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Sample records for alpha beta forms

  1. Recognition of base pair inversions in duplex by chimeric (alpha,beta) triplex-forming oligonucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeev, Edward N; Goryaeva, Baira V; Florentiev, Vladimir L

    2006-10-01

    DNA recognition by triplex-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) is usually limited by homopurine-homopyrimidine sequence in duplexes. Modifications of the third strand may overcome this limitation. Chimeric alpha-beta TFOs are expected to form triplex DNA upon binding to non-regular sequence duplexes. In the present study we describe binding properties of chimeric alpha-beta oligodeoxynucleotides in the respect to short DNA duplexes with one, three, and five base pair inversions. Non-natural chimeric TFO's contained alpha-thymidine residues inside (GT) or (GA) core sequences. Modified residues were addressed to AT/TA inversions in duplexes. It was found in the non-denaturing gel-electrophoresis experiments that single or five adjacent base pair inversions in duplexes may be recognized by chimeric alpha-beta TFO's at 10 degrees C and pH 7.8. Three dispersed base pair inversions in the double stranded DNA prevented triplex formation by either (GT) or (GA) chimeras. Estimation of thermal stability of chimeric alpha-beta triplexes showed decrease in T(m) values as compared with unmodified complexes. PMID:16928141

  2. Cloning of somatolactin alpha, beta forms and the somatolactin receptor in Atlantic salmon: Seasonal expression profile in pituitary and ovary of maturing female broodstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taranger Geir

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Somatolactin (Sl is a fish specific adenohypophyseal peptide hormone related to growth hormone (Gh. Some species, including salmonids, possess two forms: Sl alpha and Sl beta. The somatolactin receptor (slr is closely related to the growth hormone receptor (ghr. Sl has been ascribed many physiological functions, including a role in sexual maturation. In order to clarify the role of Sl in the sexual maturation of female Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar, the full length cDNAs of slr, Sl alpha and Sl beta were cloned and their expression was studied throughout a seasonal reproductive cycle using real-time quantitative PCR (RTqPCR. Methods Atlantic salmon Sl alpha, Sl beta and slr cDNAs were cloned using a PCR approach. Gene expression of Sl alpha, SL beta and slr was studied using RTqPCR over a 17 month period encompassing pre-vitellogenesis, vitellogenesis, ovulation and post ovulation in salmon females. Histological examination of ovarian samples allowed for the classification according to the degree of follicle maturation into oil drop, primary, secondary or tertiary yolk stage. Results The mature peptide sequences of Sl alpha, Sl beta and slr are highly similar to previously cloned salmonid forms and contained the typical motifs. Phylogenetic analysis of Atlantic salmon Sl alpha and Sl beta shows that these peptides group into the two Sl clades present in some fish species. The Atlantic salmon slr grouped with salmonid slr amongst so-called type I ghr. An increase in pituitary Sl alpha and Sl beta transcripts before and during spawning, with a decrease post-ovulation, and a constant expression level of ovarian slr were observed. There was also a transient increase in Sl alpha and Sl beta in May prior to transfer from seawater to fresh water and ensuing fasting. Conclusion The up-regulation of Sl alpha and Sl beta during vitellogenesis and spawning, with a subsequent decrease post-ovulation, supports a role for Sl during gonadal

  3. beta-Hexosaminidase isozymes from cells cotransfected with alpha and beta cDNA constructs: analysis of the alpha-subunit missense mutation associated with the adult form of Tay-Sachs disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, C. A.; Mahuran, D. J.

    1993-01-01

    In vitro mutagenesis and transient expression in COS cells has been used to associate a missense mutation with a clinical or biochemical phenotype. Mutations affecting the alpha-subunit of beta-hexosaminidase A (alpha beta) (E.C.3.2.1.52) result in Tay-Sachs disease. Because hexosaminidase A is heterodimeric, analysis of alpha-chain mutations is not straightforward. We examine three approaches utilizing previously identified mutations affecting alpha-chain folding. These involve transfection ...

  4. Why do alpha-beta parallel proteins, like flavodoxins, form misfolded off-pathway intermediates?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nabuurs, S.M.

    2009-01-01

    The question: “Why do α-β parallel proteins, like flavodoxins, form misfolded off-pathway intermediates?" is the main subject of this thesis. A. vinelandii apoflavodoxin is chosen as protein of interest as it is a representative of α-β parallel proteins, which are widely prevalent in nature. The

  5. [beta]-hexosaminidase isozymes from cells cotransfected with [alpha] and [beta] cDNA constructs: Analysis of the [alpha]-subunit missense mutation associated with the adult form of Tay-Sachs disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, C.A.; Mahuran, D.J. (Univ. of Toronto (Canada))

    1993-08-01

    In vitro mutagenesis and transient expression in COS cells has been used to associate a missense mutation with a clinical or biochemical phenotype. Mutations affecting the [alpha]-subunit of [beta]-hexosaminidase A ([alpha][beta]) (E.C.3.2.1.52) result in Tay-Sachs disease. Because hexosaminidase A is heterodimeric, analysis of [alpha]-chain mutations is not straightforward. The authors examine three approaches utilizing previously identified mutations affecting [alpha]-chain folding. These involve transfection of (1) the [alpha] cDNA alone; (2) a [beta] cDNA construct encoding a [beta]-subunit substituted at a position homologous to that of the [alpha]-subunit, and (3) both [alpha] and [beta] cDNAs. The latter two procedures amplified residual activity levels over that of patient samples, an effect not previously found with mutations affecting an [open quotes]active[close quotes] [alpha]Arg residue. This effect may help to discriminate between protein-folding and active-site mutations. The authors conclude that, with proper controls, the latter method of cotransfection can be used to evaluate the effects and perhaps to predict the clinical course of some [alpha]-chain mutations. Using this technique, they demonstrate that the adult-onset Tay-Sachs mutation, [alpha]Gly[yields]Ser[sup 269], does not directly affect [alpha][beta] dimerization but exerts an indirect effect on the dimer through destabilizing the folded [alpha]-subunit at physiological temperatures. Two other [alpha] mutations linked to more severe phenotypes appear to inhibit the initial folding of the subunit. 36 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Reactions of the alkoxy radicals formed following OH-addition to alpha-pinene and beta-pinene. C-C bond scission reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibble, T S

    2001-05-01

    The atmospheric degradation pathways of the atmospherically important terpenes alpha-pinene and beta-pinene are studied using density functional theory. We employ the correlation functional of Lee, Yang, and Parr and the three-parameter HF exchange functional of Becke (B3LYP) together with the 6-31G(d) basis set. The C-C bond scission reactions of the beta-hydroxyalkoxy radicals that are formed after OH addition to alpha-pinene and beta-pinene are investigated. Both of the alkoxy radicals formed from the alpha-pinene-OH adduct possess a single favored C-C scission pathway with an extremely low barrier (approximately 3 kcal/mol) leading to the formation of pinonaldehyde. Neither of these pathways produces formaldehyde, and preliminary computational results offer some support for suggestions that 1,5 or 1,6 H-shift (isomerization) reactions of alkoxy radicals contribute to formaldehyde production. In the case of the alkoxy radical formed following OH addition to the methylene group of beta-pinene, there exists two C-C scission reactions with nearly identical barrier heights (approximately 7.5 kcal/mol); one leads to known products (nopinone and formaldehyde) but the ultimate products of the competing reaction are unknown. The single C-C scission pathway of the other alkoxy radical from beta-pinene possesses a very low (approximately 4 kcal/mol) barrier. The kinetically favored C-C scission reactions of all four alkoxy radicals appear to be far faster than expected rates of reaction with O2. The rearrangement of the alpha-pinene-OH adduct, a key step in the proposed mechanism of formation of acetone from alpha-pinene, is determined to possess a barrier of 11.6 kcal/mol. This value is consistent with another computational result and is broadly consistent with the modest acetone yields observed in product yield studies.

  7. From beta-relaxation to alpha-decay: Atomistic picture from molecular dynamics simulations for glass-forming Ni0.5Zr0.5 melt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In glass-forming melts the decay of structural fluctuation shows the well known transition from beta-relaxation (von-Schweidler law with exponent b) to alpha-decay (KWW law with exponent beta). Here we present results from molecular dynamics simulations for a metallic glass forming Ni0.5Zr0.5 model aimed at giving an understanding of this transition on the atomistic scale. At the considered temperature below mode coupling Tc, the dynamics of the system can be interpreted by residence of the particles in their neighbour cages and escape from the cages as rare processes. Our analysis yields that the fraction of residing particles is characterized by a hierarchical law in time, with von-Schweidler b explicitly related to the exponent of this law. In the alpha-decay regime the stretching exponent reflects, in addition, floating of the cages due to strain effects of escaped particles. Accordingly, the change from beta-relaxation to alpha-decay indicates the transition from low to large fraction of escaped particles.

  8. A Trp474Cys mutation in the alpha-subunit of beta-hexosaminidase causes a subacute encephalopathic form of G{sub M2} gangliosidosis, type 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petroulakis, E.; Cao, Z.; Salo, T. [Univ. of Manitoba, Winnipeg (Canada)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Mutations in the HEXA gene that encodes the {alpha}-subunit of the heterodimeric lysosomal enzyme {beta}-hexosaminidase A, or Hex A ({alpha}{beta}), cause G{sub M2} gangliosidosis, type 1. The infantile form (Tay-Sachs disease) results when there is no residual Hex A activity, while less severe and more variable clinical phenotypes result when residual Hex A activity is present. A non-Jewish male who presented with an acute psychotic episode at age 16 was diagnosed with a subacute encephalopathic form of G{sub M2} gangliosidosis. At age 19, chronic psychosis with intermittent acute exacerbations remains the most disabling symptom in this patient and his affected brother although both exhibit some ataxia and moderately severe dysarthria. We have found a 4 bp insertion (+TATC 1278) associated with infantile Tay-Sachs disease on one allele; no previously identified mutation was found on the second allele. SSCP analysis detected a shift in exon 13 and sequencing revealed a G1422C mutation in the second allele that results in a Trp474Cys substitution. The presence of the mutation was confirmed by the loss of HaeIII and ScrFI sites in exon 13 PCR products from the subjects and their father. The mutation was introduced into the {alpha}-subunit cDNA and Hex S ({alpha}{alpha}) and Hex A ({alpha}{beta}) were transiently expressed in monkey COS-7 cells. The Trp474Cys mutant protein had approximately 5% and 12% of wild-type Hex S and Hex A activity, respectively. Western blot analysis revealed a small amount of residual mature {alpha}-subunit and a normal level of precursor protein. We conclude that the Trp474Cys mutation is the cause of the Hex A deficiency associated with a subacute (juvenile-onset) phenotype in this patient. Like other mutations in exon 13 of HEXA, it appears to affect intracellular processing. Studies of the defect in intracellular processing are in progress.

  9. Synthesis of beta-hexosaminidase in cell-free translation and in intact fibroblasts: an insoluble precursor alpha chain in a rare form of Tay-Sachs disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Proia, R L; Neufeld, E F

    1982-01-01

    RNA was isolated from human term placenta or cultured fibroblasts and translated in a rabbit reticulocyte system in the presence of [35S]methionine; the translation products were immunoprecipitated with antisera made against beta-hexosaminidase or its isolated alpha and beta chains and analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The largest translated alpha and beta chain polypeptides had Mrs of 65,000 and 59,000, respectively. These are approximately equal to 2,000 greater than the Mrs o...

  10. Evaporation rates and vapor pressures of individual aerosol species formed in the atmospheric oxidation of alpha- and beta-pinene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilde, M; Pandis, S N

    2001-08-15

    The semivolatile oxidation products (trans-norpinic acid, pinic acid, cis-pinonic acid, etc.) of the biogenic monoterpenes (alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, etc.) contribute to the atmospheric burden of particulate matter. Using the tandem differential mobility analysis (TDMA) technique evaporation rates of glutaric acid, trans-norpinic acid, and pinic acid particles were measured in a laminar flow reactor. The vapor pressure of glutaric acid was found to be log(p0 glutaric/Pa) = - 3,510 K/T + 8.647 over the temperature range 290-300 K in good agreement with the values previously reported by Tao and McMurry (1989). The measured vapor pressure of trans-norpinic acid over the temperature range 290-312 K is log(p0 norpinic/Pa) = - 2,196.9 K/T + 3.522, and the vapor pressure of pinic acid is log(p0 pinic/ Pa) = - 5,691.7 K/T + 14.73 over the temperature range 290-323 K. The uncertainty on the reported vapor pressures is estimated to be approximately +/- 50%. The vapor pressure of cis-pinonic acid is estimated to be of the order of 7 x 10(-5) Pa at 296 K.

  11. The Val{sup 192}Leu mutation in the {alpha}-subunit of {beta}-hexosaminidase A is not associated with the B1-variant form of Tay-Sachs disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Y.; Vavougios, G.; Hinek, A. [Univ. of Toronto (Canada)] [and others

    1996-07-01

    Substitution mutations adversely affecting the {alpha}-subunit of {beta}-hexosaminidase A ({alpha}{beta}) (EC 3.2.1.52) result in Tay-Sachs disease. The majority affect the initial folding of the pro-{alpha} chain in the endoplasmic reticulum, resulting in its retention and degradation. A much less common occurrence is a mutation that specifically affects an {open_quotes}active-site{close_quotes} residue necessary for substrate binding and/or catalysis. In this case, hexosaminidase A is present in the lysosome, but it lacks all {alpha}-specific activity. This biochemical phenotype is referred to as the {open_quotes}B1-variant form{close_quotes} of Tay-Sachs disease. Kinetic analysis of suspected B1-variant mutations is complex because hexosaminidase A is heterodimeric and both subunits possess similar active sites. In this report, we examine a previously identified B1-variant mutation, {alpha}-Val{sup 192}Leu. Chinese hamster ovary cells were permanently cotransfected with an {alpha}-cDNA-construct encoding the substitution and a mutant {beta}-cDNA ({beta}-Arg{sup 211}Lys), encoding a {beta}-subunit that is inactive but normal in all other respects. We were surprised to find that the Val{sup 192}Leu substitution produced a pro-{alpha} chain that did not form {alpha}-{beta} dimers and was not transported to the lysosome. Finally, we reexamined the hexosaminidase activity and protein levels in the fibroblasts from the original patient. These data were also not consistent with the biochemical phenotype of the B1 variant of Tay-Sachs disease previously reported to be present. Thus, we conclude that the Val{sup 192}Leu substitution does not specifically affect the {alpha}-active site. 23 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Thermodynamics in $f(R,R_{\\alpha\\beta}R^{\\alpha\\beta},\\phi)$ theory of gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Zubair, M; Bahamonde, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    First and second laws of black hole thermodynamics are examined at the apparent horizon of FRW spacetime in $f(R,R_{\\alpha\\beta}R^{\\alpha\\beta} ,\\phi)$ gravity, where $R$, $R_{\\alpha\\beta}$ and $\\phi$ are the Ricci scalar, Ricci invariant and the scalar field respectively. In this modified theory, Friedmann equations are formulated for any spatial curvature. These equations can be presented into the form of first law of thermodynamics $T_{h}d\\hat{S}_{h}+ T_{h}d_{i}\\hat{S}_{h}+W dV=dE$, where $d_{i}\\hat{S}_{h}$ is an extra entropy term because of the non-equilibrium presentation of the equations. The generalized second law of thermodynamics (GSLT) is expressed in an inclusive form where these results can be represented, in GR, $f(R)$ and $f(R, \\phi)$ gravities. Finally to check the validity of GSLT, we take some particular models and produce constraints of the parameters.

