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Sample records for alpha induced reactions

  1. Nuclear reactions induced by high-energy alpha particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, B. S. P.

    1974-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies of nuclear reactions induced by high energy protons and heavier ions are included. Fundamental data needed in the shielding, dosimetry, and radiobiology of high energy particles produced by accelerators were generated, along with data on cosmic ray interaction with matter. The mechanism of high energy nucleon-nucleus reactions is also examined, especially for light target nuclei of mass number comparable to that of biological tissue.

  2. Low-background spectrometer for the study of fast neutron-induced (n,alpha) reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Khriachkov, V A; Mitrofanov, V P; Semenova, N N

    2000-01-01

    An alpha-particle spectrometer based on an ionization chamber with Frisch grid and a waveform digitizer has been developed for studies of fast neutron-induced (n,alpha) reactions. The information on the energy of the alpha-particle and its emission angle can be obtained from the amplitude and rise time of the digitized anode signal. For a situation where both the solid target on the cathode of the ionization chamber and the working gas are the alpha-particle sources, a new method for the suppression of the neutron-induced background is proposed. The background due to gaseous alpha-particles was reduced by a factor of 30.

  3. Cross sections of nuclear reactions induced by protons, deuterons, and alpha particles. Pt.6. Phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross sections are reviewed for nuclear reactions induced by protons, deuterons, and alpha particles on phosphorus targets. When necessary, published experimental data are corrected, and, when possible, excitation functions are proposed

  4. Preequilibrium decay in alpha particle induced reactions in terbium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The excitation functions of 159 Tb(α,n), (α,3 n), (α,4 n), (α,α3 n) reactions were measured using stacked foil activation technique and HPGe gamma ray spectroscopy method up to 50 MeV. The experimental results were compared with the theoretical predictions considering equilibrium as well as preequilibrium contributions using code ALICE/90. It was found that the initial exciton configuration n0 = 4(4p0h) that is pure particle state, appears to give good fit to the experimental data. (Authors)

  5. Cross sections of $\\alpha$-induced reactions for targets with masses $A \\approx 20-50$ at low energies

    CERN Document Server

    Mohr, Peter

    2015-01-01

    A simple reduction scheme using so-called reduced energies $E_{\\rm{red}}$ and reduced cross sections $\\sigma_{\\rm{red}}$ allows the comparison of heavy-ion induced reaction cross sections for a broad range of masses of projectile and target and over a wide energy range. A global behavior has been found for strongly bound projectiles whereas much larger reduced cross sections have been observed for weakly bound and halo projectiles. It has been shown that this simple reduction scheme works also well for $\\alpha$-particle induced reactions on heavy target nuclei, but very recently significant deviations have been seen for $\\alpha$+$^{33}$S and $\\alpha$+$^{23}$Na. Motivated by these unexpected discrepancies, the present study analyses $\\alpha$-induced reaction cross sections for targets with masses $A \\approx 20-50$. The study shows that the experimental data for $\\alpha$-induced reactions on nuclei with $A \\approx 20-50$ deviate slightly from the global behavior of reduced cross sections. However, in general th...

  6. Proton and alpha evaporation spectra in low energy 12C and 16O induced reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E T Mirgle; D R Chakrabarty; V M Datar; Suresh Kumar; A Mitra; H H Oza

    2006-08-01

    Proton and alpha particle spectra have been measured in the 12C+93Nb and 12C+58Ni reactions at E(12C) = 40 and 50 MeV and in the 16O+93Nb reaction at E(16O) = 75 MeV. The spectra are compared with the statistical model calculations. The shapes of the calculated spectra are in agreement with experimental data except for the alpha spectrum in the 12C+93Nb reaction at 40 MeV. The observed evaporation bump is at ∼ 2 MeV lower energy compared to the calculated one. This discrepancy could imply alpha particle emission from a deformed configuration before compound nucleus formation at this near Coulomb barrier beam energy.

  7. Alpha induced reaction cross section measurements on 162Er for the astrophysical gamma process

    CERN Document Server

    Kiss, G G; Rauscher, T; Török, Zs; Fülöp, Zs; Gyürky, Gy; Halász, Z; Somorjai, E

    2014-01-01

    The cross sections of the 162Er(a,g,)166Yb and 162Er(a,n)165Yb reactions have been measured for the first time. The radiative alpha capture reaction cross section was measured from Ec.m. = 16.09 down to Ec.m. = 11.21 MeV, close to the astrophysically relevant region (which lies between 7.8 and 11.48 MeV at 3 GK stellar temperature). The 162Er(a,n)165Yb reaction was studied above the reaction threshold between Ec.m. = 12.19 and 16.09 MeV. The fact that the 162Er(a,g)166Yb cross sections were measured below the (a,n) threshold at first time in this mass region opens the opportunity to study directly the a-widths required for the determination of astrophysical reaction rates. The data clearly show that compound nucleus formation in this reaction proceeds differently than previously predicted.

  8. Alpha induced reaction cross section measurements on 162Er for the astrophysical γ process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cross sections of the 162Er(α,γ)166Yb and 162Er(α,n)165Yb reactions have been measured for the first time. The radiative alpha capture reaction cross section was measured from Ec.m.=16.09 MeV down to Ec.m.=11.21 MeV, close to the astrophysically relevant region (which lies between 7.8 and 11.48 MeV at 3 GK stellar temperature). The 162Er(α,n)165Yb reaction was studied above the reaction threshold between Ec.m.=12.19 and 16.09 MeV. The fact that the 162Er(α,γ)166Yb cross sections were measured below the (α,n) threshold at first time in this mass region opens the opportunity to study directly the α-widths required for the determination of astrophysical reaction rates. The data clearly show that compound nucleus formation in this reaction proceeds differently than previously predicted

  9. Study of excitation function for alpha induced reactions in natural iridium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Excitation function of (α, χn) reactions on 191Ir (37.3%) and on 191Ir (62.7%) have been measured for 17-55 MeV alpha particle bombarding energy range. Stacked foil activation technique and gamma spectroscopy were used to determine the cross-sections. The experimental data were compared with calculated values obtained by means of geometry dependent hybrid model. The initial exciton number no = 4 with n = 2, p = 2 and h = 0 gives the best agreements with the presently measured values. To calculate the excitation function theoretically the ALICE/LIVERMORE-82 computer code was used. This set of excitation functions provides a data basis for probing the validity of combined equilibrium and pre-equilibrium reaction models in a considerable energy range. (author). 34 refs, 9 figs

  10. Measurement of alpha-induced reaction cross sections on erbium isotopes for γ process studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, G. G.; Szücs, T.; Török, Zs.; Fülöp, Zs.; Gyürky, Gy.; Halász, Z.; Somorjai, E.; Rauscher, T.

    2014-05-01

    The cross sections of the 162Er(α,γ)166Yb and 162,164,166Er(α,n)165,167,169Yb reactions have been measured at MTA Atomki. The radiative alpha capture reaction cross section was measured between Ec.m. = 11.21 MeV and Ec.m. = 16.09 MeV just above the astrophysically relevant energy region (which lies between 7.8 and 11.48 MeV at T9 = 3 GK). The 162Er(α,n)165Yb, 164Er(α,n)167Yb and 166Er(α,n)169Yb reactions were studied between Ec.m. = 12.19 and 16.09 MeV, Ec.m. = 13.17 and 16.59 MeV and Ec.m. = 12.68 and 17.08 MeV, respectively. The aim of this work is to provide experimental data for modeling the γ process which is thought to be responsible for the production of the proton-rich isotopes heavier than iron.

  11. Measurement and analysis of the excitation function for alpha induced reaction on Ga and Sb isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Excitation functions for the reactions 69Ga(αxn)sup(73-x)As, 69Ga(α,p3n)69Ge, 69Ga(α,2p4n)67Ga, 71Ga(α,xn)sup(75-x)As, 121Sb(α,xn)sup(125-x)I, 121Sb(α,p3n)121Te and 123Sb(α,xn)sup(127-x)I were obtained from the measurements of the residual activity of stacked foils of gallium nitrate evaporated on aluminium backings from threshold to 65 MeV. The excitation functions for the production of 74As, 72As, 71As, 69Ge and 67Ga from α - induced reactions on Ga and 126I, 124I, 123I, 121I and 121Te from α - induced reactions on Sb are presented. The experimental data are compared with calculations considering equilibrium as well as pre-equilibrium reaction mechanism according to the hybrid model of Blann (1971). The high energy part of the excitation functions are dominated by the pre-equilibrium reaction mechanism. Calculations were done using the a priori calculational method of Overlaid Alice Code of Blann. From the reactions 71Ga(α,3n)72As and 123Sb(α,3n)124I an initial exciton number nsub(o)=4(nsub(n)=2, nsub(p)=2, nsub(h)=0) with the mean free path multiplier parameter k set to 2 has been deduced for both the targets. However, there are a few exceptions (i) the theory overestimates the cross-section for the 69Ga(α,2p4n)67Ga reaction whereas it underestimate the cross-section for the 121Sb(α,p3n)121Te reaction and the high energy tail of 121Sb(α,2n)123I excitation function. Factors to which these discrepancies between theory and experiment in case of these reactions may be attributed are indicated. Barring these reactions the overall agreement between theory and experiment is good taking into account the limitations of the theory. (author). 43 refs., 7 tabs., 19 figs

  12. On the decay of compound nuclei following alpha-particle and 12C induced reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multiple coincidence rates have been measured using a detector system consisting of a Ge(Li) spectrometer and eight NaI(Tl) or eight liquid scintillators. Reactions induced by α-particles with energies of 51-55 MeV and 118 MeV 12C ions are studied. The data are analysed to give the first and second central moments of the distribution of the number of γ-rays feeding individual levels in the final nuclei. When these numbers are compared to spin distributions calculated with the statistical model code GROGI the relative importance of dipole and quadrupole deexcitation modes can be ascertained. In particular, in the 122Te(α,4n)122Xe reaction the γ-decay prior to the entry into the ground band is well described as a statistical process proceeding to 50% by dipole and 50% by quadrupole radiation. In the 166Er(α,4n)166Yb and 192Os(α,4n)192Pt reactions the relative amount of quadrupole radiation is larger and it seems that the dipole and quadrupole decay takes place via separate cascades. In the 164Dy(12C,7-8n) reactions the average multiplicity is independent of spin, suggesting that the nucleus forgets the spin of the entry state before the process enters into the ground band. In the 176Yb(12C,8n)180Os reaction, finally, the nucleus difinitely retains memory of the entry state during the decay. In this last case the multiplicity measurement is combined with a γ-ray singles measurement to give an average excitation energy prior to the α-decay and the average moment of inertia characterising the decay of the high-spin states. (orig.)

  13. $\\mathbf{\\alpha}$-induced reaction cross sections in the mass range $\\mathbf{A \\approx 20 - 50}$: a critical review

    CERN Document Server

    Mohr, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In a recent review it was shown that the cross sections of $\\alpha$-induced reactions in the $A \\approx 20 - 50$ mass range follow a general and smooth trend in most cases. For comparison of cross sections of different targets at various energies the method of reduced cross sections $\\sigma_{\\rm{red}}$ and reduced energies $E_{\\rm{red}}$ was used. Four outliers were identified: $^{36}$Ar and $^{40}$Ar with unusally small cross sections and $^{23}$Na and $^{33}$S with unusually large cross sections. New data for $^{23}$Na were presented at this NPA-7 conference; contrary to the previous data, these new data fit into the general systematics. In addition, a relation between the most effective energy $E_0$ for astrophysical reaction rates (the so-called Gamow window) and the reduced energy $E_{\\rm{red}}$ is presented.

  14. Activation cross sections of $\\alpha$-particle induced nuclear reactions on hafnium and deuteron induced nuclear reaction on tantalum: production of $^{178}$W/$^{178m}$Ta generator

    CERN Document Server

    Tárk'anyi, F; Ditrói, F; Hermanne, A; Ignatyuk, A V; Uddin, M S

    2014-01-01

    In the frame of a systematic study of charged particle production routes of medically relevant radionuclei, the excitation function for indirect production of $^{178m}$Ta through $^{nat}$Hf($\\alpha$,xn)$^{178}$W-$^{178m}$Ta nuclear reaction was measured for the first time up to 40 MeV. In parallel, the side reactions $^{nat}$Hf($\\alpha$,x)$^{179,177,176,175}$W, $^{183,182,178g,177,176,175}$Ta, $^{179m,177m,175}$Hf were also assessed. Stacked foil irradiation technique and $\\gamma$-ray spectrometry were used. New experimental cross section data for the $^{nat}$Ta(d,xn)$^{178}$W reaction are also reported up to 40 MeV. The measured excitation functions are compared with the results of the ALICE-IPPE, and EMPIRE nuclear reaction model codes and with the TALYS 1.4 based data in the TENDL-2013 library. The thick target yields were deduced and compared with yields of other charged particle ((p,4n), (d,5n) and ($^3$He,x)) production routes for $^{178}$W.

  15. Stromal fibrosis reaction in rat prostates induced by alpha 1 adrenergic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenzweig-Bublil, Nurit; Abramovici, Armand

    2006-01-01

    Most of the publications dealing with the experimental induction of prostatic neoplasia have focused on the description of epithelial lesions, but little attention has been paid to the involvement of their stromal alterations. The present study is a first attempt to assess the stromal changes in both collagen and elastic fibrils as well as in its cellular constituents, which accompany prostatic intraepithelial neoplastic (PIN)-like lesions induced by phenylephrine (PE) in rats. Adolescent rats received subcutaneous injections of PE daily (10 mg/kg/d) for 1 month. At the end of the experimental period the rats were sacrificed; the dissected ventral prostates were fixed in Stieve solution and paraffin-embedded; and sections were cut and stained accordingly. Most of the stromal cells were identified by immunohistochemistry techniques using primary antibodies to ED2 (resident macrophages), actin (fibrocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells), vimentin (mesenchymal cells), and 5'-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (S-phase proliferating cells). Collagen stromal mass was visualized by Gomori trichrome and individual collagen fibers by picrosirius red staining under polarized light, whereas the fine fibrils were stained according to the Pinkus method. The untreated rat prostates are characterized by a delicate interacinar stroma with scanty cells and fibrils. The PE-treated prostates showed a significant increase in both cellular and fibrillar elements as well as an increase in arteriolar density, in addition to the typical PIN lesions. The presence of such an interstitial fibrosis, which also includes inflammatory cells, neoangiogenesis, and synthesis de novo of collagen and fibers, might be regarded as a desmoplastic reaction. It is suggested that these changes could be related to a tissue repair process occurring subsequent to the inflammatory exudate that takes place during the incipient phases of the PE treatment. PMID:16304211

  16. Neutron, Proton and Alpha Emission Spectra of Nickel Isotopes for Proton Induced Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tel, E.; Kara, A.

    2012-06-01

    The fusion energy is attractive as an energy source because the fusion will not produce CO2 or SO2 and so fusion will not contribute to environmental problems, such as particulate pollution and excessive CO2 in the atmosphere. The fusion reaction does not produce radioactive nuclides and it is not self-sustaining, as is a fission reaction when a critical mass of fissionable material is assembled. Since the fusion reaction is easily and quickly quenched the primary sources of heat to drive such an accident are heat from radioactive decay and heat from chemical reactions. Both the magnitude and time dependence of the generation of heat from radioactive decay can be controlled by proper selection and design of materials. Nickel (Ni) is an important structural material in fusion (and also fission) reactor technologies and many other fields. So, the working out the reaction cross sections of the Ni isotopes is very important for selection of the fusion materials. In this study, 58Ni(p,xn), 58Ni(p,xp), 60Ni(p,xp), 60Ni(p,xα) and 62Ni(p,xp) reactions have been investigated using nuclear reaction models. And also the 58Ni(p,xn) reaction has been calculated through a method of offered by Tel et al. The calculated results are discussed and compared with the experimental data taken from EXFOR database.

  17. Triethylaluminum- or triethylborane-induced free radical reaction of alkyl iodides and alpha,beta-unsaturated compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing-Yuan; Jang, Yoeng-Jiunn; Lin, Wen-Wei; Liu, Ju-Tsung; Yao, Ching-Fa

    2003-05-16

    A series of alpha,beta-unsaturated compounds, 1a-c, 9, 13, and 17, were used as reactants in free radical conjugate addition reactions with different radicals generated from alkyl iodides such as 3, 4, or 5 in the presence of triethylborane-oxygen in air or via the use of triethylaluminum-benzoyl peroxide as a free radical initiator. When the reactions were carried out using triethylborane-air, the products, in most cases, were clean and were easily purified. However, higher yields of the 1,4-adducts and less side reactions occurred when less reactive substrates were used as Michael acceptors in reactions with triethylaluminum-benzoyl peroxide and alkyl iodide under similar conditions. A mechanism for this is proposed in Scheme 1. PMID:12737587

  18. Study of the O-17(n,alpha)C-14 reaction: extension of the Trojan Horse Method to neutron induced reactions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Guardo, G. L.; Lamia, L.; Spitaleri, C.; Gulino, M.; Burjan, Václav; Cherubini, S.; Goldberg, V. Z.; Hons, Zdeněk; Kroha, Václav; La Cognata, M.; Mrázek, Jaromír

    Vol. 1594. Melville: American Institute of Physics, 2014, s. 215-219. ISBN 978-0-7354-1228-6. ISSN 0094-243X. [12th International Symposium on Origin of Matter and Evolution of Galaxies (OMEG). Tsukuba (JP), 18.11.2013-21.11.2013] Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : nuclear astrophysics * neutron induced reactions * deuteron induced reactions Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  19. Calculation of excitation functions of proton, alpha and deuteron induced reactions for production of medical radioisotopes {sup 122–125}I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artun, Ozan, E-mail: ozanartun@yahoo.com; Aytekin, Hüseyin, E-mail: huseyinaytekin@gmail.com

    2015-02-15

    In this work, the excitation functions for production of medical radioisotopes {sup 122–125}I with proton, alpha, and deuteron induced reactions were calculated by two different level density models. For the nuclear model calculations, the Talys 1.6 code were used, which is the latest version of Talys code series. Calculations of excitation functions for production of the {sup 122–125}I isotopes were carried out by using the generalized superfluid model (GSM) and Fermi-gas model (FGM). The results have shown that generalized superfluid model is more successful than Fermi-gas model in explaining the experimental results.

  20. Neutron-induced background by an alpha-beam incident on a deuterium gas target and its implications for the study of the 2H(alpha,gamma)6Li reaction at LUNA

    CERN Document Server

    Anders, M; Bellini, A; Aliotta, M; Bemmerer, D; Broggini, C; Caciolli, A; Costantini, H; Corvisiero, P; Davinson, T; Elekes, Z; Erhard, M; Formicola, A; Fülöp, Zs; Gervino, G; Guglielmetti, A; Gustavino, C; Gyürky, Gy; Junker, M; Lemut, A; Marta, M; Mazzocchi, C; Menegazzo, R; Prati, P; Alvarez, C Rossi; Scott, D; Somorjai, E; Straniero, O; Szücs, T

    2013-01-01

    The production of the stable isotope Li-6 in standard Big Bang nucleosynthesis has recently attracted much interest. Recent observations in metal-poor stars suggest that a cosmological Li-6 plateau may exist. If true, this plateau would come in addition to the well-known Spite plateau of Li-7 abundances and would point to a predominantly primordial origin of Li-6, contrary to the results of standard Big Bang nucleosynthesis calculations. Therefore, the nuclear physics underlying Big Bang Li-6 production must be revisited. The main production channel for Li-6 in the Big Bang is the 2H(alpha,gamma)6Li reaction. The present work reports on neutron-induced effects in a high-purity germanium detector that were encountered in a new study of this reaction. In the experiment, an {\\alpha}-beam from the underground accelerator LUNA in Gran Sasso, Italy, and a windowless deuterium gas target are used. A low neutron flux is induced by energetic deuterons from elastic scattering and, subsequently, the 2H(d,n)3He reaction....

  1. Paradoxical reactions induced by tumor necrosis factor-alpha antagonists: A literature review based on 46 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olteanu, Rodica; Zota, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNFα) agents have acquired a prominent place in the treatment options for inflammatory disorders. Among the side effects of these agents are the so-called paradoxical reactions which have increasingly been reported in recent years. A review of literature was carried out using Medline (PubMed) database from January 2010 to December 2014 to collect all published articles on cases of anti-TNFα-induced psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. Published articles were identified, reviewed and the relevant data extracted. A total of 22 studies (46 patients) fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were selected for analysis. Of the 46 patients, 45 (97.8%) developed psoriasis and 1 (2.1%) psoriatic arthritis. The mean age of patients was 47 years; three (6.5%) patients had a past history of psoriasis. Infliximab caused cutaneous reactions in the most number, 26 (56.5%) cases. Thirty seven (80.4%). patients developed primary plaque-type psoriasis. Women accounted for 86.9% of patients. There was complete resolution of psoriasis in 12 (26%) patients despite differences in the therapeutic approach. Cessation of the incriminated drug led to resolution of cutaneous lesions in 5 (10.8%), switching to another TNFα antagonist led to resolution in 6 (13%) and one (2.1%) patient improved despite continuation of the drug. As for the lone case of psoriatic arthritis, drug withdrawal did not result in improvement; only switching to another anti-TNFα agent helped. Since our sample was small, it was not adequately powered to draw any firm conclusions. However, in this analysis, we found that paradoxical reactions occurred predominantly in adult women, there were only isolated cases with a personal history of psoriasis, infliximab was responsible for most cases of these reactions and the most prevalent form was plaque-type psoriasis. The decision whether to continue or discontinue the triggering anti-TNFα agent should be individualized as results are highly variable

  2. Neutron-induced background by an {alpha}-beam incident on a deuterium gas target and its implications for the study of the {sup 2}H({alpha},{gamma}){sup 6}Li reaction at LUNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, M.; Bemmerer, D.; Elekes, Z.; Marta, M. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Dresden (Germany); Trezzi, D.; Mazzocchi, C. [INFN, Sezione di Milano, Milano (Italy); Bellini, A.; Costantini, H.; Corvisiero, P.; Lemut, A.; Prati, P. [Universita di Genova (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Genova, Dipartimento di Fisica, Genova (Italy); Aliotta, M.; Davinson, T.; Scott, D. [University of Edinburgh, SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Broggini, C.; Caciolli, A.; Erhard, M.; Menegazzo, R.; Rossi Alvarez, C. [INFN, Sezione di Padova, Padova (Italy); Formicola, A.; Junker, M. [Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, INFN, Assergi (Italy); Fueloep, Zs.; Gyuerky, G.; Somorjai, E.; Szuecs, T. [Institute of Nuclear Research (ATOMKI), Debrecen (Hungary); Gervino, G. [Universita di Torino (Italy); INFN, Dipartimento di Fisica Sperimentale, Torino (Italy); Guglielmetti, A. [INFN, Sezione di Milano, Milano (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Milano, Milano (Italy); Gustavino, C. [INFN, Sezione di Roma ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Roma (Italy); Straniero, O. [INFN, Sezione di Napoli, Napoli (Italy); Osservatorio Astronomico di Collurania, Teramo (Italy); Collaboration: LUNA Collaboration

    2013-02-15

    The production of the stable isotope {sup 6}Li in standard Big Bang nucleosynthesis has recently attracted much interest. Recent observations in metal-poor stars suggest that a cosmological {sup 6}Li plateau may exist. If true, this plateau would come in addition to the well-known Spite plateau of {sup 7}Li abundances and would point to a predominantly primordial origin of {sup 6}Li, contrary to the results of standard Big Bang nucleosynthesis calculations. Therefore, the nuclear physics underlying Big Bang {sup 6}Li production must be revisited. The main production channel for {sup 6}Li in the Big Bang is the {sup 2}H({alpha},{gamma}){sup 6}Li reaction. The present work reports on neutron-induced effects in a high-purity germanium detector that were encountered in a new study of this reaction. In the experiment, an {alpha}-beam from the underground accelerator LUNA in Gran Sasso, Italy, and a windowless deuterium gas target are used. A low neutron flux is induced by energetic deuterons from elastic scattering and, subsequently, the {sup 2}H(d,n){sup 3}He reaction. Due to the ultra-low laboratory neutron background at LUNA, the effect of this weak flux of 2-3 MeV neutrons on well-shielded high-purity germanium detectors has been studied in detail. Data have been taken at 280 and 400keV {alpha}-beam energy and for comparison also using an americium-beryllium neutron source. (orig.)

  3. Evaluation of nuclear reaction cross section data for the production of (87)Y and (88)Y via proton, deuteron and alpha-particle induced transmutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaneb, H; Hussain, M; Amjad, N; Qaim, S M

    2016-06-01

    Proton, deuteron and alpha-particle induced reactions on (87,88)Sr, (nat)Zr and (85)Rb targets were evaluated for the production of (87,88)Y. The literature data were compared with nuclear model calculations using the codes ALICE-IPPE, TALYS 1.6 and EMPIRE 3.2. The evaluated cross sections were generated; therefrom thick target yields of (87,88)Y were calculated. Analysis of radio-yttrium impurities and yield showed that the (87)Sr(p, n)(87)Y and (88)Sr(p, n)(88)Y reactions are the best routes for the production of (87)Y and (88)Y respectively. The calculated yield for the (87)Sr(p, n)(87)Y reaction is 104 MBq/μAh in the energy range of 14→2.7MeV. Similarly, the calculated yield for the (88)Sr(p, n)(88)Y reaction is 3.2 MBq/μAh in the energy range of 15→7MeV. PMID:27016709

  4. Cross section measurements of $\\alpha$-induced reactions on $^{92,94}$Mo and $^{112}$Sn for $p$-process studies

    CERN Document Server

    Rapp, W; Käppeler, F; Giesen, U; Klein, H; Rauscher, T; Hentschel, D; Hilpp, S

    2008-01-01

    The $^{92}$Mo($\\alpha,n$)$^{95}$Ru, $^{94}$Mo($\\alpha,n$)$^{97}$Ru, and $^{112}$Sn($\\alpha,\\gamma$)$^{116}$Te cross sections were measured at the upper end of the $p$-process Gamow window between 8.2 MeV and 11.1 MeV. Our results are slightly lower than global Hauser-Feshbach calculations from the code NON-SMOKER, but still within the uncertainty of the prediction. The $^{112}$Sn($\\alpha,\\gamma$)$^{116}$Te cross section agrees well with a recently measured thick-target cross section in the same energy range. For the $^{92,94}$Mo($\\alpha,n$) reactions the present data close to the reaction thresholds could eliminate previous uncertainties within a factor of 20, and we can present now useful comparisons to statistical model calculations with different optical potentials.

  5. Nuclear gamma rays from 720-MeV alpha-induced reactions on Al-27 and Si-28

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieb, B. J.; Plendl, H. S.; Funsten, H. O.; Stronach, C. E.; Lind, V. G.

    1980-01-01

    Prompt gamma rays from the interaction of 720-MeV alpha particles with Al-27 and Si-28 were detected and analyzed to identify residual nuclei and to determine cross sections for production of specific levels. No gamma-ray transitions were detected from nuclei heavier than the target. From Doppler broadening, the momentum of the residual nuclei was estimated. The results are compared with previous results for 140- and 1600-MeV alphas on Al-27 and approximately 200-MeV positive or negative pions on Al-27 and Si-28 and fitted to a spallation-yield formula.

  6. Alpha methyldopa induced hepatotoxicity in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmasri Ramalingappa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of gestational hepatitis due to alpha-methyldopa and briefly review the literature on alpha-methyldopa-induced hepatotoxicity in pregnancy. A 32 year old woman, primigravida with 34 weeks of gestation with pre eclampsia, presented with symptoms of nausea, dark coloured urine and jaundice. She was on alpha methyldopa (Aldomet 250 mg thrice a day since the last five weeks. Laboratory investigations revealed raised bilirubin, serum aspartate transaminases and serum alanine transaminases. Platelets were normal. Peripheral smear did not show haemolysis. With the exclusion of viral, haemolytic and obstructive causes, drug induced jaundice was considered as a differential diagnosis. Alpha methyldopa was withdrawn and replaced with nifedipine for her pre eclampsia treatment. Her repeat bilirubin level done two weeks later showed a drop. She went into labour at 38 weeks and delivered vaginally. In postpartum follow up her liver tests returned to normal in two weeks, about six weeks after stopping methyldopa. Hepatotoxicity should be considered as one of the adverse drug reaction of alpha methyldopa. It is not possible at present to predict which patients will develop liver disease following the administration of this drug. An awareness of the possibility of methyldopa induced hepatotoxicity should be present in the clinician's mind and liver function tests should be done at regular intervals. The occasional occurrence of this harmful side effect is not a contraindication to the use of this antihypertensive agent. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(3.000: 805-807

  7. Measurements of neutron-induced capture and fission reactions on $^{235}$ U: cross sections and ${\\alpha}$ ratios, photon strength functions and prompt ${\\gamma}$-ray from fission

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to measure the neutron-induced capture cross section of the fissile isotope $^{235}$U using a fission tagging set-up. This new set-up has been tested successfully in 2010 and combines the n_TOF 4${\\pi}$ Total Absorption Calorimeter (TAC) with MicroMegas (MGAS) fission detectors. It has been proven that such a combination of detectors allows distinguishing with very good reliability the electromagnetic cascades from the capture reactions from dominant ${\\gamma}$-ray background coming from the fission reactions. The accurate discrimination of the fission background is the main challenge in the neutron capture cross section measurements of fissile isotopes. The main results from the measurement will be the associated capture cross section and ${\\alpha}$ ratio in the resolved (0.3-2250 eV) and unresolved (2.25-30 keV) resonance regions. According to the international benchmarks and as it is mentioned in the NEA High Priority Request List (HPRL), the 235U(n,${\\gamma}$) cross section is of utmost impo...

  8. Acute-phase reaction induces a specific complex between hepatic nuclear proteins and the interleukin 6 response element of the rat alpha 2-macroglobulin gene.

    OpenAIRE

    Hattori, M; Abraham, L J; Northemann, W; Fey, G H

    1990-01-01

    Interleukin 6 (IL-6) was established as a transcriptional inducer of the rat alpha 2-macroglobulin gene, a prototype liver acute-phase gene. Maximum induction occurred when the 5' flanking sequences of this gene (position -209 to -43) directed expression from the gene's own TATA box and transcription start site. Removal of the hexanucleotide CTGGGA (position -164 to -159) abolished 60-70% of the hormonal induction in FAO1 rat hepatoma cells. This hexanucleotide was defined as the IL-6 respons...

  9. Ofloxacin induced hypersensitivity reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Babu Ramineni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ofloxacin is a commonly used antimicrobial agent to combat various infections. The adverse profile of quinolones includes gastrointestinal symptoms, which are the most frequent, neuropsychiatric symptoms, hematologic abnormalities are less common. We report a rare case of ofloxacin induced hypersensitivity reaction in a 57 year old female patient with complaints of rashes over the axilla, upper limb and back, abdomen, thorax associated with exfoliation of skin all over the axilla associated with severe itching. Based on history and clinical examination patient was diagnosed as ofloxacin induced hypersensitivity reaction and was successfully treated with antihistamines and corticosteroids. Pharmacovigilance should be a part of patient care in order to reduce occurrence of adverse drug reaction and also encourage practitioners in reporting so as to gather more and more data regarding adverse drug reactions. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(1.000: 349-351

  10. Probing surface distributions of $\\alpha$ clusters in $^{20}$Ne via $\\alpha$-transfer reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Fukui, Tokuro; Taniguchi, Yasutaka; Suhara, Tadahiro; Kanada-En'yo, Yoshiko; Ogata, Kazuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Direct evidence of the $\\alpha$-cluster manifestation in bound states has not been obtained yet, although a number of experimental studies were carried out to extract the information of the clustering. In particular in conventional analyses of $\\alpha$-transfer reactions, there exist a few significant problems on reaction models, which are insufficient to qualitatively discuss the cluster structure. We aim to verify the development of the $\\alpha$-cluster structure from observables. As the fi...

  11. Study of alpha-emitters produced in nuclear reactions induced by 12C a 86 MeV/n on medium and heavy targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work reported in this research thesis is a result from the very first experiments performed on the new Carbon 12 beam proposed by the CERN synchrotron (20 MeV< E/A<100 MeV). By means of an electrostatic collecting system developed within the laboratory, associated with an α detection device, the author measured the productions, energies, recoil distributions and angular distributions of α emitters produced in nuclear reactions induced by Carbon 12 at 1032 MeV, i.e. 86 MeV/n, on heavy targets ranging from Gadolinium to Uranium. These data and the comparison with results obtained by means of an intra-nuclear cascade model allow the main characteristics of these reactions to be identified. These characteristics will be very interesting for the understanding of phenomena occurring at these energy levels, and for the elaboration of a theoretical model describing the evolution of nuclear reactions

  12. Recoil-alpha-fission and recoil-alpha-alpha-fission events observed in the reaction Ca-48 + Am-243

    CERN Document Server

    Forsberg, U; Andersson, L -L; Di Nitto, A; Düllmann, Ch E; Gates, J M; Golubev, P; Gregorich, K E; Gross, C J; Herzberg, R -D; Hessberger, F P; Khuyagbaatar, J; Kratz, J V; Rykaczewski, K; Sarmiento, L G; Schädel, M; Yakushev, A; Åberg, S; Ackermann, D; Block, M; Brand, H; Carlsson, B G; Cox, D; Derkx, X; Dobaczewski, J; Eberhardt, K; Even, J; Fahlander, C; Gerl, J; Jäger, E; Kindler, B; Krier, J; Kojouharov, I; Kurz, N; Lommel, B; Mistry, A; Mokry, C; Nazarewicz, W; Nitsche, H; Omtvedt, J P; Papadakis, P; Ragnarsson, I; Runke, J; Schaffner, H; Schausten, B; Shi, Y; Thörle-Pospiech, P; Torres, T; Traut, T; Trautmann, N; Türler, A; Ward, A; Ward, D E; Wiehl, N

    2015-01-01

    Products of the fusion-evaporation reaction Ca-48 + Am-243 were studied with the TASISpec set-up at the gas-filled separator TASCA at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum f\\"ur Schwerionenforschung. Amongst the detected thirty correlated alpha-decay chains associated with the production of element Z=115, two recoil-alpha-fission and five recoil-alpha-alpha-fission events were observed. The latter are similar to four such events reported from experiments performed at the Dubna gas-filled separator. Contrary to their interpretation, we propose an alternative view, namely to assign eight of these eleven decay chains of recoil-alpha(-alpha)-fission type to start from the 3n-evaporation channel 115-288. The other three decay chains remain viable candidates for the 2n-evaporation channel 115-289.

  13. alpha-Methoxymethyl ketones via aldol reaction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kasal, Alexander; Buděšínský, Miloš

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 46 (2013), s. 9663-9674. ISSN 0040-4020 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TE01020028 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : NMR * steroids * synthesis * aldol reaction Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.817, year: 2013

  14. Nuclear reaction diagnostics of fast confined and escaping alpha particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The resonant radiative capture nuclear reactions D(α,γ)6Li, 6Li(α,γ) 19B and 7Li(α,γ)11B are examined as diagnostics of the energy distribution of confined fast alpha particles in tokamak plasmas. Count rates for realistic Q=1 DT plasma conditions are presented and compared to expected backgrounds. The design of and preliminary results from the prototype fusion gamma ray detector on TFTR are presented. The activation reactions are similarly examined as diagnostics of escaping fast alpha particles. Where possible, count rate estimates for Q=1 DT plasmas and proposed ignition devices are presented

  15. Role of ($\\alpha$,n) reactions under $r$-process conditions in neutrino-driven winds revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Mohr, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background: The astrophysical $r$-process occurs in an explosive astrophysical event under extremely neutron-rich conditions, leading to (n,$\\gamma$)-($\\gamma$,n) equilibrium along isotopic chains which peaks around neutron separation energies of a few MeV. Nuclei with larger $Z$ are usually produced by $\\beta^-$-decay, but under certain conditions also $\\alpha$-induced reactions may become relevant for the production of nuclei with $Z+2$. Purpose: The uncertainties of the reaction rates of these $\\alpha$-induced reactions are discussed within the statistical model. As an example, $\\alpha$-induced ($\\alpha$,n) and $(\\alpha$,$x$n) reaction cross sections for the neutron-rich $^{86}$Se nucleus are studied in detail. Method: In a first step, the relevance of ($\\alpha$,n) and $(\\alpha$,$x$n) reactions is analyzed. Next the uncertainties are determined from a variation of the $\\alpha$-nucleus potential which is the all-dominant parameter for the astrophysical $Z \\rightarrow Z+2$ reaction rate. Results: It is found...

  16. Trojan Horse method and radioactive ion beams: study of $^{18}$F(p,$\\alpha$)$^{15}$O reaction at astrophysical energies

    CERN Document Server

    Gulino, M; Rapisarda, G G; Kubono, S; Lamia, L; La Cognata, M; Yamaguchi, H; Hayakawa, S; Wakabayashi, Y; Iwasa, N; Kato, S; Komatsubara, H; Teranishi, T; Coc, A; De Séréville, N; Hammache, F; Spitaleri, C

    2012-01-01

    The Trojan Horse Method was applied for the first time to a Radioactive Ion Beam induced reaction to study the reaction $^{18}$F(p,$\\alpha$)$^{15}$O via the three body reaction $^{18}$F(d,$\\alpha$ $^{15}$O)n at the low energies relevant for astrophysics. The abundance of $^{18}$F in Nova explosions is an important issue for the understanding of this astrophysical phenomenon. For this reason it is necessary to study the nuclear reactions that produce or destroy $^{18}$F in Novae. $^{18}$F(p,$\\alpha$)$^{15}$O is one of the main $^{18}$F destruction channels. Preliminary results are presented in this paper.

  17. Pre-equilibrium alpha and nucleon emission in 59Co(α,zαypxn) reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pre-equilibrium alpha and nucleon emission were studied for the excitation functions on target element cobalt up to 120 MeV employing the stacked-foil activation technique. Alpha induced reactions for the production of a few radionuclides 60,58-56Co, 54-52Mn, 51Cr, 59Fe, 57,56Ni were measured. Most of these radionuclides are produced by one or two alpha emissions and a few by nucleon emission. The excitation functions were compared with semi classical models, like the INDEX and the recently developed COMPLET which takes into account the pre-equilibrium alpha particle and multinucleon emission. In general, the shapes of the excitation functions were rather fairly reproduced with the COMPLET model and it gives a better agreement than the INDEX model for all the reactions studied in the present work. (orig.)

  18. Cross section measurement for (n,n{alpha}) reactions by 14 MeV neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasugai, Y.; Ikeda, Y.; Uno, Y. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Yamamoto, H.; Kawade, K.

    1997-03-01

    Nine (n,n{alpha}) cross sections for (n,n{alpha}) reactions induced by 13.5-14.9 MeV neutrons were measured for {sup 51}V, {sup 65}Cu, {sup 71}Ga, {sup 76}Ge, {sup 87}Rb, {sup 91}Zr, {sup 93}Nb, {sup 96}Zr and {sup 109}Ag isotopes by using Fusion Neutronics Source (FNS) at JAERI. The reactions for 91Zr and 96Zr were measured for the first time. The evaluated data of JENDL-3 and ENDF/B-VI were compared with the present data. Some of the evaluated values are much different from our data by a factor more than ten. (author)

  19. Alcoholysis reactions from starch with alpha-amylases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaría, R I; Del Río, G; Saab, G; Rodríguez, M E; Soberón, X; López-Manguía, A

    1999-06-11

    The ability of alpha-amylases from different sources to carry out reactions of alcoholysis was studied using methanol as substrate. It was found that while the enzymes from Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus oryzae, two well-studied saccharifying amylases, are capable of alcoholysis reactions, the classical bacterial liquefying alpha-amylases from Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus stearothermophilus are not. The effect of starch and methanol concentration, temperature and pH on the synthesis of glucosides with alpha-amylase from A. niger was studied. Although methanol may inactivate alpha-amylase, a 90% substrate relative conversion can be obtained in 20% methanol at a high starch concentration (15% w/v) due to a stabilizing effect of starch on the enzyme. As the products of alcoholysis are a series of methyl-oligosaccharides, from methyl-glucoside to methyl-hexomaltoside, alcoholysis was indirectly quantified by high performance liquid chromatography analysis of the total methyl-glucoside produced after the addition of glucoamylase to the alpha-amylase reaction products. More alcoholysis was obtained from intact soluble starch than with maltodextrins or pre-hydrolyzed starch. The biotechnological implications of using starch as substrate for the production of alkyl-glucosides is analyzed in the context of these results. PMID:10386619

  20. Neutron-induced alpha radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new radiography technique to inspect thin samples was developed. Low energy alpha particles, generated by a boron based screen under thermal neutron irradiation, are used as penetrating radiation. The solid state nuclear track detector CR-39 has been used to register the image. The interaction of the α - particles with the CR-39 gives rise to damages which under an adequate chemical etching became tracks the basic units forming the image. A digital system was developed for data acquisition and data analysis as well as for image processing. The irradiation and etching conditions to obtain the best radiography are 1,3 hours and 25 minutes at 70 deg C respectively. For such conditions samples having 10 μm in thickness can be inspected with a spatial resolution of 32 μm. The use of the digital system has reduced the time spent for data acquisition and data analysis and has improved the radiography image visualization. Furthermore, by using the digital system, it was possible to study several new parameters regarding the tracks which are very important to understand and study the image formation theory in solid state nuclear track detectors, the one used in this thesis. Some radiography images are also shown which demonstrate the potential of the proposed radiography technique. When compared with the other radiography techniques already in use to inspect thin samples, the present one developed in the present paper allows a smaller time to obtain the image, it is not necessary to handle liquid radioactive substances, the detector is insensitive to β, γ, X-ray and visible light. (author)

  1. Probing surface distribution of $\\alpha$-cluster in $^{20}$Ne via $\\alpha$-transfer reaction

    CERN Document Server

    Fukui, Tokuro; Suhara, Tadahiro; Kanada-En'yo, Yoshiko; Ogata, Kazuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Direct evidence of the $\\alpha$-cluster development in bound states has not been obtained yet although a number of experimental studies were carried out to extract the information of the clustering. In particular in conventional analyses of $\\alpha$-transfer reactions, there exist a few significant problems on reaction models, which are insufficient to qualitatively discuss the cluster structure. We aim to verify the development of the $\\alpha$-cluster structure from observables. As the first application, it is argued to extract the spatial information of the cluster structure of the $^{20}$Ne nucleus in its ground state through the cross section of the $\\alpha$-transfer reaction $^{16}$O($^6$Li,~$d$)$^{20}$Ne. For the analysis of the transfer reaction, we work with the coupled-channels Born approximation (CCBA) approach, in which the breakup effect of $^6$Li is explicitly taken into account by means of the continuum-discretized coupled-channels method (CDCC) based on the three-body $\\alpha + d + {}^{16}$O mo...

  2. Nucleon induced reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The collection contains full texts of 37 contributions; all fall within the INIS Subject Scope. The topics treated include some unsolved problems of nuclear reactions and relevant problems of nuclear structure at low and intermediate energies. (Z.S.)

  3. Fission time for the {sup 235}U + {alpha} reaction measured by the crystal blocking technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuminov, O.A. [D.V. Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Vorobyevy Gory, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)], E-mail: yuminov@p5-lnr.sinp.msu.ru; Borisov, A.M.; Drozdov, V.A.; Eremenko, D.O.; Fotina, O.V. [D.V. Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Vorobyevy Gory, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Malaguti, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Sezione di Bologna, Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita, Via Irnerio 46, Bologna (Italy); Olivo, P. [Dipartimento Matemates, Universita' di Bologna, Via Irnerio 46, Bologna (Italy); Platonov, S.Yu. [D.V. Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Vorobyevy Gory, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Togo, V. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Sezione di Bologna, Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita, Via Irnerio 46, Bologna (Italy); Tulinov, A.F. [D.V. Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Vorobyevy Gory, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2009-08-15

    The crystal blocking technique has been used to measure the total time of the induced fission process for the {sup 235}U + {alpha} reaction in the energy range of bombarding {alpha}-particles from 25.9 to 31.2 MeV. Experimental fission times observed in this reaction vary from 10{sup -17} to 10{sup -16} s, depending on the projectile energy. Together with the corresponding experimental data on angular anisotropy in the same reaction they were analyzed within the dynamic-statistical approach with allowance for the nuclear dissipation phenomenon and the double-humped fission barrier model. It was demonstrated that the time of induced fission at low excitation energies is sensitive to the nuclear dissipation magnitude.

  4. Nuclear Reactions Important in Alpha-Rich Freezeouts

    CERN Document Server

    Jordan, G C; Meyer, B S; The, L S

    2003-01-01

    The alpha-rich freezeout from equilibrium occurs during the core-collapse explosion of a massive star when the supernova shock wave passes through the Si-rich shell of the star. The nuclei are heated to high temperature and broken down into nucleons and alpha particles. These subsequently reassemble as the material expands and cools, thereby producing new heavy nuclei, including a number of important supernova observables. In this paper we introduce two web-based applications. The first displays the results of a reaction-rate sensitivity study of alpha-rich freezeout yields. The second allows the interested reader to run paramaterized explosive silicon burning calculations in which the user inputs his own parameters. These tools are intended to aid in the identification of nuclear reaction rates important for experimental study. We then analyze several iron-group isotopes (59Ni, 57Co, 56Co, and 55Fe) in terms of their roles as observables and examine the reaction rates that are important in their production.

  5. Ion-exchange separation of radioiodine and its application to production of 124I by alpha particle induced reactions on antimony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic parameters related to radiochemical separation of iodine from tellurium and antimony by anion-exchange chromatography using the resin Amberlyst A26 were studied. The separation yield of 124I amounted to 96% and the decontamination factor from 121Te and 122Sb was > 104. The method was applied to the production of 124I via the 123Sb(α, 3n) reaction. In an irradiation of 110 mg of natSb2O3 (thickness ∝0.08 g/cm2) with 38 MeV α-particles at 1.2 μA beam current for 4 h, corresponding to the beam energy range of Eα = 37 → 27 MeV, the batch yield of 124I obtained was 12.42 MBq and the 125I and 126I impurities amounted to 3.8% and 0.7%, respectively. The experimental batch yield of 124I amounted to 80% of the theoretically calculated value but the level of the radionuclidic impurities were in agreement with the theoretical values. About 96% of the radioiodine was in the form of iodide and the inactive impurities (Te, Sb, Sn) were below the permissible level. Due to the relatively high level of radionuclidic impurity the 124I produced would possibly be useful only for restricted local consumption or for animal experiments.

  6. Ion-exchange separation of radioiodine and its application to production of {sup 124}I by alpha particle induced reactions on antimony

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuza Uddin, Md. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Inst. fuer Neurowissenschaften und Medizin, INM-5: Nuklearchemie; Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Inst. of Nuclear Science and Technology, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Qaim, Seyed M.; Spahn, Ingo; Spellerberg, Stefan; Scholten, Bernhard; Coenen, Heinz H. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Inst. fuer Neurowissenschaften und Medizin, INM-5: Nuklearchemie; Hermanne, Alex [Vrije Univ. Brussel (Belgium). Cyclotron Lab.; Hossain, Syed Mohammod [Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Inst. of Nuclear Science and Technology, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    2015-07-01

    The basic parameters related to radiochemical separation of iodine from tellurium and antimony by anion-exchange chromatography using the resin Amberlyst A26 were studied. The separation yield of {sup 124}I amounted to 96% and the decontamination factor from {sup 121}Te and {sup 122}Sb was > 10{sup 4}. The method was applied to the production of {sup 124}I via the {sup 123}Sb(α, 3n) reaction. In an irradiation of 110 mg of {sup nat}Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3} (thickness ∝0.08 g/cm{sup 2}) with 38 MeV α-particles at 1.2 μA beam current for 4 h, corresponding to the beam energy range of E{sub α} = 37 → 27 MeV, the batch yield of {sup 124}I obtained was 12.42 MBq and the {sup 125}I and {sup 126}I impurities amounted to 3.8% and 0.7%, respectively. The experimental batch yield of {sup 124}I amounted to 80% of the theoretically calculated value but the level of the radionuclidic impurities were in agreement with the theoretical values. About 96% of the radioiodine was in the form of iodide and the inactive impurities (Te, Sb, Sn) were below the permissible level. Due to the relatively high level of radionuclidic impurity the {sup 124}I produced would possibly be useful only for restricted local consumption or for animal experiments.

  7. Study of $\\boldsymbol{(\\alpha,p)}$ and $\\boldsymbol{(\\alpha,n)}$ reactions with a Multi-Sampling Ionization Chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Avila, M L; Almaraz-Calderon, S; Ayangeakaa, A D; Dickerson, C; Hoffman, C R; Jiang, C L; Kay, B P; Lai, J; Nusair, O; Pardo, R C; Santiago-Gonzalez, D; Talwar, R; Ugalde, C

    2016-01-01

    A large number of $(\\alpha,p)$ and $(\\alpha,n)$ reactions are known to play a fundamental role in nuclear astrophysics. This work presents a novel technique to study these reactions with the active target system MUSIC whose segmented anode allows the investigation of a large energy range of the excitation function with a single beam energy. In order to verify the method, we performed a direct measurements of the previously measured reactions $^{17}$O$(\\alpha,n)^{20}$Ne, $^{23}$Na$(\\alpha,p)^{26}$Mg, and $^{23}$Na$(\\alpha,n)^{26}$Al. These reactions were investigated in inverse kinematics using $^{4}$He gas in the detector to study the excitation function in the range of about 2 to 6 MeV in the center of mass. We found good agreement between the cross sections of the $^{17}$O$(\\alpha,n)^{20}$Ne reaction measured in this work and previous measurements. Furthermore we have successfully performed a simultaneous measurement of the $^{23}$Na$(\\alpha,p)^{26}$Mg and $^{23}$Na$(\\alpha,n)^{26}$Al reactions.

  8. The Branchings of the Main s-process: Their Sensitivity to alpha-induced Reactions on 13C and 22Ne and to the Uncertainties of the Nuclear Network

    CERN Document Server

    Bisterzo, Sara; Kaeppeler, Franz; Wiescher, Michael; Imbriani, Gianluca; Straniero, Oscar; Cristallo, Sergio; Goerres, Joachim; deBoer, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a detailed analysis of the main component of the slow neutron capture process (the s-process), which accounts for the solar abundances of half of the nuclei with 90 <~ A <~ 208. We examine the impact of the uncertainties of the two neutron sources operating in low-mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars: the 13C(alpha, n)16O reaction, which releases neutrons radiatively during interpulse periods (kT ~ 8 keV), and the 22Ne(alpha, n)25Mg reaction, partially activated during the convective thermal pulses (TPs). We focus our attention on the branching points that mainly influence the abundance of s-only isotopes. In our AGB models, the 13C is fully consumed radiatively during interpulse. In this case, we find that the present uncertainty associated to the 13C(alpha, n)16O reaction has marginal effects on s-only nuclei. On the other hand, a reduction of this rate may increase the amount of residual (or unburned) 13C at the end of the interpulse: in this condition, the residual 13C is bur...

  9. Laser-induced chemical reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A classical model for the interaction of laser radiation with a molecular system is derived. This model is used to study the enhancement of a chemical reaction via a collision induced absorption. It was found that an infrared laser will in general enhance the rate of a chemical reaction, even if the reactants are infrared inactive. Results for an illustrative analytically solvable model are presented, as well as results from classical trajectory studies on a number of systems. The collision induced absorption spectrum in these systems can be written as the Fourier transform of a particular dipole correlation function. This is used to obtain the collision induced absorption spectrum for a state-selected, mono-energetic reactive collision system. Examples treated are a one-dimensional barrier problem, reactive and nonreactive collisions of H + H2, and a modified H + H2 potential energy surface which leads to a collision intermediate. An extension of the classical model to treat laser-induced electronically nonadiabatic collision processes is constructed. The model treats all degrees of freedom, molecular, electronic and radiation, in a dynamically consistent framework within classical mechanics. Application is made to several systems. Several interesting phenomena are discovered including a Franck-Condon-like effect causing maxima in the reaction probability at energies much below the classical threshold, laser de-enhancement of chemical reactions and an isotope effect. In order to assess the validity of the classical model for electronically nonadiabatic process (without a laser field), a model problem involving energy transfer in a collinear atom-diatom system is studied, and the results compared to the available quantum mechanical calculation. The calculations are in qualitative agreement

  10. Olefination of alpha-hydroxy or alpha-aminoaldehyde derivatives via reaction of their arylsulfonylhydrazones with sulfonyl anions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicha, Jerzy; Zarecki, Andrzej

    2004-08-20

    Reaction of tosylhydrazones of O-substituted alpha-hydroxy or N-substituted alpha-amino aldehydes (2, 7, 11, 15, 17, and 20) with selected alpha-magnesio alkyl phenyl sulfones afforded the respective derivatives of allylic alcohols or allylic amines. 2,3-O-Isopropylidene-D-glyceraldehyde (1) was transformed into its tosylhydrazone (2) and then olefins 4a with retention of optical purity. PMID:15307767

  11. Clindamycin-induced hypersensitivity reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulloch, Marilyn N; Baccas, Jonathan T; Arnold, Scott

    2016-06-01

    Drug-induced anaphylaxis is an unpredictable adverse reaction. Although it may occur with any medication, antibiotics induce more cases of anaphylaxis than any other medication class with most cases being induced by β-lactam antibiotics. Clindamycin is an antibiotic with good gram-positive and anaerobe coverage which is often used in patients with β-lactam allergies. We report the case of a 46-year-old female who experienced anaphylaxis after a dose of intravenous (IV) clindamycin. Following treatment with methylprednisolone, epinephrine, diphenhydramine, and albuterol, the patient stabilized. The patient's score on the Naranjo's algorithm was 8 (probable); a score of 9 (definite) limited only by absence of drug re-challenge. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a clindamycin-induced anaphylaxis where the patient was not exposed to any other agent that may have triggered the response, the first case in the United States, and only the third documented case in the literature. Clinicians should be aware of the potential for drug-induced anaphylaxis in all medications. PMID:26216470

  12. Cytokine vaccination: neutralising IL-1alpha autoantibodies induced by immunisation with homologous IL-1alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenson, M; Hansen, M B; Thomsen, A R; Diamant, Marcus; Nansen, A; Rieneck, K; Otterness, I G; Bendtzen, K

    High-affinity IgG autoantibodies (aAb) to IL-1alpha are among the most frequently found aAb to cytokines in humans. To establish an animal model with aAb to IL-1alpha, we immunised mice with recombinant murine IL-1alpha. Unprimed and Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG)-primed BALB/cA mice were vaccinated...... with IL-1alpha coupled to purified protein derivative of tuberculin (PPD). Both unprimed and primed animals developed IgG aAb to IL-1alpha. These aAb persisted at high levels more than 100 days after vaccination and did not cross-react with murine IL-1beta. The induced anti-IL-1alpha aAb inhibited...... induced in mice by vaccination with recombinant murine IL-1alpha conjugated to PPD. Studies of the effects of IL-1alpha aAb in such animals may help clarify the importance of naturally occurring IL-1alpha aAb in humans and permit the evaluation of future therapies with cytokine aAb in patients with...

  13. Cross Sections for proton induced high energy $\\gamma$-ray emission (PIGE) in reaction $^{19}$F(p,$\\alpha\\gamma$)$^{16}$O at incident proton energies between 1.5 and 4 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Cabanelas, P; Fonseca, M; Galaviz, D; Henriques, A; Jesus, A P; Luís, H; Sánchez-Benítez, A; Santos, C; Silva, H; Teubig, P; Velho, P

    2016-01-01

    We have studied the high energy gamma-rays produced in the reaction $^{19}$F(p,$\\alpha\\gamma$)$^{16}$O for incident proton energies from 1.5 to 4.0 MeV over NaF/Ag and CaF$_2$/Ag thin targets in two different sets of data. Gamma-rays were detected with a High Purity Ge detector with an angle of 130$^{o}$ with respect to the beam axis. The cross-sections for the high energy gamma-rays of 6.129, 6.915 and 7.115 MeV have been measured for the whole group between 5 and 7.2 MeV with accuracy better than 10%. A new energy range was covered and more points are included in the cross-sections data base. Results are in agreement with previous measurements in similar conditions.

  14. Alpha capture reaction cross section measurements on Sb isotopes by activation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkulu, Z.; Özkan, N.; Kiss, G. G.; Szücs, T.; Fülöp, Zs; Güray, R. T.; Gyürky, Gy; Halász, Z.; Somorjai, E.; Török, Zs; Yalçin, C.

    2016-01-01

    Alpha induced reactions on natural and enriched antimony targets were investigated via the activation technique in the energy range from 9.74 MeV to 15.48 MeV, close to the upper end of the Gamow window at a temperature of 3 GK relevant to the γ-process. The experiments were carried out at the Institute for Nuclear Research, the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (MTA Atomki). 121Sb(α,γ)125I, 121Sb(α,n)124I and 123Sb(α,n)126I reactions were measured using a HPGe detector. In this work, the 121Sb(α,n)124 cross section results and the comparison with the theoretical predictions (obtained with standard settings of the statistical model codes NON-SMOKER and TALYS) were presented.

  15. Alpha scattering and capture reactions in the A = 7 system at low energies

    OpenAIRE

    Mohr, P; Abele, H.; ZWIEBEL, R.; Staudt, G.; Krauss, H; Oberhummer, H.; Denker, A; Hammer, J. W.; Wolf, G.

    1993-01-01

    Differential cross sections for $^3$He-$\\alpha$ scattering were measured in the energy range up to 3 MeV. These data together with other available experimental results for $^3$He $+ \\alpha$ and $^3$H $+ \\alpha$ scattering were analyzed in the framework of the optical model using double-folded potentials. The optical potentials obtained were used to calculate the astrophysical S-factors of the capture reactions $^3$He$(\\alpha,\\gamma)^7$Be and $^3$H$(\\alpha,\\gamma)^7$Li, and the branching ratio...

  16. [Reaction mechanism studies of heavy ion induced nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains papers that discuss: Target Dependence of Complex Fragment Emission in 47-MeV/u La-Induced Reactions; Deconvolution of Time-of-Flight Data to Improve Mass Identification; and Study of the Reaction of La + Al at E/A = 50 MeV with Landau-Vlasov Dynamics

  17. alpha-Amanitin induced apoptosis in primary cultured dog hepatocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Szelag

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Amatoxin poisoning is caused by mushroom species belonging to the genera Amanita, Galerina and Lepiota with the majority of lethal mushroom exposures attributable to Amanita phalloides. High mortality rate in intoxications with these mushrooms is principally a result of the acute liver failure following significant hepatocyte damage due to hepatocellular uptake of amatoxins. A wide variety of amatoxins have been isolated; however, alpha-amanitin (alpha-AMA appears to be the primary toxin. Studies in vitro and in vivo suggest that alpha-AMA does not only cause hepatocyte necrosis, but also may lead to apoptotic cell death. The objective of this study was to evaluate the complex hepatocyte apoptosis in alpha-AMA cytotoxicity. All experiments were performed on primary cultured canine hepatocytes. The cells were incubated for 12 h with alpha-AMA at a final concentration of 1, 5, 10 and 20 microM. Viability test (MTT assay, apoptosis evaluation (TUNEL reaction, detection of DNA laddering and electron microscopy were performed at 6 and 12 h of exposure to alpha-AMA. There was a clear correlation between hepatocyte viability, concentration of alpha-AMA and time of exposure to this toxin. The decline in cultured dog hepatocyte viability during the exposure to alpha-AMA is most likely preceded by enhanced cellular apoptosis. Our results demonstrate that apoptosis might contribute to pathogenesis of the severe liver injury in the course of amanitin intoxication, particularly during the early phase of poisoning.

  18. About the reactions 3H(alpha,gamma)7Li and 3He(alpha,gamma)7Be

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article the current experimental and theoretical status of the radiative alpha capture reactions 3H(α,γ)7Li and 3He(α,γ)7Be and their relations to primordial nucleosynthesis and the solar neutrino problem are reviewed. (author)

  19. Severe photosensitivity reaction induced by topical diclofenac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod B Akat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Albeit uncommon, photosensitivity reaction induced by diclofenac can be an unfortunate adverse reaction complicating its use as a topical analgesic. We here present a case of a patient who suffered such a reaction as a result of exposure to diclofenac, employed as a topical analgesic for low backache. The lesions healed with conservative management without extensive scarring or other complications.

  20. High efficiency charged-particle spectrometer using gridded ionization chamber for fast-neutron induced reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high efficiency charged particle spectrometer for fast neutron induced reactions has been developed using a gridded-ionization chamber taking advantage of its large solid angle and capability of energy-angle determination. It is characterized by high stopping-power and low background to be applicable for alpha-particles emitted by 15 MeV neutrons and protons for MeV incident neutrons. The spectrometer has been applied successfully for (n, alpha) and (n, p) reactions. (orig.)

  1. Role and mechanism of uncoupling protein 2 on the fatty acid-induced dysfunction of pancreatic alpha cells in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Jie-ying; LI Hong-liang; YANG Wen-ying; XIAO Jian-zhong; DU Rui-qin; SHEN Xiao-xia; CAI Zhe; ZHANG Lan; SHU Jun

    2010-01-01

    Background Uncoupling protein (UCP) 2 is related to the dysfunction of beta cells induced by fatty acids. However,whether UCP2 has similar effects on alpha cell is still not clear. This study aimed to investigate the effects of UCP2 and its possible mechanisms in lipotoxicity-induced dysfunction of pancreatic alpha cells.Methods The alpha TC1-6 cells were used in this study to evaluate the effects of palmitate and/or UCP2 inhibit factors on the glucagon secretory function, glucagon content, the glucagon mRNA level and the nitrotyrosine level in the supernatant. Meantime, the expression levels of UCP2 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1 alpha) were measured by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting. Furthermore, the possible relationship between UCP2 and insulin signal transduction pathway was analyzed.Results Palmitate stimulated alpha cell glucagon secretion and the expression of UCP2 and PGC-1 alpha, which could be partially decreased by the inhibition of UCP2. Palmitate increased nitrotyrosine level and suppressed insulin signal transduction pathway in alpha cells. Inhibition of UCP2 influenced the effects of free fatty acid on alpha cells and may relate to glucagon secretion.Conclusion UCP2 played an important role on alpha cell dysfunction induced by free fatty acid in vitro, which may be related to its effects on oxidative stress and insulin signal transduction pathway.

  2. Alpha cluster states in light nuclei populated through the (6Li,d) reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borello-Lewin, Thereza; Rodrigues, M.R.D.; Horodynski-Matsushigue, L.B.; Duarte, J.L.M.; Rodrigues, C.L.; Souza, M.A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Cunsolo, A.; Cappuzzello, F. [Universita di Catania (Italy). Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare. Lab. Nazionali del Sud; Ukita, Gilberto Mitsuo [Universidade de Santo Amaro (UNISA), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Psicologia

    2011-07-01

    Full text: The alpha cluster correlation is an important concept in the nuclear physics of light nuclei. The main purpose of the research program in progress is the investigation of the alpha clustering phenomenon in (x{alpha}) and(x{alpha}+{nu}) nuclei through the ({sup 6}Li,d) alpha transfer reaction. In fact, there is scarce experimental information on the subject, in particular associated with resonant states predicted near (x{alpha}) and (x{alpha}+{nu}) thresholds. Measurements of the {sup 12},{sup 13}C({sup 6}Li,d) {sup 16},{sup 17}O reactions, at an incident energy of 25.5 MeV, have been performed employing the Sao Paulo Pelletron-Enge Split-Pole facility and the nuclear emulsion detection technique. The work is under way and an experimental energy resolution of 30 keV was obtained. Near the (4{alpha}) breakup threshold in {sup 16}O, three narrow alpha resonances, not previously measured, were detected, revealing important {alpha} + {sup 12}C(G.S.) components. One of these resonances corresponds to the known 0{sup +} state at 15.1 MeV[5] of excitation that has probably, according to Funaki et al., the gas like configuration of the 4{alpha} condensate state, with a very dilute density and a large component of {alpha} + {sup 12}C(Hoyle) configuration. As was already mentioned, our experimental information points to the necessity of including the {alpha} + {sup 12}C(G.S.) component in the wave function. (author)

  3. Chromosomal aberrations induced by alpha particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chromosomal aberrations produced by the ionizing radiation are commonly used when it is necessary to establish the exposure dose of an individual, it is a study that is used like complement of the traditional physical systems and its application is only in cases in that there is doubt about what indicates the conventional dosimetry. The biological dosimetry is based on the frequency of aberrations in the chromosomes of the lymphocytes of the individual in study and the dose is calculated taking like reference to the dose-response curves previously generated In vitro. A case of apparent over-exposure to alpha particles to which is practiced analysis of chromosomal aberrations to settle down if in fact there was exposure and as much as possible, to determine the presumed dose is presented. (Author)

  4. Microscopic effective reaction theory for deuteron-induced reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Neoh, Yuen Sim; Minomo, Kosho; Ogata, Kazuyuki

    2016-01-01

    The microscopic effective reaction theory is applied to deuteron-induced reactions. A reaction model-space characterized by a $p+n+{\\rm A}$ three-body model is adopted, where A is the target nucleus, and the nucleon-target potential is described by a microscopic folding model based on an effective nucleon-nucleon interaction in nuclear medium and a one-body nuclear density of A. The three-body scattering wave function in the model space is obtained with the continuum-discretized coupled-channels method (CDCC), and the eikonal reaction theory (ERT), an extension of CDCC, is applied to the calculation of neutron removal cross sections. Elastic scattering cross sections of deuteron on $^{58}$Ni and $^{208}$Pb target nuclei at several energies are compared with experimental data. The total reaction cross sections and the neutron removal cross sections at 56 MeV on 14 target nuclei are calculated and compared with experimental values.

  5. Determination by transfer reaction of alpha widths in fluorine for astrophysical interest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nucleosynthesis of fluorine is not known. Several astrophysical models predict the alpha radiative capture onto N15 as the main fluorine production reaction. In the expression of the reaction rate, one parameter is missing: the alpha width of the resonance on the E = 4.377 MeV level in fluorine. A direct measurement is excluded due to the very low cross-section expected. We have determined this alpha width using a transfer reaction followed by analyses with FR-DWBA (Finite Range Distorted Wave Born Approximation) in a simple cluster alpha model. This experiment was carried out with a Li7 beam with E = 28 MeV onto a N15 gas target. The 16 first levels were studied. Spectroscopic factors were extracted for most of them. Alpha widths for unbound levels were determined. Many alpha width were compared with known values from direct reaction and the differences lie within the uncertainty range (factor 2). The alpha width for the E = 4.377 MeV level was determined (Γα = 1.5*10-15 MeV), its value is about 60 times weaker than the used value. The influence of our new rate was studied in AGB (Asymptotic Giant Branch) stars during thermal pulses. In this model the alteration is sensitive. (author)

  6. Reaction rates for the s-process neutron source 22Ne+{\\alpha}

    CERN Document Server

    Longland, Richard; Karakas, Amanda I

    2012-01-01

    The 22Ne({\\alpha},n)25Mg reaction is an important source of neutrons for the s-process. In massive stars responsible for the weak component of the s-process, 22Ne({\\alpha},n)25Mg is the dominant source of neutrons, both during core helium burning and in shell carbon burning. For the main s-process component produced in Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars, the 13C({\\alpha},n)16O reaction is the dominant source of neutrons operating during the interpulse period, with the 22Ne+{\\alpha} source affecting mainly the s-process branchings during a thermal pulse. Rate uncertainties in the competing 22Ne({\\alpha},n)25Mg and 22Ne({\\alpha},{\\gamma})26Mg reactions result in large variations of s-process nucleosynthesis. Here, we present up-to-date and statistically rigorous 22Ne+{\\alpha} reaction rates using recent experimental results and Monte Carlo sampling. Our new rates are used in post-processing nucleosynthesis calculations both for massive stars and AGB stars. We demonstrate that the nucleosynthesis uncertainties ...

