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Sample records for alpha continuous air

  1. Alpha-in-air monitor for continuous monitoring based on alpha to beta ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somayaji, K.S.; Venkataramani, R.; Swaminathan, N.; Pushparaja

    1997-01-01

    Measurement of long-lived alpha activity collected on a filter paper in continuous air monitoring of ambient working environment is difficult due to interference from much larger concentrations of short-lived alpha emitting daughter products of 222 Rn and 220 Rn. However, the ratio between the natural alpha and beta activity is approximately constant and this constancy of the ratio is used to discriminate against short-lived natural radioactivity in continuous air monitoring. Detection system was specially designed for the purpose of simultaneous counting of alpha and beta activity deposited on the filter paper during continuous monitoring. The activity ratios were calculated and plotted against the monitoring duration up to about six hours. Monitoring was carried out in three facilities with different ventilation conditions. Presence of any long-lived alpha contamination on the filter paper results in increase in the alpha to beta ratio. Long-lived 239 Pu contamination of about 16 DAC.h could be detected after about 45 minutes of commencement of the sampling. The experimental results using prototype units have shown that the approach of using alpha to beta activity ratio method to detect long-lived alpha activity in the presence of short-lived natural activity is satisfactory. (author)

  2. Calibration and operation of continuous air monitors for alpha-emitting radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoover, M.D.; Newton, G.J.

    1993-01-01

    Spectrometer-based continuous air monitors have improved our capabilities for detecting aerosols of alpha-emitting radionuclides. This paper describes basic requirements and statistical limitations in the sensitivity of alpha continuous air monitors, and presents a technical basis for selecting the energy window for detection of uranium and plutonium aerosols, correcting for interference from airborne dust, selecting filters with low pressure drop and good front surface collection characteristics, and properly using electroplated calibration sources. Sensitivity limits are described for detecting uranium or plutonium aerosols in the presence of increased concentrations of naturally occurring, alpha-emitting radon progeny radionuclides. Decreasing the lower energy boundary of the detection window from 4.3 MeV to 2.7 MeV improves by a factor of three the detection of plutonium in the presence of dust, while causing minimal additional interference from ambient radon progeny. Selection of the Millipore Fluoropore teflon membrane filter reduces both pressure drop and interference from ambient radon progeny by up to a factor of two. Field collection of ambient radon progeny can be used to verify the proper energy of alpha emissions from electroplated calibration sources. In the absence of energy verification, errors in instrument calibration may result from solid state diffusion of the electroplated calibration radionuclide into the substrate plate

  3. Minimum detectable activity and false alarm rate relationships for alpha continuous air monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoover, M.D.; Newton, G.J.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy rule for Occupational Radiation Protection (10 CFR Part 835, December 1993) and the DOE Radiological Control Manual (the RCM) (DOE/EH-0256T, Rev. 1, April 1994) require the use of continuous air monitors (CAMs) in normally occupied areas where an individual is likely to be exposed to a concentration of airborne radioactivity exceeding the derived air concentration (DAC) or where there is a need to alert potentially exposed individuals to unexpected increases in airborne radioactivity levels. The DAC is the airborne concentration that equals the annual limit on intake divided by the volume of air breathed by an average worker for a working year of 2000 h (assuming a breathing volume of 2400 m 3 ). It is equivalent to the airborne concentration to which a worker could be exposed for an entire working year (2000 h) without exceeding the allowable annual limit on intake. The rule and the RCM further require that real-time air monitors have an alarm capability and sufficient sensitivity to alert potentially exposed individuals that immediate action is necessary in order to minimize or terminate inhalation exposures. The RCM also recommends that real-time air monitors should be capable of measuring 1 DAC when averaged over 8 h (8 DAC-h) under laboratory conditions. In response to these recommendations, we are developing procedures for determining the basic sensitivity of alpha CAMs under laboratory conditions and for documenting practical alarm set points for routine use of CAMs under a range of radon and thoron concentrations

  4. An alpha particle detector based on a GPS mosaic scintillator plate for continuous air monitoring in plutonium handling facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Junichi H.; Izaki, Kenji; Toui, Kouhei; Shimaoka, Takehiro; Morishita, Yuki; Tsubota, Youichi; Higuchi, Mikio

    2016-01-01

    An alpha particle detector was developed for continuous air monitoring of radioactive contamination in working chambers at plutonium handling facilities. A 5-cm-square Gd 2 Si 2 O 7 :Ce (cerium-doped gadolinium pyro-silicate, GPS:Ce) mosaic scintillator plate for alpha particle measurements was fabricated from GPS single-crystal grains of around 550 μm diameter; the GPS grains were made of a GPS polycrystalline body grown using a top seeded solution method. The scintillator layer thickness was approximately 100 μm. The surface filling rate of the GPS grains was ca. 62%. To suppress the influence of non-uniformity of pulse heights of a photomultiplier tube, a central part of ∅ 40 mm of a 76-mm-diameter photomultiplier tube was used. In addition, 3 mm thick high-transmission glass was used as a substrate of the scintillator plate. The detector achieved energy resolution of 13% for 5.5 MeV alpha particles, detection efficiency of 61% and a radon progeny nuclide reduction ratio of 64.5%. A new alpha particle detector was developed to achieve a high radon progeny nuclide reduction ratio approaching that of a silicon semiconductor detector, with high resistance to electromagnetic noise and corrosion. - Highlights: • An alpha particle detector was developed for continuous air monitoring. • The detector comprises a mosaic scintillator plate and a photomultiplier tube. • A 5-cm-square GPS mosaic scintillator plate was fabricated. • Its respective energy resolution and detection efficiency were 13 and 61%. • The radon progeny nuclide reduction ratio of the developed detector was 64.5%.

  5. AlphaGUARD, the new reference for continuous radon monitoring in air, soil, gas, water and material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roessler, F.; Buerkin, W.; Villert, J.

    2016-01-01

    The company Saphymo GmbH has more than 25 years of experience in the field of radon measurement. More than 20 years ago Saphymo developed the professional and robust radon monitor AlphaGUARD, quickly recognized as a standard for reliable and continuous measurements of the radon concentration. Today AlphaGUARD is internationally established as the reference in radon measurement. Following up on this success story the new generation of AlphaGUARD can now be presented. Based on the excellent measurement characteristics of its predecessor the new AlphaGUARD combines the well-proven principle of the pulse ionisation chamber with new and additional features. The robust housing is oriented on the well-proven design of the predecessor and includes now an integrated flow controlled and powerful pump. The instrument can be operated in flow as well as in diffusion mode (without pump). Via the new large display and the intuitive menu navigation all measurement data can be retrieved. The presentation of time series in charts is possible as well as the parametrisation of the instrument. A wide range of accessories, developed in cooperation with various radon experts of universities and laboratories, enables the user a varied and flexible application of the AlphaGUARD: Measurement of the radon concentration in air (radon, thoron, radon progenies), in water (sampling and time resolved measurements) and in soil (soil gas measurements, exhalation measurements), emanation measurements from material, multi spot measurement, online measurement with remote data transmission via Ethernet/DSL, Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, GPRS/3G or satellite. Due to its high sensitivity and its fast and linear response over a large measuring range the AlphaGUARD is excellently suited for calibration laboratories. Furthermore the AlphaGUARD enables ideal prerequisites for field applications: robust housing for operations under harsh conditions, long battery life for the measurement at any location, low

  6. AlphaGUARD, the new reference for continuous radon monitoring in air, soil, gas, water and material; AlphaGUARD, die neue Referenz fuer die kontinuierliche Messung der Radonkonzentration in Luft, Boden, Wasser und Baumaterial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roessler, F.; Buerkin, W. [Saphymo GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Villert, J. [Bertin Technologies, Montigny (France)

    2016-07-01

    The company Saphymo GmbH has more than 25 years of experience in the field of radon measurement. More than 20 years ago Saphymo developed the professional and robust radon monitor AlphaGUARD, quickly recognized as a standard for reliable and continuous measurements of the radon concentration. Today AlphaGUARD is internationally established as the reference in radon measurement. Following up on this success story the new generation of AlphaGUARD can now be presented. Based on the excellent measurement characteristics of its predecessor the new AlphaGUARD combines the well-proven principle of the pulse ionisation chamber with new and additional features. The robust housing is oriented on the well-proven design of the predecessor and includes now an integrated flow controlled and powerful pump. The instrument can be operated in flow as well as in diffusion mode (without pump). Via the new large display and the intuitive menu navigation all measurement data can be retrieved. The presentation of time series in charts is possible as well as the parametrisation of the instrument. A wide range of accessories, developed in cooperation with various radon experts of universities and laboratories, enables the user a varied and flexible application of the AlphaGUARD: Measurement of the radon concentration in air (radon, thoron, radon progenies), in water (sampling and time resolved measurements) and in soil (soil gas measurements, exhalation measurements), emanation measurements from material, multi spot measurement, online measurement with remote data transmission via Ethernet/DSL, Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, GPRS/3G or satellite. Due to its high sensitivity and its fast and linear response over a large measuring range the AlphaGUARD is excellently suited for calibration laboratories. Furthermore the AlphaGUARD enables ideal prerequisites for field applications: robust housing for operations under harsh conditions, long battery life for the measurement at any location, low

  7. Performance of an alpha air monitor in a dusty environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoover, M.D.; Newton, G.J.; Yeh, H.C.; Seiler, F.A.; Boecker, B.B.

    1988-01-01

    The Eberline Alpha-6 Continuous Air Monitor (CAM) was evaluated for use in detecting alpha radiation from 238 Pu and 239 Pu in the presence of background aerosols of salt dust and radon progeny. The Alpha-6 method uses an embedded, multichannel analyzer and real-time computer to correct for the presence of alpha-emitting radon progeny and to accurately report plutonium air concentration in dust-free environments. However, accumulation of mg/cm 2 salt dust on the sample collection filter was found to be equivalent to an infinitely thick layer. Dust loading raises the limit of detection in proportion to the concentration of airborne salt. Proper detection of 239 Pu is impaired by airborne concentrations of salt greater than 2 mg/m 3 . Alpha spectral analysis at a central monitoring computer is recommended to avoid detection errors at higher salt concentrations. (author)

  8. Issues in continuous air monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    The Health Physics groups at Los Alamos determined that the 15 yr-old alpha CAM instrumentation in use at the Laboratory would soon have to be replaced and upgraded. A program was initiated to prepare detailed performance specifications, evaluate new CAM instrumentation being offered, and if necessary, to develop advanced technologies which would enable the Laboratory to meet or exceed all of the requirements of the new DOE Order 5480.11. ''Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers'' (DOE, 1988), and other related Orders and standards. After careful evaluation of available alpha CAMs and consideration of the many factors affecting CAM performance, a project for the design, and development of advance CAM technology was initiated. This project culminated in the completion of a new alpha CAM concept featuring advances in the design of the CAM inlet enabling discrimination against radon daughters, in the multi-channel analyzer electronics, in the data processing and communication electronics, and in background compensation algorithm. The objective in the following discussion is examine the DOE Order 5480.11 requirements in some detail. While the new CAM sensitivity requirement is of critical importance, this is only one of many requirements of the Order with implications for CAM design, placement and operation. It is essential to orient our thinking about CAMs to the primary objectives of the Order with air monitoring implications. This paper discusses air monitoring issues in the Order. 7 refs

  9. Advances in alpha air monitoring instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentine, A.M.

    1979-01-01

    Early detection of airborne radioactive material is important for effective protection of workers, particularly at facilities handling high toxicity alpha-emitting radionuclides such as 238 Pu and 239 Pu. Variable levels of ever present and naturally occurring alpha-emitting radon daughters made gross alpha air monitoring systems unreliable for live-time monitoring of airborne plutonium. Hence, good live-time monitoring was not possible until an improved alpha air monitoring instrument capable of monitoring select plutonium radionuclides of concern was developed and marketed by nuclear instrumentation companies in the USA during the late 1960s and early 1970s. This monitoring instrument utilized a solid-state silicon-diffused junction type of detector and pulse-height analyser system to achieve a radon-daughter rejection capability. This rejection capability has resulted in an improved sensitivity for specific alpha-emitting radionuclides such as 238 Pu, 239 Pu and 241 Am. Current models of this instrument are capable of detecting 40 dis/min (0.65 Bq) of plutonium alpha activity. This activity is about equal to the integrated activity workers would be exposed to if they worked for eight hours in an airborne concentration equal to the maximum permissible concentration for transportable 239 Pu. The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory began using these instruments in its plutonium research laboratories when they became available in the early 1970s. Approximately 300 are currently in service, and their use has resulted in much improved protection of plutonium workers because accidental airborne releases can now be detected soon after they occur. General design features of these instruments are discussed together with actual operational experience and field calibration procedures. (author)

  10. Measurement of radon daughters in air samples by alpha spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acena, M.L.; Crespo, M.T.

    1989-01-01

    The concentration of radon progeny in air has been determined by alpha spectrometry measurement of polonium 214 and polonium 218. A known volume of air was passed through a filter, then the alpha activity was directly measured on this filter (Author)

  11. Concentration of Radon Progeny in Air by Alpha Spectrometry Measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acena, M. L.; Crespo, M. T.

    1989-01-01

    The concentration of radon progeny in air has been determined by alpha spectrometry measurement of 214 Po and 318 Po. A known volume of air was passed through a filter, then the alpha activity was directly measured on this filter. (Author) 15 refs

  12. Programmable automatic alpha--beta air sample counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, W.P.

    1978-01-01

    A programmable automatic alpha-beta air sample counter was developed for routine sample counting by operational health physics personnel. The system is composed of an automatic sample changer utilizing a large silicon diode detector, an electronic counting system with energy analysis capability, an automatic data acquisition controller, an interface module, and a teletypewriter with paper tape punch and paper tape reader. The system is operated through the teletypewriter keyboard and the paper tape reader, which are used to instruct the automatic data acquisition controller. Paper tape programs are provided for background counting, Chi 2 test, and sample counting. Output data are printed by the teletypewriter on standard continuous roll or multifold paper. Data are automatically corrected for background and counter efficiency

  13. Continuous measurement of radon concentration in air with Lucas cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machaj, B.; Urbanski, P.

    1998-01-01

    Lucas cell was investigated as alpha radiation detector for continuous measurement of radon concentration in air with air sampling by means of the pump. The investigations carried out indicate that short lived radon decay products inside of the Lucas chamber with dimensions φ54x74 mm (0.17L) attach to the internal walls of the cell and are not removed when the cell is flushed with fresh air. This effect and the known effect of increase of radon daughters concentration when pure radon is introduced into the cell results in delay of response of the gage to variations of radon concentration. The response of the gage is considered and signal processing is suggested that can be useful in continuous measurement of radon concentration. (author)

  14. Specific approach for continuous air quality monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Predrag M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid industry development as well as increase of traffic volume across the world resulted in air quality becoming one of the most important factors of everyday life. Air quality monitoring is the necessary factor for proper decision making regarding air pollution. An integral part of such investigations is the measurement of wind characteristics, as the wind is the most influential factor in turbulent pollution diffusion into the atmosphere. The most of the air pollution originates from combustion processes, so it is important to make quantitative, as well as qualitative analysis, as the sources of pollution can be very distant. In this paper, specific methodology for continuous wind, temperature and air quality data acquisition is presented. Comparison of the measured results is given, as well as the detailed presentation of the characteristics of the acquisition software used.

  15. Continuing challenges in nuclear air cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, D.W.

    1976-01-01

    The safe operation of nuclear facilities is heavily dependent upon the adequate performance of air cleaning systems. Although many problems have been solved, new questions and new challenges continue to arise. These are well illustrated by weaknesses in air cleaning and ventilating systems revealed by the Browns Ferry fire, and the need to develop additional data on the reliability of such systems, particularly under emergency conditions, as revealed by the Reactor Safety Study. Assessments of the degree to which engineered safety features can compensate for deficiencies in nuclear power plant sites continue to challenge those involved in risk/benefit evaluations. Additional challenges are being generated by the air cleaning requirements associated with the commercial development of the liquid metal fast breeder reactor

  16. Evaluation of plutonium analysis techniques for a continuous alpha monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, F.N.; Fernandez, S.J.; Motes, B.G.

    1979-03-01

    Present methods for alpha particle monitoring are described according to their capabilities, advantages, and disadvantages. The methods, evaluated according to sensitivity and simplicity of operation, suggest that a Phoswich detector is the most promisng method of alpha monitoring. The proposed monitor would be applicable to fuel reprocessing and waste solidification facilities. A plan for development and on-line demonstration of the Phoswich detector is described

  17. Calculating alpha Eigenvalues in a Continuous-Energy Infinite Medium with Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betzler, Benjamin R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kiedrowski, Brian C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brown, Forrest B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martin, William R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-09-04

    The {alpha} eigenvalue has implications for time-dependent problems where the system is sub- or supercritical. We present methods and results from calculating the {alpha}-eigenvalue spectrum for a continuous-energy infinite medium with a simplified Monte Carlo transport code. We formulate the {alpha}-eigenvalue problem, detail the Monte Carlo code physics, and provide verification and results. We have a method for calculating the {alpha}-eigenvalue spectrum in a continuous-energy infinite-medium. The continuous-time Markov process described by the transition rate matrix provides a way of obtaining the {alpha}-eigenvalue spectrum and kinetic modes. These are useful for the approximation of the time dependence of the system.

  18. Early and continuing effects of combined alpha and beta irradiation of the lung:

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, B.R.; Hahn, F.F.; Snipes, M.B.; Newton, G.J.; Eidson, A.F.; Mauderly, J.L.; Boecker, B.B.

    1988-03-01

    This report summarizes an inhalation exposure experiment that concerns early and continuing effects of combined alpha and beta irradiation of the lung of rats. Both morbidity at 18 months and mortality within 18 months after exposure were examined for rats exposed to the beta-emitter /sup 147/Pm, the alpha-emitter /sup 238/Pu, or both combined. The results were used to validate hazard-function models that were developed (1)for pulmonary functional morbidity at 18 months and (2) for lethality from radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis within 18 months. Both models were found to adequately predict the experimental observations after combined chronic alpha and beta irradiation of the lung. A relative biological effectiveness of approximately 7 was obtained for /sup 238/Pu alpha radiation compared to /sup 147/Pm beta radiation for both pulmonary functional morbidity and lethality from radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis. 12 refs., 16 figs., 11 tabs.

  19. Pollution by air filters: Continuous vs intermittent air flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cox, C.W.J.; Bluyssen, P.M.

    2000-01-01

    Within the framework of the EU research project Airless, a long-term experiment of 28 weeks was carried out to investigate the influence of intermittent airflow compared to continuous airflow on the pollution effect of glass fibre filters (F7). No statistical relevant differences between odour

  20. Controlled-air incineration of alpha-bearing solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, R.A.; Draper, W.E.; Neuls, A.S.; Newmyer, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory is completing a study of controlled-air incineration (CAI) as a technique for volume reduction and stabilization of combustible transuranic-contaminated solid wastes. To demonstrate feasibility, a process has been assembled and operated on synthetic and contaminated combustibles. This paper summarizes the CAI project history, process design, provisions for radioactive operation, experimental results to date, and future plans. Achievements include operation at the design feed rate as well as combustion of separate feed compositions including cellulosics, polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and latex rubber. Refractory life has been satisfactory to date, with studies continuing. The offgas cleanup system has proven to be extremely effective; the final high-efficiency filters showing virtually no pressure drop increase. The ability of the system to process high concentrations of PVC has been demonstrated with no chloride-induced degradation detected. Chloride and sulfate removal from the offgas has been excellent with concentrations reaching 8 and 10 ppM maximum, respectively, in the process condensate

  1. Selection of filter media in alpha air monitors for emergency environmental monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinouchi, N.; Oishi, T.; Noguchi, H.; Kato, S.

    2000-01-01

    We have developed an alpha air monitor which is possible to measure rapidly and sensitively the concentrations of airborne alpha-emitting particles, such as plutonium, for the environmental monitoring at an accident of nuclear reprocessing plant. The monitor is designed to collect airborne alpha-emitting particles by drawing the ambient air through a filter and to detect the activity by alpha spectroscopy. In order to achieve high-sensitive measurements, selection of a suitable filter used in the monitor is considerably important. The most important requirement for the filter is that it has a high surface collection efficiency to obtain the sharpness of the alpha energy spectrum. This makes it easy to distinguish the alpha-ray peak of plutonium from the alpha spectrum of naturally occurring radon decay products in the environment. And the filter is also desired to have low resistance of the air flow so that particles can be collected at a high flowrate. We have made a comparison of the surface collection efficiency and pressure drop for the various filters. Types of the test filters, most of which are commercially available in Japan, were glass fiber, cellulose-glass fiber, membrane and so on. The surface collection efficiency has been evaluated by the following two indices. One was the sharpness of alpha-ray energy peaks of thoron decay products generated in a laboratory and collected in the fibers. The other was the background counts of radon decay products in a plutonium region by measuring alpha-ray energy spectrum of radon decay products collected in the filters by sampling of dust in the atmosphere. It was found that the PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) membrane filter with backing had a high surface collection efficiency and low pressure drop. The results of the test are described in detail in this paper. (author)

  2. The influence of nitrogen sources on the alpha-amylase productivity of Aspergillus oryzae in continuous cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik; Nielsen, Jens

    2000-01-01

    The influence of the nitrogen source on the cc-amylase productivity of Aspergillus oryzae was quantified in continuous cultivations. Both inorganic and complex nitrogen sources were investigated and glucose was used as the carbon and energy sources. For production of alpha-amylase, nitrate...... in the cc-amylase productivity. The higher alpha-amylase productivity during growth on casein hydrolysate was not caused by increased transcription of the alpha-amylase genes but was caused by a faster secretion of alpha-amylase or by a lower binding of alpha-amylase to the biomass....

  3. Design and development of portable continuous beta air monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pankaj Kumar; Pandey, J.P.N.; Jaroli, Manish; Dubey, K.

    2014-01-01

    Most of Continuous air monitors used for the measurement of air borne activity at nuclear plants are bulky in size, makes lot of noise (> 70 DB) due to belt derive vacuum pump. In addition to that users also face difficulties in displacement of the instrument from one location to another location. To overcome these problems, a compact and portable continuous Beta air monitor was indigenously designed and developed which has extremely low noise level and has shown excellent performance for the measurement of air borne activity. The details of the design and development of portable continuous beta air monitor are presented in this paper. Compact design makes the instrument light in weight and easy to displace it from one location to another location. Shielding design of the detector and filter holder assembly is very effective to reduce the interference of external gamma. Replacement of filter papers in this design of filter holder is much easier and convenient than old model filter holders. The integrity of leak tightness of the system ensures collection efficiency more than 99 % for sub micron particles. Observed efficiency of the detector with 5 mm minimum air gap between filter paper and detector is 13% which is 1.5 times higher than earlier model. Use of motor mounted vacuum pump and silencer was found quite effective to reduce the noise level upto 70 DB. Introduction of electronic air flow sensor provides additional features to get flow rate at the time of individual alarm conditions. Self diagnostic features like detector fail, HV fail and pump fail indications on display system helps to identify the specific type of faults. Internal memory of display unit can store all such data with date and time in programmable intervals (0-250 minutes)

  4. Alternative concepts for design of air monitoring instruments: In-line and open face reference samplers and a new method of demonstrating alpha CAM performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, J.C.; McFarland, A.R.

    1993-01-01

    Over the past several years Los Alamos, Texas A ampersand M University and Canberra Instruments have been collaborating on the development of advanced continuous air monitoring and air sampling concepts and technology. We have successfully completed the design of an alpha CAM which embodies a number of innovations in the way radon progeny background interference is controlled and compensated, and in the way data processing, alarm generation, and data communication are handled

  5. Measurement of radon progeny concentrations in air by alpha-particle spectrometey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, G.D.

    1975-07-01

    A technique is presented for measuring air concentrations of the short-lived progeny of radon-222 by the use of alpha spectrometry. In this technique, the concentration of RaA, RaB, and RaC are calculated from one integral count of the RaA and two integral counts of the RaC' alpha-particle activity collected on a filter with an air sampling device. The influence of air sampling and counting intervals of time on the accuracy of the calculated concentrations is discussed in the report. A computer program is presented for use with this technique. It is written in the BASIC language. The program will calculate the air concentrations of RaA, RaB, and RaC, and will estimate the accuracy in these calculated concentrations. (U.S.)

  6. Advanced computer-controlled automatic alpha-beta air sample counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, W.P.; Bruinekool, D.J.; Stapleton, E.E.

    1983-01-01

    An improved computer controlled automatic alpha-beta air sample counter was developed, based upon an earlier automatic air sample counter design. The system consists of an automatic sample changer, an electronic counting system utilizing a large silicon diode detector, a small desk-type microcomputer, a high speed matrix printer, and the necessary data interfaces. The system is operated by commands from the keyboard and programs stored on magnetic tape cassettes. The programs provide for background counting, Chi 2 test, radon subtraction, and sample counting for sample periods of one day to one week. Output data are printed by the matrix printer on standard multifold paper. The data output includes gross beta, gross alpha, and plutonium results. Data are automatically corrected for background, counter efficiency, and in the gross alpha and plutonium channels, for the presence of radon

  7. An advanced computer-controlled automatic alpha-beta air sample counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, W.P.; Bruinekool, D.J.; Stapleton, E.E.

    1984-01-01

    An improved computer-controlled automatic alpha-beta air sample counter was developed, based upon an earlier automatic air sample counter design. The system consists of an automatic sample changer, an electronic counting system utilizing a large silicon diode detector, a small desk-type microcomputer, a high-speed matrix printer and the necessary data interfaces. The system is operated by commands from the keyboard and programs stored on magnetic tape cassettes. The programs provide for background counting, Chi 2 test, radon subtraction and sample counting for sample periods of one day to one week. Output data are printed by the matrix printer on standard multifold paper. The data output includes gross beta, gross alpha and plutonium results. Data are automatically corrected for background, counter efficiency, and in the gross alpha and plutonium channels, for the presence of radon

  8. Concentration of Radon Progeny in Air by Alpha Spectrometry Measurement; Medida de los descendientes del radon en aire por Espectrometria Alfa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acena, M. L.; Crespo, M. T.

    1989-07-01

    The concentration of radon progeny in air has been determined by alpha spectrometry measurement of 214 Po and 318 Po. A known volume of air was passed through a filter, then the alpha activity was directly measured on this filter. (Author) 15 refs.

  9. The continuous UV flux of Alpha Lyrae - Non-LTE results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snijders, M. A. J.

    1977-01-01

    Non-LTE calculations for the ultraviolet C I and Si I continuous opacity show that LTE results overestimate the importance of these sources of opacity and underestimate the emergent flux in Alpha Lyr. The largest errors occur between 1100 and 1160 A, where the predicted flux in non-LTE is as much as 50 times larger than in LTE, in reasonable accord with Copernicus observations. The discrepancy between LTE models and observations has been interpreted to result from the existence of a chromosphere. Until a self-consistent non-LTE model atmosphere becomes available, such an interpretation is premature.

  10. Ion current prediction model considering columnar recombination in alpha radioactivity measurement using ionized air transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, Susumu; Hirata, Yosuke; Izumi, Mikio; Sano, Akira; Miyamoto, Yasuaki; Aoyama, Yoshio; Yamaguchi, Hiromi

    2007-01-01

    We present a reinforced ion current prediction model in alpha radioactivity measurement using ionized air transportation. Although our previous model explained the qualitative trend of the measured ion current values, the absolute values of the theoretical curves were about two times as large as the measured values. In order to accurately predict the measured values, we reinforced our model by considering columnar recombination and turbulent diffusion, which affects columnar recombination. Our new model explained the considerable ion loss in the early stage of ion diffusion and narrowed the gap between the theoretical and measured values. The model also predicted suppression of ion loss due to columnar recombination by spraying a high-speed air flow near a contaminated surface. This suppression was experimentally investigated and confirmed. In conclusion, we quantitatively clarified the theoretical relation between alpha radioactivity and ion current in laminar flow and turbulent pipe flow. (author)

  11. Electroremediation of air pollution control residues in a continuous reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ferreira, Célia M. D.; Hansen, Henrik K.

    2010-01-01

    Air pollution control (APC) residue from municipal solid waste incineration is considered hazardous waste due to its alkalinity and high content of salts and mobile heavy metals. Various solutions for the handling of APC-residue exist, however most commercial solutions involve landfilling. A demand...... for environmental sustainable alternatives exists and electrodialysis could be such an alternative. The potential of electrodialysis for treating APC-residue is explored in this work by designing and testing a continuous-flow bench-scale reactor that can work with a high solids content feed solution. Experiments...... were made with raw residue, water-washed residue, acid washed residue and acid-treated residue with emphasis on reduction of heavy metal mobility. Main results indicate that the reactor successfully removes toxic elements lead, copper, cadmium and zinc from the feed stream, suggesting...

  12. First Results of Using a UVTron Flame Sensor to Detect Alpha-Induced Air Fluorescence in the UVC Wavelength Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita J. Crompton

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a robust stand-off alpha detection method using the secondary effects of alpha radiation has been sought. Alpha particles ionise the surrounding atmosphere as they travel. Fluorescence photons produced as a consequence of this can be used to detect the source of the alpha emissions. This paper details experiments carried out to detect this fluorescence, with the focus on photons in the ultraviolet C (UVC wavelength range (180–280 nm. A detector, UVTron R9533 (Hamamatsu, 325-6, Sunayama-cho, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu City, Shizuoka Pref., 430-8587, Japan, designed to detect the UVC emissions from flames for fire alarm purposes, was tested in various gas atmospheres with a 210Po alpha source to determine if this could provide an avenue for stand-off alpha detection. The results of the experiments show that this detector is capable of detecting alpha-induced air fluorescence in normal indoor lighting conditions, as the interference from daylight and artificial lighting is less influential on this detection system which operates below the UVA and UVB wavelength ranges (280–315 nm and 315–380 nm respectively. Assuming a standard 1 r 2 drop off in signal, the limit of detection in this configuration can be calculated to be approximately 240 mm, well beyond the range of alpha-particles in air, which indicates that this approach could have potential for stand-off alpha detection. The gas atmospheres tested produced an increase in the detector count, with xenon having the greatest effect with a measured 52% increase in the detector response in comparison to the detector response in an air atmosphere. This type of alpha detection system could be operated at a distance, where it would potentially provide a more cost effective, safer, and faster solution in comparison with traditional alpha detection methods to detect and characterise alpha contamination in nuclear decommissioning and security applications.

  13. First Results of Using a UVTron Flame Sensor to Detect Alpha-Induced Air Fluorescence in the UVC Wavelength Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crompton, Anita J; Gamage, Kelum A A; Bell, Steven; Wilson, Andrew P; Jenkins, Alex; Trivedi, Divyesh

    2017-11-29

    In this work, a robust stand-off alpha detection method using the secondary effects of alpha radiation has been sought. Alpha particles ionise the surrounding atmosphere as they travel. Fluorescence photons produced as a consequence of this can be used to detect the source of the alpha emissions. This paper details experiments carried out to detect this fluorescence, with the focus on photons in the ultraviolet C (UVC) wavelength range (180-280 nm). A detector, UVTron R9533 (Hamamatsu, 325-6, Sunayama-cho, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu City, Shizuoka Pref., 430-8587, Japan), designed to detect the UVC emissions from flames for fire alarm purposes, was tested in various gas atmospheres with a 210 Po alpha source to determine if this could provide an avenue for stand-off alpha detection. The results of the experiments show that this detector is capable of detecting alpha-induced air fluorescence in normal indoor lighting conditions, as the interference from daylight and artificial lighting is less influential on this detection system which operates below the UVA and UVB wavelength ranges (280-315 nm and 315-380 nm respectively). Assuming a standard 1 r 2 drop off in signal, the limit of detection in this configuration can be calculated to be approximately 240 mm, well beyond the range of alpha-particles in air, which indicates that this approach could have potential for stand-off alpha detection. The gas atmospheres tested produced an increase in the detector count, with xenon having the greatest effect with a measured 52% increase in the detector response in comparison to the detector response in an air atmosphere. This type of alpha detection system could be operated at a distance, where it would potentially provide a more cost effective, safer, and faster solution in comparison with traditional alpha detection methods to detect and characterise alpha contamination in nuclear decommissioning and security applications.

  14. Economy of Force: Continuous Process Improvement And The Air Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Process Improvement,” and Harold Linnean III with his thesis, “Air Force Smart Operations for the Twenty-first Century : Identifying Potential...models throughout AF existence—Management By Objectives, Total Quality Management, Quality Air Force, Air Force Smart Operations for the 21st Century ...all, one of the chief customers of the Air Force is the American public. Chapter Outline The chapter structure of this thesis is intended to take

  15. Generation of continuous coherent radiation at Lyman-alpha and 1S-2P Spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pahl, A.; Fendel, P.; Henrich, B.R.; Walz, J.; Hansch, T.W.; Eikema, K.S.E.

    2005-01-01

    Continuous coherent radiation from wavelengths from 121 to 123 nm in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) was generated by four-wave sum-frequency mixing in mercury vapor. A yield of 20 nW at Lyman-alpha (121.57 nm) was achieved. We describe the experimental setup in detail and present a calculation of the

  16. Treatment of solid waste highly contaminated by alpha emitters: Recent developments of leaching process with continuous electrolyte regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madic, C.; Lecomte, M.; Vigreux, B.

    1990-01-01

    Development of processes for leaching solid waste contaminated by alpha or alphaβgamma emitters has been pursued at the Nuclear Research Center in Fontenay-aux-Roses, France with the recent active commissioning of two pilot facilities: the Elise glove box system in February 1987 and the Prolixe shielded hot cell in March 1988. The Elise facility is designed to handle alpha waste and the Prolixe facility is designed to handle alphaβgamma waste. The common goal of the studies conducted in these facilities is to define the operating conditions for declassification of solid waste, i.e. to ensure that the alpha concentration of this waste will be less than 3.7 x 10 6 Bq/kg after treatment, packaging and decay prior to storage in surface repositories. The leaching process developed is mainly based on the continuous electrolytic regeneration of an aggressive agent, AgII, which can induce the dissolution of PuO 2 , the most difficult compound to remove from the solid waste. This paper summarizes recent achievements in the development of this process. 11 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs

  17. Treatment of solid waste highly contaminated by alpha emitters: recent developments of leaching process with continuous electrolyte regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madic, C.; Lecomte, M.

    1990-01-01

    Development of processes for leaching solid waste contaminated by alpha or alpha/beta/gamma emitters has been pursued at the Nuclear Research Center in Fontenay-aux-Roses, France with the recent active commissioning of two pilot facilities: the Elise glove box system in February 1987 and the Prolixe shielded hot cell in March 1988. The Elise facility is designed to handle alpha waste and the Prolixe facility is designed to handle alpha/beta/gamma waste. The common goal of the studies conducted in these facilities is to define the operating conditions for declassification of solid waste, i.e. to ensure that the alpha concentration of this waste will be less than 3.7 x 10 6 Bq/kg after treatment, packaging and decay prior to storage in surface repositories. The leaching process developed is mainly based on the continuous electrolytic regeneration of an aggressive agent, AgII, which can induce the dissolution of PuO 2 , the most difficult compound to remove from the solid waste. This paper summarizes recent achievements in the development of this process

  18. Comparison of Descemet stripping under continuous air flow, manual air injection and balanced salt solution for DMEK: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbay, I E; Bahar, I; Nahum, Y; Livny, E

    2017-08-01

    Descemet's membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) involves removal of the recipient's Descemet membrane (DM) prior to transplanting the donor's DM. When using balanced salt solution (BSS) or ophthalmic viscosurgical devices (OVDs), visualization of the host's DM during its stripping may be inadequate and may result in Descemet remnants and could lead to sub-optimal surgical results. Previous articles described excellent visualization when utilizing air injection but this requires repeated air injection into the anterior chamber (AC). We present a pilot study that compares different techniques under which DM stripping can be performed: with continuous automated air infusion, with manual air infusion, and with BSS. We retrospectively compared video footage of DM stripping with BSS, with continuous air and with manual injection of air into the AC to determine DM stripping duration and the number of times the surgeon had to insert and retrieve a surgical instrument from the AC. Thirty videos of 10 consecutive cases of the three DM stripping techniques were evaluated. DM stripping duration was 3.26 (±1.32), 3.92 (±1.2) and 12.9 (±3.98) minutes for BSS, continuous air flow, and manual air injection, respectively. Frequency of instrument retrieval (FIR) was 3.6 (±1.71), 1.5 (±0.71) and 15.1 (±3.28) for BSS, continuous air flow, and manual air injection, respectively. Continuous air flow and BSS were both statistically different than manual air injection into the AC (p air in the AC contributes to better visualization and an efficient surgery.

  19. Field estimates of polyurethane foam - air partition coefficients for hexachlorobenzene, alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane and bromoanisoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidleman, Terry F; Nygren, Olle; Tysklind, Mats

    2016-09-01

    Partition coefficients of gaseous semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) between polyurethane foam (PUF) and air (KPA) are needed in the estimation of sampling rates for PUF disk passive air samplers. We determined KPA in field experiments by conducting long-term (24-48 h) air sampling to saturate PUF traps and shorter runs (2-4 h) to measure air concentrations. Sampling events were done at daily mean temperatures ranging from 1.9 to 17.5 °C. Target compounds were hexachlorobenzene (HCB), alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH), 2,4-dibromoanisole (2,4-DiBA) and 2,4,6-tribromoanisole (2,4,6-TriBA). KPA (mL g(-1)) was calculated from quantities on the PUF traps at saturation (ng g(-1)) divided by air concentrations (ng mL(-1)). Enthalpies of PUF-to-air transfer (ΔHPA, kJ mol(-1)) were determined from the slopes of log KPA/mL g(-1) versus 1/T(K) for HCB and the bromoanisoles, KPA of α-HCH was measured only at 14.3 to 17.5 °C and ΔHPA was not determined. Experimental log KPA/mL g(-1) at 15 °C were HCB = 7.37; α-HCH = 8.08; 2,4-DiBA = 7.26 and 2,4,6-TriBA = 7.26. Experimental log KPA/mL g(-1) were compared with predictions based on an octanol-air partition coefficient (log KOA) model (Shoeib and Harner, 2002a) and a polyparameter linear free relationship (pp-LFER) model (Kamprad and Goss, 2007) using different sets of solute parameters. Predicted KP values varied by factors of 3 to over 30, depending on the compound and the model. Such discrepancies provide incentive for experimental measurements of KPA for other SVOCs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The measurement of thoron (220Rn) concentration in indoor air continuously using pylon model WLx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasnel Sofyan

    2011-01-01

    The concentration of thoron ( 220 Rn) in particular location can be higher than radon ( 220 Rn), however, its presence is always neglected. This might be due to the difficulties in calibration and discrimination between radon and thoron. From biokinetic and dosimetric model, it has been known that the dominant contribution of thoron to the effective dose is in the lungs. UNSCEAR estimates the doses contribution of thoron and its progenies is between 5-10% of the annual dose received by the general public and the risk level is 4.4 times greater than radon and progenies. Therefore, it is necessary to study the thoron concentration in indoor air and workplaces. Radon-thoron concentration in indoor air can be determined by direct methods using Pylon Model WLx device and passive methods using Solid State Nuclear Track Detector (SSNTDs). In this research the measurement of thoron was carried out continuously using Pylon Model WLx equipment that is sensitive to radon for 24, 65, 72, 116 and 154 hours in different rooms. The measurement result showed that the mean value of thoron working level (WL) concentration obtained in room-1 was 2.53 ± 0.67 Bq/m 3 with maximum and minimum of thoron concentrations were 3.37 and 2.22 Bq/m 3 respectively. From the measurement in different locations, it was obtained that the largest and smallest average concentrations of thoron progenies were 0.83 ± 0.23 Bq/m 3 and 0.29 ± 0.64 Bq/m 3 , while the maximum and minimum concentration values were 7.80 Bq/m 3 and 0.01 Bq/m 3 respectively. Pylon Model WLx device is not enables to be used for longer and large scale survey area concurrently, so the SSNTDs which is sensitive to the emission of alpha particles and can measure cumulative thoron concentrations is required. (author)

  1. Monitoring of gross alpha, gross beta and actinides activities in exhaust air released from the waste isolation pilot plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, P; Mulholland, G P

    2011-09-01

    The simultaneous measurements of gross alpha and beta activities is one of the simplest radioanalytical technique used as a method for screening samples of both high and low activities of alpha and beta emitting radionuclides in environmental and bioassay samples. Such measurements are of great interest from both a radiological, waste disposal viewpoint, and to establish a trend of radioactivity based on long term monitoring. At the WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant) site, unfiltered exhaust air from the underground repository is the most important effluent. As part of its monitoring program, the particulates from WIPP exhaust air are collected everyday at a location typically called the Fixed Air Sampler (FAS) site or Station A, this site is located at the release point for aerosol effluents from the underground to the environment. The measurements of gross alpha and beta activity on air filter samples were performed using an ultra low level counter, PIC-MPC 9604-α/β, from Protean Instrument Corporation. The high sensitivity of the gross alpha and beta instrument enables detection of low value activity from the air filters. In 2009, the values of gross alpha and beta activity concentrations ranged from

  2. Continuous Process Improvement at Tinker Air Logistics Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    assembly line work. Continuous improvement through the use of the Plan, Do, Check, Act ( PDCA ) cycle proposed by Deming became essential to the...Plan Do Check Act ( PDCA ) cycle (Deming, 1982), to create standards capturing new knowledge ensures that the organization learns as well (Liker J. K

  3. Active control of continuous air jet with bifurcated synthetic jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dančová Petra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthetic jets (SJs have many significant applications and the number of applications is increasing all the time. In this research the main focus is on the primary flow control which can be used effectively for the heat transfer increasing. This paper deals with the experimental research of the effect of two SJs worked in the bifurcated mode used for control of an axisymmetric air jet. First, the control synthetic jets were measured alone. After an adjustment, the primary axisymmetric jet was added in to the system. For comparison, the primary flow without synthetic jets control was also measured. All experiments were performed using PIV method whereby the synchronization between synthetic jets and PIV system was necessary to do.

  4. The continuous monitoring of the artificial beta aerosol activity by measuring the alpha and beta activity in aerosol simultaneously

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Hironobu; Oonishi, Masaki; Matsuura, Hiroyuki

    1990-01-01

    We have constructed the system to monitor the artificial beta aerosol activity around the nuclear power plants continuously in real time. The smaller releases of artificial radionuclides from the nuclear power plants can be lost in the fluctuations of the natural background of the beta aerosol activity, when only the beta activity of the aerosol is measured. This method to discriminate the artificial and the natural beta activity of the aerosol is based on the fact that the ratio of the natural alpha and beta activities of the aerosol is almost constant. The detection limit of this system is below 3 Bq/m 3 . (author)

  5. Quality Time: Temporal Constraints to Continual Process Development in the Air Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    QUALITY TIME: TEMPORAL CONSTRAINTS TO CONTINUAL PROCESS DEVELOPMENT IN THE AIR FORCE BY MAJOR PAUL A. La TOUR A THESIS PRESENTED TO...a deductive system-dynamics methodology to analyze the application of quality management policies to an Air Force system. The work provides an...alternate explanation to the existing body of literature on the failure of Total Quality Management (TQM) and Quality Air Force (QAF) programs. The

  6. Continuous fabrication of a MnS/Co nanofibrous air electrode for wide integration of rechargeable zinc-air batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Fu, Jing; Zhang, Yining; Li, Matthew; Hassan, Fathy Mohamed; Li, Guang; Chen, Zhongwei

    2017-10-26

    Exploring highly efficient bifunctional electrocatalysts toward the oxygen reduction and evolution reactions is essential for the realization of high-performance rechargeable zinc-air batteries. Herein, a novel nanofibrous bifunctional electrocatalyst film, consisting of metallic manganese sulfide and cobalt encapsulated by nitrogen-doped carbon nanofibers (CMS/NCNF), is prepared through a continuous electrospinning method followed by carbonization treatment. The CMS/NCNF bifunctional catalyst shows both comparable ORR and OER performances to those of commercial precious metal-based catalysts. Furthermore, the free-standing CMS/NCNF fibrous thin film is directly used as the air electrode in a solid-state zinc-air battery, which exhibits superior flexibility while retaining stable battery performance at different bending angles. This study provides a versatile design route for the rational design of free-standing bifunctional catalysts for direct use as the air electrode in rechargeable zinc-air batteries.

  7. A computer-controlled continuous air drying and flask sampling system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neubert, R.E.M.; Spijkervet, L.L.; Schut, J.K.; Been, H.; Meijer, H.A.J.

    A computer-controlled continuous air drying and flask sampling system has been developed and is discussed here. This system is set up for taking air samples automatically at remote places. Twenty glass flasks can be connected one by one or in pairs, and they can be filled at preset times, after

  8. The continuous UV flux of alpha lyrae: NON-LTE results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snijders, M.A.J.

    1977-01-01

    Non--LTE calculations for the ultraviolet C I and Si I continuous opacity show that LTE results overestimate the importance of these sources of opacity and underestimate the emergent flux in α Lyr. The largest errors occur between 1100 and 1160 A where the predicted flux in non--LTE is as much as 50 times larger than in LTE, in reasonable accord with Copernicus observations.The discrepancy between LTE models and observations has been interpreted by Praderie et al. to result from the existence of a chromosphere. Until a self--consistent non-LTE model atmosphere becomes available, such an interpretation is premature

  9. Multistation iodine-125 continuous air monitor with minicomputer alarm and data reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garfield, D.K.

    1978-01-01

    The components, operation, and calibration are described of a Multistation Continuous Air Monitor for the analysis of Iodine-125 and the functions of the Minicomputer in providing alarm functions and data reduction to units specified by regulation for permanent records. The sensitivity and accuracy, as well as the justification for purchase and comparison of costs with other types of air monitoring systems are also described

  10. AN EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF THE 236U DETECTION LIMIT IN THE SURFACE AIR USING RADIOCHEMICAL SEPARATION AND ALPHA-SPECTROMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Gedeonov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to nuclear weapon testing, nuclear reactor accidents, uranium mining and nuclear fuel reprocessing, additional uranium has been introduced into the environment. 236U isotope is produced from 235U by capture of a thermal neutron and it can be used as an indicator for artificial uranium in the environment. In this paper the sensitive method for236U determination in the surface air is described. This method includes a total dissolution of the air dust in a mixture of mineral acids, uranium concentration and purification by anion-exchange chromatography. Long time measurements of the separated uranium fraction are made with the use of alpha-spectrometer based on PIPS-detector. The lower limit of detection for 236U in the surface air is determined as 5 • 10-9 Bq/m3 (2 ng/m3.

  11. OPERATIONAL LIMITATIONS FOR DEMOLITION OF A HIGHLY ALPHA CONTAMINATED BUILDING MODLES VERSUS MEASURED AIR & SURFACE ACTIVITY CONCENTRATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LLOYD, E.R.

    2006-11-02

    The demolition of a facility historically used for processing and handling transuranic materials is considered. Residual alpha emitting radionuclide contamination poses an exposure hazard if released to the local environment during the demolition. The process of planning for the demolition of this highly alpha contaminated building, 232-Z, included a predemolition modeling analysis of potential exposures. Estimated emission rates were used as input to an air dispersion model to estimate frequencies of occurrence of peak air and surface exposures. Postdemolition modeling was also conducted, based on the actual demolition schedule and conditions. The modeling results indicated that downwind deposition is the main operational limitation for demolition of a highly alpha-contaminated building. During the demolition of 232-Z, airborne radiation and surface contamination were monitored. The resultant non-detect monitoring results indicate a significant level of conservatism in the modeled results. This comparison supports the use of more realistic assumption in the estimating emission rates. The resultant reduction in modeled levels of potential exposures has significant implications in terms of the projected costs of demolition of such structures.

  12. OPERATIONAL LIMITATIONS FOR DEMOLITION OF A HIGHLY ALPHA-CONTAMINATED BUILDING- MODELED VERSUS MEASURED AIR and SURFACE ACTIVITY CONCENTRATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LLOYD, E.R.

    2006-01-01

    The demolition of a facility historically used for processing and handling transuranic materials is considered. Residual alpha emitting radionuclide contamination poses an exposure hazard if released to the local environment during the demolition. The process of planning for the demolition of this highly alpha contaminated building, 232-Z, included a predemolition modeling analysis of potential exposures. Estimated emission rates were used as input to an air dispersion model to estimate frequencies of occurrence of peak air and surface exposures. Postdemolition modeling was also conducted, based on the actual demolition schedule and conditions. The modeling results indicated that downwind deposition is the main operational limitation for demolition of a highly alpha-contaminated building. During the demolition of 232-Z, airborne radiation and surface contamination were monitored. The resultant non-detect monitoring results indicate a significant level of conservatism in the modeled results. This comparison supports the use of more realistic assumption in the estimating emission rates. The resultant reduction in modeled levels of potential exposures has significant implications in terms of the projected costs of demolition of such structures

  13. Continuous spin detonation of a syngas-air mixture in a plane-radial vortex combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykovskii, F. A.; Zhdan, S. A.; Vedernikov, E. F.

    2017-09-01

    Continuous spin detonation in syngas-air mixtures with three different syngas compositions [CO]/[H2] = 1/3, 1/2, and 1/1 is experimentally studied in a flow-type radial vortex combustor 500 mm in diameter. It is found that all these mixtures with three syngas compositions can be effectively burned in air in the detonation regime. Transverse detonation waves of identical structure are detected. The limits of existence of continuous detonation in terms of the specific flow rates of the mixtures (minimum values) are determined.

  14. Investigations of Techniques to Improve Continuous Air Monitors Under Conditions of High Dust Loading in Environmental Settings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suilou Huang; Stephen D. Schery; John C. Rodgers

    2002-01-01

    A number of DOE facilities, such as the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), use alpha-particle environmental continuous air monitors (ECAMs) to monitor air for unwanted releases of radioactive aerosols containing such materials as plutonium and uranium. High sensitivity, ease of operation, and lack of false alarms are all important for ECAMs. The object of the project was to conduct investigations to improve operation of ECAMs, particularly under conditions where a lot of nonradioactive dust may be deposited on the filters (conditions of high dust loading). The presence of such dust may increase the frequency with which filters must be changed and can lead to an increased incidence of false alarms due to deteriorated energy resolution and response specificity to the radionuclides of interest. A major finding of the investigation, not previously documented, was that under many conditions thick layers of underlying nonradioactive dust do not decrease energy resolution and specificity for target radionuclides if the radioactive aerosol arrives as a sudden thin burst deposit, as commonly occurs in the early-warning alarm mode. As a result, operators of ECAMs may not need to change filters as often as previously thought and have data upon which to base more reliable operating procedures

  15. Investigation of Techniques to Improve Continuous Air Monitors Under Conditions of High Dust Loading in Environmental Settings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suilou Huang; Stephen D. Schery; John C. Rodgers

    2002-07-23

    A number of DOE facilities, such as the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), use alpha-particle environmental continuous air monitors (ECAMs) to monitor air for unwanted releases of radioactive aerosols containing such materials as plutonium and uranium. High sensitivity, ease of operation, and lack of false alarms are all important for ECAMs. The object of the project was to conduct investigations to improve operation of ECAMs, particularly under conditions where a lot of nonradioactive dust may be deposited on the filters (conditions of high dust loading). The presence of such dust may increase the frequency with which filters must be changed and can lead to an increased incidence of false alarms due to deteriorated energy resolution and response specificity to the radionuclides of interest. A major finding of the investigation, not previously documented, was that under many conditions thick layers of underlying nonradioactive dust do not decrease energy resolution and specificity for target radionuclides if the radioactive aerosol arrives as a sudden thin burst deposit, as commonly occurs in the early-warning alarm mode. As a result, operators of ECAMs may not need to change filters as often as previously thought and have data upon which to base more reliable operating procedures.

  16. Value of continuous leakage monitoring with radioactive iodine-131-labeled human serum albumin during hyperthermic isolated limb perfusion with tumor necrosis factor-alpha and melphalan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ginkel, RJ; Limburg, PC; Piers, DA; Hoekstra, HJ; Schraffordt Koops, H.

    Background: The aim of this study was to analyze the value of continuous leakage monitoring with radioactive iodine-131-labeled human serum albumin (RISA) in patients treated with hyperthermic isolated limb perfusion with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) and melphalan. Methods: Forty-eight

  17. Modelling of hot air chamber designs of a continuous flow grain dryer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Lotte Strange; Poulsen, Mathias; Sørensen, Kim

    2018-01-01

    The pressure loss, flow distribution and temperature distribution of a number of designs of the hot air chamber in a continuous flow grain dryer, were investigated using CFD. The flow in the dryer was considered as steady state, compressible and turbulent. It is essential that the grain...... is uniformly dried as uneven drying can result in damage to the end-product during storage. The original commercial design was modified with new guide vanes at the inlets to reduce the pressure loss and to ensure a uniform flow to the line burner in the hot air chamber. The new guide vane design resulted...... in a 10% reduction in pressure loss and a γ-value of 0.804. Various design changes of the hot air chamber were analysed in terms of pressure loss and temperature distribution with the aim of a temperature variation of 5 K at the outlet ducts. An obstruction design was analysed, which improved mixing...

  18. Method for near-real-time continuous air monitoring of phosgene, hydrogen cyanide, and cyanogen chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattin, Frank G.; Paul, Donald G.

    1996-11-01

    A sorbent-based gas chromatographic method provides continuous quantitative measurement of phosgene, hydrogen cyanide, and cyanogen chloride in ambient air. These compounds are subject to workplace exposure limits as well as regulation under terms of the Chemical Arms Treaty and Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments. The method was developed for on-sit use in a mobile laboratory during remediation operations. Incorporated into the method are automated multi-level calibrations at time weighted average concentrations, or lower. Gaseous standards are prepared in fused silica lined air sampling canisters, then transferred to the analytical system through dynamic spiking. Precision and accuracy studies performed to validate the method are described. Also described are system deactivation and passivation techniques critical to optimum method performance.

  19. Continuous multichannel monitoring of cave air carbon dioxide using a pumped non-dispersive infrared analyser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattey, D.

