuse is a serious impediment to development of intervention programs and strategies to address this problem in Peru. Epidemiologic and ethnographic research on the nature and extent of inhalant abuse are obvious prerequisites to targeted treatment and preventive intervention programs. The urgent need for current and valid data is underscored by the unique vulnerability of the youthful population at risk and the undisputed harm that results from chronic abuse of inhalants. Nonetheless, it is important to mention several programs that work with street children. Some, such as the Information and Education Center for the Prevention of Drug Abuse, Generation, and Centro Integracion de Menores en Abandono have shelters where street children are offered transition to a less marginal lifestyle. Teams of street educators provide the children with practical solutions and gain their confidence, as well as offer them alternative socialization experiences to help them survive the streets and avoid the often repressive and counterproductive environments typical of many institutions. Most of the children who go through these programs tend to abandon

  17. Biological effects of inhaled radionuclides: summary of ICRP report 31

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ICRP Task Group charged with evaluating the hazards associated with inhalation of plutonium and other radionuclides, enumerated the biological responses to inhaled radionuclides, identified tissues and cells at risk, derived risk coefficients for inhaled radionuclides from animal experiments for comparison with human data, and determined an equal effectiveness ratio of alpha emitters relative to beta-gamma emitters. High lung burdens of inhaled radionuclides result in profound structural and functional changes in which the pulmonary capillary endothelial cells are the most prominent cells at risk. Linear and nonlinear models used to evaluate lung cancer data from animal experiments project to risk coefficients between 0.84 and 1600 cases/106 animals/rad. The report concludes that the animal data support the current ICRP lung cancer risk of 2 x 10-3 Sv-1 (400 x 10+H-+H6 rad-1). Comparison of risk coefficients for beta-gamma emitters with those for alpha emitters, obtained using the same models, gave an Equal Effectiveness Ratio of 30 for inhaled alpha-emitting radionuclides. Thus, the experimental data support the ICRP decision to change the quality factor from 10 to 20 for alpha radiation. (H.K.)

  18. ASSESSING ASTHMATIC CHILDREN'S EXPOSURES TO TOXIC AIR POLLUTANTS AND THE POTENTIAL INHALED DOSES USING TIME ACTIVITY INFORMATION AND ENERGY EXPENDITURE DATA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurately quantifying human exposures and the potential doses of various populations to environmental pollutants is critical for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to assess and manage human health risks. The Tampa Asthmatic Children's Study (TACS) was a pilot research stu...

  19. Pulmonary exposure to carbon black by inhalation or instillation in pregnant mice: Effects on liver DNA strand breaks in dams and offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jackson, Petra; Hougaard, Karin Sørig; Boisen, Anne Mette Zenner;

    2011-01-01

    , 10, 15 and 18, with total doses of 11, 54 and 268 mg/animal. Dams were monitored until weaning and some offspring until adolescence. Inflammation was assessed in maternal bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) 3–5 days after exposure, and at weaning. Levels of DNA strand breaks were assessed in maternal BAL...

  20. Erythrocyte osmotic fragility and lipid peroxidation following chronic co-exposure of rats to chlorpyrifos and deltamethrin, and the beneficial effect of alpha-lipoic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chidiebere Uchendu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of chronic co-exposure to chlorpyrifos (CPF and deltamethrin (DLT on erythrocyte osmotic fragility, lipid peroxidation and the ameliorative effect of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA on erythrocyte fragility. Thirty-six male Wistar rats divided into six groups of six rats each were used for the study. Groups I (S/oil and II (ALA were given soya oil (2 ml/kg and ALA (60 mg/kg, respectively. Rats in group III (DLT and IV (CPF were exposed to DLT (6.25 mg/kg and CPF (4.75 mg/kg (1/20th of the previously determined LD50 of 125 mg/kg and 95 mg/kg, respectively, over a period of 48 h. Rats in group V (CPF + DLT were co-exposed to CPF (4.75 mg/kg and DLT (6.25 mg/kg, while those in group VI (ALA + CPF + DLT were pretreated with ALA (60 mg/kg and then co-exposed to CPF and DLT, 45 min later. The treatments were administered by gavage once daily for a period of 16 weeks. Blood collected at the end of the experimental period were analyzed for erythrocyte osmotic fragility and malondialdehyde (MDA concentration. The study showed that chronic co-exposure to CPF and DLT resulted in an increase in erythrocyte fragility and MDA concentration which were ameliorated by supplementation with alpha-lipoic acid. The study concluded that repeated co-exposure to CPF and DLT elevated erythrocyte fragility probably due to increased lipid peroxidation, and pretreatment with alpha-lipoic acid ameliorated these alterations.

  1. Manganese Inhalation as a Parkinson Disease Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Ordoñez-Librado

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines the effects of divalent and trivalent Manganese (Mn2+/Mn3+ mixture inhalation on mice to obtain a novel animal model of Parkinson disease (PD inducing bilateral and progressive dopaminergic cell death, correlate those alterations with motor disturbances, and determine whether L-DOPA treatment improves the behavior, to ensure that the alterations are of dopaminergic origin. CD-1 male mice inhaled a mixture of Manganese chloride and Manganese acetate, one hour twice a week for five months. Before Mn exposure, animals were trained to perform motor function tests and were evaluated each week after the exposure. By the end of Mn exposure, 10 mice were orally treated with 7.5 mg/kg L-DOPA. After 5 months of Mn mixture inhalation, striatal dopamine content decreased 71%, the SNc showed important reduction in the number of TH-immunopositive neurons, mice developed akinesia, postural instability, and action tremor; these motor alterations were reverted with L-DOPA treatment. Our data provide evidence that Mn2+/Mn3+ mixture inhalation produces similar morphological, neurochemical, and behavioral alterations to those observed in PD providing a useful experimental model for the study of this neurodegenerative disease.

  2. A mathematical model for predicting the probability of acute mortality in a human population exposed to accidentally released airborne radionuclides. Final report for Phase I of the project: early effects of inhaled radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report presents a mathematical model for the purpose of predicting the fraction of human population which would die within 1 year of an accidental exposure to airborne radionuclides. The model is based on data from laboratory experiments with rats, dogs and baboons, and from human epidemiological data. Doses from external, whole-body irradiation and from inhaled, alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides are calculated for several organs. The probabilities of death from radiation pneumonitis and from bone marrow irradiation are predicted from doses accumulated within 30 days of exposure to the radioactive aerosol. The model is compared with existing similar models under hypothetical exposure conditions. Suggestions for further experiments with inhaled radionuclides are included

  3. A mathematical model for predicting the probability of acute mortality in a human population exposed to accidentally released airborne radionuclides. Final report for Phase I of the project: early effects of inhaled radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filipy, R.E.; Borst, F.J.; Cross, F.T.; Park, J.F.; Moss, O.R.

    1980-06-01

    The report presents a mathematical model for the purpose of predicting the fraction of human population which would die within 1 year of an accidental exposure to airborne radionuclides. The model is based on data from laboratory experiments with rats, dogs and baboons, and from human epidemiological data. Doses from external, whole-body irradiation and from inhaled, alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides are calculated for several organs. The probabilities of death from radiation pneumonitis and from bone marrow irradiation are predicted from doses accumulated within 30 days of exposure to the radioactive aerosol. The model is compared with existing similar models under hypothetical exposure conditions. Suggestions for further experiments with inhaled radionuclides are included.

  4. Assessing inhalation injury in the emergency room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanizaki S

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Shinsuke Tanizaki Department of Emergency Medicine, Fukui Prefectural Hospital, Fukui, Japan Abstract: Respiratory tract injuries caused by inhalation of smoke or chemical products are related to significant morbidity and mortality. While many strategies have been built up to manage cutaneous burn injuries, few logical diagnostic strategies for patients with inhalation injuries exist and almost all treatment is supportive. The goals of initial management are to ensure that the airway allows adequate oxygenation and ventilation and to avoid ventilator-induced lung injury and substances that may complicate subsequent care. Intubation should be considered if any of the following signs exist: respiratory distress, stridor, hypoventilation, use of accessory respiratory muscles, blistering or edema of the oropharynx, or deep burns to the face or neck. Any patients suspected to have inhalation injuries should receive a high concentration of supplemental oxygen to quickly reverse hypoxia and to displace carbon monoxide from protein binding sites. Management of carbon monoxide and cyanide exposure in smoke inhalation patients remains controversial. Absolute indications for hyperbaric oxygen therapy do not exist because there is a low correlation between carboxyhemoglobin levels and the severity of the clinical state. A cyanide antidote should be administered when cyanide poisoning is clinically suspected. Although an ideal approach for respiratory support of patients with inhalation injuries do not exist, it is important that they are supported using techniques that do not further exacerbate respiratory failure. A well-organized strategy for patients with inhalation injury is critical to reduce morbidity and mortality. Keywords: inhalation injury, burn, carbon monoxide poisoning, cyanide poisoning

  5. Levalbuterol Oral Inhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a concentrated solution to be mixed with normal saline and inhaled by mouth using a nebulizer, and ... the concentrated solution, add the amount of normal saline that your doctor told you to use to ...

  6. Insulin Human Inhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... control pills); oral medications for diabetes such as pioglitazone (Actos, in Actoplus Met, in Duetact, in Oseni) or ... or lower legs sudden weight gain extreme drowsiness confusion dizziness Insulin inhalation may increase the risk that ...

  7. Nicotine Microaerosol Inhaler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul G Andrus

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To measure the droplet size distribution of a nicotine pressurized metered-dose inhaler using a nicotine in ethanol solution formulation with hydrofluoroalkane as propellant.

  8. Arformoterol Oral Inhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... inhalation is used to control wheezing, shortness of breath, coughing, and chest tightness caused by chronic obstructive ... store the medication in the refrigerator until the expiration date printed on the package has passed, or ...

  9. Persistent increases in inflammatory cytokines, Akt, and MAPK/ERK pathways after inhalation exposure of rats to Libby amphibole (LA) or amosite: comparison to effects after intratracheal exposure to LA or naturally occurring asbestos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human exposure to LA and other mined or processed asbestos increases risk of lung inflammation, fibrosis, and cancer. Health risks from exposure to naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) are not as well-understood. Mechanisms of long-term toxicity were compared in male F344 rats expo...

  10. Exposure-response of 1,2:3,4-diepoxybutane-specific N-terminal valine adducts in mice and rats after inhalation exposure to 1,3-butadiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgieva, Nadia I; Boysen, Gunnar; Bordeerat, Narisa; Walker, Vernon E; Swenberg, James A

    2010-06-01

    1,3-Butadiene (BD) is a known rodent and human carcinogen that is metabolized mainly by P450 2E1 to three epoxides, 1,2-epoxy-3-butene (EB), 1,2:3,4-diepoxybutane (DEB), and 1,2-epoxy-3,4-butanediol. The individual epoxides vary up to 200-fold in their mutagenic potency, with DEB being the most mutagenic metabolite. It is important to understand the internal formation of the individual epoxides to assign the relative risk for each metabolite and to understand the molecular mechanisms responsible for extensive species differences in carcinogenicity. This study presents a comprehensive exposure-response for the formation of the DEB-specific N,N-(2,3-dihydroxy-1,4-butadiyl)valine (pyr-Val) in mice and rats. Using nano-ultra high pressure liquid chromatography-tandem-mass spectrometry allowed analysis of pyr-Val in mice and rats exposed to BD as low as 0.1 and 0.5 ppm BD, respectively, and demonstrated significant differences in the amounts and exposure-response of pyr-Val formation. Mice formed 10- to 60-fold more pyr-Val compared to rats at similar exposures. The formation of pyr-Val increased with exposures, and the formation was most efficient with regard to formation per parts per million BD at low exposures. While formation at higher exposures appeared linear in mice, in rats formation saturated at exposures > or = 200 ppm for 10 days. In rats, amounts of pyr-Val were lower after 20 days than after 10 days of exposure, suggesting that the lifespan of rat erythrocytes may be shortened following exposure to BD. This research supports the hypothesis that the lower susceptibility of rats to BD-induced carcinogenesis results from greatly reduced formation of DEB following exposure to BD.

  11. Evaluation of a novel inhalation exposure system to determine acute respiratory responses to tobacco and polymer pyrolysate mixtures in Swiss-Webster mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werley, Michael S; Lee, K Monica; Lemus, Ranulfo

    2009-07-01

    Modern cigarette production processes are highly automated and yield millions of cigarettes per day. The forming cigarette and its components contact many different materials in the production process, some of which may leave minute residues. The potential for small inclusions of non-cigarette materials such as wood, plastic, cardboard and other materials exists from the bulk handling and processing of tobacco, in spite of vigilant workers and numerous online systems designed to keep the tobacco stream clean. Currently, there are no published methods that describe an approach to evaluate the potential toxicological impact of these non-tobacco residues and inclusions on the biological activity from exposure to the complex mixture of tobacco smoke. There are, however, many methods which describe toxicological evaluation approaches for pure materials, particularly synthetic polymers. We used the Deutsche Institute fur Normung (DIN) 53-436 tube furnace and nose-only exposure chamber in combination to conduct pilot studies in Swiss-Webster mice in order to develop a standardized methodology for the evaluation of sensory irritation and other potentially useful biological endpoints for predicting any potential hazards. Sensory and/or pulmonary irritation was assessed based on respiratory function parameters using the ASTM E981-84 method described by Alarie (1966) in mice, exposed to test atmospheres of 100% tobacco pyrolysate or tobacco/polymer pyrolysate mixtures. Other biological evaluations included respiratory function parameters, clinical signs, body weights, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid analysis, carboxyhemoglobin, blood cyanide concentrations and histopathology of the respiratory tract. These pilot studies have demonstrated that such an approach can detect biological changes resulting from exposure to unique tobacco/polymer pyrolysates. Small differences were detected in the sensory irritation responses (respiratory function), activation state of pulmonary

  12. Inhaled corticosteroid effects both eosinophilic and non-eosinophilic inflammation in asthmatic patients.

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To determine induced sputum cell counts and interleukin-8 (IL-8), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) levels as markers of neutrophilic inflammation in moderate persistent asthma, and to evaluate the response to inhaled steroid therapy. METHODS: Forty-five moderate asthmatic patients and 10 non-smoker controls were included in this study. All patients received inhaled corticosteroid (800 microg of budesonide) for 12 weeks. Before and after treatment pulmonar...

  13. Hepatotoxic Alterations Induced by Inhalation of Trichloroethylene (TCE) in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective Trichloroethylene (TCE) is one of the most potent organic unsaturated solvents being used in dry cleaning, metal degreasing, thinner for paints varnishes and electroplating, etc. and has been reported to be a hepatotoxicant through oral and dermal exposure. However, its inhalation toxicity data is very limited in the literature due to the fact that the exposure levels associated with these effects were usually not reported. Hence, inhalation toxicity study was carried out for hepatotoxic studies. Method Inhalation toxicity studies was carried out by exposing rats to TCE for 8, 12 and 24 weeks in a dynamically operated whole body inhalation chamber. Sham treated control rats were exposed to compressed air in the inhalation chamber for the same period. Results Significant increase in liver weight (liver enlargement) appearance of necrotic lesions with fatty changes and marked necrosis were observed after longer duration (12 and 24 weeks) of TCE exposure. The lysosomal rupture resulted in increased activity of acid and alkaline phosphatase alongwith reduced glutathione content and total increased sulfhydryl content in liver tissue. Conclusion TCE exposure through Inhalation route induces hepatotoxicity in terms of marked necrosis with fatty changes and by modulating the lysosomal enzymes.

  14. Evaluation of internal alpha-particle radiation exposure and subsequent fertility among a cohort of women formerly employed in the radium dial industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schieve, L.A.; Davis, F.; Freels, S. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)] [and others

    1997-02-01

    This study examined the effect of internal exposure to {alpha}-particle radiation on subsequent fertility among women employed in radium dial industry prior to 1930, when appreciable amounts of radium were often ingested through the practice of pointing the paint brush with the lips. The analysis was limited to women for whom a radium body burden measurement had been obtained and who were married prior to age 45 (n = 603). Internal radiation dose to the ovary was calculated based on initial intakes of radium-226 and radium-228, average ovarian mass, number and energy of {alpha} particles emitted, fraction of energy absorbed within the ovary, effective retention integrals and estimated photon irradiation. Time between marriage and pregnancy, number of pregnancies and number of live births served as surrogates for fertility. Radiation appeared to have no effect on fertility at estimated cumulative ovarian dose equivalents below 5 Sv; above this dose, however, statistically significant declines in both number of pregnancies and live births were observed. These trends persisted after multivariable adjustment for potential confounding variables and after exclusion of subjects contributing a potential classification or selection bias to the study. Additionally, the high-dose group experienced fewer live births than would have been expected based on population rates. There were no differences in time to first pregnancy between high- and low-dose groups. These results are consistent with earlier studies of {gamma}-ray exposures and suggest that exposure to high doses of radiation from internally deposited radium reduces fertility rather than inducing sterility. 42 refs., 5 tabs.

  15. Evaluation of internal alpha radiation exposure and subsequent infertility among a cohort of women formerly employed in the radium dial industry.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schieve, L. A.; Davis, F.; Roeske, J.; Handler, A.; Freels, S.; Stinchcomb, T.; Keane, A.; Environmental Research; Univ. of Illinois at Chicago; Univ. of Chicago; DePaul Univ.

    1997-02-01

    This study examined the effect of internal exposure to {alpha}-particle radiation on subsequent fertility among women employed in the radium dial industry prior to 1930, when appreciable amounts of radium were often ingested through the practice of pointing the paint brush with the lips. The analysis was limited to women for whom a radium body burden measurement had been obtained and who were married prior to age 45 (n=603). Internal radiation dose to the ovary was calculated based on initial intakes of radium-226 and radium-228, average ovarian mass, number and energy of {alpha} particles emitted, fraction of energy absorbed with in the ovary, effective retention integrals and estimated photon irradiation. Time between marriage and pregnancy, number of pregnancies and number of live births served as surrogates for fertility. Radiation appeared to have no effect on fertility at estimated cumulative ovarian dose equivalents below 5 Sv; above this dose, however, statistically significant declines in both number of pregnancies and live births were observed. These trends persisted after multivariable adjustment for potential confounding variables and after exclusion of subjects contributing a potential classification or selection bias to the study. Additionally, the high-dose group experienced fewer live births than would have been expected based on population rates. There were no differences in time to first pregnancy between high- and low-dose groups. These results are consistent with earlier studies of {gamma}-ray exposures and suggest that exposure to high doses of radiation from internally deposited radium reduces fertility rather than inducing sterility.

  16. Effects of inhaled plutonium nitrate on bone and liver in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The life-span biological effects of inhaled soluble, alpha-emitting radionuclides deposited in the skeleton and liver were studied in 5 groups of 20 beagles exposed to initial lung depositions ranging from 0.48 to 518 Bq/g of lung. Average plutonium amounts in the lungs decreased to approximately 1% of the final body deposition in dogs surviving 5 years or more; more than 90% of the final depositions accumulated in the liver and skeleton. The liver-to-skeletal ratio of deposited plutonium was 0.83. The incidence of bone tumors, primarily osteogenic sarcomas causing early mortality, at final group average skeletal depositions of 15.8, 2.1, and 0.5 Bq/g was, respectively, 85%, 50%, and 5%; there were no bone tumors in exposure groups with mean average depositions lower than 0.5 Bq/g. Elevated serum liver enzyme levels were observed in exposure groups down to 1.3 Bq/g. The incidence of liver tumors at final group average liver depositions of 6.9, 1.3, 0.2, and 0.1 Bq/g, was, respectively, 25%, 15%, 15%, and 15%; one hepatoma occurred among 40 control dogs. The risk of the liver cancer produced by inhaled plutonium nitrate was difficult to assess due to the competing risks of life shortening from lung and bone tumors

  17. Effects of exposure to 17{alpha}-ethynylestradiol during larval development on growth, sexual differentiation, and abundances of transcripts in the liver of the wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tompsett, Amber R., E-mail: amber.tompsett@usask.ca [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Wiseman, Steve; Higley, Eric [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Giesy, John P. [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Dept. of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Dept. of Biology and Chemistry and State Key Laboratory for Marine Pollution, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); Hecker, Markus [Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); School of the Environment and Sustainability, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2013-01-15

    Populations of amphibians are in decline in certain locations around the world, and the possible contribution of environmental contaminants, including estrogenic compounds, to these declines is of potential concern. In the current study, responses of the wood frog (Lithobates sylvaticus) to exposure to 17{alpha}-ethynylestradiol (EE2), the synthetic estrogen used in oral contraceptives, during the larval period were characterized. Exposure of L. sylvaticus to 1.08, 9.55, or 80.9 {mu}g EE2/L had no effects on survival, growth, or metamorphic endpoints monitored in the current study. However, there were significant effects of exposure to EE2 on phenotypic sex ratios. In general, lesser proportions of L. sylvaticus developed as phenotypic males and greater proportions developed as phenotypic females or with mixed sex phenotypes at all concentrations of EE2 tested. Utilizing the data collected in the current study, the EC{sub 50} for complete feminization of L. sylvaticus was determined to be 7.7 {mu}g EE2/L, and the EC{sub 50} for partial feminization was determined to be 2.3 {mu}g EE2/L. In addition, after chronic exposure, abundances of transcripts of vitellogenin A2, high density lipoprotein binding protein, and 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase were 1.8-280-fold greater in livers from L. sylvaticus exposed to EE2 compared to controls. Overall, there were significant effects of exposure to all concentrations of EE2 tested, the least of which was within about 2-fold of estrogen equivalent concentrations previously measured in the environment.

  18. Combined exposure of F344 rats to beryllium metal and plutonium-239 dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finch, G.L.; Carlton, W.W.; Rebar, A.H. [Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-01

    Nuclear weapons industry workers have the potential for inhalation exposures to plutonium (Pu) and other agents, such as beryllium (Be) metal. The purpose of this ongoing study is to investigate potential interactions between Pu and Be in the production of lung tumors in rats exposed by inhalation to particles of {sup 239}PuO{sub 2}, Be metal, or these agents in combination. Inhaled Pu deposited in the lung delivers high-linear-energy transfer, alpha-particle radiation and is known to induce pulmonary cancer in laboratory animals. Although the epidemiological evidence implicating Be in the induction of human lung cancer is weak and controversial, various studies in laboratory animals have demonstrated the pulmonary carcinogenicity of Be. As a result, Be is classified as a suspect human carcinogen in the United STates and as a demonstrated human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. This study is in progress.

  19. Effects of inhalation exposure to a binary mixture of benzene and toluene on vitamin a status and humoral and cell-mediated immunity in wild and captive American kestrels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsgard, Mandy L; Bortolotti, Gary R; Trask, Brenda R; Smits, Judit E G

    2008-01-01

    Benzene and toluene are representative volatile organic compounds (VOC) released during production, storage, and transportation associated with the oil and gas industry and are chemicals of concern, as they are released in greater and possibly more biologically significant concentrations than other compounds. Most studies of air pollution in high oil and gas activity areas have neglected to consider risks to birds, including top-level predators. Birds can be used as highly sensitive monitors of air quality and since the avian respiratory tract is physiologically different from a rodent respiratory tract, effects of gases cannot be safely extrapolated from rodent studies. Wild and captive male American kestrels were exposed for approximately 1 h daily for 28 d to high (rodent lowest-observed-adverse-effect level [LOAEL] of 10 ppm and 80 ppm, respectively) or environmentally relevant (0.1 ppm and 0.8 ppm, respectively) levels of benzene and toluene. Altered immune responses characteristic of those seen in mammalian exposures were evident in kestrels. A decreased cell-mediated immunity, measured by delayed-type hypersensitivity testing, was evident in all exposed birds. There was no effect on humoral immunity. Plasma retinol levels as measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis were decreased in wild and captive kestrels exposed to the rodent LOAEL for combined benzene and toluene. This study indicates that American kestrels are sensitive to combined benzene and toluene. The study also illustrates the need for reference concentrations for airborne pollutants to be calculated, including sensitive endpoints specific to birds. Based on these findings, future studies need to include immune endpoints to determine the possible increased susceptibility of birds to inhaled toxicants.

  20. Correlation between work process-related exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and urinary levels of alpha-naphthol, beta-naphthylamine and 1-hydroxypyrene in iron foundry workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Omland, Øyvind; Poulsen, O M;

    1994-01-01

    In two Danish iron foundries the concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in 24 personal air samples of workers employed in selected processes, i.e. melters, melted iron transporters, casters, machine molders, hand molders, shake-out workers and finishing workers, were measured...... study demonstrates that 1-hydroxypyrene is a useful and direct biomarker of low-dose occupational exposure to PAH compounds. Molding and casting had the highest pyrene levels in iron foundries. Furthermore, the data shows that levels of beta-naphthylamine in urine are significantly elevated in iron...... foundry workers. Hand molders, finishing workers and truck drivers tended to have the highest levels. Concerning alpha-naphthol the highest concentrations were measured in urine from casters and shake-out workers. With regard to epidemiologic studies demonstrating that molders and casters have a higher...

  1. Buffett’s Alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Kabiller, David; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    Berkshire Hathaway has realized a Sharpe ratio of 0.76, higher than any other stock or mutual fund with a history of more than 30 years, and Berkshire has a significant alpha to traditional risk factors. However, we find that the alpha becomes insignificant when controlling for exposures to Betting...

  2. Inhalation cancer risk assessment of cobalt metal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Mina; Thompson, Chad M; Brorby, Gregory P; Mittal, Liz; Proctor, Deborah M

    2016-08-01

    Cobalt compounds (metal, salts, hard metals, oxides, and alloys) are used widely in various industrial, medical and military applications. Chronic inhalation exposure to cobalt metal and cobalt sulfate has caused lung cancer in rats and mice, as well as systemic tumors in rats. Cobalt compounds are listed as probable or possible human carcinogens by some agencies, and there is a need for quantitative cancer toxicity criteria. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has derived a provisional inhalation unit risk (IUR) of 0.009 per μg/m(3) based on a chronic inhalation study of soluble cobalt sulfate heptahydrate; however, a recent 2-year cancer bioassay affords the opportunity to derive IURs specifically for cobalt metal. The mechanistic data support that the carcinogenic mode of action (MOA) is likely to involve oxidative stress, and thus, non-linear/threshold mechanisms. However, the lack of a detailed MOA and use of high, toxic exposure concentrations in the bioassay (≥1.25 mg/m(3)) preclude derivation of a reference concentration (RfC) protective of cancer. Several analyses resulted in an IUR of 0.003 per μg/m(3) for cobalt metal, which is ∼3-fold less potent than the provisional IUR. Future research should focus on establishing the exposure-response for key precursor events to improve cobalt metal risk assessment. PMID:27177823

  3. Lung cancer risk of low-level exposures to alpha emitters: critical reappraisal and experiments based on a new cytodynamic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogen, Kenneth T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    1999-02-20

    Ecologic U.S. county data suggest negative associations between residential radon exposure and lung cancer mortality (LCM)-inconsistent with clearly positive associations revealed by occupational data on individual miners, but perhaps explained by competing effects of cell killing vs. mutations in alpha-exposed bronchial epithelium. To assess the latter possibility, a biologically based "cytodynamic 2-stage" (CD2) cancer-risk model was fit to combined 1950-54 age- specific person-year data on lung cancer mortality (LCM) in white females of age 40+ y in 2,821 U.S. counties (-90% never-smokers), and in 5 cohorts of underground miners who never smoked. New estimates of household annual average radon exposure in U.S. counties were used, which were found to have a significant negative ecologic association with 1950-54 LCM in U.S. white females, adjusted for age and all subsets of two among 21 socioeconomic, climatic and other factors considered. A good CD2 fit was obtained to the combined residential/miner data, using biologically plausible parameter values. Without further optimization, the fit also predicted independent inverse dose-rate effects shown (for the first time) to occur in nonsmoking miners. Using the same U.S. county-level LCM data, a separate study revealed a positive ecologic association between LCM and bituminous coal use in the U.S., in agreement with epidemiological data on LCM in women in China. The modeling results obtained are consistent with the CD2-based hypothesis that residential radon exposure has a nonlinear U-shaped relation to LCM risk, and that current linear no-threshold extrapolation models substantially overestimate such risk. A U-shaped dose-response corresponds to a CD2-model prediction that alpha radiation kills more premalignant cells than it generates at low exposure levels, but not at higher levels. To test this hypothesis, groups of Japanese medaka (ricefish minnows) were exposed for 10 to 14 weeks to different concentrations of

  4. Upregulation of estrogen receptor alpha and vitellogenin in eelpout (Zoarces viviparus) by waterborne exposure to 4-tert-octylphenol and 17beta-estradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreassen, Thomas K; Skjoedt, Karsten; Korsgaard, Bodil

    2005-01-01

    The mechanisms of action of an estrogenic chemical have been examined in a viviparous fish the eelpout (Zoarces viviparus), by identification of an upregulated estrogenic pathway--the induction of hepatic estrogen receptor mRNA, hepatic estrogen binding activity and plasma vitellogenin. A relative quantitative RT-PCR assay has been established to measure hepatic estrogen receptor alpha (ER) mRNA levels in eelpout. Assay conditions were optimised using control and induced samples to ascertain its applicability in the actual working range of ER mRNA concentrations. beta-Actin was co-amplified and used as an internal standard. Time-course effects of water exposure to 0.5 microg/L 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) and 25 microg/L of the xeno-estrogen 4-tert-octylphenol (4-tert-OP) on ER mRNA levels in the male eelpout was examined. After 48 h of exposure, ER transcripts were induced 15-fold and 6-fold in the E(2)- and OP-treated fish, respectively. This difference, however, was not apparent after 1 week of exposure, when similar high levels of ER mRNA were present in both groups (20-fold induction). This indicates that the estrogenic capacity of 4-tert-OP increases with exposure time. The effect of treatment was also evaluated by examining the induction of specific E(2) binding capacity in hepatic cytosolic extracts and by measuring vitellogenin in plasma. Both parameters were also induced by the treatments, but later in the time course. The measurement of ER mRNA by the RT-PCR assay showed to be the most sensitive method for the detection of estrogenic responses in eelpout.