  7. Neutron Production Using Alpha-Be Reaction on the Neutron Generator Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to obtain data for development of small scale Accelerator Driven System (ADS), calculations of neutron production that use alpha-Be reaction on the acceleration energy range of 100 to 500 keV have been carried out. The result of neutron yield calculation was compared with calculation result of D-T reaction and both calculations were treated for thick target. At the energy of 100 keV; alpha-Be reaction produces neutron yield about 1/10 compared to that of D-T reaction and increases to 1/5 at energy of 500 keV. At the same acceleration voltage of 250 kV, where the alpha energy is 500 keV and deuteron energy is 250 keV; the neutron yield of alpha-Be reaction is 1/3 of that in D-T reaction. On the last mentioned condition and considering that target cost of Be is cheaper than the cost of T, neutron production on a neutron generator accelerator that uses alpha-Be reaction is a competitive method as neutron source, especially for ADS. (author)

  8. Trojan Horse Method and RIBs: The {sup 18}F(p,{alpha}){sup 15}O reaction at astrophysical energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherubini, S.; Gulino, M.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Spitaleri, C.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Kubono, S.; Yamaguchi, H.; Hayakawa, S.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Iwasa, N.; Kato, S.; Komatsubara, H.; Teranishi, T.; Coc, A.; De Sereville, N.; Hammache, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia, Universita di Catania and INFN-LNS, Catania (Italy); INFN-LNS, Catania (Italy) and UniKORE, Enna (Italy)

    2012-11-12

    The abundance of {sup 18}F in Nova explosions is an important issue for the understanding of this astrophysical phenomenon. For this reason it is necessary to study the nuclear reactions that produce or destroy this isotope in novae. Among these latter processes, the {sup 18}F(p,{alpha}){sup 15}O is one of the main {sup 18}F destruction channels. We report here on the preliminary results of the first experiment that applies the Trojan Horse Method to a Radioactive Ion Beam induced reaction. The experiment was performed using the CRIB apparatus of the Center for Nuclear Study of The Tokyo University.

  9. Interferon-alpha induced depressive-like behavior in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, C. W.; Liebenberg, N.; Elfving, B.;

    2013-01-01

    Background: A subpopulation of individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) show increased levels of peripheral inflammatory biomarkers, indicating an association of MDD with a chronically activated immune system. Administration of the immune stimulating cytokine, interferon-alpha (IFN......-(alpha)), also used in the treatment of cancer and hepatitis, commonly leads to neuropsychiatric side effects with approximately 16- 45% of patients developing depressive-like symptoms during the course of therapy. Given that treatmentresistant depression has been associated with increased levels of inflammatory...... markers, the development of an inflammation-induced model of depression is highly relevant. Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate whether IFN-(alpha) can induce a chronic low-grade inflammatory state in rats, and whether this may lead to a depressive phenotype. Methods: Male Sprague...

  10. Angular correlations and decay branching ratio for excited state of 7Li*(7,45 MeV) in reactions 7Li(alpha, alpha)7Li*

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of differential cross-sections of alpha-particle inelastic scattering by 7Li nuclei and 7Li(alpha, alpha 6Li)n, 7Li(alpha, alpha alpha)t reactions have been performed at the energy Ea = 27,2 MeV. Probability of 7Li*(7,45 MeV) decay into 6Li + n channel has been determined from the ratio of cross-sections measured in kinematically complete and incomplete experiments. The large discrepancy of this value (P 0,49 ± 0,06) and of those obtained at the study of 7Li*(7,45 MeV) decay in binary reactions can be explained by the influence of Coulomb field of accompanied alpha-particle on the decay of near-threshold resonances in three-particle reactions

  11. Estimation of the {alpha} particles and neutron distribution generated during a fusion reaction; Evaluation de la distribution des particules {alpha} et des neutrons issus de la reaction de fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dellacherie, S.

    1997-12-01

    The respective distributions (or density probabilities) of {alpha} particles and neutrons have been modeled using a Monte-Carlo method for the thermonuclear fusion reaction D + T {yields} {alpha} + n + 17.6 MeV. (N.T.).

  12. Breakout from the hot CNO cycle: the {sup 15}O({alpha},{gamma}) and {sup 18}Ne({alpha},p) reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradfield-Smith, W.; Laird, A.M.; Davinson, T.; Pietro, A. di; Ostrowski, A.N.; Shotter, A.C.; Woods, P.J. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. of Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Cherubini, S.; Galster, W.; Graulich, J.S.; Leleux, P.; Michel, L.; Ninane, A.; Vervier, J. [Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, UCL, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Aliotta, M.; Cali, D.; Cappussello, F.; Cunsolo, A.; Spitaleri, C. [INFN, Catania (Italy); Gorres, J.; Wiescher, M. [Notre Dame Univ. (United States); Rahighi, J. [Van de Graaf Lab., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hinnefeld, J. [Indiana Univ., South Bend (United States)

    1998-06-01

    One of the most important reactions which determines the rate of breakout from the hot CNO cycle is the {sup 15}O({alpha},{gamma}){sup 19}Ne. The reaction {sup 18}Ne({alpha},p){sup 21}Na may also provide an alternative breakout route. Experiments are being undertaken at Louvain-La-Neuve using the radioactive {sup 18}Ne beam to study these reactions by measurement of {alpha}({sup 18}Ne,p){sup 21}Na and d({sup 18}Ne,p){sup 19}Ne{sup *} {yields} {sup 15}O + {alpha} (orig.)

  13. Study of the ABC Enhancement in the $\\overline{d}d\\to \\alpha X^{0}$ reaction

    CERN Document Server

    Wurzinger, R; Boivin, M; Courtat, P; Fäldt, Göran; Gacougnolle, R; Gardestig, A; Hibou, F; Le Bornec, Y; Martin, J M; Plouin, F; Tatischeff, B; Wilkin, C; Willis, N; Yonnet, J; Zghiche, A

    1999-01-01

    The polarized d d -> alpha X reaction at beam energies close to the eta threshold shows very strong structure in the missing mass corresponding to the ABC enhancement. The deuteron tensor analysing power A_yy, and the slope of the vector analysing power A_y with respect to angle, have been measured for this reaction around the forward direction. Both signals are small, and their variations with the alpha-particle momentum are in broad agreement with a theoretical model in which each pair of nucleons in the projectile and target deuterons undergoes pion production through the NN -> d pi reaction.

  14. Differential inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced phenomena by anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha antibody.

    OpenAIRE

    Vogel, S N; Havell, E A

    1990-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) has been implicated as a major mediator of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced phenomena. Administration to mice of a polyclonal, monospecific antibody prepared against recombinant murine TNF alpha abolished detection of LPS-induced TNF alpha activity and significantly reduced levels of LPS-induced colony-stimulating factor but failed to reduce the production of LPS-induced interferon, corticosterone, or LPS-induced hypoglycemia.

  15. Nuclear structure and reaction mechanisms studied on alpha-particle transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the observation of the natural alpha decay of atomic nuclei the alpha particle was and is considered as an important component of the nuclear matter. The modern studies of alpha-particle transfer reactions are devoted to the question on four-particle correlations (alpha-particle clusters) generally in nuclear matter or also on nuclear surfaces. Thereby one is today yet absolutely far away from a unified picture of the mechanism of the alpha transfer: It is shown that different reaction and nuclear models must be used with different success for the interpretation of the data. Theoretical and experimental determination of spectroscopic strength distribution were thereby developed mutually supportingly each other. On the experimental side the question of the reaction mechanism and the determination of its details is to be clarified. Here approaches were developed which lead to a unified description in the sd shell. Calculations in the formalism of the coupled channels with spectroscopic factors calculated in the framework of the shell model lead to convincing agreements between theoretical and experimental angular distributions regarding both their shape and their amplitude. Hereby it was shown that beside the determination of the potential parameters a two-stage reaction mechanism as in an alpha-particle transition after or before an inelastic excitation of the target or residual nucleus is of decicive importance. (HSI)

  16. Reaction of arylsulfonylhydrazones of aldehydes with alpha-magnesio sulfones. A novel olefin synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurek-Tyrlik, A; Marczak, S; Michalak, K; Wicha, J; Zarecki, A

    2001-10-19

    Reactions of representative tosylhydrazones of aldehydes and ketones with alpha-metalated sulfones were examined in order to develop a practical olefination method. Treatment of aldehyde tosylhydrazone 2 with an excess of alpha-lithiated methyl phenyl or dimethyl sulfones yielded 3a. The reaction of 2 with sterically unhindered lithiated alkyl sulfones gave mixtures of the respective olefination products 3b-d along with the Shapiro fragmentation product 4. Sterically hindered lithiated sulfones afforded Shapiro products exclusively. In contrast, aldehyde tosylhydrazones 2 or 6 in reactions with a variety of alpha-magnesio primary or secondary alkyl sulfones gave olefination products 3a-j and 7a-c in high yields (Tables 1 and 2). beta-Branched alkyl sulfones afforded predominantly (E)-alkenes, whereas unhindered primary sulfones gave mixtures of (E)- and (Z)-alkenes with low selectivity. Reaction of the 2,4,6-triisopropylbenzenesulfonylhydrazone (trisylhydrazone) of cyclodecanone 11c with alpha-magnesio methyl phenyl sulfone afforded the methylidene derivative 12a contaminated with the Shapiro product 13. Tosylhydrazone 2 resisted reaction with i-PrMgCl and gave only a small amount of the addition product in reaction with Bu(2)Mg. Some mechanistic aspects of the reaction of tosylhydrazones with organomagnesium compounds are discussed. PMID:11597219

  17. Fasting induces basolateral uptake transporters of the SLC family in the liver via HNF4alpha and PGC1alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Christoph G; Martin, Ina V; Porn, Anne C; Voigt, Sebastian; Gartung, Carsten; Trautwein, Christian; Geier, Andreas

    2007-09-01

    Fasting induces numerous adaptive changes in metabolism by several central signaling pathways, the most important represented by the HNF4alpha/PGC-1alpha-pathway. Because HNF4alpha has been identified as central regulator of basolateral bile acid transporters and a previous study reports increased basolateral bile acid uptake into the liver during fasting, we hypothesized that HNF4alpha is involved in fasting-induced bile acid uptake via upregulation of basolateral bile acid transporters. In rats, mRNA of Ntcp, Oatp1, and Oatp2 were significantly increased after 48 h of fasting. Protein expression as determined by Western blot showed significant increases for all three transporters 72 h after the onset of fasting. Whereas binding activity of HNF1alpha in electrophoretic mobility shift assays remained unchanged, HNF4alpha binding activity to the Ntcp promoter was increased significantly. In line with this result, we found significantly increased mRNA expression of HNF4alpha and PGC-1alpha. Functional studies in HepG2 cells revealed an increased endogenous NTCP mRNA expression upon cotransfection with either HNF4alpha, PGC-1alpha, or a combination of both. We conclude that upregulation of the basolateral bile acid transporters Ntcp, Oatp1, and Oatp2 in fasted rats is mediated via the HNF4alpha/PGC-1alpha pathway. PMID:17640976

  18. [Autoimmunization induced by interferon alpha therapy in chronic hepatitis C].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, Pierre; Codes, Liana; Chevallier, Michèle; Trépo, Christian; Zoulim, Fabien

    2004-11-01

    We report the case of a 56 year-old woman with post-transfusion chronic hepatitis C who presented with a severe ALT flare up associated with a rapid progression of liver fibrosis during interferon alpha 2b therapy. Several hypotheses were considered to explain the etiology of this ALT flare: there was no viral super infection by other hepatotropic viruses, no toxic hepatitis, no metabolic disease, and no other specific liver diseases could be identified. HLA typing showed a specific profile A1 B8 DR3 (risk factor of auto-immunization during interferon alpha therapy) with antinuclear antibodies and anti smooth muscle antibodies. This case suggests that auto-immunization induced by interferon alpha should be investigated in case of ALT flare that is not followed by an HCV breakthrough. PMID:15657545

  19. Alpha scattering and capture reactions in the A = 7 system at low energies

    CERN Document Server

    Mohr, P J; Zwiebel, R; Staudt, G; Krauss, H; Oberhummer, Heinz; Denker, A; Hammer, J W; Wolf, G

    1993-01-01

    Differential cross sections for $^3$He-$\\alpha$ scattering were measured in the energy range up to 3 MeV. These data together with other available experimental results for $^3$He $+ \\alpha$ and $^3$H $+ \\alpha$ scattering were analyzed in the framework of the optical model using double-folded potentials. The optical potentials obtained were used to calculate the astrophysical S-factors of the capture reactions $^3$He$(\\alpha,\\gamma)^7$Be and $^3$H$(\\alpha,\\gamma)^7$Li, and the branching ratios for the transitions into the two final $^7$Be and $^7$Li bound states, respectively. For $^3$He$(\\alpha,\\gamma)^7$Be excellent agreement between calculated and experimental data is obtained. For $^3$H$(\\alpha,\\gamma)^7$Li a $S(0)$ value has been found which is a factor of about 1.5 larger than the adopted value. For both capture reactions a similar branching ratio of $R = \\sigma(\\gamma_1)/\\sigma(\\gamma_0) \\approx 0.43$ has been obtained.

  20. $^{24}$Mg($p$, $\\alpha$)$^{21}$Na reaction study for spectroscopy of $^{21}$Na

    CERN Document Server

    Cha, S M; Kim, A; Lee, E J; Ahn, S; Bardayan, D W; Chipps, K A; Cizewski, J A; Howard, M E; Manning, B; O'Malley, P D; Ratkiewicz, A; Strauss, S; Kozub, R L; Matos, M; Pain, S D; Pittman, S T; Smith, M S; Peters, W A

    2015-01-01

    The $^{24}$Mg($p$, $\\alpha$)$^{21}$Na reaction was measured at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in order to better constrain spins and parities of energy levels in $^{21}$Na for the astrophysically important $^{17}$F($\\alpha, p$)$^{20}$Ne reaction rate calculation. 31 MeV proton beams from the 25-MV tandem accelerator and enriched $^{24}$Mg solid targets were used. Recoiling $^{4}$He particles from the $^{24}$Mg($p$, $\\alpha$)$^{21}$Na reaction were detected by a highly segmented silicon detector array which measured the yields of $^{4}$He particles over a range of angles simultaneously. A new level at 6661 $\\pm$ 5 keV was observed in the present work. The extracted angular distributions for the first four levels of $^{21}$Na and Distorted Wave Born Approximation (DWBA) calculations were compared to verify and extract angular momentum transfer.

  1. Primordial ${\\alpha} + d \\to {}^{6}{\\rm Li} + \\gamma$ reaction and second Lithium puzzle

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhamedzhanov, A M; Bertulani, C A

    2016-01-01

    During the Big Bang, ${}^{6}{\\rm Li}$ was synthesized via the ${}^{2}{\\rm H}(\\alpha,\\gamma){}^{6}{\\rm Li}$ reaction. After almost 25 years of the failed attempts to measure the ${}^{2}{\\rm H}(\\alpha,\\gamma){}^{6}{\\rm Li}$ reaction in the lab at the Big Bang energies, just recently the LUNA collaboration presented the first successful measurements at two different Big Bang energies [M. Anders {\\it et al.}, Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 113}, 042501 (2014)]. In this paper we will discuss how to improve the accuracy of the direct experiment. To this end the photon's angular distribution is calculated in the potential model. It contains contributions from electric dipole and quadrupole transitions and their interference, which dramatically changes the photon's angular distribution. The calculated distributions at different Big Bang energies have a single peak at $\\sim 50^{\\circ}$. These calculations provide the best kinematic conditions to measure the ${}^{2}{\\rm H}(\\alpha,\\gamma){}^{6}{\\rm Li}$ reaction. The expressions...

  2. Experimental setup and procedure for the measurement of the $^{7}Be(n,{\\alpha}){\\alpha}$ reaction at n_TOF

    CERN Document Server

    Cosentino, L; Barbagallo, M; Pappalardo, A; Colonna, N; Damone, L; Piscopo, M; Finocchiaro, P; Maugeri, E; Heinitz, S; Schumann, D; Dressler, R; Kivel, N; Aberle, O; Andrzejewski, J; Audouin, L; Ayranov, M; Bacak, M; Barros, S; Balibrea-Correa, J; Beecares, V; Becvar, F; Beinrucker, C; Berthoumieux, E; Billowes, J; Bosnar, D; Brugger, M; Caamano, M; Calviani, M; Calvino, F; Cano-Ott, D; Cardella, R; Casanovas, A; Castelluccio, D M; Cerutti, F; Chen, Y H; Chiaveri, E; Cortes, G; Cortes-Giraldo, M A; Diakaki, M; Domingo-Pardo, C; Dupont, E; Duran, I; Fernandez-Dominguez, B; Ferrari, A; Ferreira, P; Furman, W; Ganesan, S; Garcia-Rios, A; Gawlik, A; Gheorghe, I; Glodariu, T; Goebel, K; Goncalves, I F; Gonzalez-Romero, E; Griesmayer, E; Guerrero, C; Gunsing, F; Harada, H; Heftrich, T; Heyse, J; Jenkins, D G; Jericha, E; Kaeppeler, F; Katabuchi, T; Kavrigin, P; Kimura, A; Kokkoris, M; Krticka, M; Leal-Chidonca, E; Lerendegui, J; Lederer, C; Leeb, H; Meo, S Lo; Lonsdale, S; Losito, R; Macina, D; Marganiec, J; Martinez, T; Massimi, C; Mastinu, P; Mastromarco, M; Matteucci, F; Mazzone, A; Mendoza, E; Mengoni, A; Milazzo, P M; Mingrone, F; Mirea, M; Montesano, S; Nolte, R; Oprea, A; Patronis, N; Pavlik, A; Perkowski, J; Praena, J; Quesada, J; Rajeev, K; Rauscher, T; Reifarth, R; Riego-Perez, A; Rout, P; Rubbia, C; Ryan, J; Sabate-Gilarte, M; Saxena, A; Schillebeeckx, P; Schmidt, S; Sedyshev, P; Stamatopoulos, A; Tagliente, G; Tain, J L; Tarifeno-Saldivia, A; Tassan-Got, L; Tsinganis, A; Valenta, S; Vannini, G; Variale, V; Vaz, P; Ventura, A; Vlachoudis, V; Vlastou, R; Vollaire, J; Wallner, A; Warren, S; Weigand, M; Weiß, C; Wolf, C; Woods, P J; Wright, T; Zugec, P

    2016-01-01

    The newly built second experimental area EAR2 of the n_TOF spallation neutron source at CERN allows to perform (n, charged particles) experiments on short-lived highly radioactive targets. This paper describes a detection apparatus and the experimental procedure for the determination of the cross-section of the 7Be(n,{\\alpha}) reaction, which represents one of the focal points toward the solution of the cosmological Lithium abundance problem, and whose only measurement, at thermal energy, dates back to 1963. The apparently unsurmountable experimental difficulties stemming from the huge 7Be {\\gamma}-activity, along with the lack of a suitable neutron beam facility, had so far prevented further measurements. The detection system is subject to considerable radiation damage, but is capable of disentangling the rare reaction signals from the very high background. This newly developed setup could likely be useful also to study other challenging reactions requiring the detectors to be installed directly in the neutr...

  3. The C-14(alpha, gamma)O-18 reaction at astrophysical energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The C-14(alpha, gamma)O-18 reaction rate is estimated for temperatures important for He flashes in white dwarfs and for nonhomogeneous big-bang nucleosynthesis. If available, the resonant contributions to the rate are derived using recent experimental data. The direct capture rate is evaluated on the basis of a microscopic multichannel calculation of the C-14(alpha, gamma)O-18 reaction. Possible interference contributions are discussed. The present rate is compared to previous estimates of Hashimoto et al. (1986) and of Buchmann et al. (1988). 23 refs

  4. The C-14(alpha, gamma)O-18 reaction at astrophysical energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funck, C.; Langanke, K. (Muenster Universitaet (Germany, F.R.))

    1989-09-01

    The C-14(alpha, gamma)O-18 reaction rate is estimated for temperatures important for He flashes in white dwarfs and for nonhomogeneous big-bang nucleosynthesis. If available, the resonant contributions to the rate are derived using recent experimental data. The direct capture rate is evaluated on the basis of a microscopic multichannel calculation of the C-14(alpha, gamma)O-18 reaction. Possible interference contributions are discussed. The present rate is compared to previous estimates of Hashimoto et al. (1986) and of Buchmann et al. (1988). 23 refs.

  5. Induced isospin mixing in direct nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of charge-dependent interactions on nuclear reactions is investigated. First, a survey is given on the most important results concerning the charge dependence of the nucleon-nucleon interaction. The isospin symmetry and invariance principles are discussed. Violations of the isospin symmetry occuring in direct nuclear reactions are analysed using the soupled channel theory, the folding model and microscopic descriptions. Finally, induced isospin mixing in isospin-forbidden direct reactions is considered using the example of the inelastic scattering of deuterons on 12C. (KBE)

  6. The {alpha}-induced thick-target {gamma}-ray yield from light elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heaton, R.K. [Queen`s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Physics]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-10-01

    The {alpha}-induced thick-target {gamma}-ray yield from light elements has been measured in the energy range 5.6 MeV {le} E{sub {alpha}} {le} 10 MeV. The {gamma}-ray yield for > 2.1 MeV from thick targets of beryllium, boron nitride, sodium fluoride, magnesium, aluminum and silicon were measured using the {alpha}-particle beam from the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories 88 in. cyclotron. The elemental yields from this experiment were used to construct the {alpha}-induced direct production {gamma}-ray spectrum from materials in the SNO detector, a large volume ultra-low background neutrino detector located in the Creighton mine near Sudbury, Canada. This background source was an order of magnitude lower than predicted by previous calculations. These measurements are in good agreement with theoretical calculations of this spectrum based on a statistical nuclear model of the reaction, with the gross high energy spectrum structure being reproduced to within a factor of two. Detailed comparison of experimental and theoretical excitation population distribution of several residual nuclei indicate the same level of agreement within experimental uncertainties.

  7. Inelastic Branch of the Stellar Reaction $^{14}$O$(\\alpha,p)^{17}$F

    CERN Multimedia

    Hass, M; Van duppen, P L E

    2002-01-01

    We propose to use the upgraded REX-ISOLDE beam energy to study the astrophysically important $^{14}$O($\\alpha$, p)$^{17}$F reaction in time reverse kinematics. In particular, we will use the highly efficient miniball + CD detection system to measure the previously undetermined inelastic proton branch of the 1$^-$ state at 6.15 MeV in $^{18}$Ne. This state dominates the reaction rate under X-ray burster conditions.

  8. Investigating the alpha-clustering on the surface of $^{120}$Sn via ($p$,$p\\alpha$) reaction and the validity of the factorization approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshida, Kazuki; Ogata, Kazuyuki

    2016-01-01

    The $^{120}$Sn($p$,$p\\alpha$)$^{116}$Cd reaction at 392 MeV is investigated with the distorted wave impulse approximation (DWIA) framework. We show that this reaction is very peripheral mainly because of the strong absorption of $\\alpha$ by the reaction residue $^{116}$Cd, and the $\\alpha$-clustering on the nuclear surface can be probed clearly. We investigate also the validity of the so-called factorization approximation that has frequently been used so far. It is shown that the kinematics of $\\alpha$ in the nuclear interior region is significantly affected by the distortion of $^{116}$Cd, but it has no effect on the reaction observables because of the strong absorption in that region.

  9. Kiss-induced severe anaphylactic reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atanasković-Marković Marina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Ingestion is the principal route for food allergens to trigger allergic reaction in atopic persons. However, in some highly sensitive patients severe symptoms may develop upon skin contact and by inhalation. The clinical spectrum ranges from mild facial urticaria and angioedema to life-threatening anaphylactic reactions. Outline of Cases. We describe cases of severe anaphylactic reactions by skin contact, induced by kissing in five children with prior history of severe anaphylaxis caused by food ingestion. These cases were found to have the medical history of IgE mediated food allergy, a very high total and specific serum IgE level and very strong family history of allergy. Conclusion. The presence of tiny particles of food on the kisser's lips was sufficient to trigger an anaphylactic reaction in sensitized children with prior history of severe allergic reaction caused by ingestion of food. Allergic reaction provoked with food allergens by skin contact can be a risk factor for generalized reactions. Therefore, extreme care has to be taken in avoiding kissing allergic children after eating foods to which they are highly allergic. Considering that kissing can be a cause of severe danger for the food allergic patient, such persons should inform their partners about the risk factor for causing their food hypersensitivity.

  10. Cobalt inhibits the interaction between hypoxia-inducible factor-alpha and von Hippel-Lindau protein by direct binding to hypoxia-inducible factor-alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yong; Hilliard, George; Ferguson, Tsuneo; Millhorn, David E

    2003-05-01

    The hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) activates the expression of genes that contain a hypoxia response element. The alpha-subunits of the HIF transcription factors are degraded by proteasomal pathways during normoxia but are stabilized under hypoxic conditions. The von Hippel-Lindau protein (pVHL) mediates the ubiquitination and rapid degradation of HIF-alpha (including HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha). Post-translational hydroxylation of a proline residue in the oxygen-dependent degradation (ODD) domain of HIF-alpha is required for the interaction between HIF and VHL. It has previously been established that cobalt mimics hypoxia and causes accumulation of HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha. However, little is known about the mechanism by which this occurs. In an earlier study, we demonstrated that cobalt binds directly to the ODD domain of HIF-2alpha. Here we provide the first evidence that cobalt inhibits pVHL binding to HIF-alpha even when HIF-alpha is hydroxylated. Deletion of 17 amino acids within the ODD domain of HIF-2alpha that are required for pVHL binding prevented the binding of cobalt and stabilized HIF-2alpha during normoxia. These findings show that cobalt mimics hypoxia, at least in part, by occupying the VHL-binding domain of HIF-alpha and thereby preventing the degradation of HIF-alpha. PMID:12606543

  11. Variation of fundamental constants and the triple-alpha reaction in Population III stars and BBN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of variations of the fundamental constants on the thermonuclear rate of the triple alpha reaction, 4He(αα, γ)12C, that bridges the gap between 4He and 12C is investigated. We have followed the evolution of 15 and 60 Msun zero metallicity stellar models, up to the end of core helium burning. The calculated oxygen and carbon abundances resulting from helium burning can then be used to constrain the variation of the fundamental constants. To investigate the effect of an enhanced triple alpha reaction rate in Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis, we first evaluated Standard Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis CNO production with a network of more than 400 reactions using the TALYS code to calculate missing rates.

  12. Measurement of (alpha,n) reaction cross sections of erbium isotopes for testing astrophysical rate predictions

    CERN Document Server

    Kiss, G G; Rauscher, T; Török, Zs; Csedreki, L; Fülöp, Zs; Gyürky, Gy; Halász, Z

    2015-01-01

    The $\\gamma$-process in core-collapse and/or type Ia supernova explosions is thought to explain the origin of the majority of the so-called $p$ nuclei (the 35 proton-rich isotopes between Se and Hg). Reaction rates for $\\gamma$-process reaction network studies have to be predicted using Hauser-Feshbach statistical model calculations. Recent investigations have shown problems in the prediction of $\\alpha$-widths at astrophysical energies which are an essential input for the statistical model. It has an impact on the reliability of abundance predictions in the upper mass range of the $p$ nuclei. With the measurement of the $^{164,166}$Er($\\alpha$,n)$^{167,169}$Yb reaction cross sections at energies close to the astrophysically relevant energy range we tested the recently suggested low energy modification of the $\\alpha$+nucleus optical potential in a mass region where $\\gamma$-process calculations exhibit an underproduction of the $p$ nuclei. Using the same optical potential for the $\\alpha$-width which was der...

  13. Dose-response effects of estrogenic mycotoxins (zearalenone, alpha- and beta-zearalenol on motility, hyperactivation and the acrosome reaction of stallion sperm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colenbrander Ben

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro effects of the Fusarium fungus-derived mycotoxin, zearalenone and its derivatives alpha-zearalenol and beta-zearalenol on motility parameters and the acrosome reaction of stallion sperm. Since the toxic effects of zearalenone and its derivatives are thought to result from their structural similarity to 17beta-estradiol, 17beta-estradiol was used as a positive control for 'estrogen-like' effects. Methods Stallion spermatozoa were exposed in vitro to zearalenone, alpha-zearalenol, beta-zearalenol or 17beta-estradiol at concentrations ranging from 1 pM - 0.1 mM. After 2 hours exposure, motility parameters were evaluated by computer-assisted analysis, and acrosome integrity was examined by flow cytometry after staining with fluoroscein-conjugated peanut agglutinin. Results Mycotoxins affected sperm parameters only at the highest concentration tested (0.1 mM after 2 hours exposure. In this respect, all of the compounds reduced the average path velocity, but only alpha-zearalenol reduced percentages of motile and progressively motile sperm. Induction of motility patterns consistent with hyperactivation was stimulated according to the following rank of potency: alpha-zearalenol >17beta-estradiol > zearalenone = beta-zearalenol. The hyperactivity-associated changes observed included reductions in straight-line velocity and linearity of movement, and an increase in the amplitude of lateral head displacement, while curvilinear velocity was unchanged. In addition, whereas alpha- and beta- zearalenol increased the percentages of live acrosome-reacted sperm, zearalenone and 17beta-estradiol had no apparent effect on acrosome status. In short, alpha-zearalenol inhibited normal sperm motility, but stimulated hyperactive motility in the remaining motile cells and simultaneously induced the acrosome reaction. Beta-zearalenol induced the acrosome reaction without altering motility

  14. The $^{15}$N($\\bm\\alpha$,$\\bm\\gamma$)$^{19}$F reaction and nucleosynthesis of $^{19}$F

    OpenAIRE

    Wilmes, S.; Wilmes, V.; Staudt, G.; Mohr, P; Hammer, J. W.

    2002-01-01

    Several resonances in the $^{15}$N($\\alpha$,$\\gamma$)$^{19}$F reaction have been investigated in the energy range between 0.6 MeV and 2.7 MeV. Resonance strengths and branching ratios have been determined. High sensitivity could be obtained by the combination of the {\\sc{dynamitron}} high current accelerator, the windowless gas target system {\\sc{rhinoceros}}, and actively shielded germanium detectors. Two levels of $^{19}$F could be observed for the first time in the ($\\alpha$,$\\gamma$) chan...

  15. Lepton-Induced Reactions on Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Gallmeister, K; Weil, J

    2016-01-01

    Background: Long-Baseline experiments such as the planned Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) require theoretical descriptions of the complete event in a neutrino-nucleus reaction. Since nuclear targets are used this requires a good understanding of neutrino-nucleus interactions. Purpose: Develop a consistent theory and code framework for the description of lepton-nucleus interactions that can be used to describe not only inclusive cross sections, but also the complete final state of the reaction. Methods: The Giessen-Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (GiBUU) implementation of quantum-kinetic transport theory is used, with improvements in its treatment of the nuclear ground state and of 2p2h interactions. For the latter an empirical structure function from electron scattering data is used as a basis. Results: Results for electron-induced inclusive cross sections are given as a necessary check for the overall quality of this approach. The calculated neutrino-induced inclusive double-differential cross sectio...

  16. Spin distribution in neutron induced preequilibrium reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dashdorj, D; Kawano, T; Chadwick, M; Devlin, M; Fotiades, N; Nelson, R O; Mitchell, G E; Garrett, P E; Agvaanluvsan, U; Becker, J A; Bernstein, L A; Macri, R; Younes, W

    2005-10-04

    The preequilibrium reaction mechanism makes an important contribution to neutron-induced reactions above E{sub n} {approx} 10 MeV. The preequilibrium process has been studied exclusively via the characteristic high energy neutrons produced at bombarding energies greater than 10 MeV. They are expanding the study of the preequilibrium reaction mechanism through {gamma}-ray spectroscopy. Cross-section measurements were made of prompt {gamma}-ray production as a function of incident neutron energy (E{sub n} = 1 to 250 MeV) on a {sup 48}Ti sample. Energetic neutrons were delivered by the Los Alamos National Laboratory spallation neutron source located at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center facility. The prompt-reaction {gamma} rays were detected with the large-scale Compton-suppressed Germanium Array for Neutron Induced Excitations (GEANIE). Neutron energies were determined by the time-of-flight technique. The {gamma}-ray excitation functions were converted to partial {gamma}-ray cross sections taking into account the dead-time correction, target thickness, detector efficiency and neutron flux (monitored with an in-line fission chamber). Residual state population was predicted using the GNASH reaction code, enhanced for preequilibrium. The preequilibrium reaction spin distribution was calculated using the quantum mechanical theory of Feshback, Kerman, and Koonin (FKK). The multistep direct part of the FKK theory was calculated for a one-step process. The FKK preequilibrium spin distribution was incorporated into the GNASH calculations and the {gamma}-ray production cross sections were calculated and compared with experimental data. The difference in the partial {gamma}-ray cross sections using spin distributions with and without preequilibrium effects is significant.

  17. Stellar reaction rates of alpha capture on light (N not equal to Z) nuclei and their astrophysical implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A theoretical analysis of direct and resonant capture of alpha-particles in specific states for Be-7(alpha, gamma)C-11, Li-7(alpha, gamma)B-11, C-14(alpha, gamma)O-18, O-15(alpha, gamma)Ne-19, and O-18(alpha, gamma)Ne-22 is presented, with application to the study of nucleosynthesis in the early universe and light element production in supermassive objects. It is demonstrated that the rates of some of these reactions could increase significantly depending upon certain spectroscopic factors. The direct capture process is shown to be of importance for alpha-fusion processes in steller environments when reactions involving compound nuclei with low-level densities occur at relatively low stellar temperatures. 31 references

  18. Reaction cross-section predictions for nucleon induced reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Nobre, G P A; Escher, J E; Dietrich, F S

    2010-01-01

    A microscopic calculation of the optical potential for nucleon-nucleus scattering has been performed by explicitly coupling the elastic channel to all the particle-hole (p-h) excitation states in the target and to all relevant pickup channels. These p-h states may be regarded as doorway states through which the flux flows to more complicated configurations, and to long-lived compound nucleus resonances. We calculated the reaction cross sections for the nucleon induced reactions on the targets $^{40,48}$Ca, $^{58}$Ni, $^{90}$Zr and $^{144}$Sm using the QRPA description of target excitations, coupling to all inelastic open channels, and coupling to all transfer channels corresponding to the formation of a deuteron. The results of such calculations were compared to predictions of a well-established optical potential and with experimental data, reaching very good agreement. The inclusion of couplings to pickup channels were an important contribution to the absorption. For the first time, calculations of excitatio...

  19. Mechanisms of the p(He 6,He 5)d, p(He 6,{alpha})t and p(He 6,t){alpha} reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiberg-Andersen, Henning

    2002-07-01

    This work was devoted to nucleon induced transfer reactions having the potential to probe the sub-cluster structures of the benchmark halo nucleus He 6, without the question marks the necessarily omitted exchange effects tend to put behind the CRC results when both collision partners are composite systems. Still, the exchange complications entered the analysis in an ironic way: The high Q-value of the p(He 6,{alpha})t and p(He 6, t){alpha} reactions caused sensitivity to the t - {alpha} optical potential at small radii, where the one-nucleon exchange effects are strongest. Since the attempt to throw them out of the extracted tau - {alpha} potential failed, it was necessary to extend the model space to avoid a too difficult modelling of the local equivalent t - {alpha} potential. By this step, all the complications originating from antisymmetrization within a larger model space entered the analysis. However, the persistent failures of the two-channel calculations of this and previous works can hardly be due to incorrect treatment of exchange effects only, so the loss of simplicity is probably illusory. Even at small angles, where the surface processes dominate, none of the two-channel calculations with various choices of t - {alpha} optical potentials managed to reproduce the p(He 6, {alpha})t (p(He 6,t){alpha}) data. This motivated inclusion of sequential transfers through the d + He 5 channel, where the sequential triton transfer process, included just for consistency in the coupling scheme of the four-channel calculation, turned out to be more influent than expected. The satisfactory reproduction of both the p(He 6, He 5)d and the p(He 6,{alpha})t (p(He 6,t){alpha}) data by the four-channel approach and the required re-normalization the real part of the p - He 6 optical potential are strong indications of substantial contributions from sequential transfer of the halo neutrons at this energy. The conclusions that can be drawn from this work are limited by the

  20. First application of the Trojan Horse Method with a Radioactive Ion Beam: study of the $^{18}$F($p,{\\alpha}$)$^{15}$O}} reaction at astrophysical energies

    CERN Document Server

    Cherubini, S; Spitaleri, C; Rapisarda, G G; La Cognata, M; Lamia, L; Pizzone, R G; Romano, S; Kubono, S; Yamaguchi, H; Hayakawa, S; Wakabayashi, Y; Iwasa, N; Kato, S; Komatsubara, T; Teranishi, T; Coc, A; de Séréville, N; Hammache, F; Kiss, G; Bishop, S; Binh, D N

    2015-01-01

    Measurement of nuclear cross sections at astrophysical energies involving unstable species is one of the most challenging tasks in experimental nuclear physics. The use of indirect methods is often unavoidable in this scenario. In this paper the Trojan Horse Method is applied for the first time to a radioactive ion beam induced reaction studying the $^{18}$F($p,{\\alpha}$)$^{15}$O process at low energies relevant to astrophysics via the three body reaction $^{2}$H($^{18}$F,${\\alpha}^{15}$O)n. The knowledge of the $^{18}$F($p, {\\alpha}$)$^{15}$O reaction rate is crucial to understand the nova explosion phenomena. The cross section of this reaction is characterized by the presence of several resonances in $^{19}$Ne and possibly interference effects among them. The results reported in Literature are not satisfactory and new investigations of the $^{18}$F($p,{\\alpha}$)$^{15}$O reaction cross section will be useful. In the present work the spin-parity assignments of relevant levels have been discussed and the astro...

  1. Alpha cluster states in light nuclei populated through the (6Li,d) reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The alpha cluster correlation is an important concept in the nuclear physics of light nuclei. The main purpose of the research program in progress is the investigation of the alpha clustering phenomenon in (xα) and(xα+ν) nuclei through the (6Li,d) alpha transfer reaction. In fact, there is scarce experimental information on the subject, in particular associated with resonant states predicted near (xα) and (xα+ν) thresholds. Measurements of the 12,13C(6Li,d) 16,17O reactions, at an incident energy of 25.5 MeV, have been performed employing the Sao Paulo Pelletron-Enge Split-Pole facility and the nuclear emulsion detection technique. The work is under way and an experimental energy resolution of 30 keV was obtained. Near the (4α) breakup threshold in 16O, three narrow alpha resonances, not previously measured, were detected, revealing important α + 12C(G.S.) components. One of these resonances corresponds to the known 0+ state at 15.1 MeV[5] of excitation that has probably, according to Funaki et al., the gas like configuration of the 4α condensate state, with a very dilute density and a large component of α + 12C(Hoyle) configuration. As was already mentioned, our experimental information points to the necessity of including the α + 12C(G.S.) component in the wave function. (author)

  2. Alpha Resonances in 13C Excited by the 9Be (6Li,d) Reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 9Be(6Li,d)13C reaction was used to investigate alpha resonant states in 13C up to 13 MeV of excitation. The reaction was measured at a bombarding energy of 25.5 MeV employing the Sao Paulo Pelletron-Enge-Spectrograph facility and the nuclear emulsion detection technique. The resolution of 50 keV allowed for the separation of the resonant contributions to the known 7/2- at 10.753 MeV and (5/2-) at 10.818 MeV 13C states. The alpha resonance seen at the (3α+n) threshold was not previously reported. The experimental angular distributions are presented in comparison with DWBA predictions.

  3. Alpha particle induced reactions on natCr up to 39 MeV: Experimental cross-sections, comparison with theoretical calculations and thick target yields for medically relevant 52gFe production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thin natCr targets were obtained by electroplating, using 23.75 μm Cu foils as backings. In five stacked foil irradiations, followed by high resolution gamma spectroscopy, the cross sections for production of 52gFe, 49,51cumCr, 52cum,54,56cumMn and 48cumV in Cr and 61Cu,68Ga in Cu were measured up to 39 MeV incident α-particle energy. Reduced uncertainty is obtained by simultaneous remeasurement of the natCu(α,x)67,66Ga monitor reactions over the whole energy range. Comparisons with the scarce literature values and results from the TENDL-2013 on-line library, based on the theoretical code family TALYS-1.6, were made. A discussion of the production routes for 52gFe with achievable yields and contamination rates was made

  4. Investigation of the α-particle induced nuclear reactions on natural molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Excitation function measurement of α-particle induced reactions on natural molybdenum up to 40 MeV. ► Model code calculations with EMPIRE-II, EMPIRE3.1, ALICE and TALYS. ► Integral production yield calculation. ► Comparison with deuteron and proton production. ► Monitor reactions for α-irradiations. - Abstract: Cross-sections of alpha particle induced nuclear reactions on natural molybdenum have been studied in the frame of a systematic investigation of charged particle induced nuclear reactions on metals for different applications. The excitation functions of 93mTc, 93gTc(m+), 94mTc, 94gTc, 95mTc, 95gTc, 96gTc(m+), 99mTc, 93mMo, 99Mo(cum), 90Nb(m+), 94Ru, 95Ru,97Ru, 103Ru and 88Zr were measured up to 40 MeV alpha energy by using a stacked foil technique and activation method. The main goals of this work were to get experimental data for accelerator technology, for monitoring of alpha beam, for thin layer activation technique and for testing nuclear reaction theories. The experimental data were compared with critically analyzed published data and with the results of model calculations, obtained by using the ALICE-IPPE, EMPIRE and TALYS codes (TENDL-2011).

  5. Alpha particle induced reactions on {sup nat}Cr up to 39 MeV: Experimental cross-sections, comparison with theoretical calculations and thick target yields for medically relevant {sup 52g}Fe production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermanne, A.; Adam Rebeles, R. [Cyclotron Laboratory, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussel 1090 (Belgium); Tárkányi, F.; Takács, S. [Institute of Nuclear Research, Hungarian Academy of Science, 4026 Debrecen (Hungary)

    2015-08-01

    Thin {sup nat}Cr targets were obtained by electroplating, using 23.75 μm Cu foils as backings. In five stacked foil irradiations, followed by high resolution gamma spectroscopy, the cross sections for production of {sup 52g}Fe, {sup 49,51cum}Cr, {sup 52cum,54,56cum}Mn and {sup 48cum}V in Cr and {sup 61}Cu,{sup 68}Ga in Cu were measured up to 39 MeV incident α-particle energy. Reduced uncertainty is obtained by simultaneous remeasurement of the {sup nat}Cu(α,x){sup 67,66}Ga monitor reactions over the whole energy range. Comparisons with the scarce literature values and results from the TENDL-2013 on-line library, based on the theoretical code family TALYS-1.6, were made. A discussion of the production routes for {sup 52g}Fe with achievable yields and contamination rates was made.

  6. Competing reaction channels in IR-laser-induced unimolecular reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman, M.R.

    1981-01-01

    The competing reaction channels in the unimolecular decomposition of two molecules, formaldehyde and tetralin were studied. A TEA CO/sub 2/ laser was used as the excitation source in all experiments. The dissociation of D/sub 2/CO was studied by infrared multiphoton dissociation (MPD) and the small-molecule nature of formaldehyde with regard to MPD was explored. The effect of collisions in MPD were probed by the pressure dependence of the MPD yield and ir fluorescence from multiphoton excited D/sub 2/CO. MPD yield shows a near cubic dependence in pure D/sub 2/CO which is reduced to a 1.7 power dependence when 15 torr of NO is added. The peak amplitude of 5 ..mu..m ir fluorescence from D/sub 2/CO is proportional to the square of the D/sub 2/CO pressure in pure D/sub 2/CO or in the presence of 50 torr of Ar. Results are explained in terms of bottlenecks to excitation at the v = 1 level which are overcome by a combination of vibrational energy transfer and rotational relaxation. The radical/molecule branching ratio in D/sub 2/CO MPD was 0.10 +- 0.02 at a fluence of 125 J/cm/sup 2/ at 946.0 cm/sup -1/. The barrier height to molecular dissociation was calculated to be 3.6 +- 2.0 kcal/mole below the radical threshold or 85.0 +- 3.0 kcal/mole above the ground state of D/sub 2/CO. In H/sub 2/CO, this corresponds to 2.5 +- 2.0 kcal/mole below the radical threshold or 83.8 +- 3.0 kcal/mole above the ground state. Comparison with uv data indicate that RRKM theory is an acceptable description of formaldehyde dissociation in the 5 to 10 torr pressure range. The unimolecular decomposition of tetralin was studied by MPD and SiF/sub 4/ - sensitized pyrolysis. Both techniques induce decomposition without the interference of catalytic surfaces. Ethylene loss is identified as the lowest energy reaction channel. Dehydrogenation is found to result from step-wise H atom loss. Isomerization via disproportionation is also identified as a primary reaction channel.

  7. Competing reaction channels in IR-laser-induced unimolecular reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The competing reaction channels in the unimolecular decomposition of two molecules, formaldehyde and tetralin were studied. A TEA CO2 laser was used as the excitation source in all experiments. The dissociation of D2CO was studied by infrared multiphoton dissociation (MPD) and the small-molecule nature of formaldehyde with regard to MPD was explored. The effect of collisions in MPD were probed by the pressure dependence of the MPD yield and ir fluorescence from multiphoton excited D2CO. MPD yield shows a near cubic dependence in pure D2CO which is reduced to a 1.7 power dependence when 15 torr of NO is added. The peak amplitude of 5 μm ir fluorescence from D2CO is proportional to the square of the D2CO pressure in pure D2CO or in the presence of 50 torr of Ar. Results are explained in terms of bottlenecks to excitation at the v = 1 level which are overcome by a combination of vibrational energy transfer and rotational relaxation. The radical/molecule branching ratio in D2CO MPD was 0.10 +- 0.02 at a fluence of 125 J/cm2 at 946.0 cm-1. The barrier height to molecular dissociation was calculated to be 3.6 +- 2.0 kcal/mole below the radical threshold or 85.0 +- 3.0 kcal/mole above the ground state of D2CO. In H2CO, this corresponds to 2.5 +- 2.0 kcal/mole below the radical threshold or 83.8 +- 3.0 kcal/mole above the ground state. Comparison with uv data indicate that RRKM theory is an acceptable description of formaldehyde dissociation in the 5 to 10 torr pressure range. The unimolecular decomposition of tetralin was studied by MPD and SiF4 - sensitized pyrolysis. Both techniques induce decomposition without the interference of catalytic surfaces. Ethylene loss is identified as the lowest energy reaction channel. Dehydrogenation is found to result from step-wise H atom loss. Isomerization via disproportionation is also identified as a primary reaction channel

  8. Determination by transfer reaction of alpha widths in fluorine for astrophysical interest; Determination par reaction de transfert de largeurs alpha dans le fluor 19. Applications a l'astrophysique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira Santos, F. de

    1995-04-15

    The nucleosynthesis of fluorine is not known. Several astrophysical models predict the alpha radiative capture onto N{sup 15} as the main fluorine production reaction. In the expression of the reaction rate, one parameter is missing: the alpha width of the resonance on the E = 4.377 MeV level in fluorine. A direct measurement is excluded due to the very low cross-section expected. We have determined this alpha width using a transfer reaction followed by analyses with FR-DWBA (Finite Range Distorted Wave Born Approximation) in a simple cluster alpha model. This experiment was carried out with a Li{sup 7} beam with E = 28 MeV onto a N{sup 15} gas target. The 16 first levels were studied. Spectroscopic factors were extracted for most of them. Alpha widths for unbound levels were determined. Many alpha width were compared with known values from direct reaction and the differences lie within the uncertainty range (factor 2). The alpha width for the E = 4.377 MeV level was determined ({gamma}{sub {alpha}} = 1.5*10{sup -15} MeV), its value is about 60 times weaker than the used value. The influence of our new rate was studied in AGB (Asymptotic Giant Branch) stars during thermal pulses. In this model the alteration is sensitive. (author)

  9. Experimental investigation of the reactions {sup 25}Mg({alpha},n){sup 28}Si, {sup 26}Mg({alpha},n){sup 29}Si, {sup 18}O({alpha},n){sup 21}Ne and their impact on stellar nucleosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falahat, Sascha

    2010-06-10

    In the present dissertation, the nuclear reactions {sup 25}Mg({alpha},n){sup 28}Si, {sup 26}Mg({alpha},n){sup 29}Si, {sup 18}O({alpha},n){sup 21}Ne are investigated in the astrophysically interesting energy region from E{sub {alpha}}=1000 keV to E{sub {alpha}}=2450 keV. The experiments were performed at the Nuclear Structure Laboratory of the University of Notre Dame (USA) with the Van-de-Graaff accelerator KN. Solid state targets with evaporated magnesium or anodized oxygen were bombarded with {alpha}-particles and the released neutrons detected. For the detection of the released neutrons, computational simulations were used to construct a neutron detector based on {sup 3}He counters. Because of the strong occurrence of background reactions, different methods of data analysis were employed. Finally, the impact of the reactions {sup 25}Mg({alpha},n){sup 28}Si, {sup 26}Mg({alpha},n){sup 29}Si, {sup 18}O({alpha},n){sup 21}Ne on stellar nucleosynthesis is investigated by means of network calculations. (orig.)

  10. Interferon-alpha-induced deficits in novel object recognition are rescued by chronic exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Fahey, B.; Barlow, S; Day, J S; O Mara, S. M.

    2008-01-01

    The anti-viral drug interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) is widely-known to induce psychiatric and cognitive effects in patients. Previous work has shown that physical exercise can have a positive effect against brain insult. We investigated the effects of a clinically-comparable treatment regime of IFN-alpha on cognitive function in male Wistar rats and assessed the impact of chronic treadmill running on the deficits generated by IFN-alpha. We found that IFN-alpha induced significant impairments in ...

  11. Light-particle emission in reactions induced with carbon and oxygen ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary results are presented from three different experiments in which light particles emitted during the course of heavy-ion-induced reactions have been studied. The common primary motivation for undertaking these studies was to determine the nature and extent of nonequilibrium particle emission. The three experiments involved measurements of energies, angular correlations, and multiplicities of neutrons or alpha particles emitted in coincidence with deeply inelastic products or with evaporation residues produced as follows: neutrons from reactions of 16O with 93Nb at 12.9 MeV/u; alphas produced in the same system; and neutrons produced in 12C reactions with 158Gd and in 13C reactions with 157Gd at about 12.4 MeV/u. 3 figures

  12. Transforming growth factor alpha dramatically enhances oncogene-induced carcinogenesis in transgenic mouse pancreas and liver.

    OpenAIRE

    Sandgren, E P; Luetteke, N C; Qiu, T H; Palmiter, R D; Brinster, R L; Lee, D C

    1993-01-01

    To characterize the effect(s) of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF alpha) during multistage carcinogenesis, we examined tumor development in pancreas and liver of transgenic mice that coexpressed TGF alpha with either viral (simian virus 40 T antigens [TAg]) or cellular (c-myc) oncogenes. In pancreas, TGF alpha itself was not oncogenic, but it nevertheless dramatically accelerated growth of tumors induced by either oncogene alone, thereby reducing the host life span up to 60%. Coexpressio...

  13. Radiation induced structural changes in alpha-copper-zinc alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During irradiation of alpha-copper-zinc alloys with high energy electrons and protons a decrease of the electrical resistivity due to an increase of the degree of short range order is observed through radiation enhanced diffusion followed by an increase of the electrical resistivity through the formation of radiation induced interstitial clusters. The initial formation rate of interstitial clusters increases about linearly with the displacement rate for electron and proton irradiation. The largest initial formation rate is found between 60 and 1300C becoming negligibly small above 1580C and decreases drastically below 600C. The dynamic steady state interstitial cluster concentration increases with decreasing irradiation temperature in the investigated temperature range between 158 and 400C. Above 1580C the formation rate of interstitial clusters is negligibly small. Thus the transition temperature for radiation induced interstitial cluster formation is 1580C, depending mainly on the migration activation energy of vacancies. The radiation induced interstitial clusters are precipitates in those alloys in which the diffusion rate of the undersized component atoms via an interstitialcy diffusion mechanism is larger than that of the other atoms

  14. Space distributions and decay probability for excited state of 7Li*(7,45 MeV) in reaction 7Li(alpha, alpha6Li)n

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Differential cross-sections of excitation and decay of 7Li*(7,45 MeV) resonance into 6Li + n channel in three particle reaction 7Li(alpha, alpha6Li)n at alpha-particle energy of 27,2 MeV have been determined in kinematically complete and incomplete experiments. Usage of position sensitive detector made it possible to obtain the data on space distributions of decay events for full range of possible angles and to determine the total probability of this process, which value essentially differs from the data for binary reactions. This result is agreed with previously obtained [1] and confirms the theoretical calculations [2] of decay branching ratio for short lived near-threshold resonances in three particle reactions

  15. The reaction 13C(alpha,n)16O: a background for the observation of geo-neutrinos

    OpenAIRE

    Harissopulos, S.; Becker, H. W.; Hammer, J. W.; Lagoyannis, A.; Rolfs, C.; Strieder, F

    2005-01-01

    The absolute cross section of the $^{13}$C($\\alpha$,n)$^{16}$O reaction has been measured at E$_{\\alpha}$ = 0.8 to 8.0 MeV with an overall accuracy of 4%. The precision is needed to subtract reliably a background in the observation of geo-neutrinos, e.g. in the KamLAND detector.

  16. Heavy-ion-induced fission reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fission-cross-section excitation functions were measured from near threshold to approx. 10 MeV/nucleon using heavy-ion beams from the Brookhaven National Laboratory three-stage Tandem Accelerator Facility. The systems studied included 210Po formed in 12C and 18O induced reactions, 186Os formed in 9Be, 12C, 16O, and 26Mg reactions, 158Er formed in 16O, 24Mg, 32S, and 64Ni reactions. In addition the composite systems 204206, 208Po formed with 16O and 18O projectiles were studied. The measured fission excitation functions along with previous data from 4He and 11B bombardments for the 186Os and 210Po systems and recent data on the 200Pb system are compared to predictions from a statistical model using recent fission-barrier calculations from A. Sierk. Comparisons of calculated and measured fission excitation functions show good overall agreement between data and calculations and between calculations with two different level-density functions. It is concluded that the barriers from Sierk give a good description of both the mass and angular momentum dependence of fission barriers in this region

  17. Resonance analysis of the {sup 12}C,{sup 13}C({alpha},n) reactions and evaluation of neutron yield data of the reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, Toru [AITEL Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    The {sup 12}C({alpha},n){sup 15}O reaction and the {sup 13}C({alpha},n){sup 16}O reaction were analyzed with a resonance formula in the incident {alpha}-particle energy range of 1.0 to 16.0 MeV. With the obtained resonance parameters, branching ratios of the emitted neutrons to the several levels of the residual nucleus and their angular distributions were calculated to obtain the energy spectrum of emitted neutrons. Thick target neutron yield of carbon were also calculated and compared with the experimental data. (author)

  18. RAYLEIGH-TAYLOR STRENGTH EXPERIMENTS OF THE PRESSURE-INDUCED alpha->epsilon->alpha' PHASE TRANSITION IN IRON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belof, J L; Cavallo, R M; Olson, R T; King, R S; Gray, G T; Holtkamp, D B; Chen, S R; Rudd, R E; Barton, N R; Arsenlis, A; Remington, B A; Park, H; Prisbrey, S T; Vitello, P A; Bazan, G; Mikaelian, K O; Comley, A J; Maddox, B R; May, M J

    2011-08-10

    We present here the first dynamic Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) strength measurement of a material undergoing solid-solid phase transition. Iron is quasi-isentropically driven across the pressure-induced bcc ({alpha}-Fe) {yields} hcp ({var_epsilon}-Fe) phase transition and the dynamic strength of the {alpha}, {var_epsilon} and reverted {alpha}{prime} phases have been determined via proton radiography of the resulting Rayleigh-Taylor unstable interface between the iron target and high-explosive products. Simultaneous velocimetry measurements of the iron free surface yield the phase transition dynamics and, in conjunction with detailed hydrodynamic simulations, allow for determination of the strength of the distinct phases of iron. Forward analysis of the experiment via hydrodynamic simulations reveals significant strength enhancement of the dynamically-generated {var_epsilon}-Fe and reverted {alpha}{prime}-Fe, comparable in magnitude to the strength of austenitic stainless steels.

  19. Influence of Magnolol on the bystander effect induced by alpha-particle irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, T.P.W.; Law, Y.L. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Tse, A.K.W.; Fong, W.F. [Research and Development Division, School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong Baptist University, Baptist University Road, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Yu, K.N. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong)], E-mail: peter.yu@cityu.edu.hk

    2010-04-15

    In this work, the influence of Magnolol on the bystander effect in alpha-particle irradiated Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells was examined. The bystander effect was studied through medium transfer experiments. Cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay was performed to quantify the chromosome damage induced by alpha-particle irradiation. Our results showed that the alpha-particle induced micronuclei (MN) frequencies were suppressed with the presence of Magnolol.

  20. Cytokine vaccination: neutralising IL-1alpha autoantibodies induced by immunisation with homologous IL-1alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenson, M; Hansen, M B; Thomsen, Allan Randrup; Diamant, M; Nansen, A; Rieneck, K; Otterness, I G; Bendtzen, K

    High-affinity IgG autoantibodies (aAb) to IL-1alpha are among the most frequently found aAb to cytokines in humans. To establish an animal model with aAb to IL-1alpha, we immunised mice with recombinant murine IL-1alpha. Unprimed and Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG)-primed BALB/cA mice were vaccinat...

  1. Near threshold eta meson production in the d+d->alpha+eta reaction

    CERN Document Server

    Wronska, A; Hanhart, C; Hejny, V; Koch, H R; Komarov, V; Kulikov, A; Magiera, A; Mersmann, T; Mikirtytchiants, S; Ohm, H; Prasuhn, D; Schleichert, R; Stein, H J; Ströher, H; Wilkin, C

    2005-01-01

    The d+d->alpha+eta reaction has been investigated near threshold using the ANKE facility at COSY-Juelich. Both total and differential cross sections have been measured at two excess energies, Q=2.6 MeV and 7.7 MeV, with a subthreshold measurement being undertaken at Q=-2.6 MeV to study the physical background. While consistent with isotropy at the lower energy, the angular distribution reveals a pronounced anisotropy at the higher one, indicating the presence of higher partial waves. Options for the decomposition into partial amplitudes and their consequences for determination of the s-wave eta-alpha scattering length are discussed.

  2. Progress in microscopic direct reaction modeling of nucleon induced reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupuis, M.; Bauge, E.; Hilaire, S.; Lechaftois, F.; Peru, S.; Pillet, N.; Robin, C. [CEA, DAM, DIF, Arpajon (France)

    2015-12-15

    A microscopic nuclear reaction model is applied to neutron elastic and direct inelastic scatterings, and pre-equilibrium reaction. The JLM folding model is used with nuclear structure information calculated within the quasi-particle random phase approximation implemented with the Gogny D1S interaction. The folding model for direct inelastic scattering is extended to include rearrangement corrections stemming from both isoscalar and isovector density variations occurring during a transition. The quality of the predicted (n,n), (n,n{sup '}), (n,xn) and (n,n{sup '}γ) cross sections, as well as the generality of the present microscopic approach, shows that it is a powerful tool that can help improving nuclear reactions data quality. Short- and long-term perspectives are drawn to extend the present approach to more systems, to include missing reactions mechanisms, and to consistently treat both structure and reaction problems. (orig.)

  3. Progress in microscopic direct reaction modeling of nucleon induced reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A microscopic nuclear reaction model is applied to neutron elastic and direct inelastic scatterings, and pre-equilibrium reaction. The JLM folding model is used with nuclear structure information calculated within the quasi-particle random phase approximation implemented with the Gogny D1S interaction. The folding model for direct inelastic scattering is extended to include rearrangement corrections stemming from both isoscalar and isovector density variations occurring during a transition. The quality of the predicted (n,n), (n,n'), (n,xn) and (n,n'γ) cross sections, as well as the generality of the present microscopic approach, shows that it is a powerful tool that can help improving nuclear reactions data quality. Short- and long-term perspectives are drawn to extend the present approach to more systems, to include missing reactions mechanisms, and to consistently treat both structure and reaction problems. (orig.)

  4. Discreteness-Induced Criticality in Random Catalytic Reaction Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Awazu, Akinori; Kaneko, Kunihiko

    2009-01-01

    Universal intermittent dynamics in a random catalytic reaction network, induced by smallness in the molecule number is reported. Stochastic simulations for a random catalytic reaction network subject to a flow of chemicals show that the system undergoes a transition from a stationary to an intermittent reaction phase when the flow rate is decreased. In the intermittent reaction phase, two temporal regimes with active and halted reactions alternate. The number frequency of reaction events at e...

  5. Microscopic study of the /sup 14/O(. cap alpha. ,p)/sup 17/F reactions at stellar energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funck, C.; Langanke, K.

    1988-03-28

    We have studied the /sup 14/O(..cap alpha..,p)/sup 17/F reaction at astrophysically important energies within a microscopic multichannel calculation based on the framework of the generator coordinate method. Our study gives a consistent description of the /sup 18/Ne states close to the ..cap alpha..-threshold as well as of the direct (..cap alpha..,p) reaction process which has not been considered in previous calculations. We find that the /sup 14/O(..cap alpha..,p)/sup 17/F rate at temperatures T less than or equal to 5x10/sup 8/ K is strongly influenced by the 2/sup +/ resonance at E = 30 keV above the ..cap alpha..-threshold and by the direct reaction cross section. At higher temperatures /sup 18/Ne states not present in our model space become important. We have estimated the influence of these resonances on the /sup 14/O(..cap alpha..,p)/sup 17/F rate within the standard formalism developed by Fowler assigning experimentally unknown spins to the states on the basis of a Thomas-Ehrman shift analysis using theoretical and experimental informations on the respective analogue states in /sup 18/O. We find an /sup 14/O(..cap alpha..,p)/sup 17/F rate which is noticeably higher than the rate estimated by Wiescher et al. for T less than or equal to 5x10/sup 8/ K. Both rates are of the same magnitude for T greater than or equal to 10/sup 9/ K. Our estimate predicts that the /sup 14/O(..cap alpha..,p)/sup 17/F rate is compatible to the /sup 15/O(..cap alpha..,..gamma..)/sup 19/Ne rate under nova conditions. For explosive burning on accreting neutron stars our rate allows for a break-out from the CNO cycle via the /sup 14/O(..cap alpha..,p)/sup 17/F reaction.

  6. Validity test of the Trojan Horse Method applied to the {sup 7}Li+p{yields} {alpha}+{alpha} reaction via the {sup 3}He break-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumino, A.; Spitaleri, C.; Sergi, M.L.; Cherubini, S.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Romano, S.; Tudisco, S. [Universita di Catania, Dipartimento di Metodologie Fisiche e Chimiche per l' Ingegneria, Catania (Italy); INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Kroha, V.; Burjan, V.; Novac, J.; Vincour, J. [Nuclear Physics Institute of ASCR, Rez, Prague (Czech Republic); Fueloep, Z.; Somorjai, E. [Institute of Nuclear Research of Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), Debrecen (Hungary); Pizzone, R.G. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy)

    2006-03-15

    The Trojan Horse Method (THM) was applied to the {sup 3}He+{sup 7}Li interaction in order to investigate the quasi-free {sup 7}Li(p,{alpha}){sup 4}He reaction. The three-body experiment was performed at 33 MeV corresponding to a {sup 7}Li-p relative energy ranging from 50 keV to 7 MeV. The extracted {sup 7}Li(p,{alpha}){sup 4}He quasi-free cross-section was compared with the behavior of direct data, as well as with the result of a previous THM investigation on the {sup 7}Li(p,{alpha}){sup 4}He reaction off the neutron in {sup 2}H. A good agreement between data sets shows up throughout the energy range investigated, providing a very important validity test of the pole approximation for the THM. (orig.)

  7. Testing an ionization chamber with gaseous samples and measurements of the (n, alpha) reaction cross sections

    CERN Document Server

    Gledenov, Yu M; Salatskii, V I; Sedyshev, P V; Andrzejewski, J; Szalanski, P

    1999-01-01

    A new ionization chamber with gaseous samples (GIC) has been designed and tested on the thermal and resonance neutron beams of FLNP's neutron sources. The exposed gas volume serves as a target for neutrons. The obtained thermal cross sections for the sup 1 sup 7 O(n, alpha) sup 1 sup 4 C, sup 2 sup 1 Ne(n, alpha) sup 1 sup 8 O and sup 3 sup 6 Ar(n, alpha) sup 3 sup 3 S reactions are (233+-12) mb, (0.18+-0.09) mb and (5.43+-0.27) mb, respectively. These measurements have been performed on a pure beam of thermal neutrons from the high flux reactor IBR-2; and they demonstrated high efficiency and reliability of the method. Compared to samples on substrates, the application of gaseous samples makes the beam background essentially lower, and what is more important, the background component is totally absent due to the absence of Li and B microimpurities in gaseous samples while they do present in the samples on substrates. The method is also applicable to measurements with resonance neutrons. The recovery capabili...

  8. THE RGB AND AGB STAR NUCLEOSYNTHESIS IN LIGHT OF THE RECENT {sup 17}O(p, {alpha}){sup 14}N AND {sup 18}O(p, {alpha}){sup 15}N REACTION-RATE DETERMINATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmerini, S.; Sergi, M. L.; La Cognata, M.; Pizzone, R. G.; Spitaleri, C. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Lamia, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Catania, Catania (Italy)

    2013-02-20

    In recent years, the Trojan Horse Method (THM) has been used to investigate the low-energy cross sections of proton-induced reactions on A = 17 and A = 18 oxygen isotopes, overcoming extrapolation procedures and enhancement effects due to electron screening. In particular, the strengths of the 20 keV and 65 keV resonances in the {sup 18}O(p, {alpha}){sup 15}N and {sup 17}O(p, {alpha}){sup 14}N reactions, respectively, have been extracted, as well as the contribution of the tail of the broad 656 keV resonance in the {sup 18}O(p, {alpha}){sup 15}N reaction inside the Gamow window. The strength of the 65 keV resonance in the {sup 17}O(p, {alpha}){sup 14}N reaction, measured by means of the THM, has been used to renormalize the corresponding resonance strength in the {sup 17}O + p radiative capture channel. As a result, more accurate reaction rates for the {sup 18}O(p, {alpha}){sup 15}N, {sup 17}O(p, {alpha}){sup 14}N, and {sup 17}O(p, {gamma}){sup 18}F processes have been deduced, devoid of systematic errors due to extrapolation or the electron screening effect. Such rates have been introduced into state-of-the-art red giant branch and asymptotic giant branch (AGB) models for proton-capture nucleosynthesis coupled with extra-mixing episodes. The predicted abundances have been compared with isotopic compositions provided by geochemical analysis of presolar grains. As a result, an improved agreement is found between the models and the isotopic mix of oxide grains of AGB origins, whose composition is the signature of low-temperature proton-capture nucleosynthesis. The low {sup 14}N/{sup 15}N found in SiC grains cannot be explained by the revised nuclear reaction rates and remains a serious problem that has not been satisfactorily addressed.

  9. First observation of a superdeformed nucleus produced in an [alpha] x n reaction channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duprat, J.; Gall, B.J.P.; Porquet, M.G.; Hannachi, F.; Azaiez, F.; Aiche, M.; Bastin, G.; Beausang, C.W.; Beraud, R.; Bourgeois, C.; Clark, R.M.; Deloncle, I.; Duffait, R.; Hauschild, K.; Huebel, H.; Joyce, M.J.; Kaci, M.; Korichi, A.; Coz, Y. le; Meyer, M.; Paul, E.S.; Perrin, N.; Poffe, N.; Redon, N.; Schueck, C.; Sergolle, H.; Sharpey-Schafer, J.F.; Simpson, J.; Smith, A.G.; Wadsworth, R. (Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, 91 Orsay (France) C.S.N.S.M., IN2P3-CNRS, 91 Orsay (France) Oliver Lodge Lab., Univ. of Liverpool (United Kingdom) Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS-IN2P3, 69 Villeurbanne (France) Univ. of York, Dept. of Physics, Helsington (United Kingdom) Inst. fuer Kernphysik der Univ., Bonn (Germany) Univ. of Oxford, Dept. of Physics (United Kingdom) SERC, Daresbury Lab., Warrington (United Kingdom) Schuster Lab., Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom))

    1994-07-01

    Recent data from the EUROGAM array have revealed the population of the yrast superdeformed (SD) band of [sup 192]Hg in the [alpha]4n exit channel of the [sup 16]O+[sup 184]W reaction at 113 MeV beam energy. The nucleus assignment was made on the basis of the SD band transition energies, and the observation of characteristic X-rays and low-lying yrast [gamma]-transition of [sup 192]Hg in coincidence with the SD band [gamma]-rays. Both the feeding and decay-out patterns of the observed SD band have been found similar to the ones previously measured in the ([sup 36]S, 4n) reaction. (orig.)

