WorldWideScience

Sample records for alpha continuous air

  1. Performance testing of Eberline Alpha 6 and Alpha 6A continuous air monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberline Alpha 6 and Alpha 6A continuous air monitors (CAMs) were tested against the performance criteria of the International Electrotechnical Commission standard 761-6, ''Equipment for Continuously Monitoring Radioactivity in Gaseous Effluents, Part 6: Specific Requirements for Transuranic Aerosol Effluent Monitors'', and against ANSI N42.17B, ''Performance Specification Health Physics Instrumentation--Occupational Airborne Radioactivity Monitoring Instrumentation''. The performance criteria require the CAM's response to a radioactive source to remain within a tolerance while the CAM is exposed to an external influence such as temperature, electromagnetic fields, or ionizing radiations. The CAMs complied within specified tolerances with a majority of the performance specifications. The most significant problems with CAM performance were noted during exposures to external nonionizing radiation fields (radio frequency fields). At numerous frequencies, the CAMs did not respond to radioactive material in the filter holder. At other frequencies and in some orientations, the CAMs overresponded by orders of magnitude. In addition to sensitivity to external nonionizing radiation fields, the CAMs exhibited sensitivity to electrostatic discharges

  2. Sensitivities of five alpha continuous air monitors for detection of airborne {sup 239}Pu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIsaac, C.V.; Amaro, C.R.

    1992-07-01

    Results of measurements of the sensitivities of five alpha continuous air monitors (CAMs) for detection of airborne {sup 239}Pu are presented. Four commercially available alpha CAMs (Kurz model 8311, Merlin Gerin Edgar, RADeCO model 452, and Victoreen model 758) and a prototype alpha CAM currently in use at Argonne National Laboratory- West (ANL-W) were tested sampling natural ambient air and laboratory-generated atmospheres laden with either blank dust or dust containing nCi/g concentrations of {sup 239}Pu. Cumulative alpha spectra were stored at 30 or 60 minute intervals during each sampling and were subsequently analyzed using three different commonly used alpha spectrum analysis algorithms. The effect of airborne dust concentration and sample filter porosity on detector resolution and sensitivity for airborne {sup 239}Pu are described.

  3. Sensitivities of five alpha continuous air monitors for detection of airborne sup 239 Pu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIsaac, C.V.; Amaro, C.R.

    1992-07-01

    Results of measurements of the sensitivities of five alpha continuous air monitors (CAMs) for detection of airborne {sup 239}Pu are presented. Four commercially available alpha CAMs (Kurz model 8311, Merlin Gerin Edgar, RADeCO model 452, and Victoreen model 758) and a prototype alpha CAM currently in use at Argonne National Laboratory- West (ANL-W) were tested sampling natural ambient air and laboratory-generated atmospheres laden with either blank dust or dust containing nCi/g concentrations of {sup 239}Pu. Cumulative alpha spectra were stored at 30 or 60 minute intervals during each sampling and were subsequently analyzed using three different commonly used alpha spectrum analysis algorithms. The effect of airborne dust concentration and sample filter porosity on detector resolution and sensitivity for airborne {sup 239}Pu are described.

  4. Sensitivities of five alpha continuous air monitors for detection of airborne 239Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of measurements of the sensitivities of five alpha continuous air monitors (CAMs) for detection of airborne 239Pu are presented. Four commercially available alpha CAMs (Kurz model 8311, Merlin Gerin Edgar, RADeCO model 452, and Victoreen model 758) and a prototype alpha CAM currently in use at Argonne National Laboratory- West (ANL-W) were tested sampling natural ambient air and laboratory-generated atmospheres laden with either blank dust or dust containing nCi/g concentrations of 239Pu. Cumulative alpha spectra were stored at 30 or 60 minute intervals during each sampling and were subsequently analyzed using three different commonly used alpha spectrum analysis algorithms. The effect of airborne dust concentration and sample filter porosity on detector resolution and sensitivity for airborne 239Pu are described

  5. The influence of salt aerosol on alpha radiation detection by WIPP continuous air monitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartlett, W.T.; Walker, B.A. [Environmental Evaluation Group, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) alpha continuous air monitor (CAM) performance was evaluated to determine if CAMs could detect accidental releases of transuranic radioactivity from the underground repository. Anomalous alpha spectra and poor background subtraction were observed and attributed to salt deposits on the CAM sampling filters. Microscopic examination of salt laden sampling filters revealed that aerosol particles were forming dendritic structures on the surface of the sampling filters. Alpha CAM detection efficiency decreased exponentially as salt deposits increased on the sampling filters, suggesting that sampling-filter salt was performing like a fibrous filter rather than a membrane filter. Aerosol particles appeared to penetrate the sampling-filter salt deposits and alpha particle energy was reduced. These findings indicate that alpha CAMs may not be able to detect acute releases of radioactivity, and consequently CAMs are not used as part of the WIPP dynamic confinement system. 12 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  6. A review of acceptance testing of the Los Alamos, Canberra Alpha Sentry Continuous Air Monitor (CAM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) undertook the design and development of a new generation of alpha continuous air monitor (CAM) instrumentation that would incorporate advanced technologies in the design of the sampling inlet, multi-channel analyzer (MCA) electronics, solid state alpha detectors, radon background interference suppression, background interference compensation and based on spectral analysis, and microcomputer based data communication, processing, storage, and retrieval. The ANSI air monitoring instrument standards (Performance Specifications for Health Physics Instrumentation -- Occupational Airborne Radioactivity Monitoring Instrumentation, N42.17B) specify performance criteria and testing procedures for instruments and instrument systems designed to continuously sample and quantify airborne radioactivity in the workplace. Although the intent of the standard is to provide performance testing criteria for type testing, it is appropriate to evaluate the performance of a new instrument such as the Alpha Sentry against certain of these criteria for purposes of an acceptance test based on stated specifications and the Los Alamos CAM Requirements document. This report provides an overview of the results of these tests, as they pertain to instruments designed to detect alpha-emitting radionuclides in particulate form

  7. Safety significant class determination of continuous air monitors at facilities handling alpha-emitting radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role and use of continuous air monitors typically fall under the responsibility of institutional radiation protection programs established to maintain stochastic effects to workers at acceptable levels. This practice has led to a general perception that acute serious worker injury is not credible even with high intakes of alpha-emitting radionuclides. Using data derived from animal studies, release masses potentially causing serious worker injury are estimated. Serious pulmonary injuries to unprotected individuals are credible from airborne alpha-emitting transuranic release levels ranging between 0.1 and 10 GBq (2.7 to 270 mCi). Safety-significant designation of continuous air monitor systems should be considered at facilities where releases of these magnitudes are possible. Such designations should enhance the formality of continuous air monitor usage and ultimately improve the reliability of these systems. Serious pulmonary injuries are not considered possible from airborne releases of 235U, 238U, and 232Th due to airborne mass-loading limitations

  8. The influence of salt aerosol on alpha radiation detection by WIPP continuous air monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpha continuous air monitors (CAMs) will be used at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to measure airborne transuranic radioactivity that might be present in air exhaust or in work-place areas. WIPP CAMs are important to health and safety because they are used to alert workers to airborne radioactivity, to actuate air-effluent filtration systems, and to detect airborne radioactivity so that the radioactivity can be confined in a limited area. In 1993, the Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) reported that CAM operational performance was affected by salt aerosol, and subsequently, the WIPP CAM design and usage were modified. In this report, operational data and current theories on aerosol collection were reviewed to determine CAM quantitative performance limitations. Since 1993, the overall CAM performance appears to have improved, but anomalous alpha spectra are present when sampling-filter salt deposits are at normal to high levels. This report shows that sampling-filter salt deposits directly affect radon-thoron daughter alpha spectra and overall monitor efficiency. Previously it was assumed that aerosol was mechanically collected on the surface of CAM sampling filters, but this review suggests that electrostatic and other particle collection mechanisms are more important than previously thought. The mechanism of sampling-filter particle collection is critical to measurement of acute releases of radioactivity. 41 refs

  9. Effect of prior dust collection on detection, counting efficiency, and energy resolution for alpha continuous air monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the past several years, we have supported the DOE Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) project by evaluating the capabilities and performance of the Eberline Alpha 6 continuous air monitor (CAM). This evalution has focused on the ability of the CAM to correctly report plutonium in the presence of salt dust. Tests involving the simultaneous collection of plutonium and salt have shown that burial by salt can degrade the detection of plutonium, but that this interference is negligible when salt concentrations are below about 0.2 mg/m3. Throughout the evalution, it has been assumed that salt burial is a concern for slow, chronic release of plutonium, but that any acute release of plutonium would be collected on the top surface of the filter or salt and would be unattenuated. The spectral quality of alpha radiation detection on membrane filters is observed to improve with filter loading. This is attributed to the probability that accumulations of dust tend to fill in surface irregularities of the collection filter at a a faster rate than they create additional surface irregularities. The validity of these assumptions about the improved detection of plutonium on salt-layer surfaces has recently been questioned. Based on electron micrographic examination of salt-laden filters, it has been speculated that collection of salt dust on a membrane filter results in formation of pores, fissures, and dendritic shapes of salt on the filter surface. If plutonium were collected, particles could penetrate into the pores and fissures, resulting in a degraded or lost signal from the plutonium. Because no experimental evidence existed to answer the concern, the purpose of the current study was to quantify any differences between detection of plutonium on clean or salt-laden filters

  10. \\alpha $ $^m $ Continuous Maps in Topological Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Mathew, Milby; Parimelazhagan, R.; S Jafari

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of the present paper is to introduce new classes of functions called $ \\alpha $ $^m $ continuous maps and $ \\alpha $ $^m $ irresolute maps. We obtain some characterizations of these classes and properties are studied.

  11. Concentration of Radon Progeny in Air by Alpha Spectrometry Measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration of radon progeny in air has been determined by alpha spectrometry measurement of 214 Po and 318 Po. A known volume of air was passed through a filter, then the alpha activity was directly measured on this filter. (Author) 15 refs

  12. Measurement of radon daughters in air samples by alpha spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration of radon progeny in air has been determined by alpha spectrometry measurement of polonium 214 and polonium 218. A known volume of air was passed through a filter, then the alpha activity was directly measured on this filter (Author)

  13. Instrument for measuring total alpha particle energies of alpha emitters in ambient air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronenberg, S.; Brucker, G.J.; Cummings, B.; Bechtel, E.; Gentner, F.; Horne, S

    2000-11-11

    This paper describes the design, fabrication, testing and evaluation of a self-reading, carbon fiber, electrometer-type instrument. It is used for measuring the total energy of alpha particles emitted in air by progenies of {sup 222}Rn ({sup 218}Po, {sup 214}Pb, and {sup 214}Bi), and sometimes by other types of alpha emitters (e.g. {sup 212}Pb, {sup 238}U, and {sup 239}Pu). The purpose of these measurements is to assess the energy delivered by alpha emission from these sources to the lung tissue. A sample (charged progenies attached to aerosols) is collected on filter paper from a known volume of air and placed on the instrument. The discharge rate indicates the alpha energy in MeV l{sup -1} of air per min that is produced by the alpha emitters. The calibration procedure shows that the instrument has an energy sensitivity for alpha particles of 800.5 MeV/scale unit. The range of the readout scale is 30 units. Measurements of alpha contamination in air were made using this instrument in buildings, private homes and in a standard chamber. The value of the radon concentration in this chamber is traceable back to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

  14. Direct analysis of air filter samples for alpha emitting isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The traditional method for determination of alpha emitting isotopes on air filters has been to process the samples by radiochemical methods. However, this method is too slow for cases of incidents involving radioactive materials where the determination of personnel received dose is urgent. A method is developed to directly analyze the air filters taken from personal and area air monitors. The site knowledge is used in combination with alpha spectral information to identify isotopes. A mathematical function is developed to estimate the activity for each isotope. The strengths and weaknesses of the method are discussed

  15. Comparison of continuous air monitor utilization: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, J.C.; Whicker, J.J.; Voss, J.T.

    1997-08-01

    The Chemical Metallurgy Research (CMR) building has been upgrading to different continuous air monitors (CAMs) over the past several years. During the transition, both the newer and older CAMs were positioned in the rooms for field testing and comparison. On December 19, 1996, an accidental release of plutonium aerosol occurred into a laboratory in the CMR building. The event occurred while the room was unoccupied, and no personnel were exposed from this incident. There were two fixed air samplers (FASs) and three CAMs operating in the room at the time the release occurred, including two of the recently installed Canberra Alpha Sentry CAMs and one older Eberline CAM. The apparent cause of the release was a procedure carried out in the basement involving the replacement of the HEPA filter in the ventilation exhaust of a slot-box in the laboratory. For a short period, the ventilation was disconnected from the slot-box in this room, but not from the chemical hood exhaust on the opposite side of the laboratory. Therefore, a condition was created where backflow could occur out of the slot-box and into the room. Eventually all three CAMs in the room alarmed, and the situation was successfully monitored and brought under control by health physics personnel. Data on CAM performance were logged, and Pu activity collected on CAM and FAS filters were measured. A comparison of the new and old continuous air monitoring programs was performed and many interesting lessons on CAM performance and CAM utilization were learned. Overall, this comparison showed the advantages of remote monitoring, timely spectral information, and concentration measurements resolved in time and space.

  16. A Novel Experiment to Investigate the Attenuation of Alpha Particles in Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, D. G. H.

    2008-01-01

    A simple student experiment investigating dependence on air pressure of the attenuation of alpha particles in air is described. An equation giving the pressure needed to absorb all alpha particles of a given energy is derived from the Bethe-Bloch formula. Results are presented for the attenuation of alpha particles from americium 241 and radium…

  17. Rapid monitoring of soil, water, and air dusts by direct large-area alpha spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sill, C W

    1995-07-01

    During retrieval and disposition of wastes containing transuranium elements, continuous monitoring of the air, water, and soil for alpha emitters was required to ensure that safety limits were not exceeded and that the waste itself was not disturbed unknowingly. Direct measurements by alpha spectrometry were particularly promising because of their potential speed, sensitivity, and their ability to identify transuranium radionuclides under field conditions. Soil samples or settled dusts were finely ground, suspended in 80% ethanol, sprayed onto circular stainless steel pans, and dried on a hotplate. Water samples were mounted directly by spraying. Air dusts were collected with a high-volume air sampler on 20- by 25-cm membrane filters. The samples were then analyzed directly in a large pressurized gridded ionization chamber without further sample preparation. The lower limits of detection for 10-min counting times were 1.5 Bq g-1 (40 pCi g-1) for 100-mg soil samples, and 4 x 10(-2) Bq m-3 (10(-12) microCi mL-1) for a 10-min air sample taken at 0.4 m3 min-1 (14 cubic feet per minute) and counted without waiting for decay of radon progeny. PMID:7790211

  18. Calculating alpha Eigenvalues in a Continuous-Energy Infinite Medium with Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betzler, Benjamin R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kiedrowski, Brian C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brown, Forrest B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martin, William R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-09-04

    The {alpha} eigenvalue has implications for time-dependent problems where the system is sub- or supercritical. We present methods and results from calculating the {alpha}-eigenvalue spectrum for a continuous-energy infinite medium with a simplified Monte Carlo transport code. We formulate the {alpha}-eigenvalue problem, detail the Monte Carlo code physics, and provide verification and results. We have a method for calculating the {alpha}-eigenvalue spectrum in a continuous-energy infinite-medium. The continuous-time Markov process described by the transition rate matrix provides a way of obtaining the {alpha}-eigenvalue spectrum and kinetic modes. These are useful for the approximation of the time dependence of the system.

  19. A novel experiment to investigate the attenuation of alpha particles in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple student experiment investigating dependence on air pressure of the attenuation of alpha particles in air is described. An equation giving the pressure needed to absorb all alpha particles of a given energy is derived from the Bethe-Bloch formula. Results are presented for the attenuation of alpha particles from americium 241 and radium 226. The experimental results are in close agreement with the theoretical predictions

  20. Early and continuing effects of combined alpha and beta irradiation of the lung:

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, B.R.; Hahn, F.F.; Snipes, M.B.; Newton, G.J.; Eidson, A.F.; Mauderly, J.L.; Boecker, B.B.

    1988-03-01

    This report summarizes an inhalation exposure experiment that concerns early and continuing effects of combined alpha and beta irradiation of the lung of rats. Both morbidity at 18 months and mortality within 18 months after exposure were examined for rats exposed to the beta-emitter /sup 147/Pm, the alpha-emitter /sup 238/Pu, or both combined. The results were used to validate hazard-function models that were developed (1)for pulmonary functional morbidity at 18 months and (2) for lethality from radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis within 18 months. Both models were found to adequately predict the experimental observations after combined chronic alpha and beta irradiation of the lung. A relative biological effectiveness of approximately 7 was obtained for /sup 238/Pu alpha radiation compared to /sup 147/Pm beta radiation for both pulmonary functional morbidity and lethality from radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis. 12 refs., 16 figs., 11 tabs.

  1. DOSEmanPRO - active electronic online personal air sampler for detection of radon progeny long lived alpha nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Using the micro system - technology we developed a online personal air sampler not bigger than a mobile phone, to open a new dimension in personal dosimetry of inhaled radioactive aerosols. The DOSEman PRO containing an internal pump with a continuous air flow of 0.15 I/min sample the radon progeny or other nuclides on a millipore filter with excellent spectroscopic resolution. A 1.5 cm2 light protected ion-implanted silicon detector analyses the alpha radiation at the filter. This small detector head contains also the pre amplification and pulse processing. The alpha radiation of the radon progeny and the long lived alpha nuclides is analyzed by a 60 channel spectrometer. The energy resolution of the online analyzed filter spectra is in the order of 150 keV. Mechanical and electronic design enables one to distinguish the long lived alpha nuclides from the radon and thoron progeny very easily. Using a special algorithm we correct the influence of the tailing of the radon progeny to the long lived alpha nuclides and take into consideration possible interference in determining the long lived alpha nuclides. Because of the air sampling volume of nearly 10 I/h, the system has a high efficiency. The detection limit by 2 hours sampling time is 0.05 Bq/m3 alpha nuclide concentration. In a modified device for air sampling especially of long-lived alpha nuclides like uranium, radium or plutonium, the flow rate is increased to 0,3 1/min e.g. during a 10 h sampling period we can detect 0.005 Bq/m3 in a low radon atmosphere. Assuming increased radon progeny concentration, the statistical error for the long lived alpha nuclides will be higher, but in most of the cases for use in nuclear facilities low radon concentrations are ambient conditions. This concept of an electronic personal air sampler with an alpha spectroscopy offers some outstanding advantages compared to passive dosimeters or off-line alpha air filters: The dose value and the nuclide concentration is

  2. Controlled-air incineration of alpha-bearing solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory is completing a study of controlled-air incineration (CAI) as a technique for volume reduction and stabilization of combustible transuranic-contaminated solid wastes. To demonstrate feasibility, a process has been assembled and operated on synthetic and contaminated combustibles. This paper summarizes the CAI project history, process design, provisions for radioactive operation, experimental results to date, and future plans. Achievements include operation at the design feed rate as well as combustion of separate feed compositions including cellulosics, polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and latex rubber. Refractory life has been satisfactory to date, with studies continuing. The offgas cleanup system has proven to be extremely effective; the final high-efficiency filters showing virtually no pressure drop increase. The ability of the system to process high concentrations of PVC has been demonstrated with no chloride-induced degradation detected. Chloride and sulfate removal from the offgas has been excellent with concentrations reaching 8 and 10 ppM maximum, respectively, in the process condensate

  3. Determination of human EEG alpha entrainment ERD/ERS using the continuous complex wavelet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorlian, David B.; Porjesz, Bernice; Begleiter, Henri

    2003-04-01

    Alpha entrainment caused by exposure to a background stimulus continuously flickering at a rate of 8 1/3 Hz was affected by the appearance of a foreground target stimulus to which the subjects were requested to press a button. With the use of bipolar derivations (to reduce volume conduction effects), scalp recorded EEG potentials were subjected to a continuous wavelet transform using complex Morlet wavelets at a range of scales. Complex Morlet wavelets were used to calculate efficiently instantaneous amplitudes and phases on a per-trial basis, rather than using the Hilbert transform on band-pass filtered data. Multiple scales were employed to contrast the pattern of alpha activity with those in other bands, and to determine whether the harmonics observed in the spectral analysis of the data were simply a result of the non-sinusoidal response to the entraining signal or a distinct neural phenomenon. We were thus able to calculate desynchronization/resynchronization for both the entrained and non-entrained alpha activity. The occurance of the target stimulus caused a sharp increase in amplitude in both the entrained and non-entrained alpha activity, followed by a sharp decrease, and then a return to baseline, over a period of 2.5 seconds. However, the entrained alpha activity showed a much more rapid recovery than non-entrained activity.

  4. Beta aerosols beacon, a truly portable continuous air monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Beta Aerosols Beacon (BAB) is a portable (57 lbs) continuous air monitor designed to detect airborne radiation. Utilizing solid state detectors has eliminated the use of lead shielding usually necessary for achieving accurate readings in high background areas, making the monitor lightweight as well as portable. The size of a small suitcase, it can be carried into confined work areas, eliminating the requirement for workers to wear respirators for many maintenance tasks. This paper describes the operation and applications of the BAB

  5. Total alpha and beta activity of air and fallout in Belgrade from 2006 to 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of radioactivity control of air and fallout in Belgrade from 2006 to 2008 are presented. The measurements were carried out by low-background proportional gas alpha beta counter PIC-WPC-9550. The system was calibrated with 241Am for total alpha and 90Sr for total beta activity measurements. Efficiency for α and β activity measurement was 31% and 46%, respectively. Monthly average values of the total alpha and beta activity in air varied between 0.003 and 0.053 mBq/m3 and between 0.02 and 0.40 mBq/m3, respectively. Monthly average of the total alpha and beta activity of fallout varied between 0.022 and 0.55 Bq/m2 and between 0.15 and 4.7 Bq/m2, respectively. (author)

  6. Selection of filter media in alpha air monitors for emergency environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed an alpha air monitor which is possible to measure rapidly and sensitively the concentrations of airborne alpha-emitting particles, such as plutonium, for the environmental monitoring at an accident of nuclear reprocessing plant. The monitor is designed to collect airborne alpha-emitting particles by drawing the ambient air through a filter and to detect the activity by alpha spectroscopy. In order to achieve high-sensitive measurements, selection of a suitable filter used in the monitor is considerably important. The most important requirement for the filter is that it has a high surface collection efficiency to obtain the sharpness of the alpha energy spectrum. This makes it easy to distinguish the alpha-ray peak of plutonium from the alpha spectrum of naturally occurring radon decay products in the environment. And the filter is also desired to have low resistance of the air flow so that particles can be collected at a high flowrate. We have made a comparison of the surface collection efficiency and pressure drop for the various filters. Types of the test filters, most of which are commercially available in Japan, were glass fiber, cellulose-glass fiber, membrane and so on. The surface collection efficiency has been evaluated by the following two indices. One was the sharpness of alpha-ray energy peaks of thoron decay products generated in a laboratory and collected in the fibers. The other was the background counts of radon decay products in a plutonium region by measuring alpha-ray energy spectrum of radon decay products collected in the filters by sampling of dust in the atmosphere. It was found that the PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) membrane filter with backing had a high surface collection efficiency and low pressure drop. The results of the test are described in detail in this paper. (author)

  7. Response of continuous air monitors in simulated conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Continuous air monitors (CAM) are widely used in nuclear industry for checking airborne activity in radioactive areas. Mathematical equations related to response of CAM's in assessing airborne activities are derived and presented in this paper. A case study is carried out for a model with necessary inputs. Assumed model is similar to areas in nuclear power plants. Graphical simulation results are used to analyze the conditions and its radiological significance. The response predictions can also be used to calculate alarm set points that correspond to appropriate limits on the concentration of airborne radioactivity in the sampled air. Equations can be modified further to find the response for different scenarios. Using these we can predict the escape rate of activity from the system even in minute levels. (author)

  8. Alternative concepts for design of air monitoring instruments: In-line and open face reference samplers and a new method of demonstrating alpha CAM performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past several years Los Alamos, Texas A ampersand M University and Canberra Instruments have been collaborating on the development of advanced continuous air monitoring and air sampling concepts and technology. We have successfully completed the design of an alpha CAM which embodies a number of innovations in the way radon progeny background interference is controlled and compensated, and in the way data processing, alarm generation, and data communication are handled

  9. The influence of nitrogen sources on the alpha-amylase productivity of Aspergillus oryzae in continuous cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik; Nielsen, Jens

    2000-01-01

    The influence of the nitrogen source on the cc-amylase productivity of Aspergillus oryzae was quantified in continuous cultivations. Both inorganic and complex nitrogen sources were investigated and glucose was used as the carbon and energy sources. For production of alpha-amylase, nitrate was...... cc-amylase productivity. The higher alpha-amylase productivity during growth on casein hydrolysate was not caused by increased transcription of the alpha-amylase genes but was caused by a faster secretion of alpha-amylase or by a lower binding of alpha-amylase to the biomass....

  10. Continuous measurement of gaseous pollutants in Buenos Aires city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogo, Horacio; Martín Negri, R.; San Román, Enrique

    Data on CO, NO, NO 2 and O 3 concentrations measured in Buenos Aires city using a continuous monitoring station are reported. This is the first systematic study of this kind carried out in the city, which is, together with its surroundings, the third more populated in Latin America. Measurements were performed during 12 months in one of the principal avenues near downtown. Results indicate that vehicular traffic is the principal source of CO and NO x. The concentration of O 3 is generally quite low and results from the mixing of clean air masses with exhaust gases containing high amounts of NO. The monthly averages of CO and NO decrease from Winter to Summer in correlation with the increase of the mean wind speed and average temperature. These results are compared with previous measurements on the spatial distribution of NO 2 in the whole city using passive diffusion tubes and with the concentration of CO, which is being continuously registered since several years in the downtown area. Measurements performed at a green, windy, low traffic area beneath the La Plata river are also shown.

  11. Measurement of gross alpha and beta in air filter samples by using liquid scintillation counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The determination of gross alpha and gross beta in particulate air filter samples was carried out by alpha, beta discrimination method using Liquid Scintillation Analyzer by setting the PSA value at 55 for 5 ml 0.1 HCl plus 15 ml of Ultima Gold AB cocktail by using 241Am and 90Sr/90Y sources. The standardized method was compared with the gross alpha and gross beta activity determined by conventional method of direct counting with end window G.M. counter and ZnS (Ag). The minimum detectable activity of LSA method was found to be 9.3 mBq and 17.7 mBq for gross alpha and gross beta respectively for 6000 sec compared to the conventional method of 9.8 mBq and 189 mBq respectively at the same counting time. The result of analysis by both method indicate that the alpha, beta discrimination set up of LSA method is highly effective in the determination of low level alpha, beta activity in air filter samples. (author)

  12. Concentration of Radon Progeny in Air by Alpha Spectrometry Measurement; Medida de los descendientes del radon en aire por Espectrometria Alfa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acena, M. L.; Crespo, M. T.

    1989-07-01

    The concentration of radon progeny in air has been determined by alpha spectrometry measurement of 214 Po and 318 Po. A known volume of air was passed through a filter, then the alpha activity was directly measured on this filter. (Author) 15 refs.

  13. The influence of nitrogen sources on the alpha-amylase productivity of Aspergillus oryzae in continuous cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, H; Nielsen, J

    2000-03-01

    The influence of the nitrogen source on the alpha-amylase productivity of Aspergillus oryzae was quantified in continuous cultivations. Both inorganic and complex nitrogen sources were investigated and glucose was used as the carbon and energy sources. For production of alpha-amylase, nitrate was shown to be inferior to ammonia as a nitrogen source. A mixture of ammonia and complex nitrogen sources, such as yeast extract or casein hydrolysate, was better than with ammonia as the sole nitrogen source. Even a low concentration of casein hydrolysate (0.05 g l(-1)) resulted in a 35% increase in the alpha-amylase productivity. The higher alpha-amylase productivity during growth on casein hydrolysate was not caused by increased transcription of the alpha-amylase genes but was caused by a faster secretion of alpha-amylase or by a lower binding of alpha-amylase to the biomass. PMID:10772466

  14. Continuous data assimilation for the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes-$\\alpha$

    CERN Document Server

    Albanez, Débora A F; Titi, Edriss S

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by the presence of a finite number of determining parameters (degrees of freedom) such as modes, nodes and local spatial averages for dissipative dynamical systems, we present a continuous data assimilation algorithm for the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes-$\\alpha$ model. This algorithm consists of introducing a nudging process through general type of approximation interpolation operator (that is constructed from observational measurements) that synchronizes the large spatial scales of the approximate solutions with those of the unknown solutions the Navier-Stokes-$\\alpha$ equations that corresponds to these measurements. Our main result provides conditions on the finite-dimensional spatial resolution of the collected data, sufficient to guarantee that the approximating solution, that is obtained from these collected data, converges to the unkown reference solution (physical reality) over time. These conditions are given in terms of some physical parameters, such as kinematic viscosity, the size of ...

  15. Evidence of a continuous trap distribution in the alpha-alumina D' peaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dosimetric peak D' of thermoluminescence emitted from alpha-alumina (α-Al2O3) is numerically analysed with a model in which electron traps are continuously distributed. The model of a single and different trapping level was compared in describing the TL glow curve D'. The model in which electron traps are presented with two continuously distributed electron traps give the best fit trap parameters: (1) the gap between trapping levels ΔE and the characteristic depth of the trap distribution E; (2) the rates of recombinationγ, retrapping β and detrapping of the released electronα. The procedure of the TL analysis using a Gaussian distribution is also reported in detail. (author)

  16. Gross Alpha Beta Radioactivity in Air Filters Measured by Ultra Low Level α/β Counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cfarku, Florinda; Bylyku, Elida; Deda, Antoneta; Dhoqina, Polikron; Bakiu, Erjona; Perpunja, Flamur

    2010-01-01

    Study of radioactivity in air as very important for life is done regularly using different methods in every country. As a result of nuclear reactors, atomic centrals, institutions and laboratories, which use the radioactivity substances in open or closed sources, there are a lot radioactive wastes. Mixing of these wastes after treatment with rivers and lakes waters makes very important control of radioactivity. At the other side nuclear and radiological accidents are another source of the contamination of air and water. Due to their radio toxicity, especially those of Sr90, Pu239, etc. a contamination hazard for human begins exist even at low concentration levels. Measurements of radioactivity in air have been performed in many parts of the world mostly for assessment of the doses and risk resulting from consuming air. In this study we present the results of international comparison organized by IAEA Vienna, Austria for the air filters spiked with unknown Alpha and Beta Activity. For the calibration of system we used the same filters spiked: a) with Pu-239 as alpha source; b) Sr-90 as beta source and also the blank filter. The measurements of air filter samples after calibration of the system are done with Ultra Low Level α/β Counter (MPC 9604) Protean Instrument Corporation. The high sensitivity of the system for the determination of the Gross Alpha and Beta activity makes sure detection of low values activity of air filters. Our laboratory results are: Aα = (0.19±0.01) Bq/filter and Aα (IAEA) = (0.17±0.009) Bq/filter; Aβ = (0.33±0.009) Bq/filter and Aβ (IAEA) = (0.29±0.01) Bq/filter. As it seems our results are in good agreement with reference values given by IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency).

  17. Rapid monitoring of soil, smears, and air dusts by direct large-area alpha spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental conditions to permit rapid monitoring of soils, smears, and air dusts for transuranic (TRU) radionuclides under field conditions are described. The monitoring technique involves direct measurement of alpha emitters by alpha spectrometry using a large-area detector to identify and quantify the radionuclides present. The direct alpha spectrometry employs a circular gridded ionization chamber 35 cm in diameter which accommodates either a circular sample holder 25 cm in diameter or a rectangular one 20 by 25 cm (8 by 10 in.). Soils or settled dusts are finely ground, suspended in 30% ethanol, and sprayed onto a 25-cm stainless steel dish. Air dusts are collected with a high-volume sampler onto 20- by 25-cm membrane filters. Removable contamination is collected from surfaces onto a 20- by 25-cm filter using an 18-cm (7-in.) paint roller to hold the large filter in contact with the surface during sample collection. All three types of samples are then counted directly in the alpha spectrometer and no other sample preparation is necessary. Some results obtained are described

  18. Characteristics of continuous cooling transformation in [alpha]+[beta] titanium alloys. [alpha]+[beta] gata gokin no hentai soshikii keisei model to netsukan ensei teika gensho no kaimei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, H. (Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1994-06-01

    When [alpha]+[beta] titanium alloys are subject to a [beta] process, i.e. the alloys are heated to the [beta] region; the temperature is maintained; and then the alloy are cooled, they present several transformation microstructures depending on cooling speeds. In this study, the cooling speed from the [beta] region was varied to examine the effect of cooling speed on the formation of microstructures. This effect is now undergoing continued examination. In this study, using Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6Al-6V-2Sn alloys, the diffusion transformation was especially examined and the following results were obtained: the diffusion transformation develops by generation of side-plate [alpha]-phase instead of growth of grain boundary [alpha]-phase. For such the structural behavior, based on the assumption that vanadium which concentrates near the grain boundary [alpha]-phase in early stages of the transformation plays an important role, a model of formation mechanism of Widmanstatten microstructure is developed. The ductility loss of the Widmanstatten microstructure in the specified [alpha]+[beta] temperature range can be explained by the model which presents the solution that the loss is a result of generation of the special microstructure region containing the soft [beta]-phase at higher percentage along the grain boundary [alpha]-phase. 21 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Comparison of Ambient Radon Concentrations in Air in the Northern Mojave Desert from Continuous and Integrating Instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of a program to characterize and baseline environmental parameters, ambient radon-222 (Rn) monitoring was conducted in the rural community of Amargosa Valley, NV, the closest community to Yucca Mountain. Passive integrating and continuous Rn monitoring instruments were deployed adjacent to the Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) station in Amargosa Valley. The CEMP station provided real-time ambient gamma exposure and meteorological data used to correct the integrated Rn measurements, verified the meteorological data collected by the continuous Rn monitoring instrument, and for provided instrumentation for evaluating the relationships between meteorological conditions and Rn concentrations. Hourly Rn concentrations in air measured by the continuous Rn monitoring instrument (AlphaGUARD(regsign)) were compared to the average hourly values for the integrating Rn measurements (E-PERM(regsign)) by dividing the total Rn measurements by the number of hours the instruments were deployed. The results of the comparison indicated that average hourly ambient Rn concentrations as measured by both methods ranged from 0.2 to 0.4 pico-curies per liter of air. Ambient Rn values for the AlphaGUARD exhibited diurnal variations. When Rn concentrations were compared with measurements of temperature (T), barometric pressure, and relative humidity, the correlation (inversely) was highest with T, albeit weakly.

  20. Alpha image reconstruction (AIR): A new iterative CT image reconstruction approach using voxel-wise alpha blending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Iterative image reconstruction gains more and more interest in clinical routine, as it promises to reduce image noise (and thereby patient dose), to reduce artifacts, or to improve spatial resolution. Among vendors and researchers, however, there is no consensus of how to best achieve these aims. The general approach is to incorporatea priori knowledge into iterative image reconstruction, for example, by adding additional constraints to the cost function, which penalize variations between neighboring voxels. However, this approach to regularization in general poses a resolution noise trade-off because the stronger the regularization, and thus the noise reduction, the stronger the loss of spatial resolution and thus loss of anatomical detail. The authors propose a method which tries to improve this trade-off. The proposed reconstruction algorithm is called alpha image reconstruction (AIR). One starts with generating basis images, which emphasize certain desired image properties, like high resolution or low noise. The AIR algorithm reconstructs voxel-specific weighting coefficients that are applied to combine the basis images. By combining the desired properties of each basis image, one can generate an image with lower noise and maintained high contrast resolution thus improving the resolution noise trade-off. Methods: All simulations and reconstructions are performed in native fan-beam geometry. A water phantom with resolution bar patterns and low contrast disks is simulated. A filtered backprojection (FBP) reconstruction with a Ram-Lak kernel is used as a reference reconstruction. The results of AIR are compared against the FBP results and against a penalized weighted least squares reconstruction which uses total variation as regularization. The simulations are based on the geometry of the Siemens Somatom Definition Flash scanner. To quantitatively assess image quality, the authors analyze line profiles through resolution patterns to define a contrast

  1. Alpha radionuclides in ground-level air at a height of 20 m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of α-particle concentrations in air 20 m above ground-level at Thessaloniki in Greece were made during May 1986 and from January 1990 through December 1992. The α-radionuclide concentrations of ambient air, mainly due to radon and thoron progeny (i.e. the radioisotopes 218+214+210Po and 216+212Po) ranged between 4.2 and 9.7 Bq m-3 (average 6.4 Bq m-3) during May 1986 and between 2.2 and 11.5 Bq m-3 (average 5.3 Bq m-3 in 1990, 5.6 Bq m-3 in 1991 and 5.7 Bq m-3 in 1992) from January to December 1992. Seasonal variations in the α-radionuclide concentrations were attributed to seasonal variations of radon and thoron progeny in air which showed high concentrations in the fall and winter periods and extremely low concentrations during the spring and summer periods. Alpha particles from the rare earths, due to Chernobyl fallout, did not noticeably contribute to α-particle radionuclide concentrations in the air. An unusually highly elevated value of the α-radionuclide concentrations in the air, reaching 11.5 Bq m-3, was observed on 2 October 1990, following a dry (precipitation-free) period. (author)

  2. Induction and repression of alpha-amylase production in batch and continuous cultures of Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mørkeberg, R; Carlsen, M; Nielsen, J

    1995-10-01

    The intra- and extracellular concentrations of alpha-amylase in Aspergillus oryzae have been measured during batch culture of a wild-type strain and two recombinant strains. The mean intracellular level for the two recombinant strains was about four to five times the level of the wild-type strain. The recombinant strains also had a higher alpha-amylase productivity, whereas the residence time of the intracellular alpha-amylase pool was approximately the same for the three strains. At high glucose concentrations there was a low constitutive synthesis of alpha-amylase, whereas at low glucose concentrations derepression resulted in an increased production rate. Shifts from a glucose- to a maltose-limited chemostat showed that maltose induces both the production and secretion of alpha-amylase. Finally, from immunoblots, both a glycosylated and an unglycosylated alpha-amylase have been detected. PMID:7582005

  3. Hydrogen Alpha Self-Absorption Effects in Laser-Induced Air Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Time-resolved spectroscopy measurements of the hydrogen alpha Balmer series line following laser-induced optical breakdown in laboratory air are designed to investigate in detail the determination of electron density from Stark-broadened spectral line shapes. Comparisons of results obtained from Hβ and Hγ lines indicate higher electron density inferred from Hα early in the plasma decay, suggesting self-absorption occurs. However, detailed comparisons for time delays of 300 and 400 ns after optical breakdown reveal the minute extent of self-absorption in air breakdown experiments from (i) differences of electron density determined from the N+ lines and the Hα line, and/or from (ii) differences in recorded data sets with/without the mirror for the various time delays in the experiments

  4. The influence of nitrogen sources on the alpha-amylase productivity of Aspergillus oryzae in continuous cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik; Nielsen, Jens

    2000-01-01

    The influence of the nitrogen source on the cc-amylase productivity of Aspergillus oryzae was quantified in continuous cultivations. Both inorganic and complex nitrogen sources were investigated and glucose was used as the carbon and energy sources. For production of alpha-amylase, nitrate was...

  5. The measurement of thoron (220Rn) concentration in indoor air continuously using pylon model WLx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration of thoron (220Rn) in particular location can be higher than radon (220Rn), however, its presence is always neglected. This might be due to the difficulties in calibration and discrimination between radon and thoron. From biokinetic and dosimetric model, it has been known that the dominant contribution of thoron to the effective dose is in the lungs. UNSCEAR estimates the doses contribution of thoron and its progenies is between 5-10% of the annual dose received by the general public and the risk level is 4.4 times greater than radon and progenies. Therefore, it is necessary to study the thoron concentration in indoor air and workplaces. Radon-thoron concentration in indoor air can be determined by direct methods using Pylon Model WLx device and passive methods using Solid State Nuclear Track Detector (SSNTDs). In this research the measurement of thoron was carried out continuously using Pylon Model WLx equipment that is sensitive to radon for 24, 65, 72, 116 and 154 hours in different rooms. The measurement result showed that the mean value of thoron working level (WL) concentration obtained in room-1 was 2.53 ± 0.67 Bq/m3 with maximum and minimum of thoron concentrations were 3.37 and 2.22 Bq/m3 respectively. From the measurement in different locations, it was obtained that the largest and smallest average concentrations of thoron progenies were 0.83 ± 0.23 Bq/m3 and 0.29 ± 0.64 Bq/m3, while the maximum and minimum concentration values were 7.80 Bq/m3 and 0.01 Bq/m3 respectively. Pylon Model WLx device is not enables to be used for longer and large scale survey area concurrently, so the SSNTDs which is sensitive to the emission of alpha particles and can measure cumulative thoron concentrations is required. (author)

  6. Electroremediation of air pollution control residues in a continuous reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ferreira, Célia M. D.; Hansen, Henrik K.;

    2010-01-01

    Air pollution control (APC) residue from municipal solid waste incineration is considered hazardous waste due to its alkalinity and high content of salts and mobile heavy metals. Various solutions for the handling of APC-residue exist, however most commercial solutions involve landfilling. A demand...... were made with raw residue, water-washed residue, acid washed residue and acid-treated residue with emphasis on reduction of heavy metal mobility. Main results indicate that the reactor successfully removes toxic elements lead, copper, cadmium and zinc from the feed stream, suggesting...

  7. Treatment of solid waste highly contaminated by alpha emitters: recent developments of leaching process with continuous electrolyte regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of processes for leaching solid waste contaminated by alpha or alpha/beta/gamma emitters has been pursued at the Nuclear Research Center in Fontenay-aux-Roses, France with the recent active commissioning of two pilot facilities: the Elise glove box system in February 1987 and the Prolixe shielded hot cell in March 1988. The Elise facility is designed to handle alpha waste and the Prolixe facility is designed to handle alpha/beta/gamma waste. The common goal of the studies conducted in these facilities is to define the operating conditions for declassification of solid waste, i.e. to ensure that the alpha concentration of this waste will be less than 3.7 x 106 Bq/kg after treatment, packaging and decay prior to storage in surface repositories. The leaching process developed is mainly based on the continuous electrolytic regeneration of an aggressive agent, AgII, which can induce the dissolution of PuO2, the most difficult compound to remove from the solid waste. This paper summarizes recent achievements in the development of this process

  8. Field estimates of polyurethane foam - air partition coefficients for hexachlorobenzene, alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane and bromoanisoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidleman, Terry F; Nygren, Olle; Tysklind, Mats

    2016-09-01

    Partition coefficients of gaseous semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) between polyurethane foam (PUF) and air (KPA) are needed in the estimation of sampling rates for PUF disk passive air samplers. We determined KPA in field experiments by conducting long-term (24-48 h) air sampling to saturate PUF traps and shorter runs (2-4 h) to measure air concentrations. Sampling events were done at daily mean temperatures ranging from 1.9 to 17.5 °C. Target compounds were hexachlorobenzene (HCB), alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH), 2,4-dibromoanisole (2,4-DiBA) and 2,4,6-tribromoanisole (2,4,6-TriBA). KPA (mL g(-1)) was calculated from quantities on the PUF traps at saturation (ng g(-1)) divided by air concentrations (ng mL(-1)). Enthalpies of PUF-to-air transfer (ΔHPA, kJ mol(-1)) were determined from the slopes of log KPA/mL g(-1) versus 1/T(K) for HCB and the bromoanisoles, KPA of α-HCH was measured only at 14.3 to 17.5 °C and ΔHPA was not determined. Experimental log KPA/mL g(-1) at 15 °C were HCB = 7.37; α-HCH = 8.08; 2,4-DiBA = 7.26 and 2,4,6-TriBA = 7.26. Experimental log KPA/mL g(-1) were compared with predictions based on an octanol-air partition coefficient (log KOA) model (Shoeib and Harner, 2002a) and a polyparameter linear free relationship (pp-LFER) model (Kamprad and Goss, 2007) using different sets of solute parameters. Predicted KP values varied by factors of 3 to over 30, depending on the compound and the model. Such discrepancies provide incentive for experimental measurements of KPA for other SVOCs. PMID:27285381

  9. Continuous Lyman-alpha generation by four-wave mixing in mercury for laser-cooling of antihydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Kolbe, D; Diehl, T; Koglbauer, A; Müllers, A; Scheid, M; Stappel, M; Steinborn, R; Walz, J

    2010-01-01

    Cooling antihydrogen atoms is important for future experiments both to test the fundamental CPT symmetry by high-resolution laser spectroscopy and also to measure the gravitational acceleration of antimatter. Laser-cooling of antihydrogen can be done on the strong 1S-2P transition at the wavelength of Lyman-alpha (121.6nm). A continuous-wave laser at the Lyman-alpha wavelength based on solid-state fundamental lasers is described. By using a two-photon and a near one photon resonance a scan across the whole phasematching curve of the four-wave mixing process is possible. Furthermore the influence of the beam profile of one fundamental beam on the four-wave mixing process is studied.

  10. Monitoring of gross alpha in the air and exposure gamma radiation on and around the coal fire power at Paiton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal is burned in furnace operating at up to 1,700 oC in order to produce electrical energy and ash (bottom ash and fly-ash). The fly-ash is released to the atmosphere or environment around the coal fire power. Therefore, the environmental radioactivity monitoring should be carried out for gross alpha in the air and exposure gamma radiation. The measurement of gross alpha have been carried out using the alpha scintillation counter with the ZnS(Ag) detector, and measurement of gamma radiation using the high pressure ion chamber. The results obtained showed that the gross alpha in the air were the ranging from (7.1 ± 1,2) mBq m-3 to (12.2 ± 1.9) mBq m-3 and the exposure gamma radiation were (3.69 ± 0.11) μR/h to (9.55 ± 0.15) μR/h. The data were still lower than the limit of the maximum permissible concentration and annual intake for breathing but the gross alpha data were higher than in the nuclear installations. (authors)

  11. Performance estimation of artificially roughened solar air heater duct provided with continuous ribs

    OpenAIRE

    Mridul Sharma, Varun

    2010-01-01

    The use of an artificial roughness on a surface is an effective technique to enhance the rate of heat transfer to fluid flow in the duct of a solar air heater. This paper presents a comparison of exergetic performance of solar air heaters having different types of geometry of roughness elements (continuous ribs) on the absorber plate. The exergy efficiency has been computed by using the correlations for heat transfer and friction factor developed by various investigators within the investigat...

  12. Investigations of Techniques to Improve Continuous Air Monitors Under Conditions of High Dust Loading in Environmental Settings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of DOE facilities, such as the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), use alpha-particle environmental continuous air monitors (ECAMs) to monitor air for unwanted releases of radioactive aerosols containing such materials as plutonium and uranium. High sensitivity, ease of operation, and lack of false alarms are all important for ECAMs. The object of the project was to conduct investigations to improve operation of ECAMs, particularly under conditions where a lot of nonradioactive dust may be deposited on the filters (conditions of high dust loading). The presence of such dust may increase the frequency with which filters must be changed and can lead to an increased incidence of false alarms due to deteriorated energy resolution and response specificity to the radionuclides of interest. A major finding of the investigation, not previously documented, was that under many conditions thick layers of underlying nonradioactive dust do not decrease energy resolution and specificity for target radionuclides if the radioactive aerosol arrives as a sudden thin burst deposit, as commonly occurs in the early-warning alarm mode. As a result, operators of ECAMs may not need to change filters as often as previously thought and have data upon which to base more reliable operating procedures

  13. TNF-alpha antagonism and cancer risk in rheumatoid arthritis: is continued vigilance warranted?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyon Ju; Ranganathan, Prabha

    2012-03-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, systemic inflammatory arthritis that can lead to significant damage and dysfunction of involved joints. Prior to 1998, treatment options were limited to disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, commonly referred to as DMARDs like methotrexate, sulfasalazine, hydroxychloroquine, and gold salts. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is a central cytokine that drives the inflammation in RA; hence inhibition of TNF-α offers an attractive treatment strategy in RA. The introduction of TNF-α inhibitors, a class of biologic DMARDs, has dramatically changed the treatment of RA as these are highly effective therapies. Medication-related adverse events remain a major problem in health care. This is true of the TNF-α antagonists as well, with particular concerns about increased risks of infections and malignancy. Because clinical trials performed prior to medication approval are limited by the number and clinical complexity of participants and the duration of the trials, post-marketing surveillance is critical in identifying adverse events. In order to better clarify the safety issues related to the use of TNF-α inhibitors in RA, several studies using large observational registries along with pooled meta-analyses of these studies have been published. This review will summarize the data from these recent studies on the question of malignancy risk associated with TNF-α inhibitor use in RA. It is comforting that the data from these studies do not support an increased risk of cancer, except non-melanoma skin cancer, with the use of TNF-α antagonists in adults with RA. PMID:22463799

  14. Continuous heating of an air-source heat pump during defrosting and improvement of energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The newly designed dual hot gas spray defrosting method was examined. • Uninterrupted heating of an air source heat pump during defrosting. • We compared newly designed dual hot gas and traditional reverse cycle defrost. • Total energy efficiency was increased by 8% compared to traditional method. - Abstract: During winter operation, an air-source heat pump extracts heat from the cold outside air and releases the heat into the living space. At certain outside air conditions, when it operates in heating mode, frost can form on the air-cooled heat exchanger, decreasing the heating performance. Conventionally, reverse-cycle defrosting (RCD) has been the common method of frost removal. But this method requires the interruption of heating during defrosting, as well as a period of time to reheat the cooled pipes of the indoor units after defrosting. In this study, a new technology called continuous heating was developed, which utilize only a hot gas bypass valve to remove the frost from the outdoor heat exchanger and thus enabling the supply of hot air to indoors without any interruption. For this, a new high temperature and low pressure gas bypass method was designed, which is differentiated from the common high pressure hot gas bypass methods by its use of low pressure. Various refrigerant mass flow distributions were examined, and the most effective defrosting mass flow was 50% in this case. Heating capacity was increased by 17% because of continuous heating, and the cumulated energy efficiency was increased by 8% compared to the traditional reverse cycle defrosting over 4 h including two defrost operations. Also, cumulated energy efficiency was increased by 27% compared to electronic heaters that supply the same heating capacity during defrosting. By this new technology, it has been proved that continuous heating and energy savings could be achieved without adopting expensive technologies

  15. Operational Limitations for Demolition of a Highly Alpha-Contaminated Building ? Modeled Versus Measured Air and Surface Activity Concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The demolition of a facility historically used for processing and handling transuranic materials is considered. Residual alpha-emitting radionuclide contamination poses an exposure hazard if released to the local environment during the demolition. The process of planning for the demolition of this highly alpha-contaminated building, 232-Z, included a pre-demolition modeling analysis of potential exposures. Estimated emission rates were used as input to an air dispersion model to estimate frequencies of occurrence of peak air and surface exposures. Post-demolition modeling was also conducted based on the actual demolition schedule and conditions. The modeling results indicated that downwind deposition is the main operational limitation for demolition of a highly alpha-contaminated building. During the demolition of the 232-Z, airborne radiation and surface contamination were monitored. The resultant non-detect monitoring results indicate a significant level of conservatism in the modeled results. This comparison supports the use of more realistic assumption in the estimation of emission rates. The resultant reduction in modeled levels of potential exposures has significant implications in terms of the projected costs of demolition of such structures

  16. OPERATIONAL LIMITATIONS FOR DEMOLITION OF A HIGHLY ALPHA-CONTAMINATED BUILDING- MODELED VERSUS MEASURED AIR and SURFACE ACTIVITY CONCENTRATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The demolition of a facility historically used for processing and handling transuranic materials is considered. Residual alpha emitting radionuclide contamination poses an exposure hazard if released to the local environment during the demolition. The process of planning for the demolition of this highly alpha contaminated building, 232-Z, included a predemolition modeling analysis of potential exposures. Estimated emission rates were used as input to an air dispersion model to estimate frequencies of occurrence of peak air and surface exposures. Postdemolition modeling was also conducted, based on the actual demolition schedule and conditions. The modeling results indicated that downwind deposition is the main operational limitation for demolition of a highly alpha-contaminated building. During the demolition of 232-Z, airborne radiation and surface contamination were monitored. The resultant non-detect monitoring results indicate a significant level of conservatism in the modeled results. This comparison supports the use of more realistic assumption in the estimating emission rates. The resultant reduction in modeled levels of potential exposures has significant implications in terms of the projected costs of demolition of such structures

  17. Performance estimation of artificially roughened solar air heater duct provided with continuous ribs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mridul Sharma, Varun

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of an artificial roughness on a surface is an effective technique to enhance the rate of heat transfer to fluid flow in the duct of a solar air heater. This paper presents a comparison of exergetic performance of solar air heaters having different types of geometry of roughness elements (continuous ribs on the absorber plate. The exergy efficiency has been computed by using the correlations for heat transfer and friction factor developed by various investigators within the investigated range of operating and system parameters. The exergy efficiency based criterion shows the better results at lower value of Re. There is not a single roughness geometry which gives best exergetic performance for whole range of Reynolds number. Solar air heater having rib-grooved and arc shaped wire as artificial roughness is found to have better exergy efficiency in the lower range of Reynolds number. However, smooth duct is found suitable in the higher range of Reynolds number.

  18. Bayesian model for strategic level risk assessment in continuing airthworthiness of air transport

    OpenAIRE

    Jayakody-Arachchige, Dhanapala

    2010-01-01

    Continuing airworthiness (CAW) of aircraft is an essential pre-requisite for the safe operation of air transport. Human errors that occur in CAW organizations and processes could undermine the airworthiness and constitute a risk to flight safety. This thesis reports on a generic Bayesian model that has been designed to assess and quantify this risk. The model removes the vagueness inherent in the subjective methods of assessment of risk and its qualitative expression. Instead, relying on a...

  19. Continuous multichannel monitoring of cave air carbon dioxide using a pumped non-dispersive infrared analyser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattey, D.

    2012-04-01

    The concentration of CO2 in cave air is one of the main controls on the rate of degassing of dripwater and on the kinetics of calcite precipitation forming speleothem deposits. Measurements of cave air CO2reveal great complexity in the spatial distribution among interconnected cave chambers and temporal changes on synoptic to seasonal time scales. The rock of Gibraltar hosts a large number of caves distributed over a 300 meter range in altitude and monthly sampling and analysis of air and water combined with continuous logging of temperature, humidity and drip discharge rates since 2004 reveals the importance of density-driven seasonal ventilation which drives large-scale advection of CO2-rich air though the cave systems. Since 2008 we have deployed automatic CO2 monitoring systems that regularly sample cave air from up to 8 locations distributed laterally and vertically in St Michaels Cave located near the top of the rock at 275m asl and Ragged Staff Cave located in the heart of the rock near sea level. The logging system is controlled by a Campbell Scientific CR1000 programmable datalogger which controls an 8 port manifold connected to sampling lines leading to different parts of the cave over a distance of up to 250 meters. The manifold is pumped at a rate of 5l per minute drawing air through 6mm or 8mm id polythene tubing via a 1m Nafion loop to reduce humidity to local ambient conditions. The outlet of the primary pump leads to an open split which is sampled by a second low flow pump which delivers air at 100ml/minute to a Licor 820 CO2 analyser. The software selects the port to be sampled, flushes the line for 2 minutes and CO2 analysed as a set of 5 measurements averaged over 10 second intervals. The system then switches to the next port and when complete shuts down to conserve power after using 20 watts over a 30 minute period of analysis. In the absence of local mains power (eg from the show cave lighting system) two 12v car batteries will power the system

  20. Influence of the 6^1S_0-6^3P_1 Resonance on Continuous Lyman-alpha Generation in Mercury

    CERN Document Server

    Kolbe, Daniel; Walz, Jochen

    2012-01-01

    Continuous coherent radiation in the vacuum-ultraviolet at 122 nm (Lyman-alpha) can be generated using sum-frequency mixing of three fundamental laser beams in mercury vapour. One of the fundamental beams is at 254 nm wavelength, which is close to the 6^1S_0-6^3P_1 resonance in mercury. Experiments have been performed to investigate the effect of this one-photon resonance on phasematching, absorption and the nonlinear yield. The efficiency of continuous Lyman-alpha generation has been improved by a factor of 4.5.