    2012-04-01

    The concentration of CO2 in cave air is one of the main controls on the rate of degassing of dripwater and on the kinetics of calcite precipitation forming speleothem deposits. Measurements of cave air CO2reveal great complexity in the spatial distribution among interconnected cave chambers and temporal changes on synoptic to seasonal time scales. The rock of Gibraltar hosts a large number of caves distributed over a 300 meter range in altitude and monthly sampling and analysis of air and water combined with continuous logging of temperature, humidity and drip discharge rates since 2004 reveals the importance of density-driven seasonal ventilation which drives large-scale advection of CO2-rich air though the cave systems. Since 2008 we have deployed automatic CO2 monitoring systems that regularly sample cave air from up to 8 locations distributed laterally and vertically in St Michaels Cave located near the top of the rock at 275m asl and Ragged Staff Cave located in the heart of the rock near sea level. The logging system is controlled by a Campbell Scientific CR1000 programmable datalogger which controls an 8 port manifold connected to sampling lines leading to different parts of the cave over a distance of up to 250 meters. The manifold is pumped at a rate of 5l per minute drawing air through 6mm or 8mm id polythene tubing via a 1m Nafion loop to reduce humidity to local ambient conditions. The outlet of the primary pump leads to an open split which is sampled by a second low flow pump which delivers air at 100ml/minute to a Licor 820 CO2 analyser. The software selects the port to be sampled, flushes the line for 2 minutes and CO2 analysed as a set of 5 measurements averaged over 10 second intervals. The system then switches to the next port and when complete shuts down to conserve power after using 20 watts over a 30 minute period of analysis. In the absence of local mains power (eg from the show cave lighting system) two 12v car batteries will power the system

  20. Surface air concentration and deposition of lead-210 in French Guiana: two years of continuous monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melieres, Marie-Antoinette; Pourchet, Michel; Richard, Sandrine

    2003-01-01

    To make up for the lack of data on 210 Pb aerosol deposition in tropical regions and to use this radionuclide as an aerosol tracer,a monitoring station was run for two years at Petit-Saut, French Guiana. Lead-210 concentration in air at ground level was monitored continuously together with atmospheric total deposition. The air concentration has a mean value of 0.23±0.02 mBq m -3 during both wet and dry seasons, and it is only weakly affected by the precipitation mechanism. This result was unexpected in a wet tropical region, with a high precipitation rate. In contrast, deposition clearly correlates with precipitation for low/moderate rainfall ( -2 y -1 . This provides a procedure fo estimating this mean flux at other sites in French Guiana

  1. Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Thresholds for Nasolacrimal Air Regurgitation in a Cadaveric Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blandford, Alexander D; Cherfan, Daniel G; Drake, Richard L; McBride, Jennifer M; Hwang, Catherine J; Perry, Julian D; Cheng, Olivia T

    2018-01-10

    To elucidate the mechanisms underlying nasolacrimal air regurgitation (AR) in the setting of continuous positive airway pressure therapy. Twelve nasolacrimal systems of 6 fresh female human cadavers were evaluated individually for AR using continuous positive airway pressure therapy before any nasolacrimal procedure. Cadavers were then randomly assigned to undergo nasolacrimal duct probing or endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy and then each hemisystem was again evaluated for AR. The pressure where AR was first observed (discovery pressure) or maximum possible pressure in systems without AR was recorded. In systems that demonstrated AR, the pressure was then gradually decreased to the lowest pressure where regurgitation persisted. This pressure was recorded as the secondary threshold pressure. None of the 12 unoperated nasolacrimal systems or the 6 systems that underwent nasolacrimal duct probing demonstrated AR through the maximum continuous positive airway pressure therapy (30 cm H2O). After endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy, all 6 nasolacrimal systems demonstrated AR. The mean discovery pressure was 16.0 cm H2O (range, 14.0-18.0 cm H2O) and mean secondary threshold pressure was 7.25 cm H2O (range, 6.5-8.0 cm H2O). Air regurgitation during continuous positive airway pressure therapy in the setting of prior endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy can be replicated in a cadaver model. The secondary threshold pressures required for AR in this model were similar to AR pressures reported clinically. Prior to dacryocystorhinostomy, patients using continuous positive airway pressure therapy should be counseled on AR, and physicians should consider this phenomenon when evaluating ophthalmic complaints in postoperative patients on positive airway pressure therapy.

  2. Air quality continued to improve in 2014, but progress are still needed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Moullec, Aurelie

    2015-09-01

    The improvement in air quality that began some years ago continued. Average concentrations of pollutants decreased and exceedance of thresholds for protection of health was observed in fewer areas. Progress was, notably, the result of efforts made to reduce emissions, something made more difficult by the number and variety of sources of pollution. These improvements were, however, fragile as they were partially dependent on weather conditions. 2014 was, thus, marked by an important episode of particulate pollution. In addition, the progress made was not sufficient to bring France into full compliance with European standards, as was also the case for other European countries. (author)

  3. Measurement of alpha radioactive air pollutants in fly ash brick dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauhan, R.P.; Kant, K.; Sharma, S.K.; Chakarvarti, S.K.

    2003-01-01

    The exposure of population to high concentrations of radon and its daughters for a long period lead to pathological effects like the respiratory functional changes and the occurrence of lung cancer. In the present study indoor radon monitoring has been carried out in fly ash brick dwellings in some villages/towns of district Faridabad, Haryana (India) using alpha sensitive LR-115 type II solid-state nuclear track detectors. The radon concentration levels in fly ash brick dwellings varied from 197 to 448 Bq m -3 with an average of 277±13 Bq m -3 while annual effective dose received by the occupants varied from 3.4 to 7.7 mSv with an average of 4.8±0.2 mSv. These results have been compared with the radon levels found in cemented and mud dwellings taken from our studies for these dwellings. These studies were also made simultaneously along with fly ash dwellings using same technique and in the same regions

  4. Contributions of toluene and alpha-pinene to SOA formed in an irradiated toluene/alpha-pinene/NO(x)/ air mixture: comparison of results using 14C content and SOA organic tracer methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offenberg, John H; Lewis, Charles W; Lewandowski, Michael; Jaoui, Mohammed; Kleindienst, Tadeusz E; Edney, Edward O

    2007-06-01

    An organic tracer method, recently proposed for estimating individual contributions of toluene and alpha-pinene to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation, was evaluated by conducting a laboratory study where a binary hydrocarbon mixture, containing the anthropogenic aromatic hydrocarbon, toluene, and the biogenic monoterpene, alpha-pinene, was irradiated in air in the presence of NO(x) to form SOA. The contributions of toluene and alpha-pinene to the total SOA concentration, calculated using the organic tracer method, were compared with those obtained with a more direct 14C content method. In the study, SOA to SOC ratios of 2.07 +/- 0.08 and 1.41 +/- 0.04 were measured for toluene and (alpha-pinene SOA, respectively. The individual tracer-based SOA contributions of 156 microg m(-3) for toluene and 198 microg m(-)3 for alpha-pinene, which together accounted for 82% of the gravimetrically determined total SOA concentration, compared well with the 14C values of 182 and 230 microg m(-3) measured for the respective SOA precursors. While there are uncertainties associated with the organic tracer method, largely due to the chemical complexity of SOA forming chemical mechanisms, the results of this study suggest the organic tracer method may serve as a useful tool for determining whether a precursor hydrocarbon is a major SOA contributor.

  5. Practical Strategies for Stable Operation of HFF-QCM in Continuous Air Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegfried R. Waldvogel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently there are a few fields of application using quartz crystal microbalances (QCM. Because of environmental conditions and insufficient resolution of the microbalance, chemical sensing of volatile organic compounds in an open system was as yet not possible. In this study we present strategies on how to use 195 MHz fundamental quartz resonators for a mobile sensor platform to detect airborne analytes. Commonly the use of devices with a resonant frequency of about 10 MHz is standard. By increasing the frequency to 195 MHz the frequency shift increases by a factor of almost 400. Unfortunately, such kinds of quartz crystals tend to exhibit some challenges to obtain a reasonable signal-to-noise ratio. It was possible to reduce the noise in frequency in a continuous air flow of 7.5 m/s to 0.4 Hz [i.e., σ(τ = 2 × 10−9] by elucidating the major source of noise. The air flow in the vicinity of the quartz was analyzed to reduce turbulences. Furthermore, we found a dependency between the acceleration sensitivity and mechanical stress induced by an internal thermal gradient. By reducing this gradient, we achieved reduction of the sensitivity to acceleration by more than one decade. Hence, the resulting sensor is more robust to environmental conditions such as temperature, acceleration and air flow.

  6. A fast responding continuous tritium-in-air monitor with multi stream sampling for area monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayanan, A.; Padmanabhan, N.; Raman, N.; Kulakarni, V.N.; Babu, D.A.R.; Sharma, D.N.

    2008-01-01

    A fast responding Tritium-in-Air monitor with multi stream sampling up to a maximum of 8 lines has been developed and field tested for continuous area monitoring in Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors (PHWR) and other tritium handling facilities. The instrument has built in electronic compensation for external gamma and gaseous radionuclide 133 Xe (FPNG). The monitor is based on plastic scintillator detector prepared from 5μm thick scintillator film of surface area (each side) of about 250 cm 2 . Four such films of each weighing 150 mg are packed in a flow cell of 6.3 cm 3 volume, made of stainless steel body and Teflon window. The flow cell is coupled face to face to a matched pair of photomultipliers. Measurement is made in coincidence mode of counting. The complete monitor consists of electronic counting system, the detector probe assembly, a diaphragm type of air sampling pump, a particulate filter trap and a rotometer for controlling the air flow rate. For multi stream sampling an external solenoid driver cum isolation unit has been integrated with the system. The efficiency for Tritium vapour for direct passage of sample air through the detector is ∼22%. The instrument records 0.2 cps under normal gamma background of 0.1 - 0.2 μSv/hr, without shielding. With the detector fully shielded (∼ 10 cm thick lead), the instrument does not register significant increase in the background counts with 200 μSv/hr ambient gamma field. Under conditions of gaseous radionuclide interference such as 133 Xe (26 MBq/m 3 concentrations) the MDA rises to ∼1 DAC for a counting time of 300 s. The MDA under ideal conditions is found to be 0.2 DAC for Tritium vapour. The sensitivity of the system is 0.4 CPS per DAC. The instrument response time is 10 minutes. (author)

  7. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha contributes to improved cardiac ischaemic tolerance in rats adapted to chronic continuous hypoxia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chytilová, Anna; Borchert, Gudrun H.; Mandíková-Alánová, Petra; Hlaváčková, Markéta; Kopkan, L.; Khan, M. A. H.; Imig, J. D.; Kolář, František; Neckář, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 241, č. 1 (2015), s. 97-108 ISSN 1748-1708 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-10267S; GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/12/1162 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : chronic hypoxia * ischaemia/reperfusion injury * reactive oxygen species * tumor necrosis factor - alpha Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 4.066, year: 2015

  8. Air bubbles induce a critical continuous stress to prevent marine biofouling accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belden, Jesse; Menesses, Mark; Dickenson, Natasha; Bird, James

    2017-11-01

    Significant shear stresses are needed to remove established hard fouling organisms from a ship hull. Given that there is a link between the amount of time that fouling accumulates and the stress required to remove it, it is not surprising that more frequent grooming requires less shear stress. One approach to mitigate marine biofouling is to continuously introduce a curtain of air bubbles under a submerged surface; it is believed that this aeration exploits the small stresses induced by rising bubbles to continuously prevent accumulation. Although curtains of rising bubbles have successfully prevented biofouling accumulation, it is unclear if a single stream of bubbles could maintain a clean surface. In this talk, we show that single bubble stream aeration can prevent biofouling accumulation in regions for which the average wall stress exceeds approximately 0.01 Pa. This value is arrived at by comparing observations of biofouling growth and prevention from field studies with laboratory measurements that probe the associated flow fields. We also relate the spatial and temporal characteristics of the flow to the size and frequency of the rising bubbles, which informs the basic operating conditions required for aeration to continuously prevent biofouling accumulation.

  9. Continuous high order sliding mode controller design for a flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Zong, Qun; Su, Rui; Tian, Bailing

    2014-05-01

    This paper investigates the problem of tracking control with uncertainties for a flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicle (FAHV). In order to overcome the analytical intractability of this model, an Input-Output linearization model is constructed for the purpose of feedback control design. Then, the continuous finite time convergence high order sliding mode controller is designed for the Input-Output linearization model without uncertainties. In addition, a nonlinear disturbance observer is applied to estimate the uncertainties in order to compensate the controller and disturbance suppression, where disturbance observer and controller synthesis design is obtained. Finally, the synthesis of controller and disturbance observer is used to achieve the tracking for the velocity and altitude of the FAHV and simulations are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the control strategies. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Surface air concentration and deposition of lead-210 in French Guiana: two years of continuous monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melieres, Marie-Antoinette E-mail: melieres@glaciog.ujf-grenoble.fr; Pourchet, Michel; Richard, Sandrine

    2003-07-01

    To make up for the lack of data on {sup 210}Pb aerosol deposition in tropical regions and to use this radionuclide as an aerosol tracer,a monitoring station was run for two years at Petit-Saut, French Guiana. Lead-210 concentration in air at ground level was monitored continuously together with atmospheric total deposition. The air concentration has a mean value of 0.23{+-}0.02 mBq m{sup -3} during both wet and dry seasons, and it is only weakly affected by the precipitation mechanism. This result was unexpected in a wet tropical region, with a high precipitation rate. In contrast, deposition clearly correlates with precipitation for low/moderate rainfall (<15 cm per 15-day), while this correlation is masked by strong fluctuations at high rainfall. The estimated mean annual deposition over the last ten years is 163{+-}75 Bq m{sup -2} y{sup -1}. This provides a procedure fo estimating this mean flux at other sites in French Guiana.

  11. Creating a AIRS/AMSU and CrIS/ATMS continuity sounding product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnet, C. D.; Gambacorta, A.; Smith, N.; Wheeler, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    The AIRS/AMSU (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder; Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit) onboard the EOS/Aqua was launched in 2002. CrIS/ATMS (CrossTrack Infrared Sounder; Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder) onboard Suomi NPP was launched in 2011 and will also be launched on the Joint Polar Sounding System (JPSS) series of satellites beginning in 2017. Suomi NPP and EOS/Aqua now have more than five years of overlap. Demonstrating data continuity between these two platforms has become a priority especially since EOS/Aqua is well past its design lifetime. Additionally, with JPSS, this record of soundings will be extended into future decades and will enable critically important scientific research on large scale (long term) atmospheric processes. The AIRS/AMSU and CrIS/ATMS have many differences in instrument design, spatial sampling, spectral coverage and resolution. Instruments also degrade with time. It is only with careful, deliberate and transparent error characterization and propagation that systematic effects can be accounted for, and preferably minimized, in retrieved sounding products. We have developed the Community Long-term Infrared Microwave Coupled Product System (CLIMCAPS) to achieve a seamless record of satellite soundings. A CLIMCAPS sounding is comprised of a set of parameters that characterizes the full atmospheric state and includes profiles of temperature, moisture, cloud and surface products, and trace gas species (O3, CH4, CO, SO2, HNO3, N2O and CO2). The trace gases are by-products necessary to remove biases in temperature and moisture retrievals; however, they can also be readily ingested into science applications. The information content of an IR sounder such as AIRS and CrIS is a function of lapse rate, the quantity of absorbers such as clouds, moisture and trace gases, as well as the instrument's sensitivity. Information content can vary vertically, spatially, and temporally. CLIMCAPS uses the NASA Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research

  12. Bag breakup of low viscosity drops in the presence of a continuous air jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, V.; Sojka, P. E.

    2014-01-01

    This work examines the breakup of a single drop of various low viscosity fluids as it deforms in the presence of continuous horizontal air jet. Such a fragmentation typically occurs after the bulk liquid has disintegrated upon exiting the atomizer and is in the form of an ensemble of drops which undergo further breakup. The drop deformation and its eventual disintegration is important in evaluating the efficacy of a particular industrial process, be it combustion in automobile engines or pesticide spraying in agricultural applications. The interplay between competing influences of surface tension and aerodynamic disruptive forces is represented by the Weber number, We, and Ohnesorge number, Oh, and used to describe the breakup morphology. The breakup pattern considered in our study corresponds to that of a bag attached to a toroidal ring which occurs from ∼12 2 ), is found to match well with experimental data ([L.-P. Hsiang and G. M. Faeth, Int. J. Multiphase Flow 21(4), 545–560 (1995)] and [R. S. Brodkey, “Formation of drops and bubbles,” in The Phenomena of Fluid Motions (Addison-Wesley, Reading, 1967)]). An exponential growth in the radial extent of the deformed drop and the streamline dimension of the bag is predicted by a theoretical model and confirmed by experimental findings. These quantities are observed to strongly depend on We. However, their dependence on Oh is weak

  13. Detectors for alpha particles and X-rays operating in ambient air in pulse counting mode and/or with gas amplification

    CERN Document Server

    Charpak, Georges; Breuil, P; Peskov, Vladimir

    2008-01-01

    Ionization chambers working in ambient air in current detection mode are widely used in several applications such as smoke detection, dosimetry, therapeutic beam monitoring and cetera. The aim of this work was to investigate if gaseous detectors can operate in ambient air in pulse counting mode as well as with gas amplification. . To investigate the feasibility of this method two types of open- end gaseous detectors were build and successfully tested. The first one was a single wire or multiwire cylindrical geometry detector operating in pulse mode at a gas gain of 1. The second type alpha detector was an innovative GEM-like detector with resistive electrodes operating in air in avalanche mode at high gas gains (up to 10E4). A detailed comparison between these two detectors is given as well as comparison with the commercially available alpha detectors. The main advantages of gaseous detectors operating in air in a pulse detection mode are their simplicity, low cost and high sensitivity. One of the possible ap...

  14. An Experiment to Measure Range, Range Straggling, Stopping Power, and Energy Straggling of Alpha Particles in Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouseph, P. J.; Mostovych, Andrew

    1978-01-01

    Experiments to measure range, range straggling, stopping power, and energy straggling of alpha particles are discussed in this article. Commercially available equipment with simple modifications is used for these measurements. (Author/GA)

  15. Innovative alpha radioactivity monitor for clearance level inspection based on ionized air transport technology (2). CFD-simulated and experimental ion transport efficiencies for uranium-attached pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Yosuke; Nakahara, Katsuhiko; Sano, Akira; Sato, Mitsuyoshi; Aoyama, Yoshio; Miyamoto, Yasuaki; Yamaguchi, Hiromi; Nanbu, Kenichi; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Oda, Akinori

    2007-01-01

    An innovative alpha radioactivity monitor for clearance level inspection has been developed. This apparatus measures an ion current resulting from air ionization by alpha particles. Ions generated in the measurement chamber of about 1 m 3 in volume are transported by airflow to a sensor and measured. This paper presents computational estimation of ion transport efficiencies for two pipes with different lengths, the inner surfaces of which were covered with a thin layer of uranium. These ion transport efficiencies were compared with those experimentally obtained for the purpose of our model validation. Good agreement was observed between transport efficiencies from simulations and those experimentally estimated. Dependence of the transport efficiencies on the region of uranium coating was also examined, based on which anticipated errors arising from unclear positions of contamination are also discussed. (author)

  16. Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ Home The environment and your health Air Air While we don’t often think about the ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be ...

  17. Community Air Sensor Network (CAIRSENSE) Project: Lower Cost, Continuous Ambient Monitoring Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advances in air pollution sensor technology have enabled the development of small and low cost systems to measure outdoor air pollution. The deployment of numerous sensors across a small geographic area would have potential benefits to supplement existing monitoring networks and ...

  18. Test plan for FY-91 alpha CAM evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winberg, M.R.

    1991-03-01

    This report describes the test plan for evaluating the Merlin Gerin, Inc., Edgar alpha continuous air monitor (CAM) and associated analysis system to be conducted by Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for the Department of Energy. INEL has evaluated other commercial alpha CAM systems to detect transuranic contaminants during waste handling and retrieval operations. This test plan outlines experimental methods, sampling methods, sampling and analysis techniques, and equipment needed and safety and quality requirements to test the commercial CAM. 8 refs., 3 figs

  19. Procedure for the determination of uranium on cellulose air-sampling filters by photon-electron-rejecting-alpha-liquid-scintillation spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDowell, W.J.; Case, G.N.

    1986-08-01

    A procedure is described for obtaining from cellulose air-sampling filters the total uranium content whether it be in the form of metal, oxide, tetrafluoride or most other salts of uranium. It is demonstrated that the uranium content can be accurately assayed by low-temperature ashing of the filter paper, dissolving the ash in a mixed nitrate-sulfate system, extracting the uranium selectively into a scintillator containing a high-molecular-weight amine sulfate, and counting the extract using a Photon-Electron-Rejecting-Alpha-Liquid-Scintillation (PERALS) spectrometer. 2 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolk, Jan; Seersholm, Niels; Kalsheker, Noor

    2006-01-01

    The Alpha One International Registry (AIR), a multinational research program focused on alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency, was formed in response to a World Health Organization recommendation. Each of the nearly 20 participating countries maintains a national registry of patients with AAT defic...... epidemiology, inflammatory and signalling processes, therapeutic advances, and lung imaging techniques....

  1. Use of sulfur hexafluoride airflow studies to determine the appropriate number and placement of air monitors in an alpha inhalation exposure laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, G.J.; Hoover, M.D.

    1995-12-01

    Determination of the appropriate number and placement of air monitors in the workplace is quite subjective and is generally one of the more difficult tasks in radiation protection. General guidance for determining the number and placement of air sampling and monitoring instruments has been provided by technical reports such as Mishima, J. These two documents and other published guidelines suggest that some insight into sampler placement can be obtained by conducting airflow studies involving the dilution and clearance of the relatively inert tracer gas sulfur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) in sampler placement studies and describes the results of a study done within the ITRI alpha inhalation exposure laboratories. The objectives of the study were to document an appropriate method for conducting SF{sub 6} dispersion studies, and to confirm the appropriate number and placement of air monitors and air samplers within a typical ITRI inhalation exposure laboratory. The results of this study have become part of the technical bases for air sampling and monitoring in the test room.

  2. Pulling Results Out of Thin Air: Four Years of Ozone and Greenhouse Gas Measurements by the Alpha Jet Atmospheric Experiment (AJAX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Emma

    2015-01-01

    The Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment (AJAX) has been measuring atmospheric ozone, carbon dioxide, methane and meteorological parameters from near the surface to 8000 m since January 2011. The main goals are to study photochemical ozone production and the impacts of extreme events on western US air quality, provide data to support satellite observations and aid in the quantification of emission sources e.g. wildfires, urban outflow, diary and oil and gas. The aircraft is based at Moffett Field and flies multiple times a month to sample vertical profiles at selected sites in California and Nevada, providing long-term data records at these sites. AJAX is also uniquely positioned to launch with short notice sampling flights in rapid response to extreme events e.g. the 2013 Yosemite Rim fire. This talk will focus on the impacts of vertical transport on surface air quality, and investigation of emission sources from diaries and wildfires.

  3. Design of a DCS Based Model for Continuous Leakage Monitoring System of Rotary Air Preheater of a Thermal Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madan BHOWMICK

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The leakage in rotary air preheater makes a considerable contribution to the reduced overall efficiency of fossil-fuel-fired thermal power plants and increase the effect on environment. Since it is normal phenomenon, continuous monitoring of leakage is generally omitted in most power plants. But for accurate analysis of the operation of the thermal power plant, this leakage monitoring plays a vital role. In the present paper, design of a DCS based model for continuous leakages monitoring of rotary air preheater has been described. In the proposed model, the existing DCS based instrumentation system has been modified and online leakage monitoring system has been developed. This model has been installed in a captive power plant with high capacity boilers and very much satisfactory operation of this system has been observed. The observed online data along with their analysis results are presented in this paper.

  4. Influences of air calcination and steam activation on microstructure and photocatalytic activity of continuous TiO2 fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, Yang; Zhang, Shiying; Xu, Difa

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Effects of air calcination and steam activation on TiO 2 fibers were studied. ► The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by degradation of formaldehyde. ► Steam activation promoted the anatase–rutile phase transformation. ► Steam activation decreased grain size and increased special surface area. ► Steam activation improved photocatalytic activity of TiO 2 fibers. -- Abstract: Effects of air calcination and steam activation, on phase transformation, microstructure and photocatalytic activity of continuous TiO 2 fibers prepared by sol–gel method were studied. The fibers were characterized by XRD, SEM, and N 2 adsorption–desorption. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by photocatalytic degradation of formaldehyde. Results showed that 100% rutile fibers heat-treated in air and steam were obtained at 800 °C and 600 °C, respectively. The anatase grain sizes and special surface areas of the fibers heat-treated at 500 °C in air and steam were 31.6 nm, 22.7 nm, 26.7 m 2 /g and 32.3 m 2 /g, respectively. The degradation rates of formaldehyde over the fibers heat-treated at 500 °C in air and steam were 92.3% and 98.6% after 14 h under UV irradiation, respectively. Compared with the air calcination, the steam activation promoted the anatase–rutile phase transformation, reduced the grain size, increased the special surface area, and improved photocatalytic activity of continuous TiO 2 fibers.

  5. Radioactive Mapping Contaminant of Alpha on The Air in Space of Repair of Hot Cell and Medium Radioactivity Laboratory in Radio metallurgy Installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusuf-Nampira; Endang-Sukesi; S-Wahyuningsih; R-Budi-Santoso

    2007-01-01

    Hot cell and space of acid laboratory medium activity in Radio metallurgy Installation are used for the examination preparation of fuel nuclear post irradiation. The sample examined is dangerous radioactive material representing which can disseminate passing air stream. The dangerous material spreading can be pursued by arranging air stream from laboratory space to examination space. To know the performance the air stream arrangement is hence conducted by radioactive mapping contaminant of alpha in laboratory / space of activity place, for example, medium activity laboratory and repair space. This mapping radioactivity contaminant is executed with the measurement level of the radioactivity from sample air taken at various height with the distance of 1 m, various distance and from potential source as contaminant spreading access. The mapping result indicate that a little spreading of radioactive material happened from acid cupboard locker to laboratory activity up to distance of 3 m from acid cupboard locker and spreading of radioactive contaminant from goods access door of the hot cell 104 to repair space reach the distance of 2 m from goods door access. Level of the radioactive contamination in the space was far under maximum limitation allowed (20 Bq / m 3 ). (author)

  6. Air pollution exposure estimation using dispersion modelling and continuous monitoring data in a prospective birth cohort study in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van den Hooven Edith H

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Previous studies suggest that pregnant women and children are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of air pollution. A prospective cohort study in pregnant women and their children enables identification of the specific effects and critical periods. This paper describes the design of air pollution exposure assessment for participants of the Generation R Study, a population-based prospective cohort study from early pregnancy onwards in 9778 women in the Netherlands. Individual exposures to PM10 and NO2 levels at the home address were estimated for mothers and children, using a combination of advanced dispersion modelling and continuous monitoring data, taking into account the spatial and temporal variation in air pollution concentrations. Full residential history was considered. We observed substantial spatial and temporal variation in air pollution exposure levels. The Generation R Study provides unique possibilities to examine effects of short- and long-term air pollution exposure on various maternal and childhood outcomes and to identify potential critical windows of exposure.

  7. System for continuous real time air monitoring by means of gamma spectrometry with germanium dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montalto, M.; Giacomelli, R.; Nocente, M.; Bortoluzzi, S.; Spezzano, P.

    1990-12-01

    Design of automatic system for real time air monitoring of radioactive particulates are relate. Recommendations are made for design and operation of sampling conduits to minimize losses. By means of experimental equipment loss of particles in long sampling conduits, minimum detectable activity and efficiency of gamma radiation detectable are evaluated. (author)

  8. Comparison of micrometeorological and two-film estimates of air-water gas exchange for alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane in the Canadian archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Fiona; Jantunen, Liisa M; Papakyriakou, Tim; Staebler, Ralf M; Stern, Gary A; Bidleman, Terry F

    2012-07-01

    The air-sea gas exchange of alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH) in the Canadian Arctic was estimated using a micrometeorological approach and the commonly used Whitman two-film model. Concurrent shipboard measurements of α-HCH in air at two heights (1 and 15 m) and in surface seawater were conducted during the Circumpolar Flaw Lead study in 2008. Sampling was carried out during eight events in the early summer time when open water was encountered. The micrometeorological technique employed the vertical gradient in air concentration and the wind speed to estimate the flux; results were corrected for atmospheric stability using the Monin-Obukhov stability parameter. The Whitman two-film model used the concentrations of α-HCH in surface seawater, in bulk air at 1 and 15 m above the surface, and the Henry's law constant adjusted for temperature and salinity to derive the flux. Both approaches showed that the overall net flux of α-HCH was from water to air. Mean fluxes calculated using the micrometeorological technique ranged from -3.5 to 18 ng m(-2) day(-1) (mean 7.4), compared to 3.5 to 14 ng m(-2) day(-1) (mean 7.5) using the Whitman two-film model. Flux estimates for individual events agreed in direction and within a factor of two in magnitude for six of eight events. For two events, fluxes estimated by micrometeorology were zero or negative, while fluxes estimated with the two-film model were positive, and the reasons for these discrepancies are unclear. Improvements are needed to shorten air sampling times to ensure that stationarity of meteorological conditions is not compromised over the measurement periods. The micrometeorological technique could be particularly useful to estimate fluxes of organic chemicals over water in situations where no water samples are available.

  9. Continuous measurement of air-water gas exchange by underwater eddy covariance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Peter; Pace, Michael L.

    2017-12-01

    Exchange of gases, such as O2, CO2, and CH4, over the air-water interface is an important component in aquatic ecosystem studies, but exchange rates are typically measured or estimated with substantial uncertainties. This diminishes the precision of common ecosystem assessments associated with gas exchanges such as primary production, respiration, and greenhouse gas emission. Here, we used the aquatic eddy covariance technique - originally developed for benthic O2 flux measurements - right below the air-water interface (˜ 4 cm) to determine gas exchange rates and coefficients. Using an acoustic Doppler velocimeter and a fast-responding dual O2-temperature sensor mounted on a floating platform the 3-D water velocity, O2 concentration, and temperature were measured at high-speed (64 Hz). By combining these data, concurrent vertical fluxes of O2 and heat across the air-water interface were derived, and gas exchange coefficients were calculated from the former. Proof-of-concept deployments at different river sites gave standard gas exchange coefficients (k600) in the range of published values. A 40 h long deployment revealed a distinct diurnal pattern in air-water exchange of O2 that was controlled largely by physical processes (e.g., diurnal variations in air temperature and associated air-water heat fluxes) and not by biological activity (primary production and respiration). This physical control of gas exchange can be prevalent in lotic systems and adds uncertainty to assessments of biological activity that are based on measured water column O2 concentration changes. For example, in the 40 h deployment, there was near-constant river flow and insignificant winds - two main drivers of lotic gas exchange - but we found gas exchange coefficients that varied by several fold. This was presumably caused by the formation and erosion of vertical temperature-density gradients in the surface water driven by the heat flux into or out of the river that affected the turbulent

  10. Continuous chemiluminescence determination of formaldehyde in air based on Trautz-Schorigin reaction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Motyka, Kamil; Mikuška, Pavel; Večeřa, Zbyněk

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 562, č. 2 (2006), s. 236-244 ISSN 0003-2670 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4031105; GA ČR GA526/03/1182; GA ČR GA525/04/0011 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : formaldehyde * air * chemiluminescence Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.894, year: 2006

  11. Noise, air pollutants and traffic: continuous measurement and correlation at a high-traffic location in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Zev; Kheirbek, Iyad; Clougherty, Jane E; Ito, Kazuhiko; Matte, Thomas; Markowitz, Steven; Eisl, Holger

    2011-11-01

    Epidemiological studies have linked both noise and air pollution to common adverse health outcomes such as increased blood pressure and myocardial infarction. In urban settings, noise and air pollution share important sources, notably traffic, and several recent studies have shown spatial correlations between noise and air pollution. The temporal association between these exposures, however, has yet to be thoroughly investigated despite the importance of time series studies in air pollution epidemiology and the potential that correlations between these exposures could at least partly confound statistical associations identified in these studies. An aethelometer, for continuous elemental carbon measurement, was co-located with a continuous noise monitor near a major urban highway in New York City for six days in August 2009. Hourly elemental carbon measurements and hourly data on overall noise levels and low, medium and high frequency noise levels were collected. Hourly average concentrations of fine particles and nitrogen oxides, wind speed and direction and car, truck and bus traffic were obtained from nearby regulatory monitors. Overall temporal patterns, as well as day-night and weekday-weekend patterns, were characterized and compared for all variables. Noise levels were correlated with car, truck, and bus traffic and with air pollutants. We observed strong day-night and weekday-weekend variation in noise and air pollutants and correlations between pollutants varied by noise frequency. Medium and high frequency noise were generally more strongly correlated with traffic and traffic-related pollutants than low frequency noise and the correlation with medium and high frequency noise was generally stronger at night. Correlations with nighttime high frequency noise were particularly high for car traffic (Spearman rho=0.84), nitric oxide (0.73) and nitrogen dioxide (0.83). Wind speed and direction mediated relationships between pollutants and noise. Noise levels are

  12. Deconvolution of alpha spectra from air filters applied for measurements of the short-lived radon progeny concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skubacz Krystian

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains a description of a method for the analysis of the complex alpha spectra generated during the measurement of the activity of filters outside of a vacuum chamber under environmental conditions. The peaks corresponding to the energies of alpha particles emitted by the specific isotopes are particularly large on the low-energy side of the peak maximum, and the energy resolution strongly depended on the applied filters. The analysis was based on the non-linear regression to a function designed for four, six and eight parameters. Satisfactory results were obtained for each of these functions, and the best-fitting results were achieved for the eight-parameter function. In addition, the uncertainties related to the estimated parameters, as well as the signals corresponding to functions that describe the shape of the energy peak, have been evaluated. There are also examples of the implementation of the method with respect to short-lived radon progeny and thoron decay products.

  13. Procedures and findings of examination of air contamination by alpha-active plutonium aerosols: primary and secondary products of Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaziev, Ya.I.; Petrenko, G.I.; Chumichyev, V.B.; Valetova, N.K.; Shkuro, V.N.; Polukhina, A.M.

    1991-01-01

    Atmospheric contamination pattern by Pu-radionuclides over a 30 km zone of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1987-1988 has been examined. Aerosol samples were analyzed for isotopic composition by using gamma- and alpha-spectrometric, and radiochemical methods. Preliminary analysis of isotopic and fractional composition of aerosols carried out earlier indicated that over the first few months after the Chernobyl accident the relative contribution of 238,239,240 Pu to air contamination was lowered as compared with beta-active products. At present, however, alpha-active plutonium isotopes became the dominant radioactive contaminants of the atmosphere and the concentrations of 238,239,240 Pu inhaled fractions turned out to be lower than the limiting permissible values based on the USSR radiation safety standards for radioactive contamination of the atmosphere for the limited part of population exposed to radionuclides. Nevertheless, it is necessary to know even moderate levels of atmospheric contamination by Pu-radionuclides, since their long impacts on the personnel operating in the 30 km zone of the Chernobyl NPP and population residing in the adjavent regions have not been studied properly. So, the risks for population health of such impacts cannot be generally excluded from consideration. (author) 4 refs.; 5 tabs

  14. WHAT DOESNT GET MEASURED - DOESNT GET DONE: IMPLEMENTING CONTINUOUS PROCESS IMPROVEMENT IN THE AIR FORCE RESERVE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    AF) is attempting a transformative effort to instill a Continuous Process Improvement (CPI) mindset into its culture. Known by its program name of...required. Given diverse operational requirements, the DoD Components shall have full flexibility to identify CPI/LSS focus areas and training plans...possible. Each of them must decide how CPI best fits into their individual leadership practices. Until such time as a CPI mindset is embedded into the

  15. Actual issues of introduction of continuous emission monitoring systems for control of negative impact of TPP to atmospheric air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrateva, O. E.; Roslyakov, P. V.; Borovkova, A. M.; Loktionov, O. A.

    2017-11-01

    Over the past 3 years there have been significant changes in Russian environmental legislation related to the transition to technological regulation based on the principles of the best available technologies (BAT). These changes also imply control and accounting of the harmful impact of industrial enterprises on the environment. Therefore, a mandatory requirement for equipping automatic continuous emission monitoring systems (ACEMS) is established for all large TPPs. For a successful practical solution of the problem of introducing such systems in the whole country there is an urgent need to develop the governing regulatory document for the design and operation of systems for continuous monitoring of TPP emissions into the air, allowing within reasonable limits to unify these systems for their work with the state data fund of state environmental monitoring and make easier the process of their implementation at operating facilities for industrial enterprises. Based on the large amount of research in the field of creation of ACEMS, which conducted in National Research University “MPEI”, a draft guidance document was developed, which includes the following regulatory provisions: goals and objectives of ACEMS, the stages of their introduction rules of carrying out preliminary inspection of energy facilities, requirements to develop technical specifications, general requirements for the operation of ACEMS, requirements to the structure and elements of ACEMS, recommendations on selection of places of measuring equipment installation, rules for execution, commissioning and acceptance testing, continuous measurement method, method for determination of the current gross and specific emissions. The draft guidance document, developed by the National Research University “MPEI”, formed the basis of the Preliminary national standards PNST 187-2017 “Automatic systems for continuous control and metering of contaminants emissions from thermal electric power stations into

  16. New developments in continuous monitoring of airborne activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinth, K.L.

    1987-01-01

    Air monitors that operate continuously are used in nuclear facilities to detect unexpected malfunctions in controls that limit levels of airborne radioactivity in occupied area. Monitoring for concentrations of alpha-emitting transuranics is the most difficult task in air monitoring. Workplace monitoring for alpha emitters requires a detection level ∼2% that of nonalpha-emitting radionuclides with a half-life >2 h. Typically, air monitoring is accomplished by passing a volume of the monitored air through a filter to collect the particulates. The filter is located near a detector that monitors the radioactivity of the collected particles and sends an alarm when the activity exceeds established limits. Alpha activity from daughters of thoron and radon, present in all air in variable amounts, hampers monitoring for transuranics. This presentation describes developments that have improved the accuracy and sensitivity for the monitoring of airborne concentration of transuranics

  17. [Non-invasive determination of cardiac output by continuous wave Doppler in air rescue service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobloch, K; Hubrich, V; Rohmann, P; Lüpkemann, M; Phillips, R; Gerich, T; Krettek, C

    2005-12-01

    Determination of cardiac output (CO) enables to assess the hemodynamic situation as well as to administer optimal catecholamine therapy especially in critically compromised patients with hemodynamic instability. Invasive determination of CO is possible via a Swan-Ganz-catheter with its associated risk of implantation in the hospital. Using the Doppler technique, we evaluated the feasibility of the USCOM-system for non-invasive CO determination in preclinical emergency medicine in air rescue service. In 32 patients (17 months to 92-years-old) cardiac output was determined non-invasively (USCOM) at the scene and during the helicopter transport at Christoph 4, based at Hannover Medical School. Simultaneously, blood pressure, ECG and oxygen saturation were determined. Non-invasive CO was assessed by a suprasternal access aiming at the aorta ascendens. 19 patients were unconscious due to cardial and non-cardial reasons, and 13 were conscious (sepsis, status epilepticus, anaphylactic reaction). 7 patients were hemodynamically unstable. In three patients the monitor was used during interhospital transfer by helicopter. Non-invasively determined CO via the USCOM system was 4.8 +/- 0.7 l/min with a cardiac index of 2.4 +/- 0.3 l/m (2). Highest CO values were determined in a patient with sepsis and during a grand-mal-status in epilepsy (CO 8.2 l/min). All examinations were done by the same emergency physician of the emergency helicopter Christoph 4 immediately after arrival at the scene. The examination took on average 25 seconds. During the helicopter transport, several consecutive CO measurements were performed to assess volume and catecholamine therapy with increase of stroke volume after volume load with colloidal fluids. Using the USCOM system it is possible to determine the beat-to-beat cardiac output in air rescue service non-invasively. The emergency physician gains additional crucial hemodynamic information to diagnose and treat adequately by administration of

  18. Continuous One-Arm Kettlebell Swing Training on Physiological Parameters in US Air Force Personnel: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Molly; O'Hara, Reginald; Caldwell, Lydia; Ordway, Jason; Bryant, Darryn

    The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effects of continuous one-arm kettlebell (KB) swing training on various US Air Force physical fitness testing components. Thirty trained male (n = 15) and female (n = 15) US Air Force (USAF) personnel volunteered and were sequentially assigned to one of three groups based on 1.5-mile run time: (1) KB one-arm swing training, (2) KB one-arm swing training plus highintensity running (KB + run), and (3) traditional USAF physical training (PT) according to Air Force Instruction 36-2905. The following measurements were made before and after 10 weeks of training: 1.5-mile run, 1-minute maximal push-ups, 1-minute maximal situps, maximal grip strength, pro agility, vertical jump, 40-yard dash, bodyweight, and percent body fat. Subjects attended three supervised exercise sessions per week for 10 weeks. During each exercise session, all groups performed a 10-minute dynamic warm-up followed by either (1) 10 minutes of continuous KB swings, (2) 10 minutes of continuous kettlebell swings plus 10 minutes of high-intensity running, or (3) 20 minutes of moderate intensity running plus push-ups and sit-ups. Average and peak heart rate were recorded for each subject after all sessions. Paired t tests were conducted to detect changes from pretesting to posttesting within each group and analysis of variance was used to compare between-group variability (ρ ≤ .05). Twenty subjects completed the study. There were no statistically significant changes in 1.5-mile run time between or within groups. The 40- yard dash significantly improved within the KB swing (ρ ≤ .05) and KB + run group (ρ ≤ .05); however, there were no significant differences in the traditional PT group (ρ ≤ .05) or between groups. Maximal push-ups significantly improved in the KB + run group (ρ ≤ .05) and trends toward significant improvements in maximal push-ups were found in both the KB (ρ = .057) and traditional PT (ρ = .067) groups. This study

  19. 3-D inverse solution for continuous casting taking an air cap into consideration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Nowak

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses a 3-D numerical solution of the inverse boundary problem for a continuous casting process of an aluminium alloy. Since the verified information on the heat flux distribution is crucial for a good design of a mould, effective cooling system and generally the whole caster, the main goal of the analysis presented within the paper was an identification of the heat fluxes along the external walls of the ingot. In the study an enthalpy-porosity technique implemented in a commercial Fluent package was used for modelling the solidification process. In this method, the phase change interface was determined on the basis of the liquid fraction approach. Moreover, the mathematical model included the pull velocity, the temperature-dependent properties for a liquid phase, mushy zone and solid phase, and a spatially local distribution of the thermal contact resistance between the ingot and crystallizer walls. In the inverse procedure, a sensitivity analysis was employed for the estimation of the boundary conditions retrieval. Although, the measured temperatures required to solve the problem are always burdened by measurement errors, a comparison of the measured and retrieved values showed a high accuracy of the computations.

  20. The air transportation hub-and-spoke design problem: comparison between a continuous and a discrete solution method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guina Sotomayor Alzamora

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The hub-and-spoke network design problem, also known as the hub location problem, aims to find the concentration points in a given network flow so that the sum of the distances of the linkages is minimized. In this work, we compare discrete solutions of this problem, given by the branch-and-cut method applied to the p-hub median model, with continuous solutions, given by the hyperbolic smoothing technique applied to a min-sum-min model. Computational experiments for particular instances of the Brazilian air transportation system, with the number of hubs varying from 2 to 8, are conducted with the support of a discretization heuristic and the Voronoi diagram.

  1. Prototype development and test results of a continuous ambient air monitoring system for hydrazine at the 10 ppb level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghelli, Barry; Parrish, Clyde; Barile, Ron; Lueck, Dale E.

    1995-01-01

    A Hydrazine Vapor Area Monitor (HVAM) system is currently being field tested as a detector for the presence of hydrazine in ambient air. The MDA/Polymetron Hydrazine Analyzer has been incorporated within the HVAM system as the core detector. This analyzer is a three-electrode liquid analyzer typically used in boiler feed water applications. The HVAM system incorporates a dual-phase sample collection/transport method which simultaneously pulls ambient air samples containing hydrazine and a very dilute sulfuric acid solution (0.0001 M) down a length of 1/4 inch outside diameter (OD) tubing from a remote site to the analyzer. The hydrazine-laden dilute acid stream is separated from the air and the pH is adjusted by addition of a dilute caustic solution to a pH greater than 10.2 prior to analysis. Both the dilute acid and caustic used by the HVAM are continuously generated during system operation on an "as needed" basis by mixing a metered amount of concentrated acid/base with dilution water. All of the waste water generated by the analyzer is purified for reuse by Barnstead ion-exchange cartridges so that the entire system minimizes the generation of waste materials. The pumping of all liquid streams and mixing of the caustic solution and dilution water with the incoming sample are done by a single pump motor fitted with the appropriate mix of peristaltic pump heads. The signal to noise (S/N) ratio of the analyzer has been enhanced by adding a stirrer in the MDA liquid cell to provide mixing normally generated by the high liquid flow rate designed by the manufacturer. An onboard microprocessor continuously monitors liquid levels, sample vacuum, and liquid leak sensors, as well as handles communications and other system functions (such as shut down should system malfunctions or errors occur). The overall system response of the HVAM can be automatically checked at regular intervals by measuring the analyzer response to a metered amount of calibration standard injected

  2. Independent Evaluation of Air Filter Media from Chornobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MD Hoover; AF Fencl; GJ Vargo

    1999-12-21

    An independent evaluation was performed to assess the morphology, pressure drop characteristics, alpha spectroscopy characteristics, and collection efficiency of an air sampling filter media and two types of aerosol face masks provided from Chernobyl by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The evaluation included characterizing the filter morphology by scqg electron microscopy; measuring the filter pressure drop as a function of air flowrate; evaluating the spectroscopy characteristics of the filter for alpha-emitting radionuclides by sampling ambient radon progeny aerosols in an Eberline Alpha-6A alpha continuous air monitor; determining the particle collection efficiency of the filter media for 0.3 {micro}m aerodynamic diameter monodisperse particles at 1 and 2 cfm; and comparing the apparent construction, durability, and performance similarities of the filter media to other media commonly used for monitoring airborne alpha-emitting radionuclides.

  3. Discontinuous and Continuous Indoor Air Quality Monitoring in Homes with Fireplaces or Wood Stoves as Heating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluigi de Gennaro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Around 50% of the world’s population, particularly in developing countries, uses biomass as one of the most common fuels. Biomass combustion releases a considerable amount of various incomplete combustion products, including particulate matter (PM and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. The paper presents the results of Indoor Air Quality (IAQ measurements in six houses equipped with wood burning stoves or fireplaces as heating systems. The houses were monitored for 48-h periods in order to collect PM10 samples and measure PAH concentrations. The average, the maximum and the lowest values of the 12-h PM10 concentration were 68.6 μg/m3, 350.7 μg/m3 and 16.8 μg/m3 respectively. The average benzo[a]pyrene 12-h concentration was 9.4 ng/m3, while the maximum and the minimum values were 24.0 ng/m3 and 1.5 ng/m3, respectively. Continuous monitoring of PM10, PAHs, Ultra Fine Particle (UFP and Total Volatile Organic Compounds (TVOC was performed in order to study the progress of pollution phenomena due to biomass burning, their trends and contributions to IAQ. The results show a great heterogeneity of impacts on IAQ in terms of magnitude and behavior of the considered pollutants’ concentrations. This variability is determined by not only different combustion technologies or biomass quality, but overall by different ignition mode, feeding and flame management, which can also be different for the same house. Moreover, room dimensions and ventilation were significant factors for pollution dispersion. The increase of PM10, UFP and PAH concentrations, during lighting, was always detected and relevant. Continuous monitoring allowed singling out contributions of other domestic sources of considered pollutants such as cooking and cigarettes. Cooking contribution produced an impact on IAQ in same cases higher than that of the biomass heating system.

  4. Discontinuous and Continuous Indoor Air Quality Monitoring in Homes with Fireplaces or Wood Stoves as Heating System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gennaro, Gianluigi; Dambruoso, Paolo Rosario; Di Gilio, Alessia; Di Palma, Valerio; Marzocca, Annalisa; Tutino, Maria

    2015-12-24

    Around 50% of the world's population, particularly in developing countries, uses biomass as one of the most common fuels. Biomass combustion releases a considerable amount of various incomplete combustion products, including particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The paper presents the results of Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) measurements in six houses equipped with wood burning stoves or fireplaces as heating systems. The houses were monitored for 48-h periods in order to collect PM10 samples and measure PAH concentrations. The average, the maximum and the lowest values of the 12-h PM10 concentration were 68.6 μg/m³, 350.7 μg/m³ and 16.8 μg/m³ respectively. The average benzo[a]pyrene 12-h concentration was 9.4 ng/m³, while the maximum and the minimum values were 24.0 ng/m³ and 1.5 ng/m³, respectively. Continuous monitoring of PM10, PAHs, Ultra Fine Particle (UFP) and Total Volatile Organic Compounds (TVOC) was performed in order to study the progress of pollution phenomena due to biomass burning, their trends and contributions to IAQ. The results show a great heterogeneity of impacts on IAQ in terms of magnitude and behavior of the considered pollutants' concentrations. This variability is determined by not only different combustion technologies or biomass quality, but overall by different ignition mode, feeding and flame management, which can also be different for the same house. Moreover, room dimensions and ventilation were significant factors for pollution dispersion. The increase of PM10, UFP and PAH concentrations, during lighting, was always detected and relevant. Continuous monitoring allowed singling out contributions of other domestic sources of considered pollutants such as cooking and cigarettes. Cooking contribution produced an impact on IAQ in same cases higher than that of the biomass heating system.

  5. Air

    CERN Document Server

    Rivera, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Air is all around us. Learn how it is used in art, technology, and engineering. Five easy-to-read chapters explain the science behind air, as well as its real-world applications. Vibrant, full-color photos, bolded glossary words, and a key stats section let readers zoom in even deeper. Aligned to Common Core Standards and correlated to state standards. Abdo Zoom is a division of ABDO.

  6. 42 CFR 84.162 - Man test for gases and vapors; Type C respirators, continuous-flow class and Type CE supplied-air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Man test for gases and vapors; Type C respirators, continuous-flow class and Type CE supplied-air respirators; test requirements. 84.162 Section 84.162 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL...

  7. Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugele, B.; Scheider, J.; Spangl, W.

    2001-01-01

    In recent years several regulations and standards for air quality and limits for air pollution were issued or are in preparation by the European Union, which have severe influence on the environmental monitoring and legislation in Austria. This chapter of the environmental control report of Austria gives an overview about the legal situation of air pollution control in the European Union and in specific the legal situation in Austria. It gives a comprehensive inventory of air pollution measurements for the whole area of Austria of total suspended particulates, ozone, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, heavy metals, benzene, dioxin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and eutrophication. For each of these pollutants the measured emission values throughout Austria are given in tables and geographical charts, the environmental impact is discussed, statistical data and time series of the emission sources are given and legal regulations and measures for an effective environmental pollution control are discussed. In particular the impact of fossil-fuel power plants on the air pollution is analyzed. (a.n.)

  8. From 1962 the teaching of Methodology of Radioisotopes is continuous in the University of Buenos Aires of the Argentine Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, E.; Cremaschi, G.; Martin, G.; Zubillaga, M.; Cricco, G.; Davio, C.; Genaro, A.; Bianchin, A.; Mohamad, N.; Klecha, A.; Calmanovici, G.; Goldman, G.; Salgueiro, J.; Nunez, M.; Medina, V.; Gutierrez, A.; Leonardi, N.; Bergoc, R.

    2006-01-01

    In the Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry of the University of Buenos Aires the teaching of the radioisotopes began in 1960 and uninterruptedly continuous. The application of the radioisotopes and the radiations in different professional activities it is acceptable only in a context of radiological safety and with personal appropriately trained. Conscious of it, the training in grade, postgraduate and technicature, has more of 40% of the thematic one guided to the formation in radiological protection. The courses dictated at the moment in the Laboratory of Radioisotopes they include: Grade formation: to) Subject grade 'Methodology of Radioisotopes' in the Career of Biochemistry: it began to be dictated in 1960 and until the present, more of 6500 students they have gone by our classrooms. b) Grade subject 'Radiopharmacy' in the Career of Pharmacy: guided to the formation of a modern pharmacist, with necessary knowledge to be developed as professional in the Radiopharmaceutical area. Postgraduate formation: c) Postgraduate course of Methodology of Radioisotopes specially directed to biochemical, biologists, veterinarians, chemical. It is dictated uninterruptedly from 1962. d) Postgraduate course in Methodology of Radioisotopes for medical professionals, specially directed to professionals of the medicine that want to specialize in different branches of the Nuclear Medicine. Both courses have 220 present hours and it stops their approval the assistants they should surrender a final exam at open book that consists on the resolution of a practical exercise adapted to their professional practices. Until the present they have surrendered their exams satisfactorily approximately 2000 professionals coming from different areas of the Argentina and of several countries of Hispanic speech. e) Starting from 1992 the Course of Upgrade in Methodology of Radioisotopes directed to professionals that want to upgrade its knowledge in new radioisotopic methodologies is dictated

  9. A study on the environmental behavior of global air pollutants based on the continuous measurements of atmospheric radon concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, Takao; Yamazawa, Hiromi

    2003-01-01

    Radon is a useful natural radioactive tracer of air transportation of atmospheric pollution, since radon is a noble gas and chemically inert. The atmospheric radon concentration is usually measured by a high-sensitivity electrostatic collection method or a two-filter method. The variations of radon concentrations observed over a solitary island and in the upper atmosphere are suitable for comparing with those of air pollutants. Some numerical simulation models were used to study the radon global transport in the atmosphere. In East Asia, atmospheric radon and air pollutants are transported with the air stream from the continent of China to the Northwestern Pacific Ocean. It is necessary to clarify the transport mechanism from both radon observations at various locations and numerical simulation. (author)

  10. Buffett's Alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Kabiller, David; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    Berkshire Hathaway has realized a Sharpe ratio of 0.76, higher than any other stock or mutual fund with a history of more than 30 years, and Berkshire has a significant alpha to traditional risk factors. However, we find that the alpha becomes insignificant when controlling for exposures to Betting-Against-Beta...... in publicly traded stocks versus wholly-owned private companies, we find that the former performs the best, suggesting that Buffett's returns are more due to stock selection than to his effect on management. These results have broad implications for market efficiency and the implementability of academic...

  11. Detection of Campylobacter Bacteria in Air Samples for Continuous Real-Time Monitoring of Campylobacter Colonization in Broiler Flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Katja Nyholm; Lund, Marianne; Skov, J.

    2009-01-01

    Improved monitoring tools are important for the control of Campylobacter bacteria in broiler production. In this study, we compare the sensitivities of detection of Campylobacter by PCR with feces, dust, and air samples during the lifetimes of broilers in two poultry houses and conclude that the ...

  12. Monte Carlo alpha calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brockway, D.; Soran, P.; Whalen, P.

    1985-01-01

    A Monte Carlo algorithm to efficiently calculate static alpha eigenvalues, N = ne/sup ..cap alpha..t/, for supercritical systems has been developed and tested. A direct Monte Carlo approach to calculating a static alpha is to simply follow the buildup in time of neutrons in a supercritical system and evaluate the logarithmic derivative of the neutron population with respect to time. This procedure is expensive, and the solution is very noisy and almost useless for a system near critical. The modified approach is to convert the time-dependent problem to a static ..cap alpha../sup -/eigenvalue problem and regress ..cap alpha.. on solutions of a/sup -/ k/sup -/eigenvalue problem. In practice, this procedure is much more efficient than the direct calculation, and produces much more accurate results. Because the Monte Carlo codes are intrinsically three-dimensional and use elaborate continuous-energy cross sections, this technique is now used as a standard for evaluating other calculational techniques in odd geometries or with group cross sections.

  13. Application of continuous seismic-reflection techniques to delineate paleochannels beneath the Neuse River at US Marine Corps Air Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinell, Alex P.

    1999-01-01

    A continuous seismic-reflection profiling survey was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey on the Neuse River near the Cherry Point Marine Corps Air Station during July 7-24, 1998. Approximately 52 miles of profiling data were collected during the survey from areas northwest of the Air Station to Flanner Beach and southeast to Cherry Point. Positioning of the seismic lines was done by using an integrated navigational system. Data from the survey were used to define and delineate paleochannel alignments under the Neuse River near the Air Station. These data also were correlated with existing surface and borehole geophysical data, including vertical seismic-profiling velocity data collected in 1995. Sediments believed to be Quaternary in age were identified at varying depths on the seismic sections as undifferentiated reflectors and lack the lateral continuity of underlying reflectors believed to represent older sediments of Tertiary age. The sediments of possible Quaternary age thicken to the southeast. Paleochannels of Quaternary age and varying depths were identified beneath the Neuse River estuary. These paleochannels range in width from 870 feet to about 6,900 feet. Two zones of buried paleochannels were identified in the continuous seismic-reflection profiling data. The eastern paleochannel zone includes two large superimposed channel features identified during this study and in re-interpreted 1995 land seismic-reflection data. The second paleochannel zone, located west of the first paleochannel zone, contains several small paleochannels near the central and south shore of the Neuse River estuary between Slocum Creek and Flanner Beach. This second zone of channel features may be continuous with those mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1995 using land seismic-reflection data on the southern end of the Air Station. Most of the channels were mapped at the Quaternary-Tertiary sediment boundary. These channels appear to have been cut into the older sediments

  14. Alpha-1, are you in? (C)harlie (O)scar (P)appa (D)elta, over!

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The global numbers are expected to continue to increase as risk ... risk factor is alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency. This risk is particularly high if someone deficient in AAT also smokes. AAT inhibits a wide variety of proteases. It protects tissue from .... Perhaps collateral ventilation or interalveolar air drift through the pores ...