  10. The key reactions in Stellar helium burning: {sup 12}C({alpha},{gamma}){sup 16}O and {sup 22}Ne({alpha},n){sup 25}Mg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fey, M. E-mail: fey@ifs.physik.uni-stuttgart.de; Kunz, R.; Hammer, J.W.; Jaeger, M.; Mayer, A.; Krmpotic, E.; Bauer, C.; Meyer, C.; Harissopulos, S.; Paradellis, T.; Staudt, G.; Haas, F.; Papka, P.; Kratz, K.-L.; Pfeiffer, B

    2003-05-05

    The excitation functions of {sup 12}C({alpha},{gamma}){sup 16}O and {sup 22}Ne({alpha},n){sup 25}Mg have been determined with a yet unequaled experimental sensitivity of 10{sup -11} b. From {gamma}-angular distributions the S{sub E1}-and S{sub E2}-factors for {sup 12}C({alpha},{gamma}){sup 16}O have been deduced and extrapolated into the range of helium burning temperatures using the R-matrix method. An improved reaction rate has been calculated: N{sub A}<{sigma}{nu}>=(7.9{+-}2.5)x10{sup -15}cm{sup 3}(mols){sup -1} at T{sub 9} = 0.2. For a more precise extrapolation the excitation function has to be measured with better statistics. Therefore a new experiment on {sup 12}C({alpha},{gamma}){sup 16}O with a better suited setup has been started recently. The accuracy of the {sup 22}Ne({alpha},n){sup 25}Mg reaction rate could be improved considerably compared to previous compilations: N{sub A}<{sigma}{nu}> = (0.88{sub -0.3}{sup +2.6}) x 10{sup -16}cm{sup 3}(mols){sup -1} at T{sub 9} = 0.2.

  11. Mechanism of alpha-lipoic acid in attenuating kanamycin-induced ototoxicity☆

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Aimei; Hou, Ning; Bao, Dongyan; Liu, Shuangyue; XU, TAO

    2012-01-01

    In view of the theory that alpha-lipoic acid effectively prevents cochlear cells from injury caused by various factors such as cisplatin and noise, this study examined whether alpha-lipoic acid can prevent kanamycin-induced ototoxicity. To this end, healthy BALB/c mice were injected subcutaneously with alpha-lipoic acid and kanamycin for 14 days. Auditory brainstem response test showed that increased auditory brainstem response threshold shifts caused by kanamycin were significantly inhibited...

  12. The formation and decay of superheavy nuclei produced in 48Ca-induced reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sushil; Balasubramaniam, M.; Gupta, Raj K.; Münzenberg, G.; Scheid, W.

    2003-04-01

    The formation of superheavy nuclei in 48Ca+232Th, 238U, 242,244Pu and 248Cm reactions and their subsequent decay are studied within the quantum mechanical fragmentation theory (QMFT) and the QMFT-based preformed cluster decay model (PCM) of Gupta and collaborators. According to QMFT, all these 48Ca-induced reactions are cold fusion reactions with relative excitation energies larger than those for the Pb-induced cold fusion reactions and smaller than those for the lighter beam, i.e. Mg, Si or S-induced hot fusion reactions. The same reactions were first suggested by Gupta et al in 1977 on the basis of QMFT, and this study re-establishes the same result. In fact, for such heavy isotopes of Z = 110 to 116, 50Ca is shown to be a better beam for cold fusion, but 50Ca is a radioactive nucleus. The alpha-decay half-lives of these nuclei after 3n and/or 4n evaporations, i.e. of the evaporation residues of these compound systems, calculated on PCM compare reasonably well with the experiments published by the Dubna group and another recent calculation. As expected for such rare decays, PCM calculations show that the alpha-preformation factors are small, ~10-8 to 10-10. The possible competition of alpha-decays with heavy cluster emissions from these superheavy nuclei is also probed from the point of view of searching for new nuclear structure information and possible future experiments with such exotic nuclei. The decay half-lives for some clusters are in fact shown to be lower than the limits of experiments for nuclei with enough available atoms.

  13. PGC-1alpha mediates exercise-induced skeletal muscle VEGF expression in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leick, Lotte; Hellsten, Ylva; Fentz, Joachim;

    2009-01-01

    littermate wild-type (WT) mice were submitted to either 1) 5 wk of exercise training, 2) lifelong (from 2 to 13 mo of age) exercise training in activity wheel, 3) a single exercise bout, or 4) 4 wk of daily subcutaneous AICAR or saline injections. In skeletal muscle of PGC-1alpha KO mice, VEGF protein...... skeletal muscle VEGF protein expression approximately 50% in WT mice but with no effect in PGC-1alpha KO mice. Furthermore, a training-induced prevention of an age-associated decline in VEGF protein content was observed in WT but not in PGC-1alpha KO muscles. In addition, repeated AICAR treatments...... increased skeletal muscle VEGF protein expression approximately 15% in WT but not in PGC-1alpha KO mice. This study shows that PGC-1alpha is essential for exercise-induced upregulation of skeletal muscle VEGF expression and for a training-induced prevention of an age-associated decline in VEGF protein...

  14. Quasi-bound alpha resonant states populated by the 12C(6Li, d) reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The alpha cluster phenomenon in the light nuclei structure has been the subject of a long time investigation since the proposal of the Ikeda diagrams [1]. The main purpose of the research program in progress is the investigation of this phenomenon in (xα) and (xα+n) nuclei through the (6Li, d) alpha transfer reaction [2-4]. Alpha resonant states around the (4α) threshold in the nucleus 16O are the focus of the present contribution. In fact, the importance of these resonances at the elements production in stars is recognized, as primarily pointed out by Hoyle in 12C [6]. The existence of a rotational band with the α +12 C (Hoyle) cluster state structure was recently demonstrated by Ohkubo and Hirabayashi [6]. In order to explore this region of interest, measurements of the 12C(6Li, d)16O reaction up to 17 MeV of excitation at an incident energy of 25.5 MeV, have been performed employing the Sao Paulo Pelletron-Enge Split-Pole facility and the nuclear emulsion detection technique (plates Fuji G6B, 50 μm thick). Spectra associated with six scattering angles, from 5 deg to 29 deg in the laboratory frame, each one 50 cm along the focal surface, were measured. Several narrow resonances with a quasi-bound behavior embedded in the continuum were detected and the resolution of 25 keV allowed for the separation of doublets not resolved before [7,8]. The absolute cross sections and the respective deuteron angular distributions were determined and the analysis is in progress. [1] K. Ikeda et al., Prog. Theor. Phys. Suppl. E 68, 464 (1968); H. Horiuchi, K. Ikeda, and Y. Suzuki, ibid. 44, 225 (1978). [2] M.R.D.Rodrigues et al., in12th International Conference on Nuclear Reaction Mechanism, Varenna, Italy, edited by F. Cerutti and A. Ferrari , CERN Proceedings, 2010-2, pp. 331- 335. [3] T. Borello-Lewin et al., Proceedings of SOTANCP2, Brussels, Belgium 2010, edited by P. Descouvemount et al., Int. J. Mod. Mod. Phys E 20, 1018-1021 (2011). [4] T. Borello-Lewin et

  15. Alpha particle induced gamma yields in uranium hexafluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Stephen; Swinhoe, Martyn T.; Miller, Karen A.

    2013-01-01

    Fluorine has a relatively large (α,n) production cross-section in the MeV range, the energy range of interest for special nuclear materials. In the uranium fuel cycle enriched UF6 in particular is a reasonably prolific source of (α,n) neutrons because along with 235U, 234U becomes enriched and it has a relatively short half-life. This enables the mass content of storage cylinders containing UF6 to be verified by neutron counting methods. In association with such measurements high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry (HRGS) measurements using a high-purity Ge detector are often undertaken to determine the 235U enrichment based off the intensity of the direct 186 keV line. The specific (α,n) neutron production, neutrons per second per gram of U, is sensitive to the relative isotopic composition, particularly the 234U concentration, and the traditional gross neutron counting approach is needed to quantitatively interpret the data. In addition to F(α,n) neutrons, α-induced reaction γ-rays are generated, notably at 110, 197, 582, 891, 1236 and 1275 keV. If one could observe 19F(α,xγ) gamma-lines in the HRGS spectra the thought was that perhaps the α-activity could be estimated directly, and in turn the 234U abundance obtained. For example, by utilizing the ratio of the detected 197-186 keV full energy peaks. However, until now there has been no readily available estimate of the expected strength of the reaction gamma-rays nor any serious consideration as to whether they might be diagnostic or not. In this work we compute the thick target yields of the chief reaction gamma-rays in UF6 using published thin target data. Comparisons are made to the neutron production rates to obtain γ/n estimates, and also to the 235U decay line at 186 keV which we take as a fiducial line. It is shown that the reaction gamma-rays are produced but are far too weak for practical safeguards purposes. Now that the underlying numerical data is readily available however, it can be used to

  16. Investigation of the α-particle induced nuclear reactions on natural molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Cross-sections of alpha particle induced nuclear reactions on natural molybdenum have been studied in the frame of a systematic investigation of charged particle induced nuclear reactions on metals for different applications. The excitation functions of 93mTc, 93gTc(m+), 94mTc, 94gTc, 95mTc, 95gTc, 96gTc(m+), 99mTc, 93mMo, 99Mo(cum), 90Nb(m+), 94Ru, 95Ru, 97Ru, 103Ru and 88Zr were measured up to 40 MeV alpha energy by using a stacked foil technique and activation method. The main goals of this work were to get experimental data for accelerator technology, for monitoring of alpha beam, for thin layer activation technique and for testing nuclear reaction theories. The experimental data were compared with critically analyzed published data and with the results of model calculations, obtained by using the ALICE-IPPE, EMPIRE and TALYS codes (TENDL-2011). Yield versus energy curves are calculated from the measured data (Figs. 1-4) for the radioisotopes having special importance in one of the application fields.

  17. A new study of $^{10}$B(p,$\\alpha$)$^{7}$Be reaction at low energies

    CERN Document Server

    Caciolli, A; Broggini, C; La Cognata, M; Lamia, L; Menegazzo, R; Mou, L; Puglia, S M R; Rigato, V; Romano, S; Alvarez, C Rossi; Sergi, M L; Spitaleri, C; Tumino, A

    2016-01-01

    The $^{10}$B(p,$\\alpha$)$^{7}$Be reaction is of great interest since it has many applications in different fields of research such as nuclear astrophysics, nuclear physics, and models of new reactors for clean energy generation. This reaction has been studied at the AN2000 accelerator of the INFN National Laboratories of Legnaro (LNL). The total cross section has been measured in a wide energy range (250 $-$ 1182 keV) by using the activation method. The decays of the $^7$Be nuclei produced by the reaction were measured at the low counting facility of LNL by using two fully shielded high-purity germanium detectors. The present dataset shows a large discrepancy with respect to one of the previous data at the same energies and reduces the total uncertainty to the level of 6\\%. An R-matrix calculation has been performed on the present data using the parameters from previous Trojan Horse measurements for the 10 and 500 keV resonances. The present data do not lay on the R-matrix fit in one point suggesting the exis...

  18. Neuroprotective Effects of Alpha Lipoic Acid on Haloperidol-Induced Oxidative Stress in the Rat Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perera Joachim

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Haloperidol is an antipsychotic drug that exerts its' antipsychotic effects by inhibiting dopaminergic neurons. Although the exact pathophysiology of haloperidol extrapyramidal symptoms are not known, the role of reactive oxygen species in inducing oxidative stress has been proposed as one of the mechanisms of prolonged haloperidol-induced neurotoxicity. In the present study, we evaluate the protective effect of alpha lipoic acid against haloperidol-induced oxidative stress in the rat brain. Sprague Dawley rats were divided into control, alpha lipoic acid alone (100 mg/kg p.o for 21 days, haloperidol alone (2 mg/kg i.p for 21 days, and haloperidol with alpha lipoic acid groups (for 21 days. Haloperidol treatment significantly decreased levels of the brain antioxidant enzymes super oxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase and concurrent treatment with alpha lipoic acid significantly reversed the oxidative effects of haloperidol. Histopathological changes revealed significant haloperidol-induced damage in the cerebral cortex, internal capsule, and substantia nigra. Alpha lipoic acid significantly reduced this damage and there were very little neuronal atrophy. Areas of angiogenesis were also seen in the alpha lipoic acid-treated group. In conclusion, the study proves that alpha lipoic acid treatment significantly reduces haloperidol-induced neuronal damage.

  19. Atomic force microscopic neutron-induced alpha-autoradiography for boron imaging in detailed cellular histology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The information on subcellular microdistribution of 10B compounds a cell is significant to evaluate the efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) because the damage brought by the released alpha/lithium particles is highly localized along their path, and radiation sensitivity is quite different among each cell organelles. In neutron-induced alpha-autoradiography (NIAR) technique, 10B can be measured as tracks for the energetic charged particles from 10B(n, alpha)7Li reactions in solid state track detectors. To perform the NIAR at intracellular structure level for research of 10B uptake and/or microdosimetry in BNCT, we have developed high-resolution NIAR method with an atomic force microscope (AFM). AFM has been used for analyses of biological specimens such as proteins, DNAs and surface of living cells have, however, intracellular detailed histology of cells has been hardly resolved with AFM since flat surface of sectioned tissue has quite less topographical contrast among each organelle. In our new sample preparation method using UV processing, materials that absorb UV in a semi-thin section are selectively eroded and vaporized by UV exposure, and then fine relief for cellular organelles such as mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, filament structure and so on reveals on flat surface of the section, which can be observed with an AFM. The imaging resolution was comparable to TEM imaging of cells. This new method provides fast and cost-effective observation of histological sections with an AFM. Combining this method with NIAR technique, intracellular boron mapping would be possible. (author)

  20. Surrogate reaction methods for neutron induced cross-sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief discussion on surrogate reaction methods and some of the recent results on neutron induced fission cross-section measurements carried out by our group and the possibility of extending the measurements for determining (n,g), (n,2n) and (n,p) reaction cross-sections by surrogate reaction method are presented

  1. EEG alpha spindles and prolonged brake reaction times during auditory distraction in an on-road driving study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnleitner, Andreas; Treder, Matthias Sebastian; Simon, Michael; Willmann, Sven; Ewald, Arne; Buchner, Axel; Schrauf, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Driver distraction is responsible for a substantial number of traffic accidents. This paper describes the impact of an auditory secondary task on drivers' mental states during a primary driving task. N=20 participants performed the test procedure in a car following task with repeated forced braking on a non-public test track. Performance measures (provoked reaction time to brake lights) and brain activity (EEG alpha spindles) were analyzed to describe distracted drivers. Further, a classification approach was used to investigate whether alpha spindles can predict drivers' mental states. Results show that reaction times and alpha spindle rate increased with time-on-task. Moreover, brake reaction times and alpha spindle rate were significantly higher while driving with auditory secondary task opposed to driving only. In single-trial classification, a combination of spindle parameters yielded a median classification error of about 8% in discriminating the distracted from the alert driving. Reduced driving performance (i.e., prolonged brake reaction times) during increased cognitive load is assumed to be indicated by EEG alpha spindles, enabling the quantification of driver distraction in experiments on public roads without verbally assessing the drivers' mental states. PMID:24144496

  2. Study of the {sup 7}Li (p,{alpha}){sup 4}He Reaction at Astrophysical Energies Through the Trojan Horse Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellegriti, M.G.; Aliotta, M.; Cherubini, S.; Lattuada, M.; Miljanic, D.; Pizzone, R.G.; Romano, S.; Soic, N.; Spitaleri, C.; Zadro, M.; Zappala, R.A.

    2000-12-31

    The Trojan Horse Method has been applied to obtain information about {sup 7}Li(p,{alpha}),{sup 4}He reaction at astrophysical energies. The {sup 7}Li(d,{alpha} n){sup 4}He reaction has been used and the two body reaction cross section for the {sup 7}Li(p,{alpha}){sup 4}He has been extracted together with its astrophysical factor S(E).

  3. Polarization phenomena in heavy ion induced reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechanisms of heavy ion reactions are discussed from the experimental results on polarization of products 12B in 14N + 100Mo and 14N + 232Th reactions. Polarization determines the signs of deflection functions corresponding to large energy losses. (author)

  4. The resonance triplet at E_alpha = 4.5 MeV in the 40Ca(alpha,gamma)44Ti reaction

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Konrad; Anders, Michael; Bemmerer, Daniel; Boretzky, Konstanze; Caciolli, Antonio; Degering, Detlev; Dietz, Mirco; Dressler, Rugard; Elekes, Zoltán; Fülöp, Zsolt; Gyürky, György; Hannaske, Roland; Junghans, Arnd R; Marta, Michele; Menzel, Marie-Luise; Munnik, Frans; Schumann, Dorothea; Schwengner, Ronald; Szücs, Tamás; Wagner, Andreas; Yakorev, Dmitry; Zuber, Kai

    2013-01-01

    The 40Ca(alpha,gamma)44Ti reaction is believed to be the main production channel for the radioactive nuclide 44Ti in core-collapse supernovae. Radiation from decaying 44Ti has been observed so far for two supernova remnants, and a precise knowledge of the 44Ti production rate may help improve supernova models. The 40Ca(alpha,gamma)44Ti astrophysical reaction rate is determined by a number of narrow resonances. Here, the resonance triplet at E_alpha = 4497, 4510, and 4523 keV is studied both by activation, using an underground laboratory for the gamma counting, and by in-beam gamma spectrometry. The target properties are determined by elastic recoil detection analysis and by nuclear reactions. The strengths of the three resonances are determined to omega gamma = (0.92+-0.20), (6.2+-0.5), and (1.32+-0.24) eV, respectively, a factor of two more precise than before. The strengths of this resonance triplet may be used in future works as a point of reference. In addition, the present new data directly affect the as...

  5. Study of transfer reactions ({alpha},t), ({alpha},{sup 3}He) in the f-p shell: mechanism and spectroscopic use; Etude des reactions de transfert ({alpha},t), ({alpha},{sup 3}He) dans la couche f-p mecanisme et utilisation spectroscopique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roussel, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-05-01

    We describe an experimental study of ({alpha},t), ({alpha},{sup 3}He) reactions at 44 MeV using a solid-state identifier, on the target-nuclei {sup 54}Fe and {sup 58,60,62,64}Ni. A critical study of optical model and of disturbed wave analysis has been performed. We show the complementarity of different transfer-reactions, the ambiguity of spectroscopic factors, the importance of the problem of the reaction mechanism. (author) [French] On decrit une etude experimentale des reactions ({alpha},t), ({alpha},{sup 3}He) a 44 MeV utilisant un systeme identificateur de particules sur les noyaux-cibles {sup 54}Fe et {sup 58,60,62,64}Ni. Une etude critique de modele optique et d'analyse en ondes deformees (D.W.B.A.) a ete entreprise. On montre la complementarite des differentes reactions de transfert, l'ambiguite des facteurs spectroscopiques, l'importance du probleme du mecanisme. (auteur)

  6. Evaluation of (alpha,n) Induced Neutrons as a Background for Dark Matter Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Mei, D.-M.; C. Zhang; Hime, A.

    2008-01-01

    Neutrons from ($\\alpha$,n) reactions through thorium and uranium decays are important sources of background for direct dark matter detection. The neutron yields and energy spectra from a range of materials that are used to build dark matter detectors are calculated and tabulated. In addition to thorium and uranium decays, we found that $\\alpha$ particles from samarium, often the dopant of the window materials of photomultiplier tubes (PMT), are also an important source of neutron yield. The r...

  7. Reaction of HO/sub 2//O/sub 2//sup -/ with. cap alpha. -tocopherol in ethanolic solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arudi, R.L.; Sutherland, M.W.; Bielski, B.H.J.

    1982-01-01

    The HO/sub 2/ perhydroxyl radical reacts with ..cap alpha..-tocopherol in 85% ethanol containing some H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, EDTA, and O/sub 2/. The resulting transient has a spectral maximum near 390 ..mu... The final product is mostly ..cap alpha..-tocopherylquinone. Best reproducibility for reaction of O/sub 2//sup -/ with ..cap alpha..-tocopherol was obtained in a deoxygenated reaction mixture of 26 +- 3 ..mu..M O/sub 2//sup -/, 0.0565M ..cap alpha..-tocopherol, 5..mu..M EDTA, and 0.005 M KOH in 85% EtOH; the upper limit for the reaction was 6.0 +- 3.0 M/sup -1/ s/sup -1/, indicating that for all practical purposes O/sub 2//sup -/ does not react at all with ..cap alpha..-tocopherol. Preliminary experiments with Trolox, a vitamin E model compound, indicates that it too reacts with HO/sub 2/ but not with O/sub 2//sup -/. Membrane-bound tocopherols in vivo may fulfil a dual antioxidant role. (DLC)

  8. The formation and decay of superheavy nuclei produced in $^{48}Ca$-induced reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Sushil; Gupta, Raj K; Munzenberg, G; Scheid, W; 10.1088/0954-3899/29/4/303

    2011-01-01

    The formation of superheavy nuclei in $^{48}Ca+^{232}Th$, $^{238}U$, $^{242,244}Pu$ and $^{248}Cm$ reactions and their subsequent decay are studied within the quantum mechanical fragmentation theory (QMFT) and the QMFT based preformed cluster-decay model (PCM) of Gupta and collaborators. According to QMFT, all these $^{48}Ca$-induced reactions are cold fusion reactions with relative excitation energies larger than for the $Pb$-induced cold fusion reactions and smaller than for the lighter beam i.e. $Mg$, $Si$ or $S$-induced hot fusion reactions. The same reactions were first suggested by Gupta et al. in 1977 on the basis of QMFT, and this study re-establishes the same result. In fact, for such heavy isotopes of Z=110 to 116, $^{50}Ca$ is shown to be a better beam for cold fusion, but $^{50}Ca$ is a radioactive nucleus. The $\\alpha$-decay half-lives of these nuclei after 3n and/ or 4n evaporations, i.e. of the evaporation residues of these compound systems, calculated on PCM compare reasonably well with experi...

  9. Experimental study to explore the $\\rm ^8Be$ induced nuclear reaction via the Trojan Horse Method

    CERN Document Server

    Qun-Gang, Wen; Shu-Hua, Zhou; Irgaziev, Bakhadir; Yuan-Yong, Fu; Spitaleri, Claudio; La Cognata, Marco; Jing, Zhou; Qiu-Ying, Meng; Lamia, Livio; Lattuada, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    To explore a possible indirect method for $\\rm ^8Be$ induced astrophysical reactions, the $\\rm ^9Be=({}^8Be+\\it n)$ cluster structure was studied via the Trojan Horse Method. It is the first time to study a super short life nucleus $\\rm ^8Be$ via the Trojan Horse Method, and it is the first time to make a valid test for $l=1$ Trojan-horse nucleus. The $\\rm ^9Be$ nucleus is assumed to have a ($\\rm {}^8Be+\\it n$) cluster structure and used as the Trojan-horse nucleus. The $\\rm ^8Be$ nucleus acts as a participant, while the neutron is a spectator to the virtual $\\rm ^8Be +{\\it d}\\rightarrow \\alpha + {}^6Li$ reaction via a suitable 3-body reaction $\\rm ^9Be +{\\it d}\\rightarrow \\alpha + {}^6Li +\\it n$. The experimental neutron momentum distribution inside $\\rm ^9Be$ was reconstructed. The agreement between experimental and theoretical momentum distribution indicates that there should be a ($\\rm {}^8Be+\\it n$) cluster structure inside $\\rm ^9Be$. Therefor the experimental study of $\\rm ^8Be$ induced reactions, for ...

  10. Hypoxia-inducible factor 2alpha binds to cobalt in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Y; Beitner-Johnson, D; Millhorn, D E

    2001-11-01

    The hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) activates the expression of genes that contain a hypoxia response element (HRE). The alpha subunit of the HIF transcription factors is degraded by proteasome pathways during normoxia, but stabilized under hypoxic conditions. It has previously been established that cobalt causes accumulation of HIF-2alpha and HIF-1alpha. However, little is known about the mechanism by which cobalt mimics hypoxia and stabilizes these transcription factors. We show here that cobalt binds directly to HIF-2alpha in vitro with a high affinity and in an oxygen-dependent manner. We found that HIF-2alpha, which had been stabilized with a proteasome inhibitor, could bind to cobalt, whereas hypoxia-stabilized HIF-2alpha could not. Mutations within the oxygen-dependent degradation domain of HIF-2alpha prevented cobalt binding and led to accumulation of HIF-2alpha during normoxia. This suggests that transition metal such as iron may play a role in regulation of HIF-2alpha in vivo. PMID:11688986

  11. Telaprevir may induce adverse cutaneous reactions by a T cell immune-mediated mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federico, Alessandro; Aitella, Ernesto; Sgambato, Dolores; Savoia, Alfonso; De Bartolomeis, Fabio; Dallio, Marcello; Ruocco, Eleonora; Pezone, Luciano; Abbondanza, Ciro; Loguercio, Carmela; Astarita, Corrado

    2015-01-01

    The HCV protease inhibitor telaprevir associated with peginterferon-alpha and ribavirin, was widely used in the recent past as standard treatment in HCV genotype-1 infected patients. Telaprevir improves the sustained virology response rates, but at the same time increases the frequency of adverse cutaneous reactions. However, mechanisms through which telaprevir induces cutaneous lesions are not yet defined. A 50-year-old woman, affected by HCV genotype 1b, was admitted to our Department for a telaprevir-related severe cutaneous eruptions, eight weeks after starting a triple therapy (telaprevir associated with Peginterferon-alpha and ribavirin). Mechanisms of cutaneous reactions were investigated by skin tests with non-irritating concentrations of telaprevir and by activating in vitro T lymphocyte with different concentrations. Immediate and delayed responses to skin testing were negative, but the drug-induced lymphocytes activation was significantly higher as compared to patient's baseline values and to parallel results obtained in three healthy subjects (p < 0.05). In conclusion, adverse cutaneous reactions of our patient were caused by a telaprevir-induced T-cell dependent immune mechanism. PMID:25864225

  12. alpha 1-Adrenoceptors modulate citalopram-induced serotonin release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rea, Kieran; Folgering, Joost; Westerink, Ben H. C.; Cremers, Thomas I. F. H.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that noradrenaline may regulate serotonergic (5-HT) neurotransmission at the serotonin cell body and noradrenaline nerve terminal. Using microdialysis coupled to HPLC, we investigated the effects of alpha 1-adrenoceptor manipulation on extracellular serotonin levels in the v

  13. Proton and alpha-particle capture reactions at sub-Coulomb energies relevant to the p process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harissopulos, S [Tandem Accelerator Facility, Institute of Nuclear Physics, NCSR ' Demokritos' , 153.10 Aghia Paraskevi, Athens (Greece); Lagoyannis, A [Tandem Accelerator Facility, Institute of Nuclear Physics, NCSR ' Demokritos' , 153.10 Aghia Paraskevi, Athens (Greece); Spyrou, A [Tandem Accelerator Facility, Institute of Nuclear Physics, NCSR ' Demokritos' , 153.10 Aghia Paraskevi, Athens (Greece); Zarkadas, Ch [Tandem Accelerator Facility, Institute of Nuclear Physics, NCSR ' Demokritos' , 153.10 Aghia Paraskevi, Athens (Greece); Galanopoulos, S [Tandem Accelerator Facility, Institute of Nuclear Physics, NCSR ' Demokritos' , 153.10 Aghia Paraskevi, Athens (Greece); Perdikakis, G [Tandem Accelerator Facility, Institute of Nuclear Physics, NCSR ' Demokritos' , 153.10 Aghia Paraskevi, Athens (Greece); Becker, H-W [Dynamitron-Tandem-Laboratorium, Ruhr Universitaet Bochum, 44801 Bochum (Germany); Rolfs, C [Institut fuer Physik mit Ionenstrahlen, EP-II, Ruhr-Universitaet BochumI, 44801 Bochum (Germany); Strieder, F [Institut fuer Physik mit Ionenstrahlen, EP-II, Ruhr-Universitaet BochumI, 44801 Bochum (Germany); Kunz, R [Institut fuer Strahlenphysik, Universitaet Stuttgart, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Fey, M [Institut fuer Strahlenphysik, Universitaet Stuttgart, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Hammer, J W [Institut fuer Strahlenphysik, Universitaet Stuttgart, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Dewald, A [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet zu Koeln, 50937 Cologne (Germany); Zell, K-O [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet zu Koeln, 50937 Cologne (Germany); Brentano, P von [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet zu Koeln, 50937 Cologne (Germany); Julin, R [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, 40014 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Demetriou, P [Institut d' Astronomie et d' Astrophysique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, CP226, 1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2005-10-01

    Several cross-section measurements of proton as well as {alpha}-particle capture reactions in the Se-Sb region have been carried out at sub-Coulomb energies with the aim to obtain global input parameters for Hauser-Feshbach (HF) calculations. Some of the results are compared with HF calculations using various optical model potentials and nuclear level densities.

  14. AVERAGE REACTION CROSS-SECTIONS FOR 74-MEV TO 112-MEV ALPHA-PARTICLES ON I-127 AND CS-133

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WARNER, RE; WILSCHUT, HW; RULLA, WF; FELDER, GN

    1991-01-01

    The average reaction cross section for 74- to 112-MeV alpha particles on I-127 and Cs-133 was measured by a new method using a magnetic spectrograph and a CsI scintillation detector. The result, sigma-R = 2220+/-50 mb, is in good agreement with optical model calculations and finite-range microscopic

  15. Carbon induced reactions at low incident energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accurate knowledge of the reactions which occur when two heavy ions interact is of importance in many trans-disciplinary fields, particularly in cancer therapy and space radiation protection. In these cases one needs to know what happens in a natural process to which all possible reaction mechanisms contribute and thus a theoretical calculation, to be really usable, must indeed be able to reproduce large sets of data in wide energy and mass ranges. We show here the results of an analysis of the spectra of intermediate mass fragments produced in the C + Al interaction at 13 MeV/n, both in direct and inverse kinematics, which supplies a very reasonable reproduction of a great number of data providing useful information on the leading reaction mechanisms

  16. IgE-mediated basophil tumour necrosis factor alpha induces matrix metalloproteinase-9 from monocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falkencrone, Sidsel; Poulsen, Lars K.; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten; Andersen, Anders Woetmann; Ødum, Niels; Poulsen, Britta Cathrina; Blom, L.; Jensen, B. M.; Gibbs, B. F.; Yasinska, I. M.; Sumbayev, V. V.; Skov, P. S.

    2013-01-01

    IgE-mediated activation of mast cells has been reported to induce the release of tumour necrosis alpha (TNF-α), which may display autocrine effects on these cells by inducing the generation of the tissue remodelling protease matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). While mast cells and basophils have...

  17. Multistep processes in neutron-induced reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cross section of (n,n'), (n.p), (n,α), (n,2n) and other reactions of 10-20 MeV neutrons on a range of medium-weight and heavy nuclei have been calculated using the Weisskopf-Ewing and Feshbach-Kerman-Koonin theories. Detailed comparisons are made with the available experimental data

  18. Solar thermochemical reactions Ⅱ: Synthesis of 2-aminothiophenes via Gewald reaction induced by solar thermal energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramadan Ahmed Mekheimer; Mohamed Abdallah Ameen; Kamal Usef Sadek

    2008-01-01

    Green conditions have been developed for the synthesis of substituted 2-aminothiopbenes employing multicomponent reactions of a ketone with active methylene nitrile and elemental sulphur induced by free solar thermal energy.

  19. Chromosomal aberrations induced by alpha particles; Aberraciones cromosomicas inducidas por particulas {alpha}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero C, C.; Brena V, M. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: cgc@nuclear.inin.mx

    2005-07-01

    The chromosomal aberrations produced by the ionizing radiation are commonly used when it is necessary to establish the exposure dose of an individual, it is a study that is used like complement of the traditional physical systems and its application is only in cases in that there is doubt about what indicates the conventional dosimetry. The biological dosimetry is based on the frequency of aberrations in the chromosomes of the lymphocytes of the individual in study and the dose is calculated taking like reference to the dose-response curves previously generated In vitro. A case of apparent over-exposure to alpha particles to which is practiced analysis of chromosomal aberrations to settle down if in fact there was exposure and as much as possible, to determine the presumed dose is presented. (Author)

  20. Study of the {sup 9}Be(p,{alpha}){sup 6}Li reaction via the Trojan Horse Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, S.; Lamia, L.; Spitaleri, C.; Cherubini, S.; Gulino, M.; La Cognata, M.; Tumino, A. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Universita di Catania, Dipartimento di Metodologie Fisiche e Chimiche per l' Ingegneria, Catania (Italy); Li, C.; Pizzone, R.G. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy)

    2006-03-15

    The Trojan Horse Method has been applied to the {sup 2}H({sup 9}Be,{sup 6}Li{alpha})n three-body reaction in order to investigate the {sup 9}Be(p,{alpha}){sup 6}Li two-body reaction, which is involved in the study of light element abundances (lithium, beryllium and boron). A coincidence measurement was performed in order to identify the presence of the quasi-free mechanism in the three-body reaction, needed for the application of the method. The astrophysical S(E)-factor was extracted and compared to direct data. No information about electron screening effects can be extracted due to the poor resolution of the indirect data. (orig.)

  1. The shear-induced alpha-effect and long-term variations in solar dynamo

    OpenAIRE

    Pipin, V. V.

    2007-01-01

    The consequences of the shear-induced alpha effect to the long-term modulation of magnetic activity are examined with the help of the axisymmetric numerical dynamo model that includes the self-consistent description of the angular momentum balance, heat transport and magnetic field generation in the spherical shell. We find that the shear contributions to alpha effect can complicate the long-term behaviour of the large-scale magnetic activity and differential rotation in nonlinear dynamo. Add...

  2. The Effect of Alpha-Lipoic Acid on Mitochondrial Superoxide and Glucocorticoid-Induced Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Sharon L. H. Ong; Harpreet Vohra; Yi Zhang; Matthew Sutton; Whitworth, Judith A

    2013-01-01

    Aims. To examine the effect of alpha-lipoic acid, an antioxidant with mitochondrial superoxide inhibitory properties, on adrenocorticotrophic hormone- (ACTH-HT) and dexamethasone-induced hypertensions (DEX-HT) in rats and if any antihypertensive effect is mediated via mitochondrial superoxide inhibition. Methods. In a prevention study, rats received ground food or alpha-lipoic-acid-laced food (10 mg/rat/day) for 15 nights. Saline, adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH, 0.2 mg/kg/day), or dexamet...

  3. Measurement of fragment production cross-section on nucleon-induced reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We introduce our activities on measurements of fragment which are secondary particles heavier than alpha-particles produced by nucleon-induced reaction and have been recognized to be a cause of serious problem to semiconductor devices and human in a space environment by using a Bragg curve spectrometer (BCS) and energy-time-of-flight method (E-TOF), together with the activities in other facilities. For these studies and estimation, it is important to know the fragment production yield including the energy and angular distribution (double-differential cross-section (DDX) data) of fragments emission. We have resulted in success to obtain light fragments on proton- and neutron-induced reactions by using a BCS developed for neutron specially and E-TOF method. Double-differential fragment production cross-sections obtained will be applied for the analysis of SEU and dose contributions. (author)

  4. Alpha adrenergic modulation on effects of norepinephrine transporter inhibitor reboxetine in five-choice serial reaction time task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yia-Ping

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study examined the effects of a norepinephrine transporter (NET inhibitor reboxetine (RBX on an attentional performance test. Adult SD rats trained with five-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT were administered with RBX (0, 3.0 and 10 mg/kg in the testing day. Alpha-1 adrenergic receptor antagonist PRA and alpha-2 adrenergic receptor antagonist RX821002 were used to clarify the RBX effect. Results revealed that rat received RBX at 10 mg/kg had an increase in the percentage of the correct response and decreases in the numbers of premature response. Alpha-1 adrenergic receptor antagonist Prazosin (PRA at 0.1 mg/kg reversed the RBX augmented correct responding rate. However, alpha-2 adrenergic receptor antagonist RX821002 at 0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg dose dependently reversed the RBX reduced impulsive responding. Our results suggested that RBX as a norepinephrine transporter inhibitor can be beneficial in both attentional accuracy and response control and alpha-1 and alpha-2 adrenergic receptors might be involved differently.

  5. Deformation behaviour of {gamma}+{alpha}{sub 2} Ti aluminide processed through reaction synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, R.K., E-mail: rohitkumar_gupta@vssc.gov.in [Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, ISRO, Trivandrum, Kerala 695 022 (India); Pant, Bhanu [Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, ISRO, Trivandrum, Kerala 695 022 (India); Kumar, Vinod [SAIL-RDCIS, Ranchi (India); Agarwala, Vijaya [Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee 247 667 (India); Sinha, P.P. [Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, ISRO, Trivandrum, Kerala 695 022 (India)

    2013-01-01

    {gamma}+{alpha}{sub 2} titanium aluminide alloys made through reaction synthesis have been used for deformation study. Hot isothermal compression test is carried out to study the deformation characteristics of the alloys using Gleeble thermomechanical simulator. Three alloys based on Ti48Al2Cr2Nb0.1B (at%) are tested at different temperatures and at different strain rates. True stress-true strain plots are analyzed along with analysis of tested specimens. Tested specimens are observed under optical and electron microscopes. Presence of various deformation morphologies and phases were confirmed. Microhardness evaluation and transmission electron microscopic examination are used to confirm the presence of different phases. It is found that dynamic recrystallization is mainly playing role in deformation of these alloys. Presence of dynamically recrystallized (DRX) grains and lamellar microstructures is confirmed at the intergranular area and inside the grains, respectively. A nucleation model is suggested for DRX and lamellar grain nucleation during deformation. Attempt has been made to quantify the presence of various phases through optical microscopy. Hot workability map is also suggested on the basis of microstructural and visual observation of compression tested specimens.

  6. Changes of lipid peroxides and alpha-tocopherol in rats with experimentally induced myocardial necrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higuchi,Yoshimi

    1982-04-01

    Full Text Available Myocardial necrosis was produced in rats by injection of isoproterenol (80 mg per kg body weight. Lipid peroxides were measured by the thiobarbituric acid reaction. alpha-Tocopherol was assayed by fluorometric analysis. Immediately after isoproterenol injections, serum lipid peroxides increased and serum alpha-tocopherol decreased, then gradually returned to the pre-injection levels. Lipid peroxides increased more rapidly in the heart and liver than in serum. Alpha-Tocopherol decreased in the heart and liver, then gradually returned to the pre-injection levels. These results indicate that increase in serum lipid peroxides reflects production of peroxides in myocardial tissue and in liver. The decrease in alpha-tocopherol may be due to consumption as anti-oxidants in the vascular system and organs.

  7. Computational Catalysis Using the Artificial Force Induced Reaction Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sameera, W M C; Maeda, Satoshi; Morokuma, Keiji

    2016-04-19

    The artificial force induced reaction (AFIR) method in the global reaction route mapping (GRRM) strategy is an automatic approach to explore all important reaction paths of complex reactions. Most traditional methods in computational catalysis require guess reaction paths. On the other hand, the AFIR approach locates local minima (LMs) and transition states (TSs) of reaction paths without a guess, and therefore finds unanticipated as well as anticipated reaction paths. The AFIR method has been applied for multicomponent organic reactions, such as the aldol reaction, Passerini reaction, Biginelli reaction, and phase-transfer catalysis. In the presence of several reactants, many equilibrium structures are possible, leading to a number of reaction pathways. The AFIR method in the GRRM strategy determines all of the important equilibrium structures and subsequent reaction paths systematically. As the AFIR search is fully automatic, exhaustive trial-and-error and guess-and-check processes by the user can be eliminated. At the same time, the AFIR search is systematic, and therefore a more accurate and comprehensive description of the reaction mechanism can be determined. The AFIR method has been used for the study of full catalytic cycles and reaction steps in transition metal catalysis, such as cobalt-catalyzed hydroformylation and iron-catalyzed carbon-carbon bond formation reactions in aqueous media. Some AFIR applications have targeted the selectivity-determining step of transition-metal-catalyzed asymmetric reactions, including stereoselective water-tolerant lanthanide Lewis acid-catalyzed Mukaiyama aldol reactions. In terms of establishing the selectivity of a reaction, systematic sampling of the transition states is critical. In this direction, AFIR is very useful for performing a systematic and automatic determination of TSs. In the presence of a comprehensive description of the transition states, the selectivity of the reaction can be calculated more accurately

  8. Dominant-negative CK2alpha induces potent effects on circadian rhythmicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine M Smith

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Circadian clocks organize the precise timing of cellular and behavioral events. In Drosophila, circadian clocks consist of negative feedback loops in which the clock component PERIOD (PER represses its own transcription. PER phosphorylation is a critical step in timing the onset and termination of this feedback. The protein kinase CK2 has been linked to circadian timing, but the importance of this contribution is unclear; it is not certain where and when CK2 acts to regulate circadian rhythms. To determine its temporal and spatial functions, a dominant negative mutant of the catalytic alpha subunit, CK2alpha(Tik, was targeted to circadian neurons. Behaviorally, CK2alpha(Tik induces severe period lengthening (approximately 33 h, greater than nearly all known circadian mutant alleles, and abolishes detectable free-running behavioral rhythmicity at high levels of expression. CK2alpha(Tik, when targeted to a subset of pacemaker neurons, generates period splitting, resulting in flies exhibiting both long and near 24-h periods. These behavioral effects are evident even when CK2alpha(Tik expression is induced only during adulthood, implicating an acute role for CK2alpha function in circadian rhythms. CK2alpha(Tik expression results in reduced PER phosphorylation, delayed nuclear entry, and dampened cycling with elevated trough levels of PER. Heightened trough levels of per transcript accompany increased protein levels, suggesting that CK2alpha(Tik disturbs negative feedback of PER on its own transcription. Taken together, these in vivo data implicate a central role of CK2alpha function in timing PER negative feedback in adult circadian neurons.

  9. Major vault protein forms complexes with hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha and reduces HIF-1alpha level in ACHN human renal adenocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwashita, Ken-ichi; Ikeda, Ryuji; Takeda, Yasuo; Sumizawa, Tomoyuki; Furukawa, Tatsuhiko; Yamaguchi, Tatsuya; Akiyama, Shin-ichi; Yamada, Katsushi

    2010-04-01

    Vaults are evolutionarily highly conserved ribonucleoprotein (RNP) particles with a hollow barrel-like structure. Although roles in multidrug resistance and innate immunity have been suggested, the physiological function of vaults remains unclear. Major vault protein (MVP), the main component of the vault particle, has been reported to be induced by hypoxia. However, there are no reports about the effect of vaults on cellular responses to hypoxia. We thus examined whether vaults are implicated in cellular responses to hypoxia. In this study, we focused on hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha), which is a master regulator of hypoxic responses, and found that: (i) MVP knockdown by RNA interference increases HIF-1alpha protein levels induced by hypoxia and hypoxia mimetics; (ii) MVP knockdown does not affect HIF-1alpha mRNA levels, but decreases the ubiquitination and degradation of HIF-1alpha protein; and (iii) vaults form complexes with HIF-1alpha, PHD2, and pVHL. Taken together, these results suggest that vaults function as scaffolds in HIF-1alpha degradation pathway and promote the ubiquitination and degradation of HIF-1alpha. PMID:20175781

  10. Manufacturing of thin films of boron for the measurement of the {sup 10}B(n, {alpha}){sup 7} Li reaction used in BNCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smilgys, Barbara; Oliveira, Sandro Guedes de; Hadler Neto, Julio Cesar; Vellame, Igor Alencar [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica Gleb Wataghin; Soares, Cleber Jose; Salim, Leonardo Alfredo [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas; Coelho, Paulo Rogerio Pinto [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia Nuclear

    2011-07-01

    Full text: The Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is considered to be a possible treatment for different types of aggressive cancers located in areas of difficult access or which already have metastasis. The working principle of this therapy is the selective delivery of a greater amount of boron to the tumor cells than to the healthy ones, followed by the neutron irradiation that will induce the emission of {alpha} particles through the {sup 10}B(n, {alpha}){sup 7} Li reaction used in BNCT reaction. The high energy deposition of the product particles causes the death of the cells and this therapy becomes much effective if the healthy tissue is less exposed to this radiation. The objective of this work is to develop a method for measuring the rate of this reaction by using thin films of boron. We have manufactured thin films with different concentrations of boron deposited on mica and the thin films were exposed to different irradiation time intervals at the reactor IEA-R1 located at IPEN, Sao Paulo. Here we show our first results on the density and uniformity of the thin films, where the detection of the particles is made using plastic track detectors (CR-39) which have their structures damaged by the passage of ions. (author)

  11. AN UPDATED {sup 6}Li(p, {alpha}){sup 3}He REACTION RATE AT ASTROPHYSICAL ENERGIES WITH THE TROJAN HORSE METHOD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamia, L.; Spitaleri, C.; Sergi, M. L. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Catania, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Pizzone, R. G.; Tumino, A.; La Cognata, M. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, I-95125 Catania (Italy); Tognelli, E.; Degl' Innocenti, S.; Prada Moroni, P. G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Pappalardo, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Universita di Ferrara, I-44100 Ferrara (Italy)

    2013-05-01

    The lithium problem influencing primordial and stellar nucleosynthesis is one of the most interesting unsolved issues in astrophysics. {sup 6}Li is the most fragile of lithium's stable isotopes and is largely destroyed in most stars during the pre-main-sequence (PMS) phase. For these stars, the convective envelope easily reaches, at least at its bottom, the relatively low {sup 6}Li ignition temperature. Thus, gaining an understanding of {sup 6}Li depletion also gives hints about the extent of convective regions. For this reason, charged-particle-induced reactions in lithium have been the subject of several studies. Low-energy extrapolations of these studies provide information about both the zero-energy astrophysical S(E) factor and the electron screening potential, U{sub e} . Thanks to recent direct measurements, new estimates of the {sup 6}Li(p, {alpha}){sup 3}He bare-nucleus S(E) factor and the corresponding U{sub e} value have been obtained by applying the Trojan Horse method to the {sup 2}H({sup 6}Li, {alpha} {sup 3}He)n reaction in quasi-free kinematics. The calculated reaction rate covers the temperature window 0.01 to 2T{sub 9} and its impact on the surface lithium depletion in PMS models with different masses and metallicities has been evaluated in detail by adopting an updated version of the FRANEC evolutionary code.

  12. Neuroprotective Effects of Alpha Lipoic Acid on Haloperidol-Induced Oxidative Stress in the Rat Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Perera Joachim; Tan Joon; Jeevathayaparan S; Chakravarthi Srikumar; Haleagrahara Nagaraja

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Haloperidol is an antipsychotic drug that exerts its' antipsychotic effects by inhibiting dopaminergic neurons. Although the exact pathophysiology of haloperidol extrapyramidal symptoms are not known, the role of reactive oxygen species in inducing oxidative stress has been proposed as one of the mechanisms of prolonged haloperidol-induced neurotoxicity. In the present study, we evaluate the protective effect of alpha lipoic acid against haloperidol-induced oxidative stress in the ra...

  13. TCR-induced Akt serine 473 phosphorylation is regulated by protein kinase C-alpha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Lifen [Department of Pediatrics, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan (China); Section of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); The Committees on Immunology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Qiao, Guilin; Ying, Haiyan [Section of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); The Committees on Immunology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Zhang, Jian, E-mail: jzhang@medicine.bsd.uchicago.edu [Department of Pediatrics, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan (China); Section of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); The Committees on Immunology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); The Committees on Molecular Medicine, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Yin, Fei, E-mail: yf2323@hotmail.com [Department of Pediatrics, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan (China)

    2010-09-10

    Research highlights: {yields} Conventional PKC positively regulates TCR-induced phosphorylation of Akt. {yields} PKC-alpha is the PDK-2 responsible for phosphorylating Akt at Ser{sup 473} upon TCR stimulation. {yields} Knockdown of PKC-alpha decreases TCR-induced Akt phosphorylation. -- Abstract: Akt signaling plays a central role in T cell functions, such as proliferation, apoptosis, and regulatory T cell development. Phosphorylation at Ser{sup 473} in the hydrophobic motif, along with Thr{sup 308} in its activation loop, is considered necessary for Akt function. It is widely accepted that phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK-1) phosphorylates Akt at Thr{sup 308}, but the kinase(s) responsible for phosphorylating Akt at Ser{sup 473} (PDK-2) remains elusive. The existence of PDK-2 is considered to be specific to cell type and stimulus. PDK-2 in T cells in response to TCR stimulation has not been clearly defined. In this study, we found that conventional PKC positively regulated TCR-induced Akt Ser{sup 473} phosphorylation. PKC-alpha purified from T cells can phosphorylate Akt at Ser{sup 473} in vitro upon TCR stimulation. Knockdown of PKC-alpha in T-cell-line Jurkat cells reduced TCR-induced phosphorylation of Akt as well as its downstream targets. Thus our results suggest that PKC-alpha is a candidate for PDK-2 in T cells upon TCR stimulation.

  14. Cross Section and Tensor Analysing Power of the $\\vec{d}d\\to \\eta\\alpha$ Reaction Near Threshold

    CERN Document Server

    Budzanowski, A; Gebel, R; Hawranek, P; Jahn, R; Jha, V; Kilian, K; Kliczewski, S; Kirillov, Da; Kirillov, Di; Kolev, D; Kravcikova, M; Lesiak, M; Lieb, J; Machner, H; Magiera, A; Maier, R; Martinská, G; Nedev, S; Piskunov, N; Prasuhn, D; Protić, D; Ritman, J; Von Rossen, P; Roy, B J; Sitnik, U; Siudak, R; Tsenov, R; Urbán, J; Vankova, G; Wilkin, C

    2008-01-01

    The angular distributions of the unpolarised differential cross section and tensor analysing power $A_{xx}$ of the $\\vec{d}d\\to\\alpha \\eta$ reaction have been measured at an excess energy of 16.6 MeV. The ambiguities in the partial-wave description of these data are made explicit by using the invariant amplitude decomposition. This allows the magnitude of the s-wave amplitude to be extracted and compared with results published at lower energies. In this way, firmer bounds could be obtained on the scattering length of the $\\eta \\alpha$ system. The results do not, however, unambiguously prove the existence of a quasi-bound $\\eta \\alpha$ state.

  15. 5-Azacytidine treatment of HA-A melanoma cells induces Sp1 activity and concomitant transforming growth factor alpha expression.

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, T H; Paterson, A. J.; Grant, J H; Meluch, A A; Kudlow, J E

    1992-01-01

    Evidence indicates DNA methylation as a part of the regulatory machinery controlling mammalian gene expression. The human melanoma cell line HA-A expresses low levels of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha). TGF-alpha mRNA accumulated, however, in response to DNA demethylation induced by a nucleoside analog, 5-azacytidine (5-azaC). The importance of DNA methylation in the TGF-alpha promoter region was examined by a transient transfection assay with luciferase reporter plasmids contain...

  16. Multifragmentation in light-ion-induced reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morley, K.B.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Bracken, D.S. [and others

    1995-04-01

    Multifragmentation of {sup nat}Ag and {sup 197}Au nuclei induced by 4.8 GeV {sup 3}He ions has been studied with the ISiS 4{pi} detector array. Rapidity and moving source analyses are consistent with thermal emission from a source in approximate kinetic equilibrium. For the most dissipative collisions, the spectral Coulomb peaks are broadened to very low energies, indicative of emission from an expanded nuclear system. Predictions of an intranuclear cascade/expanding, emitting source model compare well with experimental multiplicity distributions and the evolution of fragment spectral shapes.

  17. Multifragmentation in light-ion-induced reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multifragmentation of natAg and 197Au nuclei induced by 4.8 GeV 3He ions has been studied with the ISiS 4π detector array. Rapidity and moving source analyses are consistent with thermal emission from a source in approximate kinetic equilibrium. For the most dissipative collisions, the spectral Coulomb peaks are broadened to very low energies, indicative of emission from an expanded nuclear system. Predictions of an intranuclear cascade/expanding, emitting source model compare well with experimental multiplicity distributions and the evolution of fragment spectral shapes

  18. Spectroscopy of $^{19}$Ne for the thermonuclear $^{15}$O($\\alpha,\\gamma$)$^{19}$Ne and $^{18}$F($p,\\alpha$)$^{15}$O reaction rates

    CERN Document Server

    Parikh, A; de Séréville, N; Wimmer, K; Faestermann, T; Hertenberger, R; Seiler, D; Wirth, H -F; Adsley, P; Fulton, B R; Hammache, F; Kiener, J; Stefan, I

    2015-01-01

    Uncertainties in the thermonuclear rates of the $^{15}$O($\\alpha,\\gamma$)$^{19}$Ne and $^{18}$F($p,\\alpha$)$^{15}$O reactions affect model predictions of light curves from type I X-ray bursts and the amount of the observable radioisotope $^{18}$F produced in classical novae, respectively. To address these uncertainties, we have studied the nuclear structure of $^{19}$Ne over $E_{x} = 4.0 - 5.1$ MeV and $6.1 - 7.3$ MeV using the $^{19}$F($^{3}$He,t)$^{19}$Ne reaction. We find the $J^{\\pi}$ values of the 4.14 and 4.20 MeV levels to be consistent with $9/2^{-}$ and $7/2^{-}$ respectively, in contrast to previous assumptions. We confirm the recently observed triplet of states around 6.4 MeV, and find evidence that the state at 6.29 MeV, just below the proton threshold, is either broad or a doublet. Our data also suggest that predicted but yet unobserved levels may exist near the 6.86 MeV state. Higher resolution experiments are urgently needed to further clarify the structure of $^{19}$Ne around the proton thresh...

  19. Differential cross section measurements for the 6Li(n,t)alpha reaction in the few MeV region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devlin, Matthew J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Taddeucci, Terence N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hale, Gerald M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Haight, Robert C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; O' Donnell, Johhn M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    New measured differential cross sections of tritons and alpha particles following the {sup 6}Li(n,t){alpha} reaction are reported for incident neutron energies between 0.2 and approximately 20 MeV. The neutrons were produced by spallation at the WNR facility at the Los Alamos Neutron Science CEnter (LANSCE), with the incident neutron energy determined by the time-of-flight method. Four E-{Delta}E telescopes were used at eight laboratory angles. These data have been incorporated into a prior R-matrix fit for the compound {sup 7}Li system, and result in an (n,t) reaction cross section that is 4% to 10% higher than previous evaluations in the 1-3 MeV incident neutron energy region.

  20. Competition effects in charged particle induced reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Absolute cross sections have been measured for 14 reactions: 54Cr(p,γ)55Mn for 0.83 MeV less than or equal to E/sub p/ less than or equal to 3.61 MeV, 54Cr(pn,)54Mn for 2.23 MeV less than or equal to E/sub p/ less than or equal to 3.61 MeV, 51V(p,γ)52Cr for 0.93 MeV less than or equal to E/sub p/ less than or equal to 4.47 MeV, 51V(p,n)51Cr for 1.58 MeV 68Zn(p,γ)69Ga for 1.67 MeV less than or equal to E/sub p/ less than or equal to 4.97 MeV, 68Zn(p,n)68Ga for 3.77 MeV less than or equal to E/sub p/ less than or equal to 5.03 MeV, 68Zn(p,γ)65Cu for 3.36 MeV less than or equal to E/sub p/ less than or equal to 5.48 MeV, 48Ca(p,γ)49Sc for 0.58 MeV less than or equal to E/sub p/ less than or equal to 2.67 MeV, 48Ca(p,n,)48Sc for 0.96 less than or equal to E/sub p/ less than or equal to 2.67 MeV, 37Cl(α,γ)41K for 2.90 MeV less than or equal to E/sub α/ less than or equal to 5.23 MeV, 62Ni(α,γ)66Zn for 5.07 MeV less than or equal to E/sub α/ less than or equal to 8.64 MeV, 62Ni(α,n)65Zn for 6.95 MeV less than or equal to E/sub α/ less than or equal to 8.76 MeV, 64Ni(α,γ)68Zn for 4.50 MeV less than or equal to E/sub α/ less than or equal to 7.45 MeV, and 64Ni(α,n)67Zn for 5.29 less than or equal to E/sub α/ less than or equal to 7.44 MeV. Substantial drops in cross section were observed above the neutron thresholds for all the radiative capture reactions except 48Ca(p,γ). In the 48Ca(p,γ)and 68Zn(p,α) reactions significant though smaller neutron competition effects were observed. These cross sections were compared with cross sections calculated with global Hauser-Feshbach models. Criteria for isospin indexing, width fluctuation corrections, and black nuclues strength functions were established

  1. Alpha resonances excited in13C and 16O by the (6Li,d) reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigation of a cluster correlations is the main purpose of the research program in progress, focusing on xα and xα + ν nuclei. The reactions 9Be(6Li,d)13C and 12C(6Li,d)16O measured at the bombarding energy of 25.5 MeV, employing the São Paulo Pelletron-Enge-Spectrograph facility and the nuclear emulsion technique, were used to enhance a resonant states in 13C and 16O. An energy resolution of 20-40 keV was obtained and up to 15.5 MeV of excitation, in both nuclei, several resonances not previously measured, revealing a quasi-bound behavior, were detected. Focusing on 13C, the experimental angular distributions associated with the resonances just above the 9Be + α and 3α + ν thresholds[2] were compared with DWBA predictions. Seen at the 9Be + α threshold, a pure L = 4 transfer is indicated for each transition to the known 7/2- and (5/2-) states instead of L = 2 obtained in the former fit[3] to the integrated contribution. The narrow resonance detected at 12.3 MeV of excitation, close to the 3α + ν threshold and populated by an L = 2 transfer, reveals a 9Be(G.S.) + α component for the 1/2- cluster state candidate, 12C(Hoyle) + ν, at this threshold. Considering the 16O, states were revealed around the 4α threshold (14.44 MeV) and the upper limit resonant widths were obtained. The resonance at 14.670 MeV was reached by an L = 5 direct transfer in agreement with the 5- attribution. The upper limit width obtained, near the experimental resolution, is inconsistent with the usual experimental[4,5] and theoretical[6-7] interpretations of the 5- state revealed as a broad resonance in the same excitation energy region and considered to be a member of the Kπ = 0- band with the 12C(G.S.) + α structure. In the same excitation energy range, a narrow 5- resonance decaying to 12C(2+ 1), was predicted by Suzuki using a comprehensive semi-microscopic alpha cluster calculation, in agreement with the present findings. Haigh et al., in the investigation of the 12C

  2. Study of the astrophysically important $\\boldsymbol{^{23}\\mathrm{Na}(\\alpha,p)^{26}\\mathrm{Mg}}$ and $\\boldsymbol{^{23}\\mathrm{Na}(\\alpha,n)^{26}\\mathrm{Al}}$ reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Avila, M L; Almaraz-Calderon, S; Ayangeakaa, A D; Dickerson, C; Hoffman, C R; Jiang, C L; Kay, B P; Lai, J; Nusair, O; Pardo, R C; Santiago-Gonzalez, D; Talwar, R; Ugalde, C

    2016-01-01

    The $^{23}$Na$(\\alpha,p)^{26}$Mg and $^{23}$Na$(\\alpha,n)^{26}$Al reactions are important for our understanding of the $^{26}$Al abundance in massive stars. The aim of this work is to report on a direct and simultaneous measurement of these astrophysically important reactions using an active target system. The reactions were investigated in inverse kinematics using $^{4}$He as the active target gas in the detector. We measured the excitation functions in the energy range of about 2 to 6 MeV in the center of mass. We have found that the cross sections of the $^{23}$Na$(\\alpha,p)^{26}$Mg and the $^{23}$Na$(\\alpha,n)^{26}$Al reactions are in good agreement with previous experiments, and with statistical model calculations.

  3. Measurements of neutron-induced reactions in inverse kinematics and applications to nuclear astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Reifarth, René; Endres, Anne; Göbel, Kathrin; Heftrich, Tanja; Glorius, Jan; Koloczek, Alexander; Sonnabend, Kerstin; Travaglio, Claudia; Weigand, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Neutron capture cross sections of unstable isotopes are important for neutron-induced nucleosynthesis as well as for technological applications. A combination of a radioactive beam facility, an ion storage ring and a high flux reactor would allow a direct measurement of neutron induced reactions over a wide energy range on isotopes with half lives down to minutes. The idea is to measure neutron-induced reactions on radioactive ions in inverse kinematics. This means, the radioactive ions will pass through a neutron target. In order to efficiently use the rare nuclides as well as to enhance the luminosity, the exotic nuclides can be stored in an ion storage ring. The neutron target can be the core of a research reactor, where one of the central fuel elements is replaced by the evacuated beam pipe of the storage ring. Using particle detectors and Schottky spectroscopy, most of the important neutron-induced reactions, such as (n,$\\gamma$), (n,p), (n,$\\alpha$), (n,2n), or (n,f), could be investigated.

  4. Partition of cross sections in asymmetric nucleus-nucleus reactions and the origin of fast alpha particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the mechanism of asymmetric nucleus-nucleus reactions from the Coulomb barrier to intermediate energies the 14N + 159Tb reaction was studied at five bombarding energies between 8 and 23 MeV/u via particle-particle correlations (at selected energies) and particle KX-ray coincidences to identify the specific reaction channels. With the KX-ray method partial cross sections for projectile-like fragments (PLF) as a function of the atomic number (Z/sub res/) of the residual nucleus can be determined. The charge balance yields the ''missing charge'' dZ = Z/sub proj/ + Z/sub targ/ - Z/sub PLF/ - Z/sub TLF/ that indicates whether, in addition to the PLF, other charged particles are emitted. A large fraction of the inclusive cross sections is found to originate from such channels with two or more fragments in the exit channel, and this fraction increases as the PLF is further removed in mass from the incident projectile, and with increasing bombarding energy. From the particle-particle correlation studies it is found that sequential decays of PLF's are dominant. ''Non-sequential'' processes, if present, are associated with inelastic reactions involving excitations of both projectile and target. The bulk of the large alpha-particle cross section at small angles is found to be associated with channels in which, in addition to the alpha particle, only nucleons and other alpha particles are emitted. From γ-ray multiplicity measurements and from the broad distribution of the strength with Z/sub res/ it is concluded that these alpha particles originate from inelastic (damped) processes. 27 refs., 10 figs

  5. Evaluation of (alpha,n) Induced Neutrons as a Background for Dark Matter Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Mei, D -M; Hime, A

    2008-01-01

    Neutrons from ($\\alpha$,n) reaction through thorium and uranium decays are important sources of background for direct dark matter detection. Neutron yield and energy spectrum from a range of materials that are used to build dark matter detectors are calculated and tabulated. In addition to thorium and uranium decays, we found that $\\alpha$ particles from samarium that is often doped in the window material of photomultiplier (PMT) are also an important source of neutron yield. The results in this paper can be used as the input in the Monte Carlo simulation for many materials that will be used for next generation experiments.

  6. Measurement of the 10 keV resonance in the $^{10}$B($p, \\alpha_0$)$^7$Be reaction via the Trojan Horse Method

    CERN Document Server

    Spitaleri, C; Puglia, S M R; Romano, S; La Cognata, M; Crucilla, V; Pizzone, R G; Rapisarda, G G; Sergi, M L; Del Santo, M Gimenez; Carlin, N; Munhoz, M G; Souza, F A; de Toledo, A Szanto; Tumino, A; Irgaziev, B; Mukhamedzhanov, A; Tabacaru, G; Burjan, V; Kroha, V; Hons, Z; Mrazek, J; Zhou, Shu-Hua; Li, Chengbo; Wen, Qungang; Wakabayashi, Y; Yamaguchi, H

    2014-01-01

    The $^{10}$B(p,$\\alpha_0$)$^7$Be bare nucleus astrophysical S(E)-factor has been measured for the first time at energies from about 100 keV down to about 5 keV by means of the Trojan Horse Method (THM). In this energy region, the S(E)-factor is strongly dominated by the 8.699 MeV $^{11}$C level (J$^{\\pi}$=$\\frac{5}{2}$$^+$), producing an s-wave resonance centered at about 10 keV in the entrance channel. Up to now, only the high energy tail of this resonant has been measured, while the low-energy trend is extrapolated from the available direct data. The THM has been applied to the quasi-free $^2$H($^{10}$B,$\\alpha_0$$^7$Be)n reaction induced at a boron-beam energy of 24.5 MeV. An accurate analysis brings to the determination of the $^{10}$B(p,$\\alpha_0$)$^7$Be S(E)-factor and of the corresponding electron screening potential $U_e$, thus giving for the first time an independent evaluation of it.

  7. Quasi-bound alpha resonant states populated by the {sup 12}C({sup 6}Li, d) reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, M.R.D.; Borello-Lewin, T.; Miyake, H.; Horodynski-Matsushigue, L.B.; Duarte, J.L.M.; Rodrigues, C.L.; Souza, M.A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Cunsolo, A.; Cappuzzello, F.; Foti, A.; Agodi, C.; Cavallaro, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (LNS/INFN), Catania (Italy). Lab. Nazionali del Sud; Ukita, G.M. [Universidade de Santo Amaro (UNISA), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Psicologia

    2012-07-01

    Full text: The alpha cluster phenomenon in the light nuclei structure has been the subject of a long time investigation since the proposal of the Ikeda diagrams [1]. The main purpose of the research program in progress is the investigation of this phenomenon in (x{alpha}) and (x{alpha}+n) nuclei through the ({sup 6}Li, d) alpha transfer reaction [2-4]. Alpha resonant states around the (4{alpha}) threshold in the nucleus {sup 16}O are the focus of the present contribution. In fact, the importance of these resonances at the elements production in stars is recognized, as primarily pointed out by Hoyle in {sup 12}C [6]. The existence of a rotational band with the {alpha} +{sup 12} C (Hoyle) cluster state structure was recently demonstrated by Ohkubo and Hirabayashi [6]. In order to explore this region of interest, measurements of the {sup 12}C({sup 6}Li, d){sup 16}O reaction up to 17 MeV of excitation at an incident energy of 25.5 MeV, have been performed employing the Sao Paulo Pelletron-Enge Split-Pole facility and the nuclear emulsion detection technique (plates Fuji G6B, 50 {mu}m thick). Spectra associated with six scattering angles, from 5 deg to 29 deg in the laboratory frame, each one 50 cm along the focal surface, were measured. Several narrow resonances with a quasi-bound behavior embedded in the continuum were detected and the resolution of 25 keV allowed for the separation of doublets not resolved before [7,8]. The absolute cross sections and the respective deuteron angular distributions were determined and the analysis is in progress. [1] K. Ikeda et al., Prog. Theor. Phys. Suppl. E 68, 464 (1968); H. Horiuchi, K. Ikeda, and Y. Suzuki, ibid. 44, 225 (1978). [2] M.R.D.Rodrigues et al., in12th International Conference on Nuclear Reaction Mechanism, Varenna, Italy, edited by F. Cerutti and A. Ferrari , CERN Proceedings, 2010-2, pp. 331- 335. [3] T. Borello-Lewin et al., Proceedings of SOTANCP2, Brussels, Belgium 2010, edited by P. Descouvemount et al., Int. J

  8. Anti-TNF-Alpha-Induced Psoriasis – An Unusual Paradox

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Neel; Lindsay, James

    2009-01-01

    Anti-TNF-α agents are currently utilised for the treatment of a vast array of autoimmune conditions including inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis and psoriasis. It is however noted that such therapeutic strategies have been linked to the specific induction of cutaneous-based reactions such as dermatitis, erythema multiforme and psoriasis. Here we present the case of a young female patient with Crohn's disease who developed psoriasis following treatment wit...

  9. Radiochemical studies of fast neutron induced reactions at KFA JUELICH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of radiochemical study of neutron induced threshold reactions are reported. Integral cross-sections were measured by the activation technique. Tritium and 3He formation cross-sections were determined at 14.6 MeV neutron energy and on neutron spectrum from d-Be break-up reaction. Some preliminary systematic trends observed in the cross-section data described. Some general results of nuclear data measurement for reactor techology are discussed

  10. Radiation induced reaction on metal surface and its corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many electron induced chemical reactions occurs under the β-ray irradiation environment. The decomposition products which are generated by the electron induced reactions interact with the metal surface of the structural materials at the fuel reprocessing. The application of the electron accelerator at the JNC for the research on the corrosion mechanism of the structural material under the β-ray environment is proposed. In the present work, the oxidisation phenomena of the metal material were studied using the plasma experimental apparatus at Tokyo Institute of Technology as the preliminary experiment, and the contribution of the electron for the oxidisation phenomena was discussed. (J.P.N.)

  11. Dynamics of synchrotron VUV-induced intracluster reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grover, J.R. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Photoionization mass spectrometry (PIMS) using the tunable vacuum ultraviolet radiation available at the National Synchrotron Light Source is being exploited to study photoionization-induced reactions in small van der Waals mixed complexes. The information gained includes the observation and classification of reaction paths, the measurement of onsets, and the determination of relative yields of competing reactions. Additional information is obtained by comparison of the properties of different reacting systems. Special attention is given to finding unexpected features, and most of the reactions investigated to date display such features. However, understanding these reactions demands dynamical information, in addition to what is provided by PIMS. Therefore the program has been expanded to include the measurement of kinetic energy release distributions.