  13. Cosmological reconstruction and energy bounds in $f(R,R_{\\alpha \\beta}R^{\\alpha\\beta},\\phi)$ gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Zubair, M

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the cosmological reconstruction of $f(R,R_{\\alpha\\beta}R^{\\alpha\\beta},\\phi)$ (where $R$, $R_{\\alpha\\beta}R^{\\alpha\\beta}$ and $\\phi$ represents the Ricci scalar, Ricci invariant and scalar field) corresponding to power law and de Sitter evolution in the framework of FRW universe model. We derive the energy conditions for this modified theory which seem to be more general and can be reduced to some known forms of these conditions in general relativity, $f(R)$ and $f(R,\\phi)$ theories. We have presented the general constraints in terms of recent values of snap, jerk, deceleration and Hubble parameters. The energy bounds are analyzed for reconstructed as well as known models in this theory. Finally, the free parameters are analyzed comprehensively.

  14. Rare-earth doped (alpha'/beta')-sialon ceramics

    CERN Document Server

    Gajum, N R

    2001-01-01

    combination of light and heavy rare-earth (Yb-Nd and Gd-Nd), and then pressureless sintered and compared with the single cation materials. Materials in the as sintered state were composed of a high alpha' sialon content with a minor amount of beta' sialon and 12H A1N polytype indicating that the heavy rare-earth (which is the principal alpha' stabilizer) has a dominant effect although EDAX analysis confirmed the presence of both cations (light and heavy) within the alpha' structure. The research also compared, and developed an understanding of, the thermal stability of alpha'-sialon using single Yb or mixed cations. The Yb single cation alpha'/beta' materials exhibited excellent stability over a range of temperature (1200 - 1600 deg C) and for different periods of time up to 168 hrs. The heat treatments result in the crystallisation of the residual phase as a Yb garnet phase which formed at approx 1300 deg C. The mixed cation alpha'/beta' materials showed some alpha'-beta' transformation. The transformation w...

  15. Smart Beta or Smart Alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Kenneth Lillelund; Steenstrup, Søren Resen

    2016-01-01

    Smart beta has become the flavor of the decade in the investment world with its low fees, easy access to rewarded risk premiums, and appearance of providing good investment results relative to both traditional passive benchmarks and actively managed funds. Although we consider it well documented......-documented smart beta risk premiums and still motivate active managers to avoid value traps, too highly priced small caps, defensives, etc. By constructing the equity portfolios of active managers that resemble the most widely used risk premiums, we show that the returns and risk-adjusted returns measures...

  16. Osmotic fragility test in heterozygotes for alpha and beta thalassaemia.

    OpenAIRE

    Maccioni, L; Cao, A

    1985-01-01

    This study shows that the combination of heterozygous beta thalassaemia and deletion heterozygous (-alpha/alpha alpha) or homozygous (-alpha/-alpha) alpha+ thalassaemia may result in the production of erythrocytes which have normal mean volume and haemoglobinisation but decreased osmotic fragility. Based on this finding and previous studies, which have shown that beta thalassaemia screening by the osmotic fragility test may miss a significant proportion of beta thalassaemia heterozygotes, we ...

  17. Characterization of beta-R1, a gene that is selectively induced by interferon beta (IFN-beta) compared with IFN-alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, M R; Foster, G R; Leung, S; Leaman, D; Stark, G R; Ransohoff, R M

    1996-09-13

    We report preliminary characterization of a gene designated beta-R1, which is selectively expressed in response to interferon beta (IFN-beta) compared with IFN-alpha. In human astrocytoma cells, beta-R1 was induced to an equivalent extent by 10 IU/mL IFN-beta or 2500 IU/mL IFN-alpha2. To address the mechanism of this differential response, we analyzed induction of the beta-R1 gene in fibrosarcoma cells and derivative mutant cells lacking components required for signaling by type I IFNs. beta-R1 was readily induced by IFN-beta in the parental 2fTGH cell line, but not by recombinant IFN-alpha2, IFN-alpha Con1, or a mixture of IFN-alpha subtypes. IFN-alpha8 induced beta-R1 weakly. beta-R1 was not induced by IFN-beta in mutant cell lines U2A, U3A, U4A, and U6A, which lack, respectively, p48, STAT1, JAK1, and STAT2. U5A cells, which lack the Ifnar 2.2 component of the IFN-alpha and -beta receptor, also failed to express beta-R1. U1A cells are partially responsive to IFN-beta and IFN-alpha8 but lacked beta-R1 expression, indicating that TYK2 protein is essential for induction of this gene. Taken together, these results suggest that the expression of beta-R1 in response to type I IFN requires IFN-stimulated gene factor 3 plus an additional component, which is more efficiently formed on induction by IFN-beta compared with IFN-alpha.

  18. Binding of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) to pregnancy zone protein (PZP). Comparison to the TGF-beta-alpha 2-macroglobulin interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, A; Bostedt, L; Stigbrand, T; O'Connor-McCourt, M D

    1994-04-15

    Pregnancy zone protein (PZP) is quantitatively the most important pregnancy-associated plasma protein and it has strong similarity to alpha 2-macroglobulin. Since alpha 2-macroglobulin is a binding protein for transforming growth factors-beta (TGF-beta), it was of interest to test whether the related protein, PZP, also binds to these growth-regulatory proteins. Using affinity-labelling methods, we demonstrate that PZP binds both TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta 2 and that the binding characteristics are similar to those of the TGF-beta-alpha 2-macroglobulin interaction. TGF-beta 2 and TGF-beta 1 bind to PZP in a predominantly noncovalent manner in vitro. TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta 2 bind to both the dimeric and tetrameric forms of PZP. Our studies also indicate that PZP binds TGF-beta 2 with higher affinity than TGF-beta 1. Finally, we demonstrate that PZP inhibits the binding of TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta 2 to their cell surface receptors. The increased level of PZP during pregnancy may affect the action of TGF-beta by regulating the distribution, clearance and/or general availability of TGF-beta. The preferential binding of TGF-beta 2 over TGF-beta 1 by PZP implies that PZP may differentially regulate the action of TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta 2.

  19. Shared receptor components but distinct complexes for alpha and beta interferons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewerenz, M; Mogensen, K E; Uzé, G

    1998-09-25

    The type I interferon family includes 13 alpha, one omega and one beta subtypes recognized by a complex containing the receptor subunits ifnar1 and ifnar2 and their associated Janus tyrosine kinases, Tyk2 and Jak1. To investigate the reported differences in the way that alpha and beta interferons signal through the receptor, we introduced alanine-substitutions in the ifnar2 extracellular domain, and expressed the mutants in U5A cells, lacking endogenous ifnar2. A selection, designed to recover mutants that responded preferentially to alpha or beta interferon yielded three groups: I, neutral; II, sensitive to alpha interferon, partially resistant to beta interferon; III, resistant to alpha interferon, partially sensitive to beta interferon. A mutant clone, TMK, fully resistant to alpha interferon with good sensitivity to beta interferon, was characterized in detail and compared with U5A cells complemented with wild-type ifnar2 and also with Tyk2-deficient 11.1 cells, which exhibit a similar alpha-unresponsive phenotype with a partial beta interferon response. Using anti-receptor antibodies and mutant forms of beta interferon, three distinct modes of ligand interaction could be discerned: (i) alpha interferon with ifnar1 and ifnar2; (ii) beta interferon with ifnar1 and ifnar2; (iii) beta interferon with ifnar2 alone. We conclude that alpha and beta interferons signal differently through their receptors because the two ligand subtypes interact with the receptor subunits ifnar 1 and ifnar2 in entirely different ways.

  20. Source preparations for alpha and beta measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm, E. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    2001-01-01

    Regarding alpha particle emitters subject for environmental studies, electrodeposition or co-precipitation as fluorides are the most common methods. For electro deposition stainless steel is generally used as cathode material but also other metals such as Ni, Ag, and Cu showed promising results. The use of other anode material than platinum, such as graphite should be investigated. For other purposes such as optimal resolution other more sophisticated methods are used but often resulting in poorer recovery. For beta particle emitters the type of detection system will decide the source preparation. Similar methods as for alpha particle emitters, electrodeposition or precipitation techniques can be used. Due to the continuous energy distribution of the beta pulse height distribution a high resolution is not required. Thicker sources from the precipitates or a stable isotopic carrier can be accepted but correction for absorption in the source must be done. (au)

  1. Synthesis of a precursor for the preparation of 9 alpha,11 alpha-tritiated 5 alpha-androstane-3 alpha,17 beta-diol 17-glucuronide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starting from 11 beta-hydroxytestosterone, the synthesis of a strategic precursor, C-9 (11) unsaturated 5 alpha-androstane-3 alpha, 17 beta-diol 17-glucuronide (9a), for the preparation of 9 alpha,11 alpha-tritiated 5 alpha-androstane-3 alpha, 17 beta-diol 17-glucuronide has been achieved. The authors optimized the reaction conditions for catalytic reduction employing hydrogen and subsequent base hydrolysis followed by purification on Amberlite XAD-2 resin to obtain the saturated 5 alpha-androstane-3 alpha, 17 beta-diol 17-glucuronide

  2. Labeled ALPHA4BETA2 ligands and methods therefor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, Jogeshwar; Pichika, Ramaiah; Potkin, Steven; Leslie, Frances; Chattopadhyay, Sankha

    2013-02-19

    Contemplated compositions and methods are employed to bind in vitro and in vivo to an .alpha.4.beta.2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in a highly selective manner. Where such compounds are labeled, compositions and methods employing such compounds can be used for PET and SPECT analysis. Alternatively, and/or additionally contemplated compounds can be used as antagonists, partial agonists or agonists in the treatment of diseases or conditions associated with .alpha.4.beta..beta.2 dysfunction.

  3. Bupivacaine hydrochloride complexation with some alpha- and beta-cyclodextrins studied by potentiometry with membrane electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopecký, Frantisek; Vojteková, Mária; Kaclík, Pavol; Demko, Marek; Bieliková, Zuzana

    2004-05-01

    Membrane electrodes selective to bupivacaine cations were developed and those with PVC-dibutylphthalate membrane containing sparingly soluble bupivacaine phosphotungstate appeared to be the most suitable. Inclusion complexation of bupivacaine cations with cyclodextrins was studied by potentiometric measurements of the free bupivacaine cation concentration in aqueous solutions of bupivacaine hydrochloride with cyclodextrin using the prepared electrodes. Native alpha-cyclodextrin (alpha-CD) and beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD), as well as their random-substituted derivatives hydroxypropyl-alpha-cyclodextrin (HP-alpha-CD), hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HP-beta-CD) and methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (M-beta-CD), were chosen for the study. The measured potentiometric data processed both by a linear and nonlinear regression corroborated the formation of weak 1:1 bupivacaine cation-cyclodextrin complexes and the corresponding complexation constants K(11) approximately 50-155 M(-1) were evaluated by the non-linear least-squares method. The mutual order of K(11) values, especially alpha-CD > beta-CD, suggested that the bupivacaine butyl group was mainly responsible for the inclusion complexation; the highest K(11) was exhibited by M-beta-CD followed by alpha-CD. The observed complexation may substantially modify properties of bupivacaine hydrochloride dosage forms with sufficient concentration of cyclodextrin but bupivacaine cations are readily released from the weak cyclodextrin complexes by dilution.

  4. Biodegradable films containing {alpha}-tocopherol/{beta}-cyclodextrin complex; Filmes biodegradaveis contendo {alpha}-tocoferol complexado em {beta}-ciclodextrina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motta, Caroline; Martelli, Silvia M.; Soldi, Valdir, E-mail: vsoldi@qmc.ufsc.br [Lab. de Materiais Polimericos (POLIMAT), Dept. de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Barreto, Pedro L.M. [Lab. de Reologia (REOLAB), Dept. de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Alimentos, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The growing environmental concern about pollution and the need to reduce dependence of plastic industry in relation to non-renewable resources has increased the interest of both researchers and industry in the use of biopolymers. In this work {beta}-cyclodextrin/{alpha}-tocopherol complexes were prepared and characterized. In order to obtain polymeric active biofilms, the {beta}-cyclodextrin/{alpha}-tocopherol complex was incorporated into a polymeric matrix of carboxymethylcellulose. The {beta}-cyclodextrin/{alpha}-tocopherol complex was characterized through of X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis. The physicochemical properties of the films incorporated with the complex were evaluated through mechanical and colorimetric analysis and moisture sorption isotherm. (author)

  5. Integrin {alpha}{beta}1, {alpha}{sub v}{beta}, {alpha}{sub 6}{beta} effectors p130Cas, Src and talin regulate carcinoma invasion and chemoresistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sansing, Hope A. [Department of Oral and Craniofacial Biology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center-New Orleans, School of Dentistry, New Orleans, LA (United States); Sarkeshik, Ali; Yates, John R. [Department of Chemical Physiology, Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA (United States); Patel, Vyomesh; Gutkind, J. Silvio [Oral and Pharyngeal Cancer Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Yamada, Kenneth M. [Laboratory of Cell and Developmental Biology, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Berrier, Allison L., E-mail: allison.berrier@gmail.com [Department of Oral and Craniofacial Biology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center-New Orleans, School of Dentistry, New Orleans, LA (United States)

    2011-03-11

    Research highlights: {yields} Proteomics of clustered integrin {alpha}{beta}1, {alpha}{sub v}{beta}, {alpha}{sub 6}{beta} receptors in oral carcinoma. {yields} p130Cas, Dek, Src and talin regulate oral carcinoma invasion. {yields} p130Cas, talin, Src and zyxin regulate oral carcinoma resistance to cisplatin. -- Abstract: Ligand engagement by integrins induces receptor clustering and formation of complexes at the integrin cytoplasmic face that controls cell signaling and cytoskeletal dynamics critical for adhesion-dependent processes. This study searches for a subset of integrin effectors that coordinates both tumor cell invasion and resistance to the chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin in oral carcinomas. Candidate integrin effectors were identified in a proteomics screen of proteins recruited to clustered integrin {alpha}{beta}1, {alpha}{sub v}{beta} or {alpha}{sub 6}{beta} receptors in oral carcinomas. Proteins with diverse functions including microtubule and actin binding proteins, and factors involved in trafficking, transcription and translation were identified in oral carcinoma integrin complexes. Knockdown of effectors in the oral carcinoma HN12 cells revealed that p130Cas, Dek, Src and talin were required for invasion through Matrigel. Disruption of talin or p130Cas by RNA interference increased resistance to cisplatin, whereas targeting Dek, Src or zyxin reduced HN12 resistance to cisplatin. Analysis of the spreading of HN12 cells on collagen I and laminin I revealed that a decrease in p130Cas or talin expression inhibited spreading on both matrices. Interestingly, a reduction in zyxin expression enhanced spreading on laminin I and inhibited spreading on collagen I. Reduction of Dek, Src, talin or zyxin expression reduced HN12 proliferation by 30%. Proliferation was not affected by a reduction in p130Cas expression. We conclude that p130Cas, Src and talin function in both oral carcinoma invasion and resistance to cisplatin.