  15. Use of a continual sweep motion to compare air polishing devices, powders and exposure time on unexposed root cementum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herr, Mandy L; DeLong, Ralph; Li, Yuping; Lunos, Scott A; Stoltenberg, Jill L

    2017-07-01

    Low abrasive air polishing powders are a viable method for subgingival biofilm removal. This in vitro study evaluated the effects of air polishing using a standard tip on cementum following clinically recommended protocols. Forty-eight teeth were randomly divided into eight groups with six teeth per group. Teeth were treated using either a Hu-Friedy EMS or DENTSPLY Cavitron ® air polishing device. One of three glycine powders (Air-flow 25 µm, Clinpro 45 μm, Clinpro+TCP 45 μm) or a sodium bicarbonate powder (NaHCO 3  85 μm) was sprayed on cementum using a clinically relevant sweeping motion. Volume and depth of cementum removed after 5 and 90 s exposures were calculated. Surface texture was evaluated using SEMs taken following the last exposure. After 5 s exposures, neither unit nor powder had a substantial effect on volume loss or defect depth. After 90 s exposures, differences between powders existed only for the DENTSPLY unit (p powders (p powders (p powders; however, exposed tubules were larger and more prevalent for NaHCO 3 85 μm. Root surface loss was similar for glycine powders evaluated in this study. Differences in powder performance between units may be related to tip apertures and spray patterns. Additional research is needed to determine if cementum loss is greater than what occurs with conventional biofilm removal methods, such as curets and ultrasonic scalers.

  16. Using continuous sampling to examine the distribution of traffic related air pollution in proximity to a major road

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdam, Kim; Steer, Peter; Perrotta, Kim

    2011-04-01

    A study to characterize the distribution of vehicle related air pollution in proximity to a major arterial road was undertaken to inform local land use planning and policy regarding separation distances that could help reduce exposure for new sensitive land use development. Measurements of criteria air contaminants were made at ground level, 10 m, 30 m, and 60 m from curb side, and at 9 m height, 10 m from curb side along a traffic corridor carrying over 34,000 vehicles per day. Pollutant decay with distance or height was not statistically significant for O 3, CO, or SO 2. No clear distance decay pattern emerged for PM 2.5. Compared to concentrations at ground level 30 m from curb side, concentrations at 10 m, 60 m, and 10 m at 9 m height were 83%, 45% and 54% higher, respectively. For NO, NO 2, and NO x, however, there was a statistically significant decline in concentrations with distance with the decay most apparent from 30 m to 60 m from the road. Concentrations at 10 m from curb side at 9 m height were equivalent to (all wind conditions) or less than (downwind conditions) those at 30 m and ground level. These findings suggest that for protection of public health in the near road environment, vertical distance is an important determinant of exposure to pollutants that are key indicators of traffic related air pollution. This has implications for sensitive land use development in proximity to high volume traffic corridors.

  17. Healthy Air Outdoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lung.org > Our Initiatives > Healthy Air > Outdoor Healthy Air Outdoors The quality of the air we breathe ... families and can even shorten their lives. Outdoor Air Pollution and Health Outdoor air pollution continues to ...

  18. Alpha scintillation radon counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, H.F. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Radon counting chambers which utilize the alpha-scintillation properties of silver activated zinc sulfide are simple to construct, have a high efficiency, and, with proper design, may be relatively insensitive to variations in the pressure or purity of the counter filling. Chambers which were constructed from glass, metal, or plastic in a wide variety of shapes and sizes were evaluated for the accuracy and the precision of the radon counting. The principles affecting the alpha-scintillation radon counting chamber design and an analytic system suitable for a large scale study of the 222 Rn and 226 Ra content of either air or other environmental samples are described. Particular note is taken of those factors which affect the accuracy and the precision of the method for monitoring radioactivity around uranium mines

  19. Design and performance of a Nafion dryer for continuous operation at CO2 and CH4 air monitoring sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. R. Welp

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In preparation for routine deployment in a network of greenhouse gas monitoring stations, we have designed and tested a simple method for drying ambient air to near or below 0.2% (2000 ppm mole fraction H2O using a Nafion dryer. The inlet system was designed for use with cavity ring-down spectrometer (CRDS analyzers such as the Picarro model G2301 that measure H2O in addition to their principal analytes, in this case CO2 and CH4. These analyzers report dry-gas mixing ratios without drying the sample by measuring H2O mixing ratio at the same frequency as the main analytes, and then correcting for the dilution and peak broadening effects of H2O on the mixing ratios of the other analytes measured in moist air. However, it is difficult to accurately validate the water vapor correction in the field. By substantially lowering the amount of H2O in the sample, uncertainties in the applied water vapor corrections can be reduced by an order of magnitude or more, thus eliminating the need to determine instrument-specific water vapor correction coefficients and to verify the stability over time. Our Nafion drying inlet system takes advantage of the extra capacity of the analyzer pump to redirect 30% of the dry gas exiting the Nafion to the outer shell side of the dryer and has no consumables. We tested the Nafion dryer against a cryotrap (−97 °C method for removing H2O and found that in wet-air tests, the Nafion reduces the CO2 dry-gas mixing ratios of the sample gas by as much as 0.1 ± 0.01 ppm due to leakage across the membrane. The effect on CH4 was smaller and varied within ± 0.2 ppb, with an approximate uncertainty of 0.1 ppb. The Nafion-induced CO2 bias is partially offset by sending the dry reference gases through the Nafion dryer as well. The residual bias due to the impact of moisture differences between sample and reference gas on the permeation through the Nafion was approximately −0.05 ppm for CO2 and varied within ± 0.2 ppb for CH4. The

  20. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency (Inherited Emphysema)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... antitrypsin inactivates elastase once it has finished its job. Without alpha 1 antitrypsin, elastase can destroy the air sacs of the lung. How is the diagnosis made? Because Alpha-1 related disease is COPD, the diagnosis is made by the same methods. Your doctor may have you do a number ...

  1. Case Study - Alpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Leybourne

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This case study was developed from an actual scenario by Dr. Steve Leybourne of Boston University.  The case documents the historical evolution of an organization, and has been used successfully in courses dealing with organizational and cultural change, and the utilization of ‘soft skills’ in project-based management. This is a short case, ideal for classroom use and discussion.  The issues are easily accessible to students, and there is a single wide ranging question that allows for the inclusion of many issues surrounding strategic decision-making, and behavioural and cultural change. Alpha was one of the earlier companies in the USA to invest in large, edge-of-town superstores, with plentiful free vehicle parking, selling food and related household products. Alpha was created in the 1950s as a subsidiary of a major publicly quoted retail group.  It started business by opening a string of very large discount stores in converted industrial and warehouse premises in the south of the United States. In the early days shoppers were offered a limited range of very competitively priced products. When Alpha went public in 1981 it was the fourth largest food retailer in the US, selling an ever-widening range of food and non-food products.  Its success continued to be based on high volume, low margins and good value for money, under the slogan of ‘Alpha Price.’

  2. Design and analysis of a doubly corrugated filter for a combined multi-feed microwave-hot air and continuous belt system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sopida Sungsoontorn

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A doubly corrugated filter was designed for a combined multi-feed microwave-hot air and continuous belt system (CMCB. The proposed filter reduces microwave energy radiation from the open entry of the continuous belt system. Microwave radiation leakage that affects a human should remain below 10 mW/cm2. The filter was designed for stop-band frequency range 2,300-2,600 MHz, while the operating frequency is 2,450 MHz, and for attenuation greater than 60 dB in this range. We report on optimizing all the design parameters of a doubly corrugated filter and on experimental verification after its installation at the Research Center of Microwave Utilization in Engineering (R.C.M.E at Thammasat University, Thailand.

  3. The "Lung": a software-controlled air accumulator for quasi-continuous multi-point measurement of agricultural greenhouse gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Martin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe the design and testing of a flexible bag ("Lung" accumulator attached to a gas chromatographic (GC analyzer capable of measuring surface-atmosphere greenhouse gas exchange fluxes in a wide range of environmental/agricultural settings. In the design presented here, the Lung can collect up to three gas samples concurrently, each accumulated into a Tedlar bag over a period of 20 min or longer. Toggling collection between 2 sets of 3 bags enables quasi-continuous collection with sequential analysis and discarding of sample residues. The Lung thus provides a flexible "front end" collection system for interfacing to a GC or alternative analyzer and has been used in 2 main types of application. Firstly, it has been applied to micrometeorological assessment of paddock-scale N2O fluxes, discussed here. Secondly, it has been used for the automation of concurrent emission assessment from three sheep housed in metabolic crates with gas tracer addition and sampling multiplexed to a single GC.

    The Lung allows the same GC equipment used in laboratory discrete sample analysis to be deployed for continuous field measurement. Continuity of measurement enables spatially-averaged N2O fluxes in particular to be determined with greater accuracy, given the highly heterogeneous and episodic nature of N2O emissions. We present a detailed evaluation of the micrometeorological flux estimation alongside an independent tuneable diode laser system, reporting excellent agreement between flux estimates based on downwind vertical concentration differences. Whilst the current design is based around triplet bag sets, the basic design could be scaled up to a larger number of inlets or bags and less frequent analysis (longer accumulation times where a greater number of sampling points are required.

  4. Remarks on tilde g_{alpha}-irresolute maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmala Rebecca Paul

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Only a few of the class of generalized closed sets form a topology. The class of tilde g_{alpha}-closed sets is one among them. The aim of this paper is to introduce the different notions of irresolute function using tilde g_{alpha}-closed sets and study some of their basic properties.We also study the relation between strongly tilde g_{alpha}- continuous and perfectly eg-continuous functions. We also introduce tilde g_{alpha}-compact and ilde g_{alpha}-connectedspaces and study their properties using tilde g_{alpha}-continuous and eg-irresolute functions.

  5. Indigenously developed plutonium counting system for assessing air-borne plutonium activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karnani, N.K.; Jeevanram, S.S.; Mahule, K.N.; Walinjkar, P.B.; Rath, D.P.

    2005-01-01

    At present in plutonium handling labs a time consuming air sampling method is used to detect Plutonium in air. To detect Plutonium air borne activity the air sampling is done. Air sampling heads are connected near each glove box. Air is continuously sucked and dust particles of more than 0.8 microns are collected on millipore filter paper. At the end of the day it is counted for gross alpha counts. These alpha counts may be due to Plutonium particles and/or due to natural Background Activities due to Radon and Thoron and their daughter product. As described this process is time consuming however it is necessary to detect air borne Plutonium particle radioactivity as promptly as possible to give feed back to the persons working in labs for their personal safety. To overcome this problem indigenous Plutonium Counting system was developed. In this system two channel counting technique is used, which simultaneously shows the counts of plutonium and background activities

  6. Particularization of alpha contamination using CR-39 track detectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Solid-state nuclear track detectors have found wide use in various domains of science and technology, e.g. in environmental experiments. The measurement of alpha activity on sources in an environment, such as air is not easy because of short penetration range of alpha particles. Furthermore, measurement of alpha ...

  7. Continuous monitoring of radon gas as a tool to understand air dynamics in the cave of Altamira (Cantabria, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainz, Carlos; Rábago, Daniel; Celaya, Santiago; Fernández, Enrique; Quindós, Jorge; Quindós, Luis; Fernández, Alicia; Fuente, Ismael; Arteche, Jose Luis; Quindós, Luis Santiago

    2018-05-15

    The use of radon as an atmospheric tracer in the Altamira Cave over the past 30years has provided relevant information about gaseous exchanges between the Polychromes Room, the adjoining Chambers inside the cave, and the outside atmosphere. The relatively simple physico-chemical behaviour of radon gas provides a marked advantage over other tracer gases that are usually present in high concentrations in hypogeous environments, such as CO 2 . Two types of continuous radon measurement were undertaken. The first involves active detectors located in the Hall and Polychromes Room, which provide radon concentration values at 1-hour intervals. In addition, nuclear solid track etched detectors (CR-39) are used in every chamber of the cave over 14-day exposure periods, providing average radon concentrations. In this paper we show some of the specific degassing and recharge events identified by anomalous variations in the concentration of radon gas in the Polychromes Room. In addition, we update knowledge regarding the degree of connection between chambers inside the cave and with the outside atmosphere. We verify that the connection between the Polychromes Room and the rest of the cave has been drastically reduced by the installation of the second closure in 2008. Except for point exchanges with the Crossing zone generated by a negative temperature gradient in that direction, the atmosphere of the Polychromes Room remains stable, or else it exchanges matter with the outside atmosphere through the karst interface. The role of radon as a tracer is demonstrated to be valid both to reflect seasonal cycles of degassing and recharge, and to analyse shorter (daily) period fluctuations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. PNNL OS3300 Alpha/Beta Monitoring System Software and Hardware Operations Manual, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, J. Matthew; Duchsherer, Cheryl J.; Sisk, Daniel R.; Carter, Gregory L.; Douglas, David D.; Carrell, Dorothy M.

    2006-01-25

    This Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) OS3300 Alpha/Beta Monitoring System Software and Hardware Operations Manual describes how to install and operate the software and hardware on a personal computer in conjunction with the EG&G Berthold LB150D continuous air monitor. Included are operational details for the software functions, how to read and use the drop-down menus, how to understand readings and calculations, and how to access the database tables.

  9. Operability of the Ventilation Continuous Air Monitor (CAM) Interlock Analysis of Proposed Upgrade to the 241AW Farm Primary Exhauster CAM System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GUSTAVSON, R.D.

    2002-01-01

    The Tank Farms Final Safety Analysis (FSAR) assumes that a ventilation stack Continuous Air Monitor (CAM) interlock system detects high radiation in the exhaust stream and shuts off the associated ventilation system within 10 minutes of a High-Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter system failure (CHG, 2002). Previous analysis of the as-built CAM system on the AW Farm Primary Exhauster (stack 296-A-27) showed that this system potentially required significantly longer than 10 minutes to detect a HEPA filter failure and initiate shutdown of the ventilation system (Short, 2002). The purpose of this report is to determine the CAM interlock system response time for a proposed upgrade of the 296-A-27 CAM system. The approach to be used in this analysis is essentially the same as used in RPP-10799, Rev. 0 (Short, 2002), which is to conservatively estimate the time required by the proposed upgraded CAM sampling/monitoring system to detect a FSAR-defined HEPA filter failure and automatically shutdown the exhaust fan. For the HEPA filter failure over-temperature accident scenario in the FSAR, the upgraded CAM system on the AW Farm Primary Exhauster will require significantly less than 10 minutes to detect a HEPA filter failure, actuate the CAM Interlock, and shutdown the exhauster fan. Therefore, the analyzed system is adequate to meet the operability requirements specified in the FSAR and the Tank Farms Technical Safety Requirements (CHG, 2001; CHG, 2002)

  10. Coulomb correction to elastic. alpha. -. alpha. scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bera, P.K.; Jana, A.K.; Haque, N.; Talukdar, B. (Department of Physics, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan-731235, West Bengal, India (IN))

    1991-02-01

    The elastic {alpha}-{alpha} scattering is treated within the framework of a generalized phase-function method (GPFM). This generalization consists in absorbing the effect of Coulomb interaction in the comparison functions for developing the phase equation. Based on values of scattering phase shifts computed by the present method, it is concluded that the GPFM provides an uncomplicated approach to rigorous Coulomb correction in the {alpha}-{alpha} scattering.

  11. Intrahepatic expression of interferon alpha & interferon alpha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kemrilib

    Alpha m-RNA while 30% only expressed Interferon Alpha Receptor m-RNA. Responders and non-responders to Interferon therapy ... expression of IFN Alpha Receptor mRNA. Regardless of the response to interferon, histological .... generation reverse hybridisation, line probe assay. (Inno-LiPA HCV II; Innogenetics, Ghent,.

  12. Ultrawide continuously tunable 1.55-μm vertical air-cavity wavelength-selective elements for VCSELs using micromachined electrostatic actuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillmer, Hartmut H.; Daleiden, Juergen; Prott, Cornelia; Roemer, Friedhard; Irmer, Soeren; Ataro, Edwin; Tarraf, Amer; Gutermuth, D.; Kommallein, I.; Strassner, Martin

    2003-08-01

    Surface-micromachined 1.55μm vertical-resonator-based devices, capable of wide, continuous, monotonic and kink-free tuning are designed, technologically implemented and characterized. Tuning is achieved by mechanically actuating one or several membranes in a vertical resonator including two ultra-highly reflective DBR mirrors. The tuning is controlled by a single parameter (actuation voltage). The two different layers composing the mirrors reveal a very strong refractive index contrast. Filters including InP/air-gap DBR's (3.5 periods) using GaInAs sacrificial layers reveal a continuous tuning of up to 9% of the absolute wavelength. Varying a reverse voltage (U=0 .. -3.2V) between the membranes, a tuning range up to 142nm was obtained by electrostatic actuation. The correlation of the wavelength and the applied voltage is accurately reproducible without any hysteresis. Theoretical model calculations are performed for symmetric and asymmetric device structures, varying layer thickness and compositions. Models of highly sophisticated color tuning can be found in nature, e.g. in tunable spectral light filtering by trogon and butterfly wings. Bionics transfers the principles of success of nature into natural science, engineering disciplines and applications (here filters and VCSELs for optical communication on the basis of WDM). Light interferes constructively and destructively with nano- and microstructures of appropriate shape, dimensions and materials, both in the artificial DBR structures fabricated in our labs as well as in the natural ones.

  13. Effects of continuous phonation on /sup 133/xenon-inhalation air curves (of the kind used in deriving regional cerebral blood flow)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Formby, C.; Thomas, R.G.; Brown, W.S. Jr.; Halsey, J.H. Jr.

    1987-07-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) may be measured with inhalation techniques that use end-expired values of radioactivity to estimate the isotope concentration in arterial blood. These end-expired data are used as an input function in a mathematical equation to derive rCBF. End-expired air is assumed normally to be in equilibrium with the arterial blood at the alveolar surface of the lung during regular (passive) breathing; this assumption may not be valid during continuous phonation. We therefore have analyzed breathing (inhalation/exhalation) patterns and end-expired radioactivity (/sup 133/Xe) during (1) speaking, (2) singing, and (3) humming of the national anthem, and also during (4) passive breathing. Statistically significant differences in breathing patterns were measured between a group of nonmusicians and two groups of musicians (singers) during the phonation tasks: The nonmusicians breathed more often (and more rapidly) and exhibited less variability in their breathing patterns than did the musicians. Notwithstanding these differences, the shapes of smoothed functions derived from the end-expired values were not influenced appreciably during phonation (except possibly during talking). The latter finding suggests that estimates of rCBF derived with these data should not be confounded seriously because of the continuous phonation.

  14. Single and double grid long-range alpha detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacArthur, D.W.; Allander, K.S.

    1993-01-01

    Alpha particle detectors capable of detecting alpha radiation from distant sources. In one embodiment, a voltage is generated in a single electrically conductive grid while a fan draws air containing air molecules ionized by alpha particles through an air passage and across the conductive grid. The current in the conductive grid can be detected and used for measurement or alarm. Another embodiment builds on this concept and provides an additional grid so that air ions of both polarities can be detected. The detector can be used in many applications, such as for pipe or duct, tank, or soil sample monitoring

  15. An assessment of the performance of the Monitor for AeRosols and GAses in ambient air (MARGA): a semi-continuous method for soluble compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumsey, I. C.; Cowen, K. A.; Walker, J. T.; Kelly, T. J.; Hanft, E. A.; Mishoe, K.; Rogers, C.; Proost, R.; Beachley, G. M.; Lear, G.; Frelink, T.; Otjes, R. P.

    2014-06-01

    Ambient air monitoring as part of the US Environmental Protection Agency's (US EPA's) Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNet) currently uses filter packs to measure weekly integrated concentrations. The US EPA is interested in supplementing CASTNet with semi-continuous monitoring systems at select sites to characterize atmospheric chemistry and deposition of nitrogen and sulfur compounds at higher time resolution than the filter pack. The Monitor for AeRosols and GAses in ambient air (MARGA) measures water-soluble gases and aerosols at an hourly temporal resolution. The performance of the MARGA was assessed under the US EPA Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program. The assessment was conducted in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, from 8 September to 8 October 2010 and focused on gaseous SO2, HNO3, and NH3 and aerosol SO42-, NO3-, and NH4+. Precision of the MARGA was evaluated by calculating the median absolute relative percent difference (MARPD) between paired hourly results from duplicate MARGA units (MUs), with a performance goal of ≤ 25%. The accuracy of the MARGA was evaluated by calculating the MARPD for each MU relative to the average of the duplicate denuder/filter pack concentrations, with a performance goal of ≤ 40%. Accuracy was also evaluated by using linear regression, where MU concentrations were plotted against the average of the duplicate denuder/filter pack concentrations. From this, a linear least squares line of best fit was applied. The goal was for the slope of the line of best fit to be between 0.8 and 1.2. The MARGA performed well in comparison to the denuder/filter pack for SO2, SO42-, and NH4+, with all three compounds passing the accuracy and precision goals by a significant margin. The performance of the MARGA in measuring NO3- could not be evaluated due to the different sampling efficiency of coarse NO3- by the MUs and the filter pack. Estimates of "fine" NO3- were calculated for the MUs and the filter pack

  16. An Alpha spectrometer for measuring radon daughter individual activity concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berico, M.; Formignani, M.; Mariotti, F.

    2001-01-01

    In the frame of the program of the Institute for Radiation Protection of ENEA, related to the evaluation of dose from radon and thoron progeny, an alpha spectrometer for the continuous air monitoring (CAM type) of radon and thoron has been realized. The constructive characteristics of the device are here presented together with energy and efficiency calibration. The device allows, by means of a screen type diffusion battery and a filter, to determinate the single radioactivity of each radionuclide of the progeny selecting them in relation to their diffusive behaviour (dichotomous particle size selection). The three-count filter method has been employed to measure the concentrations of 218 Po, 214 Pb and 214 Bi in air. Radon and thoron effective doses using a dosimetric, instead of an epidemiologic approach, will be then evaluated [it

  17. Domestic wastewater treatment and power generation in continuous flow air-cathode stacked microbial fuel cell: Effect of series and parallel configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Arriaga, Edson Baltazar; Hernández-Romano, Jesús; García-Sánchez, Liliana; Guillén Garcés, Rosa Angélica; Bahena-Bahena, Erick Obed; Guadarrama-Pérez, Oscar; Moeller Chavez, Gabriela Eleonora

    2018-05-15

    In this study, a continuous flow stack consisting of 40 individual air-cathode MFC units was used to determine the performance of stacked MFC during domestic wastewater treatment operated with unconnected individual MFC and in series and parallel configuration. The voltages obtained from individual MFC units were of 0.08-1.1 V at open circuit voltage, while in series connection, the maximum power and current density were 2500 mW/m 2 and 500 mA/m 2 (4.9 V), respectively. In parallel connection, the maximum power and current density was 5.8 mW/m 2 and 24 mA/m 2 , respectively. When the cells were not connected to each other MFC unit, the main bacterial species found in the anode biofilms were Bacillus and Lysinibacillus. After switching from unconnected to series and parallel connections, the most abundant species in the stacked MFC were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, followed by different Bacilli classes. This study demonstrated that when the stacked MFC was switched from unconnected to series and parallel connections, the pollutants removal, performance electricity and microbial community changed significantly. Voltages drops were observed in the stacked MFC, which was mainly limited by the cathodes. These voltages loss indicated high resistances within the stacked MFC, generating a parasitic cross current. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Continuous atmospheric 222Rn concentration measurements to study surface-air exchange at the station of Gredos and Iruelas, in Central Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, Claudia; Morgui, Josep Anton; Àgueda, Alba; Batet, Oscar; Curcoll, Roger; Arias, Rosa; Arnold, Delia; Ealo, Marina; Nofuentes, Manel; Occhipinti, Paola; Sánchez-Garcíaa, Laura; Vargas, Arturo; Rodó, Xavier

    2013-04-01

    The Gredos and Iruelas station (GIC3) is part of the ClimaDat IC3 network (http://climadat.es/). This station is located in the Gredos Natural Park at a latitude of 40.22° N and a longitude of -5.14° E in the Spanish central plateau. The ClimaDat network is made by 8 stations distributed around Spain and it has been developed with the aim of studying climatic processes and the responses of impacted systems, at different time and space scales. Since November 2012, measurements of CO2, CH4, and of the natural radioactive gas 222Rn are continuously performed at GIC3 station at 20 m agl and at 1100 m asl . Maximum,minimum and average values of meteorological parameters, such as ambient air humidity and temperature, wind speed and direction are also measured at GIC3 station. Particularly, the concentration series of 222Rn measured at GIC3 station are extremely useful to evaluate the exchange of this noble radioactive gas between the soil surface and the lower troposphere in this area, under different weather situations and environmental conditions. The Gredos Natural Park is located in a granitic basement and this type of soil presents a high porosity and permeability. Furthermore, granitic materials have high activity levels of 228U. These factors enable large amount of radon to escape from the deeper soil, giving radon flux values of 90-100 Bq m-2 h-1 . These radon flux values are much higher than the average radon flux over the Earth, which is about 50 Bq m-2 h-1 (Szegvary et al, 2009). On the other hand, this geographical area is frequently affected by snow and rain events which drastically reduce the local radon exhalation. It is also influenced by winds coming from the Atlantic Ocean, which are poor in radon and strong, causing an important mixing. In addition, the cold nights' stability leads to an observed nocturnal radon accumulation. All the aforementioned conditions influence atmospheric radon concentrations measured at the GIC3 station, enlarging the range

  19. Genetics Home Reference: alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rapid heartbeat upon standing. Affected individuals often develop emphysema, which is a lung disease caused by damage to the small air ... exposure to tobacco smoke accelerates the appearance of emphysema symptoms and damage to the lungs. About 10 percent of infants with alpha-1 ...

  20. Influence of local air velocity from air conditioner evaluated by salivary and skin biomarkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Masaki; Takahashi, Takayuki; Yoshino, Yuichiro; Sasaki, Makoto [Graduate School of Engineering, Iwate University, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan); Nishimiya, Hajime [Asahi Kasei Homes Corporation, R and D Laboratories, 2-1 Samejima, Fuji, Shizuoka 416-8501 (Japan)

    2010-11-15

    The purpose of this paper is to reveal both the psychosomatic and the physical effects of local air velocity from an air conditioner using biomarkers which can be collected noninvasively. Salivary {alpha}-amylase activity (SAA) and salivary cortisol were used as the indexes of psychosomatic effects. The total protein (TP) collected from stratum corneum was used as an index of the physical condition of dry skin. A continuous experiment over a 5 days period in summer was conducted using 8 healthy young male adults for 2-types of airflow conditioners, a whole ceiling-type air conditioner (without local air velocity) and a normal-type air conditioner (with local air velocity). The subjects felt cool, windy, dry and uncomfortable when under the normal-type air conditioner as determined in a subjective evaluation. The SAA under the normal-type air conditioner fluctuated more widely than with the whole ceiling-type air conditioner. The level of salivary cortisol decreased more in a day under the normal-type air conditioner than with the whole ceiling-type air conditioner. These results showed that reducing local air velocity may provide more healthy psychosomatic conditions over the long-term. Moreover, the TP of a drying-exposed skin area showed a significant change during this experiment whereas the TP of drying-protected area was relatively unchanged. It was indicated that one week's exposure to local air velocity conditions possibly influences the drying of facial skin. Thus, air movement at low velocity can be provides more comfortable conditions not only psychosomatically but also physically. (author)

  1. Alpha-root Processes for Derivatives pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Balakrishna, BS

    2010-01-01

    A class of mean reverting positive stochastic processes driven by alpha-stable distributions, referred to here as alpha-root processes in analogy to the square root process (Cox-Ingersoll-Ross process), is a subclass of affine processes, in particular continuous state branching processes with immigration (CBI processes). Being affine, they provide semi-analytical results for the implied term structures as well as for the characteristic exponents for their associated distributions. Their use h...

  2. The determination of $\\alpha_s$ by the ALPHA collaboration

    CERN Document Server

    Bruno, Mattia

    2016-01-01

    We review the ALPHA collaboration strategy for obtaining the QCD coupling at high scale. In the three-flavor effective theory it avoids the use of perturbation theory at $\\alpha > 0.2$ and at the same time has the physical scales small compared to the cutoff $1/a$ in all stages of the computation. The result $\\Lambda_\\overline{MS}^{(3)}=332(14)$~MeV is translated to $\\alpha_\\overline{MS}(m_Z)=0.1179(10)(2)$ by use of (high order) perturbative relations between the effective theory couplings at the charm and beauty quark "thresholds". The error of this perturbative step is discussed and estimated as $0.0002$.

  3. From 1962 the teaching of Methodology of Radioisotopes is continuous in the University of Buenos Aires of the Argentine Republic; Desde 1962 la ensenanza de Metodologia de Radioisotopos es continua en la Universidad de Buenos Aires de la Republica Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera, E.; Cremaschi, G.; Martin, G.; Zubillaga, M.; Cricco, G.; Davio, C.; Genaro, A.; Bianchin, A.; Mohamad, N.; Klecha, A.; Calmanovici, G.; Goldman, G.; Salgueiro, J.; Nunez, M.; Medina, V.; Gutierrez, A.; Leonardi, N.; Bergoc, R. [Laboratorio de Radioisotopos, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquimica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junin 956, 1113- Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. e-mail: rmbergoc@arnet.com.ar

    2006-07-01

    In the Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry of the University of Buenos Aires the teaching of the radioisotopes began in 1960 and uninterruptedly continuous. The application of the radioisotopes and the radiations in different professional activities it is acceptable only in a context of radiological safety and with personal appropriately trained. Conscious of it, the training in grade, postgraduate and technicature, has more of 40% of the thematic one guided to the formation in radiological protection. The courses dictated at the moment in the Laboratory of Radioisotopes they include: Grade formation: to) Subject grade 'Methodology of Radioisotopes' in the Career of Biochemistry: it began to be dictated in 1960 and until the present, more of 6500 students they have gone by our classrooms. b) Grade subject 'Radiopharmacy' in the Career of Pharmacy: guided to the formation of a modern pharmacist, with necessary knowledge to be developed as professional in the Radiopharmaceutical area. Postgraduate formation: c) Postgraduate course of Methodology of Radioisotopes specially directed to biochemical, biologists, veterinarians, chemical. It is dictated uninterruptedly from 1962. d) Postgraduate course in Methodology of Radioisotopes for medical professionals, specially directed to professionals of the medicine that want to specialize in different branches of the Nuclear Medicine. Both courses have 220 present hours and it stops their approval the assistants they should surrender a final exam at open book that consists on the resolution of a practical exercise adapted to their professional practices. Until the present they have surrendered their exams satisfactorily approximately 2000 professionals coming from different areas of the Argentina and of several countries of Hispanic speech. e) Starting from 1992 the Course of Upgrade in Methodology of Radioisotopes directed to professionals that want to upgrade its knowledge in new radioisotopic

  4. Lyman Alpha Control

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, Daniel Stefaniak

    2015-01-01

    This document gives an overview of how to operate the Lyman Alpha Control application written in LabVIEW along with things to watch out for. Overview of the LabVIEW code itself as well as the physical wiring of and connections from/to the NI PCI-6229 DAQ box is also included. The Lyman Alpha Control application is the interface between the ALPHA sequencer and the HighFinesse Wavelength Meter as well as the Lyman Alpha laser setup. The application measures the wavelength of the output light from the Lyman Alpha cavity through the Wavelength Meter. The application can use the Wavelength Meter’s PID capabilities to stabilize the Lyman Alpha laser output as well as switch between up to three frequencies.

  5. New ALPHA-2 magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    On 21 June, members of the ALPHA collaboration celebrated the handover of the first solenoid designed for the ALPHA-2 experiment. The magnet has since been successfully installed and is working well.   Khalid Mansoor, Sumera Yamin and Jeffrey Hangst in front of the new ALPHA-2 solenoid. “This was the first of three identical solenoids that will be installed between now and September, as the rest of the ALPHA-2 device is installed and commissioned,” explains ALPHA spokesperson Jeffrey Hangst. “These magnets are designed to allow us to transfer particles - antiprotons, electrons and positrons - between various parts of the new ALPHA-2 device by controlling the transverse size of the particle bunch that is being transferred.” Sumera Yamin and Khalid Mansoor, two Pakistani scientists from the National Centre for Physics in Islamabad, came to CERN in February specifically to design and manufacture these magnets. “We had the chance to work on act...

  6. Alpha Shapes and Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Pawel; Sterner, Henrik; Sterner, Peter

    2009-01-01

    We provide a unified description of (weighted) alpha shapes, beta shapes and the corresponding simplicialcomplexes. We discuss their applicability to various protein-related problems. We also discuss filtrations of alpha shapes and touch upon related persistence issues.We claim that the full...... potential of alpha-shapes and related geometrical constructs in protein-related problems yet remains to be realized and verified. We suggest parallel algorithms for (weighted) alpha shapes, and we argue that future use of filtrations and kinetic variants for larger proteins will need such implementation....

  7. Occupational Analysis: A Continuous Improvement Approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Duffy, Tom

    1998-01-01

    .... In doing so, the Air Force has implemented "Quality Air Force (QAF)" (AF Handbook 90-502). QAF is a leadership commitment that inspires trust, teamwork, and continuous improvement everywhere in the Air Force...

  8. Targeted Alpha Therapy: From Alpha to Omega

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, Barry J; Clarke, Raymond; Huang Chenyu

    2013-01-01

    This review covers the broad spectrum of Targeted Alpha Therapy (TAT) research in Australia; from in vitro and in vivo studies to clinical trials. The principle of tumour anti-vascular alpha therapy (TAVAT) is discussed in terms of its validation by Monte Carlo calculations of vascular models and the potential role of biological dosimetry is examined. Summmary of this review is as follows: 1. The essence of TAT 2. Therapeutic objectives 3. TAVAT and Monte Carlo microdosimetry 4. Biological dosimetry 5. Preclinical studies 6. Clinical trials 7. What next? 8. Obstacles. (author)

  9. Fan-less long range alpha detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacArthur, Duncan W.; Bounds, John A.

    1994-01-01

    A fan-less long range alpha detector which operates by using an electrical field between a signal plane and the surface or substance to be monitored for air ions created by collisions with alpha radiation. Without a fan, the detector can operate without the possibility of spreading dust and potential contamination into the atmosphere. A guard plane between the signal plane and the electrically conductive enclosure and maintained at the same voltage as the signal plane, reduces leakage currents. The detector can easily monitor soil, or other solid or liquid surfaces.

  10. 5alphaDH-DOC (5alpha-dihydro-deoxycorticosterone) activates androgen receptor in castration-resistant prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Motohide; Honma, Seijiro; Chung, Suyoun; Takata, Ryo; Furihata, Mutsuo; Nishimura, Kazuo; Nonomura, Norio; Nasu, Yasutomo; Miki, Tsuneharu; Shuin, Taro; Fujioka, Tomoaki; Okuyama, Akihiko; Nakamura, Yusuke; Nakagawa, Hidewaki

    2010-08-01

    Prostate cancer often relapses during androgen-depletion therapy, even under the castration condition in which circulating androgens are drastically reduced. High expressions of androgen receptor (AR) and genes involved in androgen metabolism indicate a continued role for AR in castration-resistant prostate cancers (CRPCs). There is increasing evidence that some amounts of 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and other androgens are present sufficiently to activate AR within CRPC tissues, and enzymes involved in the androgen and steroid metabolism, such as 5alpha-steroid reductases, are activated in CRPCs. In this report, we screened eight natural 5alphaDH-steroids to search for novel products of 5alpha-steroid reductases, and identified 11-deoxycorticosterone (DOC) as a novel substrate for 5alpha-steroid reductases in CRPCs. 11-Deoxycorticosterone (DOC) and 5alpha-dihydro-deoxycorticosterone (5alphaDH-DOC) could promote prostate cancer cell proliferation through AR activation, and type 1 5alpha-steroid reductase (SRD5A1) could convert from DOC to 5alphaDH-DOC. Sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric analysis detected 5alphaDH-DOC in some clinical CRPC tissues. These findings implicated that under an extremely low level of DHT, 5alphaDH-DOC and other products of 5alpha-steroid reductases within CRPC tissues might activate the AR pathway for prostate cancer cell proliferation and survival under castration.

  11. Alpha clustering in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgson, P.E.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of nucleon clustering in nuclei are described, with reference to both nuclear structure and nuclear reactions, and the advantages of using the cluster formalism to describe a range of phenomena are discussed. It is shown that bound and scattering alpha-particle states can be described in a unified way using an energy-dependent alpha-nucleus potential. (author)

  12. Ionization detector for aerosol air pollution detection and ventilation control in the metal processing industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, Istvan

    1989-01-01

    An indicator and measuring instrument was developed for the continuous monitoring, recording and indicating aerosol mass concentrations in mechanical workshops, like in metal cutting, welding or forming industries, for air pollution control and ventilation of the atmosphere in the workshops. An ionization chamber containing alpha radiation source was modified for this purpose, and a suitable electronic circuit was built for the measurement of ionization current. The calibration of the ionization aerosol detectors was performed for welding smoke and oil mist. They were suitable for continuous monitoring of workshop atmospheres and controlling ventilation equipment, or as portable instruments, for the rapid inspection of air pollution. (R.P.) 4 refs.; 3 figs

  13. ESCLOUD: A computer program to calculate the air concentration, deposition rate and external dose rate from a continuous discharge of radioactive material to atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.A.

    1980-03-01

    Radioactive material may be discharged to atmosphere in small quantities during the normal operation of a nuclear installation as part of a considered waste management practice. Estimates of the individual and collective dose equivalent rates resulting from such a discharge are required in a number of contexts: for example, in assessing compliance with dose limits, in estimating the radiological impact of the discharge and as an input into optimisation studies. The suite of programs which has been developed to undertake such calculations is made up of a number of independent modules one of which, ESCLOUD, is described in this report. The ESCLOUD program evaluates, as a function of distance and direction from the release point, the air concentration, deposition rate and external β and γ doses from airborne and deposited activity. The air concentration and deposition rate can be used as input to other modules for calculating inhalation and ingestion doses. (author)

  14. Monitoring air quality in California's Central Valley with aircraft and continuous mountaintop observations - attribution insights gained by considering the scalar budget equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faloona, I. C.; Trousdell, J.; Caputi, D.; Conley, S. A.

    2017-12-01

    Ozone is one of the six criteria pollutants established by the US EPA's Clean Air Act, and one of two that still routinely violates federal standards as it is a secondary pollutant and therefore subject to indirect control strategies on complex, non-linear atmospheric chemistry. While improvements have been seen in many regions where ozone controls are in place, gains in California's San Joaquin Valley have lagged many other districts across the state. We present airborne measurements from several different campaigns in the valley (DISCOVER-AQ, ArvinO3, and CABOTS) along with data from a mountaintop monitoring site on its upwind side near the Pacific coast that has been operational for 5 years, and we shed light on several outstanding questions concerning air pollution in California's vast Central Valley. The framework of analysis is centered on the primitive equation of any atmospheric constituent - the scalar budget equation. By measuring each term in this equation, we gain insights into the relative impacts of exogenous (due to long range transport) vs. endogenous ozone (due to local photochemical production). We further argue that small aircraft campaigns with an emphasis on scalar budgeting sorties are a cost-effective tool in uncovering specific shortcomings of regional air quality models (e.g., lateral boundary conditions can be tested by comparing horizontal advection, turbulence parameterizations by comparing vertical fluxes, and chemical mechanisms by comparing net photochemical production rates.) In the case of NOx and CH4, for instance, we find that solving for surface emissions points toward inventory underestimates of both species by at least a factor of two. We discuss possible causes of these discrepancies, and suggest other ways to specifically vet aspects of regional air quality models with airborne measurements of meteorological and chemical variables.

  15. U.S. Air Forces Aerial Spray Mission: Should the Department of Defense Continue to Operate this Weapon of Mass Dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    pesticide application over farm fields to produce a better crop.2 On 3 August 1921 in a joint effort between the U.S. Army Signal Corps in Dayton, Ohio...for the Air Force aerial spray program. 3 BACKGROUND Aerial spray capability was developed in the early 1920s to aid in fertilization and... pesticide dissemination because of the relatively small amount of product needed to spray for nuisance insects over a vast area. The ULV system is

  16. The influence of aerosol particle collection mechanisms on the WIPP alpha-6 CAM detection efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, W.T.

    1996-01-01

    Alpha-6 continuous air monitors (CAMs) are used at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the underground salt mine proposed for transuranic waste disposal near Carlsbad, New Mexico. Previous reviews of CAM operational data indicate that alpha spectra, background subtract methods, and alpha detection efficiency are significantly affected by salt aerosol. Gravimetric analyses of CAM sampling filters indicate that sampling-filter salt deposits are of sufficient magnitude to cause spectral degradation and efficiency losses. It was previously assumed that salt aerosol was mechanically collected on the surface of the sampling filter, but other aerosol collection mechanisms, such as electrostatic, diffusional, and inertial impaction, cannot be ruled out. Microscopic observations of the sampling filters indicate that particle form complex structures on the sampling filter surface, and that electrostatic, diffusional, and inertial impaction are occurring. Aerosol particles are likely to penetrate the complex surface salt matrix, and alpha particle energy will be lost before reaching the CAM detector. Penetration of a polydisperse aerosol into the sampling-filter salt deposits accounts for degraded spectra and efficiency loss observed at the WIPP. It was recommended that CAMs should not be considered operational when 0.5 to 2.0 mg cm -2 of sampling-filter salt is present on the sampling filter

  17. Organochlorine pesticide air-water exchange and bioconcentration in krill in the Ross Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cincinelli, Alessandra, E-mail: acincinelli@unifi.i [Department of Chemistry, University of Florence, Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); Martellini, Tania; Del Bubba, Massimo; Lepri, Luciano [Department of Chemistry, University of Florence, Sesto Fiorentino, Florence (Italy); Corsolini, Simonetta; Borghesi, Nicoletta [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Siena, Siena (Italy); King, Martin D. [Department of Earth Sciences, Royal Holloway University of London, Egham, Surrey (United Kingdom); Dickhut, Rebecca M. [Virginia Institute of Marine Science, Gloucester Point, VA (United States)

    2009-07-15

    Mean hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) concentrations, measured in seawater and air samples, confirmed the decline in levels of these compounds in Antarctic air and water. However, low alpha/gamma-HCH ratios in air at the beginning of the sampling period suggest a predominance of fresh lindane entering the Antarctic atmosphere during the Austral spring probably due to current use in the Southern Hemisphere. Water-air fugacity ratios demonstrate the potential for HCH gas deposition to coastal Antarctic seas, while the water-air fugacity ratios for HCB imply that volatilization does not account for the observed decrease of HCB in surface seawater. HCH concentrations found in krill samples were correlated with seawater concentrations indicative of bioconcentration of HCHs from seawater. - Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) continue to decline in Antarctic air, but fugacity ratios demonstrate that Antarctic coastal waters remain a sink for HCHs, which bioconcentrate in krill via direct uptake from water.

  18. Genetics Home Reference: alpha thalassemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Alpha thalassemia Alpha thalassemia Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Alpha thalassemia is a blood disorder that reduces the production ...

  19. Applications of the Long-Range Alpha Detector (LRAD) technology to low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.D.; Allander, K.S.; Bounds, J.A.; Garner, S.E.; Johnson, J.P.; MacArthur, D.W.

    1993-01-01

    Long-Range Alpha Detector (LRAD) systems are designed to monitor alpha contamination by measuring the number of ions in the air. Alpha particles are a form of ionizing radiation and a typical 5-MeV alpha particle will create about 150,000 ion pairs in air. Field tests at various DOE sites have shown that LRAD Surface Soil Monitors (SSM), Sample Monitors, and Object Monitors are faster and more sensitive than traditional alpha detectors for measuring alpha contamination. This paper discusses the various applications of LRAD technology to low-level radioactive waste management

  20. Early continuous white noise exposure alters l-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptor subunit glutamate receptor 2 and gamma-aminobutyric acid type a receptor subunit beta3 protein expression in rat auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jinghong; Yu, Liping; Zhang, Jiping; Cai, Rui; Sun, Xinde

    2010-02-15

    Auditory experience during the postnatal critical period is essential for the normal maturation of auditory function. Previous studies have shown that rearing infant rat pups under conditions of continuous moderate-level noise delayed the emergence of adult-like topographic representational order and the refinement of response selectivity in the primary auditory cortex (A1) beyond normal developmental benchmarks and indefinitely blocked the closure of a brief, critical-period window. To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms of these physiological changes after noise rearing, we studied expression of the AMPA receptor subunit GluR2 and GABA(A) receptor subunit beta3 in the auditory cortex after noise rearing. Our results show that continuous moderate-level noise rearing during the early stages of development decreases the expression levels of GluR2 and GABA(A)beta3. Furthermore, noise rearing also induced a significant decrease in the level of GABA(A) receptors relative to AMPA receptors. However, in adult rats, noise rearing did not have significant effects on GluR2 and GABA(A)beta3 expression or the ratio between the two units. These changes could have a role in the cellular mechanisms involved in the delayed maturation of auditory receptive field structure and topographic organization of A1 after noise rearing. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Alpha Thalassemia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the body has a problem producing alpha globin Beta thalassemia : when the body has a problem producing beta ... Transfusion Blood Test: Hemoglobin Electrophoresis Sickle Cell Disease Beta Thalassemia Blood All About Genetics Prenatal Genetic Counseling Genetic ...

  2. Alpha-particle fluence in radiobiological experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikezic, Dragoslav; Yu, Kwan Ngok

    2017-03-01

    Two methods were proposed for determining alpha-particle fluence for radiobiological experiments. The first involved calculating the probabilities of hitting the target for alpha particles emitted from a source through Monte Carlo simulations, which when multiplied by the activity of the source gave the fluence at the target. The second relied on the number of chemically etched alpha-particle tracks developed on a solid-state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) that was irradiated by an alpha-particle source. The etching efficiencies (defined as percentages of latent tracks created by alpha particles from the source that could develop to become visible tracks upon chemical etching) were computed through Monte Carlo simulations, which when multiplied by the experimentally counted number of visible tracks would also give the fluence at the target. We studied alpha particles with an energy of 5.486 MeV emitted from an 241Am source, and considered the alpha-particle tracks developed on polyallyldiglycol carbonate film, which is a common SSNTD. Our results showed that the etching efficiencies were equal to one for source-film distances of from 0.6 to 3.5 cm for a circular film of radius of 1 cm, and for source-film distances of from 1 to 3 cm for circular film of radius of 2 cm. For circular film with a radius of 3 cm, the etching efficiencies never reached 1. On the other hand, the hit probability decreased monotonically with increase in the source-target distance, and fell to zero when the source-target distance was larger than the particle range in air. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  3. ALPHA-2: the sequel

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    While many experiments are methodically planning for intense works over the long shutdown, there is one experiment that is already working at full steam: ALPHA-2. Its final components arrived last month and will completely replace the previous ALPHA set-up. Unlike its predecessor, this next generation experiment has been specifically designed to measure the properties of antimatter.   The ALPHA team lower the new superconducting solenoid magnet into place. The ALPHA collaboration is working at full speed to complete the ALPHA-2 set-up for mid-November – this will give them a few weeks of running before the AD shutdown on 17 December. “We really want to get some experience with this device this year so that, if we need to make any changes, we will have time during the long shutdown in which to make them,” says Jeffrey Hangst, ALPHA spokesperson. “Rather than starting the 2014 run in the commissioning stage, we will be up and running from the get go.&...

  4. Expression of triplicated and quadruplicated alpha globin genes in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestri, R; Pieragostini, E; Yang, F; di Gregorio, P; Rando, A; Masina, P

    1991-01-01

    In the sheep alpha alpha alpha globin gene haplotype, the three genes display from the 5' to the 3' end the percentage efficiencies of about 30:14:6, as indicated by the amounts of the three types of alpha chain produced in the alpha alpha alpha/alpha alpha alpha homozygotes. The 3' gene in the alpha alpha alpha alpha haplotype appears to have an efficiency around 1%, as suggested by analysis of one quadruple alpha homozygote. Moreover, the total outputs of the alpha alpha alpha as well as of the alpha alpha alpha alpha haplotypes do not substantially differ from that of the common alpha alpha haplotype.

  5. Radon discrimination for work place air samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratvold, T.

    1994-01-01

    Gross alpha/beta measurement systems are designed solely to identify an incident particle as either an alpha or a beta and register a count accordingly. The tool of choice for radon identification, via decay daughters, is an instrument capable of identifying the energy of incident alpha particles and storing that information separately from detected alpha emissions of different energy. In simpler terms, the desired instrument is an alpha spectroscopy system. K Basins Radiological Control (KBRC) procured an EG ampersand G ORTEC OCTETE PC alpha spectroscopy system to facilitate radon identification on work place air samples. The alpha spectrometer allows for the identification of any alpha emitting isotope based on characteristic alpha emission energies. With this new capability, KBRC will explicitly know whether or not there exists a true airborne concern. Based on historical air quality data, this new information venue will reduce the use of respirators substantially. Situations where an area remains ''on mask'' due solely to the presence of radon daughters on the grab air filter will finally be eliminated. This document serves to introduce a new method for radon daughter detection at the 183KE Health Physics Analytical Laboratory (HPAL). A new work place air sampling analysis program will be described throughout this paper. There is no new technology being introduced, nor any unproven analytical process. The program defined over the expanse of this document simply explains how K Basins Radiological Control will employ their alpha spectrometer

  6. Long-range alpha detection applied to soil contamination and waste monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacArthur, D.W.; Allander, K.S.; Bounds, J.A.; Close, D.A.; McAtee, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    Alpha contamination monitoring has been traditionally limited by the short range of alpha particles in air and through detector windows. The long-range alpha detector (LRAD) described in this paper circumvents that limitation by detecting alpha-produced ions, rather than alpha particles directly. Since the LRAD is sensitive to all ions, it can monitor all contamination present on a large surface at one time. Because air is the ''detector gas,'' the LRAD can detect contamination on any surface to which air can penetrate. We present data showing the sensitivity of LRAD detectors, as well as documenting their ability to detect alpha sources in previously unmonitorable locations, and verifying the ion lifetime. Specific designs and results for soil contamination and waste monitors are also included

  7. Flavonoids-induced accumulation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha/2alpha is mediated through chelation of iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung-Soo; Bae, Insoo; Lee, Yong J

    2008-04-15

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1alpha) is the regulatory subunit of the heterodimeric transcription factor HIF-1 that is the key regulator of cellular response to low oxygen tension. Under normoxic conditions, HIF-1alpha is continuously degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway through pVHL (von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor protein). Under hypoxic conditions, HIF-1alpha is stabilized and induces the transcription of HIF-1 target genes. Quercetin, a flavonoid with anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and kinase modulating properties, has been found to induce HIF-1alpha accumulation and VEGF secretion in normoxia. In this study, the molecular mechanisms of quercetin-mediated HIF-1alpha accumulation were investigated. Previous studies have shown that, in addition to being induced by hypoxia, HIF-1alpha can be induced through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and p53 signaling pathways. But our study revealed, through p53 mutant-type as well as p53 null cell lines, that neither the PI3K/Akt nor the p53 signaling pathway is required for quercetin-induced HIF-1alpha accumulation. And we observed that HIF-1alpha accumulated by quercetin is not ubiquitinated and the interaction of HIF-1alpha with pVHL is reduced, compared with HIF-1alpha accumulated by the proteasome inhibitor MG132. The use of quercetin's analogues showed that only quercetin and galangin induce HIF-1/2alpha accumulation and this effect is completely reversed by additional iron ions. This is because quercetin and galangin are able to chelate cellular iron ions that are cofactors of HIF-1/2alpha proline hydroxylase (PHD). These data suggest that quercetin inhibits the ubiquitination of HIF-1/2alpha in normoxia by hindering PHD through chelating iron ions.

  8. Use of Chiral Signatures of Organochlorine Pesticides in Asian, Trans-Pacific, and Western U.S. Air Masses to Identify Source Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonich, S.; Genualdi, S.; Primbs, T.; Ryoo, K.; Bidleman, T.; Jantunen, L.

    2008-12-01

    Chiral signatures of organochlorine pesticides were measured in air masses on Okinawa Japan and three remote locations in the Pacific Northwestern U.S.: Cheeka Peak Observatory (CPO), a coastal site on the Olympic Peninsula of Washington at 500 m; Mary's Peak Observatory (MPO), a site at 1250 m in Oregon's Coast range; and Mt. Bachelor Observatory (MBO), a site at 2300 m in Oregon's Cascade range. The chiral signature of composite soil samples collected from agricultural areas in China and South Korea were also measured. Racemic alpha-HCH was measured in Asian air masses and soil from China and South Korea. Non-racemic (enantiomer fraction (EF) = 0.528 ± 0.0048) alpha-HCH was measured in regional air masses at CPO, a marine boundary layer site, and may reflect volatilization from the Pacific Ocean and regional soils. However, during trans-Pacific transport events at CPO, the EFs were significantly (p-value <0.001) more racemic (EF = 0.513 ± 0.0003). Racemic alpha-HCH was consistently measured in trans- Pacific air masses at MPO and MBO. The alpha-HCH EFs in CPO, MPO, and MBO air masses were positively correlated (p-value = 0.0017) with the amount of time the air mass spent above the boundary layer along the 10-day back air mass trajectory prior to being sampled. This suggests that the alpha-HCH in the free troposphere is racemic. The racemic signatures of cis and trans chlordane in air masses at all four air sampling sites suggest that Asian and U.S. urban areas continue to be sources of chlordanes that have not yet undergone biotransformation.

  9. Continuous auditing & continuous monitoring : Continuous value?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hillo, Rutger; Weigand, Hans; Espana, S; Ralyte, J; Souveyet, C

    2016-01-01

    Advancements in information technology, new laws and regulations and rapidly changing business conditions have led to a need for more timely and ongoing assurance with effectively working controls. Continuous Auditing (CA) and Continuous Monitoring (CM) technologies have made this possible by

  10. Luminescence imaging of water during alpha particle irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Komori, Masataka; Koyama, Shuji; Toshito, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    The luminescence imaging of water using the alpha particle irradiation of several MeV energy range is thought to be impossible because this alpha particle energy is far below the Cerenkov-light threshold and the secondary electrons produced in this energy range do not emit Cerenkov-light. Contrary to this consensus, we found that the luminescence imaging of water was possible with 5.5 MeV alpha particle irradiation. We placed a 2 MBq of 241 Am alpha source in water, and luminescence images of the source were conducted with a high-sensitivity, cooled charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. We also carried out such imaging of the alpha source in three different conditions to compare the photon productions with that of water, in air, with a plastic scintillator, and an acrylic plate. The luminescence imaging of water was observed from 10 to 20 s acquisition, and the intensity was linearly increased with time. The intensity of the luminescence with the alpha irradiation of water was 0.05% of that with the plastic scintillator, 4% with air, and 15% with the acrylic plate. The resolution of the luminescence image of water was better than 0.25 mm FWHM. Alpha particles of 5.5 MeV energy emit luminescence in water. Although the intensity of the luminescence was smaller than that in air, it was clearly observable. The luminescence of water with alpha particles would be a new method for alpha particle detection and distribution measurements in water.

  11. Apparatus for detecting alpha radiation in difficult access areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steadman, P.; MacArthur, D.W.

    1997-01-01

    An electrostatic alpha radiation detector for measuring alpha radiation emitted from inside an enclosure comprising an electrically conductive expandable electrode for insertion into the enclosure is disclosed. After insertion, the electrically conductive expandable electrode is insulated from the enclosure and defines a decay cavity between the electrically conductive expandable electrode and the enclosure so that air ions generated in the decay cavity are electrostatically captured by the electrically conductive expandable electrode and the enclosure when an electric potential is applied between the electrically conductive expandable electrode and the enclosure. Indicator means are attached to the electrically conductive expandable electrode for indicating an electrical current produced by generation of the air ions generated in the decay cavity by collisions between air molecules and the alpha particles emitted from the enclosure. A voltage source is connected between the indicator means and the electrically conductive enclosure for creating an electric field between the electrically conductive expandable electrode and the enclosure. 4 figs

  12. Contributions to the study of heavy and superheavy nuclei stability in alpha-decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silisteanu, I.