  12. Development of lymphoproliferative diseases by hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha is associated with prolonged lymphocyte survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisaburo Sueoka

    Full Text Available Hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1 alpha plays an essential role in the regulation of various genes associated with low oxygen consumption. Elevated expression of HIF-1alpha has been reported to be associated with tumor progression, invasion and metastasis in many cancers. To investigate the role of HIF-1alpha in tumor development and metastasis, we established transgenic mice constitutively expressing HIF1A gene under regulation of the cytomegalovirus gene promoter. Although HIF-1alpha protein levels varied among organs, expression of HIF1A mRNA in most organs gradually increased in an age-dependent manner. The transgenic mice showed no gross morphological abnormality up to 8 weeks after birth, although they subsequently developed tumors in the lymphoid, lung, and breast; the most prominent tumor was lymphoma appearing in the intestinal mucosa and intra-mesenchymal tissues. The prevalence of tumors reached 80% in 13 months after birth. The constitution of lymphocyte populations in the transgenic mice did not differ from that in wild-type mice. However, lymphocytes of the transgenic mice revealed prolonged survival under long-term culture conditions and revealed increased resistance to cytotoxic etoposide. These results suggest that HIF-1alpha itself is not oncogenic but it may play an important role in lymphomagenesis mediated through the prolonged survival of lymphocytes in this transgenic mouse model.

  13. On reaction mechanisms involved in the deuteron–induced surrogate reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An extended analysis of the nuclear reaction mechanisms involved within deuteron interaction with nuclei, namely the breakup, stripping, pick-up, pre-equilibrium emission, and evaporation from fully equilibrated compound nucleus, is presented in order to highlight the importance of the direct mechanisms still neglected in the analysis of deuteron-induced surrogate reactions. Particularly, the dominance of the breakup mechanism at low energies around the Coulomb barrier should be considered in the case of (d,x) surrogate reactions on actinide target nuclei

  14. On reaction mechanisms involved in the deuteron–induced surrogate reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avrigeanu, M.; Avrigeanu, V.; Mănăilescu, C. [Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, P.O. Box MG-6, 077125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)

    2015-02-24

    An extended analysis of the nuclear reaction mechanisms involved within deuteron interaction with nuclei, namely the breakup, stripping, pick-up, pre-equilibrium emission, and evaporation from fully equilibrated compound nucleus, is presented in order to highlight the importance of the direct mechanisms still neglected in the analysis of deuteron-induced surrogate reactions. Particularly, the dominance of the breakup mechanism at low energies around the Coulomb barrier should be considered in the case of (d,x) surrogate reactions on actinide target nuclei.

  15. Near Fermi Energy reaction dynamics and clustering in alpha-conjugate systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiguang; Schmidt, Katarzyna; Kim, E.-J.; Hagel, K.; Barbui, M.; Wuenschel, S.; Natowitz, J. B.; Zheng, H.; Blando, N.; Bonasera, A.; Giuliani, G.

    2015-10-01

    Theoretical study predicted that the self-organizing of alpha cluster is favored over deuteron below a critical density with moderate temperature, where the possible Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) is expected to occur. However the experimental information about the alpha states at low density is scarce. It is natural to pursue experiments with α conjugate beams and advanced detection apparatus to explore the collective dynamics of alpha clustered systems at low density. Systematical experiments were carried out with 40Ca and 28Si beams at 10, 25, 35 MeV/u incident on 28Si, 12C, 40Ca and 180Ta targets, detected with the NIMROD-ISiS 4 Pi detector array. It is found that there is a strong neck-like emission, which consists mainly of alpha-like fragments. The characteristic of the α emission source is explored by shape analysis, multi-particle correlation and quantum fluctuation approaches. How these observables reveal the possible alpha BEC in low density and possible exotic toroidal and linear chain configurations made out of alpha clusters is discussed.

  16. Convective mixing induced by acid-base reactions.

    OpenAIRE

    Almarcha, Christophe; R'Honi, Yasmina; De Decker, Yannick; Trevelyan, Philip; Eckert, Kerstin; De Wit, Anne

    2011-01-01

    When two miscible solutions, each containing a reactive species, are put in contact in the gravity field, local variations in the density due to the reaction can induce convective motion and mixing. We characterize here both experimentally and theoretically such buoyancy-driven instabilities induced by the neutralization of a strong acid by a strong base in aqueous solutions. The diverse patterns obtained are shown to depend on the type of reactants used and on their relative concentrations. ...

  17. Study of the surrogate-reaction method applied to neutron-induced capture cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boutoux, G. [CNRS, IN2P3, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33175 Gradignan (France); Univ. Bordeaux, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33175 Gradignan (France); Jurado, B., E-mail: jurado@cenbg.in2p3.fr [CNRS, IN2P3, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33175 Gradignan (France); Univ. Bordeaux, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33175 Gradignan (France); Meot, V.; Roig, O. [CEA DAM DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Mathieu, L.; Aieche, M.; Barreau, G.; Capellan, N.; Companis, I.; Czajkowski, S.; Schmidt, K.-H. [CNRS, IN2P3, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33175 Gradignan (France); Univ. Bordeaux, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33175 Gradignan (France); Burke, J.T. [LLNL, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Bail, A.; Daugas, J.M.; Faul, T.; Morel, P.; Pillet, N.; Theroine, C. [CEA DAM DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Derkx, X. [GANIL, 14076 Caen (France); Serot, O. [CEA-Cadarache, DEN/DER/SPRC/LEPh, 13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); and others

    2012-06-12

    Gamma-decay probabilities of {sup 173}Yb and {sup 176}Lu have been measured using the surrogate reactions {sup 174}Yb({sup 3}He,{alpha}{gamma}){sup 173}Yb* and {sup 174}Yb({sup 3}He,p{gamma}){sup 176}Lu*, respectively. For the first time, the gamma-decay probabilities have been obtained with two independent experimental methods based on the use of C{sub 6}D{sub 6} scintillators and Germanium detectors. Our results for the radiative-capture cross sections are several times higher than the corresponding neutron-induced data. To explain these differences, we have used our gamma-decay probabilities to extract rather direct information on the spin distributions populated in the transfer reactions used. They are about two times wider and the mean values are 3 to 4 Planck-Constant-Over-Two-Pi higher than the ones populated in the neutron-induced reactions. As a consequence, in the transfer reactions neutron emission to the ground and first excited states of the residual nucleus is strongly suppressed and gamma-decay is considerably enhanced.

  18. AlphaS1-casein deficiency recorded for defective genotypes induces a chronic ER stress and deep changes in milk composition, signing a singular secretion process in goats

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Patrice; B. Badaoui; Barile, Daniela; Lahouassa, Hichem; Beauvallet, Christian; Cebo, Christelle; Leroux, Christine; Chanat, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The extensive polymorphism recorded at the CSN1S1 locus has been shown to influence goat milk composition and its technological properties. A deficit in alphaS1-casein is responsible for the accumulation of immature caseins in distended rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) cisternae of mammary epithelial cells (MEC). This triggers a chronic ER stress which induces, in turn, an adaptive unfolded protein response (UPR). Our data strongly suggest: i) the existence of a membraneassociated form of alp...

  19. Measurement of the reaction O-17(\\alpha,n)Ne-20 and its impact on the s process in massive stars

    CERN Document Server

    Best, A; Görres, J; Couder, M; deBoer, R; Falahat, S; Güray, R T; Kontos, A; Kratz, K -L; LeBlanc, P J; Li, Q; O'Brien, S; Özkan, N; Pignatari, M; Sonnabend, K; Talwar, R; Tan, W; Uberseder, E; Wiescher, M; 10.1103/PhysRevC.87.045805

    2013-01-01

    The ratio between the rates of the reactions O-17(\\alpha,n)Ne-20 and O-17(\\alpha,\\gamma)Ne-21 determines whether O-16 is an efficient neutron poison for the s process in massive stars, or if most of the neutrons captured by O-16(n,\\gamma) are recycled into the stellar environment. This ratio is of particular relevance to constrain the s process yields of fast rotating massive stars at low metallicity. Recent results on the (\\alpha,\\gamma) channel have made it necessary to measure the (\\alpha,n) reaction more precisely and investigate the effect of the new data on s process nucleosynthesis in massive stars. We present a new measurement of the O-17(\\alpha, n) reaction using a moderating neutron detector. In addition, the (\\alpha, n_1) channel has been measured independently by observation of the characteristic 1633 keV \\gamma-transition in Ne-20. The reaction cross section was determined with a simultaneous R-matrix fit to both channels. (\\alpha,n) and (\\alpha, \\gamma) resonance strengths of states lying below ...

  20. The Trojan-Horse Method applied to the {sup 6}Li(p,{alpha}){sup 3}He reaction down to astrophysical energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumino, A.; Spitaleri, C.; Pappalardo, L.; Cherubini, S.; Del Zoppo, A.; La Cognata, M.; Musumarra, A.; Pellegriti, M.G.; Pizzone, R.G.; Rinollo, A.; Romano, S.; Typel, S

    2004-04-05

    The Trojan-Horse Method has been applied to the three-body d({sup 6}Li,{alpha}{sup 3}He)n break-up reaction in order to extract the bare nucleus S(E) factor for the {sup 6}Li(p,{alpha}){sup 3}He down to astrophysical energies.

  1. Inhibition of HIF-1{alpha} activity by BP-1 ameliorates adjuvant induced arthritis in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shankar, J. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago (United States); Thippegowda, P.B., E-mail: btprabha@uic.edu [Department of Pharmacology, (M/C 868), College of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, 835 S. Wolcott Ave., Chicago, IL 60612 (United States); Kanum, S.A. [Department of Chemistry, Yuvaraj' s College, University of Mysore, Mysore (India)

    2009-09-18

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory, angiogenic disease. Inflamed synovitis is a hallmark of RA which is hypoxic in nature. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), one of the key regulators of angiogenesis, is overexpressed in the pathogenesis of RA. VEGF expression is regulated by hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}), a master regulator of homeostasis which plays a pivotal role in hypoxia-induced angiogenesis. In this study we show that synthetic benzophenone analogue, 2-benzoyl-phenoxy acetamide (BP-1) can act as a novel anti-arthritic agent in an experimental adjuvant induced arthritis (AIA) rat model by targeting VEGF and HIF-1{alpha}. BP-1 administered hypoxic endothelial cells and arthritic animals clearly showed down regulation of VEGF expression. Further, BP-1 inhibits nuclear translocation of HIF-1{alpha}, which in turn suppresses transcription of the VEGF gene. These results suggest a further possible clinical application of the BP-1 derivative as an anti-arthritic agent in association with conventional chemotherapeutic agents.

  2. Tween-80 and impurity induce anaphylactoid reaction in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rui; Lao, Qiao-Cong; Yu, Hang-Ping; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Hong-Cui; Luan, Lin; Sun, Hui-Min; Li, Chun-Qi

    2015-03-01

    A number of recent reports suspected that Tween-80 in injectable medicines, including traditional Chinese medicine injections could cause life-threatening anaphylactoid reaction, but no sound conclusion was drawn. A drug-induced anaphylactoid reaction is hard to be assayed in vitro and in conventional animal models. In this study, we developed a microplate-based quantitative in vivo zebrafish assay for assessing anaphylactoid reaction and live whole zebrafish mast cell tryptase activity was quantitatively measured at a wavelength of 405 nm using N-benzoyl-dl-arginine p-nitroanilide as a substrate. We assessed 10 batches of Tween-80 solutions from various national and international suppliers and three Tween-80 impurities (ethylene glycol, 2-chloroethanol and hydrogen peroxide) in this model and found that three batches of Tween-80 (nos 2, 20080709 and 20080616) and one Tween-80 impurity, hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ), induced anaphylactoid reactions in zebrafish. Furthermore, we found that H2 O2 residue and peroxide value were much higher in Tween-80 samples 2, 20080709 and 20080616. These findings suggest that H2 O2 residue in combination with oxidized fatty acid residues (measured as peroxide value) or more likely the oxidized fatty acid residues in Tween-80 samples, but not Tween-80 itself, may induce anaphylactoid reaction. High-throughput zebrafish tryptase assay developed in this report could be used for assessing safety of Tween-80-containing injectable medicines and potentially for screening novel mast cell-modulating drugs. PMID:25345596

  3. The radioprotective activities of turpentine-induced inflammation and {alpha}{sub 2}-macroglobulin. The effect of dexamethasone on the radioprotective efficacy of the inflammation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevaljevic, L.; Koricanac, G.; Vulovic, M.; Kanazir, D.; Ribarac-Stepic, N. [Vinca Inst. of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Dobric, S. [Military Medical Academy, Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Bogojevic, D.; Petrovic, M. [Inst. of Biological Research, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    2003-03-01

    This work was aimed at the radioprotective efficacy of turpentine oil (TO), {alpha}{sub 2}-macroglobulin ({alpha}{sub 2}-M), amifostine (Ami) and/or dexamethasone (Dex). These agents were administrated, alone or in combination, prior to irradiation of rats with 6.7 Gy (LD{sub 50/30}). The survival was recorded daily for 4 weeks after irradiation and body weight, peripheral leukocytes and thrombocytes were measured. The plasma concentration of {alpha}{sub 2}-M and other acute phase proteins were determined by crossed immunoelectrophoresis. All rats receiving {alpha}{sub 2}-M and Ami alone or in combination survived the radiation injury, whereas the rate of survival of TO-treated rats was 90%. Radiation and therapy-induced changes in the expression of acute phase protein genes were atypical for the acute phase reaction. Dex alone was lethal for 45% and 55% of control and irradiated rats, respectively. Pretreatment with 1 mg Dex reduced radioprotective efficacy of TO and Ami to 30% and 40%, respectively. Given together TO and Ami provided 70% protection to rats receiving Dex. The TO and {alpha}{sub 2}-M enhanced the rate of survival from 50% to 90% and 100%, respectively. In the presence of 1 mg Dex the TO-induced radioprotectors and Ami exhibited radiosensitizing rather than radioprotecting activities. (author)

  4. Freeze out temperature on light projectile induced reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, J. [Kyoto Univ. (Japan); Haga, M.; Haseno, M. [and others

    1997-05-01

    Nuclear temperature was deduced for 12GeV proton induced target multi-fragmentation reactions on Au, Tm, Sm, Ag targets. Using isotope yield ratios, clear target mass dependence was obtained for high-multiplicity events. Deduced temperatures for light targets have higher value than those for heavy targets. (author)

  5. Status of experimental data for neutron induced reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baba, Mamoru [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan)

    1998-11-01

    A short review is presented on the status of experimental data for neutron induced reactions above 20 MeV based on the EXFOR data base and journals. Experimental data which were obtained in a systematic manner and/or by plural authors are surveyed and tabulated for the nuclear data evaluation and the benchmark test of the evaluated data. (author). 61 refs.

  6. A brief overview of models of nucleon-induced reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic features of low to intermediate energy nucleon-induced reactions are discussed within the contexts of the optical model, the statistical model, preequilibrium and intranuclear cascade models. The calculation of cross sections and other scattering quantities are described. (author)

  7. Strangeness production and hypernucleus formation in antiproton induced reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Zhao-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Formation mechanism of fragments with strangeness in collisions of antiprotons on nuclei has been investigated within the Lanzhou quantum molecular dynamics (LQMD) transport approach combined with a statistical model (GEMINI) for describing the decays of excited fragments. Production of strange particles in the antiproton induced nuclear reactions is modeled within the LQMD model, in which all possible reaction channels such as elastic scattering, annihilation, charge exchange and inelastic scattering in antibaryon-baryon, baryon-baryon and meson-baryon collisions have been included. A coalescence approach is developed for constructing hyperfragments in phase space after de-excitation of nucleonic fragments. The combined approach could describe the production of fragments in low-energy antiproton induced reactions. Hyperfragments are formed within the narrower rapidities and lower kinetic energies. It has advantage to produce heavier hyperfragments and hypernuclides with strangeness s=-2 (double-$\\Lambda$ fra...

  8. Effects of spins and resonance parities of 12C on the mechanism of emission of three alpha particles in the 11B (p, 3 α) reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research thesis reports the study of the mechanism of emission of alpha particles in the 11B (p, 3 α) reaction with respect to the effects of spins and parities of the various resonances met between 150 keV and 4 MeV. From an experimental point of view, the reaction has been studied by two methods: the detection of alpha particles by a semiconductor-based counter located at a given angle with respect to the beam direction and study of continuous spectra of alpha particles with respect to projectile energies, and recording, for a given resonance, of alpha-alpha coincidences by using the multi-parametric technique with two semiconductor-based sensors with a varying relative angular position. After a discussion of the main characteristics of resonance and of the mechanism of emission of alpha particles, the author first reports the theoretical study of a reaction producing three particles in the final state, and then reports the theoretical calculation of direct alpha spectrum shapes in the case of the 11B (p, 3 α) reaction (statistic hypothesis, hypothesis of interaction with two particles in the final state). The next part reports the experimental study of the 11B (p, 3 α) reaction

  9. New High-Precision Measurement of the Reaction Rate of the 18O(p,alpha)15N Reaction via THM

    CERN Document Server

    La Cognata, M; Mukhamedzhanov, A M; Irgaziev, B; Tribble, R E; Banu, A; Cherubini, S; Coc, A; Crucilla, V; Goldberg, V Z; Gulino, M; Kiss, G G; Lamia, L; Chengbo, L; Mrazek, J; Pizzone, R G; Puglia, S M R; Rapisarda, G G; Romano, S; Sergi, M L; Tabacaru, G; Trache, L; Trzaska, W; Tumino, A

    2009-01-01

    The 18O(p,alpha)15N reaction rate has been extracted by means of the Trojan-Horse method. For the first time the contribution of the 20-keV peak has been directly evaluated, giving a value about 35% larger than previously estimated. The present approach has allowed to improve the accuracy of a factor 8.5, as it is based on the measured strength instead of educated guesses or spectroscopic measurements. The contribution of the 90-keV resonance has been determined as well, which turned out to be of negligible importance to astrophysics.

  10. Alpha band cortico-muscular coherence occurs in healthy individuals during mechanically-induced tremor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Budini

    Full Text Available The present work aimed at investigating the effects of mechanically amplified tremor on cortico-muscular coherence (CMC in the alpha band. The study of CMC in this specific band is of particular interest because this coherence is usually absent in healthy individuals and it is an aberrant feature in patients affected by pathological tremors; understanding its mechanisms is therefore important. Thirteen healthy volunteers (23±4 years performed elbow flexor sustained contractions both against a spring load and in isometric conditions at 20% of maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC. Spring stiffness was selected to induce instability in the stretch reflex servo loop. 64 EEG channels, surface EMG from the biceps brachii muscle and force were simultaneously recorded. Contractions against the spring resulted in greater fluctuations of the force signal and EMG amplitude compared to isometric conditions (p<.05. During isometric contractions CMC was systematically found in the beta band and sporadically observed in the alpha band. However, during the contractions against the spring load, CMC in the alpha band was observed in 12 out of 13 volunteers. Partial directed coherence (PDC revealed an increased information flow in the EMG to EEG direction in the alpha band (p<.05. Therefore, coherence in the alpha band between the sensory-motor cortex and the biceps brachii muscle can be systematically induced in healthy individuals by mechanically amplifying tremor. The increased information flow in the EMG to EEG direction may reflect enhanced afferent activity from the muscle spindles. These results may contribute to the understanding of the presence of alpha band CMC in tremor related pathologies by suggesting that the origin of this phenomenon may not only be at cortical level but may also be affected by spinal circuit loops.

  11. Intestinal ischemia/reperfusion induces bronchial hyperreactivity and increases serum TNF-alpha in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arruda Marcio Jose Cristiano de

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Intestinal or hepatic ischemia/reperfusion induces acute lung injury in animal models of multiple organ failure. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF- alpha is involved in the underlying inflammatory mechanism of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Although the inflammatory cascade leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome has been extensively investigated, the mechanical components of acute respiratory distress syndrome are not fully understood. Our hypothesis is that splanchnic ischemia/reperfusion increases airway reactivity and serum TNF-alpha levels. OBJECTIVE: To assess bronchial smooth muscle reactivity under methacholine stimulation, and to measure serum TNF-alpha levels following intestinal and/or hepatic ischemia/reperfusion in rats. METHOD: Rats were subjected to 45 minutes of intestinal ischemia, or 20 minutes of hepatic ischemia, or to both (double ischemia, or sham procedures (control, followed by 120 minutes of reperfusion. The animals were then sacrificed, and the bronchial response to increasing methacholine molar concentrations (10-7 to 3 x 10-4 was evaluated in an ex-vivo bronchial muscle preparation. Serum TNF-alpha was determined by the L929-cell bioassay. RESULTS: Bronchial response (g/100 mg tissue showed increased reactivity to increasing methacholine concentrations in the intestinal ischemia and double ischemia groups, but not in the hepatic ischemia group. Similarly, serum TNF-alpha (pg/mL concentration was increased in the intestinal ischemia and double ischemia groups, but not in the hepatic ischemia group. CONCLUSION: Intestinal ischemia, either isolated or associated with hepatic ischemia, increased bronchial smooth muscle reactivity, suggesting a possible role for bronchial constriction in respiratory dysfunction following splanchnic ischemia/reperfusion. This increase occurred in concomitance with serum TNF-alpha increase, but whether the increase in TNF-alpha caused this bronchial contractility remains

  12. 5-Azacytidine treatment of HA-A melanoma cells induces Sp1 activity and concomitant transforming growth factor alpha expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, T H; Paterson, A J; Grant, J H; Meluch, A A; Kudlow, J E

    1992-01-01

    Evidence indicates DNA methylation as a part of the regulatory machinery controlling mammalian gene expression. The human melanoma cell line HA-A expresses low levels of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha). TGF-alpha mRNA accumulated, however, in response to DNA demethylation induced by a nucleoside analog, 5-azacytidine (5-azaC). The importance of DNA methylation in the TGF-alpha promoter region was examined by a transient transfection assay with luciferase reporter plasmids containing a portion of the TGF-alpha promoter. 5-azaC treatment of HA-A cells before the transfection caused a significant increase in the luciferase activity. Since input plasmids were confirmed to remain unmethylated, DNA demethylation of the TGF-alpha promoter itself does not account for the observed increase in TGF-alpha mRNA. Using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay, enhanced formation of protein-TGF-alpha promoter complex was detected in response to 5-azaC treatment. This 5-azaC-induced complex was shown to contain the transcription factor Sp1 by the following criteria: the protein-DNA complex formed on the TGF-alpha promoter contained immunoreactive Sp1; the mobility of the complex in an electrophoretic mobility shift assay was similar to that formed by recombinant Sp1; and DNase I footprinting analysis demonstrated that the 5-azaC-induced complex produced a footprint on the TGF-alpha promoter identical to that of authentic Sp1. These observations suggest that 5-azaC induces TGF-alpha expression by augmenting the Sp1 activity. However, neither the Sp1 mRNA nor its protein was induced by 5-azaC. These results suggest that in HA-A cells, TGF-alpha expression is down-modulated by DNA methylation. In addition, this process may involve the specific regulation of Sp1 activity without altering the amount of the transcription factor. Images PMID:1380648

  13. KNK437, abrogates hypoxia-induced radioresistance by dual targeting of the AKT and HIF-1{alpha} survival pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oommen, Deepu, E-mail: oommen1978@gmail.com [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Prise, Kevin M. [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)

    2012-05-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer KNK437, a benzylidene lactam compound, is a novel radiosensitizer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer KNK437 inhibits AKT signaling and abrogates the accumulation of HIF-1{alpha} under hypoxia. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer KNK437 abrogates hypoxia induced resistance to radiation. -- Abstract: KNK437 is a benzylidene lactam compound known to inhibit stress-induced synthesis of heat shock proteins (HSPs). HSPs promote radioresistance and play a major role in stabilizing hypoxia inducible factor-1{alpha} (HIF-1{alpha}). HIF-1{alpha} is widely responsible for tumor resistance to radiation under hypoxic conditions. We hypothesized that KNK437 sensitizes cancer cells to radiation and overrides hypoxia-induced radioresistance via destabilizing HIF-1{alpha}. Treatment of human cancer cells MDA-MB-231 and T98G with KNK437 sensitized them to ionizing radiation (IR). Surprisingly, IR did not induce HSPs in these cell lines. As hypothesized, KNK437 abrogated the accumulation of HIF-1{alpha} in hypoxic cells. However, there was no induction of HSPs under hypoxic conditions. Moreover, the proteosome inhibitor MG132 did not restore HIF-1{alpha} levels in KNK437-treated cells. This suggested that the absence of HIF-1{alpha} in hypoxic cells was not due to the enhanced protein degradation. HIF-1{alpha} is mainly regulated at the level of post-transcription and AKT is known to modulate the translation of HIF-1{alpha} mRNA. Interestingly, pre-treatment of cells with KNK437 inhibited AKT signaling. Furthermore, down regulation of AKT by siRNA abrogated HIF-1{alpha} levels under hypoxia. Interestingly, KNK437 reduced cell survival in hypoxic conditions and inhibited hypoxia-induced resistance to radiation. Taken together, these data suggest that KNK437 is an effective radiosensitizer that targets multiple pro-survival stress response pathways.

  14. Reaction of blood pressure and mesenteric blood flow to an infusion of biogenic amines in rats: Influence of irradiation and alpha blockers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reaction of systemic blood pressure and mesenteric blood flow to an infusion of different biogenic amines was determined in controls and in lethally (8 Gy) X-irradiated rats. The influence of the alpha blocker phenoxybenzamine on these reactions was also investigated. Changes in blood pressure and flow response similar to, but less marked than, those seen earlier after a supralethal (20 Gy) exposure were detected 3 and 8 days after irradiation. These observations as well as the consequences of alpha blockade suggest that the reactivity of alpha receptors in blood vessels is reduced after irradiation, and that the function of the heart is impaired. (orig.)

  15. Alpha particle destabilization of the toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high frequency, low mode number toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes (TAE) are shown to be driven unstable by the circulating and/or trapped α-particles through the wave-particle resonances. Satisfying the resonance condition requires that the α-particle birth speed vα ≥ vA/2|m-nq|, where vA is the Alfven speed, m is the poloidal model number, and n is the toroidal mode number. To destabilize the TAE modes, the inverse Landau damping associated with the α-particle pressure gradient free energy must overcome the velocity space Landau damping due to both the α-particles and the core electrons and ions. The growth rate was studied analytically with a perturbative formula derived from the quadratic dispersion relation, and numerically with the aid of the NOVA-K code. Stability criteria in terms of the α-particle beta βα, α-particle pressure gradient parameter (ω*/ωA) (ω* is the α-particle diamagnetic drift frequency), and (vα/vA) parameters will be presented for TFTR, CIT, and ITER tokamaks. The volume averaged α-particle beta threshold for TAE instability also depends sensitively on the core electron and ion temperature. Typically the volume averaged α-particle beta threshold is in the order of 10-4. Typical growth rates of the n=1 TAE mode can be in the order of 10-2ωA, where ωA=vA/qR. Other types of global Alfven waves are stable in D-T tokamaks due to toroidal coupling effects

  16. Nucleophilic Substitution and Redox Reactions with alpha-Chloro beta-Oxo Sulfenyl Chlorides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Essawy, Farag A.G.; Yassin, Salah M.; El-Sakka, Ibrahim A.; Khattab, Ahmed F.; Søtofte, Inger; Madsen, Jørgen Øgaard; Senning, Alexander Erich Eugen

    Alpha-Chloro sulfenyl chlorides such as 1 and 4 could not be reduced to the corresponding disulfides. Under reducing conditions they are instead dechlorinated to the corresponding thiocarbonyl compounds. Starting from the chroman-4-one derivatives 1 a number of 1,3,4-oxadithiins 3 have been...

  17. Plasmin-induced migration requires signaling through protease-activated receptor 1 and integrin alpha(9)beta(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Mousumi; Tarui, Takehiko; Shi, Biao; Akakura, Nobuaki; Ruf, Wolfram; Takada, Yoshikazu

    2004-09-01

    Plasmin is a major extracellular protease that elicits intracellular signals to mediate platelet aggregation, chemotaxis of peripheral blood monocytes, and release of arachidonate and leukotriene from several cell types in a G protein-dependent manner. Angiostatin, a fragment of plasmin(ogen), is a ligand and an antagonist for integrin alpha(9)beta(1). Here we report that plasmin specifically interacts with alpha(9)beta(1) and that plasmin induces of cells expressing migration recombinant alpha(9)beta(1) (alpha(9)-Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells). Migration was dependent on an interaction of the kringle domains of plasmin with alpha(9)beta(1) as well as the catalytic activity of plasmin. Angiostatin, representing the kringle domains of plasmin, alone did not induce the migration of alpha(9)-CHO cells, but simultaneous activation of the G protein-coupled protease-activated receptor (PAR)-1 with an agonist peptide induced the migration on angiostatin, whereas PAR-2 or PAR-4 agonist peptides were without effect. Furthermore, a small chemical inhibitor of PAR-1 (RWJ 58259) and a palmitoylated PAR-1-blocking peptide inhibited plasmin-induced migration of alpha(9)-CHO cells. These results suggest that plasmin induces migration by kringle-mediated binding to alpha(9)beta(1) and simultaneous proteolytic activation of PAR-1. PMID:15247268

  18. Muon induced reactions in the KARMEN neutrino detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report deals with the detailed study of muon induced reactions in the KARMEN detector system. However such reactions are not only background for neutrino events: The precise measurement of muon capture and muon decay reactions allows to determine and test a variety of detector properties and efficiencies and to check corresponding Monte-Carlo simulations. Furthermore important results for the structure of weak hadronic currents could be deduced by measuring muon capture on carbon. The muon charge ratio was determined by fitting the time distribution of muon decays in the KARMEN detector: R(μ+/μ-)=1.32±0.05. This allowed a precise determination of the capture rate of negative muons on 12C: Λc[12C(μ-,νμ)12B]=(6.86±0.59).103 s-1, which is in good agreement with the best experimental value of Λc=(7.05±0.27).103 s-1 measured in 1964. For the first time a capture rate for the rare process μ-+13C→12B+n+νμ could be extracted: Λc[13C(μ-,νμn)12B]=(21.9±3.9).103 s-1, which is about 30% lower than theoretically expected. Effective methods for background reduction have been deduced from the detailed study of muon induced background reactions which make it possible to observe the 15 MeV γ-rays from the neutral neutrino nucleus excitation 12C(ν,ν')12C* with a signal-to-background ratio better than 2:1. Extended Monte-Carlo-Simulations with GEANT3 have been performed for neutrino and muon induced reactions in the KARMEN detector. The measured energy and spatial distributions of the muon induced reactions are in good agreement with the calculated ones thus verifying the good properties of the KARMEN detector. Therefore reliable results can also be expected for the neutrino induced reactions. (orig./HSI)

  19. Fatal anaphylactoid reaction associated with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Atul; Amini, Mohammad R; Alpert, Martin A; Gornik, Heather L

    2013-06-01

    Acute systemic (anaphylaxis and anaphylactoid) reactions have been well described in patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). Both necrotizing and non-necrotizing skin lesions at heparin injection sites have been reported and may occur in 10-20% of patients with HIT. We report herein a patient treated with subcutaneous enoxaparin sodium who developed non-necrotizing erythematous skin lesions at enoxaparin sodium injection sites. A subsequent intravenous bolus of unfractionated heparin produced a fatal anaphylactoid reaction. This suggests that caution should be exercised in the administration of intravenous heparin to patients with non-necrotizing erythematous skin lesions at prior heparin injection sites. PMID:23579400

  20. Effects of a new triple-$\\alpha$ reaction rate on the helium ignition of accreting white dwarfs

    OpenAIRE

    Saruwatari, Motoaki; Hashimoto, Masa-aki

    2010-01-01

    Effects of a new triple-alpha reaction rate on the ignition of carbon-oxygen white dwarfs accreting helium in a binary systems have been investigated. The ignition points determine the properties of a thermonuclear explosion of a Type Ia supernova. We examine the cases of different accretion rates of helium and different initial masses of the white dwarf, which was studied in detail by Nomoto. We find that for all cases from slow to intermediate accretion rates, nuclear burnings are ignited a...

  1. The 65 keV resonance in the {sup 17}O(p,alpha){sup 14}N thermonuclear reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sergi, M.L. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Metodologie Fisiche e Chimiche per l' Ingegneria, Universita di Catania, Catania (Italy); Centro Siciliano di Fisica Nucleare e Struttura della Materia, Catania (Italy); Spitaleri, C. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Metodologie Fisiche e Chimiche per l' Ingegneria, Universita di Catania, Catania (Italy); Coc, A. [CSNSM, UMR 8609, CNRS/IN2P3and Universite Paris Sud 11, Batiment 104, 91405 Orsay Campus (France); Mukhamedzhanov, A. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Burjan, S.V. [Nuclear Physics Institute of ASCR Rez near Prague (Czech Republic); Gulino, M. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Metodologie Fisiche e Chimiche per l' Ingegneria, Universita di Catania, Catania (Italy); Hammache, F. [IPN, IN2P3-CNRS et Universite de Paris-Sud 11, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Hons, Z. [Nuclear Physics Institute of ASCR Rez near Prague (Czech Republic); Irgaziev, B. [GIK Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology Topi District Swabi NWFP (Pakistan); Kiss, G.G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Metodologie Fisiche e Chimiche per l' Ingegneria, Universita di Catania, Catania (Italy); Kroha, V. [Nuclear Physics Institute of ASCR Rez near Prague (Czech Republic); La Cognata, M. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Metodologie Fisiche e Chimiche per l' Ingegneria, Universita di Catania, Catania (Italy); Centro Siciliano di Fisica Nucleare e Struttura della Materia, Catania (Italy); Lamia, L.; Pizzone, R.G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Metodologie Fisiche e Chimiche per l' Ingegneria, Universita di Catania, Catania (Italy); Sereville, N. de [IPN, IN2P3-CNRS et Universite de Paris-Sud 11, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Somorjai, E. [ATOMKI, Debrecen (Hungary)

    2010-03-01

    The indirect measurement of {sup 17}O(p,alpha){sup 14}N cross section was performed by means of the Trojan Horse Method. This approach allowed to investigate the ultra-low energy range (E{sub c.m.}=0-300 keV) relevant for several astrophysics environments, where two resonant levels of {sup 18}F at E{sub c.m.}{sup R}=65 keV and E{sub c.m.}{sup R}=183 keV play a significant role in the reaction rate determination.

  2. Nuclear Astrophysics and Neutron Induced Reactions: Quasi-Free Reactions and RIBs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cherubini, S.; Coc, A.; Kubono, S.; Spitaleri, C.; Binh, D.N.; Burjan, Václav; Crucilla, V.; De Sereville, N.; Elekes, Z.; Gulino, M.; Hammache, F.; Hayakawa, S.; Iwasa, N.; Kato, S.; Kroha, Václav; Komatsubara, H.; La Cognata, M.; Lamiaa, L.; Li, C. B.; Nishimura, S.; Pizzone, R. G.; Puglia, S.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Romano, S.; Sergi, M. L.; Somorjai, E.; Tumino, A.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Yamaguchi, H.

    MELVILLE, NY: AMER INST PHYSICS, 2 HUNTINGTON QUADRANGLE, STE 1NO1, 2010 - (Tanihara, I.; Shima, T.; Ong, H.; Tamii, A.; Kishimoto, T.; Toki, H.; Kajino, T.; Kubono, S.), s. 98-103 ISBN 978-0-7354-0819-7. ISSN 0094-243X. [10th International Symposium on Origin of Matter and Evolution of Galaxies (OMEG10). Osaka (JP), 08.03.2010-10.03.2010] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : Quasi-free reaction * nuclear astrophysics * neutron induced reaction Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders

  3. Heparin-induced anaphylactoid reaction associated with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in the ED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Juron S; Daniels, Lauren M; Stettner, Edward A

    2014-12-01

    Although rare, heparin-induced anaphylactic and anaphylactoid reactions have been previously described in the literature. We present a case of a patient who presented to the emergency department with dyspnea and was subsequently diagnosed with an acute pulmonary venous thromboembolism. Shortly after being started on intravenous unfractionated heparin, she developed sudden cardiovascular collapse leading to a cardiopulmonary arrest. She was successfully resuscitated and, after further diagnostic evaluation, was found to have developed a heparin-induced anaphylactoid reaction. PMID:25097093

  4. alpha-Galactosylceramide can act as a nasal vaccine adjuvant inducing protective immune responses against viral infection and tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Sung-Youl; Ko, Hyun-Jeong; Chang, Woo-Sung; Park, Se-Ho; Kweon, Mi-Na; Kang, Chang-Yuil

    2005-09-01

    alpha-Galactosylceramide (alpha-GalCer) is a ligand of invariant Valpha14+ NKT cells and is presented by CD1d molecule on APC. NKT cells produce a large amount of Th1 and Th2 cytokines in response to alpha-GalCer-presented APC. In this study, we assessed whether alpha-GalCer could act as an effective nasal vaccine adjuvant for mucosal vaccine that would be capable of inducing systemic as well as mucosal immune responses. When alpha-GalCer was administered with OVA via the intranasal route to C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice, significant OVA-specific mucosal secretory IgA, systemic IgG, and CTL responses were induced with mixed Th1 and Th2 cytokine profiles seen in both strains of mice. Interestingly, as BALB/c mice were intranasally immunized with PR8 hemagglutinin Ag isolated from influenza virus A/PR/8/34 together with alpha-GalCer, significant protection was afforded against influenza viral infection. When alpha-GalCer was coimmunized with a replication-deficient live adenovirus to BALB/c mice, it significantly induced both humoral and cellular immune responses. In addition, intranasal administration of OVA with alpha-GalCer showed complete protection against EG7 tumor challenge in C57BL/6. The adjuvant effects induced by intranasal coadministration with alpha-GalCer were blocked in CD1d-/- mice, indicating that the immune responses were exclusively mediated by CD1d molecule on APC. Most interestingly, intranasally coadministered alpha-GalCer activated naive T cells and triggered them to differentiate into functional effector T cells when CFSE-labeled OT-1 cells were adoptively transferred into syngeneic mice. Overall, our results are the first to show that alpha-GalCer can act as a nasal vaccine adjuvant inducing protective immune responses against viral infections and tumors. PMID:16116223

  5. Ni elemental neutron induced reaction cross-section evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A completely new evaluation of the nickel neutron induced reaction cross sections was undertaken as a part of the ENDF/B-V effort. (n,xy) reactions and capture reaction time from threshold to 20 MeV were considered for 5860616264Ni isotopes to construct the corresponding reaction cross section for natural nickel. Both experimental and theoretical calculated results were used in evaluating different partial cross sections. Precompound effects were included in calculating (n,xy) reaction cross sections. Experimentally measured total section data extending from 0.7 MeV to 20 MeV were used to generate smooth cross section. Below 0.7 to MeV elastic and capture cross sections are represented by resonance parameters. Inelastic angular distributions to the discrete isotopic levels and elemental elastic angular distributions are included in the evaluated data file. Gamma production cross sections and energy distribution due to capture and the (n,xy) reactions were evaluated from experimental data. Finally, error files are constructed for all partial cross sections

  6. Partial deficiency of HIF-1 alpha stimulates pathological cardiac changes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bohuslavová, Romana; Kolář, František; Sedmera, David; Škvorová, Lada; Papoušek, František; Neckář, Jan; Pavlínková, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 14, Feb 6 (2014). ISSN 1472-6823 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA301/09/0117; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Echocardiographic parameters * Hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha * Diabetic cardiomyopathy Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 1.710, year: 2014

  7. Social disruption stress exacerbates alpha-galactosylceramide-induced hepatitis in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Sonoda, J.; Chida, Y; Sudo, N.; Kubo, C

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Psychosocial stress has been suggested as a possible aggravating factor in liver diseases, however, the underlying mechanism has yet to be clarified. Recently, our research revealed that electric foot-shock stress aggravated NK1.1 Ag+ T cell-dependent a-galactosylceramide (alpha-GalCer)-induced hepatitis in mice via a mechanism mediated by endogenous glucocorticoids. In this study, we examined whether or not such aggravation could be applied to a psychosocially stressful situation,...

  8. Isoscaling in Light-Ion Induced Reactions and its Statistical Interpretation

    CERN Document Server

    Botvina, A S; Trautmann, W

    2002-01-01

    Isotopic effects observed in fragmentation reactions induced by protons, deuterons, and alpha particles of incident energies between 660 MeV and 15.3 GeV on 112-Sn and 124-Sn targets are discussed. The exponential scaling of the yield ratios with the third component of the fragment isospin (N-Z)/2 is observed in all reactions, with scaling parameters that depend on the incident energy. Breakup temperatures for these reactions are deduced from double ratios of isotopic yields and tested for their relation with the isoscaling parameters. The quantum statistical (QSM) and the statistical multifragmentation (SMM) models are used for interpreting the results. The observed isoscaling can be understood as a consequence of a statistical origin of the emitted fragments in these reactions. The SMM analysis shows that the exponent describing the isoscaling behavior is proportional to the strength of the symmetry term of the fragment binding energy. Using this result, a symmetry-term coefficient (approximately 22.5 MeV) ...

  9. Investigation of (n,alpha) Reaction for Rare-earth Elements in the MeV Neutron Energy Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gledenov, R. Y. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia; Koehler, Paul Edward [ORNL; N_TOF collaboration, [CNR-INFM, Trieste, Italy

    2011-01-01

    Cross sections and forward/backward ratios in the laboratory reference system were measured for {sup 143}Nd(n, {alpha}){sup 140}Ce at 4.0, 5.0, and 6.0 MeV, {sup 147}Sm(n, {alpha}){sup 144}Nd at 5.0 and 6.0 MeV, and {sup 149}Sm(n, {alpha}){sup 146}Nd at 6.0 MeV. A twin gridded ionization chamber and large-area back-to-back {sup 143}Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} and {sup 147,149}Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} samples were employed. Experiments were performed at the 4.5 MV Van de Graaff of Peking University, China. Fast neutrons were produced through the D(d, n){sup 3}He reaction by using a deuterium gas target. A small {sup 238}U fission chamber was employed for absolute neutron flux determination and a BF{sub 3} long counter was used as neutron flux monitor. Present experimental data are compared with previous measurements, evaluations, and model calculations.

  10. Synthetic. cap alpha. subunit peptide 125-147 of human nicotinic acetylcholine receptor induces antibodies to native receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, D.J.; Griesmann, G.E.; Huang, Z.; Lennon, V.A.

    1986-03-05

    A synthetic peptide corresponding to residues 125-147 of the Torpedo acetylcholine receptor (AChR) ..cap alpha.. subunit proved to be a major antigenic region of the AChR. Rats inoculated with 50 ..mu..g of peptide (T ..cap alpha.. 125-147) developed T cell immunity and antibodies to native AChR and signs of experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis. They report the synthesis and preliminary testing of a disulfide-looped peptide comprising residues 125-147 of the human AChR ..cap alpha.. subunit. Peptide H ..cap alpha.. 125-147 differs from T ..cap alpha.. 125-147 at residues 139 (Glu for Gln) and 143 (Ser for Thr). In immunoprecipitation assays, antibodies to Torpedo AChR bound /sup 125/I-labelled H..cap alpha.. 125-147 antibody bound H..cap alpha.. 125-147, but monoclonal antibodies to an immunodominant region of native AChR bound neither H..cap alpha.. 125-147 nor T ..cap alpha.. 125-147. Rats immunized with H ..cap alpha.. 125-147 produced anti-mammalian muscle AChR antibodies that induced modulation of AChRs from cultured human myotubes. Thus, region 125-147 of the human AChR ..cap alpha.. subunit is extracellular in muscle, and is both antigenic and immunogenic. It remains to be determined whether or not autoantibodies to this region may in part cause the weakness or myasthenia gravis in man.

  11. RNF4 and VHL regulate the proteasomal degradation of SUMO-conjugated Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-2alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hagen, Martijn; Overmeer, René M; Abolvardi, Sharareh S; Vertegaal, Alfred C O

    2010-04-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are critical transcription factors that mediate cell survival during reduced oxygen conditions (hypoxia). At regular oxygen conditions (normoxia), HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha are continuously synthesized in cells and degraded via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. During hypoxia, these proteins are stabilized and translocate to the nucleus to activate transcription of target genes that enable cell survival at reduced oxygen levels. HIF proteins are tightly regulated via post-translational modifications including phosphorylation, acetylation, prolyl-hydroxylation and ubiquitination. Here we show for the first time that exogenous and endogenous HIF-2alpha are also regulated via the ubiquitin-like modifier small ubiquitin-like modifiers (SUMO). Using mutational analysis, we found that K394, which is situated in the sumoylation consensus site LKEE, is the major SUMO acceptor site in HIF-2alpha. Functionally, sumoylation reduced the transcriptional activity of HIF-2alpha. Similar to HIF-1alpha, HIF-2alpha is regulated by the SUMO protease SENP1. The proteasome inhibitor MG132 strongly stabilized SUMO-2-conjugated HIF-2alpha during hypoxia but did not affect the total level of HIF-2alpha. The ubiquitin E3 ligases von Hippel-Lindau and RNF4 control the levels of sumoylated HIF-2alpha, indicating that sumoylated HIF-2alpha is degraded via SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligases. PMID:20026589

  12. Lactobacillus casei secreting alpha-MSH induces the therapeutic effect on DSS-induced acute colitis in Balb/c Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sun-Woo; Lee, Chul-Ho; Kim, Jeong-Yoon; Kim, Jie-Youn; Sung, Moon-Hee; Poo, Haryoung

    2008-12-01

    The neuropeptide alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha- MSH) has anti-inflammatory property by downregulating the expressions of proinflammatory cytokines. Because alpha-MSH elicits the anti-inflammatory effect in various inflammatory disease models, we examined the therapeutic effect of oral administration of recombinant Lactobacillus casei, which secretes alpha-MSH (L. casei-alpha-MSH), on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in Balb/c mice. Thus, we constructed the alpha-MSH-secreting Lactobacillus casei by the basic plasmid, pLUAT-ss, which was composed of a PldhUTLS promoter and alpha-amylase signal sequence from Streptococcus bovis strain. Acute colitis was induced by oral administration of 5% DSS in drinking water for 7 days. To investigate the effect of L. casei-alpha-MSH on the colitis, L. casei or L. casei-alpha-MSH was orally administered for 7 days and their effects on body weight, mortality rate, cytokine production, and tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were observed. Administration of L. casei-alpha-MSH reduced the symptom of acute colitis as assessed by body weight loss (DSS alone: 14.45+/-0. 2 g; L. casei-alpha- MSH: 18.2+/-0.12 g), colitis score (DSS alone: 3.6+/-0.4; L. casei-alpha-MSH: 1.4+/-0.6), MPO activity (DSS alone: 42.7+/-4.5 U/g; L. casei-alpha-MSH: 10.25+/-0.5 U/g), survival rate, and histological damage compared with the DSS alone mice. L. casei-alpha-MSH-administered entire colon showed reduced in vitro production of proinflammatory cytokines and NF-kappaB activation. The alpha-MSH-secreting recombinant L. casei showed significant anti-inflammatory effects in the murine model of acute colitis and suggests a potential therapeutic role for this agent in clinical inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:19131702

  13. Charged particle induced prompt nuclear reaction and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charged particle induced prompt nuclear reaction analysis (PNR) not only can analyze the content and concentration of elements in sample sensitively and accurately, but also can measure the distributions of elements with depth in surface and near surface layer. And the method is very simple, rapid and nondestructive, and has good depth resolution. So the PNR is very widely used in many modern science and technique field such as solid state physics, surface physics, electrochemistry, metallurgy and material science and so on. This paper deals with the principle, method and the features of the nuclear reaction analysis induced by charged particle. Especially, the distribution analysis of impurities in sample with depth and the improvement of the depth resolution are discussed in detail. Some actual examples of its application are given

  14. Alpha band cortico-muscular coherence occurs in healthy individuals during mechanically-induced tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budini, Francesco; McManus, Lara M; Berchicci, Marika; Menotti, Federica; Macaluso, Andrea; Di Russo, Francesco; Lowery, Madeleine M; De Vito, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The present work aimed at investigating the effects of mechanically amplified tremor on cortico-muscular coherence (CMC) in the alpha band. The study of CMC in this specific band is of particular interest because this coherence is usually absent in healthy individuals and it is an aberrant feature in patients affected by pathological tremors; understanding its mechanisms is therefore important. Thirteen healthy volunteers (23±4 years) performed elbow flexor sustained contractions both against a spring load and in isometric conditions at 20% of maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC). Spring stiffness was selected to induce instability in the stretch reflex servo loop. 64 EEG channels, surface EMG from the biceps brachii muscle and force were simultaneously recorded. Contractions against the spring resulted in greater fluctuations of the force signal and EMG amplitude compared to isometric conditions (pspring load, CMC in the alpha band was observed in 12 out of 13 volunteers. Partial directed coherence (PDC) revealed an increased information flow in the EMG to EEG direction in the alpha band (p<.05). Therefore, coherence in the alpha band between the sensory-motor cortex and the biceps brachii muscle can be systematically induced in healthy individuals by mechanically amplifying tremor. The increased information flow in the EMG to EEG direction may reflect enhanced afferent activity from the muscle spindles. These results may contribute to the understanding of the presence of alpha band CMC in tremor related pathologies by suggesting that the origin of this phenomenon may not only be at cortical level but may also be affected by spinal circuit loops. PMID:25514444

  15. Brain-computer interfacing using modulations of alpha activity induced by covert shifts of attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Nico M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Visual brain-computer interfaces (BCIs often yield high performance only when targets are fixated with the eyes. Furthermore, many paradigms use intense visual stimulation, which can be irritating especially in long BCI sessions. However, BCIs can more directly directly tap the neural processes underlying visual attention. Covert shifts of visual attention induce changes in oscillatory alpha activity in posterior cortex, even in the absence of visual stimulation. The aim was to investigate whether different pairs of directions of attention shifts can be reliably differentiated based on the electroencephalogram. To this end, healthy participants (N = 8 had to strictly fixate a central dot and covertly shift visual attention to one out of six cued directions. Results Covert attention shifts induced a prolonged alpha synchronization over posterior electrode sites (PO and O electrodes. Spectral changes had specific topographies so that different pairs of directions could be differentiated. There was substantial variation across participants with respect to the direction pairs that could be reliably classified. Mean accuracy for the best-classifiable pair amounted to 74.6%. Furthermore, an alpha power index obtained during a relaxation measurement showed to be predictive of peak BCI performance (r = .66. Conclusions Results confirm posterior alpha power modulations as a viable input modality for gaze-independent EEG-based BCIs. The pair of directions yielding optimal performance varies across participants. Consequently, participants with low control for standard directions such as left-right might resort to other pairs of directions including top and bottom. Additionally, a simple alpha index was shown to predict prospective BCI performance.

  16. Branching ratios in low-energy deuteron-induced reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Koonin, S. E.; Mukerjee, M.

    1990-01-01

    We consider (d,p) and (d,n) reactions on light nuclei at low energies. A simple estimate using the second-order distorted-wave Born approximation shows that Coulomb-induced predissociation of the deuteron influences the relative rate by less than 10%. This disagrees with a previous explanation of experiments involving 6Li targets and invalidates speculations about such effects in "cold fusion" experiments.

  17. On the reaction pathways and determination of transition-state structures for retaining alpha-galactosyltransferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Isabelle; Tvaroska, Igor; Carver, Jeremy P

    2003-04-22

    The catalytic mechanism of retaining glycosyltransferases is not yet completely understood, but one possible mechanism, by analogy with retaining glycosidases, is a double-displacement mechanism via a covalent glycosyl-enzyme intermediate (CGE). We have investigated various reaction pathways for this mechanism using non-empirical quantum mechanical methods. Because a double-displacement mechanism presumes a reaction happening in two steps, we have used predefined reaction coordinates to calculate the potential energy surface describing each step of the mechanism. By investigating several potential candidates to act as a catalytic base, this study attempts to shed some light on the unclear mechanism of the second step of the reaction. All intermediates and transition states on the reaction pathways were characterized using basis sets up to the DFT/B3LYP/6-311++G**//DFT/B3LYP/6-31G* level. Reaction pathways and structural changes were compared with the results previously obtained for inverting glycosyltransferases. The outcome of this study indicates, that among the reaction models investigated, the energetically favorable one is also the most plausible given the existing experimental data. This model requires the presence of only one catalytic acid in the active site with the UDP functioning as a general base in the second step of the reaction. This mechanism is in agreement with both kinetic data in the literature and the description of X-ray structures of retaining glycosyltransferases solved up to today. PMID:12681911

  18. Cross-section measurement of the 18F(alpha,p)21Ne reaction and possible implication for neutron production in explosive helium burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couture, Aaron Joseph [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lee, Hye Young [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Couder, Manoel [UNIV OF NOTRE DAME; Falahat, Sascha [UNIV OF NOTRE DAME; Gorres, Joachim [UNIV OF NOTRE DAME; Lamm, Larry O [UNIV OF NOTRE DAME; Le Blanc, P J [UNIV OF NOTRE DAME; O' Brien, Shawn P [UNIV OF NOTRE DAME; Palumbo, Annalia [UNIV OF NOTRE DAME; Stech, Edward J [UNIV OF NOTRE DAME; Strandberg, Elizabeth [UNIV OF NOTRE DAME; Tan, Wanpeng [UNIV OF NOTRE DAME; Ugalde, Claudio [ANL; Wiescher, Michael C. F. [UNIV OF NOTRE DAME

    2009-01-01

    At the high temperature and density conditions of hot or explosive helium burning, the {sup 18}F({alpha},p){sup 21}Ne reaction may compete successfully wilh the {sup 18}F({beta}{sup +}{nu}) decay. This suggesls {sup 21}Ne({alpha},n) as an alternative neutron source in Ihe r-process. We have determined the total cross section of the {sup 18}F({alpha},p){sup 21}Ne reaction by studying the time-reverse reaction {sup 21}Ne(p,{alpha}){sup 18}F. Using the activation technique, the total reaction yield was measured in the proton beam energy range of 2.3-4.0 MeV, which corresponds to energies of 0.5-2.1 MeV in the {sup 18}F + {alpha} system. The resulting yield curve was analyzed in terms of the thick target formalism and the R-matrix theory. The reaction rate was deduced experimentally for the first time for the temperature of 0.1 < T{sub 9} < I. The experimemal reaction rate was compared with Hauser-Feshbach predictions. The astrophysical implications of the new rate are discussed.

  19. TRIASSIC: the Time-Resolved Industrial Alpha-Source Scanning Induced Current microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallone, Arthur

    Time-resolved ion beam induced current (TRIBIC) microscopy yields useful information such as carrier mobility and lifetimes in semiconductors and defect locations in devices; however, traditional TRIBIC uses large, expensive particle accelerators that require specialized training to operate and maintain. The time-resolved industrial alpha-source scanning induced current (TRIASSIC) microscope transforms TRIBIC by replacing the particle accelerator facility with an affordable, tabletop instrument suitable for use in research and education at smaller colleges and universities. I will discuss the development of, successes with, setbacks to and future directions for TRIASSIC.

  20. Deuteron-and alpha particle-induced K-shell ionisation of W and Au atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deuteron - and alpha particle - induced K-shell ionisation cross sections for W and Au were obtained from thick-target measurements for low impact velocities. They were compared to proton-induced cross sections in the same range of velocities. Equal-velocity cross sections ratios are a very stringent test to the corrections incorporated to the PWBA calculations. The σd/σp data presented in this paper sheds some light on the Coulomb-deflection corrections discussed in the literature. The consequences of the inelastic character of the ionisation process are thoroughly examined. (Author)

  1. Elicitor and resistance-inducing activities of beta-1,4 cellodextrins in grapevine, comparison with beta-1,3 glucans and alpha-1,4 oligogalacturonides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Aziz; Gauthier, Adrien; Bézier, Annie; Poinssot, Benoît; Joubert, Jean-Marie; Pugin, Alain; Heyraud, Alain; Baillieul, Fabienne

    2007-01-01

    Cellodextrins (CD), water-soluble derivatives of cellulose composed of beta-1,4 glucoside residues, have been shown to induce a variety of defence responses in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) cells. The larger oligomers of CD rapidly induced transient generation of H2O2 and elevation in free cytosolic calcium, followed by a differential expression of genes encoding key enzymes of the phenylpropanoid pathway and pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins as well as stimulation of chitinase and beta-1,3 glucanase activities. Most of these defence reactions were also induced by linear beta-1,3 glucans (betaGlu) and alpha-1,4 oligogalacturonides (OGA) of different degree of polymerization (DP), but the intensity of some reactions induced by CD was different when compared with betaGlu and OGA effects. Moreover, desensitization assays using H2O2 production showed that cells treated with CD remained fully responsive to a second application of OGA, suggesting a different mode of perception of these oligosaccharides by grape cells. None of CD, betaGlu, or OGA induced HSR gene expression nor did they induce cell death. In accordance with elicitor activity in grapevine cells, CD-incubated leaves challenged with Botrytis cinerea also resulted in a significant reduction of the disease. Data suggest that CD could operate via other distinct reaction pathways than betaGlu and OGA. They also highlight the requirement of a specific DP for each oligosaccharide to induce the defence response. PMID:17322548

  2. Kinetics of ozonation. 4. Reactions of ozone with. cap alpha. -tocopherol and oleate and linoleate esters in carbon tetrachloride and in aqueous micellar solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giamalva, D.H.; Church, D.F.; Pryor, W.A.

    1986-10-15

    Vitamin E (..cap alpha..-tocopherol; ..cap alpha..-T) is known to protect animals against the deleterious effects of ozone in polluted air; one such effect is the ozone-initiated autooxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) that occur in membranes. In order to assess the possibility of a direct reaction of ozone with ..cap alpha..-T competing with the very fast ozone-PUFA reaction, we have measured the rates of reaction of ozone with ..cap alpha..-T, oleic acid, and linoleic acid. I CCl/sub 4/ as solvent, ..cap alpha..-T reacts with ozone with a rate constant of about 5500 M/sup -1/ s/sup -1/; methyl oleate and methyl linoleate react 2 orders of magnitude faster. In aqueous micellar solutions the rate constants for ..cap alpha..-T and the fatty acids are more similar. The k for the ozone/..cap alpha..-T reaction is about 1 x 10/sup 6/ M/sup -1/ s/sup -1/ at pH 7, but decreases as the solution becomes more acidic; the k's for oleic acid and linoleic acid are ca. 1 x 10/sup 6/ M/sup -1/ s/sup -1/ and exhibit no significant pH dependence. Since the ratio of fatty acids to ..cap alpha..-T in membranes is typically at least 100-1000 to 1, we conclude that the direct reaction of ozone with ..cap alpha..-T is unlikely. Thus, the protection that vitamin E provides to animals breathing ozone-containing air must result from vitamin E acting as a free radical scavenger. We have also detected the ..cap alpha..-tocopheroxyl radical as an intermediate from the reaction of ozone with ..cap alpha..-T both in CCl/sub 4/ and aqueous micelles using electron spin resonance spectroscopy. The authors suggest that the observation of this intermediate is consistent with an initial electron transfer from ..cap alpha..-T to ozone.

  3. Regular endurance training reduces the exercise induced HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha mRNA expression in human skeletal muscle in normoxic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, Carsten; Gassmann, Max; Pilegaard, Henriette

    2005-01-01

    single exercise bout, and that this response is blunted with training. We obtained muscle biopsies from a trained (5 days/week during 4 weeks) and untrained leg from the same human subject before, immediately after, and during the recovery from a 3 h two-legged knee extensor exercise bout, where the two...... legs exercised at the same absolute workload. In the untrained leg, the exercise bout induced an increase (P<0.05) in HIF-1alpha fold and HIF-2alpha fold mRNA at 6 h of recovery. In contrast, HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha mRNA levels were not altered at any time point in the trained leg. Obviously, HIF-1......alpha and HIF-2alpha mRNA levels are transiently increased in untrained human skeletal muscle in response to an acute exercise bout, but this response is blunted after exercise training. We propose that HIFs expression is upregulated with exercise and that it may be an important transcription factor...

  4. Therapy with interferon-alpha plus ribavirin for membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis induced by hepatitis C virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo P.A. Lopes

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe a treatment made with interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha plus ribavirin of two patients with membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN induced by hepatitis C virus (HCV: Case 1 was a 22-year-old woman with leg and facial edema, hypertension and proteinuria, whose liver biopsy revealed chronic active hepatitis; and Case 2 was a 42-year-old man with anasarca, hypertension and proteinuria, whose liver biopsy indicated cirrhosis. Both had anti-HCV, HCV-RNA and cryoglobulins. IFN-alpha (3 million units (MU, 3 times/week and ribavirin (1 g/day were administered for 12 months. The drugs were well tolerated by both patients. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels normalized and HCV-RNA became negative. Cryoglobulins disappeared and an improvement in renal disease was seen after 6 months of therapy. However, after 9 months, Case 2 presented ALT elevation, and proteinuria was detected. Two years after the end of therapy, both patients were negative in repeated HCV-RNA and cryoglobulin tests. Case 1 was asymptomatic, with normal liver and renal tests, and Case 2 had normal blood pressure, with mild edema of the ankles. Based on the evolution of these two cases, the association of IFN-alpha and ribavirin may be a therapeutic option for patients with MPGN related to HCV.

  5. Alpha and beta particle induced scintillations in liquid and solid neon

    CERN Document Server

    Michniak, R A; McKinsey, D N; Doyle, J M

    2002-01-01

    Scintillations induced by alpha and beta particles in liquid and solid neon are studied and their light yield measured. Charged particle scintillation in neon is primarily in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV). We detect this EUV light by converting it to blue using a wavelength shifting fluor and detecting the blue light with a photomultiplier tube. It is observed that liquid neon is a somewhat less-efficient scintillator than liquid helium for both alpha and beta radiation while the light yield in solid neon is greater than in liquid helium. Based on our measurements of the relative light yields of liquid and solid neon to liquid helium whose absolute light yield has previously been determined, we find that an alpha source in liquid neon produces up to 5900 photons per MeV while a beta source produces up to 7400 photons per MeV. In solid neon, we find that an alpha particle produces up to 9300 photons per MeV while a beta particle produces up to 17,000 photons per MeV. We observe a significant dependence of the ...

  6. The formation and decay of superheavy nuclei produced in sup 4 sup 8 Ca-induced reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, S; Gupta, R K; Münzenberg, G; Scheid, W

    2003-01-01

    The formation of superheavy nuclei in sup 4 sup 8 Ca+ sup 2 sup 3 sup 2 Th, sup 2 sup 3 sup 8 U, sup 2 sup 4 sup 2 sup , sup 2 sup 4 sup 4 Pu and sup 2 sup 4 sup 8 Cm reactions and their subsequent decay are studied within the quantum mechanical fragmentation theory (QMFT) and the QMFT-based preformed cluster decay model (PCM) of Gupta and collaborators. According to QMFT, all these sup 4 sup 8 Ca-induced reactions are cold fusion reactions with relative excitation energies larger than those for the Pb-induced cold fusion reactions and smaller than those for the lighter beam, i.e. Mg, Si or S-induced hot fusion reactions. The same reactions were first suggested by Gupta et al in 1977 on the basis of QMFT, and this study re-establishes the same result. In fact, for such heavy isotopes of Z = 110 to 116, sup 5 sup 0 Ca is shown to be a better beam for cold fusion, but sup 5 sup 0 Ca is a radioactive nucleus. The alpha-decay half-lives of these nuclei after 3n and/or 4n evaporations, i.e. of the evaporation resi...

  7. Drug-induced skin reactions: a 2-year study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshchian M

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Mahmood Farshchian,1 Akram Ansar,1 Abbas Zamanian,2 Ghasem Rahmatpour-Rokni,1 Arash Kimyai-Asadi,3 Mehdi Farshchian1,4 1Psoriasis Research Center, Department of Dermatology, Farshchian Hospital, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamedan, Iran; 2Department of Dermatology, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 3Derm Surgery Associates, Houston, TX, USA; 4Department of Dermatology, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland Background: The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical characteristics of patients with adverse cutaneous drug reactions, which occur when a medicinal product results in cutaneous morbidity. Methods: The study included 308 patients who were diagnosed as having an adverse cutaneous drug reaction during the study period (2007–2009. In 84 cases, histopathologic examination of skin biopsies were also performed. Results: Patients with drug reactions were found to be more commonly female (63% than male (37%. Beta-lactam antibiotics were found to be the most frequent cause of adverse cutaneous drug reactions (42.7%, followed by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (16.5%. Acute urticaria was the most common clinical presentation (59.2% followed by fixed drug eruptions (18.5%, and maculopapular eruptions (14.9%. Conclusion: Adverse cutaneous drug reactions in our study population were mainly induced by beta-lactam antibiotics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The most common forms of cutaneous adverse drug reactions were found to be acute urticaria, fixed drug eruptions, and maculopapular rashes. Keywords: adverse drug reaction, acute urticaria, exanthematous eruption

  8. Expression of transforming growth factor alpha in plutonium-239-induced lung neoplasms in dogs: investigations of autocrine mechanisms of growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have previously shown that 47% of radiation-induced lung neoplasms in dogs exhibit increased expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). In this study, we investigated the expression of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha), a ligand for EGFR, to determine if an autocrine mechanism for growth stimulation was present in these tumors. As determined by immunohistochemistry, 59% (26/44) of the lung neoplasms examined had increased expression of TGF-alpha. Expression of TGF-alpha was not related to the etiology of the tumor, e.g., spontaneous or plutonium-induced; however, it was related to the phenotype of the tumor. Statistical analysis of the correlation of EGFR and TGF-alpha expression within the same tumor did not show a positive association; however, specific phenotypes did have statistically significant expression of EGFR or TGF-alpha, suggesting that overexpression of either the ligand or its receptor conferred a growth advantage to the neoplasm. Twenty-seven percent (32/117) of radiation-induced proliferative epithelial foci expressed TGF-alpha, and a portion of those foci (8/32) expressed both EGFR and TGF-alpha. This supports the hypothesis that these foci represent preneoplastic lesions, and suggests that those foci exhibiting increased expression of the growth factor or its receptor are at greater risk for progressing to neoplasia

  9. Reaction of /alpha/,/beta/-unsaturated acyl isothiocyanates with salts of dithiocarbamic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krus, K.; Masias, A.; Beletskaya, I.P.

    1989-01-10

    The reaction of unsaturated isothiocyanates with the sodium and calcium salts of N-alkyl- and N,N-dialkyldithiocarbamic acids was studied. Depending on the structure of the dithiocarbamate, the reaction products are thiazines or acyl dithiocarbamates. For the salts of methyldithiocarbamic acid the effect of the concentration and the nature of the metal on the relative yields of 6-phenyl-3-methylpropiorhodanine and 6-phenylpropiorhodanine was studied. A method is proposed for the synthesis of 3-substituted propiorhodanines.

  10. The triple alpha reaction rate and the 2$^+$ resonances in $^{12}$C

    CERN Document Server

    de Diego, R; Fedorov, D V; ~Jensen, A S

    2010-01-01

    The triple alpha rate is obtained from the three-body bound and continuum states computed in a large box. The results from this genuine full three-body calculation are compared with standard reference rates obtained by two sequential two-body processes. The fairly good agreement relies on two different assumptions about the lowest $2^+$ resonance energy. With the same $2^+$ energy the rates from the full three-body calculation are smaller than those of the standard reference. We discuss the rate dependence on the experimentally unknown $2^+$ energy. Substantial deviations from previous results appear for temperatures above $3$~GK.