  1. Measurement of air exchange rates in different indoor environments using continuous CO2 sensors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan YOU; Can Niu; Jian Zhou; Yating Liu; Zhipeng Bai; Jiefeng Zhang; Fei He; Nan Zhang

    2012-01-01

    A new air exchange rate (AER) monitoring method using continuous CO2 sensors was developed and validated through both laboratory experiments and field studies.Controlled laboratory simulation tests were conducted in a 1-m3 environmental chamber at different AERs (0.1-10.0 hr-1).AERs were determined using the decay method based on box model assumptions.Field tests were conducted in classrooms,dormitories,meeting rooms and apartments during 2-5 weekdays using CO2 sensors coupled with data loggers.Indoor temperature,relative humidity (RH),and CO2 concentrations were continuously monitored while outdoor parameters combined with on-site climate conditions were recorded.Statistical results indicated that good laboratory performance was achieved:duplicate precision was within 10%,and the measured AERs were 90%-120% of the real AERs.Average AERs were 1.22,1.37,1.10,1.91 and 0.73 hr-1 in dormitories,air-conditioned classrooms,classrooms with an air circulation cooling system,reading rooms,and meeting rooms,respectively.In an elderly particulate matter exposure study,all the homes had AER values ranging from 0.29 to 3.46 hr-1 in fall,and 0.12 to 1.39 hr-1 in winter with a median AER of 1.15.

  2. Role of SSNTD technique in three-step method for total assay of alpha activity in air effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work, low levels of alpha activity in air effluents were estimated. Currently this essay involves collection of effluent samples and assaying them for the release using ZnS(Ag) based scintillation counter (background=1 cpm). Any activity below 1 cpm (net) therefore goes unreported. Air samples showing activity -6 Bq/m3 (3.73x10-17 Ci/m3) to 36.41x10-6 Bq/m3 (9.84x10-16 Ci/m3) for samples studied over twelve months period. The three step procedure helps to measure total activity without significant burden on SSNTD technique thereby improving the acceptability of the methodology. (author)

  3. A rapid method for the autoradiography of alpha active air sample filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes an improved version of a technique using a phosphor screen and an optical photographic emulsion to detect alpha-active particles. The sensitivity of the technique when using 'instant' high speed polaroid film is reported. The equipment has been designed to produce rapid results and does not need 'darkroom' conditions. (author)

  4. Air quality continued to improve in 2014, but progress are still needed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The improvement in air quality that began some years ago continued. Average concentrations of pollutants decreased and exceedance of thresholds for protection of health was observed in fewer areas. Progress was, notably, the result of efforts made to reduce emissions, something made more difficult by the number and variety of sources of pollution. These improvements were, however, fragile as they were partially dependent on weather conditions. 2014 was, thus, marked by an important episode of particulate pollution. In addition, the progress made was not sufficient to bring France into full compliance with European standards, as was also the case for other European countries. (author)

  5. Comparison of orthorhombic and alpha-two titanium aluminides as matrices for continuous SiC-reinforced composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The attributes of an orthorhombic Ti aluminide alloy, Ti-21Al-22Nb (at. pct), and an alpha-two Ti aluminide alloy, Ti-24Al-11Nb (at. pct), for use as a matrix with continuous SiC (SCS-6) fiber reinforcement have been compared. Foil-fiber-foil processing was used to produce both unreinforced (''neat'') and unidirectional ''SCS-6'' reinforced panels. Microstructure of the Ti-24Al-11Nb matrix consisted of ordered Ti3Al (α2) + disordered beta (β), while the Ti-21Al-22Nb matrix contained three phases: α2, ordered beta (β0), and ordered orthorhombic (O). Fiber/matrix interface reaction zone growth kinetics at 982 C were examined for each composite system. Although both systems exhibited similar interface reaction products (i.e., mixed Ti carbides, silicides, and Ti-Al carbides), growth kinetics in the α2 + β matrix composite were much more rapid than in the O + β0 + α2 matrix composite. Additionally, interfacial reaction in the α2 + β composite resulted in a relatively large brittle matrix zone, depleted of beta phase, which was not present in the O + β0 + α2 matrix composite. Mechanical property measurements included room and elevated temperature tensile, thermal stability, thermal fatigue, thermomechanical fatigue (TMF), and creep. The three-phase orthorhombic-based alloy outperformed the α2 + β alloy in all of these mechanical behavioral areas, on both an absolute and a specific (i.e., density corrected) basis

  6. Instrumentation for continuous on-line monitoring of non-methane organic carbon in air emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitra, S.; Xu, Y.; Chen, W. [New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ (United States); McAllister, G. [Environmental Protection Agency, Durham, NC (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Nonmethane organic carbons (NMOC) is a measure of total organic carbon except that from methane. EPA standard method 25 was developed in the mid 1970`s as a means of quantifying NMOC emission from stationary source such as incinerators and paint industry. This method which involves obtaining a grab sample, and transporting it to the lab for analysis is not suitable for continuous monitoring. Moreover, this GC based method is prone to interferences from moisture and high concentrations of CO{sub 2}. In this paper we discuss the development of a novel columnless instrument that can be used for continuous on-line monitoring of NMOC in emission sources as well as in ambient air. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  7. Practical Strategies for Stable Operation of HFF-QCM in Continuous Air Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegfried R. Waldvogel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently there are a few fields of application using quartz crystal microbalances (QCM. Because of environmental conditions and insufficient resolution of the microbalance, chemical sensing of volatile organic compounds in an open system was as yet not possible. In this study we present strategies on how to use 195 MHz fundamental quartz resonators for a mobile sensor platform to detect airborne analytes. Commonly the use of devices with a resonant frequency of about 10 MHz is standard. By increasing the frequency to 195 MHz the frequency shift increases by a factor of almost 400. Unfortunately, such kinds of quartz crystals tend to exhibit some challenges to obtain a reasonable signal-to-noise ratio. It was possible to reduce the noise in frequency in a continuous air flow of 7.5 m/s to 0.4 Hz [i.e., σ(τ = 2 × 10−9] by elucidating the major source of noise. The air flow in the vicinity of the quartz was analyzed to reduce turbulences. Furthermore, we found a dependency between the acceleration sensitivity and mechanical stress induced by an internal thermal gradient. By reducing this gradient, we achieved reduction of the sensitivity to acceleration by more than one decade. Hence, the resulting sensor is more robust to environmental conditions such as temperature, acceleration and air flow.

  8. A fast responding continuous tritium-in-air monitor with multi stream sampling for area monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fast responding Tritium-in-Air monitor with multi stream sampling up to a maximum of 8 lines has been developed and field tested for continuous area monitoring in Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors (PHWR) and other tritium handling facilities. The instrument has built in electronic compensation for external gamma and gaseous radionuclide 133Xe (FPNG). The monitor is based on plastic scintillator detector prepared from 5μm thick scintillator film of surface area (each side) of about 250 cm2. Four such films of each weighing 150 mg are packed in a flow cell of 6.3 cm3 volume, made of stainless steel body and Teflon window. The flow cell is coupled face to face to a matched pair of photomultipliers. Measurement is made in coincidence mode of counting. The complete monitor consists of electronic counting system, the detector probe assembly, a diaphragm type of air sampling pump, a particulate filter trap and a rotometer for controlling the air flow rate. For multi stream sampling an external solenoid driver cum isolation unit has been integrated with the system. The efficiency for Tritium vapour for direct passage of sample air through the detector is ∼22%. The instrument records 0.2 cps under normal gamma background of 0.1 - 0.2 μSv/hr, without shielding. With the detector fully shielded (∼ 10 cm thick lead), the instrument does not register significant increase in the background counts with 200 μSv/hr ambient gamma field. Under conditions of gaseous radionuclide interference such as 133Xe (26 MBq/m3 concentrations) the MDA rises to ∼1 DAC for a counting time of 300 s. The MDA under ideal conditions is found to be 0.2 DAC for Tritium vapour. The sensitivity of the system is 0.4 CPS per DAC. The instrument response time is 10 minutes. (author)

  9. Outdoor air pollution in close proximity to a continuous point source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepeis, Neil E.; Gabel, Etienne B.; Ott, Wayne R.; Switzer, Paul

    Data are lacking on human exposure to air pollutants occurring in ground-level outdoor environments within a few meters of point sources. To better understand outdoor exposure to tobacco smoke from cigarettes or cigars, and exposure to other types of outdoor point sources, we performed more than 100 controlled outdoor monitoring experiments on a backyard residential patio in which we released pure carbon monoxide (CO) as a tracer gas for continuous time periods lasting 0.5-2 h. The CO was emitted from a single outlet at a fixed per-experiment rate of 120-400 cc min -1 (˜140-450 mg min -1). We measured CO concentrations every 15 s at up to 36 points around the source along orthogonal axes. The CO sensors were positioned at standing or sitting breathing heights of 2-5 ft (up to 1.5 ft above and below the source) and at horizontal distances of 0.25-2 m. We simultaneously measured real-time air speed, wind direction, relative humidity, and temperature at single points on the patio. The ground-level air speeds on the patio were similar to those we measured during a survey of 26 outdoor patio locations in 5 nearby towns. The CO data exhibited a well-defined proximity effect similar to the indoor proximity effect reported in the literature. Average concentrations were approximately inversely proportional to distance. Average CO levels were approximately proportional to source strength, supporting generalization of our results to different source strengths. For example, we predict a cigarette smoker would cause average fine particle levels of approximately 70-110 μg m -3 at horizontal distances of 0.25-0.5 m. We also found that average CO concentrations rose significantly as average air speed decreased. We fit a multiplicative regression model to the empirical data that predicts outdoor concentrations as a function of source emission rate, source-receptor distance, air speed and wind direction. The model described the data reasonably well, accounting for ˜50% of the log

  10. Influence of surfactant on the drop bag breakup in a continuous air jet stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Zhang, Wen-Bin; Xu, Jian-Liang; Li, Wei-Feng; Liu, Hai-Feng

    2016-05-01

    The deformation and breakup of surfactant-laden drops is a common phenomenon in nature and numerous practical applications. We investigate influence of surfactant on the drop bag breakup in a continuous air jet stream. The airflow would induce the advection diffusion of surfactant between interface and bulk of drop. Experiments indicate that the convective motions of deforming drop would induce the non-equilibrium distribution of surfactant, which leads to the change of surface tension. When the surfactant concentration is smaller than critical micelle concentration (CMC), with the increase of surface area of drop, the surface tension of liquid-air interface and the critical Weber number will increase. When the surfactant concentration is bigger than CMC, the micelle can be considered as the source term, which can supply the monomers. So in the presence of surfactant, there would be the significant nonlinear variation on the critical Weber number of bag breakup. We build the dynamic non-monotonic relationship between concentrations of surfactant and critical Weber number theoretically. In the range of parameters studied, the experimental results are consistent with the model estimates.

  11. In-situ continuous scanning high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The testing and replacement of HEPA filters, which are widely used in the nuclear industry to purify process air before it is ventilated to the atmosphere, is a costly and labor-intensive undertaking. Current methods of testing filter performance, such as differential pressure measurement and scanning air monitoring, allow for determination of overall filter performance but preclude detection of symptoms of incipient filter failure, such as small holes in the filters themselves. Using current technology, a continual in-situ monitoring system has been designed which provides three major improvements over current methods of filter testing and replacement. This system (1) realizes a cost savings by reducing the number of intact filters which are currently being replaced unnecessarily, (2) provides a more accurate and quantitative measurement of filter performance than is currently achieved with existing testing methods, and (3) reduces personnel exposure to a radioactive environment by automatically performing most testing operations. The operation and performance of the HEPA filter monitoring system are discussed

  12. Testing of Continuous Sampling Air-ICP and Mercury Systems as Continuous Emission Monitors at the Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report has been prepared to document the performance of the continuous sampling reduced-pressure air-ICP-AES (inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy) and mercury-monitor systems developed by Ames Laboratory for use as continuous emission monitors (CEM). This work was funded by the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management, Office of Science and Technology, through the Mixed Waste Focus Area. The purpose of the project is to develop instrumentation and methods for spectroscopic field monitoring applications. During FY00 this included continued work on the development of the continuous sample introduction system and the multi-frequency AOTF-echelle spectrometer, used in conjunction with the reduced-pressure air-ICP-AES system as a multi-metal CEM. The assembly, development, and testing of an echelle spectrometer system for the detection of mercury (Hg) by atomic absorption was also completed during FY00. The continuous sampling system and the multi-metal air-ICP and mercury-monitor CEM systems were tested at Mississippi State University at the Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory (DIAL) at the end of FY00. This report describes the characteristics and performance of these systems, and the results of the field tests performed at DIAL

  13. Continual monitoring of radon decay products concentration in indoor and outdoor air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this work was the development of the method and construction and testing of measurement device for continual monitoring of radon daughters concentrations in the indoor and outdoor environment with regard to make possible to determine very low activities in the outdoor air (below % Bq/m3). In this method air sample is drawn through the appropriate filter material. Radon and thoron daughters both attached and unattached on aerosols particles are collected on the filter surface and then the filter activity is counted. The silicon surface barrier detector with the active area of 200 mm2 in monitor was used. The Millipore AW19-type filter was chosen and sampling rate of 30 l/min for collecting of the air samples. The determination of the individual activity concentrations in three-count method is based on the solution of the simultaneous equations describing the number of atoms of measured nuclides on the filter during and after sampling. The monitor was tested in three different environments (the average values of the activity concentrations of radon and its decay products in Bq/m3 are given): in the basement of the building: 61.4 ± 5.0 of 222Rn, 29.5 ± 2.8 of 218Po, 14.1 ± 1.8 of 214Pb and 12.1 ± 1.6 of 214Bi; in the room on the second floor of the same building:22.2 ± 7.9 of 222Rn, 7.3 ± 2.8 of 218Po, 4.6 ± 1.9 of 214Pb and 2.6 ± 1.2 of 214Bi ; in the outdoor air in front of the building: 4.1 ± 2.7 of 222Rn, 2.3 ± 0.9 of 218Po, 1.5 ± 0.8 of 214Pb and 1.4 ± 0.6 of 214Bi. The results show a good agreement with expectations of the activity concentrations in three different environments. The monitor enables to determine low activity concentrations in the outdoor with an acceptable precision during one hour counting. The monitor can be used for the research of the correlation between the atmospheric stability and activity concentrations of radon decay products

  14. Modulation of Posterior Alpha Activity by Spatial Attention Allows for Controlling A Continuous Brain-Computer Interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horschig, J.M.; Oosterheert, W.; Oostenveld, R.; Jensen, O.

    2014-01-01

    Here we report that the modulation of alpha activity by covert attention can be used as a control signal in an online brain-computer interface, that it is reliable, and that it is robust. Subjects were instructed to orient covert visual attention to the left or right hemifield. We decoded the direct

  15. Alpha radioactivity monitor using ionized air transport technology for large size uranium waste (2). Simulation model reinforcement for practical apparatus design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In alpha radioactivity measurement using ionized air transportation (AMAT), conversion from ion currents to radioactivity accurate is required. An ion transport simulation provides ways of complementarily determining conversion factors. We have developed an ion transport simulation model. Simulation results were compared with experiments with air speeds, faster than 1 m/s, achieving good agreement. In a practical AMAT apparatus, the air-flow at the alpha source may be slower than 1 m/s, and ion loss is likely to be large. Reinforcement of the ion transport model to cover the lower air speed region is effective. Ions are generated by an alpha particle in a very thin column. Since the ion density at this temporal stage is high, the recombination loss, proportional to the square of ion density, is dominant within a few milli-seconds. The spatial and temporal scales of this columnar recombination are too small for CFD simulation. We solve an ion transport equation during the period of columnar recombination with diffusion and recombination terms and incorporated the relation between ion loss and turbulent parameters into CFD. Using this model, simulations have been done for various air speeds and targets. Those for simulation results agree with experiments, showing improvement of simulation accuracy. (author)

  16. Uncertainties in Air Exchange using Continuous-Injection, Long-Term Sampling Tracer-Gas Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.; Lunden, Melissa M.

    2013-12-01

    The PerFluorocarbon Tracer (PFT) method is a low-cost approach commonly used for measuring air exchange in buildings using tracer gases. It is a specific application of the more general Continuous-Injection, Long-Term Sampling (CILTS) method. The technique is widely used but there has been little work on understanding the uncertainties (both precision and bias) associated with its use, particularly given that it is typically deployed by untrained or lightly trained people to minimize experimental costs. In this article we will conduct a first-principles error analysis to estimate the uncertainties and then compare that analysis to CILTS measurements that were over-sampled, through the use of multiple tracers and emitter and sampler distribution patterns, in three houses. We find that the CILTS method can have an overall uncertainty of 10-15percent in ideal circumstances, but that even in highly controlled field experiments done by trained experimenters expected uncertainties are about 20percent. In addition, there are many field conditions (such as open windows) where CILTS is not likely to provide any quantitative data. Even avoiding the worst situations of assumption violations CILTS should be considered as having a something like a ?factor of two? uncertainty for the broad field trials that it is typically used in. We provide guidance on how to deploy CILTS and design the experiment to minimize uncertainties.

  17. Bag breakup of low viscosity drops in the presence of a continuous air jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work examines the breakup of a single drop of various low viscosity fluids as it deforms in the presence of continuous horizontal air jet. Such a fragmentation typically occurs after the bulk liquid has disintegrated upon exiting the atomizer and is in the form of an ensemble of drops which undergo further breakup. The drop deformation and its eventual disintegration is important in evaluating the efficacy of a particular industrial process, be it combustion in automobile engines or pesticide spraying in agricultural applications. The interplay between competing influences of surface tension and aerodynamic disruptive forces is represented by the Weber number, We, and Ohnesorge number, Oh, and used to describe the breakup morphology. The breakup pattern considered in our study corresponds to that of a bag attached to a toroidal ring which occurs from ∼12 2), is found to match well with experimental data ([L.-P. Hsiang and G. M. Faeth, Int. J. Multiphase Flow 21(4), 545–560 (1995)] and [R. S. Brodkey, “Formation of drops and bubbles,” in The Phenomena of Fluid Motions (Addison-Wesley, Reading, 1967)]). An exponential growth in the radial extent of the deformed drop and the streamline dimension of the bag is predicted by a theoretical model and confirmed by experimental findings. These quantities are observed to strongly depend on We. However, their dependence on Oh is weak

  18. Effects of aerosol particle size on dispersion and continuous air monitor response in a plutonium laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effectiveness of continuous air monitors (CAMs) in protecting plutonium workers depends on the efficiency of aerosol transport from the release point to the CAM. The main processes for aerosol transport are diffusion, forced convection, and gravitational settling. The transport of particles relative to each of these processes depends on particle size. Studies have shown that activity median aerodynamic diameters for plutonium aerosols can range from less than 0.1 μm to greater than 10 μm. The purpose of this study was to characterize the influence of particle size on aerosol transport and CAM response in a plutonium laboratory. Polydisperse dioctyl sebacate oil aerosols were released from multiple locations within a plutonium laboratory at Los Alamos National Laboratory. An array of Laser Particle counters (LPCs) positioned in the laboratory measured time resolved aerosol dispersion. Aerosol concentrations were binned into two size ranges: (1) 0.5 μm to 5.0 μm, and (2) those greater than 5.0 μm. Statistical comparisons were done and the results suggested that transport efficiency was greater for smaller particles than larger particles in this laboratory. This result suggested the importance of using particles of similar physical characteristics to those of the source when doing tests to decide optimal placement of CAMs

  19. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha contributes to improved cardiac ischaemic tolerance in rats adapted to chronic continuous hypoxia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chytilová, Anna; Borchert, Gudrun H.; Mandíková-Alánová, Petra; Hlaváčková, Markéta; Kopkan, L.; Khan, M. A. H.; Imig, J. D.; Kolář, František; Neckář, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 241, č. 1 (2015), s. 97-108. ISSN 1748-1708 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-10267S; GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/12/1162 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : chronic hypoxia * ischaemia/reperfusion injury * reactive oxygen species * tumor necrosis factor - alpha Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 4.382, year: 2014

  20. Modulation of Posterior Alpha Activity by Spatial Attention Allows for Controlling A Continuous Brain-Computer Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horschig, Jörn M; Oosterheert, Wouter; Oostenveld, Robert; Jensen, Ole

    2015-11-01

    Here we report that the modulation of alpha activity by covert attention can be used as a control signal in an online brain-computer interface, that it is reliable, and that it is robust. Subjects were instructed to orient covert visual attention to the left or right hemifield. We decoded the direction of attention from the magnetoencephalogram by a template matching classifier and provided the classification outcome to the subject in real-time using a novel graphical user interface. Training data for the templates were obtained from a Posner-cueing task conducted just before the BCI task. Eleven subjects participated in four sessions each. Eight of the subjects achieved classification rates significantly above chance level. Subjects were able to significantly increase their performance from the first to the second session. Individual patterns of posterior alpha power remained stable throughout the four sessions and did not change with increased performance. We conclude that posterior alpha power can successfully be used as a control signal in brain-computer interfaces. We also discuss several ideas for further improving the setup and propose future research based on solid hypotheses about behavioral consequences of modulating neuronal oscillations by brain computer interfacing. PMID:25388661

  1. Bag breakup of low viscosity drops in the presence of a continuous air jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulkarni, V., E-mail: vkulkarn@purdue.edu; Sojka, P. E. [Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47906 (United States)

    2014-07-15

    This work examines the breakup of a single drop of various low viscosity fluids as it deforms in the presence of continuous horizontal air jet. Such a fragmentation typically occurs after the bulk liquid has disintegrated upon exiting the atomizer and is in the form of an ensemble of drops which undergo further breakup. The drop deformation and its eventual disintegration is important in evaluating the efficacy of a particular industrial process, be it combustion in automobile engines or pesticide spraying in agricultural applications. The interplay between competing influences of surface tension and aerodynamic disruptive forces is represented by the Weber number, We, and Ohnesorge number, Oh, and used to describe the breakup morphology. The breakup pattern considered in our study corresponds to that of a bag attached to a toroidal ring which occurs from ∼12 < We < ∼16. We aim to address several issues connected with this breakup process and their dependence on We and Oh which have been hitherto unexplored. The We boundary at which breakup begins is theoretically determined and the expression obtained, We=12(1+2/3Oh{sup 2}), is found to match well with experimental data ([L.-P. Hsiang and G. M. Faeth, Int. J. Multiphase Flow 21(4), 545–560 (1995)] and [R. S. Brodkey, “Formation of drops and bubbles,” in The Phenomena of Fluid Motions (Addison-Wesley, Reading, 1967)]). An exponential growth in the radial extent of the deformed drop and the streamline dimension of the bag is predicted by a theoretical model and confirmed by experimental findings. These quantities are observed to strongly depend on We. However, their dependence on Oh is weak.

  2. Continuous three-dimensional radiation dosimetry in tissue-equivalent phantoms using electron paramagnetic resonance in L-. cap alpha. -alanine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wielopolski, L.; Maryanski, M.; Ciesielski, B.; Forman, A.; Reinstein, L.E.; Meek, A.G.

    1987-07-01

    A new tissue-equivalent phantom material has been developed which also acts as a dosimeter. The new phantom material has a similar elemental composition to that of soft tissue and has a density 1.1 g/cm/sup 3/. The phantom has an agar-gel base, and contains crystallized L-..cap alpha..-alanine which traps radiation-induced free radicals. Samples from the phantom were analyzed by an electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometer and the intensity of the EPR signal was related to the absorbed dose. When calibrated, the phantom material acts as a dosimeter, with applications in radiation therapy.

  3. Alpha B-crystallin prevents the arrhythmogenic effects of particulate matter isolated from ambient air by attenuating oxidative stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is activated by particulate matter (PM) isolated from ambient air and linked to prolonged repolarization and cardiac arrhythmia. We evaluated whether alpha B-crystallin (CryAB), a heat shock protein, could prevent the arrhythmogenic effects of PM by preventing CaMKII activation. CryAB was delivered into cardiac cells using a TAT-protein transduction domain (TAT-CryAB). ECGs were measured before and after tracheal exposure of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) and each intervention in adult Sprague–Dawley rats. After endotracheal exposure of DEP (200 μg/mL for 30 minutes, n = 11), QT intervals were prolonged from 115 ± 14 ms to 144 ± 20 ms (p = 0.03), and premature ventricular contractions were observed more frequently (0% vs. 44%) than control (n = 5) and TAT-Cry (n = 5). However, DEP-induced arrhythmia was not observed in TAT-CryAB (1 mg/kg) pretreated rats (n = 5). In optical mapping of Langendorff-perfused rat heats, compared with baseline, DEP infusion of 12.5 μg/mL (n = 12) increased apicobasal action potential duration (APD) differences from 2 ± 6 ms to 36 ± 15 ms (p < 0.001), APD restitution slope from 0.26 ± 0.07 to 1.19 ± 0.11 (p < 0.001) and ventricular tachycardia (VT) from 0% to 75% (p < 0.001). DEP infusion easily induced spatially discordant alternans. However, the effects of DEP were prevented by TAT-CryAB (1 mg/kg, n = 9). In rat myocytes, while DEP increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and phosphated CaMKII, TAT-CryAB prevented these effects. In conclusion, CryAB, a small heat shock protein, might prevent the arrhythmogenic effects of PM by attenuating ROS generation and CaMKII activation. -- Highlights: ► Particulate matter (PM) increases arrhythmia. ► PM induced arrhythmias are related with oxidative stress and CaMKII activation. ► Alpha B-crystallin (CryAB) could attenuate the arrhythmogenic effect of PM. ► CryAB decreases oxidative stress and CaMKII activation

  4. Alpha B-crystallin prevents the arrhythmogenic effects of particulate matter isolated from ambient air by attenuating oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyelim [The Division of Cardiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sanghoon; Jeon, Hyunju [The Division of Cardiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Byeong-Wook [The Division of Cardiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin-Bae [Division of Cardiology, Kyung Hee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chang-Soo [The Department of Preventive Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Pak, Hui-Nam [The Division of Cardiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Ki-Chul [The Division of Cardiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Moon-Hyoung [The Division of Cardiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Ji Hyung, E-mail: jhchung@yuhs.ac [The Division of Cardiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Joung, Boyoung, E-mail: cby6908@yuhs.ac [The Division of Cardiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is activated by particulate matter (PM) isolated from ambient air and linked to prolonged repolarization and cardiac arrhythmia. We evaluated whether alpha B-crystallin (CryAB), a heat shock protein, could prevent the arrhythmogenic effects of PM by preventing CaMKII activation. CryAB was delivered into cardiac cells using a TAT-protein transduction domain (TAT-CryAB). ECGs were measured before and after tracheal exposure of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) and each intervention in adult Sprague–Dawley rats. After endotracheal exposure of DEP (200 μg/mL for 30 minutes, n = 11), QT intervals were prolonged from 115 ± 14 ms to 144 ± 20 ms (p = 0.03), and premature ventricular contractions were observed more frequently (0% vs. 44%) than control (n = 5) and TAT-Cry (n = 5). However, DEP-induced arrhythmia was not observed in TAT-CryAB (1 mg/kg) pretreated rats (n = 5). In optical mapping of Langendorff-perfused rat heats, compared with baseline, DEP infusion of 12.5 μg/mL (n = 12) increased apicobasal action potential duration (APD) differences from 2 ± 6 ms to 36 ± 15 ms (p < 0.001), APD restitution slope from 0.26 ± 0.07 to 1.19 ± 0.11 (p < 0.001) and ventricular tachycardia (VT) from 0% to 75% (p < 0.001). DEP infusion easily induced spatially discordant alternans. However, the effects of DEP were prevented by TAT-CryAB (1 mg/kg, n = 9). In rat myocytes, while DEP increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and phosphated CaMKII, TAT-CryAB prevented these effects. In conclusion, CryAB, a small heat shock protein, might prevent the arrhythmogenic effects of PM by attenuating ROS generation and CaMKII activation. -- Highlights: ► Particulate matter (PM) increases arrhythmia. ► PM induced arrhythmias are related with oxidative stress and CaMKII activation. ► Alpha B-crystallin (CryAB) could attenuate the arrhythmogenic effect of PM. ► CryAB decreases oxidative stress and CaMKII activation

  5. Community Air Sensor Network (CAIRSENSE) Project: Lower Cost, Continuous Ambient Monitoring Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advances in air pollution sensor technology have enabled the development of small and low cost systems to measure outdoor air pollution. The deployment of numerous sensors across a small geographic area would have potential benefits to supplement existing monitoring networks and ...

  6. Innovative alpha-radioactivity monitor for clearance level inspection based on ionized air transportation technology (1). Comparison with mass spectral analysis using uranium-attached samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have been developing an alpha-radioactivity monitor based on ionized air transportation technology (alpha clearance monitor) for efficiently performing clearance level inspection of massive amounts of uranium-contaminated waste. This paper is one of a series related to a method for quantitatively evaluating alpha radioactivity from a measured ion current value. Using a prototype alpha clearance monitor, we measured alpha radioactivities of uranium-attached components used in back-end facilities of the nuclear fuel cycle (uranium-attached samples). We compared the measured radioactivities with reference radioactivities by assaying the samples with an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer and the radioactivities measured with a scintillation survey meter. The radioactivities of curved plate samples measured with the prototype monitor were highly linear with respect to the reference radioactivities (a residual standard deviation of 8%). Absolute values of the radioactivities obtained with the prototype monitor and with the survey meter were about 40% and 50% smaller than the reference radioactivities, respectively. Measurements of complex-shaped samples indicated that, to measure diverse-shaped waste, it was necessary to classify the waste by shape and determine conversion coefficients corresponding to each group in advance, experimentally and theoretically. (author)

  7. Detectors for alpha particles and X-rays operating in ambient air in pulse counting mode and/or with gas amplification

    CERN Document Server

    Charpak, Georges; Breuil, P; Peskov, Vladimir

    2008-01-01

    Ionization chambers working in ambient air in current detection mode are widely used in several applications such as smoke detection, dosimetry, therapeutic beam monitoring and cetera. The aim of this work was to investigate if gaseous detectors can operate in ambient air in pulse counting mode as well as with gas amplification. . To investigate the feasibility of this method two types of open- end gaseous detectors were build and successfully tested. The first one was a single wire or multiwire cylindrical geometry detector operating in pulse mode at a gas gain of 1. The second type alpha detector was an innovative GEM-like detector with resistive electrodes operating in air in avalanche mode at high gas gains (up to 10E4). A detailed comparison between these two detectors is given as well as comparison with the commercially available alpha detectors. The main advantages of gaseous detectors operating in air in a pulse detection mode are their simplicity, low cost and high sensitivity. One of the possible ap...

  8. System for continuous real time air monitoring by means of gamma spectrometry with germanium dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Design of automatic system for real time air monitoring of radioactive particulates are relate. Recommendations are made for design and operation of sampling conduits to minimize losses. By means of experimental equipment loss of particles in long sampling conduits, minimum detectable activity and efficiency of gamma radiation detectable are evaluated. (author)

  9. Air pollution exposure estimation using dispersion modelling and continuous monitoring data in a prospective birth cohort study in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van den Hooven Edith H

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Previous studies suggest that pregnant women and children are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of air pollution. A prospective cohort study in pregnant women and their children enables identification of the specific effects and critical periods. This paper describes the design of air pollution exposure assessment for participants of the Generation R Study, a population-based prospective cohort study from early pregnancy onwards in 9778 women in the Netherlands. Individual exposures to PM10 and NO2 levels at the home address were estimated for mothers and children, using a combination of advanced dispersion modelling and continuous monitoring data, taking into account the spatial and temporal variation in air pollution concentrations. Full residential history was considered. We observed substantial spatial and temporal variation in air pollution exposure levels. The Generation R Study provides unique possibilities to examine effects of short- and long-term air pollution exposure on various maternal and childhood outcomes and to identify potential critical windows of exposure.

  10. Dry/wet performance of a plate-fin air-cooled heat exchanger with continuous corrugated fins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance and operating characteristics of a plate-fin heat exchanger in dry/wet or deluge operations was experimentally determined. Development of the deluge heat/mass transfer model continued. The experiments were conducted in a specially-designed wind tunnel at the PNL. Air that was first heated and humidified to specified conditions was circulated at a controlled rate through a 2 ft x 6 ft heat exchanger module. The heat exchanger used in the tests was a wavy surface, plate fin on tube configuration. Hot water was circulated through the tubes at high flow rates to maintain an essentially isothermal condition on the tube side. Deionized water sprayed on the top of the vertically oriented plate fins was collected at the bottom of the core and recirculated. Instrumentation was provided for measurement of flow rates and thermodynamic conditions in the air, in the core circulation water, and in the deluge water. Measurements of the air side pressure drop and heat rejection rate were made as a function of air flow rate, air inlet temperature and humidity, deluge water flow rate, and the core inclination from the vertical. An overall heat transfer coefficient and an effective deluge film convective coefficient was determined. The deluge model, for predicting heat transfer from a wet finned heat exchanger was further developed and refined, and a major extension of the model was formulated that permits simultaneous calculation of both the heat transfer and evaporation rates from the wetted surface. The experiments showed an increase in the heat rejection rate due to wetting, accompanied by a proportional increase in the air side pressure drop. For operation at the same air side pressure drop, the enhancement ratio Q/sub w//Q/sub d/ varied between 2 and 5 for the conditions tested. Thus, the potential enhancement of heat transfer due to wetting can be substantial

  11. Dry/wet performance of a plate-fin air-cooled heat exchanger with continuous corrugated fins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauser, S.G.; Kreid, D.K.; Johnson, B.M.

    1981-01-01

    The performance and operating characteristics of a plate-fin heat exchanger in dry/wet or deluge operations was experimentally determined. Development of the deluge heat/mass transfer model continued. The experiments were conducted in a specially-designed wind tunnel at the PNL. Air that was first heated and humidified to specified conditions was circulated at a controlled rate through a 2 ft x 6 ft heat exchanger module. The heat exchanger used in the tests was a wavy surface, plate fin on tube configuration. Hot water was circulated through the tubes at high flow rates to maintain an essentially isothermal condition on the tube side. Deionized water sprayed on the top of the vertically oriented plate fins was collected at the bottom of the core and recirculated. Instrumentation was provided for measurement of flow rates and thermodynamic conditions in the air, in the core circulation water, and in the deluge water. Measurements of the air side pressure drop and heat rejection rate were made as a function of air flow rate, air inlet temperature and humidity, deluge water flow rate, and the core inclination from the vertical. An overall heat transfer coefficient and an effective deluge film convective coefficient was determined. The deluge model, for predicting heat transfer from a wet finned heat exchanger was further developed and refined, and a major extension of the model was formulated that permits simultaneous calculation of both the heat transfer and evaporation rates from the wetted surface. The experiments showed an increase in the heat rejection rate due to wetting, accompanied by a proportional increase in the air side pressure drop. For operation at the same air side pressure drop, the enhancement ratio Q/sub w//Q/sub d/ varied between 2 and 5 for the conditions tested. Thus, the potential enhancement of heat transfer due to wetting can be substantial.

  12. Physical and Mathematical Modeling of Thin Steel Slab Continuous Casting Secondary Cooling Zone Air-Mist Impingement

    Science.gov (United States)

    de León B., Melecio; Castillejos E., A. Humberto

    2015-10-01

    This study is an attempt to unveil the fluid dynamic phenomena occurring during interaction of air-mists with the surface of the steel strand during its pass through the continuous casting secondary cooling system. Air-mists generated under conditions of practical interest are studied while impacting on a vertical wall at room temperature. Experimentally a spatial multiple-counting technique based on capturing instantaneous double-exposure shadowgraphs is used to visualize the internal structure of mists at distances between 0 and 4 mm from the wall. Analysis of single exposure images allows determination of size distributions of primary (impinging) and secondary (ejecting) drops and of fluctuating thickness of water films formed on the wall surface. Besides, examination of image pairs enables measurement of velocity and trajectory angles of both kinds of drops. These results aided in the formulation and validation of a transient, turbulent, 3D, multiphase fluid dynamic model for simulating impinging air-mists. The model is based on KIVA-3V and for simulating the airborne mist region it solves the continuity equations—mass, momentum, turbulence quantities—for the air coupled with the equation of motion for drops sampled randomly from distributions assumed to govern their size and volume flux at the nozzle orifice. While for the impingement region submodels are established to estimate the results of drop/wall interaction, i.e., the dynamics of secondary drops and water films formed by the impingement of primary drops. The model forecasts reasonably well the random distributions of diameters, velocities, trajectory angles, and Weber numbers of both kind of drops moving near the wall. Additionally, it predicts well the average thickness of the water film and the important effect that air nozzle pressure has on the normal impinging velocity of drops; high pressures result in large drop velocities favoring intimate contact with the surface.

  13. Large area gridded ionisation chamber and electrostatic precipitator and their application to low-level alpha-spectrometry of environmental air samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high-resolution, parallel plate Frisch grid ionization chamber with an efficient area of 3000 cm2, and a large area electrostatic precipitator were developed and applied to direct alpha spectrometry of air dust. Using an argon-methane mixture (P-10 gas) at atmospheric pressure the resolution of the detector system is 22 keV FWHM at 5 MeV. After sampling for one week and decay of short-lived natural activity, the sensitivity of the procedure for long-lived alpha emitters is about 0.1 fCi/m3 taking 3 Σσ of background as the detection limit with 1000 min counting time. (author)

  14. Evaluation of the Impact of Media Marketing Strategies on Continuing Education Enrollments. AIR Forum 1982 Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jill F.; Spiro, Louis M.

    The impact of media marketing strategies on continuing education enrollment at the State University of New York College at Brockport (SUNY-CB), was evaluated. The evaluation of advertising impacts used advertising records of SUNY-CB and other area colleges and a telephone questionnaire instrument. A stratified, random countywide sample, in…

  15. Use of sulfur hexafluoride airflow studies to determine the appropriate number and placement of air monitors in an alpha inhalation exposure laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determination of the appropriate number and placement of air monitors in the workplace is quite subjective and is generally one of the more difficult tasks in radiation protection. General guidance for determining the number and placement of air sampling and monitoring instruments has been provided by technical reports such as Mishima, J. These two documents and other published guidelines suggest that some insight into sampler placement can be obtained by conducting airflow studies involving the dilution and clearance of the relatively inert tracer gas sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) in sampler placement studies and describes the results of a study done within the ITRI alpha inhalation exposure laboratories. The objectives of the study were to document an appropriate method for conducting SF6 dispersion studies, and to confirm the appropriate number and placement of air monitors and air samplers within a typical ITRI inhalation exposure laboratory. The results of this study have become part of the technical bases for air sampling and monitoring in the test room

  16. Use of sulfur hexafluoride airflow studies to determine the appropriate number and placement of air monitors in an alpha inhalation exposure laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, G.J.; Hoover, M.D.

    1995-12-01

    Determination of the appropriate number and placement of air monitors in the workplace is quite subjective and is generally one of the more difficult tasks in radiation protection. General guidance for determining the number and placement of air sampling and monitoring instruments has been provided by technical reports such as Mishima, J. These two documents and other published guidelines suggest that some insight into sampler placement can be obtained by conducting airflow studies involving the dilution and clearance of the relatively inert tracer gas sulfur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) in sampler placement studies and describes the results of a study done within the ITRI alpha inhalation exposure laboratories. The objectives of the study were to document an appropriate method for conducting SF{sub 6} dispersion studies, and to confirm the appropriate number and placement of air monitors and air samplers within a typical ITRI inhalation exposure laboratory. The results of this study have become part of the technical bases for air sampling and monitoring in the test room.

  17. Removal of dimethylsulfide, n-hexane and toluene from waste air in a flat membrane bioreactor under continuous conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Volckaert, Diego; Heynderickx, Philippe; Wuytens, Sander; Van Langenhove, Herman

    2013-01-01

    Dimethylsulfide (DMS), n-hexane and toluene removal from a waste air was carried out by using a flat composite membrane bioreactor under continuous feeding conditions. The composite membrane consisted of a dense polydimethylsiloxane top layer with an average thickness of 1.5 μm supported with a porous polyacrylonitrile layer of 50 μm. The membrane bioreactor (MBR) was operated during 9 months in which several operational conditions were applied. The inlet load of each compound ranged from 0 t...

  18. Rapid air film continuous casting of aluminum alloy using static magnetic field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu QU; Huixue JIANG; Gaosong WANG; Qingfeng ZHU; Xiangjie WANG; Jianzhong CUI

    2009-01-01

    The influences of the cooling style and static magnetic field on the air film casting process were investigated. Ingots of 6063 aluminum alloy were produced by AIRSOL VEIL casting with double-layer cooling water and static magnetic field. Surface segregation, hot crack and variation of solute content along the radius direction of ingot were examined. The results showed that double-layer cooling water can improve the surface quality and avoid of hot crack, which created conditions to increase the casting speed. The electromagnetic casting process can effectively improve the surface quality in high speed casting process, and static magnetic field has a great influence on solute distribution along the radius direction of ingot.

  19. Pulling Results Out of Thin Air: Four Years of Ozone and Greenhouse Gas Measurements by the Alpha Jet Atmospheric Experiment (AJAX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Emma

    2015-01-01

    The Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment (AJAX) has been measuring atmospheric ozone, carbon dioxide, methane and meteorological parameters from near the surface to 8000 m since January 2011. The main goals are to study photochemical ozone production and the impacts of extreme events on western US air quality, provide data to support satellite observations and aid in the quantification of emission sources e.g. wildfires, urban outflow, diary and oil and gas. The aircraft is based at Moffett Field and flies multiple times a month to sample vertical profiles at selected sites in California and Nevada, providing long-term data records at these sites. AJAX is also uniquely positioned to launch with short notice sampling flights in rapid response to extreme events e.g. the 2013 Yosemite Rim fire. This talk will focus on the impacts of vertical transport on surface air quality, and investigation of emission sources from diaries and wildfires.

  20. Radioactive Mapping Contaminant of Alpha on The Air in Space of Repair of Hot Cell and Medium Radioactivity Laboratory in Radio metallurgy Installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hot cell and space of acid laboratory medium activity in Radio metallurgy Installation are used for the examination preparation of fuel nuclear post irradiation. The sample examined is dangerous radioactive material representing which can disseminate passing air stream. The dangerous material spreading can be pursued by arranging air stream from laboratory space to examination space. To know the performance the air stream arrangement is hence conducted by radioactive mapping contaminant of alpha in laboratory / space of activity place, for example, medium activity laboratory and repair space. This mapping radioactivity contaminant is executed with the measurement level of the radioactivity from sample air taken at various height with the distance of 1 m, various distance and from potential source as contaminant spreading access. The mapping result indicate that a little spreading of radioactive material happened from acid cupboard locker to laboratory activity up to distance of 3 m from acid cupboard locker and spreading of radioactive contaminant from goods access door of the hot cell 104 to repair space reach the distance of 2 m from goods door access. Level of the radioactive contamination in the space was far under maximum limitation allowed (20 Bq / m3). (author)

  1. ANALYSIS OF EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) PROTOCOL GASES USED FOR CALIBRATION AND AUDITS OF CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING SYSTEMS AND AMBIENT AIR ANALYZERS - RESULTS OF AUDIT 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    A performance audit was conducted on EPA Protocol Gases used for calibration and audits of continuous emission monitoring systems and ambient air analyzers. Fifty gaseous pollutant calibraton standards were purchased from eleven specialty gas producers. These standards contained ...

  2. Continuous droplet removal upon dropwise condensation of humid air on a hydrophobic micropatterned surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamuruyev, Konstantin O; Bardaweel, Hamzeh K; Carron, Christopher J; Kenyon, Nicholas J; Brand, Oliver; Delplanque, Jean-Pierre; Davis, Cristina E

    2014-08-26

    Combination of two physical phenomena, capillary pressure gradient and wettability gradient, allows a simple two-step fabrication process that yields a reliable hydrophobic self-cleaning condenser surface. The surface is fabricated with specific microscopic topography and further treatment with a chemically inert low-surface-energy material. This process does not require growth of nanofeatures (nanotubes) or hydrophilic-hydrophobic patterning of the surface. Trapezoidal geometry of the microfeatures facilitates droplet transfer from the Wenzel to the Cassie state and reduces droplet critical diameter. The geometry of the micropatterns enhances local coalescence and directional movement for droplets with diameter much smaller than the radial length of the micropatterns. The hydrophobic self-cleaning micropatterned condenser surface prevents liquid film formation and promotes continuous dropwise condensation cycle. Upon dropwise condensation, droplets follow a designed wettability gradient created with micropatterns from the most hydrophobic to the least hydrophobic end of the surface. The surface has higher condensation efficiency, due to its directional self-cleaning property, than a plain hydrophobic surface. We explain the self-actuated droplet collection mechanism on the condenser surface and demonstrate experimentally the creation of an effective wettability gradient over a 6 mm radial distance. In spite of its fabrication simplicity, the fabricated surface demonstrates self-cleaning property, enhanced condensation performance, and reliability over time. Our work enables creation of a hydrophobic condenser surface with the directional self-cleaning property that can be used for collection of biological (chemical, environmental) aerosol samples or for condensation enhancement. PMID:25073014

  3. Efficient salt removal in a continuously operated upflow microbial desalination cell with an air cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Kyle S; Drew, David M; He, Zhen

    2011-01-01

    Microbial desalination cells (MDCs) hold great promise for drinking water production because of potential energy savings during the desalination process. In this study, we developed a continuously operated MDC--upflow microbial desalination cell (UMDC) for the purpose of salt removal. During the 4-month operation, the UMDC constantly removed salts and generated bio-electricity. At a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 4 days (salt solution) and current production of ∼62 mA, the UMDC was able to remove more than 99% of NaCl from the salt solution that had an initial salt concentration of 30 g total dissolved solids (TDS)/L. In addition, the TDS removal rate was 7.50 g TDSL(-1)d(-1) (salt solution volume) or 5.25 g TDSL(-1)d(-1) (wastewater volume), and the desalinated water met the drinking water standard, in terms of TDS concentration. A high charge transfer efficiency of 98.6% or 81% was achieved at HRT 1 or 4d. The UMDC produced a maximum power density of 30.8 W/m(3). The phenomena of bipolar electrodialysis and proton transport in the UMDC were discussed. These results demonstrated the potential of the UMDC as either a sole desalination process or a pre-desalination reactor for downstream desalination processes. PMID:20584603

  4. 3-D inverse solution for continuous casting taking an air cap into consideration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Nowak

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses a 3-D numerical solution of the inverse boundary problem for a continuous casting process of an aluminium alloy. Since the verified information on the heat flux distribution is crucial for a good design of a mould, effective cooling system and generally the whole caster, the main goal of the analysis presented within the paper was an identification of the heat fluxes along the external walls of the ingot. In the study an enthalpy-porosity technique implemented in a commercial Fluent package was used for modelling the solidification process. In this method, the phase change interface was determined on the basis of the liquid fraction approach. Moreover, the mathematical model included the pull velocity, the temperature-dependent properties for a liquid phase, mushy zone and solid phase, and a spatially local distribution of the thermal contact resistance between the ingot and crystallizer walls. In the inverse procedure, a sensitivity analysis was employed for the estimation of the boundary conditions retrieval. Although, the measured temperatures required to solve the problem are always burdened by measurement errors, a comparison of the measured and retrieved values showed a high accuracy of the computations.

  5. Potential Air and Groundwater Pollution from Continuous High Land Application of Cheese Whey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel E. Ghaly

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were performed, using eighteen 280 cm deep soil columns with 20 cm inside diameter, to determine the relative amounts of nitrogenous compounds leached and volatilized from soils receiving high application rates of cheese whey during two seasons. Three soils (loamy sand, sandy loam and sandy clay loam and two cheese whey application rates (560 and 840 kg-N haˉ1, that provided twice and three times the nitrogen requirement for corn crop, were investigated. The leaching and volatilization processes were monitored over a period of five months each season. The concentrations of nitrogenous compounds in the leachates obtained from three soils decreased with time and the soil type and whey application rate did not have any significant effect on the soil removal efficiency of these compounds. However, higher concentrations were observed in the second season of application. The decline in the ammonium nitrogen concentrations in the absence of plants and the initial increase in the nitrite nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen concentrations indicated that the nitrification process had taken place. The organic nitrogen losses in the leachates were 3.02-4.14 kg hˉ1 (0.54-0.74 % of the initial total nitrogen. The total inorganic (NH4, NO2, NO3 nitrogen losses in the leachates were 59-76 mg which is higher than the initial concentration of 55 mg indicating that the mineralization process had taken place. Volatilization of NH3 was independent of soil type and whey application rate. About 3.41 gˉ1haˉ1 (0.59 % of the initial total nitrogen of nitrogen was lost to the atmosphere through volatilization Nitrite and nitrate are highly soluble and easily leach out of soil solution. Therefore, continuous application of cheese whey at higher rates may result in ground water contamination and eventually becomes a threat to human and animal health.

  6. Hydrogen Balmer {alpha} line behavior in Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy depth scans of Au, Cu, Mn, Pb targets in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senesi, G.S., E-mail: giorgio.senesi@ba.imip.cnr.i [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and Plasmas, Via Amendola 122/D, 70126 Bari (Italy); Benedetti, P.A.; Cristoforetti, G.; Legnaioli, S.; Palleschi, V. [Applied Laser Spectroscopy Laboratory, Institute of Chemical-Physical Processes, Research Area of National Research Council, Via G. Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy)

    2010-07-15

    The behavior of hydrogen spectral emission of the plasmas obtained by Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) measurement of four metal targets (Au, Cu, Mn, Pb) in air was investigated. The plasma was produced by a pulsed Nd:YAG laser emitting in the fundamental wavelength. A systematic study of the spatial-integrated plasma emission obtained by an in-depth scanning of the target was performed for each metal, both in single pulse and collinear double-pulse configurations. Further, a spatial-resolved analysis of the emission of plasma produced on the Al target by a single laser pulse was performed, in order to describe the spatial distribution of emitters deriving from the target and air elements. The line intensities of the main plasma components (target metal, nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen) were measured in both experimental conditions. Results show that the hydrogen line intensity varies greatly as a function of the metal considered, and exhibits a marked decrease after the first laser shots. However, differently from emission lines due to surface impurities, the hydrogen line intensity reaches a constant level deep inside the target. The spatial-resolved measurements indicate that hydrogen atoms in the plasma mainly derive from the target surface and, only at a minor extent, from the dissociation of molecular hydrogen present in the surrounding air. These findings show that the calculation of plasma electron number density through the measurement of the Stark broadening of hydrogen Balmer {alpha} line is possible also in depth scanning measurements.

  7. Removal of viable bioaerosol particles with a low-efficiency HVAC filter enhanced by continuous emission of unipolar air ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, R.; Agranovski, I.; Pyankov, O. (Griffith Univ., Nathan, Qld (AU)); Grinshpun, S. (Univ. of Cincinnati, Dept. of Environmental Health, Cincinnati, OH (US))

    2008-04-15

    Continuous emission of unipolar ions has been shown to improve the performance of respirators and stationary filters challenged with non-biological particles. In this study, we investigated the ion-induced enhancement effect while challenging a low-efficiency heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) filter with viable bacterial cells, bacterial and fungal spores, and viruses. The aerosol concentration was measured in real time. Samples were also collected with a bioaerosol sampler for viable microbial analysis. The removal efficiency of the filter was determined, respectively, with and without an ion emitter. The ionization was found to significantly enhance the filter efficiency in removing viable biological particles from the airflow. For example, when challenged with viable bacteria, the filter efficiency increased as much as four- to fivefold. For viable fungal spores, the ion-induced enhancement improved the efficiency by a factor of approx 2. When testing with virus-carrying liquid droplets, the original removal efficiency provided by the filter was rather low: 9.09 +- 4.84%. While the ion emission increased collection about fourfold, the efficiency did not reach 75-100% observed with bacteria and fungi. These findings, together with our previously published results for non-biological particles, demonstrate the feasibility of a new approach for reducing aerosol particles in HVAC systems used for indoor air quality control. (au)

  8. Experimental und numerical investigations on cooling efficiency of Air-Mist nozzles on steel during continuous casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arth, G.; Taferner, M.; Bernhard, C.; Michelic, S.

    2016-07-01

    Cooling strategies in continuous casting of steel can vary from rapid cooling to slow cooling, mainly controlled by adjusting the amount of water sprayed onto the surface of the product. Inadequate adjustment however can lead to local surface undercooling or reheating, leading to surface and inner defects. This paper focuses on cooling efficiency of Air-Mist nozzles on casted steel and the experimental and numerical prediction of surface temperature distributions over the product width. The first part explains the determination of heat transfer coefficients (HTC) on laboratory scale, using a so called nozzle measuring stand (NMS). Based on measured water distributions and determined HTC's for air-mist nozzles using the NMS, surface temperatures are calculated by a transient 2D-model on a simple steel plate, explained in the second part of this paper. Simulations are carried out varying water impact density and spray water distribution, consequently influencing the local HTC distribution over the plate width. Furthermore, these results will be interpreted with regard to their consequence for surface and internal quality of the cast product. The results reveal the difficulty of correct adjustment of the amount of sprayed water, concurrent influencing water distribution and thus changing HTC distribution and surface temperature.

  9. Prototype development and test results of a continuous ambient air monitoring system for hydrazine at the 10 ppb level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghelli, Barry; Parrish, Clyde; Barile, Ron; Lueck, Dale E.

    1995-01-01

    A Hydrazine Vapor Area Monitor (HVAM) system is currently being field tested as a detector for the presence of hydrazine in ambient air. The MDA/Polymetron Hydrazine Analyzer has been incorporated within the HVAM system as the core detector. This analyzer is a three-electrode liquid analyzer typically used in boiler feed water applications. The HVAM system incorporates a dual-phase sample collection/transport method which simultaneously pulls ambient air samples containing hydrazine and a very dilute sulfuric acid solution (0.0001 M) down a length of 1/4 inch outside diameter (OD) tubing from a remote site to the analyzer. The hydrazine-laden dilute acid stream is separated from the air and the pH is adjusted by addition of a dilute caustic solution to a pH greater than 10.2 prior to analysis. Both the dilute acid and caustic used by the HVAM are continuously generated during system operation on an "as needed" basis by mixing a metered amount of concentrated acid/base with dilution water. All of the waste water generated by the analyzer is purified for reuse by Barnstead ion-exchange cartridges so that the entire system minimizes the generation of waste materials. The pumping of all liquid streams and mixing of the caustic solution and dilution water with the incoming sample are done by a single pump motor fitted with the appropriate mix of peristaltic pump heads. The signal to noise (S/N) ratio of the analyzer has been enhanced by adding a stirrer in the MDA liquid cell to provide mixing normally generated by the high liquid flow rate designed by the manufacturer. An onboard microprocessor continuously monitors liquid levels, sample vacuum, and liquid leak sensors, as well as handles communications and other system functions (such as shut down should system malfunctions or errors occur). The overall system response of the HVAM can be automatically checked at regular intervals by measuring the analyzer response to a metered amount of calibration standard injected

  10. Rapid analytical technique to identify alpha emitting isotopes in water, air-filters, urine, and solid matrices using a Frisch Grid detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpitta, Salvatore C; Miltenberger, Robert P; Gaschott, Robert; Carte, Nina

    2003-04-01

    A 5-inch-diameter Frisch Grid gas-proportional ionization chamber was utilized at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to rapidly characterize and quantify alpha-emitting actinides in unprocessed water, soil, air-filter, urine, and solid matrices. Instrument calibrations for the various matrices were performed by spiking representative samples with National Institute of Standards and Technology traceable isotopes of 230Th, 232U, 236Pu, and 243Am. Detection efficiencies were typically 15-20% for solid matrices (soil, concrete, filters, dry urine) and 45% for mass-less water samples. Instrument background over a 512-channel alpha-energy range of 3-8 MeV is very low at 0.01 cps. At optimum efficiency, minimum detectable levels of 0.56 mBq Kg(-1), 74 mBq L(-1) and 14.8 mBq filter(-1) were achievable for 40 x 10(-6) Kg soil, 1 x 10(-3) L tap water (or urine), and 4.5 cm diameter air-filter samples, respectively, each counted for 60 min. Data and spectra are presented showing the quality of results obtained using untreated samples obtained from the BNL Graphite Research Reactor Decommissioning Project. These samples contained Bq to MBq per gram amounts of (239,240)Pu, 241Am, and/or (234,235/238)U (as well as other beta/gamma emitters). Data and spectra are also presented for a very finely pulverized and homogeneous U.S. DOE/RESL soil reference standard (spiked with 239Pu, 241Am, and 233U) that was used to assess precision, accuracy, and reproducibility. Although this technique has its limitations, the advantages are (1) minimal sample preparation, (2) no separation chemistry required, (3) no chemical or hazardous waste generated, and (4) ability to immediately characterize and quantify alpha-emitting nuclides in most matrices. The benefits of this technique to the BNL/DOE Project Managers were rapid (1-2 d) turn-around times coupled with significant cost savings, as compared to commercial off-site analyses. PMID:12705448

  11. Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... house) Industrial emissions (like smoke and chemicals from factories) Household cleaners (spray cleaners, air fresheners) Car emissions (like carbon monoxide) *All of these things make up “particle pollution.” They mostly come from cars, trucks, buses, and ...