  5. Liposomal formulations for inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolla, David; Gonda, Igor; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2013-08-01

    No marketed inhaled products currently use sustained release formulations such as liposomes to enhance drug disposition in the lung, but that may soon change. This review focuses on the interaction between liposomal formulations and the inhalation technology used to deliver them as aerosols. There have been a number of dated reviews evaluating nebulization of liposomes. While the information they shared is still accurate, this paper incorporates data from more recent publications to review the factors that affect aerosol performance. Recent reviews have comprehensively covered the development of dry powder liposomes for aerosolization and only the key aspects of those technologies will be summarized. There are now at least two inhaled liposomal products in late-stage clinical development: ARIKACE(®) (Insmed, NJ, USA), a liposomal amikacin, and Pulmaquin™ (Aradigm Corp., CA, USA), a liposomal ciprofloxacin, both of which treat a variety of patient populations with lung infections. This review also highlights the safety of inhaled liposomes and summarizes the clinical experience with liposomal formulations for pulmonary application. PMID:23919478

  6. Disturbance from Am-241 Photons of the Cellular Dose by Am-241 Alpha Emissions: Am-241 as an alternative source of alpha particles to radon daughters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ki-Man; Kim, Eun-Hee [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The Radiation Bioengineering Laboratory (RadBio Lab) at Seoul National University (SNU) has built an Am-241 alpha particle irradiator for study of cellular responses to radiation from radon daughters. The radon daughters of concern that cause internal exposure from inhalation of radon-contaminated air are Po-218, Po-214 and Po-210. In their alpha decay schemes, the yields of photon emissions are negligible. Unfortunately, Am-241, the source of alpha irradiator in RadBio Lab, emits photons at every alpha decay while transforming to Np-237 of long half-life. Employing Am-241 as the source simulating radon daughters, therefore, requires that photon emissions from Am-241 be specified in term of dose contribution. In this study, Monte Carlo calculations have been made to characterize dose contributions of Am-241 photon emissions. This study confirms that disturbance from Am-241 photon emissions of the cellular dose by Am-241 alpha emissions is negligible. Dose contamination fraction from photon emissions was 8.02 .. 10{sup -6} at 25 mm SSD at maximum. Also, note that LET in tissue-equivalent medium varies within about 20% for alpha particles at energies over 5 MeV.

  7. Assessing exposures to inhaled complex mixtures.

    OpenAIRE

    Leaderer, B P; Lioy, P J; Spengler, J D

    1993-01-01

    In the course of daily activities, individuals spend varying amounts of time in different spaces where they are exposed to a complex mixture of gas, vapor, and particulate contaminants. The term complex is used in this paper to refer to binary mixtures as well as truly complex mixtures of three or more constituents. The diversity of the environments where pollution may occur, the number of pollutants that may be present, and the nature of the activity in the environment combine to pose a chal...

  8. Increased expression of alpha- and beta-globin mRNAs at the pituitary following exposure to estrogen during the critical period of neonatal sex differentiation in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leffers, H; Navarro, V M; Nielsen, John E; Mayen, A; Pinilla, L; Dalgaard, M; Malagon, M M; Castaño, J P; Skakkebaek, N E; Aguilar, E; Tena-Sempere, M

    2006-04-01

    Deterioration of reproductive health in human and wildlife species during the past decades has drawn considerable attention to the potential adverse effects of exposure to xenosteroids during sensitive periods of sex development. The hypothalamic-pituitary (HP) unit is a key element in the neuroendocrine system controlling development and function of the reproductive axis; the HP unit being highly sensitive to the organizing effects of endogenous and exogenous sex steroids. To gain knowledge on the molecular mode of action and potential biomarkers of exposure to estrogenic compounds at the HP unit, we screened for differentially expressed genes at the pituitary and hypothalamus of rats after neonatal exposure to estradiol benzoate. Our analyses identified persistent up-regulation of alpha- and beta-globin mRNAs at the pituitary following neonatal estrogenization. This finding was confirmed by combination of RT-PCR analyses and in situ hybridization. Induction of alpha- and beta-globin mRNA expression at the pituitary by neonatal exposure to estrogen was demonstrated as dose-dependent and it was persistently detected up to puberty. In contrast, durable up-regulation of alpha- and beta-globin genes was not detected at the hypothalamus, cortex, cerebellum, liver and testis. Finally, enhanced levels of alpha- and beta-globin mRNAs at the pituitary were also demonstrated after neonatal administration of the anti-androgen flutamide. In summary, alpha- and beta-globin genes may prove as sensitive, pituitary-specific biomarkers of exposure to estrogenic (and/or anti-androgenic) compounds at critical periods of sex development, whose potential in the assessment of endocrine disrupting events at the HP unit merits further investigation. PMID:16520034

  9. Pathology associated with inhaled plutonium in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pathology associated with the inhalation of plutonium was studied in beagle dogs given a single exposure to aerosols of 239PuO2, 238PuO2, or 239Pu(NO3)4. The temporal-spatial relationships between plutonium deposition and the development of lesions in dogs were evaluated up to 11 years, 8 years, or 5 years, respectively, after exposures, resulting in initial lung burdens ranging from ∼2 to ∼5500 nCi. Exposure of the lung to high dose levels produced a spectrum of progressively more severe morphological changes, ranging from radiation pneumonitis to fibrosis. Lung tumors occurred at exposure levels that did not result in early death from radiation pneumonitis or fibrosis. Bronchiolar-alveolar carcinomas, papillary adenocarcinomas, epidermoid carcinomas, and combined epidermoid and adenocarcinomas were observed. Sclerosing tracheobronchial lymphadenitis, radiation osteodystrophy, osteosarcoma, and hepatic adenomatous hyperplasia were the principal extrapulmonary lesions resulting from translocation of plutonium. 15 refs., 2 tabs

  10. Characterization of the occupational exposure and air transported particles using the techniques of PIXE 252Cf PMDS and alpha spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The risk for human health due to exposure to aerosols depends on the intake pattern, the mass concentration and the speciation of the elements present in airborne particles. In this work PDMS (Plasma Desorption Mass Spectrometry) was used as complementary technique to the PIXE (Particle Induced X ray Emission) technique to characterize aerosols samples collected in the environment. The PIXE technique allows the identification of the elements present in the sample and to determine their mass concentrations. The mass spectrometry (PDMS) was used to identify the speciation of these elements present in the samples. The aerosol samples were collected using a six stage cascade impactor in three sites. The Mass Median Aerodynamic Diameter (MMAD) measured indicated that the airborne particulate were in the fine fraction of the aerosols. The theoretical uranium concentration in urine samples using ICRP lung model parameters suggest that the elemental mass concentration in respirable fraction of aerosol and the chemical speciation are important factors to determine the uranium concentration in urine and that the determination of specific solubility parameters for each compound is the most important factor to calculate the uranium concentration in urine. PIXE allows to identify and quantify the elements heavier than Na (Z=11) while PDMS allows to identify the organic and inorganic compounds present in the samples. As these techniques are used as complementary techniques they provide important information about the aerosols characterization. (author)

  11. Delayed effects of inhaled nitric acid aerosols in the rat: preliminary studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rats that inhaled transuranic nitrate aerosols in a toxicology study were simultaneously exposed to aerosols of the suspending solution, nitric acid. Results indicated that exposure to nitric acid was associated with the finding of bone tumors. Other rats, exposed to low levels of inhaled Pu(NO3)4, showed one osteosarcoma in 79 rats examined

  12. Exposure to radionuclides in smoke from vegetation fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Fernando P., E-mail: carvalho@itn.pt; Oliveira, João M.; Malta, Margarida

    2014-02-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides of uranium, thorium, radium, lead and polonium were determined in bushes and trees and in the smoke from summer forest fires. Activity concentrations of radionuclides in smoke particles were much enriched when compared to original vegetation. Polonium-210 ({sup 210}Po) in smoke was measured in concentrations much higher than all other radionuclides, reaching 7255 ± 285 Bq kg{sup −1}, mostly associated with the smaller size smoke particles (< 1.0 μm). Depending on smoke particle concentration, {sup 210}Po in surface air near forest fires displayed volume concentrations up to 70 mBq m{sup −3}, while in smoke-free air {sup 210}Po concentration was about 30 μBq m{sup −3}. The estimated absorbed radiation dose to an adult member of the public or a firefighter exposed for 24 h to inhalation of smoke near forest fires could exceed 5 μSv per day, i.e, more than 2000 times above the radiation dose from background radioactivity in surface air, and also higher than the radiation dose from {sup 210}Po inhalation in a chronic cigarette smoker. It is concluded that prolonged exposure to smoke allows for enhanced inhalation of radionuclides associated with smoke particles. Due to high radiotoxicity of alpha emitting radionuclides, and in particular of {sup 210}Po, the protection of respiratory tract of fire fighters is strongly recommended. - Highlights: • Natural radionuclides in vegetation are in low concentrations. • Forest fires release natural radionuclides from vegetation and concentrate them in inhalable ash particles. • Prolonged inhalation of smoke from forest fires gives rise enhanced radiation exposure of lungs especially due to polonium. • Respiratory protection of fire fighters and members of public is highly recommended for radioprotection reasons.

  13. Effect of inhaled crystalline silica in a rat model: Time course of pulmonary reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castranova, V.; Porter, D.; Millecchia, L.; Ma, J.Y.C.; Hubbs, A.F.; Teass, A. [NIOSH, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2002-06-01

    The time course of pulmonary reactions of rats exposed by inhalation to a non-overload level of crystalline silica was monitored. Rats were exposed to 15 mg/m{sup 3} silica, 6 h/day, 5 days/week for up to 116 days of exposure. At various times animals were sacrificed and silica lung burden, lung damage, inflammation, NF-kappaB activation, reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide production, cytokine production, alveolar type II epithelial cell activity, and fibrosis were monitored. Activation of NF-kappaB/DNA binding in BAL cells was evident after 5 days of silica inhalation and increased linearly with continued exposure. Parameters of pulmonary damage, inflammation and alveolar type II epithelial cell activity rapidly increased to a significantly elevated but stable new level through the first 41 days of exposure and increased at a steep rate thereafter. Pulmonary fibrosis was measurable only after this explosive rise in lung damage and inflammation, as was the steep increase in TNF-alpha and IL-1 production from BAL cells and the dramatic rise in lavageable alveolar macrophages. Indicators of oxidant stress and pulmonary production of nitric oxide exhibited a time course which was similar to that for lung damage and inflammation with the steep rise correlating with initiation of pulmonary fibrosis. The data demonstrate that the generation of oxidants and nitric oxide, in particular, is temporally and anatomically associated with the development of lung damage, inflammation, granulomas and fibrosis. This suggests an important role for nitric oxide in the initiation of silicosis.

  14. Exposure of the eggs to 17{alpha}-methyl testosterone reduced hatching success and growth and elicited teratogenic effects in postembryonic life stages of crayfish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, Guenter [Zoological Institute and Museum, University of Greifswald, Johann-Sebastian-Bach-Strasse 11/12, D-17487 Greifswald (Germany)], E-mail: gunter.vogt@web.de

    2007-12-30

    Testosterone is regularly found in the tissues of decapod crustaceans. Although this vertebrate-type sex hormone is not the principal factor of sex differentiation in crustaceans, it was shown to be capable of acting on the reproductive organs of shrimps and crabs. In the present study I have exposed developing eggs and stage 5 juveniles of the parthenogenetic all female marbled crayfish to 17{alpha}-methyl testosterone in order to test whether in freshwater crayfish sex can be changed from female to male by this androgen. MT did not elicit sex change, neither when administered during embryonic development nor during juvenile stage 5, the main period of proliferation of the oocytes. However, exposure to 100 {mu}g/L MT from 64% to 84% embryonic development resulted in prolonged embryonic development, reduced hatching success, reduced growth of the juveniles, and severe malformations of the appendages in the juveniles. The marbled crayfish is recommended to be considered for toxicity tests due to its easy culture in the laboratory and its genotypical uniformity.

  15. Measurement of specific parameters for dose calculation after inhalation of aerols containing transuranium elements; Mesure de parametres specifiques pour le calcul de dose apres inhalation d'aerosols renfermant des elements transuraniens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramounet-le Gall, B.; Fritsch, P.; Abram, M.C.; Rateau, G.; Grillon, G.; Guillet, K. [Lab. de Radiotoxicologie, CEA/DSV/DRR/SRCA, Bruyeres le Chatel (France); Baude, S. [Lab. de Mesures Specifiques Gaz, CEA/DAM/DASE/SRCE, Bruyeres le Chatel (France); Berard, P. [Cabinet du Conseiller medical du CEA, CEA/DEN/DPS/LABM Saclay, Gif sur Yvette (France); Ansoborlo, E. [CEA/DEN/DRCP/CETAMA, Bagnols sur Ceze (France); Delforge, J. [Lab. de Radiotoxicologie, CEA/DSV/DRR/SRCA, Bruyeres le Chatel (France)

    2002-07-01

    A review on specific parameter measurements to calculate doses per unit of incorporation according to recommendations of the International Commission of Radiological Protection has been performed for inhaled actinide oxides. Alpha activity distribution of the particles can be obtained by autoradiography analysis using aerosol sampling filters at the work places. This allows us to characterize granulometric parameters of 'pure' actinide oxides, but complementary analysis by scanning electron microscopy is needed for complex aerosols. Dissolution parameters with their standard deviation are obtained after rat inhalation exposure, taking into account both mechanical lung clearance and actinide transfer to the blood estimated from bone retention. In vitro experiments suggest that the slow dissolution rate might decrease as a function of time following exposure. Dose calculation software packages have been developed to take into account granulometry and dissolution parameters as well as specific physiological parameters of exposed individuals. In the case of poorly soluble actinide oxides, granulometry and physiology appear as the main parameters controlling dose value, whereas dissolution only alters dose distribution. Validation of these software packages are in progress. (author)

  16. Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute annual report 1987-1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mission of the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute is to investigate the magnitude of human health effects that result from the inhalation of airborne materials at home, in the work place, or in the general environment. Diseases of the respiratory tract are major causes of suffering and death, and many of these diseases are directly related to the materials that people breath. The Institute's research is directed toward obtaining a better understanding of the basic biology of the respiratory tract and the mechanisms by which inhaled materials produce respiratory disease. Special attention is focused on studying the airborne materials released by various energy technologies, as well as those associated with national defense activities. The research uses a wide-ranging, comprehensive array of investigative approaches that are directed toward characterizing the source of the airborne material, following the material through its potential transformation in the air, identifying the mechanisms that govern its inhalation and deposition in the respiratory tract, and determining the fate of these inhaled materials in the body and the health effects they produce. The ultimate objectives are to determine the roles played by inhaled materials in the development of disease processes adn to estimate the risk they pose by inhaled materials in the development of disease processes and to estimate the risk they pose to humans who may be exposed to them. This report contains brief research papers that reflect the scope and recent findings of the Institute's research funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, principally through the Office of Health and Environmental Research. The papers are divided into topical sections. The first section, Characterization of Airborne Materials and Generation of Experimental Exposure Atmospheres, reflects the Institute's capabilities for fundamental aerosol research and the application of that expertise to toxicological studies. The second

  17. 南方典型生活垃圾焚烧设施环境呼吸暴露风险评估%Inhalation Exposure Risk Assessment of A Typical Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator, South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘军; 赵金平; 杨立辉; 黄道建; 王雄; 邓东阳; 韩静磊

    2016-01-01

    average daily concentration for SO2, NO2, HCl Cd, Pb and dioxins were 0.03~0.21µg·m-3, 0.3~2.5µg·m-3, 0.01~0.04 µg·m-3, 0.07~0.56 ng·m-3, 0.03~0.22 ng·m-3and 0.01~0.07 ng·m-3, which were lower standard values and showed that the six pollutants discharged during the study period had a minor effect on the surrounding environment. In addition, the maximum daily concentration of the six pollutants located in the grid (200, 150), the maximum concentration were 22.45, 266, 4.49, 56.1, 22.5 µg·m-3and 59.5 fg·m-3, respectively. Especially for NO2, which was higher 3.3 times than the standard value. Therefore, the sensitive point that located this grid need to deserve special attention. The inhalation exposure dose and risk assessment of population who were surrounded with MSWI using US EPA risk assessment model, the results showed that the exposure dose of adults and children were declined with the increase of distance of chimney. The order of non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic compounds dangerous index HI and CR were NO2>SO2> HCl and Cd > PCDD/Fs > Pb, respectively. However, these compounds’ exposure risk was relatively low and at an acceptable level, even children can withstand higher breathing exposure dose relative to adults, in term of gender, men will be exposed to a higher dose. The results provided scientific basis for the environmental protection departments who need to master the effect on the surrounding environment and the potential health risk by the waste incineration plant.

  18. Infant with Altered Consciousness after Cannabis Passive Inhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarfin, Yehoshua; Yefet, Enav; Abozaid, Said; Nasser, Wael; Mor, Tamer; Finkelstein, Yoram

    2012-01-01

    We report on an infant who was admitted to hospital with severe neurological symptoms following passive inhalation of cannabis. To date, cannabis abuse has been described almost entirely in adolescents and adults. In early childhood, however, cannabis effects were almost exclusively discussed in the context of maternal prenatal exposure, and the…

  19. Wildlife ecological screening levels for inhalation of volatile organic chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Patricia; Lutz, Jill; Markwiese, James; Ryti, Randall; Mirenda, Rich

    2007-06-01

    For most chemicals, evaluation of ecological risk typically does not address inhalation because ingestion dominates exposure. However, burrowing ecological receptors have an increased exposure potential from inhalation at sites contaminated with volatile chemicals in the subsurface. Evaluation of ecological risk from contaminants like volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) is constrained by a lack of relevant ecological screening levels (ESLs). To address this need, inhalation ESLs were developed for 16 VOCs: Acetone, benzene, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, chloromethane, dichlorodifluoromethane, 1,1-dichloroethane, 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,1-dichloroethene, methylene chloride, tetrachloroethene, toluene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, trichloroethene, trichlorofluoromethane, and total xylene. These ESLs are based on Botta's pocket gopher (Thomomys bottae) as a representative fossorial receptor. The ESLs are presented with an emphasis on the process for developing inhalation toxicity reference values to illustrate the selection of suitable toxicity data and effect levels from the literature. The resulting ESLs provide a quantitative method for evaluating ecological risk of VOCs through comparison to relevant exposure data such as direct burrow-air measurements. The toxicity reference value development and ESL calculation processes and assumptions detailed here are provided as bases from which risk assessors can use or refine to suit site-specific needs with respect to toxicity and exposure inputs.

  20. Disposition and biological effect of inhaled 85Kr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Half-lives of approximately 5, 30, and 100 min were obtained for whole-body clearance of inhaled 85Kr in beagle dogs. Analysis showed the highest partition coefficients in lungs, bone marrow, and fat. Circulating blood elements were not lowered permanently after 85Kr exposures

  1. FATE OF INHALED NITROGEN DIOXIDE IN ISOLATED PERFUSED RAT LUNG

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fate of inhaled NO2 was studied with isolated perfused rat lungs. The isolated lungs were exposed to 5 ppm NO2 for 90 min at a ventilation rate of 45 ml/min. The NO2 exposure had no adverse effects on the lungs as judged from their weights, glucose uptake, or lactate producti...

  2. Short-course postexposure antibiotic prophylaxis combined with vaccination protects against experimental inhalational anthrax

    OpenAIRE

    Vietri, Nicholas J.; Purcell, Bret K; Lawler, James V; Leffel, Elizabeth K.; Rico, Pedro; Gamble, Christopher S.; Twenhafel, Nancy A; Ivins, Bruce E.; Heine, Henry S.; Sheeler, Ryan; Wright, Mary E.; Friedlander, Arthur M.

    2006-01-01

    Prevention of inhalational anthrax after Bacillus anthracis spore exposure requires a prolonged course of antibiotic prophylaxis. In response to the 2001 anthrax attack in the United States, ≈10,000 people were offered 60 days of antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent inhalational anthrax, but adherence to this regimen was poor. We sought to determine whether a short course of antibiotic prophylaxis after exposure could protect non-human primates from a high-dose spore challenge if vaccination was...

  3. Coefficient Alpha

    OpenAIRE

    Panayiotis Panayides

    2013-01-01

    Heavy reliance on Cronbach’s alpha has been standard practice in many validation studies. However, there seem to be two misconceptions about the interpretation of alpha. First, alpha is mistakenly considered as an indication of unidimensionality and second, that the higher the value of alpha the better. The aim of this study is to clarify these misconceptions with the use of real data from the educational setting. Results showed that high alpha values can be obtained in multidimensional scale...

  4. Inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain 4: a novel biomarker for environmental exposure to particulate air pollution in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee KY

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Kang-Yun Lee,1–3 Po-Hao Feng,1,2 Shu-Chuan Ho,4 Kai-Jen Chuang,5,6 Tzu-Tao Chen,2,3 Chien-Ling Su,2,4 Wen-Te Liu,2,4 Hsiao-Chi Chuang2,4 1Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, 2Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Shuang Ho Hospital, Taipei Medical University, 3Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, 4School of Respiratory Therapy, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, 5Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, 6School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan Abstract: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a chronic inflammatory disease that is correlated with environmental stress. Particulate matter ≤10 µm (PM10 is considered to be a risk factor for COPD development; however, the effects of PM10 on the protein levels in COPD remain unclear. Fifty subjects with COPD and 15 healthy controls were recruited. Gene ontology analysis of differentially expressed proteins identified immune system process and binding as the most important biological process and molecular function, respectively, in the responses of PM10-exposed patients with COPD. Biomarkers for PM10 in COPD were identified and compared with the same in healthy controls and included proteoglycan 4 (PRG4, inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain 4 (ITIH4, and apolipoprotein F (APOF. PRG4 and ITIH4 were associated with a past 3-year PM10 exposure level. The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that ITIH4 is a sensitive and specific biomarker for PM10 exposure (area under the curve [AUC] =0.690, P=0.015 compared with PRG4 (AUC =0.636, P=0.083, APOF (AUC =0.523, P=0.766, 8-isoprostane (AUC =0.563, P=0.405, and C-reactive protein (CRP; AUC =0.634, P=0.086. ITIH4 levels were correlated with CRP (r=0

  5. 'In-vivo' and bioassay results from two contrasting cases of plutonium-239 inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'In-vivo' and bioassay measurements following two incidents involving plutonium-239 inhalation are described and contrasted. Incident 1, involving the inhalation of insoluble plutonium oxide, resulted in a lung content of about 20 nCi after the initial clearance. Urine excretion was negligible and the estimation of exposure was based on 'in-vivo' data and faecal excretion. Incident,2, involving the inhalation of soluble plutonium, proved negligible and the estimation of exposure, based on urinary excretion, was 0.6 nCi. (author)

  6. Inhaled 239PuO2 in rats with pulmonary emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The modifying effects of a pre-existing lung disease (emphysema) on the deposition, distribution, retention, and effects of inhaled 239PuO2 in the rat are being investigated. Preliminary observations indicated that the deposition and retention patterns for 239Pu particles inhaled by rats with emphysema and control rats were similar, but the distribution of inhaled 239Pu immediately after exposure was different. Respiratory function measured through one year after exposure to 239Pu was consistent with emphysema and was not altered by the 239Pu lung burden. Long-term observations are continuing. 4 references, 2 tables

  7. Compared biokinetic and biological studies of chronic and acute inhalations of uranium compounds in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium is a natural, radioactive heavy metal, widely used in the nuclear industry in various chemical and isotopic forms. Its use in the fuel cycle involves the risk of radiological exposure for the workers, mainly via the inhalation of uranium particles. According to the workplace configuration, uranium contaminations can be acute or repeated, involve various chemical forms and different levels of enrichment, as well as involving one or several components. The dosimetric concepts and models available for workers' radiological protection, as well as most of the studies of the biological effects, correspond to acute exposure situations. Moreover the processes leading to pathological effects are little known in vivo. In this context, the main question is to know whether exposures due to repeated inhalation by rats induce the element kinetics and toxicity, which may be different from those observed after an acute exposure. In this study, comparison of the experimental and theoretical biokinetics of an insoluble uranium repeatedly inhaled over three weeks shows that a chronic contamination is correctly modelled, except for bone retention, by the sum of acute, successive and independent incorporations. Moreover, the kinetics of a soluble uranium inhaled irregularly can be modified by previous repeated exposure to an insoluble uranium. In certain cases therefore, exposure to uranium could modify its biokinetics during later exposures. At a toxicological level, the study demonstrates that the uranium particles inhaled repeatedly induce behavioural disruptions and genotoxic effects resulting in various sorts of DNA damage, in several cell types and certainly depending on the quantity inhaled. Exposures involving several uraniferous components produce a synergy effect. Moreover, repeated inhalations worsen the genotoxic effects in comparison to an acute exposure. This work demonstrates the importance of not ignoring the effects of the repetition of uranium exposure. It

  8. Effect of Formaldehyde on Asthmatic Response to Inhaled Allergen Challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Ezratty, Véronique; Bonay, Marcel; Neukirch, Catherine; Orset-Guillossou, Gaëlle; Dehoux, Monique; Koscielny, Serge; Cabanes, Pierre-André; Lambrozo, Jacques; Aubier, Michel

    2006-01-01

    Background Exposure to formaldehyde may lead to exacerbation of asthma. Objectives Our aim in this study was to investigate whether exposure to a low level (500 μg/m3) of formaldehyde enhances inhaled allergen responses. Methods Twelve subjects with intermittent asthma and allergy to pollen were exposed, at rest, in a double-blind crossover study to either formaldehyde or purified air for 60 min. The order of exposure to formaldehyde and air-only was randomized, and exposures were separated b...

  9. Effect of inhaled steroids on laryngeal microflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Mahfuz; Ekin, Selami; Ucler, Rıfkı; Arısoy, Ahmet; Bayram, Yasemin; Yalınkılıç, Abdulaziz; Bozan, Nazım; Garca, Mehmet Fatih; Çankaya, Hakan

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions As is known, this study is the first study to evaluate the effect of inhaled steroids on laryngeal microflora. The data support that ICS usage causes changes in the larynx microflora. Purpose The aim of this study was to determine the alteration in larynx microbial flora of the patients treated with ICS comparing the culture results of a control group. In addition, laryngeal microflora was compared to the smears obtained from the vallecula and pharynx. Materials and methods The study included 39 patients (mean age = 45.56 ± 12.76 years) who had been using a corticosteroid inhaler and control group consisting of 27 persons (mean age = 43.07 ± 13.23 years). Culture samples were obtained from the pharynx, larynx, and vallecula in the patient and control groups, and they were evaluated in the microbiology laboratory. Obtained culture results were named by the same microbiologist according to the basic microorganism classification method. Results Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), Streptococcus viridians (VGS) and candida albicans were detected to grow significantly more in the patient group in all three anatomic localizations compared to the control group. Neisseria spp, basillus spp, and Non-viridans alpha-hemolytic streptococcus were detected to grow significantly more in the control group in all three anatomic localizations compared to the patient group. PMID:26901427

  10. SUBCHRONIC TOXICITY OF INHALED TOLUENE IN RATS: IMMUNOLOGY, CARDIAC GENE EXPRESSION AND MARKERS OF OXIDATIVE STRESS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The health effects of long-term exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are poorly understood, due primarily to insufficient human exposure data and inconsistent animal models. To develop a rodent model of long-term exposure to VOCs, a sub-chronic inhalation study with mult...

  11. Epidemiologic approach to determining the REM dose to bronchial epithelium from radon daughter exposures in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dosimetric evaluation of exposures to the bronchial epithelial stem cells from inhalation of alpha emitters is complex and the number of assumptions required leads to substantial uncertainty. Moreover, it is evident that many factors such as variable breathing patterns will modify the results. An empirical approach to determining the rem dose biologically effective in producing bronchial cancer by inhalation of radon daughters is possible by comparison of cumulative exposure in terms of Working Level Months with the dose of penetrating low-LET radiation to produce the same bronchial cancer risk in other groups investigated. This method is possible when the dosimetry of the comparison groups is well known and lung cancer risks are reasonably well-defined. A number of epidemiologic considerations must be taken into account in such comparisons, however. These include age at exposure, length of following, age at expression of or death from cancer, and for underground miners exposed to radon daughters the lung cancer-latent period model applied to long-term exposures. Use of these methods gives results consistent with dosimetry derived from models of bronchial deposition and clearance, as well as reasonable values for the quality factor for alpha radiation. This comparison gives an average equivalent dose for a working population exposed to short-lived isotopes

  12. Safety assessment of inhaled xylitol in mice and healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kline Joel N

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Xylitol is a 5-carbon sugar that can lower the airway surface salt concentration, thus enhancing innate immunity. We tested the safety and tolerability of aerosolized iso-osmotic xylitol in mice and human volunteers. Methods This was a prospective cohort study of C57Bl/6 mice in an animal laboratory and healthy human volunteers at the clinical research center of a university hospital. Mice underwent a baseline methacholine challenge, exposure to either aerosolized saline or xylitol (5% solution for 150 minutes and then a follow-up methacholine challenge. The saline and xylitol exposures were repeated after eosinophilic airway inflammation was induced by sensitization and inhalational challenge to ovalbumin. Normal human volunteers underwent exposures to aerosolized saline (10 ml and xylitol, with spirometry performed at baseline and after inhalation of 1, 5, and 10 ml. Serum osmolarity and electrolytes were measured at baseline and after the last exposure. A respiratory symptom questionnaire was administered at baseline, after the last exposure, and five days after exposure. In another group of normal volunteers, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL was done 20 minutes and 3 hours after aerosolized xylitol exposure for levels of inflammatory markers. Results In naïve mice, methacholine responsiveness was unchanged after exposures to xylitol compared to inhaled saline (p = 0.49. There was no significant increase in Penh in antigen-challenged mice after xylitol exposure (p = 0.38. There was no change in airway cellular response after xylitol exposure in naïve and antigen-challenged mice. In normal volunteers, there was no change in FEV1 after xylitol exposures compared with baseline as well as normal saline exposure (p = 0.19. Safety laboratory values were also unchanged. The only adverse effect reported was stuffy nose by half of the subjects during the 10 ml xylitol exposure, which promptly resolved after exposure completion. BAL

  13. Inhalation delivery of asthma drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthys, H

    1990-01-01

    In the immediate future, metered-dose inhalers (MDIs) with spacers remain the aerosol application of choice for topical steroids, mainly to reduce side effects. For beta 2-agonist, anticholinergics and prophylactic drugs, MDI (with or without demand valve), dry powder inhalers (multidose inhalers), ultrasonic or jet aerosol generators (with or without mechanical breathing assistance [IPPB]) are chosen according to the preference or the ability of the patients to perform the necessary breathing maneuvers as well as the availability of different products in different countries.

  14. Inhaled formulations and pulmonary drug delivery systems for respiratory infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qi Tony; Leung, Sharon Shui Yee; Tang, Patricia; Parumasivam, Thaigarajan; Loh, Zhi Hui; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2015-05-01

    Respiratory infections represent a major global health problem. They are often treated by parenteral administrations of antimicrobials. Unfortunately, systemic therapies of high-dose antimicrobials can lead to severe adverse effects and this calls for a need to develop inhaled formulations that enable targeted drug delivery to the airways with minimal systemic drug exposure. Recent technological advances facilitate the development of inhaled anti-microbial therapies. The newer mesh nebulisers have achieved minimal drug residue, higher aerosolisation efficiencies and rapid administration compared to traditional jet nebulisers. Novel particle engineering and intelligent device design also make dry powder inhalers appealing for the delivery of high-dose antibiotics. In view of the fact that no new antibiotic entities against multi-drug resistant bacteria have come close to commercialisation, advanced formulation strategies are in high demand for combating respiratory 'super bugs'.