  11. Fever and acute phase response induced in dwarf goats by endotoxin and bovine and human recombinant tumour necrosis factor alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Miert, A S; van Duin, C T; Wensing, T

    1992-12-01

    Tumour necrosis factor (TNF), a polypeptide produced by mononuclear phagocytes, has been implicated as an important mediator of inflammatory processes and of clinical manifestations in acute infectious diseases. To study further the potential role of TNF in infectious diseases, recombinant Escherichia coli (E. coli) derived human (r.HuTNF-alpha) and bovine TNF (r.BoTNF-alpha) were intravenously (i.v.) administered in dwarf goats. Rectal temperature, heart rate, rumen motility, plasma zinc and iron concentrations, and certain other blood biochemical and haematological values were studied and compared with the changes seen after E. coli endotoxin (LPS) was administered (dose: 0.1 microgram/kg i.v.). Following a single injection of 4 micrograms/kg of r.BoTNF-alpha, shivering and biphasic febrile response were observed, accompanied by tachycardia, inhibition of rumen contractions, drop in plasma zinc and iron concentrations, lymphopenia, and neutropenia followed by neutrophilia. The i.v. administration of a single injection of 4 micrograms/kg r.HuTNF-alpha induced shivering and biphasic febrile responses, accompanied by anorexia and a similar drop in plasma trace metal concentrations when compared with r.BoTNF-alpha-treated goats. The TNF-alpha-induced symptoms were essentially the same as those that occurred after LPS administration. However, the time of onset of these changes after the injection of TNF-alpha was significantly shorter than after LPS. Moreover, the r.BoTNF-alpha induced a longer lasting neutrophilic leucopenia, less neutrophilia, and a more persistent lymphopenia than after LPS injection. Neither r.BoTNF-alpha nor LPS caused severe haemo-concentration. Furthermore, no cross-tolerance between r.BoTNF-alpha and LPS could be demonstrated. We conclude that both r.BoTNF-alpha and r.HuTNF-alpha induce many of the physiologic, haematologic and metabolic changes that characterize the acute phase response to LPS. The overlapping biological activities of r.BoTNF-alpha

  12. The protective antibodies induced by a novel epitope of human TNF-alpha could suppress the development of collagen-induced arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Dong

    Full Text Available Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha is a major inflammatory mediator that exhibits actions leading to tissue destruction and hampering recovery from damage. At present, two antibodies against human TNF-alpha (hTNF-alpha are available, which are widely used for the clinic treatment of certain inflammatory diseases. This work was undertaken to identify a novel functional epitope of hTNF-alpha. We performed screening peptide library against anti-hTNF-alpha antibodies, ELISA and competitive ELISA to obtain the epitope of hTNF-alpha. The key residues of the epitope were identified by means of combinatorial alanine scanning and site-specific mutagenesis. The N terminus (80-91 aa of hTNF-alpha proved to be a novel epitope (YG1. The two amino acids of YG1, proline and valine, were identified as the key residues, which were important for hTNF-alpha biological function. Furthermore, the function of the epitope was addressed on an animal model of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA. CIA could be suppressed in an animal model by prevaccination with the derivative peptides of YG1. The antibodies of YG1 could also inhibit the cytotoxicity of hTNF-alpha. These results demonstrate that YG1 is a novel epitope associated with the biological function of hTNF-alpha and the antibodies against YG1 can inhibit the development of CIA in animal model, so it would be a potential target of new therapeutic antibodies.

  13. Studies on alpha-amylase induced degradation of binary polymeric blends of crosslinked starch and pectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, A K; Shrivastava, Jyoti

    2007-05-01

    A blend matrix of crosslinked starch and pectin was prepared and characterized by infra-red (IR) spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The prepared blends were investigated kinetically for water sorption studies and alpha-amylase induced degradation adopting a gravimetric procedure. Based on the experimental findings, a plausible mechanism including both diffusion and surface enhanced degradation was suggested and degradation profiles were interpreted. The influence of various factors such as chemical architecture of the blend, pH and temperature of alpha-amylase solution were examined for the swelling and degradation kinetics of crosslinked starch-pectin blends. The effect of concentration of enzyme solution was also studied on the degradation profile of the blends. A correlation was established between the extent of degradation and water imbibing capacity of the degrading blends. PMID:17143735

  14. Reactions induced by 11Be beam at Rex-Isolde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeppesen H.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The collision induced by the three Beryllium isotopes, 9,10,11Be, on a 64Zn target were investigated at Ec.m. ≈ 1.4 the Coulomb barrier. The experiments with the radioactive 10,11Be beams were performed at the Rex-Isolde facility at CERN. In the case of 9,10Be, elastic scattering angular distributions were measured whereas, in the 11Be case, the quasielastic scattering angular distribution was obtained. A strong damping of the quasielastic cross-section was observed in the 11Be case, in the angular range around the Coulomb-nuclear interference peak. In this latter case a large total-reaction cross-section is found. Such a cross-section is more than a factor of two larger than the ones extracted in the reactions induced by the non-halo Beryllium isotopes. A large contribution to the total-reaction cross-section in the 11Be case could be attributed to transfer and/or break-up events.

  15. Biological stress responses induced by alpha radiation exposure in Lemna minor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Hoeck, A.; Horemans, N.; Van Hees, M.; Nauts, R. [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN (Belgium); Knapen, D.; Blust, R. [University of Antwerp (Belgium)

    2014-07-01

    experiments Steinberg medium was selected for further dose-response experiments to analyse additional end-points like DNA-damage and enzymes involved in detoxification of reactive oxygen species. Finally, these results enable comparison of alpha radiation-induced effects at different levels of biological complexity from metabolic pathways to morphological growth effects. This research was supported by the Fund for Scientific Research (FWO-Vlaanderen, G.A040.11N) Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  16. A facility for studying radiative capture reactions induced with radioactive beams at ISAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Auria, J. M.; Buchmann, L.; Hutcheon, D.; Lipnik, P.; Hunter, D.; Rogers, J.; Helmer, R.; Giesen, U.; Olin, A.; Bricault, P.; Bateman, N.

    The measurement of low energy fusion reactions of importance to nuclear astrophysics scenarios are a prime objective of the physics program of the new ISAC facility, located at TRIUMF in Vancouver, Canada. Intense radioactive beams of 19Ne, 14,15O, 20,21Na, 17,18F and other low Z species with energies in the range of 0.15 to 1.5 MeV/mass unit will be available to measure cross sections and resonance strengths of alpha and proton induced reactions. An important component of the experimental configuration will be a new Recoil Product Detection Facility (RPDF) consisting of a windowless gas target, surrounded by a gamma array, while the recoils are separated from the intense radioactive beam using a Electro-Magnetic Separator (EMS) employing Wien filters. The recoiling reaction products will then be detected using either a Si μ-strip array or a gas filled detector. Using these devices along with coincidence requirements and time-of-flight conditions a background reduction factor of the order of 10 +15 is the present goal.

  17. Switching dynamics in reaction networks induced by molecular discreteness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the fluctuations and dynamics in chemical reaction processes, stochastic differential equations based on the rate equation involving chemical concentrations are often adopted. When the number of molecules is very small, however, the discreteness in the number of molecules cannot be neglected since the number of molecules must be an integer. This discreteness can be important in biochemical reactions, where the total number of molecules is not significantly larger than the number of chemical species. To elucidate the effects of such discreteness, we study autocatalytic reaction systems comprising several chemical species through stochastic particle simulations. The generation of novel states is observed; it is caused by the extinction of some molecular species due to the discreteness in their number. We demonstrate that the reaction dynamics are switched by a single molecule, which leads to the reconstruction of the acting network structure. We also show the strong dependence of the chemical concentrations on the system size, which is caused by transitions to discreteness-induced novel states

  18. Multiple-scattering effects in proton- and alpha-nucleus reactions with Glauber theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the total reaction and elastic differential cross sections for proton-nucleus and 4He-nucleus reactions in the framework of the Glauber theory which describes multiplescattering processes. The input wave functions are obtained using the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock method and prepared for a wide range of mass numbers, O, Ca, Ni, Sn, and Pb isotopes. The theory reproduces experimental data very well. An effect of the multiple scattering is discussed by comparing with a standard optical-limit approximation. We see that the multiple-scattering effects play a crucial role, especially in enhancing the elastic differential cross sections at large scattering angles

  19. A primer for electroweak induced low-energy nuclear reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Y N Srivastava; A Widom; L Larsen

    2010-10-01

    Under special circumstances, electromagnetic and weak interactions can induce low-energy nuclear reactions to occur with observable rates for a variety of processes. A common element in all these applications is that the electromagnetic energy stored in many relatively slow-moving electrons can – under appropriate circumstances – be collectively transferred into fewer, much faster electrons with energies sufficient for the latter to combine with protons (or deuterons, if present) to produce neutrons via weak interactions. The produced neutrons can then initiate low-energy nuclear reactions through further nuclear transmutations. The aim of this paper is to extend and enlarge upon various examples analysed previously, present order of magnitude estimates for each and to illuminate a common unifying theme amongst all of them.

  20. Granulomatous tattoo reaction induced by intense pulse light treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourlaki, Athanasia; Boneschi, Vinicio; Tosi, Diego; Pigatto, Paolo; Brambilla, Lucia

    2010-10-01

    Cosmetic tattooing involves implantation of pigments into the dermis in order to create a permanent makeup. Here, we report a case of sarcoidal granulomatous reaction to old cosmetic tattoos after an intense pulsed light (IPL) treatment for facial skin rejuvenation. We consider this case as a peculiar example of photo-induced reaction to tattoo. In addition, we hypothesize that an underlying immune dysfunction was present, and acted as a predisposing factor for this unusual response, as the patient had suffered from an episode of acute pulmonary sarcoidosis 15 years before. Overall, our observation suggests that IPL treatment should be used cautiously in patients with tattoos, especially when a history of autoimmune disease is present. PMID:21175859

  1. Studies of 3He Induced Nuclear Reactions on Cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Excitation functions of 3He induced nuclear reactions on natural cadmium were measured using the standard stacked foil technique and high resolution gamma ray spectroscopy. The experimental cross sections for the nuclear reactions natCd(3He,xnp )117m,g,116m115m,114m,113m,111,110m,g,109,108,107 In were measured from their threshold energy up to 27 MeV. The integral yields for some medically important products were determined. Theoretical calculations using the nuclear codes ALICE- IPPE, TAL YS, and EMPIRE-3 were used to describe the formation of these products. Theoretical and experimental results were compared with each other. K

  2. The fast neutron induced (n, p) reaction cross sections. Compound reaction mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the compound mechanism the general formula for fast neutron induced and particle emission reaction cross section was deduced. The evaporation model, constant nuclear temperature approximation, semi-classical approach to an inverse reaction cross section and Weizsaecker formula for nuclear binding energy were used. For the systematic analysis of known experimental (n, p) cross sections the obtained formula was used in the energy range from 6 to 16 MeV. It was found that discrepancy between the theoretical and experimental (n, p) cross sections increases with growth of the neutron relative excess parameter (N - Z + 1)/A. Levkovsky's conclusions were considered and revised for a wide energy range from 6 to 16 MeV

  3. Establishing a theory for deuteron-induced surrogate reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potel, G.; Nunes, F. M.; Thompson, I. J.

    2015-09-01

    Background: Deuteron-induced reactions serve as surrogates for neutron capture into compound states. Although these reactions are of great applicability, no theoretical efforts have been invested in this direction over the last decade. Purpose: The goal of this work is to establish on firm grounds a theory for deuteron-induced neutron-capture reactions. This includes formulating elastic and inelastic breakup in a consistent manner. Method: We describe this process both in post- and prior-form distorted wave Born approximation following previous works and discuss the differences in the formulation. While the convergence issues arising in the post formulation can be overcome in the prior formulation, in this case one still needs to take into account additional terms due to nonorthogonality. Results: We apply our method to the 93Nb(d ,p )X at Ed=15 and 25 MeV and are able to obtain a good description of the data. We look at the various partial wave contributions, as well as elastic versus inelastic contributions. We also connect our formulation with transfer to neutron bound states. Conclusions: Our calculations demonstrate that the nonorthogonality term arising in the prior formulation is significant and is at the heart of the long-standing controversy between the post and the prior formulations of the theory. We also show that the cross sections for these reactions are angular-momentum dependent and therefore the commonly used Weisskopf limit is inadequate. Finally, we make important predictions for the relative contributions of elastic breakup and nonelastic breakup and call for elastic-breakup measurements to further constrain our model.

  4. Reactions between a <111> screw dislocation and <100> interstitial dislocation loops in alpha-iron modelled at atomic-scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terentyev, Dmitry [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, SCK-CEN; Bacon, David J [University of Liverpool; Osetskiy, Yury N [ORNL

    2010-03-01

    Interstitial dislocation loops with Burgers vector of <100> type are observed in {alpha}-iron irradiated by neutrons or heavy ions, and their population increases with increasing temperature. Their effect on motion of a 1/2<111> edge dislocation was reported earlier 1. Results are presented of a molecular dynamics study of interactions between a 1/2<111> screw dislocation and <100> loops in iron at temperature in the range 100 to 600 K. A variety of reaction mechanisms and outcomes are observed and classified in terms of the resulting dislocation configuration and the maximum stress required for the dislocation to break away. The highest obstacle resistance arises when the loop is absorbed to form a helical turn on the screw dislocation line, for the dislocation cannot glide away until the turn closes and a loop is released with the same Burgers vector as the line. Other than one situation found, in which no dislocation-loop reaction occurs, the weakest obstacle strength is found when the original <100> loop is restored at the end of the reaction. The important role of the cross-slip and the influence of model boundary conditions are emphasised and demonstrated by examples.

  5. Structural Basis on the Catalytic Reaction Mechanism of Novel 1,2-Alpha L-Fucosidase (AFCA) From Bifidobacterium Bifidum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagae, M.; Tsuchiya, A.; Katayama, T.; Yamamoto, K.; Wakatsuki, S.; Kato, R.

    2009-06-03

    1,2-alpha-L-fucosidase (AfcA), which hydrolyzes the glycosidic linkage of Fucalpha1-2Gal via an inverting mechanism, was recently isolated from Bifidobacterium bifidum and classified as the first member of the novel glycoside hydrolase family 95. To better understand the molecular mechanism of this enzyme, we determined the x-ray crystal structures of the AfcA catalytic (Fuc) domain in unliganded and complexed forms with deoxyfuconojirimycin (inhibitor), 2'-fucosyllactose (substrate), and L-fucose and lactose (products) at 1.12-2.10 A resolution. The AfcA Fuc domain is composed of four regions, an N-terminal beta region, a helical linker, an (alpha/alpha)6 helical barrel domain, and a C-terminal beta region, and this arrangement is similar to bacterial phosphorylases. In the complex structures, the ligands were buried in the central cavity of the helical barrel domain. Structural analyses in combination with mutational experiments revealed that the highly conserved Glu566 probably acts as a general acid catalyst. However, no carboxylic acid residue is found at the appropriate position for a general base catalyst. Instead, a water molecule stabilized by Asn423 in the substrate-bound complex is suitably located to perform a nucleophilic attack on the C1 atom of L-fucose moiety in 2'-fucosyllactose, and its location is nearly identical near the O1 atom of beta-L-fucose in the products-bound complex. Based on these data, we propose and discuss a novel catalytic reaction mechanism of AfcA.

  6. Finite-range DWBA analysis of anomalous analyzing powers in (p, alpha) reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anomalous analyzing powers in reactions Ni(p vector, α)Co(3/2+) are studied in the framework of distorted-waves Born approximation. The anomaly is well reproduced by calculations based on the form factors and spectroscopic amplitudes which are derived from microscopic model wave functions. (author)

  7. Discussion on importance of e+e- pair emission in the 12C(alpha, gamma)16O capture reaction below 1.9 MeV energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cross section of the direct E0 pair emission has meaningful contribution to the total cross section of the 12C(alpha, gamma)16O reaction at low energy <= 1.9 MeV . E0 resonance emission and internal pair conversion have significant effect to the total cross section of the 12C(alpha, gamma)16O reaction. In this paper e+e- paired emission has been focused on taking into account the angular correlation. E0 contribution is also significant in a presence of E1 and E2 transition, therefore e+e- pair emission may not be neglected and has a significant effect on the total cross section in the case of the 12C(alpha, gamma)16O reaction.

  8. Ultrastructure of rat sciatic nerve at the streptozotocin-induced neuropathy conditions under administration of alpha-lipoic acid preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dronov S.M.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Dronov S.M. Ultrastructure of rat sciatic nerve at the streptozotocin-induced neuropathy conditions under administration of alpha-lipoic acid preparations. ABSTRACT. Background. Diabetic polyneuropathy is one of the most common long-term complications of diabetes. Hyperglycemias caused by ischemia and peroxidation of lipids are the presumed cause of diabetic neuropathy. Appointment of alpha-lipoic acid can restore the function of peripheral nerves, preventing the development of autonomic and trophic disorders. Objective. To determine the extent of changes in the ultrastructure of the sciatic nerve in rats with streptozotocin-induced simulated peripheral neuropathy in experimental therapy with α-lipoic acid. Methods. The research was conducted on 22 white rats divided randomly in 3 groups: group 1 – intact animals; group 2 – rats with streptozotocin-induced neuropathy; group 3 – rats with streptozotocin neuropathy + alpha-lipoic acid. Diabetes mellitus was induced in rats by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg. Alpha-lipoic acid was administered intraperitoneally and intragastrically once per day during 40 days from the 56th day after streptozotocin injection. Transmission electron microscopy was performed on the 40th day of alpha-lipoic acid administration. Results. Administration of alpha-lipoic acid activates compensatory-adaptive processes in neuronal cells, reduces the severity of violations in the composition of myelinated nerve fibers, contributes to a distinct axonal spruting, causes the reduction of asymmetrically distributed electron density in the lamellar structure of myelin, indicating an increase in the insulation of axons of the sciatic nerve fibers of rats. Conclusion. Experimental studies confirm high neuroprotective potential of alpha-lipoic acid in streptozotocin-induced neuropathy. Citation: Dronov SM. [Ultrastructure of rat sciatic nerve at the streptozotocin-induced neuropathy conditions

  9. Research on the reactions {sup 9}Be ({sup 3}He, 3 {alpha}) and {sup 10}B (d, 3 {alpha}); Contribution a l'etude experimentale des reactions {sup 9}Be ({sup 3}He, 3 {alpha}) et {sup 10}B (d, 3 {alpha})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thouvenin, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1967-06-15

    For studying these reactions, the detection of the final particles emitted in coincidence in the directions {theta}{sub 1} and {theta}{sub 2}, together with the bi-parametric analysis of the corresponding pulses are used. This method enables us to obtain the orthogonal Dalitz diagrams (E{sub 1}, E{sub 2}). An examination of the spectra obtained shows that the sequential mechanism appears to predominate. The contribution of the purely statistical process is less than 15 per cent of the total spectrum. In the case of {sup 10}B (d, 3 {alpha}), for E{sub d} = 1.5 MeV, 2,66 MeV and 3 MeV, the width of the peak of the first particles emitted, with respect to {sup 8}Be excitations close to 11 MeV, is found to be equal to 2.6 {+-} 0.6 MeV, much less than the width of the 2. excited state observed by {alpha} - {alpha} scattering. The coincidence spectra and the free spectra give an excitation energy of E{sub x} = 2.68 {+-} 0.07 MeV for the first excited state of {sup 8}Be. Some remarks are made concerning the anomalies observed for E{sub d} = 5 MeV and 9 MeV. The excited levels of {sup 8}Be at 13.91 MeV and 7.56 MeV which have been described in the past are not observed. (author) [French] La detection de deux des particules finales emises en cofncidence dans les directions {theta}{sub 1} et {theta}{sub 2}, et l'analyse biparametrique des impulsions correspondantes sont utilisees pour etudier ces reactions. Cette methode nous permet d'obtenir des diagrammes de Dalitz orthogonaux (E{sub 1}, E{sub 2}). L'examen des spectres obtenus montre que le mecanisme sequentiel semble predominant. La contribution du processus purement statistique est inferieure a 15 pour cent du spectre total. Dans le cas de {sup 10}B (d, 3 {alpha}), pour E{sub d} = 1,5 MeV, 2,66 MeV et 3 MeV, la largeur du pic des premieres particules emises relatives a des excitations de {sup 8}Be voisines de 11 MeV, est trouvee egale a 2,6 {+-} 0,6 MeV, tres inferieure a la largeur du 2. etat excite

  10. Establishing a theory for deuteron induced surrogate reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Aguilar, Gregory Potel; Thompson, Ian J

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this work is to establish on firm grounds a theory for deuteron induced neutron capture reactions. This includes formulating elastic and inelastic breakup in a consistent manner. We describe this process both in post and prior form distorted wave Born approximation, and we apply our method to the 53Nb(d,p)X at Ed =15 MeV and 25 MeV, obtaining a good description of the data. We look at the various partial wave contributions, as well as elastic versus inelastic contributions. We also connect our formulation with transfer to neutron bound states.

  11. Multifragmentation in the 12 GeV proton induced reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The intermediate mass fragment (IMF) formation in the 12 GeV proton induced reaction on Au target is analyzed by the quantum molecular dynamics model combined with the JAM hadronic cascade model and the non-equilibrated percolation model. We show that the sideward peaked angular distribution of IMF occur in the multifragmentation at very short time scale around 20 fm/c where non-equilibrated features of the residual nucleus fluctuates the nucleon density and fragments in the repulsive Coulomb force are pushed for the sideward direction. (author)

  12. Weisskopf-Ewing calculations: neutron-induced reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cross sections of several neutron-induced reactions on 55Mn, sup(54,56)Fe, 59Co, sup(58,60)Ni and sup(63,65)Cu are calculated for energies below 20 MeV using the Weisskopf-Ewing theory and compared with experimental data. The total (n,p) and (n, α) cross sections are generally well fitted, especially when they are dominant channels. At the higher energies the (n,p) cross sections have important contributions from pre-equilibrium processes, and these are fitted using the theory of Feshbach, Kerman and Koonin. (author)

  13. New $\\alpha$ ANC measurement of the 1/2$^+$ state in $^{17}$O at 6.356 MeV, that dominates the $^{13}$C($\\alpha$,n)$^{16}$O reaction rate at temperatures relevant for the s-process

    CERN Document Server

    Avila, M L; Koshchiy, E; Baby, L T; Belarge, J; Kemper, K W; Kuchera, A N; Santiago-Gonzalez, D

    2015-01-01

    Background: Accurate knowledge of the $^{13}$C($\\alpha$,$n$)$^{16}$O reaction cross section is important for the understanding of the s-process in AGB stars, since it is considered to be the main source of neutrons. The sub-threshold 1/2$^+$ state at excitation energy of 6.356 MeV in $^{17}$O has a strong influence on the reaction cross section at energies relevant for astrophysics. Several experiments have been performed to determine the contribution of this state to the $^{13}$C($\\alpha,n)^{16}$O reaction rate. Nevertheless, significant discrepancies between different measurements remain. Purpose: The aim of this work is to investigate these discrepancies. Method: An 8 MeV $^{13}$C beam (below the Coulomb barrier) was used to study the $\\alpha$-transfer reaction $^6$Li($^{13}$C,$d$)$^{17}$O. Results: The squared Coulomb modified ANC of the 1/2$^+$ state in $^{17}$O measured in this work is $(\\tilde C^{^{17}\\text{O}(1/2+)}_{\\alpha-^{13}\\text{C}})^2=3.6\\pm0.7\\hspace{0.2cm}\\text{fm}^{-1}$. Conclusions: Discrep...

  14. Λ-hypernucleus production in proton-induced reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Λ-hypernucleus (LHN) production in the proton-induced reaction is studied in the distorted wave impulse approximation(DWIA). The cross sections for the LHN production in the reactions where the proton bombards the 6Li, 12C and 16O targets, respectively, are calculated. It is shown that the reaction cross sections are of the order of µb, and the distortion effects tend to reduce the cross sections by a factor of 3~10. For the sΛ–LHN production, the differential cross section is decreased with the increasing mass of the target nucleus. The pΛ–LHN production cross section is normally higher than that for the sΛ–LHN production. The double differential cross sections (DDXS) with respect to the momenta of the outgoing proton and kaon are also demonstrated. The missing mass spectra of the inclusive reaction p+A → p+K++X for the 6Li, 12C and 16O targets, an alternative way to study hypernuclear physics, are proposed. From these spectra, the masses of LHN can accurately be extracted. Moreover, the exotic LHN production in the same type of reaction is also studied . The same physical quantities are calculated. It is shown that the magnitude of the cross section is also in the order of µb. The halo effect of the core nucleus that locates at a place far away from the stable line would make the wave function broader, and consequently reduces the production cross section. (author)

  15. Hydrothermal synthesis of cubic {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} microparticles using glycine: Surface characterization, reaction mechanism and electrochemical activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin Chunyang, E-mail: c.yin@murdoch.edu.au [School of Chemical and Mathematical Sciences, Murdoch University, Murdoch, 6150 WA (Australia); Minakshi, Manickam; Ralph, David E. [School of Chemical and Mathematical Sciences, Murdoch University, Murdoch, 6150 WA (Australia); Jiang Zhongtao [School of Engineering and Energy, Murdoch University, Murdoch, 6150 WA (Australia); Xie Zonghan; Guo Hua [School of Engineering, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, WA, 6027 (Australia)

    2011-10-13

    Graphical abstract: Highlights: > We synthesize cubic {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (hematite) microparticles. > Their morphological, mineralogical and surface properties are determined. > Reaction mechanism based on thermodynamics and ionic equilibrium concepts are described. > Microparticles have charge capacity of 160 mAh/g and good columbic efficiency of 94%. - Abstract: Cubic {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (hematite) microparticles (side lengths = 0.3-1.3 {mu}m) have been synthesized using glycine and ferric chloride via a simple one-step hydrothermal reaction. Their morphological, mineralogical and surface properties have been determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). XRD analysis indicated that the synthesized {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} microparticles were minerallogically pure. An increase in hydrothermal reaction duration from 10 to 24 h increased the atomic percentages of {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} on the surface of the microparticles by almost 8%. The mechanism concerning reactions of species to produce this microparticles precipitate was elucidated based on thermodynamics and ionic equilibrium aspects. In the electrochemical analysis, the synthesized {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} microparticles (as cathode material) exhibit an approximate charge capacity of 160 mAh/g and excellent coulombic efficiency of 94%.

  16. Cross-section measurement for the {sup 67}Zn(n, {alpha}){sup 64}Ni reaction at 6.0 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Guohui; Wu, Hao; Zhang, Jiaguo; Liu, Jiaming; Chen, Jinxiang [Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, Peking University, State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Beijing (China); Gledenov, Yu.M.; Sedysheva, M.V. [Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation); Khuukhenkhuu, G. [National University of Mongolia, Nuclear Research Centre, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia); Szalanski, P.J. [Institute of Physics, University of Lodz, Lodz (Poland)

    2010-01-15

    Up to now, no experimental cross-section data exist for the {sup 67}Zn(n,{alpha}){sup 64}Ni reaction in the MeV neutron energy region. In the present work, the cross-section of the {sup 67}Zn(n,{alpha}) {sup 64}Ni reaction was measured at E{sub n}=6.0 MeV. Experiments were performed at the Van de Graaff accelerator of Peking University, China. Fast neutrons were produced through the D(d,n){sup 3}He reaction using a deuterium gas target. Absolute neutron flux was determined by a small {sup 238}U fission chamber and a BF{sub 3} long counter was used as a neutron flux monitor. A twin gridded ionization chamber was employed as the {alpha} -particle detector and two back-to-back {sup 67}Zn samples were used for {alpha} events measurement. Background was measured and subtracted from foreground. The measured cross-section of the {sup 67}Zn(n,{alpha}){sup 64}Ni reaction was 7.3(1{+-}15%) mb at 6.0 MeV. The present result was compared with existing evaluations and TALYS code calculations. (orig.)

  17. Choline kinase alpha expression during RA-induced neuronal differentiation: role of C/EBPβ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domizi, Pablo; Aoyama, Chieko; Banchio, Claudia

    2014-04-01

    Neuronal differentiation is a complex process characterized by a halt in proliferation and extension of neurites from the cell body. This process is accompanied by changes in gene expression that mediate the redirection leading to neurite formation and function. Acceleration of membrane phospholipids synthesis is associated with neurite elongation, and phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) is the major membrane phospholipid in mammalian cells. The transcription of two genes in particular encoding key enzymes in the CDP-choline pathway for PtdCho biosynthesis are stimulated; the Chka gene for choline kinase (CK) alpha isoform and the Pcyt1a gene for the CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase (CCT) alpha isoform. We report that the stimulation of CKα expression during retinoic acid (RA) induced differentiation depends on a promoter region that contains two CCAAT/Enhancer-binding Protein-β (C/EBPβ) sites. We demonstrate that during neuronal differentiation of Neuro-2a cells, RA induces Chka expression by a mechanism that involves ERK1/2 activation which triggers C/EBPβ expression. Elevated levels of C/EBPβ bind to the Chka proximal promoter (Box1) inducing CKα expression. In addition we identified a downstream sequence named Box2 which together with Box1 is required for the promoter to reach the full induction. This is the first elucidation of the mechanism by which the expression of Chka is coordinately regulated during neuronal differentiation. PMID:24440820

  18. Dipole strength in 144Sm studied via (gamma,n), (gamma,p) and (gamma,alpha) reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Nair, Chithra; Erhard, Martin; Bemmerer, Daniel; Beyer, Roland; Grosse, Eckart; Kosev, Krasimir; Marta, Michele; Rusev, Gencho; Schilling, Klaus-Dieter; Schwengner, Ronald; Wagner, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Photoactivation measurements on 144Sm have been performed with bremsstrahlung endpoint energies from 10.0 to 15.5 MeV at the bremsstrahlung facility of the superconducting electron accelerator ELBE of Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf. The measured activation yield for the 144Sm(gamma,n) reaction is compared with the calculated yield using cross sections from previous photoneutron experiments. The activation yields measured for all disintegration channels 144Sm(gamma,n), (gamma,p) and (gamma,alpha) are compared to the yield calculated by using Hauser-Feshbach statistical models. A new parametrization of the photon strength function is presented and the yield simulated by using the modified photon strength parameters are compared to the experimental data.

  19. Influence of catechins on bystander responses in CHO cells induced by alpha-particle irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, Y.L.; Wong, T.P.W. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Yu, K.N. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong)], E-mail: peter.yu@cityu.edu.hk

    2010-04-15

    In this work, we studied alpha-particle induced and medium-mediated bystander effects in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells through micronucleus (MN) assay. We showed that signal transduction from irradiated cells to bystander cells occur within a short time after irradiation. We then studied the effects of ROS (reactive oxygen species)-scavenging catechins in the medium before irradiation. We observed decreases in the percentage of bystander cells with MN formation and thus proved the protection effect of catechins on bystander cells from radiation.

  20. Exercise and IL-6 infusion inhibit endotoxin-induced TNF-alpha production in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starkie, Rebecca; Ostrowski, Sisse Rye; Jauffred, Sune;

    2003-01-01

    and atherosclerosis. To test this hypothesis, we performed three experiments in which eight healthy males either rested (CON), rode a bicycle for 3 h (EX), or were infused with recombinant human IL-6 (rhIL-6) for 3 h while they rested. After 2.5 h, the volunteers received a bolus of Escherichia coli...... exercise and rhIL-6 infusion at physiological concentrations inhibit endotoxin-induced TNF-alpha production in humans. Hence, these data provide the first experimental evidence that physical activity mediates antiinflammatory activity and suggest that the mechanism include IL-6, which is produced...

  1. Lung cancer induced in hamsters by low doses of alpha radiation from 210Po

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung cancers have been induced in 9 to 53 percent of hamsters given multiple intratracheal instillations of polonium-210 in amounts yielding lifetime exposures of 15 to 300 rads to the lungs. Cigarette smokers have previously been estimated to receive 20 rads to areas of the bronchial epithelium from deposited polonium-210. This finding thus supports the hypothesis that alpha radiation resulting from the polonium-210 or lead-210 present in cigarette smoke may be a significant causative factor in human lung cancer. (U.S.)

  2. {alpha}-Tocopherol impact on oxy-radical induced free radical decomposition of DMSO: Spin trapping EPR and theoretical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerzykiewicz, Maria, E-mail: Mariaj@wchuwr.pl [Faculty of Chemistry, Wroclaw University, 14 F. Joliot-Curie St., 50-383 Wroclaw (Poland); Cwielag-Piasecka, Irmina; Witwicki, Maciej; Jezierski, Adam [Faculty of Chemistry, Wroclaw University, 14 F. Joliot-Curie St., 50-383 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2011-05-26

    Graphical abstract: {alpha}-Tocopherol inhibits the oxidation of {center_dot}CH{sub 3} to {center_dot}OCH{sub 3}. Display Omitted Highlights: {yields} {alpha}-Tocopherol does not inhibit the oxidation of DMSO to {center_dot}CH{sub 3}. {yields} {alpha}-Tocopherol inhibits the oxidation of {center_dot}CH{sub 3} to {center_dot}OCH{sub 3}. {yields} {alpha}-Tocopherol does not inhibit the oxidation of PBN. {yields} The structures of observed spin adducts were theoretically confirmed. - Abstract: EPR spin trapping and theoretical methods such as density functional theory (DFT) as well as combined DFT and quadratic configuration interaction approach (DFT/QCISD) were used to identify the radicals produced in the reaction of oxy-radicals and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in the presence and absence of {alpha}-tocopherol. Additionally, the mixtures of {alpha}-tocopherol with linolenic acid and glyceryl trilinoleate as well as bioglycerols (glycerol fractions from biodiesel production) were tested. {alpha}-Tocopherol inhibited oxidation of the main decomposition product of DMSO, {center_dot}CH{sub 3} to {center_dot}OCH{sub 3} but did not prevent the transformation process of N-t-butyl-{alpha}-phenylnitrone (PBN) into 2-methyl-2-nitrosopropane (MNP). Theoretical investigations confirmed the structures of proposed spin adducts and allowed to correlate the EPR parameters observed in the experiment with the spin adducts electronic structure.

  3. THE 2H(alpha, gamma6LI REACTION AT LUNA AND BIG BANG NUCLEOSYNTHETIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Gustavino

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The 2H(α, γ6Li reaction is the leading process for the production of 6Li in standard Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. Recent observations of lithium abundance in metal-poor halo stars suggest that there might be a 6Li plateau, similar to the well-known Spite plateau of 7Li. This calls for a re-investigation of the standard production channel for 6Li. As the 2H(α, γ6Li cross section drops steeply at low energy, it has never before been studied directly at Big Bang energies. For the first time the reaction has been studied directly at Big Bang energies at the LUNA accelerator. The preliminary data and their implications for Big Bang nucleosynthesis and the purported 6Li problem will be shown.

  4. Alpha particle induced DNA damage and repair in normal cultured thyrocytes of different proliferation status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyckesvärd, Madeleine Nordén, E-mail: madeleine.lyckesvard@oncology.gu.se [Department of Oncology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Delle, Ulla; Kahu, Helena [Department of Oncology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Lindegren, Sture [Department of Radiation Physics, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Jensen, Holger [The PET and Cyclotron Unit Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet (Denmark); Bäck, Tom [Department of Radiation Physics, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Swanpalmer, John [Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Elmroth, Kecke [Department of Oncology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • We study DNA damage response to low-LET photons and high-LET alpha particles. • Cycling primary thyrocytes are more sensitive to radiation than stationary cells. • Influence of radiation quality varies due to cell cycle status of normal cells. • High-LET radiation gives rise to a sustained DNA damage response. - Abstract: Childhood exposure to ionizing radiation increases the risk of developing thyroid cancer later in life and this is suggested to be due to higher proliferation of the young thyroid. The interest of using high-LET alpha particles from Astatine-211 ({sup 211}At), concentrated in the thyroid by the same mechanism as {sup 131}I [1], in cancer treatment has increased during recent years because of its high efficiency in inducing biological damage and beneficial dose distribution when compared to low-LET radiation. Most knowledge of the DNA damage response in thyroid is from studies using low-LET irradiation and much less is known of high-LET irradiation. In this paper we investigated the DNA damage response and biological consequences to photons from Cobolt-60 ({sup 60}Co) and alpha particles from {sup 211}At in normal primary thyrocytes of different cell cycle status. For both radiation qualities the intensity levels of γH2AX decreased during the first 24 h in both cycling and stationary cultures and complete repair was seen in all cultures but cycling cells exposed to {sup 211}At. Compared to stationary cells alpha particles were more harmful for cycling cultures, an effect also seen at the pChk2 levels. Increasing ratios of micronuclei per cell nuclei were seen up to 1 Gy {sup 211}At. We found that primary thyrocytes were much more sensitive to alpha particle exposure compared with low-LET photons. Calculations of the relative biological effectiveness yielded higher RBE for cycling cells compared with stationary cultures at a modest level of damage, clearly demonstrating that cell cycle status influences the relative

  5. Study of the {sup 18}F(p,{alpha}){sup 15}O reaction by transfer reaction for application to {gamma}-ray emission from Novae; Etude de la reaction {sup 18}F(p,{alpha}){sup 15}O par reaction de transfert pour application a l'emission {gamma} des Novae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sereville, N. de

    2003-12-15

    The gamma emission from novae at/or below 511 keV is due to the annihilation of the positrons produced in the beta + decay of F{sup 18}. The interpretation of this emission through observations made by the Integral satellite for instance, requires a good knowledge of F{sup 18} nucleosynthesis. The reaction rate of the F{sup 18}(p,{alpha})O{sup 15} is the least known because of 2 resonances corresponding to the levels 6.419 and 6.449 MeV of Ne{sup 19} whose proton widths are completely unknown. We have determined these proton widths via the study of one-nucleon transfer reaction D(F{sup 18},p{alpha})N{sup 15} populating equivalent levels in F{sup 19}. We have used a 14 MeV F{sup 18} radioactive beam on a CD{sub 2} target for inverse kinematics studies and the multi-track silicon detector LEDA. A DWBA (Distorted Wave Bound Approximation) has enabled us to determine the proton width of both resonances and has showed that they have an impact in the calculation of the reaction rate. A thorough study of the remaining uncertainties of the reaction rate has been undertaken, particularly for those concerning interferences between these resonances and a higher resonance of Ne{sup 19}. The reaction rate that we have obtained is very similar to the previous rate used but now it rests on a more solid basis.

  6. Coronary artery and myocardial inflammatory reaction induced by intracoronary stent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes Walter J.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intra-coronary stents have been extensively employed in percutaneous coronary revascularization. However, despite breakthroughs and developments associated to this new technology, novel complications and findings have emerged compelling the cardiac surgeon to cope with this new scenario. The presence of an intra-coronary foreign body (stent might induce an inflammatory reaction carrying functional and structural repercussions of the coronary artery and surrounding cardiac muscle. METHOD:Patients, who had previously undergone stent implantation (6 to 18 months and were submitted to coronary artery bypass surgery, had biopsies taken from the grafted coronary artery distal to the stent and from the adjacent muscle. The collected samples were processed and stained with hematoxylin-eosin and histologically studied. RESULTS:The histology of the coronary artery distal to the stent revealed chronic inflammatory processes and an intimal acute inflammatory infiltrate, with polymorphonuclear leukocytes even at long term follow-up, 12 months after stent implantation, disclosing an ongoing inflammatory process. The myocardium adjacent to the stent implantation site exhibited a significant chronic inflammatory infiltrate and fibrosis compatible with myocarditis. CONCLUSION:The presence of an intra-coronary stent induces an acute and chronic inflammatory reaction, even over the long term, with involvement of the distal coronary artery and surrounding myocardium. Further studies are necessary to assess the inflammatory process extension and its consequences.

  7. Fast neutron induced reaction cross sections and their systematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14.6 MeV Neutron induced cross-sections have been measured by the activation technique on twenty-nine nuclei. Sixty-two reactions have been studied using high resolution Ge(Li) spectroscopy and by a detailed accounting for flux variations during the irradiations. The cross-section for the 128Xe(n,p)-128I has been reported for the first time. The values determined in this work have been compared to those reported by other investigators as well as to values predicted by semi-empirical and theoretical methods. The influence of shell closure is difficult to discern, though some evidence is reported for such effects on (n,2n) reactions having threshold energies near the neutron energy. The nuclei studied in this work included: 14N, 19F, 23Na, 27Al, 31P, 45Sc, 46Ti, 50Cr, 54Fe, 28Ni, 63Cu, 65Cu, 64Zn, 66Zn, 68Zn, 69Ga, 75As, 90Zr, 92Mo, 124Xe, 126Xe, 128Xe, 130Xe, 131Xe, 132Xe, 134Xe, 136Xe, 141Pr and 144Sm. The temperature scale for the solar xenon thermometer is reexamined in terms of excitation functions for (n,γ) reactions on 127I and 133Cs. The revised scale suggests that an upper limit of approximately 1060K can be set on the temperature of the sun during the deuterium burning stage

  8. The Effect of Nigella Sativa Extract on Alpha-ketoglutarate Activity and Histopathologic Changes on Rat Liver Induced by Monosodium Glutamate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ala Sh Emhemed Eshami

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Monosodium glutamate (MSG is a commonly used food additive and found in most soups, fish, and processed meat. The use of MSG in food is growing. However, the fear of consuming MSG has increased in the last few years due to the adverse reactions and toxicity in the liver. Nigella sativa (NS is used as traditional medicine for the treatment of many diseases. It has been extensively investigated in recent years due to its notable pharmacological properties such as inhibit oxidative stress. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of different doses of Nigella Sativa on alpha KGDH activity and liver histology of MSG-induced rats. The animals (n=30 were grouped into A (control, B (treated with MSG 1g/kg.bw , C (treated with MSG 1g/kg.bw and NS 0.1 g/kg.bw, D (treated with MSG 1g/kg.bw and NS 0.2 g/kg.bw, E (treated with MSG 1g/kg.bw and NS 0.4 g/kg.bw and F (given a daily NS extract 0.2 g/kg.bw. Alpha KGDH activity was investigated using ELISA method and liver histopathology by light microscope. The MSG treatment increased Alpha KGDH activity and disturbed liver architecture, hemorrhage in the central veins, areas of necrosis, vacuolation and increased inflammatory cells infiltration. The condition was normalized by treatment NS on dose 0.2 and 0.4 g/kg.bw. The findings showed that the administration of MSG increases alpha KGDH and induces damage in liver tissue. Nigella sativa extract can reduce alpha KGDH and prevent liver damage caused by MSG.

  9. Systematic study of neutron induced reactions of the actinide nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maslov, V.M. [Akadehmiya Navuk Belarusi, Minsk (Belarus). Inst. Radyyatsyjnykh Fizika-Khimichnykh Prablem; Kikuchi, Yasuyuki

    1996-06-01

    A statistical theory is used for the calculation of the neutron-induced reaction cross sections of actinide nuclides from 10 keV up to 20 MeV. Available experimental data bases for major actinides were extensively used to develop theoretical tools for consistent evaluation of neutron data of minor actinides. The approach employed up to the second chance fission threshold is based on the full-scale Hauser-Feshbach theory, a phenomenological modelling of level densities, the giant dipole resonance model for gamma-ray emission, the double-humped fission barrier model and the coupled channel optical model calculations. The pairing, collective and shell effects are introduced into the level density model for equilibrium and saddle point deformations. Step-like structures observed in fission cross section of {sup 235}U around 1 MeV incident neutron energies are interpreted as due to pairing effects. Pairing correlation parameters are adjusted to fit the fission cross section slope in the first plateau region. The level density collective effect inclusion influences drastically the extracted experimental fission barrier parameters due to the inner saddle point asymmetry. The shell effects dumping is manifested as a consistent fit of fission data above the second chance fission threshold. In case of minor actinides, fission data fits are used as a constraint for capture and inelastic scattering cross section predictions. The capture cross sections were analyzed with the allowance for (n,{gamma}n`) and (n,{gamma}f) reactions. To fit the high-energy tails in the (n,2n) reaction, the pre-equilibrium processes in the neutron channel were included. All these effects were modelled, and the model parameters were obtained using major actinides neutron data. The resulted parameter systematics were applied for analysis of available data and prediction of capture, inelastic scattering, (n,2n), (n,3n) reaction and fission cross sections. (J.P.N.). 87 refs.

  10. Possibility of 5He emission in neutron induced reactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jingshang

    2004-01-01

    The unstable nucleus 5He emission has never been included in the widely used statistical model codes as the evaluation tool and interpretation experimental data.The calculated threshold energies of 5He emission from light nuclei to heavy nuclei indicate that in most cases the compound nucleus induced by incident neutron would emit 5He rather than 3He. Since 5He is unstable and can be separated into n+α spontaneously,so neutron is produced in 5He emission process. The formulation of the double-differential cross section of the neutron from the two-body breakup process of emitted 5He is established. Because of the strong recoil effect, the energy balance is strictly taken into account to meet the needs in nuclear engineering. Further improvement of the statistical model calculation codes on this respect is proposed. It is expected that the correlative measurement will be available to account the outgoing neutron and alpha particle simultaneously and to test and verify the existence of 5He emission.

  11. Long-term therapy of interferon-alpha induced pulmonary arterial hypertension with different PDE-5 inhibitors: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baumann Gert

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract background Interferon alpha2 is widely used in hepatitis and high-risk melanoma. Interferon-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension as a side effect is rare. Case presentation We describe a melanoma patient who developed severe pulmonary arterial hypertension 30 months after initiation of adjuvant interferon alpha2b therapy. Discontinuation of interferon did not improve pulmonary arterial hypertension. This patient could be treated successfully with phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor therapy. Conclusion This is only the 5th case of interferon-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension and the first documented case where pulmonary arterial hypertension was not reversible after termination of interferon alpha2 therapy. If interferon alpha2 treated patients develop respiratory symptoms, pulmonary arterial hypertension should be considered in the differential diagnosis. For these patients phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors, e.g. sildenafil or vardenafil, could be an effective therapeutic approach.

  12. Radiation-induced peroxidation of lipid dissolved in organic solvent and its inhibition by alpha-tocopherol and cepharanthine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of cepharanthine and alpha-tocopherol on radiation-induced peroxidation of lipids dissolved in methanol(MeOH)-chloroform (CHCl3)-H2O(v/v, 2/1/0.8) were examined. alpha-Tocopherol strongly inhibited radiation-induced peroxidation of lipids dissolved in MeOH-CHCl3-H2O. However, cepharanthine exhibited a weak inhibitory action in this system. The change in the absorption spectrum of alpha-tocopherol and cepharanthine by X-irradiation was measured. The reagents were dissolved in 95% EtOH acidified with 20 mM HCl and in MeOH-CHCl3-H2O. alpha-Tocopherol exhibited the change in its absorption spectrum in both systems, and seemed to be oxidized at a high rate by free radicals. However, cepharanthine slightly exhibited the change in its spectrum in MeOH-CHCl3-H2O, but not in acidified EtOH

  13. Radiation-induced peroxidation of lipid dissolved in organic solvent and its inhibition by alpha-tocopherol and cepharanthine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiraishi, N.; Joja, I.; Kuroda, M.; Fujishima, M.; Miyake, M.; Aono, K.

    1985-01-01

    Effects of cepharanthine and alpha-tocopherol on radiation-induced peroxidation of lipids dissolved in methanol(MeOH)-chloroform (CHCl3)-H2O(v/v, 2/1/0.8) were examined. alpha-Tocopherol strongly inhibited radiation-induced peroxidation of lipids dissolved in MeOH-CHCl3-H2O. However, cepharanthine exhibited a weak inhibitory action in this system. The change in the absorption spectrum of alpha-tocopherol and cepharanthine by X-irradiation was measured. The reagents were dissolved in 95% EtOH acidified with 20 mM HCl and in MeOH-CHCl3-H2O. alpha-Tocopherol exhibited the change in its absorption spectrum in both systems, and seemed to be oxidized at a high rate by free radicals. However, cepharanthine slightly exhibited the change in its spectrum in MeOH-CHCl3-H2O, but not in acidified EtOH.

  14. Efficient one-pot enzymatic synthesis of alpha-(1-->4)-glucosidic disaccharides through a coupled reaction catalysed by Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM maltose phosphorylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Hiroyuki; Dilokpimol, Adiphol; Abou Hachem, Maher; Svensson, Birte

    2010-05-27

    Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM maltose phosphorylase (LaMalP) of glycoside hydrolase family 65 catalysed enzymatic synthesis of alpha-(1-->4)-glucosidic disaccharides from maltose and five monosaccharides in a coupled phosphorolysis/reverse phosphorolysis one-pot reaction. Thus phosphorolysis of maltose to beta-glucose 1-phosphate circumvented addition of costly beta-glucose 1-phosphate for reverse phosphorolysis with different monosaccharide acceptors, resulting in 91%, 89%, 88%, 86% and 84% yield of alpha-d-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminopyranose [N-acetyl-maltosamine], alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-D-glucosaminopyranose [maltosamine], alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-D-mannopyranose, alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-L-fucopyranose and alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-D-xylopyranose, respectively, from 0.1M maltose, 0.5M N-acetyl glucosamine, 0.1M glucosamine, 0.1M mannose, 1M L-fucose and 0.5M xylose in 0.2M phosphate-citrate pH 6.2. These current yields of 0.27-0.34 g of disaccharide products from 10 mL reaction mixtures are easy to scale up and moreover the strategy can be applied to large-scale production of other oligosaccharides from low-cost disaccharides as catalysed by phosphorylases with different substrate specificities. PMID:20392438

  15. Activity of alpha-1, 4-glucosidase in furazolidone-induced glycogenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnecki, C M; Salam, A; Caldwell, R; Jankus, E F

    1978-01-01

    Furazolidone (FZ) at 700 and 800 p.p.m. was added to feed mixtures fed turkey poults two and three weeks posthatching, respectively, to induce acute experimental cardiomyopathy. Poults in the control pen received the same ration but without FZ. From EKG data obtained at 2, 4, and 5 weeks of age, control unaffected and experimental affected poults were selected for sacrifice. Poults were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and appropriate samples of hepatic tissue were removed for assays of activity of alpha-1, 4-glucosidase. Results indicate that enzyme activity in affected FZ-treated poults is similar to that in unaffected control poults. Lack of significant differences in activity of this lysosomal enzyme suggests that FZ-induced glycogenosis may be related to the adult form of idiopathic generalized glucogenosis, the etiology of which remains unidentified. PMID:353772

  16. Targeted Cytoplasmic Irradiation with Alpha Particles Induces Mutations in Mammalian Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Jun; Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard; Xu, An; Waldren, Charles A.; Geard, Charles R.; Yu, Zengliang; Hei, Tom K.

    1999-04-01

    Ever since x-rays were shown to induce mutation in Drosophila more than 70 years ago, prevailing dogma considered the genotoxic effects of ionizing radiation, such as mutations and carcinogenesis, as being due mostly to direct damage to the nucleus. Although there was indication that alpha particle traversal through cellular cytoplasm was innocuous, the full impact remained unknown. The availability of the microbeam at the Radiological Research Accelerator Facility of Columbia University made it possible to target and irradiate the cytoplasm of individual cells in a highly localized spatial region. By using dual fluorochrome dyes (Hoechst and Nile Red) to locate nucleus and cellular cytoplasm, respectively, thereby avoiding inadvertent traversal of nuclei, we show here that cytoplasmic irradiation is mutagenic at the CD59 (S1) locus of human-hamster hybrid (AL) cells, while inflicting minimal cytotoxicity. The principal class of mutations induced are similar to those of spontaneous origin and are entirely different from those of nuclear irradiation. Furthermore, experiments with radical scavenger and inhibitor of intracellular glutathione indicated that the mutagenicity of cytoplasmic irradiation depends on generation of reactive oxygen species. These findings suggest that cytoplasm is an important target for genotoxic effects of ionizing radiation, particularly radon, the second leading cause of lung cancer in the United States. In addition, cytoplasmic traversal by alpha particles may be more dangerous than nuclear traversal, because the mutagenicity is accomplished by little or no killing of the target cells.

  17. Absolute hydrogen depth profiling using the resonant $^{1}$H($^{15}$N,$\\alpha\\gamma$)$^{12}$C nuclear reaction

    CERN Document Server

    Reinhardt, Tobias P; Bemmerer, Daniel; Stöckel, Klaus; Wagner, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Resonant nuclear reactions are a powerful tool for the determination of the amount and profile of hydrogen in thin layers of material. Usually, this tool requires the use of a standard of well-known composition. The present work, by contrast, deals with standard-less hydrogen depth profiling. This approach requires precise nuclear data, e.g. on the widely used $^{1}$H($^{15}$N,$\\alpha\\gamma$)$^{12}$C reaction, resonant at 6.4\\,MeV $^{15}$N beam energy. Here, the strongly anisotropic angular distribution of the emitted $\\gamma$-rays from this resonance has been re-measured, resolving a previous discrepancy. Coefficients of (0.38$\\pm$0.04) and (0.80$\\pm$0.04) have been deduced for the second and fourth order Legendre polynomials, respectively. In addition, the resonance strength has been re-evaluated to (25.0$\\pm$1.5)\\,eV, 10\\% higher than previously reported. A simple working formula for the hydrogen concentration is given for cases with known $\\gamma$-ray detection efficiency. Finally, the absolute approach i...

  18. Ultrastructure of rat sciatic nerve at the streptozotocin-induced neuropathy conditions under administration of alpha-lipoic acid preparations

    OpenAIRE

    Dronov S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Dronov S.M. Ultrastructure of rat sciatic nerve at the streptozotocin-induced neuropathy conditions under administration of alpha-lipoic acid preparations. ABSTRACT. Background. Diabetic polyneuropathy is one of the most common long-term complications of diabetes. Hyperglycemias caused by ischemia and peroxidation of lipids are the presumed cause of diabetic neuropathy. Appointment of alpha-lipoic acid can restore the function of peripheral nerves, preventing the development of autonomic a...

  19. Cross-section measurement for the 10B(n, alpha)7Li reaction at 4.0 and 5.0 MeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guohui; Guo, Li'an; Cao, Rongtai; Zhang, Jiaguo; Chen, Jinxiang

    2008-10-01

    Cross-sections of the (10)B(n, alpha)(7)Li reaction were measured at En=4.0 and 5.0 MeV. A gridded ionization chamber (GIC) was used as charged particle detector. Neutrons were produced through the D(d, n)(3)He reaction with a deuterium gas target. Experiments were performed at the 4.5 MV Van de Graaff accelerator of Peking University. Cross-section data of the (238)U(n, f) reaction were employed as standard. The measured cross-sections of the (10)B(n, alpha)(7)Li reaction at 4.0 and 5.0 MeV are 211+/-17 and 169+/-14 mb, respectively, and they are compared with existing results of measurements and evaluations. PMID:18387305

  20. Effects of alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor positive allosteric modulator on lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammatory pain in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Muzaffar; Rahman, Shafiqur

    2016-07-15

    Evidence indicates that microglial activation contributes to the pathophysiology and maintenance of neuroinflammatory pain involving central nervous system alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of 3a,4,5,9b-Tetrahydro-4-(1-naphthalenyl)-3H-cyclopentan[c]quinoline-8-sulfonamide (TQS), an alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor positive allosteric modulator (PAM), on tactile allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia following lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced microglial activation in hippocampus, a neuroinflammatory pain model in mice. In addition, we examined the effects of TQS on microglial activation marker, an ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba-1), in the hippocampus may be associated with neuroinflammatory pain. Pretreatment of TQS (4mg/kg) significantly reduced LPS (1mg/kg)-induced tactile allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia. Moreover, pretreatment of methyllycaconitine (3mg/kg) significantly reversed TQS-induced antiallodynic and antihyperalgesic responses indicating the involvement of alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Pretreatment of TQS significantly decreased LPS-induced increased in hippocampal Iba-1 expression. Overall, these results suggest that TQS reduces LPS-induced neuroinflammatory pain like symptoms via modulating microglial activation likely in the hippocampus and/or other brain region by targeting alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Therefore, alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor PAM such as TQS could be a potential drug candidate for the treatment of neuroinflammatory pain. PMID:27154173

  1. Does Dietary Deoxynivalenol Modulate the Acute Phase Reaction in Endotoxaemic Pigs?—Lessons from Clinical Signs, White Blood Cell Counts, and TNF-Alpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Tesch

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied the interaction between deoxynivalenol (DON-feeding and a subsequent pre- and post-hepatic immune stimulus with the hypothesis that the liver differently mediates the acute phase reaction (APR in pigs. Barrows (n = 44 were divided into a DON-(4.59 mg DON/kg feed and a control-diet group, surgically equipped with permanent catheters pre- (V. portae hepatis and post-hepatic (V. jugularis interna and infused either with 0.9% NaCl or LPS (7.5 µg/kg BW. Thus, combination of diet (CON vs. DON and infusion (CON vs. LPS, jugular vs. portal created six groups: CON_CONjug.-CONpor., CON_CONjug.-LPSpor., CON_LPSjug.-CONpor., DON_CONjug.-CONpor., DON_CONjug.-LPSpor., DON_LPSjug.-CONpor.. Blood samples were taken at −30, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 120, 150, 180 min relative to infusion and analyzed for leukocytes and TNF-alpha. Concurrently, clinical signs were scored and body temperature measured during the same period. LPS as such induced a dramatic rise in TNF-alpha (p < 0.001, hyperthermia (p < 0.01, and severe leukopenia (p < 0.001. In CON-fed pigs, an earlier return to physiological base levels was observed for the clinical complex, starting at 120 min post infusionem (p < 0.05 and persisting until 180 min. DON_LPSjug.-CONpor. resulted in a lower temperature rise (p = 0.08 compared to CON_LPSjug.-CONpor.. In conclusion, APR resulting from a post-hepatic immune stimulus was altered by chronic DON-feeding.

  2. Minocycline treatment ameliorates interferon-alpha-induced neurogenic defects and depression-like behaviors in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian-Shun eZheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Interferon-alpha (IFN-α is a proinflammatory cytokine that is widely used for the treatment of chronic viral hepatitis and malignancy, because of its immune-activating, antiviral, and antiproliferative properties. However, long-term IFN-α treatment frequently causes depression, which limits its clinical utility. The precise molecular and cellular mechanisms of IFN-α-induced depression are not currently understood. Neural stem cells (NSCs in the hippocampus continuously generate new neurons, and some evidence suggests that decreased neurogenesis plays a role in the neuropathology of depression. We previously reported that IFN-α treatment suppressed hippocampal neurogenesis and induced depression-like behaviors via its receptors in the brain in adult mice. However, it is unclear how systemic IFN-α administration induces IFN-α signaling in the hippocampus. In this study, we analyzed the role of microglia, immune cells in the brain, in mediating the IFN-α-induced neurogenic defects and depressive behaviors. In vitro studies demonstrated that IFN-α treatment induced the secretion of endogenous IFN-α from microglia, which suppressed NSC proliferation. In vivo treatment of adult mice with IFN-α for five weeks increased the production of proinflammatory cytokines, including IFN-α, and reduced neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Both effects were prevented by simultaneous treatment with minocycline, an inhibitor of microglial activation. Furthermore, minocycline treatment significantly suppressed IFN-α-induced depressive behaviors in mice. These results suggest that microglial activation plays a critical role in the development of IFN-α-induced depression, and that minocycline is a promising drug for the treatment of IFN-α-induced depression in patients, especially those who are low responders to conventional antidepressant treatments.

  3. Cross sections of the reaction Pa-231(d,3n)U-230 for the production of U-230/Th-226 for targeted alpha therapy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Morgenstern, A.; Lebeda, Ondřej; Štursa, Jan; Capote, R.; Sin, M.; Bruchertseifer, F.; Zielinska, B.; Apostolidis, C.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 80, č. 5 (2009), 054612/1-054612/6. ISSN 0556-2813 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : Pa-231 * U-230 * Th-226 * reaction cross section * targeted alpha therapy Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 3.477, year: 2009

  4. Pharmacological dose of alpha-tocopherol induces cardiotoxicity in Wistar rats determined by echocardiography and histology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of pharmacological dose of alpha-tocopherol on heart health was determined in Wistar rats. Animals were randomly assigned to either C (control, n = 11) or E (alpha-tocopherol, n = 11) group. Animals received corn oil (C) or alpha-tocopherol dissolved in corn oil (250 mg alpha-tocopherol/[...

  5. Radiation-induced crosslinking and grafting reactions in polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This dissertation is concerned with three aspects of the crosslinking and grafting reactions induced by ionizing radiation on polyethylenes. One is the effect of trace inert fillers on the radiation-induced crosslinking of polyethylene. Experiments were performed with silica filled samples of low-density polyethylene subjected to 5 and 10 Mrad doses of gammas and electrons. Contrary to Goriyendo's results the insoluble fraction was found to be independent of SiO2 concentrations up to 0.5% by volume of both a finely divided and coarse filler. Another unexplained phenomenon is the ability of acid to enhance the radiation-induced grafting of styrene to polyethylene. Experiments were performed using polyethylene films immersed in styrene-methanol solutions both with and without acid and oxygen. The results show the gamma-induced grafting rate is enhanced by the presence of acid even in O2-free systems, despite the fact that the acid does not permeate the film. To better understand the crystalline region of polyethylene, ESR measurements at low power levels were made on sngle crystals of n-eicosane (n-C20H42) irradiated with gammas at 770K. The relative yields and the migration and decay mechanisms of the radicals suggest that the fracture of C-H bonds in irradiated eicosane favors the yield of the interior secondary alkyl radical far more than is to be expected from a radom fracture pattern. The results also demonstrate that the intramolecular migration of the alkyl radical site is more rapid than intermolcular migration. An ionic mechanism is proposed for the production of the alkyl free radicals in irradiated polyethylene and all other solid linear alkanes. The non-random fracture pattern of the C-H bonds in alkanes is explained in terms of random ionization and positive hole migration to the energetically favored interior position, followed by the ionic processes of the Weiss mechanism

  6. Excitation Functions of Deuteron Induced Nuclear Reactions on Iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The excitation functions were measured for nuclear reactions induced by deuterons on natural iron leading to the production of 52g,54Mn and 55,56,57,58gCo radionuclides in the energy range from threshold energy up to 10 MeV. The measured data were compared with other measured data and also with the results of theoretical calculations using the default parameters of the codes EMPIRE-3.0 and TALYS. The coulomb barrier Bc for iron target was calculated and the excitation curves were discussed taking in consideration the deuteron breakup and the pre-equilibrium emission processes. The integral yields of 55,56,57,58gCO radionuclides were calculated as a function of deuteron energy

  7. Laser induced sonofusion: A new road toward thermonuclear reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadighi-Bonabi, Rasoul; Gheshlaghi, Maryam

    2016-03-01

    The Possibility of the laser assisted sonofusion is studied via single bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL) in Deuterated acetone (C3D6O) using quasi-adiabatic and hydro-chemical simulations at the ambient temperatures of 0 and -28.5 °C. The interior temperature of the produced bubbles in Deuterated acetone is 1.6 × 106 K in hydro-chemical model and it is reached up to 1.9 × 106 K in the laser induced SBSL bubbles. Under these circumstances, temperature up to 107 K can be produced in the center of the bubble in which the thermonuclear D-D fusion reactions are promising under the controlled conditions.

  8. Laser induced sonofusion: A new road toward thermonuclear reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasoul Sadighi-Bonabi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Possibility of the laser assisted sonofusion is studied via single bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL in Deuterated acetone (C3D6O using quasi-adiabatic and hydro-chemical simulations at the ambient temperatures of 0 and −28.5 °C. The interior temperature of the produced bubbles in Deuterated acetone is 1.6 × 106 K in hydro-chemical model and it is reached up to 1.9 × 106 K in the laser induced SBSL bubbles. Under these circumstances, temperature up to 107 K can be produced in the center of the bubble in which the thermonuclear D-D fusion reactions are promising under the controlled conditions.

  9. Inclusive spectra of stripping reactions induced by heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spectra of inclusive transfer reactions induced by heavy ions and leading to continuum final states show high-lying broad resonancelike structures superimposed on a large continuum. Recent experimental spectra for neutron stripping on targets in the lead region are analyzed by the Bonaccorso and Brink single-particle transfer model. The results of the calculation suggest that the structures are due to the population of high-spin single-particle states which are unbound and mix with the underlying states giving rise to a broadening of the peak. The main characteristics of the spectra are reproduced. Moreover, an estimate of the elastic and inelastic breakup contributions to the inclusive spectra is given

  10. Piperacillin plus Tazobactam induced Drug Hypersensitivity Reaction: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modi RS

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Penicillin alone or with combination should be used in hospitalized patients to treat bacterial infections with great precautions since penicillin is known to produce hypersensitivity reactions very commonly. A 53 year old hospitalized male patient having tibia fracture was initially given ceftriaxone plus salbactum and amikacin as an antibacterial therapeutics. Subsequently patient was treated with Pipzo (Inj. Piperacillin plus Tezobactum; 4.5 gm. on the basis of anti- bacterial sensitivity test of pus culture. It was observed in patient having fever with chills and rigors immediately after injecting Pepzo. Though drug induced these hypersensitivity signs subsided gradually. Later on patient was switch over to inj. Imipenum to cover pseudomonal infection with resulting improvement.

  11. Multi-Strangeness Production in Hadron Induced Reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Gaitanos, T; Lalazissis, G A; Lenske, H

    2016-01-01

    We discuss in detail the formation and propagation of multi-strangeness particles in reactions induced by hadron beams relevant for the forthcoming experiments at FAIR. We focus the discussion on the production of the decuplett-particle $\\Omega$ and study for the first time the production and propagation mechanism of this heavy hyperon inside hadronic environments. The transport calculations show the possibility of $\\Omega$-production in the forthcoming \\panda-experiment, which can be achieved with measurable probabilities using high-energy secondary $\\Xi$-beams. We predict cross sections for $\\Omega$-production. The theoretical results are important in understanding the hyperon-nucleon and, in particular, the hyperon-hyperon interactions also in the high-strangeness sector. We emphasize the importance of our studies for the research plans at FAIR.

  12. Retrospective evaluation of adverse drug reactions induced by antihypertensive treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierandrea Rende

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of cardiovascular drugs is related to the development of adverse drug reactions (ADRs in about 24% of the patients in the Cardiovascular Care Unit. Here, we evaluated the ADRs in patients treated with antihypertensive drugs. The study was conducted in two phases: In the first phase, we performed a retrospective study on clinical records of Clinical Divisions (i.e., Internal Medicine Operative Unit and Geriatric Operative Unit from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2012. Moreover from January 1, 2013 to March 30, 2013 we performed a prospective study on the outpatients attending the Emergency Department (ED of the Pugliese-Ciaccio Hospital of Catanzaro, by conducting patient interviews after their informed consent was obtained. The association between a drug and ADR was evaluated using the Naranjo scale. We recorded 72 ADRs in the Clinical Divisions and six in the ED, and these were more frequent in women. Using the Naranjo score, we showed a probable association in 92% of these reactions and a possible association in 8%. The most vulnerable age group involved in ADRs was that of the elderly patients. In conclusion, our results indicate that antihypertensive drugs may be able to induce the development of ADRs, particularly in elderly women receiving multiple drug treatment. Therefore, it is important to motivate the healthcare providers to understand their role and responsibility in the detection, management, documentation, and reporting of ADRs, as also all the essential activities for optimizing patient safety.

  13. Resilience of nuclear matter in light ion induced reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavitation and heating of the target nucleus in the first instances of 3He-induced collisions in the GeV/nucleon range are investigated in an intranuclear cascade model for the formation of this structure and a stochastic one-body dynamics calculation to study its evolution. The hard collisions having essentially ceased when the structure is fully developed, the latter model is particularly suited to study the possible breakup of the system. It is shown, however, that the target recovers a spherical shape rather rapidly, and has thus a good chance to decay by standard evaporation, justifying the use of a cascade + evaporation model to analyze the data. It is also shown that the system has to be much more modified to break up into pieces instead of recovering a compact shape: in these reactions, it is thus expected that nuclear matter is resilient to shape deformation and thermal excitation. Arguments are given to explain that expansion of the system, not important in these reactions, is required to overcome this resilience. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  14. Radiation induced chemical reaction of carbon monoxide and hydrogen mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies of radiation induced chemical reactions of CO-H2 mixture have revealed that the yields of oxygen containing products were larger than those of hydrocarbons. In the present study, methane was added to CO-H2 mixture in order to increase further the yields of the oxygen containing products. The yields of most products except a few products such as formaldehyde increased with the addition of small amount of methane. Especially, the yields of trioxane and tetraoxane gave the maximum values when CO-H2 mixture containing 1 mol% methane was irradiated. When large amounts of methane were added to the mixture, the yields of aldehydes and carboxylic acids having more than two carbon atoms increased, whereas those of trioxane and tetraoxane decreased. From the study at reaction temperature over the range of 200 to 473 K, it was found that the yields of aldehydes and carboxylic acids showed maxima at 323 K. The studies on the effects of addition of cationic scavenger (NH3) and radical scavenger (O2) on the products yields were also carried out on the CO-H2-CH4 mixture. (author)

  15. Reaction-induced strain localization: Torsion experiments on dolomite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delle Piane, Claudio; Burlini, Luigi; Grobety, Bernard

    2007-04-01

    We investigated the mechanical behaviour and microstructural evolution of a dolomite marble from Mt. Frerone (Adamello, N-Italy) during decarbonation to calcite and periclase in torsion experiments. Tests were performed in a Paterson gas-medium apparatus on cylindrical samples of 10 mm diameter and 10 mm length. Experiments were conducted at 800 °C, 300 MPa confining pressure under both vented and non-vented conditions, up to a maximum bulk shear strain of about γ = 1.8, at different strain rates (3 × 10 - 5 s - 1 up to 3 × 10 - 4 s - 1 ). Under hydrostatic conditions the nominal equilibrium P(CO 2) should be around 100 MPa, but in the vented experiments the CO 2 was free to escape, causing the breakdown of dolomite. During the decomposition, deformation was systematically localized at the ends of the specimens, near the porous spacers into a fine-grained mixture of calcite and periclase. Due to the low permeability of the marble, pore fluid could not escape from the central part of the sample building up CO 2 pressure which suppressed the decarbonation reaction. The fluid pressure embrittled the material and caused the development of en-echelon tension fractures, inclined opposite to the sense of shear. We conclude that decarbonation produced a weak polyphase matrix composed of submicron sized reaction products. Such a small grain size induced strain localization which was probably promoted by a switch from grain-size insensitive to grain-size sensitive deformation mechanism.