  12. A comparative study of dried apple using hot air, intermittent and continuous microwave: evaluation of kinetic parameters and physicochemical quality attributes

    OpenAIRE

    Aghilinategh, Nahid; Rafiee, Shahin; Gholikhani, Abolfazl; Hosseinpur, Soleiman; Omid, Mahmoud; Mohtasebi, Seyed S.; Maleki, Neda

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In the study, the effectiveness of intermittent (IMWD) and continuous (CMWD) microwave drying and hot air drying (HAD) treatments on apple slices were compared in terms of drying kinetics (moisture diffusivity and activation energy) and critical physicochemical quality attributes (color change, rehydration ratio, bulk density, and total phenol content (TPC) of the final dried product. The temperature, microwave power, air velocity, and pulse ratio (PR) applied in the experiments were...

  13. Discontinuous and Continuous Indoor Air Quality Monitoring in Homes with Fireplaces or Wood Stoves as Heating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluigi de Gennaro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Around 50% of the world’s population, particularly in developing countries, uses biomass as one of the most common fuels. Biomass combustion releases a considerable amount of various incomplete combustion products, including particulate matter (PM and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. The paper presents the results of Indoor Air Quality (IAQ measurements in six houses equipped with wood burning stoves or fireplaces as heating systems. The houses were monitored for 48-h periods in order to collect PM10 samples and measure PAH concentrations. The average, the maximum and the lowest values of the 12-h PM10 concentration were 68.6 μg/m3, 350.7 μg/m3 and 16.8 μg/m3 respectively. The average benzo[a]pyrene 12-h concentration was 9.4 ng/m3, while the maximum and the minimum values were 24.0 ng/m3 and 1.5 ng/m3, respectively. Continuous monitoring of PM10, PAHs, Ultra Fine Particle (UFP and Total Volatile Organic Compounds (TVOC was performed in order to study the progress of pollution phenomena due to biomass burning, their trends and contributions to IAQ. The results show a great heterogeneity of impacts on IAQ in terms of magnitude and behavior of the considered pollutants’ concentrations. This variability is determined by not only different combustion technologies or biomass quality, but overall by different ignition mode, feeding and flame management, which can also be different for the same house. Moreover, room dimensions and ventilation were significant factors for pollution dispersion. The increase of PM10, UFP and PAH concentrations, during lighting, was always detected and relevant. Continuous monitoring allowed singling out contributions of other domestic sources of considered pollutants such as cooking and cigarettes. Cooking contribution produced an impact on IAQ in same cases higher than that of the biomass heating system.

  14. State-based modeling of continuous human-integrated systems: An application to air traffic separation assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for modeling the safety of human-integrated systems that have continuous dynamics is introduced. The method is intended to supplement more detailed reliability-based methods. Assumptions for the model are defined such that the model is demonstrably complete, enabling it to yield a set of key agent characteristics. These key characteristics identify a sufficient set of characteristics that can be used to establish the safety of particular system configurations. The method is applied for the analysis of the safety of strategic and tactical separation assurance algorithms for the next generation air transportation system. It is shown that the key characteristics for this problem include the ability of agents (human or automated) to identify configurations that can enable intense transitions from a safe to unsafe state. However, the most technologically advanced algorithm for separation assurance does not currently attempt to identify such configurations. It is also discussed how, although the model is in a form that lends itself to quantitative evaluations, such evaluations are complicated by the difficulty of accurately quantifying human error probabilities.

  15. State-based modeling of continuous human-integrated systems: An application to air traffic separation assurance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landry, Steven J., E-mail: slandry@purdue.ed [School of Industrial Engineering, Purdue University, 315 N. Grant St., West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Lagu, Amit; Kinnari, Jouko [School of Industrial Engineering, Purdue University, 315 N. Grant St., West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    A method for modeling the safety of human-integrated systems that have continuous dynamics is introduced. The method is intended to supplement more detailed reliability-based methods. Assumptions for the model are defined such that the model is demonstrably complete, enabling it to yield a set of key agent characteristics. These key characteristics identify a sufficient set of characteristics that can be used to establish the safety of particular system configurations. The method is applied for the analysis of the safety of strategic and tactical separation assurance algorithms for the next generation air transportation system. It is shown that the key characteristics for this problem include the ability of agents (human or automated) to identify configurations that can enable intense transitions from a safe to unsafe state. However, the most technologically advanced algorithm for separation assurance does not currently attempt to identify such configurations. It is also discussed how, although the model is in a form that lends itself to quantitative evaluations, such evaluations are complicated by the difficulty of accurately quantifying human error probabilities.

  16. Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years several regulations and standards for air quality and limits for air pollution were issued or are in preparation by the European Union, which have severe influence on the environmental monitoring and legislation in Austria. This chapter of the environmental control report of Austria gives an overview about the legal situation of air pollution control in the European Union and in specific the legal situation in Austria. It gives a comprehensive inventory of air pollution measurements for the whole area of Austria of total suspended particulates, ozone, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, heavy metals, benzene, dioxin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and eutrophication. For each of these pollutants the measured emission values throughout Austria are given in tables and geographical charts, the environmental impact is discussed, statistical data and time series of the emission sources are given and legal regulations and measures for an effective environmental pollution control are discussed. In particular the impact of fossil-fuel power plants on the air pollution is analyzed. (a.n.)

  17. Heat Engineering and Economical Justification of Selection of Optimum Air Heating Temperature in Recuperators of Heating Continuous Furnaces at Machine-Building Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Timoshpolsky

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a methodology for calculation of recuperative heat exchangers applied at heating continuous furnaces of press-forging production at machine-building enterprises. Technical and economic calculations of an optimum air heating temperature have been made taking needle-shape heat exchangers in the RUE MAZ heating continuous  furnaces as an example while varying furnace capacity, cost of power carriers and heat-exchange devices.

  18. High flow air sampling for determination of alpha long half-life emitters: area monitoring of a radioactive material disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ore Treatment Unit (UTM) is a mine and closed uranium plant, located in Caldas, Minas Gerais, Brazil. It has a radioactive material disposal composed primarily of pie II and mesothorium. It is stored in six sheds designated C-01, C-02, C-05, C-06, C-07 and C-09. This study aims to present the high flow area monitoring program and results obtained in 2009. The threshold derived from concentration in the air was 0.25 Bq m-3. The average of the activity concentrations in 2009 were: for C-01 1.17 Bq m-3; C-02 0.006 Bq m-3; C-05 1.98 Bq m-3; C-06 2.14 Bq m-3; C-07 0.34 Bq m-3 and C-09 0,025 Bq m-3. Such values indicate that the control stay is an important factor in occupational workers' control, as well as the use of EPI's and behavioral care, besides radioprotection training to allow the access to the areas. No worker, supervisor or visitor reached the limit research

  19. Coefficient Alpha

    OpenAIRE

    Panayiotis Panayides

    2013-01-01

    Heavy reliance on Cronbach’s alpha has been standard practice in many validation studies. However, there seem to be two misconceptions about the interpretation of alpha. First, alpha is mistakenly considered as an indication of unidimensionality and second, that the higher the value of alpha the better. The aim of this study is to clarify these misconceptions with the use of real data from the educational setting. Results showed that high alpha values can be obtained in multidimensional scale...

  20. From 1962 the teaching of Methodology of Radioisotopes is continuous in the University of Buenos Aires of the Argentine Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry of the University of Buenos Aires the teaching of the radioisotopes began in 1960 and uninterruptedly continuous. The application of the radioisotopes and the radiations in different professional activities it is acceptable only in a context of radiological safety and with personal appropriately trained. Conscious of it, the training in grade, postgraduate and technicature, has more of 40% of the thematic one guided to the formation in radiological protection. The courses dictated at the moment in the Laboratory of Radioisotopes they include: Grade formation: to) Subject grade 'Methodology of Radioisotopes' in the Career of Biochemistry: it began to be dictated in 1960 and until the present, more of 6500 students they have gone by our classrooms. b) Grade subject 'Radiopharmacy' in the Career of Pharmacy: guided to the formation of a modern pharmacist, with necessary knowledge to be developed as professional in the Radiopharmaceutical area. Postgraduate formation: c) Postgraduate course of Methodology of Radioisotopes specially directed to biochemical, biologists, veterinarians, chemical. It is dictated uninterruptedly from 1962. d) Postgraduate course in Methodology of Radioisotopes for medical professionals, specially directed to professionals of the medicine that want to specialize in different branches of the Nuclear Medicine. Both courses have 220 present hours and it stops their approval the assistants they should surrender a final exam at open book that consists on the resolution of a practical exercise adapted to their professional practices. Until the present they have surrendered their exams satisfactorily approximately 2000 professionals coming from different areas of the Argentina and of several countries of Hispanic speech. e) Starting from 1992 the Course of Upgrade in Methodology of Radioisotopes directed to professionals that want to upgrade its knowledge in new radioisotopic methodologies is dictated

  1. A study on the environmental behavior of global air pollutants based on the continuous measurements of atmospheric radon concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon is a useful natural radioactive tracer of air transportation of atmospheric pollution, since radon is a noble gas and chemically inert. The atmospheric radon concentration is usually measured by a high-sensitivity electrostatic collection method or a two-filter method. The variations of radon concentrations observed over a solitary island and in the upper atmosphere are suitable for comparing with those of air pollutants. Some numerical simulation models were used to study the radon global transport in the atmosphere. In East Asia, atmospheric radon and air pollutants are transported with the air stream from the continent of China to the Northwestern Pacific Ocean. It is necessary to clarify the transport mechanism from both radon observations at various locations and numerical simulation. (author)

  2. Long-range alpha detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historically, alpha-particle and alpha-contamination detectors have been limited by the very short range of alpha particles in air and by relatively poor sensitivity even if the particles are intercepted. Alpha detectors have had to be operated in a vacuum or in close proximity to the source if reasonable efficiency is desired. Alpha particles interact with the ambient air, producing ionization in the air at the rate of ∼30,000 ion pairs per mega-electron-volt of alpha energy. These charges can be transported over significant distances (several meters) in a moving current of air generated by a small fan. An ion chamber located in front of the fan measures the current carried by the moving ions. The long-range alpha detector (LRAD) offers several advantages over more traditional alpha detectors. First and foremost, it can operate efficiently even if the contamination is not easily accessible. Second, ions generated by contamination in crevices and other unmonitorable locations can be detected if the airflow penetrates those areas. Third, all of the contamination on a large surface will generate ions that can be detected in a single detector; hence, the detector's sensitivity to distributed sources is not limited by the size of the probe. Finally, a simple ion chamber can detect very small electric currents, making this technique potentially quite sensitive

  3. Detection of Campylobacter Bacteria in Air Samples for Continuous Real-Time Monitoring of Campylobacter Colonization in Broiler Flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Katja Nyholm; Lund, Marianne; Skov, J.;

    2009-01-01

    Improved monitoring tools are important for the control of Campylobacter bacteria in broiler production. In this study, we compare the sensitivities of detection of Campylobacter by PCR with feces, dust, and air samples during the lifetimes of broilers in two poultry houses and conclude that the ...

  4. Testing of the automatic dust concentration monitor FH62I for continuous monitoring of suspended particulates in ambient air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The generation of solid dust aerosol with a simple device and the method of calibration are described. The instrument (using a KR-85 β-source) is suitable for operation in monitoring stations for real-time surveillance of suspended particulates in ambient air. (orig./HP)

  5. Application of continuous seismic-reflection techniques to delineate paleochannels beneath the Neuse River at US Marine Corps Air Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinell, Alex P.

    1999-01-01

    A continuous seismic-reflection profiling survey was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey on the Neuse River near the Cherry Point Marine Corps Air Station during July 7-24, 1998. Approximately 52 miles of profiling data were collected during the survey from areas northwest of the Air Station to Flanner Beach and southeast to Cherry Point. Positioning of the seismic lines was done by using an integrated navigational system. Data from the survey were used to define and delineate paleochannel alignments under the Neuse River near the Air Station. These data also were correlated with existing surface and borehole geophysical data, including vertical seismic-profiling velocity data collected in 1995. Sediments believed to be Quaternary in age were identified at varying depths on the seismic sections as undifferentiated reflectors and lack the lateral continuity of underlying reflectors believed to represent older sediments of Tertiary age. The sediments of possible Quaternary age thicken to the southeast. Paleochannels of Quaternary age and varying depths were identified beneath the Neuse River estuary. These paleochannels range in width from 870 feet to about 6,900 feet. Two zones of buried paleochannels were identified in the continuous seismic-reflection profiling data. The eastern paleochannel zone includes two large superimposed channel features identified during this study and in re-interpreted 1995 land seismic-reflection data. The second paleochannel zone, located west of the first paleochannel zone, contains several small paleochannels near the central and south shore of the Neuse River estuary between Slocum Creek and Flanner Beach. This second zone of channel features may be continuous with those mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1995 using land seismic-reflection data on the southern end of the Air Station. Most of the channels were mapped at the Quaternary-Tertiary sediment boundary. These channels appear to have been cut into the older sediments

  6. Healthy Air Outdoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lung.org > Our Initiatives > Healthy Air > Outdoor Healthy Air Outdoors The quality of the air we breathe ... families and can even shorten their lives. Outdoor Air Pollution and Health Outdoor air pollution continues to ...

  7. DRY/WET PERFORMANCE OF A PLATE-FIN AIR COOLED HEAT EXCHANGER WITH CONTINUOUS CORRUGATED FINS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report describes work to (1) determine experimentally the performance and operating characteristics of a plate-fin heat exchanger during dry/wet or 'deluge' operation and (2) continue developing the deluge heat/mass transfer model. This work supports the improvement of power ...

  8. Continuous scanning of the mobility and size distribution of charged clusters and nanometer particles in atmospheric air and the Balanced Scanning Mobility Analyzer BSMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammet, H.

    2006-12-01

    Measuring of charged nanometer particles in atmospheric air is a routine task in research on atmospheric electricity, where these particles are called the atmospheric ions. An aspiration condenser is the most popular instrument for measuring atmospheric ions. Continuous scanning of a mobility distribution is possible when the aspiration condenser is connected as an arm of a balanced bridge. Transfer function of an aspiration condenser is calculated according to the measurements of geometric dimensions, air flow rate, driving voltage, and electric current. The most complicated phase of the calibration is the estimation of the inlet loss of ions due to the Brownian deposition. The available models of ion deposition on the protective inlet screen and the inlet control electrofilter have the uncertainty of about 20%. To keep the uncertainty of measurements low the adsorption should not exceed a few tens of percent. The online conversion of the mobility distribution to the size distribution and a correct reduction of inlet losses are possible when air temperature and pressure are measured simultaneously with the mobility distribution. Two instruments called the Balanced Scanning Mobility Analyzers (BSMA) were manufactured and tested in routine atmospheric measurements. The concentration of atmospheric ions of the size of about a few nanometers is very low and a high air flow rate is required to collect enough of ion current. The air flow of 52 l/s exceeds the air flow in usual aerosol instruments by 2-3 orders of magnitude. The high flow rate reduces the time of ion passage to 60 ms and the heating of air in an analyzer to 0.2 K, which suppresses a possible transformation of ions inside the instrument. The mobility range of the BSMA of 0.032-3.2 cm 2 V - 1 s - 1 is logarithmically uniformly divided into 16 fractions. The size distribution is presented by 12 fractions in the diameter range of 0.4-7.5 nm. The measurement noise of a fraction concentration is typically

  9. Alpha Beta Monitoring System Based on a Pair of Simultaneous Multi Wire Proportional Counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new approach for a simultaneous alpha beta contamination monitoring system is presented. In nuclear environments or laboratories working with open radioactive sources there exists a risk of contamination. In order to avoid external contamination hazards, hand & foot alpha beta monitoring systems are needed. Usually, monitoring systems are based on large area Multi Wire Proportional Counters (MWPC).Generally, in the MWPC detectors the filling gas is supplied by a continuous gas supply system. The filling gas should not exhibit appreciable electron attachment coefficient. Typically, a noble gas such as Argon Methane, 90%Ar+10%CH4 is in use. This method of measurement is effective, yet it requires expensive maintenance costs due to gas flow control and periodical replacements. Several hand held commercial detectors such as Rotem Ind. PA-100, are based on free air flow alpha MWPC. Due to the energy released from the alpha particles in the filling gas a large number of ion pairs are formed. Despite the electron attachment coefficient of free air, a measurable pulse is obtained. Contrary to alpha sources, beta emitters deposit only a small part of their energy. In order to obtain a measurable pulse from beta interactions, oxygen free gas is required. Gas sealed detectors which are appropriate for beta measurements, require a relative thick entrance window in order to avoid gas leakage. Thick windows absorb alpha particles so that they are not appropriate for alpha measurement. The presented approach combines a pair of simultaneous MWPC assembled in a ôpancakeö type configuration; the sealed gas beta counter is located behind a free air alpha detector. This approach enables simultaneous alpha-beta measurement without needing continuous gas supply

  10. New continuous air pumping technique to improve clinical outcomes of descemet-stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty in asian patients with previous ahmed glaucoma valve implantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Min Liang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To evaluate the outcomes of Descemet-stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK with the use of continuous air pumping technique in Asian eyes with previous Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation. METHODS: The DSAEK procedure was modified in that complete air retention of the anterior chamber was maintained for 10 min using continuous air pumping at 30 mm Hg. The primary outcome measurement was graft survival, and postoperative clinical features including, rate of graft detachment, endothelial cell count, intraocular pressure (IOP, surgical time and cup/disc ratio were also recorded. RESULTS: A total of 13 eyes of 13 patients which underwent modified DSAEK and 6 eyes of 6 patients which underwent conventional DSAEK were included. There was a significant difference in graft survival curves between two groups (P = 0.029; the 1-year graft survival rates were estimated as 100% and 66.7% for patients with modified DSAEK and those with traditional DSAEK, respectively. The rate of graft detachment were 0% and 33.3% for the modified DSAEK and conventional DSAEK groups, respectively (P = 0.088. The significantly lowered surgical time for air tamponade was noted in the modified DSAEK group compared to that in the conventional DSAEK group [median (IQR: 10.0 (10.0, 10.0 min vs. 24.5 (22.0, 27.0 min; P<0.001] Postoperatively, patients in the modified DSAEK group had significantly lower IOP as compared to the conventional DSAEK group [12.0 (11.0, 15.0 mm Hg vs. 16.0 (15.0, 18.0 mm Hg; P = 0.047]. Modified DSAEK patients had higher endothelial cell counts as compared to conventional DSAEK patients [2148.0 (1964.0, 2218.0 vs. 1529.0 (713.0, 2014.0], but the difference did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.072. CONCLUSIONS: New continuous air pumping technique in DSAEK can be performed safely and effectively in patients with prior GDDs placement who have corneal failure.

  11. Design and performance of a Nafion dryer for continuous operation at CO2 and CH4 air monitoring sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welp, L. R.; Keeling, R. F.; Weiss, R. F.; Paplawsky, W.; Heckman, S.

    2013-05-01

    In preparation for routine deployment in a network of greenhouse gas monitoring stations, we have designed and tested a simple method for drying ambient air to near or below 0.2% (2000 ppm) mole fraction H2O using a Nafion dryer. The inlet system was designed for use with cavity ring-down spectrometer (CRDS) analyzers such as the Picarro model G2301 that measure H2O in addition to their principal analytes, in this case CO2 and CH4. These analyzers report dry-gas mixing ratios without drying the sample by measuring H2O mixing ratio at the same frequency as the main analytes, and then correcting for the dilution and peak broadening effects of H2O on the mixing ratios of the other analytes measured in moist air. However, it is difficult to accurately validate the water vapor correction in the field. By substantially lowering the amount of H2O in the sample, uncertainties in the applied water vapor corrections can be reduced by an order of magnitude or more, thus eliminating the need to determine instrument-specific water vapor correction coefficients and to verify the stability over time. Our Nafion drying inlet system takes advantage of the extra capacity of the analyzer pump to redirect 30% of the dry gas exiting the Nafion to the outer shell side of the dryer and has no consumables. We tested the Nafion dryer against a cryotrap (-97 °C) method for removing H2O and found that in wet-air tests, the Nafion reduces the CO2 dry-gas mixing ratios of the sample gas by as much as 0.1 ± 0.01 ppm due to leakage across the membrane. The effect on CH4 was smaller and varied within ± 0.2 ppb, with an approximate uncertainty of 0.1 ppb. The Nafion-induced CO2 bias is partially offset by sending the dry reference gases through the Nafion dryer as well. The residual bias due to the impact of moisture differences between sample and reference gas on the permeation through the Nafion was approximately -0.05 ppm for CO2 and varied within ± 0.2 ppb for CH4. The uncertainty of this

  12. Design and performance of a Nafion dryer for continuous operation at CO2 and CH4 air monitoring sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. R. Welp

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In preparation for routine deployment in a network of greenhouse gas monitoring stations, we have designed and tested a simple method for drying ambient air to near or below 0.2% (2000 ppm mole fraction H2O using a Nafion dryer. The inlet system was designed for use with cavity ring-down spectrometer (CRDS analyzers such as the Picarro model G2301 that measure H2O in addition to their principal analytes, in this case CO2 and CH4. These analyzers report dry-gas mixing ratios without drying the sample by measuring H2O mixing ratio at the same frequency as the main analytes, and then correcting for the dilution and peak broadening effects of H2O on the mixing ratios of the other analytes measured in moist air. However, it is difficult to accurately validate the water vapor correction in the field. By substantially lowering the amount of H2O in the sample, uncertainties in the applied water vapor corrections can be reduced by an order of magnitude or more, thus eliminating the need to determine instrument-specific water vapor correction coefficients and to verify the stability over time. Our Nafion drying inlet system takes advantage of the extra capacity of the analyzer pump to redirect 30% of the dry gas exiting the Nafion to the outer shell side of the dryer and has no consumables. We tested the Nafion dryer against a cryotrap (−97 °C method for removing H2O and found that in wet-air tests, the Nafion reduces the CO2 dry-gas mixing ratios of the sample gas by as much as 0.1 ± 0.01 ppm due to leakage across the membrane. The effect on CH4 was smaller and varied within ± 0.2 ppb, with an approximate uncertainty of 0.1 ppb. The Nafion-induced CO2 bias is partially offset by sending the dry reference gases through the Nafion dryer as well. The residual bias due to the impact of moisture differences between sample and reference gas on the permeation through the Nafion was approximately −0.05 ppm for CO2 and varied within ± 0.2 ppb for CH4. The

  13. Design and performance of a Nafion dryer for continuous operation at CO2 and CH4 air monitoring sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Paplawsky

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In preparation for the routine deployment of the Earth Networks greenhouse gas monitoring network, we have designed and tested a simple method for drying ambient air to below 0.2% mole fraction H2O using a Nafion dryer. The inlet was designed for use with a Picarro model G2301 cavity ring down spectrometer (CRDS CO2/CH4/H2O analyzer. The analyzer measures water vapor mixing ratio at the same frequency as CO2 and CH4 and then corrects for the dilution and peak broadening effects of H2O on the CO2 and CH4 mixing ratios. This analyzer is remarkably stable and performs well on water vapor correction tests, but there is potentially an added benefit of reducing the dependence on the H2O correction for long term field measurement programs. Substantially lowering the amount of H2O in the sample can reduce uncertainties in the applied H2O corrections by an order of magnitude or more, and eliminate the need to determine an instrument-specific H2O correction factor and to verify its stability over time. Our Nafion drying inlet system takes advantage of the extra capacity of the analyzer pump to redirect 30% of the dry gas exiting the Nafion to the outer shell side of the dryer and has no consumables. We tested the Nafion dryer against a cryotrap (−95 °C method for removing H2O and found that it does not significantly alter the CO2 and CH4 dry mixing ratios of the sample gas. Systematic differences between the drying methods were at the level of 0.05 ppm in CO2 and 0.1 ppb in CH4 for the wet-air tests, well within the WMO compatibility guidelines.

  14. LRAD, semiconductor, and other radiation detectors applied to environmental monitoring for alpha and beta contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The very short range of alpha particles in air (typically 2 to 3 cm) has severely limited the use of traditional alpha monitors for detecting and identifying small amounts of alpha-producing contamination in soil, water, and other materials. Monitors based on the traditional alpha detector technology are often hard pressed to meet continually increasing sensitivity requirements. The long-range alpha detector (LRAD) avoids the distance restriction by detecting the ions produced by the interaction of alpha particles with air, rather than the alpha particles directly. The ions are swept into an ion detector either by a moving air current (generated by a fan) or a weak electric field. The LRAD is limited by the distance the ions can travel in the ∼5-s ion lifetime (1 to 100 m), rather than by the several-centimeter range of the alpha particles. The LRAD can be used to perform sensitive (less than 10 disintegrations per minute per 100 cm2) field scans of large surface areas (ranging from hundreds of square meters of concrete floor to thousands of square meters of soil). Because the 'active' element in a LRAD is a solid-metal ion collection plate, the detector is relatively inexpensive, easy to service, and quite rugged. However, the LRAD cannot supply any spectroscopic information to help identify the contaminant. Semiconductor, ionization chamber, and other types of particle detector can generate clean spectra from small samples of material and can identify trace amounts of surface contamination. Furthermore, these detectors are rugged enough to use routinely in a mobile laboratory for isotope identification of 'hot spots' located by the LRAD system. The combination of the LRAD with either an alpha spectrometer or a mobile laboratory with other particle detectors has applications for field beta-particle monitoring (such as would result from tritium contamination) as well as alpha particle detection. (author)

  15. The "Lung": a software-controlled air accumulator for quasi-continuous multi-point measurement of agricultural greenhouse gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Martin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe the design and testing of a flexible bag ("Lung" accumulator attached to a gas chromatographic (GC analyzer capable of measuring surface-atmosphere greenhouse gas exchange fluxes in a wide range of environmental/agricultural settings. In the design presented here, the Lung can collect up to three gas samples concurrently, each accumulated into a Tedlar bag over a period of 20 min or longer. Toggling collection between 2 sets of 3 bags enables quasi-continuous collection with sequential analysis and discarding of sample residues. The Lung thus provides a flexible "front end" collection system for interfacing to a GC or alternative analyzer and has been used in 2 main types of application. Firstly, it has been applied to micrometeorological assessment of paddock-scale N2O fluxes, discussed here. Secondly, it has been used for the automation of concurrent emission assessment from three sheep housed in metabolic crates with gas tracer addition and sampling multiplexed to a single GC.

    The Lung allows the same GC equipment used in laboratory discrete sample analysis to be deployed for continuous field measurement. Continuity of measurement enables spatially-averaged N2O fluxes in particular to be determined with greater accuracy, given the highly heterogeneous and episodic nature of N2O emissions. We present a detailed evaluation of the micrometeorological flux estimation alongside an independent tuneable diode laser system, reporting excellent agreement between flux estimates based on downwind vertical concentration differences. Whilst the current design is based around triplet bag sets, the basic design could be scaled up to a larger number of inlets or bags and less frequent analysis (longer accumulation times where a greater number of sampling points are required.

  16. The "Lung": a software-controlled air accumulator for quasi-continuous multi-point measurement of agricultural greenhouse gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Martin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe the design and testing of a flexible bag ("Lung" accumulator attached to a gas chromatographic (GC analyzer capable of measuring greenhouse gas emissive fluxes in a wide range of environmental/agricultural settings. In the design presented here, the Lung can collect up to three gas samples concurrently, each accumulated into a Tedlar® bag over a period of 20 min or longer. Toggling collection between 2 sets of 3 bags enables quasi-continuous collection with sequential analysis and discarding of sample residues. The Lung thus provides a flexible "front end" collection system for interfacing to a GC or alternative analyzer and has been used in 2 main types of application. Firstly, it has been applied to micrometeorological assessment of paddock-scale N2O fluxes. Secondly, it has been used for the automation of concurrent emission assessment from three flux chambers, multiplexed to a single GC.

    The Lung allows the same GC equipment used in laboratory discrete sample analysis to be deployed for continuous field measurement. Continuity of measurement enables spatially-averaged N2O fluxes in particular to be determined with greater accuracy, given the highly heterogeneous and episodic nature of N2O emissions. We present a detailed evaluation of the micrometeorological flux estimation alongside an independent tuneable diode laser system, reporting excellent agreement between flux estimates based on downwind vertical concentration differences. Whilst the current design is based around triplet bag sets, the basic design could be scaled up to a larger number of inlets or bags and less frequent analysis (longer accumulation times where a greater number of sampling points are required.

  17. Pengaruh Jumlah Pemakaian Air Di Continuous Settling Tank Terhadap Potensi Minyak Yang Dihasilkan Dan Kadar Minyak Hilang

    OpenAIRE

    Zuhairi, Novia

    2011-01-01

    The process separate oil in Continuous Settling Tank (CST) will get oil and sludge has been separated according to density. One of the important factor must give more attention is using dilute water which influence with measure of oil losses and the result of potential oil. Analysis potential of oil has been done with kind of presentation water are 24%, 27% and 30% using centrifuge method. Extraction methode for analysis measure of oil losses using n-hexane. The result of analysis is using w...

  18. On the correlation between air temperature and the core Earth processes: Further investigations using a continuous wavelet analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Sello, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    In a recent article by Dickey, J. O., Marcus, S.L. and O. de Viron, 2011, the authors show evidences for correlations in the multi-decadal variability of Earth's rotation rate [i.e., length of day (LOD)], the angular momentum of the core (CAM), and natural surface air temperature (SAT). Previous investigators have already found that the LOD fluctuations are largely attributed to core-mantle interactions and that the SAT appears strongly anti-correlated with the decadal LOD. As the above authors note, the cause of this common variability needs to be further investigated and studied. In fact, "since temperature cannot affect the CAM or LOD to a sufficient extent, the results favor either a direct effect of Earth's core-generated magnetic field (e.g., through the modulation of charged-particle fluxes, which may impact cloud formation) or a more indirect effect of some other core process on the climate-or yet another process that affects both". The main aim of the present research note is to further support the a...

  19. Interlaminar shear strength of SiC matrix composites reinforced by continuous fibers at 900 °C in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The application of SiC fiber could improve ILSS of the SiC matrix composites. • The orientation of the warp fibers plays a critical role in determining ILSS of 2.5D-C/SiC. • The failure mechanisms of 2D composites involve matrix cracking, and interfacial debonding. - Abstract: To reveal the shear properties of SiC matrix composites, interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) of three kinds of silicon carbide matrix composites was investigated by compression of the double notched shear specimen (DNS) at 900 °C in air. The investigated composites included a woven plain carbon fiber reinforced silicon carbide composite (2D-C/SiC), a two-and-a-half-dimensional carbon fiber-reinforced silicon carbide composite (2.5D-C/SiC) and a woven plain silicon carbon fiber reinforced silicon carbide composite (2D-SiC/SiC). A scanning electron microscope was employed to observe the microstructure and fracture morphologies. It can be found that the fiber type and reinforcement architecture have significant impacts on the ILSS of the SiC matrix composites. Great anisotropy of ILSS can be found for 2.5D-C/SiC because of the different fracture resistance of the warp fibers. Larger ILSS can be obtained when the specimens was loaded along the weft direction. In addition, the SiC fibers could enhance the ILSS, compared with carbon fibers. The improvement is attributed to the higher oxidation resistance of SiC fibers and the similar thermal expansion coefficients between the matrix and the fibers

  20. Alpha fetoprotein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetal alpha globulin; AFP ... Greater than normal levels of AFP may be due to: Cancer in testes , ovaries, biliary (liver secretion) tract, stomach, or pancreas Cirrhosis of the liver Liver cancer ...

  1. Commande non-linéaire et analyse de stabilité de réseaux multi-terminaux haute tension à courant continu

    OpenAIRE

    CHEN, Yijing

    2015-01-01

    Cette thèse a été consacrée à l'étude des réseaux multi-terminaux haute tension à courant continu (MTDC). Les principales contributions étaient dans le domaine du contrôle automatique non linéaire, appliquées aux systèmes électriques, électronique de puissance et les sources d'énergie renouvelables. Le travail de recherche a été lancé avec l'intention de combler certaines lacunes entre la théorie et la pratique, en particulier: 1) d'enquêter sur diverses approches de contrôle pour le but d'am...

  2. Operability of the Ventilation Continuous Air Monitor (CAM) Interlock Analysis of Proposed Upgrade to the 241AW Farm Primary Exhauster CAM System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Tank Farms Final Safety Analysis (FSAR) assumes that a ventilation stack Continuous Air Monitor (CAM) interlock system detects high radiation in the exhaust stream and shuts off the associated ventilation system within 10 minutes of a High-Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter system failure (CHG, 2002). Previous analysis of the as-built CAM system on the AW Farm Primary Exhauster (stack 296-A-27) showed that this system potentially required significantly longer than 10 minutes to detect a HEPA filter failure and initiate shutdown of the ventilation system (Short, 2002). The purpose of this report is to determine the CAM interlock system response time for a proposed upgrade of the 296-A-27 CAM system. The approach to be used in this analysis is essentially the same as used in RPP-10799, Rev. 0 (Short, 2002), which is to conservatively estimate the time required by the proposed upgraded CAM sampling/monitoring system to detect a FSAR-defined HEPA filter failure and automatically shutdown the exhaust fan. For the HEPA filter failure over-temperature accident scenario in the FSAR, the upgraded CAM system on the AW Farm Primary Exhauster will require significantly less than 10 minutes to detect a HEPA filter failure, actuate the CAM Interlock, and shutdown the exhauster fan. Therefore, the analyzed system is adequate to meet the operability requirements specified in the FSAR and the Tank Farms Technical Safety Requirements (CHG, 2001; CHG, 2002)

  3. Assessment of life time fatality risk and annual dose estimation by continuous monitoring of radon concentration in air, water and soil of Bathinda District of Punjab, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon and its daughter products are the major sources of radiation exposure. Keeping in mind the study of radon concentration in air, water and soil of Bathinda district of Punjab was carried out using an active electronic monitor RAD7. Ten different locations were chosen in the district for continuous monitoring of radon in air, water and soil and experiment was repeated four times in same location by taking. The concentration of indoor radon varies from 35.2 Bqm-3 to 335 Bqm-3 with an average value of 151.74 Bqm-3 which is higher than the world average recommended value of 40 Bqm-3 (UNSCEAR 2000). In general, indoor radon concentration are found to be well within the recommended action level (200-300 Bqm-3) by the International Commission of Radiation Protection (ICRP, 2009). The mean annual estimated effective dose received by the residents of the studied area was estimated to be 2.59 mSv. The annual estimated effective dose is less than the recommended action level (3-10 mSv y-1) and average lifetime fatality risk of the residents of study region has been calculated to be 2 x 10-4. The mean effective dose due to inhalation and ingestion of radon through water has been calculated to be 0.009 mSva-1 and 0.71 Sva-1. (author)

  4. Electric field variations measured continuously in free air over a conductive thin zone in the tilted Lias-epsilon black shales near Osnabrück, Northwest Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurk, M.; Bosch, F. P.; Tougiannidis, N.

    2013-04-01

    Common studies on the static electric field distribution over a conductivity anomaly use the self-potential method. However, this method is time consuming and requires nonpolarizable electrodes to be placed in the ground. Moreover, the information gained by this method is restricted to the horizontal variations of the electric field. To overcome the limitation in the self-potential technique, we conducted a field experiment using a non conventional technique to assess the static electric field over a conductivity anomaly. We use two metallic potential probes arranged on an insulated boom with a separation of 126 cm. When placed into the electric field of the free air, a surface charge will be induced on each probe trying to equalize with the potential of the surrounding atmosphere. The use of a plasma source at both probes facilitated continuous and quicker measurement of the electric field in the air. The present study shows first experimental measurements with a modified potential probe technique (MPP) along a 600-meter-long transect to demonstrate the general feasibility of this method for studying the static electric field distribution over shallow conductivity anomalies. Field measurements were carried out on a test site on top of the Bramsche Massif near Osnabrück (Northwest Germany) to benefit from a variety of available near surface data over an almost vertical conductivity anomaly. High resolution self-potential data served in a numerical analysis to estimate the expected individual components of the electric field vector. During the experiment we found more anomalies in the vertical and horizontal components of the electric field than self-potential anomalies. These contrasting findings are successfully cross-validated with conventional near surface geophysical methods. Among these methods, we used self-potential, radiomagnetotelluric, electric resistivity tomography and induced polarization data to derive 2D conductivity models of the subsurface in

  5. Ultrawide continuously tunable 1.55-μm vertical air-cavity wavelength-selective elements for VCSELs using micromachined electrostatic actuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillmer, Hartmut H.; Daleiden, Juergen; Prott, Cornelia; Roemer, Friedhard; Irmer, Soeren; Ataro, Edwin; Tarraf, Amer; Gutermuth, D.; Kommallein, I.; Strassner, Martin

    2003-08-01

    Surface-micromachined 1.55μm vertical-resonator-based devices, capable of wide, continuous, monotonic and kink-free tuning are designed, technologically implemented and characterized. Tuning is achieved by mechanically actuating one or several membranes in a vertical resonator including two ultra-highly reflective DBR mirrors. The tuning is controlled by a single parameter (actuation voltage). The two different layers composing the mirrors reveal a very strong refractive index contrast. Filters including InP/air-gap DBR's (3.5 periods) using GaInAs sacrificial layers reveal a continuous tuning of up to 9% of the absolute wavelength. Varying a reverse voltage (U=0 .. -3.2V) between the membranes, a tuning range up to 142nm was obtained by electrostatic actuation. The correlation of the wavelength and the applied voltage is accurately reproducible without any hysteresis. Theoretical model calculations are performed for symmetric and asymmetric device structures, varying layer thickness and compositions. Models of highly sophisticated color tuning can be found in nature, e.g. in tunable spectral light filtering by trogon and butterfly wings. Bionics transfers the principles of success of nature into natural science, engineering disciplines and applications (here filters and VCSELs for optical communication on the basis of WDM). Light interferes constructively and destructively with nano- and microstructures of appropriate shape, dimensions and materials, both in the artificial DBR structures fabricated in our labs as well as in the natural ones.

  6. Effects of continuous phonation on /sup 133/xenon-inhalation air curves (of the kind used in deriving regional cerebral blood flow)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Formby, C.; Thomas, R.G.; Brown, W.S. Jr.; Halsey, J.H. Jr.

    1987-07-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) may be measured with inhalation techniques that use end-expired values of radioactivity to estimate the isotope concentration in arterial blood. These end-expired data are used as an input function in a mathematical equation to derive rCBF. End-expired air is assumed normally to be in equilibrium with the arterial blood at the alveolar surface of the lung during regular (passive) breathing; this assumption may not be valid during continuous phonation. We therefore have analyzed breathing (inhalation/exhalation) patterns and end-expired radioactivity (/sup 133/Xe) during (1) speaking, (2) singing, and (3) humming of the national anthem, and also during (4) passive breathing. Statistically significant differences in breathing patterns were measured between a group of nonmusicians and two groups of musicians (singers) during the phonation tasks: The nonmusicians breathed more often (and more rapidly) and exhibited less variability in their breathing patterns than did the musicians. Notwithstanding these differences, the shapes of smoothed functions derived from the end-expired values were not influenced appreciably during phonation (except possibly during talking). The latter finding suggests that estimates of rCBF derived with these data should not be confounded seriously because of the continuous phonation.

  7. The effects of continuous phonation on 133xenon-inhalation air curves (of the kind used in deriving regional cerebral blood flow).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formby, C; Thomas, R G; Brown, W S; Halsey, J H

    1987-07-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) may be measured with inhalation techniques that use end-expired values of radioactivity to estimate the isotope concentration in arterial blood. These end-expired data are used as an input function in a mathematical equation to derive rCBF. End-expired air is assumed normally to be in equilibrium with the arterial blood at the alveolar surface of the lung during regular (passive) breathing; this assumption may not be valid during continuous phonation. We therefore have analyzed breathing (inhalation/exhalation) patterns and end-expired radioactivity (133Xe) during (1) speaking, (2) singing, and (3) humming of the national anthem, and also during (4) passive breathing. Statistically significant differences in breathing patterns were measured between a group of nonmusicians and two groups of musicians (singers) during the phonation tasks: The nonmusicians breathed more often (and more rapidly) and exhibited less variability in their breathing patterns than did the musicians. Notwithstanding these differences, the shapes of smoothed functions derived from the end-expired values were not influenced appreciably during phonation (except possibly during talking). The latter finding suggests that estimates of rCBF derived with these data should not be confounded seriously because of the continuous phonation. PMID:3620907

  8. Effects of continuous phonation on 133xenon-inhalation air curves (of the kind used in deriving regional cerebral blood flow)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) may be measured with inhalation techniques that use end-expired values of radioactivity to estimate the isotope concentration in arterial blood. These end-expired data are used as an input function in a mathematical equation to derive rCBF. End-expired air is assumed normally to be in equilibrium with the arterial blood at the alveolar surface of the lung during regular (passive) breathing; this assumption may not be valid during continuous phonation. We therefore have analyzed breathing (inhalation/exhalation) patterns and end-expired radioactivity (133Xe) during (1) speaking, (2) singing, and (3) humming of the national anthem, and also during (4) passive breathing. Statistically significant differences in breathing patterns were measured between a group of nonmusicians and two groups of musicians (singers) during the phonation tasks: The nonmusicians breathed more often (and more rapidly) and exhibited less variability in their breathing patterns than did the musicians. Notwithstanding these differences, the shapes of smoothed functions derived from the end-expired values were not influenced appreciably during phonation (except possibly during talking). The latter finding suggests that estimates of rCBF derived with these data should not be confounded seriously because of the continuous phonation

  9. $\\alpha_s$ review (2016)

    CERN Document Server

    d'Enterria, David

    2016-01-01

    The current world-average of the strong coupling at the Z pole mass, $\\alpha_s(m^2_{Z}) = 0.1181 \\pm 0.0013$, is obtained from a comparison of perturbative QCD calculations computed, at least, at next-to-next-to-leading-order accuracy, to a set of 6 groups of experimental observables: (i) lattice QCD "data", (ii) $\\tau$ hadronic decays, (iii) proton structure functions, (iv) event shapes and jet rates in $e^+e^-$ collisions, (v) Z boson hadronic decays, and (vi) top-quark cross sections in p-p collisions. In addition, at least 8 other $\\alpha_s$ extractions, usually with a lower level of theoretical and/or experimental precision today, have been proposed: pion, $\\Upsilon$, W hadronic decays; soft and hard fragmentation functions; jets cross sections in pp, e-p and $\\gamma$-p collisions; and photon F$_2$ structure function in $\\gamma\\,\\gamma$ collisions. These 14 $\\alpha_s$ determinations are reviewed, and the perspectives of reduction of their present uncertainties are discussed.

  10. Alpha scintillation radon counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon counting chambers which utilize the alpha-scintillation properties of silver activated zinc sulfide are simple to construct, have a high efficiency, and, with proper design, may be relatively insensitive to variations in the pressure or purity of the counter filling. Chambers which were constructed from glass, metal, or plastic in a wide variety of shapes and sizes were evaluated for the accuracy and the precision of the radon counting. The principles affecting the alpha-scintillation radon counting chamber design and an analytic system suitable for a large scale study of the 222Rn and 226Ra content of either air or other environmental samples are described. Particular note is taken of those factors which affect the accuracy and the precision of the method for monitoring radioactivity around uranium mines

  11. On continued fraction algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Smeets, Ionica

    2010-01-01

    Is there a good continued fraction approximation between every two bad ones? What is the entropy of the natural extension for alpha-Rosen fractions? How do you find multi-dimensional continued fractions with a guaranteed quality in polynomial time? These, and many more, questions are answered in this thesis.

  12. An assessment of the performance of the Monitor for AeRosols and GAses in ambient air (MARGA: a semi-continuous method for soluble compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. C. Rumsey

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Ambient air monitoring as part of the US Environmental Protection Agency's (US EPA's Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNet currently uses filter packs to measure weekly integrated concentrations. The US EPA is interested in supplementing CASTNet with semi-continuous monitoring systems at select sites to characterize atmospheric chemistry and deposition of nitrogen and sulfur compounds at higher time resolution than the filter pack. The Monitor for AeRosols and GAses in ambient air (MARGA measures water-soluble gases and aerosols at hourly temporal resolution. The performance of the MARGA was assessed under the US EPA Environmental Technology Verification (ETV program. The assessment was conducted in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina from 8 September–8 October 2010 and focused on gaseous SO2, HNO3 and NH3 and aerosol SO4−, NO3− and NH4+. Precision of the MARGA was evaluated by calculating the median absolute relative percent difference (MARPD between paired hourly results from duplicate MARGA units (MUs, with a performance goal of 2, SO42− and NH4+, with all three compounds passing the accuracy and precision goals by a significant margin. The performance of the MARGA in measuring NO3− could not be evaluated due to the different sampling efficiency of coarse NO3− by the MUs and the filter pack. Estimates of "fine" NO3− were calculated for the MUs and the filter pack. Using this and results from a previous study, it is concluded that if the MUs and the filter pack were sampling the same particle size, the MUs would have good agreement in terms of precision and accuracy. The MARGA performed moderately well in measuring HNO3 and NH3, though neither met the linear regression slope goals. However, recommendations for improving the measurement of HNO3 and NH3 are discussed. It is concluded that SO42−, SO2, NO3−, HNO3, NH4+ and NH3 concentrations can be measured with acceptable accuracy and precision when the MARGA is

  13. The $\\alpha-\\alpha$ fishbone potential revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Day, J P; Elhanafy, M; Smith, E; Woodhouse, R; Papp, Z

    2011-01-01

    The fishbone potential of composite particles simulates the Pauli effect by nonlocal terms. We determine the $\\alpha-\\alpha$ fishbone potential by simultaneously fitting to two-$\\alpha$ resonance energies, experimental phase shifts and three-$\\alpha$ binding energies. We found that essentially a simple gaussian can provide a good description of two-$\\alpha$ and three-$\\alpha$ experimental data without invoking three-body potentials.

  14. Alpha One Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tested Find Support Find Doctor What Is Alpha-1? Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency (Alpha-1) is a ... results for inhaled augmentation More News Our Number One Goal: Find a cure for Alpha-1. Website ...

  15. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... helpful? Also known as: Alpha 1 -antitrypsin; A1AT; AAT Formal name: Alpha 1 Antitrypsin; α1-antitrypsin Related ... know? How is it used? Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) testing is used to help diagnose alpha-1 ...

  16. Alpha spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, Felix; Wilsenach, Heinrich; Zuber, Kai [IKTP TU-Dresden, Dresden (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    Alpha decays from long living isotopes are one of the limiting backgrounds for experiments searching for rare decays with stringent background constrains, such as neutrinoless double beta decay experiments. It is thus very important to accurately measure the half-lives of these decays, in order to properly model their background contribution. Therefore, it is important to be able to measure half-lives from alpha decays of the order of 1 x 10{sup 15} yr. A measurement of such a long lived decay imposes, however, a series of challenges, where the correct discrimination between background and true signal is critical. There is also a more general interest in such long living half-life measurements, as their value depends crucially on the underlying nuclear model. This work proposes a setup to measure long lived alpha decays, based on the design of the Frisch-Grid ionisation chamber. It is shown that the proposed design provides a good separation of signal and background events. It is also demonstrated that, with pulse shape analysis, it is possible to constrain the source position of the decay, further improving the quality of the data. A discussion of the characterisation of the detector is also presented as well as some results obtained with calibration sources.

  17. Alpha spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpha decays from long living isotopes are one of the limiting backgrounds for experiments searching for rare decays with stringent background constrains, such as neutrinoless double beta decay experiments. It is thus very important to accurately measure the half-lives of these decays, in order to properly model their background contribution. Therefore, it is important to be able to measure half-lives from alpha decays of the order of 1 x 1015 yr. A measurement of such a long lived decay imposes, however, a series of challenges, where the correct discrimination between background and true signal is critical. There is also a more general interest in such long living half-life measurements, as their value depends crucially on the underlying nuclear model. This work proposes a setup to measure long lived alpha decays, based on the design of the Frisch-Grid ionisation chamber. It is shown that the proposed design provides a good separation of signal and background events. It is also demonstrated that, with pulse shape analysis, it is possible to constrain the source position of the decay, further improving the quality of the data. A discussion of the characterisation of the detector is also presented as well as some results obtained with calibration sources.

  18. Technical aspects of the sigma factor alarm method in alpha CAMs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some test must be applied to the low-level count data from alpha continuous air monitors (CAMs) to determine if the count is statistically significant (i.e., different from background). The test should also automatically account for different levels of background (i.e., ambient radon progeny concentrations). The method should, in other words, be as sensitive as possible, automatically desensitize when required, but in such a manner as to not exceed a previously-chosen acceptable false-alarm rate.

  19. PNNL OS3300 Alpha/Beta Monitoring System Software and Hardware Operations Manual, Revision 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) OS3300 Alpha/Beta Monitoring System Software and Hardware Operations Manual describes how to install and operate the software and hardware on a personal computer in conjunction with the EG and G Berthold LB150D continuous air monitor. Included are operational details for the software functions, how to read and use the drop-down menus, how to understand readings and calculations, and how to access the database tables

  20. PNNL OS3300 Alpha/Beta Monitoring System Software and Hardware Operations Manual, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, J. M.; Duchsherer, Cheryl J.; Sisk, Daniel R.; Carter, Gregory L.; Douglas, David D.; Carrell, Dorothy M.

    2006-01-25

    This Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) OS3300 Alpha/Beta Monitoring System Software and Hardware Operations Manual describes how to install and operate the software and hardware on a personal computer in conjunction with the EG&G Berthold LB150D continuous air monitor. Included are operational details for the software functions, how to read and use the drop-down menus, how to understand readings and calculations, and how to access the database tables.

  1. Gaseous alpha emitter diffusion studies using alpha track method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a very accurate and sensitive analysis method such as alpha track method, the SSNTD group was able to undertake studies on the atomic and molecular processes taking place at low speed and/or very low concentrations, such as diffusion of gaseous alpha radionuclides in gaseous media. For practical application reasons, we began to study the diffusion in air for gaseous alpha radionuclides and aerosols carrying solid alpha radionuclides. The used alpha radionuclides were: Rn-222, as gaseous radionuclide and its solid descendants genetically related, attached to different particles from air, as radioactive aerosols. The source was included into an air tight device with a very well known volume. After 40 days, the radioactive equilibrium was established for all descendants, so that in the device there were the Rn-222 and its descendants, each of them having the same activity. The relative amount/activity ratio of each decay product, at any duration, for any initial mass of Ra-226 parent radionuclide, were calculated using the code UURASE, based on the Bateman general equations, for computing the U-238 radioactive series gamma accumulation. This was adapted for alpha accumulation as ALFAURASE programme. The device which contains the Ra-226 source can be coupled to the calibration system or to the diffusion system, without destroying the radioactive equilibrium. At this coupling, only the radioactive concentration is changed due to the variation of the volume. First of all the device was used for calibrating the CR-39 track detectors for both Rn-222 gaseous radionuclide and aerosol concentration measurements using, in the coupled calibration system, a special 'detector-container' equipped/or not with a filter used for radioactive aerosol stopping. The track detectors CR-39 were etched in NaOH 30%, for 7 hours at 70 deg. C and their studies were performed by optical microscopy using a stereo-microscope Wild M7S and a binocular Zeiss Jena microscope. (authors)

  2. A Graphical Method for Estimation of Barometric Efficiency from Continuous Data - Concepts and Application to a Site in the Piedmont, Air Force Plant 6, Marietta, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonthier, Gerard J.