    1978-01-01

    Alpha-decay is treated in this work on the complete analogy of transfer reactions by means of nuclear shell models with continuous spectrum nucleons. Certain phenomenologically obtained or microscope evaluated data on low energy interactions between alpha-particles and nuclei, when related to nuclear structure data within the unified theory of nuclear reactions, allow of an improved accuracy in determining the alpha-particle wave function as well as of an estimation of alpha-probabilities in good keeping with experimental ones. The problem of alpha lifetimes thus narrows to the resolution of some homogeneous and inhomogeneous differential equations systems including the optic potential and the alpha formfactors. (author)

  13. Monte Carlo alpha deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talley, T.L.; Evans, F.

    1988-01-01

    Prior work demonstrated the importance of nuclear scattering to fusion product energy deposition in hot plasmas. This suggests careful examination of nuclear physics details in burning plasma simulations. An existing Monte Carlo fast ion transport code is being expanded to be a test bed for this examination. An initial extension, the energy deposition of fast alpha particles in a hot deuterium plasma, is reported. The deposition times and deposition ranges are modified by allowing nuclear scattering. Up to 10% of the initial alpha particle energy is carried to greater ranges and times by the more mobile recoil deuterons. 4 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Buffett’s Alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Kabiller, David; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    Berkshire Hathaway has realized a Sharpe ratio of 0.76, higher than any other stock or mutual fund with a history of more than 30 years, and Berkshire has a significant alpha to traditional risk factors. However, we find that the alpha becomes insignificant when controlling for exposures to Betting......-Against-Beta and Quality-Minus-Junk factors. Further, we estimate that Buffett’s leverage is about 1.6-to-1 on average. Buffett’s returns appear to be neither luck nor magic, but, rather, reward for the use of leverage combined with a focus on cheap, safe, quality stocks. Decomposing Berkshires’ portfolio into ownership...

  15. Air quality and disease

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Climate change is an important determinant of air quality. Climate change is an important determinant of air quality. Poor air quality associated with higher levels of respiratory and cardiovascular disease. Exposure to high levels of ground-level ozone associated with ...

  16. Alpha-mannosidosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgwardt, Line; Stensland, Hilde Monica Frostad Riise; Olsen, Klaus Juul

    2015-01-01

    of the three subgroups of genotype/subcellular localisation and the clinical and biochemical data were done to investigate the potential relationship between genotype and phenotype in alpha-mannosidosis. Statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS software. Analyses of covariance were performed...

  17. Air conditioner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Masaaki

    1993-01-01

    The present invention provides an air conditioner which can prevent an undesirable effects on a human body due to radon daughter nuclides in a closed space. That is, the concentration of the radon daughter nuclides in the air in the closed space is continuously measured. A necessary amount of ventilation air is determined based on the measured concentration to generate control signals. External air is introduced into the closed space by the generated control signals. With such procedures, necessary amount of external air is taken from the atmospheric air which can be regarded to have the radon daughter nuclide concentration substantially at zero, thereby enabling to reduce the concentration of the radon daughter nuclides in the closed space. As a result, undesired effects on the human body due to the radon daughter nuclides staying in the closed space can be prevented. According to simulation, the radon daughter nuclides are rapidly decreased only by ventilation only for three times or so in one hour. Accordingly, ventilation is extremely effective and convenient means as a countermeasure for the radon daughter nuclides. (I.S.)

  18. Effect of Grain Boundary Alpha on Mechanical Properties of Ti5.4Al3Mo1V Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Kurnala Naresh; Muneshwar, Pravin; Singh, Satish Kumar; Jha, Abhay K.; Pant, Bhanu; George, Koshy M.

    2015-06-01

    The article brings out the correlation between the microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti5.4Al3Mo1V (VT14 alloy) high-strength alpha beta titanium alloy. The specimens were solution treated above the beta transus temperature of the alloy (980°C and 1000°C) for 45 min and cooled at different rates (water quenched, air cooled, and furnace cooled) to ambient temperature. The specimens were polished, and the microstructural observations under optical microscopy resulted in a discontinuous alpha phase and a continuous network of alpha for 980°C and 1000°C beta-annealed conditions, respectively. Mechanical properties like tensile and impact were evaluated for a 980°C beta-annealed condition. The fracture morphology features of failed impact specimens were compared with a mill annealed product. From the tensile strength data, it was observed that the strength achieved is maximum in the water-quenched condition (1291-1308 MPa) and lowest in the furnace-cooled condition (895-905 MPa), whereas the impact strength is highest in the furnace-cooled condition (8.03-8.7 gm/cm2), which is comparable with the air-cooled condition (7.3-8.5 kg/cm2), and lowest for the water-quenched condition (2.5-3.1 kg/cm2). The current study is an attempt to correlate the mechanical properties to the heat treatment and thereby to the microstructure.

  19. The first continuous coherent Lyman-alpha source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walz, J.; Pahl, A.; Eikema, K.S.E.; Hansch, T.W.

    2001-01-01

    Ultrahigh-resolution laser spectroscopy of antihydrogen atoms in a magnetic trap could open a new field of challenging tests of the fundamental CPT theorem. The required laser cooling and laser spectroscopy techniques are also essential for future experiments on the gravitational acceleration of

  20. Demystifying AlphaGo Zero as AlphaGo GAN

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Xiao; Wu, Jiasong; Zhou, Ling

    2017-01-01

    The astonishing success of AlphaGo Zero\\cite{Silver_AlphaGo} invokes a worldwide discussion of the future of our human society with a mixed mood of hope, anxiousness, excitement and fear. We try to dymystify AlphaGo Zero by a qualitative analysis to indicate that AlphaGo Zero can be understood as a specially structured GAN system which is expected to possess an inherent good convergence property. Thus we deduct the success of AlphaGo Zero may not be a sign of a new generation of AI.

  1. Standoff alpha radiation detection for hot cell imaging and crime scene investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerst, Thomas; Sand, Johan; Ihantola, Sakari; Peräjärvi, Kari; Nicholl, Adrian; Hrnecek, Erich; Toivonen, Harri; Toivonen, Juha

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents the remote detection of alpha contamination in a nuclear facility. Alpha-active material in a shielded nuclear radiation containment chamber has been localized by optical means. Furthermore, sources of radiation danger have been identified in a staged crime scene setting. For this purpose, an electron-multiplying charge-coupled device camera was used to capture photons generated by alpha-induced air scintillation (radioluminescence). The detected radioluminescence was superimposed with a regular photograph to reveal the origin of the light and thereby the alpha radioactive material. The experimental results show that standoff detection of alpha contamination is a viable tool in radiation threat detection. Furthermore, the radioluminescence spectrum in the air is spectrally analyzed. Possibilities of camera-based alpha threat detection under various background lighting conditions are discussed.

  2. $\\alpha$-Representation for QCD

    OpenAIRE

    Tuan, Richard Hong

    1998-01-01

    An $\\alpha$-parameter representation is derived for gauge field theories.It involves, relative to a scalar field theory, only constants and derivatives with respect to the $\\alpha$-parameters. Simple rules are given to obtain the $\\alpha$-representation for a Feynman graph with an arbitrary number of loops in gauge theories in the Feynman gauge.

  3. Alpha Theta Meditation: Phenomenological, neurophysiologic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alpha Theta Meditation: Phenomenological, neurophysiologic, mindfulness, mood, health and sport implications. ... the single alpha theta meditation was associated with elevated alpha and theta activity, as well as decrease in negative mood perceptions, especially with regard to anxiety, sadness and confusion scores.

  4. Long-range alpha detection applied to soil surface monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caress, R.W.; Allander, K.S.; Bounds, J.A.; Catlett, M.M.; MacArthur, D.W.; Rutherford, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    The long-range alpha detection (LRAD) technique depends on the detection of ion pairs generated by alpha particles losing energy in air rather than on detection of the alpha particles themselves. Typical alpha particles generated by uranium will travel less than 3 cm in air. In contrast, the ions have been successfully detected many inches or feet away from the contamination. Since LRAD detection systems are sensitive to all ions simultaneously, large LRAD soil surface monitors (SSMS) can be used to collect all of the ions from a large sample. The LRAD SSMs are designed around the fan-less LRAD detector. In this case a five-sided box with an open bottom is placed on the soil surface. Ions generated by alpha decays on the soil surface are collected on a charged copper plate within the box. These ions create a small current from the plate to ground which is monitored with a sensitive electrometer. The current measured is proportional to the number of ions in the box, which is, in turn, proportional to the amount of alpha contamination on the surface of the soil. This report includes the design and construction of a 1-m by 1-m SSM as well as the results of a study at Fernald, OH, as part of the Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration

  5. Working level measurement of radon daughters and thoron daughters by personal dosimetry and continuous monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, C.R.; Leung, H.

    1981-01-01

    The performance of personal alpha dosimeters in mixed radon daughter and thoron daughter atmospheres in Ontario uranium mines is described together with monitoring developments which enable the radon daughter working level to be determined separately. The theoretical bases for continuous and integrated working level measurements based on individual and gross counts are presented in terms of the weighting factor for combining the thoron daughter working level with the radon daughter working level, and in terms of the in-growth time of the air. Implications for the determination of working level in the presence of thoron daughters are discussed

  6. Combining Alphas via Bounded Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zura Kakushadze

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We give an explicit algorithm and source code for combining alpha streams via bounded regression. In practical applications, typically, there is insufficient history to compute a sample covariance matrix (SCM for a large number of alphas. To compute alpha allocation weights, one then resorts to (weighted regression over SCM principal components. Regression often produces alpha weights with insufficient diversification and/or skewed distribution against, e.g., turnover. This can be rectified by imposing bounds on alpha weights within the regression procedure. Bounded regression can also be applied to stock and other asset portfolio construction. We discuss illustrative examples.

  7. Alpha contamination assessment for D ampersand D activities: Technology overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conaway, J.G.; Rawool-Sullivan, M.W.; MacArthur, D.W.

    1996-02-01

    Instruments based on the principle of Long-Range Alpha Detection (LRAD) detect the ions created in ambient air by Ionizing radiation, particularly alpha radiation, interacting with air molecules. Using either an electrostatic field or forced convection, these ions can be transported to a detection grid where the ions produce a small current that is measured with a sensitive electrometer. LRAD-based instruments can give separate, simultaneous measurements of alpha-emitting solids and inert radioactive gases such as radon. LRAD-based instruments assess surface contamination on an entire object or large surface area in a single, rapid measurement, including relatively inaccessible areas such as interior surfaces of pipes and process equipment. The LRAD concept is well proven and has been developed into a range of different radiation detection devices. This paper presents an overview of the technology, while several associated papers explore specific applications in greater detail

  8. Determination of the thermal neutron induced O-17(n,alpha) C-14 reaction cross section

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagemans, J; Wagemans, C; Bieber, R; Geltenbort, P

    1998-01-01

    The. O-17(n(th),alpha)C-14 reaction cross section was determined at the high flux reactor of the ILL in Grenoble relative to the known N-14(n(th),p)C-14 cross section. For the flux calibration measurements, N-14(2) from the air was used. The O-17(n,alpha) measurements were performed with several

  9. Alpha radiation gauge for the measurement of gas density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lech, M.

    1977-01-01

    Alpha gauge for the measurement of gas density with thick alfa source, has been developed. The gauge is based on radiation transmission through a space filled with gas and total-count principle. Air density can be measured in the range 1,2 - 1,27 kg m -3 with a maximum standard deviation of 2 x 10 -3 kg m -3 . (author)

  10. Continuous fluorescence determination of formaldehyde in air

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Motyka, Kamil; Mikuška, Pavel

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 518, 1-2 (2004), s. 51-57 ISSN 0003-2670 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4031105; GA ČR GA526/03/1182 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4031919 Keywords : fluorescence * wet denuder * formaldehyde Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.588, year: 2004

  11. Business continuity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breunhoelder, Gert

    2002-01-01

    This presentation deals with the following keypoints: Information Technology (IT) Business Continuity and Recovery essential for any business; lessons learned after Sept. 11 event; Detailed planning, redundancy and testing being the key elements for probability estimation of disasters

  12. Continuous tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Y.K.M.

    1978-04-01

    A tokamak configuration is proposed that permits the rapid replacement of a plasma discharge in a ''burn'' chamber by another one in a time scale much shorter than the elementary thermal time constant of the chamber first wall. With respect to the chamber, the effective duty cycle factor can thus be made arbitrarily close to unity minimizing the cyclic thermal stress in the first wall. At least one plasma discharge always exists in the new tokamak configuration, hence, a continuous tokamak. By incorporating adiabatic toroidal compression, configurations of continuous tokamak compressors are introduced. To operate continuous tokamaks, it is necessary to introduce the concept of mixed poloidal field coils, which spatially groups all the poloidal field coils into three sets, all contributing simultaneously to inducing the plasma current and maintaining the proper plasma shape and position. Preliminary numerical calculations of axisymmetric MHD equilibria in continuous tokamaks indicate the feasibility of their continued plasma operation. Advanced concepts of continuous tokamaks to reduce the topological complexity and to allow the burn plasma aspect ratio to decrease for increased beta are then suggested

  13. Air Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's air research provides the critical science to develop and implement outdoor air regulations under the Clean Air Act and puts new tools and information in the hands of air quality managers and regulators to protect the air we breathe.

  14. Treatment of alpha bearing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This report deals with the current state of the art of alpha waste treatment, which is an integral part of the overall nuclear waste management system. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) defines alpha bearing waste as 'waste containing one or more alpha emitting radionuclides, usually actinides, in quantities above acceptable limits'. The limits are established by national regulatory bodies. The limits above which wastes are considered as alpha contaminated refer to the concentrations of alpha emitters that need special consideration for occupational exposures and/or potential safety, health, or environmental impact during one or more steps from generation through disposal. Owing to the widespread use of waste segregation by source - that is, based upon the 'suspect origin' of the material - significant volumes of waste are being handled as alpha contaminated which, in fact, do not require such consideration by reason of risk or environmental concern. The quantification of de minimis concepts by national regulatory bodies could largely contribute to the safe reduction of waste volumes and associated costs. Other factors which could significantly contribute to the reduction of alpha waste arisings are an increased application of assaying and sorting, instrumentation and the use of feedback mechanisms to control or modify the processes which generate these wastes. Alpha bearing wastes are generated during fabrication and reprocessing of nuclear fuels, decommissioning of alpha contaminated facilities, and other activities. Most alpha wastes are contact handled, but a small portion may require shielding or remote handling because of high levels of neutron (n), beta (β), or gamma (γ) emissions associated with the waste material. This report describes the sources and characteristics of alpha wastes and strategies for alpha waste management. General descriptions of treatment processes for solid and liquid alpha wastes are included. 71 refs, 14 figs, 9 tabs

  15. The alpha effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    Much of the recent interest in RAM system reliability stems from concern over alpha particle soft error rates reported for the initial 64 k RAMs. With increasing memory density likely in the next few years the problem of soft errors is rearing its head again. A few years ago ITT carried out experiments on 16k RAMs and found no significant problems. However, recent tests have shown a raise in the number of soft errors with 64k RAMs, and the launch of 256k and 512k memories is likely to make the problem acute

  16. Alpha-mannosidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilssen Øivind

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Alpha-mannosidosis is an inherited lysosomal storage disorder characterized by immune deficiency, facial and skeletal abnormalities, hearing impairment, and intellectual disability. It occurs in approximately 1 of 500,000 live births. The children are often born apparently normal, and their condition worsens progressively. Some children are born with ankle equinus or develop hydrocephalus in the first year of life. Main features are immune deficiency (manifested by recurrent infections, especially in the first decade of life, skeletal abnormalities (mild-to-moderate dysostosis multiplex, scoliosis and deformation of the sternum, hearing impairment (moderate-to-severe sensorineural hearing loss, gradual impairment of mental functions and speech, and often, periods of psychosis. Associated motor function disturbances include muscular weakness, joint abnormalities and ataxia. The facial trait include large head with prominent forehead, rounded eyebrows, flattened nasal bridge, macroglossia, widely spaced teeth, and prognathism. Slight strabismus is common. The clinical variability is significant, representing a continuum in severity. The disorder is caused by lysosomal alpha-mannosidase deficiency. Alpha-mannosidosis is inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion and is caused by mutations in the MAN2B1 gene located on chromosome 19 (19 p13.2-q12. Diagnosis is made by measuring acid alpha-mannosidase activity in leukocytes or other nucleated cells and can be confirmed by genetic testing. Elevated urinary secretion of mannose-rich oligosaccharides is suggestive, but not diagnostic. Differential diagnoses are mainly the other lysosomal storage diseases like the mucopolysaccharidoses. Genetic counseling should be given to explain the nature of the disease and to detect carriers. Antenatal diagnosis is possible, based on both biochemical and genetic methods. The management should be pro-active, preventing complications and treating

  17. Alpha activity measurement with lsc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrin, R. I.; Dulama, C. N.; Ciocirlan, C. N.; Toma, A.; Stoica, S. M.; Valeca, M.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, we showed that the alpha activity in liquid samples can be measured using a liquid scintillation analyzer without alpha/beta discrimination capability. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the performances of the method and to optimize the procedure of the sample preparation. A series of tests was performed to validate the procedure of alpha emitting radionuclides extraction in aqueous samples with Actinide Resin, especially regarding to the contact time required to extract all alpha nuclides. The main conclusions were that a minimum 18 hours stirring time is needed to achieve a percent recovery of the alpha nuclides grater than 90% and that the counting efficiency of alphas measurements with LSC is nearly 100%. (authors)

  18. A radioactive aerosols in air monitoring system - 'ASIA'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belaish, I.; Levinson, S.; Pelled, O.; German, U.; Laichter, Y.; Gonen, E.; Wengrowicz, U.; Tirosh, D.; Barak, D.

    1997-01-01

    A continuous air monitoring system called 'ASIA' (Aerosols Sampler In Air) was developed at the NRCN for monitoring and measuring the concentration of airborne alpha emitting radionuclides such as Radon or natural Uranium. The 'ASIA' is a stationary multi-channel analyzer based system. The air passes through a 2.5 cm diameter filter and the radioactivity accumulated on it is monitored by a Silicon solid state detector. The sampling unit can be separated from the display and control unit to enable environment sampling close to the workers. The ASIA uses modern hardware and software in order to improve noise and background reduction and to allow friendly and flexible use. Remote communication is also available. The spectrum and additional data are displayed on line. The system was checked according to ANSI N42.17B -1989. The linearity and efficiency were evaluated by using various alpha sources. The Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA) and Decision Limit (Lc) were calculated according to ANSI N13.30. Long time stability measurements were performed using a natural Uranium source. (authors)

  19. Molecular characterization of alpha 1- and alpha 2-adrenoceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, J K; Pearson, W R; Lynch, K R

    1991-02-01

    Three 'alpha 1-adrenoceptors' and three 'alpha 2-adrenoceptors' have now been cloned. How closely do these receptors match the native receptors that have been identified pharmacologically? What are the properties of these receptors, and how do they relate to other members of the cationic amine receptor family? Kevin Lynch and his colleagues discuss these questions in this review.

  20. Long-Range Alpha Detector (LRAD) technology applied to ER and D ampersand D problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allander, K.S.; Bounds, J.A.; Caress, R.W.; Catlett, M.M.; Garner, S.E.; Johnson, J.P.; Johnson, J.D.; MacArthur, D.W.; Rutherford, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    Standard alpha detectors are severely limited when monitoring alpha contamination on large surfaces and the inside surfaces of pipes, ducts, and equipment. The Long-Range Alpha Detector (LRAD) system overcomes these problems by detecting the ion pairs created by an alpha particle in ambient air, rather than the alpha particle directly. These ion pairs are transported to a collection grid by either an air current or an electric field and create a small electric current (typically 10 -13 to 10 -14 A) that is read by an electrometer and displayed on a data acquisition system. This method of detection is used to create monitoring systems for both the environmental restoration and decontamination and decommissioning fields

  1. Reggeon field theory for alpha (0)>1

    CERN Document Server

    Amati, Daniele; Le Bellac, M; Marchesini, G

    1976-01-01

    The asymptotic behaviour of the scattering amplitude is obtained when the pomeron has intercept alpha (0) larger than one. The reggeon field theory is studied by introducing a lattice in impact parameter space. Use is made of a previous result showing that asymptotically the dynamics is controlled at each lattice site ( alpha '=0 case) by a two-level structure. This leads to a non-Hermitean Hamiltonian expressed in terms of spin operators in which the intersite interaction term is proportional to the pomeron slope alpha '. The spectrum of such a system shows a degenerate ground state for alpha (0)> alpha /sub c/>or approximately=1 and a continuum with vanishing excitation gap at alpha (0)= alpha /sub c/. The vacuum does not change structure at the critical value. The criticality is shown by an order parameter which is given by the matrix element of a field operator between the vacuum and its degenerate companion. The nature of this critical phenomenon is better understood by continuously transforming the Hami...

  2. Continuation calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram Geron

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Programs with control are usually modeled using lambda calculus extended with control operators. Instead of modifying lambda calculus, we consider a different model of computation. We introduce continuation calculus, or CC, a deterministic model of computation that is evaluated using only head reduction, and argue that it is suitable for modeling programs with control. It is demonstrated how to define programs, specify them, and prove them correct. This is shown in detail by presenting in CC a list multiplication program that prematurely returns when it encounters a zero. The correctness proof includes termination of the program. In continuation calculus we can model both call-by-name and call-by-value. In addition, call-by-name functions can be applied to call-by-value results, and conversely.

  3. Alpha wastes treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thouvenot, P.

    2000-01-01

    Alter 2004, the alpha wastes issued from the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique installations will be sent to the CEDRA plant. The aims of this installation are decontamination and wastes storage. Because of recent environmental regulations concerning ozone layer depletion, the use of CFC 113 in the decontamination unit, as previously planned, is impossible. Two alternatives processes are studied: the AVD process and an aqueous process including surfactants. Best formulations for both processes are defined issuing degreasing kinetics. It is observed that a good degreasing efficiency is linked to a good decontamination efficiency. Best results are obtained with the aqueous process. Furthermore, from the point of view of an existing waste treatment unit, the aqueous process turns out to be more suitable than the AVD process. (author)

  4. Real-time alpha emitter assay of large volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, P.L.; Koster, J.E.; Macy, K.; Cook, J.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the design and behavior of a High Airflow Monitor (HAFM) based on Long-Range Alpha Detector (LRAD) technology [1]. The low air resistance construction of the HAFM enables the high airflow crucial for assay of rooms, vaults, or cargo vehicles. This is accomplished by orienting plates parallel to the airflow rather than perpendicular, as are the grids in other LRADS. As will be shown in this paper, the advantages of an LRAD-based volume monitor are its inexpensive simplicity, ruggedness, and its ability to detect contamination that is hidden from traditional alpha detection methods such as Geiger-Muller, gas cell, or solid-state detectors

  5. Mind Your p's and Alphas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallings, William M.

    In the educational research literature alpha, the a priori level of significance, and p, the a posteriori probability of obtaining a test statistic of at least a certain value when the null hypothesis is true, are often confused. Explanations for this confusion are offered. Paradoxically, alpha retains a prominent place in textbook discussions of…

  6. Summary of Alpha Particle Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medley, S.S.; White, R.B.; Zweben, S.J.

    1998-08-19

    This paper summarizes the talks on alpha particle transport which were presented at the 5th International Atomic Energy Agency's Technical Committee Meeting on "Alpha Particles in Fusion Research" held at the Joint European Torus, England in September 1997.

  7. Proteinaceous alpha-araylase inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Birte; Fukuda, Kenji; Nielsen, P.K.

    2004-01-01

    Proteins that inhibit alpha-amylases have been isolated from plants and microorganisms. These inhibitors can have natural roles in the control of endogenous a-amylase activity or in defence against pathogens and pests; certain inhibitors are reported to be antinutritional factors. The alpha-amylase...... inhibitors belong to seven different protein structural families, most of which also contain evolutionary related proteins without inhibitory activity. Two families include bifunctional inhibitors acting both on alpha-amylases and proteases. High-resolution structures are available of target alpha-amylases...... in complex with inhibitors from five families. These structures indicate major diversity but also some similarity in the structural basis of alpha-amylase inhibition. Mutational analysis of the mechanism of inhibition was performed in a few cases and various protein engineering and biotechnological...

  8. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, pollen and ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, ...

  9. EEG alpha sensitization in individualized homeopathic treatment of fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Iris R; Lewis, Daniel A; Lewis, Sabrina E; Schwartz, Gary E; Brooks, Audrey J; Scott, Anne; Baldwin, Carol M

    2004-09-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) patients show evidence of sensitizability in pain pathways and electroencephalographic (EEG) alterations. One proposed mechanism for the claimed effects of homeopathy, a form of complementary medicine used for FM, is time-dependent sensitization (TDS, progressive amplification) of host responses. This study examined possible sensitization-related changes in EEG relative alpha magnitude during a clinical trial of homeopathy in FM. A 4-month randomized, placebo-controlled double-blind trial of daily orally administered individualized homeopathy in physician-confirmed FM, with an additional 2-month optional crossover phase, included three laboratory sessions, at baseline, 3 and 6 months (N = 48, age 49.2 +/- 9.8 years, 94% women). Nineteen leads of EEG relative alpha magnitude at rest and during olfactory administration of treatment and control solutions were evaluated in each session. After 3 months, the active treatment group significantly increased, while the placebo group decreased, in global alpha-1 and alpha-2 during bottle sniffs over sessions. At 6 months, the subset of active patients who stayed on active continued to increase, while the active-switch subgroup reversed direction in alpha magnitude. Groups did not differ in resting alpha. Consistent with the TDS hypothesis, sniff alpha-1 and alpha-2 increases at 6 months versus baseline correlated with total amount of time on active remedy over all subjects (r = 0.45, p = .003), not with dose changes or clinical outcomes in the active group. The findings suggest initiation of TDS in relative EEG alpha magnitude by daily oral administration of active homeopathic medicines versus placebo, with laboratory elicitation by temporolimbic olfactory stimulation or sniffing.

  10. Applications of alpha particles detectors made of nitrocellulose film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segovia, N.; Salinas, B.; Pineda, H.

    1978-01-01

    We describe the experiments realized in order to probe the response of the alpha particles detectors manufactured in our laboratory and their suitability to some important applications. The detection system is a nitrocellulose film which register the transit of the charged particles. The traces left by the particles during their transit are manifested through a controlled chemical attack and counted after that with a microscope. This monitor system was utilized in the following applications: 1) uranium prospection 2) alpha autoradiography 4) determination of air pollution by alpha emitters. The results which were obtained are satisfactory and in spite that in these first applications only qualitative measurements were made the method could be used for quantitative determinations when we will have a better knowledge of the effect of factors which are not under our control. (author)

  11. ALPHA freezes antiprotons

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Laboratories like CERN can routinely produce many different types of antiparticles. In 1995, the PS210 experiment formed the first antihydrogen atoms and a few years later, in 2002, ATRAP and ATHENA were already able to produce several thousand of them. However, no experiment in the world has succeeded in ‘trapping’ these anti-atoms in order to study them. This is the goal of the ALPHA experiment, which has recently managed to cool down the antiprotons to just a few Kelvin. This represents a major step towards trapping the anti-atom, thus opening a new avenue into the investigation of antimatter properties.   Members of the ALPHA collaboration working on the apparatus in the Antiproton Decelerator experimental hall at CERN. Just like the atom, the anti-atom is neutral. Unlike the atom, the anti-atom is made up of antiprotons (as opposed to protons in the atom) and positrons (as opposed to electrons). In order to thoroughly study the properties of the anti-atoms, scien...

  12. Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bals, Robert

    2010-10-01

    Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is a rare genetic disorder associated with the development of liver and lung disease. AAT is a 52-kD glycoprotein, produced mainly by hepatocytes and secreted into the blood. Agglomeration of the AAT-protein in hepatocytes can result in liver disease. Exposure to smoke is the major risk factor for the development of lung disease characterised as early chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD). Diagnosis is based on the analysis of the AAT genotype and phenotype. The measurement of the AAT serum level is useful as screening test. Liver biopsy is not necessary to establish the diagnosis. Therapy for AAT-related liver disease is supportive, a specific therapy is not available. AATD is a rare condition (1:5000-10000) and, as a consequence, data and information on diagnosis and treatment are not easily accessible. This chapter provides a comprehensive overview on AATD, covering basic biology, diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. AlfaMC: A fast alpha particle transport Monte Carlo code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peralta, Luis, E-mail: luis@lip.pt [Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa (Portugal); Laboratório de Instrumentação e Física Experimental de Partículas (Portugal); Louro, Alina [Laboratório de Instrumentação e Física Experimental de Partículas (Portugal)

    2014-02-11

    AlfaMC is a Monte Carlo simulation code for the transport of alpha particles. This code is based on the Continuous Slowing Down Approximation and uses the NIST/ASTAR stopping-power database. The code uses a powerful geometrical package, which allows coding of complex geometries. A flexible histogramming package is used as well, which greatly eases the scoring of results. The code is tailored for microdosimetric applications in which speed is a key factor. Comparison with the SRIM code is made for deposited energy in thin layers and range for air, mylar, aluminum and gold. The general agreement between the two codes is good for beam energies between 1 and 12 MeV. -- Highlights: • AlfaMC is a Monte Carlo program for fast alpha particle transport in matter. • The model is accurate within a few percent in the energy range of 1–12 MeV. • AlfaMC uses a combinatorial geometry package allowing the modeling of complex bodies.

  14. Measurement of $\\alpha_{s}$ with Radiative Hadronic Events

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G; Åkesson, P F; Alexander, G; Anagnostou, G; Anderson, K J; Asai, S; Axen, D; Bailey, I; Barberio, E; Barillari, T; Barlow, R J; Batley, R J; Bechtle, P; Behnke, T; Bell, K W; Bell, P J; Bella, G; Bellerive, A; Benelli, G; Bethke, S; Biebel, O; Boeriu, O; Bock, P; Boutemeur, M; Braibant, S; Brown, R M; Burckhart, H J; Campana, S; Capiluppi, P; Carnegie, R K; Carter, A A; Carter, J R; Chang, C Y; Charlton, D G; Ciocca, C; Csilling, A; Cuffiani, M; Dado, S; Dallavalle, M; de Roeck, A; De Wolf, E A; Desch, K; Dienes, B; Dubbert, J; Duchovni, E; Duckeck, G; Duerdoth, I P; Etzion, E; Fabbri, F; Ferrari, P; Fiedler, F; Fleck, I; Ford, M; Frey, A; Gagnon, P; Gary, J W; Geich-Gimbel, C; Giacomelli, G; Giacomelli, P; Giunta, M; Goldberg, J; Gross, E; Grunhaus, J; Gruwé, M; Sen-Gupta, A; Hajdu, C; Hamann, M; Hanson, G G; Harel, A; Hauschild, M; Hawkes, C M; Hawkings, R; Herten, G; Heuer, R D; Hill, J C; Horváth, D; Igo-Kemenes, P; Ishii, K; Jeremie, H; Jovanovic, P; Junk, T R; Kanzaki, J; Karlen, D; Kawagoe, K; Kawamoto, T; Keeler, R K; Kellogg, R G; Kennedy, B W; Kluth, S; Kobayashi, T; Kobel, M; Komamiya, S; Kramer, T; Krasznahorkays, A Jr; Krieger, P; Von Krogh, J; Kühl, T; Kupper, M; Lafferty, G D; Landsman, H; Lanske, D; Lellouch, D; Letts, J; Levinson, L; Lillich, J; Lloyd, S L; Loebinger, F K; Lü, J; Ludwig, A; Ludwig, J; Mader, W; Marcellini, S; Martin, A J; Mashimo, T; Mättig, P; McKenna, J; McPherson, R A; Meijers, F; Menges, W; Merritt, F S; Mes, H; Meyer, N; Michelini, A; Mihara, S; Mikenberg, G; Miller, D J; Mohr, W; Mori, T; Mutter, A; Nagai, K; Nakamura, I; Nanjo, H; Neal, H A; O'Neale, S W; Oh, A; Oreglia, M J; Orito, S; Pahl, C; Pásztor, G; Pater, J R; Pilcher, J E; Pinfold, J L; Plane, D E; Pooth, O; Przybycien, M; Quadt, A; Rabbertz, K; Rembser, C; Renkel, P; Roney, J M; Rossi, A M; Rozen, Y; Runge, K; Sachs, K; Saeki, T; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E; Schaile, A D; Schaile, O; Scharff-Hansen, P; Schiecks, J; Schörner-Sadenius, T; Schröder, M; Schumacher, M; Seuster, R; Shears, T G; Shen, B C; Sherwood, P; Skuja, A; Smith, A M; Sobie, R J; Söldner-Rembold, S; Spanó, F; Stahl, A; Strom, D; Ströhmer, R; Tarem, S; Tasevsky, M; Teuscher, R; Thomson, M A; Torrence, E; Toya, D; Trigger, I; Trócsányi, Z L; Tsur, E; Turner-Watson, M F; Ueda, I; Ujvári, B; Vollmer, C F; Vannerem, P; Vertesi, R; Verzocchi, M; Voss, H; Vossebeld, J; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Wells, P S; Wengler, T; Wermes, N; Wilson, G W; Wilson, J A; Wolf, G; Wyatt, T R; Yamashita, S; Zer-Zion, D; Zivkovic, L

    2008-01-01

    Hadronic final states with a hard isolated photon are studied using data taken at centre-of-mass energies around the mass of the Z0 boson with the OPAL detector at LEP. The strong coupling alpha S is extracted by comparing data and QCD predictions for event shape observables at average reduced centre-of-mass energies ranging from 24 GeV to 78 GeV, and the energy dependence of alpha S is studied. Our results are consistent with the running of alpha S as predicted by QCD and show that within the uncertainties of our analysis event shapes in hadronic Z0 decays with hard and isolated photon radiation can be described by QCD at reduced centre-of-mass energies. Combining all values from different event shape observables and energies gives alpha S (Mz)=0.1182 pm 0.0015(stat.) pm 0.0101(syst.).

  15. What Powers Lyman alpha Blobs?

    OpenAIRE

    Ao, Y.; Matsuda, Y.; Beelen, A.; Henkel, C.; Cen, R.; De Breuck, C.; Francis, P.; Kovacs, A.; Lagache, G.; Lehnert, M.; Mao, M.; Menten, K. M.; Norris, R.; Omont, A.; Tatemastu, K.

    2015-01-01

    Lyman alpha blobs (LABs) are spatially extended lyman alpha nebulae seen at high redshift. The origin of Lyman alpha emission in the LABs is still unclear and under debate. To study their heating mechanism(s), we present Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) observations of the 20 cm radio emission and Herschel PACS and SPIRE measurements of the far-infrared (FIR) emission towards the four LABs in the protocluster J2143-4423 at z=2.38. Among the four LABs, B6 and B7 are detected in the rad...

  16. Alpha heating in toroidal devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miley, G.H.

    1978-01-01

    Ignition (or near-ignition) by alpha heating is a key objective for the achievement of economic fusion reactors. While good confinement of high-energy alphas appears possible in larger reactors, near-term tokamak-type ignition experiments as well as some concepts for small reactors (e.g., the Field-Reversed Mirror or FRM) potentially face marginal situations. Consequently, there is a strong motivation to develop methods to evaluate alpha losses and heating profiles in some detail. Such studies for a TFTR-size tokamak and for a small FRM are described here.

  17. Development of energy-efficient comfort ventilation plants with air quality controlled volume flow rate and continuous detection of the status of the windows aperture. Part 3. Final report with documentation of the field test; Entwicklung energieeffizienter Komfortlueftungsanlagen mit luftqualitaetsgefuehrter Volumenstromregelung und kontinuierlicher Erfassung des Fensteroeffnungszustandes. Teilbericht 3. Endbericht mit Dokumentation des Feldtests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossklos, Marc; Hacke, Ulrike [Institut Wohnen und Umwelt GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2012-10-25

    Residential ventilation systems with a heat recovery contribute to the improvement of the air quality and to the reduction of heat losses caused by ventilation. An additional opening of the windows in residential buildings results in a clearly increasing consumption of thermal heat because the thermal heat of the out coming air cannot be utilized furthermore. Continuous information on the energetic effects of the opening of windows is helpful. Under this aspect, the authors of the contribution under consideration report on the development of energy efficient comfort ventilation systems with an air quality controlled volume flow rate and continuous detection of the status of the windows aperture. The contribution under consideration is the third part of a project concerning to this theme. This part encompasses a field test with four single-family houses in which the air quality control as well as the detection of the status of the windows aperture is tested and optimized for a long period. This contribution also contains the results of the second part of the project. The second project investigate the technical implementation of a air quality regulation at prototypes and test facilities.

  18. Oxygen incineration process for treatment of alpha-contaminated wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Guk; Yang, Hee Chul; Park, Geun Il; Kim, In Tae; Kim, Joon Hyung

    2001-07-01

    As a part of development of a treatment technology for burnable alpha-bearing (or -contaminated) wastes using an oxygen incineration process, which would be expected to produce in Korea, the off-gas volume and compositions were estimated form mass and heat balance, and then compared to those of a general air incineration process. A laboratory-scale oxygen incineration process, to investigate a burnable wastes from nuclear fuel fabricatin facility, was designed, constructed, and then operated. The use of oxygen instead of air in incineratin would result in reduction on off-gas product below one seventh theoretically. In addition, the trends on incineration and melting processes to treat the radioactive alpha-contaminated wastes, and the regulations and guide lines, related to design, construction, and operation of incineration process, were reviewed. Finallu, the domestic regulations related incineration, and the operation and maintenance manuals for oxy-fuel burner and oxygen incineration process were shown in appendixes

  19. Alpha detection as a probe for counter proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koster, J.E.; Johnson, J.P.; MacArthur, D.W.; Walters, S.G.

    1994-07-01

    An indication of the presence of special nuclear material (SNM) can be obtained by the detection of alpha particles from the decay of the SNM. Current techniques for detecting alpha particles have a number of limitations. Sensitive conventional detection of SNM traces involves off-site laboratory analysis -- but at the loss of an on-site confirmation. Fieldable detection instruments, on the other hand, are delicate and have poor sensitivity. New long-range alpha detection (LRAD) technology mitigates these limitations. An LRAD-based instrument relies on the detection of the hundreds of thousands of ions produced in ambient air by one emitted alpha particle. The ions can be transported to an ion detector at a distance much greater than the range of the original alpha particle. The LRAD-based monitors have the characteristics of high sensitivity, fast (real-time) response, ruggedness, and reliability. Many of the designs are quite portable. In this paper, several scenarios are identified for which particular LRAD-based detectors can provide confirmation of proliferation activity.

  20. Alpha detection for decontamination and decommissioning: Results and possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacArthur, D.

    1995-01-01

    Alpha detectors based on the long-range alpha detection (LRAD) technology have numerous uses, both potential and demonstrated, in facility D ampersand D. These monitors operate by detecting the ions created by alpha particles interacting with ambient air. Thus, detection is not limited by the short range of the alpha particle and no window is required between the contamination and the detection region. These properties make LRAD-based detectors ideal for operation in field environments where complex objects to be monitored are the norm and reliability is crucial. Three monitors of particular interest in D ampersand D operations are the building surface monitor, the internal volume monitor for use on the inner surfaces of pipes, ducts, and tanks, and the conveyer belt monitor for concrete rubble and structural steel. Surface monitors have been used extensively, both in laboratory and field environments, internal volume monitors have been tested in the laboratory, and the conveyer system is still a conceptual design. These monitors and related applications demonstrate the utility of LRAD-based monitors for D ampersand D operations as well as exploring some of the new ways that fieldable monitoring systems can be used for D ampersand D. Ion collection sensing technology can be used to solve many of the alpha detection problems unique to the D ampersand D field

  1. Solid waste combustion for alpha waste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orloff, D.I.

    1981-02-01

    Radioactive waste incinerator development at the Savannah River Laboratory has been augmented by fundamental combustion studies at the University of South Carolina. The objective was to measure and model pyrolysis and combustion rates of typical Savannah River Plant waste materials as a function of incinerator operating conditions. The analytical models developed in this work have been incorporated into a waste burning transient code. The code predicts maximum air requirement and heat energy release as a function of waste type, package size, combustion chamber size, and temperature. Historically, relationships have been determined by direct experiments that did not allow an engineering basis for predicting combustion rates in untested incinerators. The computed combustion rates and burning times agree with measured values in the Savannah River Laboratory pilot (1 lb/hr) and full-scale (12 lb/hr) alpha incinerators for a wide variety of typical waste materials

  2. Crossed products by \\alpha-simple automorphisms on C*-algebras C(X,A)

    OpenAIRE

    Hua, Jiajie

    2009-01-01

    Let $X$ be a Cantor set, and let $A$ be a unital separable simple amenable $C$*-algebra with tracial rank zero which satisfies the Universal Coefficient Theorem, we use $C(X,A)$ to denote the set of all continuous functions from $X$ to $A$, let $\\alpha$ be an automorphism on $C(X,A)$. Suppose that $C(X,A)$ is $\\alpha$-simple and $[\\alpha]=[\\mbox{id}_{1\\otimes A}]$ in $KL(1\\otimes A,1\\otimes A)$, we show that $C(X,A)\\rtimes_{\\alpha}\\mathbb{Z}$ has tracial rank zero.

  3. On Zweier Sequence Spaces and de la Vall\\'{e}e-Poussin mean of order $\\alpha$

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipan Hazarika

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to study some geometrical properties such as order continuous, the Fatou property and the Banach-Saks property of the new space $[\\mathcal{Z}_{\\lambda}^{\\alpha}]_{\\infty}(p.$

  4. Classification of alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michel, M. C.; Kenny, B.; Schwinn, D. A.

    1995-01-01

    Two alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtypes (alpha 1A and alpha 1B) have been detected in various tissues by pharmacological techniques, and three distinct cDNAs encoding alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtypes have been cloned. The profile of an increasing number of subtype-selective compounds at cloned and endogenous

  5. Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Appleton, Bonnie Lee, 1948-2012; Koci, Joel; Harris, Roger; Sevebeck, Kathryn P.; Alleman, Dawn; Swanson, Lynette

    2009-01-01

    This publication reviews the major phytotoxic air pollutants, in decreasing order of severity, they include oxidants, sulfur dioxide, and particulates. Topics also include the connection between weather and air pollution and a section on diagnosing air pollution damage to trees.

  6. Air Abrasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... delivered directly to your desktop! more... What Is Air Abrasion? Article Chapters What Is Air Abrasion? What Happens? The Pros and Cons Will I Feel Anything? Is Air Abrasion for Everyone? print full article print this ...

  7. Triplication of alpha-globin genes is responsible for unusual alpha 113Leu/alpha 113His-globin chain ratios in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestri, R; Masina, P; Rando, A; Testa, A; Di Gregorio, P

    1987-10-01

    By investigations at the DNA and protein level, it has been shown that in sheep a previously detected, presumed quantitative allele of the II alpha 113His gene, displaying a reduced efficiency (called the II alpha 113His decreases gene), is carried by a chromosome bearing three alpha-globin loci. In particular, five sheep having an alpha 113Leu/alpha 113His-chain ratio of about 13:1 (13:1 phenotype) possessed the -I alpha 113Leu-II alpha 113Leu-/-I alpha 113Leu-II alpha 113Leu-III alpha 113His decreases genotype. One sheep showing a alpha 113Leu/alpha 113His-chain ratio of about 3:1 (3:1 phenotype) had the -I alpha 113Leu-II alpha 113His-/-I alpha 113Leu-II alpha 113Leu-III alpha 113His decreases genotype, while one sheep having a chain ratio of about 6:1 (6:1 phenotype) carried the -I alpha 113Leu-II alpha 113Leu-II alpha 113His decreases-/-I alpha 113Leu-II alpha 113Leu-III alpha 113His decreases genotype. Nineteen sheep, displaying the common phenotypes, all possessed the alpha alpha/alpha alpha gene arrangement. Furthermore, the possible location of the gene with reduced efficiency and the expression of the three genes in the triple alpha-globin loci chromosome are discussed.

  8. Study of the influence of the geological and meteorological conditions and pollution on radon and thoron concentrations in outdoor air in Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amrane, M.; Misdaq, A.; Oufni, L.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Radon and thoron concentrations were measured in the outdoor air in different cities in Morocco by using a method based on determining the mean critical angles of etching of the CR-39 and LR-115 type II solid state nuclear track detectors. Alpha-and beta-activities due to the radon and thoron series were evaluated in the same locations. The influence of the geological and meteorological conditions as well as pollution on the radon and thoron concentrations in the outdoor air of studied areas was investigated. Continuous measurements of radon in the studied areas were performed and data obtained were compared with results obtained by using and AlphaGuard counter

  9. Contribution to the study of the alpha-alpha interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darriulat, Pierre

    1965-01-01

    The new variable energy cyclotron at Berkeley that can accelerate an alpha beam up to an energy of 130 MeV and the mass production of lithium diffused junctions have enabled us to perform 2 series of measurement, in the first one we use alpha beams with an energy ranging between 50 and 120 MeV to study alpha-alpha forces in the second one we use the flexibility of the variable energy cyclotron the resonances around 40 MeV, region that can not yet be reached by tandem accelerators. This work is divided into 6 chapters. The first chapter is dedicated to the formalism of partial wave analysis and the theory of the compound nucleus. In the second chapter the author presents the 88 cyclotron at Berkeley and the diffusion chamber, the alpha detectors are lithium diffused junctions made of silicon. The third chapter deals with the experimental methods used and the issue of the reduction of the volume of data. In the fourth chapter the results obtained in the upper part of the energy range are described in terms of complex shifts that allow the description of the α-α interaction at high energy. The very low impact parameter has enabled us to find 2 new components (l=6 and l=8) of the rotational spectrum and to define a more accurate phenomenological potential. The fifth chapter is dedicated to the narrow resonances we have found between 12 and 27 MeV. We present in the last chapter a calculation of the binding energy of C 12 in which we have considered the 12 C nucleus as formed by 3 alpha particles interacting with each other through the phenomenological potential defined above

  10. Long-term continuous sampling of ¹²CO₂, ¹³CO₂ and ¹²C¹⁸O¹⁶O in ambient air with a quantum cascade laser spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, J Barry; Nelson, David D; Zahniser, Mark S

    2010-03-01

    A recently developed laser spectroscopic instrument allows real-time continuous measurements of the stable isotopologues of carbon dioxide at ambient concentrations. This compact instrument offers sufficient precision (0.2 per thousand in 1 s, 0.02 per thousand in 60 s) and stability (drift in 1 h ofair nearly continuously for more than 10 months, in a heterogeneous urban area northwest of Boston, MA. During this long sampling experiment, we continued to improve and modify the instrument and sampling system. In this paper, we present data collected during that long sampling experiment in order to demonstrate some of the possibilities provided by such real-time continuous monitoring. We have observed distinct isotopic signatures in CO(2) variations from timescales of seconds to seasons. We also present a method of performing continuous Keeling regressions on a cascade of timescales and show some results in application of that method to the continuous sampling data set.

  11. Workshop on Precision Measurements of $\\alpha_s$

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bethke, Siegfried; /Munich, Max Planck Inst.; Hoang, Andre H.; /Vienna U.; Kluth, Stefan; /Munich, Max Planck Inst.; Schieck, Jochen; /Munich U.; Stewart, Iain W.; Aoki, S.; Beneke, M.; Bethke, S.; Blumlein, J.; Brambilla, N.; Brodsky, S.; /MIT, LNS

    2011-10-01

    These are the proceedings of the Workshop on Precision Measurements of {alpha}{sub s} held at the Max-Planck-Institute for Physics, Munich, February 9-11, 2011. The workshop explored in depth the determination of {alpha}{sub s}(m{sub Z}) in the {ovr MS} scheme from the key categories where high precision measurements are currently being made, including DIS and global PDF fits, {tau}-decays, electro-weak precision observables and Z-decays, event-shapes, and lattice QCD. These proceedings contain a short summary contribution from the speakers, as well as the lists of authors, conveners, participants, and talks.

  12. Alpha contamination assessment for D ampersand D activities: Monitoring pipe interiors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawool-Sullivan, M.W.; Conaway, J.G.; MacArthur, D.W.; Vaccarella, J.

    1996-02-01

    We have developed a prototype instrument capable of assessing alpha-emitting contamination on interior surfaces of ducts, pipes, tanks, and other enclosed volumes without inserting a probe. Air is drawn through the potentially contaminated volume and then through a detection grid, where ions created in the air by alpha particles are collected and the resulting charge measured with a sensitive electrometer. A filter at the intake end of the contaminated volume excludes externally created ions, so only ions generated inside the volume are detected. We have studied the response of this prototype in initial experiments using calibrated alpha sources with various pipe diameters and configurations, air flows, and source locations in the pipes. The results of these experiments indicate that this method can be an effective approach to assessing internal contamination

  13. Binding of [alpha, alpha]-Disubstituted Amino Acids to Arginase Suggests New Avenues for Inhibitor Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilies, Monica; Di Costanzo, Luigi; Dowling, Daniel P.; Thorn, Katherine J.; Christianson, David W. (MIT); (Episcopal U); (Rutgers); (Drexel); (Penn)

    2011-10-21

    Arginase is a binuclear manganese metalloenzyme that hydrolyzes L-arginine to form L-ornithine and urea, and aberrant arginase activity is implicated in various diseases such as erectile dysfunction, asthma, atherosclerosis, and cerebral malaria. Accordingly, arginase inhibitors may be therapeutically useful. Continuing our efforts to expand the chemical space of arginase inhibitor design and inspired by the binding of 2-(difluoromethyl)-L-ornithine to human arginase I, we now report the first study of the binding of {alpha},{alpha}-disubstituted amino acids to arginase. Specifically, we report the design, synthesis, and assay of racemic 2-amino-6-borono-2-methylhexanoic acid and racemic 2-amino-6-borono-2-(difluoromethyl)hexanoic acid. X-ray crystal structures of human arginase I and Plasmodium falciparum arginase complexed with these inhibitors reveal the exclusive binding of the L-stereoisomer; the additional {alpha}-substituent of each inhibitor is readily accommodated and makes new intermolecular interactions in the outer active site of each enzyme. Therefore, this work highlights a new region of the protein surface that can be targeted for additional affinity interactions, as well as the first comparative structural insights on inhibitor discrimination between a human and a parasitic arginase.

  14. Conditioning of alpha bearing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Alpha bearing wastes are generated during the reprocessing of spent fuel, mixed oxide fuel fabrication, decommissioning and other activities. The safe and effective management of these wastes is of particular importance owing to the radiotoxicity and long lived characteristics of certain transuranic (TRU) elements. The management of alpha bearing wastes involves a number of stages which include collection, characterization, segregation, treatment, conditioning, transport, storage and disposal. This report describes the currently available matrices and technologies for the conditioning of alpha wastes and relates them to their compatibility with the other stages of the waste management process. The selection of a specific immobilization process is dependent on the waste treatment state and the subsequent handling, transport, storage and disposal requirements. The overall objectives of immobilization are similar for all waste producers and processors, which are to produce: (a) Waste forms with sufficient mechanical, physical and chemical stability to satisfy all stages of handling, transport and storage (referred to as the short term requirements), and (b) Waste forms which will satisfy disposal requirements and inhibit the release of radionuclides to the biosphere (referred to as the long term requirements). Cement and bitumen processes have already been successfully applied to alpha waste conditioning on the industrial scale in many of the IAEA Member States. Cement systems based on BFS and pozzolanic cements have emerged as the principal encapsulation matrices for the full range of alpha bearing wastes. Alternative technologies, such as polymers and ceramics, are being developed for specific waste streams but are unlikely to meet widespread application owing to cost and process complexity. The merits of alpha waste conditioning are improved performance in transport, storage and disposal combined with enhanced public perception of waste management operations. These

  15. Nonlinear feedback control for high alpha flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalford, Harold

    1990-01-01

    Analytical aerodynamic models are derived from a high alpha 6 DOF wind tunnel model. One detail model requires some interpolation between nonlinear functions of alpha. One analytical model requires no interpolation and as such is a completely continuous model. Flight path optimization is conducted on the basic maneuvers: half-loop, 90 degree pitch-up, and level turn. The optimal control analysis uses the derived analytical model in the equations of motion and is based on both moment and force equations. The maximum principle solution for the half-loop is poststall trajectory performing the half-loop in 13.6 seconds. The agility induced by thrust vectoring capability provided a minimum effect on reducing the maneuver time. By means of thrust vectoring control the 90 degrees pitch-up maneuver can be executed in a small place over a short time interval. The agility capability of thrust vectoring is quite beneficial for pitch-up maneuvers. The level turn results are based currently on only outer layer solutions of singular perturbation. Poststall solutions provide high turn rates but generate higher losses of energy than that of classical sustained solutions.

  16. MFTF-. cap alpha. + T progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, W.D. (ed.)

    1985-04-01

    Early in FY 1983, several upgrades of the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) were proposed to the fusion community. The one most favorably received was designated MFTF-..cap alpha..+T. The engineering design of this device, guided by LLNL, has been a principal activity of the Fusion Engineering Design Center during FY 1983. This interim progress report represents a snapshot of the device design, which was begun in FY 1983 and will continue for several years. The report is organized as a complete design description. Because it is an interim report, some parts are incomplete; they will be supplied as the design study proceeds. As described in this report, MFTF-..cap alpha..+T uses existing facilities, many MFTF-B components, and a number of innovations to improve on the physics parameters of MFTF-B. It burns deuterium-tritium and has a central-cell Q of 2, a wall loading GAMMA/sub n/ of 2 MW/m/sup 2/ (with a central-cell insert module), and an availability of 10%. The machine is fully shielded, allows hands-on maintenance of components outside the vacuum vessel 24 h after shutdown, and has provisions for repair of all operating components.

  17. Air Quality Monitoring Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, K.; Palmgren, F.

    The air quality in Danish cities has been monitored continuously since 1982 within the Danish Air Quality (LMP) network. The aim has been to follow the concentration levels of toxic pollutants in the urban atmosphere and to provide the necessary knowledge to assess the trends, to perform source...... apportionment, and to evaluate the chemical reactions and the dispersion of the pollutants in the atmosphere. In 2002 the air quality was measured in four Danish cities and at two background sites. NO2 and PM10 were at several stations found in concentrations above the new EU limit values, which the Member...

  18. Daily and seasonal variations of outdoor alpha-activity concentration in Salzburg city/Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lettner, H.; Hubmer, A.K.; Rolle, R.; Winkler, R.; Steinhaeusler, F.

    1996-01-01

    Long-term continuous measurements of the atmospheric outdoor alpha-activity concentration have been performed by using a radioaerosol-monitor, roof-mounted 20 m above ground. The alpha-activity concentration was identified to be predominantly attributed to radon progeny. The total alpha-activity covers a range of two orders of magnitude. Three different components of variations could be identified with regard to temporal variations: Short-term diurnal component (daily variation), mid-term component (days to weeks) and long-term component (seasonal variation). Continuous measurements have been recorded since the end of 1993. The results of continuous measurements of the outdoor alpha-activity concentration over a time span from January 1994 to June 1995 are presented. (author)

  19. Continuous and passive environmental radon monitoring: Measuring methods and health effects. (Latest citations from the INSPEC: Information services for the Physics and Engineering Communities database). Published Search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning continuous and passive radon (Rn) monitoring, measurement methods and equipment, and health effects from Rn concentration in air, water, and soils. Citations discuss the design, development, and evaluation of monitoring and detection devices, including alpha spectroscopy and dosimetry, track detecting and scintillation, thermoluminescent, electret, and electrode collection. Sources of Rn concentration levels found in building materials, ventilation systems, soils, and ground water are examined. Lung cancer-associated risks from Rn radiation exposure are explored. Radon monitoring in mining operations is excluded. (Contains a minimum of 210 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  20. Improved Alpha Testing Using Hashed Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyman, Chris; McGuire, Morgan

    2017-08-14

    We further describe and analyze the idea of hashed alpha testing from Wyman and McGuire [1], which builds on stochastic alpha testing and simplifies stochastic transparency. Typically, alpha testing provides a simple mechanism to mask out complex silhouettes using simple proxy geometry with applied alpha textures. While widely used, alpha testing has a long-standing problem: geometry can disappear entirely as alpha mapped polygons recede with distance. As foveated rendering for virtual reality spreads, this problem worsens as peripheral minification and prefiltering introduce this problem on nearby objects.