  15. Asbestos cement dust inhalation by hamsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wehner, A.P.; Dagle, G.E.; Cannon, W.C.; Buschbom, R.L. (Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Richland, WA (USA))

    1978-12-01

    Two groups of 96 male Syrian golden hamsters were exposed to respirable asbestos cement aerosol at concentrations of approximately 1 and approximately 10 micrograms/liter, respectively, 3 hours/day, 5 days/week. Average fiber counts ranged from 5 to about 120 fibers/cm3. Each group was randomly divided into six subgroups of 16 animals. The first subgroup was sacrificed after 3 months of exposure, the second after 6 months, and the third after 15 months. The fourth subgroup was withdrawn from exposure after 3 months, observed for an additional 3 months, and then sacrificed. The fifth and sixth subgroups were withdrawn after 3 and 6 months of exposure, respectively, and maintained for observation up to the 15-month exposure point of the third subgroup at which time all surviving animals were sacrificed. All other experimental procedures were similar to those delineated in a previous publication describing the development of an animal model, techniques, and an exposure system for asbestos cement dust inhalation. The asbestos cement exposures had no significant effect on body weight and mortality of the animals. Higher aerosol concentration and longer exposure times increased the number of macrophages and ferruginous bodies found in the lungs of the exposed animals. Recovery periods had no effect on the incidence of macrophages and ferruginous bodies. The incidence of very slight to slight fibrosis in the animals sacrificed after 15 months of exposure shows a significant (P less than 0.01) trend when the untreated control group and the 1 and 10 microgram/liter dose level groups are compared, indicating a dose-response relationship. Development of minimal fibrosis continued in animals withdrawn from exposure. No primary carcinomas of the lung and respiratory tract and no mesotheliomas were found.

  16. Inhalant Dependence and its Medical Consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet Hamid Boztaş

    2010-01-01

    The term of inhalants is used for matters easily vapors. Inhalants are preferred for rapid, positive reinforcement and mild high effects. Products including inhalants are cheap, accessible, legal substances and are prevalently used in community. The prevalence of inhalant use in secondary schools in Turkey is about 5.1%. Inhalant substance dependence is generally observed within 14-15 age group. Age at first use could be as low as 5 to 6 years of age. Substance dependence is more probable in ...

  17. Nicotine nasal spray and vapor inhaler: abuse liability assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuh, K J; Schuh, L M; Henningfield, J E; Stitzer, M L

    1997-04-01

    Acute subjective and physiological effects were examined to provide information relevant to abuse liability of new nicotine delivery systems. Subjects (n = 12) were overnight-deprived smokers who received 0, 4, 8 and 16 active puffs from nicotine-containing cigarettes (0.1 mg per puff), 0, 1, 2 or 4 nasal sprays (0.5 mg nicotine per spray) and 0, 30, 60 and 120 vapor inhalations (estimated 0.013 mg nicotine per inhalation) in a within-subject single blinded design. While smokers clearly liked cigarette puffs, there was much less evidence of liking produced by either nasal spray or vapor inhaler; only modest elevations on a measure of good drug effects were observed. The novel delivery products engendered unpleasant effects of burning throat and nose, watery eyes, runny nose, coughing and sneezing that might be expected to limit abuse liability. Nicotine plasma level and heart rate increase was dose-related for cigarettes and nasal spray but not for vapor inhaler, indicating limited nicotine delivery with the latter device. Overall, results are consistent with the conclusion that the nicotine nasal spray and vapor inhaler are of substantially lower abuse liability than cigarettes in experienced cigarette smokers receiving initial exposure to these products. PMID:9160851

  18. Health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis. Modification of models resulting from addition of effects of exposure to alpha-emitting radionuclides: Revision 1, Part 2, Scientific bases for health effects models, Addendum 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrahamson, S. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States); Bender, M.A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Boecker, B.B.; Scott, B.R. [Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Inhalation Toxicology Research Inst.; Gilbert, E.S. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-05-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has sponsored several studies to identify and quantify, through the use of models, the potential health effects of accidental releases of radionuclides from nuclear power plants. The Reactor Safety Study provided the basis for most of the earlier estimates related to these health effects. Subsequent efforts by NRC-supported groups resulted in improved health effects models that were published in the report entitled {open_quotes}Health Effects Models for Nuclear Power Plant Consequence Analysis{close_quotes}, NUREG/CR-4214, 1985 and revised further in the 1989 report NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 2. The health effects models presented in the 1989 NUREG/CR-4214 report were developed for exposure to low-linear energy transfer (LET) (beta and gamma) radiation based on the best scientific information available at that time. Since the 1989 report was published, two addenda to that report have been prepared to (1) incorporate other scientific information related to low-LET health effects models and (2) extend the models to consider the possible health consequences of the addition of alpha-emitting radionuclides to the exposure source term. The first addendum report, entitled {open_quotes}Health Effects Models for Nuclear Power Plant Accident Consequence Analysis, Modifications of Models Resulting from Recent Reports on Health Effects of Ionizing Radiation, Low LET Radiation, Part 2: Scientific Bases for Health Effects Models,{close_quotes} was published in 1991 as NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 2, Addendum 1. This second addendum addresses the possibility that some fraction of the accident source term from an operating nuclear power plant comprises alpha-emitting radionuclides. Consideration of chronic high-LET exposure from alpha radiation as well as acute and chronic exposure to low-LET beta and gamma radiations is a reasonable extension of the health effects model.

  19. Lung cancer risk at low doses of alpha particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, W; Katz, R; Zhang, C X

    1986-10-01

    A survey of inhabitant exposures arising from the inhalation of 222Rn and 220Rn progeny, and lung cancer mortality has been carried out in two adjacent areas in Guangdong Province, People's Republic of China, designated as the "high background" and the "control" area. Annual exposure rates are 0.38 working level months (WLM) per year in the high background, and 0.16 WLM/yr in the control area. In 14 yr of continuous study, from 1970 to 1983, age-adjusted mortality rates were found to be 2.7 per 10(5) living persons of all ages in the high background area, and 2.9 per 10(5) living persons in the control area. From this data, we conclude that we are unable to determine excess lung cancers over the normal fluctuations below a cumulative exposure of 15 WLM. This conclusion is supported by lung cancer mortality data from Austrian and Finnish high-background areas. A theoretical analysis of epidemiological data on human lung cancer incidence from inhaled 222Rn and 220Rn progeny, which takes into account cell killing as competitive with malignant transformation, leads to the evaluation of a risk factor which is either a linear-exponential or a quadratic-exponential function of the alpha-particle dose. Animal lung cancer data and theoretical considerations can be supplied to support either hypothesis. Thus we conclude that at our current stage of knowledge both the linear-exponential and the quadratic-exponential extrapolation to low doses seem to be equally acceptable for Rn-induced lung cancer risk, possibly suggesting a linear-quadratic transformation function with an exponential cell-killing term, or the influence of risk-modifying factors such as repair or proliferation stimuli.

  20. Potent Inhalational Anesthetics for Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satuito, Mary; Tom, James

    2016-01-01

    Nitrous oxide and the volatile inhalational anesthetics have defined anxiety and pain control in both dentistry and medicine for over a century. From curious experimentation to spectacular public demonstrations, the initial work of 2 dentists, Horace Wells and William T. G. Morton, persists to this day in modern surgery and anesthesia. This article reviews the history, similarities, differences, and clinical applications of the most popular inhalational agents used in contemporary dental surgical settings.

  1. Inhaled plutonium oxide in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project is concerned with long-term experiments to determine the life-span dose-effect relationships of inhaled 239PuO2 and 238PuO2 in beagles. The data will be used to estimate the health effects of inhaled transuranics. The tissue distribution of plutonium, radiation effects in the lung and hematologic changes in plutonium-exposed beagles with lung tumors were evaluated

  2. Subacute (28-day) toxicity of furfural in Fischer 344 rats: A comparison of the oral and inhalation route

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, J.H.E.; Muijser, H.; Appel, M.J.; Kuper, C.F.; Bessems, J.G.M.; Woutersen, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    The subacute oral and inhalation toxicity of furfural vapour was studied in Fischer 344 rats to investigate whether route-to-route extrapolation could be employed to derive the limit value for inhalation exposure from oral toxicity data. Groups of 5 rats per sex were treated by gavage daily for 28 d

  3. Inhaled delivery of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) to rats by e-cigarette vapor technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Jacques D; Aarde, Shawn M; Vandewater, Sophia A; Grant, Yanabel; Stouffer, David G; Parsons, Loren H; Cole, Maury; Taffe, Michael A

    2016-10-01

    Most human Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) use is via inhalation, and yet few animal studies of inhalation exposure are available. Popularization of non-combusted methods for the inhalation of psychoactive drugs (Volcano(®), e-cigarettes) further stimulates a need for rodent models of this route of administration. This study was designed to develop and validate a rodent chamber suitable for controlled exposure to vaporized THC in a propylene glycol vehicle, using an e-cigarette delivery system adapted to standard size, sealed rat housing chambers. The in vivo efficacy of inhaled THC was validated using radiotelemetry to assess body temperature and locomotor responses, a tail-flick assay for nociception and plasma analysis to verify exposure levels. Hypothermic responses to inhaled THC in male rats depended on the duration of exposure and the concentration of THC in the vehicle. The temperature nadir was reached after ∼40 min of exposure, was of comparable magnitude (∼3 °Celsius) to that produced by 20 mg/kg THC, i.p. and resolved within 3 h (compared with a 6 h time course following i.p. THC). Female rats were more sensitive to hypothermic effects of 30 min of lower-dose THC inhalation. Male rat tail-flick latency was increased by THC vapor inhalation; this effect was blocked by SR141716 pretreatment. The plasma THC concentration after 30 min of inhalation was similar to that produced by 10 mg/kg THC i.p. This approach is flexible, robust and effective for use in laboratory rats and will be of increasing utility as users continue to adopt "vaping" for the administration of cannabis. PMID:27256501

  4. Inhaled Drug Delivery: A Practical Guide to Prescribing Inhaler Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Ernst

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct delivery of medication to the target organ results in a high ratio of local to systemic bioavailability and has made aerosol delivery of respiratory medication the route of choice for the treatment of obstructive lung diseases. The most commonly prescribed device is the pressurized metered dose inhaler (pMDI; its major drawback is the requirement that inspiration and actuation of the device be well coordinated. Other requirements for effective drug delivery include an optimal inspiratory flow, a full inspiration from functional residual capacity and a breath hold of at least 6 s. Available pMDIs are to be gradually phased out due to their use of atmospheric ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs as propellants. Newer pMDI devices using non-CFC propellants are available; preliminary experience suggests these devices greatly increase systemic bioavailability of inhaled corticosteroids. The newer multidose dry powder inhalation devices (DPIs are breath actuated, thus facilitating coordination with inspiration, and contain fewer ingredients. Furthermore, drug delivery is adequate even at low inspired flows, making their use appropriate in almost all situations. Equivalence of dosing among different devices for inhaled corticosteroids will remain imprecise, requiring the physician to adjust the dose of medication to the lowest dose that provides adequate control of asthma. Asthma education will be needed to instruct patients on the effective use of the numerous inhalation devices available.

  5. Exposure to radionuclides in smoke from vegetation fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Fernando P; Oliveira, João M; Malta, Margarida

    2014-02-15

    Naturally occurring radionuclides of uranium, thorium, radium, lead and polonium were determined in bushes and trees and in the smoke from summer forest fires. Activity concentrations of radionuclides in smoke particles were much enriched when compared to original vegetation. Polonium-210 ((210)Po) in smoke was measured in concentrations much higher than all other radionuclides, reaching 7,255 ± 285 Bq kg(-1), mostly associated with the smaller size smoke particles (forest fires displayed volume concentrations up to 70 m Bq m(-3), while in smoke-free air (210)Po concentration was about 30 μ Bq m(-3). The estimated absorbed radiation dose to an adult member of the public or a firefighter exposed for 24h to inhalation of smoke near forest fires could exceed 5 μSv per day, i.e, more than 2000 times above the radiation dose from background radioactivity in surface air, and also higher than the radiation dose from (210)Po inhalation in a chronic cigarette smoker. It is concluded that prolonged exposure to smoke allows for enhanced inhalation of radionuclides associated with smoke particles. Due to high radiotoxicity of alpha emitting radionuclides, and in particular of (210)Po, the protection of respiratory tract of fire fighters is strongly recommended.

  6. Elaboration of a quantitative job-exposure matrix for historical exposure to airborne exposures in the Polish rubber industry.

    OpenAIRE

    de Vocht, F; Sobala, W; Peplonska, B.; Wilczynska, U.; Gromiec, J.; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N.; Kromhout, H

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A job-exposure matrix (JEM) for inhalable aerosols, aromatic amines, and cyclohexane soluble matter (CSM) was elaborated based on measurements collected routinely between 1981 and 1996. METHODS: The data were grouped based on similarities in exposure levels and time trends in different departments, and were analyzed using smoothing splines and mixed effects models. RESULTS: Although higher than in western European countries, inhalable aerosol exposure decreased after changes in pr...

  7. Toxicity of inhaled Ca-DTPA in the beagle dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are several advantages to the administration of Ca- DTPA by inhalation rather than intravenous drip for the decorporation of certain radionuclides. Among these are the possibility of treating very promptly following an accidental incorporation to achieve maximum treatment effectiveness and convenince for medical management, even to the extent that treatment can be self-administered. The present investigational New Drug permit allows treatment of humans only by the intravenous route and animal studies are required to justify the new route. Earlier work in rats and hamsters showed five successive daily inhalations of Ca-DTPA aerosols (dose 1 to 4 times human i.v. dose) produced a transitory emphysema in 17/40 rats serially sacrificed up to 3 weeks following the last exposure and in 10/20 hamsters up to 1 week after exposure. No emphysema was seen in rats sacrificed after 3 weeks and in hamsters after 1 week following the exposures. Results of tests in dogs administered DTPA by inhalation showed hyperplasia of the gastric submucosal lymphoid follicles observed 1 week following the last exposure may be treatment-related, but other observed changes were considered unrelated. (U.S.)

  8. Biokinetics and dosimetry of inhaled tritiated aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivedi, A. [Radiation Biology and Health Physics Branch, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Cheng, Y.S. [Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, New Mexico (United States)

    2000-05-01

    Inhalation of tritiated pump oils and metal tritides is a potential radiological protection problem in some situations in tritium facilities. At present, the biokinetic data and validated dose models do not generally exist for chemical forms of tritium other than tritiated water and tritium gas. This situation calls for improving our radiobiological and dosimetric understanding for inhalation of tritiated aerosols. When tritiated pump oils or metal tritides were instilled into the lung, tritium was biotransformed to organically bound tritium (OBT) and tritiated water (HTO) in the body. The biokinetics of tritium-in-urine exhibited a sum of two exponential functions for OBT and HTO: short and long-term clearance components. For tritiated pump oils, 68% of the instilled activity was excreted in feces and less than 10% in urine. More than 90% of the applied activity was retained in the lung up to 5 d post-exposure, this declined to 40% and 5% of the instilled activity 7 d and 28 d post-exposure, respectively. No major long-term storage of OBT was observed in the body. For metal tritides (i.e., titanium tritide), 37% of instilled activity was eliminated via urine, 29% via feces, and 16% through exhaled air. The results on distribution and dynamics of tritium in the body were remarkably similar with our earlier studies on percutaneous absorption of tritiated pump oils or skin-contact exposure to tritium-gas-contaminated metal surfaces. Urinary excretion bioassay data from workers exposed to metal tritides or pump oils were analyzed using the MS-Windows 95 PC version of GENMOD{sup TM} internal dosimetry code. (GENMOD implements the ICRP Publication 66 respiratory tract model and compartment models rather than retention functions of tritium compounds as describes by ICRP Publication 67). The simulated tritium urinary excretion data for exposed workers indicated that Type S solubility classification is more appropriate that Type M default as prescribed ICRP Publication 66

  9. Inhaled corticosteroid effects both eosinophilic and non-eosinophilic inflammation in asthmatic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilknur Basyigit

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To determine induced sputum cell counts and interleukin-8 (IL-8, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α and leukotriene B4 (LTB4 levels as markers of neutrophilic inflammation in moderate persistent asthma, and to evaluate the response to inhaled steroid therapy.

  10. Cherry-flavoured electronic cigarettes expose users to the inhalation irritant, benzaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmider, Leon; Sobczak, Andrzej; Prokopowicz, Adam; Kurek, Jolanta; Zaciera, Marzena; Knysak, Jakub; Smith, Danielle; Goniewicz, Maciej L

    2016-04-01

    Many non-cigarette tobacco products, including e-cigarettes, contain various flavourings, such as fruit flavours. Although many flavourings used in e-cigarettes are generally recognised as safe when used in food products, concerns have been raised about the potential inhalation toxicity of these chemicals. Benzaldehyde, which is a key ingredient in natural fruit flavours, has been shown to cause irritation of respiratory airways in animal and occupational exposure studies. Given the potential inhalation toxicity of this compound, we measured benzaldehyde in aerosol generated in a laboratory setting from flavoured e-cigarettes purchased online and detected benzaldehyde in 108 out of 145 products. The highest levels of benzaldehyde were detected in cherry-flavoured products. The benzaldehyde doses inhaled with 30 puffs from flavoured e-cigarettes were often higher than doses inhaled from a conventional cigarette. Levels in cherry-flavoured products were >1000 times lower than doses inhaled in the workplace. While e-cigarettes seem to be a promising harm reduction tool for smokers, findings indicate that using these products could result in repeated inhalation of benzaldehyde, with long-term users risking regular exposure to the substance. Given the uncertainty surrounding adverse health effects stemming from long-term inhalation of flavouring ingredients such as benzaldehyde, clinicians need to be aware of this emerging risk and ask their patients about use of flavoured e-cigarettes.

  11. Inhalable desert dust, urban emissions, and potentially biotoxic metals in urban Saharan-Sahelian air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Virginia H.; Majewski, Michael S.; Konde, Lassana; Wolf, Ruth E.; Otto, Richard D.; Tsuneoka, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    Saharan dust incursions and particulates emitted from human activities degrade air quality throughout West Africa, especially in the rapidly expanding urban centers in the region. Particulate matter (PM) that can be inhaled is strongly associated with increased incidence of and mortality from cardiovascular and respiratory diseases and cancer. Air samples collected in the capital of a Saharan–Sahelian country (Bamako, Mali) between September 2012 and July 2013 were found to contain inhalable PM concentrations that exceeded World Health Organization (WHO) and US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) PM2.5 and PM10 24-h limits 58 – 98% of days and European Union (EU) PM10 24-h limit 98% of days. Mean concentrations were 1.2-to-4.5 fold greater than existing limits. Inhalable PM was enriched in transition metals, known to produce reactive oxygen species and initiate the inflammatory response, and other potentially bioactive and biotoxic metals/metalloids. Eroded mineral dust composed the bulk of inhalable PM, whereas most enriched metals/metalloids were likely emitted from oil combustion, biomass burning, refuse incineration, vehicle traffic, and mining activities. Human exposure to inhalable PM and associated metals/metalloids over 24-h was estimated. The findings indicate that inhalable PM in the Sahara–Sahel region may present a threat to human health, especially in urban areas with greater inhalable PM and transition metal exposure.

  12. Evidence of validity of an inhalant-craving questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Matías, Lizeth; Páez-Martínez, Nayeli; Reyes-Zamorano, Ernesto; González-Olvera, Jorge J

    2015-01-01

    Inhalants are substances widely used as recreational drugs: their addictive potential has been demonstrated by many studies. There is no reported measurable evidence of craving in inhalant users. The main goal of this study was to design and obtain evidence of validity of the score of a questionnaire for the evaluation of inhalant craving (ICQ) in a Mexican population sample. The ICQ is a type of visual analog scale with ten items. Face validity was evaluated by a group of experts in the addiction field. Reviewers considered the completeness, semantics, and sentence structure to guarantee a conceptual representation of the items. The final ICQ was applied to a sample of 520 Mexican high school students, 46% women and 54% men, between 12-19 years of age (M=15.18; SD=1.48), from 7th to 12th grades. The internal consistency of the ICQ showed a Cronbach's Alpha of 0.947. The 10 items were grouped into one single factor, with a factor loading above 0.74 for each of them. ROC analysis breakpoint was located at 18.5 mm with a sensitivity of 0.855 and specificity of 0.753. Thirty-three per cent (n= 172) of the student population evaluated reported the use of inhalants at some point in their lifetimes, with an average of misuse beginning at 13.6 years of age. The ICQ showed adequate psychometric properties, suggesting that the instrument may be considered a useful tool for screening for craving in young inhalant users. PMID:26706810

  13. Evidence of validity of an inhalant-craving questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Matías, Lizeth; Páez-Martínez, Nayeli; Reyes-Zamorano, Ernesto; González-Olvera, Jorge J

    2015-12-15

    Inhalants are substances widely used as recreational drugs: their addictive potential has been demonstrated by many studies. There is no reported measurable evidence of craving in inhalant users. The main goal of this study was to design and obtain evidence of validity of the score of a questionnaire for the evaluation of inhalant craving (ICQ) in a Mexican population sample. The ICQ is a type of visual analog scale with ten items. Face validity was evaluated by a group of experts in the addiction field. Reviewers considered the completeness, semantics, and sentence structure to guarantee a conceptual representation of the items. The final ICQ was applied to a sample of 520 Mexican high school students, 46% women and 54% men, between 12-19 years of age (M=15.18; SD=1.48), from 7th to 12th grades. The internal consistency of the ICQ showed a Cronbach's Alpha of 0.947. The 10 items were grouped into one single factor, with a factor loading above 0.74 for each of them. ROC analysis breakpoint was located at 18.5 mm with a sensitivity of 0.855 and specificity of 0.753. Thirty-three per cent (n= 172) of the student population evaluated reported the use of inhalants at some point in their lifetimes, with an average of misuse beginning at 13.6 years of age. The ICQ showed adequate psychometric properties, suggesting that the instrument may be considered a useful tool for screening for craving in young inhalant users.

  14. Pharmacological Characterization of the Discriminative Stimulus of Inhaled 1,1,1-Trichloroethane

    OpenAIRE

    Shelton, Keith L.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the involvement of the GABAA, N-methy-d-aspartate (NMDA), nicotinic acetylcholine, and μ-opioid receptor systems in the transduction of the discriminative stimulus effects of the abused inhalant 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCE). Sixteen B6SJLF1/J mice were trained to discriminate 10 min of exposure to 12,000-ppm inhaled TCE vapor from air. Substitution and antagonism tests and TCE blood concentration analysis were subsequently conducted. TCE blood concentrations decrease...

  15. Inhalational Alzheimer's disease: an unrecognized—and treatable—epidemic

    OpenAIRE

    Bredesen, Dale E.

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is one of the most significant healthcare problems today, with a dire need for effective treatment. Identifying subtypes of Alzheimer's disease may aid in the development of therapeutics, and recently three different subtypes have been described: type 1 (inflammatory), type 2 (non-inflammatory or atrophic), and type 3 (cortical). Here I report that type 3 Alzheimer's disease is the result of exposure to specific toxins, and is most commonly inhalational (IAD), a phenotypic...

  16. Neurodevelopmental effects of inhaled vapors of gasoline and ethanol in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasoline-ethanol blends comprise the major fraction of the fuel used in the US automotive fleet. To address uncertainties regarding the health risks associated with exposure to gasoline with more than 10% ethanol, we are assessing the effects of prenatal exposure to inhaled vapor...

  17. Compared biokinetic and biological studies of chronic and acute inhalations of uranium compounds in the rat; Etudes biocinetique et biologique comparees d'inhalations chroniques et aigues de composes uraniferes chez le rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monleau, M

    2005-12-15

    Uranium is a natural, radioactive heavy metal, widely used in the nuclear industry in various chemical and isotopic forms. Its use in the fuel cycle involves the risk of radiological exposure for the workers, mainly via the inhalation of uranium particles. According to the workplace configuration, uranium contaminations can be acute or repeated, involve various chemical forms and different levels of enrichment, as well as involving one or several components. The dosimetric concepts and models available for workers' radiological protection, as well as most of the studies of the biological effects, correspond to acute exposure situations. Moreover the processes leading to pathological effects are little known in vivo. In this context, the main question is to know whether exposures due to repeated inhalation by rats induce the element kinetics and toxicity, which may be different from those observed after an acute exposure. In this study, comparison of the experimental and theoretical biokinetics of an insoluble uranium repeatedly inhaled over three weeks shows that a chronic contamination is correctly modelled, except for bone retention, by the sum of acute, successive and independent incorporations. Moreover, the kinetics of a soluble uranium inhaled irregularly can be modified by previous repeated exposure to an insoluble uranium. In certain cases therefore, exposure to uranium could modify its biokinetics during later exposures. At a toxicological level, the study demonstrates that the uranium particles inhaled repeatedly induce behavioural disruptions and genotoxic effects resulting in various sorts of DNA damage, in several cell types and certainly depending on the quantity inhaled. Exposures involving several uraniferous components produce a synergy effect. Moreover, repeated inhalations worsen the genotoxic effects in comparison to an acute exposure. This work demonstrates the importance of not ignoring the effects of the repetition of uranium exposure

  18. Pulmonary lesions induced by inhaled plutonium in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The histopathologic features of pulmonary fibrosis and bronchiolo-alveolar carcinoma in beagles exposed to aerosols of 238Pu or 239Pu oxide are reviewed. A hypothesis of the pathogenesis of radiation pneumonitis induced by inhalation of plutonium oxide is presented; this hypothesis included phagocytosis of Pu particles, fibrosis responding to the necrosis, and alveolar cell hyperplasia compensating for alveolar cells killed by alpha radiation. Histopathologic features of the epithelial changes suggest a progression from hyperplasia to metaplasia and, finally, to bronchiolo-alveolar carcinoma. The possibility of concurrent radiation-induced lymphopenia contributing to the development of bronchiolo-alveolar carcinoma through a loss of immunologic surveillance is discussed

  19. Pulmonary lesions induced by inhaled plutonium in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The histopathologic features of pulmonary fibrosis and bronchiolo-alveolar carcinoma in beagles exposed to aerosols of plutonium oxide were reviewed. A hypothesis of the pathogenesis of radiation pneumonitis induced by inhalation of plutonium oxide was presented; this hypothesis included phagocytosis of plutonium particles, fibrosis responding to the necrosis, and alveolar cell hyperplasia compensating for alveolar cells killed by alpha radiation. Histopathologic features of the epithelial changes suggest a progression from hyperplasia to metaplasia and, finally, to bronchiolo-alveolar carcinoma. The possibility of concurrent radiation-induced lymphopenia contributing to the development of bronchiolo-alveolar carcinoma through a loss of immunologic surveillance was discussed

  20. Acute cold exposure-induced down-regulation of CIDEA, cell death-inducing DNA fragmentation factor-alpha-like effector A, in rat interscapular brown adipose tissue by sympathetically activated beta3-adrenoreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Takahiro; Yokotani, Kunihiko

    2009-09-18

    The thermogenic activity of brown adipose tissue (BAT) largely depends on the mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), which is up-regulated by environmental alterations such as cold. Recently, CIDEA (cell death-inducing DNA fragmentation factor-alpha-like effector A) has also been shown to be expressed at high levels in the mitochondria of BAT. Here we examined the effect of cold on the mRNA and protein levels of CIDEA in interscapular BAT of conscious rats with regard to the sympathetic nervous system. Cold exposure (4 degrees C for 3h) elevated the plasma norepinephrine level and increased norepinephrine turnover in BAT. Cold exposure resulted in down-regulation of the mRNA and protein levels of CIDEA in BAT, accompanied by up-regulation of mRNA and protein levels of UCP1. The cold exposure-induced changes of CIDEA and UCP1 were attenuated by intraperitoneal pretreatment with propranolol (a non-selective beta-adrenoreceptor antagonist) (2mg/animal) or SR59230A (a selective beta(3)-adrenoreceptor antagonist) (2mg/animal), respectively. These results suggest that acute cold exposure resulted in down-regulation of CIDEA in interscapular BAT by sympathetically activated beta(3)-adrenoreceptor-mediated mechanisms in rats.

  1. Health effects due to endotoxin inhalation (review)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebers, V.; Raulf-Heimsoth, M.; Bruening, T. [Ruhr-University Bochum, BGFA, Research Institute of Occupational Medicine, German Social Accident Insurance, Bochum (Germany)

    2008-04-15

    Endotoxins are ubiquitous in the environment and represent important components of bioaerosols. High exposure occurs in rural environment and at several workplaces (e.g. waste collecting, textile industry etc.). Adverse effects on human health induced by inhalation of endotoxin are described in several studies. Up to now the endotoxin levels are mainly measured using the Limulus amoebocyte-lysate (LAL) assay. This assay is well established, but for a suitable characterization of bioaerosols more parameters are necessary. Additional information, e.g. concerning the pyrogenic activity of organic dust samples may be delivered by whole blood assay. Whereas on the one hand protection measures at workplaces are demanded to avoid lung function impairment due to endotoxin exposure, on the other hand a protective effect of exposure to microbial agents like endotoxins with regard to allergy development has been observed. On the cellular level toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and IL-1 receptor as well as surface molecules like CD14 have been shown to play a pivotal role in the endotoxin activation cascade. In this review we summarize the mechanism of endotoxin recognition and its manifold effects on human health. (orig.)