    2007-01-01

    A graphical method that uses continuous water-level and barometric-pressure data was developed to estimate barometric efficiency. A plot of nearly continuous water level (on the y-axis), as a function of nearly continuous barometric pressure (on the x-axis), will plot as a line curved into a series of connected elliptical loops. Each loop represents a barometric-pressure fluctuation. The negative of the slope of the major axis of an elliptical loop will be the ratio of water-level change to barometric-pressure change, which is the sum of the barometric efficiency plus the error. The negative of the slope of the preferred orientation of many elliptical loops is an estimate of the barometric efficiency. The slope of the preferred orientation of many elliptical loops is approximately the median of the slopes of the major axes of the elliptical loops. If water-level change that is not caused by barometric-pressure change does not correlate with barometric-pressure change, the probability that the error will be greater than zero will be the same as the probability that it will be less than zero. As a result, the negative of the median of the slopes for many loops will be close to the barometric efficiency. The graphical method provided a rapid assessment of whether a well was affected by barometric-pressure change and also provided a rapid estimate of barometric efficiency. The graphical method was used to assess which wells at Air Force Plant 6, Marietta, Georgia, had water levels affected by barometric-pressure changes during a 2003 constant-discharge aquifer test. The graphical method was also used to estimate barometric efficiency. Barometric-efficiency estimates from the graphical method were compared to those of four other methods: average of ratios, median of ratios, Clark, and slope. The two methods (the graphical and median-of-ratios methods) that used the median values of water-level change divided by barometric-pressure change appeared to be most resistant to

  3. Remote Optical Detection of Alpha Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpha emitting radiation sources are typically hard to detect with conventional detectors due to the short range of alpha particles in the air. However, previous studies have shown that remote detection of alpha radiation is possible by measuring the ionization-induced fluorescence of air molecules. The alpha-induced ultraviolet (UV) light is mainly emitted by molecular nitrogen and its fluorescence properties are well known. The benefit of this method is the long range of UV photons in the air. Secondly, the detection is possible also under a strong beta and gamma radiation backgrounds as they do not cause localized molecular excitation. In this work, the optical detection was studied using two different detection schemes; spectral separation of fluorescence from the background lighting and coincidence detection of UV photons originating from a single radiative decay event. Our spectrally integrated measurements have shown that one alpha decay event yields up to 400 fluorescence photons in the air and all these UV photons are induced in a 5 ns time-window. On the other hand, the probability of a background coincidence event in 5 ns scale is very rare compared to the number of background photons. This information can be applied in fluorescence coincidence filtering to discriminate the alpha radiation initiated fluorescence signal from much more intense background lighting. A device called HAUVA (Handheld Alpha UV Application) was built during this work for demonstration purposes. HAUVA utilizes spectral filtering and it is designed to detect alpha emitters from a distance of about 40 cm. Using specially selected room lighting, the device is able to separate 1 kBq alpha emitter from the background lighting with 1 second integration time. (author)

  4. From 1962 the teaching of Methodology of Radioisotopes is continuous in the University of Buenos Aires of the Argentine Republic; Desde 1962 la ensenanza de Metodologia de Radioisotopos es continua en la Universidad de Buenos Aires de la Republica Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera, E.; Cremaschi, G.; Martin, G.; Zubillaga, M.; Cricco, G.; Davio, C.; Genaro, A.; Bianchin, A.; Mohamad, N.; Klecha, A.; Calmanovici, G.; Goldman, G.; Salgueiro, J.; Nunez, M.; Medina, V.; Gutierrez, A.; Leonardi, N.; Bergoc, R. [Laboratorio de Radioisotopos, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junin 956, 1113- Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. e-mail: rmbergoc@arnet.com.ar

    2006-07-01

    In the Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry of the University of Buenos Aires the teaching of the radioisotopes began in 1960 and uninterruptedly continuous. The application of the radioisotopes and the radiations in different professional activities it is acceptable only in a context of radiological safety and with personal appropriately trained. Conscious of it, the training in grade, postgraduate and technicature, has more of 40% of the thematic one guided to the formation in radiological protection. The courses dictated at the moment in the Laboratory of Radioisotopes they include: Grade formation: to) Subject grade 'Methodology of Radioisotopes' in the Career of Biochemistry: it began to be dictated in 1960 and until the present, more of 6500 students they have gone by our classrooms. b) Grade subject 'Radiopharmacy' in the Career of Pharmacy: guided to the formation of a modern pharmacist, with necessary knowledge to be developed as professional in the Radiopharmaceutical area. Postgraduate formation: c) Postgraduate course of Methodology of Radioisotopes specially directed to biochemical, biologists, veterinarians, chemical. It is dictated uninterruptedly from 1962. d) Postgraduate course in Methodology of Radioisotopes for medical professionals, specially directed to professionals of the medicine that want to specialize in different branches of the Nuclear Medicine. Both courses have 220 present hours and it stops their approval the assistants they should surrender a final exam at open book that consists on the resolution of a practical exercise adapted to their professional practices. Until the present they have surrendered their exams satisfactorily approximately 2000 professionals coming from different areas of the Argentina and of several countries of Hispanic speech. e) Starting from 1992 the Course of Upgrade in Methodology of Radioisotopes directed to professionals that want to upgrade its knowledge in new radioisotopic

  5. An Alpha spectrometer for measuring radon daughter individual activity concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the frame of the program of the Institute for Radiation Protection of ENEA, related to the evaluation of dose from radon and thoron progeny, an alpha spectrometer for the continuous air monitoring (CAM type) of radon and thoron has been realized. The constructive characteristics of the device are here presented together with energy and efficiency calibration. The device allows, by means of a screen type diffusion battery and a filter, to determinate the single radioactivity of each radionuclide of the progeny selecting them in relation to their diffusive behaviour (dichotomous particle size selection). The three-count filter method has been employed to measure the concentrations of 218Po, 214Pb and 214Bi in air. Radon and thoron effective doses using a dosimetric, instead of an epidemiologic approach, will be then evaluated

  6. Influence of local air velocity from air conditioner evaluated by salivary and skin biomarkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Masaki; Takahashi, Takayuki; Yoshino, Yuichiro; Sasaki, Makoto [Graduate School of Engineering, Iwate University, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan); Nishimiya, Hajime [Asahi Kasei Homes Corporation, R and D Laboratories, 2-1 Samejima, Fuji, Shizuoka 416-8501 (Japan)

    2010-11-15

    The purpose of this paper is to reveal both the psychosomatic and the physical effects of local air velocity from an air conditioner using biomarkers which can be collected noninvasively. Salivary {alpha}-amylase activity (SAA) and salivary cortisol were used as the indexes of psychosomatic effects. The total protein (TP) collected from stratum corneum was used as an index of the physical condition of dry skin. A continuous experiment over a 5 days period in summer was conducted using 8 healthy young male adults for 2-types of airflow conditioners, a whole ceiling-type air conditioner (without local air velocity) and a normal-type air conditioner (with local air velocity). The subjects felt cool, windy, dry and uncomfortable when under the normal-type air conditioner as determined in a subjective evaluation. The SAA under the normal-type air conditioner fluctuated more widely than with the whole ceiling-type air conditioner. The level of salivary cortisol decreased more in a day under the normal-type air conditioner than with the whole ceiling-type air conditioner. These results showed that reducing local air velocity may provide more healthy psychosomatic conditions over the long-term. Moreover, the TP of a drying-exposed skin area showed a significant change during this experiment whereas the TP of drying-protected area was relatively unchanged. It was indicated that one week's exposure to local air velocity conditions possibly influences the drying of facial skin. Thus, air movement at low velocity can be provides more comfortable conditions not only psychosomatically but also physically. (author)

  7. ON An Infra-\\(\\alpha\\)-Open Sets

    OpenAIRE

    Hakeem Othman; Md Hanif Page

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we define a new class of set in general topology called an infra- \\(\\alpha\\) open set and we investigate fundamental properties by using this new class. The relation between infra-\\(\\alpha\\)-open set and other topological sets are studied. Moreover, In the light of this new definition, we also define some generalization of continuous mappings and discuss the relations between these new classes of mappings and other continuous mappings. Basic properties of these new mappings...

  8. Radon exchange dynamics in a Karst system investigated by radon continuous measurements in water: First results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2008 the underground Karst Laboratory of Bossea Cave started research on radon exchange dynamics between bedrock, cave waters (main collector and percolations) and indoor underground atmosphere. Radon air concentrations, normally high, increase more and more during the collector's floods. An explanation of this is a radon-water solubilisation process more effective in flood events, because of a greater rock-water contact surface. Radon is then carried by water into the cave and released into the air. To verify this, continuous measurements of radon concentration are needed not only in the air, but also in the waters of the cave. So a new device for continuous radon monitoring in water was tested, connected to the AlphaGuard radon monitor. For the first 6 months of 2010, for different sections of the cave, the correlations between radon in the air, radon in the waters and the collector's stream flow fluctuations were presented and discussed. (authors)

  9. Practical alpha detectors for site characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have and are developing a series of practical alpha detectors for alpha characterization. These include soil surface monitors, pipe and duct monitors, air quality and radon monitors, tool monitors, and sample monitors. Two types of these monitors have been transferred to industry thus far for commercialization. Several of these systems have been fully field tested: for example, the soil surface monitor has been used to characterize 11 sites for 7 customers at 3 DOE facilities. Using a new but simple technology, these alpha detectors can be put to use in many areas where conventional alpha probes are impractical or insufficiently sensitive. Use of these alpha detectors in site characterization at the Uranium in Soil Integrated Demonstration at Fernald, at Los Alamos, and elsewhere will be discussed as well as their commercialization and possible further applications

  10. ESCLOUD: A computer program to calculate the air concentration, deposition rate and external dose rate from a continuous discharge of radioactive material to atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive material may be discharged to atmosphere in small quantities during the normal operation of a nuclear installation as part of a considered waste management practice. Estimates of the individual and collective dose equivalent rates resulting from such a discharge are required in a number of contexts: for example, in assessing compliance with dose limits, in estimating the radiological impact of the discharge and as an input into optimisation studies. The suite of programs which has been developed to undertake such calculations is made up of a number of independent modules one of which, ESCLOUD, is described in this report. The ESCLOUD program evaluates, as a function of distance and direction from the release point, the air concentration, deposition rate and external β and γ doses from airborne and deposited activity. The air concentration and deposition rate can be used as input to other modules for calculating inhalation and ingestion doses. (author)

  11. Numerical simulation of air and oxy-fuel combustion of single coal particles using the reactive implicit continuous-fluid Eulerian (RICE) method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewtak, Robert

    2013-10-01

    The paper presents the mathematical model of air and oxy-fuel combustion of single coal particles. The combustion process has been treated as a spherically-symmetric one. The 1-dimensional time-dependent conservation equations governing the process have been numerically solved using the RICE method. The presence of a coal particle, which was treated as a discrete Lagrange particle, has modified the boundary conditions at the gas-solid interface. Numerical results show good agreement with the experimental results.

  12. Development of an automatic continuous analyzer for water-soluble gases in air by combining an artificial lung with an ion chromatograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Kazuhiko; Takeno, Masaki; Sekiguchi, Kazuhiko; Ishitani, Osamu; Fukuyama, Tsutomu; Utiyama, Masahiro

    An automatic measurement system for the simultaneous monitoring of sulfur dioxide (SO 2) and ammonia (NH 3) in air was developed by combining an artificial lung and an ion chromatograph. An artificial lung was used as a new technique for concentrated collection of trace amounts of gaseous pollutants in air. It was found that SO 2 and NH 3 were effectively absorbed into ultra-pure water in the artificial lung. Collection efficiencies for SO 2 and NH 3 were 100% and 98%, respectively, at a gas flow rate of 1 l min -1, and material balances >90% were obtained. No interference from the simultaneous collection of SO 2 and NH 3 was found. When a 400 ppb standard NH 3 gas was measured automatically with this system, the recovery rate was 98%, and the relative standard deviation was 2.7% ( n=8). In the case of a 200 ppb standard SO 2 gas, the recovery rate was 87%, and the relative standard deviation was 1.6% ( n=7). Results from the simultaneous measurement of SO 2 and NH 3 with the automatic system were equally as good as those obtained by measuring a single component at a time. Calibration curves for SO 2 and NH 3 showed good relationships between concentration and peak intensity. The linear correlation coefficients were 0.997 and 0.998 for SO 2 and NH 3, respectively. The detection limits of SO 2 and NH 3 were 0.06 and 0.1 ppb, respectively, in a 40 l air volume. The system was tested in air and found to be capable of simultaneous measurement of SO 2 and NH 3 with a 20 min cycle.

  13. Alpha particle radiography of ants using a 244Cm alpha source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpha particles emitted from a radioisotope 244Cm were used for the radiography of ants. Cellulose nitrate films, LR-115 from Kodak Pathe, were used as solid state nuclear track detectors to make the radiographs. Alpha particles of energies from 3.5 to 5.5 MeV were obtained by varying the air spacing between the 244Cm and the sample with stainless steel spacers of thickness from 2.4 to 0.5 cm to slow the 5.81 MeV alpha particles from the 244Cm by air. The resulting radiographs of the ants put on the LR-115 films and irradiated by alpha particles of different energies show that only the profiles of the ants were obtained when the ants were exposed to alpha particles of energies lower than 3.5 MeV, and almost all parts of the ant except a portion in the head were penetrated by alpha particles of energies higher than 5.0 MeV to register high density alpha tracks on the LR-115. The details of the internal organs of the ant can be shown clearly by radiography with alpha particles of energies between 4.0 and 5.0 MeV. (author)

  14. Ab initio alpha-alpha scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhatisari, Serdar; Lee, Dean; Rupak, Gautam; Epelbaum, Evgeny; Krebs, Hermann; Lähde, Timo A; Luu, Thomas; Meißner, Ulf-G

    2015-12-01

    Processes such as the scattering of alpha particles ((4)He), the triple-alpha reaction, and alpha capture play a major role in stellar nucleosynthesis. In particular, alpha capture on carbon determines the ratio of carbon to oxygen during helium burning, and affects subsequent carbon, neon, oxygen, and silicon burning stages. It also substantially affects models of thermonuclear type Ia supernovae, owing to carbon detonation in accreting carbon-oxygen white-dwarf stars. In these reactions, the accurate calculation of the elastic scattering of alpha particles and alpha-like nuclei--nuclei with even and equal numbers of protons and neutrons--is important for understanding background and resonant scattering contributions. First-principles calculations of processes involving alpha particles and alpha-like nuclei have so far been impractical, owing to the exponential growth of the number of computational operations with the number of particles. Here we describe an ab initio calculation of alpha-alpha scattering that uses lattice Monte Carlo simulations. We use lattice effective field theory to describe the low-energy interactions of protons and neutrons, and apply a technique called the 'adiabatic projection method' to reduce the eight-body system to a two-cluster system. We take advantage of the computational efficiency and the more favourable scaling with system size of auxiliary-field Monte Carlo simulations to compute an ab initio effective Hamiltonian for the two clusters. We find promising agreement between lattice results and experimental phase shifts for s-wave and d-wave scattering. The approximately quadratic scaling of computational operations with particle number suggests that it should be possible to compute alpha scattering and capture on carbon and oxygen in the near future. The methods described here can be applied to ultracold atomic few-body systems as well as to hadronic systems using lattice quantum chromodynamics to describe the interactions of

  15. Ab initio alpha-alpha scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhatisari, Serdar; Lee, Dean; Rupak, Gautam; Epelbaum, Evgeny; Krebs, Hermann; Lähde, Timo A.; Luu, Thomas; Meißner, Ulf-G.

    2015-12-01

    Processes such as the scattering of alpha particles (4He), the triple-alpha reaction, and alpha capture play a major role in stellar nucleosynthesis. In particular, alpha capture on carbon determines the ratio of carbon to oxygen during helium burning, and affects subsequent carbon, neon, oxygen, and silicon burning stages. It also substantially affects models of thermonuclear type Ia supernovae, owing to carbon detonation in accreting carbon-oxygen white-dwarf stars. In these reactions, the accurate calculation of the elastic scattering of alpha particles and alpha-like nuclei—nuclei with even and equal numbers of protons and neutrons—is important for understanding background and resonant scattering contributions. First-principles calculations of processes involving alpha particles and alpha-like nuclei have so far been impractical, owing to the exponential growth of the number of computational operations with the number of particles. Here we describe an ab initio calculation of alpha-alpha scattering that uses lattice Monte Carlo simulations. We use lattice effective field theory to describe the low-energy interactions of protons and neutrons, and apply a technique called the ‘adiabatic projection method’ to reduce the eight-body system to a two-cluster system. We take advantage of the computational efficiency and the more favourable scaling with system size of auxiliary-field Monte Carlo simulations to compute an ab initio effective Hamiltonian for the two clusters. We find promising agreement between lattice results and experimental phase shifts for s-wave and d-wave scattering. The approximately quadratic scaling of computational operations with particle number suggests that it should be possible to compute alpha scattering and capture on carbon and oxygen in the near future. The methods described here can be applied to ultracold atomic few-body systems as well as to hadronic systems using lattice quantum chromodynamics to describe the interactions of

  16. Design and performance of a Nafion dryer for continuous operation at CO2 and CH4 air monitoring sites

    OpenAIRE

    Welp, L. R.; Keeling, R. F.; R. F. Weiss; W. Paplawsky; Heckman, S.

    2013-01-01

    In preparation for routine deployment in a network of greenhouse gas monitoring stations, we have designed and tested a simple method for drying ambient air to near or below 0.2% (2000 ppm) mole fraction H2O using a Nafion dryer. The inlet system was designed for use with cavity ring-down spectrometer (CRDS) analyzers such as the Picarro model G2301 that measure H2O in addition to their principal analytes, in this case CO2 and CH4. These analyzers report dry-gas mixing ratio...

  17. Design and performance of a Nafion dryer for continuous operation at CO2 and CH4 air monitoring sites

    OpenAIRE

    W. Paplawsky; R. F. Weiss; Keeling, R. F.; Welp, L. R.; Heckman, S.

    2012-01-01

    In preparation for the routine deployment of the Earth Networks greenhouse gas monitoring network, we have designed and tested a simple method for drying ambient air to below 0.2% mole fraction H2O using a Nafion dryer. The inlet was designed for use with a Picarro model G2301 cavity ring down spectrometer (CRDS) CO2/CH4/H2O analyzer. The analyzer measures water vapor mixing ratio at the same frequency as CO2 and CH4 and then corrects for the dilution and peak broadening effects of H2O on the...

  18. Faddeev calculation of 3 alpha and alpha alpha Lambda systems using alpha alpha resonating-group method kernel

    CERN Document Server

    Fujiwara, Y; Kohno, M; Suzuki, Y; Baye, D; Sparenberg, J M

    2004-01-01

    We carry out Faddeev calculations of three-alpha (3 alpha) and two-alpha plus Lambda (alpha alpha Lambda) systems, using two-cluster resonating-group method kernels. The input includes an effective two-nucleon force for the alpha alpha resonating-group method and a new effective Lambda N force for the Lambda alpha interaction. The latter force is a simple two-range Gaussian potential for each spin-singlet and triplet state, generated from the phase-shift behavior of the quark-model hyperon-nucleon interaction, fss2, by using an inversion method based on supersymmetric quantum mechanics. Owing to the exact treatment of the Pauli-forbidden states between the clusters, the present three-cluster Faddeev formalism can describe the mutually related, alpha alpha, 3 alpha and alpha alpha Lambda systems, in terms of a unique set of the baryon-baryon interactions. For the three-range Minnesota force which describes the alpha alpha phase shifts quite accurately, the ground-state and excitation energies of 9Be Lambda are...

  19. Alpha scintillation cell for direct measurement of indoor radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large volume (1500 cm3) alpha scintillation cell to measure indoor radon is described. Air is sampled directly into the cell and gross alpha activity is measured after three hours. The cells are suitable for concentrations higher than 10-20 Bq/m3. They were successfully used for randon measurements in kindergartens in Nova Gorica. 7 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  20. Isothermal oxidation behavior of alpha-2 titanium aluminide alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monolithic alpha-2 alloys are being considered for applications in gas turbine engines at temperature between 593 and 705C. The alpha-2 alloys have better creep and oxidation resistance than conventional Ti alloys in this temperature range, but concerns over low temperature mechanical properties, interstitial embrittlement and hot salt stress corrosion cracking have limited the application of these alloys. Protective coatings address environmental concerns, while improved processing and chemistry may improve mechanical properties. The compositions of alpha-2 alloys have evolved over time to obtain a better balance of properties. Two prospective alpha-2 compositions are Ti-25Al-10Nb-3V-1Mo and Ti-24.5Al-12.5Nb-1.5Mo. This work characterizes the isothermal oxidation behavior of these two alloys in the 593-705C temperature range and discusses observed differences. The isothermal oxidation behavior in air of Ti-24.5Al-12.5Nb-1.5Mo was superior to Ti-25Al-10Nb-3V-1Mo and T-6242 in the temperature range of 593-705C. The 12.5-1.5 alloy was better because an external alumina scale formed which grew more slowly than the TiO2-based scales observed on the 10-3-1 and Ti-6242. The alumina scale formed on the 12.5-1.5 alloy because interstitials like O, N and C lower the thermodynamic activity of Ti to levels where Al2O3 formation is favored. In the absence of microstructural effects, the V in 10-3-1 prevented continuous external alumina from forming

  1. Review of alpha_s determinations

    CERN Document Server

    Pich, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The present knowledge on the strong coupling is briefly summarized. The most precise determinations of alpha_s, at different energies, are reviewed and compared at the Z mass scale, using the predicted QCD running. The impressive agreement achieved between experimental measurements and theoretical predictions constitutes a beautiful and very significant test of Asymptotic Freedom, establishing QCD as the fundamental theory of the strong interaction. The world average value of the strong coupling is found to be alpha_s(M_Z^2)= 0.1186 \\pm 0.0007.

  2. Atlantic mercury emission determined from continuous analysis of the elemental mercury sea-air concentration difference within transects between 50°N and 50°S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuss, J.; Zülicke, C.; Pohl, C.; Schneider, B.

    2011-09-01

    Mercury in the environment deserves serious concern because of the mobility of volatile elemental mercury (Hg0) in the atmosphere, in combination with the harmful effect of Hg compounds on human health and the ecosystem. A major source of global atmospheric mercury is presumed to be oceanic Hg0 emission. However, available Hg0 surface water data to reliably estimate the ocean's mercury emissions are sparse. In this study, high-resolution surface water and air measurements of Hg0 were carried out between Europe and South Africa in November 2008 and between South America and Europe in April-May 2009. On each cruise a strong enrichment of Hg0 in tropical surface water was determined that apparently followed the seasonal shift of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). A combination of a high Hg0 production rate constant and the actual low wind speeds, which prevented emission, probably caused the accumulation of Hg0 in surface waters of the ITCZ. Hg0 emissions in the tropics were significant only if wind speed variability on a monthly scale was considered, in which case the observed significant decline of total Hg in tropical surface waters during the northern winter could be explained. In the midlatitudes, increased autumn Hg0 emissions were calculated for November in the Northern Hemisphere and for May in the Southern Hemisphere; conversely, emissions were low during both the northern and the southern spring. Mercury removal from surface waters by Hg0 emission and sinking particles was comparable to its supply through wet and dry deposition.

  3. Review of alpha_s determinations

    OpenAIRE

    Pich, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The present knowledge on the strong coupling is briefly summarized. The most precise determinations of alpha_s, at different energies, are reviewed and compared at the Z mass scale, using the predicted QCD running. The impressive agreement achieved between experimental measurements and theoretical predictions constitutes a beautiful and very significant test of Asymptotic Freedom, establishing QCD as the fundamental theory of the strong interaction. The world average value of the strong coupl...

  4. World Summary of $\\alpha_s$ (2015)

    CERN Document Server

    Bethke, Siegfried; Salam, Gavin P

    2015-01-01

    This is a preliminary update of the measurements of α s and the determination of the world average value of α s (M Z 2 ) presented in the 2013/2014 edition of the Review of Particle Properties [1]. A number of studies which became available since late 2013 provide new results for each of the (previously 5, now) 6 subclasses of measurements for which pre-average values of $\\alpha_s (M_Z^2)$ are determined.

  5. Lyman Alpha Control

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, Daniel Stefaniak

    2015-01-01

    This document gives an overview of how to operate the Lyman Alpha Control application written in LabVIEW along with things to watch out for. Overview of the LabVIEW code itself as well as the physical wiring of and connections from/to the NI PCI-6229 DAQ box is also included. The Lyman Alpha Control application is the interface between the ALPHA sequencer and the HighFinesse Wavelength Meter as well as the Lyman Alpha laser setup. The application measures the wavelength of the output light from the Lyman Alpha cavity through the Wavelength Meter. The application can use the Wavelength Meter’s PID capabilities to stabilize the Lyman Alpha laser output as well as switch between up to three frequencies.

  6. New ALPHA-2 magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    On 21 June, members of the ALPHA collaboration celebrated the handover of the first solenoid designed for the ALPHA-2 experiment. The magnet has since been successfully installed and is working well.   Khalid Mansoor, Sumera Yamin and Jeffrey Hangst in front of the new ALPHA-2 solenoid. “This was the first of three identical solenoids that will be installed between now and September, as the rest of the ALPHA-2 device is installed and commissioned,” explains ALPHA spokesperson Jeffrey Hangst. “These magnets are designed to allow us to transfer particles - antiprotons, electrons and positrons - between various parts of the new ALPHA-2 device by controlling the transverse size of the particle bunch that is being transferred.” Sumera Yamin and Khalid Mansoor, two Pakistani scientists from the National Centre for Physics in Islamabad, came to CERN in February specifically to design and manufacture these magnets. “We had the chance to work on act...

  7. Alpha Shapes and Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Pawel; Sterner, Henrik; Sterner, Peter

    We provide a unified description of (weighted) alpha shapes, beta shapes and the corresponding simplicialcomplexes. We discuss their applicability to various protein-related problems. We also discuss filtrations of alpha shapes and touch upon related persistence issues.We claim that the full...... potential of alpha-shapes and related geometrical constructs in protein-related problems yet remains to be realized and verified. We suggest parallel algorithms for (weighted) alpha shapes, and we argue that future use of filtrations and kinetic variants for larger proteins will need such implementation....

  8. Fractal Continuation

    OpenAIRE

    Barnsley, Michael F.; Vince, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    A fractal function is a function whose graph is the attractor of an iterated function system. This paper generalizes analytic continuation of an analytic function to continuation of a fractal function.

  9. Characteristics of Controlling Indoor VOCs Pollution by Continuous and Intermittent Air Supply%连续与间歇送风调控室内VOCs污染的特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军; 张旭

    2015-01-01

    Indoor volatile organic compounds pollution is jointly impacted by material emission level, air supply conditions and so forth, which is one coupling and complicated process. According to building usage function and patterns, continuous and intermittent air supplies were chosen as the analysis conditions in this present study. Dynamics characteristics of controlling indoor volatile organic compounds pollution by air supply were investigated by establishing materials volatile organic compounds emission model and adsorption model. Influence features of different supplied airflow rate, mixing ventilation and displacement ventilation, occupant density on controlling indoor volatile organic compounds pollution were analyzed and compared.%室内挥发性有机化合物污染受到材料散发水平、送风条件等多种因素共同影响,控制这类污染是一个具有耦合性的复杂过程。根据目前建筑使用功能和方式要求,选择连续送风和间歇送风两种方式为分析条件,通过构建材料挥发性有机化合物散发模型和吸附模型来研究送风调控室内挥发性有机化合物污染的动态特性;同时,对比分析了不同送风量指标、混合通风和置换通风、人员密度对控制室内挥发性有机化合物污染的影响特征。

  10. Computation and measurement of differential ranges of low-energy alpha particles in matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The stopping power formula of Bethe is discussed and is used to compute differential ranges of low-energy alpha particles in air, argon, aluminium and copper. A single radioactive source containing three active elements is used in experiments to measure the differential ranges in these materials. Finally a range-energy relationship for the alpha particles in air is deduced. (author)

  11. Targeted Alpha Therapy: From Alpha to Omega

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review covers the broad spectrum of Targeted Alpha Therapy (TAT) research in Australia; from in vitro and in vivo studies to clinical trials. The principle of tumour anti-vascular alpha therapy (TAVAT) is discussed in terms of its validation by Monte Carlo calculations of vascular models and the potential role of biological dosimetry is examined. Summmary of this review is as follows: 1. The essence of TAT 2. Therapeutic objectives 3. TAVAT and Monte Carlo microdosimetry 4. Biological dosimetry 5. Preclinical studies 6. Clinical trials 7. What next? 8. Obstacles. (author)

  12. Indoor air: Reference bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency initially established the indoor air Reference Bibliography in 1987 as an appendix to the Indoor Air Quality Implementation Plan. The document was submitted to Congress as required under Title IV--Radon Gas and Indoor Air Quality Research of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986. The Reference Bibliography is an extensive bibliography of reference materials on indoor air pollution. The Bibliography contains over 4500 citations and continues to increase as new articles appear

  13. Applications of the Long-Range Alpha Detector (LRAD) technology to low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long-Range Alpha Detector (LRAD) systems are designed to monitor alpha contamination by measuring the number of ions in the air. Alpha particles are a form of ionizing radiation and a typical 5-MeV alpha particle will create about 150,000 ion pairs in air. Field tests at various DOE sites have shown that LRAD Surface Soil Monitors (SSM), Sample Monitors, and Object Monitors are faster and more sensitive than traditional alpha detectors for measuring alpha contamination. This paper discusses the various applications of LRAD technology to low-level radioactive waste management

  14. DEPENDENT-ALPHA CALCULATOR: TESTING THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN DEPENDENT COEFFICIENTS ALPHA

    OpenAIRE

    Sabry M. ABD-EL-FATTAH; Hala K. HASSAN

    2011-01-01

    Coefficient alpha (α) was first introduced by Lee J. Cronbach in 1951 and since then it continues to serve as a valuable index of reliability within different areas of research. According to the Social Sciences Citation Index, between 1951 and 2010, Cronbach’s seminar article (Cronbach, 1951) was cited 6,912 times by other published articles and numerous other publications often cite secondary sources in support of the use of coefficient alpha.

  15. Alpha-particle diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, K.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper will focus on the state of development of diagnostics which are expected to provide the information needed for {alpha}- physics studies in the future. Conventional measurement of detailed temporal and spatial profiles of background plasma properties in DT will be essential for such aspects as determining heating effectiveness, shaping of the plasma profiles and effects of MHD, but will not be addressed here. This paper will address (1) the measurement of the neutron source, and hence {alpha}-particle birth profile, (2) measurement of the escaping {alpha}-particles and (3) measurement of the confined {alpha}-particles over their full energy range. There will also be a brief discussion of (4) the concerns about instabilities being generated by {alpha}-particles and the methods necessary for measuring these effects. 51 refs., 10 figs.

  16. Imaging alpha particle detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D.F.

    1980-10-29

    A method and apparatus for detecting and imaging alpha particles sources is described. A dielectric coated high voltage electrode and a tungsten wire grid constitute a diode configuration discharge generator for electrons dislodged from atoms or molecules located in between these electrodes when struck by alpha particles from a source to be quantitatively or qualitatively analyzed. A thin polyester film window allows the alpha particles to pass into the gas enclosure and the combination of the glass electrode, grid and window is light transparent such that the details of the source which is imaged with high resolution and sensitivity by the sparks produced can be observed visually as well. The source can be viewed directly, electronically counted or integrated over time using photographic methods. A significant increase in sensitivity over other alpha particle detectors is observed, and the device has very low sensitivity to gamma or beta emissions which might otherwise appear as noise on the alpha particle signal.

  17. Continuous Problem of Function Continuity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakody, Gaya; Zazkis, Rina

    2015-01-01

    We examine different definitions presented in textbooks and other mathematical sources for "continuity of a function at a point" and "continuous function" in the context of introductory level Calculus. We then identify problematic issues related to definitions of continuity and discontinuity: inconsistency and absence of…

  18. Radon monitor and control system based upon alpha particle detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A system is designed for monitoring or controlling the level of radon in indoor air, based upon measuring alpha particles due to the decay of radon or its daughter atoms. In one embodiment, the alpha particle decay of radon itself is detected and analyzed to control a vent in the heating and air conditioning system to automatically keep the radon level below a preselected level. In another embodiment, the daughter atoms 218Po and 214Po are collected from the indoor air and their alpha particle decays are analyzed to provide a sensitive monitor of radon levels or to control vents in the HVAC system to reduce radon concentrations to permissible levels. In addition, the system provides information on the quality of the air filter and indicates when it needs servicing

  19. The alpha channeling effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisch, N. J.

    2015-12-10

    Alpha particles born through fusion reactions in a tokamak reactor tend to slow down on electrons, but that could take up to hundreds of milliseconds. Before that happens, the energy in these alpha particles can destabilize on collisionless timescales toroidal Alfven modes and other waves, in a way deleterious to energy confinement. However, it has been speculated that this energy might be instead be channeled into useful energy, so as to heat fuel ions or to drive current. Such a channeling needs to be catalyzed by waves Waves can produce diffusion in energy of the alpha particles in a way that is strictly coupled to diffusion in space. If these diffusion paths in energy-position space point from high energy in the center to low energy on the periphery, then alpha particles will be cooled while forced to the periphery. The energy from the alpha particles is absorbed by the wave. The amplified wave can then heat ions or drive current. This process or paradigm for extracting alpha particle energy collisionlessly has been called alpha channeling. While the effect is speculative, the upside potential for economical fusion is immense. The paradigm also operates more generally in other contexts of magnetically confined plasma.

  20. Boundary Harnack principle for $\\Delta + \\Delta^{\\alpha/2}$

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Zhen-Qing; Kim, Panki; Song, Renming; Vondraček, Zoran

    2009-01-01

    For $d\\geq 1$ and $\\alpha \\in (0, 2)$, consider the family of pseudo differential operators $\\{\\Delta+ b \\Delta^{\\alpha/2}; b\\in [0, 1]\\}$ on $\\R^d$ that evolves continuously from $\\Delta$ to $\\Delta + \\Delta^{\\alpha/2}$. In this paper, we establish a uniform boundary Harnack principle (BHP) with explicit boundary decay rate for nonnegative functions which are harmonic with respect to $\\Delta +b \\Delta^{\\alpha/2}$ (or equivalently, the sum of a Brownian motion and an independent symmetric $\\a...

  1. Alpha-particle spectrometry of large-area samples using an open-flow pulse ionisation chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionization chambers are established and well known detectors of ionizing radiation. Current-mode chambers are in frequent use in such fields as dosimetry, environmental surveillance and radiation protection, while pulse-mode, Frisch-grid, chambers used to be used for spectrometry and have largely been replaced by scintillation and semiconducting-diode detectors. Dealing specifically with low-level alpha-particle spectrometry, the surface-barrier or ion-implanted semiconducting detectors are the standard choice, but in some applications where radiochemical treatment and production of small electroplated samples are impossible or inconvenient, pulse-ionization chambers are still in use. For breath and air-radon samples scintillation cells dominate, but pulse ionization chambers are utilized as high-standard laboratory instruments. For continuous measurements of radon concentration in air, a multiwire-electrode ionization chamber has been described. A commercial radon-in-air system, based on a pulse ionization chamber is described. (author)

  2. Local versus nonlocal $\\alpha\\alpha$ interactions in $3\\alpha$ description of $^{12}$C

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, Y; Descouvemont, P; Fujiwara, Y; Matsumura, H; Orabi, M; Theeten, M

    2008-01-01

    Local $\\alpha \\alpha$ potentials fail to describe $^{12}$C as a $3\\alpha$ system. Nonlocal $\\alpha \\alpha$ potentials that renormalize the energy-dependent kernel of the resonating group method allow interpreting simultaneously the ground state and $0^+_2$ resonance of $^{12}$C as $3\\alpha$ states. A comparison with fully microscopic calculations provides a measure of the importance of three-cluster exchanges in those states.

  3. Bremsstrahlung in $\\alpha$ Decay

    CERN Document Server

    Takigawa, N; Hagino, K; Ono, A; Brink, D M

    1999-01-01

    A quantum mechanical analysis of the bremsstrahlung in $\\alpha$ decay of $^{210}$Po is performed in close reference to a semiclassical theory. We clarify the contribution from the tunneling, mixed, outside barrier regions and from the wall of the inner potential well to the final spectral distribution, and discuss their interplay. We also comment on the validity of semiclassical calculations, and the possibility to eliminate the ambiguity in the nuclear potential between the alpha particle and daughter nucleus using the bremsstrahlung spectrum.

  4. Continuing Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Care Obesity at Midlife May Speed Alzheimer’s Onset Hello from my mom Easing the Behavior Problems of ... Managers Continuing Care FOR MORE ARTICLES CLICK HERE Hello from my mom Common Estate Planning Errors Alzheimer’s ...

  5. Business continuity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation deals with the following keypoints: Information Technology (IT) Business Continuity and Recovery essential for any business; lessons learned after Sept. 11 event; Detailed planning, redundancy and testing being the key elements for probability estimation of disasters

  6. Unified model for alpha-decay and alpha-capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A unified model for alpha-decay and alpha-capture is discussed. Simultaneously the half-lives for alpha-transition between ground states as well as ground and excited states and alpha-capture cross-sections by spherical magic or near-magic nuclei are well described in the framework of this model. Using these data the alpha-nucleus potential is obtained. The simple empirical relations for handy evaluation of the half-lives for alpha-transition, which take into account both the angular momentum and parity of alpha-transition, are presented

  7. ALPHA-2: the sequel

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    While many experiments are methodically planning for intense works over the long shutdown, there is one experiment that is already working at full steam: ALPHA-2. Its final components arrived last month and will completely replace the previous ALPHA set-up. Unlike its predecessor, this next generation experiment has been specifically designed to measure the properties of antimatter.   The ALPHA team lower the new superconducting solenoid magnet into place. The ALPHA collaboration is working at full speed to complete the ALPHA-2 set-up for mid-November – this will give them a few weeks of running before the AD shutdown on 17 December. “We really want to get some experience with this device this year so that, if we need to make any changes, we will have time during the long shutdown in which to make them,” says Jeffrey Hangst, ALPHA spokesperson. “Rather than starting the 2014 run in the commissioning stage, we will be up and running from the get go.&...

  8. Alpha Particle Diagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, Ray, K.

    2009-05-13

    The study of burning plasmas is the next frontier in fusion energy research, and will be a major objective of the U.S. fusion program through U.S. collaboration with our international partners on the ITER Project. For DT magnetic fusion to be useful for energy production, it is essential that the energetic alpha particles produced by the fusion reactions be confined long enough to deposit a significant fraction of their initial ~3.5 MeV energy in the plasma before they are lost. Development of diagnostics to study the behavior of energetic confined alpha particles is a very important if not essential part of burning plasma research. Despite the clear need for these measurements, development of diagnostics to study confined the fast confined alphas to date has proven extremely difficult, and the available techniques remain for the most part unproven and with significant uncertainties. Research under this grant had the goal of developing diagnostics of fast confined alphas, primarily based on measurements of the neutron and ion tails resulting from alpha particle knock-on collisions with the plasma deuterium and tritium fuel ions. One of the strengths of this approach is the ability to measure the alphas in the hot plasma core where the interesting ignition physics will occur.

  9. Resting alpha activity predicts learning ability in alpha neurofeedback

    OpenAIRE

    Wenya eNan; Feng eWan; Mang I eVai; Agostinho eRosa

    2014-01-01

    Individuals differ in their ability to learn how to regulate the alpha activity by neurofeedback. This study aimed to investigate whether the resting alpha activity is related to the learning ability of alpha enhancement in neurofeedback and could be used as a predictor. A total of 25 subjects performed 20 sessions of individualized alpha neurofeedback in order to learn how to enhance activity in the alpha frequency band. The learning ability was assessed by three indices respectively: the tr...

  10. Luminescence imaging of water during alpha particle irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Komori, Masataka; Koyama, Shuji; Toshito, Toshiyuki

    2016-05-01

    The luminescence imaging of water using the alpha particle irradiation of several MeV energy range is thought to be impossible because this alpha particle energy is far below the Cerenkov-light threshold and the secondary electrons produced in this energy range do not emit Cerenkov-light. Contrary to this consensus, we found that the luminescence imaging of water was possible with 5.5 MeV alpha particle irradiation. We placed a 2 MBq of 241Am alpha source in water, and luminescence images of the source were conducted with a high-sensitivity, cooled charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. We also carried out such imaging of the alpha source in three different conditions to compare the photon productions with that of water, in air, with a plastic scintillator, and an acrylic plate. The luminescence imaging of water was observed from 10 to 20 s acquisition, and the intensity was linearly increased with time. The intensity of the luminescence with the alpha irradiation of water was 0.05% of that with the plastic scintillator, 4% with air, and 15% with the acrylic plate. The resolution of the luminescence image of water was better than 0.25 mm FWHM. Alpha particles of 5.5 MeV energy emit luminescence in water. Although the intensity of the luminescence was smaller than that in air, it was clearly observable. The luminescence of water with alpha particles would be a new method for alpha particle detection and distribution measurements in water.

  11. Particularization of alpha contamination using CR-39 track detectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M F Zaki; Y H El-Shaer

    2007-10-01

    Solid-state nuclear track detectors have found wide use in various domains of science and technology, e.g. in environmental experiments. The measurement of alpha activity on sources in an environment, such as air is not easy because of short penetration range of alpha particles. Furthermore, measurement of alpha activity by most gas ionization detectors suffers from high background induced by the accompanying gamma radiation. Solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) have been used successfully as detecting devices and as a passive system to detect alpha contamination on different surfaces. This work presents the response of CR-39 (for two types) to alpha particles from two sources, 238Pu with energy 5 MeV and 241Am with energy 5.4 MeV. The methods of etching and counting are investigated, along with the achievable linearity, efficiency and reproducibility. The sensitivity to low activity and energy resolution are studied.

  12. Alpha particles in fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This collection of 39 (mostly view graph) presentations addresses various aspects of alpha particle physics in thermonuclear fusion research, including energy balance and alpha particle losses, transport, the influence of alpha particles on plasma stability, helium ash, the transition to and sustainment of a burning fusion plasma, as well as alpha particle diagnostics. Refs, figs and tabs

  13. Effective air thickness in a glass capillary for the in-air material analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to establish in-air material analysis techniques with a glass capillary, we have measured energy distributions of extracted alpha particles in air using the glass capillary. We have estimated the effective air thickness in the glass capillary and found it to be compatible with a simple calculation. (paper)

  14. Contributions to the study of heavy and superheavy nuclei stability in alpha-decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpha-decay is treated in this work on the complete analogy of transfer reactions by means of nuclear shell models with continuous spectrum nucleons. Certain phenomenologically obtained or microscope evaluated data on low energy interactions between alpha-particles and nuclei, when related to nuclear structure data within the unified theory of nuclear reactions, allow of an improved accuracy in determining the alpha-particle wave function as well as of an estimation of alpha-probabilities in good keeping with experimental ones. The problem of alpha lifetimes thus narrows to the resolution of some homogeneous and inhomogeneous differential equations systems including the optic potential and the alpha formfactors. (author)

  15. Continuity theory

    CERN Document Server

    Nel, Louis

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a detailed, self-contained theory of continuous mappings. It is mainly addressed to students who have already studied these mappings in the setting of metric spaces, as well as multidimensional differential calculus. The needed background facts about sets, metric spaces and linear algebra are developed in detail, so as to provide a seamless transition between students' previous studies and new material. In view of its many novel features, this book will be of interest also to mature readers who have studied continuous mappings from the subject's classical texts and wish to become acquainted with a new approach. The theory of continuous mappings serves as infrastructure for more specialized mathematical theories like differential equations, integral equations, operator theory, dynamical systems, global analysis, topological groups, topological rings and many more. In light of the centrality of the topic, a book of this kind fits a variety of applications, especially those that contribute to ...

  16. Air Quality in Lithuania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietilae, P. [Tampere University of Technology / ECAT-Lithuania (Lithuania); Kliucininkas, L. [Department for Environmental Engineering, Kaunas University of Technology (Lithuania)

    2000-07-01

    Sustainable monitoring of the ambient air is the major preventive measure of ensuring its proper quality. Only with a monitoring procedure going-on a continuous basis it is possible to make an objective evaluation of air pollution trends, of the efficiency of air protection measures and, partially, to a certain extent of the impact the pollution exerts on a human health. The information stemming from the monitoring procedure must be reliable, sustainable and efficient. (orig.)

  17. Continuity check

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woof, M.

    2002-10-01

    This paper looks into both safety and technological developments in continuous mining. Manufacturers covered include Hydraphase, Eimco, Deilmann-Haniel, DBT and Joy. A recent Health and Safety Executive report mentioned three in incidents of frictional ignition of flammable gas by cutting equipment in a five year period to April 1999. 4 photos.

  18. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, ... a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  19. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, pollen and ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, ...

  20. Nanodosimetry of radon alpha particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is currently accepted that energy deposition at the nanometer level (rather than conventional microdosimetry) determines the biological effects of ionizing radiation. Many previously established experimental techniques (e.g., the Rossi proportional counter) or theoretical methods (e.g., simplified calculations using the continuous slowing-down approximation (CSDA)) are inapplicable to the study of nanodosimetry. The peculiarities of the geometry of exposure to radon progeny further complicate the problem. This is because the conditions under which several open-quotes classicalclose quotes models of radiation action are obtained (e.g., the alpha-beta formulation of the Theory of Dual Radiation Action, which is built on microdosimetry) are no longer valid. It thus becomes clear that not only new techniques but new concepts are required to describe the effects of radon alpha particles. In this paper we discuss a number of computational aspects specific to radon nanodosimetry. In particular, we describe the novel concept of open-quotes associated surfaceclose quotes (AS) which is necessary for efficiently converting Monte-Carlo-generated particle tracks to nanodosimetric spectra. The AS is the analog of Lea's associated volume, applied to radiation sources subject to the geometrical restrictions of internal exposure. We systematically analyze factors affecting the nanodosimetry of radon progeny, such as the distance between the radioactive source and the sensitive volume, the size of the sensitive volume, and CSDA versus full Monte-Carlo track generation

  1. Nanodosimetry of radon alpha particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaider, M. [Columbia Univ. New York, NY (United States); Varma, M.N. [U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1992-12-31

    It is currently accepted that energy deposition at the nanometer level (rather than conventional microdosimetry) determines the biological effects of ionizing radiation. Many previously established experimental techniques (e.g., the Rossi proportional counter) or theoretical methods (e.g., simplified calculations using the continuous slowing-down approximation (CSDA)) are inapplicable to the study of nanodosimetry. The peculiarities of the geometry of exposure to radon progeny further complicate the problem. This is because the conditions under which several {open_quotes}classical{close_quotes} models of radiation action are obtained (e.g., the alpha-beta formulation of the Theory of Dual Radiation Action, which is built on microdosimetry) are no longer valid. It thus becomes clear that not only new techniques but new concepts are required to describe the effects of radon alpha particles. In this paper we discuss a number of computational aspects specific to radon nanodosimetry. In particular, we describe the novel concept of {open_quotes}associated surface{close_quotes} (AS) which is necessary for efficiently converting Monte-Carlo-generated particle tracks to nanodosimetric spectra. The AS is the analog of Lea`s associated volume, applied to radiation sources subject to the geometrical restrictions of internal exposure. We systematically analyze factors affecting the nanodosimetry of radon progeny, such as the distance between the radioactive source and the sensitive volume, the size of the sensitive volume, and CSDA versus full Monte-Carlo track generation.

  2. ALPHA MIS: Reference manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovin, J.K.; Haese, R.L.; Heatherly, R.D.; Hughes, S.E.; Ishee, J.S.; Pratt, S.M.; Smith, D.W.

    1992-02-01

    ALPHA is a powerful and versatile management information system (MIS) initiated and sponsored and by the Finance and Business Management Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, who maintain and develop it in concert with the Business Systems Division for its Information Center. A general-purpose MIS, ALPHA allows users to access System 1022 and System 1032 databases to obtain and manage information. From a personal computer or a data terminal, Energy Systems employees can use ALPHA to control their own report reprocessing. Using four general commands (Database, Select, Sort, and Report) they can (1) choose a mainframe database, (2) define subsets within it, (3) sequentially order a subset by one or more variables, and (4) generate a report with their own or a canned format.

  3. Continuation calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram Geron

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Programs with control are usually modeled using lambda calculus extended with control operators. Instead of modifying lambda calculus, we consider a different model of computation. We introduce continuation calculus, or CC, a deterministic model of computation that is evaluated using only head reduction, and argue that it is suitable for modeling programs with control. It is demonstrated how to define programs, specify them, and prove them correct. This is shown in detail by presenting in CC a list multiplication program that prematurely returns when it encounters a zero. The correctness proof includes termination of the program. In continuation calculus we can model both call-by-name and call-by-value. In addition, call-by-name functions can be applied to call-by-value results, and conversely.

  4. ANALYSIS ON REAL OPERATION AND ADSORBER PERFORMANCE OF A CONTINUOUS HEAT REGENERATIVE ADSORPTION AIR CONDITIONER%连续回热型吸附式空调实际运行与吸附床性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴静怡; 王如竹; 许煜雄

    2000-01-01

    近年来,我们研制了一台连续回热型吸附式空调/热泵,该空调/热泵在100热源驱动下,单位质量制冷功率SCP可达到150 W/kg,与此同时COP达到0.4。在系统的实际运行中,吸附床起到了重要的作用。本文介绍了该机组在实际运行中为稳定工况所采取的一系列措施,以及机组运行的实际Clapeyron图,着重讨论了系统运行参数对吸附床性能的影响%A continuous heat regenerative adsorption air conditionerhas been developed, which has specific cooling power of 150 W/kg andCOP of 0.5 in heating temperature of 100. In this systemtwo adsorbers are key devices, which are made of two shell and pipeexchangers. Adsorber performance depends on real operationparameter such as desorption temperature, adsorption temperature,condensing temperature, evaporating temperature, cycle time, massrecovery time and so on. In this paper, the methods controllingtemperature of heat source and evaporatingtemperature for stabilizing working condition are introduced.Clapeyron curves of real operation are showed. The factors effectingadsorber performance, such as cycle time of system and temperature ofheat source and so on, are chiefly discussed

  5. Technological change and productivity growth in the air transport industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, N.; Thompson, A.; Belsley, S. E.

    1978-01-01

    The progress of the civil air transport industry in the United States was examined in the light of a proposal of Enos who, after examining the growth of the petroleum industry, divided that phenomenon into two phases, the alpha and the beta; that is, the invention, first development and production, and the improvement phase. The civil air transport industry developed along similar lines with the technological progress coming in waves; each wave encompassing several new technological advances while retaining the best of the old ones. At the same time the productivity of the transport aircraft as expressed by the product of the aircraft velocity and the passenger capacity increased sufficiently to allow the direct operating cost in cents per passenger mile to continually decrease with each successive aircraft development.

  6. Assembly of octadecyl phosphonic acid on the {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (0 0 0 1) surface of air annealed alumina: Evidence for termination dependent adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liakos, Ioannis L. [European Commission-Joint Research Centre-IHCP, Physical and Chemical Exposure Unit, Via Fermi 1, 21020 Ispra (Italy)], E-mail: ioannis.liakos@jrc.it; McAlpine, Eoghan [Innoval Technology (formerly Alcan International), Beaumont Close, Banbury OX16 1TQ (United Kingdom); Chen Xinyong [Laboratory of Biophysics and Surface Analysis, School of Pharmacy, University of Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Newman, Roger [University of Toronto, Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, 200 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E5 (Canada); Alexander, Morgan R. [Laboratory of Biophysics and Surface Analysis, School of Pharmacy, University of Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)], E-mail: morgan.alexander@nottingham.ac.uk

    2008-12-30

    Self-assembly of octadecyl phosphonic acid (ODPA) from solution to the (0 0 0 1) plane surface of single crystal alumina is studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM), wettability measurements, transmission infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The crystals were annealed in air at 1300 deg. C to produce a surface with terraces of 0.2 nm height. This resulted in a surface comprising a mixture of terraces terminated by either oxygen or aluminium atoms. After exposure of this surface to a solution of ODPA, the XPS C1s core level reveals partial displacement of adventitious carbonaceous material by the ODPA. The phase contrast image from tapping mode AFM acquired during assembly reveals that the surface chemistries of terraces differ significantly, suggesting along with the topography images that ODPA molecules adsorbed preferentially to certain terraces. We suggest that the ODPA adsorbs preferentially to the aluminium terminated terraces that are hydroxylated in air. The adsorption to only Al-terminated terraces at the micron scale is consistent with the apparent low coverage of ODPA estimated using techniques sampling the surface on a millimetre scale including XPS and wettability measurements. This behaviour is compared to ODPA close-packed monolayer coverages formed on the amorphous oxide/hydroxide surface of aluminium metal.

  7. Alpha and evangelical conversion

    OpenAIRE

    Stout, A.; Dein, S.

    2013-01-01

    A semi-structured interview study was conducted among 11 ‘Born Again’ Christians eliciting their conversion narratives. Informants emphasised the importance of embodying the Holy Spirit and developing a personal relationship with Christ in the process of conversion. The Alpha Course played an important role in this process.

  8. Alpha-mannosidosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgwardt, Line; Stensland, Hilde Monica Frostad Riise; Olsen, Klaus Juul;

    2015-01-01

    the three subgroups of genotype/subcellular localisation and the clinical and biochemical data were done to investigate the potential relationship between genotype and phenotype in alpha-mannosidosis. Statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS software. Analyses of covariance were performed to...

  9. The $\\alpha_S$ Dependence of Parton Distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, A. D.; Stirling, W. J.; Roberts, R G

    1995-01-01

    We perform next-to-leading order global analyses of deep inelastic and related data for different fixed values of $\\alpha_S (M_Z^2)$. We present sets of parton distributions for six values of $\\alpha_S$ in the range 0.105 to 0.130. We display the $(x, Q^2)$ domains with the largest parton uncertainty and we discuss how forthcoming data may be able to improve the determination of the parton densities.

  10. Política legislativa y trabajo en la horticultura del Área Metropolitana de Buenos Aires (Argentina: Orígenes y continuidades de la precarización laboral en la horticultura Legislative Policy and Work in Horticulture in the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires (Argentina.: Origins and Continuities of Labor Precarization in Horticulture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matías García

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available El artículo consta de un análisis de la legislación laboral agraria argentina en general, y del trabajo hortícola del área metropolitana bonaerense en particular. El periodo bajo estudio se circunscribe desde la sanción del Estatuto del Peón hasta la actualidad. Se concluye que el desconocimiento de la legislación laboral agraria, el no cumplimiento de la misma -como mayoritariamente ocurre con los asalariados- y la indefinición de algunos marcos regulatorios -como sucede con la mediería- es responsable de una prácticamente total precarización del trabajo en la horticultura bonaerense. La presencia de Trabajadores -en su mayoría migrantes bolivianos- en desigualdad de fuerzas ante los productores, con un gremio poco presente y un Estado bastante ausente, no hacen más que continuar damnificando a un sujeto tradicionalmente desprotegido.The article consists of an analysis of Argentinean legislation on agrarian work in general and horticultura! work in the Buenos Aires metiopolitan area in particular. The period spans the sanction of the Workers' Statute to the present. It concludes that ignorance of agrarian labor legislation and failure to comply with it, as usually happens with salaried worker, and the lack of definition of certain regulatory frameworks -as happens in sharecropping- is responsible for the virtually total precarization of work in Buenos Aires horticulture. The presence of workers, mosr of whom are Bolivian migrants, at a disadvantage in relation to producers and with an ineffectual trade union and an absent state, continues to victimize a traditionally unprotected subject.

  11. Genetics Home Reference: alpha thalassemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Disease Control and Prevention Centre for Genetics Education (Australia) Cooley's Anemia Foundation: Fact sheet about alpha thalassemia Disease InfoSearch: Alpha-Thalassemia Genomics Education Programme (UK) Information Center for Sickle Cell and ...

  12. Continuation of stationary solutions to evolution problems in CONTENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuznetsov, Y.A.; Levitin, V.V.; Skovoroda, A.R.

    1996-01-01

    A numerical algorithm for continuation of stationary solutions to nonlinear evolution problems representable in the form $$ begin{array{ll u_t=F(u_{xx,u_{x,u,x,alpha),& 0 < x < 1, f^{0(u_x,u,alpha)=0,& x=0, f^{1(u_x,u,alpha)=0,& x=1, end{array $$ is described as implemented in {sc content. Here $

  13. $\\alpha$-minimal Banach spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Rosendal, Christian

    2011-01-01

    A Banach space with a Schauder basis is said to be $\\alpha$-minimal for some countable ordinal $\\alpha$ if, for any two block subspaces, the Bourgain embeddability index of one into the other is at least $\\alpha$. We prove a dichotomy that characterises when a Banach space has an $\\alpha$-minimal subspace, which contributes to the ongoing project, initiated by W. T. Gowers, of classifying separable Banach spaces by identifying characteristic subspaces.

  14. 40 CFR 63.60 - Deletion of caprolactam from the list of hazardous air pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of hazardous air pollutants. 63.60 Section 63.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES List of Hazardous Air Pollutants, Petitions Process, Lesser Quantity...

  15. Resting alpha activity predicts learning ability in alpha neurofeedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenya eNan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Individuals differ in their ability to learn how to regulate the alpha activity by neurofeedback. This study aimed to investigate whether the resting alpha activity is related to the learning ability of alpha enhancement in neurofeedback and could be used as a predictor. A total of 25 subjects performed 20 sessions of individualized alpha neurofeedback in order to learn how to enhance activity in the alpha frequency band. The learning ability was assessed by three indices respectively: the training parameter changes between two periods, within a short period and across the whole training time. It was found that the resting alpha amplitude measured before training had significant positive correlations with all learning indices and could be used as a predictor for the learning ability prediction. This finding would help the researchers in not only predicting the training efficacy in individuals but also gaining further insight into the mechanisms of alpha neurofeedback.