  1. Follow-Up Multicenter Alpha Counting Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, J. D.; Clark, B. M.; Wong, R.; Slayman, C.; Gordon, M. S.; He, Y.; Marckmann, J.; McNally, B. D.; Wu, T.

    2014-08-01

    A follow-up alpha emissivity study was conducted to examine the wide variability observed in previous work that was hypothesized to be due to differences in the pulse height discrimination threshold among participant's equipment. Two samples, one mixed energy and one monoenergetic, were prepared and sequentially circulated to all participants for counting. Analysis of the data demonstrates that only a small portion of the variability is explained by this mechanism. The role of the sample to entrance window gap for some counters was analyzed post hoc using the same data set and may be responsible for a large amount of the variability. The results of this large-scale study demonstrate the continuing uncertainty for these measurements and the importance of interpreting their results appropriately when estimating soft error rates.

  2. Acute moderate elevation of TNF-{alpha} does not affect systemic and skeletal muscle protein turnover in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Marie; Plomgaard, Peter; Fischer, Christian P

    2009-01-01

    Context: Skeletal muscle wasting has been associated with elevations in circulating inflammatory cytokines, in particular TNF-alpha. Objective: In this study, we investigated whether TNF-alpha affects human systemic and skeletal muscle protein turnover, via a 4 hours recombinant human TNF......-alpha infusion (rhTNF-alpha). We hypothesize that TNF-alpha increases human muscle protein breakdown and/or inhibit synthesis. Subjects and Methods: Using a randomized controlled, crossover design post-absorptive healthy young males (n=8) were studied 2 hours under basal conditions followed by 4 hours infusion...... of either rhTNF-alpha (700 ng.m(-2).h(-1)) or 20% human albumin (Control) which was the vehicle of rhTNF-alpha. Systemic and skeletal muscle protein turnover were estimated by a combination of tracer dilution methodology (primed continuous infusion of L-[ring-(2)H5]phenylalanine and L-[(15)N...

  3. Residential radon daughter monitor based on alpha spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazaroff, W.W.

    1980-05-01

    The radioactive daughters of radon-222 pose a serious indoor air quality problem in some circumstances. A technique for measuring the concentrations of these radioisotopes in air is presented. The method involves drawing air through a filter; then, for two time intervals after sampling, counting the alpha decays from polonium-218 and polonium-214 on the filter. The time intervals are optimized to yield the maximum resolution between the individual daughter concentrations. For a total measurement time of 50 minutes, individual daughter concentrations of 1.0 nanocuries per cubic meter are measured with an uncertainty of 20%. A prototype of a field monitor based on this technique is described, as is a field test in which the prototype was used to measure radon daughter concentrations as a function of ventilation conditions in an energy-efficient house.

  4. ALPHA,·ANTITRYPSIN DEFICIENCY*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1971-02-06

    Feb 6, 1971 ... Lieberman," in fact, found that 15·2% of 66 patients hospitalized with pulmonary emphysema had heterozygous alpha,-antitrypsin deficiency. The over-all incidence of the deficiency was 25'8% in this group. Of patients under the age of 50 years, 47·8% had deficient levels. If such observations are confirmed ...

  5. Alpha sources deposit by sublimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoudry, F.; Eloy, J.F.

    1983-09-01

    We studied and realized a device able to perform some very thin substracts used for alpha spectrometry measurements. Sources are prepared by sublimation of the sample in a vacuum container. The energy required for this sublimation is furnished by a laser beam [fr

  6. Relationship of bacteriophages to alpha toxin production in Clostridium novyi types A and B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, M W; Poysky, F T; Peterson, M E; Meyers, J A

    1976-09-01

    The relationship of specific bacteriophages to the production of the lethal alpha toxin in Clostridium novyi types A and B was investigated. When type A strain 5771 reverted to the phage-sensitive state, it ceased to produce alpha toxin but continued to produce the gamma and epsilon antigens. This "nontoxigenic" culture, therefore, more closely resembled C. botulinum types C and D than the other C. novyi types. Phage-sensitive type B strains also ceased to produce the alpha toxin but continued to produce the beta toxin, and therefore very colesly resembled C. novyi type D (C. haemolyticum). Alpha toxin was again produced when the phage-sensitive cultures were reinfected with the respective tox+ phages. Alpha toxin production could also be induced in the "nontoxigenic" phage-sensitive derivatives from type B strain 8024 by tox+ phages isolated from other strains of type B. tox- phages were also isolated, but they did not affect alpha toxin production. The tox+ phages also caused a marked change in the colonial morphology of type B strains. In this report we present evidence that alpha toxin production by C. novyi type A strain 5771 and type B strain 8024 depends upon the continued presence and participation of specific bacteriophages designated as NA1tox+ and NB1tox+, respectively.

  7. The effect of a metalloproteinase inhibitor (GI5402) on tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and TNF-alpha receptors during human endotoxemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekkers, P. E.; Lauw, F. N.; ten Hove, T.; te Velde, A. A.; Lumley, P.; Becherer, D.; van Deventer, S. J.; van der Poll, T.

    1999-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is released from the cell surface by cleavage of pro-TNF-alpha by metalloproteinases (MPs). In cell cultures, inhibition of MPs has been found not only to reduce the release of TNF-alpha, but also to enhance the surface expression of TNF-alpha and TNF-alpha

  8. Calibration of sources for alpha spectroscopy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, I.S.M.; Goncalez, O.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the calibration methodology for measuring the total alpha activity of plane and thin sources with the Alpha Spectrometer for Silicon Detector in the Nuclear Measures and Dosimetry laboratory at IEAv/CTA. (author)

  9. Effect of Storage Duration and Atmosphere on the Content and Price of Hop Alpha Bitter Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rybka A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The quality of hops is significantly affected by the content of alpha bitter acids. Maintaining it with minimum losses lies within the competence of both the hop grower and processor depending on how they follow the optimum harvest technology, storage conditions, and post-harvest hop processing. That indicator is considerably affected by the hop storage method, i.e. whether the warehouse is air-conditioned or not, as well as the storage duration. The alpha bitter acid content should not be reduced during storage. The objective of this paper is an analysis of the alpha bitter acid content in the Saaz hop variety in a technological sequence of operations starting with drying at the grower and finishing with six-month storing at the processor, with three storage variants: an air-conditioned warehouse, non-conditioned warehouse, and a variant in which the square bale is moved after 60 days from a non-conditioned warehouse into an air-conditioned warehouse. The analysis of samples to identify the alpha bitter acid content was carried out by means of the ASBC Hops-6 and the HPLC EBC 7.7 methods. Practically in all cases the alpha content declines, although if a square bale is placed in an air-conditioned warehouse this decline is the lowest depending on the storage duration. The economic analysis shows a significant profit referring to the price of alpha contained in 1 t of hops stored in an air-conditioned warehouse. At the date of 1/11/2015 this profit was 14 706 CZK, at the date of 4/1/2016 it was 7646 CZK, and at 1/3/2016 the profit was 6587 CZK.

  10. Enzyme replacement therapy for alpha-mannosidosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgwardt, Line Gutte; Dali, Christine I.; Fogh, J

    2013-01-01

    Alpha-mannosidosis (OMIM 248500) is a rare lysosomal storage disease (LSD) caused by alpha-mannosidase deficiency. Manifestations include intellectual disabilities, facial characteristics and hearing impairment. A recombinant human alpha-mannosidase (rhLAMAN) has been developed for weekly intrave...... intravenous enzyme replacement therapy (ERT). We present the preliminary data after 12 months of treatment....

  11. THE ALPHA/BETA-HYDROLASE FOLD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OLLIS, DL; CHEAH, E; CYGLER, M; FROLOW, F; FRANKEN, SM; HAREL, M; REMINGTON, SJ; SILMAN, [No Value; SCHRAG, J; SUSSMAN, JL; VERSCHUEREN, KHG; GOLDMAN, A

    We have identified a new protein fold-the alpha/beta-hydrolase fold-that is common to several hydrolytic enzymes of widely differing phylogenetic origin and catalytic function. The core of each enzyme is similar: an alpha/beta-sheet, not barrel, of eight beta-sheets connected by alpha-helices. These

  12. Development of a real-time monitor for airborne alpha emissions. First quarter report, TTP AL 142003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gritzo, R.E.; Fowler, M.M.

    1994-02-01

    This is the first quarterly report for Fiscal Year (FY) 1994 for TTP AL 142003, Development of a Real-Time Monitor for Airborne Alpha Emissions. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is developing a new technology for on-line, real-time monitoring of incinerator stacks for low levels of airborne alpha activity. While initially developed for incinerators, this new technology may well find other applications in continuous air monitoring, process monitoring, and monitoring during remediation activities. Referred to as the Large-Volume Flow Thru Detector System (LVFTDS), this technology responds directly to the need for fast responding, high sensitivity effluent monitoring systems. With DOE EM-50 funding, LANL has fabricated a bench-top proof of concept detector system and is conducting tests to evaluate its performance. A second- generation prototype is being designed, based on requirements driven by potential field test sites. An industrial partner is being solicited to license the technology. Field trials of a full-scale detector system are planned for FY 95. Accomplishments during the first quarter of FY 94 are chronicled in this report, including budgetary data. A schedule for the remainder of the fiscal year is also provided.

  13. Cancer therapy with alpha-emitters labeled peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadachova, Ekaterina

    2010-05-01

    Actively targeted alpha-particles offer specific tumor cell killing action with less collateral damage to surrounding normal tissues than beta-emitters. During the last decade, radiolabeled peptides that bind to different receptors on the tumors have been investigated as potential therapeutic agents both in the preclinical and clinical settings. Advantages of radiolabeled peptides over antibodies include relatively straightforward chemical synthesis, versatility, easier radiolabeling, rapid clearance from the circulation, faster penetration and more uniform distribution into tissues, and less immunogenicity. Rapid internalization of the radiolabeled peptides with equally rapid re-expression of the cell surface target is a highly desirable property that enhances the total delivery of these radionuclides into malignant sites. Peptides, such as octreotide, alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone analogues, arginine-glycine-aspartic acid-containing peptides, bombesin derivatives, and others may all be feasible for use with alpha-emitters. The on-going preclinical work has primarily concentrated on octreotide and octreotate analogues labeled with Bismuth-213 and Astatine-211. In addition, alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone analogue has been labeled with Lead-212/Bismuth-212 in vivo generator and demonstrated the encouraging therapeutic efficacy in treatment of experimental melanoma. Obstacles that continue to obstruct widespread acceptance of alpha-emitter-labeled peptides are primarily the supply of these radionuclides and concerns about potential kidney toxicity. New sources and methods for production of these medically valuable radionuclides and better understanding of mechanisms related to the peptide renal uptake and clearance should speed up the introduction of alpha-emitter-labeled peptides into the clinic. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Nature of the pygmy dipole resonance in Ce-140 studied in (alpha, alpha 'gamma) experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savran, D.; Babilon, M.; van den Berg, A.M.; Harakeh, M.N.; Hasper, J.; Matic, A.; Wörtche, H.J.; Zilges, A.

    2006-01-01

    A concentration of electric-dipole excitations below the particle threshold, which is frequently denoted as the pygmy dipole resonance, has been studied in the semimagic nucleus Ce-140 in (alpha, alpha(')gamma) experiments at E-alpha=136 MeV. The technique of alpha-gamma coincidence experiments

  15. Air Quality Monitoring and Sensor Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA scientist Ron Williams presented on the features, examination, application, examples, and data quality of continuous monitoring study designs at EPA's Community Air Monitoring Training in July 2015.

  16. Alternative splicing of T cell receptor (TCR) alpha chain transcripts containing V alpha 1 or V alpha 14 elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahotka, C; Hansen-Hagge, T E; Bartram, C R

    1995-10-01

    Human acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell lines represent valuable tools to investigate distinct steps of the complex regulatory pathways underlying T cell receptor recombination and expression. A case in point are V delta 2D delta 3 and subsequent V delta 2D delta 3J alpha rearrangements observed in human leukemic pre-B cells as well as in normal lymphopoiesis. The functional expression of these unusual (VD) delta (JC) alpha hybrids is almost exclusively prevented by alternative splicing events. In this report we show that alternative splicing at cryptic splice donor sites within V elements is not a unique feature of hybrid TCR delta/alpha transcripts. Among seven V alpha families analyzed by RT-PCR, alternatively spliced products were observed in TCR alpha recombinations containing V alpha 1 or V alpha 14 elements. In contrast to normal peripheral blood cells and thymocytes, the leukemia cell line JM expressing functional V alpha 1J alpha 3C alpha transcripts lacked evidence of aberrant TCR alpha RNA species.

  17. Alpha particles detection in nitrocellulose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero C, M.

    1976-01-01

    The method for the manufacturing of the detection films follows these steps: preparation of the mass which includes nitrocellulose in the form of cotton as raw material ethyl acetate, cellosolve acetate, isopropyl and butyl alcohols as solvents and dioctyl phtalate as plasticiser; dilution of the paste; pouring of the diluted mass; and drying of the detection films. The results obtained experimentally are: The determination of the development times of the different thicknesses of the manufactured films. Response linearity of the detectors, variation of the number of tracks according to the distance of the source to the detector. Sizes of the diameter of the tracks depending of the distance detector-alpha emmission source. As a conclusion we can say the the nitrocellulose detectors are specific for alpha radiation; the more effective thicknesses in uranium prospecting works were those of 60 microns, since for the laboratory works the thicknesses of 30 to 40 microns were the ideal; the development technique of the detection films is simple and cheap and can be realized even in another place than the laboratory; this way of the manufacturing of nitrocellulose detection film sensitive to alpha nuclear radiation is open to future research. (author)

  18. Development of optical monitor of alpha radiations based on CR-39.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshirao, Pranav M; Shin, Jae Won; Vyas, Chirag K; Kulkarni, Atul D; Kim, Hojoong; Kim, Taesung; Hong, Seung-Woo; Manchanda, Vijay K

    2013-11-01

    Fukushima accident has highlighted the need to intensify efforts to develop sensitive detectors to monitor the release of alpha emitting radionuclides in the environment caused by the meltdown of the discharged spent fuel. Conventionally, proportional counting, scintillation counting and alpha spectrometry are employed to assay the alpha emitting radionuclides but these techniques are difficult to be configured for online operations. Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs) offer an alternative off line sensitive technique to measure alpha emitters as well as fissile radionuclides at ultra-trace level in the environment. Recently, our group has reported the first ever attempt to use reflectance based fiber optic sensor (FOS) to quantify the alpha radiations emitted from (232)Th. In the present work, an effort has been made to develop an online FOS to monitor alpha radiations emitted from (241)Am source employing CR-39 as detector. Here, we report the optical response of CR-39 (on exposure to alpha radiations) employing techniques such as Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Reflectance Spectroscopy. In the present work GEANT4 simulation of transport of alpha particles in the detector has also been carried out. Simulation includes validation test wherein the projected ranges of alpha particles in the air, polystyrene and CR-39 were calculated and were found to agree with the literature values. An attempt has been further made to compute the fluence as a function of the incidence angle and incidence energy of alphas. There was an excellent correlation in experimentally observed track density with the simulated fluence. The present work offers a novel approach to design an online CR-39 based fiber optic sensor (CRFOS) to measure the release of nanogram quantity of (241)Am in the environment. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Measurement and analysis of $\\alpha$ particle induced reactions on yttrium

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, N L; Chintalapudi, S N

    2000-01-01

    Excitation functions for /sup 89/Y[( alpha ,3n); ( alpha ,4n); ( alpha , p3n); ( alpha , alpha n); ( alpha , alpha 2n)] reactions were measured up to 50 MeV using stacked foil activation technique and HPGe gamma ray spectroscopy method. The experimental data were compared with calculations considering equilibrium as well as preequilibrium reactions according to the hybrid model of Blann (ALICE/90). For ( alpha , xnyp) type of reactions, the precompound contributions are described by the model. There seems to be indications of direct inelastic scattering effects in ( alpha , alpha xn) type of reactions. To the best of our knowledge, the excitation functions for ( alpha ,4n), ( alpha , p3n), ( alpha , alpha n) and ( alpha , alpha 2n) reactions were measured for the first time. (23 refs).

  20. Measurement and analysis of alpha particle induced reactions on yttrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, N.L.; Gadkari, M.S. [Baroda Univ. (India). Dept. of Physics; Chintalapudi, S.N. [IUC-DAEF Calcutta Centre, Calcutta (India)

    2000-05-01

    Excitation functions for {sup 89}Y[({alpha},3n);({alpha},4n);({alpha},p3n);({alpha},{alpha}n);({alpha},{alpha}2n)] reactions were measured up to 50 MeV using stacked foil activation technique and HPGe gamma ray spectroscopy method. The experimental data were compared with calculations considering equilibrium as well as preequilibrium reactions according to the hybrid model of Blann (ALICE/90). For ({alpha},xnyp) type of reactions, the precompound contributions are described by the model. There seems to be indications of direct inelastic scattering effects in ({alpha},{alpha}xn) type of reactions. To the best of our knowledge, the excitation functions for ({alpha},4n), ({alpha},p3n), ({alpha},{alpha}n) and ({alpha},{alpha}2n) reactions were measured for the first time. (orig.)

  1. 40 CFR 52.1988 - Air contaminant discharge permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air contaminant discharge permits. 52.1988 Section 52.1988 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Oregon § 52.1988 Air contaminant discharge permits. (a) Except for...

  2. Production of fungal alpha-amylase by Saccharomyces kluyveri in glucose-limited cultivations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Kasper; Sharif, M.Z.; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2004-01-01

    and S. cerevisiae were transformed with the same plasmid, which led to secretion of active alpha-amylase in both cases. The S. cerevisiae 2 mu plasmid was found to be stable in S. kluyveri as evaluated by a constant alpha-amylase productivity in a continuous cultivation for more than 40 generations. S......Heterologous protein production by the yeast Saccharomyces kluyveri was investigated under aerobic glucose-limited conditions. alpha-Amylase from Aspergillus oryzae was used as model protein and the gene was expressed from a S. cerevisiae 2 mu plasmid. For comparison, strains of both S. kluyveri....... kluyveri and S. cerevisiae secreted alpha-amylase with similar yields during continuous cultivations at dilution rates of 0.1 and 0.2 h(-1) (4.8-5.7 mg (g dry weight)(-1)). At a dilution rate of 0.3 h(-1) the metabolism of S. kluyveri was fully respiratory, whereas S. cerevisiae produced significant...

  3. Production of fungal alpha-amylase by Saccharomyces kluyveri in glucose-limited cultivations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Kasper; Sharif, M.Z.; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2004-01-01

    Heterologous protein production by the yeast Saccharomyces kluyveri was investigated under aerobic glucose-limited conditions. alpha-Amylase from Aspergillus oryzae was used as model protein and the gene was expressed from a S. cerevisiae 2 mu plasmid. For comparison, strains of both S. kluyveri...... and S. cerevisiae were transformed with the same plasmid, which led to secretion of active alpha-amylase in both cases. The S. cerevisiae 2 mu plasmid was found to be stable in S. kluyveri as evaluated by a constant alpha-amylase productivity in a continuous cultivation for more than 40 generations. S....... kluyveri and S. cerevisiae secreted alpha-amylase with similar yields during continuous cultivations at dilution rates of 0.1 and 0.2 h(-1) (4.8-5.7 mg (g dry weight)(-1)). At a dilution rate of 0.3 h(-1) the metabolism of S. kluyveri was fully respiratory, whereas S. cerevisiae produced significant...

  4. Orientational relationships between phases in the {gamma}{yields}{alpha} transformations for uranium-molybdenum alloys; Relations d'orientation entre phases dans les transformations {gamma}{yields}{alpha} des alliages uranium-molybdene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brun, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-04-01

    A crystallographic study has been made of the {gamma} {yields} {alpha} + {gamma} transformation in the alloy containing 3 per cent by weight of molybdenum using electronic micro-diffraction; it has been possible to establish the orientational relationships governing the germination of the {alpha} phase in the {gamma} phase. One finds: (111){gamma} // (100) {alpha}, (112-bar){gamma} // (010) {alpha}, (11-bar 0){gamma} // (001){alpha}. By choosing a monoclinic lattice containing the same number of atoms as the orthorhombic lattice for defining the {gamma} mother phase, the change in structure has been explained by adding a homogeneous (112-bar){gamma} [111]{gamma} shearing deformation to a heterogeneous deformation brought about by slipping of the atoms which are not situated at the nodes of this lattice. The identity of the orientation relationships {gamma}/{alpha} and {gamma}/{alpha}''b and the loss of coherence {gamma} /{alpha} as a function of temperature or of time lead to the conclusion that, in the range studied, the {gamma} {yields} {alpha} transformation begins with a martensitic process and continues by germination and growth. (author) [French] Une etude cristallographique de la transformation {gamma} {yields} {alpha} + {gamma} dans l'alliage {alpha} 3 pour cent en poids de Mo, effectuee par microdiffraction electronique a permis d'etablir les relations d'orientation regissant la germination de {alpha} dans {gamma}. On a: (111){gamma} // (100){alpha}, (112-bar){gamma} // (010){alpha}, (11-bar 0){gamma} // (001){alpha}. En choisissant pour decrire la phase mere {gamma} une maille monoclinique contenant le meme nombre d'atomes que la maille orthorhombique {alpha}, le changement de structure a ete explique en superposant a une deformation homogene par cisaillement (112-bar){gamma} [111]{gamma} une deformation heterogene par glissement des atomes non situes aux noeuds de cette maille. L identite des relations d

  5. Interferon Alpha in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy B. Niewold

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The pleiotropic cytokine interferon alpha is involved in multiple aspects of lupus etiology and pathogenesis. Interferon alpha is important under normal circumstances for antiviral responses and immune activation. However, heightened levels of serum interferon alpha and expression of interferon response genes are common in lupus patients. Lupus-associated autoantibodies can drive the production of interferon alpha and heightened levels of interferon interfere with immune regulation. Several genes in the pathways leading to interferon production or signaling are associated with risk for lupus. Clinical and cellular manifestations of excess interferon alpha in lupus combined with the genetic risk factors associated with interferon make this cytokine a rare bridge between genetic risk and phenotypic effects. Interferon alpha influences the clinical picture of lupus and may represent a therapeutic target. This paper provides an overview of the cellular, genetic, and clinical aspects of interferon alpha in lupus.

  6. Novel alpha-mannosidase inhibitors; Nye alfa-mannosidaseinhibitorer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farr, R.A.; Kang, M.S.; Peet, N.P.; Sunkara, S.P.

    1997-05-20

    [4S-(4{alpha}, 4a{beta}, 6{alpha}, 7{alpha}, 7a{alpha})]-Octahydro-1H-1-pyridine-4,5,6,7-tetrols and [4R-(4{alpha}, 4a{alpha}, 5{alpha}, 6{beta}, 7{beta}, 7a{beta})]-octahydro-1H-1-pyridine-4,5,6,7-tetrols are useful inhibitors of alpha-mannosidase and are useful immunostimulants, chemoprotective and radioprotective agents and antimetastatic agents.

  7. 40 CFR 52.2497 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2497 Section 52.2497 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  8. 40 CFR 52.432 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.432 Section 52.432 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions of...

  9. 40 CFR 52.683 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.683 Section 52.683 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The State of Idaho Rules for Control of Air Pollution in Idaho, specifically... the Clean Air Act for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. (b) The requirements of...

  10. 40 CFR 52.632 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.632 Section 52.632 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions...

  11. 40 CFR 52.499 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.499 Section 52.499 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  12. 40 CFR 52.793 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.793 Section 52.793 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions...

  13. 40 CFR 52.738 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.738 Section 52.738 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions...

  14. 40 CFR 52.2676 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2676 Section 52.2676 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  15. 40 CFR 52.2779 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2779 Section 52.2779 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  16. 40 CFR 52.1689 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1689 Section 52.1689 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1165 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1165 Section 52.1165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1603 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1603 Section 52.1603 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  19. 40 CFR 52.2827 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2827 Section 52.2827 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  20. 40 CFR 52.1180 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1180 Section 52.1180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  1. 40 CFR 52.96 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.96 Section 52.96 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The State of Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation Air Quality... deterioration of air quality. (b) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met...

  2. 40 CFR 52.1234 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1234 Section 52.1234 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  3. 40 CFR 52.2729 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2729 Section 52.2729 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  4. 40 CFR 52.1884 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1884 Section 52.1884 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  5. Altered alpha brain oscillations during multistable perception in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basar-Eroglu, Canan; Mathes, Birgit; Khalaidovski, Ksenia; Brand, Andreas; Schmiedt-Fehr, Christina

    2016-05-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex mental disorder with impairments in integrating sensory and cognitive functions, leading to severe problems in coherent perception. This impairment might be accelerated during multistable perception. Multistable perception is a phenomenon, where a visual pattern gives rise to at least two different perceptual representations. We addressed this issue by assessing event-related alpha oscillations during continuous viewing of an ambiguous and unambiguous control stimulus. Perceptual reversals were indicated by a manual response, allowing differentiation between phases of reversion and non-reversion (that is perceptual stability) in both tasks. During the ambiguous task, patients and controls showed a comparable number of perceptual reversals. Alpha amplitudes in patients were larger in non-reversion phases, accompanied by a stronger decrease of alpha activity preceding the perceptual reversal. This group difference was pronounced for lower alpha activity and not apparent during the unambiguous task. This indicates that ambiguous perception taps into the specific deficits that patients experience in maintaining coherent perception. Given that top-down influences in generating a meaningful percept seems to be low in patients, they appear more dependent on sensory information. Similar, bottom-up mechanisms might be more important in triggering perceptual reversals in patients than in controls. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Novel Semi-Direct OH Reactivity (kOH) Measurements by Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry during a Chamber Instrument Comparison Campaign and Continuous Ambient Air Sampling at a Central European GAW Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, J.; Kubistin, D.; Elste, T.; Plass-Duelmer, C.; Claude, A.; Englert, J.; Holla, R.; Fuchs, H.; Hofzumahaus, A.; Holland, F.; Novelli, A.; Tillmann, R.; Wegener, R.; Rohrer, F.; Yu, Z.; Bohn, B.; Williams, J.; Pfannerstill, E.; Edtbauer, A.; Kluepfel, T.

    2016-12-01

    Total OH reactivity (kOH) has been recognized as a useful measure to gauge the potential atmospheric oxidation capacity and a few different in-situ measurement techniques have been developed over the last 15 years. Here results are presented from a novel semi-direct method developed by the German Weather Service (DWD) utilizing a chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS). Recently in April 2016, the CIMS system participated in a half-blind kOH instrument comparison campaign at the Forschungszentrum Jülich (FZJ) SAPHIR chamber. Experiments provided controlled conditions with a range of different VOC mixtures and varying NOx levels, representing environments dominated by biogenic or urban emissions. Alongside CIMS, kOH was also measured by systems using the comparative reactivity method (CRM) and the pump-probe technique with OH detection. The intercomparison revealed a good performance of CIMS at lower OH reactivities (0-15 s-1), a range for which the instrumental set up was optimized. Limitations of the CIMS system consist of an upper limit for kOH detection and the need for applying a chemical correction function as a result of instrument-internal HOx recycling. Findings and instrument parameters obtained from the FZJ SAPHIR campaign and flow tube experiments are then applied to ambient air kOH measurements at the Meteorological Observatory Hohenpeissenberg (MOHp), Germany. The CIMS instrument is used there for long-term measurements of OH, H2SO4, ROx and kOH. Here, we show ambient air kOH measurements, interpreted in conjunction with volatile organic compounds (VOC) and inorganic trace gases also measured at the GAW station Hohenpeissenberg. These observations provide a unique dataset to investigate turnover rates and seasonal cycles of reactive trace gases, i.e. sources that make up total OH reactivity in this central European, rural setting.

  7. Activator protein 2alpha mediates parathyroid TGF-alpha self-induction in secondary hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcidiacono, Maria Vittoria; Cozzolino, Mario; Spiegel, Noah; Tokumoto, Masanori; Yang, Jing; Lu, Yan; Sato, Tetsuhiko; Lomonte, Carlo; Basile, Carlo; Slatopolsky, Eduardo; Dusso, Adriana S

    2008-10-01

    In secondary hyperparathyroidism, enhanced expression of TGF-alpha in the parathyroid leads to its own upregulation, generating a feed-forward loop for TGF-alpha activation of its receptor, EGFR receptor (EGFR), which promotes parathyroid hyperplasia. These studies examined the role of activator protein 2alpha (AP2), an inducer of TGF-alpha gene transcription, in the upregulation of parathyroid TGF-alpha in secondary hyperparathyroidism. In rat and human secondary hyperparathyroidism, parathyroid AP2 expression strongly correlated with TGF-alpha levels and with the rate of parathyroid growth, as expected. Furthermore, the increases in rat parathyroid content of AP2 and its binding to a consensus AP2 DNA sequence preceded the increase in TGF-alpha induced by high dietary phosphate. More significant, in A431 cells, which provide a model of enhanced TGF-alpha and TGF-alpha self-induction, mutating the core AP2 site of the human TGF-alpha promoter markedly impaired promoter activity induced by endogenous or exogenous TGF-alpha. Important for therapy, in five-sixths nephrectomized rats fed high-phosphate diets, inhibition of parathyroid TGF-alpha self-induction using erlotinib, a highly specific inhibitor of TGF-alpha/EGFR-driven signals, reduced AP2 expression dosage dependently. This suggests that the increases in parathyroid AP2 occur downstream of EGFR activation by TGF-alpha and are required for TGF-alpha self-induction. Indeed, in A431 cells, erlotinib inhibition of TGF-alpha self-induction caused parallel reductions in AP2 expression and nuclear localization, as well as TGF-alpha mRNA and protein levels. In summary, increased AP2 expression and transcriptional activity at the TGF-alpha promoter determine the severity of the hyperplasia driven by parathyroid TGF-alpha self-upregulation in secondary hyperparathyroidism.

  8. Alpha particle studies during JET DT experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The 1997 DT experiment (DTE1) at the Joint European Torus included studies of the behaviour of alpha particles in high temperature plasmas. Clear alpha particle heating was observed in a series of otherwise similar 10MW hot-ion H-modes by scanning the DT mixture from 0%T to 93%T. Maxima in central temperature and energy content were obtained which corresponded with the maximum in fusion yield. Alfven Eigenmodes (AEs) have been detected in JET, driven by NBI or ICRH fast ions. However, in agreement with theory, no AE activity was observed in DT plasmas which could be attributed to alpha particle drive, except in the afterglow of some Optimised Shear pulses. Ion Cyclotron Emission (ICE) was detected at harmonics of the alpha particle cyclotron frequency at the outer edge of the plasma. The ICE is interpreted as being close to magnetoacoustic cyclotron instability, driven by inverted alpha distributions at the plasma edge. The high-energy neutral particle spectra showed features, which are ascribed to a mixture of alphas, neutralised by helium-like impurities, and deuterons, born from elastic collisions with alpha particles and neutralised by hydrogen-like impurities. The results of all these studies are consistent with classical alpha particle trapping and slowing-down. Future DT experiments will aim to increase alpha particle pressure, so interactions with plasma instabilities can be studied. The measurement of knock-on neutral triton spectra offers a clean way to determine confined alpha densities in these future experiments. (author)

  9. Alpha particle studies during JET DT experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The 1997 DT experiment (DTE1) at the Joint European Torus included studies of the behaviour of alpha particles in high temperature plasmas. Clear alpha particle heating was observed in a series of otherwise similar 10MW hot-ion H-modes by scanning the DT mixture from 0%T to 93%T. Maxima in central temperature and energy content were obtained which corresponded with the maximum in fusion yield. Alfven Eigenmodes (AEs) have been detected in JET, driven by NBI or ICRH fast ions. However, in agreement with theory, no AE activity was observed in DT plasmas which could be attributed to alpha particle drive, except in the afterglow of some Optimised Shear pulses. Ion Cyclotron Emission (ICE) was detected at harmonics of the alpha particle cyclotron frequency at the outer edge of the plasma. The ICE is interpreted as being close to magnetoacoustic cyclotron instability, driven by inverted alpha distributions at the plasma edge. The high-energy neutral particle spectra showed features, which are ascribed to a mixture of alphas, neutralised by helium-like impurities, and deuterons, born from elastic collisions with alpha particles and neutralised by hydrogen-like impurities. The results of all these studies are consistent with classical alpha particle trapping and slowing-down. Future DT experiments will aim to increase alpha particle pressure, so interactions with plasma instabilities can be studied. The measurement of knock-on neutral triton spectra offers a clean way to determine confined alpha densities in these future experiments. (author)

  10. Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Ababsa, Myriam

    2014-01-01

    The human costs of air pollution are considerable in Jordan. According to a report published in 2000 by the World Bank under the Mediterranean Environmental Technical Assistance Program (METAP), approximately 600 people die prematurely each year in Jordan because of urban pollution. 50-90% of air pollution in Jordanian towns is caused by road traffic. Readings taken in 2007 by Jordanian researchers showed that levels of black carbon particles in the air were higher in urban areas (caused by v...

  11. The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS)

    CERN Document Server

    Alcaraz, J; Ambrosi, G; Anderhub, H; Ao, L; Arefev, A; Azzarello, P; Babucci, E; Baldini, L; Basile, M; Barancourt, D; Barão, F; Barbier, G; Barreira, G; Battiston, R; Becker, R; Becker, U; Bellagamba, L; Bene, P; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Biland, A; Bizzaglia, S; Blasko, S; Bölla, G; Boschini, M; Bourquin, Maurice; Brocco, L; Bruni, G; Buénerd, M; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Cai, X D; Camps, C; Cannarsa, P; Capell, M; Casadei, D; Casaus, J; Castellini, G; Cecchi, C; Chang, Y H; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chen, Z G; Chernoplekov, N A; Tzi Hong Chiueh; Chuang, Y L; Cindolo, F; Commichau, V; Contin, A; Crespo, P; Cristinziani, M; Cunha, J P D; Dai, T S; Deus, J D; Dinu, N; Djambazov, L; Dantone, I; Dong, Z R; Emonet, P; Engelberg, J; Eppling, F J; Eronen, T; Esposito, G; Extermann, P; Favier, Jean; Fiandrini, E; Fisher, P H; Flügge, G; Fouque, N; Galaktionov, Yu; Gervasi, M; Giusti, P; Grandi, D; Grimm, O; Gu, W Q; Hangarter, K; Hasan, A; Hermel, V; Hofer, H; Huang, M A; Hungerford, W; Ionica, M; Ionica, R; Jongmanns, M; Karlamaa, K; Karpinski, W; Kenney, G; Kenny, J; Kim, W; Klimentov, A; Kossakowski, R; Koutsenko, V F; Kraeber, M; Laborie, G; Laitinen, T; Lamanna, G; Laurenti, G; Lebedev, A; Lee, S C; Levi, G; Levchenko, P M; Liu, C L; Liu, H T; Lopes, I; Lu, G; Lü, Y S; Lübelsmeyer, K; Luckey, D; Lustermann, W; Maña, C; Margotti, A; Mayet, F; McNeil, R R; Meillon, B; Menichelli, M; Mihul, A; Mourao, A; Mujunen, A; Palmonari, F; Papi, A; Park, I H; Pauluzzi, M; Pauss, Felicitas; Perrin, E; Pesci, A; Pevsner, A; Pimenta, M; Plyaskin, V; Pozhidaev, V; Postolache, V; Produit, N; Rancoita, P G; Rapin, D; Raupach, F; Ren, D; Ren, Z; Ribordy, M; Richeux, J P; Riihonen, E; Ritakari, J; Röser, U; Roissin, C; Sagdeev, R; Sartorelli, G; Schwering, G; Scolieri, G; Seo, E S; Shoutko, V; Shoumilov, E; Siedling, R; Son, D; Song, T; Steuer, M; Sun, G S; Suter, H; Tang, X W; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tornikoski, M; Torsti, J; Ulbricht, J; Urpo, S; Usoskin, I; Valtonen, E; Vandenhirtz, J; Velcea, F; Velikhov, E P; Verlaat, B; Vetlitskii, I; Vezzu, F; Vialle, J P; Viertel, Gert M; Vitè, Davide F; Gunten, H V; Wallraff, W; Wang, B C; Wang, J Z; Wang, Y H; Wiik, K; Williams, C; Wu, S X; Xia, P C; Yan, J L; Yan, L G; Yang, C G; Yang, M; Ye, S W; Yeh, P; Xu, Z Z; Zhang, H Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, D X; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, W Z; Zhuang, H L; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, B

    2002-01-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is a large acceptance (0.65 sr m sup 2) detector designed to operate in the International Space Station (ISS) for three years. The purposes of the experiment are to search for cosmic antimatter and dark matter and to study the composition and energy spectrum of the primary cosmic rays. A 'scaled-down' version has been flown on the Space Shuttle Discovery for 10 days in June 1998. The complete AMS is programmed for installation on the ISS in October 2003 for an operational period of 3 yr. This contribution reports on the experimental configuration that will be installed on the ISS.

  12. Targeted alpha therapy for cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Barry J [Centre for Experimental Radiation Oncology, St George Cancer Care Centre, Gray St, Kogarah 2217, NSW (Australia); Raja, Chand [Centre for Experimental Radiation Oncology, St George Cancer Care Centre, Gray St, Kogarah 2217, NSW (Australia); Rizvi, Syed [Centre for Experimental Radiation Oncology, St George Cancer Care Centre, Gray St, Kogarah 2217, NSW (Australia); Li Yong [Centre for Experimental Radiation Oncology, St George Cancer Care Centre, Gray St, Kogarah 2217, NSW (Australia); Tsui, Wendy [Centre for Experimental Radiation Oncology, St George Cancer Care Centre, Gray St, Kogarah 2217, NSW (Australia); Zhang, David [Centre for Experimental Radiation Oncology, St George Cancer Care Centre, Gray St, Kogarah 2217, NSW (Australia); Song, Emma [Centre for Experimental Radiation Oncology, St George Cancer Care Centre, Gray St, Kogarah 2217, NSW (Australia); Qu, C F [Centre for Experimental Radiation Oncology, St George Cancer Care Centre, Gray St, Kogarah 2217, NSW (Australia); Kearsley, John [Centre for Experimental Radiation Oncology, St George Cancer Care Centre, Gray St, Kogarah 2217, NSW (Australia); Graham, Peter [Centre for Experimental Radiation Oncology, St George Cancer Care Centre, Gray St, Kogarah 2217, NSW (Australia); Thompson, John [Sydney Melanoma Unit, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown 2050 NSW (Australia)

    2004-08-21

    Targeted alpha therapy (TAT) offers the potential to inhibit the growth of micrometastases by selectively killing isolated and preangiogenic clusters of cancer cells. The practicality and efficacy of TAT is tested by in vitro and in vivo studies in melanoma, leukaemia, colorectal, breast and prostate cancers, and by a phase 1 trial of intralesional TAT for melanoma. The alpha-emitting radioisotope used is Bi-213, which is eluted from the Ac-225 generator and chelated to a cancer specific monoclonal antibody (mab) or protein (e.g. plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 PAI2) to form the alpha-conjugate (AC). Stable alpha-ACs have been produced which have been tested for specificity and cytotoxicity in vitro against melanoma (9.2.27 mab), leukaemia (WM60), colorectal (C30.6), breast (PAI2, herceptin), ovarian (PAI2, herceptin, C595), prostate (PAI2, J591) and pancreatic (PAI2, C595) cancers. Subcutaneous inoculation of 1-1.5 million human cancer cells into the flanks of nude mice causes tumours to grow in all mice. Tumour growth is compared for untreated controls, nonspecific AC and specific AC, for local (subcutaneous) and systemic (tail vein or intraperitoneal) injection models. The {sup 213}Bi-9.2.27 AC is injected into secondary skin melanomas in stage 4 patients in a dose escalation study to determine the effective tolerance dose, and to measure kinematics to obtain the equivalent dose to organs. In vitro studies show that TAT is one to two orders of magnitude more cytotoxic to targeted cells than non-specific ACs, specific beta emitting conjugates or free isotopes. In vivo local TAT at 2 days post-inoculation completely prevents tumour formation for all cancers tested so far. Intra-lesional TAT can completely regress advanced sc melanoma but is less successful for breast and prostate cancers. Systemic TAT inhibits the growth of sc melanoma xenografts and gives almost complete control of breast and prostate cancer tumour growth. Intralesional doses up to 450 {mu

  13. The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (ams)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionica, Maria

    2004-01-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS), once installed on the International Space Station will provide precise measurements of the cosmic ray spectra up to TeV energy range, and will search for cosmological antimatter and missing matter. A prototype version of the detector was operated successfully on the space shuttle Discovery in June 1998 (STS-91). Here we briefly report on the design of the AMS apparatus and present the results of the measurements of the fluxes of proton, electron, positron and helium from the STS-91 flight.

  14. Crossing symmetry in Alpha space

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    The conformal bootstrap program aims to catalog all conformal field theories (second-order phase transitions) in D dimensions. Despite its ambitious scope much progress has been made over the past decade, e.g. in computing critical exponents for the 3D O(N) models to high precision. At this stage, analytic methods to explore the CFT landscape are not as well developed. In this talk I will describe a new mathematical framework for the bootstrap known as "alpha space", which reduces crossing symmetry to a set of integral equations. Based on arXiv:1702.08471 (with Balt van Rees) and arXiv:1703.08159.

  15. The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcaraz, J.; Alpat, B.; Ambrosi, G.; Anderhub, H.; Ao, L.; Arefiev, A.; Azzarello, P.; Babucci, E.; Baldini, L.; Basile, M.; Barancourt, D.; Barao, F.; Barbier, G.; Barreira, G.; Battiston, R.; Becker, R.; Becker, U.; Bellagamba, L.; Bene, P.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Biland, A.; Bizzaglia, S.; Blasko, S.; Boella, G.; Boschini, M.; Bourquin, M.; Brocco, L.; Bruni, G.; Buenerd, M.; Burger, J.D.; Burger, W.J.; Cai, X.D.; Camps, C.; Cannarsa, P.; Capell, M.; Casadei, D.; Casaus, J.; Castellini, G.; Cecchi, C.; Chang, Y.H.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, H.S.; Chen, Z.G.; Chernoplekov, N.A.; Chiueh, T.H.; Chuang, Y.L.; Cindolo, F.; Commichau, V.; Contin, A.; Crespo, P.; Cristinziani, M.; Cunha, J.P. da; Dai, T.S.; Deus, J.D.; Dinu, N.; Djambazov, L.; DAntone, I.; Dong, Z.R.; Emonet, P.; Engelberg, J.; Eppling, F.J.; Eronen, T.; Esposito, G.; Extermann, P.; Favier, J.; Fiandrini, E.; Fisher, P.H.; Fluegge, G.; Fouque, N.; Galaktionov, Yu.; Gervasi, M.; Giusti, P.; Grandi, D.; Grimm, O.; Gu, W.Q.; Hangarter, K.; Hasan, A.; Hermel, V.; Hofer, H.; Huang, M.A.; Hungerford, W.; Ionica, M.; Ionica, R.; Jongmanns, M.; Karlamaa, K.; Karpinski, W.; Kenney, G.; Kenny, J.; Kim, W.; Klimentov, A.; Kossakowski, R.; Koutsenko, V.; Kraeber, M.; Laborie, G.; Laitinen, T.; Lamanna, G.; Laurenti, G.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, S.C.; Levi, G.; Levtchenko, P.; Liu, C.L.; Liu, H.T.; Lopes, I.; Lu, G.; Lu, Y.S.; Luebelsmeyer, K.; Luckey, D.; Lustermann, W.; Mana, C.; Margotti, A.; Mayet, F.; McNeil, R.R.; Meillon, B.; Menichelli, M.; Mihul, A.; Mourao, A.; Mujunen, A.; Palmonari, F.; Papi, A.; Park, I.H.; Pauluzzi, M.; Pauss, F.; Perrin, E.; Pesci, A.; Pevsner, A.; Pimenta, M.; Plyaskin, V.; Pojidaev, V.; Postolache, V.; Produit, N.; Rancoita, P.G.; Rapin, D.; Raupach, F.; Ren, D.; Ren, Z.; Ribordy, M.; Richeux, J.P.; Riihonen, E.; Ritakari, J.; Roeser, U.; Roissin, C.; Sagdeev, R.; Sartorelli, G.; Schultz von Dratzig, A.; Schwering, G.; Scolieri, G.; Seo, E.S.; Shoutko, V.; Shoumilov, E.; Siedling, R.; Son, D.; Song, T.; Steuer, M.; Sun, G.S.; Suter, H.; Tang, X.W.; Ting, S.C.C.Samuel C.C.; Ting, S.M.; Tornikoski, M.; Torsti, J.; Tr umper, J.; Ulbricht, J.; Urpo, S.; Usoskin, I.; Valtonen, E.; Vandenhirtz, J.; Velcea, F.; Velikhov, E.; Verlaat, B.; Vetlitsky, I.; Vezzu, F.; Vialle, J.P.; Viertel, G.; Vite, D.; Gunten, H. Von; Wicki, S.W.S. Waldmeier; Wallraff, W.; Wang, B.C.; Wang, J.Z.; Wang, Y.H.; Wiik, K.; Williams, C.; Wu, S.X.; Xia, P.C.; Yan, J.L.; Yan, L.G.; Yang, C.G.; Yang, M.; Ye, S.W.; Yeh, P.; Xu, Z.Z.; Zhang, H.Y.; Zhang, Z.P.; Zhao, D.X.; Zhu, G.Y.; Zhu, W.Z.; Zhuang, H.L.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, B.

    2002-01-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is a large acceptance (0.65 sr m 2 ) detector designed to operate in the International Space Station (ISS) for three years. The purposes of the experiment are to search for cosmic antimatter and dark matter and to study the composition and energy spectrum of the primary cosmic rays. A 'scaled-down' version has been flown on the Space Shuttle Discovery for 10 days in June 1998. The complete AMS is programmed for installation on the ISS in October 2003 for an operational period of 3 yr. This contribution reports on the experimental configuration that will be installed on the ISS

  16. Air the excellent canopy

    CERN Document Server

    Fahy, F

    2013-01-01

    We take it for granted, but without it we perish and if we continue to abuse it, it may kill us in the end. This fascinating text provides an understanding and appreciation of the role that air plays in our environment and its importance in relation to human life and technology. Aimed at those who are scientifically curious but who have no specialist training, it contains no mathematical equations and relies upon the qualitative descriptions and analogies to explain the more technical parts of the text together with simple home experiments to illustrate a range of air-based phenomena. Liberall

  17. Canada's Clean Air Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This paper provided an outline of Canada's Clean Air Act and examined some of the regulatory changes that will occur as a result of its implementation. The Act is being introduced to strengthen the legislative basis for taking action on reducing air pollution and GHGs, and will allow the government to regulate both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and GHGs. The Act will require the Ministers of the Environment and Health to establish national air quality objectives, as well as to monitor and report on their attainment. The Canadian Environmental Protection Act will be amended to enable the government to regulate the blending of fuels and their components. The Motor Vehicle Fuel Consumption Standards Act will also be amended to enhance the government's authority to regulate vehicle fuel efficiency. The Energy Efficiency Act will also be expanded to allow the government to set energy efficiency standards and labelling requirements for a wider range of consumer and commercial products. The Act will commit to short, medium and long-term industrial air pollution targets. Regulations will be proposed for emissions from industry; on-road and off-road vehicles and engines; and consumer and commercial products. It was concluded that the Government of Canada will continue to consult with provinces, territories, industries and Canadians to set and reach targets for the reduction of both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and GHG emissions. 6 figs

  18. 222Rn alpha dose to organs other than lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harley, N.H.; Robbins, E.S.

    1991-01-01

    The alpha dose to cells in tissues or organs other theft the lung has been calculated using the solubility coefficients for 222 Rn measured in human tissue. The annual alpha dose equivalent f rom 222 Rn and decay products in most tissues is a maximum of 30% of the annual average natural background dose equivalent (1 mSv) for external and internally deposited nuclides. The dose to the small population of lymphocytes located in or under the bronchial epithelium is a special case and their annual dose equivalent is essentially the same as that to basal cells in bronchial epithelium (200 mSv) for continuous exposure to 200 Bq M -3 . The significance of this dose is uncertain because the only excess cancer observed in follow up studies of underground miners with high 222 Rn exposure is bronchogenic carcinoma

  19. Continuous Markovian Logics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardare, Radu Iulian; Cardelli, Luca; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2012-01-01

    Continuous Markovian Logic (CML) is a multimodal logic that expresses quantitative and qualitative properties of continuous-time labelled Markov processes with arbitrary (analytic) state-spaces, henceforth called continuous Markov processes (CMPs). The modalities of CML evaluate the rates...

  20. Air lock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palkovich, P.; Gruber, J.; Madlener, W.

    1974-01-01

    The patent refers to an air lock system preferably for nuclear stations for the transport of heavy loads by means of a trolley on rails. For opening and closing of the air lock parts of the rails are removed, e.g. by a second rail system perpendicular to the main rails. (P.K.)

  1. Determination of the concentration of {alpha} emitting radioactive aerosols; Mesure de la concentration des aerosols radioactifs emetteurs {alpha}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labeyrie, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1953-06-15

    In the first part of this work the techniques used for the quantitative measurement of the concentrations of aerosols carrying short lived (radon or thoron daughters) or long lived (uranium) {alpha} radioactive emitters are described. In the second part the author investigates the problem of the determination of radon concentration in air by means of activity determinations on airborne dusts. Special reference is made to the measurement of the radon active deposit on two types of dusts (iron oxide (yellow) and uranium oxide) in small chambers (6 liters). In the third part are given data resulting from determinations of radon and thoron concentrations in atmospheric air in the south of Paris area using this method. (author) [French] Dans la premiere partie de ce travail on expose les techniques utilisees pour la mesure quantitative des concentrations d'aerosols contenant des emetteurs radioactifs {alpha}, tant pour ceux a vie courte (derives du radon ou du thoron) que pour ceux a vie longue (uranium). Dans la seconde partie on traite le probleme de la determination de la concentration de l'air en radon par la mesure de l'activite des poussieres ayant sejourne dans cet air. En particulier, on indique pour de petits volumes (6 litres) la proportion de depot actif du radon qui est fixee sur deux types de poussieres (limonite et oxyde d'uranium) en fonction de la concentration de celles-ci. Dans la troisieme partie on donne quelques exemples de mesure par cette methode de la concentration en radon et en thoron de l'atmosphere de la region parisienne. (auteur)

  2. Quantum Estimates of Alpha Emitter Life Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Santoso

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantum estimates of several alpha radioactive life time have been made using the probability of quantum tunneling through the nuclear potential barrier. It is assumed that for a given nucleus with mass number A and isotopic number Z, there exists an alpha particle moving freely back and forth in the nucleus with mass and isotopic numbers A -4 and Z-2. If the probability of penetrating the nuclear potential barrier is Τ, then after N times (N=1/Τ hitting the barrier an alpha particle is emitted. To obtain the elapsed time for emitting an alpha particle requires N times τ0, where τ0 is the time travel for alpha across the nuclear diameter, which is dependent on alpha energy. It is assumed here that this kinetic energy is the same as the emitted energy. The emitting alpha kinetic energies here are calculated by the difference of the masses of the parent and daughter nuclei and the alpha particles. They are in closed agreement with the experimental observations. While the alpha radioactive life time are not the same order of magnitudes but give the same linearity on the logarithmic scale as function of the inverse square root of energy.

  3. Sterically hindered C(alpha, alpha)-disubstituted alpha-amino acids: synthesis from alpha-nitroacetate and incorporation into peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Y; Hammarström, L G; Miller, T J; Fronczek, F R; McLaughlin, M L; Hammer, R P

    2001-10-19

    The preparation of sterically hindered and polyfunctional C(alpha,alpha)-disubstituted alpha-amino acids (alpha alpha AAs) via alkylation of ethyl nitroacetate and transformation into derivatives ready for incorporation into peptides are described. Treatment of ethyl nitroacetate with N,N-diisopropylethylamine (DIEA) in the presence of a catalytic amount of tetraalkylammonium salt, followed by the addition of an activated alkyl halide or Michael acceptor, gives the doubly C-alkylated product in good to excellent yields. Selective nitro reduction with Zn in acetic acid or hydrogen over Raney Ni gives the corresponding amino ester that, upon saponification, can be protected with the fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl (Fmoc) group. The first synthesis of an orthogonally protected, tetrafunctional C(alpha,alpha)-disubstituted analogue of aspartic acid, 2,2-bis(tert-butylcarboxymethyl)glycine (Bcmg), is described. Also, the sterically demanding C(alpha,alpha)-dibenzylglycine (Dbg) has been incorporated into a peptide using solid-phase synthesis. It was found that once sterically congested Dbg is at the peptide N-terminus, further chain extension becomes very difficult using uronium or phosphonium salts (PyAOP, PyAOP/HOAt, HATU). However, preformed amino acid symmetrical anhydride couples to N-terminal Dbg in almost quantitative yield in nonpolar solvent (dichloroethane-DMF, 9:1).

  4. Completely continuous and weakly completely continuous abstract ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    approximate identity for B, bounded in A. In addition, a necessary condition for the weak complete continuity of A is ... continuous elements of a Banach algebra A and symmetric abstract Segal algebras B with respect to A, in the case ..... [13] Hewitt E and Ross K A, Abstract harmonic analysis, 2nd edn. I, II (1970) (New York,.

  5. Comparison of techniques active and passive in measurement of radon concentration (222Ra) in the air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Evaldo Paulo de

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to perform a study comparing radon concentration measurements between two techniques used to measure radon gas in the air: one using LEXAN polycarbonate plastic detectors and the other the continuous monitor in AlphaGUARD passive mode. The concentrations of radon gas within radon emanation chambers were measured using calibrated / traceable sources generating 222 Rn through 226 Ra. In calibration the 'calibration factor' or 'sensitivity' was determined for the LEXAN plastic detector. The calibration work of the dosimeters was carried out at the Radon Laboratory of the Environmental Analysis Division - DIRAD IRD/CNEN and at the Natural Radioactivity Laboratory (LRN) of the Center for the Development of Nuclear Technology (CDTN/CNEN). The 'calibration factor' or 'sensitivity' was found to be 32.34 (traits.cm -2 )/(kBq.d.m -3 ). This factor was used to determine the radon concentration measured by the LEXAN plastic detectors. Also in the calibration, the efficiencies for LEXAN (94.1% ± 9.7%) and AlphaGUARD (92.5% ± 7.2%) were determined. The statistical analysis used showed good parity in the results of the measurements. It was concluded that the results were satisfactory and will serve as a good reference for studies related to the radon air meters used in this work. (author)

  6. 46 CFR 45.133 - Air pipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air pipes. 45.133 Section 45.133 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Conditions of Assignment § 45.133 Air pipes. (a) Where an air pipe to any tank extends above the freeboard or superstructure deck— (1) The exposed part of the air pipe must...