  16. Photogenerated carrier-induced reaction on semiconductor surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osgood, R.M. Jr.

    1990-08-01

    We have begun studying the effect of illumination on the chemical interaction of molecular chlorine with a well-defined GaAs(110) surface under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions. We have found that chlorine adsorbs dissociatively at temperatures as low as 85 K. Illumination of molecular chlorine-covered surface at 85 K with 193-nm radiation led to desorption of Cl-atoms accompanied by Cl{sub 2} molecules, as well as formation of AsCl{sub 2}/AsCl{sub 3}, which desorbed at 180 K. Illumination with 351-nm excimer-laser radiation caused exclusively Cl-atoms ejection, at a lower rate. It also resulted in smaller amounts of arsenic chloride formed on the surface. No new species were observed when the surface was irradiated with a 535-nm laser. We suggest that the surface reaction is initiated by dissociation of adsorbed molecular chlorine, which we believe, is mediated by photoemission of electrons from the substrate upon 193-nm irradiation. Finally, we have nearly completed the construction of a second UHV system for the study of laser-induced dissociation of metal alkyls on GaAs surfaces. This system will incorporate total-internal-reflection Fourier-transform IR spectroscopy to follow reaction intermediates, a time of flight mass spectrometer, low electron energy diffraction and Auger Electron spectroscopy.

  17. Electroacupuncture-induced analgesia in a rat model of ankle sprain pain is mediated by spinal alpha-adrenoceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Sung Tae; Lim, Kyu Sang; Chung, Kyungsoon; Ju, Hyunsu; Chung, Jin Mo

    2008-03-01

    In a previous study, we showed that electroacupuncture (EA) applied to the SI-6 point on the contralateral forelimb produces long-lasting and powerful analgesia in pain caused by ankle sprain in a rat model. To investigate the underlying mechanism of EA analgesia, the present study tested the effects of various antagonists on known endogenous analgesic systems in this model. Ankle sprain was induced in anesthetized rats by overextending their right ankle with repeated forceful plantar flexion and inversion of the foot. When rats developed pain behaviors (a reduction in weight-bearing of the affected hind limb), EA was applied to the SI-6 point on the contralateral forelimb for 30 min under halothane anesthesia. EA significantly improved the weight-bearing capacity of the affected hind limb for 2h, suggesting an analgesic effect. The alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist phentolamine (2mg/kg, i.p. or 30 microg, i.t.) completely blocked the EA-induced analgesia, whereas naloxone (1mg/kg, i.p.) failed to block the effect. These results suggest that EA-induced analgesia is mediated by alpha-adrenoceptor mechanisms. Further experiments showed that intrathecal administration of yohimbine, an alpha(2)-adrenergic antagonist, reduced the EA-induced analgesia in a dose-dependent manner, whereas terazosin, an alpha(1)-adrenergic antagonist, did not produce any effect. These data suggest that the analgesic effect of EA in ankle sprain pain is, at least in part, mediated by spinal alpha(2)-adrenoceptor mechanisms. PMID:17537577

  18. Asymmetric Strecker-Type Reaction of alpha-Aryl Ketones. Synthesis of (S)-alphaM4CPG, (S)-MPPG, (S)-AIDA, and (S)-APICA, the Antagonists of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dawei; Tian, Hongqi; Zou, Guixiang

    1999-01-01

    Heating a mixture of alpha-aryl ketone with (R)-phenylglycinol produces a mixture of imine and 1,3-dioxazolidine. Treatment of this mixture with trimethylsilyl cyanide followed by transformation of nitrile to ester gives Strecker-type reaction products. The diastereoselectivity of the generated alpha-amino esters is from 2/1 to 7/1, and the (R,S)isomer is found as the major product. The (R,S) and (R,R)isomers can be separated by conversion to their N-Cbz or cyclization derivatives. Using this methodology, four antagonists of metabotropic glutamate receptors, (S)-alphaM4CPG, (S)-MPPG, (S)-AIDA, and (S)-APICA, are synthesized. PMID:11674092

  19. The Alpha-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone Induces Conversion of Effector T Cells into Treg Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew W. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The neuropeptide alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH has an important role in modulating immunity and homeostasis. The production of IFN-γ by effector T cells is suppressed by α-MSH, while TGF-β production is promoted in the same cells. Such α-MSH-treated T cells have immune regulatory activity and suppress hypersensitivity, autoimmune diseases, and graft rejection. Previous characterizations of the α-MSH-induced Treg cells showed that the cells are CD4+ T cells expressing the same levels of CD25 as effector T cells. Therefore, we further analyzed the α-MSH-induced Treg cells for expression of effector and regulatory T-cell markers. Also, we examined the potential for α-MSH-induced Treg cells to be from the effector T-cell population. We found that the α-MSH-induced Treg cells are CD25+  CD4+ T cells that share similar surface markers as effector T cells, except that they express on their surface LAP. Also, the α-MSH treatment augments FoxP3 message in the effector T cells, and α-MSH induction of regulatory activity was limited to the effector CD25+ T-cell population. Therefore, α-MSH converts effector T cells into Treg cells, which suppress immunity targeting specific antigens and tissues.

  20. Calculation of proton-induced reactions on Tellurium isotopes below 60 MeV for medical radioisotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 123Te(p,n)123I, 124Te(p,n)124I and 124Te(p,2n)123I reactions, among the many reaction channels opened, are the major reactions under consideration from a diagnostic purpose because reaction residuals as the gamma emitters are used for most radiopharmaceutical applications involving radioiodine. Based on the available experimental data, the absorption cross sections and elastic scattering angular distributions of the proton-induced nuclear reaction on Te isotopes below 60 NeV are calculated using the optical model code APMNK. The transmission coefficients of neutron, proton, deuteron, trition and alpha particles are calculated by CUNF code and are fed into the GNASH code. By adjusting level density parameters and the pair correction values of some reaction channels, as well as the composite nucleus state density constants of the pre-equilibrium model, the production cross sections and energy-angle correlated spectra of the secondary light particles, as well as production cross sections and energy distributions of heavy recoils and gamma rays are calculated by the statistical plus pre-equilibrium model code GNAH. The calculated results are analysed and compared with the experimental data taken from the EXFOR. The optimized global optical model parameters give overall agreement with the experimental data over both the entire energy range and all tellurium isotopes. (author)

  1. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha induces Cl- and K+ secretion in human distal colon driven by prostaglandin E2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, H; Fromm, M; Bode, H; Scholz, P; Riecken, E O; Schulzke, J D

    1996-10-01

    Increased levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) have been found in, for example, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. To investigate a possible contribution of TNF-alpha to the pathogenesis of diarrhea in these diseases, ion transport of human distal colon was studied in the Ussing chamber in vitro. Serosal addition of TNF-alpha increased short-circuit current (Isc) of partially stripped tissues in a dose-dependent manner. Maximum Isc increase of 1.8 +/- 0.2 mumol.h-1.cm-2 was reached after 60 +/- 9 min at 200 ng/ml TNF-alpha. Bidirectional tracer flux measurements revealed that TNF-alpha induced an increase in 36 Cl serosal-to-mucosal flux, a decrease in 36Cl- mucosal-to-serosal flux, and a slight increase in K+ secretion indicated by an increased secretory 86Rb net flux. In the highly differentiated colonic epithelial cell line HT-29/B6, TNF-alpha had no effect on Isc, suggesting a mediation step located in the subepithelium. This supposition was supported by measurements on totally stripped human tissues, since removal of subepithelial layers by total stripping reduced the TNF-alpha effect by 40%. Experiments with tetrodotoxin (10(-6)M) indicated that the TNF-alpha effect was not mediated by the enteric nervous system. The specific 5-lipoxygenase blocker ICI-230487 (5 x 10(-8)M) also had no effect on TNF-alpha action. In contrast, inhibition of cyclooxygenase by indomethacin (10(-6)M inhibited the effect of TNF-alpha. Radioimmunoassay of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in the serosal bathing solution revealed an increase in PGE2 production/release after addition of TNF-alpha, which paralleled the Isc response. We conclude that TNF-alpha changed Cl- and K+ transport toward secretion in human colon. This effect was mediated by PGE2 produced by subepithelial cells. Thus TNF-alpha could be a mediator of diarrhea during intestinal inflammation, e.g., in IBD and HIV infection. PMID:8897887

  2. Recent studies in heavy ion induced fission reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R K Choudhury

    2001-08-01

    Nuclear fission process involves large scale shape changes of the nucleus, while it evolves from a nearly spherical configuration to two separated fission fragments. The dynamics of these shape changes in the nuclear many body system is governed by a strong interplay of the collective and single particle degrees of freedom. With the availability of heavy ion accelerators, there has been an impetus to study the nuclear dynamics through the investigations of nucleus–nucleus collisions involving fusion and fission process. From the various investigations carried out in the past years, it is now well recognized that there is large scale damping of collective modes in heavy ion induced fission reactions, which in other words implies that nuclear motion is highly viscous. In recent years, there have been many experimental observations in heavy ion induced fission reactions at medium bombarding energies, which suggest possible occurrence of various non-equilibrium modes of fission such as quasi-fission, fast fission and pre-equilibrium fission, where some of the internal degrees of freedom of the nucleus is not fully equilibrated. We have carried out extensive investigations on the fission fragment angular distributions at near barrier bombarding energies using heavy fissile targets. The measured fragment anisotropies when compared with the standard saddle point model (SSPM) calculations show that for projectile-target systems having zero or low ground state spins, the angular anisotropy exhibits a peak-like behaviour at the sub barrier energies, which cannot be explained by the SSPM calculations. For projectiles or targets with large ground state spins, the anomalous peaking gets washed out due to smearing of the -distribution by the intrinsic entrance channel spins. Recently studies have been carried out on the spin distributions of fission fragments through the gamma ray multiplicity measurements. The fission fragments acquire spin mainly from two

  3. Total and partial cross sections of the $^{112}$Sn($\\alpha,\\gamma$)$^{116}$Te reaction measured via in-beam $\\gamma$-ray spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Netterdon, L; Scholz, P; Zilges, A

    2015-01-01

    An extended database of experimental data is needed to address uncertainties of the nuclear-physics input parameters for Hauser-Feshbach calculations. Especially $\\alpha$+nucleus optical model potentials at low energies are not well known. The in-beam technique with an array of high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors was successfully applied to the measurement of absolute cross sections of an ($\\alpha$,$\\gamma$) reaction on a heavy nucleus at sub-Coulomb energies. The total and partial cross-section values were measured by means of in-beam $\\gamma$-ray spectroscopy. Total and partial cross sections were measured at four different $\\alpha$-particle energies from $E_\\alpha = 10.5$ MeV to $E_\\alpha = 12$ MeV. The measured total cross-section values are in excellent agreement with previous results obtained with the activation technique, which proves the validity of the applied method. The experimental data was compared to Hauser-Feshbach calculations using the nuclear reaction code TALYS. A modified version of the...

  4. Hydrogen Alpha Self-Absorption Effects in Laser-Induced Air Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Time-resolved spectroscopy measurements of the hydrogen alpha Balmer series line following laser-induced optical breakdown in laboratory air are designed to investigate in detail the determination of electron density from Stark-broadened spectral line shapes. Comparisons of results obtained from Hβ and Hγ lines indicate higher electron density inferred from Hα early in the plasma decay, suggesting self-absorption occurs. However, detailed comparisons for time delays of 300 and 400 ns after optical breakdown reveal the minute extent of self-absorption in air breakdown experiments from (i) differences of electron density determined from the N+ lines and the Hα line, and/or from (ii) differences in recorded data sets with/without the mirror for the various time delays in the experiments

  5. The formation and decay of superheavy nuclei produced in $^{48}Ca$-induced reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Sushil; Balasubramaniam, M.; Raj K Gupta; Munzenberg, G.; Scheid, W.

    2011-01-01

    The formation of superheavy nuclei in $^{48}Ca+^{232}Th$, $^{238}U$, $^{242,244}Pu$ and $^{248}Cm$ reactions and their subsequent decay are studied within the quantum mechanical fragmentation theory (QMFT) and the QMFT based preformed cluster-decay model (PCM) of Gupta and collaborators. According to QMFT, all these $^{48}Ca$-induced reactions are cold fusion reactions with relative excitation energies larger than for the $Pb$-induced cold fusion reactions and smaller than for the lighter bea...

  6. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha Induced Protein 3 Interacting Protein 1 Gene Polymorphisms and Pustular Psoriasis in Chinese Han Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jian-Wen; Wang, Yong; Alateng, Chulu; Li, Hong-Bin; Bai, Yun-Hua; Lyu, Xin-Xiang; Wu, Rina

    2016-01-01

    Background: Psoriasis is a common immune-mediated inflammatory dermatosis. Generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP) is the severe and rare type of psoriasis. The association between tumor necrosis factor-alpha induced protein 3 interacting protein 1 (TNIP1) gene and psoriasis was confirmed in people with multiple ethnicities. This study was to investigate the association between TNIP1 gene polymorphisms and pustular psoriasis in Chinese Han population. Methods: Seventy-three patients with GPP, 67 patients with palmoplantar pustulosis (PPP), and 476 healthy controls were collected from Chinese Han population. Six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the TNIP1 gene, namely rs3805435, rs3792798, rs3792797, rs869976, rs17728338, and rs999011 were genotyped by using polymerase chain reaction-ligase detection reaction. Statistical analyses were performed using the PLINK 1.07 package. Allele frequencies and genotyping frequencies for six SNPs were compared by using Chi-square test, odd ratio (OR) (including 95% confidence interval) were calculated. The haplotype analysis was conducted by Haploview software. Results: The frequencies of alleles of five SNPs were significantly different between the GPP group and the control group (P ≤ 7.22 × 10−3), especially in the GPP patients without psoriasis vulgaris (PsV). In the haplotype analysis, the most significantly different haplotype was H4: ACGAAC, with 13.1% frequency in the GPP group but only 3.4% in the control group (OR = 4.16, P = 4.459 × 10−7). However, no significant difference in the allele frequencies was found between the PPP group and control group for each of the six SNPs (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Polymorphisms in TNIP1 are associated with GPP in Chinese Han population. However, no association with PPP was found. These findings suggest that TNIP1 might be a susceptibility gene for GPP. PMID:27364786

  7. Exploring the N{alpha}+3n light nuclei via the ({sup 7}Li,{sup 7}Be) reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nociforo, C.; Cappuzzello, F.; Orrigo, S.E.A.; Winfield, J.S. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Cunsolo, A.; Cavallaro, M. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Universita di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Catania (Italy); Foti, A. [Universita di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Catania (Italy); INFN-Sezione di Catania, Catania (Italy); Fortier, S.; Beaumel, D. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Orsay Cedex (France); Lenske, H. [Universitaet Giessen, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Giessen (Germany)

    2006-03-15

    Experimental signatures of the dynamical correlations of a core with a single-particle neutron have been found in light neutron-rich nuclei investigated via the ({sup 7}Li,{sup 7}Be) charge-exchange reactions at around 8 MeV/u. Of particular astrophysical relevance are low-lying narrow resonances ({gamma}{proportional_to}200 keV FWHM) BSEC (Bound States Embedded in the Continuum). Because of their long lifetime BSEC states are likely to effect the capture rates in any scenario for nucleosynthesis in neutron-rich environment. They have been observed in the continuum of {sup 11}Be and {sup 15}C nuclei. A microscopic nuclear structure model based on QRPA theory, which takes into account Dynamical Core Polarisation (DCP) correlations, gives a suitable description of these resonances as well as single-particle states of the studied systems. In this context, high-energy narrow structures populated in nuclei having an integer number of {alpha}-particles plus three neutrons are good BSEC candidates and can be systematically investigated. (orig.)

  8. A kinetics study for reaction process of Rn daughter and atmospheric trace gas using alpha track detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of investigators have reported formation of radiolytic ultrafine particles produced by the interaction of ionizing radiation with atmospheric trace gases. Previous studies have suggested that a very high localized concentration of the hydroxyl radical produced by the radiolysis of water can react with atmospheric trace gases such as SO2 and produce lower vapor pressure compounds that can subsequently nucleate. To determine the trace gas and water vapor concentration dependence of the active, positively charged, first decay product of radon (Po-218), a well-controlled radon chamber was used in this research. The mobility spectrum of the decay products in the range of 0.07-5.0 cm2/V.sec from the radon chamber was measured using alpha track detector installed inside a specially-designed electrostatic spectrometer. Measurements were taken for different concentrations (0.5 ppm to 5 ppm) of SO2 in purified, compressed air. A kinetics study following the clustering of SO2 around the PoOx + ion in an excess of SO2 for interpretation of the reaction processes was performed

  9. Ionizing radiation induced attachment reactions of nucleic acids and their components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An extensive bibliographic review is given of experimental and theoretical data on radiation-induced attachment reactions of nucleic acids and their components. Mechanisms of these reactions are reviewed. The reactions with water, formate, and alcohols, with amines and other small molecules, and with radiation sensitizers and nucleic acid-nucleic acid reactions are discussed. Studies of the reaction mechanisms show that many of the reactions occur by radical-molecule reactions, but radical-radical reactions also occur. Radiation modifiers become attached to nucleic acids in vitro and in vivo and there are indications that attachment may be necessary for the action of some sensitizers. (U.S.)

  10. Studying effects of Magnolol on alpha-particle induced bystander effects using PADC-film based dishes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, T.P.W. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Tse, A.K.W.; Fong, W.F. [Research and Development Division, School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong Baptist University, Baptist University Road, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Yu, K.N., E-mail: peter.yu@cityu.edu.h [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong)

    2009-10-15

    Radiation-induced bystander effect refers to the biological response found in cells (called bystander cells) which are not irradiated directly by ionizing radiation but are next to cells irradiated directly by ionizing radiation. In the present paper, the effects of Magnolol, an extract from the bark of Magnolia officinalis which is used as a traditional Chinese medicine, were studied on alpha-particle induced bystander effects. In our experiments, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were cultured in PADC-film based dishes and were irradiated with low fluences of alpha particles passing through the PADC films. The precise number of cells traversed or missed by alpha particles could be determined by studying the alpha-particle tracks developed on the PADC films upon subsequent chemical etching. TdT-mediated dUTP Nick-End Labeling (TUNEL) assay was employed to analyze the biological response of bystander cells in terms of DNA strand breaks. With the pretreatment of Magnolol, the DNA strand breaks in bystander cells were reduced, which showed that the alpha-particle induced bystander effects were suppressed with the presence of Magnolol. Since Magnolol is an antioxidant which can scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS), our results give support to that ROS play a role in the bystander signal transmission in our experiments.

  11. Development of a chromosomally integrated metabolite-inducible Leu3p-alpha-IPM "off-on" gene switch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Poulou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Present technology uses mostly chimeric proteins as regulators and hormones or antibiotics as signals to induce spatial and temporal gene expression. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we show that a chromosomally integrated yeast 'Leu3p-alpha-IotaRhoMu' system constitutes a ligand-inducible regulatory "off-on" genetic switch with an extensively dynamic action area. We find that Leu3p acts as an active transcriptional repressor in the absence and as an activator in the presence of alpha-isopropylmalate (alpha-IotaRhoMu in primary fibroblasts isolated from double transgenic mouse embryos bearing ubiquitously expressing Leu3p and a Leu3p regulated GFP reporter. In the absence of the branched amino acid biosynthetic pathway in animals, metabolically stable alpha-IPM presents an EC(50 equal to 0.8837 mM and fast "OFF-ON" kinetics (t(50ON = 43 min, t(50OFF = 2.18 h, it enters the cells via passive diffusion, while it is non-toxic to mammalian cells and to fertilized mouse eggs cultured ex vivo. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that the 'Leu3p-alpha-IotaRhoMu' constitutes a simpler and safer system for inducible gene expression in biomedical applications.

  12. Alpha fetoprotein antagonizes apoptosis induced by paclitaxel in hepatoma cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mingyue; Li, Wei; Lu, Yan; Dong, Xu; Chen, Yi; Lin, Bo; Xie, Xieju; Guo, Junli; Li, Mengsen

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell resistance to the effects of paclitaxel has not been adequately addressed. In this study, we found that paclitaxel significantly inhibited the viability of HLE, Bel 7402 and L-02 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. HLE cells and L-02 cells resisted the cytotoxicity of paclitaxel when transfected with pcDNA3.1-afp vectors. However, Bel 7402 cell sensitivity to paclitaxel was increased when transfected with alpha fetoprotein (AFP)-siRNA. Bel 7402 cell resistance to paclitaxel was associated with the expression of the "stemness" markers CD44 and CD133. Paclitaxel significantly inhibited growth and promoted apoptosis in HLE cells and L-02 cells by inducing fragmentation of caspase-3 and inhibiting the expression of Ras and Survivin, but pcDNA3.1-afp vectors prevented these effects. However, paclitaxel could not significantly promote the cleavage of caspase-3 or suppress the expression of Ras and Survivin in Bel 7402 cells. Silenced expression of AFP may be synergistic with paclitaxel to restrain proliferation and induce apoptosis, enhance cleavage of caspase-3, and suppress the expression of Ras and Survivin. Taken together, AFP may be an important molecule acting against paclitaxel-inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in HCC cells via repressing the activity of caspase-3 and stimulating the expression of Ras and Survivin. Targeted inhibition of AFP expression after treatment with paclitaxel is an available strategy for the therapy of patients with HCC. PMID:27255186

  13. Indirect measurement of the {sup 15}N(p,{alpha}){sup 12}C reaction cross section through the Trojan-Horse Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Cognata, M.; Romano, S.; Spitaleri, C.; Cherubini, S.; Lamia, L.; Pizzone, R.G.; Tumino, A. [Universita di Catania, Dipartimento di Metodologie Fisiche e Chimiche per l' Ingegneria, Catania (Italy); INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Tribble, R.; Trache, L.; Fu, Changbo; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Tabacaru, G. [Texas A and M University, Cyclotron Institute, College Station, TX (United States); Rolfs, C. [Ruhr-Universitaet, Bochum (Germany)

    2006-03-15

    The low-energy, bare-nucleus cross section for {sup 15}N(p,{alpha}){sup 12}C is extracted by means of the Trojan-Horse Method applied to the {sup 2}H({sup 15}N,{alpha}{sup 12}C)n reaction at E{sub beam}=60 MeV. The astrophysical S-factor is compared to the direct data in the same energy region. A nice agreement shows up down to 100 keV, while the low-energy behaviour of the S-factor suggests a smaller rate than is reported in the literature. (orig.)

  14. Lipopolysaccharide mitagates methamphetamine-induced striatal dopamine depletion via modulating local TNF-alpha and dopamine transporter expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yu-Ting; Tsai, Yen-Ping N; Cherng, Chianfang G; Ke, Jing-Jer; Ho, Ming-Che; Tsai, Chia-Wen; Yu, Lung

    2009-04-01

    Systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment may affect methamphetamine (MA)-induced nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) depletion. This study was undertaken to determine the critical time window for the protective effects of LPS treatment and the underlying mechanisms. An LPS injection (1 mg/kg) 72 h before or 2 h after MA treatment [three consecutive, subcutaneous injections of MA (10 mg/kg each) at 2-h intervals] diminished the MA-induced DA depletion in mouse striatum. Such an LPS-associated effect was independent of MA-produced hyperthermia. TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6 expressions were all elevated in striatal tissues following a systemic injection with LPS, indicating that peripheral LPS treatment affected striatal pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. Striatal TNF-alpha expression was dramatically increased at 72 and 96 h after the MA treatment, while such TNF-alpha elevation was abolished by the LPS pretreatment protocol. Moreover, MA-produced activation of nuclear NFkappaB, a transcription factor following TNF-alpha activation, in striatum was abolished by the LPS (1 mg/kg) pretreatment. Furthermore, thalidomide, a TNF-alpha antagonist, treatment abolished the LPS pretreatment-associated protective effects. Pretreatment with mouse recombinant TNF-alpha in striatum diminished the MA-produced DA depletion. Finally, single LPS treatment caused a rapid down-regulation of dopamine transporter (DAT) in striatum. Taken together, we conclude that peripheral LPS treatment protects nigrostriatal DA neurons against MA-induced toxicity, in part, by reversing elevated TNF-alpha expression and subsequent signaling cascade and causing a rapid DAT down-regulation in striatum. PMID:19271121

  15. Alpha-synuclein aggregation induced by brief ischemia negatively impacts neuronal survival in vivo: a study in [A30P]alpha-synuclein transgenic mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal-Cevik, Isin; Gursoy-Ozdemir, Yasemin; Yemisci, Muge; Lule, Sevda; Gurer, Gunfer; Can, Alp; Müller, Veronica; Kahle, Philip J; Dalkara, Turgay

    2011-03-01

    Alpha-synuclein oligomerization and aggregation are considered to have a role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. However, despite numerous in vitro studies, the impact of aggregates in the intact brain is unclear. In vitro, oxidative/nitrative stress and acidity induce α-synuclein oligomerization. These conditions favoring α-synuclein fibrillization are present in the ischemic brain, which may serve as an in vivo model to study α-synuclein aggregation. In this study, we show that 30-minute proximal middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion and 72 hours reperfusion induce oligomerization of wild-type α-synuclein in the ischemic mouse brain. The nonamyloidogenic isoform β-synuclein did not form oligomers. Alpha-synuclein aggregates were confined to neurons and colocalized with ubiquitin immunoreactivity. We also found that 30 minutes proximal MCA occlusion and 24 hours reperfusion induced larger infarcts in C57BL/6(Thy1)-h[A30P]alphaSYN transgenic mice, which have an increased tendency to form synuclein fibrils. Trangenics also developed more selective neuronal necrosis when subjected to 20 minutes distal MCA occlusion and 72 hours reperfusion. Enhanced 3-nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity in transgenic mice suggests that oxidative/nitrative stress may be one of the mechanisms mediating aggregate toxicity. Thus, the increased vulnerability of transgenic mice to ischemia suggests that α-synuclein aggregates not only form during ischemia but also negatively impact neuronal survival, supporting the idea that α-synuclein misfolding may be neurotoxic. PMID:20877387

  16. Medial profrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex in the generation of alpha activity induced by transcendental meditation: a magnetoencephalographic study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamamoto,Shin

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Previous EEG studies have shown that transcendental meditation (TM increases frontal and central alpha activity. The present study was aimed at identifying the source of this alpha activity using magnetoencephalography (MEG and electroencephalography (EEG simultaneously on eight TM practitioners before, during, and after TM. The magnetic field potentials corresponding to TM-induced alpha activities on EEG recordings were extracted, and we attempted to localize the dipole sources using the multiple signal classification (MUSIC algorithm, equivalent current dipole source analysis, and the multiple spatio-temporal dipole model. Since the dipoles were mapped to both the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, it is suggested that the mPFC and ACC play an important role in brain activity induced by TM.

  17. Resonance strengths in the 14N(p,gamma)15O and 15N(p,alpha gamma)12C reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Marta, Michele; Bemmerer, Daniel; Beyer, Roland; Broggini, Carlo; Caciolli, Antonio; Erhard, Martin; Fülöp, Zsolt; Grosse, Eckart; Gyürky, György; Hannaske, Roland; Junghans, Arnd R; Menegazzo, Roberto; Nair, Chithra; Schwengner, Ronald; Szücs, Tamás; Vezzú, Simone; Wagner, Andreas; Yakorev, Dmitry

    2010-01-01

    The 14N(p,gamma)15O reaction is the slowest reaction of the carbon-nitrogen-oxygen cycle of hydrogen burning in stars. As a consequence, it determines the rate of the cycle. The 15N(p,alpha gamma)12C reaction is frequently used in inverse kinematics for hydrogen depth profiling in materials. The 14N(p,gamma)15O and 15N(p,alpha gamma)12C reactions have been studied simultaneously, using titanium nitride targets of natural isotopic composition and a proton beam. The strengths of the resonances at Ep = 1058 keV in 14N(p,gamma)15O and at Ep = 897 and 430 keV in 15N(p,alpha gamma)12C have been determined with improved precision, relative to the well-known resonance at Ep = 278 keV in 14N(p,gamma)15O. The new recommended values are \\omega\\gamma = 0.352$\\pm$0.018, 362$\\pm$20, and 22.0$\\pm$0.9\\,eV for their respective strengths. In addition, the branching ratios for the decay of the Ep = 1058 keV resonance in 14N(p,gamma)15O have been redetermined. The data reported here should facilitate future studies of off-resona...

  18. Free-polymer controlling morphology of {alpha}-MoO{sub 3} nanobelts by a facile hydrothermal synthesis, their electrochemistry for hydrogen evolution reactions and optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinaim, Hathai [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Ham, Dong Jin; Lee, Jae Sung [Eco-friendly Catalysis and Energy Laboratory (NRL), Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, San 31, Hyoja-dong, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Phuruangrat, Anukorn, E-mail: phuruangrat@hotmail.com [Department of Materials Science and Technology, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, Songkhla 90112 (Thailand); Thongtem, Somchai [Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Materials Science Research Center, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Thongtem, Titipun, E-mail: ttpthongtem@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Materials Science Research Center, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand)

    2012-03-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MoO{sub 3} nanobelts as an n-type semiconducting material. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It was successfully synthesized by a facile hydrothermal reaction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A promising material with 3.75 eV band gap for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). - Abstract: Orthorhombic molybdenum oxide ({alpha}-MoO{sub 3}) nanobelts were successfully synthesized by the 100-180 Degree-Sign C and 2-20 h hydrothermal reactions of (NH{sub 4}){sub 6}Mo{sub 7}O{sub 24}{center_dot}4H{sub 2}O solutions containing 15 ml 2 M acid (HNO{sub 3}, H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} or HCl) with no surfactant and template adding. These products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy, and electron microscopy (EM). In the present research, the product synthesized by the 180 Degree-Sign C and 20 h hydrothermal reaction of the solution containing HNO{sub 3} was {alpha}-MoO{sub 3} nanobelts with >10 {mu}m long and <200 nm wide. Electrochemistry for hydrogen evolution reactions (HER) and optical properties of the as-synthesized {alpha}-MoO{sub 3} nanobelts were characterized by linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) and Tafel plot, including UV-vis and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. These imply that {alpha}-MoO{sub 3} nanobelts show satisfied performance for HER, with the 3.75 eV direct allowed band gap (E{sub g}) due to the charged transition of O{sub 2p} {yields} Mo{sub 4d}, including the emission of 437 nm wavelength at room temperature.

  19. Lack of promoting effects of phenobarbital at low dose on diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in TGF-alpha transgenic mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Puatanachokchai, Rawiwan; Kakuni, Masakazu; Wanibuchi, Hideki; KINOSHITA, ANNA; Kang, Jin Seok; Salim, Elsayed I.; Morimura, Keiichirou; Tamano, Seiko; Merlino, Glenn T.; FUKUSHIMA, SHOJI

    2009-01-01

    KEYWORDS-CLASSIFICATION: administration & dosage;Animals;Anticonvulsants;Carcinogenicity Tests;Carcinogens;chemically induced;Diethylnitrosamine;Dose-Response Relationship,Drug;genetics;Japan;Liver Neoplasms;mechanisms of carcinogenesis;metabolism;Mice;Mice,Transgenic;pathology;Phenobarbital;Research;toxicity;Transforming Growth Factor alpha;

  20. Modeling of reaction-induced flow maldistributions in packed beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroh, F.; Balakotaiah, V. (Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Univ. of Houston, Houston, TX (United States))

    1991-07-01

    This paper examines reaction-induced flow maldistributions in adiabatic, down-flow packed beds. Using linear stability analysis it is shown that for the case of a constant heat source, the uniform flow loses stability when a certain dimensionless group, the Darcy buoyancy number, exceeds a critical value. Center manifold theory is used to analyze the local bifurcation picture for the case of a simple and double zero eigenvalue. it is found that for large Peclet numbers, all the bifurcations from the uniform solution are subcritical in nature and are unstable locally. Orthogonal collocation and continuation techniques are combined with the local theory to determine the various branches of bifurcating solutions. The temperature and flow distributions of stable and unstable solution branches are presented for several aspect ratios and Peclet numbers. Numerical simulations predict direct transitions from uniform flow to periodic or chaotic flows. It is also found that there is a wide range of the Darcy buoyancy number in which the uniform and maldistributed flows are stable and coexist.

  1. Modeling of reaction-induced flow maldistributions in packed beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines reaction-induced flow maldistributions in adiabatic, down-flow packed beds. Using linear stability analysis it is shown that for the case of a constant heat source, the uniform flow loses stability when a certain dimensionless group, the Darcy buoyancy number, exceeds a critical value. Center manifold theory is used to analyze the local bifurcation picture for the case of a simple and double zero eigenvalue. it is found that for large Peclet numbers, all the bifurcations from the uniform solution are subcritical in nature and are unstable locally. Orthogonal collocation and continuation techniques are combined with the local theory to determine the various branches of bifurcating solutions. The temperature and flow distributions of stable and unstable solution branches are presented for several aspect ratios and Peclet numbers. Numerical simulations predict direct transitions from uniform flow to periodic or chaotic flows. It is also found that there is a wide range of the Darcy buoyancy number in which the uniform and maldistributed flows are stable and coexist

  2. Current-induced reactions in the covariant operator parton model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A covariant operator formulation of the parton model is presented. It makes it possible to obtain the standard scaling results for current-induced reactions in certain kinematical limits in a straightforward and systematic way directly from the current matrix elements. Structure functions for deep inelastic leptoproduction are derived in terms of covariant quark distributions which are shown to satisfy the Adler sum rules. These structure functions are then related to the matrix elements of the Fritzsch-Gell-Mann light cone current commutators. The total cross section for electron-positron annihilation into hadrons is calculated and properties of the final state are expressed in terms of invariant quark fragmentation functions. These functions are also shown to describe the current fragmentation region of one-particle inclusive leptoproduction. The differential cross section for Drell-Yan production of very massive lepton pairs is obtained as products of quark distributions. It is finally shown that this parton model makes no prediction for the final state in this particular process. (Auth.)

  3. Cinnamon extract attenuates TNF-alpha-induced intestinal lipoprotein ApoB48 overproduction by regulating inflammatory, insulin, and lipoprotein pathways in enterocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated whether a water extract of cinnamon (CE = Cinnulin PF®) attenuates the dyslipidemia induced by TNF-alpha in Triton WR-1339-treated hamsters, and whether CE inhibited the over-secretion of apoB48-induced by TNF-alpha in enterocytes in a 35S-labelling study. In vivo, oral treatment with C...

  4. TNF-alpha-induced mitochondrial alterations in human T cells requires FADD and caspase-8 activation but not RIP and caspase-3 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakibaei, Mehdi; Sung, Bokyung; Sethi, Gautam; Aggarwal, Bharat B

    2010-09-15

    Although much is known about how TNF-alpha induces apoptosis in the presence of inhibitors of protein synthesis, little is known about how it induces apoptosis without these inhibitors. In this report we investigated temporal sequence of events induced by TNF-alpha in the absence of protein synthesis. Regardless of whether we measured the effects by plasma membrane phosphotidylserine accumulation, by DNA strand breaks, or activation of caspases, significant changes were observed only between 12-24 h of TNF-alpha treatment. One of the earliest changes observed after TNF-alpha treatment was mitochondrial swelling at 10 min; followed by cytochrome c and Smac release at 10-30 min, and then heterochromatin clumping occurred at 60 min. While genetic deletion of receptor-interaction protein (RIP) had no effect on TNF-alpha-induced mitochondrial damage, deletion of Fas-associated death domain (FADD) abolished the TNF-induced mitochondrial swelling. Since pan-caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk abolished the TNF-alpha-induced mitochondrial changes, z-DEVD-fmk, an inhibitor of caspase-3 had no effect, suggesting that TNF-alpha-induced mitochondrial changes or cytochrome c and Smac release requires caspase-8 but not caspase-3 activation. Overall, our results indicated that mitochondrial changes are early events in TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis and that these mitochondrial changes require recruitment of FADD and caspase-8 activation, but not caspase-3 activation or RIP recruitment. PMID:20136500

  5. A compilation of information on the {sup 31}P(p,{alpha}){sup 28}Si reaction and properties of excited levels in the compound nucleus {sup 32}S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.E.; Smith, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Technology Development Div.

    1997-11-01

    This report documents a survey of the literature, and provides a compilation of data contained therein, for the {sup 31}P(p,{alpha}){sup 28}Si reaction. Attention is paid here to resonance states in the compound-nuclear system {sup 32}S formed by {sup 31}P + p, with emphasis on the alpha-particle decay channels, {sup 28}Si + {alpha} which populate specific levels in {sup 28}Si. The energy region near the proton separation energy for {sup 32}S is especially important in this context for applications in nuclear astrophysics. Properties of the excited states in {sup 28}Si are also considered. Summaries of all the located references are provided and numerical data contained in them are compiled in EXFOR format where applicable.

  6. Separation of reaction mechanisms at low energy. Study of the reactions: {sup 27}Al(d,p) {sup 28}Al, {sup 24}Mg(d,p) {sup 25}Mg, and {sup 24}Mg(d, {alpha}) {sup 22}Na; Sur la separation des mecanismes de reaction a basse energie. Etude des reactions: {sup 27}Al(d,p) {sup 28}Al, {sup 24}Mg(d,p) {sup 25}Mg, et {sup 24}Mg(d, {alpha}) {sup 22}Na

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mermaz, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-06-01

    The two sets of angular distributions of (d,p) reactions on Al and Mg, measured between 2 and 6 MeV, have given the possibility to test, in analysing the statistical fluctuations of cross-section, the validity of the separation of their mean values in two parts, one 'direct', another given by the statistical mechanism. With the same method of analysis we have studied excitation functions for several alpha groups of the reaction {sup 24}Mg(d, {alpha}) {sup 22}Na and given an evidence for an intermediate structure for the alpha channel leading to the 3. excited state of {sup 22}Na. The angular distribution of the wide resonance at 15.9 MeV in {sup 26}Al has been obtained. (author) [French] Les deux ensembles de distributions angulaires des reactions (d,p) sur Al et Mg, mesures entre 2 et 6 MeV, nous ont permis, en analysant les fluctuations statistiques de sections efficaces, de verifier la possibilite de la separation de leurs valeurs moyennes en deux composantes: l'une 'directe', l'autre due au mecanisme statistique. Avec la meme methode d'analyse nous avons etudie les fonctions d'excitation des premiers groupes alpha de la reaction {sup 24}Mg(d,{alpha}) {sup 22}Na et mis en evidence une structure intermediaire pour la voie de reaction aboutissant au 3eme niveau de {sup 22}Na. Nous avons obtenu la distribution angulaire de la resonance large situee a une energie d'excitation de 15,9 MeV dans {sup 26}Al. (auteur)

  7. Expression of DDX3 is directly modulated by hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha in breast epithelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Botlagunta, M; Krishnamachary, B; Vesuna, F; Winnard, P.T.; Bol, G.M.; Patel, A.H.; V. Ramanathan

    2011-01-01

    DEAD box protein, DDX3, is aberrantly expressed in breast cancer cells ranging from weakly invasive to aggressive phenotypes and functions as an important regulator of cancer cell growth and survival. Here, we demonstrate that hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha is a transcriptional activator of DDX3 in breast cancer cells. Within the promoter region of the human DDX3 gene, we identified three putative hypoxia inducible factor-1 responsive elements. By luciferase reporter assays in combination w...

  8. Baryon resonances in pion- and photon-induced hadronic reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present work is the analysis of the baryon spectrum in the medium-energy regime. At those energies, a perturbative treatment of Quantum Chromodynamics, that is feasible in the high-energy regime, is not possible. Chiral perturbation theory, the low-energy effective theory of the strong interaction, is limited to the lowest excited states and does not allow to analyze the complete resonance region. For the latter purpose, dynamical coupled-channel approaches provide an especially suited framework. In the present study, we apply the Juelich model, a dynamical coupled-channel model developed over the years, to analyze pion- and photon-induced hadronic reactions in a combined approach. In the Juelich model, the interaction of the mesons and baryons is built of t- and u-channel exchange diagrams based on an effective Lagrangian. Genuine resonances are included as s-channel states. The scattering potential is unitarized in a Lippmann-Schwinger-type equation. Analyticity is preserved, which is a prerequisite for a reliable extraction of resonance parameters in terms of pole positions and residues in the complex energy plane. Upon giving an introduction to the subject in Chap. 1 and showing selected results in Chap. 2, we will describe the simultaneous analysis of elastic πN scattering and the reactions π-p → ηn, K0Λ, K+Σ-, K0Σ0 and π+p→K+Σ+ within the Juelich framework in Chap. 3. The free parameters of the model are adjusted to the GWU/SAID analysis of elastic πN scattering and, in case of the inelastic reactions, to experimental data. Partial waves up to J=9/2 are included and we consider the world data set from threshold up to E∝2.3 GeV. We show our fit results compared to differential and total cross sections, to polarizations and to measurements of the spin-rotation parameter. Finally, we present the results of a pole search in the complex energy plane of the scattering amplitude and discuss the extracted resonance spectrum in the

  9. Interferon-Alpha Induced and Ribavirin Induced Thyroid Dysfunction in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina Nadeem

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic hepatitis C (CHC is one of the commonest infectious diseases of the liver and may lead to cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. Combination therapy with pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN and Ribavirin is the treatment of choice for CHC. Combination therapy is thought to act by means of antiviral mechanisms and immunomodulation. Thyroid dysfunction is the most common autoimmune adverse effect associated with combination therapy; hypothyroidism is more common than hyperthyroidism. Antithyroid antibodies and female sex have a predictive value in the development of interferon induced thyroid disease (IITD. Patients with CHC should be informed of the possibility of side effects on the thyroid gland. Screening for antithyroid antibodies and thyroid function tests should be performed in patients with CHC before the commencement of antiviral treatment, and during and after it. This article reviews different aspects of IITD, including its pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, association with treatment regimens and treatment response and the outcome of thyroid dysfunction.

  10. Persistent Skin Reactions and Aluminium Hypersensitivity Induced by Childhood Vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salik, Elaha; Løvik, Ida; Andersen, Klaus E; Bygum, Anette

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing awareness of reactions to vaccination that include persistent skin reactions. We present here a retrospective investigation of long-lasting skin reactions and aluminium hypersensitivity in children, based on medical records and questionnaires sent to the parents. In the 10-year...

  11. Protection against dexamethasone-induced muscle atrophy is related to modulation by testosterone of FOXO1 and PGC-1{alpha}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Weiping, E-mail: weiping.qin@mssm.edu [Center of Excellence for the Medical Consequences of Spinal Cord Injury, James J. Peters VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY (United States); Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, NY (United States); Pan, Jiangping; Wu, Yong [Center of Excellence for the Medical Consequences of Spinal Cord Injury, James J. Peters VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY (United States); Bauman, William A. [Center of Excellence for the Medical Consequences of Spinal Cord Injury, James J. Peters VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY (United States); Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, NY (United States); Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, NY (United States); Cardozo, Christopher, E-mail: Chris.Cardozo@mssm.edu [Center of Excellence for the Medical Consequences of Spinal Cord Injury, James J. Peters VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY (United States); Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, NY (United States); Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, NY (United States)

    2010-12-17

    Research highlights: {yields} In rat gastrocnemius muscle, dexamethasone reduced PGC-1{alpha} cellular and nuclear levels without altering mRNA levels for this factor. {yields} Dexamethasone reduced phosphorylating of p38 MAPK, which stabilizes PGC-1{alpha} and promotes its nuclear entry. {yields} Co-administration of testosterone with dexamethasone increased cellular and nuclear levels of PGC-1{alpha} protein without changing its mRNA levels. {yields} Co-administration of testosterone restored p38 MAPK levels to those of controls. -- Abstract: Glucocorticoid-induced muscle atrophy results from muscle protein catabolism and reduced protein synthesis, associated with increased expression of two muscle-specific ubiquitin ligases (MAFbx and MuRF1), and of two inhibitors of protein synthesis, REDD1 and 4EBP1. MAFbx, MuRF1, REDD1 and 4EBP1 are up-regulated by the transcription factors FOXO1 and FOXO3A. The transcriptional co-activator PGC-1{alpha} has been shown to attenuate many forms of muscle atrophy and to repress FOXO3A-mediated transcription of atrophy-specific genes. Dexamethasone-induced muscle atrophy can be prevented by testosterone, which blocks up-regulation by dexamethasone of FOXO1. Here, an animal model of dexamethasone-induced muscle atrophy was used to further characterize effects of testosterone to abrogate adverse actions of dexamethasone on FOXO1 levels and nuclear localization, and to determine how these agents affect PGC-1{alpha}, and its upstream activators, p38 MAPK and AMPK. In rat gastrocnemius muscle, testosterone blunted the dexamethasone-mediated increase in levels of FOXO1 mRNA, and FOXO1 total and nuclear protein. Dexamethasone reduced total and nuclear PGC-1{alpha} protein levels in the gastrocnemius; co-administration of testosterone with dexamethasone increased total and nuclear PGC-1{alpha} levels above those present in untreated controls. Testosterone blocked dexamethasone-induced decreases in activity of p38 MAPK in the gastrocnemius

  12. Influence of Alpha Tocopherol on Heat Stress-Induced Changes in the Reproductive Function of Swiss Albino Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was carried out to investigate the influence of vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) on heat stress-induced changes in the reproduction of Swiss albino mice. The evaluated parameters include: the estrous cycle, fertility, post-implantation losses of fetuses and estimation of progesterone levels in the serum. Eight groups of experimental mice (10 each) were used. Groups 1-4 (24 degree C) consisted of a control and alpha-tocopherol (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) treated groups. Groups 5-8 (42 degree C) consisted of a positive control and alpha-tocopherol (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) treated group. Heat-stress reduced significantly (p > 0.001) the number of fetuses and corpora lutea. There was also a significant decrease in the mean weights of fetuses (p > 0.001) and placenta (p > 0.01) in the heat-stress group with a decrease in their serum progesterone levels (p > 0.01). Heat-stress groups treated with high doses of alpha-tocopherol 200 and 400 mg/kg, showed protection against heat-stress related abnormalities. The results showed that alpha-tocopherol plays a role in protection against hyperthermia induced changes in the estrous cycle length, infertility, post-implantation losses and depletion in the serum level of progesterone. (author)

  13. Alpha-lipoic acid induces sodium iodide symporter expression in TPC-1 thyroid cancer cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Patients with metastatic thyroid cancers that do not uptake iodine need effective therapeutic option. Differentiation-inducing agents have been tried to restore functional expression of sodium iodide symporter (NIS) without success. Our objective was to assess the effect of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA), known as potential antioxidant, on expression of sodium iodide symporter in thyroid cancer cells. Methods: Human thyroid cancer-derived cell lines, TPC-1, were treated with ALA, and changes in NIS mRNA and protein expression were measured. ALA's effect on NIS gene promoter was evaluated, and functional NIS expression was assessed by iodide uptake assay. Results: Treatment with ALA increased NIS mRNA expression up to ten folds of control dose-dependently after 24 h of exposure. ALA increased NIS promoter activity, and increased iodide uptake by 1.6 fold. ALA induced expression of NIS protein, but had no significant effect on the plasma membrane trafficking. ALA increased phosphorylation of CREB and nuclear translocation of pCREB, and co-treatment of ALA and trichostatin A increased iodide uptake by three folds in TPC-1 cells. Conclusions: ALA is a potential agent to increase NIS transcription in TPC-1. It could be used as an adjunctive agent to increase efficacy of radioiodine therapy if combined with a strategy to increase NIS protein trafficking to cell membrane.

  14. Early detection of doxorubicin-induced cariotoxocity and its prevention by alpha-tocopherol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To detect doxorubicin-induced myocardial injury by quantitative estimation of cardiospecific protein, Cardiac Troponin I (cTnI) at early stage and to evaluate the cardioprotective effects of Tocopherol. Study Design: Labbased randomized controlled in-vivo study in rabbits. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmacology in collaboration with Pathology department, Army Medical College Rawalpindi, Pakistan from Jan 2012 to Dec 2012. Material and Methods: Eighteen healthy male adult rabbits were used. Cardiotoxicity was induced by single intravenous injection of 12 mg /kg of doxorubicin in a group of rabbits, control group was treated with normal saline only and the rabbits of third group were pretreated with Tocopherol 200 mg/kg of body weight for ten days before injection of doxorubicin 12mg/kg. Results: Doxorubicin produced severe cardiotoxicity confirmed by markedly raised serum levels of cTnI, CK-MB, LDH and grade 3 necrosis of the heart issue in rabbits. The pre-treatment with Tocopherol resulted in improved serum levels of cTnI and the histological picture of heart tissue. Conclusions: The quantitative cTnI estimation for detection of cardiotoxicity at subclinical level can lead to significant economic impact in management of cancer patients because the troponin-negative subjects can be excluded from long term cardiac monitoring programs, which require high cost imaging techniques. Furthermore, the outcome of most potent and widely used doxorubicin chemotherapy can be made successful with the concurrent use of alpha-Tocopherol. (author)

  15. Interaction of the human cytomegalovirus particle with the host cell induces hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cellular protein hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) was induced after infection of human fibroblasts with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). HCMV irradiated with ultraviolet light (uv-HCMV) also elicited the effect, demonstrating that the response was provoked by interaction of the infecting virion with the cell and that viral gene expression was not required. Although induction of HIF-1α was initiated by an early event, accumulation of the protein was not detected until 9 hours post infection, with levels increasing thereafter. Infection with uv-HCMV resulted in increased abundance of HIF-1α-specific RNA, indicating stimulation of transcription. In addition, greater phosphorylation of the protein kinase Akt was observed, and the activity of this enzyme was required for induction of HIF-1α to occur. HIF-1α controls the expression of many cellular gene products; therefore the findings reveal new ways in which interaction of the HCMV particle with the host cell may cause significant alterations to cellular physiology.

  16. Statistical Hauser-Feshbach theory with width fluctuation correction including direct reaction channels for neutron induced reaction at low energies

    CERN Document Server

    Kawano, T; Hilaire, S

    2016-01-01

    A model to calculate particle-induced reaction cross sections with statistical Hauser-Feshbach theory including direct reactions is given. The energy average of scattering matrix from the coupled-channels optical model is diagonalized by the transformation proposed by Engelbrecht and Weidenm\\"{u}ller. The ensemble average of $S$-matrix elements in the diagonalized channel space is approximated by a model of Moldauer [Phys.Rev.C {\\bf 12}, 744 (1975)] using newly parametrized channel degree-of-freedom $\

  17. Oxidative stress and damage induced by abnormal free radical reactions and IgA nephropathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jia-xi; ZHOU Jun-fu; SHEN Han-chao

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the oxidative stress and oxidative damage induced by abnormal free radical reactions in IgA nephropathy (IgAN) patients' bodies. Methods: Seventy-two IgA N patients (IgANP) and 72 healthy adult volunteers (HAV) were enrolled in a random control study design, in which the levels of nitric oxide (NO) in plasma, lipoperoxide (LPO) in plasma and in erythrocytes, and vitamin C (VC), vitamin E (VE) and β-carotene (β-CAR) in plasma as well as the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) in erythrocytes were determined with spectrophotometric mothods. Results: Compared with the HAV group, the averages of NO in plasma, and LPO in plasma and in erythrocytes in the IgANP group were significantly increased (P<0.0001), while those ofVC, VE and β-CAR in plasma as well as those of SOD, CAT and GPX in erythrocytes in the IgANP group were significantly decreased (P<0.0001). Linear correlation analysis showed that with the increase of the values of NO, and LPO in plasma and in erythrocytes, and with the decrease of those ofVC, VE, β-CAR,SOD, CAT and GPX in the IgAN patients, the degree of histological damage of tubulointerstitial regions was increased gradually (P<0.0001); and that with the prolongation of the duration of disease the values of NO, and LPO in plasma and erythrocytes were increased gradually, while those of VC, VE, β-CAR, SOD, CAT and GPX were decreased gradually (P<0.005). The discriminatory correct rates of the above biochemical parameters reflecting oxidative damage of the IgAN patients were 73.8%-92.5%, and the correct rates for the HAV were 70.0%-91.3% when independent discriminant analysis was used; and the correct rate for the IgAN patients was increased to 98.8%, the correct rate for the HAV was increased to 100% when stepwise discriminant analysis was used. The above biochemical parameters' reliability coefficient (alpha) were used to estimate the oxidative damage of the Ig

  18. Effects of dietary [alpha]-tocopherol and [beta]-carotene on lipid peroxidation induced by methyl mercuric chloride in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raun Andersen, H.; Andersen, O. (Department of Environmental Medicine, University of Odense, Odense (Denmark))

    1993-01-01

    Exposure of male CBA mice to methyl mercuric chloride, CH[sub 3]HgCl, (10-40 mg/l in drinking water) for 2 weeks resulted in dose-related Hg deposition and enhanced lipid peroxidation in liver, kidney and brain. Mice were fed well-defined semisynthetic diets containing different levels of [alpha]-tocopherol (10, 100 or 1000 mg/kg) or [beta]-carotene (1000, 10,000 or 100,000 IU/kg) for four weeks, two groups on each diet. The concentration of [alpha]-tocopherol and [beta]-carotene used corresponded to deficient, normal and high levels. During the last two weeks, one group on each diet was given 40 mg CH[sub 3]HgCl/l of drinking water. High dietary [alpha]-tocopherol protected against CH[sub 3]HgCl induced hepatic lipid peroxidation, whereas the [alpha]-tocopherol deficient diet further enhanced CH[sub 3]HgCl induced hepatic lipid peroxidation. Similar, though statistically non-significant effects occurred in the kidneys, [alpha]-tocopherol did not protect against CH[sub 3]HgCl induced lipid peroxidation in the brain. Excess dietary [beta]-carotene further enhanced CH[sub 3]HgCl induced lipid peroxidation in liver, kidney and brain. CH[sub 3]HgCl significantly decreased the activity of total glutathione peroxidase (T-GSH-Px) and Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase (Se-GSH-Px) in the kidneys in all dietary groups. High dietary [alpha]-tocopherol enhanced the activity of Se-GSH-Px in liver and kidney compared to the activity in mice fed the normal level of [alpha]-tocopherol. This occurred in mice exposed to CH[sub 3]-HgCl as well as in unexposed mice, and the difference between CH[sub 3]HgCl exposed and unexposed mice was not diminished. High dietary [alpha]-tocopherol increased the activity of both Se-GSH-Px and T-GSH-Px in the brain of CH[sub 3]HgCl-exposed mice. The dietary level of [beta]-carotene did not affect the activity of the two enzymes in the organs investigated. (au) (43 refs.).

  19. Experimental Study of the {sup 6}Li(d,{alpha}){sup 4}He Reaction and its Astrophysical Implications via the Trojan Horse Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizzone, R.G.; Aliotta, M.; Blagus, S.; Cherubini, S.; Figuera, P.; Lattuada, M; Milin, M.; Miljanic, D.; Pellegriti, M.G.; Rendic, D.; Romano, S.; Soic, N.; Spitaleri, C.; Zadro, M.; Zappala, R.A.

    2000-12-31

    The {sup 6}Li(d, {alpha}){sup 4}He reaction, whose astrophysical importance is connected to the primordial nucleosynthesis in the framework of the Inhomogeneous Big Bang, has been studied by using the Trojan Horse Method (THM). We derive and discuss the cross section and the astrophysical S(E)-factor for E{sub cm}=0.025-0.7 MeV. Results are compared with data from a direct measurement.

  20. Effect of alpha and beta adrenergic blockade on epinephrine induced pulmonary insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, J L; Hagen, J F; Koo, R

    1976-04-01

    Recent studies demonstrated that epinephrine causes significant pulmonary A-V shunting. This study reports the effect of alpha and beta adrenergic blockade on this shunting. Sixty-three anesthetized mongrel dogs were ventilated with a mechanical respirator. Measurements of (1) the pulmonary shunt, (2) cardiac output, (3) mean pulmonary artery, pulmonary capillary wedge and systemic pressures, and (4) pulmonary and systemic vascular resistances were obtained at 5, 15 and 30 minute intervals during the first hour and hourly for 5 hours. Fifteen dogs received no treatment. All others received epinephrine hydrochloride, 2 mug/kg/min for 5 hours. Ten received epinephrine only. Ten were pretreated with propranolol hydrochloride, 250 mug/kg, 12 with phenoxybenzamine, 1 mg/kg, and 16 with phenoxybenzamine and propranolol. Propranolol significantly decreased the epinephrine induced pulmonary shunt at all times and was the most effective drug. Phenoxybenzamine decreased the early shunting, but less than propranolol, and did not decrease the late shunting. Blockade with propranolol and phenoxybenzamine was less effective than propranolol alone. Based on the observed hemodynamic changes it was suggested that beta blockade is effective in reducing epinephrine induced pulmonary insufficiency by favorably altering the flow and distribution of pulmonary blood flow which in turn decreases epinephrine induced ventilation-perfusion inequalities and capillary hypertension both of which result in shunting. Conversely phenoxybenzamine has an unfavorable effect on the pulmonary flow. These studies support previous work in animals and man which showed that beta adrenergic stimulation is important in the pathogenesis of pulmonary insufficiency. Because the amounts of epinephrine used produce blood levels observed in critical illness, these studies add support to a relationship between the increased catecholamine stimulation of critical illness and the associated and often unexplained

  1. Determination of neutron induced fission cross sections by surrogate reaction methods for nuclear energy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this talk, surrogate reaction methods are briefly discussed and presented. Some of the recent results on neutron induced fission cross section measurements carried out and the possibility of extending the measurements for determining (n,γ), (n,2n) and (n,p) reaction cross-sections by surrogate reaction method are also discussed

  2. Cross Section Measurement for the 95Mo(n,alpha)92Zr Reaction at 4.0, 5.0 and 6.0 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Guohui [Peking University; Wu, Hao [Peking University; Zhang, Jiaguo [Peking University; Liu, Jiaming [Peking University; Yin, Yuxiang [Peking University; Chen, Jinxiang [Peking University; Gledenov, Youri Mikhailovich [ORNL; Sedysheva, M. V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia; Khuukhenkhuu, G [National University of Mongolia; Koehler, Paul Edward [ORNL; Szalanski, P. [University of Lodz

    2010-01-01

    Measurements of cross sections of the {sup 95}Mo(n, {alpha}){sup 92}Zr reaction at E{sub n} = 4.0, 5.0 and 6.0 MeV were carried out at the 4.5 MV Van de Graaff of Peking University, China. A twin gridded ionization chamber and two large-area {sup 95}Mo samples were adopted. Fast neutrons were produced through the D(d, n){sup 3}He reaction by using a deuterium gas target. A small {sup 238}U fission chamber was employed for absolute neutron flux determination. Present data are compared with existing evaluations and measurement.

  3. Cross section measurement for the (95)Mo(n, alpha)(92)Zr reaction at 4.0, 5.0 and 6.0MeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guohui; Wu, Hao; Zhang, Jiaguo; Liu, Jiaming; Yin, Yuxiang; Chen, Jinxiang; Gledenov, Yu M; Sedysheva, M V; Khuukhenkhuu, G; Koehler, P E; Szalanski, P J

    2010-01-01

    Measurements of cross sections of the (95)Mo(n, alpha)(92)Zr reaction at E(n)=4.0, 5.0 and 6.0MeV were carried out at the 4.5MV Van de Graaff of Peking University, China. A twin gridded ionization chamber and two large-area (95)Mo samples were adopted. Fast neutrons were produced through the D(d, n)(3)He reaction by using a deuterium gas target. A small (238)U fission chamber was employed for absolute neutron flux determination. Present data are compared with existing evaluations and measurement. PMID:19811925

  4. Cross Section Measurement for the 95Mo(n, {alpha})92Zr Reaction at 4.0, 5.0 and 6.0 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Guohui [Peking University; Wu, Hao [Peking University; Zhang, Jiaguo [Peking University; Liu, Jiaming [Peking University; Yin, Yuxiang [Peking University; Chen, Jinxiang [Peking University; Gledenov, Youri Mikhailovich [ORNL; Sedysheva, M. V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia; Khuukhenkhuu, G [National University of Mongolia; Koehler, Paul Edward [ORNL; Szalanski, P. [University of Lodz

    2011-01-01

    For the {sup 95}Mo(n, {alpha}){sup 92}Zr reaction cross section, there is only one experimental datum in the MeV neutron energy region with large uncertainty. As a result, very large deviations exist in different evaluated nuclear data libraries. This paper report the measurement of cross sections of the {sup 95}Mo(n, {alpha}){sup 92}Zr reaction at En = 4.0, 5.0 and 6.0 MeV. Experiments were performed at the 4.5 MV Van de Graaff of Peking University, China. A twin gridded ionization chamber was used as alpha particle detector and two large area {sup 95}Mo samples placed back to back were adopted. Fast neutrons were produced through the D(d, n){sup 3}He reaction by using a deuterium gas target. A small {sup 238}U fission chamber was adopted for absolute neutron flux determination and a BF{sub 3} long counter was used for neutron flux monitor. Present experimental data are compared with existing evaluations and measurement.

  5. The fluorine destruction in stars: First experimental study of the {sup 19}F(p,{alpha}){sup 16}O reaction at astrophysical energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Cognata, M.; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Spitaleri, C.; Indelicato, I.; Aliotta, M.; Burjan, V.; Cherubini, S.; Coc, A.; Gulino, M.; Hons, Z.; Kiss, G. G.; Kroha, V.; Lamia, L.; Mrazek, J.; Palmerini, S.; Piskor, S.; Pizzone, R. G.; Puglia, S. M. R.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Romano, S. [INFN-LNS, Catania (Italy); Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas (United States); University of Catania and INFN-LNS, Catania (Italy); and others

    2012-11-12

    The {sup 19}F(p,{alpha}){sup 16}O reaction is an important fluorine destruction channel in the proton-rich outer layers of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars and it might also play a role in hydrogendeficient post-AGB star nucleosynthesis. So far, available direct measurements do not reach the energy region of astrophysical interest (E{sub cm}{approx} 300 keV), because of the hindrance effect of the Coulomb barrier. The Trojan Horse (TH) method was thus used to access this energy region, by extracting the quasi-free contribution to the {sup 2}H({sup 19}F,{alpha}{sup 16}O)n reaction. The TH measurement of the {alpha}{sub 0} channel, which is the dominant one at such energies, shows the presence of resonant structures not observed before that cause an increase of the reaction rate at astrophysical temperatures up to a factor of 1.7, with potential important consequences for stellar nucleosynthesis.

  6. Anomalous mixing and reaction induced by superdiffusive nonlocal transport

    OpenAIRE

    Bolster, Diogo; Benson, David A.; Le Borgne, Tanguy; Dentz, Marco

    2010-01-01

    Spatially nonlocal transport describes the evolution of solute concentration due to mass transfer over long ranges. Such long-range mass transfer, present in many flow situations, changes the character of mixing and consequent chemical reactions. We study mixing in terms of the scalar dissipation and reaction rates for mixing-limited equilibrium reactions, using the space-fractional advection-dispersion equation (fADE) to model long range mass transfer. The scalar dissipation and global react...

  7. Connections between lepton-induced and hadron-induced multiparticle reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jet production is studied as a link between hadron- and lepton-induced reactions and interpreted in terms of models of underlying quark dynamics. We discuss how fragmentation distributions, quantum number flow, the charged-momentum vector, and quark counting rules can discriminate among various possible jet structures. We also review recent work on the possible relationship of the rising hadron multiplicity to quark confinement and color gauge theories. A number of new tests of quark models in hadron, photon, and lepton collisions are discussed. (orig.)

  8. In vivo administration of interferon alpha and interleukin 2 induces proliferation of lymphoid cells in the organs of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have previously shown that interleukin 2 (IL-2) synergizes with interferon alpha (IFN-alpha) in mediating the regression of established pulmonary and hepatic metastases and the reduction of intradermal tumor in various murine tumor models. To understand the mechanism of synergy, we have examined lymphoid cell proliferation in various organs of mice in response to IL-2 and IFN-alpha administration. We have utilized a technique for labeling newly synthesized DNA in vivo with 5-[125I]iodo-2'-deoxyuridine to examine proliferation of endogenous cells in response to IL-2 and IL-2 plus IFN-alpha. A proliferation index was calculated by dividing cpm in the tissues treated with cytokines by cpm obtained in corresponding tissues of control mice. After 4 days of IL-2 administration, a significant uptake of 5-[125I]iodo-2'-deoxyuridine was observed in the lungs, liver, kidneys, and spleen (proliferation index of 13, 10.3, 3.6, and 3.2, respectively). IFN-alpha alone mediated very little incorporation of radiolabel but when administered in combination with IL-2 a reduction of IL-2-induced proliferation was seen on day 4. For example 19,272 +/- 4,556 cpm (mean +/- SE) were obtained in the liver of IL-2-treated mice, compared to 8,103 +/- 2,111 cpm in livers of IL-2 plus IFN-alpha-treated mice (P less than 0.05). Similar inhibition of IL-2-induced proliferation was observed in the lungs, kidneys, and spleen. In contrast, on days 7 or 8, higher uptake of radiolabel was obtained in IFN-alpha plus IL-2-treated lungs, liver, and kidneys, compared to organs of mice treated with IL-2 alone or IFN-alpha alone. A proliferation index of 30.5, 9.8, and 10 was obtained in the lungs, liver, and kidneys of IL-2- plus IFN-alpha-treated animals, compared to 9.6, 3.6, and 5.5 in the corresponding organs of IL-2-treated mice

  9. Study on cytotoxicities induced by alpha particle irradiation combined with NNK treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate cytotoxicities of alpha-particle irradiation combined with NNK treatment. Methods: Exponentially growing immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells were divided into normal control group (NC), alpha particle irradiation group (α), NNK administration group (NNK), NNK administration (100 μg/ml) followed by alpha particle irradiation group (NNK + α), and alphaparticle irradiation followed by NNK administration (100 μg/ml) group (α + NNK). Cell survival fractions were measured by cloning rate of low-density plating cell. Ethidium bromide and 2', 7'-dichlorofluorescein, fluorescent products of the membrane-permeable dyes hydroethine and 2', 7'-dichloroflurescindiacetate were used to monitor the inarticulate reactive oxygen species (ROS) . Damage to membrane permeability was evaluated through testing LDH activity in medium. Results: In the groups exposed to both alpha particles and NNK, the survival rates were significantly lower than that of the groups administrated with the same dose of alpha particles or NNK alone. The levels of intracellular ROS and the activity of LDH in medium were significantly higher than that of the groups administrated with the same dose of alpha particles or NNK alone. Subtracted the NNK effect, the survival rates of the groups received both alpha particle irradiation and NNK treatment were significantly lower than that of alpha particle irradiated only group. However, the intracellular ROS level and the activity of LDH in medium were significantly higher than that of alpha-particle irradiated only group. In addition, the survival rates of the cells in groups exposed to alpha particle irradiation followed by NNK administration were significantly lower than that of cells treated with NNK administration followed by alpha particle irradiation. Conclusions: Alpha particle irradiation and NNK administration had synergisticity in cytotoxicity, and furthermore different schedules of the administration resulted in

  10. Determining the $\\Theta^+$ quantum numbers through a Kaon induced reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Hyodo, T; Hosaka, A.; Oset, E; Vacas, M. J. Vicente

    2004-01-01

    We study the $K^+p\\to \\pi^+KN$ reaction with kinematical condition suited to the production of the $\\Theta^+$ resonance. It is shown that in this reaction with the polarization experiment, a combined consideration of the strength at the peak and the angular dependence of cross section can help determine the $\\Theta^+$ quantum numbers.