  16. Development of energy-efficient comfort ventilation plants with air quality controlled volume flow rate and continuous detection of the status of the windows aperture. Part 3. Final report with documentation of the field test; Entwicklung energieeffizienter Komfortlueftungsanlagen mit luftqualitaetsgefuehrter Volumenstromregelung und kontinuierlicher Erfassung des Fensteroeffnungszustandes. Teilbericht 3. Endbericht mit Dokumentation des Feldtests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossklos, Marc; Hacke, Ulrike [Institut Wohnen und Umwelt GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2012-10-25

    Residential ventilation systems with a heat recovery contribute to the improvement of the air quality and to the reduction of heat losses caused by ventilation. An additional opening of the windows in residential buildings results in a clearly increasing consumption of thermal heat because the thermal heat of the out coming air cannot be utilized furthermore. Continuous information on the energetic effects of the opening of windows is helpful. Under this aspect, the authors of the contribution under consideration report on the development of energy efficient comfort ventilation systems with an air quality controlled volume flow rate and continuous detection of the status of the windows aperture. The contribution under consideration is the third part of a project concerning to this theme. This part encompasses a field test with four single-family houses in which the air quality control as well as the detection of the status of the windows aperture is tested and optimized for a long period. This contribution also contains the results of the second part of the project. The second project investigate the technical implementation of a air quality regulation at prototypes and test facilities.

  17. Pulse radiolytic study of alpha-tocopherol radical mechanisms in ethanolic solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jore, D.; Patterson, L.K.; Ferradini, C.

    1986-01-01

    Pulse radiolytic studies of alpha-tocopherol (alpha TH) oxidation-reduction processes were carried out with low doses (5 Gy) of high-energy electrons in O/sub 2/-, N/sub 2/-, and air-saturated ethanolic solutions. Depending on the concentration of oxygen in solution, two different radicals, A . and B ., were observed. The first, A ., was obtained under N/sub 2/ and results from alpha TH reaction with solvated electron (k alpha TH + e-solv = 3.4 X 10(8) mol-1 liter s-1) and with H/sub 3/C-CH-OH, (R.) (k alpha TH + R. = 5 X 10(5) mol-1 liter s-1). B., observed under O/sub 2/, is produced by alpha TH reaction with RO/sub 2/ . peroxyl radicals (k alpha TH + RO/sub 2/ . = 9.5 X 10(4) mol-1 liter s-1).

  18. Pulse radiolytic study of alpha-tocopherol radical mechanisms in ethanolic solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulse radiolytic studies of alpha-tocopherol (alpha TH) oxidation-reduction processes were carried out with low doses (5 Gy) of high-energy electrons in O2-, N2-, and air-saturated ethanolic solutions. Depending on the concentration of oxygen in solution, two different radicals, A . and B ., were observed. The first, A ., was obtained under N2 and results from alpha TH reaction with solvated electron (k alpha TH + e-solv = 3.4 X 10(8) mol-1 liter s-1) and with H3C-CH-OH, (R.) (k alpha TH + R. = 5 X 10(5) mol-1 liter s-1). B., observed under O2, is produced by alpha TH reaction with RO2 . peroxyl radicals (k alpha TH + RO2 . = 9.5 X 10(4) mol-1 liter s-1)

  19. Air Abrasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... delivered directly to your desktop! more... What Is Air Abrasion? Article Chapters What Is Air Abrasion? What Happens? The Pros and Cons Will I Feel Anything? Is Air Abrasion for Everyone? print full article print this ...

  20. Rossi Alpha Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Rossi Alpha Method has proved to be valuable for the determination of prompt neutron lifetimes in fissile assemblies having known reproduction numbers at or near delayed critical. This workshop report emphasizes the pioneering applications of the method by Dr. John D. Orndoff to fast-neutron critical assemblies at Los Alamos. The value of the method appears to disappear for subcritical systems where the Rossi-α is no longer an α-eigenvalue

  1. Combining Alphas via Bounded Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zura Kakushadze

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We give an explicit algorithm and source code for combining alpha streams via bounded regression. In practical applications, typically, there is insufficient history to compute a sample covariance matrix (SCM for a large number of alphas. To compute alpha allocation weights, one then resorts to (weighted regression over SCM principal components. Regression often produces alpha weights with insufficient diversification and/or skewed distribution against, e.g., turnover. This can be rectified by imposing bounds on alpha weights within the regression procedure. Bounded regression can also be applied to stock and other asset portfolio construction. We discuss illustrative examples.

  2. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Hhhhh of... - Partially Soluble Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Pollutants 7 Table 7 to Subpart HHHHH of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Miscellaneous...

  3. Naturally-occurring alpha activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In view of the difficulties of assessing the significance of man-made radioactivity it is important to study for comparison the background of natural radioactivity against which the human race has evolved and lives. It is also important to define the present levels of activity so that it will be possible to detect and study as quickly as possible any changes which may occur owing to the release into the environment of new radioactive materials. Moreover, by the study of the behaviour of natural radioactivity light may be shed upon that of the artificially produced isotopes and a number of analogies traced between the two groups. These concepts have led to studies of naturally-occurring radioactive materials alongside a programme of research into fission products in food, water and air, as well as studies of the metabolism of both sets of materials in the human body. Since the last report there has been a useful increase in our knowledge of natural radioactivity in the biosphere, and its levels relative to the new man-made activities. These studies have necessitated technical developments, particularly in the methods of measuring and identifying alpha-ray emitters, to which group many of the more important natural radioactive materials belong

  4. Alpha-globin loci in homozygous beta-thalassemia intermedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triadou, P; Lapoumeroulie, C; Girot, R; Labie, D

    1983-01-01

    Homozygous beta-thalassemia intermediate (TI) differs from thalassemia major (TM) in being less severe clinically. Associated alpha-thalassemia could account for the TI phenotype by reducing the alpha/non-alpha chain imbalance. We have analyzed the alpha loci of 9 TI and 11 TM patients by restriction endonuclease mapping. All the TM and 7 of the TI patients have the normal complement of four alpha-globin genes (alpha alpha/alpha alpha). One TI patient has three alpha-globin genes (alpha alpha/-alpha), and another TI patient has five alpha genes (alpha alpha/alpha alpha alpha). PMID:6305827

  5. Scaling behaviour in daily air humidity fluctuations

    OpenAIRE

    Vattay, Gabor; Harnos, Andrea

    1993-01-01

    We show that the daily average air humidity fluctuations exhibit non-trivial $1/f^{\\alpha}$ behaviour which different from the spectral properties of other meteorological quantities. This feature and the fractal spatial strucure found in clouds make it plausible to regard air humidity fluctuations as a manifestation of self-organized criticality. We give arguments why the dynamics in air humidity can be similar to those in sandpile models of SOC.

  6. Scaling behaviour in daily air humidity fluctuations

    CERN Document Server

    Vattay, G; Vattay, Gabor; Harnos, Andrea

    1994-01-01

    We show that the daily average air humidity fluctuations exhibit non-trivial $1/f^{\\alpha}$ behaviour which different from the spectral properties of other meteorological quantities. This feature and the fractal spatial strucure found in clouds make it plausible to regard air humidity fluctuations as a manifestation of self-organized criticality. We give arguments why the dynamics in air humidity can be similar to those in sandpile models of SOC.

  7. 40 CFR 1065.150 - Continuous sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Continuous sampling. 1065.150 Section 1065.150 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.150 Continuous sampling. You may use...

  8. Unfolding domains of recombinant fusion alpha alpha-tropomyosin.

    OpenAIRE

    Ishii, Y; Hitchcock-DeGregori, S.; Mabuchi, K; Lehrer, S S

    1992-01-01

    The thermal unfolding of the coiled-coil alpha-helix of recombinant alpha alpha-tropomyosin from rat striated muscle containing an additional 80-residue peptide of influenza virus NS1 protein at the N-terminus (fusion-tropomyosin) was studied with circular dichroism and fluorescence techniques. Fusion-tropomyosin unfolded in four cooperative transitions: (1) a pretransition starting at 35 degrees C involving the middle of the molecule; (2) a major transition at 46 degrees C involving no more ...

  9. Source preparations for alpha and beta measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm, E. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    2001-01-01

    Regarding alpha particle emitters subject for environmental studies, electrodeposition or co-precipitation as fluorides are the most common methods. For electro deposition stainless steel is generally used as cathode material but also other metals such as Ni, Ag, and Cu showed promising results. The use of other anode material than platinum, such as graphite should be investigated. For other purposes such as optimal resolution other more sophisticated methods are used but often resulting in poorer recovery. For beta particle emitters the type of detection system will decide the source preparation. Similar methods as for alpha particle emitters, electrodeposition or precipitation techniques can be used. Due to the continuous energy distribution of the beta pulse height distribution a high resolution is not required. Thicker sources from the precipitates or a stable isotopic carrier can be accepted but correction for absorption in the source must be done. (au)

  10. Source preparations for alpha and beta measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regarding alpha particle emitters subject for environmental studies, electrodeposition or co-precipitation as fluorides are the most common methods. For electro deposition stainless steel is generally used as cathode material but also other metals such as Ni, Ag, and Cu showed promising results. The use of other anode material than platinum, such as graphite should be investigated. For other purposes such as optimal resolution other more sophisticated methods are used but often resulting in poorer recovery. For beta particle emitters the type of detection system will decide the source preparation. Similar methods as for alpha particle emitters, electrodeposition or precipitation techniques can be used. Due to the continuous energy distribution of the beta pulse height distribution a high resolution is not required. Thicker sources from the precipitates or a stable isotopic carrier can be accepted but correction for absorption in the source must be done. (au)

  11. Bi209 alpha activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study for measuring Bi209 alpha activity is presented. Ilford L4 nuclear emulsion pellicles loaded with bismuth citrate to obtain a load of 100 mg/cm3 of dry emulsion, were prepared. Other pellicles were prepared with the same. Ilford L4 gel to estimate the background radiation. To observe 'fading' effect, pellicles loaded with bismuth were submitted to neutrons of high energy, aiming to record recoil proton tracks. The pellicles were confined in nitrogen atmosphere at temperature lower than -100C. The Bi209 experimental half-life was obtained and compared with the estimated theoretical data. (M.C.K.)

  12. Background canceling surface alpha detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A background canceling long range alpha detector which is capable of providing output proportional to both the alpha radiation emitted from a surface and to radioactive gas emanating from the surface. The detector operates by using an electrical field between first and second signal planes, an enclosure and the surface or substance to be monitored for alpha radiation. The first and second signal planes are maintained at the same voltage with respect to the electrically conductive enclosure, reducing leakage currents. In the presence of alpha radiation and radioactive gas decay, the signal from the first signal plane is proportional to both the surface alpha radiation and to the airborne radioactive gas, while the signal from the second signal plane is proportional only to the airborne radioactive gas. The difference between these two signals is proportional to the surface alpha radiation alone. 5 figs

  13. Alpha activity measurement with lsc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, we showed that the alpha activity in liquid samples can be measured using a liquid scintillation analyzer without alpha/beta discrimination capability. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the performances of the method and to optimize the procedure of the sample preparation. A series of tests was performed to validate the procedure of alpha emitting radionuclides extraction in aqueous samples with Actinide Resin, especially regarding to the contact time required to extract all alpha nuclides. The main conclusions were that a minimum 18 hours stirring time is needed to achieve a percent recovery of the alpha nuclides grater than 90% and that the counting efficiency of alphas measurements with LSC is nearly 100%. (authors)

  14. Air Quality Monitoring Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, K.; Palmgren, F.

    The air quality in Danish cities has been monitored continuously since 1982 within the Danish Air Quality (LMP) network. The aim has been to follow the concentration levels of toxic pollutants in the urban atmosphere and to provide the necessary knowledge to assess the trends, to perform source...... apportionment, and to evaluate the chemical reactions and the dispersion of the pollutants in the atmosphere. In 2002 the air quality was measured in four Danish cities and at two background sites. NO2 and PM10 were at several stations found in concentrations above the new EU limit values, which the Member...

  15. Robust Estimation of Cronbach's Alpha

    OpenAIRE

    Christmann, A.; Van Aelst, Stefan

    2002-01-01

    Cronbach’s alpha is a popular method to measure reliability, e.g. in quantifying the reliability of a score to summarize the information of several items in question- naires. The alpha coefficient is known to be non-robust. We study the behavior of this coefficient in different settings to identify situations, which can easily occur in practice, but under which the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient is extremely sensitive to violations of the classical model assumptions. Furthermore,...

  16. Structure and diversity of the TCR alpha-chain in a teleost fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partula, S; de Guerra, A; Fellah, J S; Charlemagne, J

    1996-07-01

    T cell receptor beta-chain genes are well characterized in representatives of most vertebrate phyla, from sharks to mammals, but the molecular structure of complete TCR alpha-chains has not yet been established in cold-blooded vertebrates. We used a PCR approach to isolate cDNAs encoding putative teleost fish (Oncorhynchus mykiss, rainbow trout) TCR alpha-chains. Eight V alpha segments were identified, belonging to six different families, and the best amino acid sequence identity scores for these trout V alpha were all provided by mammalian V alpha or V delta sequences. Twenty-four (60.1 %) of the 39 analyzed V alpha segments belong to the V alpha 2 family, which has limited homology with mammalian V alpha/delta sequences and with the human V pre-B sequence. A total of 32 different J alpha segments were identified from 40 J alpha regions sequenced, suggesting that a large repertoire of J alpha segments is a characteristic of most vertebrates. The structural properties of the TCR alpha-chain complementarity-determining region 3 loop are well conserved between trout and mammals, suggesting that this region has been under continuous selective pressure in jawed vertebrate evolution. The trout C alpha segment has conserved N-terminal and transmembrane domains, but the C alpha intercysteine distance contains only 40 residues, significantly smaller as compared with mammals (49-56 residues). The conserved features of teleost fish TCR beta- and alpha-chains with their mammalian equivalents suggest that TCR-alpha beta receptors were still present in the common Devonian ancestors of modern teleost fish and mammals, about 450 million years ago. PMID:8683116

  17. Real-time alpha emitter assay of large volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we discuss the design and behavior of a High Airflow Monitor (HAFM) based on Long-Range Alpha Detector (LRAD) technology [1]. The low air resistance construction of the HAFM enables the high airflow crucial for assay of rooms, vaults, or cargo vehicles. This is accomplished by orienting plates parallel to the airflow rather than perpendicular, as are the grids in other LRADS. As will be shown in this paper, the advantages of an LRAD-based volume monitor are its inexpensive simplicity, ruggedness, and its ability to detect contamination that is hidden from traditional alpha detection methods such as Geiger-Muller, gas cell, or solid-state detectors

  18. A method for field measurements using alpha-spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpha-ray spectrometry in combination with sample preparation methods are commonly performed within a laboratory. These procedures are both technically demanding and time consuming. The current work describes what information alpha spectrometry will give if it is performed in the field with a limited amount of equipment. The aim was to find a mobile method usable in the field or mounted inside a vehicle. Experiments were made on four electrodeposited samples with different nuclide mixes, measured during normal and reduced air pressure conditions. A prototype of an instrument made for mobile use is also briefly described. (author)

  19. Imaging of alpha emitters in a field environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameras sensitive to ultraviolet light can be applied to detection of surface contamination induced by alpha particle emitters. When absorbed in air, alpha particles excite nitrogen molecules and the radiative relaxation creates a faint light emission. This radioluminescence can be used for detection purposes, provided that background lighting levels are low. In this work, three low-light sensitive camera technologies (CCD, EMCCD and ICCD) were utilized in a nuclear facility, and their performance in detecting alpha emitters was investigated. The results show that low readout noise is essential for the detection of radioluminescence, as it allows short exposure times to be used. The ICCD camera was found to perform slightly better than the EMCCD camera in the field, while both enable the detection of MBq level alpha activities in 100 s in the test configuration (camera-target distance 0.5 m). Overall, the cameras and techniques used in this study are shown to be effective in detecting alpha emitters in a standard glovebox. This technology can be applied to nuclear security, safety and safeguards, when stand-off detection of alpha emitters is required

  20. 211 Po alpha decay level scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fine structure of alpha decay was discovered by Rosenblum in 1929 by measuring the range of the emitted particle in the air. Usually, attempts to investigate this phenomenon were effected theoretically by calculating the overlaps between the wave function of the parent and the antisymmetric product between the wave functions of the nascent fragments for different configurations after the scission. However, quantitatively this phenomenon was not explained rigorously. In earlier papers, a theory based on the Landau--Zener effect was developed in order to describe quantitatively the cluster decay fine structure phenomenon. It was claimed that the same effect can also direct the fine structure in the case of alpha decay. It was also evidenced that the fine structure can be explained as the promotion of the unpaired nucleon on upper levels belonging to the daughter during the decay process in the field created by the emitted nascent fragment. In this context, the first step in the construction of such a theory for alpha decay is to develop a two-centre diagram of the levels during the whole decay process beginning with the levels of the parent nucleus, following the energetic variations of these levels up to the final configuration given by the separated daughter and alpha particle. Of course, in our representation it is only intended to treat the alpha cluster with a smooth potential in order to estimate the influence of the emitted particle on the daughter levels during the decay and it is not assumed that the oscillator well is appropriate for the description of an alpha nucleus. The Landau-Zener promotion mechanism takes place between levels belonging to the nascent heavy nucleus, so that only the influence of the potential attributed to the alpha particle is taken into consideration. The level scheme is plotted for a nuclear shape parametrisation given by two intersected spheres of different radii as described. The parent and the daughter do not have pronounced

  1. 1 alpha, 25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 a metabolite of vitamin D that promotes bone repair.

    OpenAIRE

    Brumbaugh, P. F.; Speer, D. P.; Pitt, M. J.

    1982-01-01

    1 alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, the hormonal form of vitamin D3 that mediates calcium translocation in intestine and bone, was tested for its ability to promote fracture repair. Chicks were raised on a vitamin D-deficient diet supplemented with 1 alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 for 3 weeks. Following fracture of the humerus, those chicks that did not receive continued 1 alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 supplementation showed prolonged fracture healing, abnormal enchondral bone formation delayed r...

  2. Alpha glucosidase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Sanjay

    2014-04-01

    Alpha glucosidase inhibitors (AGIs) are a unique class of anti-diabetic drugs. Derived from bacteria, these oral drugs are enzyme inhibitors which do not have a pancreato -centred mechanism of action. Working to delay carbohydrate absorption in the gastrointestinal tract, they control postprandial hyperglycaemia and provide unquestioned cardiovascular benefit. Specially suited for a traditional Pakistani carbohydrate-rich diet, AGIs have been termed the 'untapped diamonds' of diabetology. The use of these oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs) that target pathophysiology in the early stages of type 2 diabetes, notably to reduce postprandial hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia will inevitably increase with time. This review describes the history of their development, mechanism of action, basic and clinical pharmacology, and suggests practical, evidence-based guidance for their optimal use. PMID:24864650

  3. Determination of radionuclides in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The air in certain work areas at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant is monitored for selected radionuclides to assure safety FR-om toxic effects to personnel in the area. Some of the radionuclides that are determined are shown with their Radiation Protection Standard (RPS) values by means of a table. The RPS is the maximum average airborne contamination to which personnel may be exposed for one week without respiratory protection and is expressed as disintegrations per minute (dpm) per cubic meter (m/sup 3/) of air. It is desirable to make reliable measurements at a level which is 10% of the RPS to ensure that the detection limits are well below the RPS. Thorium, neptunium, plutonium, and uranium all have alpha emitting isotopes and it is their alpha activity which is measured. Results are tabulated

  4. Alpha Hydroxy Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the law (Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, Sec. 201(g)). For example, products intended for use ... International Programs News & Events Training & Continuing Education Inspections & Compliance Federal, State & Local Officials Consumers Health Professionals Science & ...

  5. Insurance - Piper Alpha ''et al''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper opens with some brief information about the Piper Alpha loss, how the loss was handled and its final cost. More importantly, it discusses the effect of the Piper Alpha loss on the world insurance market including the oil insurance captives such as O.I.L Limited. Finally, the insurance market current status and prognosis for the future are considered. (Author)

  6. Alpha particle emitters in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation-induced cancer of bone, liver and lung has been a prominent harmful side-effect of medical applications of alpha emitters. In recent years, however, the potential use of antibodies labeled with alpha emitting radionuclides against cancer has seemed promising because alpha particles are highly effective in cell killing. High dose rates at high LET, effectiveness under hypoxic conditions, and minimal expectancy of repair are additional advantages of alpha emitters over antibodies labeled with beta emitting radionuclides for cancer therapy. Cyclotron-produced astatine-211 (211At) and natural bismuth-212 (212Bi) have been proposed and are under extensive study in the United States and Europe. Radium-223 (223Ra) also has favorable properties as a potential alpha emitting label, including a short-lived daughter chain with four alpha emissions. The radiation dosimetry of internal alpha emitters is complex due to nonuniformly distributed sources, short particle tracks, and high relative specific ionization. The variations in dose at the cellular level may be extreme. Alpha-particle radiation dosimetry, therefore, must involve analysis of statistical energy deposition probabilities for cellular level targets. It must also account fully for nonuniform distributions of sources in tissues, source-target geometries, and particle-track physics. 18 refs., 4 figs

  7. The Lyman alpha reference sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayes, M.; Östlin, G.; Schaerer, D.; Verhamme, A.; Mas-Hesse, J.M.; Adamo, A.; Atek, H.; Cannon, J.M.; Duval, F.; Guaita, L.; Herenz, E.C.; Kunth, D.; Laursen, Peter; Melinder, J.; Orlitová, I.; Otí-Floranes, H.; Sandberg, A.

    2013-01-01

    We report on new imaging observations of the Lyman alpha emission line (Lyα), performed with the Hubble Space Telescope, that comprise the backbone of the Lyman alpha Reference Sample. We present images of 14 starburst galaxies at redshifts 0.028

  8. Generalized Continued Logarithms and Related Continued Fractions

    OpenAIRE

    Borwein, Jonathan M.; Hare, Kevin G.; Lynch, Jason G.

    2016-01-01

    We study continued logarithms as introduced by Bill Gosper and studied by J. Borwein et. al.. After providing an overview of the type I and type II generalizations of binary continued logarithms introduced by Borwein et. al., we focus on a new generalization to an arbitrary integer base $b$. We show that all of our so-called type III continued logarithms converge and all rational numbers have finite type III continued logarithms. As with simple continued fractions, we show that the continued ...

  9. Alpha Schottky junction energy source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litz, Marc S.; Fan, Zhaoyang; Carroll, James J.; Bayne, Stephen

    2012-06-01

    Isotope batteries offer solutions for long-lived low-power sensor requirements. Alpha emitting isotopes have energy per decay 103 times that of beta emitters. Alpha particles are absorbed within 20 μm of most materials reducing shielding mitigation. However, damage to materials from the alphas limits their practical use. A Schottky Barrier Diode (SBD) geometry is considered with an alpha emitting contact-layer on a diamond-like crystal semiconductor region. The radiation tolerance of diamond, the safety of alpha particles, combined with the internal field of the SBD is expected to generate current useful for low-power electronic devices over decades. Device design parameters and calculations of the expected current are described.

  10. Clinical and immunological responses to occupational exposure to alpha-amylase in the baking industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisman, J; Belin, L

    1991-09-01

    alpha-Amylase is a starch cleaving enzyme often used in the baking industry as a flour additive. It is usually of fungal origin, produced by Aspergillus oryzae. One previous report has shown IgE antibodies and positive skin prick test against alpha-amylase in asthmatic bakers. This paper describes four alpha-amylase sensitised index cases with occupational asthma or rhinitis and the results of a cross sectional study of 20 workers from the same factory who were also exposed to alpha-amylase powder. Air sampling detected airborne alpha-amylase at a concentration of 0.03 mg/m3. Significantly more work related symptoms such as rhinitis and dermatitis were found among the alpha-amylase exposed workers compared with referents. A skin prick test to alpha-amylase was positive in 30% (6/20) of the exposed workers. Most of the persons showing a positive skin prick test had work related symptoms and were also skin prick test positive to common allergens. Nasal challenge tests with amylase were performed in selected cases and validated three cases of alpha-amylase induced rhinitis. Two non-symptomatic workers had precipitins to alpha-amylase. Specific IgG antibodies were shown by two further serological techniques. The nature and relevance of these antibodies are currently being studied. It is concluded that alpha-amylase powder is a potent occupational sensitiser. Precautions should be taken when handling this allergenic enzyme. PMID:1832939

  11. Alpha detection in pipes using an inverting membrane scintillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kendrick, D.T.; Cremer, C.D.; Lowry, W. [Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    Characterization of surface alpha emitting contamination inside enclosed spaces such as piping systems presents an interesting radiological measurement challenge. Detection of these alpha particles from the exterior of the pipe is impossible since the alpha particles are completely absorbed by the pipe wall. Traditional survey techniques, using hand-held instruments, simply can not be used effectively inside pipes. Science and Engineering Associates, Inc. is currently developing an enhancement to its Pipe Explorer{trademark} system that will address this challenge. The Pipe Explorer{trademark} uses a unique sensor deployment method where an inverted tubular membrane is propagated through complex pipe runs via air pressure. The inversion process causes the membrane to fold out against the pipe wall, such that no part of the membrane drags along the pipe wall. This deployment methodology has been successfully demonstrated at several DOE sites to transport specially designed beta and gamma, scintillation detectors into pipes ranging in length up to 250 ft.

  12. ACL and Differentiability of $(\\alpha,Q)-$Homeomorphisms

    CERN Document Server

    Salimov, R

    2010-01-01

    It is established that a $(\\alpha,Q)-$homeomorphism in ${\\Bbb R}^n$, $n\\geqslant2,$ is absolute continuous on lines, furthermore, in $W^{1,1}_{loc}$ and differentiable a.e. whenever $Q\\in L^1_{loc}.$

  13. Air conditioning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstein, Andrew; Miller, Jeffrey; Gruendeman, Peter; DaSilva, Michael

    2005-02-01

    An air conditioner comprises a plurality of plates arranged in a successively stacked configuration with portions thereof having a spaced apart arrangement, and defining between successive adjacent pairs of plates at the spaced apart portions a first and second series of discrete alternating passages wherein a first air stream is passed through the first series of passages and a second air stream is passed through the second series of passages; and said stacked configuration of plates forming integrally therewith a liquid delivery means for delivering from a source a sufficient quantity of a liquid to the inside surfaces of the first series of fluid passages in a manner which provides a continuous flow of the liquid from a first end to a second end of the plurality of plates while in contact with the first air stream.

  14. Oxygen incineration process for treatment of alpha-contaminated wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a part of development of a treatment technology for burnable alpha-bearing (or -contaminated) wastes using an oxygen incineration process, which would be expected to produce in Korea, the off-gas volume and compositions were estimated form mass and heat balance, and then compared to those of a general air incineration process. A laboratory-scale oxygen incineration process, to investigate a burnable wastes from nuclear fuel fabricatin facility, was designed, constructed, and then operated. The use of oxygen instead of air in incineratin would result in reduction on off-gas product below one seventh theoretically. In addition, the trends on incineration and melting processes to treat the radioactive alpha-contaminated wastes, and the regulations and guide lines, related to design, construction, and operation of incineration process, were reviewed. Finallu, the domestic regulations related incineration, and the operation and maintenance manuals for oxy-fuel burner and oxygen incineration process were shown in appendixes

  15. Radon measurement of natural gas using alpha scintillation cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to their sensitivity and ease of use, alpha-scintillation cells are being increasingly utilized for measurements of radon (222Rn) in natural gas. Laboratory studies showed an average increase of 7.3% in the measurement efficiency of alpha-scintillation cells when filled with less-dense natural gas rather than regular air. A theoretical calculation comparing the atomic weight and density of air to that of natural gas suggests a 6–7% increase in the detection efficiency when measuring radon in the cells. A correction is also applicable when the sampling location and measurement laboratory are at different elevations. These corrections to the measurement efficiency need to be considered in order to derive accurate concentrations of radon in natural gas

  16. Radially anisotropic systems with $r^{-\\alpha}$ forces: equilibrium states

    CERN Document Server

    Di Cintio, Pierfrancesco; Nipoti, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    We continue the study of collisionless systems governed by additive $r^{-\\alpha}$ interparticle forces by focusing on the influence of the force exponent $\\alpha$ on radial orbital anisotropy. In this preparatory work we construct the radially anisotropic Osipkov-Merritt phase-space distribution functions for self-consistent spherical Hernquist models with $r^{-\\alpha}$ forces and $1\\leq\\alpha<3$. The resulting systems are isotropic at the center and increasingly dominated by radial orbits at radii larger than the anisotropy radius $r_a$. For radially anisotropic models we determine the minimum value of the anisotropy radius $r_{ac}$ as a function of $\\alpha$ for phase-space consistency (such that the phase-space distribution function is nowhere negative for $r_a\\geq r_{ac}$). We find that $r_{ac}$ decreases for decreasing $\\alpha$, and that the amount of kinetic energy that can be stored in the radial direction relative to that stored in the tangential directions for marginally consistent models increases...

  17. HI Lyman-alpha equivalent widths of stellar populations

    CERN Document Server

    Pena-Guerrero, Maria A

    2013-01-01

    We have compiled a library of stellar Lyman-alpha equivalent widths in O and B stars using the model atmosphere codes CMFGEN and TLUSTY, respectively. The equivalent widths range from about 0 to 30 \\AA in absorption for early-O to mid-B stars. The purpose of this library is the prediction of the underlying stellar Lyman-alpha absorption in stellar populations of star-forming galaxies with nebular Lyman-alpha emission. We implemented the grid of individual equivalent widths into the Starburst99 population synthesis code to generate synthetic Lyman-alpha equivalent widths for representative star-formation histories. A starburst observed after 10 Myr will produce a stellar Lyman-alpha line with an equivalent width of $\\sim$ -10$\\pm$4 \\AA in absorption for a Salpeter initial mass function. The lower value (deeper absorption) results for an instantaneous burst, and the higher value (shallower line) for continuous star formation. Depending on the escape fraction of nebular Lyman-alpha photons, the effect of stellar...

  18. ALPHA freezes antiprotons

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Laboratories like CERN can routinely produce many different types of antiparticles. In 1995, the PS210 experiment formed the first antihydrogen atoms and a few years later, in 2002, ATRAP and ATHENA were already able to produce several thousand of them. However, no experiment in the world has succeeded in ‘trapping’ these anti-atoms in order to study them. This is the goal of the ALPHA experiment, which has recently managed to cool down the antiprotons to just a few Kelvin. This represents a major step towards trapping the anti-atom, thus opening a new avenue into the investigation of antimatter properties.   Members of the ALPHA collaboration working on the apparatus in the Antiproton Decelerator experimental hall at CERN. Just like the atom, the anti-atom is neutral. Unlike the atom, the anti-atom is made up of antiprotons (as opposed to protons in the atom) and positrons (as opposed to electrons). In order to thoroughly study the properties of the anti-atoms, scien...

  19. Synthesis of a precursor for the preparation of 9 alpha,11 alpha-tritiated 5 alpha-androstane-3 alpha,17 beta-diol 17-glucuronide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starting from 11 beta-hydroxytestosterone, the synthesis of a strategic precursor, C-9 (11) unsaturated 5 alpha-androstane-3 alpha, 17 beta-diol 17-glucuronide (9a), for the preparation of 9 alpha,11 alpha-tritiated 5 alpha-androstane-3 alpha, 17 beta-diol 17-glucuronide has been achieved. The authors optimized the reaction conditions for catalytic reduction employing hydrogen and subsequent base hydrolysis followed by purification on Amberlite XAD-2 resin to obtain the saturated 5 alpha-androstane-3 alpha, 17 beta-diol 17-glucuronide

  20. Measurement of $\\alpha_{s}$ with Radiative Hadronic Events

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G; Åkesson, P F; Alexander, G; Anagnostou, G; Anderson, K J; Asai, S; Axen, D; Bailey, I; Barberio, E; Barillari, T; Barlow, R J; Batley, R J; Bechtle, P; Behnke, T; Bell, K W; Bell, P J; Bella, G; Bellerive, A; Benelli, G; Bethke, S; Biebel, O; Boeriu, O; Bock, P; Boutemeur, M; Braibant, S; Brown, R M; Burckhart, H J; Campana, S; Capiluppi, P; Carnegie, R K; Carter, A A; Carter, J R; Chang, C Y; Charlton, D G; Ciocca, C; Csilling, A; Cuffiani, M; Dado, S; Dallavalle, M; de Roeck, A; De Wolf, E A; Desch, K; Dienes, B; Dubbert, J; Duchovni, E; Duckeck, G; Duerdoth, I P; Etzion, E; Fabbri, F; Ferrari, P; Fiedler, F; Fleck, I; Ford, M; Frey, A; Gagnon, P; Gary, J W; Geich-Gimbel, C; Giacomelli, G; Giacomelli, P; Giunta, M; Goldberg, J; Gross, E; Grunhaus, J; Gruwé, M; Sen-Gupta, A; Hajdu, C; Hamann, M; Hanson, G G; Harel, A; Hauschild, M; Hawkes, C M; Hawkings, R; Herten, G; Heuer, R D; Hill, J C; Horváth, D; Igo-Kemenes, P; Ishii, K; Jeremie, H; Jovanovic, P; Junk, T R; Kanzaki, J; Karlen, D; Kawagoe, K; Kawamoto, T; Keeler, R K; Kellogg, R G; Kennedy, B W; Kluth, S; Kobayashi, T; Kobel, M; Komamiya, S; Kramer, T; Krasznahorkays, A Jr; Krieger, P; Von Krogh, J; Kühl, T; Kupper, M; Lafferty, G D; Landsman, H; Lanske, D; Lellouch, D; Letts, J; Levinson, L; Lillich, J; Lloyd, S L; Loebinger, F K; Lü, J; Ludwig, A; Ludwig, J; Mader, W; Marcellini, S; Martin, A J; Mashimo, T; Mättig, P; McKenna, J; McPherson, R A; Meijers, F; Menges, W; Merritt, F S; Mes, H; Meyer, N; Michelini, A; Mihara, S; Mikenberg, G; Miller, D J; Mohr, W; Mori, T; Mutter, A; Nagai, K; Nakamura, I; Nanjo, H; Neal, H A; O'Neale, S W; Oh, A; Oreglia, M J; Orito, S; Pahl, C; Pásztor, G; Pater, J R; Pilcher, J E; Pinfold, J L; Plane, D E; Pooth, O; Przybycien, M; Quadt, A; Rabbertz, K; Rembser, C; Renkel, P; Roney, J M; Rossi, A M; Rozen, Y; Runge, K; Sachs, K; Saeki, T; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E; Schaile, A D; Schaile, O; Scharff-Hansen, P; Schiecks, J; Schörner-Sadenius, T; Schröder, M; Schumacher, M; Seuster, R; Shears, T G; Shen, B C; Sherwood, P; Skuja, A; Smith, A M; Sobie, R J; Söldner-Rembold, S; Spanó, F; Stahl, A; Strom, D; Ströhmer, R; Tarem, S; Tasevsky, M; Teuscher, R; Thomson, M A; Torrence, E; Toya, D; Trigger, I; Trócsányi, Z L; Tsur, E; Turner-Watson, M F; Ueda, I; Ujvári, B; Vollmer, C F; Vannerem, P; Vertesi, R; Verzocchi, M; Voss, H; Vossebeld, J; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Wells, P S; Wengler, T; Wermes, N; Wilson, G W; Wilson, J A; Wolf, G; Wyatt, T R; Yamashita, S; Zer-Zion, D; Zivkovic, L

    2008-01-01

    Hadronic final states with a hard isolated photon are studied using data taken at centre-of-mass energies around the mass of the Z0 boson with the OPAL detector at LEP. The strong coupling alpha S is extracted by comparing data and QCD predictions for event shape observables at average reduced centre-of-mass energies ranging from 24 GeV to 78 GeV, and the energy dependence of alpha S is studied. Our results are consistent with the running of alpha S as predicted by QCD and show that within the uncertainties of our analysis event shapes in hadronic Z0 decays with hard and isolated photon radiation can be described by QCD at reduced centre-of-mass energies. Combining all values from different event shape observables and energies gives alpha S (Mz)=0.1182 pm 0.0015(stat.) pm 0.0101(syst.).

  1. What Powers Lyman alpha Blobs?

    OpenAIRE

    Ao, Y.; Matsuda, Y; Beelen, A.; Henkel, C.; Cen, R.; De Breuck, C.; Francis, P; Kovacs, A.; Lagache, G.; Lehnert, M.; Mao, M; Menten, K. M.; Norris, R; Omont, A.; Tatemastu, K.

    2015-01-01

    Lyman alpha blobs (LABs) are spatially extended lyman alpha nebulae seen at high redshift. The origin of Lyman alpha emission in the LABs is still unclear and under debate. To study their heating mechanism(s), we present Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) observations of the 20 cm radio emission and Herschel PACS and SPIRE measurements of the far-infrared (FIR) emission towards the four LABs in the protocluster J2143-4423 at z=2.38. Among the four LABs, B6 and B7 are detected in the rad...

  2. Sparse Coding for Alpha Matting

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Jubin; Varnousfaderani, Ehsan Shahrian; Cholakkal, Hisham; Rajan, Deepu

    2016-01-01

    Existing color sampling based alpha matting methods use the compositing equation to estimate alpha at a pixel from pairs of foreground (F) and background (B) samples. The quality of the matte depends on the selected (F,B) pairs. In this paper, the matting problem is reinterpreted as a sparse coding of pixel features, wherein the sum of the codes gives the estimate of the alpha matte from a set of unpaired F and B samples. A non-parametric probabilistic segmentation provides a certainty measur...

  3. Continuous and passive environmental radon monitoring: Measuring methods and health effects. (Latest citations from the INSPEC: Information services for the Physics and Engineering Communities database). Published Search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bibliography contains citations concerning continuous and passive radon (Rn) monitoring, measurement methods and equipment, and health effects from Rn concentration in air, water, and soils. Citations discuss the design, development, and evaluation of monitoring and detection devices, including alpha spectroscopy and dosimetry, track detecting and scintillation, thermoluminescent, electret, and electrode collection. Sources of Rn concentration levels found in building materials, ventilation systems, soils, and ground water are examined. Lung cancer-associated risks from Rn radiation exposure are explored. Radon monitoring in mining operations is excluded. (Contains a minimum of 210 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. 40 CFR Table 8 to Subpart Ffff of... - Partially Soluble Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Pollutants 8 Table 8 to Subpart FFFF of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Miscellaneous Organic...

  5. Solid waste combustion for alpha waste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive waste incinerator development at the Savannah River Laboratory has been augmented by fundamental combustion studies at the University of South Carolina. The objective was to measure and model pyrolysis and combustion rates of typical Savannah River Plant waste materials as a function of incinerator operating conditions. The analytical models developed in this work have been incorporated into a waste burning transient code. The code predicts maximum air requirement and heat energy release as a function of waste type, package size, combustion chamber size, and temperature. Historically, relationships have been determined by direct experiments that did not allow an engineering basis for predicting combustion rates in untested incinerators. The computed combustion rates and burning times agree with measured values in the Savannah River Laboratory pilot (1 lb/hr) and full-scale (12 lb/hr) alpha incinerators for a wide variety of typical waste materials

  6. Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Lawther, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    The human costs of air pollution are considerable in Jordan. According to a report published in 2000 by the World Bank under the Mediterranean Environmental Technical Assistance Program (METAP), approximately 600 people die prematurely each year in Jordan because of urban pollution. 50-90% of air pollution in Jordanian towns is caused by road traffic. Readings taken in 2007 by Jordanian researchers showed that levels of black carbon particles in the air were higher in urban areas (caused by v...

  7. Dynamic fibrils in Ly alpha

    CERN Document Server

    Koza, J; Vourlidas, A

    2008-01-01

    The solar chromosphere and transition region are highly structured regimes of large complexity. A recent breakthrough concerns the identification of dynamic fibrils seen in Halpha. An aim is to find out whether dynamic fibrils are also observable in Ly alpha. We use a brief sequence of four high-resolution Ly alpha filtergrams of the solar limb taken by the Very high Angular resolution ULtraviolet Telescope (VAULT) to identify 50 dynamic fibrils, measure their top trajectories, and fit these with parabolas. Most fibril tops move supersonically. Their decelerations vary from sub- to superballistic. About half show outward acceleration, which may be an artifact from the poor sampling. The similarity between these dynamic fibrils observed in Ly alpha and the ones observed in Halpha suggests that the magnetoacoustic shock excitation proposed for the Halpha dynamic fibrils is also valid for the Ly alpha ones.

  8. Almost Redundant Components in the 3 alpha Faddeev Equation for the Buck, Friedlich and Wheatly alpha alpha Potential

    CERN Document Server

    Fujiwara, Y; Kohno, M

    2004-01-01

    The 3 alpha orthogonality condition model using the Pauli-forbidden bound states of the Buck, Friedlich and Wheatly alpha alpha potential can yield a compact 3 alpha ground state with a large binding energy, in which a small admixture of the redundant components can never be eliminated.

  9. Alpha thalassaemia in British people.

    OpenAIRE

    Higgs, D R; Ayyub, H.; Clegg, J B; Hill, A V; Nicholls, R D; Teal, H; Wainscoat, J.S. (James S.); Weatherall, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    Although alpha thalassaemia is rare in north Europeans, it has been identified in British people with no known foreign ancestry. Twelve such patients were studied, of whom eight shared a distinctive molecular defect, which was clearly different from defects seen in subjects of Mediterranean or South East Asian origin. A rare but specific form of alpha thalassaemia is therefore present in the British population. In addition, two patients from families of mixed racial origin were encountered wh...

  10. Alpha Particle Emission in Fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soon after it was discovered that alpha particles are occasionally emitted in fission, it was concluded, on the basis of the energy and angular distributions of these particles, that they are emitted from the space between the fragments at times close to that of the snapping of the neck that connects them. It is shown that, independent of any (still unknown) dynamic features of the alpha-particle ejection process, the energy required to emit alpha particles from between the fragments at the indicated time is barely available. Presumably the rareness of alpha particles in fission, and the apparent absence of still heavier ''third'' particles, is associated with the marginal energy supply at the time of actual fragment division. The fact that the total kinetic energy release in so-called ternary fission is roughly equal to that in normal binary fission instead of being about 20 MeV larger is shown to imply that the mean fragment separation at the division time is larger in ternary fission. This is interpreted to indicate that alpha particles are emitted with greatest probability n those fissions where ample energy happens to be provided through the stretching of an abnormally long neck between the fragments before they actually divide. It is suggested that the release of the alpha particles is a sudden rather than adiabatic process. (author)

  11. Alpha particle physics for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper is devoted to the analysis of a variety of physical processes which, in the ITER EDA configuration, determine the nature of alpha particle heating in the plasma interior and alpha particle losses to the first wall. The paper consists of results from the alpha particle toroidal field (TF) ripple loss calculations and an analysis of alpha particle collective effects including Alfven modes, sawtooth stabilization, etc. It is shown that the ripple loss in the present ITER configuration is only a few per cent, which cannot directly affect the achievement of ignition. In spite of the up-down asymmetry, the loss fraction does not strongly depend on the toroidal drift direction. However, the heat load is highly localized and can be as high as 1 MW/m2 on the top of the protective limiters. Preliminary calculations of toroidicity induced Alfven eigenmode (TAE) stability indicate that high n numbers may be unstable, but the computational tools, needed for reliable quantitative predictions, are still in a state of development. The likelihood of appreciable alpha particle loss will depend on whether TAE modes produce stochastic alpha particle diffusion or not. The effect of fast particles on the m = 1 mode is also discussed. (author). 15 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  12. Air the excellent canopy

    CERN Document Server

    Fahy, F

    2013-01-01

    We take it for granted, but without it we perish and if we continue to abuse it, it may kill us in the end. This fascinating text provides an understanding and appreciation of the role that air plays in our environment and its importance in relation to human life and technology. Aimed at those who are scientifically curious but who have no specialist training, it contains no mathematical equations and relies upon the qualitative descriptions and analogies to explain the more technical parts of the text together with simple home experiments to illustrate a range of air-based phenomena. Liberall

  13. Air Consumption Analysis of Air-Jet Weaving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAJ KUMAR KHIANI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In Textile industry, production is mostly key concern for Industry owner. This always has attracted researchers and machines manufacturers to make new developments in process and machines. Air-jet is one of the leading and successful highest productive weaving machines. However, it is now well established that due to add of charges of compressed air, manufacturing cost of air-jet weaving machine is higher as compared with rapier and projectile weaving machines. This is why countries having energy issues do not prefer air-jet weaving machines comparing projectile weaving machines. In this regard, several researchers and machine manufacturers have continuously been working to improve the efficiency of air-jet weft insertion. However, industry practice is as important as design made by researchers. The aim of this research is to investigate the air consumption of air-jet weaving on industrial scale practice. In this study, five weaving machine of same manufacturer and model were selected. It was observed that despite of manufacturing same quality of fabric, air consumption was varying almost in all weaving machines. Conventionally, mill workers adopt hit and trial practice in weaving industry including airpressure setting which leads to variation of nozzle pressure. Main reason of disparity of air consumption in air-jet weaving machines may be variation of distance from compressor to weaving machines, number of joints, un-necessary valve opening and pipes leakages cause an increase of compressed air consumption.

  14. Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air quality is affected by many types of pollutants that are emitted from various sources, including stationary and mobile. These sources release both criteria and hazardous air pollutants, which cause health effects, ecological harm, and material damage. They are generally categ...

  15. Alpha-beta monitoring system based on pair of simultaneous Multi-Wire Proportional Counters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wengrowicz, U.; Amidan, D.; Orion, I.

    2016-08-01

    A new approach for a simultaneous alpha-beta Multi-wire Proportional Counter (MWPC) is presented. The popular approach for alpha-beta monitoring systems consists of a large area MWPC using noble gas flow such as Argon Methane. This method of measurement is effective but requires large-scale and expensive maintenance due to the needs of gas flow control and periodic replacements. In this work, a pair of simultaneous MWPCs for alpha-beta measuring is presented. The developed detector consists of a sealed gas MWPC sensor for beta particles, behind a free air alpha sensor. This approach allows effective simultaneous detection and discrimination of both alpha and beta radiation without the maintenance cost noble gas flow required for unsealed detectors.

  16. Systematics of Alpha-Radioactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlman, I.; Ghiorso, A.; Seaborg, G.T.

    1949-09-12

    Correlations of alpha-decay energies in terms of mass number and atomic number have been made for all of the alpha-emitting species now numbering over 100. For each element isotopes show increase in alpha-energy with decrease in mass number except in the region of 126 neutrons where there is an explainable reversal. This reversal has the effect of creating a region of relatively low alpha-energy and long half-life at low mass numbers for such elements as astatine, emanation, francium, and possibly higher elements as had been noted already for bismuth and polonium. Methods and examples of using alpha-decay data to define the energy surface in the heavy element region are discussed. The regularities in alpha-decay are used for predictions of nuclear properties including prediction of the beta-stable nuclides among the heavy elements. The half-life vs. energy correlations show that the even-even nuclides conform well with existing alpha-decay theory, but all nuclear types with odd nucleons show prohibited decay. The reason for this prohibition is not found in spin changes in the alpha-emission but in the assembly of the components of the alpha particle, and this theory is discussed further in terms of observations made on nuclides having two or more alpha-groups. Using most of the even-even nuclei to define 'normal nuclear radius' calculations are now able to show the shrinkage in the regions of lead and of 126 neutrons to amount to about 10%. The much greater change in 'effective radius' for bismuth isotopes can be dissociated into the effects of odd nucleons superimposed on the actual decrease in nuclear radius. The simple expression r = 1.48 A{sup 1/3} {center_dot} 10{sup -13} cm seems to fit the data for the even-even nuclei outside of the region of 126 neutrons better than more complex functions.

  17. Canada's Clean Air Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provided an outline of Canada's Clean Air Act and examined some of the regulatory changes that will occur as a result of its implementation. The Act is being introduced to strengthen the legislative basis for taking action on reducing air pollution and GHGs, and will allow the government to regulate both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and GHGs. The Act will require the Ministers of the Environment and Health to establish national air quality objectives, as well as to monitor and report on their attainment. The Canadian Environmental Protection Act will be amended to enable the government to regulate the blending of fuels and their components. The Motor Vehicle Fuel Consumption Standards Act will also be amended to enhance the government's authority to regulate vehicle fuel efficiency. The Energy Efficiency Act will also be expanded to allow the government to set energy efficiency standards and labelling requirements for a wider range of consumer and commercial products. The Act will commit to short, medium and long-term industrial air pollution targets. Regulations will be proposed for emissions from industry; on-road and off-road vehicles and engines; and consumer and commercial products. It was concluded that the Government of Canada will continue to consult with provinces, territories, industries and Canadians to set and reach targets for the reduction of both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and GHG emissions. 6 figs

  18. $\\alpha $ -Skew $\\pi $ -McCoy Rings

    OpenAIRE

    Areej M. Abduldaim; Chen, Sheng

    2013-01-01

    As a generalization of $\\alpha $ -skew McCoy rings, we introduce the concept of $\\alpha $ -skew $\\pi $ -McCoy rings, and we study the relationships with another two new generalizations, $\\alpha $ -skew ${\\pi }_{1}$ -McCoy rings and $\\alpha $ -skew ${\\pi }_{2}$ -McCoy rings, observing the relations with $\\alpha $ -skew McCoy rings, $\\pi $ -McCoy rings, $\\alpha $ -skew Armendariz rings, $\\pi $ -regular rings, and other kinds of rings. Also, we investigate conditions such that $\\alpha $ -skew ${...

  19. Alpha contamination assessment for D ampersand D activities: Monitoring pipe interiors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a prototype instrument capable of assessing alpha-emitting contamination on interior surfaces of ducts, pipes, tanks, and other enclosed volumes without inserting a probe. Air is drawn through the potentially contaminated volume and then through a detection grid, where ions created in the air by alpha particles are collected and the resulting charge measured with a sensitive electrometer. A filter at the intake end of the contaminated volume excludes externally created ions, so only ions generated inside the volume are detected. We have studied the response of this prototype in initial experiments using calibrated alpha sources with various pipe diameters and configurations, air flows, and source locations in the pipes. The results of these experiments indicate that this method can be an effective approach to assessing internal contamination

  20. Performance assessment and improvement of plutonium-in air monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Continuous Plutonium-in-Air Monitoring is mandatory requirement for laboratories/facilities where Plutonium based materials are handled to detect air borne Plutonium particle radioactivity as promptly as possible. Counting of Plutonium activity is affected because of presence of natural background activity which is due to daughter product of radon and thoron. Counting of plutonium activity in air gives false alarm because of presence of natural background activity. Due to increased dust load, interference of natural background becomes more due to degradation of its energy. Also concentration of natural background activity changes with the weather conditions. Hence Plutonium in Air Monitors are being used to detect Plutonium activity, which uses the alpha spectrometric technique for resolving natural background activity. But only resolving peak is not enough, due to degradation of natural background activity its energy falls into Plutonium activity channel. This give false indication of plutonium activity hence a complex algorithm is to be used to nullify/minimize the effect of varying natural background activity. Complex algorithm which is used to nullify/minimize the effect of natural background activity counts in plutonium channel is termed as active background compensation. Presently used Continuous Air Monitors (Plutonium in Air Monitors) has 1K MCA divided into five ROIs (Region of Interests) and also uses complex algorithm for active background compensation. But it was giving false alarm because these instruments were calibrated in cleaner environment and fairly constant weather condition which does not significantly change the concentration of natural background activity. Hence this monitor was required to be recalibrated and several coefficients were also required to be modified for effective background compensation. Monitors were recalibrated with 239Pu source and spectra was so adjusted that interference of spectrum of natural background activity is

  1. Analysis of a liquid sample residue using in situ alpha spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three in situ alpha spectrometry methods were demonstrated to rapidly detect alpha-particle emitting radionuclides from a liquid sample. The liquid containing natU and 241Am was evaporated under an infrared lamp and the residue was analyzed in a vacuum and at ambient air pressure. The residue was too thick to determine activities of individual nuclides, but their identification and activity ratio calculations were possible. U and 241Am behaved differently during the liquid dry off, which led to alpha peaks of different shape. This finding should be taken into account for preparing future spectrum unfolding programs. (author)

  2. 46 CFR 154.1415 - Air compressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air compressor. 154.1415 Section 154.1415 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... Equipment § 154.1415 Air compressor. Each vessel must have an air compressor to recharge the bottles for...

  3. REGIONAL AIR POLLUTION STUDY, QUALITY ASSURANCE AUDITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    RAPS Quality Assurance audits were conducted under this Task Order in continuation of the audit program previously conducted under Task Order No. 58. Quantitative field audits were conducted of the Regional Air Monitoring System (RAMS) Air Monitoring Stations, Local Air Monitorin...

  4. Contribution to the study of the alpha-alpha interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new variable energy cyclotron at Berkeley that can accelerate an alpha beam up to an energy of 130 MeV and the mass production of lithium diffused junctions have enabled us to perform 2 series of measurement, in the first one we use alpha beams with an energy ranging between 50 and 120 MeV to study alpha-alpha forces in the second one we use the flexibility of the variable energy cyclotron the resonances around 40 MeV, region that can not yet be reached by tandem accelerators. This work is divided into 6 chapters. The first chapter is dedicated to the formalism of partial wave analysis and the theory of the compound nucleus. In the second chapter the author presents the 88 cyclotron at Berkeley and the diffusion chamber, the alpha detectors are lithium diffused junctions made of silicon. The third chapter deals with the experimental methods used and the issue of the reduction of the volume of data. In the fourth chapter the results obtained in the upper part of the energy range are described in terms of complex shifts that allow the description of the α-α interaction at high energy. The very low impact parameter has enabled us to find 2 new components (l=6 and l=8) of the rotational spectrum and to define a more accurate phenomenological potential. The fifth chapter is dedicated to the narrow resonances we have found between 12 and 27 MeV. We present in the last chapter a calculation of the binding energy of C12 in which we have considered the 12C nucleus as formed by 3 alpha particles interacting with each other through the phenomenological potential defined above

  5. Binding of [alpha, alpha]-Disubstituted Amino Acids to Arginase Suggests New Avenues for Inhibitor Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilies, Monica; Di Costanzo, Luigi; Dowling, Daniel P.; Thorn, Katherine J.; Christianson, David W. (MIT); (Episcopal U); (Rutgers); (Drexel); (Penn)

    2011-10-21

    Arginase is a binuclear manganese metalloenzyme that hydrolyzes L-arginine to form L-ornithine and urea, and aberrant arginase activity is implicated in various diseases such as erectile dysfunction, asthma, atherosclerosis, and cerebral malaria. Accordingly, arginase inhibitors may be therapeutically useful. Continuing our efforts to expand the chemical space of arginase inhibitor design and inspired by the binding of 2-(difluoromethyl)-L-ornithine to human arginase I, we now report the first study of the binding of {alpha},{alpha}-disubstituted amino acids to arginase. Specifically, we report the design, synthesis, and assay of racemic 2-amino-6-borono-2-methylhexanoic acid and racemic 2-amino-6-borono-2-(difluoromethyl)hexanoic acid. X-ray crystal structures of human arginase I and Plasmodium falciparum arginase complexed with these inhibitors reveal the exclusive binding of the L-stereoisomer; the additional {alpha}-substituent of each inhibitor is readily accommodated and makes new intermolecular interactions in the outer active site of each enzyme. Therefore, this work highlights a new region of the protein surface that can be targeted for additional affinity interactions, as well as the first comparative structural insights on inhibitor discrimination between a human and a parasitic arginase.

  6. Thin air

    OpenAIRE

    Jasanoff, Sheila

    2013-01-01

    Clearing the air How do we grasp the air? Without Michel Callon’s guidance, I might never have asked that question. Years ago, when I first entered environmental law practice, I took it for granted that problems such as air pollution exist “out there” in the real world for science to discover and law to fix. It is a measure of Callon’s influence that I understand the law today as a metaphysical instrument, no less powerful in its capacity to order nature than the tools of the ancient oracular...