  6. Dynamic expression of alpha 1 beta 1 and alpha 2 beta 1 integrin receptors by human vascular smooth muscle cells. Alpha 2 beta 1 integrin is required for chemotaxis across type I collagen-coated membranes.

    OpenAIRE

    Skinner, M P; Raines, E W; Ross, R.

    1994-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in the media of normal arteries express alpha 1 beta 1 integrin with no detectable alpha 2 beta 1 as determined by immunocytochemistry. In contrast, immunoprecipitation of integrins expressed by human SMCs cultured from medial explants shows strong expression of alpha 2 beta 1 and no expression of alpha 1 beta 1. The apparent reciprocal expression of these two collagen and laminin receptors was confirmed by flow cytometric analysis of fluorescent labeled ce...

  7. Improved targeting of the alpha(v)beta (3) integrin by multimerisation of RGD peptides.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkgraaf, I.; Kruijtzer, J.A.; Liu, S.; Soede, A.C.; Oyen, W.J.G.; Corstens, F.H.M.; Liskamp, R.M.; Boerman, O.C.

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: The integrin alpha(v)beta(3) is expressed on sprouting endothelial cells and on various tumour cell types. Due to the restricted expression of alpha(v)beta(3) in tumours, alpha(v)beta(3) is considered a suitable receptor for tumour targeting. In this study the alpha(v)beta(3) binding charac

  8. Constitution of pseudobinary hypoeutectic beta-NiAl + alpha-V alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, J. D.; Kaufman, M. J.; Noebe, R. D.

    1991-01-01

    The formation of pseudobinary eutectics between NiAl (beta) and V (alpha) at high temperatures was investigated as a possible way of improving the ductility and toughness of the alloy. It is found that a pseudobinary eutectic, characterized by a large beta+alpha field, is formed in the Ni-Al-V ternary system below about 1370 C. The high-temperature solubility of V in beta is about 14 percent, decreasing markedly with decreasing temperature and increasing Al content above 50 at. pct Al. The pseudobinary hypoeutectic exibits crack resistance under indentation loading.

  9. Expression of interleukin-2R alpha and interleukin-2R beta in Hodgkin's disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Tesch, H.; A. Günther; Abts, H.; Jücker, M; Klein, S; Krueger, G. R.; Diehl, V.

    1993-01-01

    Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells, the putative malignant cells of Hodgkin's disease (HD), carry regularly the CD25 antigen that forms one chain of the interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor (IL-2R alpha). To analyze the putative role of IL-2R expression in Hodgkin's disease, we have investigated the expression of both IL-2R alpha and IL-2R beta chains in HD-derived cell lines and in primary specimens from patients with HD. Expression of IL-2R alpha and IL-2R beta was detected in all HD-derived cell li...

  10. Pressure phase lines and enthalpies for the. cap alpha. -. beta. and. beta. -liquid transitions in beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abey, A.

    1984-10-31

    The effect of hydrostatic pressure on the ..cap alpha..-..beta.. and ..beta..-liquid transition temperatures in Be was measured in a gas pressure system. Differential thermal analysis was used in the pressure range from 0.1 MPa to 0.7 GPa. For the ..cap alpha..-..beta.. transition, dT/dP = 43 +- 7 K/GPa; for the ..beta..-liquid transition, dT/dP = 35 +- 7 K/GPa. Although it is possible that large systematic errors may arise from experimental procedures, our results are seriously at odds with those of other investigators. Transition enthalpies for the ..cap alpha..-..beta.. and ..beta..-liquid transitions were 1.9 +- 0.2 and 2.2 +- 0.2 kcal/g.m., respectively, at a pressure of 0.1 MPa.

  11. Microcalorimetric and spectrographic studies on host-guest interactions of {alpha}-, {beta}-, {gamma}- and M{beta}-cyclodextrin with resveratrol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hui; Xu, Xiangyu; Liu, Min [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liaocheng University, Liaocheng 252059, Shandong Province (China); Sun, Dezhi, E-mail: sundezhisdz@163.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liaocheng University, Liaocheng 252059, Shandong Province (China); Li, Linwei, E-mail: lilinwei@lcu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Liaocheng University, Liaocheng 252059, Shandong Province (China)

    2010-10-20

    Thermal effects of inclusion processes of {alpha}-, {beta}-, {gamma}- and M{beta}-cyclodextrin with resveratrol (RES) in aqueous solutions were determined by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) with nanowatt sensitivity at the temperature of 298.15 K. Standard enthalpy changes, stoichiometry and equilibrium constants of the inclusion complexes were derived from the direct calorimetric data utilizing nonlinear simulation. The thermodynamic parameters were discussed in the light of weak interactions between the host and the guest molecules combining with UV spectral message. The results indicate that all of the complexes formed in the aqueous solutions are in 1:1 stoichiometry. The binding processes of {alpha}-, {beta}- and M{beta}-cyclodextrin with the guest are mainly driven by enthalpy, while that of {gamma}-cyclodextrin with the drug is driven by both enthalpy and entropy.

  12. Biotransformation of alpha- and 6beta-santonin by fungus and plant cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, L; Dai, J; Sakai, J-I; Ando, M

    2006-06-01

    One fungus, Abisidia coerulea IFO 4011, and suspended cell cultures of one plant, Asparagus officinalis, were employed to bioconvert alpha- and 6beta-santonin. Incubation of alpha-santonin with the cell cultures of the fungus afforded two products, 11beta-hydroxy-alpha-santonin (1, in 76.5% yield) and 8alpha-hydroxy-alpha-santonin (2, in 2.0% yield). And from 6beta-santonin, four major products (3, 4, 5 and 6) and four minor products (7, 8, 9 and 10) were obtained, including 8alpha-hydroxylated products in trace yields. Very interestingly, a skeletal rearrangement occurred and a guaiane product (13) formed in a very low yield when alpha-santonin incubating with A.officinalis cell cultures, while not in the case of 6beta-santonin as substrate. Among the obtained 15 products, 2, 7, 8, 9, 10 and 12 are new compounds. The fact of 8alpha hydroxylation of santonin enables the formation of 8,12-eudesmanolide instead of 6,12-eudesmanolide and some useful modification at C-8 position. In addition, these reactions would provide evidence for the biogenesis between different types of eudesmane and/or guaiane compounds in the plants in nature. PMID:16864442

  13. Radioligands for imaging myocardial {alpha}- and β-adrenoceptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riemann, B.; Schaefers, M.; Schober, O. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Muenster Univ. (Germany); Law, M.P. [MRC Clinical Sciences Centre, Imperial Coll. School of Science, Technology and Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Wichter, T. [Dept. of Cardiology and Angiology, Muenster Univ. (Germany)

    2003-02-01

    Alpha- and beta-adrenoceptors play an important role in the control of heart function. According to their molecular, biological, and pharmacological characteristics, they are subdivided into {alpha}{sub 1}-, {alpha}{sub 2}- and β{sub 1}-, β{sub 2}-, β{sub 3}-, β{sub 4}- adrenoceptors. In cardiac disease, there is often a selective downregulation of β{sub 1}-adrenoceptors associated with a relative increase in β{sub 2}- and {alpha}{sub 1}-adrenoceptors. Functional imaging techniques like single-photon emission tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) provide the unique capability for non-invasive assessment of cardiac adrenoceptors. Radioligands with high specific binding to cardiac {alpha}- and β-adrenoceptors suitable for radiolabelling are required for clinical studies. The non-selective β-adrenoceptor antagonist [{sup 11}C]CGP-12177 was used to quantify β-adrenoceptor density using PET in patients with heart disease. New non-selective ligands (e. g. [{sup 11}C]CGP-12388, [{sup 18}F]CGP-12388, [{sup 11}C]carazolol and [{sup 18}F]fluorocarazolol) are currently evaluated; β{sub 1}-selective radioligands (e. g. [{sup 11}C]CGP-26505, [{sup 11}C]bisoprolol, [{sup 11}C]HX-CH 44) and β{sub 2}-selective radioligands (e. g. [{sup 11}C]formoterol, [{sup 11}C]ICI-118551) were assessed in animals. None of them turned out as suitable for cardiac PET. Potential radioligands for imaging cardiac {alpha}{sub 1}-adrenoceptors are based on prazosin. Whereas [{sup 11}C]prazosin shows low specific binding to myocardium, its derivative [{sup 11}C]GB67 looks more promising. The putative {alpha}{sub 2}-adrenoceptor radioligand [{sup 11}C]MK-912 shows high uptake in rodent myocardium but has not yet been evaluated in man. A number of radioligands were evaluated for assessing cardiac adrenoceptors using PET. New radioligands are needed to provide more insight into cardiac pathophysiology which may influence the

  14. Role of alpha-hemoglobin-stabilizing protein in normal erythropoiesis and beta-thalassemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Mitchell J; Zhou, Suiping; Feng, Liang; Gell, David A; Mackay, Joel P; Shi, Yigong; Gow, Andrew J

    2005-01-01

    Hemoglobin (Hb) synthesis is coordinated by homeostatic mechanisms to limit the accumulation of free alpha or beta subunits, which are cytotoxic. Alpha hemoglobin-stabilizing protein (AHSP) is an abundant erythroid protein that specifically binds free alphaHb, stabilizes its structure, and limits its ability to participate in chemical reactions that generate reactive oxygen species. Gene ablation studies in mice demonstrate that AHSP is required for normal erythropoiesis. AHSP-null erythrocytes are short-lived, contain Hb precipitates, and exhibit signs of oxidative damage. Loss of AHSP exacerbates beta-thalassemia in mice, indicating that altered AHSP expression or function could modify thalassemia phenotypes in humans, a topic that is beginning to be explored in clinical studies. We used biochemical, spectroscopic, and crystallographic methods to examine how AHSP stabilizes alphaHb. AHSP binds the G and H helices of alphaHb on a surface that largely overlaps with the alpha1-beta1 interface of HbA. This result explains previous findings that betaHb can competitively displace AHSP from alphaHb to form HbA tetramer. Remarkably, binding of AHSP to oxygenated alphaHb induces dramatic conformational changes and converts the heme-bound iron to an oxidized hemichrome state in which all six coordinate positions are occupied. This structure limits the reactivity of heme iron, providing a mechanism by which AHSP stabilizes alphaHb. These findings suggest a biochemical pathway through which AHSP might participate in normal Hb synthesis and modulate the severity of thalassemias. Moreover, understanding how AHSP stabilizes alphaHb provides a theoretical basis for new strategies to inhibit the damaging effects of free alphaHb that accumulates in beta-thalassemia.

  15. Structure of (alpha + beta)-titanium alloys subjected to laser heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivasishin, O.M.; Markovskii, P.E.; Svechnikov, V.L.; Krasavin, A.P.; Oshkaderov, S.P. (Institut Metallofiziki, Kiev (Ukrainian SSR))

    1990-02-01

    The structure of surface layers formed in the industrial (alpha + beta)-titanium alloys subjected to pulse-laser treatment with energy density of 5 J/mm is examined. It is shown that as the temperature in the alloys increases, the following sequence of processes occurs: nondiffusion alpha-to-beta transformation; the diffusion redistribution of alloying components in the chemically inhomogeneous beta-phase; and melting and homogenization of the melt. The effect of the initial state of alloys and elastic stresses on the final structure is examined. It is established that the laser treatment with melting, combined with subsequent annealing in the (alpha + beta) region, makes it possible to create the dispersed high-strength state in the surface layer. 11 refs.

  16. Low-Temperature Forming of Beta Titanium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, R. S.; Woods, C. A.

    1983-01-01

    Low cost methods for titanium structural fabrication using advanced cold-formable beta alloys were investigated for application in a Mach 2.7 supersonic cruise vehicle. This work focuses on improving processing and structural efficiencies as compared with standard hot formed and riveted construction of alpha-beta alloy sheet structure. Mechanical property data and manufacturing parameters were developed for cold forming, brazing, welding, and processing Ti-15V-3Cr-3Sn-3Al sheet, and Ti-3Al-8V-6Cr-4Zr on a more limited basis. Cost and structural benefits were assessed through the fabrication and evaluation of large structural panels. The feasibility of increasing structural efficiency of beta titanium structure by selective reinforcement with metal matrix composite was also explored.

  17. Molecular cloning and phylogenetic analysis of integrins alpha v beta 1 and alpha v beta 6 of one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Junzheng; Larska, Magdalena Larska; Chang, Huiyun;

    2010-01-01

    , and 787 amino acids, respectively. The dromedary camel integrin alpha v, beta 1, and beta 6 subunit shares common structural and functional elements with their counterparts from the other species. Phylogenetic trees showed that the dromedary camel alpha v, beta 1, and beta 6 were clustered...