  2. Species difference in metabolism of inhaled butadiene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic exposure of B6C3F1 mice and Sprague-Dawley rats to butadiene (BD) produced a very high incidence of cancer in mice while the incidence in rats was much lower with different tissues affected. Studies at this institute indicate that for equivalent exposures, the blood BD epoxide concentrations in mice are 5-fold higher than in rats and > 10-fold higher than in Cynomolgus monkeys. In this study, the profiles of urinary metabolites of butadiene were determined in Cynomolgus monkeys, F344/N rats, Sprague Dawley rats, B6C3F1 mice and Syrian hamsters, species containing widely divergent hepatic epoxide hydrolase (EH) activities. Animals were exposed for 2 hr to 8,000 ppm [14C]BD and 24-hr urine samples were analyzed for metabolites. Two major urinary metabolites were identified, N-acetyl-S-(-1(or 2)-3-butene-2(or 1)-ol)cysteine (1) and N-acetyl-S-(-4-butane-1,2-diol)cysteine (2). Monkeys exposed by inhalation produced primarily metabolite 2, while rodent species produced 1-4 times as much of 1 compared to 2. The ratio of 2/1 formation was related to the hepatic epoxide hydrolase activity in different species. The high 2/1 ratio in monkeys was consistent with the lower blood epoxide levels in this species. If BD metabolism by humans is similar to that in the monkey, exposure of humans to BD may result in lower tissue concentrations of reactive metabolites than an equivalent exposure of rodents. This has important implications for assessing the risk to humans of BD exposure based on rodent studies

  3. An 8-Month Systems Toxicology Inhalation/Cessation Study in Apoe-/- Mice to Investigate Cardiovascular and Respiratory Exposure Effects of a Candidate Modified Risk Tobacco Product, THS 2.2, Compared With Conventional Cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Blaine; Veljkovic, Emilija; Boué, Stéphanie; Schlage, Walter K; Vuillaume, Gregory; Martin, Florian; Titz, Bjoern; Leroy, Patrice; Buettner, Ansgar; Elamin, Ashraf; Oviedo, Alberto; Cabanski, Maciej; De León, Héctor; Guedj, Emmanuel; Schneider, Thomas; Talikka, Marja; Ivanov, Nikolai V; Vanscheeuwijck, Patrick; Peitsch, Manuel C; Hoeng, Julia

    2016-02-01

    Smoking cigarettes is a major risk factor in the development and progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Modified risk tobacco products (MRTPs) are being developed to reduce smoking-related health risks. The goal of this study was to investigate hallmarks of COPD and CVD over an 8-month period in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice exposed to conventional cigarette smoke (CS) or to the aerosol of a candidate MRTP, tobacco heating system (THS) 2.2. In addition to chronic exposure, cessation or switching to THS2.2 after 2 months of CS exposure was assessed. Engaging a systems toxicology approach, exposure effects were investigated using physiology and histology combined with transcriptomics, lipidomics, and proteomics. CS induced nasal epithelial hyperplasia and metaplasia, lung inflammation, and emphysematous changes (impaired pulmonary function and alveolar damage). Atherogenic effects of CS exposure included altered lipid profiles and aortic plaque formation. Exposure to THS2.2 aerosol (nicotine concentration matched to CS, 29.9 mg/m(3)) neither induced lung inflammation or emphysema nor did it consistently change the lipid profile or enhance the plaque area. Cessation or switching to THS2.2 reversed the inflammatory responses and halted progression of initial emphysematous changes and the aortic plaque area. Biological processes, including senescence, inflammation, and proliferation, were significantly impacted by CS but not by THS2.2 aerosol. Both, cessation and switching to THS2.2 reduced these perturbations to almost sham exposure levels. In conclusion, in this mouse model cessation or switching to THS2.2 retarded the progression of CS-induced atherosclerotic and emphysematous changes, while THS2.2 aerosol alone had minimal adverse effects. PMID:26609137

  4. Measure of exposure of short-lived radon products using an alpha spectrometer for measuring indoor aerosol activity concentration and dose evaluation; Misure di esposizione ai prodotti di decadimento del radon a breve vita tramite uno spettrometro alfa per la misura dell'attivita' del particolato atmosferico indoor e valutazioni dosimetriche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berico, M.; Castellani, C.M.; Formignani, M. [ENEA, Divisione Protezione dell' Uomo e degli Ecosistemi, Centro Ricerche Ezio Clementel, Bologna (Italy); Mariotti, F. [Bologna Univ., Bologna (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica

    2001-07-01

    A new italian law introduces the regulation of occupational exposure to radon. To evaluate the inhalation of radon daughters by the workers a sampling device has been assembled with the aim of evaluation of unattached and aerosol attached radon daughters' fractions. The instrument, based on selection of the aerosuspended particles by means of a wire screen type battery and subsequent collection on a total filter, allows to describe the behaviour of both fractions using defined temporal pattern of collecting particles and counting them by alpha spectroscopy. A measurement campaign to test the radon daughter dichotomous spectrometer in comparison with a commercial Radon Working Level meter, has been performed in a research laboratory of central Italy affected by high radon concentrations. The radon concentration during the measurement campaign has been also measured. The equilibrium factor F{sub e}q ad the attachment factor fp have been evaluated during 3 days campaign. Using the measured mean parameters (radon concentration, F{sub e}q, f{sub p}) the dose evaluation for workers using dosimetric approach has been performed. A comparison between the epidemiologic approach, based on the radon concentration, and dosimetric approach is also presented. [Italian] L'esposizione a radon in ambiente lavorativo e la conseguente inalazione dei suoi prodotti di decadimento in forma particolata e' oggetto di una recente normativa italiana in materia di protezione dalle radiazioni ionizzanti. Per rispondere a questa necessita', presso l'Istituto per la Radioprotezione dell'ENEA di Bologna e' stato progettato e realizzato uno spettrometro alfa per la misura della progenie del radon con la finalita' di valutare, su brevi periodi di tempo, la concentrazione individuale dei suoi prodotti di decadimento e, con l'impiego di batterie a diffusione a reti, consentire inoltre la discriminazione della concentrazione della frazione attaccata e non

  5. Risk of human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: A case study in Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can cause adverse effects on human health. The relative contributions of their two major intake routes (diet and inhalation) to population PAH exposure are still unclear. We modeled the contributions of diet and inhalation to the overall PAH exposure of the population of Beijing in China, and assessed their human incremental lifetime cancer risks (ILCR) using a Mont Carlo simulation approach. The results showed that diet accounted for about 85% of low-molecular-weight PAH (L-PAH) exposure, while inhalation accounted for approximately 57% of high-molecular-weight PAH (H-PAH) exposure of the Beijing population. Meat and cereals were the main contributors to dietary PAH exposure. Both gaseous- and particulate-phase PAHs contributed to L-PAH exposure through inhalation, whereas exposure to H-PAHs was mostly from the particulate-phase. To reduce the cancer incidence of the Beijing population, more attention should be given to inhaled particulate-phase PAHs with considerable carcinogenic potential. - Highlights: • We modeled the contributions of diet and inhalation to population PAH exposure. • Diet contributed 85% of population exposure to low molecular-weight PAHs. • Inhalation contributed 57% of population exposure to high molecular-weight PAHs. • The PAH exposure level with body-weight adjustment decreased with age increasing. • The population cancer risk of PAH exposure is lower than the serious risk level. - The exposure of the Beijing population to carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was mainly from inhaled particulate matter

  6. Alpha fetoprotein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetal alpha globulin; AFP ... Greater than normal levels of AFP may be due to: Cancer in testes , ovaries, biliary (liver secretion) tract, stomach, or pancreas Cirrhosis of the liver Liver cancer ...

  7. Impact of inhalation therapy on oral health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet Godara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Inhalation therapy has been employed as the mainstay of the treatment in chronic respiratory diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Beta-2 agonists, anticholinergic bronchodilators, inhaled corticosteroids, and sodium cromoglycate are often used alone or in combination in an inhaled form. Studies have shown that inhaled drugs used in the treatment have some adverse effects on the oral health based on their dosage, frequency, and duration of use. Several oral conditions such as xerostomia, dental caries, candidiasis, ulceration, gingivitis, periodontitis, and taste changes have been associated with inhalation therapy. Since the prevalence of chronic respiratory diseases is rising, it is important to provide optimal oral care to the individuals receiving inhalation therapy. This article will review the influence of inhaled drugs on the oral health of individuals and adequate management and prevention of the same.

  8. Respiratory exposure control valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have designed a new, three-way valve that separates inhaled and exhaled air in systems for inhalation exposure. A single-channel model of the valve was constructed and tested: with a control fluid pressure of 10 psi, the valve was cycled 36,000 times without diaphragm failure. No valve leakage was detected before or after the completion of the test. A 3-channel valve model was constructed this year and will undergo testing in FY 1979, followed by development and testing of the control system

  9. [A welder with chemical pneumonitis caused by inhalation of zinc fume].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tojima, H; Ando, T; Kishikawa, H; Tokudome, T

    1998-04-01

    A 61-year-old man with a 32-year occupational history of welding developed malaise, cough, and dyspnea after inhalation of smoke while welding galvanized steel. On admission, peripheral leukocytosis, hypoxemia, and diffuse granular and linear opacities on a chest X-ray were present. The bronchioli were exaggerated in a chest high-resolution CT. Bronchoalveolar lavage revealed mild lymphocytosis and transbronchial lung biopsy showed siderosis and exudation of fibrin and neutrophils into alveolar spaces. The clinical and radiographic findings later improved except for an obstructive disorder on pulmonary function test. The respiratory health hazards associated with welding vary according to the materials and the concentration of inhaled substances. Acute chemical pneumonitis caused by inhalation of zinc fumes (zinc oxide) was accompanied by chronic siderosis in this case. It is well known that metal fume fever commonly occurs when inhaling zinc oxide fumes. However acute chemical pneumonitis after exposure to zinc oxide during welding has been only rarely reported.

  10. Toxicity of 144Ce inhaled in a relatively insoluble form by immature Beagle dogs. XVII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immature Beagle dogs (3-mo old) received a single, brief inhalation exposure to 144Ce in fused aluminosilicate particles as part of a series of studies designed to study the effects of age on dose response relationships for inhaled radionuclides. Forty-nine dogs inhaled graded levels of 144Ce that resulted in initial lung burdens ranging from 0.004-140 μCi/kg 0.15-5200 kBq/kg) body weight. Five control dogs inhaled nonradioactive fused aluminosilicate particles. Forty-one of the 144Ce-exposed dogs have died: 11 with lung tumors 4 with tumors of the tracheobronchial lymph nodes, with a nasal cavity tumor, and 9 with non neoplastic diseases of the respiratory tract. Observations are continuing on the 8 144Ce-exposed dogs that are surviving at this time. (author)

  11. Carcinogenesis of inhaled radio daughters with uranium ore dust in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daily exposures of adult beagle dogs to inhaled radon daughters and to uranium ore dust for 4-1/2 to 6 yr have produced respiratory tract carcinomas, at similar cumulative working level months (WLM) of exposures to those which induced carcinomas in uranium miners. Biological data from the beagle-dog experiments can therefore be used for prediction of carcinogenic risk under changing exposure conditions in future uranium miners

  12. Inhaled Therapies for Pulmonary Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Nicholas S; Preston, Ioana R; Roberts, Kari E

    2015-06-01

    The inhaled route has a number of attractive features for treatment of pulmonary hypertension, including delivery of drug directly to the target organ, thus enhancing pulmonary specificity and reducing systemic adverse effects. It can also improve ventilation/perfusion matching by dilating vessels supplying ventilated regions, thus improving gas exchange. Furthermore, it can achieve higher local drug concentrations at a lower overall dose, potentially reducing drug cost. Accordingly, a number of inhaled agents have been developed to treat pulmonary hypertension. Most in current use are prostacyclins, including epoprostenol, which has been cleared for intravenous applications but is used off-label in acute care settings as a continuously nebulized medication. Aerosolized iloprost and treprostinil are both prostacyclins that have been cleared by the FDA to treat pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Both require frequent administration (6 and 4 times daily, respectively), and both have a tendency to cause airway symptoms, including cough and wheeze, which can lead to intolerance. These agents cannot be used to substitute for the infused routes of prostacyclin because they do not permit delivery of medication at high doses. Inhaled nitric oxide (INO) is cleared for the treatment of primary pulmonary hypertension in newborns. It is also used off-label to test acute vasoreactivity in PAH during right-heart catheterization and to treat acute right-heart failure in hospitalized patients. In addition, some studies on long-term application of INO either have been recently completed with results pending or are under consideration. In the future, because of its inherent advantages in targeting the lung, the inhaled route is likely to be tested using a variety of small molecules that show promise as PAH therapies. PMID:26070575

  13. Alpha-Fe(2)O(3) elicits diameter-dependent effects during exposure to an in vitro model of the human placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, James J; Zhang, Wen; Chen, Yongsheng; Capco, David G

    2014-02-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles offer unique possibilities due to the change in their physico-chemical parameters when synthesized on the nanoscale (10(-9) m) compared to their bulk forms. While novel uses exist for these materials when synthesized as nanoparticles, their unintended effects on the human body and specifically during pregnancy remain ill defined. In this study, an iron oxide nanoparticle, α-Fe2O3, was employed and the potential toxicity due to exposure was assessed in the widely used model human placental cell line BeWo b30. These cells were grown as epithelia, and subsequently assessed for their epithelial integrity, reactive oxygen species production and cellular viability, ultrastructural and morphological disruption, and genotoxicity as a result of exposure to α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles. Transepithelial electrical resistance indicated that exposure to the large (50 and 78 nm), but not small (15 nm) diameter particles of α-Fe2O3 nanomaterial resulted in leakiness of the epithelium. Exposure to the large diameters of 50 and 78 nm resulted in increases in cell death and reactive oxygen species. Disruption of junctional integrity as monitored by immunolocalization of the tight junction protein ZO-1 was found to occur as a consequence of exposure to large diameter NPs. It was found that there was reduction in the number of microvilli responsible for increased surface area for nutrient absorption after exposing the epithelia to large diameter NPs. Finally, genotoxicity as assessed by DNA microarray and confirmed by QPCR indicated that the large diameter particles (78 nm) induce apoptosis in these cells. These data indicate that large (50 and 78 nm), but not small (15 nm) α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles disrupt the barrier function of this epithelium as assessed by in vitro analysis. PMID:24463955

  14. [Significance of inhaled environmental allergens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zochert, J

    1983-01-01

    Whereas the importance of pollen as inhalative allergens has been largely investigated and is generally known, the experience in the frequency and the role of the sensibilization with air-borne fungi is relatively limited. In 720 patients with Asthma bronchiale the degree of sensitization has been tested with various extracts of air-borne fungi of SSW Dresden (mould mixture, aspergillin, mucor, cladosporium and penicillium and alternaria). The most frequent and also the strongest reactions were found with alternaria and the smallest part of positive skin reactions with penicillium. An isolated sensitization with mould has been demonstrated in 20 per cent of the cases. In 60 per cent of the tested patients a manifest mould allergy was shown by means of the Inhalative Allergen Test, the most favourable correlation between Intracutaneous Test (ICT) and Inhalative Test (IAT) was found with alternaria (76%). A conformance between ICT and basophils degranulation test (BDT) was stated in 69% of the cases. The aim should be comparable tests with allergen extracts without irritative effects and qualitative measurements of air-borne fungi. PMID:6649704

  15. Inhalation carcinogenicity study with nickel metal powder in Wistar rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidemiological studies of nickel refinery workers have demonstrated an association between increased respiratory cancer risk and exposure to certain nickel compounds (later confirmed in animal studies). However, the lack of an association found in epidemiological analyses for nickel metal remained unconfirmed for lack of robust animal inhalation studies. In the present study, Wistar rats were exposed by whole-body inhalation to 0, 0.1, 0.4, and 1.0 mg Ni/m3 nickel metal powder (MMAD = 1.8 μm, GSD = 2.4 μm) for 6 h/day, 5 days/week for up to 24 months. A subsequent six-month period without exposures preceded the final euthanasia. High mortality among rats exposed to 1.0 mg Ni/m3 nickel metal resulted in the earlier termination of exposures in this group. The exposure level of 0.4 mg Ni/m3 was established as the MTD for the study. Lung alterations associated with nickel metal exposure included alveolar proteinosis, alveolar histiocytosis, chronic inflammation, and bronchiolar-alveolar hyperplasia. No increased incidence of neoplasm of the respiratory tract was observed. Adrenal gland pheochromocytomas (benign and malignant) in males and combined cortical adenomas/carcinomas in females were induced in a dose-dependent manner by the nickel metal exposure. The incidence of pheochromocytomas was statistically increased in the 0.4 mg Ni/m3 male group. Pheochromocytomas appear to be secondary to the lung toxicity associated with the exposure rather than being related to a direct nickel effect on the adrenal glands. The incidence of cortical tumors among 0.4 mg Ni/m3 females, although statistically higher compared to the concurrent controls, falls within the historical control range; therefore, in the present study, this tumor is of uncertain relationship to nickel metal exposure. The lack of respiratory tumors in the present animal study is consistent with the findings of the epidemiological studies

  16. Subchronic exposure of mice to Love Canal soil contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silkworth, J B; McMartin, D N; Rej, R; Narang, R S; Stein, V B; Briggs, R G; Kaminsky, L S

    1984-04-01

    The health hazard potential of soil collected from the surface of the Love Canal chemical dump site in Niagara Falls, New York, was assessed in 90-day exposure studies. Female CD-1 mice were exposed to two concentrations of the volatile components of 1 kg of soil with and without direct soil contact. Control mice were identically housed but without soil. The soil was replaced weekly and 87 compounds were detected in the air in the cages above fresh and 7-day-old soil as analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The concentration of many of these compounds decreased during the 7-day exposure cycle. Histopathologic, hematologic, and serum enzyme studies followed necropsy of all mice. There was no mortality of mice exposed for up to 90 days under any condition. Thymus and spleen weights relative to body weight were increased after 4 weeks of exposure by inhalation but not after 8 or 12 weeks of exposure. alpha-, beta-, and delta- Benzenehexachlorides , pentachlorobenzene, and hexachlorobenzene were detected in liver tissue from these animals. Mice exposed to 5- to 10-fold elevated concentration of volatiles had increased body and relative kidney weights. There was no chemically induced lesion in any animal exposed only to the volatile soil contaminants. Mice exposed by direct contact with the soil without elevated volatile exposure had increased body (10%) and relative liver weights (169%). Centrolobular hepatocyte hypertrophy, which involved 40 to 70% of the lobules, was observed in all mice in this group.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Effects of inhaled hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) on guinea pig cholinesterases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karol, M H; Hansen, G A; Brown, W E

    1984-04-01

    Hexamethylene diisocyanate, HDI, a starting material in the production of many polyurethane products, was found to inhibit stoichiometrically mammalian and electric eel cholinesterases in an in vivo system (W. E. Brown, A. H. Green, M. H. Karol, and Y. Alarie , 1982, Toxicol . Appl. Pharmacol. 62, 45-52). The current study examined in vivo effects on guinea pig cholinesterases resulting from inhalation of HDI. Guinea pigs were exposed to atmospheres of 0.5, 1.8, or 4.0 ppm HDI (ceiling value = 0.02 ppm) for up to 6 hr. Blood samples were drawn prior to exposure and at specified times during exposure. No inhibition of serum cholinesterase was detected following exposure to 0.5 ppm HDI for 6 hr, to 1.8 ppm HDI for 2 hr, or to 4.0 ppm HDI for 3 hr. Similarly, no inhibition was detected when erythrocytes from each blood sample were assayed for acetylcholinesterase activity. Last, animals were sacrificed and cholinesterase activity determined in bronchial lavage fluid. Enzyme levels of HDI-exposed animals were not significantly different (P greater than 0.05) from those of control animals exposed to water vapor. In conclusion, although in vitro experiments had demonstrated potent anticholinesterase activity by HDI, in vivo inhalation exposure of guinea pigs to HDI at concentrations 25-200 times above the recommended (ACGIH) ceiling value did not produce measurable inhibition of cholinesterase activity. PMID:6724200

  18. $\\alpha_s$ review (2016)

    CERN Document Server

    d'Enterria, David

    2016-01-01

    The current world-average of the strong coupling at the Z pole mass, $\\alpha_s(m^2_{Z}) = 0.1181 \\pm 0.0013$, is obtained from a comparison of perturbative QCD calculations computed, at least, at next-to-next-to-leading-order accuracy, to a set of 6 groups of experimental observables: (i) lattice QCD "data", (ii) $\\tau$ hadronic decays, (iii) proton structure functions, (iv) event shapes and jet rates in $e^+e^-$ collisions, (v) Z boson hadronic decays, and (vi) top-quark cross sections in p-p collisions. In addition, at least 8 other $\\alpha_s$ extractions, usually with a lower level of theoretical and/or experimental precision today, have been proposed: pion, $\\Upsilon$, W hadronic decays; soft and hard fragmentation functions; jets cross sections in pp, e-p and $\\gamma$-p collisions; and photon F$_2$ structure function in $\\gamma\\,\\gamma$ collisions. These 14 $\\alpha_s$ determinations are reviewed, and the perspectives of reduction of their present uncertainties are discussed.

  19. Late effects following inhalation of mixed oxide (U,PuO2) mox aerosol in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to alpha-emitting particles is a potential long-term health risk to workers in nuclear fuel fabrication plants. Mixed Oxide (MOX: U,PuO2) fuels containing low percentages of plutonium obtained from spent nuclear fuels are increasingly employed and in the case of accidental contamination by inhalation or wounds may result in the development of late-occurring pathologies such as lung cancer. However the long term risks particularly with regard to lung cancer are to date unclear. In the case of MOX the risk may indeed be different from that assigned to the individual components, plutonium and uranium. Several factors are influential (i) the dissolution of Pu depends on the physico-chemical properties, for example risk of lung cancer is increased 10 fold after Pu(NO3)2 as compared with PuO2. (ii) The solubility of Pu is variable whether delivered as PuO2 or contained within MOX. (iii) The risk of cancer appears to increase with spatial homogeneity of the lung alpha dose. The objective of this study was to investigate the long term effects in rat lungs following MOX aerosol inhalation of similar particle size containing 2.5 or 7.1% Pu. Conscious rats were exposed to MOX aerosols using a 'nose-only' system and kept for their entire life (2-3 years). Different Initial Lung Deposits (ILDs) were obtained using different concentrations of the MOX suspension. Lung total alpha activity was determined in vivo at intervals over the study period by external counting as well as at autopsy in order to estimate the total lung dose. Anatomo-pathological and immunohistochemical analyses were performed on fixed lung tissue after euthanasia. The frequencies of lung pathologies and tumours were determined on lung sections at several different levels. In addition, autoradiography of lung sections was performed in order to assess the spatial localisation of a activity. Inhalation of MOX at ILD ranging from 1-20 kBq resulted in lung pathologies (90% of exposed rats) including

  20. Training Issues in the Use of Inhalers

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Duerden; David Price

    2001-01-01

    Patient compliance and techniques used with inhalation devices can strongly influence the effectiveness of inhaled medications but these issues are often poorly recognized and may be neglected when these products are prescribed. The extent of these problems and the success of differing education and training programs designed to improve inhaler technique have been evaluated by a review of the literature using Medline, EMBASE and Biosis Database from 1985 to date. Drug delivery to the airways ...

  1. Subchronic inhalation toxicity of gold nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Yong

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gold nanoparticles are widely used in consumer products, including cosmetics, food packaging, beverages, toothpaste, automobiles, and lubricants. With this increase in consumer products containing gold nanoparticles, the potential for worker exposure to gold nanoparticles will also increase. Only a few studies have produced data on the in vivo toxicology of gold nanoparticles, meaning that the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME of gold nanoparticles remain unclear. Results The toxicity of gold nanoparticles was studied in Sprague Dawley rats by inhalation. Seven-week-old rats, weighing approximately 200 g (males and 145 g (females, were divided into 4 groups (10 rats in each group: fresh-air control, low-dose (2.36 × 104 particle/cm3, 0.04 μg/m3, middle-dose (2.36 × 105 particle/cm3, 0.38 μg/m3, and high-dose (1.85 × 106 particle/cm3, 20.02 μg/m3. The animals were exposed to gold nanoparticles (average diameter 4-5 nm for 6 hours/day, 5 days/week, for 90-days in a whole-body inhalation chamber. In addition to mortality and clinical observations, body weight, food consumption, and lung function were recorded weekly. At the end of the study, the rats were subjected to a full necropsy, blood samples were collected for hematology and clinical chemistry tests, and organ weights were measured. Cellular differential counts and cytotoxicity measurements, such as albumin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, and total protein were also monitored in a cellular bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid. Among lung function test measurements, tidal volume and minute volume showed a tendency to decrease comparing control and dose groups during the 90-days of exposure. Although no statistically significant differences were found in cellular differential counts, histopathologic examination showed minimal alveoli, an inflammatory infiltrate with a mixed cell type, and increased macrophages in the high-dose rats. Tissue

  2. Phthalate exposure and health outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastogi S

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Phthalates are used in commercial products as softners of plastics, solvents in perfumes and additives to hair sprays, lubricants and insect repellents. The wide spread use of phthalate results in multiple human exposure routes i.e., ingestion, inhalation and dermal exposure. In the present review, a detailed account of respiratory toxicity, reproductive toxicity, developmental toxicity, endocrine disruptors and genotoxicity of human exposure to phthalate is mentioned in detail.

  3. [Inhalation of nitric oxide - dependence: case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, W B; Matsumoto, T; Horita, S M; Almeida, N M; Martins, F R

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Describe the hemodynamic response with rebound of pulmonary hypertension after withdrawal of inhaled nitric oxide (NO) in a pediatric patient with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). METHODS: Case report of a child with ARDS and pulmonary hypertension evaluated through ecocardiografic with dopller, receiving inhaled NO for a period of 21 days. RESULTS: There was a decrease of the pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) from 52 mmHg to 44 mmHg after the initial titulation of NO inhalation dose. After the withdrawal of inhaled NO an elevation of PAP was observed (55 mmHg). It was necessary to reinstall the inhaled NO to obtain a more appropriate value (34 mmHg). A new attempt of interruption of the inhaled NO after prolonged inhalation (20 days) resulted in a new clinic worsening and increase of PAP, with the indication to reinstall the inhaled NO. In the 24th day of permanence in the intensive care unit the patient died due to multiple organ dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS: The possibility of pulmonary hypertension rebound after withdrawal of inhaled NO is a complication that may have important clinical implications for patients who need a prolonged treatment with NO. This case report emphasizes these implications. PMID:14647690

  4. Interspecies comparison of the metabolism and dosimetry of inhaled mixed oxides of plutonium and uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three studies were conducted to provide information on the biological fate, distribution of radiation doses among tissues, and implications for potential health consequences of an inhalation exposure to mixed-oxide nuclear fuel materials. In each study, Fischer-344 rats, beagle dogs, and cynomolgus monkeys inhaled one of three aerosols: 750 degrees C calcined mixed oxides of UO2 and PuO2, 1750 degrees C sintered (U,Pu)O2, or 850 degrees C calcined open-quotes pureclose quotes PuO2. These materials were collected from glove-box enclosures immediately after industrial processing of mixed-oxide fuel materials. Lung retention, tissue distribution, and mode of excretion of 238-240Pu, 241Am, and uranium (when present) were quantified by radiochemical analysis of tissue and excreta samples from animals sacrificed at selected times to 6.5 yr after inhalation exposure

  5. Estimation of inhalation radiation doses associated with a strontium-90 dirty bomb event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The initial stage of dispersion of 90 Sr radiological dispersion device (dirty bomb) in a terrorist event was investigated on the basis of a numerical solution of the full system of Navier-Stokes equations. Maximum inhalation doses at the level of ≥1, ≥5, ≥10, ≥50 mSv are used as evaluative criteria to assess probable consequences. The intentional release of a relatively small amount of 90 Sr using a conventional explosive has the potential to cause internal exposure to beta-radiation with relatively high maximum inhalation doses achieving hundreds of mSv, but the spatial extent of the area within which high exposures might occur is very small with most of the population receiving maximum inhalation doses between 1-10 mSv. The extent of radiation contamination (area and activity) is dependent on 90 Sr particle size, the height of release, and local weather conditions

  6. Reduced embryonic survival in rainbow trout resulting from paternal exposure to the environmental estrogen 17 alpha- ethynylestradiol during late sexual maturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Kim H. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States); Schultz, Irvin R. [Battelle PNNL, Sequin, WA (United States). Marine Science Lab; Nagler, James J. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States)

    2007-11-01

    Exposure of fishes to environmental estrogens is known to affect sexual development and spawning, but little information exists regarding effects on gametes. This study evaluated embryonic survival of offspring from male rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to 17a-ethynylestradiol (EE2)using an in vitro fertilization protocol. Males were exposed at either 1800 or 6700 degree days (8d) (i.e. 161 or 587 days post-fertilization (dpf)) to test for effects on testes linked to reproductive ontogeny. At 18008d, fish were beginning testicular differentiation and were exposed to 109 ng EE2/l for 21 days. At 67008d, fish have testes containing spermatocytes and spermatids and were exposed for 56 days to either 0.8, 8.3, or 65 ng EE2/l. Semen was collected at full sexual maturity in each group and used to fertilize eggs pooled from several non-exposed females. Significant decreases in embryonic survival were observed only with the 67008d exposure. In 0.8 and 8.3 ng EE2/l treatments, embryo survival was significantly reduced at 19 dpf when compared with the control. In contrast, an immediate decrease in embryonic survival at 0.5 dpf was observed in the 65 ng EE2/l treatment. Blood samples collected at spawning from 67008d exposed males revealed a significant decrease in 11-ketotestosterone and a significant increase in luteinizing hormone levels for the 65 ng EE2/l treatment when compared with the other treatment groups. Results indicate that sexually maturing male rainbow trout are susceptible to EE2 exposure with these fish exhibiting two possible mechanisms of reduced embryonic survival through sperm varying dependant

  7. Inhalation anaesthetics and climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Peter Sulbæk; Sander, S P; Nielsen, O J;

    2010-01-01

    Although the increasing abundance of CO(2) in our atmosphere is the main driver of the observed climate change, it is the cumulative effect of all forcing agents that dictate the direction and magnitude of the change, and many smaller contributors are also at play. Isoflurane, desflurane......, and sevoflurane are widely used inhalation anaesthetics. Emissions of these compounds contribute to radiative forcing of climate change. To quantitatively assess the impact of the anaesthetics on the forcing of climate, detailed information on their properties of heat (infrared, IR) absorption and atmospheric...