  7. Daily and seasonal variations of outdoor alpha-activity concentration in Salzburg city/Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long-term continuous measurements of the atmospheric outdoor alpha-activity concentration have been performed by using a radioaerosol-monitor, roof-mounted 20 m above ground. The alpha-activity concentration was identified to be predominantly attributed to radon progeny. The total alpha-activity covers a range of two orders of magnitude. Three different components of variations could be identified with regard to temporal variations: Short-term diurnal component (daily variation), mid-term component (days to weeks) and long-term component (seasonal variation). Continuous measurements have been recorded since the end of 1993. The results of continuous measurements of the outdoor alpha-activity concentration over a time span from January 1994 to June 1995 are presented. (author)

  8. Alpha Channeling in Open-System Magnetic Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisch, Nathaniel [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    2016-06-19

    The Grant DE-SC0000736, Alpha Channeling in Open-System Magnetic Devices, is a continuation of the Grant DE-FG02-06ER54851, Alpha Channeling in Mirror Machines. In publications funded by DE-SC0000736, the grant DE-FG02-06ER54851 was actually credited. The key results obtained under Grant DE-SC0000736, Alpha Channeling in Open-System Magnetic Devices, appear in a series of publications. The earlier effort under DE-FG02- 06ER54851 was the subject of a previous Final Report. The theme of this later effort has been unusual confinement effects, or de-confinement effects, in open-field magnetic confinement devices. First, the possibilities in losing axisymmetry were explored. Then a number of issues in rotating plasma were addressed. Most importantly, a spinoff application to plasma separations was recognized, which also resulted in a provisional patent application. (That provisional patent application, however, was not pursued further.) Alpha channeling entails injecting waves into magnetically confined plasma to release energy from one particular ion while ejecting that ion. The ejection of the ion is actually a concomitant effect in releasing energy from the ion to the wave. In rotating plasma, there is the opportunity to store the energy in a radial electric field rather than in waves. In other words, the ejected alpha particle loses its energy to the radial potential, which in turn produces plasma rotation. This is a very useful effect, since producing radial electric fields by other means are technologically more difficult. In fact, one can heat ions, and then eject them, to produce the desired radial field. In each case, there is a separation effect of different ions, which generalizes the original alpha-channeling concept of separating alpha ash from hydrogen. In a further generalization of the separation concept, a double-well filter represents a new way to produce high-throughput separations of ions, potentially useful for nuclear waste remediation.

  9. Workshop on Precision Measurements of $\\alpha_s$

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bethke, Siegfried; /Munich, Max Planck Inst.; Hoang, Andre H.; /Vienna U.; Kluth, Stefan; /Munich, Max Planck Inst.; Schieck, Jochen; /Munich U.; Stewart, Iain W.; Aoki, S.; Beneke, M.; Bethke, S.; Blumlein, J.; Brambilla, N.; Brodsky, S.; /MIT, LNS

    2011-10-01

    These are the proceedings of the Workshop on Precision Measurements of {alpha}{sub s} held at the Max-Planck-Institute for Physics, Munich, February 9-11, 2011. The workshop explored in depth the determination of {alpha}{sub s}(m{sub Z}) in the {ovr MS} scheme from the key categories where high precision measurements are currently being made, including DIS and global PDF fits, {tau}-decays, electro-weak precision observables and Z-decays, event-shapes, and lattice QCD. These proceedings contain a short summary contribution from the speakers, as well as the lists of authors, conveners, participants, and talks.

  10. Alpha Com eclipse observing campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waagen, Elizabeth O.

    2014-12-01

    Drs. Matthew W. Muterspaugh and Gregory W. Henry (Tennessee State University) have requested AAVSO observers' ssistance in monitoring the possible Algol-like binary star alpha Com before, during, and after the eclipse they have predicted for mid-to-late January 2015. The PIs will be using the Fairborn Observatory automated photometric telescopes on Mt. Hopkins, but they are requesting additional observations not only to supplement theirs but also specifically to have good coverage in the event of bad weather at Mt. Hopkins. Alf Com has a 26-year period and is 4.32V at maximum. The expected amplitude of the eclipse is about 0.8 magnitude and the duration somewhere between 28 and 45 hours. The eclipse is predicted for January 25 ± three days (JD 2457047 ± 3). Muterspaugh at al. first calculated the possibility of a 2015 eclipse in 2010 (AJ). Muterspaugh and Henry recently published an article with updated information (arXiv 2014). V and/or R photometry (other bands welcome) is requested, with a minimal cadence of one measurement/2 hours, to make sure the eclipse is caught right as it begins and to ensure having multiple data points on any unseen objects that might eclipse as well. During eclipse, continuous observations are important. Infrared (H-band) observations could be interesting, should the CHARA array image the event. The precision photometry in the weeks before and after the eclipse is requested in order to catch possible evidence for planets or other materials around the eclipsing star. Updated astrometry from the current epoch would greatly improve the eclipse preductions. Charts with comparison star sequence for alf Com may be created using the AAVSO Variable Star Plotter (http://www.aavso.org/vsp). The PIs recommend using the comparison stars HD 113848 (39 Com, HR 4946, HIP 63948, V=5.990, B-V=0.39, F4V) and HD 114520 (HIP 64312, V=6.820, B-V=0.46,F2II). Observations should be submitted to the AAVSO International Database. See AAVSO Alert Notice 506

  11. Accurate measurements of surface emission rate for large-area alpha and beta reference sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For alpha emitters and beta emitters with maximum beta energy greater than 0.150 MeV, the characteristics of reference sources for the calibration of surface contamination monitors are specified by the international standard ISO 8769. According to this standard, the surface emission rate of reference sources has to be measured by absolute methods or by using an instrument that has been calibrated by means of sources that has been measured absolutely. Moreover, the surface emission rate has to be measured by the national standards laboratory with an uncertainty which must not exceed 3% (one standard deviation). In this paper, the counting system and the experimental conditions needed for accurate measurements of the surface emission rate are presented. The uncertainty of such measurements is much smaller than 3%. The evaluation of this uncertainty is also described. The counting system used for absolute alpha and beta surface emission rate measurements is composed of a large area, gas-flow, windowless proportional detector, an integral and a spectrometric counting channels. The method of measurement for alpha and beta surface emission rate is very simple but it is necessary to achieve the optimum experimental conditions of counting for obtaining accurate measurement results. Thus, the proportional detector has to work under a continuous and stable gas-flow and its plateau has to be long with a very low slope. To obtain a counting efficiency of 100%, it has to use a tight detector and a very pure counting gas. Additionally, the detector must be flushed and then operated under a steady gas-flow for several hours prior to measurements in order to be cleaned of air impurities. To perform alpha and beta surface emission rate measurements we optimized first the conditions of counting. For beta sources, the discrimination level has been adjusted by means of a 55 Fe source. Using this spectrum, we checked the stability of the counting system because the peak, corresponding

  12. MFTF-. cap alpha. + T progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, W.D. (ed.)

    1985-04-01

    Early in FY 1983, several upgrades of the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) were proposed to the fusion community. The one most favorably received was designated MFTF-..cap alpha..+T. The engineering design of this device, guided by LLNL, has been a principal activity of the Fusion Engineering Design Center during FY 1983. This interim progress report represents a snapshot of the device design, which was begun in FY 1983 and will continue for several years. The report is organized as a complete design description. Because it is an interim report, some parts are incomplete; they will be supplied as the design study proceeds. As described in this report, MFTF-..cap alpha..+T uses existing facilities, many MFTF-B components, and a number of innovations to improve on the physics parameters of MFTF-B. It burns deuterium-tritium and has a central-cell Q of 2, a wall loading GAMMA/sub n/ of 2 MW/m/sup 2/ (with a central-cell insert module), and an availability of 10%. The machine is fully shielded, allows hands-on maintenance of components outside the vacuum vessel 24 h after shutdown, and has provisions for repair of all operating components.

  13. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to a close in June 2013 when the company, Conscious Clothing, was awarded the My Air grand ... Page Options: Request Translation Services Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Google+ Reddit Email Evernote More Increase Font Size Decrease ...

  14. Spatial distribution of air kerma rate and impact of accelerating voltage on the quality of an ultra soft X-ray beam generated by a cold cathode tube in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultrasoft X-ray characteristic aluminum K alpha line (Al Kα with energy of 1.5 keV) is used in radiobiological experiments to study the effect of radiation on biological matter. A simple method to generate a continuous beam of those X-ray radiations is to bombarding an aluminum target with accelerated electrons using high voltage (HV). In this work, by varying the HV we study the characteristics of a photon beam generated by means of a cold cathode transmission X-ray tube. The anode is a thin (16 μm) aluminum foil supported by a copper grid. The spatial distribution of air kerma is measured using gafchromic films of HD-810 calibrated with a parallel plate free-air ionization chamber. We show that HV strongly modifies the energetic spectrum and air kerma rate as well as its uniformity and intensity in air. - Highlights: • We measured energy spectrum of X-ray beam. • We calibrate the Gafchromic films to measure air kerma of X-ray beam. • Spatial air kerma rate is determined and interpreted. • We define dimensions and position of future biological sample irradiation using Al Kα X-ray

  15. Space Station alpha joint bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everman, Michael R.; Jones, P. Alan; Spencer, Porter A.

    1987-01-01

    Perhaps the most critical structural system aboard the Space Station is the Solar Alpha Rotary Joint which helps align the power generation system with the sun. The joint must provide structural support and controlled rotation to the outboard transverse booms as well as power and data transfer across the joint. The Solar Alpha Rotary Joint is composed of two transition sections and an integral, large diameter bearing. Alpha joint bearing design presents a particularly interesting problem because of its large size and need for high reliability, stiffness, and on orbit maintability. The discrete roller bearing developed is a novel refinement to cam follower technology. It offers thermal compensation and ease of on-orbit maintenance that are not found in conventional rolling element bearings. How the bearing design evolved is summarized. Driving requirements are reviewed, alternative concepts assessed, and the selected design is described.

  16. ALPHA: antihydrogen and fundamental physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Niels

    2014-02-01

    Detailed comparisons of antihydrogen with hydrogen promise to be a fruitful test bed of fundamental symmetries such as the CPT theorem for quantum field theory or studies of gravitational influence on antimatter. With a string of recent successes, starting with the first trapped antihydrogen and recently resulting in the first measurement of a quantum transition in anti-hydrogen, the ALPHA collaboration is well on its way to perform such precision comparisons. We will discuss the key innovative steps that have made these results possible and in particular focus on the detailed work on positron and antiproton preparation to achieve antihydrogen cold enough to trap as well as the unique features of the ALPHA apparatus that has allowed the first quantum transitions in anti-hydrogen to be measured with only a single trapped antihydrogen atom per experiment. We will also look at how ALPHA plans to step from here towards more precise comparisons of matter and antimatter.

  17. Conditioning of alpha bearing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpha bearing wastes are generated during the reprocessing of spent fuel, mixed oxide fuel fabrication, decommissioning and other activities. The safe and effective management of these wastes is of particular importance owing to the radiotoxicity and long lived characteristics of certain transuranic (TRU) elements. The management of alpha bearing wastes involves a number of stages which include collection, characterization, segregation, treatment, conditioning, transport, storage and disposal. This report describes the currently available matrices and technologies for the conditioning of alpha wastes and relates them to their compatibility with the other stages of the waste management process. The selection of a specific immobilization process is dependent on the waste treatment state and the subsequent handling, transport, storage and disposal requirements. The overall objectives of immobilization are similar for all waste producers and processors, which are to produce: (a) Waste forms with sufficient mechanical, physical and chemical stability to satisfy all stages of handling, transport and storage (referred to as the short term requirements), and (b) Waste forms which will satisfy disposal requirements and inhibit the release of radionuclides to the biosphere (referred to as the long term requirements). Cement and bitumen processes have already been successfully applied to alpha waste conditioning on the industrial scale in many of the IAEA Member States. Cement systems based on BFS and pozzolanic cements have emerged as the principal encapsulation matrices for the full range of alpha bearing wastes. Alternative technologies, such as polymers and ceramics, are being developed for specific waste streams but are unlikely to meet widespread application owing to cost and process complexity. The merits of alpha waste conditioning are improved performance in transport, storage and disposal combined with enhanced public perception of waste management operations. These

  18. Residential radon daughter monitor based on alpha spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactive daughters of radon-222 pose a serious indoor air quality problem in some circumstances. A technique for measuring the concentrations of these radioisotopes in air is presented. The method involves drawing air through a filter; then, for two time intervals after sampling, counting the alpha decays from polonium-218 and polonium-214 on the filter. The time intervals are optimized to yield the maximum resolution between the individual daughter concentrations. For a total measurement time of 50 minutes, individual daughter concentrations of 1.0 nanocuries per cubic meter are measured with an uncertainty of 20%. A prototype of a field monitor based on this technique is described, as is a field test in which the prototype was used to measure radon daughter concentrations as a function of ventilation conditions in an energy-efficient house

  19. Alpha decay of At-194

    OpenAIRE

    Andreev, Andrei; Antalic, S; Ackermann, D.; Bianco, L.; Franchoo, S.; S. Heinz; F. P. Hessberger; Hofmann, S.; Huyse, Marc; Kojouharov, I.; Kindler, B.; Lommel, B.; Mann, R.; Nishio, K; R.D.Page

    2009-01-01

    Detailed alpha-decay studies of the neutron-deficient isotope At-194 have been performed in the complete fusion reaction Fe-56+Pr-141 -> At-194+3n at the velocity filter SHIP. Two alpha-decaying isomeric states with half-lives of T-1/2(At-194(m1))=310(8) ms and T-1/2(At-194(m2))=253(10) ms were identified in this nucleus. Their complex decays to the states in the daughter nucleus Bi-190 are discussed in the article. We propose that similar to the case of the neighboring At-191,At-192,At-193,A...

  20. Test chamber for alpha spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Robert P.

    1977-01-01

    Alpha emitters for low-level radiochemical analysis by measurement of alpha spectra are positioned precisely with respect to the location of a surface-barrier detector by means of a chamber having a removable threaded planchet holder. A pedestal on the planchet holder holds a specimen in fixed engagement close to the detector. Insertion of the planchet holder establishes an O-ring seal that permits the chamber to be pumped to a desired vacuum. The detector is protected against accidental contact and resulting damage.

  1. Ventilation influence upon indoor air radon level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levels of indoor radon in air are studied by a continuous electrostatic radon monitor under normal living conditions to evaluate the influence of air conditioned ventilation on indoor air radon level. Results show that the indoor air radon concentrations are not much more than those without household conditioner living condition, although using household conditioner requires a sealed room which should lead to a higher radon level. Turning on air conditioner helps lower indoor radon level. Therefore, the total indoor air Rn levels are normal > ventilation > exhaust or in-draft > exhaust plus in-draft

  2. VENTILATION INFLUENCE UPON INDOOR AIR RADON LEVEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田德源

    1995-01-01

    Levels of indoor radon in air are studied by a continuous electrostatic radon monitor under normal living conditions to evaluate the influence of air conditioned ventilation on indoor air radon level.Results show that the indoor air radon concentrations are not much more than those without household conditioner living condition.although using household conditioner requires a sealed room which should lead to a higher radon level.Turning on air conditioner helps lower indoor radon level.Therefore.the total indoor air Rn levels are normal>ventilation>exhaust or indraft> exhaust plus indraft.

  3. Alpha high-power chemical laser program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordi, Anthony J.; Lurie, Henry; Callahan, David W.; Thomson, Matthew

    1993-06-01

    Alpha is a megawatt-class ground demonstration of a hydrogen fluoride, continuous wave, space-based chemical laser. The laser operates in the infrared at 2.8 microns. The basic device consists of a cylindrical combustion chamber that exhausts radially outward through circumferential nozzles into an annular lasing area. An annular ring resonator is used to extract the laser energy from this area. Technical firsts include: (1) use of aluminum combustion chamber/nozzle ring modules, (2) diamond turned, water-cooled optics made of molybdenum for low thermal distortion with good heat transfer, (3) use of uncooled silicon mirrors in a megawatt-class laser system, (4) an optical bench made of aluminum honeycomb, and (5) active controls to adjust alignment of selected mirrors and the optical bench.

  4. Influence of the repulsive coefficient {alpha} and approximate corresponding states in Mie {alpha}-6 and exponential {alpha}-6 fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galliero, Guillaume [Universite de Marne-la-Vallee, Laboratoire d' Etude des Transferts d' Energie et de Matiere (EA 2546), Bat. Lavoisier, Cite Descartes, Champs-sur-Marne, F-77454 Marne-la-Vallee Cedex 2 (France)], E-mail: galliero@univ-mlv.fr; Boned, Christian; Baylaucq, Antoine [Universite de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour, Laboratoire des Fluides Complexes (UMR-5150), BP 1155, F-64013 Pau Cedex (France); Montel, Francois [TOTAL, CSTJF, Avenue Larribau, F-64018 Pau (France)

    2007-03-30

    Non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) simulations of the Mie {alpha}-6 and the exponential {alpha}-6 (exp {alpha}-6) fluids have been carried out for 42 thermodynamic states. Various repulsive coefficients have been studied, {alpha} ranging from 9 to 14 for the Mie {alpha}-6 potentials and from 11 to 16 for the exp {alpha}-6 ones, which corresponds to a total of 603 points of simulation of stable phases. The simulations have shown that, for a given set of reduced temperature and density (using an appropriate scaling procedure), the reduced pressure varies linearly with {radical}({alpha}-6) for the Mie {alpha}-6 potentials and with {radical}({alpha}-7) for the exp {alpha}-6 potentials. Concerning the viscosity, it is shown that, for both potential families, the variation is linear with {alpha}. Thus, an approximate corresponding states scheme exists on pressure and on viscosity for fluids modelled by both potentials families, but only for each property separately. In addition, it appears that, approximate corresponding states exist between fluids modelled by a Mie {alpha}-6 potential and an exp ({alpha} + 2)-6 one for pressure, and between fluids modelled by a Mie {alpha}-6 potential and an exp ({alpha} + 2.5)-6 one for viscosity. So, despite obvious similarities, the influence of the shape of the potential on pressure and on viscosity is not strictly the same. Hence, a complete perfect corresponding states scheme (including both the pressure and the viscosity) seems hardly feasible between fluids modelled by the Mie {alpha}-6 and the exp {alpha}-6 potential families.

  5. Development of Air Sampling Technology by the Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For many years the Health Physics and Medical Division of the Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell, has pursued a vigorous programme of investigation and development in the field of air-sampling technology. The programme has made important contributions to the development of sampling media, the design of sampling equipment, the characterization of environmental airborne contamination and the interpretation of air-sampling data in terms of personal exposure. These developments form the basis for the present operational and research programmes in this field in the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (U.K.A.E.A). . This paper, which summarizes the advances made in the Harwell laboratories in the above fields, is divided into three sections: 1. Sampling techniques. The development and characterization of glass-fibre filter papers (Stevens and Hounam) with improved surface collection properties has simplified counting procedures and has made ' possible detailed autoradiographic examination of the dust collected. The problem of energy degradation of alpha radiation by absorption in particles and paper has been studied (Stevens and Toureau). Development of charcoal-impregnated papers (Stevens and Hounam) has facilitated the detection and measurement of airborne contamination by iodine vapour. The combination of these papers with granular characoal in the May Pack (May) has given a sampling device which is now in common use for the determination and characterization of atmospheric iodine contamination. The concept and development of the personal air sampler (Sherwood and Greenhalgh) led to a better appreciation of the uncertainties of conventional air sampling and to the first quantitative demonstration of the problems of interpreting air samples in terms of personal inhalation exposure. Work on the design of a size selective head for the personal air sampler has not yet resolved the difficulties. The drawbacks of the cascade impactor as a continuous size

  6. What Powers Lyman alpha Blobs?

    CERN Document Server

    Ao, Y; Beelen, A; Henkel, C; Cen, R; De Breuck, C; Francis, P; Kovacs, A; Lagache, G; Lehnert, M; Mao, M; Menten, K M; Norris, R; Omont, A; Tatemastu, K; Weiss, A; Zheng, Z

    2015-01-01

    Lyman alpha blobs (LABs) are spatially extended lyman alpha nebulae seen at high redshift. The origin of Lyman alpha emission in the LABs is still unclear and under debate. To study their heating mechanism(s), we present Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) observations of the 20 cm radio emission and Herschel PACS and SPIRE measurements of the far-infrared (FIR) emission towards the four LABs in the protocluster J2143-4423 at z=2.38. Among the four LABs, B6 and B7 are detected in the radio with fluxes of 67+/-17 microJy and 77+/-16 microJy, respectively, and B5 is marginally detected at 3 sigma (51+/-16 microJy). For all detected sources, their radio positions are consistent with the central positions of the LABs. B6 and B7 are obviously also detected in the FIR. By fitting the data with different templates, we obtained redshifts of 2.20$^{+0.30}_{-0.35}$ for B6 and 2.20$^{+0.45}_{-0.30}$ for B7 which are consistent with the redshift of the lyman alpha emission within uncertainties, indicating that both ...

  7. Alcoholism, Alpha Production, and Biofeedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Frances W.; Holmes, David S.

    1976-01-01

    Electroencephalograms of 20 alcoholics and 20 nonalcoholics were obtained. Data indicated that alcoholics produced less alpha than nonalcoholics. In one training condition subjects were given accurate biofeedback, whereas in the other condition subjects were given random (noncontingent) feedback. Accurate biofeedback did not result in greater…

  8. Alpha Testing Escape from Diab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpha testing was conducted of sessions 2 and 3 from Diab to assess whether the activities worked as expected, and whether children in the target ages enjoyed it. Data include both RA observations of child performance while playing the games and cognitive interview responses from the players after t...

  9. Air surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  10. A synopsis of collective alpha effects and implications for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigmar, D.J.

    1990-10-01

    This paper discusses the following: Alpha Interaction with Toroidal Alfven Eigenmodes; Alpha Interaction with Ballooning Modes; Alpha Interaction with Fishbone Oscillations; and Implications for ITER.

  11. RNF4 and VHL regulate the proteasomal degradation of SUMO-conjugated Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-2alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hagen, Martijn; Overmeer, René M; Abolvardi, Sharareh S; Vertegaal, Alfred C O

    2010-04-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are critical transcription factors that mediate cell survival during reduced oxygen conditions (hypoxia). At regular oxygen conditions (normoxia), HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha are continuously synthesized in cells and degraded via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. During hypoxia, these proteins are stabilized and translocate to the nucleus to activate transcription of target genes that enable cell survival at reduced oxygen levels. HIF proteins are tightly regulated via post-translational modifications including phosphorylation, acetylation, prolyl-hydroxylation and ubiquitination. Here we show for the first time that exogenous and endogenous HIF-2alpha are also regulated via the ubiquitin-like modifier small ubiquitin-like modifiers (SUMO). Using mutational analysis, we found that K394, which is situated in the sumoylation consensus site LKEE, is the major SUMO acceptor site in HIF-2alpha. Functionally, sumoylation reduced the transcriptional activity of HIF-2alpha. Similar to HIF-1alpha, HIF-2alpha is regulated by the SUMO protease SENP1. The proteasome inhibitor MG132 strongly stabilized SUMO-2-conjugated HIF-2alpha during hypoxia but did not affect the total level of HIF-2alpha. The ubiquitin E3 ligases von Hippel-Lindau and RNF4 control the levels of sumoylated HIF-2alpha, indicating that sumoylated HIF-2alpha is degraded via SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligases. PMID:20026589

  12. Continuous Time Markov Networks

    OpenAIRE

    El-Hay, Tal; Friedman, Nir; Koller, Daphne; Kupferman, Raz

    2012-01-01

    A central task in many applications is reasoning about processes that change in a continuous time. The mathematical framework of Continuous Time Markov Processes provides the basic foundations for modeling such systems. Recently, Nodelman et al introduced continuous time Bayesian networks (CTBNs), which allow a compact representation of continuous-time processes over a factored state space. In this paper, we introduce continuous time Markov networks (CTMNs), an alternative representation lang...

  13. How Is Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Diagnosed? Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency usually is diagnosed after you develop a ... related to the condition. Your doctor may suspect AAT deficiency if you have signs or symptoms of ...

  14. How Is Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Treated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Treated? Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency has no cure, but its related lung ... pulmonary disease). If you have symptoms related to AAT deficiency, your doctor may recommend: Medicines called inhaled ...

  15. What Causes Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency? Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) ... develop. The most common faulty gene that can cause AAT deficiency is called PiZ. If you inherit ...

  16. Calibration of sources for alpha spectroscopy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the calibration methodology for measuring the total alpha activity of plane and thin sources with the Alpha Spectrometer for Silicon Detector in the Nuclear Measures and Dosimetry laboratory at IEAv/CTA. (author)

  17. Monitor for alpha beta contamination of hands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following specifications of hands alpha beta contamination monitor are presented: the position of the hands, the detection and separation of alpha and beta, the information processing, the programming, the results presentation and general characteristics. (A.L.B.)

  18. Methods for measuring radon and radon daughter products in underground and free-atmosphere air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various instruments and methods suitable for obtaining data on radon and, in particular, radon daughter products in air have been developed by the National Board of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection of the German Democratic Republic: (a) The potential alpha-energy concentration of radon daughters is checked by a small (2.2 kg) working-level meter especially designed for mine conditions. A diaphragm pump, filter holder and surface-barrier detector are the integral components. The sensitivity of the battery-operated instrument makes it possible to determine the potential alpha-energy concentration over the range 4x103 to 100x103 MeV/ltr; (b) A special method is used for making quasi-continuous measurements of the long-term fluctuations of radon daughter-product concentrations; (c) Methods of sufficiently high sensitivity have been developed to determine low concentrations of 222Rn and its short-lived decay products in the free atmosphere; (d) For integrating radon-daughter measurements under varying inhalation conditions, a battery-operated, pocket-sized device was developed. It consists of a small diaphragm pump, a filter disc and two thermoluminescent detectors in a compact arrangement. The minimum detection limit for a 168-hour integration time is 105 MeV.h/ltr for a 2 ltr/h air flow rate. The same filter-TLD combination fitted with a special injector unit instead of the battery-operated pump can also be used as a stationary monitor. (author)

  19. Tritium-in-air monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A system for continuously monitoring air for the presence of tritiated water vapor is described comprising contacting a predetermined mass flow of an air sample with a predetermined flow of a liquid miscible with tritiated water to transfer any tritiated water vapor in the air sample to the liquid; stripping radioactive noble gases from the liquid with a stream of gas; and analyzing the liquid for beta radiation to determine the presence of tritium. In the preferred embodiment of the apparatus an air-liquid contactor, a gas-liquid separator and a stripper are combined into a single unit with a common outlet for the contacted air and stripping gas. 6 claims, 2 figures

  20. Lithium-Air Cell Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Concha M.; Dobley, Arthur; Seymour, Frasier W.

    2014-01-01

    Lithium-air (Li-air) primary batteries have a theoretical specific capacity of 11,400 Wh/kg, the highest of any common metal-air system. NASA is developing Li-air technology for a Mobile Oxygen Concentrator for Spacecraft Emergencies, an application which requires an extremely lightweight primary battery that can discharge over 24 hours continuously. Several vendors were funded through the NASA SBIR program to develop Li-air technology to fulfill the requirements of this application. New catalysts and carbon cathode structures were developed to enhance the oxygen reduction reaction and increase surface area to improve cell performance. Techniques to stabilize the lithium metal anode surface were explored. Experimental results for prototype laboratory cells are given. Projections are made for the performance of hypothetical cells constructed from the materials that were developed.

  1. Production of fungal alpha-amylase by Saccharomyces kluyveri in glucose-limited cultivations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Kasper; Sharif, M.Z.; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2004-01-01

    Heterologous protein production by the yeast Saccharomyces kluyveri was investigated under aerobic glucose-limited conditions. alpha-Amylase from Aspergillus oryzae was used as model protein and the gene was expressed from a S. cerevisiae 2 mu plasmid. For comparison, strains of both S. kluyveri...... and S. cerevisiae were transformed with the same plasmid, which led to secretion of active alpha-amylase in both cases. The S. cerevisiae 2 mu plasmid was found to be stable in S. kluyveri as evaluated by a constant alpha-amylase productivity in a continuous cultivation for more than 40 generations. S....... kluyveri and S. cerevisiae secreted alpha-amylase with similar yields during continuous cultivations at dilution rates of 0.1 and 0.2 h(-1) (4.8-5.7 mg (g dry weight)(-1)). At a dilution rate of 0.3 h(-1) the metabolism of S. kluyveri was fully respiratory, whereas S. cerevisiae produced significant...

  2. Air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter of the 'Assessment of the state of the environment in Lebanon' describes the air quality and identifies the most important air quality issues. Baseline information about the factors affecting dispersion and the climate of Lebanon presents as well and overall estimation of total emissions in Lebanon. Emissions from vehicles, electricity and power plants generation are described. Industrial emitters of air pollutants are described for each kind of industry i.e.cement plants, Selaata fertilizer factory, sugar-beet factory, refineries and for those derived from the use of leaded fuel . Impact of economic and human activities on air quality in Lebanon (especially in Beirut and Tripoli) are quantified by quantities of CO2, SO2, NOx, total suspended particulates(TSP), deposition and their environmental effects on health. In abscence of emissions monitoring, data available are expressed in terms of fuel use, output and appropriate empirical factors, national output and workfores sizes. Finally key issues and some potential mitigation /management approaches are presented

  3. Enzyme replacement therapy for alpha-mannosidosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgwardt, Line Gutte; Dali, Christine I.; Fogh, J;

    2013-01-01

    Alpha-mannosidosis (OMIM 248500) is a rare lysosomal storage disease (LSD) caused by alpha-mannosidase deficiency. Manifestations include intellectual disabilities, facial characteristics and hearing impairment. A recombinant human alpha-mannosidase (rhLAMAN) has been developed for weekly intrave...... intravenous enzyme replacement therapy (ERT). We present the preliminary data after 12 months of treatment....

  4. Synthesis of acute-phase alpha 2-macroglobulin during inflammation and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panrucker, D E; Lorscheider, F L

    1983-01-01

    A recent investigation of acute-phase alpha 2-macroglobulin (AP alpha 2M) concentration in the rat during pregnancy demonstrated a bimodal distribution, for which we suggested a maternal source of AP alpha 2M in early gestation and a fetal source in late gestation. This interpretation was supported by the findings of the present study, which employed organ culture techniques, incorporation of [35S]methionine, immunoprecipitation of radioactivity, and fluorography to measure synthesis of AP alpha 2M in specific fetal, adult, and maternal tissues. Preliminary results indicated that in adult male rats treated with croton oil (compared with nontreated males), AP alpha 2M was synthesized in kidney, spleen, thymus, and lymphocytes by 48 hr post induction, but synthesis in the liver was not evident. In the pregnant rat from 12 to 16 days (compared with nonpregnant females), synthesis of AP alpha 2M was high in metrial gland, moderate in spleen, thymus and lymphocytes, and absent in liver; at 21 days, synthesis of AP alpha 2M in these four maternal tissues had declined. Fetal synthesis of AP alpha 2M in yolk sac (12 to 16 days) and in liver (15 to 16 days) was significantly elevated, and at 21 days fetal liver still displayed marked synthesis. These data are consistent with the interpretation that an early maternal source of AP alpha 2M synthesis is the metrial gland and that in the fetus both yolk sac and liver are major sources of AP alpha 2M, the latter tissue continuing synthesis into late gestation. Lymphopoietic and lymph-containing tissues appear to be major sites of AP alpha 2M synthesis during inflammation and pregnancy. PMID:6200027

  5. Spatially Nonlinear Interdependence of Alpha-Oscillatory Neural Networks under Chan Meditation

    OpenAIRE

    Pei-Chen Lo; Chih-Hao Chang

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports the results of our investigation of the effects of Chan meditation on brain electrophysiological behaviors from the viewpoint of spatially nonlinear interdependence among regional neural networks. Particular emphasis is laid on the alpha-dominated EEG (electroencephalograph). Continuous-time wavelet transform was adopted to detect the epochs containing substantial alpha activities. Nonlinear interdependence quantified by similarity index S(X∣Y), the influence of source sign...

  6. Preliminary assessment of errors of radon daughters concentration in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Employing an earlier elaborated computer program for simulation of depositing radon decay products: 214Po, 214Pb, 214Bi (214Po) on air filter and for computing variation of their activity against time, an assessment of errors was carried out of a methods employing measurement of 218Po + 214Po alpha activity in three time intervals. Additionally errors of the methods measuring 218Po + 214Po alpha activity in three, two and one time intervals, were assessed. A few attempts were also made to measure the alpha activity in different time intervals and to assess their measuring errors. (authors). 10 refs, 4 figs, 14 tabs

  7. Prestimulus Alpha Power Influences Tactile Temporal Perceptual Discrimination and Confidence in Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgarten, Thomas J; Schnitzler, Alfons; Lange, Joachim

    2016-03-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that prestimulus alpha-band activity substantially influences perception of near-threshold stimuli. Here, we studied the influence of prestimulus alpha power fluctuations on temporal perceptual discrimination of suprathreshold tactile stimuli and subjects' confidence regarding their perceptual decisions. We investigated how prestimulus alpha-band power influences poststimulus decision-making variables. We presented electrical stimuli with different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) to human subjects, and determined the SOA for which temporal perceptual discrimination varied on a trial-by-trial basis between perceiving 1 or 2 stimuli, prior to recording brain activity with magnetoencephalography. We found that low prestimulus alpha power in contralateral somatosensory and occipital areas predicts the veridical temporal perceptual discrimination of 2 stimuli. Additionally, prestimulus alpha power was negatively correlated with confidence ratings in correctly perceived trials, but positively correlated for incorrectly perceived trials. Finally, poststimulus event-related fields (ERFs) were modulated by prestimulus alpha power and reflect the result of a decisional process rather than physical stimulus parameters around ∼150 ms. These findings provide new insights into the link between spontaneous prestimulus alpha power fluctuations, temporal perceptual discrimination, decision making, and decisional confidence. The results suggest that prestimulus alpha power modulates perception and decisions on a continuous scale, as reflected in confidence ratings. PMID:25331603

  8. 78 FR 16630 - Clean Air Act Grant: South Coast Air Quality Management District; Opportunity for Pubic Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 35 Clean Air Act Grant: South Coast Air Quality Management District; Opportunity for... Quality Management District (SCAQMD) in support of its continuing air program under section 105 of the... expenditures in the programs of the South Coast Air Quality Management District. The shortfall stems from...

  9. Disturbance from Am-241 Photons of the Cellular Dose by Am-241 Alpha Emissions: Am-241 as an alternative source of alpha particles to radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radiation Bioengineering Laboratory (RadBio Lab) at Seoul National University (SNU) has built an Am-241 alpha particle irradiator for study of cellular responses to radiation from radon daughters. The radon daughters of concern that cause internal exposure from inhalation of radon-contaminated air are Po-218, Po-214 and Po-210. In their alpha decay schemes, the yields of photon emissions are negligible. Unfortunately, Am-241, the source of alpha irradiator in RadBio Lab, emits photons at every alpha decay while transforming to Np-237 of long half-life. Employing Am-241 as the source simulating radon daughters, therefore, requires that photon emissions from Am-241 be specified in term of dose contribution. In this study, Monte Carlo calculations have been made to characterize dose contributions of Am-241 photon emissions. This study confirms that disturbance from Am-241 photon emissions of the cellular dose by Am-241 alpha emissions is negligible. Dose contamination fraction from photon emissions was 8.02 .. 10-6 at 25 mm SSD at maximum. Also, note that LET in tissue-equivalent medium varies within about 20% for alpha particles at energies over 5 MeV

  10. Disturbance from Am-241 Photons of the Cellular Dose by Am-241 Alpha Emissions: Am-241 as an alternative source of alpha particles to radon daughters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ki-Man; Kim, Eun-Hee [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The Radiation Bioengineering Laboratory (RadBio Lab) at Seoul National University (SNU) has built an Am-241 alpha particle irradiator for study of cellular responses to radiation from radon daughters. The radon daughters of concern that cause internal exposure from inhalation of radon-contaminated air are Po-218, Po-214 and Po-210. In their alpha decay schemes, the yields of photon emissions are negligible. Unfortunately, Am-241, the source of alpha irradiator in RadBio Lab, emits photons at every alpha decay while transforming to Np-237 of long half-life. Employing Am-241 as the source simulating radon daughters, therefore, requires that photon emissions from Am-241 be specified in term of dose contribution. In this study, Monte Carlo calculations have been made to characterize dose contributions of Am-241 photon emissions. This study confirms that disturbance from Am-241 photon emissions of the cellular dose by Am-241 alpha emissions is negligible. Dose contamination fraction from photon emissions was 8.02 .. 10{sup -6} at 25 mm SSD at maximum. Also, note that LET in tissue-equivalent medium varies within about 20% for alpha particles at energies over 5 MeV.

  11. Effect of water alpha radiolysis on the spent nuclear fuel UO2 matrix alteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leaching experiments with solution renewal were carried out on UO2 pellets doped with alpha emitters (238/239Pu) to quantify the impact of alpha irradiation on UO2 matrix alteration. Three batches of doped UO2 pellets with different alpha flux levels were studied as well as spent fuel fragments. Interim storage in air of UO2 pellets doped with alpha emitters results in variations of the UO2 surface reactivity, which depends on the alpha particle flux at the interface and on the interim storage duration. The variation in the surface reactivity and the greater uranium release following interim storage cannot be attributed to the effect of alpha radiolysis in aerated media since the uranium release tends toward the same value after several leaching cycles for the doped UO2 pellet batches and spent fuel. However, leaching experiments performed in deaerated media after annealing the samples and pre-leaching the surface suggest that alpha radiolysis does indeed affect the dissolution, which varies with the flux at the UO2/water interface. (authors)

  12. Damped Lyman-Alpha Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Turnshek, D A; Lane, W; Monier, E M; Nestor, D; Bergeron, J; Briggs, F; Smette, A

    2000-01-01

    Some results from an imaging program to identify low-redshift (0.09alpha (DLA) galaxies are presented. The standard paradigm that was widely accepted a decade ago, that DLA galaxies are the progenitors of luminous disk galaxies, is now being seriously challenged. The indisputable conclusion from imaging studies at low redshift is that the morphological types of DLA galaxies are mixed and that they span a range in luminosities and surface brightnesses.

  13. Diabetes and alpha lipoic acid

    OpenAIRE

    IssyLaher

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a multi-faceted metabolic disorder where there is increased oxidative stress that contributes to the pathogenesis of this debilitating disease. This has prompted several investigations into the use of antioxidants as a complementary therapeutic approach. Alpha lipoic acid, a naturally occurring dithiol compound which plays an essential role in mitochondrial bioenergetic reactions, has gained considerable attention as an antioxidant for use in managing diabetic complicatio...

  14. Diabetes and Alpha Lipoic Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Golbidi, Saeid; Badran, Mohammad; Laher, Ismail

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a multi-faceted metabolic disorder where there is increased oxidative stress that contributes to the pathogenesis of this debilitating disease. This has prompted several investigations into the use of antioxidants as a complementary therapeutic approach. Alpha lipoic acid, a naturally occurring dithiol compound which plays an essential role in mitochondrial bioenergetic reactions, has gained considerable attention as an antioxidant for use in managing diabetic complicatio...

  15. $Gamma(H\\to b\\bar{b})$ to order $\\alpha\\alpha_s$

    CERN Document Server

    Mihaila, Luminita; Steinhauser, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    We compute the decay rate of the Standard Model Higgs boson to bottom quarks to order $\\alpha\\alpha_s$. We apply the optical theorem and calculate the imaginary part of three-loop corrections to the Higgs boson propagator using asymptotic expansions in appropriately chosen mass ratios. The corrections of order $\\alpha\\alpha_s$ are of the same order of magnitude as the ${\\cal O}(\\alpha_s^3)$ QCD corrections but have the opposite sign.

  16. Alpha voltaic batteries and methods thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffaelle, Ryne P. (Inventor); Jenkins, Phillip (Inventor); Wilt, David (Inventor); Scheiman, David (Inventor); Chubb, Donald (Inventor); Castro, Stephanie (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An alpha voltaic battery includes at least one layer of a semiconductor material comprising at least one p/n junction, at least one absorption and conversion layer on the at least one layer of semiconductor layer, and at least one alpha particle emitter. The absorption and conversion layer prevents at least a portion of alpha particles from the alpha particle emitter from damaging the p/n junction in the layer of semiconductor material. The absorption and conversion layer also converts at least a portion of energy from the alpha particles into electron-hole pairs for collection by the one p/n junction in the layer of semiconductor material.

  17. Innovations in Los Alamos alpha box design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Destructive examinations of irradiated fuel pins containing plutonium fuel must be performed in shielded hot cells with strict provisions for containing the plutonium. Alpha boxes provide containment for the plutonium, toxic fission products, and other hazardous highly radioactive materials. The alpha box contains windows for viewing and a variety of transfer systems specially designed to allow transfers in and out of the alpha box without spread of the hazardous materials that are contained in the box. Alpha boxes have been in use in the Wing 9 hot cells at Los Alamos National Laboratory for more than 20 years. Features of the newly designed alpha boxes are presented

  18. Innovations in Los Alamos alpha box design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledbetter, J.M.; Dowler, K.E.; Cook, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    Destructive examinations of irradiated fuel pins containing plutonium fuel must be performed in shielded hot cells with strict provisions for containing the plutonium. Alpha boxes provide containment for the plutonium, toxic fission products, and other hazardous highly radioactive materials. The alpha box contains windows for viewing and a variety of transfer systems specially designed to allow transfers in and out of the alpha box without spread of the hazardous materials that are contained in the box. Alpha boxes have been in use in the Wing 9 hot cells at Los Alamos National Laboratory for more than 20 years. Features of the newly designed alpha boxes are presented.

  19. Alpha particles detection in nitrocellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method for the manufacturing of the detection films follows these steps: preparation of the mass which includes nitrocellulose in the form of cotton as raw material ethyl acetate, cellosolve acetate, isopropyl and butyl alcohols as solvents and dioctyl phtalate as plasticiser; dilution of the paste; pouring of the diluted mass; and drying of the detection films. The results obtained experimentally are: The determination of the development times of the different thicknesses of the manufactured films. Response linearity of the detectors, variation of the number of tracks according to the distance of the source to the detector. Sizes of the diameter of the tracks depending of the distance detector-alpha emmission source. As a conclusion we can say the the nitrocellulose detectors are specific for alpha radiation; the more effective thicknesses in uranium prospecting works were those of 60 microns, since for the laboratory works the thicknesses of 30 to 40 microns were the ideal; the development technique of the detection films is simple and cheap and can be realized even in another place than the laboratory; this way of the manufacturing of nitrocellulose detection film sensitive to alpha nuclear radiation is open to future research. (author)

  20. Discretization of Continuous Frame

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Fattahi; H Javanshiri

    2012-05-01

    In this paper we consider the notion of continuous frame of subspaces and define a new concept of continuous frame, entitled continuous atomic resolution of identity, for arbitrary Hilbert space $\\mathcal{H}$ which has a countable reconstruction formula. Among the other results, we characterize the relationship between this new concept and other known continuous frames. Finally, we state and prove the assertions of the stability of perturbation in this concept.

  1. Fuzzy $Z$ -Continuous Posets

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, S. P.; Li, Q G

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to generalize fuzzy continuous posets. The concept of fuzzy subset system on fuzzy posets is introduced; some elementary definitions such as fuzzy $Z$ -continuous posets and fuzzy $Z$ -algebraic posets are given. Furthermore, we try to find some natural classes of fuzzy $Z$ -continuous maps under which the images of such fuzzy algebraic structures can be preserved; we also think about fuzzy $Z$ -continuous closure operators in alternative ways. An extensio...

  2. A novel technique for the rapid identification of alpha emitters released during a radiological incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilbeck, George A; Taylor, Bud; Leitch, Jerrold; Silverstone, Marina; Moore, Brian; Honsa, Patricia

    2006-10-01

    Before the May 2003 TOPOFF II exercise in Seattle, the U.S. EPA's Laboratory in Las Vegas prepared five spiked samples to be analyzed by the Washington State Department of Health's (WSDOH) Radiation Laboratory. Two of these were simulated deposition samples prepared on packaging tape. Laboratories throughout the world are investigating rapid methods for analyzing plume-borne radioactive materials. While measuring gamma emitters in environmental samples is fairly straightforward, the potential presence of alpha emitters adds complexity. The short range of alpha particles and the high degree of energy interference between nuclides usually require chemical separations and very thin mounts for alpha spectrometry. Work published on Frisch-Grid alpha counting of transuranics in soil and the commercial development of radon-rejection for air filters indicate that alpha spectrometry can be used directly on some media with success. This suggests that plume-borne material sampled from air or freshly deposited surface layers may be counted directly by alpha spectrometry, making it possible to identify both alpha and gamma emitters and determine their relative concentrations. The long-range objective is to propose a sampling method that can be used for rapid qualitative and semi-quantitative analyses using conventional radioanalytical instruments, with minimal preparation. This paper describes experimentation with this approach during a real-time exercise. All samples were prepared by spiking with (137)Cs, (241)Am, (238)Pu, and (239)Pu and presented to the WSDOH's Radiation Laboratory for analysis during TOPOFF II. The laboratory quickly identified and determined the ratios of all four contaminants on the tape samples using sequential alpha spectrometry and gamma-ray spectroscopy without chemical separations. PMID:16966874

  3. Continuity of transformations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P. Wakker

    1991-01-01

    Let u be a continuous function from Re to Re. Let f be a transformation (which in our terminology does not have to be bijective) from the range of u to Re. v = f(u(.)) is the composition of f and u. It is well-known that continuity of f implies continuity of v. We consider the reversed question: Doe

  4. Royal Danish Air Force. Air Operations Doctrine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørby, Søren

    This brief examines the development of the first Danish Air Force Air Operations Doctrine, which was officially commissioned in October 1997 and remained in effect until 2010. The development of a Danish air power doctrine was heavily influenced by the work of Colonel John Warden (USAF), both...... through his book ”The Air Campaign” and his subsequent planning of the air campaign against Iraq in 1990-1991. Warden’s ideas came to Denmark and the Danish Air Force by way of Danish Air Force students attending the United States Air Force Air University in Alabama, USA. Back in Denmark, graduates from...... the Air University inspired a small number of passionate airmen, who then wrote the Danish Air Operations Doctrine. The process was supported by the Air Force Tactical Command, which found that the work dovetailed perfectly with the transformation process that the Danish Air Force was in the midst of...

  5. 40 CFR 52.1234 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1234 Section 52.1234 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Minnesota §...

  6. The Behaviour of Varying-Alpha Cosmologies

    CERN Document Server

    Barrow, John D; Magueijo, J

    2002-01-01

    We determine the behaviour of a time-varying fine structure 'constant' $\\alpha (t)$ during the early and late phases of universes dominated by the kinetic energy of changing $\\alpha (t)$, radiation, dust, curvature, and lambda, respectively. We show that after leaving an initial vacuum-dominated phase during which $\\alpha$ increases, $\\alpha$ remains constant in universes like our own during the radiation era, and then increases slowly, proportional to a logarithm of cosmic time, during the dust era. If the universe becomes dominated by negative curvature or a positive cosmological constant then $\\alpha$ tends rapidly to a constant value. The effect of an early period of de Sitter or power-law inflation is to drive $\\alpha$ to a constant value. Various cosmological consequences of these results are discussed with reference to recent observational studies of the value of $\\alpha$ from quasar absorption spectra and to the existence of life in expanding universes.

  7. Air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Australian cites experience a number of current and emerging air pollution problems. Concentrations of traditional primary pollutants such as CO, lead and dust have fallen in recent years as a consequence of air pollutant control measures, and the widespread introduction of lead-free petrol. However, recommended guidelines for ozone, the principal component of photochemical smog, are regularly exceeded in major capital cities in the summer months. In addition, it is predicted that extensive urban expansion will lead to much greater dependence on the motor vehicle as the primary means of transportation. Effects of air pollution are felt at a variety of scales. Traditionally, concerns about gaseous and particulate emissions from industrial and vehicular sources were focused on local impacts due to exposure to toxic species such as CO and lead. As noted above, concentrations of these pollutants have been reduced by a variety of control measures. Pollutants which have effects at a regional scale, such as photochemically-produced ozone, and acidic gases and particles have proved more difficult to reduce. In general, these pollutants arc not the result of direct emissions to atmosphere, but result from complex secondary processes driven by photochemical reactions of species such as NO2 and aldehydes. In addition, global effects of gaseous and particulate emissions to the atmosphere have received significant recent attention, concentrations of atmospheric CO2 with predicted impacts on global climate, and ozone depletion due to anthropogenic emissions of chlorine-containing chemicals are the two major examples. Combustion processes from petrol- and diesel-fuelled vehicles, make major contributions to air pollution, and the magnitude of this contribution is discussed in this article

  8. Acute moderate elevation of TNF-{alpha} does not affect systemic and skeletal muscle protein turnover in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Marie; Plomgaard, Peter; Fischer, Christian P;

    2009-01-01

    Context: Skeletal muscle wasting has been associated with elevations in circulating inflammatory cytokines, in particular TNF-alpha. Objective: In this study, we investigated whether TNF-alpha affects human systemic and skeletal muscle protein turnover, via a 4 hours recombinant human TNF...... of either rhTNF-alpha (700 ng.m(-2).h(-1)) or 20% human albumin (Control) which was the vehicle of rhTNF-alpha. Systemic and skeletal muscle protein turnover were estimated by a combination of tracer dilution methodology (primed continuous infusion of L-[ring-(2)H5]phenylalanine and L-[(15)N...... with the phenylalanine 3-compartment model showed similar muscle synthesis, breakdown and net muscle degradation after 2 hours basal and after 4 hours Control or rhTNF-alpha infusion. Conclusion: This study is the first to show in humans that TNF-alpha does not affect systemic and skeletal muscle protein turnover, when...

  9. Identification of noncollagenous sites encoding specific interactions and quaternary assembly of alpha 3 alpha 4 alpha 5(IV) collagen: implications for Alport gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jeong Suk; Colon, Selene; Hellmark, Thomas; Sado, Yoshikazu; Hudson, Billy G; Borza, Dorin-Bogdan

    2008-12-12

    Defective assembly of alpha 3 alpha 4 alpha 5(IV) collagen in the glomerular basement membrane causes Alport syndrome, a hereditary glomerulonephritis progressing to end-stage kidney failure. Assembly of collagen IV chains into heterotrimeric molecules and networks is driven by their noncollagenous (NC1) domains, but the sites encoding the specificity of these interactions are not known. To identify the sites directing quaternary assembly of alpha 3 alpha 4 alpha 5(IV) collagen, correctly folded NC1 chimeras were produced, and their interactions with other NC1 monomers were evaluated. All alpha1/alpha 5 chimeras containing alpha 5 NC1 residues 188-227 replicated the ability of alpha 5 NC1 to bind to alpha3NC1 and co-assemble into NC1 hexamers. Conversely, substitution of alpha 5 NC1 residues 188-227 by alpha1NC1 abolished these quaternary interactions. The amino-terminal 58 residues of alpha3NC1 encoded binding to alpha 5 NC1, but this interaction was not sufficient for hexamer co-assembly. Because alpha 5 NC1 residues 188-227 are necessary and sufficient for assembly into alpha 3 alpha 4 alpha 5 NC1 hexamers, whereas the immunodominant alloantigenic sites of alpha 5 NC1 do not encode specific quaternary interactions, the findings provide a basis for the rational design of less immunogenic alpha 5(IV) collagen constructs for the gene therapy of X-linked Alport patients. PMID:18930919

  10. Membrane reactors for continuous coenzyme regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandrey, C.; Wichmann, R.

    1982-12-01

    The importance of continuous coenzyme regeneration is discussed with respect to chemical reaction engineering. The benefit of coenzymes covalently bound to water soluble polymers is especially stressed. The performance of membrane reactors for coenzyme regeneration is discussed in comparison with other reactor concepts. The coenzyme dependent production of L-amino acids from the corresponding alpha-keto acids is used to illustrate how precise turnover numbers as a function of enzyme/coenzyme ratio, initial substrate concentration, and conversion are obtained. Thus, it becomes possible to develop a concept for optimal operating points with respect to enzyme, coenzyme, and substrate costs per unit weight of product.

  11. Pharmacological evidence that alpha2A- and alpha2C-adrenoceptors mediate the inhibition of cardioaccelerator sympathetic outflow in pithed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobos-Puc, Luis E; Villalón, Carlos M; Sánchez-López, Araceli; Lozano-Cuenca, Jair; Pertz, Heinz H; Görnemann, Tilo; Centurión, David

    2007-01-12

    It has been suggested that the alpha(2)-adrenoceptors mediating cardiac sympatho-inhibition in pithed rats closely resemble the pharmacological profile of the alpha(2A)-adrenoceptor subtype. However, several lines of evidence suggest that more than one subtype may be involved. Thus, the present study has pharmacologically re-evaluated the receptor subtype(s) involved in the inhibitory effect of the alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonist, B-HT 933, on the tachycardic responses elicited by selective cardiac sympathetic stimulation (0.03, 0.1, 0.3, 1 and 3 Hz) in desipramine-pretreated pithed rats. I.v. continuous infusions of B-HT 933 (30 microg/kg min), which failed to modify the tachycardic responses to exogenous noradrenaline, inhibited those induced by preganglionic (C(7)-T(1)) stimulation of the cardiac sympathetic outflow at all frequencies of stimulation (0.03-3 Hz). This cardiac sympatho-inhibitory response to B-HT 933 was: (1) unaltered by saline (1 ml/kg) or the antagonists BRL44408 (100 microg/kg; alpha(2A)) or imiloxan (3000 and 10,000 microg/kg; alpha(2B)); (2) partially antagonized by BRL44408 (300 microg/kg) or MK912 (10 microg/kg; alpha(2C)) given separately; and (3) completely antagonized by rauwolscine (300 microg/kg; alpha(2)), MK912 (30 microg/kg) or the combination of BRL44408 (300 microg/kg) plus MK912 (10 microg/kg). Moreover, the above doses of antagonists, which are high enough to block their respective receptors, failed to block per se the tachycardic responses to sympathetic stimulation. These results suggest that the cardiac sympatho-inhibition induced by B-HT 933 in pithed rats is mainly mediated by stimulation of alpha(2A)- and alpha(2C)-adrenoceptors. PMID:17109851

  12. $\\alpha_s$ extractions from CMS (status and plans)

    CERN Document Server

    Rabbertz, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Numerous extractions of the strong coupling constant have been performed at hadron colliders, in particular from jet cross sections. The latest results achieved by the experiments at the $ep$ collider HERA, at the $p\\bar{p}$ collider Tevatron, and at the $pp$ collider LHC are reported with emphasis on the CMS experiment for the latter. Future prospects for precision determinations of $\\alpha_s(M_Z)$ and for testing the running of the strong coupling beyond the TeV range are discussed.

  13. Air ionization wire plane chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation Measurement for protection level instrumentation requires large number of detectors. Since the number is large, the detector should be cost effective and yet should have good sensitivity. Gas detectors with presently available microelectronics and signal processing capabilities opened a new era in radiation monitoring. Present paper describes the use of air filled multi anode grid planes as detector for alpha detection. Due to multiple anode wire planes, the charge collection efficiency of the air ionization chamber is higher as compared to conventional ionization chamber. The signal from this Wire Plane Chamber (WPC) has a faster and narrower pulse shape as compared to conventional two-electrode chamber of similar dimensions. The reduction in capacitance also improves the signal to noise ratio so that air can be used as the ionization medium without any special cleaning procedure etc and it may be possible to use even engineering plastic as the structural material for the chamber. The paper gives the results obtained so far with this air ionization chamber. (author)

  14. Development and characterisation of a silicon PIN diode array based highly sensitive portable continuous radon monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the development and characterisation of a portable and highly sensitive continuous radon monitor (CRM) based on an array of in-house developed silicon PIN diode detectors. The development of this system was initiated in view of the limitations of the available similar radon measurement systems with regards to low sensitivity. The system utilises a hemispherical metal chamber (1 L capacity) for active air sampling. A quantitative estimation of radon concentration is carried out through alpha spectroscopy of electro-deposited 222Rn decay products on the detector surface. The system was successfully tested and characterised in laboratory conditions. The characterisation experiments included optimisation of sensitivity, calibration with respect to linearity and a study of the influence of humidity on its performance. The novel PIN diode array design yields a high sensitivity of 1.76 ± 0.003 counts h−1/(Bq m−3) at a relative humidity level of 10% in the sampled air, which is more than two times as high as that reported for similar commercial systems. This instrument displayed a minimum detectable activity level of 0.80 Bq m−3. (paper)

  15. Air filtration and indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    Demands for better indoor air quality are increasing, since we spend most of our time indoors and we are more and more aware of indoor air pollution. Field studies in different parts of the world have documented that high percentage of occupants in many offices and buildings find the indoor air...... decent ventilation and air cleaning/air filtration, high indoor air quality cannot be accomplished. The need for effective air filtration has increased with increasing evidence on the hazardous effects of fine particles. Moreover, the air contains gaseous pollutants, removal of which requires various air...... cleaning techniques. Supply air filter is one of the key components in the ventilation system. Studies have shown that used ventilation filters themselves can be a significant source of indoor air pollution with consequent impact on perceived air quality, sick building syndrome symptoms and performance...