  7. EUV sources for the alpha-tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankert, Joseph; Apetz, Rolf; Bergmann, Klaus; Damen, Marcel; Derra, Günther; Franken, Oliver; Janssen, Maurice; Jonkers, Jeroen; Klein, Jürgen; Kraus, Helmar; Krücken, Thomas; List, Andreas; Loeken, Micheal; Mader, Arnaud; Metzmacher, Christof; Neff, Willi; Probst, Sven; Prümmer, Ralph; Rosier, Oliver; Schwabe, Stefan; Seiwert, Stefan; Siemons, Guido; Vaudrevange, Dominik; Wagemann, Dirk; Weber, Achim; Zink, Peter; Zitzen, Oliver

    2006-03-01

    In this paper, we report on the recent progress of the Philips Extreme UV source. The Philips source concept is based on a discharge plasma ignited in a Sn vapor plume that is ablated by a laser pulse. Using rotating electrodes covered with a regenerating tin surface, the problems of electrode erosion and power scaling are fundamentally solved. Most of the work of the past year has been dedicated to develop a lamp system which is operating very reliably and stable under full scanner remote control. Topics addressed were the development of the scanner interface, a dose control system, thermo-mechanical design, positional stability of the source, tin handling, and many more. The resulting EUV source-the Philips NovaTin(R) source-can operate at more than 10kW electrical input power and delivers 200W in-band EUV into 2π continuously. The source is very small, so nearly 100% of the EUV radiation can be collected within etendue limits. The lamp system is fully automated and can operate unattended under full scanner remote control. 500 Million shots of continuous operation without interruption have been realized, electrode lifetime is at least 2 Billion shots. Three sources are currently being prepared, two of them will be integrated into the first EUV Alpha Demonstration tools of ASML. The debris problem was reduced to a level which is well acceptable for scanner operation. First, a considerable reduction of the Sn emission of the source has been realized. The debris mitigation system is based on a two-step concept using a foil trap based stage and a chemical cleaning stage. Both steps were improved considerably. A collector lifetime of 1 Billion shots is achieved, after this operating time a cleaning would be applied. The cleaning step has been verified to work with tolerable Sn residues. From the experimental results, a total collector lifetime of more than 10 Billion shots can be expected.

  8. Hypothalamic PGC-1 alpha Protects Against High-Fat Diet Exposure by Regulating ER alpha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morselli, Eugenia; Fuente-Martin, Esther; Finan, Brian; Kim, Min; Frank, Aaron; Garcia-Caceres, Cristina; Navas, Carlos Rodriguez; Gordillo, Ruth; Neinast, Michael; Kalainayakan, Sarada P.; Li, Dan L.; Gao, Yuanqing; Yi, Chun-Xia; Hahner, Lisa; Palmer, Biff F.; Tschöp, Matthias H.; Clegg, Deborah J.

    2014-01-01

    High-fat diets (HFDs) lead to obesity and inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS). Estrogens and estrogen receptor alpha (ER alpha) protect premenopausal females from the metabolic complications of inflammation and obesity-related disease. Here, we demonstrate that hypothalamic PGC-1 alpha

  9. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) in human skin : A comparison of different antibodies for immunohistochemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laan, N; de Leij, LFMH; Buurman, W; Timens, W; ten Duis, HJ

    Conflicting results have been reported regarding the localization and presence of TNF alpha in normal human skin, To study TNF alpha expression, we tested a panel of antibodies directed against human TNF alpha, First, antibodies were tested for immunoreactivity on cytospots of isolated

  10. Study of the pygmy dipole resonance in Mo-94 using the (alpha, alpha ' gamma) coincidence technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derya, V.; Endres, J.; Elvers, M.; Harakeh, M. N.; Pietralla, N.; Romig, C.; Savran, D.; Scheck, M.; Siebenhuehner, F.; Stoica, V. I.; Wortche, H. J.; Zilges, A.

    2013-01-01

    The (alpha, alpha' gamma) reaction at E-alpha = 136 MeV was used to study the electric dipole response in the open-shell vibrational nucleus Mo-94 below the neutron-separation threshold. The coincidence experiment has been performed at the Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut in Groningen, The

  11. Registration of alpha particles in Makrofol-E nuclear track detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rammah, Y.S. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Menoufia University, Shebin El-Koom (Egypt); Abdalla, Ayman M., E-mail: aymanabdalla62@hotmail.com [Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences and Arts, Najran University, P. O. Box. 11001, Najran (Saudi Arabia); Promising Centre for Sensors and Electronic Devices, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Najran University (Saudi Arabia); Ashraf, O., E-mail: osama.ashraf@edu.asu.edu.eg [Physics Department, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Cairo 11575 (Egypt); Ashry, A.H. [Physics Department, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Cairo 11575 (Egypt)

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • Makrofol-E detectors have been irradiated with alpha particles and fission fragments. • Fast detection of alpha particles in Makrofol-E detectors. • Bulk etching rate was calculated from fission track diameters. - Abstract: Fast detection of alpha particles in the range from 1 to 5 MeV in Makrofol-E polycarbonate nuclear track detectors (PCTDs) using a new chemical etchant was investigated. {sup 252}Cf and {sup 241}Am-thin open sources were used for irradiating Makrofol-E detectors with fission fragments and alpha particles in air at normal pressure and temperature (NPT). A chain of experimental work has been carried out using new etchants to register alpha particle in short time in Makrofol-E polycarbonate detectors. The etching efficiency were exhibited a clear dependence on the amount of methanol in the etching solution and etching time. The optimized chemical condition obtained at this stage of development for 200 μm Makrofol-E detectors are (8 ml of 10 N NaOH + 2 ml CH{sub 3}OH) etching solutions at 60 °C for 3 h. In this study; it is possible to observe energy detection windows for Makrofol-E detectors according to applied etching duration. Makrofol-E introduced the characteristic Bragg peak, which indicates the advantages of this detector as alpha spectrometer. Consequently, the suggested new etchant can be developed for heavy ions detection and monitoring radon levels and its daughters.

  12. Effect of alpha irradiation on UO2 surface reactivity in aqueous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jegou, C.; Muzeau, B.; Broudic, V.; Poulesquen, A.; Roudil, D.; Jorion, F.; Corbel, C.

    2005-01-01

    The option of direct disposal of spent nuclear fuel in a deep geological formation raises the need to investigate the long-term behavior of the UO 2 matrix in aqueous media subjected to α-β-γ radiation. The β-γ emitters account for most of the activity of spent fuel at the moment it is removed from the reactor, but diminish within a millennial time frame by over three orders of magnitude to less than the long-term activity. The latter persists over much longer time periods and must therefore be taken into account over a geological disposal time scale. Leaching experiments with solution renewal were carried out on UO 2 pellets doped with alpha emitters ( 238 Pu and 239 Pu) to quantify the impact of alpha irradiation on UO 2 matrix alteration. Three batches of doped UO 2 pellets with different alpha flux levels (3.30 x 10 4 , 3.30 x 10 5 , and 3.2 x 10 6 α cm -2 s -1 ) were studied. The results obtained in aerated and deaerated media immediately after sample annealing or interim storage in air provide a better understanding of the UO 2 matrix alteration mechanisms under alpha irradiation. Interim storage in air of UO 2 pellets doped with alpha emitters results in variations of the UO 2 surface reactivity, which depends on the alpha particle flux at the interface and on the interim storage duration. The variation in the surface reactivity and the greater uranium release following interim storage cannot be attributed to the effect of alpha radiolysis in aerated media since the uranium release tends toward the same value after several leaching cycles for the doped UO 2 pellet batches and spent fuel. Oxygen diffusion enhanced by alpha irradiation of the extreme surface layer and/or radiolysis of the air could account for the oxidation of the surface UO 2 to UO 2+x . However, leaching experiments performed in deaerated media after annealing the samples and preleaching the surface suggest that alpha radiolysis does indeed affect the dissolution, which varies with the

  13. Techniques for sectioning alpha-contaminated equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrowsmith, H.W.; Allen, R.P.; Fetrow, L.K.

    1981-01-01

    This paper summarizes work conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to develop, adapt and evaluate a variety of techniques for the sectioning and disassembly of glove boxes, chemical processing equipment, pipes, ducts and other components contaminated with plutonium or other alpha emitters. A unique sectioning facility equipped with glove ports, master slave manipulators, a bridge crane and a personnel air lock has been installed and is now operational. This facility is used as a work space where a variety of sectioning techniques are compared with respect to (1) effectiveness, (2) ability to accommodate a variety of geometries, (3) waste generation and (4) ease of adaption for remote operation. Sectioning techniques currently being evaluated include dry and wet plasma torch cutting, hydraulic shearing and mechanical cutting. A dry hand-held plasma torch capable of cutting 0.6-cm-thick stainless steel at the rate of 100 cm/min and material up to 2.5 cm thick at a slower rate is currently being used to section glove boxes and equipment contaminated with plutonium. A water-injected, water-muffled plasma arc torch is currently being modified for installation in the sectioning facility. This torch can cut 0.6-cm thick stainless steel at the rate of 400 cm/min and material up to 16 cm thick at slower rates. The water-injected torch is expected to solve many of the problems associated with the dry plasma arc torch. Mechanical sectioning techniques being evaluated include a hydraulic shear capable of rapidly shearing a stainless steel sheet 23 cm wide x 0.5 cm thick. The advantage of shearing as a sectioning technique is that all the waste products generated can be decontaminated using vibratory finishing or electropolishing techniques and that almost no contamination is entrapped in the sheared edge. Other mechanical techniques being evaluated include mechanical nibblers, reciprocating saws and pipe-sectioning equipment

  14. Providing Continuous Assurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kocken, Jonne; Hulstijn, Joris

    2017-01-01

    It has been claimed that continuous assurance can be attained by combining continuous monitoring by management, with continuous auditing of data streams and the effectiveness of internal controls by an external auditor. However, we find that in existing literature the final step to continuous

  15. Comparison of combination therapies in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: leflunomide-anti-TNF-alpha versus methotrexate-anti-TNF-alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Stefano, Renato; Frati, Elena; Nargi, Fernando; Baldi, Caterina; Menza, Luana; Hammoud, Mohammed; Galeazzi, Mauro

    2010-05-01

    To compare the efficacy and safety of leflunomide (LEF)-anti-TNF-alpha combination therapy to methotrexate (MTX)-anti-TNF-alpha combination therapy in a group of patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We have recruited 120 patients with RA with a high disease activity despite being treated with MTX (15 mg/week) or LEF (20 mg/die) for 3 months, without side effects. In each of these patients, therapy with either MTX or LEF was continued and randomly combined with an anti-TNF-alpha drug: etanercept, infliximab, or adalimumab. Patients were assessed at study entry and at 4, 12, and at 24 weeks. The efficacy endpoints included variations in the DAS28-ESR and the ACR20, ACR50, and ACR70 responses. At each visit, any side-effect was recorded. There were no statistically significant differences in the DAS28 variations and in the ACR responses between the two groups or among the six subgroups. The number of discontinuation due to the appearance of serious side effects was higher, but not statistically significant, in the LEF-anti-TNF-alpha group than in the MTX-anti-TNF-alpha group. Other adverse events that did not necessitate the discontinuation of therapy occurred much more frequently in patients treated with MTX than in those treated with LEF. Anti-TNF-alpha drugs can be used in combination not only with MTX, but also with LEF, with the same probability of achieving significant clinical improvement in RA patients and without a significantly greater risk of serious adverse events. In contrast, it seems that combination therapy with LEF-anti-TNF-alpha is more readily tolerated than combination therapy with MTX-anti-TNF-alpha.

  16. Applications de la résonance magnétique nucléaire (RMN en milieu poreux Lissage des courbes de relaxation RMN du domaine du temps par une méthode discrète et continue Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (Nmr Applications in Porous Media Time-Dependent Nmr Relaxation Curve Smoothing Using a Discrete Continuous Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Botlan D.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Dans un champ magnétique hétérogène, le signal RMN de précession libre (FID suit une évolution gaussienne. Le traitement du signal par une méthode discrète peut donner des composantes qui ne correspondent pas à un état physique réel. Par contre l'utilisation d'une méthode de déconvolution continue nous a donné des résultats quantitatifs tout à fait satisfaisants permettant de déterminer les distributions de temps de relaxation correspondant à des états intermédiaires entre les phases solides et liquides. La RMN du domaine du temps peut ainsi être considérée comme une méthode analytique complémentaire des techniques habituellement utilisées pour l'étude de composés complexes hétérogènes ATD, ACD, isothermes de sorption, etc. In a heterogeneous magnetic field, the freely precessing NMR signal (FID describes a Gaussian curve. Processing the signal using a discrete method can give rise to components that do not correspond to a real physical state. However, with a continuous deconvolution method, which gives quite satisfactory quantitative results, it is possible to determine the distributions of relaxation times that correspond to intermediate states between solid and liquid phases. Time-dependent NMR can thus be used to supplement the usual analytical methods, such as DTA, DCA and sorption isotherms, for studying complex heterogeneous compounds.

  17. Reciprocal signals between microglia and neurons regulate alpha-synuclein secretion by exophagy through a neuronal cJU-N-Nterminal kinase-signaling axis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dan Ploug; Ejlerskov, Patrick; Rasmussen, Izabela

    2016-01-01

    Background: Secretion of proteopathic alpha-synuclein (alpha-SNC) species from neurons is a suspected driving force in the propagation of Parkinson's disease (PD). We have previously implicated exophagy, the exocytosis of autophagosomes, as a dominant mechanism of alpha-SNC secretion...... in monoculture to TNF alpha, a classical pro-inflammatory mediator of activated microglia, is sufficient to increase alpha-SNC secretion in a mechanism dependent on JNK2 or JNK3. In continuation hereof, we show that also IFN beta and TGF beta increase the release of alpha-SNC from PC12 neurons. Conclusions: We...... implicate stress kinases of the JNK family in the regulation of exophagy and release of alpha-SNC following endogenous or exogenous stimulation. In a wider scope, our results imply that microglia not only inflict bystander damage to neurons in late phases of inflammatory brain disease but may also be active...

  18. Psychiatric Symptoms in Alpha-Mannosidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malm, D.; Pantel, J.; Linaker, O. M.

    2005-01-01

    Alpha-mannosidosis is characterized by mild to moderate intellectual disability (ID), moderate to severe neurosensory hearing loss, frequent infections, psychomotor disturbances and skeletal dysmorphism. For the first time, a panel of nine alpha-mannosidosis patients with psychiatric symptoms is presented. The clinical picture has several…

  19. Coefficient Alpha Bootstrap Confidence Interval under Nonnormality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Miguel A.; Divers, Jasmin; Newton, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Three different bootstrap methods for estimating confidence intervals (CIs) for coefficient alpha were investigated. In addition, the bootstrap methods were compared with the most promising coefficient alpha CI estimation methods reported in the literature. The CI methods were assessed through a Monte Carlo simulation utilizing conditions…

  20. Alpha Shape Topology of the Cosmic Web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weygaert, Rien van de; Platen, Erwin; Vegter, Gert; Eldering, Bob; Kruithof, Nico

    2010-01-01

    We study the topology of the Megaparsec Cosmic Web on the basis of the Alpha Shapes of the galaxy distribution. The simplicial complexes of the alpha shapes are used to determine the set of Betti numbers (βk, k = 1, . . . , D), which represent a complete characterization of the topology of a

  1. Central and peripheral alpha-adrenoceptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zwieten, P A; van Meel, J. C. A.; de Jonge, A; Wilffert, B; Timmermans, P B

    1982-01-01

    The recent interest in the characterization and functional, role of alpha-adrenoceptors has prompted us to study the following different, although interdigitated, lines of research: (a) The functional role of calcium ions in the process of vasoconstriction, induced by alpha 2-adrenoceptor

  2. Producing alpha-olefins using polyketide synthases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortman, Jeffrey L.; Katz, Leonard; Steen, Eric J.; Keasling, Jay D.

    2018-01-02

    The present invention provides for a polyketide synthase (PKS) capable of synthesizing an .alpha.-olefin, such as 1-hexene or butadiene. The present invention also provides for a host cell comprising the PKS and when cultured produces the .alpha.-olefin.

  3. Bayesian Meta-Analysis of Coefficient Alpha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannick, Michael T.; Zhang, Nanhua

    2013-01-01

    The current paper describes and illustrates a Bayesian approach to the meta-analysis of coefficient alpha. Alpha is the most commonly used estimate of the reliability or consistency (freedom from measurement error) for educational and psychological measures. The conventional approach to meta-analysis uses inverse variance weights to combine…

  4. ALPHA experiment facility and Prof. Jeffrey Hangst.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2010-01-01

    Picture 01-07: General views of the ALPHA experiment Picture 5: Andrea Gutierrez, a PhD student from UBC, transfers liquid helium from a storage dewar into the cryostat containing the superconducting magnetic trap used by the ALPHA experiment.Picture 08-11: Jeffery Hangst, spokesperson for ALPHA Picture 12: The ALPHA silicon detector, which surrounds the trapping resion and is used for imaging antiproton annihilations (Credit University of Liverpool) Picture 13: Untrapped antihydrogen atoms annihilating on the inner surface of the ALPHA trap. These are measured by the ALPHA annihilation detector. The events are concentrated at the electrode radius of about 22.3 mm. The coordinates are defined in the Nature article, Figure 1b. Picture 14: The electrodes (gold) for the ALPHA Penning trap being inserted into the vacuum chamber and cryostat assembly. This is the trap used to combine or "mix" positrons and antiprotons to make antihydrogen. (Credit: Niels Madsen ALPHA/Swansea.) Picture 15: Top, a diagram of the...

  5. A stable lipid-induced aggregate of alpha-synuclein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drescher, Malte; van Rooijen, Bart D; Veldhuis, Gertjan; Subramaniam, Vinod; Huber, Martina

    2010-01-01

    The Parkinson's disease-related protein alpha-Synuclein (alphaS) is a 140 residue intrinsically disordered protein. Its membrane-binding properties are thought to be relevant for its physiological or pathologic activity. Here, the interaction of alphaS with POPG

  6. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Lead Mercury Mold Nanomaterials Ozone Perfluorinated Chemicals Pesticides Radon Soy Infant Formula Styrene Water Pollution Weather ... government and non-government websites covering specific environmental, biological, and chemical agents that cause indoor air pollution. ...

  7. Air lasing

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Ya

    2018-01-01

    This book presents the first comprehensive, interdisciplinary review of the rapidly developing field of air lasing. In most applications of lasers, such as cutting and engraving, the laser source is brought to the point of service where the laser beam is needed to perform its function. However, in some important applications such as remote atmospheric sensing, placing the laser at a convenient location is not an option. Current sensing schemes rely on the detection of weak backscattering of ground-based, forward-propagating optical probes, and possess limited sensitivity. The concept of air lasing (or atmospheric lasing) relies on the idea that the constituents of the air itself can be used as an active laser medium, creating a backward-propagating, impulsive, laser-like radiation emanating from a remote location in the atmosphere. This book provides important insights into the current state of development of air lasing and its applications.

  8. Improved peak shape fitting in alpha spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommé, S; Caro Marroyo, B

    2015-02-01

    Peak overlap is a recurrent issue in alpha-particle spectrometry, not only in routine analyses but also in the high-resolution spectra from which reference values for alpha emission probabilities are derived. In this work, improved peak shape formulae are presented for the deconvolution of alpha-particle spectra. They have been implemented as fit functions in a spreadsheet application and optimum fit parameters were searched with built-in optimisation routines. Deconvolution results are shown for a few challenging spectra with high statistical precision. The algorithm outperforms the best available routines for high-resolution spectrometry, which may facilitate a more reliable determination of alpha emission probabilities in the future. It is also applicable to alpha spectra with inferior energy resolution. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Technical Basis for the Use of Alpha Absorption Corrections on RCF Gross Alpha Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceffalo, G.M.

    1999-01-01

    This document provides the supporting data and rationale for making absorption corrections to gross alpha data to correct alpha data for loss due to absorption in the sample matrix. For some time there has been concern that the gross alpha data produced by the Environmental Restoration Contractor Radiological Counting Facility, particularly gross alpha analysis on soils, has been biased toward low results, as no correction for self-absorption was applied to the counting data. The process was investigated, and a new methodology for alpha self-absorption has been developed

  10. Elimination of alpha-gal xenoreactive epitope: alpha-galactosidase treatment of porcine heart valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sun-Young; Jeong, Hee-Jin; Lim, Hong-Gook; Park, Seong-Sik; Kim, Soo-Hwan; Kim, Yong Jin

    2012-05-01

    Porcine heart valves are among the most widely used tissue valves in clinical heart valve implantation. However, immunologic responses have been implicated as potential causes of the limited durability of xenograft heart valves. The study aim was to determine the effectiveness of alpha-galactosidase treatment used to degrade the major xenoreactive antigens found in xenograft heart valves. Fresh porcine heart valves and pericardium treated with alpha-galactosidase were studied to evaluate the xenoreactive galactose (alpha1,3) galactose (alpha-gal) antigen. Removal of the alpha-gal epitope from the porcine heart valve was monitored via 3,3'-diaminobenzidine staining intensity, while the removal of alpha-gal from N-glycans on porcine heart valves treated with recombinant alpha-galactosidase was determined either qualitatively or quantitatively by mass fingerprinting using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The porcine pericardium was used for monitoring the change in mechanical properties after alpha-galactosidase treatment. In addition, the biomechanical modification property of collagen fiber rearrangement on tissue was assessed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Following a 24-h incubation at pH 7.2, 4 degrees C, employing 0.1 U/ml of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron-derived recombinant alpha-galactosidase, the enzyme effectively removed the alpha-gal epitopes expressed on porcine heart valves. The identification type of alpha-gal N-glycan on fresh aortic valve, aortic wall, pulmonary valve, and pulmonary wall was 7.1%, 10.3%, 6% and 8%, respectively. In the presence of alpha-galactosidase treatment, alpha-gal-containing N-glycans were converted into alpha-gal-negative N-glycans. Likewise, alpha-gal-containing N-glycans were not detected when MALDI-TOF MS quantitative analysis was used. Furthermore, no significant difference was observed in the mechanical properties and findings from TEM in alpha

  11. 40 CFR 52.346 - Air quality monitoring requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air quality monitoring requirements. 52.346 Section 52.346 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.346 Air quality monitoring requirements. In a letter and submittal...

  12. 40 CFR 89.414 - Air flow measurement specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air flow measurement specifications. 89.414 Section 89.414 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Exhaust Emission Test Procedures § 89.414 Air flow...

  13. Closure of an analytical chemistry glove box in alpha laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelfang, P.; Aparicio, G.; Cassaniti, P.

    1990-01-01

    The works with plutonium are performed in gloves box, operated below atmospheric pressure, to protect the experimenters from this alpha-active material. After 12 years of continual processes, it was necessary the decommissioning of the chemistry glove box in our alpha-laboratory. A great deal of our attention was devoted to the working techniques because of extreme care needed to avoid activity release. The decommissioning includes the following main operations: a) Planning and documentation for the regulatory authority. b) Internal decontamination with surface cleaning and chelating agents. c) Measurement of the remainder internal radioactivity. d) Sealing of the glove ports and nozzles. e) Disconnection of the glove box from the exhaust duct. f) Design and construction of a container for the glove box. g) Transportation of the glove box from alpha-laboratory, to a transitory storage until its final disposal. The above mentioned operations are described in this paper including too: data of personal doses during the operations, characteristics and volumes of radioactive wastes and a description of the instrument used for the measurement of inside glove box activity. (Author) [es

  14. Determination of alpha_s using jet cross section parameterizations at hadron colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Stenzel, H

    2001-01-01

    Precise measurements of the single inclusive jet cross section have been performed by the TEVATRON experiments and will be provided by the LHC experiments extending to larger values of transverse energy. Theoretical predictions of this observable at NLO in perturbative QCD depend both on the PDF parameterization set and on the value of the strong coupling constant alpha_s. In this paper the dependence of the jet cross section on alpha_s is investigated. A method is presented to extract alpha_s(E_T) from a cross section measurement based on a parameterization of the alpha_s dependence. Systematic uncertainties and the E_T-range of applicability are discussed. A comparative study is performed between the case of ppbar at sqrt{s}=1.8 TeV (TEVATRON) and pp scattering at sqrt{s}=14 TeV (LHC).

  15. Alpha1 and Alpha2 Integrins Mediate Invasive Activity of Mouse Mammary Carcinoma Cells through Regulation of Stromelysin-1 Expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lochter, Andre; Navre, Marc; Werb, Zena; Bissell, Mina J

    1998-06-29

    Tumor cell invasion relies on cell migration and extracellular matrix proteolysis. We investigated the contribution of different integrins to the invasive activity of mouse mammary carcinoma cells. Antibodies against integrin subunits {alpha}6 and {beta}1, but not against {alpha}1 and {alpha}2, inhibited cell locomotion on a reconstituted basement membrane in two-dimensional cell migration assays, whereas antibodies against {beta}1, but not against a6 or {alpha}2, interfered with cell adhesion to basement membrane constituents. Blocking antibodies against {alpha}1 integrins impaired only cell adhesion to type IV collagen. Antibodies against {alpha}1, {alpha}2, {alpha}6, and {beta}1, but not {alpha}5, integrin subunits reduced invasion of a reconstituted basement membrane. Integrins {alpha}1 and {alpha}2, which contributed only marginally to motility and adhesion, regulated proteinase production. Antibodies against {alpha}1 and {alpha}2, but not {alpha}6 and {beta}1, integrin subunits inhibited both transcription and protein expression of the matrix metalloproteinase stromelysin-1. Inhibition of tumor cell invasion by antibodies against {alpha}1 and {alpha}2 was reversed by addition of recombinant stromelysin-1. In contrast, stromelysin-1 could not rescue invasion inhibited by anti-{alpha}6 antibodies. Our data indicate that {alpha}1 and {alpha}2 integrins confer invasive behavior by regulating stromelysin-1 expression, whereas {alpha}6 integrins regulate cell motility. These results provide new insights into the specific functions of integrins during tumor cell invasion.

  16. Syndrome of Continuous Muscle Fibre Activity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-08-10

    Aug 10, 1974 ... acquired nature of the disorder. 5. Air. Med. l., 48, 1601 (1974). In 1961 the electromyographic and clinical findings of two ... Electromyography de- monstrates the state of continuous activity of the muscles. ... voluntary movements fatigue very rapidly. The extra-ocular. Fig. 3. Spontaneous motor unit activity.

  17. Expression of alpha subunit of alpha glucosidase II in adult mouse brain regions and selective organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anji, Antje; Miller, Hayley; Raman, Chandrasekar; Phillips, Mathew; Ciment, Gary; Kumari, Meena

    2014-01-01

    Alpha glucosidase II (GII), a resident of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and an important enzyme in folding of nascent glycoproteins, is heterodimeric consisting of alpha (GIIα) and beta (GIIβ) subunits. The catalytic GIIα subunit with the help of mannose 6-phosphate receptor homology (MRH) domain of GIIβ sequentially hydrolyzes two α-1-3-linked glucose residues in the 2nd step of N-linked oligosaccharide-mediated protein folding. The soluble GIIα subunit is retained in the ER through its interaction with the HDEL-containing GIIβ subunit. N-glycosylation and correct protein folding is crucial for protein stability, trafficking, and cell surface expression of several proteins in the brain. Alterations in N-glycosylation lead to abnormalities in neuronal migration and mental retardation, various neurodegenerative diseases, and invasion of malignant gliomas. Inhibitors of GII are used to inhibit cell proliferation and migration in a variety of different pathologies such as viral infection, cancer and diabetes. In spite of the widespread usage of GIIα inhibitory drugs and the role of GIIα in brain function little is known about its expression in brain and other tissues. Here, we report generation of a highly specific chicken antibody to GIIα subunit and its characterization by Western blotting and immunoprecipitation using cerebral cortical extracts. Using this antibody we show that the GIIα protein is highly expressed in testis, kidney, and lung, with the least amount in heart. GIIα polypeptide levels in whole brain were comparable to spleen. However, higher expression of GIIα protein was detected in cerebral cortex reflecting its continuous requirement in correct folding of cell surface proteins. PMID:25131991

  18. Mapping High-Velocity H-alpha and Lyman-alpha Emission from Supernova 1987A

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Kevin; McCray, Richard; Fransson, Claes; Larsson, Josefin; Frank, Kari A.; Burrows, David N.; Challis, Peter; Kirshner, Robert P.; Chevalier, Roger A.; Garnavich, Peter; hide

    2015-01-01

    We present new Hubble Space Telescope images of high-velocity H-alpha and Lyman-alpha emission in the outer debris of SN 1987A. The H-alpha images are dominated by emission from hydrogen atoms crossing the reverse shock. For the first time we observe emission from the reverse shock surface well above and below the equatorial ring, suggesting a bipolar or conical structure perpendicular to the ring plane. Using the H-alpha imaging, we measure the mass flux of hydrogen atoms crossing the reverse shock front, in the velocity intervals (-7,500 < V(sub obs) < -2,800 km/s) and (1,000 < V(sub obs) < 7,500 km/s), ?M(sub H) = 1.2 × 10(exp -3) M/ y. We also present the first Lyman-alpha imaging of the whole remnant and new Chandra X-ray observations. Comparing the spatial distribution of the Lyman-alpha and X-ray emission, we observe that the majority of the high-velocity Lyman-alpha emission originates interior to the equatorial ring. The observed Lyman-alpha/H-alpha photon ratio, R(L-alpha/H-alpha) approx. = 17, is significantly higher than the theoretically predicted ratio of approx. = 5 for neutral atoms crossing the reverse shock front. We attribute this excess to Lyman-alpha emission produced by X-ray heating of the outer debris. The spatial orientation of the Lyman-alpha and X-ray emission suggests that X-ray heating of the outer debris is the dominant Lyman-alpha production mechanism in SN 1987A at this phase in its evolution.

  19. Membrane reactors for continuous coenzyme regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandrey, C.; Wichmann, R.

    1982-12-01

    The importance of continuous coenzyme regeneration is discussed with respect to chemical reaction engineering. The benefit of coenzymes covalently bound to water soluble polymers is especially stressed. The performance of membrane reactors for coenzyme regeneration is discussed in comparison with other reactor concepts. The coenzyme dependent production of L-amino acids from the corresponding alpha-keto acids is used to illustrate how precise turnover numbers as a function of enzyme/coenzyme ratio, initial substrate concentration, and conversion are obtained. Thus, it becomes possible to develop a concept for optimal operating points with respect to enzyme, coenzyme, and substrate costs per unit weight of product.

  20. 40 CFR 52.1436 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1436 Section 52.1436 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act...

  1. 40 CFR 52.1116 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1116 Section 52.1116 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) The following provisions of 40 CFR 52.21 are hereby incorporated and made a...

  2. 40 CFR 52.1485 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1485 Section 52.1485 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulation...

  3. 40 CFR 52.1929 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1929 Section 52.1929 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air... preventing significant deterioration of air quality. [56 FR 5656, Feb. 12, 1991, as amended at 68 FR 11324...

  4. 40 CFR 52.833 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.833 Section 52.833 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are met... for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions of § 52.21 except paragraph (a...

  5. 40 CFR 52.2528 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2528 Section 52.2528 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of Sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... Quality Deterioration. (b) Regulations for Preventing Significant Deterioration of Air Quality, the...

  6. 40 CFR 52.931 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.931 Section 52.931 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The..., the Kentucky Division for Air Quality has determined that the application complies with the applicable...

  7. 40 CFR 52.2451 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2451 Section 52.2451 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... Quality Deterioration. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  8. 40 CFR 52.343 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.343 Section 52.343 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met for the following categories of sources for preventing the significant deterioration of air quality...

  9. 40 CFR 52.2303 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2303 Section 52.2303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The plan submitted by Texas is approved as meeting the requirements of part C, Clean Air Act for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The plan...

  10. 40 CFR 52.382 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.382 Section 52.382 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met...

  11. 40 CFR 52.884 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.884 Section 52.884 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of section 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act, as amended...

  12. 32 CFR 842.11 - Air Force claims organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air Force claims organization. 842.11 Section 842.11 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE CLAIMS AND LITIGATION ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS Functions and Responsibilities § 842.11 Air Force claims organization. Air Force claims channels are: (a) Continental...

  13. 40 CFR 1065.125 - Engine intake air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air. 1065.125 Section 1065.125 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.125 Engine intake air. (a) Use the intake-air...

  14. Direct binding of syndecan-4 cytoplasmic domain to the catalytic domain of protein kinase C alpha (PKC alpha) increases focal adhesion localization of PKC alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lim, Ssang-Taek; Longley, Robert L; Couchman, John R

    2003-01-01

    alpha. Full-length PKC alpha weakly interacted with 4V by yeast two-hybrid assays, but PKC alpha constructs that lack the pseudosubstrate region or constructs of the whole catalytic domain interacted more strongly. A mutated 4V sequence (4V(YF): LGKKPIFKK) did not interact with PKC alpha, indicating...

  15. Increased virulence and competitive advantage of a/alpha over a/a or alpha/alpha offspring conserves the mating system of Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, Shawn R; Wu, Wei; Radke, Joshua B; Zhao, Rui; Soll, David R

    2005-04-01

    The majority of Candida albicans strains in nature are a/alpha and must undergo homozygosis to a/a or alpha/alpha to mate. Here we have used a mouse model for systemic infection to test the hypothesis that a/alpha strains predominate in nature because they have a competitive advantage over a/a and alpha/alpha offspring in colonizing hosts. Single-strain injection experiments revealed that a/alpha strains were far more virulent than either their a/a or alpha/alpha offspring. When equal numbers of parent a/alpha and offspring a/a or alpha/alpha cells were co-injected, a/alpha always exhibited a competitive advantage at the time of extreme host morbidity or death. When equal numbers of an engineered a/a/alpha2 strain and its isogenic a/a parent strain were co-injected, the a/a/alpha2 strain exhibited a competitive advantage at the time of host morbidity or death, suggesting that the genotype of the mating-type (MTL) locus, not associated genes on chromosome 5, provides a competitive advantage. We therefore propose that heterozygosity at the MTL locus not only represses white-opaque switching and genes involved in the mating process, but also affects virulence, providing a competitive advantage to the a/alpha genotype that conserves the mating system of C. albicans in nature.

  16. Organocatalysis in continuous flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den S.A.

    2016-01-01

    Continuous flow chemistry is an enabling technique in organic chemistry. Advantages include extremely fast mixing and heat transfer capabilities as well as rapid screening of reaction conditions. Combining continuous flow chemistry with solid-supported organocatalysis presents challenges that have

  17. Preparation and validation of gross alpha/beta samples used in EML's quality assessment program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarpitta, S.C.

    1997-10-01

    A set of water and filter samples have been incorporated into the existing Environmental Measurements Laboratory's (EML) Quality Assessment Program (QAP) for gross alpha/beta determinations by participating DOE laboratories. The participating laboratories are evaluated by comparing their results with the EML value. The preferred EML method for measuring water and filter samples, described in this report, uses gas flow proportional counters with 2 in. detectors. Procedures for sample preparation, quality control and instrument calibration are presented. Liquid scintillation (LS) counting is an alternative technique that is suitable for quantifying both the alpha ( 241 Am, 230 Th and 238 Pu) and beta ( 90 Sr/ 90 Y) activity concentrations in the solutions used to prepare the QAP water and air filter samples. Three LS counting techniques (Cerenkov, dual dpm and full spectrum analysis) are compared. These techniques may be used to validate the activity concentrations of each component in the alpha/beta solution before the QAP samples are actually prepared

  18. Real-time alpha monitoring of a radioactive liquid waste stream at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J.D.; Whitley, C.R.; Rawool-Sullivan, M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This poster display concerns the development, installation, and testing of a real-time radioactive liquid waste monitor at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The detector system was designed for the LANL Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility so that influent to the plant could be monitored in real time. By knowing the activity of the influent, plant operators can better monitor treatment, better segregate waste (potentially), and monitor the regulatory compliance of users of the LANL Radioactive Liquid Waste Collection System. The detector system uses long-range alpha detection technology, which is a nonintrusive method of characterization that determines alpha activity on the liquid surface by measuring the ionization of ambient air. Extensive testing has been performed to ensure long-term use with a minimal amount of maintenance. The final design was a simple cost-effective alpha monitor that could be modified for monitoring influent waste streams at various points in the LANL Radioactive Liquid Waste Collection System.

  19. Decontamination and reconditioning of the Argonne National Laboratory-West Casting Laboratory alpha glove box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poston, J.W. Jr.; Burke, L.L.

    1998-01-01

    The Casting Laboratory (CL) alpha glove box was used to melt and cast metallic uranium and plutonium fuels as part of the Department of Energy''s Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor Program. This highly contaminated alpha glove box was decontaminated and reconditioned to allow a change in mission. The goal of reconditioning was to install experimental apparatus and to improve contamination control prior to introducing plutonium-238 into the CL glove box. Construction of a glove box containment structure and an increase in room ventilation were required. A temporary breathing air station was provided for personnel protection as well as personnel comfort. The historical contamination levels, the decontamination techniques, and the results of decontamination also are presented. The health physics aspects of the CL alpha glove box project may be applicable to other glove box refurbishment or decommissioning projects

  20. Determination of alpha particle detection efficiency of an imaging plate (IP) detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, N.M; Iida, Takao; Yamazawa, Hiromi; Moriizumi, Jun

    2006-01-01

    In order to determine the detection efficiency of the imaging plate (IP) detector, the true radioactivity of the alpha particles, which sampled in the collection media, should be known. The true radioactivity could be accurately predicted with the help of the reference alpha spectrometer measurement. The detection efficiency calculated for the IP was estimated with the theoretical curve and the experimental data. It is assumed that the air sample contained the decay products of both 222 Rn and 220 Rn series, the most significant sources of alpha particles. The present study estimated the detection efficiency of the IP as 39.3% with an uncertainty of 2.9 that is well enough to confirm the future use of the IP as a radiation detector. Experimental materials and methods are described. (S.Y.)

  1. Alpha intrusion on ovenight polysomnogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahapetian R

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. A 30 year-old Army veteran with a past medical history significant for chronic lumbar back pain stemming from a fall-from-height injury sustained in 2006 was referred to the sleep laboratory for evaluation of chronic fatigue and excessive daytime hypersomnolence. His Epworth sleepiness scale score was 16. He denied a history of snoring and witnessed apnea. Body Mass Index (BMI was 25.7 kg/m2. His main sleep related complaints were frequent nocturnal arousals, poor sleep quality, un-refreshing sleep, prolonged latency to sleep onset, and nightmares. An In-lab attended diagnostic polysomnogram was performed. Sleep efficiency was reduced (73% and overall arousal index was not significantly elevated (3.2 events/hour. The sleep study showed rapid eye movement (REM related sleep disordered breathing that did not meet diagnostic criteria for sleep apnea. There was no evidence for period limb movement disorder. However, the study was significant for alpha wave intrusion in stage N2 non-REM and stage ...

  2. Diabetes and alpha lipoic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issy eLaher

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a multi-faceted metabolic disorder where there is increased oxidative stress that contributes to the pathogenesis of this debilitating disease. This has prompted several investigations into the use of antioxidants as a complementary therapeutic approach. Alpha lipoic acid, a naturally occurring dithiol compound which plays an essential role in mitochondrial bioenergetic reactions, has gained considerable attention as an antioxidant for use in managing diabetic complications. Lipoic acid quenches reactive oxygen species, chelates metal ions, and reduces the oxidized forms of other antioxidants such as vitamin C, vitamin E and glutathione. It also boosts antioxidant defense system through Nrf2-mediated antioxidant gene expression and by modulation of peroxisome proliferator activated receptors-regulated genes. ALA inhibits nuclear factor kappa B and activates AMPK in skeletal muscles, which in turn have a plethora of metabolic consequences. These diverse actions suggest that a lipoic acid acts by multiple mechanisms, many of which have only been uncovered recently. In this review we briefly summarize the known biochemical properties of lipoic acid and then discussed the oxidative mechanisms implicated in diabetic complications and the mechanisms by which lipoic acid may ameliorate these reactions. The findings of some of the clinical trials in which lipoic acid administration has been tested in diabetic patients during the last 10 years are summarized. It appears that the clearest benefit of lipoic acid supplementation is in patients with diabetic neuropathy.

  3. Diagnostics for PLX-alpha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Mark; Hsu, Scott

    2015-11-01

    The goal of the Plasma Liner eXperiment PLX-alpha at Los Alamos National Laboratory is to establish the viability of creating a spherically imploding plasma liner for MIF and HED applications, using a spherical array of supersonic plasma jets launched by innovative contoured-gap coaxial plasma guns. PLX- α experiments will focus in particular on establishing the ram pressure and uniformity scalings of partial and fully spherical plasma liners. In order to characterize these parameters experimentally, a suite of diagnostics is planned, including multi-camera fast imaging, a 16-channel visible interferometer (upgraded from 8 channels) with reconfigurable, fiber-coupled front end, and visible and VUV high-resolution and survey spectroscopy. Tomographic reconstruction and data fusion techniques will be used in conjunction with interferometry, imaging, and synthetic diagnostics from modeling to characterize liner uniformity in 3D. Diagnostic and data analysis design, implementation, and status will be presented. Supported by the Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy - U.S. Department of Energy.

  4. Effects of alpha particles on zebrafish embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yum, E.H.W.; Choi, V.W.Y.; Yu, K.N.; Li, V.W.T.; Cheng, S.H.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Ionizing radiation such as X-ray and alpha particles can damage cellular macromolecules, which can lead to DNA single- and double-strand breaks. In the present work, we studied the effects of alpha particles on dechorionated zebrafish embryos. Thin polyallyldiglycol carbonate (PADC) films with a thickness of 16 μm were prepared from commercially available PADC films (with thickness of 100 μm) by chemical etching and used as support substrates for holding zebrafish embryos for alpha-particle irradiation. These films recorded alpha-particle hit positions, quantified the number and energy of alpha particles actually incident on the embryo cells, and thus enabled the calculation of the dose absorbed by the embryo cells. Irradiation was made at 1.25 hours post fertilization (hpf) with various absorbed dose. TdT-mediated dUTP Nick-End Labeling (TUNEL) assay was performed on the embryos at different time stages after irradiation. Marked apoptosis was detected only in embryos at earlier time stages. The results showed that DNA double-strand break during zebrafish embryogenesis can be induced by alpha-particle irradiation, which suggests that zebrafish is a potential model for assessing the effects of alpha-particle radiation

  5. Cortical Alpha Activity in Schizoaffective Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Moeini

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Electrophysiological studies have identified abnormal oscillatory activities in the cerebral cortex in schizophrenia and mood disorders. Biological and pathophysiological evidence suggests specific deficits in serotonin (5-HT receptor function in schizoaffective disorder (SA, a clinical syndrome with characteristics of both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. This study investigated alpha oscillations in patients with SA.Method: Electroencephalography was used to measure ongoing and evoked alpha oscillations in 38 adults meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders–Fourth Edition (DSM–IV criteria for SA, and in 39 healthy controls.Results: Spontaneous alpha power of the participants with SA was significantly lower than that of healthy participants [F (1, 75 = 8.81, P < 0.01]. Evoked alpha activity was also decreased in SA compared to controls [F (1, 75 = 5.67, P = 0.025].Conclusion: A strong reduction of alpha power in the posterior regions may reflect abnormality in the thalamocortical circuits. It is shown that hypoxia and reduced cerebral blood flow is associated with reduced alpha activity among different regions of the brain. Therefore, it can be concluded that greatly decreased alpha activity, particularly in centro-parietal and occipital regions, is related to SA symptoms such as hallucinations.

  6. Air conditioner with three stages of indirect regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worthington, M.N.

    1987-01-01

    An air conditioner is described comprising: a cabinet defining an internal evaporation chamber and having an air inlet and an air outlet; a heat exchanger mounted in the cabinet and defining an air movement path between the air inlet and the air outlet; means for supplying air to be cooled to the air inlet of the cabinet of movement through the air movement path of the heat exchanger in a heat exchanger relationship; air diversion means for continuously diverting some of the air emerging from the air outlet of the cabinet; and means in the evaporation chamber of the cabinet for recirculating spraying water into the chiller tube of the heat exchanger for interacting with the diverted air moving therethrough to evaporatively cool the heat exchanger

  7. Lucid dreaming and alpha activity: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvie, R D; Hunt, H T; Tyson, P D; Lucescu, M L; Jeakins, D B

    1982-12-01

    10 good dream recallers spent 2 nights in the sleep lab during which they were awakened 4 times per night from REM sleep, twice during their highest alpha activity in REM, and twice during low REM alpha. 5 were given alpha feedback training prior to sleep onset. Arousals from high alpha REM sleep yielded significantly higher lucidity ratings. Alpha feedback had no effect upon lucidity or REM alpha levels. Similarities between lucid dreams and meditative phenomena are discussed.

  8. Discretization of continuous frame

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 122; Issue 2 ... In this paper we consider the notion of continuous frame of subspaces and define a new concept of continuous frame, entitled continuous atomic resolution of identity, for arbitrary Hilbert space H which has a countable reconstruction formula.

  9. SOLAR AIR CONDITIONING OF BUILDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debrayan Bravo Hidalgo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Air Conditioning with renewable energy is a key issue in the region's energy policy. The high temperatures usually attributed to climate change and the increase of the standard of living in society continues increasing energy demand in order to establish the conditions for thermal comfort in buildings. Solar air conditioning, although it contains a mature technology, its level of market introduction and acceptance by designers of buildings is exhaustive. This paper discusses the feasibility of these projects, identifies non-technological type barriers that hinders such use and implementation of solar energy for air conditioning systems, and finally, it approaches some criteria and recommendations to overcome these obstacles.

  10. Anomalous atomic volume of alpha-Pu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kollar, J.; Vitos, Levente; Skriver, Hans Lomholt

    1997-01-01

    We have performed full charge-density calculations for the equilibrium atomic volumes of the alpha-phase light actinide metals using the local density approximation (LDA) and the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The average deviation between the experimental and the GGA atomic radii is 1.......3%. The comparison between the LDA and GGA results show that the anomalously large atomic volume of alpha-Pu relative to alpha-Np can be ascribed to exchange-correlation effects connected with the presence of low coordinated sites in the structure where the f electrons are close to the onset of localization...

  11. Alpha spectral analysis via artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kangas, L.J.; Hashem, S.; Keller, P.E.; Kouzes, R.T.; Troyer, G.L.

    1994-10-01

    An artificial neural network system that assigns quality factors to alpha particle energy spectra is discussed. The alpha energy spectra are used to detect plutonium contamination in the work environment. The quality factors represent the levels of spectral degradation caused by miscalibration and foreign matter affecting the instruments. A set of spectra was labeled with a quality factor by an expert and used in training the artificial neural network expert system. The investigation shows that the expert knowledge of alpha spectra quality factors can be transferred to an ANN system

  12. Production of alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor (human).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, R H; Van Beveren, S M; Shearer, M A; Coan, M H; Brockway, W J

    1990-03-01

    A method for large scale isolation of alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor (alpha 1-PI) is described. This method employs waste Cohn Fraction IV-1 as the starting material and involves fractional precipitation with polyethylene glycol followed by ion exchange chromatography on diethylaminoethanol (DEAE)-Sepharose. The process also incorporates a ten hour, at 60 degrees C, heat-treatment step to reduce or eliminate the risk of transmission of viral disease. The final product, having a purity of approximately 60%, is freeze-dried. This preparation behaves almost identically to the alpha 1-PI in plasma and is suitable for replacement therapy in hereditary emphysema.

  13. Measurements of $\\alpha_s$ in $pp$ Collisions at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Warburton, Andreas; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The coupling of the strong force, $\\alpha_s$, is deemed to be a fundamental parameter of Nature, and, beyond the quark masses, constitutes the only free parameter in the QCD Lagrangian. Provided is an overview of CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) measurements of $\\alpha_s(M_Z)$ evaluated at the $Z$-boson mass and of the running of $\\alpha_s(Q)$ as a function of energy-momentum transfer $Q$. The measurements were performed by the ATLAS and CMS Collaborations using proton-proton ($pp$) collisions with centre-of-mass energies of 7 TeV and data samples with time-integrated luminosities of up to 5 fb$^{-1}$. Four different categories of observable were used in the described extractions of $\\alpha_s$: inclusive jet cross sections, 3-jet to 2-jet inclusive cross-section ratios, 3-jet mass cross sections, and top-quark pair production cross sections. These results, which include the first NNLO measurement of $\\alpha_s$ at a hadron collider and the first determinations of $\\alpha_s$ at energy scales above 1 TeV, are co...

  14. A Quantitative Electrochemiluminescence Assay for Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Merrill, Gerald A; Rivera, Victor R; Neal, Dwayne D; Young, Charles; Poli, Mark A

    2006-01-01

    .... Biotinylated antibodies to C. perfringens alpha toxin bound to streptavidin paramagnetic beads specifically immunoadsorbed soluble sample alpha toxin which subsequently selectively immunoadsorbed ruthenium (Ru...

  15. Air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feugier, A.

    1996-01-01

    The air pollution results from the combustion of petroleum products, natural gas, coal, wastes and transports. Some compounds are considered as particularly pollutants: the carbon monoxide, the nitrogen oxides, the tropospheric ozone and the sulfur dioxides. Their environmental and biological effects are described. The present political guide lines concerns the combustion plants, the ozone, the wastes incineration and the vehicles emissions. The aim is at some future date to control the air quality, to reduce the volatile organic compounds emissions and to limit the sulfur rate of some petroleum products. (O.L.)

  16. An enzyme family reunion - similarities, differences and eccentricities in actions on alpha-glucans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seo, Eun-Seong; Christiansen, Camilla; Abou Hachem, Maher

    2008-01-01

    alpha-Glucans in general, including starch, glycogen and their derived oligosaccharides are processed by a host of more or less closely related enzymes that represent wide diversity in structure, mechanism, specificity and biological role. Sophisticated three-dimensional structures continue...

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Radial velocity curves of alpha Lib A (Fuhrmann+, 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrmann, K.; Chini, R.; Barr, A.; Buda, L.-S.; Kaderhandt, L.; Pozo, F.; Ramolla, M.

    2015-03-01

    Our observations of α Lib A consist of optical spectra secured with the BESO high-resolution echelle spectrograph of the Universitetssternwarte Bochum near Cerro Armazones in Chile. The full record of the total of 55 radial velocities is given in Table 1. Intense Doppler-monitoring of alpha Lib A started in 2012 August and was continued until 2013 September. (1 data file).

  18. Neutron-induced alpha radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Marco Antonio Stanojev

    2008-01-01

    A new radiography technique to inspect thin samples was developed. Low energy alpha particles, generated by a boron based screen under thermal neutron irradiation, are used as penetrating radiation. The solid state nuclear track detector CR-39 has been used to register the image. The interaction of the α - particles with the CR-39 gives rise to damages which under an adequate chemical etching became tracks the basic units forming the image. A digital system was developed for data acquisition and data analysis as well as for image processing. The irradiation and etching conditions to obtain the best radiography are 1,3 hours and 25 minutes at 70 deg C respectively. For such conditions samples having 10 μm in thickness can be inspected with a spatial resolution of 32 μm. The use of the digital system has reduced the time spent for data acquisition and data analysis and has improved the radiography image visualization. Furthermore, by using the digital system, it was possible to study several new parameters regarding the tracks which are very important to understand and study the image formation theory in solid state nuclear track detectors, the one used in this thesis. Some radiography images are also shown which demonstrate the potential of the proposed radiography technique. When compared with the other radiography techniques already in use to inspect thin samples, the present one developed in the present paper allows a smaller time to obtain the image, it is not necessary to handle liquid radioactive substances, the detector is insensitive to β, γ, X-ray and visible light. (author)

  19. Biodegradation of alpha-pinene in model biofilms in biofilters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Martha J; Allen, D Grant

    2005-08-01

    Treatment of air pollutants in a biofilter requires that the compound be effectively transported from the gas phase to the organisms that reside in a biofilm that forms upon a packing material. Models of biofiltration generally treat the biofilm like water by using a Henry's law constant to predict mass transfer rates into the biofilm where degradation occurs and, hence, predict low rates for hydrophobic compounds. However, some compounds that are virtually insoluble in water are also treated unusually well. The objective of this study was to develop a fundamental understanding of the apparent enhanced degradation of hydrophobic pollutants in biofilms. Specifically, the goals of this study were to experimentally determine transport and reaction rates of hydrophobic pollutants in artificial biofilms. We studied the transport and reaction rates of alpha-pinene (as a model hydrophobic pollutant) in a headspace in contact with a well-defined biofilm made up of biomass immobilized in low melting point agarose and found that reaction rates were similar in order of magnitude to biofilter rates. The transport rates through these films once deactivated were found to be the same as through agar (diffusion coefficient between 2.6 and 3.4 x 10(-6) cm2/s). The degradation rates through model biofilms ranged from 2 to 4 x 10(-7) (g/(cm2 min)). A new explanation of high degradation rates was put forth whereby a biologically mediated transformation is taking place in which alpha-pinene is oxidized into a more soluble, less volatile compound that can then penetrate deeper into the biofilm. The formation of this more soluble byproduct was confirmed with batch kinetics experiments using filtered samples, and its proposed identity is cis-2,8-p-menthadien-1-ol, a menthadienol, a novel metabolite of alpha-pinene degradation. A simple conceptual model based on these results is also presented.

  20. Liquid scintillation alpha particle spectrometry. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, L.L.; Hakooz, S.A.; Johnson, L.O.; Nieschmidt, E.B.; Meikrantz, D.H.

    1979-12-01

    Objective to develop a technique whereby Pu may be put into solution, extracted by solvent extraction into a suitable extractive scintillant and subsequently counted. Presented here are results of attempts to separate beta and alpha activities through pulse shape discrimination. A qualitative discussion is given which yields alpha particle peak widths, resolution and response. The detection efficiency for alpha particles in a liquid scintillant is 100%. Present detection sensitivities of the equipment being used are: 4.5 x 10 -6 μCi (100 s), 1.2 x 10 -6 μCi (1000 s), and 4.0 x 10 -7 μCi (10,000 s) at the 3 sigma level. The detectability of a particular alpha-emitting species is strongly dependent upon the population of other species. The ability to discriminate depends upon the system resolution. 14 figures, 2 tables

  1. NEW APPROACHES TO CONFINED ALPHA DIAGNOSTICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FISHER,R.K

    2004-04-01

    Three new approaches to obtain information on the confined fast alphas in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) are proposed. The first technique measures the energetic charge exchange (CX) neutrals that result from the alpha collision-induced knock-on fuel ion tails undergoing electron capture on the MeV D neutral beams planned for heating and current drive. The second technique measures the energetic knock-on neutron tail due to alphas using the lengths of the proton recoil tracks produced by neutron collisions in nuclear emulsions. The range of the 14 to 20 MeV recoil protons increases by {approx}140 microns per MeV. The third approach would measure the CX helium neutrals resulting from confined alphas capturing two electrons in the ablation cloud surrounding a dense gas jet that has been proposed for disruption mitigation in ITER.

  2. NEW APPROACHES TO CONFINED ALPHA DIAGNOSTICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FISHER, R.K.

    2004-01-01

    Three new approaches to obtain information on the confined fast alphas in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) are proposed. The first technique measures the energetic charge exchange (CX) neutrals that result from the alpha collision-induced knock-on fuel ion tails undergoing electron capture on the MeV D neutral beams planned for heating and current drive. The second technique measures the energetic knock-on neutron tail due to alphas using the lengths of the proton recoil tracks produced by neutron collisions in nuclear emulsions. The range of the 14 to 20 MeV recoil protons increases by ∼140 microns per MeV. The third approach would measure the CX helium neutrals resulting from confined alphas capturing two electrons in the ablation cloud surrounding a dense gas jet that has been proposed for disruption mitigation in ITER

  3. Strichartz estimates on $alpha$-modulation spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weichao Guo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we consider some dispersive equations, including Schrodinger equations, nonelliptic Schrodinger equations, and wave equations. We develop some Strichartz estimates in the frame of alpha-modulation spaces.

  4. Targeted alpha therapy: Applications and current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruchertseifer, Frank, E-mail: frank.bruchertseifer@ec.europa.eu [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2017-07-01

    Full text: The field of targeted alpha therapy has been developed rapidly in the last decade. Besides {sup 223}Ra, {sup 211}At and {sup 212}Pb/{sup 212}Bi the alpha emitters {sup 225}Ac and {sup 213}Bi are promising therapeutic radionuclides for application in targeted alpha therapy of cancer and infectious diseases. The presentation will give a short overview about the current clinical treatments with alpha emitting radionuclides and will place an emphasis on the most promising clinical testing of peptides and antibodies labelled with {sup 225}Ac and {sup 213}Bi for treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer patients with glioma and glioblastoma multiform, PSMA-positive tumor phenotype and bladder carcinoma in situ. (author)

  5. Calibration of alpha surface contamination monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, I.S.M. de; Goncalez, O.L.