  18. Alpha and beta dose gradients in tooth enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New results describing gradients in effective alpha and beta doses within a layer of tooth enamel in planar geometry are presented. The alpha (track) dose to an enamel layer is calculated using an algorithm similar to that of Aitken (Aitken, M.J., 1987. Alpha dose to a thin layer. Ancient TL 5, 1-3.). The code for ROSY version 1.4 incorporates this algorithm. The approach allows for variation of the alpha track dose near the edges of the enamel, and we describe the gradient of the alpha track dose within 40 μm of each edge of the enamel for natural sources. In ESR or luminescence dating of naturally thin layers, for which stripping of the surface layer containing the alpha dose gradients may not be feasible, age estimates may change by as much as 5-10% when the detailed alpha dose calculation is included. Modern Monte Carlo-based results for the variation of beta dose for depths up to 2 mm are compared with ROSY results. For external irradiation by different sources, the attenuation of the ROSY dose estimate with depth is usually less rapid than that of the Monte Carlo-based estimate. The ROSY estimate of average beta dose to a layer in this case is between 5 and 18% higher than the Monte Carlo estimate

  19. The Val192Leu mutation in the alpha-subunit of beta-hexosaminidase A is not associated with the B1-variant form of Tay-Sachs disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, Y; Vavougios, G.; Hinek, A.; Wu, K. K.; Hechtman, P; Kaplan, F; Mahuran, D. J.

    1996-01-01

    Substitution mutations adversely affecting the alpha-subunit of beta-hexosaminidase A (alphabeta) (EC 3.2.1.52) result in Tay-Sachs disease. The majority affect the initial folding of the pro-alpha chain in the endoplasmic reticulum, resulting in its retention and degradation. A much less common occurrence is a mutation that specifically affects an "active-site" residue necessary for substrate binding and/or catalysis. In this case, hexosaminidase A is present in the lysosome, but it lacks al...

  20. Classification of Cancer Recurrence with Alpha-Beta BAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Acevedo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bidirectional Associative Memories (BAMs based on first model proposed by Kosko do not have perfect recall of training set, and their algorithm must iterate until it reaches a stable state. In this work, we use the model of Alpha-Beta BAM to classify automatically cancer recurrence in female patients with a previous breast cancer surgery. Alpha-Beta BAM presents perfect recall of all the training patterns and it has a one-shot algorithm; these advantages make to Alpha-Beta BAM a suitable tool for classification. We use data from Haberman database, and leave-one-out algorithm was applied to analyze the performance of our model as classifier. We obtain a percentage of classification of 99.98%.

  1. Semi-preparative separation of {alpha} and {beta}-amyrin by high performance liquid chromatographic; Separacao semipreparativa de {alpha} e {beta}-amirina por cromatografia liquida de alta eficiencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Marluce Oliveira; Hamerski, Lidilhone; Pinto, Angelo C., E-mail: hamerski_1@hotmail.co [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IQ/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2011-07-01

    The resin obtained from species of the genus Protium (Burseraceae) is formed mostly of pentacyclic triterpenes: {alpha}-amyrin and {beta}-amyrin. The separation and purification of these triterpenes were optimized in three steps. (author)

  2. Infrared spectra of olivine polymorphs - Alpha, beta phase and spinel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanloz, R.

    1980-01-01

    The infrared absorption spectra of several olivines (alpha phase) and their corresponding beta phase (modified spinel) and spinel (gamma) high-pressure polymorphs are determined. Spectra were measured for ground and pressed samples of alpha and gamma A2SiO4, where A = Fe, Ni, Co; alpha and gamma Mg2GeO4; alpha Mg2SiO4; and beta Co2SiO4. The spectra are interpreted in terms of internal, tetrahedral and octagonal, and lattice vibration modes, and the spinel results are used to predict the spectrum of gamma Mg2SiO4. Analysis of spectra obtained from samples of gamma Mg2GeO4 heated to 730 and 1000 C provides evidence that partial inversion could occur in silicate spinels at elevated temperatures and pressures.

  3. The H-alpha/H-beta ratio in solar flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirin, H.; Liggett, M.; Patterson, A.

    1982-01-01

    The present investigation involves the study of an extensive body of data accumulated of simultaneous H-alpha and H-beta cinematography of flares. The data were obtained with two telescopes simultaneously photographing flares in H-alpha and H-beta. The results of measurements in a number of flares are presented in a table. The flares were selected purely by optical quality of the data. That the measured ratios are not too different from those in stellar flares is suggested by the last two columns of the table. These columns show that a variety of possible line width ratios could give an integrated intensity ratio of less than unity.

  4. Alpha-beta discrimination in LENA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpha emitting isotopes, mainly 210Po, provide a background for the detection of 7Be neutrinos in LENA (Low Energy Neutrino Astronomy). This background can be reduced by a pulse shape analysis, as alpha particles and electrons have a different typical pulse shape, caused by the different energy deposition per unit path length ((dE)/(dx)). Thus, the efficiency of this method was analyzed by a detailed Monte Carlo study. Several scintillators as well as the influence of the photomultiplier performance on the discrimination efficiency were investigated.

  5. Mechanism of radiation graft of methyl-. cap alpha. -fluoroacrylate and. cap alpha. ,. beta. ,. beta. -trifluorostyrene on perfluorinated copolymer. [Cobalt 60

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivankin, A.N.; Tevlina, A.S.; Zagorets, P.A. (Moskovskij Khimiko-Tekhnologicheskij Inst. (USSR))

    1983-04-01

    The kinetics of radiation-induced graft copolymerization of methyl-..cap alpha..-fluoroacrylate and ..cap alpha.., ..beta.., ..beta..-trifluorostyrene to perfluorinated copolymer of hexafluoropropylene with tetrafluoroethylene has been studied. The orders of the grafting reaction towards the monomer and dose rate as well as the values of rate constants of radiation-induced grafting at various temperatures were determined, the effective activation energy of grafting (20.6 kJ/mol) was calculated. The kinetic scheme of elementary acts of radiation-induced graft copolymerization is discussed.

  6. alpha 11beta 1 integrin recognizes the GFOGER sequence in interstitial collagens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wan-Ming; Kapyla, Jarmo; Puranen, J Santeri; Knight, C Graham; Tiger, Carl-Fredrik; Pentikainen, Olli T; Johnson, Mark S; Farndale, Richard W; Heino, Jyrki; Gullberg, Donald

    2003-02-28

    The integrins alpha(1)beta(1), alpha(2)beta(1), alpha(10)beta(1), and alpha(11)beta(1) are referred to as a collagen receptor subgroup of the integrin family. Recently, both alpha(1)beta(1) and alpha(2)beta(1) integrins have been shown to recognize triple-helical GFOGER (where single letter amino acid nomenclature is used, O = hydroxyproline) or GFOGER-like motifs found in collagens, despite their distinct binding specificity for various collagen subtypes. In the present study we have investigated the mechanism whereby the latest member in the integrin family, alpha(11)beta(1), recognizes collagens using C2C12 cells transfected with alpha(11) cDNA and the bacterially expressed recombinant alpha(11) I domain. The ligand binding properties of alpha(11)beta(1) were compared with those of alpha(2)beta(1). Mg(2+)-dependent alpha(11)beta(1) binding to type I collagen required micromolar Ca(2+) but was inhibited by 1 mm Ca(2+), whereas alpha(2)beta(1)-mediated binding was refractory to millimolar concentrations of Ca(2+). The bacterially expressed recombinant alpha(11) I domain preference for fibrillar collagens over collagens IV and VI was the same as the alpha(2) I domain. Despite the difference in Ca(2+) sensitivity, alpha(11)beta(1)-expressing cells and the alpha(11) I domain bound to helical GFOGER sequences in a manner similar to alpha(2)beta(1)-expressing cells and the alpha(2) I domain. Modeling of the alpha I domain-collagen peptide complexes could partially explain the observed preference of different I domains for certain GFOGER sequence variations. In summary, our data indicate that the GFOGER sequence in fibrillar collagens is a common recognition motif used by alpha(1)beta(1), alpha(2)beta(1), and also alpha(11)beta(1) integrins. Although alpha(10) and alpha(11) chains show the highest sequence identity, alpha(2) and alpha(11) are more similar with regard to collagen specificity. Future studies will reveal whether alpha(2)beta(1) and alpha(11)beta(1

  7. HPLC Analysis of [Alpha]- and [Beta]-Acids in Hops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danenhower, Travis M.; Force, Leyna J.; Petersen, Kenneth J.; Betts, Thomas A.; Baker, Gary A.

    2008-01-01

    Hops have been used for centuries to impart aroma and bitterness to beer. The cones of the female hop plant contain both essential oils, which include many of the fragrant components of hops, and a collection of compounds known as [alpha]- and [beta]-acids that are the precursors to bittering agents. In order for brewers to predict the ultimate…

  8. Alpha- and beta-hemocyanin of Helix pomatia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, Jan

    1971-01-01

    This thesis deals with several aspects of the protein structure of Alpha- and Beta -hemocyanin of Helix pomatia. a- and 0-hemocyanin possess a virtually identical amino acid composition; it closely resembles the amino acid com- positions of hemocyanins of other MOLLUSCA and ARTHROPODA. All hemocyani

  9. alpha/beta hydrolase fold enzymes : the family keeps growing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nardini, M; Dijkstra, BW

    1999-01-01

    The alpha/beta hydrolase fold is a typical example of a tertiary fold adopted by proteins that have no obvious sequence similarity, but nevertheless, in the course of evolution, diverged from a common ancestor. Recently solved structures demonstrate a considerably increased variability in fold archi

  10. Effect of heating rate on temperature of titanium alloy (. cap alpha. +. beta. ). -->. beta. transformaton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gridnev, V.N.; Ivasishin, O.M.; Markovskij, P.E. (AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev. Inst. Metallofiziki)

    1985-01-01

    The effect of doping of two-phase titaniums alloys and morphology of initial structure on the Tsub(t) temperature shift value of (..cap alpha..+..beta..)..--> beta.. transformation depending on heating rate is investigated. It has been found that the Tsub(t) shift occurs in the strictly determined temperature range depending on chemical alloy composition. The Tsub(t) shift is directly proportional to the Ksub(..beta..) coefficient applied as a quantitative alloying characteristic as well as a dimensional factor equal either to the plate thickness or the ..cap alpha..-phase globule diameter depending on the type of initial structure. In the limits of this temperature range the (..cap alpha..+..beta..)..--> beta..-transformation occurs completely according to the diffusion mechanism. The critical heating rate at which maximum permissible Tsub(t) value is attained and above which its stabilization is observed is determined by the same parameters - the alloy doping degree characterized by the Ksub(..beta..) coefficient and the ..cap alpha..-phase crystal dimensions in the initial structure.

  11. Preclinical activity of 17 beta-[N-[N'-(2-chloroethyl)-N'-nitrosocarbamoyl]-L-alanyl]-5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (E91) against tumour colony forming units and haematopoietic progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rank, P; Peter, R; Depenbrock, H; Eisenbrand, G; Schmid, P; Pitzl, H; Hanauske, A R

    1999-06-01

    E91 (17 beta-[N-[N'-(2-chloroethyl)-N'-nitrosocarbamoyl]-L-alanyl]-5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone) (CNC-ala-DHT) is a newly synthesised alkylating compound consisting of N-[N'-(2-chloroethyl)-N'-nitrosocarbamoyl]-L-alanine (CNC-ala) as the alkylating moiety and of 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) as a steroid carrier molecule. We studied the antitumour activity of E91 (final concentrations: 0.1, 1, 10 and 30 mumol/l) against freshly explanted human tumours, using an in vitro soft agar cloning system. A total of 54 tumour samples was evaluated using 1 h-exposure and 51 tumour specimens were studied using a continuous exposure for 21-28 days. In addition, the compound's activity was compared with other clinically used anticancer agents. After short-term exposure, 49 of 53 evaluable specimens (92%) had adequate colony formation, as compared with 49 of 50 (98%) after long-term exposure. After short-term exposure, E91 exhibited only marginal antitumour activity. However, in long-term exposure experiments, E91 had marked and concentration-dependent antitumour activity (P 10 mumol/l, E91 was as active as the other clinically used antineoplastic agents and at 30 mumol/l, E91 was significantly more active than 5-fluorouracil (P = 0.041). E91 showed activity against a wide spectrum of tumour types. The highest activity was observed against colorectal carcinomas (3/4 tumour specimens inhibited at 30 mumol/l). Sensitivity was also high remarkable in breast cancer specimens with 3/6 specimens inhibited at 30 mumol/l. In vitro myelotoxicity was less than that of doxorubicin. At 30 mumol/l, E91 induced a reduction of colony forming units-granulocyte macrophage (CFU-GM) to only 53% of control and of CFU-GEMM to 20% of control. We conclude that because of broad activity and reduced myelotoxicity further clinical development of E91 appears warranted. PMID:10533486

  12. Molecular design of the C alpha beta interface favors specific pairing of introduced TCR alpha beta in human T cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voss, Ralf-Holger; Willemsen, Ralph A.; Kuball, Juergen; Grabowski, Margarete; Engel, Renate; Intan, Ratna S.; Guillaume, Philippe; Romero, Pedro; Huber, Christoph; Theobald, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    A promising approach to adoptive transfer therapy of tumors is to reprogram autologous T lymphocytes by TCR gene transfer of defined Ag specificity. An obstacle, however, is the undesired pairing of introduced TCR alpha- and TCR beta-chains with the endogenous TCR chains. These events vary depending

  13. Impairment of physical performance after treatment with beta blockers and alpha blockers.

    OpenAIRE

    Bengtsson, C.

    1984-01-01

    An investigation was made into the effect of various types of beta blockers, an alpha blocker, a combined alpha and beta blocker, and a diuretic on physical performance in a normotensive man. Beta blockers, the alpha blocker, and the combined alpha and beta blocker significantly (p less than 0.001) reduced physical performance. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings in a larger series of subjects.

  14. Random length assortment of human and mouse T cell receptor for antigen alpha and beta chain CDR3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, G; Wu, T T

    1999-10-01

    In view of the recently determined three-dimensional structures of complexes formed by the T cell receptor for antigen (TCR), the processed peptide and the MHC class I molecule, it is expected that the combined configuration formed by the third complementarity determining regions (CDR3) of TCR alpha and beta chains will be very restricted in size and shape due to the limited length variations of the processed peptides. Thus, the combined TCR alpha and beta chain CDR3 lengths should have a fairly narrow distribution. This feature can be due to the selective association of long alpha chain CDR3 with short beta chain CDR3 and vice versa or due to random assortment of alpha and beta chain CDR3 of even narrower length distribution. Based on existing translated amino acid sequence data, it has been found that the latter mechanism is responsible.