  16. Folding model study of the elastic $\\alpha + \\alpha$ scattering at low energies

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Ngo Hai; Khoa, Dao T

    2014-01-01

    The folding model analysis of the elastic $\\alpha + \\alpha$ scattering at the incident energies below the reaction threshold of 34.7 MeV (in the lab system) has been done using the well-tested density dependent versions of the M3Y interaction and realistic choices for the $^4$He density. Because the absorption is negligible at the energies below the reaction threshold, we were able to probe the $\\alpha + \\alpha$ optical potential at low energies quite unambiguously and found that the $\\alpha + \\alpha$ overlap density used to construct the density dependence of the M3Y interaction is strongly distorted by the Pauli blocking. This result gives possible explanation of a long-standing inconsistency of the double-folding model in its study of the elastic $\\alpha + \\alpha$ and $\\alpha$-nucleus scattering at low energies using the same realistic density dependent M3Y interaction.

  17. The 2009 Wolrd Average of $\\alpha_s (M_Z)$

    CERN Document Server

    Bethke, Siegfried

    2009-01-01

    Measurements of $\\alpha_s$, the coupling strength of the Strong Interaction between quarks and gluons, are summarised and an updated value of the world average of $\\alpha_s (M_Z)$ is derived. Building up on previous reviews, special emphasis is laid on the most recent determinations of $\\alpha_s$. These are obtained from $\\tau$-decays, from global fits of electroweak precision data and from measurements of the proton structure function $\\F_2$, which are based on perturbative QCD calculations up to $O(\\alpha_s^4)$; from hadronic event shapes and jet production in $\\epem$ annihilation, based on $O(\\alpha_s^3) $ QCD; from jet production in deep inelastic scattering and from $\\Upsilon$ decays, based on $O(\\alpha_s^2) $ QCD; and from heavy quarkonia based on unquenched QCD lattice calculations. Applying pragmatic methods to deal with possibly underestimated errors and/or unknown correlations, the world average value of $\\alpha_s (M_Z)$ results in $\\alpha_s (M_Z) = 0.1184 \\pm 0.0007$. The measured values of $\\alpha...

  18. Fabrication, characterization, and photocatalytic property of {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/graphene oxide composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Hong; Zhao Qidong; Li Xinyong, E-mail: xinyongli@hotmail.com [School of Environmental Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemical, Key Laboratory of Industrial Ecology and Environmental Engineering (MOE) (China); Zhu Zhengru [Research Center of Hydrology and Engineering, Academy of City and Environment, Liaoning Normal University (China); Tade, Moses; Liu Shaomin, E-mail: shaomin.liu@curtin.edu.au [Curtin University, Department of Chemical Engineering (Australia)

    2013-06-15

    Spindle-shaped microstructure of {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} was successfully synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method. The {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/graphene oxide (GO) composites was prepared using a modified Hummers' strategy. The properties of the samples were systematically investigated by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectrophotometer, transmission electron microscope, atomic force microscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy (Raman) techniques. GO nanosheets act as supporting materials for anchoring the {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles. The average crystallite sizes of the {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/GO samples are ca. 27 and 24 nm, respectively. The possible growth of {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} onto GO layers led to a higher absorbance capacity for visible light by {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/GO than {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite. The photocatalytic degradation of toluene over the {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/GO samples under xenon-lamp irradiation was comparatively studied by in situ FTIR technique. The results indicate that the {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/GO sample synthesized exhibited a higher capacity for the degradation of toluene. The composite of {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/GO could be promisingly applied in photo-driven air purification.

  19. Recoil-alpha-fission and recoil-alpha-alpha-fission events observed in the reaction Ca-48 + Am-243

    CERN Document Server

    Forsberg, U; Andersson, L -L; Di Nitto, A; Düllmann, Ch E; Gates, J M; Golubev, P; Gregorich, K E; Gross, C J; Herzberg, R -D; Hessberger, F P; Khuyagbaatar, J; Kratz, J V; Rykaczewski, K; Sarmiento, L G; Schädel, M; Yakushev, A; Åberg, S; Ackermann, D; Block, M; Brand, H; Carlsson, B G; Cox, D; Derkx, X; Dobaczewski, J; Eberhardt, K; Even, J; Fahlander, C; Gerl, J; Jäger, E; Kindler, B; Krier, J; Kojouharov, I; Kurz, N; Lommel, B; Mistry, A; Mokry, C; Nazarewicz, W; Nitsche, H; Omtvedt, J P; Papadakis, P; Ragnarsson, I; Runke, J; Schaffner, H; Schausten, B; Shi, Y; Thörle-Pospiech, P; Torres, T; Traut, T; Trautmann, N; Türler, A; Ward, A; Ward, D E; Wiehl, N

    2015-01-01

    Products of the fusion-evaporation reaction Ca-48 + Am-243 were studied with the TASISpec set-up at the gas-filled separator TASCA at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum f\\"ur Schwerionenforschung. Amongst the detected thirty correlated alpha-decay chains associated with the production of element Z=115, two recoil-alpha-fission and five recoil-alpha-alpha-fission events were observed. The latter are similar to four such events reported from experiments performed at the Dubna gas-filled separator. Contrary to their interpretation, we propose an alternative view, namely to assign eight of these eleven decay chains of recoil-alpha(-alpha)-fission type to start from the 3n-evaporation channel 115-288. The other three decay chains remain viable candidates for the 2n-evaporation channel 115-289.

  20. 75 FR 34647 - Approval of the Clean Air Act, Section 112(l), Authority for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-18

    .... See 64 FR 67793. Continuous web cleaning machines are solvent cleaning machines in which parts such as... Pollutants: Air Emission Standards for Halogenated Solvent Cleaning Machines: State of Rhode Island... Emissions from Organic Solvent Cleaning (``RI Regulation No. 36''), and the Rhode Island Air...

  1. Depleted uranium in the air during the cleanup operations at Cape Arza

    OpenAIRE

    PERKO VUKOTIC; MILOJKO KOVACEVIC; TOMISLAV ANDJELIC; MIRJANA RADENKOVIC

    2004-01-01

    Cape Arza was contaminated with depleted uranium (DU) in the air strikes of NATO aeroplanes on May 30, 1999. The cleanup and decontamination of the site started in 2001. Here the results of air monitoring performed during the cleanup operations in Spring 2002. are presented. The collected air samples were analyzed by high-resolution alpha spectrometry. The obtained concentrations of airborne uranium are about ten times higher than the average value usually reported for air. The ratio of the 2...

  2. Air contaminants in a submarine equipped with air independent propulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Ola; Ostberg, Christina; Pagels, Joakim; Sebastian, Aleksandra

    2006-11-01

    The Swedish Navy has operated submarines equipped with air independent propulsion for two decades. This type of submarine can stay submerged for periods far longer than other non-nuclear submarines are capable of. The air quality during longer periods of submersion has so far not been thoroughly investigated. This study presents results for a number of air quality parameters obtained during more than one week of continuous submerged operation. The measured parameters are pressure, temperature, relative humidity, oxygen, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, formaldehyde and other volatile organic compounds, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter and microbiological contaminants. The measurements of airborne particles demonstrate that air pollutants typically occur at a low baseline level due to high air exchange rates and efficient air-cleaning devices. However, short-lived peaks with comparatively high concentrations occur, several of the sources for these have been identified. The concentrations of the pollutants measured in this study do not indicate a build-up of hazardous compounds during eight days of submersion. It is reasonable to assume that a substantial build-up of the investigated contaminants is not likely if the submersion period is prolonged several times, which is the case for modern submarines equipped with air independent propulsion. PMID:17075617

  3. Continuity in Discrete Sets

    CERN Document Server

    Burgin, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Continuous models used in physics and other areas of mathematics applications become discrete when they are computerized, e.g., utilized for computations. Besides, computers are controlling processes in discrete spaces, such as films and television programs. At the same time, continuous models that are in the background of discrete representations use mathematical technology developed for continuous media. The most important example of such a technology is calculus, which is so useful in physics and other sciences. The main goal of this paper is to synthesize continuous features and powerful technology of the classical calculus with the discrete approach of numerical mathematics and computational physics. To do this, we further develop the theory of fuzzy continuous functions and apply this theory to functions defined on discrete sets. The main interest is the classical Intermediate Value theorem. Although the result of this theorem is completely based on continuity, utilization of a relaxed version of contin...

  4. Mitigation effects of radon decay products by air cleaner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most effective methods for reducing exposure is the use of air cleaners. In this study, a dose mitigation of a commonly-used Japanese air cleaner under conditions in which aerosols are continuously supplied was investigated. Although the values of the EERC during an operation of air cleaner decreased, values of the fp increased with the use of air cleaner. An effective dose was calculated on the basis of our experimental results, resulting in the dose mitigation of about 40 % by the air cleaner. Air cleaners can be regarded as an effective tool for the dose mitigation under with conditions in which aerosols are continuously supplied. (author)

  5. 222Rn alpha dose to organs other than lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The alpha dose to cells in tissues or organs other theft the lung has been calculated using the solubility coefficients for 222 Rn measured in human tissue. The annual alpha dose equivalent f rom 222 Rn and decay products in most tissues is a maximum of 30% of the annual average natural background dose equivalent (1 mSv) for external and internally deposited nuclides. The dose to the small population of lymphocytes located in or under the bronchial epithelium is a special case and their annual dose equivalent is essentially the same as that to basal cells in bronchial epithelium (200 mSv) for continuous exposure to 200 Bq M-3. The significance of this dose is uncertain because the only excess cancer observed in follow up studies of underground miners with high 222 Rn exposure is bronchogenic carcinoma

  6. Targeted alpha therapy for cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Barry J.; Raja, Chand; Rizvi, Syed; Li, Yong; Tsui, Wendy; Zhang, David; Song, Emma; Qu, Chang Fa; Kearsley, John; Graham, Peter; Thompson, John

    2004-08-01

    Targeted alpha therapy (TAT) offers the potential to inhibit the growth of micrometastases by selectively killing isolated and preangiogenic clusters of cancer cells. The practicality and efficacy of TAT is tested by in vitro and in vivo studies in melanoma, leukaemia, colorectal, breast and prostate cancers, and by a phase 1 trial of intralesional TAT for melanoma. The alpha-emitting radioisotope used is Bi-213, which is eluted from the Ac-225 generator and chelated to a cancer specific monoclonal antibody (mab) or protein (e.g. plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 PAI2) to form the alpha-conjugate (AC). Stable alpha-ACs have been produced which have been tested for specificity and cytotoxicity in vitro against melanoma (9.2.27 mab), leukaemia (WM60), colorectal (C30.6), breast (PAI2, herceptin), ovarian (PAI2, herceptin, C595), prostate (PAI2, J591) and pancreatic (PAI2, C595) cancers. Subcutaneous inoculation of 1-1.5 million human cancer cells into the flanks of nude mice causes tumours to grow in all mice. Tumour growth is compared for untreated controls, nonspecific AC and specific AC, for local (subcutaneous) and systemic (tail vein or intraperitoneal) injection models. The 213Bi-9.2.27 AC is injected into secondary skin melanomas in stage 4 patients in a dose escalation study to determine the effective tolerance dose, and to measure kinematics to obtain the equivalent dose to organs. In vitro studies show that TAT is one to two orders of magnitude more cytotoxic to targeted cells than non-specific ACs, specific beta emitting conjugates or free isotopes. In vivo local TAT at 2 days post-inoculation completely prevents tumour formation for all cancers tested so far. Intra-lesional TAT can completely regress advanced sc melanoma but is less successful for breast and prostate cancers. Systemic TAT inhibits the growth of sc melanoma xenografts and gives almost complete control of breast and prostate cancer tumour growth. Intralesional doses up to 450 µCi in human

  7. The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS)

    CERN Document Server

    Alcaraz, J; Ambrosi, G; Anderhub, H; Ao, L; Arefev, A; Azzarello, P; Babucci, E; Baldini, L; Basile, M; Barancourt, D; Barão, F; Barbier, G; Barreira, G; Battiston, R; Becker, R; Becker, U; Bellagamba, L; Bene, P; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Biland, A; Bizzaglia, S; Blasko, S; Bölla, G; Boschini, M; Bourquin, Maurice; Brocco, L; Bruni, G; Buénerd, M; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Cai, X D; Camps, C; Cannarsa, P; Capell, M; Casadei, D; Casaus, J; Castellini, G; Cecchi, C; Chang, Y H; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chen, Z G; Chernoplekov, N A; Tzi Hong Chiueh; Chuang, Y L; Cindolo, F; Commichau, V; Contin, A; Crespo, P; Cristinziani, M; Cunha, J P D; Dai, T S; Deus, J D; Dinu, N; Djambazov, L; Dantone, I; Dong, Z R; Emonet, P; Engelberg, J; Eppling, F J; Eronen, T; Esposito, G; Extermann, P; Favier, Jean; Fiandrini, E; Fisher, P H; Flügge, G; Fouque, N; Galaktionov, Yu; Gervasi, M; Giusti, P; Grandi, D; Grimm, O; Gu, W Q; Hangarter, K; Hasan, A; Hermel, V; Hofer, H; Huang, M A; Hungerford, W; Ionica, M; Ionica, R; Jongmanns, M; Karlamaa, K; Karpinski, W; Kenney, G; Kenny, J; Kim, W; Klimentov, A; Kossakowski, R; Koutsenko, V F; Kraeber, M; Laborie, G; Laitinen, T; Lamanna, G; Laurenti, G; Lebedev, A; Lee, S C; Levi, G; Levchenko, P M; Liu, C L; Liu, H T; Lopes, I; Lu, G; Lü, Y S; Lübelsmeyer, K; Luckey, D; Lustermann, W; Maña, C; Margotti, A; Mayet, F; McNeil, R R; Meillon, B; Menichelli, M; Mihul, A; Mourao, A; Mujunen, A; Palmonari, F; Papi, A; Park, I H; Pauluzzi, M; Pauss, Felicitas; Perrin, E; Pesci, A; Pevsner, A; Pimenta, M; Plyaskin, V; Pozhidaev, V; Postolache, V; Produit, N; Rancoita, P G; Rapin, D; Raupach, F; Ren, D; Ren, Z; Ribordy, M; Richeux, J P; Riihonen, E; Ritakari, J; Röser, U; Roissin, C; Sagdeev, R; Sartorelli, G; Schwering, G; Scolieri, G; Seo, E S; Shoutko, V; Shoumilov, E; Siedling, R; Son, D; Song, T; Steuer, M; Sun, G S; Suter, H; Tang, X W; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tornikoski, M; Torsti, J; Ulbricht, J; Urpo, S; Usoskin, I; Valtonen, E; Vandenhirtz, J; Velcea, F; Velikhov, E P; Verlaat, B; Vetlitskii, I; Vezzu, F; Vialle, J P; Viertel, Gert M; Vitè, Davide F; Gunten, H V; Wallraff, W; Wang, B C; Wang, J Z; Wang, Y H; Wiik, K; Williams, C; Wu, S X; Xia, P C; Yan, J L; Yan, L G; Yang, C G; Yang, M; Ye, S W; Yeh, P; Xu, Z Z; Zhang, H Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, D X; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, W Z; Zhuang, H L; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, B

    2002-01-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is a large acceptance (0.65 sr m sup 2) detector designed to operate in the International Space Station (ISS) for three years. The purposes of the experiment are to search for cosmic antimatter and dark matter and to study the composition and energy spectrum of the primary cosmic rays. A 'scaled-down' version has been flown on the Space Shuttle Discovery for 10 days in June 1998. The complete AMS is programmed for installation on the ISS in October 2003 for an operational period of 3 yr. This contribution reports on the experimental configuration that will be installed on the ISS.

  8. The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is a large acceptance (0.65 sr m2) detector designed to operate in the International Space Station (ISS) for three years. The purposes of the experiment are to search for cosmic antimatter and dark matter and to study the composition and energy spectrum of the primary cosmic rays. A 'scaled-down' version has been flown on the Space Shuttle Discovery for 10 days in June 1998. The complete AMS is programmed for installation on the ISS in October 2003 for an operational period of 3 yr. This contribution reports on the experimental configuration that will be installed on the ISS

  9. The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcaraz, J.; Alpat, B.; Ambrosi, G.; Anderhub, H.; Ao, L.; Arefiev, A.; Azzarello, P.; Babucci, E.; Baldini, L.; Basile, M.; Barancourt, D.; Barao, F.; Barbier, G.; Barreira, G.; Battiston, R.; Becker, R.; Becker, U.; Bellagamba, L.; Bene, P.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Biland, A.; Bizzaglia, S.; Blasko, S.; Boella, G.; Boschini, M.; Bourquin, M.; Brocco, L.; Bruni, G.; Buenerd, M.; Burger, J.D.; Burger, W.J.; Cai, X.D.; Camps, C.; Cannarsa, P.; Capell, M.; Casadei, D.; Casaus, J.; Castellini, G.; Cecchi, C.; Chang, Y.H.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, H.S.; Chen, Z.G.; Chernoplekov, N.A.; Chiueh, T.H.; Chuang, Y.L.; Cindolo, F.; Commichau, V.; Contin, A. E-mail: contin@bo.infn.it; Crespo, P.; Cristinziani, M.; Cunha, J.P. da; Dai, T.S.; Deus, J.D.; Dinu, N.; Djambazov, L.; DAntone, I.; Dong, Z.R.; Emonet, P.; Engelberg, J.; Eppling, F.J.; Eronen, T.; Esposito, G.; Extermann, P.; Favier, J.; Fiandrini, E.; Fisher, P.H.; Fluegge, G.; Fouque, N.; Galaktionov, Yu.; Gervasi, M.; Giusti, P.; Grandi, D.; Grimm, O.; Gu, W.Q.; Hangarter, K.; Hasan, A.; Hermel, V.; Hofer, H.; Huang, M.A.; Hungerford, W.; Ionica, M.; Ionica, R.; Jongmanns, M.; Karlamaa, K.; Karpinski, W.; Kenney, G.; Kenny, J.; Kim, W.; Klimentov, A.; Kossakowski, R.; Koutsenko, V.; Kraeber, M.; Laborie, G.; Laitinen, T.; Lamanna, G.; Laurenti, G.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, S.C.; Levi, G.; Levtchenko, P.; Liu, C.L.; Liu, H.T.; Lopes, I.; Lu, G.; Lu, Y.S.; Luebelsmeyer, K.; Luckey, D.; Lustermann, W.; Mana, C.; Margotti, A.; Mayet, F.; McNeil, R.R.; Meillon, B.; Menichelli, M.; Mihul, A.; Mourao, A.; Mujunen, A.; Palmonari, F.; Papi, A.; Park, I.H.; Pauluzzi, M.; Pauss, F.; Perrin, E.; Pesci, A.; Pevsner, A.; Pimenta, M.; Plyaskin, V.; Pojidaev, V.; Postolache, V.; Produit, N.; Rancoita, P.G.; Rapin, D.; Raupach, F.; Ren, D.; Ren, Z.; Ribordy, M.; Richeux, J.P.; Riihonen, E.; Ritakari, J.; Roeser, U.; Roissin, C.; Sagdeev, R.; Sartorelli, G.; Schultz von Dratzig, A.; Schwering, G.; Scolieri, G.; Seo, E.S.; Shoutko, V.

    2002-02-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is a large acceptance (0.65 sr m{sup 2}) detector designed to operate in the International Space Station (ISS) for three years. The purposes of the experiment are to search for cosmic antimatter and dark matter and to study the composition and energy spectrum of the primary cosmic rays. A 'scaled-down' version has been flown on the Space Shuttle Discovery for 10 days in June 1998. The complete AMS is programmed for installation on the ISS in October 2003 for an operational period of 3 yr. This contribution reports on the experimental configuration that will be installed on the ISS.

  10. Genomic organization of the bovine alpha-S1 casein gene.

    OpenAIRE

    Koczan, D; Hobom, G.; Seyfert, H.M.

    1991-01-01

    We report the sequence of the complete bovine alpha-s1 casein gene eludicating for the first time the genomic organization of an alpha-s type casein gene. Extending over 17508 bp the gene is split into 19 exons, ranging in size from 24 bp to 385 bp. Except for the translational stop codon not a single coding triplet of the alpha-s1 reading frame is disrupted by any of the splice junctions, which all confirm to known splice consensus sequences. Nine out of 16 coding exons begin with a 'GAX' co...

  11. Content of Some Radionuclides in the Air of Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Basic information about Radiation Monitoring Network (RMN) of the Czech Republic is given in the paper. One of its subnetworks is the network of Measuring Points of Air Contamination (MPAC) placed over the whole territory of Czech Republic. The MPACs are equipped, besides others instruments, by aerosol samplers with throughput up to 900 m3/h. The activity on aerosol filters, on which aerosol is continuously collected, are measured by semiconductor gamma spectrometry. The aim of these measurements is not only to detect an abnormal radiation situation together with Early Warning Network but also to follow the long time course of the aerosol activity concentration. The results of measurement of 137Cs, 7Be and 210Pb in the air at these points in the time period from 1986 to 2000 are presented. The measurement of 7Be and 210Pb can be used as a tracer of QA/QC (quality assurance and quality control). Radiochemical separation followed by alpha spectrometry or beta measurements is used for the determination of 90Sr and transuranium radionuclides in aerosol filters from Prague. The activity concentration of 85Kr in the air is determined at one point in Prague, too. At present the values of 137Cs activity concentrations range approximately from tenths to units of mBq/m3. The activity concentration of 7Be shows typical seasonal variations with the mean value about 3000 mBq/m3. The mean value of 210Pb activity concentration is about 500 mBq/m3. The activity concentration of 85Kr is between 1 and 2 Bq/m3 for last 10 years and slowly increases. The inhalation dose from presented radionuclides is calculated. (author)

  12. Radon dynamics in the air of tropical environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study aimed to investigate the influence of some environmental parameters on the behavior of radon and its short-lived daughters in the air. First it was conducted a radon survey in dwellings at the city of Rio de Janeiro. Different geomorphologic locations were selected such as close to the seashore, hills and far from both which are called here as 'interior locations'. Further, using an experimental station, it was studied the influence of temperature, humidity and rain on the radon and its short-lived daughters concentration in the indoor and outdoor air. Dwellings survey in Rio de Janeiro was done by using passive sampling and tracking etching methodology; the dynamic study was conducted performing simultaneous and continuous indoor and outdoor measurements of radon, temperature and humidity. Radon and its daughters were measured by alpha spectrometer using an active sampling. The radon concentration in Rio de Janeiro ranged from 0.5 Bq.m-3 - 200 Bq.m-3. It was observed a strong influence of location (seashore - 24 Bq.m-3, hills - 54.7 and 'interior location' - 52.2). Regarding the dynamic of random it was observed a hourly variability with a maximum of 13 Bq.m-3 in the early morning and a minimum of 8.8 Bq.m-3 at afternoon and seasonally with a maximum of 50 Bq.m-3 in winter and a minimum of 0.5 Bq.m-3 in the summer months. Those results are consequence of the strong negative correlation with temperature and positive correlation with humidity. It was shown in this study the importance of the characterization of some environmental parameters in the design of radon survey and the need to establish a methodology for sampling and measurement of radon and its daughters in the air in order to allow intercomparison of results. (author)

  13. Energy of radon and progeny alphas in dependence of distance traveled in some media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new method is introduced in this paper for calculating the energy of 222Rn and its progeny alpha particles from initial energy to zero in dependence on the distance traveled in air, water, hexane, cyclohexane, olive oil and CR-39. The method is based on fitting an inverse function into the range–energy data. The energy–distance equations derived here were used in Monte Carlo simulation of alphas from radon and progeny in the above-mentioned media. The method, the equations derived and the ranges of alpha are presented and discussed. - Highlights: ► A new method is introduced to calculate alpha energy - distance traveled in a medium. ► Alpha particles from 222Rn and its progeny from initial energy to zero are considered. ► Media including air, water, hexane, cyclohexane, olive oil and CR-39 are considered. ► The method is based on fitting an inverse function into the range–energy data. ► The energy–distance equations were derived and plotted using a Monte Carlo simulation

  14. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Dd of... - List of Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP) for Subpart DD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false List of Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants from...

  15. 40 CFR 240.205 - Air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air quality. 240.205 Section 240.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.205 Air quality....

  16. Continuous breakdown of Purcell's scallop theorem with inertia

    CERN Document Server

    Lauga, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Purcell's scallop theorem defines the type of motions of a solid body - reciprocal motions - which cannot propel the body in a viscous fluid with zero Reynolds number. For example, the flapping of a wing is reciprocal and, as was recently shown, can lead to directed motion only if its frequency Reynolds number, Re_f, is above a critical value of order one. Using elementary examples, we show the existence of oscillatory reciprocal motions which are effective for all arbitrarily small values of the frequency Reynolds number and induce net velocities scaling as (Re_f)^\\alpha (alpha > 0). This demonstrates a continuous breakdown of the scallop theorem with inertia.

  17. R9 Air Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Region 9 Air Districts layer is a compilation of polygons representing the California Air Pollution Control and Air Quality Management Districts, Arizona Air...

  18. AirData

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The AirData site provides access to yearly summaries of United States air pollution data, taken from EPA's air pollution databases. AirData has information about...

  19. California Air Basins

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Air ResourcesCalifornia Air Resources BoardThe following datasets are from the California Air Resources Board: * arb_california_airbasins - California Air BasinsThe...

  20. Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Hazardous Air Pollutants Hazardous air pollutants are those known to cause ... protect against adverse environmental effects. About Hazardous Air Pollutants What are hazardous air pollutants? Health and Environmental ...

  1. 40 CFR Table 8 to Subpart Ffff of... - Soluble Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Soluble Hazardous Air Pollutants 8...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Miscellaneous...

  2. 40 CFR 63.62 - Redefinition of glycol ethers listed as hazardous air pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... hazardous air pollutants. 63.62 Section 63.62 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES List of Hazardous Air Pollutants, Petitions Process, Lesser Quantity Designations, Source...

  3. Long-distance detection of alpha-radioactivity: Method and device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurkovskiy, Boris V; Miroshnichenko, Vladimir P; Onishchenko, Evgeny M; Simakov, Andrey B; Streil, Thomas G

    2015-11-01

    Negatively charged ions from the alpha particle tracks are detected by the discharge wire counter opened to the air. Ion clusters are transferred from the particle tracks to the detector volume by an air flux. It allows a remote detection of very low concentrations of alpha particles. In contrast to the existing long-range alpha particle detection technique this method employs a detector working in a counting mode using a gas discharge method with an open-air proportional counter that provides sharp selectivity and accuracy of measurements. The device allows to detect alpha contamination over large surface areas, including places hard to reach, using different nozzles such as the tube nozzle or disc nozzle. The basic parameters of the device are: detection distance--0.5 m; time of detection--10 s; the sensitivity per unit area--0.05 Bq/cm(2). Also the auto-calibration technique and results are presented. That allows using the device under different ambient conditions by making an automatic recalibration. PMID:26248147

  4. Confidence Intervals for Cronbach's Coefficient Alpha Values

    OpenAIRE

    Koning, Alex; Franses, Philip Hans

    2003-01-01

    textabstractCoefficient Alpha, which is widely used in empirical research, estimates the reliability of a test consisting of parallel items. In practice it is difficult to compare values of alpha across studies as it depends on the number of items used. In this paper we provide a simple solution, which amounts to computing the confidence intervals of an alpha, as these intervals automatically account for differences across the numbers of items. We also give appropriate statistics to test for ...

  5. Confidence Intervals for Cronbach's Coefficient Alpha Values

    OpenAIRE

    Koning, A. J.; Franses, Ph.H.B.F.

    2003-01-01

    Coefficient Alpha, which is widely used in empirical research, estimates the reliability of a test consisting of parallel items. In practice it is difficult to compare values of alpha across studies as it depends on the number of items used. In this paper we provide a simple solution, which amounts to computing the confidence intervals of an alpha, as these intervals automatically account for differences across the numbers of items. We also give appropriate statistics to test for significant ...

  6. Conformons in alpha-helical proteins

    CERN Document Server

    Atanasov, Victor

    2009-01-01

    We propose the conformon as a quantum of conformational change for energy transfer in alpha-helical proteins. The underlying mechanism of interaction between the quantum of excitation and the conformational degrees of freedom is nonlinear and leads to solitary wave packets of conformational energy. The phenomenon is specific to alpha-helices and not to beta-sheets in proteins due to the three strands of hydrogen bonds constituting the alpha-helical backbone.

  7. ‘The air that we breathe’: assessment of laser and electrosurgical dissection devices on operating theater air quality

    OpenAIRE

    Brace, Matthew D; Stevens, Elizabeth; Taylor, S Mark; Butt, Sarah; Sun, Zhennan; Hu, Licai; Borden, Megan; Khanna, Neeraj; Kuchta, James; Trites, Jonathan; Hart, Robert; Gibson, Mark D

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To measure changes in air quality during surgery. Methods Operating room (OR) and hallway air quality was continuously monitored over a 3-month period. Rooftop monitoring was used to control for environmental changes and to account for the infiltration of outdoor air pollutants. Air quality measurements were correlated with operative times and electro-dissection equipment used. Results OR air is cooler and drier compared to the adjacent hallway. Volatile organic compounds and other...

  8. Cutting Out Continuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick; Hutton, Graham

    2016-01-01

    In the field of program transformation, one often transforms programs into continuation-passing style to make their flow of control explicit, and then immediately removes the resulting continuations using defunctionalisation to make the programs first-order. In this article, we show how these two...

  9. Organocatalysis in continuous flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den S.A.

    2016-01-01

    Continuous flow chemistry is an enabling technique in organic chemistry. Advantages include extremely fast mixing and heat transfer capabilities as well as rapid screening of reaction conditions. Combining continuous flow chemistry with solid-supported organocatalysis presents challenges that have b

  10. Control letters and uncertainties of the kerma patterns in air, dose absorbed in water and dose absorbed in air of the LSCD; Cartas de control e incertidumbres de los patrones de kerma en aire, dosis absorbida en agua y dosis absorbida en aire del LSCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez R, M.T.; Tovar M, V.M.; Cejudo A, J. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2005-12-15

    determinations of the temperature to diminish their influence in the U. c. The percentage difference of the magnitudes dosemeters carried out by it patterns are consistent with U certain. However, it is necessary to diminish the uncertainty in the physical factors different to {kappa}{sub {tau}} and {sigma}{sub {beta}} for the one case of the primary patterns; because these they should be those of smaller value of U. d. In the case of the secondary patterns and tertiary for the realization of the{kappa}{sub {alpha}}{sub {center_dot}} is necessary to determine the corrections explicitly for recombination and polarization; and to analyze their contribution in the U. e. It is necessary to recover the tracking for the mensurations of the humidity. f. It is recommended to continue the control mensurations for each pattern, taking it{sup s} the least a measure every fifteen days, that it corresponds at two measured for month and 24 at the year. g. The operation of the air conditioned perturb the measurement for such as it recommends not to use it, and alone to leave in balance the chamber with the air of the engine room. (Author)

  11. Quantum time scales in alpha tunneling

    CERN Document Server

    Kelkar, N G; Nowakowski, M

    2008-01-01

    The theoretical treatment of alpha decay by Gamow is revisited by investigating the quantum time scales in tunneling. The time spent by an alpha particle in front of the barrier and traversing it before escape is evaluated using microscopic alpha nucleus potentials. The half-life of a nucleus is shown to correspond to the time spent by the alpha knocking in front of the barrier. Calculations for medium and super heavy nuclei show that from a multitude of available tunneling time definitions, the transmission dwell time gives the bulk of the lifetime of the decaying state, in most cases.

  12. Prospects for alpha particle studies on TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TFTR is expected to produce approximately 5 MW of alpha heating during the D/T Q ≅ 1 phase of operation in 1990. At that point the collective confinement properties and the heating effects of alpha particles become accessible for study for the first time. This paper outlines the potential performance of TFTR with respect to alpha particle production, the diagnostics which will be available for alpha particle measurements, and the physics issues which can be studied both before and during D/T operation

  13. [Alpha-linolenic acid and cardiovascular diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristić-Medić, Danijela; Ristić, Gordana; Tepsić, Vesna

    2003-01-01

    IMPORTANCE AND METABOLISM OF ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID: Alpha-linolenic acid is an essential fatty acid which cannot be produced in the body and must be taken by food. Both in animals and humans, alpha-linolenic acid is desaturated and elongated into eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid. It is also incorporated into plasma and tissue lipids and its conversion is affected by levels of linoleic acid. POTENTIAL ROLE IN PATHOGENESIS OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES: Diet enriched in n-3 fatty acids, especially alpha-linolenic acid, reduces the incidence of cardiac death. Studies have shown that alpha linolenic acid prevents ventricular fibrillation which is the main cause of cardiac death. Studies in rats suggest that alpha-linolenic acid may be more effective in preventing ventricular fibrillations than eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid. Furthermore, alpha-linolenic acid is the main fatty acid decreasing platalet aggregation which is an important step in thrombosis i.e. non-fatal myocardial infarction and stroke. DIETARY SOURCES AND NUTRITION RECOMMENDATIONS: Dietary sources include flaxseed and flaxseed oil, canola oil, soybean and soybean oil, pumpkin seed and pumpkin oil, walnuts and walnut oil. Strong evidence supports beneficial effects of alpha-linolenic acid and its dietary sources should be incorporated into balanced diet for prevention of cardiovascular diseases. The recommended daily intake is 2 g with a ratio of 5/1 for linoleic/alpha-linolenic acid. PMID:15510909

  14. Alpha particle problems in shielded support systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpha particle confinement is considered in the case of internal conductor systems with magnetically shielded supports. The treatment includes problems of energy transfer to the background plasma, the balance between radiation losses and alpha particle heating, mirror confinement in the main poloidal field, the cut-off and shielding conditions at the supports, ambipolar electric fields, wall interaction, and support location. With a proper and technically realizable choice of parameter values, it should become possible to achieve alpha particle heating as well as to manage the reactor technological problems due to alpha particle interaction with the supports. (Auth.)

  15. Quantum Estimates of Alpha Emitter Life Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Santoso

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantum estimates of several alpha radioactive life time have been made using the probability of quantum tunneling through the nuclear potential barrier. It is assumed that for a given nucleus with mass number A and isotopic number Z, there exists an alpha particle moving freely back and forth in the nucleus with mass and isotopic numbers A -4 and Z-2. If the probability of penetrating the nuclear potential barrier is Τ, then after N times (N=1/Τ hitting the barrier an alpha particle is emitted. To obtain the elapsed time for emitting an alpha particle requires N times τ0, where τ0 is the time travel for alpha across the nuclear diameter, which is dependent on alpha energy. It is assumed here that this kinetic energy is the same as the emitted energy. The emitting alpha kinetic energies here are calculated by the difference of the masses of the parent and daughter nuclei and the alpha particles. They are in closed agreement with the experimental observations. While the alpha radioactive life time are not the same order of magnitudes but give the same linearity on the logarithmic scale as function of the inverse square root of energy.

  16. Development of energy-efficient comfortable ventilation systems with air quality guided volume flow control and continuous monitoring of the window opening status. Part 1. Use of the LuQaS triple sensor for air quality guided volume flow control of mechanical ventilation systems in domestic buildings. Research project; Entwicklung energieeffizienter Komfortlueftungsanlagen mit luftqualitaetsgefuehrter Volumenstromregelung und kontinuierlicher Erfassung des Fensteroeffnungszustandes. Teilbericht 1. Einsatz des LuQaS-Triple-Sensors zur luftqualitaetsgefuehrten Volumenstromregelung von mechanischen Lueftungsanlagen in Wohngebaeuden. Forschungsprojekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossklos, Marc; Ebel, Witta; Knissel, Jens

    2011-05-15

    The report presents the preparatory work on the research project of the above title. The first chapter presents a status report on air quality monitoring inside rooms and evaluates the projects so far in which the LuQaS air quality sensor was used. The second chapter is a documentation of preliminary measurements using the LuQaS sensor in two passive residential buildings and several individual measurements for sensor calibration. It was found that in apartments with mechanical ventilation, the sensor reflects the user activities; further, the measured values indicate signal changes also in the off-air of the building, so that control via central sensors in the ventilation and off-air systems appears feasible. The third chapter discusses control strategies for air quality control. Apart from a discussion of control unit types, operating regimes, methods to determine rated values, and additional control functions, the effects of threshold value control with different threshold limit values and volume flow changes on the air quality of a model building was simulated. The results prove the expectation that the air quality inside a building will be influenced positively by air quality control. Theoretical investigations of the DrD method will be presented in another part-report of the project.

  17. Air monitoring requirements and alarm response procedures in reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive air monitoring programme will need to consider the requirement to sample for alpha and/or beta particulate activity, volatile species activity (eg iodine) and radioactive gas (eg tritium or krypton). This paper reviews the philosophy and requirements of the air monitoring programme for the reprocessing plant at BNFL's Sellafield site (formerly known as Windscale and Calder Works), with particular emphasis on particulate activity sampling systems

  18. $\\alpha_{s}$ from the (revised) ALEPH data for $\\tau$ decay

    CERN Document Server

    Boito, Diogo; Maltman, Kim; Osborne, James; Peris, Santiago

    2014-01-01

    We present a new analysis of $\\alpha_s$ from hadronic $\\tau$ decays based on the recently revised ALEPH data. The analysis is based on a strategy which we previously applied to the OPAL data. We critically compare our strategy to the one traditionally used and comment on the main differences. Our analysis yields the values $\\alpha_s(m_\\tau^2)=0.296\\pm 0.010$ using fixed-order perturbation theory, and $\\alpha_s(m_\\tau^2)=0.310\\pm 0.014$ using contour-improved perturbation theory. Averaging these values with our previously obtained values from the OPAL data, we find $\\alpha_s(m_\\tau^2)=0.303\\pm 0.009$, respectively, $\\alpha_s(m_\\tau^2)=0.319\\pm 0.012$, as the most reliable results for $\\alpha_s$ from $\\tau$ decays currently available.

  19. Kidney development and gene expression in the HIF2alpha knockout mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenhard, Brooke M; Freeburg, Paul B; Isom, Kathryn; Stroganova, Larysa; Borza, Dorin-Bogdan; Hudson, Billy G; St John, Patricia L; Zelenchuk, Adrian; Abrahamson, Dale R

    2007-04-01

    The hypoxia-inducible transcription factor-2 (HIF2), a heterodimer composed of HIF2alpha and HIF1beta subunits, drives expression of genes essential for vascularization, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2, Flk-1). Here, we used a HIF2alpha/LacZ transgenic mouse to define patterns of HIF2alpha transcription during kidney development and maturation. Our results from embryonic heterozygotes showed HIF2alpha/LacZ expression by apparently all renal endothelial cells. At 4 weeks of age, glomerular mesangial and vascular smooth muscle cells were also positive together with endothelial cells. These expression patterns were confirmed by electron microscopy using Bluo-gal as a beta-galactosidase substrate. Small numbers of glomerular and tubular epithelial cells were also positive at all stages examined. Light and electron microscopic examination of kidneys from HIF2alpha null embryos showed no defects in renal vascular development or nephrogenesis. Similarly, the same amounts of Flk-1 protein were seen on Western blots of kidney extracts from homozygous and heterozygous HIF2alpha mutants. To examine responsiveness of HIF2alpha null kidneys to hypoxia, embryonic day 13.5 metanephroi were cultured in room air or in mild (5% O(2)) hypoxia. For both heterozygous and null samples, VEGF mRNA levels doubled when metanephroi were cultured in mild hypoxia. Anterior chamber grafts of embryonic HIF2alpha knockouts were morphologically indistinguishable from heterozygous grafts. Endothelial markers, platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule and BsLB4, as well as glomerular epithelial markers, GLEPP1 and WT-1, were all expressed appropriately. Finally, we undertook quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction of kidneys from HIF2alpha null embryos and wild-type siblings and found no compensatory up-regulation of HIF1alpha or -3alpha. Our results show that, although HIF2alpha was widely transcribed by kidney endothelium and vascular

  20. $\\alpha$-curvatures and $\\alpha$-flows on low dimensional triangulated manifolds

    OpenAIRE

    Ge, Huabin; Xu, Xu

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce two discrete curvature flows, which are called $\\alpha$-flows on two and three dimensional triangulated manifolds. For triangulated surface $M$, we introduce a new normalization of combinatorial Ricci flow (first introduced by Bennett Chow and Feng Luo \\cite{CL1}), aiming at evolving $\\alpha$ order discrete Gauss curvature to a constant. When $\\alpha\\chi(M)\\leq0$, we prove that the convergence of the flow is equivalent to the existence of constant $\\alpha$-curvatur...

  1. alpha-nucleus potentials, alpha-decay half-lives, and shell closures for superheavy nuclei

    OpenAIRE

    Mohr, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Systematic alpha-nucleus folding potentials are used to analyze alpha-decay half-lives of superheavy nuclei. Preformation factors of about several per cent are found for all nuclei under study. The systematic behavior of the preformation factors and the volume integrals of the potentials allows to predict alpha-decay energies and half-lives for unknown nuclei. Shell closures can be determined from measured alpha-decay energies using the discontinuity of the volume integral at shell closures. ...

  2. Large area gridded ionisation chamber and electrostatic precipitator. Application to low-level alphaspectrometry of environmental air samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high-resolution, parallel plate Frisch grid ionisation chamber with an efficient area of 300 cm2 and a large area electrostatic precipitator were developed and applied to direct alpha-particle spectrometry of air dust. The aerosols were deposited on circular tin-plate dishes of 300 cm2 by the electrostatic precipitator, which was constructed for continuous operation at an air flow rate of 2 m3/h. Collection efficiency is found to be 0.78 for the natural Rn- and Tn-daughter products. Using an argon-methane mixture (P-10 gas) at atmospheric pressure, the resolution of the detector system is 22 keV fwhm at 5.15 MeV. The integral background is typically 15.7 counts/h between 4 and 6 MeV. After sampling for one week and decay of short-lived natural activity, the sensitivity of the procedure for long-lived alpha-emitters is about 0.1 fCi/m3 based on 3s of background as detection limit and 1000 min counting time. (Auth.)

  3. Expression of the alpha 1, alpha 2 and alpha 3 isoforms of the GABAA receptor in human alcoholic brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewohl, J M; Crane, D I; Dodd, P R

    1997-03-14

    The expression of the alpha 1, alpha 2 and alpha 3 isoforms of the GABAA receptor was studied in the superior frontal and motor cortices of 10 control, 10 uncomplicated alcoholic and 7 cirrhotic alcoholic cases matched for age and post-mortem delay. The assay was based on competitive RT/PCR using a single set of primers specific to the alpha class of isoform mRNA species, and was normalized against a synthetic cRNA internal standard. The assay was shown to be quantitative for all three isoform mRNA species. Neither the patient's age nor the post-mortem interval significantly affected the expression of any isoform in either cortical area. The profile of expression was shown to be significantly different between the case groups, particularly because alpha 1 expression was raised in both groups of alcoholics of controls. The two groups of alcoholics could be differentiated on the basis of regional variations in alpha 1 expression. In frontal cortex, alpha 1 mRNA expression was significantly increased when uncomplicated alcoholics were compared with control cases whereas alcoholic-cirrhotic cases were not significantly different from either controls or uncomplicated alcoholic cases. In the motor cortex, alpha 1 expression was elevated only when alcoholic-cirrhotic cases were compared with control cases. There was no significant difference between case groups or areas for any other isoform. PMID:9098573

  4. Performance of wire-type Rn detectors operated with gas gain in ambient air in view of its possible application to early earthquake predictions

    CERN Document Server

    Charpak, Georges; Breuil, P; Nappi, E; Martinengo, P; Peskov, V

    2010-01-01

    We describe a detector of alpha particles based on wire type counters (single-wire and multiwire) operating in ambient air at high gas gains (100-1000). The main advantages of these detectors are: low cost, robustness and ability to operate in humid air. The minimum detectable activity achieved with the multiwire detector for an integration time of 1 min is 140 Bq per m3, which is comparable to that featured by commercial devices. Owing to such features the detector is suited for massive application, for example for continuous monitoring of Rn or Po contaminations or, as discussed in the paper, its use in a network of Rn counters in areas affected by earth-quakes in order to verify, on a solid statistical basis, the envisaged correlation between the sudden Rn appearance and a forthcoming earthquake.

  5. Alpha-emitters in the workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of groups of workers have been exposed to α;-particle-emitting radionuclides, of particular importance being the radium dial painters, underground hard rock miners exposed to radon and its decay products, and, more recently, plutonium workers. These occupationally exposed groups are of interest because they allow the direct study of the health effects of exposure to alpha-emitters and the comparison with the level of such effects present among groups exposed predominantly to external sources of low-LET radiation. Hence, these worker groups are important in testing the assumptions that underlie radiological protection. The radium dial painters experienced a pronounced excess of bone cancers and cancers of the paranasal sinuses and mastoid air cells, while a clear radon-related excess of lung cancer is present among the underground hard rock miners. There is little evidence for a radiation-related excess risk of other cancers being present in these groups. A number of groups of workers have been exposed to plutonium in the weapons and civil nuclear industries. The group of plutonium workers at the Mayak nuclear facility in Russia is especially important because of the large numbers exposed to high levels. The Mayak workers have pronounced plutonium-related excess risks of lung, liver and bone cancers, and possibly of other solid tumours, but not leukaemia. Where organ-specific internal doses have been derived, which is presently confined to the lung, risk coefficients are compatible with predictions based on standard models. However, further investigations of the Mayak workforce are required before reliable risk estimates for plutonium exposure may be derived, but this group of workers has the potential of generating definitive risk coefficients for health effects arising from exposure to plutonium. (orig.)

  6. Resting-State Alpha in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Alpha Associations with Thalamic Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, J. Christopher; Heiken, Kory; Chen, Yu-Han; Herrington, John D.; Chow, Vivian; Liu, Song; Bloy, Luke; Huang, Mingxiong; Pandey, Juhi; Cannon, Katelyn M.; Qasmieh, Saba; Levy, Susan E.; Schultz, Robert T.; Roberts, Timothy P. L.

    2015-01-01

    Alpha circuits (8-12 Hz), necessary for basic and complex brain processes, are abnormal in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The present study obtained estimates of resting-state (RS) alpha activity in children with ASD and examined associations between alpha activity, age, and clinical symptoms. Given that the thalamus modulates cortical RS alpha…

  7. Alpha-Synuclein Binds to the Inner Membrane of Mitochondria in an alpha-Helical Conformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robotta, M.; Gerding, H.R.; Vogel, A.; Hauser, K.; Schildknecht, S.; Karreman, C.; Leist, M.; Subramaniam, V.; Drescher, M.

    2014-01-01

    The human alpha-Synuclein (alphaS) protein is of significant interest because of its association with Parkinson's disease and related neurodegenerative disorders. The intrinsically disordered protein (140 amino acids) is characterized by the absence of a well-defined structure in solution. It displa

  8. Alpha activity in Indian thermal springs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Dissolved radon is contained in natural water due to primordial uranium in rocks and soils with which it comes in contact. There is dual exposure from radon in water i.e. due to inhalation of the radon released from the water into the ambient air and through ingestion when water is used for drinking. As radon contaminated water adversely affects the health, it is therefore fundamental from health and hygiene point of view to measure radium concentration and radon exhalation rates in water.Materials and Methods: LR-115, Type-II plastic track detectors were used to measure the radium concentration and radon exhalation rate in water samples collected from various thermal springs. The alpha tracks registered were counted by optical microscope at suitable magnification and converted into radium concentration and subsequently radon exhalation rates were measured. Results: The radon concentration emanated from water samples(air borne) varied from 84 Bqm-3 to 827 Bqm-3 with an average of 429± 12.72 Bqm-3 and the dissolved radon concentration varied from 5.65 Bq 1-1 to 55.66 Bq 1-1 with an average of 28.88± 0.85 Bq 1-1. The radon mass exhalation rates varied from 2.37 m Bq kg-1 hr-1 to 23.39 mBq kg-1 hr-1 with an average of 12.14 ±0.36 mBq kg-1 hr-1 and surface exhalation rates from 52.34 mBq m-2 hr-1 to 515.29 mBq m-2 hr-1 with an average of 267.36 ± 7.93 from different thermal spring water samples. The radium concentration varied from 0.3 0 Bq 1-1 to 2.93 Bq 1-1 with an average of 1.52 ± 0.045 Bq 1-1. Results indicate that the thermal spring water, which is also being used for drinking, is safe as far as radium concentration is concerned with the exception of a few isolated thermal spring sources

  9. Matching coefficients for alpha_s and m_b to O(alpha_s^2) in the MSSM

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, A; Salomon, J

    2009-01-01

    We compute the exact two-loop matching coefficients for the strong coupling constant alpha_s and the bottom-quark mass m_b within the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM), taking into account O(alpha_s^2) contributions from Supersymmetric Quantum Chromodynamics (SQCD). We find that the explicit mass pattern of the supersymmetric particles has a significant impact on the predictions of alpha_s and m_b at high energies. Further on, the three-loop corrections exceed the uncertainty due to the current experimental accuracy. In case of the the running bottom-quark mass, they can reach in the large tan(beta) regime up to 30% from the tree-level value.

  10. Pressurized air supply device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventilation air-conditioning facilities in a nuclear reactor building are adapted to suck clean external air not containing radioactivity through air supply filters disposed at an air intake port of the nuclear reactor building by means of an air supply blower and then supply the sucked air through an air supply duct and an air supply port to the inside of the power plant. Futher, pipeways for supplying sucked air to a compressor is branched from the air supply duct, through which air is supplied to an air compressor for instrumentation and an air compressor used in the power plant. The air sucked and compressed in the air compressor for instrumentation is further supplied by way of pipeways for supplying air for instrumentation to air-actuated valves, instruments, etc. Further, air sucked and compressed in the air compressor used in the power plant is further supplied by way of air supply pipeways for the power plant to a reservoir, air mask, etc. By supplying clean compressed air in this way, operators exposure dose can be reduced. (T.M.)

  11. Local Varying-Alpha Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Barrow, John D

    2014-01-01

    In a recent paper we demonstrated how the simplest model for varying alpha may be interpreted as the effect of a dielectric material, generalized to be consistent with Lorentz invariance. Unlike normal dielectrics, such a medium cannot change the speed of light, and its dynamics obey a Klein-Gordon equation. This work immediately suggests an extension of the standard theory, even if we require compliance with Lorentz invariance. Instead of a wave equation, the dynamics may satisfy a local algebraic relation involving the permittivity and the properties of the electromagnetic field, in analogy with more conventional dielectric (but still preserving Lorentz invariance). We develop the formalism for such theories and investigate some phenomenological implications. The problem of the divergence of the classical self-energy can be solved, or at least softened, in this framework. Some interesting new cosmological solutions for the very early universe are found, including the possibility of a bounce, inflation and e...

  12. Indoor air radon concentration in schools in Prizren, Kosovo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indoor air radon (222Rn) concentrations were measured in spring and winter in 30 rooms of 9 elementary schools and 19 rooms of 6 high schools in Prizren, Kosovo, using alpha scintillation cells. Only in three rooms of elementary schools and four rooms of high schools did winter concentrations exceed 400 Bq m-3. (authors)

  13. Personalised continuous software engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Papatheocharous, Efi; Belk, Marios; Nyfjord, Jaana; Germanakos, Panagiotis; Samaras, George

    2014-01-01

    This work describes how human factors can influence continuous software engineering. The reasoning begins from the Agile Manifesto promoting individuals and interactions over processes and tools. The organisational need to continuously develop, release and learn from software development in rapid cycles requires empowered and self-organised agile teams. However, these teams are formed without necessarily considering the members’ individual characteristics towards effective teamwork, from the ...

  14. Continuous parallel coordinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Julian; Weiskopf, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Typical scientific data is represented on a grid with appropriate interpolation or approximation schemes,defined on a continuous domain. The visualization of such data in parallel coordinates may reveal patterns latently contained in the data and thus can improve the understanding of multidimensional relations. In this paper, we adopt the concept of continuous scatterplots for the visualization of spatially continuous input data to derive a density model for parallel coordinates. Based on the point-line duality between scatterplots and parallel coordinates, we propose a mathematical model that maps density from a continuous scatterplot to parallel coordinates and present different algorithms for both numerical and analytical computation of the resulting density field. In addition, we show how the 2-D model can be used to successively construct continuous parallel coordinates with an arbitrary number of dimensions. Since continuous parallel coordinates interpolate data values within grid cells, a scalable and dense visualization is achieved, which will be demonstrated for typical multi-variate scientific data. PMID:19834230

  15. State of the art of D ampersand D Instrumentation Technology: Alpha counting in the presence of high background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Discrimination of alpha activity in the presence of a high radiation background has been identified as an area of concern to be studied for D ampersand D applications. Upon evaluating the range of alpha detection needs for D ampersand D operations, we have expanded this study to address the operational concern of greatly expediting alpha counting of rough surfaces and rubble. Note that the term, ''rough surfaces'' includes a wide range of practical cases, including contaminated equipment and work surfaces. We have developed provisional applications requirements for instrumentation of this type; and we also have generated the scope of a program of instrument evaluation and testing, with emphasis on practical implementation. In order to obtain the full operational benefit of alpha discrimination in the presence of strong beta-gamma radiation background, the detection system must be capable of some form of remote or semi-remote operation in order to reduce operator exposure. We have identified a highly promising technique, the long-range alpha detector (LRAD), for alpha discrimination in the presence of high radiation background. This technique operates upon the principle of transporting alphaionized air to an ionization detector. A transport time within a few seconds is adequate. Neither the provisional requirements nor the evaluation and testing scope were expressly tailored to force the selection of a LRAD technology, and they could be used as a basis for studies of other promising technologies. However, a technology that remotely detects alpha-ionized air (e. g., LRAD) is a natural fit to the key requirements of rejection of high background at the survey location and operator protection. Also, LRAD appears to be valuable for D ampersand D applications as a means of greatly expediting surface alpha-activity surveys that otherwise would require performing time-consuming scans over surfaces of interest with alpha detector probes, and even more labor-intensive surface

  16. Confidence Intervals for Cronbach's Coefficient Alpha Values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Koning (Alex); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractCoefficient Alpha, which is widely used in empirical research, estimates the reliability of a test consisting of parallel items. In practice it is difficult to compare values of alpha across studies as it depends on the number of items used. In this paper we provide a simple solution, wh

  17. Coefficient Alpha Bootstrap Confidence Interval under Nonnormality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Miguel A.; Divers, Jasmin; Newton, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Three different bootstrap methods for estimating confidence intervals (CIs) for coefficient alpha were investigated. In addition, the bootstrap methods were compared with the most promising coefficient alpha CI estimation methods reported in the literature. The CI methods were assessed through a Monte Carlo simulation utilizing conditions…

  18. DT results of TFTR's alpha collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An escaping alpha collector probe has been developed for TFTR's DT phase to complement the results of the lost alpha scintillator detectors which have been operating on TFTR since 1988. Measurements of the energy distribution of escaping alphas have been made by measuring the range of alphas implanted into nickel foils located within the alpha collector. Exposed samples have been analyzed for 4 DT plasma discharges at plasma currents of 1.0 and 1.8 MA. The results at 1.0 MA are in good agreement with predictions for first orbit alpha loss at 3.5 MeV. The 1.8 MA results, however, indicate a large anomalous loss of partially thermalized alphas at an energy ∼30% below the birth energy and at a total fluence nearly an order of magnitude above expected first orbit loss. This anomalous loss is not observed with the lost alpha scintillator detectors in DT plasmas but does resemble the anomalous delayed loss seen in DD plasmas. Several potential explanations for this loss process are examined. None of the candidate explanations proposed thus far are fully consistent with the anomalous loss observations

  19. ALPHA experiment facility and Prof. Jeffrey Hangst.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2010-01-01

    Picture 01-07: General views of the ALPHA experiment Picture 5: Andrea Gutierrez, a PhD student from UBC, transfers liquid helium from a storage dewar into the cryostat containing the superconducting magnetic trap used by the ALPHA experiment.Picture 08-11: Jeffery Hangst, spokesperson for ALPHA Picture 12: The ALPHA silicon detector, which surrounds the trapping resion and is used for imaging antiproton annihilations (Credit University of Liverpool) Picture 13: Untrapped antihydrogen atoms annihilating on the inner surface of the ALPHA trap. These are measured by the ALPHA annihilation detector. The events are concentrated at the electrode radius of about 22.3 mm. The coordinates are defined in the Nature article, Figure 1b. Picture 14: The electrodes (gold) for the ALPHA Penning trap being inserted into the vacuum chamber and cryostat assembly. This is the trap used to combine or "mix" positrons and antiprotons to make antihydrogen. (Credit: Niels Madsen ALPHA/Swansea.) Picture 15: Top, a diagram of the...