    1990-01-01

    In this work, the results, as well as the methodology, of the calibration of an alpha surface contamination monitor are presented. The calibration factors are obtained by least-squares fitting with effective variance. (author)

  6. Solar Imagery - Chromosphere - H-Alpha

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of H-alpha photographic datasets contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. Solar...

  7. Energy dependence of event shapes and of $\\alpha_s$ at LEP 2

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P; Adye, T; Adzic, P; Albrecht, Z; Alderweireld, T; Alekseev, G D; Alemany, R; Allmendinger, T; Allport, P P; Almehed, S; Amaldi, Ugo; Amapane, N; Amato, S; Anassontzis, E G; Andersson, P; Andreazza, A; Andringa, S; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Bambade, P; Barão, F; Barbiellini, Guido; Barbier, R; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Barker, G; Baroncelli, A; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Behrmann, A; Beillière, P; Belokopytov, Yu A; Belous, K S; Benekos, N C; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Bérat, C; Berggren, M; Bertini, D; Bertrand, D; Besançon, M; Bianchi, F; Bigi, M; Bilenky, S M; Bizouard, M A; Bloch, D; Blom, H M; Bonesini, M; Bonivento, W; Boonekamp, M; Booth, P S L; Borgland, A W; Borisov, G; Bosio, C; Botner, O; Boudinov, E; Bouquet, B; Bourdarios, C; Bowcock, T J V; Boyko, I; Bozovic, I; Bozzo, M; Branchini, P; Brenke, T; Brenner, R A; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buran, T; Burgsmüller, T; Buschbeck, Brigitte; Buschmann, P; Cabrera, S; Caccia, M; Calvi, M; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Carena, F; Carroll, L; Caso, Carlo; Castillo-Gimenez, M V; Cattai, A; Cavallo, F R; Chabaud, V; Chapkin, M M; Charpentier, P; Chaussard, L; Checchia, P; Chelkov, G A; Chierici, R; Chliapnikov, P V; Chochula, P; Chorowicz, V; Chudoba, J; Cieslik, K; Collins, P; Contri, R; Cortina, E; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Cowell, J H; Crawley, H B; Crennell, D J; Crépé, S; Crosetti, G; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Czellar, S; Davenport, Martyn; Da Silva, W; Deghorain, A; Della Ricca, G; Delpierre, P A; Demaria, N; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Clercq, C; De Lotto, B; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; Dijkstra, H; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Dolbeau, J; Doroba, K; Dracos, M; Drees, J; Dris, M; Duperrin, A; Durand, J D; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ekspong, Gösta; Ellert, M; Elsing, M; Engel, J P; Erzen, B; Espirito-Santo, M C; Falk, E; Fanourakis, G K; Fassouliotis, D; Fayot, J; Feindt, Michael; Fenyuk, A; Ferrari, P; Ferrer, A; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Ferro, F; Fichet, S; Firestone, A; Flagmeyer, U; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fontanelli, F; Franek, B J; Frodesen, A G; Frühwirth, R; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Galloni, A; Gamba, D; Gamblin, S; Gandelman, M; García, C; Gaspar, C; Gaspar, M; Gasparini, U; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gelé, D; Ghodbane, N; Gil, I; Glege, F; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gómez-Ceballos, G; Gonçalves, P; González-Caballero, I; Gopal, Gian P; Gorn, L; Górski, M; Guz, Yu; Gracco, Valerio; Grahl, J; Graziani, E; Green, C; Grimm, H J; Gris, P; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Günther, M; Guy, J; Hahn, F; Hahn, S; Haider, S; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hansen, J; Harris, F J; Hedberg, V; Heising, S; Hernández, J J; Herquet, P; Herr, H; Hessing, T L; Heuser, J M; Higón, E; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Hoorelbeke, S; Houlden, M A; Hrubec, Josef; Huet, K; Hughes, G J; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jacobsson, R; Jalocha, P; Janik, R; Jarlskog, C; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jean-Marie, B; Johansson, E K; Jönsson, P E; Joram, C; Juillot, P; Kapusta, F; Karafasoulis, K; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Keränen, R; Kersevan, Borut P; Khomenko, B A; Khovanskii, N N; Kiiskinen, A P; King, B J; Kinvig, A; Kjaer, N J; Klapp, O; Klein, H; Kluit, P M; Kokkinias, P; Koratzinos, M; Kostyukhin, V; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Krammer, Manfred; Kriznic, E; Krstic, J; Krumshtein, Z; Kubinec, P; Kurowska, J; Kurvinen, K L; Lamsa, J; Lane, D W; Langefeld, P; Lapin, V; Laugier, J P; Lauhakangas, R; Leder, Gerhard; Ledroit, F; Lefébure, V; Leinonen, L; Leisos, A; Leitner, R; Lemonne, J; Lenzen, Georg; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Lethuillier, M; Libby, J; Liko, D; Lipniacka, A; Lippi, I; Lörstad, B; Loken, J G; Lopes, J H; López, J M; López-Fernandez, R; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J N; Mahon, J R; Maio, A; Malek, A; Malmgren, T G M; Maltezos, S; Malychev, V; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Marco, R P; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Martínez-Rivero, C; Martínez-Vidal, F; Martí i García, S; Mastroyiannopoulos, N; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Matthiae, Giorgio; Masik, J; Mazzucato, F; Mazzucato, M; McCubbin, M L; McKay, R; McNulty, R; McPherson, G; Meroni, C; Meyer, W T; Migliore, E; Mirabito, L; Mitaroff, Winfried A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Moch, M; Møller, R; Mönig, K; Monge, M R; Moreau, X; Morettini, P; Morton, G A; Müller, U; Münich, K; Mulders, M; Mulet-Marquis, C; Muresan, R; Murray, W J; Muryn, B; Myatt, Gerald; Myklebust, T; Naraghi, F; Nassiakou, M; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Navas, S; Nawrocki, K; Negri, P; Némécek, S; Neufeld, N; Neumeister, N; Nicolaidou, R; Nielsen, B S; Nikolenko, M; Nomokonov, V P; Normand, Ainsley; Nygren, A; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, Risto; Orazi, G; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Paganoni, M; Paiano, S; Pain, R; Paiva, R; Palacios, J; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Papageorgiou, K; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Parzefall, U; Passeri, A; Passon, O; Pegoraro, M; Peralta, L; Pernicka, Manfred; Perrotta, A; Petridou, C; Petrolini, A; Phillips, H T; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Piotto, E; Podobnik, T; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Poropat, P; Pozdnyakov, V; Privitera, P; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, Antonio; Radojicic, D; Ragazzi, S; Rahmani, H; Ratoff, P N; Read, A L; Rebecchi, P; Redaelli, N G; Regler, Meinhard; Reid, D; Reinhardt, R; Renton, P B; Resvanis, L K; Richard, F; Rídky, J; Rinaudo, G; Røhne, O M; Romero, A; Ronchese, P; Rosenberg, E I; Rosinsky, P; Roudeau, Patrick; Rovelli, T; Royon, C; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ruiz, A; Saarikko, H; Sacquin, Yu; Sadovskii, A; Sajot, G; Salt, J; Sampsonidis, D; Sannino, M; Schneider, H; Schwemling, P; Schwering, B; Schwickerath, U; Schyns, M A E; Scuri, F; Seager, P; Sedykh, Yu; Segar, A M; Sekulin, R L; Shellard, R C; Sheridan, A; Siebel, M; Simard, L C; Simonetto, F; Sissakian, A N; Smadja, G; Smirnov, N; Smirnova, O G; Smith, G R; Sopczak, André; Sosnowski, R; Spassoff, Tz; Spiriti, E; Sponholz, P; Squarcia, S; Stanescu, C; Stanic, S; Stevenson, K; Stocchi, A; Strub, R; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Tegenfeldt, F; Terranova, F; Thomas, J; Timmermans, J; Tinti, N; Tkatchev, L G; Todorova-Nová, S; Tomaradze, A G; Tomé, B; Tonazzo, A; Tortora, L; Tranströmer, G; Treille, D; Tristram, G; Trochimczuk, M; Troncon, C; Tsirou, A L; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tzamarias, S; Ullaland, O; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; Vallazza, E; Van der Velde, C; van Apeldoorn, G W; van Dam, P; Van Doninck, W K; Van Eldik, J; Van Lysebetten, A; Van Vulpen, I B; Vassilopoulos, N; Vegni, G; Ventura, L; Venus, W A; Verbeure, F; Verlato, M; Vertogradov, L S; Verzi, V; Vilanova, D; Vitale, L; Vlasov, E; Vodopyanov, A S; Vollmer, C F; Voulgaris, G; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Walck, C; Weiser, C; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wilkinson, G R; Winter, M; Witek, M; Wolf, G; Yi, J; Yushchenko, O P; Zaitsev, A; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, Piotr; Zavrtanik, D; Zevgolatakos, E; Zimin, N I; Zucchelli, G C; Zumerle, G

    1999-01-01

    Infrared and collinear safe event shape distributions and their mean values are determined using the data taken at ve di erent centre of mass energies above $M_Z$ with the DELPHI detector at LEP. From the event shapes, the strong coupling $\\alpha_s$ is extracted in $O(\\alpha^2_s)$, NLLA and a combined scheme using hadronisation corrections evaluated with fragmentation model generators as well as using an analytical power ansatz. Comparing these measurements to those obtained at MZ, the energy dependence (running) of $\\alpha_s$ is accessible. The logarithmic energy slope of the inverse strong coupling is measured to be $d\\alpha_{s}^{-1}/d log(E_{cm}) = 1.39 \\pm 0.34(stat) \\pm 0.17(syst)$, in good agreement with the QCD expectation of 1.27.

  8. Influence of fast alpha diffusion and thermal alpha buildup on tokamak reactor performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uckan, N.A.; Tolliver, J.S.; Houlberg, W.A.; Attenberger, S.E.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of fast alpha diffusion and thermal alpha accumulation on the confinement capability of a candidate Engineering Test Reactor plasma (Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Reactor) in achieving ignition and steady-state driven operation has been assessed using both global and 1-1/2-dimensional transport models. Estimates are made of the threshold for radial diffusion of fast alphas and thermal alpha buildup. It is shown that a relatively low level of radial transport, when combined with large gradients in the fast alpha density, leads to a significant radial flow with a deleterious effect on plasma performance. Similarly, modest levels of thermal alpha concentration significantly influence the ignition and steady-state burn capability

  9. A model for the stepwise radiation inactivation of the alpha 2-dimer of Na,K-ATPase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norby, J.G.; Jensen, J. (Univ. of Aarhus (Denmark))

    1989-11-25

    This study is a direct continuation of Jensen, J., and Norby. A new model in which we propose that the in situ organization of the Na,K-ATPase alpha-subunit is an alpha 2-dimer and which describes the stepwise degradation by radiation inactivation of this assembly is presented on the basis of the following findings. Radiation inactivation size for alpha-peptide integrity, normal nucleotide, vanadate and ouabain binding, and K-pNPPase activity is close to m(alpha) = 112 kDa; for Na-ATPase activity it is 135 kDa and for Na,K-ATPase activity it increases from 140 to about 195 kDa with increasing assay ATP concentration (equal to increasing average turnover). Normal Tl+ occlusion had the same radiation inactivation size as Vmax for Na,K-ATPase, i.e. about 195 kDa. The binding experiments disclosed radiation-produced molecules with active binding sites but with a lower than normal affinity. Radiation inactivation size for the total binding capacity of ADP and ouabain was therefore smaller than the size of an alpha-peptide, namely about 70 kDa, and for total Tl+ occlusion it was down to 40 kDa. We can explain all these observations by using a new approach to target size analysis and by assuming a dimeric organization of the alpha-subunit. Each alpha-peptide is degraded stepwise by first destruction of either a 42- or a 70-kDa domain, and the partly damaged peptide may retain biochemical activity. We conclude that there is no role for the beta-subunit in catalysis and that the alpha-peptide is organized as an alpha 2-dimer in the membrane with each alpha-subunit being able to perform complete catalytic cycles (and probably also active transport), provided that it is stabilized by an adjacent alpha-peptide or a sufficiently large fragment thereof.

  10. A model for the stepwise radiation inactivation of the alpha 2-dimer of Na,K-ATPase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norby, J.G.; Jensen, J.

    1989-01-01

    This study is a direct continuation of Jensen, J., and Norby. A new model in which we propose that the in situ organization of the Na,K-ATPase alpha-subunit is an alpha 2-dimer and which describes the stepwise degradation by radiation inactivation of this assembly is presented on the basis of the following findings. Radiation inactivation size for alpha-peptide integrity, normal nucleotide, vanadate and ouabain binding, and K-pNPPase activity is close to m(alpha) = 112 kDa; for Na-ATPase activity it is 135 kDa and for Na,K-ATPase activity it increases from 140 to about 195 kDa with increasing assay ATP concentration (equal to increasing average turnover). Normal Tl+ occlusion had the same radiation inactivation size as Vmax for Na,K-ATPase, i.e. about 195 kDa. The binding experiments disclosed radiation-produced molecules with active binding sites but with a lower than normal affinity. Radiation inactivation size for the total binding capacity of ADP and ouabain was therefore smaller than the size of an alpha-peptide, namely about 70 kDa, and for total Tl+ occlusion it was down to 40 kDa. We can explain all these observations by using a new approach to target size analysis and by assuming a dimeric organization of the alpha-subunit. Each alpha-peptide is degraded stepwise by first destruction of either a 42- or a 70-kDa domain, and the partly damaged peptide may retain biochemical activity. We conclude that there is no role for the beta-subunit in catalysis and that the alpha-peptide is organized as an alpha 2-dimer in the membrane with each alpha-subunit being able to perform complete catalytic cycles (and probably also active transport), provided that it is stabilized by an adjacent alpha-peptide or a sufficiently large fragment thereof

  11. Air contamination analysis during emergency medical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Y.; Fukutsu, K.; Yuuki, M.; Akashi, M.

    2009-01-01

    After radiological emergencies, patients contaminated with radioactivity are taken to radiation emergency hospitals for treatment. Numerical simulations using the computer software 'Flow Designer R were made in order to evaluate indoor air contamination caused by the breathing out of contaminated air. The National Inst. of Radiological Sciences facility was used for the numerical evaluation. Results indicate that the dispersion of contaminated air depends on the characteristics of the contaminants, and that the dispersion range was limited and localised. Only medical staff standing in a special position near the patient was exposed to almost un-diluted contaminated air. Highly contaminated air was evacuated with a local exhaust pump system. Room air quality was monitored using a continuous air sampling system, but it was found that the sampling point was not representative for the purpose of radiation protection. From the air-flow analysis, some problems that affect radiological safety were revealed and valuable information and measures for preventing secondary contamination were determined. (authors)

  12. 40 CFR 63.1315 - Continuous process vents provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins § 63.1315 Continuous process... 25A, 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, at the inlet to the final recovery device after the introduction of...

  13. Air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This chapter of the 'Assessment of the state of the environment in Lebanon' describes the air quality and identifies the most important air quality issues. Baseline information about the factors affecting dispersion and the climate of Lebanon presents as well and overall estimation of total emissions in Lebanon. Emissions from vehicles, electricity and power plants generation are described. Industrial emitters of air pollutants are described for each kind of industry i.e.cement plants, Selaata fertilizer factory, sugar-beet factory, refineries and for those derived from the use of leaded fuel . Impact of economic and human activities on air quality in Lebanon (especially in Beirut and Tripoli) are quantified by quantities of CO 2 , SO 2 , NO x , total suspended particulates(TSP), deposition and their environmental effects on health. In abscence of emissions monitoring, data available are expressed in terms of fuel use, output and appropriate empirical factors, national output and workfores sizes. Finally key issues and some potential mitigation /management approaches are presented

  14. Air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    Air pollution has accompanied and developed with the industrial age, since its beginnings. This very complete review furnishes the toxicological data available for the principal pollutants and assesses the epidemiologic studies thus far conducted. It also describes European regulations and international commitments for the reduction of emissions. (author)

  15. Measurement of the angle alpha at BABAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, A.; /Orsay, LAL

    2009-06-25

    The authors present recent measurements of the CKM angle {alpha} using data collected by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, operating at the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance. They present constraints on {alpha} from B {yields} {pi}{pi}, B {yields} {rho}{rho} and B {yields} {rho}{pi} decays.

  16. Improved peak shape fitting in alpha spectra

    OpenAIRE

    POMME Stefaan; CARO MARROYO BELEN

    2014-01-01

    Peak overlap is a recurrent issue ina lpha-particle spectrometry, not only in routine analyses but also in the high-resolution spectra from which reference values for alpha emission probabilities are derived. In this work, improved peak shape formulae are presented for the deconvolution of alpha-particle spectra. They have been implemented as fit functions in a spreadsheet application and optimum fit parameters were searched with built-in optimisation routines. Deconvolution results are shown...

  17. Conceptual design report for alpha waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-04-01

    The Alpha Waste Incinerator, a new facility in the SRP H-Area, will process transuranic or alpha-contaminated combustible solid wastes. It will seal the radioactive ash and scrubbing salt residues in cans for interim storage in drums on site burial ground pads. This report includes objectives, project estimate, schedule, standards and criteria, excluded costs, safety evaluation, energy consumption, environmental assessment, and key drawings

  18. Beteigeuze (Alpha Orionis) und Mintaka (Delta Orionis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmann, Wolfgang

    2013-02-01

    Magnitude measures transformed to Johnson V of Alpha Orionis (Betelgeuse) and Delta Orionis with a wide-angle lens and DSLR are presented and discussed. Alpha Orionis light changes are shown clearly. The primary and secondary eclipses of Delta Orionis with amplitudes of 0.12 and 0.05 mag respectively are clearly recorded. They occur near phase 0.00 and 0.50 respectively of current elements from VSX (2).

  19. Considering the determination of an alpha value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, B.

    1987-01-01

    Following an outline of the most important international methods of evaluating an alpha value (the monetary equivalent of one man-sievert) and an approach deemed suitable for use in the GDR, it is recommended that alpha be taken as 30,000 Mark per man-sievert in national cost-benefit analyses. This value should be revisited every five to ten years. (author)

  20. Self-assembling, dynamic alphaPNAs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter E

    2009-01-01

    In the recent report published in Science, Ghadiri and coworkers describe dynamic tPNAs, alphaPNA derivatives with a nucleobase attached via a thioester bond that are a step forward toward self-repairing and replicating molecules.......In the recent report published in Science, Ghadiri and coworkers describe dynamic tPNAs, alphaPNA derivatives with a nucleobase attached via a thioester bond that are a step forward toward self-repairing and replicating molecules....

  1. Alpha-emitters for medical therapy workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feinendegen, L.E.; McClure, J.J.

    1996-01-01

    A workshop on ''Alpha-Emitters for Medical Therapy'' was held May 30-31, 1996 in Denver Colorado to identify research goals and potential clinical needs for applying alpha-particle emitters and to provide DOE with sufficient information for future planning. The workshop was attended by 36 participants representing radiooncology, nuclear medicine, immunotherapy, radiobiology, molecular biology, biochemistry, radiopharmaceutical chemistry, dosimetry, and physics. This report provides a summary of the key points and recommendations arrived at during the conference

  2. Flexible silicon-based alpha-particle detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, C. S.; Smith, B. R.; Sanderson, B. J.; Mullins, J. T.; Atkins, J.; Joshi, P.; McNamara, L.; Krauss, T. F.; Jenkins, D. G.

    2017-08-01

    The detection of alpha particles in the field can be challenging due to their short range in air of often only a few centimeters or less. This short range is a particular issue for measuring radiation inside contaminated pipework in the nuclear industry, for which there is currently no simple method available without cutting the pipes open. Here, we propose an approach for low cost, rapid, and safe identification of internally contaminated pipework based on a flexible 30 × 10 mm2 sheet of 50 μm thin crystalline silicon. Following established fabrication steps of pn-junction diodes, we have constructed a device with a signal-to-noise ratio of >20 in response to 5.5 MeV alpha-particles using a bespoke amplifier circuit. As flexible detectors may readily conform to a curved surface and are able to adapt to the curvature of a given pipeline, our prototype device stands out as a viable solution for nuclear decommissioning and related applications.

  3. Evaluation of zearalenone and alpha-zearalenol toxicity on boar sperm DNA integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakmakidis, Ioannis A; Lymberopoulos, Aristoteles G; Khalifa, Tarek A A; Boscos, Constanten M; Saratsi, Aikaterini; Alexopoulos, Costas

    2008-07-01

    This study aimed at investigating the in vitro effects of zearalenone (zen) and alpha-zearalenol (alpha-zen) on motility and nuclear chromatin integrity (NCI) of boar spermatozoa. Mycotoxins were tested, at levels ranging from 10 to 30 microg ml(-1) of diluted semen. Four boars were used for semen collection (eight replicates per boar, four per mycotoxin). After the addition of zen or alpha-zen, semen samples were incubated for 4 h at 38.5 degrees C, 5% CO(2) and 96% humidified air. Motility and NCI were assessed at 0 and 4 h of incubation. No significant differences were noticed in motility among the experimental groups (P > 0.05) for all tested boars. Chromatin instability was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in spermatozoa of only one boar treated with zen and alpha-zen independently of the dose. In conclusion, under our experimental conditions, zen and alpha-zen did not affect the motility of boar sperm, whereas the effects of these toxins on sperm NCI were individual-dependent. 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

  4. Air Force Research Laboratory Resident Associateship Program Continuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-04

    Behavior of an Epoxy Based Shape Memory Polymer Resin ." In preparation. Cheng, L., Torres, Y., Lee, K.M., McClung, A.J.W., Baur, J.W., White, T., Oates...Tandon, G.P., and Baur, J.W. “Relaxation and Recovery Behavior of an Epoxy Based Shape Memory Polymer Resin .” Society for Experimental Mechanics...Comments Very good. 18) PLEASE PROVIDE ANY SUGGESTIONS FOR PROGRAM IMPROVEMENT. Please do NOT scan to PDF . Send the Final Report as

  5. Cytokine vaccination: neutralising IL-1alpha autoantibodies induced by immunisation with homologous IL-1alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenson, M; Hansen, M B; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    2000-01-01

    High-affinity IgG autoantibodies (aAb) to IL-1alpha are among the most frequently found aAb to cytokines in humans. To establish an animal model with aAb to IL-1alpha, we immunised mice with recombinant murine IL-1alpha. Unprimed and Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG)-primed BALB/cA mice were vaccinat...

  6. Dirty air or shelter air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlesinger, H.

    1981-01-01

    The life-saving function of a shelter especially against radioactive radiation depends above all on its ventilation-air filter system. It has to function without a mistake. As the structure itself assures radiation protection only in part even when it has very thick concrete walls and a total protection equipment it does not have any effect when the ventilation-air filter system installation has some defects. Its exact calculation, installation and subsequent permanent control assure optimal protection. The problem concerning the efficiency of the technical installations in shelters and the maintenance of this function is discussed. (orig./HP) [de

  7. Liquid-scintillation alpha-detection techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKlveen, J.W.; McDowell, W.J.

    1983-01-01

    Accurate, quantitative determinations of alpha-emitting nuclides by conventional plate-counting methods are difficult because of sample self-absorption problems in counting and because of non-reproducible losses in conventional sample separation methods. Liquid scintillation alpha spectrometry offers an attractive with no sample self-absorption or geometry problems and with 100% counting efficiency. Sample preparation may include extraction of the alpha emitter of interest by a specific organic-phase-soluble compound directly into the liquid scintillation counting medium. Detection electronics use energy and pulse-shape discrimination to yield alpha spectra without beta and gamma background interference. Specific procedures have been developed for gross alpha, uranium, plutonium, thorium, and polonium assay. Possibilities for a large number of other applications exist. Accuracy and reproducibility are typically in the 1% range. Backgrounds on the order of 0.01 cpm are readily achievable. The paper will present an overview of liquid scintillation alpha counting techniques and some of the results achieved for specific applications

  8. Structures of G [alpha [superscript i1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, Christopher A.; Willard, Francis S.; Jezyk, Mark R.; Fredericks, Zoey; Bodor, Erik T.; Jones, Miller B.; Blaesius, Rainer; Watts, Val J.; Harden, T. Kendall; Sondek, John; Ramer, J. Kevin; Siderovski, David P. (Karo Bio); (UNC); (Purdue)

    2010-07-19

    Heterotrimeric G proteins are molecular switches that regulate numerous signaling pathways involved in cellular physiology. This characteristic is achieved by the adoption of two principal states: an inactive, GDP bound state and an active, GTP bound state. Under basal conditions, G proteins exist in the inactive, GDP bound state; thus, nucleotide exchange is crucial to the onset of signaling. Despite our understanding of G protein signaling pathways, the mechanism of nucleotide exchange remains elusive. We employed phage display technology to identify nucleotide state-dependent G{alpha} binding peptides. Herein, we report a GDP-selective G{alpha} binding peptide, KB-752, that enhances spontaneous nucleotide exchange of G{alpha}{sub i} subunits. Structural determination of the G{alpha}{sub i1}/peptide complex reveals unique changes in the G{alpha} switch regions predicted to enhance nucleotide exchange by creating a GDP dissociation route. Our results cast light onto a potential mechanism by which G{alpha} subunits adopt a conformation suitable for nucleotide exchange.

  9. Current status and perspectives in alpha radioimmunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chérel, M; Davodeau, F; Kraeber-Bodéré, F; Chatal, J F

    2006-12-01

    Systemic administration of radiolabeled antibody directed against tumor antigens in radioimmunotherapy (RIT) enables to specifically target the cancer cells and to destroy them. So far, this strategy has proven its efficiency in the treatment of some hematological cancers with antibodies labeled with beta emitting radionuclides. In the last 2 decades, availability of short half life alpha emitters prompted to consider their use in RIT. Contrary to beta particles, alpha particles have a short path length and display a high lineic energy transfer. Those physical characteristics open new fields of clinical applications complementary to beta-RIT. To date, alpha-RIT is still at a preclinical stage of development: the radiolabeling methods need to be optimized to ensure in vivo stability of the radiopharmaceuticals. Some radionuclides have complex decay schemes with daughters emitting further alpha particles whose toxicity needs to be investigated. The modalities of administration of radiolabeled antibodies in animal models require also to be improved for delivering higher doses to tumor targets. A comprehensive analysis of the specific events occurring at cell or tissue level in response to alpha irradiation would be of great interest in order to define the best therapeutic association for residual disease or consolidation treatments. This approach has been proven to be efficient in increasing antitumor response either by using high doses with organ protection (kidney, bone marrow) or by a synergistic effect between alpha-RIT and associated treatments, such as chemotherapy.

  10. Systemic Targeted Alpha Radiotherapy for Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan B. J.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The fundamental principles of internal targeted alpha therapy for cancer were established many decades ago.The high linear energy transfer (LET of alpha radiation to the targeted cancer cellscauses double strand breaks in DNA. At the same time, the short range radiation spares adjacent normal tissues. This targeted approach complements conventional external beam radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Such therapies fail on several fronts, such as lack of control of some primary cancers (e.g.glioblastoma multiformeand to inhibit the development of lethal metastatic cancer after successful treatment of the primary cancer. Objective: This review charts the developing role of systemic high LET, internal radiation therapy. Method: Targeted alpha therapy is a rapidly advancing experimental therapy that holds promise to deliver high cytotoxicity to targeted cancer cells. Initially thought to be indicated for leukemia and micrometastases, there is now evidence that solid tumors can also be regressed. Results: Alpha therapy may be molecular or physiological in its targeting. Alpha emitting radioisotopes such as Bi-212, Bi-213, At-211 and Ac-225 are used to label monoclonal antibodies or proteins that target specifc cancer cells. Alternatively, Radium-233 is used for palliative therapy of breast and prostate cancers because of its bone seeking properties. Conclusion: Preclinical studies and clinical trials of alpha therapy are discussed for leukemia, lymphoma, melanoma, glioblastoma multiforme, bone metastases, ovarian cancer, pancreatic cancer and other cancers.

  11. 40 CFR 63.152 - General reporting and continuous records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturing Industry for Process Vents, Storage Vessels, Transfer Operations, and Wastewater § 63.152 General...

  12. Cytokine vaccination: neutralising IL-1alpha autoantibodies induced by immunisation with homologous IL-1alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenson, M; Hansen, M B; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    2000-01-01

    High-affinity IgG autoantibodies (aAb) to IL-1alpha are among the most frequently found aAb to cytokines in humans. To establish an animal model with aAb to IL-1alpha, we immunised mice with recombinant murine IL-1alpha. Unprimed and Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG)-primed BALB/cA mice were vaccinated...... in mice by vaccination with recombinant murine IL-1alpha conjugated to PPD. Studies of the effects of IL-1alpha aAb in such animals may help clarify the importance of naturally occurring IL-1alpha aAb in humans and permit the evaluation of future therapies with cytokine aAb in patients...... with IL-1alpha coupled to purified protein derivative of tuberculin (PPD). Both unprimed and primed animals developed IgG aAb to IL-1alpha. These aAb persisted at high levels more than 100 days after vaccination and did not cross-react with murine IL-1beta. The induced anti-IL-1alpha aAb inhibited binding...

  13. Alpha 1-blockers vs 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors in benign prostatic hyperplasia. A comparative review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J T

    1995-01-01

    During recent years, pharmacological treatment of symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) has become the primary treatment choice for an increasing number of patients. The 2 principal drug classes employed are alpha 1-blockers and 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors. Current information from...... of patients who will respond well to alpha 1-blockers have yet to be identified, and data concerning the long term effects of these drugs are not yet available. 5 alpha-Reductase inhibitors have a slow onset of effect, but treatment leads to improvement in symptoms, reduction of the size of the prostate gland...... or unwilling to undergo surgical resection of the prostate will benefit from such therapy....

  14. Continuous particle spectra and their angular distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sastry, Ch.V.; Jain, R.K.; Rama Rao, J.; Ernst, J.; Machner, H.

    1996-01-01

    The angular distribution of continuous particle spectra in pre-equilibrium reactions is still an unsolved problem, particularly so at forward angles. In the present work, the angular distributions of alpha particles emitted in (α, α',x) reactions in the target elements gold and rhodium have been studied in detail. Alpha particle beams of energy 60 MeV from the Variable Energy Cyclotron of Calcutta were used in these experiments. The theoretical calculations were done using an extended exciton model of Kalbach incorporated into the Computer Code PRECO-D2. The formalism used in the exciton model was modified to include division of pre equilibrium cross section into multi-step direct (MSD) and multi-step compound (MSC) components. These MSD and MSC cross sections were used to calculate the angular distributions in terms of Legendre polynomials whose coefficients are given by simple phenomenological relations. Even with a reasonable set of parameters, the agreement between theory and experiment was far from satisfactory at forward angles. Similar conclusion was also drawn in the case of continuous particle spectra of deuterons in (d, d'x) reactions at 25 MeV in various targets. (author). 10 refs., 2 figs

  15. Control letters and uncertainties of the kerma patterns in air, dose absorbed in water and dose absorbed in air of the LSCD; Cartas de control e incertidumbres de los patrones de kerma en aire, dosis absorbida en agua y dosis absorbida en aire del LSCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez R, M.T.; Tovar M, V.M.; Cejudo A, J. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2005-12-15

    determinations of the temperature to diminish their influence in the U. c. The percentage difference of the magnitudes dosemeters carried out by it patterns are consistent with U certain. However, it is necessary to diminish the uncertainty in the physical factors different to {kappa}{sub {tau}} and {sigma}{sub {beta}} for the one case of the primary patterns; because these they should be those of smaller value of U. d. In the case of the secondary patterns and tertiary for the realization of the{kappa}{sub {alpha}}{sub {center_dot}} is necessary to determine the corrections explicitly for recombination and polarization; and to analyze their contribution in the U. e. It is necessary to recover the tracking for the mensurations of the humidity. f. It is recommended to continue the control mensurations for each pattern, taking it{sup s} the least a measure every fifteen days, that it corresponds at two measured for month and 24 at the year. g. The operation of the air conditioned perturb the measurement for such as it recommends not to use it, and alone to leave in balance the chamber with the air of the engine room. (Author)

  16. Radon-222 exhalation and its variation in soil air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochizuki, S.; Sekikawa, T.

    1980-01-01

    A new method has been designed and developed for measuring the concentration of radon in soil air without disturbing the natural condition of the soil. By this method, radon concentrations in the soil air at various points down to a depth of 1 m below the ground are obtained from the concentrations of radium A ( 218 Po) measured in the same air. The radium A concentration is measured by spectrometry of alpha particles from radioactive ions in the soil air. The basic experiments and preliminary observations made in the soil air below the ground confirmed the usefulness of the newly constructed apparatus for measuring the radon concentration in the soil air. Our preliminary observations showed that the radon concentration in the soil air near the surface of the earth varied remarkably before heavy thunderstorms

  17. Royal Danish Air Force. Air Operations Doctrine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørby, Søren

    This brief examines the development of the first Danish Air Force Air Operations Doctrine, which was officially commissioned in October 1997 and remained in effect until 2010. The development of a Danish air power doctrine was heavily influenced by the work of Colonel John Warden (USAF), both...... through his book ”The Air Campaign” and his subsequent planning of the air campaign against Iraq in 1990-1991. Warden’s ideas came to Denmark and the Danish Air Force by way of Danish Air Force students attending the United States Air Force Air University in Alabama, USA. Back in Denmark, graduates from...... the Air University inspired a small number of passionate airmen, who then wrote the Danish Air Operations Doctrine. The process was supported by the Air Force Tactical Command, which found that the work dovetailed perfectly with the transformation process that the Danish Air Force was in the midst...

  18. New measurements of W-values for protons and alpha particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giesen, U.; Beck, J.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing importance of ion beams in cancer therapy and the lack of experimental data for W-values for protons and heavy ions in air require new measurements. A new experimental set-up was developed at PTB and consistent measurements of W-values in argon, nitrogen and air for protons and alpha particles with energies from 0.7 to 3.5 MeV u -1 at PTB, and for carbon ions between 3.6 and 7.0 MeV u -1 at GSI were carried out. This publication concentrates on the measurements with protons and alpha particles at PTB. The experimental methods and the determination of corrections for recombination effects, beam-induced background radiation and additional effects are presented. W-values in argon, nitrogen and air were measured for protons with energies of 1-3 MeV and for alpha particles with energies of 2.7-14 MeV. The energies of the primary particle beam were corrected for energy losses in the gold and Mylar foils, as well as for the kinematic energy loss due to scattering by 45 deg.. Beam-induced radiation backgrounds as well as recombination effects were determined and corrected for. The present results are summarised in Figure 2 for all three gases. The solid lines through the data points for each gas indicate an average W-value for that gas. The higher values for 2.7-MeV alpha particles agree with the trend in previous data towards lower energies. They are excluded from the averages. The relative standard uncertainties of the individual data points range from 1.3 to 3 %. The weighted averages over all energies are W(Ar) = 25.7 eV, W(N 2 ) = 35.6 eV and W(Air) = 34.2 eV. The averages serve as a first comparison and the lines on the plot are to guide the eye and are not meant to imply constant W-values for all energies and particles. The W-values for protons and alpha particles in argon and nitrogen have smaller uncertainties and are lower than the suggested values, but they are still in agreement within the uncertainties. For alpha particles with energies of 12

  19. Selectivity of the imidazoline alpha-adrenoceptor agonists (oxymetazoline and cirazoline) for human cloned alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horie, K.; Obika, K.; Foglar, R.; Tsujimoto, G.

    1995-01-01

    1. To investigate the structure-activity relationships of alpha-adrenoceptor agonists for the alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtypes, we have compared the imidazoline class of compounds, oxymetazoline and cirazoline, with the phenethylamine, noradrenaline, in their affinities and also in their intrinsic activities in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells stably expressing the cloned human alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtypes (alpha 1a-, alpha 1b-, and alpha 1d-subtypes). 2. Radioligand binding studies with [125I]-HEAT showed that cirazoline and oxymetazoline had higher affinities at alpha 1a-subtype than at alpha 1b- and alpha 1d-subtypes, while noradrenaline had higher affinity at the alpha 1d-subtype than at alpha 1a- and alpha 1b-subtypes. 3. In functional studies, cirazoline caused transients of cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+]i response) in a concentration-dependent manner and developed a maximal response similar to that to noradrenaline in CHO cells expressing the alpha 1a-subtype, while it acted as a partial agonist at alpha 1b- and alpha 1d-adrenoceptors. Oxymetazoline, on the other hand, was a weak agonist at alpha 1a-adrenoceptors, and has no intrinsic activity at the other subtypes. 4. Using the phenoxybenzamine inactivation method, the relationships between receptor occupancy and noradrenaline-induced [Ca2+]i response for alpha 1a- and alpha 1d-subtypes were found to be linear, whereas it was moderately hyperbolic for the alpha 1b-subtype, indicating the absence of receptor reserves in CHO cells expressing alpha 1a- and alpha 1d-subtypes while there exists a small receptor reserve for CHO cells expressing the alpha 1b-subtype.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8564227

  20. Radionuclide characterization of environmental air around nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gede Sutresna Wijaya; Anung Muharini

    2015-01-01

    Air is an important environmental component in human life. Presence of air pollutants or contaminants will have a negative impact on human health. According to the existence of a nuclear facility in Yogyakarta, the characterization of radionuclides in the air is absolutely necessary to ensure the safety of people and the environment and also to supervise the safe operation of the facility. In this research the characterization of radionuclides in the air was carried through the air sampling by using High Volume Air Sampler equipped with filter TFA 2133, followed by analysis using combination of a gamma and alpha spectrometers. The concentration of radioactivity in the air fluctuates depending on the time and duration of sampling. Characterization of gamma emitting radionuclides in the air is dominated by radon progeny radionuclides such as 214 Pb, 214 Bi with activity 20.09 ± 1.23 until 32.91 ± 4.87 Bq/m 3 and 31.22 ± 1.76 until 44.25 ± 4.91 Bq/m 3 . Alpha emitter radionuclide was dominated by 214 Po (7.69 MeV) which is also radon progeny and a primordial radionuclides. It can be concluded that the presence of radionuclides in the environmental air not as a product resulting from the operation of nuclear facilities in Yogyakarta. (author)

  1. Anti-IL-1alpha autoantibodies in early rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forslind, K; Svensson, Birte; Svenson, M

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the potential predictive value of autoantibodies against IL1-alpha (anti-IL-1alpha) in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA).......To investigate the potential predictive value of autoantibodies against IL1-alpha (anti-IL-1alpha) in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA)....

  2. The nitric oxide-donating pravastatin derivative, NCX 6550 [(1S-[1alpha(betaS*, deltaS*), 2alpha, 6alpha, 8beta-(R*), 8a alpha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dever, G; Spickett, C M; Kennedy, S; Rush, C; Tennant, G; Monopoli, A; Wainwright, C L

    2007-01-01

    Statins possess anti-inflammatory effects that may contribute to their ability to slow atherogenesis, whereas nitric oxide (NO) also influences inflammatory cell adhesion. This study aimed to determine whether a novel NO-donating pravastatin derivative, NCX 6550 [(1S-[1alpha(betaS*,deltaS*),2alpha,6alpha,8beta-(R*),8a alpha

  3. 32 CFR 855.22 - Air Force procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air Force procedures. 855.22 Section 855.22 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Agreements for Civil Aircraft Use of Air Force Airfields § 855.22 Air Force procedures. (a) Upon receipt of a...

  4. Spatiotemporal Variations and Driving Factors of Air Pollution in China

    OpenAIRE

    Dongsheng Zhan; Mei-Po Kwan; Wenzhong Zhang; Shaojian Wang; Jianhui Yu

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, severe and persistent air pollution episodes in China have drawn wide public concern. Based on ground monitoring air quality data collected in 2015 in Chinese cities above the prefectural level, this study identifies the spatiotemporal variations of air pollution and its associated driving factors in China using descriptive statistics and geographical detector methods. The results show that the average air pollution ratio and continuous air pollution ratio across Chinese citi...

  5. Method for high specific bioproductivity of .alpha.,.omega.-alkanedicarboxylic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, David Paul; Shank, Gary Keith

    2000-01-01

    This invention provides a low-cost method of producing .alpha.,.omega.-alkanedicarboxylic acids. Particular bioconversion conditions result in highly efficient conversion of fatty acid, fatty acid ester, or alkane substrates to diacids. Candida tropicalis AR40 or similar yeast strains are grown in a medium containing a carbon source and a nitrogen source at a temperature of 31.degree. C. to 38.degree. C., while additional carbon source is continuously added, until maximum cell growth is attained. Within 0-3 hours of this point, substrate is added to the culture to initiate conversion. An .alpha.,.omega.-alkanedicarboxylic acid made according to this method is also provided.

  6. Measurement of radium micro-precipitates using alpha spectrometry and total alpha counting methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseini, T.; Fathivand, A.A.

    2004-01-01

    Background: This study consists of two parts. The first part deals with both qualitative and quantitative analysis of 226 Ra suing alpha spectrometry measurement method. In the second part, the percentage of radioactive equilibrium between 226 Radium and its daughter products were determined by alpha spectrometry and total alpha measurement system after elapsed time of 15 days from precipitation. Materials and methods: Twelve 226 Radium samples as Barium-Radium Sulfate in form of micro-precipitates on millipore and What man 42 filters were prepared. An alpha spectrometer with surface barrier detector and a total alpha measurement system consists of scintillation crystal assembly Zinc Silver were used for counting. Results: The minimum detection limit of alpha spectrometry and total alpha counting for 226 Radium measurements in samples for counting time equal to 10000 seconds, were found to be 3.7 mBq and 15.8 mBq respectively. Results from total alpha counting showed that radioactive equilibrium between 226 Radium and its daughter products reached to about 92%± 3.5, where as, in the case of alpha spectrometry radioactive equilibrium, it was destroyed due to vacuum during counting the sample. Also in case of alpha spectrometry, the optimum sample to detector distance, was found to be 0.5 centimeter. Conclusion: From this study it was concluded that micro-precipitation can be used as a proper method for sample preparation and alpha spectrometry due to its lower detection limit to measure low concentration of 224 Radium and 226 Radium in these precipitates, prepared from different samples. Besides it is not time consuming and sources can be measured immediately after sample preparation

  7. Discretization of continuous frame

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    other known continuous frames. Finally, we state and prove the assertions of the stability of perturbation in this concept. Keywords. Bounded operator; Hilbert space; continuous frame; atomic resolution of identity. 1. Introduction and preliminaries. As we know frames are more flexible tools to convey information than bases, ...

  8. Archives: Continuing Medical Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 88 ... Archives: Continuing Medical Education. Journal Home > Archives: Continuing Medical Education. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 50 of 88 ...

  9. Archives: Continuing Medical Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 88 of 88 ... Archives: Continuing Medical Education. Journal Home > Archives: Continuing Medical Education. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 51 - 88 of 88 ...

  10. Cutting Out Continuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick; Hutton, Graham

    2016-01-01

    In the field of program transformation, one often transforms programs into continuation-passing style to make their flow of control explicit, and then immediately removes the resulting continuations using defunctionalisation to make the programs first-order. In this article, we show how these two...

  11. Reinventing Continuing Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walshok, Mary Lindenstein

    2012-01-01

    Re-inventing continuing higher education is about finding ways to be a more central player in a region's civic, cultural, and economic life as well as in the education of individuals for work and citizenship. Continuing higher education will require data gathering, analytical tools, convening authority, interpretive skills, new models of delivery,…

  12. Air Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-03-01

    genus as its predecessor of pre-war days. It would, however, be erroneous to conclude from this that the military value of each new development was...marked by periods of crescendo, air warfare will consist of a succession of actions of great violence , with periods of almost complete calm between...influence of time, if it should require fif- teen seconds for each airplane to take off, and one minute to land, the commander of a group of 100 airplanes

  13. Cancer radioimmunotherapy with alpha-emitting nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couturier, Olivier [INSERM U 601, Nantes (France); Place Alexis Ricordeau, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nantes, Cedex (France); Supiot, Stephane; Degraef-Mougin, Marie; Faivre-Chauvet, Alain; Carlier, Thomas; Chatal, Jean-Francois; Davodeau, Francois; Cherel, Michel [INSERM U 601, Nantes (France)

    2005-04-01

    In lymphoid malignancies and in certain solid cancers such as medullary thyroid carcinoma, somewhat mixed success has been achieved when applying radioimmunotherapy (RIT) with {beta}-emitters for the treatment of refractory cases. The development of novel RIT with {alpha}-emitters has created new opportunities and theoretical advantages due to the high linear energy transfer (LET) and the short path length in biological tissue of {alpha}-particles. These physical properties offer the prospect of achieving selective tumoural cell killing. Thus, RIT with {alpha}-emitters appears particularly suited for the elimination of circulating single cells or cell clusters or for the treatment of micrometastases at an early stage. However, to avoid non-specific irradiation of healthy tissues, it is necessary to identify accessible tumoural targets easily and rapidly. For this purpose, a small number of {alpha}-emitters have been investigated, among which only a few have been used for in vivo preclinical studies. Another problem is the availability and cost of these radionuclides; for instance, the low cost and the development of a reliable actinium-225/bismuth-213 generator were probably determining elements in the choice of bismuth-213 in the only human trial of RIT with an {alpha}-emitter. This article reviews the literature concerning monoclonal antibodies radiolabelled with {alpha}-emitters that have been developed for possible RIT in cancer patients. The principal radio-immunoconjugates are considered, starting with physical and chemical properties of {alpha}-emitters, their mode of production, the possibilities and difficulties of labelling, in vitro studies and finally, when available, in vivo preclinical and clinical studies. (orig.)

  14. Cancer radioimmunotherapy with alpha-emitting nuclides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couturier, Olivier; Supiot, Stéphane; Degraef-Mougin, Marie; Faivre-Chauvet, Alain; Carlier, Thomas; Chatal, Jean-François; Davodeau, François; Cherel, Michel

    2005-05-01

    In lymphoid malignancies and in certain solid cancers such as medullary thyroid carcinoma, somewhat mixed success has been achieved when applying radioimmunotherapy (RIT) with beta-emitters for the treatment of refractory cases. The development of novel RIT with alpha-emitters has created new opportunities and theoretical advantages due to the high linear energy transfer (LET) and the short path length in biological tissue of alpha-particles. These physical properties offer the prospect of achieving selective tumoural cell killing. Thus, RIT with alpha-emitters appears particularly suited for the elimination of circulating single cells or cell clusters or for the treatment of micrometastases at an early stage. However, to avoid non-specific irradiation of healthy tissues, it is necessary to identify accessible tumoural targets easily and rapidly. For this purpose, a small number of alpha-emitters have been investigated, among which only a few have been used for in vivo preclinical studies. Another problem is the availability and cost of these radionuclides; for instance, the low cost and the development of a reliable actinium-225/bismuth-213 generator were probably determining elements in the choice of bismuth-213 in the only human trial of RIT with an alpha-emitter. This article reviews the literature concerning monoclonal antibodies radiolabelled with alpha-emitters that have been developed for possible RIT in cancer patients. The principal radio-immunoconjugates are considered, starting with physical and chemical properties of alpha-emitters, their mode of production, the possibilities and difficulties of labelling, in vitro studies and finally, when available, in vivo preclinical and clinical studies.

  15. Air filtration and indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    Demands for better indoor air quality are increasing, since we spend most of our time indoors and we are more and more aware of indoor air pollution. Field studies in different parts of the world have documented that high percentage of occupants in many offices and buildings find the indoor air...... decent ventilation and air cleaning/air filtration, high indoor air quality cannot be accomplished. The need for effective air filtration has increased with increasing evidence on the hazardous effects of fine particles. Moreover, the air contains gaseous pollutants, removal of which requires various air...... cleaning techniques. Supply air filter is one of the key components in the ventilation system. Studies have shown that used ventilation filters themselves can be a significant source of indoor air pollution with consequent impact on perceived air quality, sick building syndrome symptoms and performance...

  16. Pharmacologic specificity of alpha-2 adrenergic receptor subtypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrash, A.; Bylund, D.

    1986-03-01

    The authors have defined alpha-2 adrenergic receptor subtypes in human and rat tissues using prazosin as a subtype selective drug. Prazosin has a lower affinity (250 nM) at alpha-2A receptor and a higher affinity (5 nM) at alpha-2B receptors. In order to determine if other adrenergic drugs are selective for one or the other subtypes, the authors performed (/sup 3/H)yohimbine inhibition experiments with various adrenergic drugs in tissues containing alpha-2A, alpha-2B or both subtypes. Oxymetazoline, WB4101 and yohimbine were found to be 80-, 20- and 10-fold more potent at alpha-2A receptors than at alpha-2B receptors. Phentolamine, adazoxan, (+)- and (-)-mianserin, clonidine, (+)-butaclamol, (-)- and (+)-norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine and thioridazine were found to have equal affinities for the two subtypes. These results further validate the subdivision of alpha-2 adrenergic receptors into alpha-2A and alpha-2B subtypes.

  17. Políticas públicas en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires dirigidas a juventudes vulnerables: Continuidades y transformaciones en la última década Políticas públicas na cidade de Buenos Aires destinadas a jovens vulneráveis: Continuidades e transformações ao longo da última década Public policy in the city of Buenos Aires aimed at vulnerable youth: Continuities and transformations in the last decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Raggio

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available En el marco de una investigación más amplia sobre políticas públicas dirigidas a juventudes en situación de vulnerabilidad en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, se analiza en este artículo un conjunto de programas que parten de diagnósticos sustentados en "la inseguridad" urbana en general y en los jóvenes en situación de riesgo en particular. Específicamente se aborda el denominado "Plan de Prevención del Delito" y diversas acciones de Política Cultural, reflexionando sobre sus características y posibles convergencias, donde se ponen en juego las representaciones sociales sobre la relación delito-cultura-juventudes vulnerables. A partir del estudio de los casos y considerando las recomendaciones de políticas públicas dirigidas a las juventudes desde diversos organismos e instituciones internacionales, se subrayan los énfasis y agendas propias de nuestra región latinoamericana, en función de los cambios políticos recientes, de la última década, y las consecuencias socioculturales de las políticas neoliberales en los países de la región.No âmbito de uma pesquisa mais ampla sobre políticas públicas dirigidas a jovens em situação de vulnerabilidade na Cidade de Buenos Aires, se analisa neste artigo um conjunto de programas que partem de diagnósticos sustentados na "insegurança" urbana, em geral, e dos jovens em situação de risco, em especial. Mais especificamente, aborda o denominado "Plano de Prevenção do Crime" e as diversas ações da Política Cultural, refletindo sobre suas características e possíveis convergências, e colocando em jogo as representações sociais sobre a relação crime-cultura-juventude vulnerável. A partir do estudo dos casos, e considerando as recomendações de políticas públicas dirigidas aos jovens sugeridas por diversos organismos e instituições internacionais, são sublinhadas as ênfases e agendas próprias de nossa região latino-americana em função das mudanças pol

  18. 40 CFR 258.24 - Air criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air criteria. 258.24 Section 258.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Operating Criteria § 258.24 Air criteria. (a) Owners or operators of all MSWLFs must ensure that the units not violate any...

  19. 49 CFR 230.73 - Air gauges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air gauges. 230.73 Section 230.73 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Brake and Signal Equipment § 230.73 Air gauges....

  20. 46 CFR 154.1415 - Air compressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air compressor. 154.1415 Section 154.1415 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Safety Equipment § 154.1415 Air compressor. Each vessel...

  1. 40 CFR 240.205 - Air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air quality. 240.205 Section 240.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.205 Air quality. ...

  2. 29 CFR 1910.169 - Air receivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and equipment used on transportation vehicles such as steam railroad cars, electric railway cars, and... Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Compressed Gas and Compressed Air Equipment § 1910.169 Air receivers...

  3. Area monitoring in a deposit of radioactive material: high flux air sampling for determination of long half-life alpha emitters; Monitoracao de area em um deposito de material radioativo: amostragem de ar de alto fluxo para determinacao de alfa emissores de meia vida longa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Wagner de S.; Py Junior, Delcy de A.; Dores, Luis A. de C.B.; Antunes, Ana Claudia da Silva; Garcia Filho, Oswaldo; Oliveira, Sergio Quinet de; Dantas, Marcelino V.A. [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (UTM/INB), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Unidade de Tratamento de Minerio; Kelecom, Alphonse, E-mail: wspereira@inb.gov.b, E-mail: delcy@inb.gov.b, E-mail: luisdores@inb.gov.b, E-mail: anasilva@inb.gov.b, E-mail: sergioquinet@inb.gov.b, E-mail: Marcelino@inb.gov.b [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Lab. de Radiobiologia e Radiometria Pedro Lopes dos Santos

    2011-10-26

    The present paper presents the program of high-flux monitoring and the results obtained in the year 2009. The derivative limit (LD) of air concentration was of 0.25 Bq/m{sup 3}. The permanence control is a important factor in the occupational control of workers, and also the use of EPs the behavioural cares, and the radioprotection training for allowing the access to those areas. Neither workers, inspector nor visitors reached the limit of investigation

  4. Alpha 1 B- but not alpha 1 A-adrenoceptors mediate inositol phosphate generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michel, M. C.; Hanft, G.; Gross, G.

    1990-01-01

    We used novel highly subtype-selective antagonists to study whether alpha 1A- and/or alpha 1B-adrenoceptors mediate the stimulation of inositol phosphate generation by noradrenaline in rat cerebral cortex. Phentolamine (10 microM) and prazosin (100 nM) completely abolished the stimulated inositol

  5. Role of macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1 alpha) in acute lung injury in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shanley, T P; Schmal, H; Friedl, H P

    1995-01-01

    The role of macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1 alpha) in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury in rats after intrapulmonary deposition of IgG immune complexes or intratracheal administration of LPS has been assessed. Critical to these studies was the cloning and functional expression...

  6. PLE CATALYZED HYDROLYZES OF ALPHA-SUBSTITUTED ALPHA-HYDROXY ESTERS - THE INFLUENCE OF THE SUBSTITUENTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MOORLAG, H; KELLOGG, RM

    1991-01-01

    The enzymatic hydrolyses of a variety of alpha-substituted mandelic and lactic esters using pig liver esterase (PLE) have been investigated. High to moderate enantioselectivity was found for various alpha-substituted mandelic esters, whereas PLE showed low to no enantioselectivity for

  7. Increased voluntary exercise in mice deficient for tumour necrosis factor-alpha and lymphotoxin-alpha.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Netea, M.G.; Kullberg, B.J.; Vonk, A.G.; Verschueren, I.; Joosten, L.A.B.; Meer, J.W.M. van der

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The endogenous mediators playing a role in the sensing of fatigue and cessation of exercise are yet to be characterized. We hypothesized that proinflammatory cytokines, in particular tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) and lymphotoxin-alpha (LT) transmit signals leading to fatigue.

  8. Alpha-particle elastic scattering on [sup 16]O in the four [alpha]-particle model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Qingrun (CCAST (World Lab.), Beijing (China) Inst. of High Energy Physics, Academia Sinica, Beijing (China)); Yang Yongxu (Dept. of Physics, Guangxi Normal Univ., Guilin (China))

    1993-08-23

    A folding potential describing the alpha-particle scattering on [sup 16]O is constructed based on the four [alpha]-particle model of the nucleus [sup 16]O. This folding potential provides a good description of the experimental data covering a broad energy range. (orig.)