  11. Histamine suppresses gene expression and synthesis of tumor necrosis factor alpha via histamine H2 receptors

    OpenAIRE

    1991-01-01

    Histamine and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) can each contribute to the pathogenesis of allergic reactions and chronic inflammatory diseases. We now report the effect of histamine on gene expression and total cellular synthesis of TNF-alpha. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced synthesis of TNF-alpha in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 18 healthy donors was suppressed by histamine concentrations from 10(-6) to 10(-4) M, levels comparable with those measured in tissues after...

  12. Measurements of neutron-induced reactions in inverse kinematics and applications to nuclear astrophysics

    OpenAIRE

    Reifarth René; Litvinov Yuri A.; Endres Anne; Göbel Kathrin; Heftrich Tanja; Glorius Jan; Koloczek Alexander; Sonnabend Kerstin; Travaglio Claudia; Weigand Mario

    2015-01-01

    Neutron capture cross sections of unstable isotopes are important for neutron-induced nucleosynthesis as well as for technological applications. A combination of a radioactive beam facility, an ion storage ring and a high flux reactor would allow a direct measurement of neutron induced reactions over a wide energy range on isotopes with half lives down to minutes. The idea is to measure neutron-induced reactions on radioactive ions in inverse kinematics. This means, the radioactive ions will ...

  13. PGC-1{alpha} is required for AICAR induced expression of GLUT4 and mitochondrial proteins in mouse skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leick, Lotte; Fentz, Joachim; Biensø, Rasmus S;

    2010-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that repeated activation of AMPK induces mitochondrial and glucose membrane transporter gene/protein expression via a peroxisome proliferator activated receptor Upsilon co-activator (PGC)-1alpha dependent mechanism. Whole body PGC-1alpha knockout (KO) and littermate wild ...... in both WT and PGC-1alpha KO mice. In conclusion, we here provide genetic evidence for a major role of PGC-1alpha in AMPK mediated regulation of mitochondrial and glucose membrane transport protein expression in skeletal muscle....... type (WT) mice were given either a single or repeated subcutaneous injection of the AMPK activator AICAR or saline. Skeletal muscles were dissected either 1h or 4h after the single AICAR treatment or 24h after the last injection following the repeated AICAR treatment. Repeated AICAR treatment increased...... GLUT4, cytochrome c oxidase (COX)I and cytochrome (cyt) c protein expression ~10-40% relative to saline in white muscles of the WT mice, but not of the PGC-1alpha KO mice. In line, GLUT4 and cyt c mRNA content increased 30-60% 4h after a single AICAR injection relative to saline only in WT mice. One...

  14. [Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Affects U0126-Induced Cytotoxicity in Colon Cancer Cell Line (HCT116)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljujic, M; Mijatovic, S; Bulatovic, M Z; Mojic, M; Maksimovic-Ivanic, D; Radojkovic, D; Topic, A

    2016-01-01

    Alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT), an acute phase protein, is the principal circulatory anti-protease. This multifunctional protein is encoded by the SERPINA1 gene. Although AAT was recognised as a potential tumour marker, its role in cancer biology remains unknown. Given that it has been demonstrated that AAT has an anti-apoptotic property against non-malignant cells, we aimed to investigate whether AAT affects apoptosis in a colon cancer cell line (HCT116). The presence of AAT in the HCT116 cell culture antagonized cytotoxicity of blockers of MEK1/2, PI3K/Akt pathways as well as NF-κB. The dominantly recovered cell viability was observed in the co-treatment with MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126. In addition, it was revealed that AAT almost completely abolished U0126-induced apoptosis through maintenance of the autophagy process. Our study revealed for the first time that the observed cyto-protection triggered by AAT was accompanied by sustained autophagy which opposed apoptosis. These results may contribute to understanding of the role of AAT in cancer development and evaluation of efficacy of cancer therapy. PMID:27028823

  15. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha: A promising therapeutic target in endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Lei; Wang, Wenyan; Zhang, Yu; Song, Enxue; Fan, Yijun; Wei, Bing

    2016-04-01

    Endometriosis is a common gynecologic disease defined as the presence of ectopic endometrial tissues on the ovaries and pelvic peritoneum, and it is a significant cause of pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea and infertility of women in their reproductive age. However, the etiology of endometriosis remains obscure. In recent years, a growing body of evidence validated that hypoxia developed a close relationship with endometriosis and the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1α) was increased significantly in the development of endometriosis. Furthermore, inhibiting the expression of HIF-1α contributed to suppress endometriosis progression, suggesting HIF-1α plays a critical function in endometriosis. Nevertheless, the mechanisms by which HIF-1α associates with endometriosis are still undefined. In this brief review, we had a general understanding of HIF-1α firstly, and then we tried to sum up the collective knowledge of HIF-1α in endometriosis. Finally, we will discuss kinds of novel therapeutic approaches to endometriosis based on the functions of HIF-1α. PMID:26898675

  16. Inhalation of nitric oxide inhibits ADP-induced platelet aggregation and alpha-granule release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagberg, I A; Sølvik, U Ø; Opdahl, H; Roald, H E; Lyberg, T

    1999-01-01

    To gather further information about the effects on blood platelet activation of in vivo exposure to nitric oxide (NO), platelet reactivity was studied in blood from healthy, non-smoking male volunteers before and after 30 min inhalation of 40 ppm NO. Whole blood was stimulated in vitro with adenosine diphosphate or thrombin receptor activation peptide (TRAP-6). In an ex vivo perfusion model, non-anticoagulated blood was exposed to immobilised collagen at arterial blood flow conditions (2600 s(-1)). Blood samples from both the in vitro and ex vivo experiments were stained with fluorochrome-labelled Annexin-V and antibodies against CD42a, CD45, CD49b, CD61, CD62P and fibrinogen, and analysed with a three-colour flow cytometry technique. NO inhalation reduced the platelet activation response to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) stimulation by decreasing platelet-platelet aggregation, alpha-granule release and platelet-leukocyte conjugate formation. TRAP-stimulated platelet activation, collagen-induced platelet activation and thrombus growth was unaffected by NO inhalation. We therefore suggest an ADP receptor inhibitor mode of action of inhaled NO, selective on the newly suggested G protein- and phospholipase C-coupled P2Y1 receptor. Our results demonstrate that blood platelet activation in healthy subjects is modulated by inhalation of NO in therapeutically relevant doses, although the clinical impact of our findings remains unclear. PMID:16801117

  17. PPAR{alpha} deficiency augments a ketogenic diet-induced circadian PAI-1 expression possibly through PPAR{gamma} activation in the liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oishi, Katsutaka, E-mail: k-ooishi@aist.go.jp [Biological Clock Research Group, Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Uchida, Daisuke [Biological Clock Research Group, Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Ohkura, Naoki [Department of Clinical Molecular Biology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Teikyo University, Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan); Horie, Shuichi [Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Kagawa Nutrition University, Sakado, Saitama (Japan)

    2010-10-15

    Research highlights: {yields} PPAR{alpha} deficiency augments a ketogenic diet-induced circadian PAI-1 expression. {yields} Hepatic expressions of PPAR{gamma} and PCG-1{alpha} are induced by a ketogenic diet. {yields} PPAR{gamma} antagonist attenuates a ketogenic diet-induced PAI-1 expression. {yields} Ketogenic diet advances the phase of circadian clock in a PPAR{alpha}-independent manner. -- Abstract: An increased level of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is considered a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, and PAI-1 gene expression is under the control of molecular circadian clocks in mammals. We recently showed that PAI-1 expression is augmented in a phase-advanced circadian manner in mice fed with a ketogenic diet (KD). To determine whether peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha} (PPAR{alpha}) is involved in hypofibrinolytic status induced by a KD, we examined the expression profiles of PAI-1 and circadian clock genes in PPAR{alpha}-null KD mice. Chronic administration of bezafibrate induced the PAI-1 gene expression in a PPAR{alpha}-dependent manner. Feeding with a KD augmented the circadian expression of PAI-1 mRNA in the hearts and livers of wild-type (WT) mice as previously described. The KD-induced mRNA expression of typical PPAR{alpha} target genes such as Cyp4A10 and FGF21 was damped in PPAR{alpha}-null mice. However, plasma PAI-1 concentrations were significantly more elevated in PPAR{alpha}-null KD mice in accordance with hepatic mRNA levels. These observations suggest that PPAR{alpha} activation is dispensable for KD-induced PAI-1 expression. We also found that hyperlipidemia, fatty liver, and the hepatic expressions of PPAR{gamma} and its coactivator PCG-1{alpha} were more effectively induced in PPAR{alpha}-null, than in WT mice on a KD. Furthermore, KD-induced hepatic PAI-1 expression was significantly suppressed by supplementation with bisphenol A diglycidyl ether, a PPAR{gamma} antagonist, in both WT and PPAR{alpha

  18. Cross section balance in the 14N+159Tb reaction and the origin of fast alpha particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exclusive cross sections have been obtained from particle-K X-ray coincidence data measured at 236 MeV for ejectiles ranging from 4He to 15N. Production cross sections for primary fragments and alpha particle multiplicities associated with different channels have been deduced. The major fraction of the alpha particles appears to originate from inelastic (damped) processes in which only light particles with Z<=2 are emitted. (orig.)

  19. Low doses of alpha particles do not induce sister chromatid exchanges in bystander Chinese hamster cells defective in homologous recombination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagasawa, H; Wilson, P F; Chen, D J; Thompson, L H; Bedford, J S; Little, J B

    2007-10-26

    We reported previously that the homologous recombinational repair (HRR)-deficient Chinese hamster mutant cell line irs3 (deficient in the Rad51 paralog Rad51C) showed only a 50% spontaneous frequency of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) as compared to parental wild-type V79 cells. Furthermore, when irradiated with very low doses of alpha particles, SCEs were not induced in irs3 cells, as compared to a prominent bystander effect observed in V79 cells (Nagasawa et al., Radiat. Res. 164, 141-147, 2005). In the present study, we examined additional Chinese hamster cell lines deficient in the Rad51 paralogs Rad51C, Rad51D, Xrcc2, and Xrcc3 as well as another essential HRR protein, Brca2. Spontaneous SCE frequencies in non-irradiated wild-type cell lines CHO, AA8 and V79 were 0.33 SCE/chromosome, whereas two Rad51C-deficient cell lines showed only 0.16 SCE/chromosome. Spontaneous SCE frequencies in cell lines defective in Rad51D, Xrcc2, Xrcc3, and Brca2 ranged from 0.23-0.33 SCE/chromosome, 0-30% lower than wild-type cells. SCEs were induced significantly 20-50% above spontaneous levels in wild-type cells exposed to a mean dose of 1.3 mGy of alpha particles (<1% of nuclei traversed by an alpha particle). However, induction of SCEs above spontaneous levels was minimal or absent after {alpha}-particle irradiation in all of the HRR-deficient cell lines. These data suggest that Brca2 and the Rad51 paralogs contribute to DNA damage repair processes induced in bystander cells (presumably oxidative damage repair in S-phase cells) following irradiation with very low doses of alpha particles.

  20. Neutron-induced cross section of actinides via the surrogate-reaction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The surrogate-reaction method is an indirect way of determining cross sections for reactions that proceed through a compound nucleus. It consists of using a transfer reaction to produce the same decaying nucleus as the one formed in the desired neutron-induced reaction. This technique may enable neutron-induced cross sections to be extracted for short-lived nuclei that otherwise cannot be measured. However, the validity of the surrogate method for extracting capture cross sections has to be investigated. In this work we study the reactions 238U(d,p)239U, 238U(3He,t)238Np, 238U(3He,4He)237U as surrogates for neutron-induced reactions on 238U, 237Np and 236U, respectively, for which good quality data exist. The experimental set-up enabled the measurement of fission and gamma-decay probabilities. First results are presented and discussed. (authors)

  1. Photo-induced isomerization and chemical reaction dynamics in superfluid helium droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Jeremy; Douberly, Gary; Miller, Roger

    2008-03-01

    Near threshold photo-induced isomerization and photo-induced chemical reactions have long been sough after as sensitive probes of the underlying potential energy surface. One of the most important questions asked is how the initially bright quantum state couples to the reaction coordinate, and thus relates to energy transfer in general. Helium droplets have now allowed us to stabilize entrance channel clusters behind very small reaction barriers such that vibrational excitation may result in reaction. Through two examples, namely the isomerization of the 2 binary complexes of HF-HCN Douberly et al. PCCP 2005, 7,463, and the induced reaction of the gallium-HCN complex Merritt et al. JPCA 2007, DOI:10.1021/jp074981e we will show how the branching ratios for reaction and predissociation can determined and the influence of the superfluid He solvent.

  2. 2H induced reactions on 8Li and primordial nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross sections for the 8Li(d,n)9Be (ground state) and 8Li(d,t)7Li reactions, both important to primordial nucleosynthesis in the inhomogeneous models, have been measured using a radioactive beam technique. The cross section for the former reaction is found to be small, so it is important only for synthesis of 9Be. The cross section for the latter reaction, however, is found to be large enough to destroy significant quantities of 8Li, and thus could affect predictions of primordial nucleosynthesis yields

  3. New Constraints on the 18F(p,alpha) 15O Rate in Novae from (d,p) Reaction Sum Rules

    CERN Document Server

    Kozub, R L; Batchelder, J C; Blackmon, J C; Brune, C R; Champagne, A E; Cizewski, J A; Davinson, T; Greife, U; Gross, C J; Jewett, C C; Livesay, R J; Ma, Z; Moazen, B H; Nesaraja, C D; Sahin, L; Scott, J P; Shapira, D; Smith, M S; Thomas, J S; Woods, P J

    2004-01-01

    The degree to which the (p,gamma) and (p,alpha) reactions destroy 18F at temperatures 1-4x10^8 K is important for understanding the synthesis of nuclei in nova explosions and for using the long-lived radionuclide 18F, a target of gamma-ray astronomy, as a diagnostic of nova mechanisms. The reactions are dominated by low-lying proton resonances near the 18F+p threshold (E_x=6.411 MeV in 19Ne). To gain further information about these resonances, we have used a radioactive 18F beam from the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility to selectively populate corresponding mirror states in 19F via the inverse d(18F,p)19F neutron transfer reaction. Neutron spectroscopic factors were measured for states in 19F in the excitation energy range 0-9 MeV and appropriately scaled to conform to sum rule limits. The results would suggest significantly lower 18F(p,gamma)19Ne and 18F(p,alpha)15O reaction rates than reported previously, thereby increasing the prospect of observing the 511-keV annihilation radiation associated with ...

  4. alpha(7) Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor activation prevents behavioral and molecular changes induced by repeated phencyclidine treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morten Skøtt; Christensen, Ditte Z; Hansen, Henrik H; Redrobe, John P; Mikkelsen, Jens D

    determined in a modified Y-maze test. Polymorphisms in the alpha(7) nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) gene have been linked to schizophrenia. Here we demonstrate that acute administration of the selective alpha(7) nAChR partial agonist SSR180711 dose-dependently reversed the behavioral impairment...

  5. Coal fly ash- and copper smelter dust-induced modulation of ex vivo production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha by murine macrophages: effects of metals and overload

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broeckaert, F.; Buchet, J.P.; Delos, M.; Yager, J.W.; Lison, D. [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Brussels (Belgium). School of Public Health, Industrial Toxicology and Occupational Medicine Unit

    1999-03-12

    The paper assesses the effect of two arsenic-containing particles, coal fly ash (FA) and copper smelter dust (CU), on lung integrity and on the ex vivo release of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) by alveolar phagocytes. The results show that coal fly ash and copper smelter dust bear distinct inflammatory properties. At the end of the observation period (d 120), the high CU dose produced a fibrotic reaction whereas the high dose of FA particles generated a delayed and persistent lung inflammatory reaction associated with lymphoid noduli. Marked differences in TNF-alpha production were observed within the CU and FA groups. CU particles, conceivably through their metal content, decreased TNF-alpha production by alveolar phagocytes. Due to their low arsenic content, considerably higher FA particle doses needed to be administered to produce an inhibition of TNF-alpha production.

  6. Physical exercise-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and heme oxygenase-1 in human leukocytes: effects of RRR-alpha-tocopherol supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niess, A M; Sommer, M; Schneider, M; Angres, C; Tschositsch, K; Golly, I C; Battenfeld, N; Northoff, H; Biesalski, H K; Dickhuth, H H; Fehrenbach, E

    2000-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of RRR-alpha-tocopherol (500 IU/day, 8 days) on in vivo cytokine response and cytoplasmic expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and the antioxidant stress protein heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in human leukocytes after exhaustive exercise. Thirteen men were investigated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study with a wash-out period of 28 days. The exercise procedure consisted of an incremental treadmill test followed by a continuous run until exhaustion at 110% of the individual anaerobic threshold (total duration 28.5 +/- 0.8 min). HO-1 and iNOS protein were assessed in mono- (M), lympho-, and granulocytes (G) using flow cytometry. Plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8 were measured by ELISA. IL-6 rose significantly whereas IL-8 did not exhibit significant changes after exercise. Changes of IL-6 were not affected by RRR-alpha-tocopherol. Exercise induced an increase of iNOS protein primarily in M and G. A small, but significant, increase of HO-1 protein was measured in M and G. RRR-alpha-Tocopherol did not show any significant effects on cytoplasmic expression of iNOS and HO-1 at rest and after exercise. In conclusion, exhaustive exercise induces expression of iNOS and HO-1 in human leukocytes by a mechanism that is not sensitive to RRR-alpha-tocopherol supplementation. PMID:11232592

  7. Levetiracetam Induced Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptom Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Waseem Raja; Sofi, Najeebullah; Latief, Muzamil; Dar, Imtiyaz Ahmad; Kasana, Basharat Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptom syndrome (DRESS) is a hypersensitivity drug reaction, most frequently associated with antiepileptic drugs, characterized by skin rash, fever, pharyngitis, lymphadenopathy, and visceral organ involvement, typically presenting within 8 weeks of initiation of therapy. Management involves prompt withdrawal of the offending drug and use of systemic corticosteroids. We here present a rare case of DRESS secondary to levetiracetam. Only few case reports of DRESS secondary to levetiracetam have been published so far. PMID:27057042

  8. Loss of integrin alpha1beta1 ameliorates Kras-induced lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias-Perez, Ines; Borza, Corina; Chen, Xiwu; Yan, Xuexian; Ibanez, Raquel; Mernaugh, Glenda; Matrisian, Lynn M; Zent, Roy; Pozzi, Ambra

    2008-08-01

    The collagen IV binding receptor integrin alpha1beta1 has been shown to regulate lung cancer due to its proangiogenic properties; however, it is unclear whether this receptor also plays a direct role in promoting primary lung tumors. To investigate this possibility, integrin alpha1-null mice were crossed with KrasLA2 mice that carry an oncogenic mutation of the Kras gene (G12D) and develop spontaneous primary tumors with features of non-small cell lung cancer. We provide evidence that KrasLA2/alpha1-null mice have a decreased incidence of primary lung tumors and longer survival compared with KrasLA2/alpha1 wild-type controls. Tumors from KrasLA2/alpha1-null mice were also smaller, less vascularized, and exhibited reduced cell proliferation and increased apoptosis, as determined by proliferating cell nuclear antigen and terminal deoxynucleotidyl-transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end staining, respectively. Moreover, tumors from the KrasLA2/alpha1-null mice showed diminished extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) but enhanced p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation. Primary lung tumor epithelial cells isolated from KrasLA2/alpha1-null mice showed a significant decrease in anchorage-independent colony formation, collagen-mediated cell proliferation, ERK activation, and, most importantly, tumorigenicity when injected into nude mice compared with KrasLA2/alpha1 wild-type tumor cells. These results indicate that loss of the integrin alpha1 subunit decreases the incidence and growth of lung epithelial tumors initiated by oncogenic Kras, suggesting that both Kras and integrin alpha1beta1 cooperate to drive the growth of non-small cell lung cancer in vivo. PMID:18676835

  9. Physiological environment induce quick response - slow exhaustion reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriko eHiroi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In vivo environments are highly crowded and inhomogeneous, which may affect reaction processes in cells. In this study we examined the effects of intracellular crowding and an inhomogeneity on the behavior of in vivo reactions by calculating the spectral dimension (ds, which can be translated into the reaction rate function. We compared estimates of anomaly parameters obtained from Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS data with fractal dimensions derived from Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM image analysis. FCS analysis indicated that the anomalous property was linked to physiological structure. Subsequent TEM analysis provided an in vivo illustration; soluble molecules likely percolate between intracellular clusters, which are constructed in a self-organizing manner. We estimated a cytoplasmic spectral dimension ds to be 1.39 ± 0.084. This result suggests that in vivo reactions initially run faster than the same reactions in a homogeneous space; this conclusion is consistent with the anomalous character indicated by FCS analysis. We further showed that these results were compatible with our Monte-Carlo simulation in which the anomalous behavior of mobile molecules correlates with the intracellular environment, leading to description as a percolation cluster, as demonstrated using TEM analysis. We confirmed by the simulation that the above-mentioned in vivo like properties are different from those of homogeneously concentrated environments. Additionally, simulation results indicated that crowding level of an environment might affect diffusion rate of reactant. Such knowledge of the spatial information enables us to construct realistic models for in vivo diffusion and reaction systems.

  10. Protective Role of Alpha Lipoic Acid Against Disorders Induced by Gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiation interacts with living cells, causing a variety of biochemical changes depending on exposed and absorbed doses, duration of exposure, interval after exposure and susceptibility of tissues to ionizing radiation. So, it may increase the oxidative stress and damage of body organs. Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA-also known as thioctic acid) appears to be readily absorbed from an oral dose and converts easily to its reduced form, dihydro lipoic acid (DHLA), in many tissues of the body. ALA can neutralize free radicals in both fatty and watery regions of cells. The present study has been designed to evaluate the possible efficiency of ALA as antioxidant and radio-protector against radiation induced oxidative stress in different organs (liver, kidney and heart) in rats through estimation of the activity of markers of serum liver, kidney and heart function, in addition to the histopathological differentiation of these organs by light and electron microscope. Five equal groups were conducted for the study: control, ALA (30 mg/kg body wt), irradiated (each rat was exposed to 6 Gy as a fractionated dose of gamma (γ) radiation), irradiated plus ALA (each rat received ALA for 9 days simultaneously during exposure) and ALA plus irradiation plus ALA groups (each rat received ALA for a week pre-exposure plus 9 days during exposure). Radiation doses were fractionated dose levels of 2 Gy each 3 days to reach accumulative dose of 6 Gy. After 3 days of each exposure rats were sacrificed, except, those left for recovery test one month after last exposure. The results revealed that whole body γ-irradiation of rats induces oxidative stress in liver, kidney and heart obviously manifested by significant elevation in alanine and aspartate transaminase ( ALT and AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), urea, creatinine and creatine kinase (CK-MB). ALA treated-irradiated rats showed lower significantly values indicating remarkable improvement in all measured parameters and

  11. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha expression increases during colorectal carcinogenesis and tumor progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) is involved in processes promoting carcinogenesis of many tumors. However, its role in the development of colorectal cancer is unknown. To investigate the significance of HIF-1α during colorectal carcinogenesis and progression we examined its expression in precursor lesions constituting the conventional and serrated pathways, as well as in non-metastatic and metastatic adenocarcinomas. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot is used to analyse HIF-1α expression in normal colonic mucosa, hyperplastic polyps (HPP), sessile serrated adenomas (SSA), low-grade (TA-LGD) and high-grade (TA-HGD) traditional adenomas as well as in non-metastatic and metastatic colorectal adenocarcinomas. Eight colorectal carcinoma cell lines are tested for their HIF-1α inducibility after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation using western blot and immunocytochemistry. In normal mucosa, HPP and TA-LGD HIF-1α was not expressed. In contast, perinuclear protein accumulation and nuclear expression of HIF-1α were shown in half of the examined SSA and TA-HGD. In all investigated colorectal carcinomas a significant nuclear HIF-1α overexpression compared to the premalignant lesions was observed but a significant correlation with the metastatic status was not found. Nuclear HIF-1α expression was strongly accumulated in perinecrotic regions. In these cases HIF-1α activation was seen in viable cohesive tumor epithelia surrounding necrosis and in dissociated tumor cells, which subsequently die. Enhanced distribution of HIF-1α was also seen in periiflammatory regions. In additional in vitro studies, treatment of diverse colorectal carcinoma cell lines with the potent pro-inflammatory factor lipopolysaccharide (LPS) led to HIF-1α expression and nuclear translocation. We conclude that HIF-1α expression occurs in early stages of colorectal carcinogenesis and achieves a maximum in the invasive stage independent of the metastatic status. Perinecrotic

  12. Measurement of the $^{44}$Ti($\\alpha$,p)$^{47}$V reaction cross section, of relevance to $\\gamma$-ray observation of core collapse supernovae, using reclaimed $^{44}$Ti

    CERN Multimedia

    Despite decades of research, fundamental uncertainties remain in the underlying explosion mechanism of core collapse supernovae. One of the most direct methods that might help resolve this problem is a comparison of the predicted to the observed flux of $\\gamma$-rays due to decay of $^{44}$Ti produced in the explosion, as it is believed this could reveal the location of the mass cut, a key hydrodynamical property of the explosion. Such a study is at present limited by the uncertainty in the $^{44}$Ti($\\alpha$,p)$^{47}$V reaction rate. In this experiment we propose to measure the cross section for this reaction at astrophysically relevant energies. The single previous measurement of this reaction was limited to higher energies due to low beam intensities. Here, a more intense beam will be employed, generated from $^{44}$Ti reclaimed as part of the ERAWAST project at PSI.

  13. Angular distribution and inertia parameters i Alpha-induced fission of 232Th, 233U, and 238U

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahimi Farhad M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the selected fission fragment angular distribution from alpha induced fission is made by using an exact theoretical expression. Theoretical anisotropics obtained with transition state modes are compared with their corresponding experimental values. The agreement between the calculated and experimental values is very good. The values of the statistical parameter K02 are used for calculation of the inertia parameters. The results indicate an increase in the moment of inertia.

  14. 5-Methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine-induced analgesia is blocked by alpha-adrenoceptor antagonists in rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Archer, T.; Danysz, W; Jonsson, G.; Minor, B. G.; Post, C

    1986-01-01

    The effects of the alpha-adrenoceptor antagonists prazosin, phentolamine and yohimbine upon 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeODMT)-induced analgesia were tested in the hot-plate, tail-flick and shock-titration tests of nociception with rats. Intrathecally injected yohimbine and phentolamine blocked or attenuated the analgesia produced by systemic administration of 5-MeODMT in all three nociceptive tests. Intrathecally administered prazosin attenuated the analgesic effects of 5-MeODMT in ...

  15. Salivary alpha-amylase: More than an enzyme Investigating confounders of stress-induced and basal amylase activity

    OpenAIRE

    Strahler, Jana

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Salivary alpha-amylase: More than an enzyme - Investigating confounders of stress-induced and basal amylase activity (Dipl.-Psych. Jana Strahler) The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the autonomic nervous system (ANS) are two of the major systems playing a role in the adaptation of organisms to developmental changes that threaten homeostasis. The HPA system involves the secretion of glucocorticoids, including cortisol, into the circulatory system. Numerous studies hav...

  16. Alpha/Beta and Gamma Interferons Are Induced by Infection with Noncytopathic Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus In Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Charleston, B; Brackenbury, L.S; Carr, B. V.; Fray, M D; Hope, Jayne; Howard, CJ; Morrison, Ivan

    2002-01-01

    In contrast to the results of previous in vitro studies, experimental infection of calves with noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (ncpBVDV) was found to induce strong alpha/beta and gamma interferon responses in gnotobiotic animals. These responses were associated with depressed levels of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) in serum. The results of this study indicate that the immunosuppression caused by ncpBVDV is not associated with low interferon responses or elevated levels ...

  17. Inhibition of adenosine diphosphate-induced platelet aggregation by alpha-lipoic acid and dihydroquercetin in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan S Ivanov; Sidehmenova, Anastasia V.; Vera I Smol′yakova; Chernysheva, Galina A.; Plotnikov, Mark B.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the antiplatelet activity of alpha-lipoic acid (α-LA) and dihydroquercetin (DHQ). Materials and Methods: Antiplatelet activity of the α-LA and DHQ was evaluated in rich platelet plasma of rat. The platelet aggregation was induced by adenosine diphosphate (ADP) in concentration of 4 Χ 10 -5 Μ. Results: α-LA and DHQ inhibited platelet aggregation in concentration-dependent manner. The antiplatelet activity of α-LA was more pronounced than DHQ. DHQ also increas...

  18. Formation and Implications of Alpha-Synuclein Radical in Maneb- and Paraquat-Induced Models of Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashutosh; Leinisch, Fabian; Kadiiska, Maria B; Corbett, Jean; Mason, Ronald P

    2016-07-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a debilitating, progressive, neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons and motor deficits. Alpha-synuclein-containing aggregates represent a feature of a variety of neurodegenerative disorders, including PD; however, the mechanism that initiates and promotes intraneuronal alpha-synuclein aggregation remains unknown. We hypothesized protein radical formation as an initiating mechanism for alpha-synuclein aggregation. Therefore, we used the highly sensitive immuno-spin trapping technique to investigate protein radical formation as a possible mechanism of alpha-synuclein aggregation as well as to investigate the source of protein radical formation in the midbrains of Maneb- and paraquat-coexposed mice. Coexposure to Maneb and paraquat for 6 weeks resulted in active microgliosis, NADPH oxidase activation, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) induction, which culminated in protein radical formation in the midbrains of mice. Results obtained with immuno-spin trapping and immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed formation of alpha-synuclein radicals in dopaminergic neurons of exposed mice. Free radical formation requires NADPH oxidase and iNOS, as indicated by decreased protein radical formation in knockout mice (P47phox(-/-) and iNOS(-/-)) and in mice treated with inhibitors such as FeTPPS (a peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst), 1400 W (an iNOS inhibitor), or apocynin (a NADPH oxidase inhibitor). Concurrence of protein radical formation with dopaminergic neuronal death indicated a link between protein radicals and disease progression. Taken together, these results show for the first time the formation and detection of the alpha-synuclein radical and suggest that NADPH oxidase and iNOS play roles in peroxynitrite-mediated protein radical formation and subsequent neuronal death in the midbrains of Maneb- and paraquat-coexposed mice. PMID:25952542

  19. TNF-{alpha} promotes human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell migration by inducing matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9) expression through activation of Akt/mTORC1 signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Cheng-hu; Cao, Guo-Fan [The Affiliated Eye Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Jiang, Qin, E-mail: Jqin710@vip.sina.com [The Affiliated Eye Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Yao, Jin, E-mail: dryaojin@yahoo.com [The Affiliated Eye Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China)

    2012-08-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TNF-{alpha} induces MMP-9 expression and secretion to promote RPE cell migration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MAPK activation is not critical for TNF-{alpha}-induced MMP-9 expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Akt and mTORC1 signaling mediate TNF-{alpha}-induced MMP-9 expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SIN1 knockdown showed no significant effect on MMP-9 expression by TNF-{alpha}. -- Abstract: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-{alpha}) promotes in vitro retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell migration to initiate proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). Here we report that TNF-{alpha} promotes human RPE cell migration by inducing matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9) expression. Inhibition of MMP-9 by its inhibitor or its neutralizing antibody inhibited TNF-{alpha}-induced in vitro RPE cell migration. Reversely, exogenously-added active MMP-9 promoted RPE cell migration. Suppression Akt/mTOR complex 1(mTORC1) activation by LY 294002 and rapamycin inhibited TNF-{alpha}-mediated MMP-9 expression. To introduce a constitutively active Akt (CA-Akt) in cultured RPE cells increased MMP-9 expression, and to block mTORC1 activation by rapamycin inhibited its effect. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated silencing of SIN1, a key component of mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2), had no effect on MMP-9 expression or secretion. In conclusion, this study suggest that TNF-{alpha} promotes RPE cell migration by inducing MMP-9 expression through activation of Akt/ mTORC1, but not mTORC2 signaling.

  20. 5He Emission in Neutron-Induced 10B Reactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ji-Min; DUAN Jun-Feng; YAN Yu-Liang; SUN Xiao-Jun; ZHANG Jing-Shang

    2006-01-01

    In n + 10B reactions, 5He cluster emission has been discussed with the updated level scheme and the new optical model parameters. In this paper the reaction channels related to 5He emission are listed in detail. By using the new reaction model for light nuclei, the double-differential cross sections of total outgoing neutrons for n + 10 B reactions at En = 14.2 MeV have been calculated, and the results agree fairly well with the measurements. Particularly, in the energy-angular spectra the contribution from the 5He-emission to the total outgoing neutron double-differential cross sections has also been analyzed, and the partial energy-angular spectra of 60° at En = 14.2 MeV have been given.The calculated results indicate that once the 5He emission is taken into account, the fitting with the double-differential measurements of total outgoing neutrons at the low energy region could be improved. Therefore, to consider the 5He emission properly in the reaction processes of light nuclei is necessary.

  1. Ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, and oregano supplements reduce stress-induced deterioration of chicken meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, J F; Stagsted, J; Jensen, S K; Karlsson, A H; Henckel, P

    2003-08-01

    In order to ameliorate a negative effect of stress on meat quality characteristics, chickens were fed a diet supplemented with a combination of ascorbic acid (1,000 ppm) and alpha-tocopherol (200 ppm) or oregano (3%), which has a high content of antioxidants. Chickens were slaughtered by cervical dislocation in the stable (no stress) or after transport and electrical stunning at the slaughter plant (stress). Activities of antioxidative enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathion peroxidase) in pectoralis major (PM), iliotibialis (IL), and liver were unaffected by supplementation. However, erythrocyte stability, which is a more complex model system for determining oxidative status, increased with ascorbic acid-alpha-tocopherol supplementation and tended to increase after oregano supplementation. In nonstressed birds, this improved antioxidative status was reflected in decreased TBA-reactive substances (TBARS) in PM and liver of ascorbic acid-alpha-tocopherol-supplemented chickens and likewise in liver from oregano-supplemented chickens compared to that of nonstressed control birds. However, postmortem temperature, pH, and water-holding capacity were not affected by supplementation. Drip loss from oregano-supplemented chickens showed increased protein oxidation in specific bands, but this did not relate to water-holding capacity or antioxidative status. When exposed to stress, the concentration of TBARS in the control animals increased in PM and IL. Ascorbic acid-alpha-tocopherol supplementation protected IL, and oregano supplementation protected PM from stress-induced increases in TBARS. This differential effect between muscles may indicate differences in protection mechanisms. In conclusion, ascorbic acid-alpha-tocopherol and oregano supplements to chickens protect against stress-induced increase in TBARS, in different muscles. PMID:12943308

  2. Hot fusion-evaporation cross sections of 44Ca-induced reactions with lanthanide targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werke, T. A.; Mayorov, D. A.; Alfonso, M. C.; Tereshatov, E. E.; Folden, C. M.

    2015-11-01

    Background: Previously reported cross sections of 45Sc-induced reactions with lanthanide targets are much smaller than 48Ca-induced reactions on the same targets. 44Ca is one proton removed from 45Sc and could be used to produce nuclei with a relative neutron content between those produced in the 45Sc- and 48Ca-induced reactions. Purpose: As part of a systematic investigation of fusion-evaporation reactions, cross sections of 44Ca-induced reactions on lanthanide targets were measured. These results are compared to available data for 48Ca- and 45Sc-induced fusion-evaporation cross sections on the same lanthanide targets. Collectively, these data provide insight into the importance of the survival against fission of excited compound nuclei produced near spherical shell closures. Methods: A beam of 6+Ca at an energy of ≈5 MeV /u was delivered by the K500 superconducting cyclotron at the Cyclotron Institute at Texas A&M University. The desired evaporation residues were selected by the Momentum Achromat Recoil Spectrometer and identified via their characteristic α -decay energies. Excitation functions for the 44Ca+158Gd ,159Tb, and 162Dy reactions were measured at five or more energies each. A theoretical model was employed to study the fusion-evaporation process. Results: The 44Ca-induced reactions have x n cross sections that are two orders of magnitude larger than 45Sc-induced reactions but two orders of magnitude smaller than 48Ca-induced reactions on the same targets. Proton emission competes effectively with neutron emission for the 44Ca+159Tb and 162Dy reactions. The maximum 4 n cross sections in the 44Ca+158Gd ,159Tb, and 162Dy reactions were 2100 ± 230 ,230 ± 20 , and 130 ±20 μ b , respectively. The 44Ca+158Gd and 159Tb cross sections are in good agreement with the respective cross bombardments of 48Ca+154Gd and 45Sc+158Gd once differences in capture cross sections and compound nucleus formation probabilities are corrected for. Conclusions: Excitation

  3. Proton-induced reactions on naturally composed zirconium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauerwein, Anne; Erbacher, Philipp; Glorius, Jan; Goerres, Joachim; Sonnabend, Kerstin [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Goethe Universitaet Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Stech, Edward; Wiescher, Michael [Institute for Structure and Nuclear Astrophysics (ISNAP), University of Notre Dame, Indiana, USA (United States); Joint Institute of Nuclear Astrophysics (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Most reaction rates for the so-called p process, which produces the p nuclei, are adopted from Hauser-Feshbach-model (HFM) calculations. In order to improve the accuracy of theoretically predicted reaction rates, an improvement of its nuclear physics input is required. For this reason naturally composed zirconium was bombarded with protons at energies between 2 MeV and 10 MeV in order to determine cross sections of seven (p,γ) and (p,n) reactions using the activation technique. The irradiations and the γ-ray spectroscopy took place at the ISNAP of the University of Notre Dame, USA. These measurements allow systematic investigations of the proton-optical model potentials, an important input of the HFM, from the neutron closed-shell isotope {sup 90}Zr to the double subshell-closed isotope {sup 96}Zr. In this contribution we present our preliminary results.

  4. Proton-induced reactions on naturally composed zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most reaction rates for the so-called p process, which produces the p nuclei, are adopted from Hauser-Feshbach-model (HFM) calculations. In order to improve the accuracy of theoretically predicted reaction rates, an improvement of its nuclear physics input is required. For this reason naturally composed zirconium was bombarded with protons at energies between 2 MeV and 10 MeV in order to determine cross sections of seven (p,γ) and (p,n) reactions using the activation technique. The irradiations and the γ-ray spectroscopy took place at the ISNAP of the University of Notre Dame, USA. These measurements allow systematic investigations of the proton-optical model potentials, an important input of the HFM, from the neutron closed-shell isotope 90Zr to the double subshell-closed isotope 96Zr. In this contribution we present our preliminary results.

  5. Interferon-alpha-2b induces autophagy in hepatocellular carcinoma cells through Beclin1 pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine whether Interferon-alpha-2b (IFN-α2b) can modulate the autophagic response in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Hepatocellular carcinoma cells were treated with IFN-α2b. Autophagy was assessed by acridine orange staining, GFP-LC3 dotted assay, transmission electron microscopy and immunoblotting. Acridine orange staining showed that IFN-α2b triggered the accumulation of acidic vesicular and autolysosomes in HepG2 cells. The acridine orange HepG2 cell ratios were (4.3±1.0)%, (6.9±1.4)%, and (13.1±2.3)%, respectively, after treatment with 100, 1,000, and 10,000 IU/mL IFN-α2b for 48 h. A markedly punctate pattern was observed in HepG2 cells treated with 10,000 IU/mL IFN-α2b for 48 h, but only diffuse and weakly fluorescent GFP-LC3 puncta was observed in control cells. HepG2 cells treated with 10,000 IU/mL IFN-α2b for 48 h developed autophagosome-like characteristics, including single- or double-membrane vacuoles containing intact and degraded cellular debris. The Beclin1 and LC3-II protein expression was up-regulated by IFN-α2b treatment. Autophagy can be induced in a dose-dependent manner by treatment with IFN-α2b in HepG2 cells, and the Beclin1 signaling pathway was stimulated by IFN-α2b

  6. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha in high-risk breast cancer: an independent prognostic parameter?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (hif-1α) furnishes tumor cells with the means of adapting to stress parameters like tumor hypoxia and promotes critical steps in tumor progression and aggressiveness. We investigated the role of hif-1α expression in patients with node-positive breast cancer. Tumor samples from 77 patients were available for immunohistochemistry. The impact of hif-1α immunoreactivity on survival endpoints was determined by univariate and multivariate analyses, and correlations to clinicopathological characteristics were determined by cross-tabulations. hif-1α was expressed in 56% (n = 43/77) of the patients. Its expression correlated with progesterone receptor negativity (P = 0.002). The Kaplan–Meier curves revealed significantly shorter distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) (P = 0.04, log-rank) and disease-free survival (DFS) (P = 0.04, log-rank) in patients with increased hif-1α expression. The difference in overall survival (OS) did not attain statistical significance (5-year OS, 66% without hif-1α expression and 55% with hif-1α expression; P = 0.21). The multivariate analysis failed to reveal an independent prognostic value for hif-1α expression in the whole patient group. The only significant parameter for all endpoints was the T stage (T3/T4 versus T1/T2: DMFS, relative risk = 3.16, P = 0.01; DFS, relative risk = 2.57, P = 0.03; OS, relative risk = 3.03, P = 0.03). Restricting the univariate and multivariate analyses to T1/T2 tumors, hif-1α expression was a significant parameter for DFS and DMFS. hif-1α is expressed in the majority of patients with node-positive breast cancer. It can serve as a prognostic marker for an unfavorable outcome in those with T1/T2 tumors and positive axillary lymph nodes

  7. Kinetics of the urea-induced dissociation of human plasma alpha 2-macroglobulin as measured by small-angle neutron scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöberg, B; Pap, S; Järnberg, S E; Mortensen, K

    1991-09-01

    The kinetics of the urea-induced dissociation of human plasma alpha 2-macroglobulin into two half-molecular fragments was investigated at 21.0 degrees C by using small-angle neutron scattering. The relative change in molecular mass that occurs upon dissociation was monitored by recording the forward scattering of neutrons as a function of time. All these kinetic data can be explained by a reaction that is first-order with respect to the concentration of undissociated alpha 2-macroglobulin. The velocity constant is a function of urea concentration and it varies within wide limits. For instance, the half-life of the reaction at the lowest concentration of [2H]urea studied (2.70 M) is 328 h, whereas the same value at the highest concentration of [2H]urea (6.24 M) is only 8 min. Measurements were made both with [1H]urea in 1H2O and with [2H]urea in 99% 2H2O, and it was found that there is a pronounced kinetic isotope effect, i.e. the dissociation is 4 times faster in the 1H-containing medium as compared with the 2H-containing medium at the same molar concentration of urea. From the angular dependence of the neutron scattering it can be concluded that the dissociation is associated with a drastic change in structure. This is directly shown by the radius of gyration, which increases from about 7.4 nm immediately after the addition of urea up to about 9.4 nm when the protein is fully dissociated. A structural analysis shows that the scattering curve of urea-dissociated alpha 2-macroglobulin can best be explained by that of a Gaussian coil with a radius of gyration equal to 9.44 nm. These data indicate that the so-called non-covalent interaction of alpha 2-macroglobulin probably is more complicated than just a pure hydrophobic interaction. Finally, it is also shown that the dissociation is accompanied by a loss in trypsin-binding activity, which is directly related to the fraction of dissociated protein. PMID:1716880

  8. Cross-section measurement and analysis for the 149Sm(n,alpha)146Nd reaction at 6.0 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gledenov, Yu. M. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia; Zhang, Guohui [Peking University; Khuukhenkhuu, G [National University of Mongolia; Sedysheva, M. V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia; Szalanski, P. [University of Lodz; Koehler, Paul Edward [ORNL; Liu, Jiaming [Peking University; Wu, Hao [Peking University; Liu, Xiang [Peking University; Chen, Jinxiang [Peking University

    2010-01-01

    We have measured the {sup 149}Sm(n,{alpha}){sup 146}Nd cross section at 6.0 MeV to be 0.12 {+-} 0.018 mb. This is the first reported result for this cross section in the MeV region and so should be helpful for constraining nuclear data evaluations (which differ by a factor of 40 for this reaction at this energy) and for testing and improving nuclear models. The experiment was performed at the at the 4.5-MV Van de Graaff accelerator of Peking University. Neutrons were produced via the {sup 2}H(d,n){sup 3}He reaction using a deuterium gas target, and absolute neutron flux was determined with a small {sup 238}U fission chamber. Alpha particles were detected using a two-section gridded ionization chamber in which two large-area {sup 149}Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} samples were placed back-to-back so that the cross section and forward/backward ratio were measured for nearly the entire 4{pi} solid angle. The data were compared to statistical-model predictions using the code talys. Good agreement between the measured and theoretical cross sections could be obtained with a small modification of the {alpha}-optical potential parameters from their default values in talys. However, we were not able to reproduce the measured forward/backward ratio. In addition, using the previously reported {sup 147}Sm(n,{alpha}){sup 144}Nd cross section at 6.0 MeV together with our new result, good agreement was found between the measured and predicted cross-section ratio for these two isotopes. Finally, none of the existing evaluated data libraries are in agreement with our new data to within the experimental uncertainties.

  9. The inhibitory effect of dexamethasone on platelet-derived growth factor-induced vascular smooth muscle cell migration through up-regulating PGC-1{alpha} expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Wei [Jiangsu Diabetes Center, State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, 22 Hankou Road, Nanjing 210093 (China); Department of cardiology, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, 246 Xuefu Road, Harbin 150081 (China); Guo, Ting; Zhang, Yan; Jiang, Xiaohong; Zhang, Yongxian [Jiangsu Diabetes Center, State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, 22 Hankou Road, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zen, Ke, E-mail: kzen@nju.edu.cn [Jiangsu Diabetes Center, State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, 22 Hankou Road, Nanjing 210093 (China); Yu, Bo, E-mail: yubodr@163.com [Department of cardiology, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, 246 Xuefu Road, Harbin 150081 (China); Zhang, Chen-Yu, E-mail: cyzhang@nju.edu.cn [Jiangsu Diabetes Center, State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, 22 Hankou Road, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2011-05-01

    Dexamethasone has been shown to inhibit vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration, which is required for preventing restenosis. However, the mechanism underlying effect of dexamethasone remains unknown. We have previously demonstrated that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR{gamma}) coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1{alpha}) can inhibit VSMC migration and proliferation. Here, we investigated the role of PGC-1{alpha} in dexamethasone-reduced VSMC migration and explored the possible mechanism. We first examined PGC-1{alpha} expression in cultured rat aortic VSMCs. The results revealed that incubation of VSMCs with dexamethasone could significantly elevate PGC-1{alpha} mRNA expression. In contrast, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) decreased PGC-1{alpha} expression while stimulating VSMC migration. Mechanistic study showed that suppression of PGC-1{alpha} by small interfering RNA strongly abrogated the inhibitory effect of dexamethasone on VSMC migration, whereas overexpression of PGC-1{alpha} had the opposite effect. Furthermore, an analysis of MAPK signal pathways showed that dexamethasone inhibited ERK and p38 MAPK phosphorylation in VSMCs. Overexpression of PGC-1{alpha} decreased both basal and PDGF-induced p38 MAPK phosphorylation, but it had no effect on ERK phosphorylation. Finally, inhibition of PPAR{gamma} activation by a PPAR{gamma} antagonist GW9662 abolished the suppressive effects of PGC-1{alpha} on p38 MAPK phosphorylation and VSMC migration. These effects of PGC-1{alpha} were enhanced by a PPAR{gamma} agonist troglitazone. Collectively, our data indicated for the first time that one of the anti-migrated mechanisms of dexamethasone is due to the induction of PGC-1{alpha} expression. PGC-1{alpha} suppresses PDGF-induced VSMC migration through PPAR{gamma} coactivation and, consequently, p38 MAPK inhibition.

  10. Light induced electron transfer reactions of metal complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Properties of the excited states of tris(2,2'-bipyridine) and tris(1,10-phenanthroline) complexes of chromium(III), iron(II), ruthenium(II), osmium(II), rhodium(III), and iridium(III) are described. The electron transfer reactions of the ground and excited states are discussed and interpreted in terms of the driving force for the reaction and the distortions of the excited states relative to the corresponding ground states. General considerations relevant to the conversion of light into chemical energy are presented and progress in the use of polypyridine complexes to effect the light decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen is reviewed

  11. Evaluation of neutron induced reaction cross sections on Rh isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evaluations of neutron nuclear data on 101,102,103,105Rh in the incident energies up to 20 MeV were performed, using theoretical nuclear reaction model code CCONE. The calculated cross sections of stable 103Rh are in good agreement with measured inelastic scattering, capture, (n, 2n), (n, p), (n, α) and (n, nα) reaction cross sections. The production cross section for the meta-state of 99Tc with half-life of 6.0 h was evaluated for the estimation of nuclear medicine use and resulted in 2.4 mb at a maximum. (author)

  12. Application of the Trojan Horse Method to study neutron induced reactions: the O-17(n, alpha)C-14 reaction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gulino, M.; Spitaleri, C.; Guardo, G. L.; Lamia, L.; Cherubini, S.; Burjan, Václav; Hons, Zdeněk; Kroha, Václav; La Cognata, M.; Mrázek, Jaromír

    Les Ulis: E D P Sciences, 2014, 07008. ISBN 978-2-7598-1176-2. ISSN 2100-014X. [International Nuclear Physics Conference (INPC 2013). Firenze (IT), 02.06.2013-07.06.2013] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH11001; GA ČR GAP203/10/0310 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : cross-section * elements * C-14 Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  13. Small-angle neutron scattering studies of chemical reaction and reaction-induced self-assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, H. [Advanced Science Research Center(ASRC), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Department of Polymer Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8501 (Japan); Koizumi, S. [Advanced Science Research Center(ASRC), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Hashimoto, T. [Advanced Science Research Center(ASRC), Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan) and Department of Polymer Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8501 (Japan)]. E-mail: hashimoto.takeji@jaea.go.jp; Kurosaki, K. [Department of Materials Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8501 (Japan); Ohmae, M. [Department of Materials Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8501 (Japan); Kobayashi, S. [Department of Materials Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8501 (Japan)

    2006-11-15

    We have investigated a self-assembling process of cellulose artificially synthesized via enzymatic polymerization by means of in-situ and time-resolved small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The results elucidated the following: (i) cellulose molecules were synthesized at a special reaction site of the enzyme (cellulase) located on or near the smooth surface of the self-assembled enzymes formed in the reaction medium; (ii) the synthesized molecules associated themselves via diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) and crystallized into fibrils and (iii) the fibrils formed the aggregates, which had the surface fractal dimension D {sub s} increasing from 2 to 2.3 with the reaction time, on the smooth surface of the enzyme aggregates.

  14. Interferon-Alpha-Induced Destructive Thyroiditis Followed by Graves' Disease in a Patient with Chronic Hepatitis C: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Bu Kyung; Choi, Young Sik; Park, Yo Han; Lee, Sang Uk

    2011-01-01

    Interferon-induced thyroiditis (IIT) is a major clinical problem for patients receiving interferon-alpha (IFN-α) therapy. But, destructive thyroiditis followed by Graves' disease associated with IFN-α therapy is very rarely reported. Herein, we report a rare case of pegylated IFN-α (pegIFN-α) induced destructive thyroiditis followed by Graves' disease in a patient with HCV infection. A 31-yr-old woman suffered from chronic active hepatitis C and was treated with pegIFN-α and ribavirin for 12 ...

  15. Determination of neutron-induced fission cross-sections of unstable nuclei via surrogate reaction method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B K Nayak

    2014-11-01

    Heavy ion reaction studies around Coulomb barrier energies have been generally used to investigate the effect of the structure of projectile/target on reaction dynamics. Other than providing an understanding of basic physics of the reaction dynamics, some of these reactions have been used as tools to serve as surrogates of neutron-induced compound nuclear fission cross-sections involving unstable targets. In this paper, we report some of the recent results on the determination of neutron-induced fission cross-sections of unstable actinides present in Th–U and U–Pu fuel cycles by surrogate reaction method by employing transfer-induced fission studies with 6,7Li beams.

  16. Epoxysilane rearrangement induced by a carbanion generated by conjugate addition of enolates of chloroacetate and alpha-chloroacetamides: formation of functionalized cyclopropane derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Noriko; Sasaki, Michiko; Kawahata, Masatoshi; Yamaguchi, Kentaro; Takeda, Kei

    2006-04-27

    [reaction: see text] Reaction of an enoate bearing an epoxysilane moiety at the alpha-position with lithium enolate of 2-chloroacetamide afforded highly functionalized cyclopropane derivatives via a tandem process that involves Michael addition, ring opening of the epoxide, Brook rearrangement, and intramolecular alkylation. PMID:16623577

  17. High sensitivity boron quantification in bulk silicon using the {sup 11}B(p,{alpha}{sub 0}){sup 8}Be nuclear reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moro, Marcos V.; Silva, Tiago F. da; Added, Nemitala; Rizutto, Marcia A.; Tabacniks, Manfredo H. [Instituto de Fisica da Universidade de Sao Paulo, C.P. 66318, 05315-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Neira, John B.; Neto, Joao B. F. [Institute of Research Tecnology, Cidade Universitaria, SP, 05508-091 (Brazil)

    2013-05-06

    There is a great need to quantify sub-ppm levels of boron in bulk silicon. There are several methods to analyze B in Si: Nuclear Reaction Analysis using the {sup 11}B(p,{alpha}{sub 0}){sup 8}Be reaction exhibits a quantification limit of some hundreds ppm of B in Si. Heavy Ion Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis offers a detection limit of 5 to 10 at. ppm. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry is the method of choice of the semiconductor industry for the analysis of B in Si. This work verifies the use of NRA to quantify B in Si, and the corresponding detection limits. Proton beam with 1.6 up to 2.6 MeV was used to obtain the cross-section of the {sup 11}B(p,{alpha}{sub 0}){sup 8}Be nuclear reaction at 170 Degree-Sign scattering angle. The results show good agreementwith literature indicating that the quantification of boron in silicon can be achieved at 100 ppm level (high sensitivity) at LAMFI-IFUSP with about 16% uncertainty. Increasing the detection solid angle and the collected beam charge, can reduce the detection limit to less than 100 ppm meeting present technological needs.

  18. Modulator effects of interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha on AMPA-induced excitotoxicity in mouse organotypic hippocampal slice cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernardino, Liliana; Xapelli, Sara; Silva, Ana P;

    2005-01-01

    The inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) have been identified as mediators of several forms of neurodegeneration in the brain. However, they can produce either deleterious or beneficial effects on neuronal function. We investigated the effects of...... concentration of mouse recombinant TNF-alpha (10 ng/ml) enhanced excitotoxicity when the cultures were simultaneously exposed to AMPA and to this cytokine. Decreasing the concentration of TNF-alpha to 1 ng/ml resulted in neuroprotection against AMPA-induced neuronal death independently on the application...

  19. Alpha-decay-induced fracturing in zircon - The transition from the crystalline to the metamict state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakoumakos, Bryan C.; Murakami, Takashi; Lumpkin, Gregory R.; Ewing, Rodney C.

    1987-01-01

    Zonation due to alpha-decay damage in a natural single crystal of zircon from Sri Lanka is discussed. The zones vary in thickness on a scale from one to hundreds of microns. The uranium and thorium concentrations vary from zone to zone such that the alpha decay dose is between 0.2 x 10 to the 16th and 0.8 x 10 to the 16th alpha-events per milligram. The transition from the crystalline to the aperiodic metamict state occurs over this dose range. At doses greater than 0.8 x 10 to the 16th alpha events/mg there is no evidence for long-range order. This type of damage will accumulate in actinide-bearing, ceramic nuclear waste forms. The systematic pattern of fractures would occur in crystalline phases that are zoned with respect to actinide radionuclides.

  20. Alpha-decay-induced fracturing in zircon - The transition from the crystalline to the metamict state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakoumakos, Bryan C.; Murakami, Takashi; Lumpkin, Gregory R.; Ewing, Rodney C.

    1987-06-01

    Zonation due to alpha-decay damage in a natural single crystal of zircon from Sri Lanka is discussed. The zones vary in thickness on a scale from one to hundreds of microns. The uranium and thorium concentrations vary from zone to zone such that the alpha decay dose is between 0.2 x 10 to the 16th and 0.8 x 10 to the 16th alpha-events per milligram. The transition from the crystalline to the aperiodic metamict state occurs over this dose range. At doses greater than 0.8 x 10 to the 16th alpha events/mg there is no evidence for long-range order. This type of damage will accumulate in actinide-bearing, ceramic nuclear waste forms. The systematic pattern of fractures would occur in crystalline phases that are zoned with respect to actinide radionuclides.

  1. Neutron-induced capture cross sections via the surrogate reaction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The surrogate reaction method is an indirect way of determining cross sections for nuclear reactions that proceed through a compound nucleus. This technique enables neutron-induced cross sections to be extracted for nuclear reactions on short-lived unstable nuclei that otherwise can not be measured. This technique has been successfully applied to determine the neutron-induced fission cross sections of several short-lived nuclei. In this work, we investigate whether this powerful technique can also be used to determine of neutron-induced capture cross sections. For this purpose we use the surrogate reaction 174Yb(3He, pγ)176Lu to infer the well known 175Lu(n, γ) cross section and compare the results with the directly measured neutron-induced data. This surrogate experiment has been performed in March 2010. The experimental technique used and the first preliminary results will be presented. (authors)

  2. Sphingosine kinase 1: a new modulator of hypoxia inducible factor 1alpha during hypoxia in human cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ader, Isabelle; Brizuela, Leyre; Bouquerel, Pierre; Malavaud, Bernard; Cuvillier, Olivier

    2008-10-15

    Here, we provide the first evidence that sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1), an oncogenic lipid kinase balancing the intracellular level of key signaling sphingolipids, modulates the transcription factor hypoxia inducible factor 1alpha (HIF-1alpha), master regulator of hypoxia. SphK1 activity is stimulated under low oxygen conditions and regulated by reactive oxygen species. The SphK1-dependent stabilization of HIF-1alpha levels is mediated by the Akt/glycogen synthase kinase-3beta signaling pathway that prevents its von Hippel-Lindau protein-mediated degradation by the proteasome. The pharmacologic and RNA silencing inhibition of SphK1 activity prevents the accumulation of HIF-1alpha and its transcriptional activity in several human cancer cell lineages (prostate, brain, breast, kidney, and lung), suggesting a canonical pathway. Therefore, we propose that SphK1 can act as a master regulator for hypoxia, giving support to its inhibition as a valid strategy to control tumor hypoxia and its molecular consequences. PMID:18922940

  3. Role of alpha-tocopherol in counteracting DNA damage induced by Ochratoxin A in primary porcine fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Baldi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A is a mycotoxin responsible for disease states in both humans and animals. OTA mechanisms of action are numerous, including lipid peroxidation. Oxidative damage results in the modification of macromolecules (i.e. DNA, cell death and tissue injure. Several strategies, such as the use of antioxidants, have been used to reduce OTA cytotoxicity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of alpha-tocopherol in counteracting DNA damage induced by OTA in cell cultures. Primary porcine fibroblasts, isolated from embryo and from ear, were incubated for 24h with several concentrations of OTA in order to detect DNA fragmentation. OTA produced DNA fragmentation in a concentration dependent manner in both primary cell cultures. The pre-treatment with alpha-tocopherol caused the reduction of DNA fragmentation in both primary cell cultures, after 24h of incubation with OTA. In particular, when OTA was added at 10 µg/ml in embryo fibroblasts, alpha-tocopherol at the concentrations of 1 nM was significantly (P<0.05 able to reduce DNA fragmentation by 16%. In ear fibroblast cultures, alpha-tocopherol at the 1nM concentration was significantly (P<0.05 able to reduce DNA fragmentation by 15.23% in the presence of 5 µg/ml of OTA.

  4. Beta induced reaction study on T2-CO system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To identify the reaction products and process in the reaction of T2-CO 1:1 mixed system, infrared adsorption spectroscopy was applied. From the results of spectral measurements of the reaction products, aldehydes (RCTO), alcohol (ROT) and carboxylic acids (RCOOT) were found in solid phase and tritiated water and methane in gas phase. From rapid resume of absorption band intensities of CO and CO2 following intentional extraction of the sample gas, it was revealed that 'quasi-equilibrium states' existed by balancing consumption and reproduction of CO and CO2. The ratio -ΔCO/+ΔCO2 was much higher than that reported for the CO transformation by α irradiation and in proportion to tritium concentration in the gas phase. Tritium was accumulated in the condensed reaction products and estimated to move into the condensed phase from the gas phase about 5% per day without any hygroscopic substance. The solid products of this system, which remained for a long time, would be carboxylic acids

  5. Severe cutaneous reaction induced by Hirudoid: a rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei He

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the clinical characteristics, diagnosis and prognosis of local severe cutaneous reactions as result of the treatment with Hirudoid. Methods: One case of severe cutaneous reactions as result of the treatment with Hirudoid was reported and the relevant literatures were reviewed. Results: The site of puncture of left arm occurred non-leakage phlebitis with local pain after chemotherapy. The patient was applied the Hirudoid to the affected areas 2 times daily. After 2 days, local skin felt a kind of burning pain and it seems to be getting worse. The skin lesions began as pruritic red macules or papules. It became swelled and bleeding after scratching. We considered that the cutaneous reactions were an allergic response to Hirudoid. We discontinued the Hirudoid and desensitization treatment was used on cure, but it failed to respond to the medical treatment. A hot compress with 50% magnesium sulphate solution can reduce swelling and alleviate pain. Scales of skin peel off and weaved the new skin after 10 days. Conclusion: The case of local severe cutaneous reactions as result of the treatment with Hirudoid is very rare. A hot compress with 50%  magnesium sulphate solution can help to relieve the discomfort. 

  6. Rat alveolar myofibroblasts acquire alpha-smooth muscle actin expression during bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Vyalov, S. L.; Gabbiani, G.; Kapanci, Y.

    1993-01-01

    The majority of fibroblasts in alveolar septa are characterized by the presence of cytoplasmic bundles of microfilaments that contain cytoplasmic actin isoforms; these cells have been named contractile interstitial cells or V-type myofibroblasts. In the rat, they express desmin as intermediate filament protein. In this study, we explored the possibility that modulation and replication of such septal fibroblasts result in the appearance of alpha-smooth muscle (alpha-SM) actin-positive myofibro...

  7. Glucansucrases : Three-dimensional structures, reactions, mechanism, alpha-glucan analysis and their implications in biotechnology and food applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leemhuis, Hans; Pijning, Tjaard; Dobruchowska, Justyna M.; van Leeuwen, Sander S.; Kralj, Slavko; Dijkstra, Bauke W.; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

    2013-01-01

    Glucansucrases are extracellular enzymes that synthesize a wide variety of alpha-glucan polymers and oligosaccharides, such as dextran. These carbohydrates have found numerous applications in food and health industries, and can be used as pure compounds or even be produced in situ by generally regar

  8. Alpha-decay-induced fracturing in zircon: the transition from the crystalline to the metamict state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A natural single crystal of zircon, ZrSiO4, from Sri Lanka exhibited zonation due to alpha-decay damage. The zones vary in thickness on a scale from one to hundreds of micrometers. The uranium and thorium concentrations vary from zone to zone such that the alpha-decay dose is between 0.2 x 1016 and 0.8 x 1016 alpha-event per milligram (0.15 to 0.60 displacement per atom). The transition from the crystalline to the aperiodic metamict state occurs over this dose range. Differential expansion of individual layers due to variations in their alpha-decay dose caused a systematic pattern of fractures that do not propagate across aperiodic layers. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed a systematic change in the microstructure from a periodic atomic array to an aperiodic array with increasing alpha-decay dose. At doses greater than 0.8 x 1016 alpha-events per milligram there is no evidence for long-range order. This type of damage will accumulate in actinide-bearing, ceramic nuclear waste forms. The systematic pattern of fractures would occur in crystalline phases that are zoned with respect to actinide radionuclides

  9. Alpha-decay--induced fracturing in zircon: the transition from the crystalline to the metamict state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakoumakos, B C; Murakami, T; Lumpkin, G R; Ewing, R C

    1987-06-19

    A natural single crystal of zircon, ZrSiO(4,) from Sri Lanka exhibited zonation due to alpha-decay damage. The zones vary in thickness on a scale from one to hundreds of micrometers. The uranium and thorium concentrations vary from zone to zone such that the alpha-decay dose is between 0.2 x 10(16) and 0.8 x 10(16) alpha-events per milligram (0.15 to 0.60 displacement per atom). The transition from the crystalline to the aperiodic metamict state occurs over this dose range. Differential expansion of individual layers due to variations in their alpha-decay dose caused a systematic pattern of fractures that do not propagate across aperiodic layers. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed a systematic change in the microstructure from a periodic atomic array to an aperiodic array with increasing alpha-decay dose. At doses greater than 0.8 x 10(16) alpha-events per milligram there is no evidence for long-range order. This type of damage will accumulate in actinide-bearing, ceramic nuclear waste forms. The systematic pattern of fractures would occur in crystalline phases that are zoned with respect to actinide radionuclides. PMID:17835739

  10. Modeled Neutron Induced Nuclear Reaction Cross Sections for Radiochemistry in the region of Iriduim and Gold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, R D; Dietrich, F S; Kelley, K; Escher, J; Bauer, R; Mustafa, M

    2008-02-26

    We have developed a set of modeled nuclear reaction cross sections for use in radiochemical diagnostics. Systematics for the input parameters required by the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model were developed and used to calculate neutron induced nuclear reaction cross sections for targets ranging from osmium (Z = 76) to gold (Z = 79). Of particular interest are the cross sections on Ir and Au including reactions on isomeric targets.

  11. Acute coronary syndrome in diclofenac sodium-induced type I hypersensitivity reaction : Kounis syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Gluvic, Zoran M.; Putnikovic, Biljana; Panic, Milos; Stojkovic, Aleksandra; Rasic-Milutinovic, Zorica; Jankovic-Gavrilovic, Jelena

    2007-01-01

    Drug-induced type I hypersensitivity reactions are frequent. Sometimes, acute coronary syndrome (ACS) can be registered in such patients, which may have a serious impact on the course and management of the allergic reaction. Because of potentially atypical ACS clinical presentations, the ECG is an obligatory diagnostic tool in any allergic reaction. Coronary artery spasm is the pathophysiological basis of ACS, triggered by the action of potent vasoactive mediators (histamine, neutral protease...

  12. Total Nuclear Reaction Cross Section Induced by Halo Nuclei and Stable Nuclei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Wen-Jun; JIANG Huan-Qing; LIU Jian-Ye; ZUO Wei; REN Zhong-Zhou; LEE Xi-Guo

    2003-01-01

    We develop a method for calculation of the total reaction cross sections induced by the halo nuclei and stable. nuclei. This approach is based on the Glauber theory, which is valid for nuclear reactions at high energies. It is extended for nuclear reactions at low energies and intermediate energies by including both the quantum correction and Coulomb correction under the assumption of the effective nuclear density distribution. The calculated results of the total reaction cross section induced by stable nuclei agree well with 30 experimental data within 10 percent accuracy. The comparison between the numerical results and 20 experimental data for the total nuclear reaction cross section induced by the neutron halo nuclei and the proton halo nuclei indicates a satisfactory agreement after considering the halo structure of these nuclei, which implies quite different mean fields for the nuclear reactions induced by halo nuclei and stable nuclei. The halo nucleon distributions and the root-mean-square radii of these nuclei can be extracted from the above comparison based on the improved Glauber model, which indicates clearly the halo structures of these nuclei. Especially,it is clear to see that the medium correction of the nucleon-nucleon collision has little effect on the total reaction cross sections induced by the halo nuclei due to the very weak binding and the very extended density distribution.

  13. Role of the direct mechanisms in the deuteron-induced surrogate reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Avrigeanu, M

    2015-01-01

    An extended analysis of the key role of direct interactions, i.e., breakup, stripping and pick-up processes, for the deuteron–induced surrogate reactions is presented. Particular comments concern the deuteron breakup which is dominant in the case of the ( d; p g ) surrogate reactions on actinides target nuclei, around the Coulomb barrier.