  20. Single-field $\\alpha$-attractors

    CERN Document Server

    Linde, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    I describe a simple class of $\\alpha$-attractors, generalizing the single-field GL model of inflation in supergravity. The new class of models is defined for $0<\\alpha \\lesssim 1$, providing a good match to the present cosmological data. I also present a generalized version of these models which can describe not only inflation but also dark energy and supersymmetry breaking.

  1. Air movement and perceived air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Kaczmarczyk, J.

    2012-01-01

    The impact of air movement on perceived air quality (PAQ) and sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms was studied. In total, 124 human subjects participated in four series of experiments performed in climate chambers at different combinations of room air temperature (20, 23, 26 and 28 °C), relative...... humidity (30, 40 and 70%) and pollution level (low and high). Most of the experiments were performed with and without facially applied airflow at elevated velocity. The importance of the use of recirculated room air and clean, cool and dry outdoor air was studied. The exposures ranged from 60. min to 235....... min. Acceptability of PAQ and freshness of the air improved when air movement was applied. The elevated air movement diminished the negative impact of increased air temperature, relative humidity and pollution level on PAQ. The degree of improvement depended on the pollution level, the temperature and...

  2. Closure of an analytical chemistry glove box in alpha laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The works with plutonium are performed in gloves box, operated below atmospheric pressure, to protect the experimenters from this alpha-active material. After 12 years of continual processes, it was necessary the decommissioning of the chemistry glove box in our alpha-laboratory. A great deal of our attention was devoted to the working techniques because of extreme care needed to avoid activity release. The decommissioning includes the following main operations: a) Planning and documentation for the regulatory authority. b) Internal decontamination with surface cleaning and chelating agents. c) Measurement of the remainder internal radioactivity. d) Sealing of the glove ports and nozzles. e) Disconnection of the glove box from the exhaust duct. f) Design and construction of a container for the glove box. g) Transportation of the glove box from alpha-laboratory, to a transitory storage until its final disposal. The above mentioned operations are described in this paper including too: data of personal doses during the operations, characteristics and volumes of radioactive wastes and a description of the instrument used for the measurement of inside glove box activity. (Author)

  3. Environmental hydrogen embrittlement of an alpha-beta titanium alloy - Effect of microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, H. G.; Williams, D. P.; Stein, J. E.

    1972-01-01

    Study of environmental hydrogen embrittlement of a Ti-6 Al-4 alloy as a function of test displacement rate and of variations in alpha-beta microstructure. Embrittlement in low-pressure (about 1 atm) gaseous hydrogen was inversely dependent on test displacement rate and strongly dependent on microstructure. At a given displacement rate, microstructures having a continuous alpha-phase matrix were less severely embrittled than those having a continuous beta-phase matrix. Further, brittle fracture occurred in the former microstructures by transgranular cleavage and in the latter microstructures by intergranular separation. These observations are consistent with previous studies made on slow strain-rate embrittlement of hydrogen-charged titanium alloys and are explained in terms of relative hydrogen transport rates within the alpha-phase and beta-phase titanium.

  4. Sensitivity of alpha-decay to the real alpha-nucleus potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The information which can be obtained from studies of low energy alpha-particle scattering from heavy nuclei and from alpha-decay is discussed. The sensitivity of calculated widths and lifetimes for alpha-decay to the real nuclear potential is examined in detail using a formalism based on the unified theory of nuclear reactions. It is shown that a combined study of alpha-decay and alpha-particle scattering at energies near the Coulomb barrier should give a very precise determination of the barrier height and radius, although there is a more uniquely defined separation distance some way beyond the barrier. (orig.)

  5. A low-energy determination of $\\alpha_s$ at three loops

    CERN Document Server

    Vairo, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    We review one of the most accurate low-energy determinations of $\\alpha_s$. Comparing at short distances the QCD static energy at three loops and resummation of the next-to-next-to leading logarithms with its determination in 2+1-flavor lattice QCD, we obtain $\\alpha_s(1.5~{\\rm GeV})=0.336^{+0.012}_{-0.008}$, which corresponds to $\\alpha_s(M_Z)=0.1166^{+0.0012}_{-0.0008}$. We discuss future perspectives.

  6. An Alpha Schottky Junction Power Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litz, Marc; Carroll, James; Henriquez, Stan

    2011-10-01

    Isotope batteries present solutions for long-lived low power sources. Compact sensors, and electronic circuit boards can be powered for the lifetime of infrastructure. Alpha sources are practical for safety reasons because of the limited distance before energy absorption in materials, and the high energy (~5MeV) per particle. Damage to materials from the alphas limits the practical use. A Schottky diode geometry is created from an alpha foil on a diamond-like crystal. A power source is proposed that takes advantage of the radiation damage tolerance of diamond, combined with the short range of the alpha radiation. The internal field of the Schottky barrier creates a current through the diode from electron-hole pairs created by alpha bombardment in the gap. Calculations of the expected current, circuit model results, and design parameters for a device are described.

  7. Folding model analysis of alpha radioactivity

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, D N

    2003-01-01

    Radioactive decay of nuclei via emission of $\\alpha$ particles has been studied theoretically in the framework of a superasymmetric fission model using the double folding (DF) procedure for obtaining the $\\alpha$-nucleus interaction potential. The DF nuclear potential has been obtained by folding in the density distribution functions of the $\\alpha$ nucleus and the daughter nucleus with a realistic effective interaction. The M3Y effective interaction has been used for calculating the nuclear interaction potential which has been supplemented by a zero-range pseudo-potential for exchange along with the density dependence. The nuclear microscopic $\\alpha$-nucleus potential thus obtained has been used along with the Coulomb interaction potential to calculate the action integral within the WKB approximation. This subsequently yields microscopic calculations for the half lives of $\\alpha$ decays of nuclei. The density dependence and the exchange effects have not been found to be very significant. These calculations...

  8. Air filtration and indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel

    decent ventilation and air cleaning/air filtration, high indoor air quality cannot be accomplished. The need for effective air filtration has increased with increasing evidence on the hazardous effects of fine particles. Moreover, the air contains gaseous pollutants, removal of which requires various air...... contradictions should motivate manufacturers and researchers to develop new efficient filtration techniques and/or improve the existing ones. Development of low polluting filtration techniques, which are at the same time easy and inexpensive to maintain is the way forward in the future....

  9. Alpha1 and Alpha2 Integrins Mediate Invasive Activity of Mouse Mammary Carcinoma Cells through Regulation of Stromelysin-1 Expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lochter, Andre; Navre, Marc; Werb, Zena; Bissell, Mina J

    1998-06-29

    Tumor cell invasion relies on cell migration and extracellular matrix proteolysis. We investigated the contribution of different integrins to the invasive activity of mouse mammary carcinoma cells. Antibodies against integrin subunits {alpha}6 and {beta}1, but not against {alpha}1 and {alpha}2, inhibited cell locomotion on a reconstituted basement membrane in two-dimensional cell migration assays, whereas antibodies against {beta}1, but not against a6 or {alpha}2, interfered with cell adhesion to basement membrane constituents. Blocking antibodies against {alpha}1 integrins impaired only cell adhesion to type IV collagen. Antibodies against {alpha}1, {alpha}2, {alpha}6, and {beta}1, but not {alpha}5, integrin subunits reduced invasion of a reconstituted basement membrane. Integrins {alpha}1 and {alpha}2, which contributed only marginally to motility and adhesion, regulated proteinase production. Antibodies against {alpha}1 and {alpha}2, but not {alpha}6 and {beta}1, integrin subunits inhibited both transcription and protein expression of the matrix metalloproteinase stromelysin-1. Inhibition of tumor cell invasion by antibodies against {alpha}1 and {alpha}2 was reversed by addition of recombinant stromelysin-1. In contrast, stromelysin-1 could not rescue invasion inhibited by anti-{alpha}6 antibodies. Our data indicate that {alpha}1 and {alpha}2 integrins confer invasive behavior by regulating stromelysin-1 expression, whereas {alpha}6 integrins regulate cell motility. These results provide new insights into the specific functions of integrins during tumor cell invasion.

  10. Direct Alpha Analysis for Forensic Samples (DAAFS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of the DAAFS project is to deliver a field deployable direct alpha sample spectrometry system. This system is designed to rectify current gaps in pure alpha emitting material detection. The system comprises, firstly, an evaluation of multiple innovative methods for rapid on-site sample collection of difficult to detect alpha RN contamination. Secondly, the incorporation of an experimental alpha spectrometry analysis software suite, 'ADAM', is provided for performing the required on-site deconvolution of the complex alpha spectra arising from the direct sample measurement. Software simulation of collected alpha spectra will be handled by 'AASI', which will simulate alpha spectra as a training and analysis verification tool. Thirdly, a Concept of Operations (ConOps) for the system implementation in RN field teams is included. This combination of the swipe methodology, advanced swipe treatment equipment, mobile field laboratories, and the state of the art analysis software suite will provide RN response teams with the capability to identify and rapidly (i.e., hours as opposed to days) quantify low activity and difficult to detect alpha emitters. Further expert analysis support is available to field teams by sharing of raw spectral data via email with off-site laboratories. The proposed system provides the solution to this identified capability gap, specifically, a field-deployable real-time alpha detection system. The system comprises: a non-destructive particle sampler, standardized swipe sampling methods, a self-contained field alpha spectrometry system and an integrated data management/communications tool allowing for real-time raw-data tracking and data sharing. This system also provides responders with the type/quantity of RN material for improved safeguards, forensics, and contamination mitigation applications. (author)

  11. Catalytic Mechanism of Human Alpha-galactosidase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guce, A.; Clark, N; Salgado, E; Ivanen, D; Kulinskaya, A; Brumer, H; Garman, S

    2010-01-01

    The enzyme {alpha}-galactosidase ({alpha}-GAL, also known as {alpha}-GAL A; E.C. 3.2.1.22) is responsible for the breakdown of {alpha}-galactosides in the lysosome. Defects in human {alpha}-GAL lead to the development of Fabry disease, a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by the buildup of {alpha}-galactosylated substrates in the tissues. {alpha}-GAL is an active target of clinical research: there are currently two treatment options for Fabry disease, recombinant enzyme replacement therapy (approved in the United States in 2003) and pharmacological chaperone therapy (currently in clinical trials). Previously, we have reported the structure of human {alpha}-GAL, which revealed the overall structure of the enzyme and established the locations of hundreds of mutations that lead to the development of Fabry disease. Here, we describe the catalytic mechanism of the enzyme derived from x-ray crystal structures of each of the four stages of the double displacement reaction mechanism. Use of a difluoro-{alpha}-galactopyranoside allowed trapping of a covalent intermediate. The ensemble of structures reveals distortion of the ligand into a {sup 1}S{sub 3} skew (or twist) boat conformation in the middle of the reaction cycle. The high resolution structures of each step in the catalytic cycle will allow for improved drug design efforts on {alpha}-GAL and other glycoside hydrolase family 27 enzymes by developing ligands that specifically target different states of the catalytic cycle. Additionally, the structures revealed a second ligand-binding site suitable for targeting by novel pharmacological chaperones.

  12. Cosmic radiation and air crew exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When the primary particles from space, mainly protons, enter the atmosphere, they interact with the air nuclei and induce cosmic-ray shower. When an aircraft is in the air, the radiation field within includes many types of radiation of large energy range; the field comprises mainly photons, electrons, positrons and neutrons. Cosmic radiation dose for crews of air crafts A 320 and ATR 42 was measured using TLD-100 (LiF: Mg, Ti) detectors and the Mini 6100 semiconductor dosimeter; radon concentration in the atmosphere was measured using the Alpha Guard radon detector. The total annual dose estimated for the A 320 aircraft crew, at altitudes up to 12000 meters, was 5.3 mSv (including natural radon radiation dose of 1.1 mSv).(author)

  13. Clearing the air : report 2 : air quality trends in Sudbury 1998 to 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report highlighted key trends in air pollutant concentrations in the Greater Sudbury region between 1998 and 2007. Air pollutant concentrations were compared with ambient air quality criteria for Ontario as well as federal standards. The study measured levels of sulfur dioxide (SO2); ground-level ozone (O3); particulate matter (PM); and metals. An air quality index was used to rate overall air quality based on hourly measurements of up to 6 air pollutants. Air quality monitoring stations were placed throughout the Greater Sudbury region to record the amounts of pollutants in the air. The study showed that average SO2 concentrations continued to decrease across the monitoring network. O3 concentrations met the provincial 1-hour criterion except when long-range O3 was transported into the region from the United States under specific meteorological conditions. Coarse fractions of particulates were less than the annual criterion at stations. Average PM concentrations met the Canada Wide Standard, while the 24-hour criteria for metals were met for most of the year. Sudbury's air quality was then compared to air quality data obtained from other Ontario cities. It was concluded that Sudbury's air quality will continue to improve in the future. 9 figs.

  14. Human podocytes adhere to the KRGDS motif of the alpha3alpha4alpha5 collagen IV network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borza, Corina M; Borza, Dorin-Bogdan; Pedchenko, Vadim; Saleem, Moin A; Mathieson, Peter W; Sado, Yoshikazu; Hudson, Heather M; Pozzi, Ambra; Saus, Juan; Abrahamson, Dale R; Zent, Roy; Hudson, Billy G

    2008-04-01

    Podocyte adhesion to the glomerular basement membrane is required for proper function of the glomerular filtration barrier. However, the mechanism whereby podocytes adhere to collagen IV networks, a major component of the glomerular basement membrane, is poorly understood. The predominant collagen IV network is composed of triple helical protomers containing the alpha3alpha4alpha5 chains. The protomers connect via the trimeric noncollagenous (NC1) domains to form hexamers at the interface. Because the NC1 domains of this network can potentially support integrin-dependent cell adhesion, it was determined whether individual NC1 monomers or alpha3alpha4alpha5 hexamers support podocyte adhesion. It was found that, although human podocytes did not adhere to NC1 domains proper, they did adhere via integrin alphavbeta3 to a KRGDS motif located adjacent to alpha3NC1 domains. Because the KRGDS motif is a site of phosphorylation, its interactions with integrin alphavbeta3 may play a critical role in cell signaling in physiologic and pathologic states. PMID:18235087

  15. Real-time alpha monitoring of a radioactive liquid waste stream at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J.D.; Whitley, C.R.; Rawool-Sullivan, M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This poster display concerns the development, installation, and testing of a real-time radioactive liquid waste monitor at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The detector system was designed for the LANL Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility so that influent to the plant could be monitored in real time. By knowing the activity of the influent, plant operators can better monitor treatment, better segregate waste (potentially), and monitor the regulatory compliance of users of the LANL Radioactive Liquid Waste Collection System. The detector system uses long-range alpha detection technology, which is a nonintrusive method of characterization that determines alpha activity on the liquid surface by measuring the ionization of ambient air. Extensive testing has been performed to ensure long-term use with a minimal amount of maintenance. The final design was a simple cost-effective alpha monitor that could be modified for monitoring influent waste streams at various points in the LANL Radioactive Liquid Waste Collection System.

  16. Preparation and validation of gross alpha/beta samples used in EML's quality assessment program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A set of water and filter samples have been incorporated into the existing Environmental Measurements Laboratory's (EML) Quality Assessment Program (QAP) for gross alpha/beta determinations by participating DOE laboratories. The participating laboratories are evaluated by comparing their results with the EML value. The preferred EML method for measuring water and filter samples, described in this report, uses gas flow proportional counters with 2 in. detectors. Procedures for sample preparation, quality control and instrument calibration are presented. Liquid scintillation (LS) counting is an alternative technique that is suitable for quantifying both the alpha (241Am, 230Th and 238Pu) and beta (90Sr/90Y) activity concentrations in the solutions used to prepare the QAP water and air filter samples. Three LS counting techniques (Cerenkov, dual dpm and full spectrum analysis) are compared. These techniques may be used to validate the activity concentrations of each component in the alpha/beta solution before the QAP samples are actually prepared

  17. Decontamination and reconditioning of the Argonne National Laboratory-West Casting Laboratory alpha glove box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Casting Laboratory (CL) alpha glove box was used to melt and cast metallic uranium and plutonium fuels as part of the Department of Energy''s Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor Program. This highly contaminated alpha glove box was decontaminated and reconditioned to allow a change in mission. The goal of reconditioning was to install experimental apparatus and to improve contamination control prior to introducing plutonium-238 into the CL glove box. Construction of a glove box containment structure and an increase in room ventilation were required. A temporary breathing air station was provided for personnel protection as well as personnel comfort. The historical contamination levels, the decontamination techniques, and the results of decontamination also are presented. The health physics aspects of the CL alpha glove box project may be applicable to other glove box refurbishment or decommissioning projects

  18. 40 CFR 1065.125 - Engine intake air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air. 1065.125 Section 1065.125 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.125 Engine intake air. (a) Use the...

  19. (Continuous casting 1985)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilde, R.A.

    1985-06-12

    The report covers the Continuous Casting '85 Conference including informal discussions with conference attendees. In general, the papers presented at the conference concerned an overview of continuous steel casting worldwide, state-of-the-art aspects of steel continuous casting technology including caster startup problems, modifications, control system strategies, energy use profiles, quality control aspects, steel chemistry control, refractories, operational aspects of continuous casters, etc. No papers were presented in the development of thin section or thin strip casting of steel. Informal discussions were held with several conference attendees including (1) Bernard Trentini, Executive Director of the Association Technique De La Siderurgie Francaise in Paris, France (similar to the American Iron and Steel Institute); (2) Dr. Wolfgang Reichelt and Dr. Peter Voss-Spilker both of Mannesmann Demag Huttentechnik -a continuous casting and other steel making machine builder in-lieu of meeting at their plant in Duisburg, FRG on May 31; (3) Ewan C. Hewitt of Devote McKee Corp., Sheffield, England; (4) Wilfried Heinemann, head of R D Dept. at Concast Standard AG in Zurich, Switzerland; and (5) Hideo Ueno, engineer of melting section, Mitsubishi Steel Mfg. Co. Ltd, Tokyo Japan. A visit was made to the Teesside Laboratories of British Steel Corp. for discussions of their thin section casting research program in particular and R D program in general.

  20. Development of optical monitor of alpha radiations based on CR-39

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima accident has highlighted the need to intensify efforts to develop sensitive detectors to monitor the release of alpha emitting radionuclides in the environment caused by the meltdown of the discharged spent fuel. Conventionally, proportional counting, scintillation counting and alpha spectrometry are employed to assay the alpha emitting radionuclides but these techniques are difficult to be configured for online operations. Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs) offer an alternative off line sensitive technique to measure alpha emitters as well as fissile radionuclides at ultra-trace level in the environment. Recently, our group has reported the first ever attempt to use reflectance based fiber optic sensor (FOS) to quantify the alpha radiations emitted from 232Th. In the present work, an effort has been made to develop an online FOS to monitor alpha radiations emitted from 241Am source employing CR-39 as detector. Here, we report the optical response of CR-39 (on exposure to alpha radiations) employing techniques such as Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Reflectance Spectroscopy. In the present work GEANT4 simulation of transport of alpha particles in the detector has also been carried out. Simulation includes validation test wherein the projected ranges of alpha particles in the air, polystyrene and CR-39 were calculated and were found to agree with the literature values. An attempt has been further made to compute the fluence as a function of the incidence angle and incidence energy of alphas. There was an excellent correlation in experimentally observed track density with the simulated fluence. The present work offers a novel approach to design an online CR-39 based fiber optic sensor (CRFOS) to measure the release of nanogram quantity of 241Am in the environment. - Highlights: • Fiber Optics Reflectance Sensor based on CR-39 was employed to monitor online low level alpha radiations emitted from 241Am. • Change in reflectance was found to be

  1. Temporal variation analysis of radon progeny ratio behavior in outdoor air at two radiometeorological stations in Barcelona and Madrid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This work studies the concentration ratio of radon progeny (218Po, 214Pb and 214Bi) in outdoor air at two radiometeorological stations. Radon daughter concentrations were measured continuously every hour using our own detector unit based on alpha spectroscopy of radon progeny activity deposited on a filter. The flow rate was approximately 5 m3h-1. The sampled air was drawn through a 5-mm slit between a 2000 - mm2 alpha CAM PIPS detector and a 1.2-μm pore nitrate cellulose membrane filter. An electronic circuit and a microcontroller processes the detector signal in order to discriminate the energy from the alpha particles. Measurements were done at the ESMERALDA station in the Research Centre for Energy, Environment and Technology (CIEMAT) premises in Madrid for a period of one week, and in the Institute of Energy Technologies (INTE) premises at the Technical University of Catalonia (UPC) in Barcelona, where is usually located. At both stations the ratios vary with meteorological conditions basically depending on atmospheric turbulence, however their behavior is quite different due to non-uniform radon exhalation rate from soil. In Madrid, spurious high disequilibriums are observed because a radon source is located near the station. When the wind blows from the source, the 218Po concentrations increase significantly while 214Pb and 214Bi do not increase as much. In Barcelona often ratios greater than one are observed and are still under investigation. Finally, one of the applications of the study is that it can explain the background signal in the artificial radioactivity aerosol monitors used in the Spanish radiological surveillance networks (BAI 9850 from the Berthold Company). (author)

  2. An enzyme family reunion - similarities, differences and eccentricities in actions on alpha-glucans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seo, Eun-Seong; Christiansen, Camilla; Abou Hachem, Maher;

    2008-01-01

    alpha-Glucans in general, including starch, glycogen and their derived oligosaccharides are processed by a host of more or less closely related enzymes that represent wide diversity in structure, mechanism, specificity and biological role. Sophisticated three-dimensional structures continue to em...

  3. Tumor imaging using L-3-[123I]iodo-alpha-methyl-tyrosine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, Pieter Lowie

    2000-01-01

    In this thesis,a new tumor imaging tracer in nuclear medicine is studied. This tracer,L -3-[123l]odo-alpha-methyl-tyrosine(IMT) is an artificial amino acid suitable for SPECT imaging. The thesis starts with an overview of radiolabeled aminoa acids in general, continues with a method for the producti

  4. Lucid dreaming and alpha activity: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvie, R D; Hunt, H T; Tyson, P D; Lucescu, M L; Jeakins, D B

    1982-12-01

    10 good dream recallers spent 2 nights in the sleep lab during which they were awakened 4 times per night from REM sleep, twice during their highest alpha activity in REM, and twice during low REM alpha. 5 were given alpha feedback training prior to sleep onset. Arousals from high alpha REM sleep yielded significantly higher lucidity ratings. Alpha feedback had no effect upon lucidity or REM alpha levels. Similarities between lucid dreams and meditative phenomena are discussed. PMID:7162915

  5. Osmotic fragility test in heterozygotes for alpha and beta thalassaemia.

    OpenAIRE

    Maccioni, L; Cao, A

    1985-01-01

    This study shows that the combination of heterozygous beta thalassaemia and deletion heterozygous (-alpha/alpha alpha) or homozygous (-alpha/-alpha) alpha+ thalassaemia may result in the production of erythrocytes which have normal mean volume and haemoglobinisation but decreased osmotic fragility. Based on this finding and previous studies, which have shown that beta thalassaemia screening by the osmotic fragility test may miss a significant proportion of beta thalassaemia heterozygotes, we ...

  6. Area monitoring in a deposit of radioactive material: high flux air sampling for determination of long half-life alpha emitters; Monitoracao de area em um deposito de material radioativo: amostragem de ar de alto fluxo para determinacao de alfa emissores de meia vida longa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Wagner de S.; Py Junior, Delcy de A.; Dores, Luis A. de C.B.; Antunes, Ana Claudia da Silva; Garcia Filho, Oswaldo; Oliveira, Sergio Quinet de; Dantas, Marcelino V.A. [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (UTM/INB), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Unidade de Tratamento de Minerio; Kelecom, Alphonse, E-mail: wspereira@inb.gov.b, E-mail: delcy@inb.gov.b, E-mail: luisdores@inb.gov.b, E-mail: anasilva@inb.gov.b, E-mail: sergioquinet@inb.gov.b, E-mail: Marcelino@inb.gov.b [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Lab. de Radiobiologia e Radiometria Pedro Lopes dos Santos

    2011-10-26

    The present paper presents the program of high-flux monitoring and the results obtained in the year 2009. The derivative limit (LD) of air concentration was of 0.25 Bq/m{sup 3}. The permanence control is a important factor in the occupational control of workers, and also the use of EPs the behavioural cares, and the radioprotection training for allowing the access to those areas. Neither workers, inspector nor visitors reached the limit of investigation

  7. Picosecond laser filamentation in air

    CERN Document Server

    Schmitt-Sody, Andreas; Bergé, L; Skupin, S; Polynkin, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    The propagation of intense picosecond laser pulses in air in the presence of strong nonlinear self-action effects and air ionization is investigated experimentally and numerically. The model used for numerical analysis is based on the nonlinear propagator for the optical field coupled with the rate equations for the production of various ionic species and plasma temperature. Our results show that the phenomenon of plasma-driven intensity clamping, which is paramount in femtosecond laser filamentation, holds for picosecond pulses. Furthermore, the temporal pulse distortions are limited and the pulse fluence is also clamped. The resulting unique feature of the picosecond filamentation regime is the production of a broad, fully ionized air channel, continuous both longitudinally and transversely, which may be instrumental for numerous applications.

  8. Air leakage in refrigerated vans. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-01

    The Air Leakage in Refrigerated Vans Project was initiated by the Department of Energy to assess the impact of air leakage on fuel consumption of highway transport refrigeration equipment. The project, conducted from September of 1977 to December of 1978 collected air leakage data on refrigerated trailers, containers and truck bodies. A Prototype Air Leakage Test Set was developed, designed and constructed to take measurements, and a total of 92 representative vehicles were examined. The results of the study indicate that air leakage causes a 25% increase in the average refrigeration load. However, the majority of transport refrigeration units are equipped with control systems that require the power to be supplied continuously, so that the potential reduction in fuel consumption that can be expected by reduced air leakage is limited. Alternative control techniques and power sources for the control and operation of refrigeration unit components other than the compressor could reduce fuel consumption by approximately 60%.

  9. Lyman alpha radiation in external galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, David A.; Mckee, Christopher F.

    1990-01-01

    The Ly alpha line of atomic hydrogen is often a luminous component of the radiation emitted by distant galaxies. Except for those galaxies which have a substantial central source of non-stellar ionizing radiation, most of the Ly alpha radiation emitted by galaxies is generated within regions of the interstellar medium which are photoionized by starlight. Conversely, much of the energy radiated by photoionized regions is carried by the Ly alpha line. Only hot, massive stars are capable of ionizing hydrogen in the interstellar medium which surrounds them, and because such stars are necessarily short-lived, Ly alpha emission traces regions of active star formation. Researchers argue that the strength of the Ly alpha emission observed from external galaxies may be used to estimate quantitatively the dust content of the emitting region, while the Ly alpha line profile is sensitive to the presence of shock waves. Interstellar dust particles and shock waves are intimately associated with the process of star formation in two senses. First, both dust particles and shock waves owe their existence to stellar activity; second, they may both serve as agents which facilitate the formation of stars, shocks by triggering gravitational instabilities in the interstellar gas that they compress, and dust by shielding star-forming molecular clouds from the ionizing and dissociative effects of external UV radiation. By using Ly alpha observations as a probe of the dust content in diffuse gas at high redshift, we might hope to learn about the earliest epochs of star formation.

  10. The weight of air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Once a controversial idea, the fact that gases like air have weight can easily be demonstrated using reasonably precise scales in the modern teaching laboratory. But unlike a liquid, where a mechanical model suggests a pile of hard spheres resting on each other, gas molecules are in continual motion and can have minimal interaction. How should we think about the effect these molecules have on the scale? And more importantly, how should we explain it to students? Several models of gas behavior are employed to answer these questions and it is shown how the weight of a gas is, like electric current, an emergent phenomena in contrast to the weight of a liquid which is direct or causal. (paper)

  11. Air protection. Ochrana ovzdusia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siska, F.

    1980-01-01

    This paper discusses problems of air pollution control, air pollution abatement and effects of air pollution. Air pollution caused by black and brown coal combustion, by fossil-fuel power plants and by coking plants is evaluated. Air pollution by dusts, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, ammonia as well arsenic, barium, beryllium, boron, chromium, gallium, cobalt, manganese, copper, nickel, lead, plutonium, titanium and vanadium, which sometimes accompany ashes in coal, is analyzed. Methods of air pollution abatement such as fluidized bed combustion, coal preparation, desulfurization or dry coke quenching are described. Systems for air pollution control are presented: air filtration, cyclones, electrostatic precipitators. Systems of air pollution measurement and recording are evaluated. Propagation of air pollutants in the atmosphere as well as the factors which influence pollutant propagation are characterized. Problems associated with site selection for fossil-fuel power plants are also discussed. An analysis of economic aspects of air pollution abatement and air pollution control is made. (55 refs.)

  12. Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... protect yourself and your family. Learn more Air Quality at Work Workers should breathe easy while on the job, but worksites with poor air quality put employees at risk. Healthy air is essential ...

  13. HEPA air filter (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pet dander and other irritating allergens from the air. Along with other methods to reduce allergens, such ... controlling the amount of allergens circulating in the air. HEPA filters can be found in most air ...

  14. Bad Air Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Bad Air Day Air Quality and Your Health In many parts of the country, summer has the worst air quality of any season. When the forecast says ...

  15. Diabetes and alpha lipoic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IssyLaher

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a multi-faceted metabolic disorder where there is increased oxidative stress that contributes to the pathogenesis of this debilitating disease. This has prompted several investigations into the use of antioxidants as a complementary therapeutic approach. Alpha lipoic acid, a naturally occurring dithiol compound which plays an essential role in mitochondrial bioenergetic reactions, has gained considerable attention as an antioxidant for use in managing diabetic complications. Lipoic acid quenches reactive oxygen species, chelates metal ions, and reduces the oxidized forms of other antioxidants such as vitamin C, vitamin E and glutathione. It also boosts antioxidant defense system through Nrf2-mediated antioxidant gene expression and by modulation of peroxisome proliferator activated receptors-regulated genes. ALA inhibits nuclear factor kappa B and activates AMPK in skeletal muscles, which in turn have a plethora of metabolic consequences. These diverse actions suggest that a lipoic acid acts by multiple mechanisms, many of which have only been uncovered recently. In this review we briefly summarize the known biochemical properties of lipoic acid and then discussed the oxidative mechanisms implicated in diabetic complications and the mechanisms by which lipoic acid may ameliorate these reactions. The findings of some of the clinical trials in which lipoic acid administration has been tested in diabetic patients during the last 10 years are summarized. It appears that the clearest benefit of lipoic acid supplementation is in patients with diabetic neuropathy.

  16. Diagnostics for PLX-alpha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Mark; Hsu, Scott

    2015-11-01

    The goal of the Plasma Liner eXperiment PLX-alpha at Los Alamos National Laboratory is to establish the viability of creating a spherically imploding plasma liner for MIF and HED applications, using a spherical array of supersonic plasma jets launched by innovative contoured-gap coaxial plasma guns. PLX- α experiments will focus in particular on establishing the ram pressure and uniformity scalings of partial and fully spherical plasma liners. In order to characterize these parameters experimentally, a suite of diagnostics is planned, including multi-camera fast imaging, a 16-channel visible interferometer (upgraded from 8 channels) with reconfigurable, fiber-coupled front end, and visible and VUV high-resolution and survey spectroscopy. Tomographic reconstruction and data fusion techniques will be used in conjunction with interferometry, imaging, and synthetic diagnostics from modeling to characterize liner uniformity in 3D. Diagnostic and data analysis design, implementation, and status will be presented. Supported by the Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy - U.S. Department of Energy.

  17. Growth behaviors in the range $e^{r^\\alpha}$

    OpenAIRE

    Brieussel, Jérémie

    2011-01-01

    For every $\\alpha \\leq \\beta$ in a left neighborhood $[\\alpha_0,1]$ of 1, a group $G(\\alpha,\\beta)$ is constructed, the growth function of which satisfies $\\limsup \\frac{\\log \\log b_{G(\\alpha,\\beta)}(r)}{\\log r}=\\alpha$ and $\\liminf \\frac{\\log \\log b_{G(\\alpha,\\beta)}(r)}{\\log r}=\\beta$. When $\\alpha=\\beta$, this provides an explicit uncountable collection of groups with growth functions strictly comparable. On the other hand, oscillation in the case $\\alpha < \\beta$ explains the existence of...

  18. Equality : a continuing dialogue

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, John; Walsh, Judy; Cantillon, Sara; Lynch, Kathleen

    2007-01-01

    We reply to discussions of "Equality: From Theory to Action" by Harry Brighouse, Joanne Conaghan, Cillian McBride and Stuart White. We find many of their points helpful and treat them as a useful contribution to a continuing dialogue on egalitarianism.

  19. Continuous Reinforced Concrete Beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoang, Cao Linh; Nielsen, Mogens Peter

    1996-01-01

    This report deals with stress and stiffness estimates of continuous reinforced concrete beams with different stiffnesses for negative and positive moments e.g. corresponding to different reinforcement areas in top and bottom. Such conditions are often met in practice.The moment distribution at the...

  20. Continuing professional development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collin, K.; Heijden, van der B.I.J.M.; Lewis, P.

    2012-01-01

    Continuing professional development (CPD), when provided formally, is something that is easy to recognize but perhaps rather more difficult to define. Theoretical and empirical controversy surrounds the scope and understanding of the concept. Definition is made more elusive by the different conceptu

  1. Continuity bounds for entanglement

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, M. A.

    1999-01-01

    This Brief Report quantifies the continuity properties of entanglement: how much does entanglement vary if we change the entangled quantum state just a little? This question is studied for the pure state entanglement of a bipartite system and for the entanglement of formation of a bipartite system in a mixed state.

  2. $\\alpha_s$ from the updated ALEPH data for hadronic $\\tau$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    Boito, Diogo; Maltman, Kim; Osborne, James; Peris, Santiago

    2015-01-01

    We extract the strong coupling $\\alpha_s(m_\\tau^2)$ from the recently updated ALEPH non-strange spectral functions obtained from hadronic $\\tau$ decays. We apply a self-consistent analysis method, first tested in the analysis of OPAL data, to extract $\\alpha_s(m_\\tau^2)$ and non-perturbative contributions. The analysis yields $\\alpha_s^{\\rm FO}(m_\\tau^2)=0.296\\pm0.010 $, using Fixed Order Perturbation Theory (FOPT), and $\\alpha^{\\rm CI}_s(m_\\tau^2)= 0.310\\pm0.014$, using Contour Improved Perturbation Theory (CIPT). The weighted average of these results with those previously obtained from OPAL data give $\\alpha_s^{\\rm FO}(m_\\tau^2)=0.303\\pm 0.009$ and $\\alpha_s^{\\rm CI}(m_\\tau^2)=0.319\\pm 0.012$, which gives, after evolution to the $Z$ boson mass scale, $\\alpha^{\\rm FO}_s(m_Z^2)=0.1165\\pm0.0012 $ and $\\alpha_s^{\\rm CI}(m_Z^2)=0.1185\\pm0.0015 $, respectively. We observe that non-perturbative effects limit the accuracy with which $\\alpha_s$ can be extracted from $\\tau$ decay data.

  3. Production of fungal alpha-amylase by Saccharomyces kluyveri in glucose-limited cultivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Kasper; Sharif, Mostafa Z; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2004-08-01

    Heterologous protein production by the yeast Saccharomyces kluyveri was investigated under aerobic glucose-limited conditions. Alpha-amylase from Aspergillus oryzae was used as model protein and the gene was expressed from a S. cerevisiae 2 micro plasmid. For comparison, strains of both S. kluyveri and S. cerevisiae were transformed with the same plasmid, which led to secretion of active alpha-amylase in both cases. The S. cerevisiae 2 micro plasmid was found to be stable in S. kluyveri as evaluated by a constant alpha-amylase productivity in a continuous cultivation for more than 40 generations. S. kluyveri and S. cerevisiae secreted alpha-amylase with similar yields during continuous cultivations at dilution rates of 0.1 and 0.2 h(-1) (4.8-5.7 mg (g dry weight)(-1)). At a dilution rate of 0.3 h(-1) the metabolism of S. kluyveri was fully respiratory, whereas S. cerevisiae produced significant amounts of ethanol. A fed-batch cultivation was carried out with S. kluyveri where the biomass concentration reached 85 g l(-1) and the alpha-amylase concentration reached 320 mg l(-1). Even though S. kluyveri could be grown to high cell density, it was also observed that it has a high maintenance coefficient, which resulted in low biomass yields at the low specific growth rates prevailing towards the end of the fed-batch cultivation. PMID:15246667

  4. Physical distributions of radon decay chain activities in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of short-lived radon decay chain activities in air - in time, space and on aerosols - determines their exposure potential and measurement thereof. The radioactive decay constants and flow variables in a flow system combine, yielding activity concentration distributions and ratios of concentrations characteristic of the flow scheme, its source(s) and sink(s). The clock of 'internal' decay constants allows the unraveling of characteristics of the flow scheme from activity concentration measurements of individual members of a decay chain. Basic flow string calculations are shown. These can be assembled to define or simulate concentrations in a single- or multiple-compartment flow network. Response calculations to single- and multiple-step, or continuous changes in sources and sinks yield time-, spatial- and attachment-distributions. For the short-lived 222Rn and 212Pb decay chains the decay constants of the shorter-lived progeny in relation to the parent impose air activity ratios on successive chain members. Ratio limits had been used in the past to improve older grab-sampling- or integral gross-alpha measurement procedures for assessing exposure level. Assessment of individual concentrations, ratios and their distributions enables unravelling of dynamic flow systems, with restriction from the range of the parameters of flow and decay. An activity measuring instrument by itself represents a flow system with a response time distribution. Instrument response correction during continuous or quasi-continuous sampling and continuous spectrometric measurement allows far more accurate time-resolved measurement evaluation of continuously varying air concentrations, than previously attainable. Strong diurnal or even shorter (≤ 1 hr) changes probably are the norm in indoor and outdoor air activity concentrations. A mere average response evaluation, as used in steady state instrument calibration, and using less efficient instruments, is usually inadequate for

  5. First Attempts at Antihydrogen Trapping in ALPHA

    CERN Document Server

    Andresen, G B; Bowe, P D; Bray, C C; Butler, E; Cesar, C L; Chapman, S; Charlton, M; Fajans, J; Funakoshi, R; Gill, D R; Hangst, J S; Hardy, W N; Hayano, R S; Hayden, M E; Humphries, A J; Hydomako, R; Jenkins, M J; Jørgensen, L V; Kurchaninov, L; Lambo, R; Madsen, N; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Page, R D; Povilus, A; Pusa, P; Robicheaux, F; Sarid, E; Seif El Nasr, S; Silveira, D M; Storey, J W; Thompson, R I; Van der Werf, D P; Wasilenko, L; Wurtele, J S; Yamazaki, Y; Fujiwara, M C

    2008-01-01

    We discuss aspects of antihydrogen studies, that relate to particle physics ideas and techniques, within the context of the ALPHA experiment at CERN's Antiproton Decelerator facility. We review the fundamental physics motivations for antihydrogen studies, and their potential physics reach. We argue that initial spectroscopy measurements, once antihydrogen is trapped, could provide competitive tests of CPT, possibly probing physics at the Planck Scale. We discuss some of the particle detection techniques used in ALPHA. Preliminary results from commissioning studies of a partial system of the ALPHA Si vertex detector are presented, the results of which highlight the power of annihilation vertex detection capability in antihydrogen studies.

  6. Alpha spectral analysis via artificial neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kangas, L.J.; Hashem, S.; Keller, P.E.; Kouzes, R.T. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Troyer, G.L. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-10-01

    An artificial neural network system that assigns quality factors to alpha particle energy spectra is discussed. The alpha energy spectra are used to detect plutonium contamination in the work environment. The quality factors represent the levels of spectral degradation caused by miscalibration and foreign matter affecting the instruments. A set of spectra was labeled with a quality factor by an expert and used in training the artificial neural network expert system. The investigation shows that the expert knowledge of alpha spectra quality factors can be transferred to an ANN system.

  7. Lyman alpha airglow observations from SORCE SOLSTICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolinar, E.; Snow, M.; Holsclaw, G.; Thomas, G. E.; Woods, T. N.

    2010-12-01

    The Solar Stellar Irradiance Comparison Experiment (SOLSTICE) instrument on board the Solar Radiation Climate Experiment (SORCE) spacecraft in low Earth orbit observes stars every orbit for in-flight calibration. It also observes several star-free regions of the sky near the wavelength of Lyman alpha to correct for airglow emission in the stellar measurements. Although the airglow measurements are only taken during the eclipse portion of the orbit, the look directions cover nearly the entire anti-sunward hemisphere. This seven-year record of Lyman alpha airglow observations (2003-2010) shows the response of the Hydrogen geocorona to changes in the solar Lyman alpha irradiance over the solar cycle.

  8. Alpha particle confinement in tandem mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechanisms leading to loss of alpha particles from non-axisymmetric tandem mirrors are considered. Stochastic diffusion due to bounce-drift resonances, which can cause rapid radial losses of high-energy alpha particles, can be suppressed by imposing a 20% rise in axisymmetric fields before the quadrupole transition sections. Alpha particles should then be well-confined until thermal energies when they enter the resonant plateau require. A fast code for computation of drift behavior in reactors is described. Sample calculations are presented for resonant particles in a proposed coil set for the Tandem Mirror Next Step

  9. Alpha spectral analysis via artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An artificial neural network system that assigns quality factors to alpha particle energy spectra is discussed. The alpha energy spectra are used to detect plutonium contamination in the work environment. The quality factors represent the levels of spectral degradation caused by miscalibration and foreign matter affecting the instruments. A set of spectra was labeled with a quality factor by an expert and used in training the artificial neural network expert system. The investigation shows that the expert knowledge of alpha spectra quality factors can be transferred to an ANN system

  10. Enzymatic synthesis of l-menthyl alpha-maltoside and l-menthyl alpha-maltooligosides from l-menthyl alpha-glucoside by cyclodextrin glucanotransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Hiroyuki; Sato, Toshiyuki; Kirimura, Kohtaro; Kino, Kuniki; Usami, Shoji

    2002-01-01

    l-Menthyl alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-alpha-d-glucopyranoside (alpha-MenG2), a novel glycoside of l-menthol, was synthesized enzymatically and its physicochemical properties were characterized. Production of alpha-MenG2 from l-menthyl alpha-d-glucopyranoside (alpha-MenG) was attempted since we had already succeeded in the high-yield production of alpha-MenG using a Xanthomonas campestris enzyme (Nakagawa H., et al. J. Biosci. Bioeng., 89, 138-144, 2000). Through production tests on enzymes, it was confirmed that cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase) from Bacillus macerans produced l-menthyl alpha-D-maltooligosides (alpha-MenG(n)), containing alpha-MenG2, from alpha-MenG and soluble starch. When 10 ml of a 10 mM citrate-10 mM phosphate buffer (pH 6.0) containing 150 mg of alpha-MenG, 3 g of soluble starch and CGTase was shaken at 70 degrees C for 24 h, a total of 81.8% alpha-MenG was reacted. The molar conversion yields of alpha-MenG2 and alpha-MenG(n) with alpha-glucose degrees of polymerization of 3-18, based on the amount of alpha-MenG supplied, reached 16.1% and 65.7%, respectively. For efficient production of alpha-MenG2, the reaction mixture was treated with alpha-amylase of Aspergillus oryzae, and alpha-MenG(n) were mainly converted into alpha-MenG2: finally, the molar conversion yield of alpha-MenG2 reached 74.2% based on the amount of alpha-MenG supplied. alpha-MenG2 was purified and its molecular structure was confirmed by 13C-NMR, 1H-NMR and two-dimensional HMBC (heteronuclear multiple-bond coherence). alpha-MenG2 and its aqueous solution tasted bitter and a little sweet at first, but in a few minutes, a refreshing flavor and sweetness spread. At 20 degrees C the solubility of alpha-MenG2 in pure water was 29.6 g/100 ml, approximately 1570-fold that of alpha-MenG. PMID:16233280

  11. [Treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma with a combination of interferon alpha and gamma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, S; Yasumasu, T; Kumazawa, J; Hiratsuka, Y; Sakamoto, K; Iguchi, A; Masaki, Z; Hasui, Y; Osada, Y; Kurozumi, T

    1995-08-01

    A total of 29 patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma entered a pilot study of combination therapy with interferon alpha (IFN-alpha) and interferon gamma (IFN-gamma). IFN-alpha (HLBI: 3 x 10(6) IU, BALL 1:5 x 10(6) IU, IFN-alpha-2a: 9 x 10(6) IU or IFN-alpha-2b: 6 x 10(6) IU) was given intramuscularly every day and IFN-gamma (IFN-gamma-1a: 3 x 10(6) JRU) was given intravenously by drip infusion 3 times a week (every 2-3 days). The treatment was continued for 3 months as the induction therapy, and then the tumor response was evaluated. Of the 22 evaluable patients, 4 achieved a partial response (PR), 10 showed no change (NC), and in 8 the disease had progressed (PD) during the therapy. Thus, the overall response rate was 18.2% [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.1-34.3%]. A favorable response tended to be obtained in patients with good performance status or small pulmonary metastases, or in those who had no prior therapy with IFN-alpha, who received this treatment immediately subsequent to radical nephrectomy, or who received IFN-gamma as much as possible according to this regimen. Toxicity was evaluated in 28 patients: fever, general fatigue, anorexia, leukocytopenia and impaired liver function were frequently noted, and 3 patients were withdrawn from the study because of such adverse effects. In patients who had a PR or NC, the same dosage of IFN-alpha was continued to be given intramuscularly 2-3 times a week (every 2-4 days) as the maintenance therapy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7474618

  12. Determination of alpha_s and W boson leptonic branching ratio from the W and Z cross sections

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, Weichen

    2016-01-01

    We try to determine the strong coupling alpha_s and the W boson leptonic branching ratio from the W and Z boson production cross section through pp collisions in the LHC. We run the MCFM program together with LHAPDF or HERAPDF les to extract the theoretical prediction of cross sections at different alpha_s in different experiments. We compare the predicted values and the experimental results to do a precise measurement of alpha_s and the branching ratio.

  13. Continuous flow isoelectric focusing for purification of proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulet, N; Roux-de Balmann, H; Sanchez, V

    1998-06-01

    To estimate the feasibility of isoelectric focusing in a continuous mode, the conditions for obtaining stable and linear pH gradients were first investigated, using a mixture of carrier ampholytes. Then the operating parameters allowing the isoelectric focusing of bovine serum albumin as model protein were determined. A theoretical approach was used to find conditions minimizing the electrohydrodynamic effect, mainly responsible for protein dispersion, for the separation of bovine serum albumin and alpha-lactalbumin from bovine milk. PMID:9694268

  14. Isolated Photons at Hadron Colliders at O($\\alpha alpha_s^2$) (I): Spin Averaged Case

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon, L. E.

    1996-01-01

    The cross sections for isolated and non-isolated prompt photon production with unpolarized hadron beams are studied at order $\\alpha\\alpha_s^2$. Two methods of performing the calculations are compared. One uses purely analytic techniques and the second uses a combination of analytic and Monte Carlo techniques to perform the phase-space integrations. The results of the analytic and Monte Carlo methods are compared both before and after isolation cuts are placed on the photon. Fragmentation con...

  15. Drying Characteristics of Chili Using Continuous Fluidized-Bed Dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suparerk Charmongkolpradit

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The objective of this study was to obtain the dying characteristics of the Jinda chili, a commonly grown variety in the Northeatern of Thailand, using the continuous fluidizedbed dryer in reducing moisture content of dried chili up to 13% wet basis as comparable to the dried chili in the market and to investigate the effect of drying temperature and drying air velocity. Approach: Drying characteristics was to study under varying conditions of drying temperature (50, 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100°C and drying air velocity (4, 5 and 6 m sec-1. Results: The drying time decreased within the increasing of drying temperature and drying air velocity. Drying air velocity affected the drift and continuously moves of chili particle outward from dryer chamber under continuous fluidized-bed technique. The decreasing of moisture content effected with increasing of a compound capsaicin of dried chili compare to fresh chili. The diffusion coefficient of moisture content increased with increasing all drying temperature and drying air velocity. Conclusion: Drying temperature was the significant factor of the chili moisture content reduction. Drying air velocity affected the move of chili outward from chamber under the continuous fluidized bed drying process.

  16. Design of an online spot air sampling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In all the alpha handling facilities spot air sampling is essential while clearing a lab consequent to week end ventilation shut down or subsequent to completion of work/operations goes inside the facility. The sampling head is designed for 5 micron particles. Following pints are noticed over a period of such operational activities: Health Physicist goes inside a lab with a half face mask whose protection factor is 10, thereby useful for lab air activity up to ten DACs. Many times HP goes inside the lab when activity is more which is highly unsafe. On many occasions simultaneously a number of samples have to be taken by HP from a large number of laboratories inside the facility or for any special job where continuous radiological protection is required. Based on this it is proposed to design a sampling system which will overcome the above limitations. The design of the sampling head has been carried out which is for 5 micron particle size. The pump which is available in the existing facilities can be utilized. An innovative way of counting for large number of samples is fabricated in the RHC wing, RMD which can count ten samples at a time. Removal and counting of the sample may be carried out in a similar sampling carousel which is being used in RHC Unit, Radiometallurgy wing successfully with a little modification. In the proposed system, three samples can be operated in-line such that health physics intervention during the active operation would be minimum and during alarm situations (i.e. on the DAC level) proper protective equipment shall be advised by health physicist or he may suggest any other protective action. This type of online monitors will help in establishing the airborne activity inside the lab where special jobs are being carried out which will provide maximum protection to the lab personnel as well as to the health physicist who supervises the entire operation

  17. Regulation of valine and. alpha. -ketoisocaproate metabolism in rat kidney mitochondria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.H.; Harper, A.E. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (USA))

    1988-10-01

    Activities of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) aminotransferase (BCAT) and {alpha}-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKD) were assayed in mitochondria isolated from kidneys of rats. Rates of transamination of valine and oxidation of keto acids {alpha}-ketoisocaproate (KIC) or {alpha}-ketoisovalerate (KIV) were estimated using radioactive tracers of the appropriate substrate from amounts of {sup 14}C-labeled products formed. Because of the high mitochondrial BCAT activity, an amino acceptor for BCAT, {alpha}-ketoglutarate ({alpha}-KG) or KIC, was added to the assay medium when valine was the substrate. Rates of valine transamination and subsequent oxidation of the KIV formed were determined with 0.5 mM {alpha}-KG as the amino acceptor; these rates were 5- to 50-fold those without added {alpha}-KG. Rates of CO{sub 2} evolution from valine also increased when KIC was present; however, with KIC concentrations above 0.2 mM, rates of CO{sub 2} evolution from valine declined although rates of transamination continued to rise. When 0.05 mM KIC was added to the assay medium, oxidation of KIC was suppressed by inclusion of valine or glutamate in the medium. When valine was present KIC was not oxidized preferentially, presumably because it was also serving as an amino acceptor for BCAT. These results indicate that as the supply of amino acceptor, {alpha}-KG or KIC, is increased in mitochondria not only is the rate of valine transamination stimulated but also the rate of oxidation of the KIV formed from valine. Thus the rate of oxidation of BCAA can be controlled by factors that influence the rate and direction of BCAA transamination and, thereby, the supply of substrate for BCKD.

  18. Preliminary Study of Natural Alpha Particle Track Areal Distribution Behind Eyeglasses Obstacles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plastic nuclear track detectors are widely used to register tracks of alpha particles emitted from radon gas nuclei and radioactive daughter nuclei. Eye glasses, finger rings, necklaces and many other accessories intimately accompany most people. The eyeglasses may modify the surface distribution of alpha particle pass spots just behind them. There may be some effects due to the earth's magnetic field on the motion of the charged alpha particle emitters (radon ions). In metallic frames of the eyeglasses, the earth's magnetic field and charged radio-ions enforce free electrons to move setting electric current, which reduces the magnetic field at the frame. Being weak at the frame and stronger on both sides away, the magnetic field lines may form a magnetic trap of some charged radio-ions in the air. The polymer Solid State Nuclear Track Detector (SSNTD) CR-39 which is a polyalyl diglycol carbonate is used to register alpha particles behind the eyeglasses obstacles. Remarkable decrease in alpha track density was noticed in CR-39 registration due both to glass and magnetic screening. The obtained results call for more studies on all metallic tools used or possessed in mines and non-ventilated underground cavities.

  19. Lambda alpha, Sigma alpha and Xi alpha potentials derived from the SU6 quark-model baryon-baryon interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Fujiwara, Y; Suzuki, Y

    2006-01-01

    We calculate Lambda alpha, Sigma alpha and Xi alpha potentials from the nuclear-matter G-matrices of the SU6 quark-model baryon-baryon interaction. The alpha-cluster wave function is assumed to be a simple harmonic-oscillator shell-model wave function. A new method is proposed to derive the direct and knock-on terms of the interaction Born kernel from the hyperon-nucleon G-matrices, with explicit treatments of the nonlocality and the center-of-mass motion between the hyperon and alpha. We find that the SU6 quark-model baryon-baryon interactions, FSS and fss2, yield a reasonable bound-state energy for 5 He Lambda, -3.18 -- -3.62 MeV, in spite of the fact that they give relatively large depths for the Lambda single-particle potentials, 46 -- 48 MeV, in symmetric nuclear matter. An equivalent local potential derived from the Wigner transform of the nonlocal Lambda alpha kernel shows a strong energy dependence for the incident Lambda-particle, indicating the importance of the strangeness-exchange process in the o...

  20. Continuous reject analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of continuous film reject analysis conducted within the Medical Imaging Department of the Prince Charles Hospital over a thirty month period are reported. A computer program to record reject films was installed as part of normal computerized operations of the Department. This required discarded films to be recorded according to site, reason and operator. Repeat/reject rates in chest examinations that differ significantly from reported acceptable reject rates are described. It is suggested that previously reported overall repeat rates of 10% to 14%, which are heavily influenced by the frequency of chest examinations, should not be regarded as normal. The findings from the survey provide data that is both consistent and inconsistent with previous studies. The implications of the results with respect to costs, radiation exposure, student training and the need to monitor continuously reject rates to maintain suitable standards are commented on. 8 figs