  9. Consistent Measurements of $\\alpha_{s}$ from Precise Oriented Event Shape Distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P.; Adye, T.; Adzic, P.; Albrecht, Z.; Alderweireld, T.; Alekseev, G.D.; Alemany, R.; Allmendinger, T.; Allport, P.P.; Almehed, S.; Amaldi, U.; Amapane, N.; Amato, S.; Anassontzis, E.G.; Andersson, P.; Andreazza, A.; Andringa, S.; Antilogus, P.; Apel, W.D.; Arnoud, Y.; Asman, B.; Augustin, J.E.; Augustinus, A.; Baillon, P.; Bambade, P.; Barao, F.; Barbiellini, G.; Barbier, R.; Bardin, D.Yu.; Barker, G.J.; Baroncelli, A.; Battaglia, M.; Baubillier, M.; Becks, K.H.; Begalli, M.; Behrmann, A.; Beilliere, P.; Belokopytov, Yu.; Benekos, N.C.; Benvenuti, A.C.; Berat, C.; Berggren, M.; Bertini, D.; Bertrand, D.; Besancon, M.; Bigi, M.; Bilenky, Mikhail S.; Bizouard, M.A.; Bloch, D.; Blom, H.M.; Bonesini, M.; Bonivento, W.; Boonekamp, M.; Booth, P.S.L.; Borgland, A.W.; Borisov, G.; Bosio, C.; Botner, O.; Boudinov, E.; Bouquet, B.; Bourdarios, C.; Bowcock, T.J.V.; Boyko, I.; Bozovic, I.; Bozzo, M.; Branchini, P.; Brenke, T.; Brenner, R.A.; Bruckman, P.; Brunet, J.M.; Bugge, L.; Buran, T.; Burgsmuller, T.; Buschbeck, B.; Buschmann, P.; Cabrera, S.; Caccia, M.; Calvi, M.; Camporesi, T.; Canale, V.; Carena, F.; Carroll, L.; Caso, C.; Castillo Gimenez, M.V.; Cattai, A.; Cavallo, F.R.; Chabaud, V.; Charpentier, P.; Chaussard, L.; Checchia, P.; Chelkov, G.A.; Chierici, R.; Chochula, P.; Chorowicz, V.; Chudoba, J.; Cieslik, K.; Collins, P.; Contri, R.; Cortina, E.; Cosme, G.; Cossutti, F.; Cowell, J.H.; Crawley, H.B.; Crennell, D.; Crepe-Renaudin, Sabine; Crosetti, G.; Cuevas Maestro, J.; Czellar, S.; Davenport, M.; Da Silva, W.; Deghorain, A.; Della Ricca, G.; Delpierre, P.; Demaria, N.; De Angelis, A.; De Boer, W.; De Clercq, C.; De Lotto, B.; De Min, A.; De Paula, L.; Dijkstra, H.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Dolbeau, J.; Doroba, K.; Dracos, M.; Drees, J.; Dris, M.; Duperrin, A.; Durand, J.D.; Eigen, G.; Ekelof, T.; Ekspong, G.; Ellert, M.; Elsing, M.; Engel, J.P.; Erzen, B.; Espirito Santo, M.C.; Fanourakis, G.; Fassouliotis, D.; Fayot, J.; Feindt, M.; Ferrari, P.; Ferrer, A.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Ferro, F.; Fichet, S.; Firestone, A.; Flagmeyer, U.; Foeth, H.; Fokitis, E.; Fontanelli, F.; Franek, B.; Frodesen, A.G.; Fruhwirth, R.; Fulda-Quenzer, F.; Fuster, J.; Galloni, A.; Gamba, D.; Gamblin, S.; Gandelman, M.; Garcia, C.; Gaspar, C.; Gaspar, M.; Gasparini, U.; Gavillet, P.; Gazis, Evangelos; Gele, D.; Ghodbane, N.; Gil Botella, Ines; Glege, F.; Gokieli, R.; Golob, B.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncalves, P.; Gonzalez Caballero, I.; Gopal, G.; Gorn, L.; Gracco, V.; Grahl, J.; Graziani, E.; Green, C.; Grimm, H.J.; Gris, P.; Grosdidier, G.; Grzelak, K.; Gunther, M.; Guy, J.; Hahn, F.; Hahn, S.; Haider, S.; Hallgren, A.; Hamacher, K.; Hansen, J.; Harris, F.J.; Hedberg, V.; Heising, S.; Hernandez, J.J.; Herquet, P.; Herr, H.; Hessing, T.L.; Heuser, J.M.; Higon, E.; Holmgren, S.O.; Holt, P.J.; Hoorelbeke, S.; Houlden, M.; Hrubec, J.; Huet, K.; Hughes, G.J.; Hultqvist, K.; Jackson, John Neil; Jacobsson, R.; Jalocha, P.; Janik, R.; Jarlskog, C.; Jarlskog, G.; Jarry, P.; Jean-Marie, B.; Johansson, Erik Karl; Jonsson, P.; Joram, C.; Juillot, P.; Kapusta, Frederic; Karafasoulis, K.; Katsanevas, S.; Katsoufis, E.C.; Keranen, R.; Kersevan, B.P.; Khomenko, B.A.; Khovansky, N.N.; Kiiskinen, A.; King, B.; Kinvig, A.; Kjaer, N.J.; Klapp, O.; Klein, Hansjorg; Kluit, P.; Kokkinias, P.; Koratzinos, M.; Kourkoumelis, C.; Kuznetsov, O.; Krammer, M.; Kriznic, E.; Krumshtein, Z.; Kubinec, P.; Kurowska, J.; Kurvinen, K.; Lamsa, J.W.; Lane, D.W.; Langefeld, P.; Laugier, J.P.; Lauhakangas, R.; Leder, G.; Ledroit, Fabienne; Lefebure, V.; Leinonen, L.; Leisos, A.; Leitner, R.; Lemonne, J.; Lenzen, G.; Lepeltier, V.; Lesiak, T.; Lethuillier, M.; Libby, J.; Liko, D.; Lipniacka, A.; Lippi, I.; Lorstad, B.; Loken, J.G.; Lopes, J.H.; Lopez, J.M.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Loukas, D.; Lutz, P.; Lyons, L.; MacNaughton, J.; Mahon, J.R.; Maio, A.; Malek, A.; Malmgren, T.G.M.; Maltezos, S.; Malychev, V.; Mandl, F.; Marco, J.; Marco, R.; Marechal, B.; Margoni, M.; Marin, J.C.; Mariotti, C.; Markou, A.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Martinez-Vidal, F.; Marti i Garcia, S.; Masik, J.; Mastroyiannopoulos, N.; Matorras, F.; Matteuzzi, C.; Matthiae, G.; Mazzucato, F.; Mazzucato, M.; McCubbin, M.; McKay, R.; McNulty, R.; McPherson, G.; Meroni, C.; Meyer, W.T.; Migliore, E.; Mirabito, L.; Mitaroff, W.A.; Mjornmark, U.; Moa, T.; Moch, M.; Moller, Rasmus; Monig, Klaus; Monge, M.R.; Moreau, X.; Morettini, P.; Morton, G.; Muller, U.; Munich, K.; Mulders, M.; Mulet-Marquis, C.; Muresan, R.; Murray, W.J.; Muryn, B.; Myatt, G.; Myklebust, T.; Naraghi, F.; Nassiakou, M.; Navarria, F.L.; Navas, Sergio; Nawrocki, K.; Negri, P.; Nemecek, S.; Neufeld, N.; Nicolaidou, R.; Nielsen, B.S.; Niezurawski, P.; Nikolenko, M.; Nomokonov, V.; Normand, A.; Nygren, A.; Olshevsky, A.G.; Onofre, A.; Orava, R.; Orazi, G.; Osterberg, K.; Ouraou, A.; Paganoni, M.; Paiano, S.; Pain, R.; Paiva, R.; Palacios, J.; Palka, H.; Papadopoulou, T.D.; Papageorgiou, K.; Pape, L.; Parkes, C.; Parodi, F.; Parzefall, U.; Passeri, A.; Passon, O.; Pegoraro, M.; Peralta, L.; Pernicka, M.; Perrotta, A.; Petridou, C.; Petrolini, A.; Phillips, H.T.; Pierre, F.; Pimenta, M.; Piotto, E.; Podobnik, T.; Pol, M.E.; Polok, G.; Poropat, P.; Pozdnyakov, V.; Privitera, P.; Pukhaeva, N.; Pullia, A.; Radojicic, D.; Ragazzi, S.; Rahmani, H.; Ratoff, P.N.; Read, Alexander L.; Rebecchi, P.; Redaelli, Nicola Giuseppe; Regler, M.; Reid, D.; Reinhardt, R.; Renton, P.B.; Resvanis, L.K.; Richard, F.; Ridky, J.; Rinaudo, G.; Rodrigo, German; Rohne, O.; Romero, A.; Ronchese, P.; Rosenberg, E.I.; Rosinsky, P.; Roudeau, P.; Rovelli, T.; Royon, C.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Ruiz, A.; Saarikko, H.; Sacquin, Y.; Sadovsky, A.; Sajot, G.; Salt, J.; Sampsonidis, D.; Sannino, M.; Schneider, H.; Schwemling, P.; Schwering, B.; Schwickerath, U.; Schyns, M.A.E.; Scuri, Fabrizio; Seager, P.; Sedykh, Yu.; Segar, A.M.; Sekulin, R.; Shellard, R.C.; Sheridan, A.; Siebel, M.; Simard, L.; Simonetto, F.; Sisakian, A.N.; Smadja, G.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, G.R.; Sopczak, A.; Sosnowski, R.; Spassoff, T.; Spiriti, E.; Sponholz, P.; Squarcia, S.; Stanescu, C.; Stanic, S.; Stevenson, K.; Stocchi, A.; Strauss, J.; Strub, R.; Stugu, B.; Szczekowski, M.; Szeptycka, M.; Tabarelli, T.; Tegenfeldt, F.; Terranova, F.; Thomas, J.; Timmermans, Jan; Tinti, N.; Tkachev, L.G.; Todorova, S.; Tomaradze, A.; Tome, B.; Tonazzo, A.; Tortora, L.; Transtromer, G.; Treille, D.; Tristram, G.; Trochimczuk, M.; Troncon, C.; Tsirou, A.; Turluer, M.L.; Tyapkin, I.A.; Tzamarias, S.; Ullaland, O.; Valenti, G.; Vallazza, E.; Vander Velde, C.; Van Apeldoorn, G.W.; Van Dam, Piet; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Eldik, J.; Van Lysebetten, A.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Vulpen, I.; Vassilopoulos, N.; Vegni, G.; Ventura, L.; Venus, W.; Verbeure, F.; Verlato, M.; Vertogradov, L.S.; Verzi, V.; Vilanova, D.; Vitale, L.; Vodopianov, A.S.; Vollmer, C.; Voulgaris, G.; Vrba, V.; Wahlen, H.; Walck, C.; Weiser, C.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, J.H.; Wilkinson, G.R.; Winter, M.; Witek, M.; Wolf, G.; Yi, J.; Zalewska, A.; Zalewski, P.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zevgolatakos, E.; Zimine, N.I.; Zucchelli, G.C.; Zumerle, G.

    2000-01-01

    An updated analysis using about 1.5 million events recorded at $\\sqrt{s} =M_Z$ with the DELPHI detector in 1994 is presented. Eighteen infrared and collinear safe event shape observables are measured as a function of the polar angle of the thrust axis. The data are compared to theoretical calculations in${\\cal O} (\\alpha_s^2)$ including the event orientation. A combined fit of $\\alpha_s$ and of the renormalization scale $x_{\\mu}$ in $\\cal O(\\alpha_s^2$)yields an excellent description of the high statistics data. The weighted average from 18 observables including quark mass effects and correlations is $\\alpha_s(M_Z^2) = 0.1174 \\pm 0.0026$. The final result, derived from the jet cone energy fraction, the observable with the smallest theoretical and experimental uncertainty, is $\\alpha_s(M_Z^2) = =0:1180 0:0006(exp:) 0:0013(hadr:) 0:0008(scale) 0:0007(mass). Further studies include an s determination using theoretical predictions in the next-to-leading log approximation (NLLA), matched NLLA and O(\\alpha^{2}_{s})...

  10. Continuous greenhouse gas measurements from ice cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stowasser, Christopher

    Ice cores offer the unique possibility to study the history of past atmospheric greenhouse gases over the last 800,000 years, since past atmospheric air is trapped in bubbles in the ice. Since the 1950s, paleo-scientists have developed a variety of techniques to extract the trapped air from...... individual ice core samples, and to measure the mixing ratio of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide in the extracted air. The discrete measurements have become highly accurate and reproducible, but require relatively large amounts of ice per measured species and are both time......-consuming and labor-intensive. This PhD thesis presents the development of a new method for measurements of greenhouse gas mixing ratios from ice cores based on a melting device of a continuous flow analysis (CFA) system. The coupling to a CFA melting device enables time-efficient measurements of high resolution...

  11. Null functions in three-dimensional imaging of alpha and beta particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yijun; Caucci, Luca; Barrett, Harrison H

    2017-11-17

    Null functions of an imaging system are functions in the object space that give exactly zero data. Hence, they represent the intrinsic limitations of the imaging system. Null functions exist in all digital imaging systems, because these systems map continuous objects to discrete data. However, the emergence of detectors that measure continuous data, e.g. particle-processing (PP) detectors, has the potential to eliminate null functions. PP detectors process signals produced by each particle and estimate particle attributes, which include two position coordinates and three components of momentum, as continuous variables. We consider Charged-Particle Emission Tomography (CPET), which relies on data collected by a PP detector to reconstruct the 3D distribution of a radioisotope that emits alpha or beta particles, and show empirically that the null functions are significantly reduced for alpha particles if ≥3 attributes are measured or for beta particles with five attributes measured.

  12. Altered hepatic vasopressin and alpha 1-adrenergic receptors after chronic endotoxin infusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, B.L.; Spitzer, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    Sepsis and septic shock are complicated by a number of hemodynamic and metabolic aberrations. These include catecholamine refractoriness and altered glucose metabolism. Recently, a nonshock rat model of continuous endotoxin infusion via an implanted osmotic pump was developed that reproduces some of the metabolic and cardiovascular findings of human sepsis. By using this model, we have found a decreased number of hepatic plasma membrane alpha 1-adrenergic and [Arg8]vasopressin receptors in rats continuously infused with endotoxin. There was a significant decrease in [ 3 H]prazosin (35 +/- 7%) and [ 3 H] [Arg8]vasopressin (43 +/- 8%) receptors after 30 h of continuous endotoxin infusion with no change in affinity. The ability of norepinephrine to form the high-affinity complex with alpha 1-adrenergic receptors was not altered after chronic endotoxin infusion. The results are consistent with the concept that alterations in receptor number might underlie certain of the metabolic consequences of chronic sepsis

  13. Indoor air radon concentration in schools in Prizren, Kosovo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahtijari, M.; Stegnar, P.; Shemsidini, Z.; Kobal, I.; Vaupotic, J.

    2006-01-01

    Indoor air radon ( 222 Rn) concentrations were measured in spring and winter in 30 rooms of 9 elementary schools and 19 rooms of 6 high schools in Prizren, Kosovo, using alpha scintillation cells. Only in three rooms of elementary schools and four rooms of high schools did winter concentrations exceed 400 Bq m -3 . (authors)

  14. Activity monitoring of alpha-bearing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkhoff, G.; Bondar, L.

    1980-01-01

    The paper aims at the survey on the actual situation in activity monitoring of alpha-bearing wastes. Homogeneous materials such as liquid-, gaseous- and homogeneous solid wastes are amenable to destructive analyses of representative samples. Available destructive analyses methods are sensitive and precise enough to cope with all requirements in alpha-waste monitoring. The more difficult problems are encountered with alpha-contaminated solids, when representative sampling is not practicable. Non-destructive analysis techniques are applied for monitoring this category of solid wastes. The techniques for nondestructive analysis of alpha-bearing wastes are based on the detection of gamma and/or neutron-emission of actinides. Principles and a theory of non-destructive radiometric assay of plutonium contaminated solid waste streams are explained. Guidelines for the calibration of instruments and interpretation of experimental data are given. Current theoretical and experimental development work in this problem area is reviewed. Evaluations concerning capabilities and limitations of monitoring systems for alpha-bearing solid wastes are very complex and out of the scope of this paper

  15. Role of Frontal Alpha Oscillations in Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustenberger, Caroline; Boyle, Michael R.; Foulser, A. Alban; Mellin, Juliann M.; Fröhlich, Flavio

    2015-01-01

    Creativity, the ability to produce innovative ideas, is a key higher-order cognitive function that is poorly understood. At the level of macroscopic cortical network dynamics, recent EEG data suggests that cortical oscillations in the alpha frequency band (8 – 12 Hz) are correlated with creative thinking. However, whether alpha oscillations play a fundamental role in creativity has remained unknown. Here we show that creativity is increased by enhancing alpha power using 10 Hz transcranial alternating current stimulation (10Hz-tACS) of the frontal cortex. In a study of 20 healthy participants with a randomized, balanced cross-over design, we found a significant improvement of 7.4% in the Creativity Index measured by the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking, a comprehensive and most frequently used assay of creative potential and strengths. In a second similar study with 20 subjects, 40Hz-tACS was used in instead of 10Hz-tACS to rule out a general “electrical stimulation” effect. No significant change in the Creativity Index was found for such frontal gamma stimulation. Our results suggest that alpha activity in frontal brain areas is selectively involved in creativity; this enhancement represents the first demonstration of specific neuronal dynamics that drive creativity and can be modulated by non-invasive brain stimulation. Our findings agree with the model that alpha recruitment increases with internal processing demands and is involved in inhibitory top-down control, which is an important requirement for creative ideation. PMID:25913062

  16. Continuous leaching of ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, S.; Yamashita, T.; Kameda, M.

    1980-01-01

    A process is described which comprises sprinkling continuously and uniformly a solvent selected from an acid, an alkali and an organic solvent on the surface of each of a plurality of multi-staged, moving continuous unit layers formed of pulverized uranium ore fed in a predetermined amount from a multi-staged, metering, continuous feed apparatus. Layers composed of a uniform mixture of the pulverized ore and solvent are thermally cured and then subjected to repulping and solid-liquid separation to recover a pregnant liquor containing the extracted metal component

  17. The head extractions, brain and pituitary uptake and metabolism of progesterone and 5alpha-dihydroprogesterone in anesthetized, female rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W A; Billiar, R B; Rahman, S S; Little, B

    1976-07-23

    Three days after ovariectomy adult female rabbits were injected intramuscularly with either 2 mug estradiol/kg b.w., 0.5 mg progesterone/kg b.w., 2 mug estradiol plus 0.5 mg progesterone/kg b.w., or oil vehicle daily for 5 days. On the sixth day the animals were anesthetized and given a continuous infusion of [14C]progesterone and [3H]5alpha-pregnane-3,20-dione (5alpha-DHP) for 4 h via the femoral vein. Head extractions, calculated from the difference in blood concentrations of radioactive steriods between the femoral artery and jugular vein, were in the range of 60-75% for both progesterone and 5alpha-DHP and were unaffected by the hormone treatments. Nine brain areas and the pituitary were analyzed for [14C]progesterone, [3H]5alpha-DHP and [14C]-5alpha-DHP. Generally, the brain and pituitary retention and distribution of [14C]progesterone and [3H]5alpha-DHP and the brain and pituitary metabolism of [14C]progesterone were unaffected by hormone treatments. In the cerebellum, progesterone treatment increased [14C]progesterone retention as compared to oil treatment. All tissues contained 2-7 times more [14C]progesterone than arterial blood concentrations. [3H]5alpha-DHP tissue: arterial blood concentrations ratios were much lower ranging from 0.9 to 1.78. [14C]progesterone and [3H]5alpha-DHP showed similar brain distribution with highest concentrations in the pons, pons reticulum and midbrain reticulum. All tissues converted progesterone to 5alpha-DHP, but only the cerebellum contained more [14C]5alpha-DHP than [14C]progesterone.

  18. California Air Basins

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Air ResourcesCalifornia Air Resources BoardThe following datasets are from the California Air Resources Board: * arb_california_airbasins - California Air BasinsThe...

  19. AirData

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The AirData site provides access to yearly summaries of United States air pollution data, taken from EPA's air pollution databases. AirData has information about...

  20. Air Quality System (AQS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Air Quality System (AQS) database contains measurements of air pollutant concentrations from throughout the United States and its territories. The measurements include both criteria air pollutants and hazardous air pollutants.

  1. Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Protection Agency Search Search Contact Us Share Hazardous Air Pollutants Hazardous air pollutants are those known to ... of industrial facilities in two phases . About Hazardous Air Pollutants What are Hazardous Air Pollutants? Health and ...

  2. Catalytic Synthesis of Nitriles in Continuous Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordvang, Emily Catherine

    , alternative path to acetonitrile from ethanol via the oxidative dehydrogenation of ethylamine. The catalytic activity and product ratios of the batch and continuous flow reactions are compared and the effect of reaction conditions on the reaction is investigated. The effects of ammonia in the reaction...... dehydrogenation of ethylamine and post-reaction purging.Chapter 4 outlines the application of RuO2/Al2O3 catalysts to the oxidative dehydrogenation of benzylamine in air, utilizing a new reaction setup. Again, batch and continuous flow reactions are compared and the effects of reaction conditions, ammonia...

  3. Development of energy-efficient comfortable ventilation systems with air quality guided volume flow control and continuous monitoring of the window opening status. Part 1. Use of the LuQaS triple sensor for air quality guided volume flow control of mechanical ventilation systems in domestic buildings. Research project; Entwicklung energieeffizienter Komfortlueftungsanlagen mit luftqualitaetsgefuehrter Volumenstromregelung und kontinuierlicher Erfassung des Fensteroeffnungszustandes. Teilbericht 1. Einsatz des LuQaS-Triple-Sensors zur luftqualitaetsgefuehrten Volumenstromregelung von mechanischen Lueftungsanlagen in Wohngebaeuden. Forschungsprojekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossklos, Marc; Ebel, Witta; Knissel, Jens

    2011-05-15

    The report presents the preparatory work on the research project of the above title. The first chapter presents a status report on air quality monitoring inside rooms and evaluates the projects so far in which the LuQaS air quality sensor was used. The second chapter is a documentation of preliminary measurements using the LuQaS sensor in two passive residential buildings and several individual measurements for sensor calibration. It was found that in apartments with mechanical ventilation, the sensor reflects the user activities; further, the measured values indicate signal changes also in the off-air of the building, so that control via central sensors in the ventilation and off-air systems appears feasible. The third chapter discusses control strategies for air quality control. Apart from a discussion of control unit types, operating regimes, methods to determine rated values, and additional control functions, the effects of threshold value control with different threshold limit values and volume flow changes on the air quality of a model building was simulated. The results prove the expectation that the air quality inside a building will be influenced positively by air quality control. Theoretical investigations of the DrD method will be presented in another part-report of the project.

  4. Model for assessing alpha doses for a Reference Japanese Man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Hisao

    1993-01-01

    In view of the development of the nuclear fuel cycle in this country, it is urgently important to establish dose assessment models and related human and environmental parameters for long-lived radionuclides. In the current program, intake and body content of actinides (Pu, Th, U) and related alpha-emitting nuclides (Ra and daughters) have been studied as well as physiological aspects of Reference Japanese Man as the basic model of man for dosimetry. The ultimate object is to examine applicability of the existing models particularly recommended by the ICRP for workers to members of the public. The result of an interlaboratory intercomparison of 239 Pu + 240 Pu determination including our result was published. Alpha-spectrometric determinations of 226 Ra in bone yielded repesentative bone concentration level in Tokyo and Ra-Ca O.R. (bone-diet) which appear consistent with the literature value for Sapporo and Kyoto by Ohno using a Rn emanation method. Specific effective energies for alpha radiation from 226 Ra and daughters were calculated using the ICRP dosimetric model for bone incorporating masses of source and target organs of Reference Japanese Man. Reference Japanese data including the adult, adolescent, child and infant of both sexes was extensively and intensively studied by Tanaka as part of the activities of the ICRP Task Group on Reference Man Revision. Normal data for the physical measurements, mass and dimension of internal organs and body surfaces and some of the body composition were analysed viewing the nutritional data in the Japanese population. Some of the above works are to be continued. (author)

  5. 40 CFR 81.77 - Puerto Rico Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Puerto Rico Air Quality Control Region... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.77 Puerto Rico Air Quality Control Region. The Puerto Rico Air Quality Control Region...

  6. 40 CFR 81.76 - State of Hawaii Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State of Hawaii Air Quality Control... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.76 State of Hawaii Air Quality Control Region. The State of Hawaii Air Quality...

  7. Conversion of an Alpha CAM Monitor of Victoreen calibrated of factory for plutonium in a measurement monitor of radon in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno y Moreno, A.

    2004-01-01

    It is presented in this work the conversion of a monitor ALPHA CAM of the monitor Victoreen gauged of it manufactures for plutonium in a monitor for radon mensuration in the atmosphere. Those units in that the radon measures are expressed are: peak curies/unit of volume of air to sampling. This way one has to gauge and to supplement the software and the parts that the old one monitor for plutonium. It requires. This task implies: a) To calibrate and to determine the efficiency of the detector of accustomed to state of 1700 mm 2 for alpha particles coming from the radioactive series of the radon. b) to connect in series and to calibrate a flow measurer of air in it lines with the detector. Measures are presented of the ambient air and other places of the the historical area of the city of Puebla obtained with the team Converted ALPHA-CAM. (Author)

  8. Purification and characterization of alpha-amylase from rat pancreatic acinar carcinoma. Comparison with pancreatic alpha-amylase.

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, M K; Heda, G D; Reddy, J K

    1987-01-01

    alpha-Amylase was purified to apparent homogeneity from normal pancreas and a transplantable pancreatic acinar carcinoma of the rat by affinity chromatography on alpha-glucohydrolase inhibitor (alpha-GHI) bound to aminohexyl-Sepharose 4B. Recovery was 95-100% for both pancreas and tumour alpha-amylases. They were monomeric proteins, with Mr approx. 54000 on SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. Isoelectric focusing of both normal and tumour alpha-amylases resolved each into two major isoenz...

  9. Continual improvement plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    NASA's approach to continual improvement (CI) is a systems-oriented, agency-wide approach that builds on the past accomplishments of NASA Headquarters and its field installations and helps achieve NASA's vision, mission, and values. The NASA of the future will fully use the principles of continual improvement in every aspect of its operations. This NASA CI plan defines a systematic approach and a model for continual improvement throughout NASA, stressing systems integration and optimization. It demonstrates NASA's constancy of purpose for improvement - a consistent vision of NASA as a worldwide leader in top-quality science, technology, and management practices. The CI plan provides the rationale, structures, methods, and steps, and it defines NASA's short term (1-year) objectives for improvement. The CI plan presents the deployment strategies necessary for cascading the goals and objectives throughout the agency. It also provides guidance on implementing continual improvement with participation from top leadership and all levels of employees.

  10. Continuing Medical Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Continuing Medical Education. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 25, No 9 (2007) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  11. Trieste will continue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1968-01-01

    Trieste will continue to be the home of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics for the foreseeable future. An agreement signed in Vienna during December between the Italian Government and the Agency brought this assurance. (author)

  12. Continuing Medical Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Continuing Medical Education. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 21, No 5 (2003) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  13. Human low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation by metmyoglobin/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}: involvement of {alpha}-tocopheroxyl and phosphatidylcholine alkoxyl radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witting, P.K.; Willhite, C.A.; Stocker, R.; Davies, M.J. [The Heart Research Institute, Camperdown, NSW (Australia)

    1998-12-31

    Full text: Metmyoglobin (metMb) and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} can oxidize low density lipoprotein (LDL) in vitro; formation of such oxidized LDL may be atherogenic. The role of {alpha}-tocopherol ({alpha}-TOH) in LDL oxidation by peroxidases, such as metMb is unclear. Herein we show that during metMb/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced oxidation of native, {alpha}-TOH-containing, LDL, {alpha}-tocopheroxyl radical ({alpha}-TO) and hydroperoxides and hydroxides of cholesteryl esters (CE-O(O)H) and phosphatidylcholine (PC-O(O)H) accumulated concomitantly with {alpha}-TOH consumption. Accumulation of CE-O(O)H was dependent on, and correlated with, LDL`s {alpha}-TOH content indicating that {alpha}-TO{sup .} acted as a chain-transfer agent and propagated LDL lipid peroxidation via tocopherol-mediated peroxidation (TMP). Further, the ratio of accumulating CE-O(O)H to PC-O(O)H remained constant in the presence {alpha}-TOH. Subsequent to {alpha}-TOH depletion, CE-O(O)H continued to accumulate, albeit at a lower rate than in the presence of {alpha}-TOH. This was accompanied by depletion of PC-OOH, a rapid increase in the CE-O(O)H/PC-O(O)H ratio, formation of lipid-derived alkoxyl radicals and phosphatidylcholine hydroxides (PC-OH), and accumulation of a second organic radical, characterized by a broad singlet EPR signal. The latter persisted for several hours at 37 deg C. We conclude that metMb/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced peroxidation of LDL lipids is not inhibited by {alpha}-TOH and occurs initially via TMP. After {alpha}-TOH depletion, cholesteryl esters peroxidize at higher fractional rates than surface phospholipids, and this appears to be mediated via reactions involving alkoxyl radicals derived from the peroxidatic activity of metMb on PC-OO

  14. Opposing actions of the progesterone metabolites, 5alpha-dihydroprogesterone (5alphaP) and 3alpha-dihydroprogesterone (3alphaHP) on mitosis, apoptosis, and expression of Bcl-2, Bax and p21 in human breast cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, John P; Beausoleil, Michel; Zhang, Guihua; Cialacu, Valentin

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that breast tissues and breast cell lines convert progesterone (P) to 5alpha-dihydroprogesterone (5alphaP) and 3alpha-dihydroprogesterone (3alphaHP) and that 3alphaHP suppresses, whereas 5alphaP promotes, cell proliferation and detachment. The objectives of the current studies were to determine if the 5alphaP- and 3alphaHP-induced changes in cell numbers are due to altered rates of mitosis and/or apoptosis, and if 3alphaHP and 5alphaP act on tumorigenic and non-tumorigenic cells, regardless of estrogen (E) and P receptor status. The studies were conducted on tumorigenic (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, T47D) and non-tumorigenic (MCF-10A) human breast cell lines, employing several methods to assess the effects of the hormones on cell proliferation, mitosis, apoptosis and expression of Bcl-2, Bax and p21. In all four cell lines, 5alphaP increased, whereas 3alphaHP decreased cell numbers, [(3)H]thymidine uptake and mitotic index. Apoptosis was stimulated by 3alphaHP and suppressed by 5alphaP. 5alphaP resulted in increases in Bcl-2/Bax ratio, indicating decreased apoptosis; 3alphaHP resulted in decreases in Bcl-2/Bax ratio, indicating increased apoptosis. The effects of either 3alphaHP or 5alphaP on cell numbers, [(3)H]thymidine uptake, mitosis, apoptosis, and Bcl-2/Bax ratio, were abrogated when cells were treated simultaneously with both hormones. The expression of p21 was increased by 3alphaHP, and was unaffected by 5alphaP. The results provide the first evidence that 5alphaP stimulates mitosis and suppresses apoptosis, whereas 3alphaHP inhibits mitosis and stimulates apoptosis. The opposing effects of 5alphaP and 3alphaHP were observed in all four breast cell lines examined and the data suggest that all breast cancers (estrogen-responsive and unresponsive) might be suppressed by blocking 5alphaP formation and/or increasing 3alphaHP. The findings further support the hypothesis that progesterone metabolites are key regulatory hormones and that changes

  15. Branching trajectory continual integral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslov, V.P.; Chebotarev, A.M.

    1980-01-01

    Heuristic definition of the Feynman continual integral over branching trajectories is suggested which makes it possible to obtain in the closed form the solution of the Cauchy problem for the model Hartree equation. A number of properties of the solution is derived from an integral representation. In particular, the quasiclassical asymptotics, exact solution in the gaussian case and perturbation theory series are described. The existence theorem for the simpliest continual integral over branching trajectories is proved [ru

  16. Low energy alphas in the drift detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snowden-Ifft, D.P.; Lawson, T.; Spooner, N.J.C.; Villaume, N.

    2004-01-01

    The Directional Recoil Identification From Tracks project is a US-UK endeavor to build and operate a low pressure negative ion TPC (NITPC) to search for weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) thought to make up the dark matter in our Galaxy. Low energy (∼10 keV) alpha events from U and Th decays within the walls and wires of the detector can enter the active volume of the detector and be confused for WIMP interactions. This paper presents data on and a model of low energy alphas in a NITPC operated at 40 Torr CS 2 with the aim of understanding and removing this potentially serious background. A comparison of the data to this model reveals good agreement with range predictions of SRIM2000 and allows us to calculate the energy dissipation per ion pair, W=19.0±0.5 eV for low energy alphas in CS 2

  17. Liver replacement for alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Charles W.; Porter, Kendrick A.; Peters, Robert L.; Ashcavai, Mary; Redeker, Allan G.; Starzl, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    A 16-year-old girl with advanced cirrhosis and severe alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency of the homozygous PiZZ phenotype was treated by orthotopic liver transplantation. After replacement of the liver with a homograft from a donor with the normal PiMM phenotype, the alpha1-antitrypsin concentration in the recipient’s serum rose to normal; it had the PiMM phenotype. Two and a third years later, chronic rejection necessitated retransplantation. Insertion of a homograft from a heterozygous PiMZ donar was followed by the identification of that phenotype in the recipient’s serum. Neither liver graft developed the alpha1-antitrypsin glycoprotein deposits seen with the deficiency state. These observations confirm that this hepatic- based inborn error metabolism is metabolically cured by liver replacement. PMID:320694

  18. Contribution of 222Rn in domestic water supplies to 222Rn in indoor air in Colorado homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, E.P.; Wanty, R.B.; Nyberg, P.

    1992-01-01

    The contribution of 222Rn from domestic water wells to indoor air was investigated in a study of 28 houses near Conifer, CO. Air concentrations determined by alpha-track detectors (ATDs) and continuous radon monitors were compared with the predictions of a single-cell model. In many of the houses, the water supply was shown to contribute significantly to levels of indoor 222Rn. The data from the ATD study were augmented with a continuous monitoring study of a house near Lyons, CO. The well water in that house has the highest known concentration of 222Rn in water yet reported (93 MBq m-3). The temporal pattern in the indoor 222Rn concentration corresponds to water-use records. In general, it is difficult to quantify the proportion of indoor radon attributable to water use. Several lines of evidence suggest that the single-cell model underestimates this proportion. Continuous-monitoring data, although useful, are impractical due to the cost of the equipment. We propose a protocol for 222Rn measurement based on three simultaneous integrating radon detectors that may help estimate the proportion of indoor 222Rn derived from the water supply

  19. Controlled air pyrolysis incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufrane, K.H.; Wilke, M.

    1982-01-01

    An advanced controlled air pyrolysis incinerator has been researched, developed and placed into commercial operation for both radioactive and other combustible wastes. Engineering efforts cocentrated on providing an incinerator which emitted a clean, easily treatable off-gas and which produced a minimum amount of secondary waste. Feed material is continuously fed by gravity into the system's pyrolysis chamber without sorting, shredding, or other such pretreatment. Metal objects, liquids such as oil and gasoline, or solid products such as resins, blocks of plastic, tire, animal carcasses, or compacted trash may be included along with normal processed waste. The temperature of the waste is very gradually increased in a reduced oxygen atmosphere. Volatile pyrolysis gases are produced, tar-like substances are cracked and the resulting product, a relatively uniform, easily burnable material, is introduced into the combustion chamber. Steady burning is thus accomplished under easily controlled excess air conditions with the off-gasthen passing through a simple dry clean-up system. Gas temperatures are then reduced by air dilution before passing through final HEPA filters. Both commercial and nuclear installations have been operated with the most recent application being the central incinerator to service West Germany's nuclear reactors

  20. Parallel Genetic Algorithm for Alpha Spectra Fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Orellana, Carlos J.; Rubio-Montero, Pilar; González-Velasco, Horacio

    2005-01-01

    We present a performance study of alpha-particle spectra fitting using parallel Genetic Algorithm (GA). The method uses a two-step approach. In the first step we run parallel GA to find an initial solution for the second step, in which we use Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) method for a precise final fit. GA is a high resources-demanding method, so we use a Beowulf cluster for parallel simulation. The relationship between simulation time (and parallel efficiency) and processors number is studied using several alpha spectra, with the aim of obtaining a method to estimate the optimal processors number that must be used in a simulation.

  1. Enteric alpha defensins in norm and pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisitsyn Nikolai A

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Microbes living in the mammalian gut exist in constant contact with immunity system that prevents infection and maintains homeostasis. Enteric alpha defensins play an important role in regulation of bacterial colonization of the gut, as well as in activation of pro- and anti-inflammatory responses of the adaptive immune system cells in lamina propria. This review summarizes currently available data on functions of mammalian enteric alpha defensins in the immune defense and changes in their secretion in intestinal inflammatory diseases and cancer.

  2. Clustering of Lyman-Alpha Emitters galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francke, Harold

    2009-06-01

    Galaxy clustering properties have been studied for decades to constrain cosmological parameters and have today, with large datasets of high-redshift sources piling up, become a powerful tool to discriminate and characterize primeval galaxies. In the last years, several Lyman-Alpha Emitter (LAE) galaxy samples have been gathered, which are big, uniform and compact enough to allow clustering analysis. Here we present a summary of the discussion session on the clustering properties of LAEs at the "Understanding Lyman-Alpha Emitters" conference.

  3. Diffusion of cobalt in alpha zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, U.; Pruthi, D.D.; Anand, M.S.

    1979-01-01

    The diffusion of 60 Co in alpha zirconium has been studied in the temperature range of 873-1123 K using the sectioning technique. The diffusion parameters obey the following Arrhenius equation:- D = (1.132 +- 0.22)10 -4 exp((-136.43 +- 3.50 KJ)/RT)m 2 s -1 . The diffusivity in this phase is as high as that observed in β-phase. It is also about five orders of magnitude higher when compared to the self diffusion values. The high diffusivity of cobalt in alpha zirconium has been explained on the basis of an interstitial mechanism. (auth.)

  4. Radiological hazards of alpha-contaminated waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    The radiological hazards of alpha-contaminated wastes are discussed in this overview in terms of two components of hazard: radiobiological hazard, and radioecological hazard. Radiobiological hazard refers to human uptake of alpha-emitters by inhalation and ingestion, and the resultant dose to critical organs of the body. Radioecological hazard refers to the processes of release from buried wastes, transport in the environment, and translocation to man through the food chain. Besides detailing the sources and magnitude of hazards, this brief review identifies the uncertainties in their estimation, and implications for the regulatory process

  5. The murine alpha B-crystallin/small heat shock protein enhancer: identification of alpha BE-1, alpha BE-2, alpha BE-3, and MRF control elements.

    OpenAIRE

    Gopal-Srivastava, R; Piatigorsky, J

    1993-01-01

    The murine alpha B-crystallin gene (a member of the small heat shock protein family) is expressed constitutively at high levels in the lens and at lower levels in many other tissues, including skeletal muscle. We have previously used the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase promoter fused to the human growth hormone gene to identify an alpha B-crystallin enhancer at positions -427 to -259 that has high activity in muscle and low activity in lens cell lines. In the study reported here, we per...

  6. Alpha-emitting nuclides in the marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentreath, R. J.

    1984-06-01

    The occurrence of alpha-emitting nuclides and their daughter products in the marine environment continues to be a subject of study for many reasons. Those nuclides which occur naturally, in the uranium, thorium and actinium series, are of interest because of their value in determining the rates of geological and geochemical processes in the oceans. Studies of them address such problems as the determination of rates of transfer of particulate matter, deposition rates, bioturbation rates, and so on. Two of the natural alpha-series nuclides in which a different interest has been expressed are 210Po and 226Ra, because their concentrations in marine organisms are such that they contribute to a significant fraction of the background dose rates sustained both by the organisms themselves and by consumers of marine fish and shellfish. To this pool of naturally-occurring nuclides, human activities have added the transuranium nuclides, both from the atmospheric testing of nuclear devices and from the authorized discharges of radioactive wastes into coastal waters and the deep sea. Studies have therefore been made to understand the chemistry of these radionuclides in sea water, their association with sedimentary materials, and their accumulation by marine organisms, the last of these being of particular interest because the transuranics are essentially "novel" elements to the marine fauna and flora. The need to predict the long-term behaviour of these nuclides has, in turn, stimulated research on those naturally-occurring nuclides which may behave in a similar manner.

  7. Alpha centauri unveiling the secrets of our nearest stellar neighbor

    CERN Document Server

    Beech, Martin

    2015-01-01

    As our closest stellar companion and composed of two Sun-like stars and a third small dwarf star, Alpha Centauri is an ideal testing ground of astrophysical models and has played a central role in the history and development of modern astronomy—from the first guesses at stellar distances to understanding how our own star, the Sun, might have evolved. It is also the host of the nearest known exoplanet, an ultra-hot, Earth-like planet recently discovered. Just 4.4 light years away Alpha Centauri is also the most obvious target for humanity’s first directed interstellar space probe. Such a mission could reveal the small-scale structure of a new planetary system and also represent the first step in what must surely be humanity’s greatest future adventure—exploration of the Milky Way Galaxy itself. For all of its closeness, α Centauri continues to tantalize astronomers with many unresolved mysteries, such as how did it form, how many planets does it contain and where are they, and how might we view its ex...

  8. Heuristic derivation of the Rossi-alpha formula for a pulsed neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeten, P.

    2004-01-01

    Expressions for the Rossi-alpha distribution for a pulsed neutron source were derived using a heuristic derivation based on the method of joint detection probability. This heuristic technique was chosen over the more rigorous master equation method due to its simplicity and the complementary of both techniques. The derived equations also take into account the presence of delayed neutrons and intrinsic neutron sources which often cannot be neglected in source-driven subcritical cores. The obtained expressions showed that the ratio of the correlated to the uncorrelated signal in the Rossi-Alpha distribution for a Pulsed Source (RAPS) was strongly increased compared to the case for a standard Rossi-alpha distribution for a continuous source. It was also demonstrated that by using this RAPS technique four independent measurement quantities, instead of three with the standard Rossi-alpha technique, can be determined. Hence, it is no longer necessary to combine the Rossi-alpha technique with another method to measure the reactivity expressed in dollars. Both properties, the increased signal-to-noise ratio of the correlated signal and the measurement of a fourth measurement quantity, make that the RAPS technique is an excellent candidate for the measurement of kinetic parameters in source-driven subcritical assemblies

  9. SELECTIVE INHIBITION OF HEPATITIS C VIRUS REPLICATION BY ALPHA-ZAM, A NIGELLA SATIVA SEED FORMULATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyero, Olufunmilayo G; Toyama, Masaaki; Mitsuhiro, Naoki; Onifade, Abdulfatah A; Hidaka, Akemi; Okamoto, Mika; Baba, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection became curable because of the development of direct acting antivirals (DAAs). However, the high cost of DAAs has greatly impeded their potential impact on the treatment of HCV infection. As a result, hepatitis C will continue to cause substantial morbidity, and mortality among chronically infected individuals in low and middle income countries. Thus, urgent need exists for developing cheaper drugs available to hepatitis C patients in these countries. Alpha-zam, an indigenous herbal formulation from Nigella sativa seed, was examined for its anti-HCV activity and cytotoxicity in genotype 1b HCV replicon cells. The antiviral activity was determined by luciferase expression and viral RNA synthesis, while the cytotoxicity was assessed by viable cell number and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase RNA synthesis in the replicon cells. Alpha-zam was found to be a selective inhibitor of HCV replication. The 50% effective dilution and 50% cytotoxic dilution of Alpha-zam were 761- and < 100-fold, respectively, in the subgenomic replicon cells LucNeo#2. Its selective inhibition of HCV was also confirmed by HCV RNA levels in LucNeo#2 and in the full-genome HCV replicon cells NNC#2 using real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Furthermore, the anti-HCV activity of Alpha-zam was not due to the induction of interferon. Alpha-zam selectively inhibits HCV replication and therefore has potential for a novel antiviral agent against HCV infection.

  10. USING THE WEB-SERVICES WOLFRAM|ALPHA TO SOLVE PROBLEMS IN PROBABILITY THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taras Kobylnyk

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The trend towards the use of remote network resources on the Internet clearly delineated. Traditional training combined with increasingly networked, remote technologies become popular cloud computing. Research methods of probability theory are used in various fields. Of particular note is the use of methods of probability theory in psychological and educational research in statistical analysis of experimental data. Conducting such research is impossible without the use of modern information technology. Given the advantages of web-based software, the article describes web-service Wolfram|Alpha. Detailed analysis of the possibilities of using web-service Wolfram|Alpha for solving problems of probability theory. In the case studies described the results of queries for solving of probability theory, in particular the sections random events and random variables. Considered and analyzed the problem of the number of occurrences of event A in n independent trials using Wolfram|Alpha, detailed analysis of the possibilities of using the service Wolfram|Alpha for the study of continuous random variable that has a normal and uniform probability distribution, including calculating the probability of getting the value of a random variable in a given interval. The problem in applying the binomial and hypergeometric probability distribution of a discrete random variable and demonstrates the possibility of using the service Wolfram|Alpha for solving it.

  11. Recoil-alpha-fission and recoil-alpha-alpha-fission events observed in the reaction Ca-48 + Am-243

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forsberg, U.; Rudolph, D.; Andersson, L. -L.; Nitto, A. Di; Düllmann, Ch E.; Gates, J. M.; Golubev, P.; Gregorich, K. E.; Gross, C. J.; Herzberg, R. -D.; Hessberger, F. P.; Khuyagbaatar, J.; Kratz, J. V.; Rykaczewski, K.; Sarmiento, L. G.; Schädel, M.; Yakushev, A.; Åberg, S.; Ackermann, D.; Block, M.; Brand, H.; Carlsson, B. G.; Cox, D.; Derkx, X.; Dobaczewski, J.; Eberhardt, K.; Even, J.; Fahlander, C.; Gerl, J.; Jäger, E.; Kindler, B.; Krier, J.; Kojouharov, I.; Kurz, N.; Lommel, B.; Mistry, A.; Mokry, C.; Nazarewicz, W.; Nitsche, H.; Omtvedt, J. P.; Papadakis, P.; Ragnarsson, I.; Runke, J.; Schaffner, H.; Schausten, B.; Shi, Y.; Thörle-Pospiech, P.; Torres, T.; Traut, T.; Trautmann, N.; Türler, A.; Ward, A.; Ward, D. E.; Wiehl, N.

    2016-01-01

    Products of the fusion-evaporation reaction Ca-48 + Am-243 were studied with the TASISpec set-up at the gas-filled separator TASCA at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum f\\"ur Schwerionenforschung. Amongst the detected thirty correlated alpha-decay chains associated with the production of element Z=115, two

  12. Alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtypes in the rat ventricular muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinami, J; Tsuchihashi, H; Baba, S; Mano, F; Maruyama, K; Nagatomo, T

    1992-02-01

    Scatchard analyses of [3H]prazosin binding in rat ventricular muscle membranes showed biphasic curves, which identified alpha 1High- and alpha 1Low-affinity sites. The alpha 1High-affinity site was completely inhibited by 1 microM phenoxybenzamine. The displacement potencies of alpha 1-adrenergic antagonists were characterized by [3H]prazosin binding to alpha 1High- and alpha 1Low-affinity sites in the absence and presence of 1 microM phenoxybenzamine. The affinities of most chemicals for alpha 1Low-affinity sites were significantly lower than those for alpha 1High-affinity sites, but WB-4101 (2-(2,6-dimethoxy-phenoxyethyl)aminomethyl-1,4-benzodioxane), arotinolol, cinanserin, nifedipine, and p-aminoclonidine had the same affinities for both alpha 1Low- and alpha 1High-affinity sites. These results show that two alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtypes, alpha 1High- and alpha 1Low-affinity, are present in the rat heart, and that there are physical variations in alpha 1-adrenoceptor binding sites, based on their selectivity to antagonists.

  13. Physiological characterisation of recombinant Aspergillus nidulans strains with different creA genotypes expressing A-oryzae alpha-amylase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Teit; Petersen, J.B.; O'Connor, S.M.

    2002-01-01

    The physiology of three strains of Aspergillus nidulans was examined-a creA deletion strain, a wild type creA genotype and a strain containing extra copies of the creA gene, all producing Aspergillus oryzae alpha-amylase. The strains were cultured in batch and continuous cultivations and the biom......The physiology of three strains of Aspergillus nidulans was examined-a creA deletion strain, a wild type creA genotype and a strain containing extra copies of the creA gene, all producing Aspergillus oryzae alpha-amylase. The strains were cultured in batch and continuous cultivations...... and the biomass formation and alpha-amylase production was characterised. Overexpression of the creA gene resulted in a lower maximum specific growth rate and a slightly higher repression of the alpha-amylase production during conditions with high glucose concentration. No expression of creA also resulted...... in a decreased maximum specific growth rate, but also in drastic changes in morphology. Furthermore, the expression of alpha-amylase was completely derepressed and creA thus seems to be the only regulatory protein responsible for glucose repression of alpha-amylase expression. The effect of different carbon...

  14. Air movement and perceived air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Kaczmarczyk, J.

    2012-01-01

    The impact of air movement on perceived air quality (PAQ) and sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms was studied. In total, 124 human subjects participated in four series of experiments performed in climate chambers at different combinations of room air temperature (20, 23, 26 and 28 °C), relative....... min. Acceptability of PAQ and freshness of the air improved when air movement was applied. The elevated air movement diminished the negative impact of increased air temperature, relative humidity and pollution level on PAQ. The degree of improvement depended on the pollution level, the temperature...

  15. Six HLA-D region alpha-chain genes on human chromosome 6: polymorphisms and associations of DC alpha-related sequences with DR types.

    OpenAIRE

    Spielman, R S; Lee, J; Bodmer, W F; Bodmer, J G; Trowsdale, J

    1984-01-01

    Analysis of cosmid clones containing genes related to the HLA-DR alpha chain calls for at least six HLA-D region alpha-chain coding sequences in man; namely, DR alpha, DC alpha, DX alpha (very closely related to DC alpha), SB alpha 1, SB alpha 2 (two closely linked genes on the same cosmid clones), and DZ alpha. The first four genes have been described previously. SB alpha 2 and DZ alpha are recently identified genes, characterized by their unique and, from a limited study, nonpolymorphic ban...

  16. Phenomenological Alpha-Alpha Interactions and its Application on 16O Nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qandil, O.S.A.A.

    2013-01-01

    The thesis includes the study of alpha-alpha interactions and apply them to the nucleus of the 16 O by using Hartree-Fock method for bosons. The used potentials are Ali-Bodmer potential, Modified Woods- Saxon potential, Fish-Bone I (FB-I) and Fish-Bone II (FB-II) potential. Also, the properties of nuclear structure of 16 O nucleus are calculated such as binding energy, form factor and root mean square radius. The results we have obtained were compared with previous results in the same field of research topic. This work requires knowledge of different kinds of potentials and the difference between the phenomenological and microscopic interactions and research in Hartree-Fock method and nuclear models, especially shell model. The content of the present thesis can be summarized as the following: The first Chapter, (Introduction), presents detailed informations about the nuclear structure, clustering, alpha clustering and nuclear models especially the shell model. Also, a review of previous researches in the research topic ( phenomenological alpha- alpha interactions). The second chapter, (Alpha-Alpha interactions), many types of phenomenological alpha-alpha interactions and its various forms are displayed, including what has been used in the thesis.The third chapter, (Derivation of Hartree-Fock Method for Bosons), illustrates the theoretical calculations which have been used in the thesis, the derivation of the Hartree-Fock method for bosons, the variational method and the derivation of binding energy, form factor and root mean square radius equations. the fourth chapter, (Numerical Results and Discussion), includes the present theoretical results of the nuclear structure of 16 O nucleus using the previous four potentials, and comparing our present results with the experimental and previous theoretical ones.

  17. Thermochemical Stability of alpha-Amino-alpha-carbonylmethyl Radicals and Their Resonance As Measured by ESR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welle, Frank M.; Beckhaus, Hans-Dieter; Rüchardt, Christoph

    1997-02-07

    ESR spectra of the captodative alpha-amino-alpha-carbonylmethyl radicals 8 have been recorded. No coalescence temperature for the rotation of the two NMe groups was found at temperatures below the decomposition temperature of the radicals. From known coalescence temperatures and rotational barriers of substituted methyl radicals the rotational barrier of >/=17 kcal mol(-)(1) was estimated for the (*)C-N bond in the radicals 8. Enthalpies DeltaH(diss) and entropies DeltaS(diss) of the homolytic dissociation of 7a,c,d into 8a,c,d have been obtained from equilibrium measurements by ESR. By correcting for substituent interaction enthalpies in 7 (steric and geminal), a radical stabilization enthalpy RSE = -20.7 +/- 1.0 kcal mol(-)(1) was obtained for 8. By addition of the known RSEs of dialkylamino- and carbonyl groups, a RSE = -9.9 kcal mol(-)(1) is predicted for 8. The difference between the experimental and predicted values of 10.8 kcal mol(-)(1) is attributed to a synergistic captodative substituent effect. A linear correlation between the radical stabilization enthalpies of the radicals 8 and of other mono- and disubstituted alkyl radicals and their ESR aH(alpha) coupling constants was found. According to this correlation the reduction of aH(alpha) by 1 G corresponds to an increase in RSE of 1.57 kcal mol(-)(1). The large resonance of the captodative alpha-amino-alpha-carbonylmethyl radicals 3, expressed by their high RSE, their small aH(alpha) coupling constant, and their high rotational barrier, can be rationalized by a strong interaction between the alpha-amino and the alpha-carbonyl groups similar to that in amides and expressed in the resonance structures 6.

  18. Patterns of alpha, beta and gamma diversity of the herpetofauna in Mexico’s Pacific lowlands and adjacent interior valleys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García, A.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The latitudinal distribution patterns of alpha, beta and gamma diversity of reptiles, amphibians and herpetofauna were analyzed using individual binary models of potential distribution for 301 species predicted by ecological modelling for a grid of 9,932 quadrants of ~25 km2 each. We arranged quadrants in 312 latitudinal bands in which alpha, beta and gamma values were determined. Latitudinal trends of all scales of diversity were similar in all groups. Alpha and gamma responded inversely to latitude whereas beta showed a high latitudinal fluctuation due to the high number of endemic species. Alpha and gamma showed a strong correlation in all groups. Beta diversity is an important component of the herpetofauna distribution patterns as a continuous source of species diversity throughout the region.

  19. Production of pi /sup 0/ at large transverse momentum in alpha alpha and alpha p collisions at the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings

    CERN Document Server

    Karabarbounis, A; Fields, T; Filippas-Tassos, A; Fokitis, E; Goldberg, M; Kourkoumelis, C; Lissauer, D; Mannelli, I; Molzon, W; Mouzourakis, P; Palmer, R B; Rahm, David Charles; Rehak, P; Resvanis, L K; Stumer, I; Trakkas, C; Willis, W

    1981-01-01

    Inclusive pi /sup 0/ production has been measured at the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings in alpha alpha and alpha p collisions near 90 degrees , for p/sub T/ between 2 and 5 GeV/c. The differential cross sections show a slower exponential fall-off with p/sub T/ than has been observed in pp collisions at the corresponding nucleon- nucleon centre-of-mass energies at large p/sub T/. The ratio of the pi /sup 0/ production cross sections for alpha alpha collisions to those for pp collisions is observed to be larger than 16. (8 refs).

  20. A survey of the alpha-nucleon interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.; Ahmad, A.A.Z.; Ferdous, N.

    1984-10-01

    A survey of the alpha-nucleon interaction is made. The experimental work on angular distributions of differential scattering cross-sections and polarizations in proton-alpha and neutron-alpha scattering is described. The phenomenological approach which includes the study of both local and non-local potentials reproducing the experimental alpha-nucleon scattering data, is discussed. Basic studies of the alpha-nucleon interaction attempting to build an interaction between an alpha particle and a nucleon from first principles are then described. A critical discussion of the results with some concluding remarks suggesting the direction for further investigation is made. (author)