  8. A Proposed In Vitro Method to Assess Effects of Inhaled Particles on Lung Surfactant Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørli, Jorid B; Da Silva, Emilie; Bäckman, Per; Levin, Marcus; Thomsen, Birthe L; Koponen, Ismo K; Larsen, Søren T

    2016-03-01

    The lung surfactant (LS) lining is a thin liquid film covering the air-liquid interface of the respiratory tract. LS reduces surface tension, enabling lung surface expansion and contraction with minimal work during respiration. Disruption of surface tension is believed to play a key role in severe lung conditions. Inhalation of aerosols that interfere with the LS may induce a toxic response and, as a part of the safety assessment of chemicals and inhaled medicines, it may be relevant to study their impact on LS function. Here, we present a novel in vitro method, based on the constrained drop surfactometer, to study LS functionality after aerosol exposure. The applicability of the method was investigated using three inhaled asthma medicines, micronized lactose, a pharmaceutical excipient used in inhaled medication, and micronized albumin, a known inhibitor of surfactant function. The surfactometer was modified to allow particles mixed in air to flow through the chamber holding the surfactant drop. The deposited dose was measured with a custom-built quartz crystal microbalance. The alterations allowed the study of continuously increasing quantified doses of particles, allowing determination of the dose of particles that affects the LS function. The tested pharmaceuticals did not inhibit the function of a model LS even at extreme doses--neither did lactose. Micronized albumin, however, impaired surfactant function. The method can discriminate between safe inhaled aerosols--as exemplified by the approved inhaled medicines and the pharmaceutical excipient lactose--and albumin known to impair lung functionality by inhibiting LS function. PMID:26524226

  9. Dose-effect studies with inhaled plutonium oxide in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beagle dogs given single exposure to 239PuO2 or 238PuO2 aerosols are being observed for life-span dose-effect relationships. The 239Pu body burden of the nine dogs dying due to pulmonary fibrosis-induced insufficiency during the first 3 years after exposure was 1 to 12 μCi. One of these dogs had a pulmonary tumor. Three additional dogs with body burdens of 0.7 to 1.8 μCi died due to pulmonary neoplasia 4-1/2 years after exposure. None of the dogs exposed to 238Pu have died during the first two postexposure years. After inhalation of 239PuO2 or 238PuO2 lymphocytopenia was the earliest observed effect, occuring 0.5 to 2 years after deposition of greater than or equal to 80 nCi plutonium in the lungs

  10. Health effects from the inhalation of oxidant air pollutants as related to the immune system. Final report. Research report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osebold, J.W.; Zee, Y.C.

    1985-07-01

    The investigations dealt with links between ozone inhalation and lung diseases. Mice exposed to ozone both continuously and intermittently in four-day cycles showed allergic sensitization to the test antigen (ovalbumin) when compaired to mice maintained in ambeint air. An adjuvant (inactivated Bordetella pertussis cells) administered to mice augmented the immunological response to the test antigen with periodic exposure to ozone. Guinea pigs were tested for allergic sensitization from ozone exposure similar to human asthma, but this trial was not definitive. Ozone inhalation reduced the severity of pneumonia in mice from influenza virus infection, even when ozone and virus exposures were timed to produce maximal edema in the lung.

  11. ACRO: a computer program for calculating organ doses from acute or chronic inhalation and ingestion of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ACRO was developed as a computer program to calculate internal exposure doses resulting from acute or chronic inhalation and oral ingestion of radionuclides. The ICRP Task Force Lung Model (TGLM) was used as the inhalation model in ACRO, and a simple one-compartment model was used as the ingestion model. The program is written in FORTRAN IV, and it requires about 260 KB memory capacity

  12. The $\\alpha-\\alpha$ fishbone potential revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Day, J P; Elhanafy, M; Smith, E; Woodhouse, R; Papp, Z

    2011-01-01

    The fishbone potential of composite particles simulates the Pauli effect by nonlocal terms. We determine the $\\alpha-\\alpha$ fishbone potential by simultaneously fitting to two-$\\alpha$ resonance energies, experimental phase shifts and three-$\\alpha$ binding energies. We found that essentially a simple gaussian can provide a good description of two-$\\alpha$ and three-$\\alpha$ experimental data without invoking three-body potentials.

  13. Inhaled corticosteroid treatment modulates ZNF432 gene variant's effect on bronchodilator response in asthmatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ann C.; Himes, Blanca E.; Lasky-Su, Jessica; Litonjua, Augusto; Peters, Stephen P.; Lima, John; Kubo, Michiaki; Tamari, Mayumi; Nakamura, Yusuke; Qiu, Weiliang; Weiss, Scott T.; Tantisira, Kelan

    2013-01-01

    Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) influence a patient's response to inhaled corticosteroids and β2-agonists, and the effect of treatment with inhaled corticosteroids is synergistic with the effect of β2-agonists. We hypothesized that use of inhaled corticosteroids could influence the effect of SNPs associated with bronchodilator response. Objective To assess whether, among asthma subjects, the association of SNPs with bronchodilator response is different between those treated with inhaled corticosteroids vs. those on placebo. Methods A genome-wide association analysis was conducted using 581 white subjects from the Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP). Using data for 449,540 SNPs, we conducted a gene by environment analysis in PLINK with inhaled corticosteroid treatment as the environmental exposure and bronchodilator response as the outcome measure. We attempted to replicate the top 12 SNPs in the Leukotriene Modifier Or Corticosteroid or Corticosteroid-Salmeterol (LOCCS) Trial. Results The combined P-value for the CAMP and LOCCS populations was 4.81E-08 for rs3752120, which is located in the zinc finger protein gene ZNF432, and has unknown function. Conclusions Inhaled corticosteroids appear to modulate the association of bronchodilator response with variant(s) in the ZNF432 gene among adults and children with asthma. Clinical Implications Clinicians who treat asthma patients with inhaled corticosteroids should be aware that the patient's genetic makeup likely influences response as measured in lung function. Capsule Summary Our study suggests that inhaled corticosteroids could influence the effect of multiple SNPs associated with bronchodilator response across the genome. PMID:24280104

  14. 40 CFR 799.9135 - TSCA acute inhalation toxicity with histopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... histopathology. 799.9135 Section 799.9135 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... histopathology. (a) Scope. This section is intended to meet the testing requirements under section 4 of the Toxic... the gross pathology and histopathology resulting from acute inhalation exposure to a...

  15. Respiratory irritation associated with inhalation of boron trifluoride and fluorosulfonic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusch, G.M.; Bowden, A.M.; Muijser, H.; Arts, J.

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the respiratory irritancy of boron trifluoride (BF3) and fluorosulfonic acid (FSA) following acute inhalation exposure. Testing was conducted using groups of 10 male and 10 female rats (BF3) or groups of 6 male rats (FSA). Rats were exposed for a single 4

  16. Chronic inhalation toxicity and carcinogenicity studies on β-chloroprene in rats and hamsters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trochimowicz, H.J.; Löser, E.; Feron, V.J.; Clary, J.J.; Valentine, R.

    1998-01-01

    Three groups of 100 Wistar rats and Syrian golden hamsters of each sex were exposed by inhalation to 0, 10, or 50 ppm (v/v) β-chloroprene for 6 h/day, 5 days a week for up to 24 and 18 too, respectively. To maintain the chemical integrity of this highly reactive material in the exposure chambers, β-

  17. PULMONARY AND CARDIAC GENE EXPRESSION FOLLOWING ACUTE ULTRAFINE CARBON PARTICLE INHALATION IN HYPERTENSIVE RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhalation of ultrafine carbon particles (ufCP) causes cardiac physiological changes without marked pulmonary injury or inflammation. We hypothesized that acute ufCP exposure of 13 months old Spontaneously Hypertensive (SH) rats will cause differential effects on the lung and hea...

  18. CARDIOVASCULAR RESPONSES IN UNRESTRAINED WKY-RATS TO INHALED ULTRAFINE CARBON PARTICLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractThis study provides evidence for adverse cardiac effects of inhaled ultrafine particles (UFPs) in healthy WKY rats. Short term exposure (24 h) with carbon UFPs (180 ?g?m ?) induced a moderate but significant heart rate increase of 18 bpm (4.8 %) in association with a ...

  19. INHALATION STUDIES OF MT. ST. HELENS VOLCANIC ASH IN ANIMALS: RESPIRATORY MECHANICS, AIRWAY REACTIVITY AND DEPOSITION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of fine volcanic ash aerosol on pulmonary mechanical properties of awake guinea pigs were evaluated during exposure by inhalation. Ash penetration into the lungs as well as tissue response to ash were determined by transmission electron microscopy. The reactivity of airwa...

  20. THE EFFECT OF SUBMAXIMAL INHALATION ON MEASURES DERIVED FROM FORCED EXPIRATORY SPIROMETRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    THE EFFECT OF SUBMAXIMAL INHALATION ON MEASURES DERIVED FROM FORCED EXPIRATORY SPIROMETRY. William F. McDonnell Human Studies Division, NHEERL, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, RTP, NC 27711. Short-term exposure to ozone results in a neurally-mediated decrease in the ab...

  1. Nasal aerodynamics protects brain and lung from inhaled dust in subterranean diggers, Ellobius talpinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. Moshkin; D.V. Petrovski; A.E. Akulov; A.V. Romashchenko; L.A. Gerlinskaya; V.L. Ganimedov; M.I. Muchnaya; A.S. Sadovsky; I.V. Koptyug; A.A. Savelov; S. Yu Troitsky; Y.M. Moshkn; V.I. Bukhtiyarov; N.A. Kolchanov; R.Z. Sagdeev; V.M. Fomin

    2014-01-01

    textabstractInhalation of air-dispersed sub-micrometre and nano-sized particles presents a risk factor for animal and human health. Here, we show that nasal aerodynamics plays a pivotal role in the protection of the subterranean mole vole Ellobius talpinus from an increased exposure to nano-aerosols

  2. Initial deposition and early clearance of inhaled 239Pu(NO3)4 aerosols in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data from exposures of 113 beagle dogs to 239Pu(NO3)4 aerosols were analyzed for effects of aerosol properties on deposition and early clearance. The percent of inhaled aerosols deposited was not significantly dependent on particle size or aerosol concentration. The early clearance rate was significantly slower at the highest exposure levels than at medium and low levels

  3. Acute and Subchronic Toxicity of Inhaled Toluene in Male Long-Evans Rats: Oxidative Stress Markers in Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which are of concern to the EPA, are poorly understood, in part because of insufficient characterization of how human exposure duration impacts VOC effects. Two inhalation studies with multiple endpoints, one acute an...

  4. Inhalants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... liquids that vaporize at room temperature Industrial or household products , including paint thinners or removers, degreasers, dry-cleaning ... oil sprays Gases —found in household or commercial products and used as medical anesthetics Household or commercial products , including butane lighters and propane ...

  5. Inhalants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and the ... Health Effects Statistics and Trends Swipe left or right to scroll. Monitoring the Future Study: Trends in ...

  6. Sidestream smoke inhalation decreases respiratory clearance of 99mTc-DTPA acutely

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The permeability of the alveolar-capillary barrier to an inhaled aerosol of technetium 99m labelled diethylenetriamine penta-acetate (99mTc-DTPA is used as an index of alveolar epithelial injury. Permeability is greatly increased in active smokers. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of sidestream smoke inhalation on permeability as this has not been described previously. Lung clearance of inhaled 99mTc-DTPA aerosol was measured in 20 normal non-smoking subjects before and after exposure to one hours sidestream smoke inhalation. Measured carbon monoxide (CO) levels rose to a maximum of 23.5 ±6.2 ppm from baseline values of 0.6±1.3 (p99mTc-DTPA clearance rose from baseline 69.1± 15.6 (mean ± to 77.4 ±17.8) after smoke exposure. No effect of 99mTc-DTPA scanning of sidestream smoke was demonstrated on lung function. It was concluded that low level sidestream smoke inhalation decreases 99mTc-DTPA clearance acutely in humans. The mechanism of this unexpected result is not established but may include differences in constituents between sidestream and mainstream smoke, alterations in pulmonary microvascular blood flow, or changes in surfactant due to an acute phase irritant response. 34 refs., 2 figs

  7. Toxicological Assessment of Noxious Inhalants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleinsasser, N. H.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In the past centuries mankind has been exposed to various forms of air pollution not only at his occupational but also in his social environment. He mainly gets exposed with these pollutants through the respiratory organs and partially absorbs them into the body. Many of these airborne substances can be harmful for humans and some of them may account for tumorigenic effects.The following essay describes the main features of toxicological assessment of inhalative environmental and workplace xenobiotics. The essay also explains relevant characteristics and limit values of noxious compounds and gases and depicts modern testing methods. To this end, emphasis is given on methods characterizing the different stages of tumorigenic processes. Various test systems have been developed which can be used in vivo, ex vivo or in vitro. They are to a great part based on the evidence of changes in DNA or particular genes of cells. Among others they have highlighted the impact of interindividual variability on enzymatic activation of xenobiotics and on susceptibility of the host to tumor diseases.Unfortunately, for many inhalative environmental noxious agents no sufficient risk profiles have been developed. The completion of these profiles should be the goal of toxicological assessment in order to allow reasonable socioeconomic or individual-based risk reduction.

  8. Inhaler devices - from theory to practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchis, Joaquin; Corrigan, Chris; Levy, Mark L;

    2013-01-01

    This brief overview of the factors determining lung deposition of aerosols provides background information required by health care providers when instructing patients to use their prescribed inhalers. We discuss differences in the optimal inhalation manoeuvres for each type of aerosol generator...

  9. Investigation of inhalation anthrax case, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Jayne; Blaney, David; Shadomy, Sean; Lehman, Mark; Pesik, Nicki; Tostenson, Samantha; Delaney, Lisa; Tiller, Rebekah; DeVries, Aaron; Gomez, Thomas; Sullivan, Maureen; Blackmore, Carina; Stanek, Danielle; Lynfield, Ruth

    2014-02-01

    Inhalation anthrax occurred in a man who vacationed in 4 US states where anthrax is enzootic. Despite an extensive multi-agency investigation, the specific source was not detected, and no additional related human or animal cases were found. Although rare, inhalation anthrax can occur naturally in the United States.

  10. Gold nanoparticle aerosols for rodent inhalation and translocation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The intensive use of nano-sized particles in many different applications necessitates studies on their risk assessment as there are still open questions on their safe handling and utilization. For reliable risk assessment, the interaction of nanoparticles (NP) with biological systems after various routes of exposure needs to be investigated using well-characterized NP. We report here on the generation of gold-NP (Au-NP) aerosols for inhalation studies with the spark ignition technique, and their characterization in terms of chemical composition, physical structure, morphology, and specific surface area, and on interaction with lung tissues and lung cells after 1 h inhalation by mice. The originally generated agglomerated Au-NP were converted into compact spherical Au-NP by thermal annealing at 600 °C, providing particles of similar mass, but different size and specific surface area. Since there are currently no translocation data available on inhaled Au-NP in the 10–50 nm diameter range, the emphasis was to generate NP as small as 20 nm for inhalation in rodents. For anticipated in vivo systemic translocation and dosimetry analyses, radiolabeled Au-NP were created by proton irradiating the gold electrodes of the spark generator, thus forming gamma ray emitting 195Au with 186 days half-life, allowing long-term biokinetic studies. The dissolution rate of 195Au from the NP was below detection limits. The highly concentrated, polydisperse Au-NP aerosol (1–2 × 107 NP/cm3) proved to be constant over several hours in terms of its count median mobility diameter, its geometric standard deviation and number concentration. After collection on filters particles can be re-suspended and used for instillation or ingestion studies.

  11. Inhalant Dependence and its Medical Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Hamid Boztaş

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The term of inhalants is used for matters easily vapors. Inhalants are preferred for rapid, positive reinforcement and mild high effects. Products including inhalants are cheap, accessible, legal substances and are prevalently used in community. The prevalence of inhalant use in secondary schools in Turkey is about 5.1%. Inhalant substance dependence is generally observed within 14-15 age group. Age at first use could be as low as 5 to 6 years of age. Substance dependence is more probable in adults working in substance existing places. Inhalant usage is common in disadvantaged groups, children living in street, people with history of crimes, prison, depression, suicide, antisocial attitudes and conflict of family, history of abuse, violence and any other drug dependence and isolated populations. Inhalants are absorbed from lungs, after performing their quick and short effect metabolized by cytochrom P450 enzyme system except inhalant nitrites group which has a depressing effect like alcohol. In chronic use general atrophy, ventricular dilatation and wide sulcus were shown in cerebrum, cerebellum and pons by monitoring brain. Defects are mostly in periventricular, subcortical regions and in white matter. Demyelinization, hyperintensity, callosal slimming and wearing off in white and gray matter margins was also found. Ravages of brain shown by brain monitorisation are more and serious in inhalant dependence than in other dependences. It is important to decrease use of inhalants. Different approaches should be used for subcultures and groups in prevention. Prohibiting all the matters including inhalant is not practical as there are too many substances including inhalants. Etiquettes showing harmful materials can be used but this approach can also lead the children and adolescents recognize these substances easily.. Despite determintal effects of inhalant dependence, there are not yet sufficient number of studies conducted on prevention and

  12. The Ozone Layer and Metered Dose Inhalers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis-Philippe Boulet

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The stratospheric ozone layer plays a crucial role in protecting living organisms against ultraviolet radiation. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC contained in metered-dose inhalers (MDIs contribute to ozone depletion and in accordance with the Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer established 10 years ago, phase-out strageies have been developed worldwide for this category of agents. Alternatives to CFC-containing inhalers have been developed, such as powder inhalers and those using hydrofluoroalkanes (HFAs as propellants, which have been shown to be as safe and effective as CFC-containing inhalers and even offer interesting advantages over older inhalers. The transition to non-CFC MDIs requires a major effort to make the new products available and to ensure adequate comparision with the previous ones. It also requires a harmonization of actions taken by industry, government, licencing bodies and patients or health professional associations to ensure adequate information and education to the public and respiratory care providers.

  13. Uncertainties on lung doses from inhaled plutonium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puncher, Matthew; Birchall, Alan; Bull, Richard K

    2011-10-01

    In a recent epidemiological study, Bayesian uncertainties on lung doses have been calculated to determine lung cancer risk from occupational exposures to plutonium. These calculations used a revised version of the Human Respiratory Tract Model (HRTM) published by the ICRP. In addition to the Bayesian analyses, which give probability distributions of doses, point estimates of doses (single estimates without uncertainty) were also provided for that study using the existing HRTM as it is described in ICRP Publication 66; these are to be used in a preliminary analysis of risk. To infer the differences between the point estimates and Bayesian uncertainty analyses, this paper applies the methodology to former workers of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA), who constituted a subset of the study cohort. The resulting probability distributions of lung doses are compared with the point estimates obtained for each worker. It is shown that mean posterior lung doses are around two- to fourfold higher than point estimates and that uncertainties on doses vary over a wide range, greater than two orders of magnitude for some lung tissues. In addition, we demonstrate that uncertainties on the parameter values, rather than the model structure, are largely responsible for these effects. Of these it appears to be the parameters describing absorption from the lungs to blood that have the greatest impact on estimates of lung doses from urine bioassay. Therefore, accurate determination of the chemical form of inhaled plutonium and the absorption parameter values for these materials is important for obtaining reliable estimates of lung doses and hence risk from occupational exposures to plutonium.

  14. Population exposure to airborne thorium at the high natural radiation areas in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High natural radiation areas in the coastal and peninsular India were studied for airborne thorium and resultant population exposure due to inhalation. Four locations covering three states viz., Ayiramthengu and Neendakara in Kerala, Kudiraimozhi in Tamil Nadu and Bhimilipatnam in Andhra Pradesh were investigated. External gamma radiation fields 1 m above the monazite ore bodies ranged from 200 to 3000 nGy h-1. Soil samples showed 232Th specific activity varying from 0·1 to 1·5 Bq g-1 with surface alpha activity in the range of 1·0-12·5 Bq cm-2. Suspended particulates in the samples ranged from 60-140 μg m-3 with 232Th showing a wider variation of -3. There was poor correlation between suspended particulates and long-lived alpha airborne activity (r=-0·3). The resuspension factors for 232Th were in the range of 1·5x10-8-7·9x10-7 cm-1. Higher resuspension was correlated with dry sand dunes. The upper limits for Committed Effective Dose (CED) due to inhalation of airborne 232Th at the respective high natural radiation areas were estimated to range from 50±30 to 300±130 μSv (5-30 mrem) per year per adult member of public assuming an activity median aerodynamic diameter of 1 μm for the airborne particulates. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  15. Assessment of radiation exposure of nuclear medicine staff using personal TLD dosimeters and charcoal detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, F.; Garcia-Talavera, M.; Pardo, R.; Deban, L. [Valladolid Univ., Dept. de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Ciencias (Spain); Garcia-Talavera, P.; Singi, G.M.; Martin, E. [Hospital Clinico Univ., Servicio de Medicina Nuclear, Salamanca (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    Although the main concern regarding exposure to ionizing radiation for nuclear medicine workers is external radiation, inhalation of radionuclides can significantly contribute to the imparted doses. We propose a new approach to assess exposure to inhalation of {sup 131}I based on passive monitoring using activated charcoal detectors. We compared the inhalation doses to the staff of a nuclear medicine department, based on the measurements derived from charcoal detectors placed at various locations, and the external doses monitored using personal TLD dosimeters. (authors)

  16. Role of the Serotonergic System in Reduced Pulmonary Function after Exposure to Methamphetamine

    OpenAIRE

    Wells, Sandra M.; Buford, Mary C.; Porter, Virginia M.; Brunell, Heather L.; Bunderson-Schelvan, Melisa; Nevin, Andrew B.; Cardozo-Pelaez, Fernando; Holian, Andrij

    2009-01-01

    Although use of methamphetamine (MA) by smoking is the fastest growing method of administration, very limited data are available describing the effects of smoked MA. Using a murine inhalation exposure system, we explored the pulmonary effects of low-dose acute inhalation exposure to MA vapor (smoke). Inhalation of MA vapor resulted in transiently reduced pulmonary function, as measured by transpulmonary resistance, dynamic compliance, and whole-body plethysmography compared with unexposed con...

  17. An observational study of inhaled-treprostinil respiratory-related safety in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamanian, R T; Levine, D J; Bourge, R C; De Souza, S A; Rosenzweig, E B; Alnuaimat, H; Burger, C; Mathai, S C; Leedom, N; DeAngelis, K; Lim, A; De Marco, T

    2016-09-01

    Inhaled treprostinil (Tyvaso) has been shown to be a safe and effective addition to pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) oral therapies; however, the respiratory-related safety profile of inhaled treprostinil required further elucidation in the setting of routine clinical care. The objectives of this study were to characterize respiratory-related adverse events (AEs) associated with current or recent treatment with inhaled treprostinil and to compare the incidence of respiratory-related AEs in PAH patients treated with inhaled treprostinil with that in patients treated with other Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved PAH therapies. This was a long-term, prospective, observational study. All respiratory-related AEs were recorded during the study. The number of PAH patients enrolled was 1,333, 666 treated with inhaled treprostinil and 667 controls (treated with an FDA-approved PAH therapy other than inhaled treprostinil), for a total of 958 and 1,094 patient-years of exposure, respectively. In the inhaled-treprostinil group, 1,281 respiratory-related AEs were reported in 403 patients (61%), and in the control group, 1,295 respiratory-related AEs were reported in 388 patients (58%). Cough, throat irritation, nasal discomfort, and hemoptysis were the most common respiratory-related AEs (occurring in ≥2% of patients in either treatment group) that demonstrated a higher number of events per patient-year of exposure in the inhaled-treprostinil group than in the control group (risk ratio [95% confidence interval]: 1.487 [1.172-1.887], 3.777 [2.050-6.956], 2.039 [1.072-3.879], and 1.957 [1.024-3.741], respectively). Overall, inhaled treprostinil was well tolerated by PAH patients in routine clinical care, with respiratory-related AEs consistent with the known safety profile (trial registration: clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01266265). PMID:27683610

  18. Evaluating Health Risks from Inhaled Polychlorinated Biphenyls: Research Needs for Addressing Uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Lehmann, Geniece M.; Christensen, Krista; Maddaloni, Mark; Phillips, Linda J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Indoor air concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in some buildings are one or more orders of magnitude higher than background levels. In response to this, efforts have been made to assess the potential health risk posed by inhaled PCBs. These efforts are hindered by uncertainties related to the characterization and assessment of source, exposure, and exposure-response. Objectives: We briefly describe some common sources of PCBs in indoor air and estimate the contribut...

  19. An in vitro testing strategy towards mimicking the inhalation of high aspect ratio nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Endes, Carola; Schmid, Otmar; Kinnear, Calum; Mueller, Silvana; Camarero-Espinosa, Sandra; Vanhecke, Dimitri; Foster, E Johan; Petri-Fink, Alke; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara; Weder, Christoph; Martin J. D. Clift

    2014-01-01

    Background The challenge remains to reliably mimic human exposure to high aspect ratio nanoparticles (HARN) via inhalation. Sophisticated, multi-cellular in vitro models are a particular advantageous solution to this issue, especially when considering the need to provide realistic and efficient alternatives to invasive animal experimentation for HARN hazard assessment. By incorporating a systematic test-bed of material characterisation techniques, a specific air-liquid cell exposure system wi...

  20. Beryllium Concentrations at European Workplaces: Comparison of ‘Total’ and Inhalable Particulate Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Kock, Heiko; Civic, Terence; Koch, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    A field study was carried out in order to derive a factor for the conversion of historic worker exposure data on airborne beryllium (Be) obtained by sampling according to the 37-mm closed faced filter cassette (CFC) ‘total’ particulate method into exposure concentration values to be expected when sampling using the ‘Gesamtstaubprobenahmesystem’ (GSP) inhalable sampling convention. Workplaces selected to represent the different copper Be work processing operations that typically occur in Germa...

  1. Influence of experimental pulmonary emphysema on the toxicological effects from inhaled nitrogen dioxide and diesel exhaust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project examined the influence of preexisting, experimentally induced pulmonary emphysema on the adverse health effects in rats of chronic inhalation exposure to either nitrogen dioxide or automotive diesel-engine exhaust. Previous reports indicated that humans with chronic lung disease were among those most severely affected by episodic exposures to high concentrations of airborne toxicants. There were no previous reports comparing the effects of chronic inhalation exposure to components of automotive emissions in emphysematous and normal animals. The hypothesis tested in this project was that rats with preexisting pulmonary emphysema were more susceptible than rats with normal lungs to the adverse effects of the toxicant exposures. Young adult rats were housed continuously in inhalation exposure chambers and exposed seven hours per day, five days per week, for 24 months to nitrogen dioxide at 9.5 parts per million (ppm)2, or to diesel exhaust at 3.5 mg soot/m3, or to clean air as control animals. These concentrations were selected to produce mild, but distinct, effects in rats with normal lungs. Pulmonary emphysema was induced in one-half of the rats by intratracheal instillation of the proteolytic enzyme elastase six weeks before the toxicant exposures began. Health effects were evaluated after 12, 18, and 24 months of exposure. The measurements included respiratory function, clearance of inhaled radiolabeled particles, pulmonary immune responses to instilled antigen, biochemistry and cytology of airway fluid, total lung collagen, histopathology, lung morphometry, and lung burdens of diesel soot. The significance of influences of emphysema and toxicant exposure, and interactions between influences of the two treatments, were evaluated by analysis of variance

  2. Non-neoplastic pulmonary disease from inhaled radon daughters with uranium ore dust in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daily exposures of adult beagle dogs to inhaled radon daughters plus uranium ore dust, with and without concurrent cigarette smoking, for 2 to 5-1/2 yr have produced massive pulmonary fibrosis and severe emphysema. The cumulative exposure doses are similar to those associated with a 5-fold or greater increase in death rate of uranium miners due to chronic respiratory insufficiency, including pneumoconiosis, pulmonary fibrosis, and emphysema

  3. 应用烟草烟雾口鼻暴露联合脂多糖方法建造慢性阻塞性肺疾病及相关肺动脉高压小鼠模型%Nose-only cigarette smoke exposure plus airway lipopolysaccharide inhalation induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and associated pulmonary hypertension in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒家泽; 卢文菊; 李德富; 梁志浩; 徐小明; 张波; 王健

    2015-01-01

    Objective To establish a mouse model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and associated pulmonary hypertension (COPD-PH) induced by nose-only cigarette smoking exposure plus airway lipopolysaccharide (LPS) inhalation.Methods There were 24 male C57B6 mice divided into a control group and a model group at random.The model group was given LPS by intranasal inhalation on day 1 and day 14 and exposed to the cigarette smoke in a nose-only exposure system, while the control group was given physiological saline and exposed to normal air.The model establishment was evaluated according the following parameters: the lung function and the right heart pressure, the total and differential cell numbers in bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and the pathological changes of lung tissues.Results The functional residual capacity data of the model group and the control group were (0.402 ± 0.057) and (0.243 ± 0.064) ml respectively (P < 0.05).The inspiratory resistance data of the model group and the control group were (1.056 ± 0.121) and (0.789 ± 0.063) cmH2O · ml-1 · s-1 (1 cmH2O =0.098 kPa) respectively(P <0.05).The static lung complimnce data of the model group and the control group were (0.084 ± 0.007)and (0.056 ± 0.004)cmH2 O/ml respectively (P < 0.05).The right ventricular mean pressure of the model group and the control group were(11.3 ± 1.3) and(7.9 ± 1.1) mmHg (1 mmHg =0.133 kPa) respectively(P <0.05), while the right ventricular hypertrophy index of the model group and the control group were(0.267 ± 0.019) and(0.195 ± 0.023) respectively (P < 0.05).Moreover, the histological staining showed that goblet cell hyperplasia, lung inflammation and thickening of smooth muscle layers of bronchial and pulmonary small vessels occurred in the model group, which indicated ongoing airway and blood vessel remodeling.Conclusions A COPD-PH mouse model was established by nose-only cigarette smoking exposure plus airway LPS inhalation in a short period of

  4. Absorption, distribution and excretion of inhaled hydrogen fluoride in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, J.B.