  14. Status of experimental data of proton-induced reactions for intermediate-energy nuclear data evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Yukinobu; Kawano, Toshihiko [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Yamano, Naoki; Fukahori, Tokio

    1998-11-01

    The present status of experimental data of proton-induced reactions is reviewed, with particular attention to total reaction cross section, elastic and inelastic scattering cross section, double-differential particle production cross section, isotope production cross section, and activation cross section. (author)

  15. Modeling Proton- and Light Ion-Induced Reactions at Low Energies in the MARS15 Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakhno, I. L. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Mokhov, N. V. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Gudima, K. K. [National Academy of Sciences, Cisineu (Moldova)

    2015-04-25

    An implementation of both ALICE code and TENDL evaluated nuclear data library in order to describe nuclear reactions induced by low-energy projectiles in the Monte Carlo code MARS15 is presented. Comparisons between results of modeling and experimental data on reaction cross sections and secondary particle distributions are shown.

  16. HLA-A*3101 and carbamazepine-induced hypersensitivity reactions in Europeans.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCormack, Mark

    2011-03-24

    Carbamazepine causes various forms of hypersensitivity reactions, ranging from maculopapular exanthema to severe blistering reactions. The HLA-B*1502 allele has been shown to be strongly correlated with carbamazepine-induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS-TEN) in the Han Chinese and other Asian populations but not in European populations.

  17. Activation cross sections of α-particle induced nuclear reactions on hafnium and deuteron induced nuclear reaction on tantalum: Production of 178W/178mTa generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the frame of a systematic study of charged particle production routes of medically relevant radionuclei, the excitation function for indirect production of 178mTa through natHf(α,xn)178W–178mTa nuclear reaction was measured for the first time up to 40 MeV. In parallel, the side reactions natHf(α,x)179,177,176,175W, 183,182,178g,177,176,175Ta, 179m,177m,175Hf were also assessed. Stacked foil irradiation technique and γ-ray spectrometry were used. New experimental cross section data for the natTa(d,xn)178W reaction are also reported up to 40 MeV. The measured excitation functions are compared with the results of the ALICE-IPPE, and EMPIRE nuclear reaction model codes and with the TALYS 1.4 based data in the TENDL-2013 library. The thick target yields were deduced and compared with yields of other charged particle ((p,4n), (d,5n) and (3He,x)) production routes for 178W. - Highlights: • α-Particle induced reactions on natural Hf up to 40 MeV by stacked foil technique. • Deuteron induced reactions on natural Ta up to 50 MeV by stacked foil technique. • Comparison of experimental results with the ALICE, EMPIRE and TALYS codes. • Calculation and comparison of thick target integral yields. • Comparison of the production routes of 178W

  18. Diethyl pyrocarbonate reaction with the lactose repressor protein affects both inducer and DNA binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modification of the lactose repressor protein of Escherichia coli with diethyl pyrocarbonate (DPC) results in decreased inducer binding as well as operator and nonspecific DNA binding. Spectrophotometric measurements indicated a maximum of three histidines per subunit was modified, and quantitation of lysine residues with trinitrobenzenesulfonate revealed the modification of one lysine residue. The loss of DNA binding, both operator and nonspecific, was correlated with histidine modification; removal of the carbethoxy groups from the histidines by hydroxylamine was accompanied by significant recovery of DNA binding function. The presence of inducing sugars during the DPC reaction had no effect on histidine modification or the loss of DNA binding activity. In contrast, inducer binding was not recovered upon reversal of the histidine modification. However, the presence of inducer during reaction protected lysine from reaction and also prevented the decrease in inducer binding; these results indicate that reaction of the lysine residue(s) may correlate to the loss of sugar binding activity. Since no difference in incorporation of radiolabeled carbethoxy was observed following reaction with diethyl pyrocarbonate in the presence or absence of inducer, the reagent appears to function as a catalyst in the modification of the lysine. The formation of an amide bond between the affected lysine and a nearby carboxylic acid moiety provides a possible mechanism for the activity loss. Reaction of the isolated NH2-terminal domain resulted in loss of DNA binding with modification of the single histidine at position 29. Results from the modification of core domain paralleled observations with intact repressor

  19. Expression of human alpha 2-adrenergic receptors in adipose tissue of beta 3-adrenergic receptor-deficient mice promotes diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valet, P; Grujic, D; Wade, J; Ito, M; Zingaretti, M C; Soloveva, V; Ross, S R; Graves, R A; Cinti, S; Lafontan, M; Lowell, B B

    2000-11-01

    Catecholamines play an important role in controlling white adipose tissue function and development. beta- and alpha 2-adrenergic receptors (ARs) couple positively and negatively, respectively, to adenylyl cyclase and are co-expressed in human adipocytes. Previous studies have demonstrated increased adipocyte alpha 2/beta-AR balance in obesity, and it has been proposed that increased alpha 2-ARs in adipose tissue with or without decreased beta-ARs may contribute mechanistically to the development of increased fat mass. To critically test this hypothesis, adipocyte alpha 2/beta-AR balance was genetically manipulated in mice. Human alpha 2A-ARs were transgenically expressed in the adipose tissue of mice that were either homozygous (-/-) or heterozygous (+/-) for a disrupted beta 3-AR allele. Mice expressing alpha 2-ARs in fat, in the absence of beta 3-ARs (beta 3-AR -/- background), developed high fat diet-induced obesity. Strikingly, this effect was due entirely to adipocyte hyperplasia and required the presence of alpha2-ARs, the absence of beta 3-ARs, and a high fat diet. Of note, obese alpha 2-transgenic beta 3 -/- mice failed to develop insulin resistance, which may reflect the fact that expanded fat mass was due to adipocyte hyperplasia and not adipocyte hypertrophy. In summary, we have demonstrated that increased alpha 2/beta-AR balance in adipocytes promotes obesity by stimulating adipocyte hyperplasia. This study also demonstrates one way in which two genes (alpha 2 and beta 3-AR) and diet interact to influence fat mass. PMID:10948198

  20. TNF-{alpha} similarly induces IL-6 and MCP-1 in fibroblasts from colorectal liver metastases and normal liver fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Lars, E-mail: lars.mueller@uksh-kiel.de [Department of General and Thoracic Surgery, University Hospital of Schleswig-Holstein (Germany); Seggern, Lena von [Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery and Solid Organ Transplantation, University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Schumacher, Jennifer; Goumas, Freya; Wilms, Christian; Braun, Felix; Broering, Dieter C. [Department of General and Thoracic Surgery, University Hospital of Schleswig-Holstein (Germany)

    2010-07-02

    Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) represent the predominant cell type of the neoplastic stroma of solid tumors, yet their biology and functional specificity for cancer pathogenesis remain unclear. We show here that primary CAFs from colorectal liver metastases express several inflammatory, tumor-enhancing factors, including interleukin (IL)-6 and monocyte-chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1. Both molecules were intensely induced by TNF-{alpha} on the transcript and protein level, whereas PDGF-BB, TGF-{beta}1 and EGF showed no significant effects. To verify their potential specialization for metastasis progression, CAFs were compared to fibroblasts from non-tumor liver tissue. Interestingly, these liver fibroblasts (LFs) displayed similar functions. Further analyses revealed a comparable up-regulation of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) by TNF-{alpha}, and of alpha-smooth muscle actin, by TGF-{beta}1. Moreover, the proliferation of both cell types was induced by PDGF-BB, and CAFs and LFs displayed an equivalent migration towards HT29 colon cancer cells in Boyden chamber assays. In conclusion, colorectal liver metastasis may be supported by CAFs and resident fibroblastic cells competent to generate a prometastatic microenvironment through inflammatory activation of IL-6 and MCP-1.

  1. Cardiopulmonary arrest induced by anaphylactoid reaction with contrast media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Iwao; Hori, Shingo; Funabiki, Tomohiro; Sekine, Kazuhiko; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Fujishima, Seitaro; Aoki, Katsunori; Kuribayashi, Sachio; Aikawa, Naoki

    2002-05-01

    Anaphylactoid reactions to iodinated contrast media can cause life-threatening events and even death. A 44-year-old woman presented with cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA) immediately following the administration of nonionic iodinated contrast media for an intravenous pyelography. Her cardiac rhythm during CPA was asystole. She was successfully resuscitated by the radiologists supported by paged emergency physicians using the prompt intravenous administration of 1 mg of epinephrine. Neither laryngeal edema nor bronchial spasm was observed during the course of treatment, and she was discharged on the 4th day without any complications. The patient did not have a history of allergy, but had experienced a myocardial infarction and aortitis. She had undergone 11 angiographies and had been taking a beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist. Planned emergency medical backup is advisable to ensure resuscitation in the event of an anaphylactoid reaction to the use of contrast media in-hospital settings. PMID:12009227

  2. Study of reactions induced by 6He on 9Be

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pires K.C.C.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of experiments using a 6He beam on a 9Be target at energies 7 − 9 times the Coulomb barrier. Angular distributions of the elastic, inelastic scattering (target breakup and the a-particle production in the 6He+9Be collision have been analysed. Total reaction cross sections were obtained from the elastic scatteringanalyses and a considerable enhancement has been observed by comparing to stable systems.

  3. PHENYTION, CARBAMAZEPINE, SODIUM VALPROATE AND LAMOTRIGINE INDUCED CUTANEOUS REACTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    M. Ghaffarpour; S. S. Hejazie; M. H. Harirchian; H. Pourmahmoodian

    2005-01-01

    Adverse effects of antiepileptic drugs including cutaneous reactions may not only affect the result of treatment and quality of life, but can also be fatal if severe. Skin rash is more likely to occur during the first few months of treatment. The objective of this study was description of skin rashes in users of four antiepileptic drugs. We identified skin rashes of phenytoin, carbamazepine, sodium valproate and lamotrigine in a prospective descriptive cross sectional study in 1086 cases. Pat...

  4. Multidimensional analysis of charged particles from neutron-induced reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey is given of the most recent experimental results obtained using twin gridded ionization chamber constructed at Obninsk, Russia. Peculiarities of (n,α) and (n,f) reactions investigated are discussed. The detailed description ol the method of charge particles spectrometry is presented. Selected results on fission fragment characteristics are discussed more in detail. Present experiments and instrumental developments are focussed on correlations between fragment masses, energies and emission angles and on fine structures in fragment parameter distributions. (author)

  5. Study of charged current reactions induced by muon antineutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present in this work a study of antineutrino reactions on light targets. We have used the Gargamelle cloud chamber with a propane-freon mix. In the 2 first chapters we give a brief description of the experimental setting and we present the selection criteria of the events. In the third chapter we analyse the data for the reaction anti-ν + p → μ+ + n that preserves strangeness. We have deduced the values of the axial (MA) and vector (MV) form factors: MA = (O.92 ± 0.08) GeV and MV = (0.86 ± 0.04) GeV. In the fourth chapter we study reactions in which strange particles appear (ΔS = 1) and we have determined their production cross-sections. The elastic reaction: anti-ν + p → μ+ + Λ is studied in a more accurate manner thanks to a 3-constraint adjustment that enables the selection of events occurring on free protons. We have deduced from our data the longitudinal, orthogonal and transverse polarization of Λ, we have got respectively Pl = -0.06 ± 0.44; Pp = 0.29 ± 0.41; Pt 1.05 ± 0.30. We have also deduced the values of the total cross-section as a function of the incident antineutrino energy E: σ (0.27 ± 0.02)*E*10-38 cm-2. E has been assessed from the energy deposited in the cloud chamber and we have adjusted the cross-section with a straight line as it is expected under the assumption of scale invariance. (A.C.)

  6. Robotic reactions: delay-induced patterns in autonomous vehicle systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosz, Gábor; Moehlis, Jeff; Bullo, Francesco

    2010-02-01

    Fundamental design principles are presented for vehicle systems governed by autonomous cruise control devices. By analyzing the corresponding delay differential equations, it is shown that for any car-following model short-wavelength oscillations can appear due to robotic reaction times, and that there are tradeoffs between the time delay and the control gains. The analytical findings are demonstrated on an optimal velocity model using numerical continuation and numerical simulation. PMID:20365620

  7. Robotic reactions: Delay-induced patterns in autonomous vehicle systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosz, Gábor; Moehlis, Jeff; Bullo, Francesco

    2010-02-01

    Fundamental design principles are presented for vehicle systems governed by autonomous cruise control devices. By analyzing the corresponding delay differential equations, it is shown that for any car-following model short-wavelength oscillations can appear due to robotic reaction times, and that there are tradeoffs between the time delay and the control gains. The analytical findings are demonstrated on an optimal velocity model using numerical continuation and numerical simulation.

  8. A microdosimetric study of {sup 10}B(n,{alpha}){sup 7}Li and {sup 157}Gd(n,{gamma}) reactions for neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, C.K.C.; Sutton, M.; Evans, T.M. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States); Laster, B.H. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Medical Dept.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the microdosimetric analysis for the most interesting cell survival experiment recently performed at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). In this experiment, the cells were first treated with a gadolinium (Gd) labeled tumor-seeking boronated porphyrin (Gd-BOPP) or with BOPP alone, and then irradiated with thermal neutrons. The resulting cell-survival curves indicate that the {sup 157}Gd(n,{gamma}) reactions are very effective in cell killing. The death of a cell treated with Gd-BOPP was attributed to either the {sup 10}B(n,{alpha}){sup 7}Li reactions or the {sup 157}Gd(n,{gamma}) reactions (or both). However, the quantitative relationship between the two types of reaction and the cell-survival fraction was not clear. This paper presents the microdosimetric analysis for the BNL experiment based on the measured experimental parameters, and the results clearly suggest a quantitative relationship between the two types of reaction and the cell survival fraction. The results also suggest new research in gadolinium neutron capture therapy (GdNCT) which may lead to a more practical modality than the boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for treating cancers.

  9. Polarized proton induced reactions on lithium isotopes around 14 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Differential cross sections, analyzing powers, and double differential cross sections were measured for 6Li(p,x) reactions at 14.0 MeV and for 7Li(p,x) reactions at 12.0, 14.0 and 16.0 MeV. The three-body breakup reactions of 6Li(p,d)pα, 6Li(p,α)pd and 7Li(p,t)pα were intensively studied in order to understand their reaction mechanisms, which must be similar in the neutron induced reactions. Moreover, the contribution of the four-body 6Li(p,2p)nα breakup reaction in the 6Li(p,xp) reaction has been estimated and analyzed on the basis of the sequential decay processes. The optical potential of the p-7Li system has been discussed. (author)

  10. Divergent effects of 17-{beta}-estradiol on human vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cell function diminishes TNF-{alpha}-induced neointima formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nintasen, Rungrat [Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Leeds Institute of Genetics, Health and Therapeutics, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Multidisciplinary Cardiovascular Research Center (MCRC), University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Department of Tropical Pathology, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University (Thailand); Riches, Kirsten; Mughal, Romana S. [Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Leeds Institute of Genetics, Health and Therapeutics, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Multidisciplinary Cardiovascular Research Center (MCRC), University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Viriyavejakul, Parnpen; Chaisri, Urai; Maneerat, Yaowapa [Department of Tropical Pathology, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University (Thailand); Turner, Neil A. [Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Leeds Institute of Genetics, Health and Therapeutics, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Multidisciplinary Cardiovascular Research Center (MCRC), University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Porter, Karen E., E-mail: medkep@leeds.ac.uk [Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Leeds Institute of Genetics, Health and Therapeutics, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Multidisciplinary Cardiovascular Research Center (MCRC), University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2012-04-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TNF-{alpha} augments neointimal hyperplasia in human saphenous vein. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TNF-{alpha} induces detrimental effects on endothelial and smooth muscle cell function. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Estradiol exerts modulatory effects on TNF-induced vascular cell functions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The modulatory effects of estradiol are discriminatory and cell-type specific. -- Abstract: Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a condition characterized by increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}). TNF-{alpha} can induce vascular endothelial cell (EC) and smooth muscle cell (SMC) dysfunction, central events in development of neointimal lesions. The reduced incidence of CHD in young women is believed to be due to the protective effects of estradiol (E2). We therefore investigated the effects of TNF-{alpha} on human neointima formation and SMC/EC functions and any modulatory effects of E2. Saphenous vein (SV) segments were cultured in the presence of TNF-{alpha} (10 ng/ml), E2 (2.5 nM) or both in combination. Neointimal thickening was augmented by incubation with TNF-{alpha}, an effect that was abolished by co-culture with E2. TNF-{alpha} increased SV-SMC proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner that was optimal at 10 ng/ml (1.5-fold increase), and abolished by E2 at all concentrations studied (1-50 nM). Surprisingly, E2 itself at low concentrations (1 and 5 nM) stimulated SV-SMC proliferation to a level comparable to that of TNF-{alpha} alone. SV-EC migration was significantly impaired by TNF-{alpha} (42% of control), and co-culture with E2 partially restored the ability of SV-EC to migrate and repair the wound. In contrast, TNF-{alpha} increased SV-SMC migration by 1.7-fold, an effect that was completely reversed by co-incubation with E2. Finally, TNF-{alpha} potently induced ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression in both SV-EC and SV-SMC. However there

  11. Nitric oxide mediated DNA double strand breaks induced in proliferating bystander cells after {alpha}-particle irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han Wei [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Chen Shaopeng [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Yu, K.N., E-mail: peter.yu@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Wu Lijun [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2010-02-03

    Low-dose {alpha}-particle exposures comprise 55% of the environmental dose to the human population and have been shown to induce bystander responses. Previous studies showed that bystander effect could induce stimulated cell growth or genotoxicity, such as excessive DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), micronuclei (MN), mutation and decreased cell viability, in the bystander cell population. In the present study, the stimulated cell growth, detected with flow cytometry (FCM), and the increased MN and DSB, detected with p53 binding protein 1 (53BP1) immunofluorescence, were observed simultaneously in the bystander cell population, which were co-cultured with cells irradiated by low-dose {alpha}-particles (1-10 cGy) in a mixed system. Further studies indicated that nitric oxide (NO) and transforming growth factor {beta}1 (TGF-{beta}1) played very important roles in mediating cell proliferation and inducing MN and DSB in the bystander population through treatments with NO scavenger and TGF-{beta}1 antibody. Low-concentrations of NO, generated by spermidine, were proved to induce cell proliferation, DSB and MN simultaneously. The proliferation or shortened cell cycle in bystander cells gave them insufficient time to repair DSBs. The increased cell division might increase the probability of carcinogenesis in bystander cells since cell proliferation increased the probability of mutation from the mis-repaired or un-repaired DSBs.

  12. Alpha radiation-induced alterations of the proliferation kinetics, chromatin structure and gene expression in mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exponentially growing mammalian cells were exposed to 3.4 MeV alpha particles. The chromatin of cells arrested in G2 by alpha irradiation was severely damaged, though all cells were still capable to condensate their chromatin after fusion with mitotic cells. In addition to the common types of aberrations (breaks, gaps, dicentrics and exchanges) cells were found possessing one or more chromosomes with long stretches of undercondensed chromatin. Repair of these lesions was indicated by site specific unscheduled DNA synthesis and by the observation that condensation of these regions improved during G2 arrest. Furthermore, during G2 arrest the synthesis of two cellular proteins was stimulated. This was studied by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of 35S-methionine labeled cellular proteins. All these findings provided evidence that radiation-induced G2 arrest is caused by chromatin damage, which prevents regular chromosome condensation for mitosis. (orig./MG)

  13. A study on reaction kinetics of the radicals produced in the laser-induced silane plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reaction kinetic processes of species produced in a pulsed TEA CO2 laser induced silane plasma were studied with the time-resolved OES. It is showed that the time position of main peaks for different fragments' characteristic lines are appreciably different. The reaction kinetic processes are discussed based on the results. By comparing the time evolution of the lines of the fragments and considering the other results of OES, the authors infer that the final reaction channel of the laser-induced silane plasma is a Si producing channel

  14. Significance of neck length parameter in 32S induced fusion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dynamics of heavy ion induced reactions give a pathway to number of interesting characteristics of atomic nuclei. The heavy ion fusion reactions are observed to be strongly influenced by the nuclear structure of the interacting nuclei and the intrinsic properties associated with them. The exclusive studies have been made to study the effects of nuclear shape, structure and angular momentum etc. Present work is a further attempt to establish the predictability of the DCM, while studying the reactions induced by the stable projectile 32S at fixed incident energy Elab ∼142 MeV on different targets

  15. An accretion disc instability induced by a temperature sensitive {\\alpha} parameter

    CERN Document Server

    Potter, William J

    2014-01-01

    In the standard thin disc formalism the dimensionless {\\alpha} parameter is usually assumed to be constant. However, there are good theoretical reasons for believing, as well as evidence from simulations, that {\\alpha} is dependent on intrinsic disc properties. In this paper we analyse the conditions for the stability of a thin accretion disc in which {\\alpha} is a function of the magnetic Prandtl number, the ratio of collisional viscosity to resistivity. In the inner disc, where the free electron opacity and radiation viscosity dominate, the disc is unstable if {\\alpha} is proportional to the magnetic Prandtl number with an exponent > 0.5. This is within the range of values for the power-law index found in MHD simulations with simple energetics. We calculate the evolution of the unstable disc within the {\\alpha} formalism and show that the physically accessible solutions form a limit cycle, analogous to the behaviour seen in recurrent dwarf novae. It is noteworthy that the time-dependent global behaviour of ...

  16. Sphingolipid signalling: molecular basis and role in TNF-alpha-induced cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malagarie-Cazenave, Sophie; Andrieu-Abadie, Nathalie; Ségui, Bruno; Gouazé, Valérie; Tardy, Claudine; Cuvillier, Olivier; Levade, Thierry

    2002-12-01

    Various lipidic molecules serve as second messengers for transducing signals from the cell surface to the cell interior and trigger specific cellular responses. Sphingolipids represent a complex group of lipids that have recently emerged as new transducers in eukaryotic cells. Several sphingolipid molecules are able to modulate cell growth, differentiation and death. This review summarises current knowledge of the signalling functions of sphingolipids, especially in the regulation of tumour necrosis factor [alpha] (TNF-[alpha])-mediated cytotoxic effects. TNF-[alpha] is a multifaceted cytokine that controls a wide range of immune responses in mammals, including induction of programmed cell death (also called apoptosis). On the basis of recent observations, a working model is proposed for the molecular mechanisms underlying regulation of sphingolipid generation following TNF-[alpha] receptor 1 activation. The implications of these findings for the development of future pharmacological strategies to prevent the cytotoxic TNF-[alpha] response and subsequent cellular dysfunctions (as seen in various human diseases) are discussed. PMID:14987386

  17. Measurement of cross sections for the 147Sm(n, alpha)144Nd reaction at 5.0 and 6.0 MeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guohui; Zhang, Jiaguo; Guo, Li'an; Wu, Hao; Chen, Jinxiang; Tang, Guoyou; Gledenov, Yu M; Sedysheva, M V; Khuukhenkhuu, G; Szalanski, P J

    2009-01-01

    Cross sections of the (147)Sm(n, alpha)(144)Nd reaction were measured at En=5.0 and 6.0MeV. A twin gridded ionization chamber was used as a charged particle detector and two large area (147)Sm(2)O(3) samples placed back to back were employed. Experiments were performed at the 4.5MV Van de Graaff accelerator of Peking University. Neutrons were produced through the D(d, n)(3)He reaction with a deuterium gas target. Absolute neutron flux was determined by a small (238)U fission chamber. Present cross-section data are compared with existing results of evaluations and measurements. PMID:18707895

  18. Alpha-spectroscopic factors from (d,6Li) and (3He,7Be) reactions on 12C,24Mg,40Ca and 58Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt has been made to compare the alpha-spectroscopic factors (Ssub(α)) resulting from (d,6Li) and (3He,7Be) reactions on 12C,24Mg,40Ca and 58Ni employing potentials characterizing the same potential family for the deuteron and for the 3He-channels and another set of potentials characterizing a particular potential family for 6Li and 7Be-channels respectively. It is found that the extracted spectroscopic factors for 12C,24Mg and 40Ca agree well, while that for the target 58Ni differs by an order of magnitude from the other two reactions. A possible reason has been discussed. (author)

  19. Pur-Alpha Induces JCV Gene Expression and Viral Replication by Suppressing SRSF1 in Glial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sariyer, Ilker Kudret; Sariyer, Rahsan; Otte, Jessica; Gordon, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Objective PML is a rare and fatal demyelinating disease of the CNS caused by the human polyomavirus, JC virus (JCV), which occurs in AIDS patients and those on immunosuppressive monoclonal antibody therapies (mAbs). We sought to identify mechanisms that could stimulate reactivation of JCV in a cell culture model system and targeted pathways which could affect early gene transcription and JCV T-antigen production, which are key steps of the viral life cycle for blocking reactivation of JCV. Two important regulatory partners we have previously identified for T-antigen include Pur-alpha and SRSF1 (SF2/ASF). SRSF1, an alternative splicing factor, is a potential regulator of JCV whose overexpression in glial cells strongly suppresses viral gene expression and replication. Pur-alpha has been most extensively characterized as a sequence-specific DNA- and RNA-binding protein which directs both viral gene transcription and mRNA translation, and is a potent inducer of the JCV early promoter through binding to T-antigen. Methods and Results Pur-alpha and SRSF1 both act directly as transcriptional regulators of the JCV promoter and here we have observed that Pur-alpha is capable of ameliorating SRSF1-mediated suppression of JCV gene expression and viral replication. Interestingly, Pur-alpha exerted its effect by suppressing SRSF1 at both the protein and mRNA levels in glial cells suggesting this effect can occur independent of T-antigen. Pur-alpha and SRSF1 were both localized to oligodendrocyte inclusion bodies by immunohistochemistry in brain sections from patients with HIV-1 associated PML. Interestingly, inclusion bodies were typically positive for either Pur-alpha or SRSF1, though some cells appeared to be positive for both proteins. Conclusions Taken together, these results indicate the presence of an antagonistic interaction between these two proteins in regulating of JCV gene expression and viral replication and suggests that they play an important role during viral

  20. Neutron-induced fission cross sections of short-lived actinides via the surrogate reaction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief discussion of surrogate reaction methods has been made and some of the recent results on neutron induced fission cross section measurements have been presented. The validation of the EMPIRE-3.1. predictions on neutron induced cross sections corresponding to fission barriers used from Barrier Formula (BF) and RIPL-1 libraries have been discussed

  1. Signature of strange dibaryon in kaon-induced reaction

    CERN Document Server

    Ohnishi, Shota; Kamano, Hiroyuki; Sato, Toru

    2011-01-01

    We examine how the signature of the strange-dibaryon resonances in the barKNN-piSigmaN system shows up in the scattering amplitude on the physical real energy axis within the framework of Alt-Grassberger-Sandhas (AGS) equations. The so-called point method is applied to handle the three-body unitarity cut in the amplitudes. We also discuss the possibility that the strange-dibaryon production reactions can be used for discriminating between existing models of the two-body barKN-piSigma system with Lambda(1405).

  2. Dynamics of GeV light-ion-induced reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent results from studies of the 1.8 - 4.8 GeV 3He + natAg, 197Au reactions at LNS with the ISiS detector array have shown evidence for a saturation in deposition energy and multifragmentation from a low-density source. The collision dynamics have been examined in the context of intranuclear cascade and BUU models, while breakup phenomena have been compared with EES and SMM models. Fragment-fragment correlations and isotope ratios are also investigated. (K.A.)

  3. Two-pion production in photon-induced reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Schadmand

    2006-05-01

    Differences in the photoproduction of mesons on the free proton and on nuclei are expected to reveal changes in the properties of hadrons. Inclusive studies of nuclear photoabsorption have provided evidence of medium modifications. However, the results have not been explained in a model independent way. A deeper understanding of the situation is anticipated from a detailed experimental study of meson photoproduction from nuclei in exclusive reactions. In the energy regime above the (1232) resonance, the dominant double pion production channels are of particular interest. Double pion photoproduction from nuclei is also used to investigate the in-medium modification of meson–meson interactions.

  4. Dynamics of GeV light-ion-induced reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwiatkowski, K.; Bracken, D.S.; Foxford, E.R.; Ginger, D.S.; Hsi, W.C.; Morley, K.B.; Viola, V.E.; Wang, G. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Korteling, R.G. [Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, BC (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry; Legrain, R. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. d`Astrophysique, de la Physique des Particules, de la Physique Nucleaire et de l`Instrumentation Associee] [and others

    1996-09-01

    Recent results from studies of the 1.8 - 4.8 GeV {sup 3}He + {sup nat}Ag, {sup 197}Au reactions at LNS with the ISiS detector array have shown evidence for a saturation in deposition energy and multifragmentation from a low-density source. The collision dynamics have been examined in the context of intranuclear cascade and BUU models, while breakup phenomena have been compared with EES and SMM models. Fragment-fragment correlations and isotope ratios are also investigated. (K.A.). 19 refs.

  5. Ranitidine-induced thrombocytopenia: A rare drug reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit V Bangia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available H 2 antagonist ranitidine causing thrombocytopenia is a rare drug phenomenon. Here we present a case of 55 year old female of pustular psoriasis who presented with fever and vomiting. Patient. was started on roxithromycin, iv ondensetron, paracetamol and iv ranitidine. Complete blood count revealed neutrophilia with normal blood picture. However repeat investigations showed falling WBC and platelet count. After excluding other causes of pancytopenia we concluded that ranitidine was the cause for this atypical drug reaction, more so when the blood picture improved within 72 hrs of ranitidine withdrawal.

  6. Surface chemical reactions induced by molecules electronically-excited in the gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrunin, Victor V.

    2011-01-01

    alignment are taking place, guiding all the molecules towards the intersections with the ground state PES, where transitions to the ground state PES will occur with minimum energy dissipation. The accumulated kinetic energy may be used to overcome the chemical reaction barrier. While recombination chemical...... be readily produced. Products of chemical adsorption and/or chemical reactions induced within adsorbates are aggregated on the surface and observed by light scattering. We will demonstrate how pressure and spectral dependencies of the chemical outcomes, polarization of the light and interference of...... two laser beams inducing the reaction can be used to distinguish the new process we try to investigate from chemical reactions induced by photoexcitation within adsorbed molecules and/or gas phase photolysis....

  7. Alpha particle induced DNA damage and repair in normal cultured thyrocytes of different proliferation status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyckesvärd, Madeleine Nordén; Delle, Ulla; Kahu, Helena;

    2014-01-01

    Childhood exposure to ionizing radiation increases the risk of developing thyroid cancer later in life and this is suggested to be due to higher proliferation of the young thyroid. The interest of using high-LET alpha particles from Astatine-211 ((211)At), concentrated in the thyroid by the same...... levels of γH2AX decreased during the first 24h in both cycling and stationary cultures and complete repair was seen in all cultures but cycling cells exposed to (211)At. Compared to stationary cells alpha particles were more harmful for cycling cultures, an effect also seen at the pChk2 levels...... cultures at a modest level of damage, clearly demonstrating that cell cycle status influences the relative effectiveness of alpha particles....

  8. [Adverse reaction induced by licorice preparations: clinical analysis of 93 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Min; Li, Wei; Wang, Wei; Wang, Shu-Xia; Lu, Jin; Chang, Zhang-Fu

    2013-11-01

    Licorice is a traditional Chinese medicine commonly used in clinic. The products,what contain licorice or licorice extract, has early been involved in the field of cosmetics except for the field of pharmaceuticals and food. Consequently, the reporting on adverse reactions induced by licorice preparations are more frequent. Based on the clinical data of licorice preparations adverse reactions, we described the characteristics of the licorice-related adverse reactions, and proposed specific measures to reduce the incidence of adverse reactions, provided a reference for the rational use of licorice preparations. PMID:24494570

  9. Nuclear reactions in copper induced by protons from a petawatt laser-foil interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-intensity (>1019 W cm-2) laser-plasma interactions have been shown to produce large quantities of protons with energies up to several tens of MeV. A range of laser-driven proton-induced reactions in copper have been investigated and the observed reactions quantified. The energy spectrum of the accelerated protons was determined from the reactions in a single thin copper foil and found to be in agreement with that deduced from (p,n) reactions measured in a stack of copper foils. The potential applications of this diagnostic technique are discussed

  10. Does observation of postural imbalance induce a postural reaction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banty Tia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several studies bring evidence that action observation elicits contagious responses during social interactions. However automatic imitative tendencies are generally inhibited and it remains unclear in which conditions mere action observation triggers motor behaviours. In this study, we addressed the question of contagious postural responses when observing human imbalance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We recorded participants' body sway while they observed a fixation cross (control condition, an upright point-light display of a gymnast balancing on a rope, and the same point-light display presented upside down. Our results showed that, when the upright stimulus was displayed prior to the inverted one, centre of pressure area and antero-posterior path length were significantly greater in the upright condition compared to the control and upside down conditions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results demonstrate a contagious postural reaction suggesting a partial inefficiency of inhibitory processes. Further, kinematic information was sufficient to trigger this reaction. The difference recorded between the upright and upside down conditions indicates that the contagion effect was dependent on the integration of gravity constraints by body kinematics. Interestingly, the postural response was sensitive to habituation, and seemed to disappear when the observer was previously shown an inverted display. The motor contagion recorded here is consistent with previous work showing vegetative output during observation of an effortful movement and could indicate that lower level control facilitates contagion effects.

  11. A study of reactor-neutron-induced reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross sections of the second neutron capture in the double-neutron-capture process were studied in the irradiation of 26Mg, 64Ni, 93Nb, and 164Dy with reactor neutrons. Weak radioactivities produced were determined with sufficient accuracy by taking advantage of high resolution Ge(Li) detectors. The neutron spectrum at the irradiating site was defined with Westcott's epithermal index determined by the use of the cadmium ratio method. The isomer cross-section ratio was obtained with the 94Nb target. The statistical theory was found to be applicable to such an unstable or odd-odd nuclide as 94Nb. Cross sections of isomers of 165Dy were determined. The capture cross section of the ground state nuclei was found greater than that of the metastable state nuclei in this case. This differs from the other four isomers observed so far. Cross sections of 28Al(n, p)28Mg and 58Ni(n, 2n)57Ni reactions with fission neutrons were also measured. A simple formula was proposed for the systematics of (n, 2n) reaction cross sections, which enabled prediction of the cross section more accurately than the previously proposed formulae. (author)

  12. Reaction-induced rheological weakening enables oceanic plate subduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirauchi, Ken-Ichi; Fukushima, Kumi; Kido, Masanori; Muto, Jun; Okamoto, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Earth is the only terrestrial planet in our solar system where an oceanic plate subducts beneath an overriding plate. Although the initiation of plate subduction requires extremely weak boundaries between strong plates, the way in which oceanic mantle rheologically weakens remains unknown. Here we show that shear-enhanced hydration reactions contribute to the generation and maintenance of weak mantle shear zones at mid-lithospheric depths. High-pressure friction experiments on peridotite gouge reveal that in the presence of hydrothermal water, increasing strain and reactions lead to an order-of-magnitude reduction in strength. The rate of deformation is controlled by pressure-solution-accommodated frictional sliding on weak hydrous phyllosilicate (talc), providing a mechanism for the 'cutoff' of the high peak strength at the brittle-plastic transition. Our findings suggest that infiltration of seawater into transform faults with long lengths and low slip rates is an important controlling factor on the initiation of plate tectonics on terrestrial planets. PMID:27562366

  13. Does Observation of Postural Imbalance Induce a Postural Reaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tia, Banty; Saimpont, Arnaud; Paizis, Christos; Mourey, France; Fadiga, Luciano; Pozzo, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    Background Several studies bring evidence that action observation elicits contagious responses during social interactions. However automatic imitative tendencies are generally inhibited and it remains unclear in which conditions mere action observation triggers motor behaviours. In this study, we addressed the question of contagious postural responses when observing human imbalance. Methodology/Principal Findings We recorded participants' body sway while they observed a fixation cross (control condition), an upright point-light display of a gymnast balancing on a rope, and the same point-light display presented upside down. Our results showed that, when the upright stimulus was displayed prior to the inverted one, centre of pressure area and antero-posterior path length were significantly greater in the upright condition compared to the control and upside down conditions. Conclusions/Significance These results demonstrate a contagious postural reaction suggesting a partial inefficiency of inhibitory processes. Further, kinematic information was sufficient to trigger this reaction. The difference recorded between the upright and upside down conditions indicates that the contagion effect was dependent on the integration of gravity constraints by body kinematics. Interestingly, the postural response was sensitive to habituation, and seemed to disappear when the observer was previously shown an inverted display. The motor contagion recorded here is consistent with previous work showing vegetative output during observation of an effortful movement and could indicate that lower level control facilitates contagion effects. PMID:21423622

  14. A RNA antagonist of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha, EZN-2968, inhibits tumor cell growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greenberger, Lee M; Horak, Ivan D; Filpula, David; Sapra, Puja; Westergaard, Majken; Frydenlund, Henrik F; Albaek, Charlotte; Schrøder, Henrik; Ørum, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    pathways, is associated with poor prognosis in many types of cancer. Therefore, down-regulation of HIF-1alpha protein by RNA antagonists may control cancer growth. EZN-2968 is a RNA antagonist composed of third-generation oligonucleotide, locked nucleic acid, technology that specifically binds and inhibits......-regulation of endogenous HIF-1alpha and vascular endothelial growth factor in the liver. The effect can last for days after administration of single dose of EZN-2968 and is associated with long residence time of locked nucleic acid in certain tissues. In efficacy studies, tumor reduction was found in nude mice...

  15. Selective alpha particle decay of /sup 12/C + /sup 12/C resonances to excited /sup 20/Ne rotational bands observed in the /sup 12/C(/sup 12/C,. cap alpha. ) /sup 20/Ne reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledoux, R.J.; Ordonez, C.E.; Bechara, M.J.; Al-Juwair, H.A.; Lavelle, G.; Cosman, E.R.

    1984-09-01

    Excitation functions of the /sup 12/C(/sup 12/C, ..cap alpha..)/sup 20/Ne reaction were measured at Theta/sub lab/ = 7.5/sup 0/ between E/sub c.m./ = 14-40 MeV and angular distributions were measured from E/sub c.m./ = 17.8 to 20.6 MeV. Summed yields reveal prominent intermediate structure resonances over the entire range which correlate well to resonances previously observed in elastic data. The resonances show enhanced decays to excited rotational bands in /sup 20/Ne with reduced widths comparable to those for the elastic channel and an order of magnitude greater than those for the /sup 20/Ne ground state band. A discussion is given of the resonances as shape-isomeric states in a shell model secondary minimum in /sup 24/Mg, and of the selective alpha decay as being transitions to states of related configuration in /sup 20/Ne.

  16. Selective alpha particle decay of /sup 12/C+ /sup 12/C resonances to excited /sup 20/Ne rotational bands observed in the /sup 12/C(/sup 12/C,. cap alpha. ) /sup 20/Ne reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledoux, R.J.; Ordoez, C.E.; Bechara, M.J.; Al-Juwair, H.A.; Lavelle, G.; Cosman, E.R.

    1984-09-01

    Excitation functions of the /sup 12/C(/sup 12/C,..cap alpha..) /sup 20/Ne reaction were measured at theta/sub lab/ = 7.5/sup 0/ between E/sub c.m./ = 14--40 MeV and angular distributions were measured from E/sub c.m./ = 17.8 to 20.6 MeV. Summed yields reveal prominent intermediate structure resonances over the entire range which correlate well to resonances previously observed in elastic data. The resonances show enhanced decays to excited rotational bands in /sup 20/Ne with reduced widths comparable to those for the elastic channel and an order of magnitude greater than those for the /sup 20/Ne ground state band. A discussion is given of the resonances as shape-isomeric states in a shell model secondary minimum in /sup 24/Mg, and of the selective alpha decay as being transitions to states of related configuration in /sup 20/Ne.

  17. Toxicological Effects of Alpha Lipoic Acid in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eze, E.D

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Alpha lipoic acid (ALA, through its antioxidant activity plays an important role in preventing the progression of diabetes mellitus without recourse to its safety or toxicity risk. The aim of the study was to investigate the toxicological effects of ALA in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in Wistar rats.A total of twenty (20 Wistar rats weighing between 150 and 250 g which included both normal and diabetic animals were randomlydivided into four groups (1-4 of five animals each. Animals in group 1 which included normal control animals were administered 1 ml of distilled water. Animals in groups 2-4 which were induced with diabetes using diabetogenic dose of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg body weight were also treated with distilled water, 100 mg/kg body weight of ALA and 2 mg/kg body weight of glibenclamide (reference antidiabetic drug respectively. The treatments were given orally once daily for nine days. Compared with the diabetic control, while treatment with 100 mg/kg body weight of ALA did not significantly (P > 0.05 affect the concentrations of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC, the administration of 100 mg/kg body weight of ALA significantly (P 0.05 alter the concentrations of serum total cholesterol and HDLC when compared with the normal control. However, when compared with the normal control animals, the administration of 2 mg/kg body weight of GLB significantly (P 0.05 affect the levels of total bilirubin, albumin, globulin and albumin/globulin ratio in the serum of the diabetic animals. Except for globulin concentration which decreased significantly (P 0.05 alter the levels of total bilirubin, albumin, globulin and albumin/globulin ratio in the serum of the diabetic animals. When compared with the distilled water treated diabetic control animals, administration of ALA significantly (P 0.05 alter the levels of urea, uric acid and creatinine in the serum of the diabetic animals. Treatment

  18. Evaluation of Neutron Induced Reactions for 32 Fission Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyeong Il

    2007-02-15

    Neutron cross sections for 32 fission products were evaluated in the neutron-incident energy range from 10{sup -5} eV to 20 MeV. The list of fission products consists of the priority materials for several applications, extended to cover complete isotopic chains for three elements. The full list includes 8 individual isotopes, {sup 95}Mo, {sup 101}Ru, {sup 103}Rh, {sup 105}Pd, {sup 109}Ag, {sup 131}Xe, {sup 133}Cs, {sup 141}Pr, and 24 isotopes in complete isotopic chains for Nd (8), Sm (9) and Dy (7). Our evaluation methodology covers both the low energy region and the fast neutron region.In the low energy region, our evaluations are based on the latest data published in the Atlas of Neutron Resonances. This resource was used to infer both the thermal values and the resolved resonance parameters that were validated against the capture resonance integrals. In the unresolved resonance region we performed the additional evaluation by using the averages of the resolved resonances and adjusting them to the experimental data.In the fast neutron region our evaluations are based on the nuclear reaction model code EMPIRE-2.19 validated against the experimental data. EMPIRE is the modular system of codes consisting of many nuclear reaction models, including the spherical and deformed Optical Model, Hauser-Feshbach theory with the width fluctuation correction and complete gamma-ray emission cascade, DWBA, Multi-step Direct and Multi-step Compound models, and several versions of the phenomenological preequilibrium models. The code is equipped with a power full GUI, allowing an easy access to support libraries such as RIPL and CSISRS, the graphical package, as well the utility codes for formatting and checking. In general, in our calculations we used the Reference Input Parameter Library, RIPL, for the initial set model parameters. These parameters were properly adjusted to reproduce the available experimental data taken from the CSISRS library. Our evaluations cover cross

  19. Evaluation of Neutron Induced Reactions for 32 Fission Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron cross sections for 32 fission products were evaluated in the neutron-incident energy range from 10-5 eV to 20 MeV. The list of fission products consists of the priority materials for several applications, extended to cover complete isotopic chains for three elements. The full list includes 8 individual isotopes, 95Mo, 101Ru, 103Rh, 105Pd, 109Ag, 131Xe, 133Cs, 141Pr, and 24 isotopes in complete isotopic chains for Nd (8), Sm (9) and Dy (7). Our evaluation methodology covers both the low energy region and the fast neutron region.In the low energy region, our evaluations are based on the latest data published in the Atlas of Neutron Resonances. This resource was used to infer both the thermal values and the resolved resonance parameters that were validated against the capture resonance integrals. In the unresolved resonance region we performed the additional evaluation by using the averages of the resolved resonances and adjusting them to the experimental data.In the fast neutron region our evaluations are based on the nuclear reaction model code EMPIRE-2.19 validated against the experimental data. EMPIRE is the modular system of codes consisting of many nuclear reaction models, including the spherical and deformed Optical Model, Hauser-Feshbach theory with the width fluctuation correction and complete gamma-ray emission cascade, DWBA, Multi-step Direct and Multi-step Compound models, and several versions of the phenomenological preequilibrium models. The code is equipped with a power full GUI, allowing an easy access to support libraries such as RIPL and CSISRS, the graphical package, as well the utility codes for formatting and checking. In general, in our calculations we used the Reference Input Parameter Library, RIPL, for the initial set model parameters. These parameters were properly adjusted to reproduce the available experimental data taken from the CSISRS library. Our evaluations cover cross sections for almost all reaction channels including photon

  20. First reported case of tenofovir-induced photoallergic reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Verma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 50-year-old man, a known case of human immunodeficiency virus infection for the past 1 year, was on antiretroviral therapy in the form of stavudine, lamivudine, and nevirapine. Three days after replacing stavudine with tenofovir, he developed redness on the face and neck and within 48 h the rash became generalized. Dermatological examination revealed involvement of photoexposed areas of the face in the form of erythema and ill-defined hyperpigmented plaques, with mild periorbital edema. There was specific involvement of V and nape of the neck. Extensive erythema and scaling were also present on buttocks, thighs, and upper third of legs. A diagnosis of photoallergic dermatitis to tenofovir was considered and confirmed by histopathology and photopatch test. He responded well to the stoppage of the drug and oral corticosteroids. This is the first report of a photoallergic reaction to tenofovir in the literature.

  1. Study of the antioxidant effect of {alpha}-tocopherol on low-density lipoprotein peroxidation induced at low and high {gamma}-radiation dose rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalil, Abdelouahed [Research Centre on Aging and Department of Medicine, University of Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC, J1H 4C4 (Canada)]. E-mail: abdelouahed.khalil@usherbrooke.ca; Milochevitch, Christelle [Research Centre on Aging and Department of Medicine, University of Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC, J1H 4C4 (Canada)

    2005-02-01

    It is well known that vitamin E ({alpha}-tocopherol, {alpha}-toc) is a very efficient lipid soluble antioxidant and several studies showed its beneficial action in the prevention and reduction of atherosclerosis. However, some in vitro studies suggest a prooxidant role of vitamin E, which could occur under given circumstances. This study was thus designed to investigate the antioxidant vs. prooxidant effect of vitamin E with regards to LDL peroxidation induced under different oxidative stress conditions. LDL was enriched with {alpha}-tocopherol and different {alpha}-toc/LDL ratios were studied (8.0{+-}2.5, 14.3{+-}3.0, 33.3{+-}3.7, 42.7{+-}3.5 and 48.2{+-}4.5 molecules of {alpha}-toc/LDL particle). Enriched and control LDL were oxidized by action of {sup {center_dot}}OH and O{sub 2}{sup {center_dot}}{sup -} free radicals produced by {gamma}-radiolysis at different dose rates. Susceptibility of LDL to oxidation was examined by the measure of conjugated diene and TBARS formation as well as LDL endogenous {alpha}-toc disappearance. Increasing LDL {alpha}-toc concentration reduced the LDL susceptibility to oxidation and their oxidizability. {alpha}-toc disappearance rates were comprised between 43 and 8.3x10{sup -10} M s{sup -1} and decreased with the radiation dose rate. Our results support an antioxidant role for {alpha}-tocopherol at high and low oxidative stress conditions.

  2. Application of the Trojan Horse Method to study neutron induced reactions: the 17O(n, α14C reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulino M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The reaction 17O(n, α14C was studied using virtual neutrons coming from the quasi-free deuteron break-up in the three body reaction 17O+d → α+14C+p. This technique, called virtual neutron method, extends the Trojan Horse method to neutron-induced reactions allowing to study the reaction cross section avoiding the suppression effects coming from the penetrability of the centrifugal barrier. For incident neutron energies from thermal up to a few hundred keV, direct experiments have shown the population of two out of three expected excited states at energies 8213 keV and 8282 keV and the influence of the sub-threshold level at 8038 keV. In the present experiment the 18O excited state at E* = 8.125 MeV, missing in the direct measurement, is observed. The angular distributions of the populated resonances have been measured for the first time. The results unambiguously indicate the ability of the method to overcome the centrifugal barrier suppression effect and to pick out the contribution of the bare nuclear interaction.

  3. Application of the Trojan Horse Method to study neutron induced reactions: the 17O(n, α)14C reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulino, M.; Spitaleri, C.; Tang, X. D.; Guardo, G. L.; Lamia, L.; Cherubini, S.; Bucher, B.; Burjan, V.; Couder, M.; Davies, P.; deBoer, R.; Fang, X.; Goldberg, V. Z.; Hons, Z.; Kroha, V.; Lamm, L.; La Cognata, M.; Li, C.; Ma, C.; Mrazek, J.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Notani, M.; O'Brien, S.; Pizzone, R. G.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Roberson, D.; Sergi, M. L.; Tan, W.; Thompson, I. J.; Wiescher, M.

    2014-03-01

    The reaction 17O(n, α)14C was studied using virtual neutrons coming from the quasi-free deuteron break-up in the three body reaction 17O+d → α+14C+p. This technique, called virtual neutron method, extends the Trojan Horse method to neutron-induced reactions allowing to study the reaction cross section avoiding the suppression effects coming from the penetrability of the centrifugal barrier. For incident neutron energies from thermal up to a few hundred keV, direct experiments have shown the population of two out of three expected excited states at energies 8213 keV and 8282 keV and the influence of the sub-threshold level at 8038 keV. In the present experiment the 18O excited state at E* = 8.125 MeV, missing in the direct measurement, is observed. The angular distributions of the populated resonances have been measured for the first time. The results unambiguously indicate the ability of the method to overcome the centrifugal barrier suppression effect and to pick out the contribution of the bare nuclear interaction.

  4. Interleukin-8 and Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Production in Human Epidermal Keratinocytes Induced by Trichophyton mentagrophytes

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura, Yuka; KANO, Rui; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko; Watanabe, Shinichi

    2002-01-01

    Production of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) was confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in a medium where human epidermal keratinocytes were cocultured with Trichophyton mentagrophytes for 1 to 12 h. IL-8 and TNF-α mRNAs were also detected in the keratinocytes cocultured with T. mentagrophytes.

  5. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Chicken Lipopolysaccharide-Induced TNF-alpha Factor (LITAF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The inflammatory response to parasites, bacteria, and viruses is mediated by multiple host factors. TNF-alpha is one of the most pleiotropic cytokines in mammals, but has yet to be identified in avian species. In the current study, we isolated a full-length cDNA encoding the chicken homologue of ...

  6. Laser induced sonofusion: A new road toward thermonuclear reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Rasoul Sadighi-Bonabi; Maryam Gheshlaghi

    2016-01-01

    The Possibility of the laser assisted sonofusion is studied via single bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL) in Deuterated acetone (C3D6O) using quasi-adiabatic and hydro-chemical simulations at the ambient temperatures of 0 and −28.5 °C. The interior temperature of the produced bubbles in Deuterated acetone is 1.6 × 106 K in hydro-chemical model and it is reached up to 1.9 × 106 K in the laser induced SBSL bubbles. Under these circumstances, temperature up to 107 K can be produced in the center of ...

  7. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha, in association with inflammation, angiogenesis and MYC, is a critical prognostic factor in patients with HCC after surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite well-studied tumor hypoxia in laboratory, little is known about the association with other pathophysiological events in the clinical view. We investigated the prognostic value of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1alpha) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and its correlations with inflammation, angiogenesis and MYC oncogene. In a random series of 110 HCC patients, the mRNA of HIF-1alpha, inflammation related factors (COX-2, MMP7 and MMP9), angiogenesis related factors (VEGF and PDGFRA) and MYC in tumor tissue were detected by real-time RT-PCR and HIF-1alpha protein was assessed by immunohistochemistry. The correlations between HIF-1alpha mRNA and the factors mentioned previously, the relationship between HIF-1alpha and clinicopathologic features, and the prognostic value were analyzed. The expression of both HIF-1alpha mRNA and protein in HCC were independent prognostic factors for overall survival (OS) (P = 0.012 and P = 0.021, respectively) and disease-free survival (DFS) (P = 0.004 and P = 0.007, respectively) as well. Besides, the high expression of HIF-1alpha mRNA and protein proposed an advanced BCLC stage and more incidence of vascular invasion. The mRNA of HIF-1alpha had significantly positive correlations to that of COX-2, PDGFRA, MMP7, MMP9, MYC, except VEGF. In addition to HIF-1alpha, COX-2 and PDGFRA were also independent prognosticators for OS (P = 0.004 and P = 0.010, respectively) and DFS (P = 0.010 and P = 0.038, respectively). HIF-1alpha in HCC plays an important role in predicting patient outcome. It may influence HCC biological behaviors and affect the tumor inflammation, angiogenesis and act in concert with the oncogene MYC. Attaching importance to HIF-1alpha in HCC may improve the prognostic and therapeutic technique

  8. Effect of alpha-tocopherol on isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction in rats--electrocardiographic biochemical and histological evidences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ithayarasi, A P; Padmavathy, V N; Shyamala Devi, C

    1996-10-01

    The effect of alpha-tocopherol (6 mg/100 g body wt, orally, daily for 90 days) pretreatment in isoproterenol (20 mg/100 g body wt, subcutaneously, twice at an interval of two days at the end of the alpha-tocopherol pretreatment) induced myocardial infarction was studied in rats. Isoproterenol administered rats showed electrocardiographic changes suggestive of myocardial infarction with marked ST segment elevation, Q waves appearance and a significant increase in heart rate. In isoproterenol administered rats, a significant decrease was observed in the activities of marker enzymes such as aspartate amino transferase, alanine amino transferase, lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase in heart and aorta with a significant increase in their activities in serum. The levels of lipid peroxides in terms of "TBA reactants" increased significantly in serum, heart and aorta on isoproterenol administration. The histology of heart and aorta showed marked fragmentation of muscle fibres and necrotic lesions in isoproterenol administered rats. alpha-Tocopherol pretreated rats showed a near normal ECG pattern, levels of lipid peroxides, activities of marker enzymes and a near normal histology of heart and aorta on isoproterenol administration. PMID:9055097

  9. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone-induced depletion of G(q)alpha/G(11)alpha proteins from detergent-insensitive membrane domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesanová, Z; Novotný, J; Cerný, J; Milligan, G; Svoboda, P

    1999-12-24

    The role of detergent-insensitive membrane domains (DIMs) in desensitisation of the G protein-coupled receptor-mediated hormone response was studied in clone E2M11 of HEK293 cells which stably express high levels of both thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) receptors and G(11)alpha G protein. DIMs were prepared by flotation in equilibrium sucrose density gradients and characterised by a panel of membrane markers representing peripheral, glycosylphosphatidylinositol-bound as well as integral membrane proteins (caveolin, CD29, CD55, CD59, CD147, the alpha subunit of Na, K-ATPase) and enzyme activities (alkaline phosphatase, adenylyl cyclase). Caveolin-containing DIMs represented only a small fraction of the overall pool of G(q)alpha/G(11)alpha-rich domains. Prolonged stimulation of E2M11 cells with TRH resulted in dramatic depletion of G(q)alpha/G(11)alpha from all DIMs, which was paralleled by a concomitant G(q)alpha/G(11)alpha increase in the high-density gradient fractions containing the bulk-phase membrane constituents soluble in 1% Triton X-100. Distribution of membrane markers was unchanged under these conditions. Membrane domains thus represent a substantial structural determinant of the G protein pool relevant to desensitisation of hormone action. PMID:10611479

  10. Non-adiabatic dynamics in 10Be with the microscopic alpha+alpha+n+n model

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, M

    2006-01-01

    The alpha+6He low-energy reactions and the structural changes of 10Be in the microscopic alpha+alpha+n+n model are studied by the generalized two-center cluster model with the Kohn-Hulthen-Kato variation method. It is found that, in the inelastic scattering to the alpha+6He(2+) channel, characteristic enhancements are expected as the results of the parity-dependent non-adiabatic dynamics. In the positive parity state, the enhancement originates from the no-adiabatic eigenstate generated by the radial excitation of the relative motion between two alpha-cores. On the other hand, the enhancement in the negative parity state is induced by the Landau-Zener level-crossing. These non-adiabatic processes are discussed in connection to the formation of the inversion doublet in the compound system of 10Be.

  11. Involvement of reversible binding to alpha 2u-globulin in 1,4-dichlorobenzene-induced nephrotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonneau, M; Strasser, J; Lock, E A; Turner, M J; Swenberg, J A

    1989-06-01

    Similarly to unleaded gasoline, 1,4-dichlorobenzene (1,4-DCB) administered for 2 years caused a dose-related increase in the incidence of renal tumors in male but not in female rats or in either sex of mice. Unleaded gasoline and 2,2,4-trimethylpentane (TMP), a component of unleaded gasoline, increased protein droplet formation and cell proliferation in male but not in female rat kidneys. These protein droplets contained, alpha 2u-globulin, a male rat-specific low-molecular-weight protein and 2,4,4-trimethyl-2-pentanol, a metabolite of TMP that was reversibly bound to this protein. Studies were undertaken to determine if 1,4-DCB produced similar effects; 1,2-DCB was used for comparison since it did not produce renal carcinogenesis in male rats. Gel filtration chromatography of a 116,000g supernatant prepared from kidneys of 1,4-[14C]DCB-treated rats showed that radiolabel coeluted with alpha 2u-globulin as one sharp peak as opposed to a multipeak pattern observed for 1,2-[14C]DCB; the maximal quantity of radiolabel for 1,4-DCB was twice that for 1,2-DCB. Equilibrium dialysis of kidney cytosol in the presence or absence of sodium dodecyl sulfate demonstrated that the radiolabel was reversibly bound to alpha 2u-globulin; the amount for 1,4-[14C]DCB-treated rats was almost twice as much as that for 1,2-[14C]DCB-treated rats. 1,2-DCB was also shown to be covalently bound to renal alpha 2u-globulin, and covalently bound to liver and plasma high-molecular-weight proteins. 1,4-DCB and, to a minor extent, 2,5-dichlorophenol, the major metabolite of 1,4-DCB, were reversibly bound to renal alpha 2u-globulin from 1,4-DCB-treated rats. 1,4-DCB increased protein droplet formation in male but not in female rat kidneys, whereas equimolar doses of 1,2-DCB showed no effect in either sex. Renal cell proliferation, measured by [3H]thymidine incorporation into renal DNA, was increased after 1,4-DCB but not after 1,2-DCB treatment. Nephrotoxicity and biochemical alterations induced by

  12. New High-Precision Measurement of the Reaction Rate of the O-18(p, alpha)N-15 Reaction via THM

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    La Cognata, M.; Spitaleri, C.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Irgaziev, B.; Tribble, R. E.; Banu, A.; Cherubini, S.; Coc, A.; Crucilla, V.; Goldberg, V. Z.; Gulino, M.; Kiss, G. G.; Lamia, L.; Chengbo, L.; Mrázek, Jaromír; Pizzone, R. G.; Puglia, S. M. R.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Romano, S.; Sergi, M. L.; Tabacaru, G.; Trache, L.; Trzaska, W.; Tumino, A.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 3 (2009), s. 237-242. ISSN 1323-3580 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : nuclear reactions * nucleosynthesis * abundances Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 3.786, year: 2009

  13. Synthesis of Superheavy Nuclei in 48CA-INDUCED Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Utyonkov, V. K.; Lobanov, Yu. V.; Abdullin, F. Sh.; Polyakov, A. N.; Sagaidak, R. N.; Shirokovsky, I. V.; Tsyganov, Yu. S.; Voinov, A. A.; Gulbekian, G. G.; Bogomolov, S. L.; Gikal, B. N.; Mezentsev, A. N.; Iliev, S.; Subbotin, V. G.; Sukhov, A. M.; Subotic, K.; Zagrebaev, V. I.; Vostokin, G. K.; Itkis, M. G.; Moody, K. J.; Patin, J. B.; Shaughnessy, D. A.; Stoyer, M. A.; Stoyer, N. J.; Wilk, P. A.; Kenneally, J. M.; Landrum, J. H.; Wild, J. F.; Lougheed, R. W.

    2008-11-01

    Thirty-four new nuclides with Z = 104-116, 118 and N = 161-177 have been synthesized in the complete-fusion reactions of 238U, 237Np, 242,244Pu, 243Am, 245,248Cm, and 249Cf targets with 48Ca beams. The masses of evaporation residues were identified through measurements of the excitation functions of the xn-evaporation channels and from cross bombardments. The decay properties of the new nuclei agree with those of previously known heavy nuclei and with predictions from different theoretical models. A discussion of self-consistent interpretations of all observed decay chains originating from the parent isotopes 282,283112, 282113, 286-289114, 287,288115, 290-293116, and 294118 is presented. Decay energies and lifetimes of the neutron-rich superheavy nuclei as well as their production cross sections indicate a considerable increase in the stability of nuclei with an increasing number of neutrons, which agrees with the predictions of theoretical models concerning the decisive dependence of the structure and radioactive properties of superheavy elements on their proximity to the nuclear shells with N = 184 and Z = 114.

  14. The Q region in non-K-induced reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All existing data on Q production in πp and anti p p reactions are shown to be successfully described by a single Breit-Wigner of parameters: m = 1279 +- 4 MeV; and GAMMA = 52 +- 1113 MeV. This resonance has quantum numbers Jsup(P) = 1+, I - 1/2. Its main decay mode is rhoK. In view of these characteristics this resonance is identified with the Q1 (approximately 1300) recently observed in partial wave analyses of the diffractively produced Kππ system. The branching ratio: R = neutrals/(neutrals + K0π+ π- + K+π-π0) is determined to be R = 0.41 +- 0.13 indicating the existence of decay channels other than rhoK and possibly K*(890)π. The Qsub(A) - Qsub(B) mixing angle is determined to be in the range 20 to 35 degrees, with the Q1 being the 'mainly A-like' particle. (author)

  15. Recombinant human growth-regulated oncogene-alpha induces T lymphocyte chemotaxis. A process regulated via IL-8 receptors by IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jinquan, T; Frydenberg, Jane; Mukaida, N;

    1995-01-01

    activate neutrophils, whereas it induces chemotaxis, exocytosis, and a respiratory burst in neutrophils. To date, its functions on T lymphocytes have not been well established. We report here that recombinant human (rh)GRO-alpha is a potent chemoattractant for freshly isolated T lymphocytes, but not for...

  16. Radiation induced intra-track reactions in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation chemistry of aqueous solutions is inevitably important not only in physics and chemistry but also in biology and medicine. More than five decades much effort has been paid to clarify the elementary processes induced by irradiation. Then, pulse radiolysis study in the time scale of picosecond is now available. In addition, radiation chemistry studies with high LET radiation have been actively investigated. Furthermore, radiolysis study of aqueous solution at high temperatures and even in supercritical water is under progress. In the present lecture, experimental results on the radiolysis of water in ps time scale and LET effect obtained at Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory (NERL), the University of Tokyo, will be presented relevant to the theoretical calculation. (author)

  17. Importance of 5He emission in neutron induced reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important particle emission of 5He has never been included in the widely used statistical model codes as the evaluation tool. The threshold energies from light nuclei to heavy nuclei are given, which indicate that in general the compound nucleus induced by incident neutron would emit 5He rather than 3He. Being 5He unstable and separated into n + α spontaneously, the formulation of the double-differential cross section of the neutron from the 5He two-body breakup process is given. Because of stronger recoil effect than the other outgoing particles, the energy balance is strictly taken into account. The further improvement for the model calculation on this respect is proposed

  18. Luteal 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activities in the rat corpus luteum of pseudopregnancy: Effect of the deciduoma reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telleria Carlos M

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the rat, the maintenance of gestation is dependent on progesterone production from the corpora lutea (CL, which are under the control of pituitary, decidual and placental hormones. The luteal metabolism of progesterone during gestation has been amply studied. However, the regulation of progesterone synthesis and degradation during pseudopregnancy (PSP, in which the CL are mainly under the control of pituitary prolactin (PRL, is not well known. The objectives of this investigation were: i to study the luteal metabolism of progesterone during PSP by measuring the activities of the enzymes 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3betaHSD, involved in progesterone biosynthesis, and that of 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20alphaHSD, involved in progesterone catabolism; and ii to determine the role of decidualization on progesterone metabolism in PSP. Methods PSP was induced mechanically at 10:00 h on the estrus of 4-day cycling Wistar rats, and the stimulus for decidualization was provided by scratching the uterus on day 4 of PSP. 3betaHSD and 20alphaHSD activities were measured in the CL isolated from ovaries of PSP rats using a spectrophotometric method. Serum concentrations of progesterone, PRL, androstenedione, and estradiol were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA. Results The PSP stage induced mechanically in cycling rats lasted 11.3 ± 0.09 days (n = 14. Serum progesterone concentration was high until day 10 of PSP, and declined thereafter. Serum PRL concentration was high on the first days of PSP but decreased significantly from days 6 to 9, having minimal values on days 10 and 11. Luteal 3betaHSD activities were elevated until day 6 of PSP, after which they progressively declined, reaching minimal values at the end of PSP. Luteal 20alphaHSD activities were very low until day 9, but abruptly increased at the end of PSP. When the deciduoma was induced by scratching the uterus of pseudopregnant animals on day 4 (PSP

  19. The FLUORINE-17(PROTON, PHOTON)NEON-18 and Oxygen -14(ALPHA Particle, PROTON)FLUORINE-17 Reaction Rates and the Structure of NEON-18 (NEON-18, FLUORINE-17, Oxygen -14, Astrophysical Hydrogen Burning)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Kevin Insik

    1993-01-01

    The 14O(alpha,p) 17F and ^ {17}F(p,gamma)18Ne reactions play crucial roles in the advanced stages of astrophysical hydrogen burning. The ^{14 }O(alpha,p)^ {17}F(p,gamma) ^ {18}Ne(beta^+nu) 18F(p,alpha)^ {15}O reaction sequence can provide a path around the relatively slow positron decay of 14O in the HCNO cycle, while the similar reaction sequence, ^{14 }O(alpha ,p) 17F(p,gamma)^ {18}Ne(beta ^+nu) 18F(p,gamma)^ {19}Ne, can provide an alternate path from the HCNO cycle to the rp-process. The 17F(p,gamma)18Ne reaction rate could provide the principal source of 18O. Under some astrophysical conditions, the ^{14 }O(alpha,p)^ {17}F reaction is expected to compete with the 15O(alpha, gamma)19Ne reaction in providing a path through which nuclei involved in the HCNO cycle can be transformed into heavier nuclei with Z >= 10.. In order to better determine the rates of these two reactions, we measured the properties of the resonances in 18Ne; the excitation energies, the spins, and the partial and total widths of the relevant resonances. By comparing the previously observed states in 18Ne to the well-studied isospin mirror nucleus, ^{18 }O, it is clear that there are a number of missing levels in 18Ne in the region rm Ex > 4 MeV. These missing states in ^ {18}Ne could be important in determining the 17F(p, gamma)18rm Ne and 14O(alpha ,p)17F reaction rates. We have studied the ^{12 }C(12C,^6He)^{18 }Ne, 20rm Ne(p{,}t)18Ne, and 16O(^3He{, }n)18Ne reactions to measure new nuclear structure information of ^{18 }Ne. From our experiments, we have the following major results: (a) an evidence of the 3^+ Funck et al. and Wiescher et al. have based on theoretical predictions and incomplete experimental information about the level structure of 18 Ne in the energy region of rm E_ {x} > 5.0 MeV. On the basis of the nuclear structure information for 18 Ne measured in our experiments, we have improved the calculation of the ^{14 }O(alpha,p)17F reaction rate.

  20. Multiphoton dissociation and thermal unimolecular reactions induced by infrared lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multiphoton dissociation (MPD) of ethyl chloride was studied using a tunable 3.3 μm laser to excite CH stretches. The absorbed energy increases almost linearly with fluence, while for 10 μm excitation there is substantial saturation. Much higher dissociation yields were observed for 3.3 μm excitation than for 10 μm excitation, reflecting bottlenecking in the discrete region of 10 μm excitation. The resonant nature of the excitation allows the rate equations description for transitions in the quasicontinuum and continuum to be extended to the discrete levels. Absorption cross sections are estimated from ordinary ir spectra. A set of cross sections which is constant or slowly decreasing with increasing vibrational excitation gives good fits to both absorption and dissociation yield data. The rate equations model was also used to quantitatively calculate the pressure dependence of the MPD yield of SF6 caused by vibrational self-quenching. Between 1000-3000 cm-1 of energy is removed from SF6 excited to approx. > 60 kcal/mole by collision with a cold SF6 molecule at gas kinetic rate. Calculation showed the fluence dependence of dissociation varies strongly with the gas pressure. Infrared multiphoton excitation was applied to study thermal unimolecular reactions. With SiF4 as absorbing gas for the CO2 laser pulse, transient high temperature pulses were generated in a gas mixture. IR fluorescence from the medium reflected the decay of the temperature. The activation energy and the preexponential factor of the reactant dissociation were obtained from a phenomenological model calculation. Results are presented in detail