  15. Collective search by mobile robots using alpha-beta coordination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldsmith, S.Y.; Robinett, R. III

    1998-04-01

    One important application of mobile robots is searching a geographical region to locate the origin of a specific sensible phenomenon. Mapping mine fields, extraterrestrial and undersea exploration, the location of chemical and biological weapons, and the location of explosive devices are just a few potential applications. Teams of robotic bloodhounds have a simple common goal; to converge on the location of the source phenomenon, confirm its intensity, and to remain aggregated around it until directed to take some other action. In cases where human intervention through teleoperation is not possible, the robot team must be deployed in a territory without supervision, requiring an autonomous decentralized coordination strategy. This paper presents the alpha beta coordination strategy, a family of collective search algorithms that are based on dynamic partitioning of the robotic team into two complementary social roles according to a sensor based status measure. Robots in the alpha role are risk takers, motivated to improve their status by exploring new regions of the search space. Robots in the beta role are motivated to improve but are conservative, and tend to remain aggregated and stationary until the alpha robots have identified better regions of the search space. Roles are determined dynamically by each member of the team based on the status of the individual robot relative to the current state of the collective. Partitioning the robot team into alpha and beta roles results in a balance between exploration and exploitation, and can yield collective energy savings and improved resistance to sensor noise and defectors. Alpha robots waste energy exploring new territory, and are more sensitive to the effects of ambient noise and to defectors reporting inflated status. Beta robots conserve energy by moving in a direct path to regions of confirmed high status.

  16. : beta-carotene, alpha-linolenate and carcinogenesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Maillard, Virginie; Hoinard, Claude; Arab, Khelifa; Jourdan, Marie-Lise; Bougnoux, Philippe; Chajès, Véronique

    2006-01-01

    To investigate whether dietary alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) content alters the effect of beta-carotene on mammary carcinogenesis, we conducted a chemically induced mammary tumorigenesis experiment in rats randomly assigned to four nutritional groups (15 rats per group) varying in beta-carotene supplementation and ALA content. Two oil formula-enriched diets (15 %) were used: one with 6 g ALA/kg diet in an essential fatty acids (EFA) ratio of linoleic acid:ALA of 5:1 w/w (EFA 5 diet), the other w...

  17. Enhanced grain refinement through deformation induced {alpha} precipitation in hot working of {alpha} + {beta} titanium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Bin [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); State Key Lab of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha (China); Li, Yunping; Matsumoto, Hiroaki; Koizumi, Yuichiro; Chiba, Akihiko [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Liu, Yong [State Key Lab of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha (China)

    2012-09-15

    This study reports a novel forging process to fabricate bulk fine-grained (grain size {approx} 1 {mu}m) Ti-6Al-4V alloy, in which temperatures near the {beta} transus (T{sub {beta}}) and strain rates around 0.15 s{sup -1} are used for the deformation. The formation of fine-grained microstructure is mainly result from the deformation-induced precipitation of {alpha} grains from the {beta} matrix. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. [Alpha and beta natural agglutinin titers in neoplasms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gota, F

    1979-01-01

    A serological analysis of alpha and beta agglutinin titres has been carried out in cancer patients. Statistics of the patients' blood groups were also taken. The study showed an increased agglutinin titre, the expression of the functioning of the organism's defensive powers. Only in the terminal stage of the neoplastic disease were antibody titres low, the sign of low antibody reactivity of the affected organism.

  19. Haemopoietic effects of 7 alpha, 17 beta dimethyltestosterone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some haematic parameters were investigated in female COBS mice treated with 7 alpha, 17 beta Dimethyltestosterone (DMT). The drug causes an increase of circulating platelets in normal mice. Bone marrow graft from DMT-treated donors facilitates in irradiated mice repopulation of white blood cells and platelets but lowers % survival. These data are interpreted on the basis of a 'commitment' and a loss of self-maintenance induced by DMT on CFUs compartment. (author)

  20. Crystal Structure of the alpha6beta6 Holoenzyme of propionyl-coenzyme A Carboxylase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, C.; Sadre-Bazzaz, K; Shen, Y; Deng, B; Zhou, Z; Tong, L

    2010-01-01

    Propionyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (PCC), a mitochondrial biotin-dependent enzyme, is essential for the catabolism of the amino acids Thr, Val, Ile and Met, cholesterol and fatty acids with an odd number of carbon atoms. Deficiencies in PCC activity in humans are linked to the disease propionic acidaemia, an autosomal recessive disorder that can be fatal in infants. The holoenzyme of PCC is an {alpha}{sub 6}{beta}{sub 6} dodecamer, with a molecular mass of 750 kDa. The {alpha}-subunit contains the biotin carboxylase (BC) and biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP) domains, whereas the {beta}-subunit supplies the carboxyltransferase (CT) activity. Here we report the crystal structure at 3.2-{angstrom} resolution of a bacterial PCC {alpha}{sub 6}{beta}{sub 6} holoenzyme as well as cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) reconstruction at 15-{angstrom} resolution demonstrating a similar structure for human PCC. The structure defines the overall architecture of PCC and reveals unexpectedly that the {alpha}-subunits are arranged as monomers in the holoenzyme, decorating a central {beta}{sub 6} hexamer. A hitherto unrecognized domain in the {alpha}-subunit, formed by residues between the BC and BCCP domains, is crucial for interactions with the {beta}-subunit. We have named it the BT domain. The structure reveals for the first time the relative positions of the BC and CT active sites in the holoenzyme. They are separated by approximately 55 {angstrom}, indicating that the entire BCCP domain must translocate during catalysis. The BCCP domain is located in the active site of the {beta}-subunit in the current structure, providing insight for its involvement in the CT reaction. The structural information establishes a molecular basis for understanding the large collection of disease-causing mutations in PCC and is relevant for the holoenzymes of other biotin-dependent carboxylases, including 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase (MCC) and eukaryotic acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC).

  1. Crystalline anhydrous {alpha},{alpha}-trehalose (polymorph {beta}) and crystalline dihydrate {alpha},{alpha}-trehalose: A calorimetric study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Susana S. [Centro de Quimica Estrutural, Complexo Interdisciplinar, Instituto Superior Tecnico, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)]. E-mail: susanapinto@ist.utl.pt; Diogo, Herminio P. [Centro de Quimica Estrutural, Complexo Interdisciplinar, Instituto Superior Tecnico, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)]. E-mail: hdiogo@ist.utl.pt; Moura-Ramos, Joaquim J. [Centro de Quimica-Fisica Molecular, Complexo Interdisciplinar, Instituto Superior Tecnico, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)]. E-mail: mouraramos@ist.utl.pt

    2006-09-15

    The mean values of the standard massic energy of combustion of crystalline anhydrous {alpha},{alpha}-trehalose (C{sub 12}H{sub 22}O{sub 11}, polymorph {beta}) and crystalline dihydrate {alpha},{alpha}-trehalose (C{sub 12}H{sub 26}O{sub 13}) measured by static-bomb combustion calorimetry in oxygen, at the temperature T=298.15K, are {delta}{sub c}u{sup o}=-(16434.05+/-4.50)J.g{sup -1} and {delta}{sub c}u{sup o}=-(14816.05+/-3.52)J.g{sup -1}, respectively. The standard (p{sup o}=0.1MPa) molar enthalpy of formation of these compounds were derived from the corresponding standard molar enthalpies of combustion, respectively, {delta}{sub f}H{sub m}{sup o} (C{sub 12}H{sub 22}O{sub 11},cr)=-(2240.9+/-3.9)kJ.mol{sup -1}, and {delta}{sub f}H{sub m}{sup o} (C{sub 12}H{sub 26}O{sub 13},cr)=-(2832.6+/-3.6)kJ.mol{sup -1}. The values of the standard enthalpies of formation obtained in this work, together with data on enthalpies of solution at infinite dilution ({delta}{sub sol}H{sup {approx}}) for crystalline dihydrate and amorphous anhydrous trehalose, allow a better insight on the thermodynamic description of the trehalose system which can provide, together with the future research on the subject, a contribution for understanding the metabolism in several organisms, as well as the phase transition between the different polymorphs.

  2. Function of the integrin alpha 6 beta 1 in metastatic breast carcinoma cells assessed by expression of a dominant-negative receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, L M; Chao, C; Wewer, U M;

    1996-01-01

    : alpha 2 beta 1, alpha 3 beta 1, and alpha 6 beta 1, but uses only alpha 6 beta 1 to mediate adhesion and migration on laminin matrices. To investigate the contribution of alpha 6 beta 1 to the aggressive behavior of these cells, we developed a dominant-negative strategy for knocking out alpha 6 beta 1...

  3. Inversion in the lactose region of Escherichia coli K-12: inversion termini map within IS3 elements alpha 3 beta 3 and beta 5 alpha 5.

    OpenAIRE

    Savić, D J; Romac, S P; Ehrlich, S D

    1983-01-01

    In this work, the previously described inversion in the lactose region of the Escherichia coli K-12 chromosome (D. J. Savić, J. Bacteriol. 140:311-319, 1979) is analyzed in greater detail. The results presented indicate that the inversion most likely occurred by a homologous recombination between alpha 3 beta 3 and beta 5 alpha 5 IS3 elements.

  4. Synthesis and reactivity of {alpha}-phenylseleno-{beta}-substituted styrenes: preparation of (Z)-allyl alcohols, (E)-{alpha}-phenyl-{alpha},{beta}-unsaturated aldehydes and {alpha}-aryl acetophenones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenardao, Eder J.; Jacob, Raquel G.; Silva, Thiago B. da [Universidade Federal de Pelotas, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Analitica e Inorganica]. E-mail: lenardao@ufpel.edu.br; Cella, Rodrigo [Santa Maria Univ., RS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Perin, Gelson [Universidade Federal de Pelotas, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica

    2006-09-15

    A new and efficient method was developed to prepare {alpha}-phenylseleno-{beta}-substituted styrenes by reaction of diethyl {alpha}-phenylseleno benzylphosphonate with NaH and aldehydes. Selenium-lithium exchange by reaction with n-BuLi yielded the vinyl lithium species, which were captured with several electrophiles, like aldehydes and DMF, affording exclusively (Z)-allyl alcohols, and (E)-{alpha}-phenyl-{alpha}-{beta}-unsaturated aldehydes, respectively in good yields. The hydrolysis of the vinyl selenides in presence of TiCl{sub 4} allowed the corresponding {alpha}-aryl acetophenones. (author)

  5. Mouse egg integrin alpha 6 beta 1 functions as a sperm receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, E A; Huovila, A P; Sutherland, A E; Stephens, L E; Calarco, P G; Shaw, L M; Mercurio, A M; Sonnenberg, A; Primakoff, P; Myles, D G; White, J M

    1995-06-30

    Binding between sperm and egg plasma membranes is an essential step in fertilization. Whereas fertilin, a mammalian sperm surface protein, is involved in this crucial interaction, sperm receptors on the egg plasma membrane have not been identified. Because fertilin contains a predicted integrin ligand domain, we investigated the expression and function of integrin subunits in unfertilized mouse eggs. Polymerase chain reactions detected mRNAs for alpha 5, alpha 6, alpha v, beta 1, beta 3, and beta 5. Immunofluorescence revealed alpha 6 beta 1 and alpha v beta 3 on the plasma membrane. GoH3, a function-blocking anti-alpha 6 monoclonal antibody, abolished sperm binding, but a nonfunction-blocking anti-alpha 6 monoclonal antibody, a function-blocking anti-alpha v beta 3 polyclonal antibody, and an RGD peptide had no effect. Somatic cells bound sperm avidly, but only if they expressed alpha 6 beta 1. A peptide analog of the fertilin integrin ligand domain inhibited sperm binding to eggs and alpha 6 beta 1+ cells and diminished GoH3 staining of eggs. Our results indicate a novel role for the integrin alpha 6 beta 1 as a cell-cell adhesion receptor that mediates sperm-egg binding. PMID:7600577

  6. Approximate formulation of redistribution in the Ly-alpha, Ly-beta, H-alpha system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, J.; Ballagh, R. J.; Hubeny, I.

    1989-01-01

    Simple approximate formulas are given for the coupled redistribution of Ly-alpha, Ly-beta, and H-alpha, by using well-defined approximations to an essentially exact formulation. These formulas incorporate all the essential physics including Raman scattering, lower state radiative decay, and correlated terms representing emission during a collision which must be retained in order that the emission coefficients are properly behaved in the line wings. Approximate expressions for the appropriate line broadening parameters are collected. Finally, practical expressions for the source functions are given. These are formulated through newly introduced nonimpact redistribution functions, which are shown to be reasonably approximated by existing (ordinary and generalized) redistribution functions.

  7. On the alpha --> beta transition of carbon-coated highly oriented PVDF ultrathin film induced by melt recrystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jijun; Li, Huihui; Liu, Jichun; Duan, Yongxin; Jiang, Shidong; Yan, Shouke

    2003-02-12

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) is one of the polymers which exhibit pronounced polymorphic crystalline forms, depending on crystallization conditions. Four different crystalline modifications, i.e., alpha, beta, gamma, and delta, have been reported so far. Among them, even though the alpha-form is the most common one, the beta-phase is the one that has attracted the widest interest due to its extensive piezo- and pyroelectric applications. During the past few decades, a substantial amount of work has been done in attempts to characterize these crystal modifications and transformations among them. It was well documented that the alpha-form PVDF can be easily obtained through melt crystallization of the PVDF at atmospheric pressure. Its beta-counterpart can, however, only be directly obtained by growth from solution, molecular epitaxy on the surface of potassium bromide, melt crystallization at high pressures, or by applying with a strong electric field. Transformation from its alpha-phase to beta-phase has been achieved by mechanical deformation, while the retransformation could be conducted through melt recrystallization at atmospheric pressure. In the present work, the recrystallization behavior of carbon-coated melt-drawn oriented PVDF ultrathin films at atmospheric pressure was studied by means of transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction. The results indicate that through vacuum evaporating a thin carbon layer on the surface of highly oriented alpha-PVDF ultrathin film, not only has its high orientation been preserved after a complete melting and recrystallization process, but an alpha --> beta transition of PVDF has also been achieved through melt recrystallization at atmospheric pressure. This technique can be successfully used for preparing highly oriented beta-PVDF ultrathin films, especially patterned microstructures of PVDF with its highly oriented polar beta-phase and nonoriented nonpolar alpha-phase.