    1979-01-01

    Rats were subjected to whole body HF exposure for 6 hrs or to nose-only HF exposure for 1 hr. Total and/or ionic fluoride concentrations in selected tissues were determined at various times following exposure. In rats sacrificed 6 hrs after whole body exposure, dose-dependent increases in lung, plasma, and kidney total and ionic fluoride concentration occurred. Rats excreted more fluoride in the urine after whole body exposure than could be explained by the amount of HF inhaled. Considerable evidence suggests that airborne HF deposits on fur and is then ingested due to preening activity. Urinary fluoride excretion was increased by nose-only exposure. The urinary fluoride excretion accounted for approximately twice the fluoride estimated to be inhaled during exposure. Tissue fluoride concentrations were elevated immediately after nose-only exposure. Fluoride concentrations in lung and kidney returned to control levels within 12 hrs. Plasma fluoride concentration was slightly elevated 24 hrs after the start of the 1 hr exposure but was at control levels at 96 hrs. Immediately following nose-only exposure, lung ionic fluoride concentrations were less than plasma ionic fluoride concentrations suggesting that the fluoride in the lung had reached that site via plasma transport rather than by inhalation. A dose-dependent increase in plasma ionic fluoride concentration occurred after upper respiratory tract HF exposure providing strong evidence that fluoride is absorbed systemically from that site. The plasma ionic fluoride concentration after upper respiratory tract exposure was of sufficient magnitude to account for the plasma fluoride concentrations observed in intact nose-only exposed rats. (ERB)

  5. Epidemiological study of workers at risk of internal exposure to uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is a pilot-study among nuclear fuel cycle workers potentially exposed to alpha radiation. Internal exposure from inhalation of uranium compounds during uranium conversion and enrichment operations was estimated at the AREVA NC Pierrelatte plant. A plant specific semi-quantitative job exposure matrix (JEM) was elaborated for 2709 workers employed at this plant between 1960 and 2006. The JEM has permitted to estimate the exposure to uranium and 16 other categories of pollutants and to calculate individual cumulative exposure score. Numerous correlations were detected between uranium compounds exposure and exposure to other pollutants, such as asbestos, ceramic refractive fibers, TCE and so on. 1968-2005 mortality follow-up showed an increasing risk of mortality from pleural cancer, rectal cancer and lymphoma on the basis of national mortality rates. Analyses of association between cancer mortality and uranium exposure suggested an increase in mortality due to lung cancer among workers exposed to slowly soluble uranium compounds derived from natural and reprocessed uranium. However these results are not statistically significant and based on a small number of observed deaths. These results are concordant with previously reported results from other cohorts of workers potentially exposed to uranium. Experimental studies of biokinetic and action mechanism of slowly soluble uranium oxides bear the biological plausibility of the observed results. Influence of bias was reduced by taking into account of possible confounding including co-exposure to other carcinogenic pollutants and tobacco consumption in the study. Nevertheless, at this stage statistical power of analyses is too limited to obtain more conclusive results. This pilot study shows the interest and feasibility of an epidemiological investigation among workers at risk of internal exposure to uranium and other alpha emitters at the national level. It demonstrates the importance of exposure assessment for

  6. Toxicity of 90Sr inhaled in a relatively insoluble form by Beagle dogs. XVII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was initiated to determine health effects resulting from inhalation of 90Sr in relatively insoluble form. Beagle dogs were briefly exposed by inhalation to produce lung burdens of 90Sr that ranged from 0.12 to 96 μCi (4.4-3500 kBq)/kg body weight. Exposures to the higher concentrations of 90Sr caused radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis, typically resulting in death 90Sr-exposed dogs were euthanized during the past year. One remaining exposed dog and one control dog are both 14 yr old and are being maintained for lifetime observation. (author)

  7. Emerging inhaled bronchodilators: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzola, M; Matera, M G

    2009-09-01

    Bronchodilators remain central to the symptomatic management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma, and, for this reason and also because the patent protection of many bronchodilators has expired, several companies have reinitiated research into the field. The only limits set for the development of a long-lasting bronchodilator with a new product profile are medical needs and marketing opportunities. The incorporation of once-daily dose administration is an important strategy for improving adherence and is a regimen preferred by most patients. A variety of beta(2)-agonists and antimuscarinic agents with longer half-lives and inhalers containing a combination of several classes of long-acting bronchodilator are currently under development. The present article reviews all of the most important compounds under development, describing what has been done and discussing their genuine advantage.

  8. Characterisation of exposure to total and hexavalent chromium of welders using biological monitoring.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheepers, P.T.J.; Heussen, G.A.; Peer, P.G.M.; Verbist, K.; Anzion, R.; Willems, J.

    2008-01-01

    Inhalation exposure to total and hexavalent chromium (TCr and HCr) was assessed by personal air sampling and biological monitoring in 53 welders and 20 references. Median inhalation exposure levels of TCr were 1.3, 6.0, and 5.4 microg/m(3) for welders of mild steel (MS, <5% alloys), high alloy st

  9. Toxicity of inhaled beta-emitting radionuclides: an experimental approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental approach to evaluation of the toxicity of inhaled beta-emitting radionuclides in laboratory animals is described. These radionuclides are being studied in both relatively soluble (90SrCl2, 144CeCl3, 91YCl3 or 137CsCl) and relatively insoluble aerosol forms (90Y, 91Y, 144Ce or 90Sr in fused aluminosilicate particles). Initial lung or whole-body radionuclide burdens were selected to result in early deaths due to severe lesions at the highest exposure levels, and more subtle changes, such as neoplasia, at the lower levels. The organs affected vary depending on the solubility and chemical characteristics of the isotope. For radionuclides inhaled in relatively soluble forms, long-term effects have been seen in the liver, skeleton, respiratory tract and other tissues. In contrast, long-term effects seen in the dogs exposed to relatively insoluble forms have been mainly associated with the lung and contiguous tissues. In all experiments, emphasis is placed on an evaluation of the influence of radiation dose rate and total dose on the resulting dose-response relationship. Over the mid-range of exposure levels, it will be possible to compare the radiation dose and biological response relationships for the several radioactive aerosols with their different radiation dose patterns. These studies with young adult dogs are complemented with comparable studies in other species (mice, rats and Syrian hamsters) and with animals of different ages (immature, aged). This basic approach, with emphasis on factors that alter the resulting radiation dose pattern, offers the maximum likelihood of meeting the continuing, and not always predictable, needs for information on the toxicity of inhaled beta-emitting radionuclides that may be encountered in nuclear industry operations

  10. Discovery of unique and ENM- specific pathophysiologic pathways: Comparison of the translocation of inhaled iridium nanoparticles from nasal epithelium versus alveolar epithelium towards the brain of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreyling, Wolfgang G

    2016-05-15

    The biokinetics of inhaled nanoparticles (NP) is more complex than that of larger particles since NP may NP deposited on the nasal mucosa of the upper respiratory tract (URT) may translocate to the olfactory bulb of the brain and also via the trigeminus (URT neuronal route); and (b) NP deposited in the lower respiratory tract (LRT) may cross the ABB into blood and enter the brain across the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) or take a neuronal route from enervated tracheo-bronchial epithelia via the vagus nerve. Translocation from both - the URT and the LRT - are quantified during the first 24h after a 1-hour aerosol inhalation of 20nm-sized, (192)Ir radiolabeled iridium NP by healthy adult rats using differential exposures: (I) nose-only exposure of the entire respiratory tract or (II) intratracheal (IT) inhalation of intubated and ventilated rats, thereby bypassing the URT and extrathoracic nasal passages. After nose-only exposure brain accumulation (BrAcc) is significantly nine-fold higher than after IT inhalation since the former results from both pathways (a+b) while the latter exposure comes only from pathway (b). Interestingly, there are significantly more circulating NP in blood 24h after nose-only inhalation than after IT inhalation. Distinguishing translocation from URT versus LRT estimated from the differential inhalation exposures, the former is significantly higher (8-fold) than from the LRT. Although the BrAcc fraction is rather low compared to total NP deposition after this short-term exposure, this study proofs that inhaled insoluble NP can accumulate in the brain from both - URT and LRT which may trigger and/or modulate adverse health effects in the central nervous system (CNS) during chronic exposure.

  11. Inhalation devices and patient interface: human factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiner, Stefan; Parkins, David; Lastow, Orest

    2015-03-01

    The development of any inhalation product that does not consider the patient needs will fail. The needs of the patients must be identified and aligned with engineering options and physical laws to achieve a robust and intuitive-to-use inhaler. A close interaction between development disciplines and real-use evaluations in clinical studies or in human factor studies is suggested. The same holds true when a marketed product needs to be changed. Caution is warranted if an inhaler change leads to a change in the way the patient handles the device. Finally, the article points out potential problems if many inhaler designs are available. Do they confuse the patients? Can patients recall the correct handling of each inhaler they use? How large is the risk that different inhaler designs pose to the public health? The presentations were given at the Orlando Inhalation Conference: Approaches in International Regulation co-organised by the University of Florida and the International Pharmaceutical Aerosol Consortium on Regulation & Science (IPAC-RS) in March 2014.

  12. Detailed predictions of particle aspiration affected by respiratory inhalation and airflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inthavong, Kiao; Ge, Qin Jiang; Li, Xiang Dong; Tu, Ji Yuan

    2012-12-01

    The effects of air pollution found in the atmosphere and exposure to airborne particles are an important problem in the interest of public health. Exposure to contaminated air under different flow conditions is studied using the latest computational fluid dynamics models. For the first time the upper respiratory airway is integrated into a human body and placed inside a room, facing different airflow speeds (0.05-0.35 m s-1). It was found that the airflow streamlines diverged as it approached the human body, at the torso and accelerated upwards past the face and head before separating at the rear of the head, forming recirculating regions in the wake behind the body. Inhaled particles were tracked backwards to determine its origins. At a plane upstream from the face the locations of particles inhaled form a region known as the critical area, which is presented. This study establishes a better understanding of particle inhalability and provides a step towards a more holistic approach in determining inhalation toxicology effects of exposure to atmospheric particles.

  13. Effects of p-xylene inhalation on axonal transport in the rat retinal ganglion cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the solvent xylene is suspected of producing nervous system dysfunction in animals and humans, little is known regarding the neurochemical consequences of xylene inhalation. The intent of this study was to determine the effect of intermittent, acute, and subchronic p-xylene exposure on the axonal transport of proteins and glycoproteins within the rat retinofugal tract. A number of different exposure regimens were tested ranging from 50 ppm for a single 6-hr exposure to 1600 ppm 6 hr/day, 5 days/week, for a total of 8 exposure days. Immediately following removal from the inhalation chambers rats were injected intraocularly with [35S]methionine and [3H]fucose (to label retinal proteins and glycoproteins, respectively) and the axonal transport of labeled macromolecules to axons (optic nerve and optic tract) and nerve endings (lateral geniculate body and superior colliculus) was examined 20 hr after precursor injection. Only relatively severe exposure regimens (i.e., 800 or 1600 ppm 6 hr/day, 5 days/week, for 1.5 weeks) produced significant reductions in axonal transport; there was a moderate reduction in the axonal transport of 35S-labeled proteins in the 800-ppm-treated group which was more widespread in the 1600 ppm-treated group. Transport of 3H-labeled glycoproteins was less affected. Assessment of retinal metabolism immediately after isotope injection indicated that the rate of precursor uptake was not reduced in either treatment group. Furthermore, rapid transport was still substantially reduced in animals exposed to 1600 ppm p-xylene and allowed a 13-day withdrawal period. These data indicate that p-xylene inhalation decreases rapid axonal transport supplied to the projections of the rat retinal ganglion cells immediately after cessation of inhalation exposure and that this decreased transport is still apparent 13 days after the last exposure

  14. Norm Exposure in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper gives a brief introduction to exposure to NORM and other natural sources in China. The number of workers monitored for occupational exposure to natural sources exceeds 10.5 million, of whom 6.5 million work in underground coal mines and 3 million work in other non-metal mines. The average annual dose received by monitored workers, mainly due to inhalation of radon, is 2.1 mSv overall. For workers in metal mines, the average dose is more than 5.5 mSv. The paper also reviews the exposure of workers in the production of thorium containing gas mantles and welding electrodes, the exposure of aircrew to cosmic radiation and exposure to radon in underground workplaces other than mines, in hot spring facilities and in homes. (author)

  15. Pulmonary and Systemic Immune Response to Chronic Lunar Dust Inhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, Brian; Quiriarte, Heather; Nelman, Mayra; Lam, Chiu-wing; James, John T.; Sams, Clarence

    2014-01-01

    Background: Due to millennia of meteorite impact with virtually no erosive effects, the surface of the Moon is covered by a layer of ultra-fine, reactive Lunar dust. Very little is known regarding the toxicity of Lunar dust on human physiology. Given the size and electrostatic characteristics of Lunar dust, countermeasures to ensure non-exposure of astronauts will be difficult. To ensure astronaut safety during any future prolonged Lunar missions, it is necessary to establish the effect of chronic pulmonary Lunar dust exposure on all physiological systems. Methods: This study assessed the toxicity of airborne lunar dust exposure in rats on pulmonary and system immune system parameters. Rats were exposed to 0, 20.8, or 60.8 mg/m3 of lunar dust (6h/d; 5d/wk) for up to 13 weeks. Sacrifices occurred after exposure durations of 1day, 7 days, 4 weeks and 13 weeks post-exposure, when both blood and lung lavage fluid were collected for analysis. Lavage and blood assays included leukocyte distribution by flow cytometry, electron/fluorescent microscopy, and cytokine concentration. Cytokine production profiles following mitogenic stimulation were performed on whole blood only. Results: Untreated lavage fluid was comprised primarily of pulmonary macrophages. Lunar dust inhalation resulted in an influx of neutrophils and lymphocytes. Although the percentage of lymphocytes increased, the T cell CD4:CD8 ratio was unchanged. Cytokine analysis of the lavage fluid showed increased levels of IL-1b and TNFa. These alterations generally persisted through the 13 week sampling. Blood analysis showed few systemic effects from the lunar dust inhalation. By week 4, the peripheral granulocyte percentage was elevated in the treated rats. Plasma cytokine levels were unchanged in all treated rats compared to controls. Peripheral blood analysis showed an increased granulocyte percentage and altered cytokine production profiles consisting of increased in IL-1b and IL-6, and decreased IL-2

  16. Inhaled actinides: some safety issues and some research problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following topics are discussed: limited research funds; risk coefficients for inhaled particles; the hot particle hypothesis; the Gofman-Martell contention; critical tissues for inhaled actinides inhalation hazards associated with future nuclear fuel cycles; and approach to be used by the inhalation panel

  17. Perinatal exposure to diesel exhaust affects gene expression in mouse cerebrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukue, Naomi [Tokyo University of Science, Department of Hygiene Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Noda, Chiba (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology, Kawaguchi, Saitama (Japan); Japan Automobile Research Institute, Health Effects Research Group, Energy and Environment Research Division, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Watanabe, Manabu; Kumamoto, Takayuki; Takeda, Ken [Tokyo University of Science, Department of Hygiene Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Noda, Chiba (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology, Kawaguchi, Saitama (Japan); Takano, Hirohisa [Japan Science and Technology Agency, Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology, Kawaguchi, Saitama (Japan); National Institute for Environmental Studies, Pathophysiology Research Team, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2009-11-15

    Many environmental toxins alter reproductive function and affect the central nervous system (CNS). Gonadal steroid hormones cause differentiation of neurons and affect brain function and behavior during the perinatal period, and the CNS is thought to be particularly susceptible to toxic insult during this period. It was, therefore, hypothesized that inhalation of diesel exhaust (DE) during the fetal or suckling period would disrupt the sexual differentiation of brain function in mice, and the effects of exposure to DE during the perinatal period on sexual differentiation related gene expression of the brain were investigated. In the fetal period exposure group, pregnant ICR mice were exposed to DE from 1.5 days post-coitum (dpc) until 16 dpc. In the neonatal period exposure group, dams and their offspring were exposed to DE from the day of birth [postnatal day (PND)-0] until PND-16. Then, the cerebrums of males and females at PND-2, -5, and -16 from both groups were analyzed for expression level of mRNA encoding stress-related proteins [cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1)] and steroid hormone receptors [estrogen receptor alpha (ER alpha), estrogen receptor beta (ER beta), androgen receptor (AR)]. Expression levels of ER alpha and ER beta mRNA were increased in the cerebrum of newborns in the DE exposure groups as well as mRNA for CYP1A1 and HO-1. Results indicate that perinatal exposure to DE during the critical period of sexual differentiation of the brain may affect endocrine function. (orig.)

  18. JCCRER Project 2.3 - Deterministic effects of occupational exposure to radiation. Phase 1: Feasibility study. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phase 1 of Project 2.3, a short-term collaborative Feasibility Study, was funded for 12 months starting on 1 February 1996. The overall aim of the study was to determine the practical feasibility of using the dosimetric and clinical data on the MAYAK worker population to study the deterministic effects of exposure to external gamma radiation and to internal alpha radiation from inhaled plutonium. Phase 1 efforts were limited to the period of greatest worker exposure (1948--1954) and focused on collaboratively: assessing the comprehensiveness, availability, quality, and suitability of the Russian clinical and dosimetric data for the study of deterministic effects; creating an electronic data base containing complete clinical and dosimetric data on a small, representative sample of MAYAK workers; developing computer software for the testing of a currently used health risk model of hematopoietic effects; and familiarizing the US team with the Russian diagnostic criteria and techniques used in the identification of Chronic Radiation Sickness

  19. JCCRER Project 2.3 -- Deterministic effects of occupational exposure to radiation. Phase 1: Feasibility study; Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okladnikova, N.; Pesternikova, V.; Sumina, M. [Inst. of Biophysics, Ozyorsk (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1998-12-01

    Phase 1 of Project 2.3, a short-term collaborative Feasibility Study, was funded for 12 months starting on 1 February 1996. The overall aim of the study was to determine the practical feasibility of using the dosimetric and clinical data on the MAYAK worker population to study the deterministic effects of exposure to external gamma radiation and to internal alpha radiation from inhaled plutonium. Phase 1 efforts were limited to the period of greatest worker exposure (1948--1954) and focused on collaboratively: assessing the comprehensiveness, availability, quality, and suitability of the Russian clinical and dosimetric data for the study of deterministic effects; creating an electronic data base containing complete clinical and dosimetric data on a small, representative sample of MAYAK workers; developing computer software for the testing of a currently used health risk model of hematopoietic effects; and familiarizing the US team with the Russian diagnostic criteria and techniques used in the identification of Chronic Radiation Sickness.

  20. Clinical efficacy and safety of beclomethasone dipropionate inhalation capsules inhaled by Cyclohaler compared with Becotide Rotacaps inhaled by Rotahaler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vink-van Wijngaarden, T; Blom-Ross, M E; Lansdorp, D; Goedhart, D M; Eelhart, J; Guelen, P J; de Vos, D

    1998-09-01

    The study was undertaken to compare the efficacy and safety of beclomethasone dipropionate inhalation powder inhaled by Rotahaler (Becotide Rotacaps, Glaxo Wellcome) and by Cyclohaler (Beclomethasone Cyclocaps, Pharmachemie). Both the Cyclohaler and the Rotahaler are single-dose dry powder inhalation devices for inhalation capsules. 182 asthma patients stabilized on inhaled beclomethasone dipropionate 800 micrograms daily, were randomly assigned to treatment with 800 micrograms beclomethasone dipropionate inhaled by Rotahaler (91 patients) or Cyclohaler (91 patients) in a double-blind manner, using the double-dummy method. It was shown that the asthma remained stable during the 16-week study period with both preparations. There were no statistically significant differences in the pulmonary parameters (morning PEF, evening PEF, FEV1). The test/reference ratio of the morning PEF (99.5%, CI 93.0% - 106.5%) was well within the equivalence interval, which had been set a priori from 85% to 117.6%. There were no marked differences between the Cyclocaps and Rotacaps group in symptom scores and adverse events. A total of 12 patients had an asthma exacerbation: 8 exacerbations occurred in the Rotahaler group and 4 in the Cyclohaler group. The difference was not statistically significant. The use of rescue medication was somewhat higher in the Rotahaler group, but the difference did not reach statistical significance. Significantly more patients (17 patients) withdrew from the study in the Rotahaler group than in the Cyclohaler group (5 patients). In conclusion, there was no difference in asthma control of patients treated with Beclomethasone Cyclocaps inhaled by Cyclohaler and Becotide Rotacaps inhaled by Rotahaler. Both preparations are therapeutically equivalent. PMID:9760014

  1. Coal tar creosote abuse by vapour inhalation presenting with renal impairment and neurotoxicity: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiemstra Thomas F

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A 56 year old aromatherapist presented with advanced renal failure following chronic coal tar creosote vapour inhalation, and a chronic tubulo-interstitial nephritis was identified on renal biopsy. Following dialysis dependence occult inhalation continued, resulting in seizures, ataxia, cognitive impairment and marked generalised cerebral atrophy. We describe for the first time a case of creosote abuse by chronic vapour inhalation, resulting in significant morbidity. Use of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-containing wood preservative coal tar creosote is restricted by many countries due to concerns over environmental contamination and carcinogenicity. This case demonstrates additional toxicities not previously reported with coal tar creosote, and emphasizes the health risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure.

  2. Long-term dose-response studies of inhaled or injected radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the scientific progress in, and current status of, life-span studies of the long-term health risks in Beagle dogs of chronic irradiation from internally deposited radionuclides or from an external source. The reporting period for this document is the 2-year period from October 1, 1991 through September 30, 1993. Studies that were initiated at three different laboratories (Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute, ITRI, University of Utah, and Argonne National Laboratory, ANL) are presented here because they are being completed at ITRI. All living dogs in the Utah-initiated studies were transferred to the ITRI facility for the remainder of their life-span observations and measurements in September 1987. This report is the fourth in a series of reports dealing with the current status and progress of both the Utah and ITRI studies. Other life-span studies involving dogs exposed to gamma radiation from an external source were initiated and conducted for many years at ANL. In 1991, the decision was made to discontinue the chronic irradiation of the remaining living dogs and to transfer all remaining dogs to ITRI for care, clinical observations, and pathological observations at death or euthanasia. This report provides the current status of these dogs. Status reports on the Utah and ITRI studies comprise most of this report. The ITRI-related section presents brief statements of project objectives, the general procedures used in these studies, and some study-specific features for each of the 19 studies being conducted with either beta- or alpha-emitting radionuclides. Dose- and effect-modifying factors being addressed in these studies include total dose, dose rate, LET, solubility, nonuniformity of dose, species, age, sex, health status, and mode of exposure. Recent additions to experimental protocols for studies in which dogs are still alive involve the collection and analysis of tumor tissues using currently available molecular biology techniques

  3. Probabilistic assessment of exposure to nail cosmetics in French consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficheux, A S; Morisset, T; Chevillotte, G; Postic, C; Roudot, A C

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess probabilistic exposure to nail cosmetics in French consumers. The exposure assessment was performed with base coat, polish, top coat and remover. This work was done for adult and child consumers. Dermal, inhalation and oral routes were taken into account for varnishes. Exposure evaluation was performed for the inhalation route with polish remover. The main route of exposure to varnishes was the ungual route. Inhalation was the secondary route of exposure, followed by dermal and oral routes. Polish contributed most to exposure, regardless of the route of exposure. For this nail product, P50 and P95 values by ungual route were respectively equal to 1.74 mg(kg bw week)(-1) and 8.55 mg(kg bw week)(-1) for women aged 18-34 years. Exposure to polish by inhalation route was equal to 0.70 mg(kg bw week)(-1) (P50) and 5.27 mg(kg bw week)(-1) (P95). P50 and P95 values by inhalation route were respectively equal to 0.08 mg(kg bw week)(-1) and 1.14 mg(kg bw week)(-1) for consumers aged 18-34 years exposed to polish remover. This work provided current exposure data for nail cosmetics, and a basis for future toxicological studies of the uptake of substances contained in nail cosmetics in order to assess systemic exposure.

  4. Toxicity of inhaled 238PuO2 II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies are in progress to determine dose-response relationships for inhaled 238PuO2. Beagle dogs were given a single, brief, nose-only inhalation exposure to aerosols of monodisperse particles of 238PuO2. Aerosols of two sizes were used, 1.5 μm aerodynamic diameter (AD) and 3.0 μm AD. Dogs were exposed to achieve initial lung burdens of 0.56, 0.28, 0.14, 0.07, 0.03 or 0.01 μCi 238PuO2/kg body weight. Twelve dogs were exposed at each activity level to each aerosol particle size. The local dose around each 3.0 μm AD particle was 10 times higher than the local dose around 1.5 μm AD particles, but the dose averaged over the whole lung was the same at each activity level for both particle sizes. The lung retention of 238Pu was divided into two phases of clearance. During the first 100 days after exposure, the average retention half-time for 238Pu in the lung was 310 days. When the solubility changed due to particle breakup, the retention half-time decreased to 180 days during the period from 1OO to 1,500 days after exposure. The first biological effects observed were lymphopenia and neutropenia in peripheral blood. To date, 28 Beagle dogs have died at times from 536 to 1683 days after exposure. Initial lung burdens for the dead dogs ranged from 0.18 to 2.2 μCi 238Pu/kg body weight. Nine died with radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis, 10 died with lung tumors and 19 dogs died with bone tumors. There are 116 exposed and 22 control dogs surviving and under observation. Current patterns of dose versus response are discussed. (author)

  5. Inflammatory effects of inhaled sulfur mustard in rat lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inhalation of sulfur mustard (SM), a bifunctional alkylating agent that causes severe lung damage, is a significant threat to both military and civilian populations. The mechanisms mediating its cytotoxic effects are unknown and were investigated in the present studies. Male rats Crl:CD(SD) were anesthetized, and then intratracheally intubated and exposed to 0.7-1.4 mg/kg SM by vapor inhalation. Animals were euthanized 6, 24, 48 h or 7 days post-exposure and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) and lung tissue collected. Exposure of rats to SM resulted in rapid pulmonary toxicity, including focal ulceration and detachment of the trachea and bronchial epithelia from underlying mucosa, thickening of alveolar septal walls and increased numbers of inflammatory cells in the tissue. There was also evidence of autophagy and apoptosis in the tissue. This was correlated with increased BAL protein content, a marker of injury to the alveolar epithelial lining. SM exposure also resulted in increased expression of markers of inflammation including cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), each of which has been implicated in pulmonary toxicity. Whereas COX-2, TNFα and iNOS were mainly localized in alveolar regions, MMP-9 was prominent in bronchial epithelium. In contrast, expression of the anti-oxidant hemeoxygenase, and the anti-inflammatory collectin, surfactant protein-D, decreased in the lung after SM exposure. These data demonstrate that SM-induced oxidative stress and injury are associated with the generation of cytotoxic inflammatory proteins which may contribute to the pathogenic response to this vesicant.

  6. 28-Day inhalation toxicity of graphene nanoplatelets in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Kwon; Shin, Jae Hoon; Lee, Jong Seong; Hwang, Joo Hwan; Lee, Ji Hyun; Baek, Jin Ee; Kim, Tae Gyu; Kim, Boo Wook; Kim, Jin Sik; Lee, Gun Ho; Ahn, Kangho; Han, Sung Gu; Bello, Dhimiter; Yu, Il Je

    2016-09-01

    Graphene, a two-dimensional engineered nanomaterial, is now being used in many applications, such as electronics, biological engineering, filtration, lightweight and strong nanocomposite materials, and energy storage. However, there is a lack of information on the potential health effects of graphene in humans based on inhalation, the primary engineered nanomaterial exposure pathway in workplaces. Thus, an inhalation toxicology study of graphene was conducted using a nose-only inhalation system for 28 days (6 h/day and 5 days/week) with male Sprague-Dawley rats that were then allowed to recover for 1-, 28-, and 90-day post-exposure period. Animals were separated into 4 groups (control, low, moderate, and high) with 15 male rats (5 rats per time point) in each group. The measured mass concentrations for the low, moderate, and high exposure groups were 0.12, 0.47, and 1.88 mg/m(3), respectively, very close to target concentrations of 0.125, 0.5, and 2 mg/m(3). Airborne graphene exposure was monitored using several real-time instrumentation over 10 nm to 20 μm for size distribution and number concentration. The total and respirable elemental carbon concentrations were also measured using filter sampling. Graphene in the air and biological media was traced using transmission electron microscopy. In addition to mortality and clinical observations, the body weights and food consumption were recorded weekly. At the end of the study, the rats were subjected to a full necropsy, blood samples were collected for blood biochemical tests, and the organ weights were measured. No dose-dependent effects were recorded for the body weights, organ weights, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid inflammatory markers, and blood biochemical parameters at 1-day post-exposure and 28-day post-exposure. The inhaled graphenes were mostly ingested by macrophages. No distinct lung pathology was observed at the 1-, 28- and 90-day post-exposure. The inhaled graphene was translocated to lung

  7. 28-Day inhalation toxicity of graphene nanoplatelets in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Kwon; Shin, Jae Hoon; Lee, Jong Seong; Hwang, Joo Hwan; Lee, Ji Hyun; Baek, Jin Ee; Kim, Tae Gyu; Kim, Boo Wook; Kim, Jin Sik; Lee, Gun Ho; Ahn, Kangho; Han, Sung Gu; Bello, Dhimiter; Yu, Il Je

    2016-09-01

    Graphene, a two-dimensional engineered nanomaterial, is now being used in many applications, such as electronics, biological engineering, filtration, lightweight and strong nanocomposite materials, and energy storage. However, there is a lack of information on the potential health effects of graphene in humans based on inhalation, the primary engineered nanomaterial exposure pathway in workplaces. Thus, an inhalation toxicology study of graphene was conducted using a nose-only inhalation system for 28 days (6 h/day and 5 days/week) with male Sprague-Dawley rats that were then allowed to recover for 1-, 28-, and 90-day post-exposure period. Animals were separated into 4 groups (control, low, moderate, and high) with 15 male rats (5 rats per time point) in each group. The measured mass concentrations for the low, moderate, and high exposure groups were 0.12, 0.47, and 1.88 mg/m(3), respectively, very close to target concentrations of 0.125, 0.5, and 2 mg/m(3). Airborne graphene exposure was monitored using several real-time instrumentation over 10 nm to 20 μm for size distribution and number concentration. The total and respirable elemental carbon concentrations were also measured using filter sampling. Graphene in the air and biological media was traced using transmission electron microscopy. In addition to mortality and clinical observations, the body weights and food consumption were recorded weekly. At the end of the study, the rats were subjected to a full necropsy, blood samples were collected for blood biochemical tests, and the organ weights were measured. No dose-dependent effects were recorded for the body weights, organ weights, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid inflammatory markers, and blood biochemical parameters at 1-day post-exposure and 28-day post-exposure. The inhaled graphenes were mostly ingested by macrophages. No distinct lung pathology was observed at the 1-, 28- and 90-day post-exposure. The inhaled graphene was translocated to lung

  8. Chlorine gas inhalation: human clinical evidence of toxicity and experience in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Carl W; Martin, James G

    2010-07-01

    Humans can come into contact with chlorine gas during short-term, high-level exposures due to traffic or rail accidents, spills, or other disasters. By contrast, workplace and public (swimming pools, etc.) exposures are more frequently long-term, low-level exposures, occasionally punctuated by unintentional transient increases. Acute exposures can result in symptoms of acute airway obstruction including wheezing, cough, chest tightness, and/or dyspnea. These findings are fairly nonspecific, and might be present after exposures to a number of inhaled chemical irritants. Clinical signs, including hypoxemia, wheezes, rales, and/or abnormal chest radiographs may be present. More severely affected individuals may suffer acute lung injury (ALI) and/or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Up to 1% of exposed individuals die. Humidified oxygen and inhaled beta-adrenergic agents are appropriate therapies for victims with respiratory symptoms while assessments are underway. Inhaled bicarbonate and systemic or inhaled glucocorticoids also have been reported anecdotally to be beneficial. Chronic sequelae may include increased airways reactivity, which tends to diminish over time. Airways hyperreactivity may be more of a problem among those survivors that are older, have smoked, and/or have pre-existing chronic lung disease. Individuals suffering from irritant-induced asthma (IIA) due to workplace exposures to chlorine also tend to have similar characteristics, such as airways hyperresponsiveness to methacholine, and to be older and to have smoked. Other workplace studies, however, have indicated that workers exposed to chlorine dioxide/sulfur dioxide have tended to have increased risk for chronic bronchitis and/or recurrent wheezing attacks (one or more episodes) but not asthma, while those exposed to ozone have a greater incidence of asthma. Specific biomarkers for acute and chronic exposures to chlorine gas are currently lacking. Animal models for chlorine gas

  9. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Outdoors Management Asthma Action Plan Flu Shots Inhalers Data, Statistics, and Surveillance Most Recent Asthma Data AsthmaStats Asthma-related Missed School Days among Children ...

  10. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brochures Facts Triggers Indoors In the Workplace Outdoors Management Asthma Action Plan Flu Shots Inhalers Data, Statistics, ... Asthma NCHS Asthma FastStats Survey Questions Resources for Health Professionals and Schools Healthcare Professionals Public Health Professionals ...

  11. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pollution & Respiratory Health Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir You can control your asthma and avoid an attack by taking your medicine ...

  12. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Triggers Indoors In the Workplace Outdoors Management Asthma Action Plan Flu Shots Inhalers Data, Statistics, and Surveillance ... gaining control over their asthma. Quick Links Asthma Action Plan America Breathing Easier [PDF - 1.1 MB] ...

  13. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z # Start ... Management Asthma Action Plan Flu Shots Inhalers Data, Statistics, and Surveillance Most Recent Asthma Data AsthmaStats Asthma- ...

  14. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brochures Facts Triggers Indoors In the Workplace Outdoors Management Asthma Action Plan Flu Shots Inhalers Data, Statistics, ... Mixed Methods 5. Purpose Informs Design Other Evaluation Resources Multimedia ... HHS/Open USA.gov

  15. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... avoid an attack by taking your medicine exactly as your doctor or other medical professional tells you ... keep them with your Asthma Action Plan. Using a metered dose inhaler with a spacer Your browser ...

  16. Abused inhalants enhance GABA-mediated synaptic inhibition

    OpenAIRE

    MacIver, M Bruce

    2009-01-01

    Abused inhalants are widely used, especially among school age children and teenagers, and are ‘gateway’ drugs leading to the abuse of alcohol and other addictive substances. In spite of this widespread use, little is known about the effects produced by inhalants on the central nervous system. The similarity in behavioral effects produced by inhalants and inhaled anesthetics, together with their common chemical features, prompted the present study of inhalant actions on a well characterized an...

  17. Subchronic inhalation of carbon tetrachloride alters the tissue retention of acutely inhaled plutonium-239 nitrate in F344 rats and syrian golden hamsters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) has been used extensively in the nuclear weapons industry, so it is likely that nuclear plant workers have been exposed to both CCl4 and plutonium compounds. Future exposures may occur during open-quotes cleanupclose quotes operations at weapons productions sites such as the Hanford, Washington, and Rocky Flats, Colorado, facilities. Inhalation of 20 and 100 ppm CCl4 by hamsters reduces uptake of 239Pu solubilized from lung, shunting the 239Pu to the skeleton

  18. 40 CFR 79.61 - Vehicle emissions inhalation exposure guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Industrial Flow Measurement. Research Triangle Park, NC: Instrument Society of America. (18) 40 CFR part 798... frictional forces acting on a fluid. It quantitatively provides a measure of whether flow is laminar or turbulent. A fluid traveling through a pipe is fully developed into a laminar flow for a Reynolds...

  19. Developmental neurotoxicity after toluene inhalation exposure in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hass, Ulla; Lund, Søren Peter; Hougaard, Karin Sørig;

    1999-01-01

    Rats were exposed to 1200 ppm or 0 ppm toluene (CAS 108-88-3) for 6 h per day from day 7 of pregnancy until day 18 postnatally. Developmental and neurobehavioral effects in the offspring were investigated using a test battery including assessment of functions similar to those in the proposed OECD...

  20. Inhalation of titanium dioxide induces endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated autophagy and inflammation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kyeong-Nam; Sung, Jae Hyuck; Lee, Somin; Kim, Ji-Eun; Kim, Sanghwa; Cho, Won-Young; Lee, Ah Young; Park, Soo Jin; Lim, Joohyun; Park, Changhoon; Chae, Chanhee; Lee, Jin Kyu; Lee, Jinkyu; Kim, Jun-Sung; Cho, Myung-Haing

    2015-11-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles are widely used in cosmetics, sunscreen, electronics, drug delivery systems, and diverse bio-application fields. In the workplace, the primary exposure route for TiO2 nanoparticles is inhalation through the respiratory system. Because TiO2 nanoparticles have different physiological properties, in terms of size and bioactivity, their toxic effects in the respiratory system must be determined. In this study, to determine the toxic effect of inhaled TiO2 nanoparticles in the lung and the underlying mechanism, we used a whole-body chamber inhalation system to expose A/J mice to TiO2 nanoparticles for 28 days. During the experiments, the inhaled TiO2 nanoparticles were characterized using a cascade impactor and transmission electron microscopy. After inhalation of the TiO2 nanoparticles, hyperplasia and inflammation were observed in a TiO2 dose-dependent manner. To determine the biological mechanism of the toxic response in the lung, we examined endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria in lung. The ER and mitochondria were disrupted and dysfunctional in the TiO2-exposed lung leading to abnormal autophagy. In summary, we assessed the potential risk of TiO2 nanoparticles in the respiratory system, which contributed to our understanding of the mechanism underlining TiO2 nanoparticle toxicity in the lung.

  1. Manganese Inhalation as a Parkinson Disease Model

    OpenAIRE

    José Luis Ordoñez-Librado; Verónica Anaya-Martínez; Ana Luisa Gutierrez-Valdez; Laura Colín-Barenque; Enrique Montiel-Flores; Maria Rosa Avila-Costa

    2011-01-01

    The present study examines the effects of divalent and trivalent Manganese (Mn2+/Mn3+) mixture inhalation on mice to obtain a novel animal model of Parkinson disease (PD) inducing bilateral and progressive dopaminergic cell death, correlate those alterations with motor disturbances, and determine whether L-DOPA treatment improves the behavior, to ensure that the alterations are of dopaminergic origin. CD-1 male mice inhaled a mixture of Manganese chloride and Manganese acetate, one hour twice...

  2. Inhalation injury: epidemiology, pathology, treatment strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Dries, David J; Endorf, Frederick W

    2013-01-01

    Lung injury resulting from inhalation of smoke or chemical products of combustion continues to be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Combined with cutaneous burns, inhalation injury increases fluid resuscitation requirements, incidence of pulmonary complications and overall mortality of thermal injury. While many products and techniques have been developed to manage cutaneous thermal trauma, relatively few diagnosis-specific therapeutic options have been identified for patie...

  3. Dynamics of airflow in a short inhalation

    CERN Document Server

    Bates, Alister; Cetto, Raul; Calmet, Hadrien; Gambaruto, Alberto; Tolley, Neil; Houzeaux, Guillaume; Schroter, Robert

    2015-01-01

    During a rapid inhalation, such as a sniff, the flow in the airways accelerates and decays quickly. The consequences for flow development and convective trans- port of an inhaled gas were investigated in a subject geometry extending from the nose to the bronchi. The progress of flow transition and the advance of an inhaled non-absorbed gas were determined using highly resolved simulations of a sniff 0.5 s long, 1 litre per second peak flow, 364 ml inhaled volume. In the nose, the distribution of airflow evolved through three phases: (i) an initial transient of about 50 ms, roughly the filling time for a nasal volume, (ii) quasi-equilibrium over the majority of the inhalation, and (iii) a terminating phase. Flow transition commenced in the supraglottic region within 20ms, resulting in large- amplitude fluctuations persisting throughout the inhalation; in the nose, fluctuations that arose nearer peak flow were of much reduced intensity and diminished in the flow decay phase. Measures of gas concentration showed...

  4. [Evoked potentials and inhalation anesthetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, A; Russ, W; Hempelmann, G

    1988-01-01

    Intraoperative monitoring of evoked potentials can be affected by various factors including volatile anaesthetics. These effects have to be considered in order to give correct interpretations of the obtained data. Visual evoked potentials (VEP) and auditory evoked potentials (AEP) will show strong alterations under general anaesthesia whereas brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) are slightly affected. The effects of nitrous oxide, halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane on somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) after median nerve stimulation were studied in 35 healthy adult patients. pCO2 and tympanic membrane temperature were held constant. Simultaneous cervical and cortical SEP recording was performed using surface electrodes. After induction of anaesthesia SEP were recorded during normoventilation with 100% oxygen and after inhalation of 66.6% nitrous oxide. 10 patients received halothane at inspired concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0%. After nitrous oxide had been replaced by oxygen, halothane was reduced in steps of 0.5%. SEP were recorded at the end of each period (15 min). Equipotent doses of enflurane or isoflurane were administered to 15 and 10 patients, respectively. Nitrous oxide depressed early cortical SEP amplitude. Halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane caused dose dependent increases of latencies. Reduction of amplitude was most pronounced with isoflurane. Using high doses of enflurane in oxygen cortical SEP showed unusual high amplitudes associated with marked increases of latencies. Even under high concentrations of volatile anaesthetics cervical SEP were minimally affected. The effects of anaesthetic gases have to be considered when SEP are recorded intraoperatively.

  5. Effects of internally deposited alpha emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study seeks to identify and quantify the human health effects of occupational exposures to radium, use the health effects data from the radium study to predict responses to other alpha-emitting and/or bone-seeking radionuclides at occupational exposure levels and above, and predict the effects of these radionuclides, specifically environmental radium and its daughters, at nonoccupational exposure levels. 14 refs

  6. Conference report: 2nd Medicon Valley Inhalation Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lastow, Orest

    2014-02-01

    2nd Medicon Valley Inhalation Symposium 16 October 2013, Lund, Sweden The 2nd Medicon Valley Inhalation Symposium was arranged by the Medicon Valley Inhalation Consortium. It was held at the Medicon Village, which is the former AstraZeneca site in Lund, Sweden. It was a 1 day symposium focused on inhaled drug delivery and inhalation product development. 120 delegates listened to 11 speakers. The program was organized to follow the value chain of an inhalation product development. This year there was a focus on inhaled biomolecules. The inhaled delivery of insulin was covered by two presentations and a panel discussion. The future of inhaled drug delivery was discussed together with an overview of the current market situation. Two of the inhalation platforms, capsule inhalers and metered-dose inhalers, were discussed in terms of the present situation and the future opportunities. Much focus was on the regulatory and intellectual aspects of developing inhalation products. The manufacturing of a dry powder inhaler requires precision filling of powder, and the various techniques were presented. The benefits of nebulization and nasal delivery were illustrated with some case studies and examples. The eternal challenge of poor compliance was addressed from an industrial design perspective and some new approaches were introduced.

  7. Advanced REACH tool: A Bayesian model for occupational exposure assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McNally, K.; Warren, N.; Fransman, W.; Entink, R.K.; Schinkel, J.; Van Tongeren, M.; Cherrie, J.W.; Kromhout, H.; Schneider, T.; Tielemans, E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a Bayesian model for the assessment of inhalation exposures in an occupational setting; the methodology underpins a freely available web-based application for exposure assessment, the Advanced REACH Tool (ART). The ART is a higher tier exposure tool that combines disparate sourc

  8. Inhalation toxicology of industrial plutonium and uranium oxide aerosols II. Deposition, retention and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of studies has been initiated in which powdered fuel materials obtained at industrial sites have been aerosolized in the dry state for the inhalation exposure of Fischer-344 rats, Beagle dogs and Cynomolgus monkeys to evaluate the potential biological hazard of such accidents. The materials chosen for study were 750 deg. C heat-treated mixed PuO2 and UO2 obtained from a ball milling process and 1750 deg. C heat-treated (U,Pu)O1.97 powder obtained from the centerless grinding of fuel pellets. Care was taken to insure that the regenerated aerosols used in animal inhalation exposures had similar particle size and size distribution characteristics to those measured during glove box sampling at the industrial plant. The deposition, retention, distribution and excretion of these materials are being studied, using serial sacrifice of animals at times from 4 hours to several years after inhalation exposure. Periodic excreta samples are collected on all animals. Biological samples are analyzed to yield data on Pu, Am and U content. Data from animals sacrificed up to one year will be presented. The retention of 239Pu and 241Am in the lung and their subsequent clearance and translocation to other tissues such as liver, skeleton and tracheobronchial lymph nodes will be discussed in relation to the influence of species and of the physical chemical properties of the exposure aerosol. (author)

  9. Comparison of the systemic bioavailability of mometasone furoate after oral inhalation from a mometasone furoate/formoterol fumarate metered-dose inhaler versus a mometasone furoate dry-powder inhaler in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosoglou T

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Teddy Kosoglou,1 James Hubbell,2 Fengjuan Xuan,3 David L Cutler,1 Alan G Meehan,4 Bhavna Kantesaria,5 Bret A Wittmer6,† 1Clinical Pharmacology, 2Exploratory Drug Metabolism, 3Early Development Statistics, 4Medical Communications, 5Drug Metabolism/Pharmacokinetics, Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp, Whitehouse Station, NJ, USA; 6Commonwealth Biomedical Research, LLC, Madisonville, KY, USA†Dr Bret A Wittmer passed away on May 9, 2012.Background: Coadministration of mometasone furoate (MF and formoterol fumarate (F produces additive effects for improving symptoms and lung function and reduces exacerbations in patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. The present study assessed the relative systemic exposure to MF and characterized the pharmacokinetics of MF and formoterol in patients with COPD.Methods: This was a single-center, randomized, open-label, multiple-dose, three-period, three-treatment crossover study. The following three treatments were self-administered by patients (n = 14 with moderate-to-severe COPD: MF 400 µg/F 10 µg via a metered-dose inhaler (MF/F MDI; DULERA®/ZENHALE® without a spacer device, MF/F MDI with a spacer, or MF 400 µg via a dry-powder inhaler (DPI; ASMANEX® TWISTHALER® twice daily for 5 days. Plasma samples for MF and formoterol assay were obtained predose and at prespecified time points after the last (morning dose on day 5 of each period of the crossover. The geometric mean ratio (GMR as a percent and the corresponding 90% confidence intervals (CI were calculated for treatment comparisons.Results: Systemic MF exposure was lower (GMR 77%; 90% CI 58, 102 following administration by MF/F MDI compared to MF DPI. Additionally, least squares geometric mean systemic exposures of MF and formoterol were lower (GMR 72%; 90% CI 61, 84 and (GMR 62%; 90% CI 52, 74, respectively, following administration by MF/F MDI in conjunction with a spacer compared to MF/F MDI without a spacer. MF/F MDI had a

  10. Lifetime tumor risk coefficients for beagle dogs that inhaled cerium-144 chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boecker, B.B.; Hahn, F.F.; Griffith, W.C. [and others

    1995-12-01

    Reported here is one of the life-span radionuclide toxicology studies being conducted at ITRI in Beagle dogs. These studies are examining the life-span health risks of inhaled {Beta}-, {gamma}- and {alpha}-emitting radionuclides to expand available knowledge on these risks especially for the many cases for which human data are not available. The outcomes of these studies are providing important information on dosimetry and dose-response relationships for these inhaled radionuclides and the relative importance of a broad range of dose- and effect-modifying factors. A number of these studies are currently coming to completion. Much of the ITRI effort is being directed to final reviews of the dosimetric, clinical, and pathologic results and writing summary manuscripts. Radiation doses and effects in tissues adjacent to bone, specifically those of epithelial or marrow origin, should be considered when determining risks from internally deposited, bone-seeking radionuclides such as {sup 144}Ce.

  11. Effects of benzene inhalation on murine pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronkite, E P; Inoue, T; Carsten, A L; Miller, M E; Bullis, J E; Drew, R T

    1982-03-01

    Effects of benzene inhalation on mouse pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells have been evaluated. Male mice 8--12 wk old were exposed to 400 ppm benzene for 6 h/d, 5 d/wk, for up to 9 1/2 wk. At various time intervals exposed and control animals were killed, and cardiac blood was evaluated for changes in white blood cell (WBC) and red blood cell (RBC) content. In addition, femora and tibiae were evaluated for total marrow cellularity, stem cell content (as measured by the spleen colony technique), and the percent of stem cells in DNA synthesis (as determined by the tritiated thymidine cytocide technique). Exogenous spleen colonies grown from marrow of exposed animals were counted, identified, and scored by histological type. Exposure to benzene caused significant depressions of RBCs and WBCs throughout the exposure period, which continued for at least 14 d after exposure. Bone marrow cellularity and stem cell content were also depressed in exposed animals throughout the study. Tritiated thymidine cytocide of spleen colony-forming cells was generally increased in exposed animals, perhaps indicating a compensatory response to the reduction of circulating cells. Spleen colonies of all types were depressed after exposure to benzene. The significance of the reduction in cellularity, stem cell content, and changes in morphology of spleen colonies is discussed in relation to cellular toxicity and residual injury.

  12. Alpha activity in Indian thermal springs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Dissolved radon is contained in natural water due to primordial uranium in rocks and soils with which it comes in contact. There is dual exposure from radon in water i.e. due to inhalation of the radon released from the water into the ambient air and through ingestion when water is used for drinking. As radon contaminated water adversely affects the health, it is therefore fundamental from health and hygiene point of view to measure radium concentration and radon exhalation rates in water.Materials and Methods: LR-115, Type-II plastic track detectors were used to measure the radium concentration and radon exhalation rate in water samples collected from various thermal springs. The alpha tracks registered were counted by optical microscope at suitable magnification and converted into radium concentration and subsequently radon exhalation rates were measured. Results: The radon concentration emanated from water samples(air borne) varied from 84 Bqm-3 to 827 Bqm-3 with an average of 429± 12.72 Bqm-3 and the dissolved radon concentration varied from 5.65 Bq 1-1 to 55.66 Bq 1-1 with an average of 28.88± 0.85 Bq 1-1. The radon mass exhalation rates varied from 2.37 m Bq kg-1 hr-1 to 23.39 mBq kg-1 hr-1 with an average of 12.14 ±0.36 mBq kg-1 hr-1 and surface exhalation rates from 52.34 mBq m-2 hr-1 to 515.29 mBq m-2 hr-1 with an average of 267.36 ± 7.93 from different thermal spring water samples. The radium concentration varied from 0.3 0 Bq 1-1 to 2.93 Bq 1-1 with an average of 1.52 ± 0.045 Bq 1-1. Results indicate that the thermal spring water, which is also being used for drinking, is safe as far as radium concentration is concerned with the exception of a few isolated thermal spring sources

  13. Perioperative use of selective alpha-2 agonists and antagonists in small animals

    OpenAIRE

    Lemke, Kip A.

    2004-01-01

    Alpha-2 agonists are the only single class of anesthetic drugs that induce reliable, dose-dependent sedation, analgesia, and muscle relaxation in dogs and cats. Used at low doses, as adjuncts to injectable and inhalational anesthetics, selective alpha-2 agonists dramatically reduce the amount of anesthetic drug required to induce and maintain anesthesia. This reduction in anesthetic requirements is achieved without significant depression of pulmonary function and with limited effects on cardi...

  14. Comparison of pulmonary inflammatory responses following intratracheal instillation and inhalation of nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Yasuo; Izumi, Hiroto; Yoshiura, Yukiko; Tomonaga, Taisuke; Lee, Byeong-Woo; Okada, Takami; Oyabu, Takako; Myojo, Toshihiko; Kawai, Kazuaki; Yatera, Kazuhiro; Shimada, Manabu; Kubo, Masaru; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Kitajima, Shinichi; Kuroda, Etsushi; Horie, Masanori; Kawaguchi, Kenji; Sasaki, Takeshi

    2016-06-01

    In order to examine whether intratracheal instillation studies can be useful for determining the harmful effect of nanoparticles, we performed inhalation and intratracheal instillation studies using samples of the same nanoparticles. Nickel oxide nanoparticles (NiO) and titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2) were used as chemicals with high and low toxicities, respectively. In the intratracheal instillation study, rats were exposed to 0.2 or 1 mg of NiO or TiO2. Cell analysis and chemokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were analyzed from 3 days to 6 months following the single intratracheal instillation. In the inhalation study, rats were exposed to inhaled NiO or TiO2 (1.65, 1.84 mg/m(3), respectively) for 4 weeks. The same endpoints were examined from 3 days to 3 months after the end of exposure. Inhalation of NiO induced an increase in the number of neutrophils in BALF and concentrations of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC)-1, CINC-2 and heme oxygenase (HO)-1. Intratracheal instillation of NiO induced persistent inflammation and upregulation of these cytokines was observed in the rats. However, inhalation of TiO2 did not induce pulmonary inflammation, and intratracheal instillation of TiO2 transiently induced an increase in the number of neutrophils in BALF and the concentrations of CINC-1, CINC-2 and HO-1. Taken together, a difference in pulmonary inflammation was observed between the high and low toxicity nanomaterials in the intratracheal instillation studies, as in the inhalation studies, suggesting that intratracheal instillation studies may be useful for ranking the harmful effects of nanoparticles. PMID:26558952

  15. Distribution and removal of transuranic elements and cerium deposited by the inhalation route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissue distribution and excretion of inhaled radioactive isotopes varied with the chemical form and the particle size of the aerosols. In dogs, 30 d after inhalation of plutonium nitrate, 70% of the body burden was in the lungs, 10% in liver, and 15% in the skeleton. After inhalation of P239 O2 aerosols with a Count Median Diameter (CMD) of 0.12μm, 71% of the body burden was in the lungs, 3% in the bronchial lymph nodes, 4.4% in muscle, 1.3% in skeleton, and 20% was uniformly distributed throughout all remaining tissues. After inhalation of P239 O2 aerosols with CMD's of 0.3 to 0.6 μm; the lungs contained 98%, the bronchial lymph nodes about 1% and all other tissues the remaining one per cent. These data and the analysis of urine and faeces defined the relative importance of the three routes by which inhaled radioactive isotopes were cleared from the lung, e.g. movement up the trachea by ciliary action followed by excretion in the faeces, transport across the alveolar membrane and redistribution in other tissue with gradual excretion in urine and transport to the bronchial lymph nodes which accumulate inhaled insoluble materials. Therapy agents were tested that would be expected to increase the clearance of radioactive isotopes from the lung by routes which would avoid accumulation in other, perhaps more radiosensitive tissues. These include chelating agents, wetting agents, irritants, sympathomimetic, parasympathomimetic, parasympatholytic and antihistamine drugs. Diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid (DTPA), a chelating agent, administered by aerosols or intraperitoneally caused rapid transport of Ce144 -Pr144 from the lung and from the body via urinary excretion. One month after exposure to Ce144 O2 treated rats and dogs retained less than 10% of the Ce144 -Pr144 levels of untreated animals. (author)

  16. Microscopic distribution patterns of microspheres deposited by inhalation in lungs of rats, guinea pigs, and dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snipes, M.B.; Guilmette, R.A.; Nikula, K.J.

    1995-12-01

    Acute inhalation exposures of mammalian species to small amounts of poorly soluble particles result in deposition of the particles in the head airways, tracheobronchial region, and pulmonary region of the respiratory tract. Most of the particles that deposit in the head airways and tracheobronchial region are believed to clear rapidly, but some as yet undefined fraction of the particles is retained in the airway epithelium or subepithelial interstitium for extended times. This long-term retention has important implications for the new respiratory tract dosimetry model of the International Commission on Radiological Protection because particles retained within the region can result in long-term exposure of airway epithelial cells. Preliminary results from this study demonstrate that a substantial fraction of the PSL microspheres inhaled by these rats, guinea pigs, and dogs was incorporated into the epithelium and interstitium of the tracheobronchial region.

  17. Use of inhaled corticosteroids in pediatric asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H

    1997-01-01

    Inhaled corticosteroids reduce asthma symptoms and exacerbations, improve lung function, and reduce airway inflammation and bronchial hyperreactivity more effectively than other treatments. However, inhaled corticosteroids may be unable to return lung function and bronchial hyperreactivity...... to normal when introduced for moderately severe asthma. This finding highlights the need to improve treatment strategy in pediatric asthma. The natural progression of persistent asthma may lead to loss of lung function and chronic bronchial hyperreactivity for children and adults. There is evidence...... to suggest that asthma acts via a chronic inflammatory process that causes remodeling of the airways with mucosal thickening and smooth muscle hypertrophy. An optimal treatment strategy would be one aimed at reducing the ongoing airway inflammation. Inhaled steroids ameliorate the inflammation, whereas...

  18. Inhalation hazards to uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project is investigating levels of uranium mine air contaminants, using both large and small experimental animals to model human respiratory system disease. Lung cancer and deaths by degenerative lung disease have reached epidemic proportions among uranium miners, but the cause-effect relationships for these diseases are based on inadequate epidemiological data. This project identifies agents or combinations of agents (both chemical and radiological) and their exposure levels that produce respiratory tract lesions, including respiratory epithelial carcinoma, pneumonconiosis and emphysema

  19. Maternal inhalation of surface-coated nanosized titanium dioxide (UV-Titan) in C57BL/6 mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jackson, Petra; Halappanavar, Sabina; Hougaard, Karin Sorig;

    2013-01-01

    We investigated effects of maternal pulmonary exposure to titanium dioxide (UV-Titan) on prenatally exposed offspring. Time-mated mice (C57BL/6BomTac) were inhalation exposed (1 h/day to 42 mg UV-Titan/m(3) aerosolised powder or filtered air) during gestation days (GDs) 8-18. We evaluated DNA...

  20. Long-term tolerability of inhaled human insulin (Exubera) in patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnett, A H; Lange, P; Dreyer, M;

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Inhaled human insulin (Exubera; EXU) has shown encouraging tolerability in short-term trials. We evaluated the safety profile of EXU after long-term exposure. DESIGN: In two, open-label, 2-year studies patients poorly controlled on a sulphonylurea were randomised to adjunctive EXU or...

  1. Systemic but not mucosal immunity induced by AVA prevents inhalational anthrax

    OpenAIRE

    Klinman, Dennis M.; Currie, Debra; Lee, Gloria; Grippe, Vanessa; Merkel, Tod

    2007-01-01

    Improved vaccines and adjuvants are being developed to reduce the threat posed by a terrorist attack involving aerosolized anthrax spores. Nevertheless, uncertainty persists concerning the relative benefits of inducing mucosal vs systemic immunity to host survival following inhalational exposure to anthrax spores. This work examines the effect of delivering the licensed human vaccine (Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed, AVA) combined with a CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) adjuvant intraperitoneally or i...

  2. Early effects of inhaled 239Pu(NO3)4 aerosols in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beagle dogs given a single inhalation exposure to 239Pu(NO3)4, and observed for life-span dose-effect relationship, died from radiation pneumonitis (4 of 5) at the highest dosage level, 14 to 25 mo postexposure. There were also indications in these dogs of radiation osteosis, characterized by peritrabecular fibrosis. Leukopenia, lymphopenia, neutropenia and decreased numbers of circulating monocytes and eosinophils occurred at the two highest dosage levels, as previously reported

  3. Jet Fuel Kerosene is not Immunosuppressive in Mice or Rats Following Inhalation for 28 Days

    OpenAIRE

    White, Kimber L.; DeLorme, Michael P.; Beatty, Patrick W.; Smith, Matthew J; Peachee, Vanessa L.

    2013-01-01

    Previous reports indicated that inhalation of JP-8 aviation turbine fuel is immunosuppressive. However, in some of those studies, the exposure concentrations were underestimated, and percent of test article as vapor or aerosol was not determined. Furthermore, it is unknown whether the observed effects are attributable to the base hydrocarbon fuel (jet fuel kerosene) or to the various fuel additives in jet fuels. The present studies were conducted, in compliance with Good Laboratory Practice (...

  4. Deposition, translocation and effects of transuranic particles inhaled by experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inhalation exposure constitutes the most likely route of entrance for transuranics into the body. Cancer is the most likely consequence of exposure, but several thousand workers have been exposed during the last 30 yrs without, so far, evidence of exposure-related effects. Several soluble and insoluble transuranic compounds have been studied in rodents and dogs, either alone or combined with exposure to other materials (e.g., PuO/sub 2/--UO/sub 2/ fuel and Na). These studies have provided a wide variety of spatial and temporal dose distribution patterns in the lung. The distribution and total initial deposition in the respiratory tract is a function of the physical characteristics of the inhaled aerosols (size distribution, shape, hygroscopicity) and of the morphology and physiology of the animal. Translocation rates, organ and tissue distribution and excretion in urine and feces, are a function of the physicochemical characteristics of the deposited material (solubility, specific activity, chemical compound, etc.). Differences in rate of translocation of the solubilized material, primarily to the liver and bone, determines the radiation dose to the various tissues involved. Insoluble particles of plutonium dioxide are transferred to the thoracic lymph nodes, which may be functionally destroyed as a consequence. Radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis are the main causes of death in animals with cumulative radiation doses to the lung of a few thousand rads. The most significant long-term effect of inhaled transuranic compounds in animals is the development of lung and bone tumors. The main type of lung tumor in both dog and rat is the bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (adenocarcinoma). However, tumor type is a function of radiation dose and dose-distribution at high doses. Bone ranks next to lung as the tissue developing the most tumors following inhalation of transuranics

  5. Comparison between biokinetics of inhaled plutonium nitrate and gadolinium oxide in humans and animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the paucity of human data after inhalation of different chemical forms of radionuclides, the implications for human exposure are often based on animal studies. Biokinetic studies of plutonium nitrate and gadolinium oxide in human volunteers and rats are described. The results, together with information from other studies with radionuclides, suggests that animal studies can be used with advantage for assessing the biokinetic behavior in humans, and for providing guidance on the assessment of intake and optimal monitoring regimens. (author)

  6. [A fitting power curve equation for the accumulative inhaling volume in Chinese under 19 years old].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Q; Zhou, H

    2000-03-30

    A fitting power curve equation based on the breath frequency and body weight for the accumulative inhaling volume in Chinese under 19 years old was established. The equation is Y = 754.37 + 258.34 X1.9038, and the fitting is good (R2 = 0.9974). It is useful for estimating the degree of exposure to air pollutants of people in their young period. PMID:12725097

  7. Relevance of inhalant and food allergens to the etiology and management of patients with atopic dermatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platts-Mills, T.A.; Mitchell, E.B.; Rowntree, S.; Heymann, P.W.; Chapman, M.D.

    Patients with atopic dermatitis have IgE antibodies to common environmental antigens, both foods and inhalants. Such antibodies are probably relevant and exposure to the corresponding antigens can give rise to eczema. Nevertheless, the mechanisms involved and the role of other etiologies, e.g. contact reactions, remain to be elucidated. Patients with atopic dermatitis should have comprehensive evaluations to determine the role of environmental antigens.