  8. Are there moonlets near Uranus' alpha and beta rings?

    CERN Document Server

    Chancia, R O

    2016-01-01

    The Voyager 2 Radio Science Subsystem (RSS) occultations of Uranus' alpha and beta rings exhibit quasi-periodic optical depth variations with radial wavelengths that vary with longitude. These patterns may be wakes from small moonlets orbiting exterior to these rings. Based on the observed structures in the rings, we estimate that the moonlets would need to be located about 100 km exterior to the rings' semi-major axes and be 2-7 km in radius. Such moonlets could help keep the rings confined. Due to their small radii and presumed low albedo, the expected brightness of these moonlets is on the order of the noise in Voyager 2 images.

  9. Differentiation of Boc-protected alpha,delta-/delta,alpha- and beta,delta-/delta,beta-hybrid peptide positional isomers by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, G; Ramesh, V; Srinivas, R; Sharma, G V M; Shoban Babu, B

    2010-06-01

    Two new series of Boc-N-alpha,delta-/delta,alpha- and beta,delta-/delta,beta-hybrid peptides containing repeats of L-Ala-delta(5)-Caa/delta(5)-Caa-L-Ala and beta(3)-Caa-delta(5)-Caa/delta(5)-Caa-beta(3)-Caa (L-Ala = L-alanine, Caa = C-linked carbo amino acid derived from D-xylose) have been differentiated by both positive and negative ion electrospray ionization (ESI) ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). MS(n) spectra of protonated isomeric peptides produce characteristic fragmentation involving the peptide backbone, the Boc-group, and the side chain. The dipeptide positional isomers are differentiated by the collision-induced dissociation (CID) of the protonated peptides. The loss of 2-methylprop-1-ene is more pronounced for Boc-NH-L-Ala-delta-Caa-OCH(3) (1), whereas it is totally absent for its positional isomer Boc-NH-delta-Caa-L-Ala-OCH(3) (7), instead it shows significant loss of t-butanol. On the other hand, second isomeric pair shows significant loss of t-butanol and loss of acetone for Boc-NH-delta-Caa-beta-Caa-OCH(3) (18), whereas these are insignificant for its positional isomer Boc-NH-beta-Caa-delta-Caa-OCH(3) (13). The tetra- and hexapeptide positional isomers also show significant differences in MS(2) and MS(3) CID spectra. It is observed that 'b' ions are abundant when oxazolone structures are formed through five-membered cyclic transition state and cyclization process for larger 'b' ions led to its insignificant abundance. However, b(1)(+) ion is formed in case of delta,alpha-dipeptide that may have a six-membered substituted piperidone ion structure. Furthermore, ESI negative ion MS/MS has also been found to be useful for differentiating these isomeric peptide acids. Thus, the results of MS/MS of pairs of di-, tetra-, and hexapeptide positional isomers provide peptide sequencing information and distinguish the positional isomers.

  10. Pax4 Expression does not Transduce Pancreatic Alpha Cells to Beta Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Chen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The lack of available beta cells greatly limits the use of beta cell transplantation as a therapy for diabetes. Thus, generation of beta cells from other sources is substantially required. Pax4 has been shown to induce reprograming of alpha cells into beta cells during embryogenesis. Nevertheless, whether expression of Pax4 in adult alpha cells could trigger this alpha-to-beta cell reprogramming is unknown. Methods: Here we generated an adeno-associated virus carrying Pax4 and GFP under a CMV promoter (AAV-Pax4. We used AAV-Pax4 to transduce a mouse alpha cell line in vitro, and to transduce primary alpha cells in diabetic mice. Reprogramming was examined by double immunostaining and by changes in beta cell number. The effects on blood glucose were evaluated by fasting blood glucose and glucose response. Results: In vitro, Pax4 overexpression neither induced insulin expression, nor suppressed glucagon expression in alpha cells. In vivo, Pax4 overexpression failed to increase beta cell number, and did not alter hyperglycemia and glucose response in diabetic mice. Conclusion: Pax4 expression is not sufficient to transduce pancreatic alpha cells into beta cells. Overexpression of Pax4 in alpha cells may not increase functional beta cell number in diabetic patients.

  11. Structure of the T cell receptor in a Ti alpha V beta 2, alpha V beta 8-positive T cell line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, X; Dietrich, J; Kuhlmann, J;

    1994-01-01

    not known; however, it has been suggested that each TcR contains two Ti dimers. To gain insight into the structure of the TcR we constructed a Ti alpha V beta 2, alpha V beta 8-positive T cell line which expressed the endogenous human TiV beta 8 and the transfected mouse TiV beta 2 both in association......The T cell receptor (TcR) is composed of at least six different polypeptide chains consisting of the clonotypic Ti heterodimer (Ti alpha beta or Ti gamma delta) and the noncovalently associated CD3 chains (CD3 gamma delta epsilon zeta). The exact number of subunits constituting the TcR is still...... with the endogenous Ti alpha and CD3 chains at the cell surface. Preclearing experiments with radioiodinated cell lysate prepared with digitonin lysis buffer demonstrated that depleting the lysate of Ti alpha V beta 8 by immunoprecipitation with anti V beta 8 monoclonal antibody (mAb) did not reduce the amount of Ti...

  12. Molecular determinants of desensitization and assembly of the chimeric GABA(A) receptor subunits (alpha1/gamma2) and (gamma2/alpha1) in combinations with beta2 and gamma2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elster, L; Kristiansen, U; Pickering, D S;

    2001-01-01

    )beta2gamma2 subunit combinations formed functional receptor complexes as shown by whole-cell patch-clamp recordings and [3H]muscimol and [3H]flunitrazepam binding. Moreover, the surface immunofluorescence staining of Sf-9 cells expressing the (alpha1/gamma2)-containing receptors was pronounced......Two gamma-aminobutyric acid(A) (GABA(A)) receptor chimeras were designed in order to elucidate the structural requirements for GABA(A) receptor desensitization and assembly. The (alpha1/gamma2) and (gamma2/alpha1) chimeric subunits representing the extracellular N-terminal domain of alpha1 or gamma......2 and the remainder of the gamma2 or alpha1 subunits, respectively, were expressed with beta2 and beta2gamma2 in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf-9) cells using the baculovirus expression system. The (alpha1/gamma2)beta2 and (alpha1/gamma2)beta2gamma2 but not the (gamma2/alpha1)beta2 and (gamma2/alpha1...

  13. Alpha-beta monitoring system based on pair of simultaneous Multi-Wire Proportional Counters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wengrowicz, U.; Amidan, D.; Orion, I.

    2016-08-01

    A new approach for a simultaneous alpha-beta Multi-wire Proportional Counter (MWPC) is presented. The popular approach for alpha-beta monitoring systems consists of a large area MWPC using noble gas flow such as Argon Methane. This method of measurement is effective but requires large-scale and expensive maintenance due to the needs of gas flow control and periodic replacements. In this work, a pair of simultaneous MWPCs for alpha-beta measuring is presented. The developed detector consists of a sealed gas MWPC sensor for beta particles, behind a free air alpha sensor. This approach allows effective simultaneous detection and discrimination of both alpha and beta radiation without the maintenance cost noble gas flow required for unsealed detectors.

  14. Hydrolyses of alpha-naphthyl acetate, beta-naphthyl acetate, and acetyl-DL-phenylalanine beta-naphthyl ester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, S; Moe, D

    1983-01-01

    Using simultaneous coupling azo dye techniques kidney enzymes active against alpha-naphthyl acetate, beta-naphthyl acetate, and acetyl-DL-phenylalanine beta-naphthyl ester are characterized. The enzymes show identical distribution in the section. The banding patterns in zymograms are the same after...

  15. Biosynthesis of Tcr-alpha, beta and Tcr-gamma, delta/CD3 complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauguil-Caspar, S; Arnaud, J; Kuhlmann, J;

    1993-01-01

    Jurkat J76 clone, LYON L12.37 clone and L12.37 cells transfected with J76-alpha cDNA or J76 Tcr-alpha mutated cDNA (J79) were analysed for membrane expression of Tcr/CD3 complex using WT31 mAb (Tcr-alpha, beta) or Tcr-delta 1 mAb (Tcr-gamma, delta): LYON cells express V beta 9 bearing Tcr-beta...... chains. J76 Tcr-alpha cDNA transfected LYON cells have intracellular Tcr-gamma, delta chains and J79 Tcr-alpha cDNA transfected LYON cells have intracellular Tcr-alpha (M), beta chains....

  16. ADAM12 and alpha9beta1 integrin are instrumental in human myogenic cell differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lafuste, Peggy; Sonnet, Corinne; Chazaud, Bénédicte;

    2005-01-01

    Knowledge on molecular systems involved in myogenic precursor cell (mpc) fusion into myotubes is fragmentary. Previous studies have implicated the a disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) family in most mammalian cell fusion processes. ADAM12 is likely involved in fusion of murine mpc and human...... rhabdomyosarcoma cells, but it requires yet unknown molecular partners to launch myogenic cell fusion. ADAM12 was shown able to mediate cell-to-cell attachment through binding alpha9beta1 integrin. We report that normal human mpc express both ADAM12 and alpha9beta1 integrin during their differentiation. Expression...... of alpha9 parallels that of ADAM12 and culminates at time of fusion. alpha9 and ADAM12 coimmunoprecipitate and participate to mpc adhesion. Inhibition of ADAM12/alpha9beta1 integrin interplay, by either ADAM12 antisense oligonucleotides or blocking antibody to alpha9beta1, inhibited overall mpc fusion...

  17. Enzymic synthesis of alpha- and beta-D-glucosides of 1-deoxynojirimycin and their glycosidase inhibitory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, N; Oseki, K; Kaneko, E; Matsui, K

    1994-05-20

    1-Deoxynojirimycin (1) is a potent inhibitor of mammalian and rice alpha-glucosidase. Several glucosides of 1 were synthesized by use of the native and immobilized enzyme and their effect on various enzymes was investigated. Transglucosylation reactions using rice alpha-glucosidase, yeast alpha- and beta-glucosidases purified from Rhodotorula lactosa were performed with maltose or cellobiose as a glucose donor and N-(benzyloxycarbonyl)-1-deoxynojirimycin (2) as an acceptor. The transglucosylation reaction using native rice alpha-glucosidase afforded 3-O-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-N-(benzyloxycarbonyl)-1-deoxynojirimycin (4), 4-O-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-N-(benzyloxycarbonyl)-1-deoxynojirimycin (5), and 2-O-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-N-(benzyloxycarbonyl)-1-deoxynojirimycin (3) in yields of 40, 13, and 2%, respectively, after 30 min. The transglucosylation reaction using immobilized rice alpha-glucosidase was similar to that using the native enzyme. In the system using native yeast alpha-glucosidase, 3, 5, and 4 were formed in yields of 34, 13, and 6%, respectively, after 15 h. The immobilization of yeast alpha-glucosidase caused a significant decrease in transglucosylation activity. Yeast beta-glucosidase showed a high transglucosylation activity and incubation with the reaction system afforded 2-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-N-(benzyloxycarbonyl)-1-deoxynojirimycin (6) and 4-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-N-(benzyloxycarbonyl)-1-deoxynojirimycin (7) in yields of 69 and 3%, respectively, after 3 h. The transglucosylation reaction using immobilized yeast beta-glucosidase preferentially afforded 6 in a yield of 73% after 3 h. After removal of N-benzyloxycarbonyl group from the product glucosides, their glycosidase inhibitory activities were measured. 3-O-alpha-D-Glucopyranosyl-1-deoxynojirimycin (9) retained the potent inhibition of 1 against rat intestinal sucrase activity and was more effective than 1 against rice alpha-glucosidase. 4-O-alpha-D-Glucopyranosyl-1-deoxynojirimycin (10

  18. Higher-Order Beta Matching with Solutions in Long Beta-Eta Normal Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støvring, Kristian

    2006-01-01

    Higher-order matching is a special case of unification of simply-typed lambda-terms: in a matching equation, one of the two sides contains no unification variables. Loader has recently shown that higher-order matching up to beta equivalence is undecidable, but decidability of higher-order matching...... up to beta-eta equivalence is a long-standing open problem.We show that higher-order matching up to beta-eta equivalence is decidable if and only if a restricted form of higher-order matching up to beta equivalence is decidable: the restriction is that solutions must be in long beta-eta normal form....

  19. Influence of heating rate on the temperature of the (alpha+beta)-beta transformation of titanium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gridnev, V.N.; Ivasishin, O.M.; Markovskii, P.E.

    1985-07-01

    Results of a systematic experimental study of the effect of the heating rate, composition, and structure on the temperature of the (alpha+beta)-beta transformation in titanium alloys VT6, VT14, VT3-1, VT23, and VT22 are presented. It is shown that the transformation temperature of the alloys increases proportionally to the coefficient k-beta, which characterizes the alloy content, and to the size of the alpha-phase grains in the original structure. All other conditions being equal, the transformation is completed sooner in alloys with a spheroidal structure. 8 references.

  20. Biochemical characterization of CK2alpha and alpha' paralogues and their derived holoenzymes: evidence for the existence of a heterotrimeric CK2alpha'-holoenzyme forming trimeric complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Birgitte; Rasmussen, Tine; Niefind, Karsten;

    2008-01-01

    Altogether 2 holoenzymes and 4 catalytic CK2 constructs were expressed and characterized i.e. CK2alpha (2) (1-335) beta(2); CK2alpha'-derived holoenzyme; CK2alpha(1-335); MBP-CK2alpha'; His-tagged CK2alpha and His-tagged CK2alpha'. The two His-tagged catalytic subunits were expressed in insect......2alpha'-derived holoenzyme eluted at a position corresponding to a molecular mass of 105 kDa which is significantly below the elution of the CK2alpha (2) (1-335) beta(2) holoenzyme (145 kDa). Calmodulin was not phosphorylated by either CK2alpha (2) (1-335) beta(2) or the CK2alpha'-derived holoenzyme...

  1. Formation of alpha and beta tantalum at the variation of magnetron sputtering conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasakina, E. O.; Sevostyanov, M. A.; Mikhaylova, A. B.; Baikin, A. S.; Sergienko, K. V.; Leonov, A. V.; Kolmakov, A. G.