  8. Toll-Like Receptor 4 Signaling Pathway Mediates Inhalant Organic Dust-Induced Bone Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staab, Elizabeth; Thiele, Geoffrey M; Clarey, Dillon; Wyatt, Todd A; Romberger, Debra J; Wells, Adam D; Dusad, Anand; Wang, Dong; Klassen, Lynell W; Mikuls, Ted R; Duryee, Michael J; Poole, Jill A

    2016-01-01

    Agriculture workers have increased rates of airway and skeletal disease. Inhalant exposure to agricultural organic dust extract (ODE) induces bone deterioration in mice; yet, mechanisms underlying lung-bone crosstalk remain unclear. Because Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and TLR4 are important in mediating the airway consequences of ODE, this study investigated their role in regulating bone responses. First, swine facility ODE stimulated wild-type (WT) bone marrow macrophages to form osteoclasts, and this finding was inhibited in TLR4 knock-out (KO), but not TLR2 KO cells. Next, using an established intranasal inhalation exposure model, WT, TLR2 KO and TLR4 KO mice were treated daily with ODE or saline for 3 weeks. ODE-induced airway neutrophil influx and cytokine/chemokine release were similarly reduced in TLR2 and TLR4 KO animals as compared to WT mice. Utilizing micro-computed tomography (CT), analysis of tibia showed loss of bone mineral density, volume and deterioration of bone micro-architecture and mechanical strength induced by ODE in WT mice were significantly reduced in TLR4 but not TLR2 KO animals. Bone marrow osteoclast precursor cell populations were analyzed by flow cytometry from exposed animals. In WT animals, exposure to inhalant ODE increased osteoclast precursor cell populations as compared to saline, an effect that was reduced in TLR4 but not TLR2 KO mice. These results show that TLR2 and TLR4 pathways mediate ODE-induced airway inflammation, but bone deterioration consequences following inhalant ODE treatment is strongly dependent upon TLR4. Thus, the TLR4 signaling pathway appears critical in regulating the lung-bone inflammatory axis to microbial component-enriched organic dust exposures. PMID:27479208

  9. Formation of Vascular S-Nitrosothiols and Plasma Nitrates/Nitrites Following Inhalation of Diesel Emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Knuckles, Travis L.; Buntz, Jennifer G.; Paffett, Michael; Channell, Meghan; Harmon, Molly; Cherng, Tom; Lucas, Selita N.; Jacob D. McDonald; Kanagy, Nancy L.; Matthew J Campen

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have associated traffic-related airborne pollution with adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Nitric oxide (NO) is a common component of fresh diesel and gasoline engine emissions that rapidly transforms both in the atmosphere and once inhaled. Because of this rapid transformation, limited information is available in terms of potential human exposures and adverse health effects. Young rats were exposed to whole diesel emissions (DE) adjusted to 300 µg/m3 of particulate matt...

  10. Respiratory tract retention of inhaled particles in experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variety of inhalation studies have been reviewed to develop a model for describing the retention of particles in the respiratory tracts of several species of experimental animals. Presently, the respiratory tract clearance model receives the greatest use in the radiation protection field. This model has several disadvantages in its basic construction and in its application to radionuclide exposures of people to heterogeneous aerosolized substances. These are discussed and an alternative model is described. The alternative model uses time-varying solubility functions to described absorption of material from the lung and upper respiratory tract. The solubility functions can be determined from studies in experimental animals or can be approximated from in vitro chemical systems. Application of this model to data from several experimental studies is included

  11. Inhalational Alzheimer's disease: an unrecognized—and treatable—epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredesen, Dale E.

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is one of the most significant healthcare problems today, with a dire need for effective treatment. Identifying subtypes of Alzheimer's disease may aid in the development of therapeutics, and recently three different subtypes have been described: type 1 (inflammatory), type 2 (non-inflammatory or atrophic), and type 3 (cortical). Here I report that type 3 Alzheimer's disease is the result of exposure to specific toxins, and is most commonly inhalational (IAD), a phenotypic manifestation of chronic inflammatory response syndrome (CIRS), due to biotoxins such as mycotoxins. The appropriate recognition of IAD as a potentially important pathogenetic condition in patients with cognitive decline offers the opportunity for successful treatment of a large number of patients whose current prognoses, in the absence of accurate diagnosis, are grave. PMID:26870879

  12. Inhalational Alzheimer's disease: an unrecognized - and treatable - epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredesen, Dale E

    2016-02-01

    Alzheimer's disease is one of the most significant healthcare problems today, with a dire need for effective treatment. Identifying subtypes of Alzheimer's disease may aid in the development of therapeutics, and recently three different subtypes have been described: type 1 (inflammatory), type 2 (non-inflammatory or atrophic), and type 3 (cortical). Here I report that type 3 Alzheimer's disease is the result of exposure to specific toxins, and is most commonly inhalational (IAD), a phenotypic manifestation of chronic inflammatory response syndrome (CIRS), due to biotoxins such as mycotoxins. The appropriate recognition of IAD as a potentially important pathogenetic condition in patients with cognitive decline offers the opportunity for successful treatment of a large number of patients whose current prognoses, in the absence of accurate diagnosis, are grave. PMID:26870879

  13. Use of novel inhalation kinetic studies to refine physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic models for ethanol in non-pregnant and pregnant rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethanol (EtOH) exposure induces a variety of concentration-dependent neurological and developmental effects in the rat. Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models have been used to predict the inhalation exposure concentrations necessary to produce blood EtOH concentrat...

  14. Abused inhalants and central reward pathways: electrophysiological and behavioral studies in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riegel, Arthur C; French, Edward D

    2002-06-01

    Inhalant abuse remains a significant health problem among the younger segment of society. In fact, the use of inhalants in this population trails only that of nicotine, alcohol, and marijuana. Toluene is a common ingredient in many of the substances sought out for inhalation abuse, apparently for its euphorigenic and hallucinogenic effects. Because drugs of abuse share the common property of altering the activity of mesolimbic dopamine neurons, it is reasonable to suspect that toluene-induced changes in this CNS pathway may underlie its abuse potential. Here we will provide in vivo and in vitro electrophysiological data and behavioral evidence linking toluene exposure in rats to activation of mesolimbic dopamine neurons. Exposure of rats to 11,000 ppm of inhaled toluene produced time-dependent activation of dopamine neurons within the midbrain ventral tegmental area (VTA). In the rat brain slice preparation, perfusion with toluene (23-822 microM) also evoked an increase in activity of both dopamine and nondopamine neurons within the VTA. These excitatory effects could not be found in adjacent non-VTA nuclei, nor were they sensitive to the glutamate antagonists CGS19755 or CNQX. In behavioral studies, systemic administration of toluene produced a dose-dependent locomotor hyperactivity that was attenuated by either pretreatment with the D2 dopamine receptor antagonist remoxipride or by 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the nucleus accumbens. These findings show that toluene can activate dopamine neurons within the mesolimbic reward pathway, an effect that may underlie the abuse potential of inhaled substances containing toluene.

  15. Predicting lung dosimetry of inhaled particleborne benzo[a]pyrene using physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jerry; Franzen, Allison; Van Landingham, Cynthia; Lumpkin, Michael; Crowell, Susan; Meredith, Clive; Loccisano, Anne; Gentry, Robinan; Clewell, Harvey

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a by-product of incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and plant/wood products, including tobacco. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for BaP for the rat was extended to simulate inhalation exposures to BaP in rats and humans including particle deposition and dissolution of absorbed BaP and renal elimination of 3-hydroxy benzo[a]pyrene (3-OH BaP) in humans. The clearance of particle-associated BaP from lung based on existing data in rats and dogs suggest that the process is bi-phasic. An initial rapid clearance was represented by BaP released from particles followed by a slower first-order clearance that follows particle kinetics. Parameter values for BaP-particle dissociation were estimated using inhalation data from isolated/ventilated/perfused rat lungs and optimized in the extended inhalation model using available rat data. Simulations of acute inhalation exposures in rats identified specific data needs including systemic elimination of BaP metabolites, diffusion-limited transfer rates of BaP from lung tissue to blood and the quantitative role of macrophage-mediated and ciliated clearance mechanisms. The updated BaP model provides very good prediction of the urinary 3-OH BaP concentrations and the relative difference between measured 3-OH BaP in nonsmokers versus smokers. This PBPK model for inhaled BaP is a preliminary tool for quantifying lung BaP dosimetry in rat and humans and was used to prioritize data needs that would provide significant model refinement and robust internal dosimetry capabilities. PMID:27569524

  16. Cow Dung Ingestion and Inhalation Dependence: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairkar, Praveen; Tiple, Prashant; Bang, Govind

    2009-01-01

    Although abuse of several unusual inhalants had been documented, addiction to cow dung fumes or their ashes has not been reported in medical literature as yet. We are reporting a case of cow dung dependence in ingestion and inhalational form.

  17. Ab initio alpha-alpha scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Elhatisari, Serdar; Rupak, Gautam; Epelbaum, Evgeny; Krebs, Hermann; Lähde, Timo A; Luu, Thomas; Meißner, Ulf-G

    2015-01-01

    Processes involving alpha particles and alpha-like nuclei comprise a major part of stellar nucleosynthesis and hypothesized mechanisms for thermonuclear supernovae. In an effort towards understanding alpha processes from first principles, we describe in this letter the first ab initio calculation of alpha-alpha scattering. We use lattice effective field theory to describe the low-energy interactions of nucleons and apply a technique called the adiabatic projection method to reduce the eight-body system to an effective two-cluster system. We find good agreement between lattice results and experimental phase shifts for S-wave and D-wave scattering. The computational scaling with particle number suggests that alpha processes involving heavier nuclei are also within reach in the near future.

  18. Effects of benzene inhalation on lymphocyte subpopulations and immune response in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, K

    1986-08-01

    To clarify the immunotoxicity of benzene, the effects of benzene inhalation on T and B lymphocytes and immune responses in mice were examined. BALB/c male mice were exposed to 50 or 200 ppm benzene vapor, 6 hr/day for 7 or 14 consecutive days. T and B lymphocytes, in blood and spleen, were detected by the cytotoxicity assay with anti-Thy-1.2 monoclonal antibody and the membrane immunofluorescence test with anti-immunoglobulin antibody, respectively. Humoral immune response to sheep red blood cells was determined by the hemolytic plaque-forming cell assay. Cell-mediated immune response was measured by contact sensitivity (CS) to picryl chloride. The activity of suppressor cells was evaluated in spleen by the suppressive effect on passive transfer of CS. The ratio and absolute number of T and B lymphocytes in blood and spleen were depressed after a 7-day exposure at 50 ppm benzene. The depression of B lymphocytes was dose dependent and more intense than that of T lymphocytes. The ability to form antibodies was suppressed by benzene at all exposure levels, but the CS response was resistant to benzene inhalation and rather enhanced at 200 ppm exposure for 14 days. The activity of suppressor cells could not be detected at this dose level. These data show that benzene inhalation effects on humoral and cell-mediated immune responses are a result of the selective toxicity of benzene to B lymphocytes and suppressor T cells.

  19. Impact of gasoline inhalation on some neurobehavioural characteristics of male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinawy Amal A

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper examines closely and compares the potential hazards of inhalation of two types of gasoline (car fuel. The first type is the commonly use leaded gasoline and the second is the unleaded type enriched with oxygenate additives as lead substituent in order to raise the octane number. The impacts of gasoline exposure on Na+, K+-ATPase, superoxide dismutase (SOD, acetylcholinesterase (AChE, total protein, reduced glutathione (GSH, and lipid peroxidation (TBARS in the cerebral cortex, and monoamine neurotransmitters dopamine (DA, norepinephrine (NE and serotonin (5-HT in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, cerebellum and hypothalamus were evaluated. The effect of gasoline exposure on the aggressive behaviour tests was also studied. Results The present results revealed that gasoline inhalation induced significant fluctuations in the levels of the monoamine neurotransmitters in the studied brain regions. This was concomitant with a decrease in Na+, K+-ATPase activity and total protein content. Moreover, the group exposed to the unleaded gasoline exhibited an increase in lipid peroxidation and a decrease in AChE and superoxide dismutase activities. These physiological impairments were accompanied with a higher tendency towards aggressive behaviour as a consequence to gasoline inhalation. Conclusion It is concluded from the present work that chronic exposure to either the leaded or the unleaded gasoline vapours impaired the levels of monoamine neurotransmitters and other biochemical parameters in different brain areas and modulated several behavioural aspects related to aggression in rats.

  20. Late effects following inhalation of mixed oxide (U,PuO{sub 2}) mox aerosol in the rat; Effets tardifs de l'inhalation d'aerosols de Mox 2,5% ou 7,1% Pu chez le rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffiths, N.; Van Der Meeren, A.; Fritsch, P.; Maximilien, R

    2008-07-01

    Exposure to alpha-emitting particles is a potential long-term health risk to workers in nuclear fuel fabrication plants. Mixed Oxide (MOX: U,PuO{sub 2}) fuels containing low percentages of plutonium obtained from spent nuclear fuels are increasingly employed and in the case of accidental contamination by inhalation or wounds may result in the development of late-occurring pathologies such as lung cancer. However the long term risks particularly with regard to lung cancer are to date unclear. In the case of MOX the risk may indeed be different from that assigned to the individual components, plutonium and uranium. Several factors are influential (i) the dissolution of Pu depends on the physico-chemical properties, for example risk of lung cancer is increased 10 fold after Pu(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} as compared with PuO{sub 2}. (ii) The solubility of Pu is variable whether delivered as PuO{sub 2} or contained within MOX. (iii) The risk of cancer appears to increase with spatial homogeneity of the lung alpha dose. The objective of this study was to investigate the long term effects in rat lungs following MOX aerosol inhalation of similar particle size containing 2.5 or 7.1% Pu. Conscious rats were exposed to MOX aerosols using a 'nose-only' system and kept for their entire life (2-3 years). Different Initial Lung Deposits (ILDs) were obtained using different concentrations of the MOX suspension. Lung total alpha activity was determined in vivo at intervals over the study period by external counting as well as at autopsy in order to estimate the total lung dose. Anatomo-pathological and immunohistochemical analyses were performed on fixed lung tissue after euthanasia. The frequencies of lung pathologies and tumours were determined on lung sections at several different levels. In addition, autoradiography of lung sections was performed in order to assess the spatial localisation of a activity. Inhalation of MOX at ILD ranging from 1-20 kBq resulted in lung

  1. 49 CFR 172.429 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. 172.429 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.429 POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD label must be as follows: ER22JY97.023 (b) In addition to...

  2. 49 CFR 172.555 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. 172.555 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.555 POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard must be as follows: ER22JY97.025 (b) In addition...

  3. Dose-effect studies with inhaled plutonium oxide in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beagle dogs given a single exposure to 239PuO2 and 238PuO2 aerosols are being observed for life-span dose-effect relationships. The 239Pu body burden of the nine dogs that died of pulmonary fibrosis-induced respiratory insufficiency during the first 3 yr after exposure was 1 to 12 μCi. One of these dogs had a pulmonary tumor; nine additional dogs with body burdens of 0.6 to 1.8 μCi died due to pulmonary neoplasia 3 to 6 yr after exposure. Two of the dogs exposed to 238Pu have died during the first 4 yr postexposure, due to bone and lung tumors, with body burdens at death of 10 μCi. Lymphocytopenia was the earliest observed effect after inhalation of 239PuO2 or 238PuO2, occurring 0.5 to 2 yr after deposition of equal to or greater than 80 nCi plutonium in the lungs

  4. Dose-effect studies with inhaled plutonium oxide in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beagle dogs given a single exposure to 239PuO2 and 238PuO2 aerosols are being observed for life-span dose-effect relationships. The 239Pu body burden of the nine dogs that dies of pulmonary fibrosis-induced respiratory insufficiency during the first 3 yr after exposure was 1 to 12 μCi; one of these dogs had a pulmonary tumor. Eleven additional dogs with body burdens of 0.6 to 1.8 μCi died due to pulmonary neoplasia 3 to 7 yr after exposure. Four of the dogs exposed to 238Pu have died during the first 4 1/2 yr postexposure due to bone and/or lung tumors; the body burden at death ranged from 6 to 10 μCi. Lymphopenia was the earliest observed effect after inhalation of 239PuO2 or 238PuO2, occurring 0.5 to 2 yr after deposition of greater than or equal to 80 nCi plutonium in the lungs

  5. Dose-effect studies with inhaled plutonium oxide in beagles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beagle dogs given a single exposure to 239PuO2 and 238PuO2 aerosols are being observed for life-span dose-effect relationships. The 239Pu body burden of the nine dogs that died of pulmonary-fibrosis-induced respiratory insufficiency during the first 3 yr after exposure was 1 to 12 μCi; one of these dogs had a pulmonary tumor. Seventeen additional dogs, with body burdens of 0.2 to 1.8 μCi, died due to pulmonary neoplasia 3 to 8 yr after exposure. Ten of the dogs exposed to 238Pu have died during the first 5 1/2 yr postexposure due to bone and/or lung tumors; the body burden at death ranged from 1.5 to 10 μCi. Lymphopenia was the earliest observed effect after inhalation of 239PuO2 or 238PuO2, occurring 0.5 to 2 yr after deposition of >80 nCi plutonium in the lungs

  6. Inhalation toxicity of lithium combustion aerosols in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenspan, B.J.; Allen, M.D.; Rebar, A.H.

    1986-01-01

    Studies of the acute inhalation toxicity of lithium combustion aerosols were undertaken to aid in evaluating the health hazards associated with the proposed use of lithium metal in fusion reactors. Male and female F344/Lov rats, 9-12 wk of age, were exposed once for 4 h to concentrations of 2600, 2300, 1400, or 620 mg/m/sup 3/ of aerosol (MMAD = 0.69 ..mu..m, sigma/sub g/ = 1.45) that was approximately 80% lithium carbonate and 20% lithium hydroxide to determine the acute toxic effects. Fourteen-day LC50 values (with 95% confidence limits) of 1700 (1300-2000) mg/m/sup 3/ for the male rats and 2000 (1700-2400) mg/m/sup 3/ for the female rate were calculated. Clinical signs of anorexia, dehydration, respiratory difficulty, and perioral and perinasal encrustation were observed. Body weights were decreased the first day after exposure in relation to the exposure concentration. In animals observed for an additional 2 wk, body weights, organ weights, and clinical signs began to return to pre-exposure values. Histopathologic examination of the respiratory tracts from the animals revealed ulcerative or necrotic laryngitis, focal to segmental ulcerative rhinitis often accompanied by areas of squamous metaplasia, and, in some cases, a suppurative bronchopneumonia or aspiration pneumonia, probably secondary to the laryngeal lesions. The results of these studies indicate the moderate acute toxicity of lithium carbonate aerosols and will aid in the risk analysis of accidental releases of lithium combustion aerosols.

  7. Locomotor Stimulant and Rewarding Effects of Inhaling Methamphetamine, MDPV, and Mephedrone via Electronic Cigarette-Type Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Jacques D; Aarde, Shawn M; Cole, Maury; Vandewater, Sophia A; Grant, Yanabel; Taffe, Michael A

    2016-10-01

    Although inhaled exposure to drugs is a prevalent route of administration for human substance abusers, preclinical models that incorporate inhaled exposure to psychomotor stimulants are not commonly available. Using a novel method that incorporates electronic cigarette-type technology to facilitate inhalation, male Wistar rats were exposed to vaporized methamphetamine (MA), 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), and mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone) in propylene glycol vehicle using concentrations ranging from 12.5 to 200 mg/ml. Rats exhibited increases in spontaneous locomotor activity, measured by implanted radiotelemetry, following exposure to methamphetamine (12.5 and 100 mg/ml), MDPV (25, 50, and 100 mg/ml), and mephedrone (200 mg/ml). Locomotor effects were blocked by pretreatment with the dopamine D1-like receptor antagonist SCH23390 (10 μg/kg, intraperitoneal (i.p.)). MA and MDPV vapor inhalation also altered activity on a running wheel in a biphasic manner. An additional group of rats was trained on a discrete trial intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) procedure interpreted to assess brain reward status. ICSS-trained rats that received vaporized MA, MDPV, or mephedrone exhibited a significant reduction in threshold of ICSS reward compared with vehicle. The effect of vapor inhalation of the stimulants was found comparable to the locomotor and ICSS threshold-reducing effects of i.p. injection of mephedrone (5.0 mg/kg), MA (0.5-1.0 mg/kg), or MDPV (0.5-1.0 mg/kg). These data provide robust validation of e-cigarette-type technology as a model for inhaled delivery of vaporized psychostimulants. Finally, these studies demonstrate the potential for human use of e-cigarettes to facilitate covert use of a range of psychoactive stimulants. Thus, these devices pose health risks beyond their intended application for the delivery of nicotine.

  8. The effect of oxidation state on the absorption of ingested or inhaled plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rats received plutonium nitrate (as 239Pu(IV) or 239Pu(VI) by gavage or nose-only exposure. Some of the animals were deprived of food before and/or after exposure. Results obtained indicate that there was increased retention of plutonium after exposure to 239Pu(VI) in comparison with 239Pu(IV). The absence of food either before and/or after inhalation exposure had no effect on the amount of 239Pu retained by the liver and carcass. It was concluded that plutonium in its hexavalent state may under certain conditions be more readily absorbed from the GI tract, but that these conditions are unlikely to occur in human exposure. (H.K.)

  9. Fine particle mass from the Diskus inhaler and Turbuhaler inhaler in children with asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Klug, B; Sumby, B S;

    1998-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate dose consistency and particle distribution from the dry powder inhalers Diskus and Turbuhaler. Full profiles of inhalation pressure versus time were recorded in 18 4 yr old and 18 8 yr old asthmatic children through Diskus and Turbuhaler inhalers. These data were used...... is a determinant of the quality of the aerosol. The mean (SD) amount of drug in large particles (>4.7 microm), fine particles (children and 71 (3), 18 (2) and 2...... (1) from the 8 yr old children, respectively. Similar particle fractions from the Budesonide Turbuhaler were 35 (9), 21 (10) and 7 (5) from 4 yr old children and 30 (7), 32 (9) and 12 (6) from 8 yr old children. In conclusion, the Diskus inhaler provides an improved dose consistency through...

  10. Inhaled medication and inhalation devices for lung disease in patients with cystic fibrosis: A European consensus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heijerman, Harry; Westerman, Elsbeth; Conway, Steven;

    2009-01-01

    In cystic fibrosis inhalation of drugs for the treatment of CF related lung disease has been proven to be highly effective. Consequently, an increasing number of drugs and devices have been developed for CF lung disease or are currently under development. In this European consensus document we...... review the current status of inhaled medication in CF, including the mechanisms of action of the various drugs, their modes of administration and indications, their effects on lung function, exacerbation rates, survival and quality of life, as well as side effects. Specifically we address antibiotics......, mucolytics/mucous mobilizers, anti-inflammatory drugs, bronchodilators and combinations of solutions. Additionally, we review the current knowledge on devices for inhalation therapy with regard to optimal particle sizes and characteristics of wet nebulisers, dry powder and metered dose inhalers. Finally, we...

  11. Ab initio alpha-alpha scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhatisari, Serdar; Lee, Dean; Rupak, Gautam; Epelbaum, Evgeny; Krebs, Hermann; Lähde, Timo A.; Luu, Thomas; Meißner, Ulf-G.

    2015-12-01

    Processes such as the scattering of alpha particles (4He), the triple-alpha reaction, and alpha capture play a major role in stellar nucleosynthesis. In particular, alpha capture on carbon determines the ratio of carbon to oxygen during helium burning, and affects subsequent carbon, neon, oxygen, and silicon burning stages. It also substantially affects models of thermonuclear type Ia supernovae, owing to carbon detonation in accreting carbon-oxygen white-dwarf stars. In these reactions, the accurate calculation of the elastic scattering of alpha particles and alpha-like nuclei—nuclei with even and equal numbers of protons and neutrons—is important for understanding background and resonant scattering contributions. First-principles calculations of processes involving alpha particles and alpha-like nuclei have so far been impractical, owing to the exponential growth of the number of computational operations with the number of particles. Here we describe an ab initio calculation of alpha-alpha scattering that uses lattice Monte Carlo simulations. We use lattice effective field theory to describe the low-energy interactions of protons and neutrons, and apply a technique called the ‘adiabatic projection method’ to reduce the eight-body system to a two-cluster system. We take advantage of the computational efficiency and the more favourable scaling with system size of auxiliary-field Monte Carlo simulations to compute an ab initio effective Hamiltonian for the two clusters. We find promising agreement between lattice results and experimental phase shifts for s-wave and d-wave scattering. The approximately quadratic scaling of computational operations with particle number suggests that it should be possible to compute alpha scattering and capture on carbon and oxygen in the near future. The methods described here can be applied to ultracold atomic few-body systems as well as to hadronic systems using lattice quantum chromodynamics to describe the interactions of

  12. Ab initio alpha-alpha scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhatisari, Serdar; Lee, Dean; Rupak, Gautam; Epelbaum, Evgeny; Krebs, Hermann; Lähde, Timo A; Luu, Thomas; Meißner, Ulf-G

    2015-12-01

    Processes such as the scattering of alpha particles ((4)He), the triple-alpha reaction, and alpha capture play a major role in stellar nucleosynthesis. In particular, alpha capture on carbon determines the ratio of carbon to oxygen during helium burning, and affects subsequent carbon, neon, oxygen, and silicon burning stages. It also substantially affects models of thermonuclear type Ia supernovae, owing to carbon detonation in accreting carbon-oxygen white-dwarf stars. In these reactions, the accurate calculation of the elastic scattering of alpha particles and alpha-like nuclei--nuclei with even and equal numbers of protons and neutrons--is important for understanding background and resonant scattering contributions. First-principles calculations of processes involving alpha particles and alpha-like nuclei have so far been impractical, owing to the exponential growth of the number of computational operations with the number of particles. Here we describe an ab initio calculation of alpha-alpha scattering that uses lattice Monte Carlo simulations. We use lattice effective field theory to describe the low-energy interactions of protons and neutrons, and apply a technique called the 'adiabatic projection method' to reduce the eight-body system to a two-cluster system. We take advantage of the computational efficiency and the more favourable scaling with system size of auxiliary-field Monte Carlo simulations to compute an ab initio effective Hamiltonian for the two clusters. We find promising agreement between lattice results and experimental phase shifts for s-wave and d-wave scattering. The approximately quadratic scaling of computational operations with particle number suggests that it should be possible to compute alpha scattering and capture on carbon and oxygen in the near future. The methods described here can be applied to ultracold atomic few-body systems as well as to hadronic systems using lattice quantum chromodynamics to describe the interactions of

  13. Biological effects of daily inhalation of radon and its short-lived daughters in experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syrian golden hamsters, C57BL mice, and specific-pathogen-free rats were exposed simultaneously in groups of 16 animals each for 90 hours per week to aerosols consisting of radon plus 3000--6000 Working Levels of radon-daughters with and without 18 mg/m3 carnotite uranium ore dust. Condensation nuclei concentrations ranged from 2000--4000 per ml and from 90,000--120,000 per ml in the chamber without and with uranium ore dust, respectively. At 4 months of exposure only one of the rodents remained alive. Histopathology of radon-daughter exposed mice includes acute interstitial pneumonitis, severe pulmonary congestion, and supperative rhinitis; mice inhaling radon-daughters with ore showed these lesions plus macrophage proliferation, alveolar septal cell hyperplasia, and bronchial epithelial hyperplasia. Hamsters inhaling radon-daughters showed proliferating lesions characterized by alveolar septal thickening, bronchiolar epithelial hyperplasia, septal fibrosis, and occasionally adenomatoid metaplasia and squamous metaplasia. Hamsters inhaling radon-daughters with ore dust showed similar effects plus granulomatous response and intense septal fibrosis. Rats inhaling radon-daughters showed lesions similar to those of hamsters but more focalized with classic radiation pneumonitis; rats exposed to radon-daughters with ore showed similar lesions, with greater consolidation and pneumoconiosis. These findings will be discussed in relation to pulmonary pathology in uranium miners

  14. Inhalant Use in Latina Early Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Bianca L.; Kouyoumdjian, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine how lifetime use and extent of use of inhalants by Latina girls is impacted by age, acculturation, grades, ditching, sexual behaviors (light petting, heavy petting, and going all the way) and sexual agency. A total of 273 females who self-identified as being Latina whose mean age was 13.94 completed…

  15. Health risks associated with inhaled nasal toxicants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feron, V.J.; Arts, J.H.E.; Kuper, C.F.; Slootweg, P.J.; Woutersen, R.A.

    2001-01-01

    Health risks of inhaled nasal toxicants were reviewed with emphasis on chemically induced nasal lesions in humans, sensory irritation, olfactory and trigeminal nerve toxicity, nasal immunopathology and carcinogenesis, nasal responses to chemical mixtures, in vitro models, and nasal dosimetry- and me

  16. Report of the panel on inhaled actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some topics discussed are as follows: assessment of risks to man of inhaling actinides; use of estimates for developing protection standards; epidemiology of lung cancer in exposed human populations; development of respiratory tract models; and effects in animals: dose- and effect-modifying factors

  17. Use of inhaled corticosteroids in pediatric asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H

    1997-01-01

    to suggest that asthma acts via a chronic inflammatory process that causes remodeling of the airways with mucosal thickening and smooth muscle hypertrophy. An optimal treatment strategy would be one aimed at reducing the ongoing airway inflammation. Inhaled steroids ameliorate the inflammation, whereas...

  18. Pneumonitis after Inhalation of Mercury Vapours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JD Glezos

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A 43-year-old man presented to hospital with pneumonia but only after discharge from hospital did he admit to deliberate prior inhalation of mercury. His pulmonary involvement appeared to resolve almost completely with antibiotics and supportive care. Nevertheless, persisting elevated urinary excretion of mercury required two courses of chelation therapy. No serious systemic sequelae were observed.

  19. 40 CFR 798.2450 - Inhalation toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... selection. (ii) Age. Young adult animals shall be used. At the commencement of the study the weight...) Definitions. (1) Subchronic inhalation toxicity is the adverse effects occurring as a result of the repeated... Practice Standards, 40 CFR part 792, subpart J, the following specific information shall be reported:...

  20. Inhalation of antibiotics in cystic fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Touw, D J; Brimicombe, R W; Hodson, M E; Heijerman, H G; Bakker, W

    1995-01-01

    Aerosol administration of antipseudomonal antibiotics is commonly used in cystic fibrosis. However, its contribution to the improvement of lung function, infection and quality of life is not well-established. All articles published from 1965 until the present time concerning the inhalation of antibi