    2016-02-01

    Nano- and microdimensional surface layers of α and β tantalum on flat NiTi, Ti, glass, etc. substrates were created. Structure and composition of samples were defined by SEM, AES and x-ray diffractometry. With increase in deposition time surface layer thickness not linearly increases. The transitional layer provide high adhesion of a surface layer to a substrate. Irrespective of summary sputtering time the β phase is formed in the beginning and at sputtering time more than 20 min on it α tantalum is deposited, while temperature remains below 150°C. Keywords: composite materials, surface layer, tantalum, alpha and beta phase, nitinol, corrosion resistance.

  2. Experimental and theoretical studies on the inclusion complexation of syringic acid with alpha-, beta-, gamma- and heptakis(2,6-di-O-methyl)-beta-cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Le Xin; Wang, Hai Ming; Xu, Peng; Yang, Yan; Zhang, Zi Qiang

    2008-04-01

    Intermolecular interactions of alpha-, beta-, gamma- and heptakis(2,6-di-O-methyl)-beta-cyclodextrin (CD) with syringic acid (Syr) in aqueous solution are investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy. The fluorescence intensity of Syr gradually increases with the addition of the CDs. The formation constants (K) of the host-guest inclusion complexes are determined using a nonlinear analysis. The association abilities of Syr with the CDs decrease in the order gamma->beta->alpha- approximately DMbeta-CD. Both the intrinsic binding abilities of the CDs and the structural effect of Syr are taken into consideration when comparing the K values. Based on the results of NMR experimental and theoretical PM3 calculations both in vacuo and in water, it is found that Syr stays near the wider rim of alpha-CD cavity. Both the number of substituted groups (NSG) in a guest and the molar volume ratio of the guest to host cavity (MVR) play an important role in forming the CD supramolecular complexes of a homologous series of phenol derivatives, such as 2-methoxylphenol (2-Mop), eugenol (Eug) and Syr, i.e., an appropriate NSG or MVR in an inclusion system, such as in 2-Mop-alpha-CD, Eug-beta-CD and Syr-gamma-CD systems, can maximize the intermolecular interaction between host and guest.

  3. Alpha-amino acid behaves differently from beta- or gamma-amino acids as treated by trimetaphosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, X; Liu, Y; Xu, P X; Cai, Y M; Zhao, Y F

    2008-01-01

    The condensation reactions of sodium trimetaphosphate with single amino acids, namely glycine, L-alanine, beta-alanine and gamma-aminobutyric acid or pairs of these amino acids were reinvestigated by electrospray ion-trap mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography. It was found when mixtures were treated by sodium trimetaphosphate only in the presence of alpha-amino acid dipeptides were formed. Without addition of alpha-amino acids, the beta-amino acid or gamma-aminobutyric acid could not form peptide either by themselves or with their mixtures under the same conditions. From the data it is concluded that phosphate might select alpha-amino acids to produce the peptides being important precursors for the origin of life. PMID:17973074

  4. Topological switching between an alpha-beta parallel protein and a remarkably helical molten globule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabuurs, Sanne M; Westphal, Adrie H; aan den Toorn, Marije; Lindhoud, Simon; van Mierlo, Carlo P M

    2009-06-17

    Partially folded protein species transiently exist during folding of most proteins. Often these species are molten globules, which may be on- or off-pathway to native protein. Molten globules have a substantial amount of secondary structure but lack virtually all the tertiary side-chain packing characteristic of natively folded proteins. These ensembles of interconverting conformers are prone to aggregation and potentially play a role in numerous devastating pathologies, and thus attract considerable attention. The molten globule that is observed during folding of apoflavodoxin from Azotobacter vinelandii is off-pathway, as it has to unfold before native protein can be formed. Here we report that this species can be trapped under nativelike conditions by substituting amino acid residue F44 by Y44, allowing spectroscopic characterization of its conformation. Whereas native apoflavodoxin contains a parallel beta-sheet surrounded by alpha-helices (i.e., the flavodoxin-like or alpha-beta parallel topology), it is shown that the molten globule has a totally different topology: it is helical and contains no beta-sheet. The presence of this remarkably nonnative species shows that single polypeptide sequences can code for distinct folds that swap upon changing conditions. Topological switching between unrelated protein structures is likely a general phenomenon in the protein structure universe.

  5. Cyclic deformation behavior of an {alpha}/{beta} titanium alloy. 2: Internal stresses and micromechanic modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feaugas, X.; Clavel, M. [Univ. de Technologie de Compiegne (France); Pilvin, P. [Univ. Paris VI, Evry (France)]|[Ecole des Mines de Paris, Evry (France). Centre des Materiaux

    1997-07-01

    A micromechanic model was used to study the influence of the different microstructure heterogeneity levels of an {alpha}/{beta} titanium alloy during monotonic and cyclic loadings. In the micromechanic model two levels of heterogeneity were considered: the cell and the two phases ({alpha} and {beta}). The cell is defined as an {alpha} (h.c.p.) crystal surrounded by {beta}-phase (b.c.c.). A modified Kroener`s rule is used to describe the stress localization. This rule takes into account the elasto-plastic accommodation between cells and between phases. The main results are the following: the rate of reduction of the {alpha}/{beta} incompatibilities is greater than that associated with inter-cells and the cyclic softening depends not only on the reduction of the transgranular incompatibilities ({alpha}-phase), but also on inter-cell internal stress redistribution.

  6. On Schr\\"odinger equation with potential U = - {\\alpha}r^{-1} + {\\beta}r + kr^{2} and the bi-confluent Heun functions theory

    CERN Document Server

    Ovsiyuk, E; Veko, O

    2011-01-01

    It is shown that Schr\\"odinger equation with combination of three potentials U = - {\\alpha} r^{-1} + {\\beta} r + kr^{2}, Coulomb, linear and harmonic, the potential often used to describe quarkonium, is reduced to a bi-confluent Heun differential equation. The method to construct its solutions in the form of polynomials is developed, however with additional constraints in four parameters of the model, {\\alpha}, {\\beta}, k, l. The energy spectrum looks as a modified combination of oscillator and Coulomb parts.

  7. C/EBP beta regulation of the tumor necrosis factor alpha gene.

    OpenAIRE

    Pope, R. M.; Leutz, A; Ness, S A

    1994-01-01

    Activated macrophages contribute to chronic inflammation by the secretion of cytokines and proteinases. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) is particularly important in this process because of its ability to regulate other inflammatory mediators in an autocrine and paracrine fashion. The mechanism(s) responsible for the cell type-specific regulation of TNF alpha is not known. We present data to show that the expression of TNF alpha is regulated by the transcription factor C/EBP beta (NF-I...

  8. The physiological and pharmacological role of presynaptic alpha- and beta-adrenoceptors in man.

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, M. J.; Struthers, A D; Burrin, J M; Di Silvio, L.; Brown, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    Two studies were performed each in six normal volunteers in order to find evidence of either a physiological or pharmacological role of presynaptic alpha- and presynaptic beta-adrenoceptors in man. In Study 1 subjects received a 60 min infusion of guanfacine 3 mg (alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist) preceded by either idazoxan (alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist) or vehicle. Guanfacine reduced plasma noradrenaline concentration by approximately 30% and this fall was not antagonised by the alpha 2-rece...

  9. Gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity in drinking water from Zacatecas and Guadalupe cities, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conditions to measure the gross alpha and gross beta radioactivity in water samples from Zacatecas and Guadalupe cities in the State of Zacatecas, Mexico were established. The gross alpha and beta radioactivity of water samples were measured using a liquid scintillation detector. The results show that the gross beta radioactivity in all cases is lower than the maximum contaminant level and the gros alpha radioactivity is higher in the samples collected from Guadalupe City and in the samples collected from the Southwest of Zacatecas City. (author)

  10. Stoichiometric inhibition of amyloid beta-protein aggregation with peptides containing alternating alpha,alpha-disubstituted amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etienne, Marcus A; Aucoin, Jed P; Fu, Yanwen; McCarley, Robin L; Hammer, Robert P

    2006-03-22

    We have prepared two peptides based on the hydrophobic core (Lys-Leu-Val-Phe-Phe) of amyloid beta-protein (Abeta) that contain alpha,alpha-disubstituted amino acids at alternating positions, but differ in the positioning of the oligolysine chain (AMY-1, C-terminus; AMY-2, N-terminus). We have studied the effects of AMY-1 and AMY-2 on the aggregation of Abeta and find that, at stoichiometric concentrations, both peptides completely stop Abeta fibril growth. Equimolar mixtures of AMY-1 and Abeta form only globular aggregates as imaged by scanning force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. These samples show no signs of protofibrillar or fibrillar material even after prolonged periods of time (4.5 months). Also, 10 mol % of AMY-1 prevents Abeta self-assembly for long periods of time; aged samples (4.5 months) show only a few protofibrillar or fibrillar aggregates. Circular dichroism spectroscopy of equimolar mixtures of AMY-1 and Abeta show that the secondary structure of the mixture changes over time and progresses to a predominantly beta-sheet structure, which is consistent with the design of these inhibitors preferring a sheet-like conformation. Changing the position of the charged tail on the peptide, AMY-2 interacts with Abeta differently in that equimolar mixtures form large ( approximately 1 mum) globular aggregates which do not progress to fibrils, but precipitate out of solution. The differences in the aggregation mediated by the two peptides is discussed in terms of a model where the inhibitors act as cosurfactants that interfere with the native ability of Abeta to self-assemble by disrupting hydrophobic interactions either at the C-terminus or N-terminus of Abeta. PMID:16536517

  11. Gross alpha and gross beta activity in the products and by-product of amang tin tailings process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross alpha and gross beta activities were determined for mineral samples collected from five amang tailing factories. The measured activity of alpha ranged from 31 to 220,000 Bq kg-1 with an average 9,154 Bq kg-1, whereas for beta activity ranged from 9 to 552,000 Bq kg-1 with an average 19,811 Bq kg-1. The higher gross alpha and gross beta observed of monazite while the lowest recorded of waste (sand) and pyrite for gross alpha and gross beta activity respectively. The minimum detectable activities were 180 and 40 Bq kg-1 for gross alpha and gross beta respectively. (author)

  12. Quartz luminescence response to a mixed alpha-beta field: Investigations on Romanian loess

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Constantin, Daniela; Jain, Mayank; Murray, Andrew S.;

    2015-01-01

    the alpha dose experienced by fine grains over geological cycles of irradiation and bleaching may have an effect on the saturation characteristics of the laboratory dose response. By applying time resolved optically stimulated luminescence we confirm that the OSL signals induced in quartz by alpha and beta......-OSL laboratory dose response curves do not reflect the growth of the OSL signal in nature. A main difference in coarse- and fine-grained quartz dating lies in the alpha irradiation history, but the effect of mixed alpha-beta fields has so far received little attention. In the present study we investigate whether...

  13. [Implication of integrin alpha5beta1 signal pathways in proliferation and apoptosis of MCF-7/Dox human breast carcinoma cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlova, N I; Morozevich, G E; Ushakova, N A; Gevorkian, N M; Berman, A E

    2016-03-01

    In MCF-7/Dox human breast carcinoma cells, down-regulation of integrin alpha5beta1 and inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) markedly reduced rates of cell proliferation. Mitotic cycle analysis showed that alpha5beta1 down-regulation resulted in cell cycle arrest at the S phase, followed by a significant increase in the population of apoptotic cells (subG1 population). Inhibition of EGFR activity also caused cell cycle arrest at the S-phase but without any increase in the subG1 population. Down-regulation of alpha5beta1 and EGFR inhibition resulted in a significant decrease of cell content of the active (phosphorylated) forms of FAK and Erk protein kinases. The data obtained suggest that alpha5beta1 integrin is implicated in cell growth control via inhibition of apoptotic cell death and through EGFR activation. PMID:27420618

  14. Orthopositronium lifetime at O({alpha}) and O({alpha}{sup 3} ln {alpha}) in closed form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kniehl, B.A.; Kotikov, A.V.; Veretin, O.L. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2009-09-15

    Recently, the O({alpha}) and O({alpha}{sup 3} ln{alpha}) radiative corrections to the orthopositronium lifetime have been presented in closed analytical form, in terms of basic irrational numbers that can be evaluated numerically to arbitrary precision [Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 193401 (2008)]. Here, we present the details of this calculation and reveal the nature of these new constants. We also list explicit transformation formulas for generalized polylogarithms of weight four, which may be useful for other applications. (orig.)

  15. alpha/beta radiation detector using wavelength and delayed fluorescence discrimination

    CERN Document Server

    Maekawa, T

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a novel two-layer radiation detector for alpha/beta simultaneous counting for dust radiation monitoring in nuclear power plants. For alpha/beta discrimination, wavelength and delayed fluorescence discrimination techniques were newly developed. To establish the wavelength discrimination, we adopted a two-layer scintillator consisting of the plastic scintillator (NE-111A) and Y sub 2 O sub 2 S(Eu) whose emission spectra are quite different. To reject the mixed beta signal in the alpha detection layer, we used the delayed fluorescence characteristics of Y sub 2 O sub 2 S(Eu) in the signal processing. We manufactured the detector and tested its feasibility and the detection performance for dust radiation monitoring. Finally, we concluded that the performance of this new alpha/beta detector using the new discrimination methods is suitable for dust radiation monitoring.

  16. Thermomechanical treatment of {beta}-treated Zircaloy-4 within the upper {alpha}-range; Traitements thermomecaniques dans le haut domaine {alpha} du zircaloy-4 trempe-{beta}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauvy, C

    2004-09-15

    Zircaloy-4 is a Zr base alloy mainly used for nuclear applications. This study deals with its behaviour during forming, with a special interest for physical mechanisms acting in the upper {alpha}-range. The {beta}-treated Zircaloy-4 is first described in terms of microstructure and texture. The {alpha} plates are organised in colonies with alternating crystallographic orientations. The Burgers relationships have also been checked. The mechanical behaviour shows two distinct domains (with or without hardening). This could be linked to interactions between the solutes (Sn, O) and mobile dislocations. The evolution of crystallographic texture is characterised by X-ray diffraction. At 550 C, twinning is shown to be the main deformation mechanism under specific experimental conditions. Globularization of the initial lamellar structure is identified as a continuous dynamic recrystallization process, more efficient at higher temperature. High strains are necessary to achieve this phenomenon but meta-dynamic recrystallization can also be used to obtain an equiaxed microstructure after limited strains. (author)

  17. Synthesis of 7 alpha- and 7 beta-spermidinylcholesterol, squalamine analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choucair, B; Dherbomez, M; Roussakis, C; El-kihel, L

    2004-08-16

    Stereoselective synthesis of squalamine dessulfates analogues, 7 alpha and 7 beta-N-[3N-(4-aminobutyl) aminopropyl]aminocholesterol are reported, using 7 alpha and 7 beta-aminocholesterol as a key intermediate. It's the first example in which the position of spermidine is modified at the steroid ring. These molecules showed a comparable antibacteria and fungi activities to squalamine. Then, they have a cytotoxic activity on a human non-small cell bronchopulmonary carcinoma line (NSCLC-N6). PMID:15261272

  18. NMR study of the preparation of 6 {alpha}, 7 {beta}-dihydroxyvouacapan-17 beta-oic acid mannich base derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Flavio Jose Leite dos; Pilo-Veloso, Dorila [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Exatas. Dept. Quimica]. E-mail: dorila@zeus.qui.ufmg.br; Ferreira-Alves, Dalton L. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biologicas. Dept. de Farmacologia

    2007-07-01

    This work presents four new Mannich base compounds obtained by the Mannich reaction of a {delta}-keto-lactone derivative of 6{alpha}, 7{beta}-dihydroxyvouacapan- 17{beta}-oic acid, a furano diterpene isolated from the hexane extract of Pterodon polygalaeflorus Benth fruits, which shows anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. The use of 1D and 2D NMR (COSY, DEPT-135, HMBC, HMQC) spectroscopy made it possible to characterize the new compounds. (author)

  19. Predicting dust extinction properties of star-forming galaxies from H-alpha/UV ratio

    CERN Document Server

    Koyama, Yusei; Hayashi, Masao; Shimakawa, Rhythm; Yamamura, Issei; Egusa, Fumi; Oi, Nagisa; Tanaka, Ichi; Tadaki, Ken-ichi; Takita, Satoshi; Makiuti, Sin'itirou

    2015-01-01

    Using star-forming galaxies sample in the nearby Universe (0.02alpha-to-FUV flux ratio. We find that the H-alpha dust extinction (A(Ha)) derived with H-alpha/H-beta ratio (Balmer decrement) increases with increasing H-alpha/UV ratio as expected, but there remains a considerable scatter around the relation, which is largely dependent on stellar mass and/or H-alpha equivalent width (EW(Ha)). At fixed H-alpha/UV ratio, galaxies with higher stellar mass (or galaxies with lower EW(Ha)) tend to be more highly obscured by dust. We quantify this trend and establish an empirical calibration for predicting A(Ha) with a combination of H-alpha/UV ratio, stellar mass and EW(Ha), with which we can successfully reduce the systematic uncertainties accompanying the simple H-alpha/UV approach by ~15-30%. The new recipes proposed in this study will provide a conveni...

  20. Theta, alpha and beta burst transcranial magnetic stimulation: brain modulation in tinnitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk De Ridder, Elsa van der Loo, Karolien Van der Kelen, Tomas Menovsky, Paul van de Heyning, Aage Moller

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Some forms of tinnitus are considered to be auditory phantom phenomena related to reorganization and hyperactivity of the auditory central nervous system. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS is a non-invasive tool capable of modulating human brain activity, using single pulse or burst stimuli. Burst rTMS has only been performed in the theta range, and has not been used clinically. The authors analyze whether burst TMS at theta (5 Hz, alpha (10 Hz and beta (20 Hz frequencies can temporarily suppress narrow band noise/white noise tinnitus, which has been demonstrated to be intractable to tonic stimulation. Methods: rTMS is performed both in tonic and burst mode in 46 patients contralateral to the tinnitus side, at 5, 10 and 20 Hz. Fourteen placebo negative rTMS responders are further analyzed. Results: In 5 patients, maximal tinnitus suppression is obtained with theta, in 2 with alpha and in 7 with beta burst stimulation. Burst rTMS suppresses narrow band/white tinnitus much better than tonic rTMS t(13=6.4, p<.000. Women experience greater suppression of their tinnitus with burst stimulation than men, t(12=2.9, p<.05. Furthermore left sided tinnitus is perceived as more distressing on the TQ than right sided tinnitus, t(12=3.2, p<.01. The lower the tinnitus pitch the more effectively rTMS suppresses tinnitus(r=-0.65, p<0.05. Discussion: Burst rTMS can be used clinically, not only theta burst, but also alpha and beta burst. Burst rTMS is capable of suppressing narrow band/white noise tinnitus very much better than tonic rTMS. This could be due the simple fact that burst neuromodulation is more powerful than tonic neuromodulation or to a differential effect of burst and tonic stimulation on the lemniscal and extralemniscal auditory system. In some patients only alpha or beta burst rTMS is capable of suppressing tinnitus, and theta burst not. Therefore in future rTMS studies it could be worthwhile not to limit burst

  1. Congruences between modular forms given by the divided beta family in homotopy theory

    OpenAIRE

    Behrens, Mark

    2008-01-01

    We characterize the 2-line of the p-local Adams-Novikov spectral sequence in terms of modular forms satisfying a certain explicit congruence condition for primes p > 3. We give a similar characterization of the 1-line, reinterpreting some earlier work of A. Baker and G. Laures. These results are then used to deduce that, for l a prime which generates the p-adic units, the spectrum Q(l) detects the alpha and beta families in the stable stems.

  2. Evaluation of beta-myrcene, alpha-terpinene and (+)- and (-)-alpha-pinene in the Salmonella/microsome assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes-Carneiro, M R; Viana, Márcia E S; Felzenszwalb, Israel; Paumgartten, Francisco J R

    2005-02-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the genotoxicity of beta-myrcene, alpha-terpinene and (+) and (-)-alpha-pinene, monoterpenes found in a variety of plant volatile oils. beta-myrcene, alpha-terpinene and alpha-pinene as well as plant oils containing these hydrocarbon monoterpenes have been used as flavoring additives in foods and beverages, as fragrances in cosmetics, and as scent in household products. Mutagenicity was evaluated by the Salmonella/microsome assay (TA100, TA98, TA97a and TA1535 tester strains), without and with addition of an extrinsic metabolic activation system (rat liver S9 fraction induced by Aroclor 1254). Two dose-complementary assays were performed so that a broad range of doses, including a number of regularly-spaced doses in the non-toxic dose interval, were tested. No increase in the number of his+ revertant colonies over the negative control values was observed in any of the four S. typhimurium tester strains. Results from the present study therefore indicated that beta-myrcene, alpha-terpinene, and (+) and (-)-alpha-pinene are not mutagenic in the Ames test.

  3. Uptake of neutral alpha- and beta-amino acids by human proximal tubular cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, H; Røigaard, H; Jacobsen, Christian

    1996-01-01

    relatively low. Nor did L-arginine and L-aspartic acid affect the uptake of beta-alanine into AHKE cells. Comparison with the results obtained for normal (NHKE) and immortalized (IHKE) embryonic cells suggested an unaltered expression of the types of transport carriers for neutral alpha- and beta-amino acids...

  4. Purification and characterization of thermostable beta-mannanase and alpha-galactosidase from Bacillus stearothermophilus.

    OpenAIRE

    Talbot, G; Sygusch, J

    1990-01-01

    Bacillus stearothermophilus secretes beta-mannanase and alpha-galactosidase enzymatic activities capable of hydrolyzing galactomannan substrates. Expression of the hemicellulase activities in the presence of locust bean gum was sequential, with mannanase activity preceding expression of alpha-galactosidase activity. The hemicellulase activities were purified to homogeneity by a combination of ammonium sulfate fractionation, gel filtration, hydrophobic interaction chromatography, and ion-excha...

  5. Selective extinction drives taxonomic and functional alpha and beta diversities in island bird assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Xingfeng; Baselga, Andrés; Leprieur, Fabien; Song, Xiao; Ding, Ping

    2016-03-01

    Taxonomic diversity considers all species being equally different from each other and thus disregards species' different ecological functions. Exploring taxonomic and functional aspects of biodiversity simultaneously can better understand the processes of community assembly. We analysed taxonomic and functional alpha and beta diversities of breeding bird assemblages on land-bridge islands in the Thousand Island Lake, China. Given the high dispersal ability of most birds at this spatial scale (several kilometres), we predicted (i) selective extinction driving alpha and beta diversities after the creation of land-bridge islands of varying area and (ii) low taxonomic and functional beta diversities that were not correlated to spatial distance. Breeding birds were surveyed on 37 islands annually from 2007 to 2014. We decomposed beta diversity of breeding birds into spatial turnover and nestedness-resultant components, and related taxonomic and functional diversities to island area and isolation using power regression models (for alpha diversity) and multiple regression models on distance matrices (for beta diversity). We then ran simulations to assess the strength of the correlations between taxonomic and functional diversities. Results revealed that both taxonomic and functional alpha diversities increased with island area. The taxonomic nestedness-resultant and turnover components increased and decreased with difference in area, respectively, but functional counterparts did not. Isolation played a minor role in explaining alpha- and beta-diversity patterns. By partitioning beta diversity, we found low levels of overall taxonomic and functional beta diversities. The functional nestedness-resultant component dominated overall functional beta diversity, whereas taxonomic turnover was the dominant component for taxonomic beta diversity. The simulation showed that functional alpha and beta diversities were significantly correlated with taxonomic diversities, and the

  6. Isothermal and aniso-thermal creep in the {alpha} phase domain, {beta} phase domain and {alpha}+{beta} two phase domain in a Zr-1%NbO alloy; Fluage isotherme et anisotherme dans les domaines monophases ({alpha} et {beta}) et biphases ({alpha} et {beta}) d'un alliage Zr-1%NbO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaddour, D

    2004-12-15

    The coupling between phase transformation and mechanical behaviour of a Zr-1%NbO alloy was studied using an original experimental device already used in a previous study devoted to the Zy-4 alloy. The Zr-1%NbO alloy undergoes a phase transformation {alpha} (hc) {r_reversible} (cc) typically between 750 and 1000 C. The transformation temperatures were measured in situ by using the resistivity and dilatometry techniques. The isothermal creep behaviour of fuel cladding tubes was studied, first after heating, in the {alpha} phase domain between 650 and 760 C, in the {beta} phase domain between 960 and 1100 C, as well as in the ({alpha} + {beta}) two phase domain between 800 and 900 C. The results are summarized in Ashby deformation mechanism maps. It is confirmed that the {beta} phase is much more sensitive to creep flow than the {alpha} phase. The effect of microstructure on the isothermal creep flow behaviour was then investigated by first applying a thermal cycle involving either a full or a partial transformation from {alpha} to {beta}. It was investigated both in the {alpha} phase domain, and after direct cooling into the ({alpha} + {beta}) phase domain. The behaviour in aniso-thermal conditions was finally studied at heating and cooling rates of 10 and 200 C/min. In both cases, we showed that there is no significant transformation plasticity in the stress range under investigation ({<=} 5 MPa). A finite element model using Voronoi polyhedra and eventually meshing a film of intergranular {beta} phase was used to describe the behaviour of material in the ({alpha} + {beta}) domain in various microstructural states. The model predictions are in good agreement with the experimental results for the microstructure obtained after cooling, but the model underestimates creep deformation in the as-received state. This difference is probably related to the fact that interface sliding is not taken into account in the model. (author)

  7. The proportion of hybrid heterodimers in homozygous or doubly heterozygous beta chain variant hemoglobinopathies associated with alpha chain hemoglobin variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, J S

    2000-10-01

    Four alpha genes exist on chromosome 16, but one or more of these genes can be deleted in association with Hemoglobin (Hb)G-Philadelphia in cis to alpha-thalassemia-2 in African-Americans. Therefore, the proportion of HbG-Philadelphia in HbG heterozygotes is trimodal at about 25% for alphaGalpha/alpha alpha, 33% for alphaG-/alpha alpha, and 50% for alphaG-/alpha alpha in patients with HbA. Those who are homozygous or doubly heterozygous for beta chain variants (betaX2 or betaXbetaY) have neither HbA nor the alpha chain variant (alphaX2 betaA2), but have hybrid heterodimers (alphaX2 betaX2). The proportion of hybrid heterodimers here should also be trimodal mirroring alpha gene status. Eleven patients were identified: 4 with Hb SSG, 3 with Hb SCG, and 1 each with Hb OCG, HbSSMontgomery, HbSSChicago, and HbSSBourmedes. Heterodimer proportions were: 43.3 +/- 1.5, 33.5 +/- 2.3, and 15.8 +/- 1.1% for 2, 3, and 4 respective alpha genes which had been studied in 8/11 of the patients (r = 0.98), implying that the prime determinant of the proportion of hybrid heterodimers in this patient group is the number of functional alpha genes. PMID:11045763

  8. Isolation and characterization of recombinant human casein kinase II subunits alpha and beta from bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grankowski, N; Boldyreff, B; Issinger, O G

    1991-01-01

    cDNA encoding the casein kinase II (CKII) subunits alpha and beta of human origin were expressed in Escherichia coli using expression vector pT7-7. Significant expression was obtained with E. coli BL21(DE3). The CKII subunits accounted for approximately 30% of the bacterial protein; however, most...... determined for the subunits of the native enzyme. The recombinant alpha subunit exhibited protein kinase activity which was greatest in the absence of monovalent ions. With increasing amounts of salt, alpha subunit kinase activity declined rapidly. Addition of the beta subunit led to maximum stimulation...

  9. Synthesis of alpha,beta-unsaturated ketones as chalcone analogues via a S(RN)1 mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curti, Christophe; Gellis, Armand; Vanelle, Patrice

    2007-01-01

    An electron-transfer chain reaction between 2-nitropropane anion and alpha-bromoketones derived from nitrobenzene and nitrothiophene was demonstrated by mechanistic study and a specific convenient synthetic protocol. Thus, 2-bromo-1-(5-nitrothiophen-2-yl)ethanone or 2-bromo-1-(4-nitrophenyl)ethanone were reacted with several cyclic nitronate anions to form alpha,beta-unsaturated ketones via a S(RN)1 mechanism. This new method can be used to synthesize a wide variety of chalcone analogues. PMID:17851431

  10. Effect of extracellular pH on recombinant alpha1beta2gamma2 and alpha1beta2 GABAA receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercik, Katarzyna; Pytel, Maria; Cherubini, Enrico; Mozrzymas, Jerzy W

    2006-08-01

    Recently, we have reported that extracellular protons allosterically modulated neuronal GABA(A) receptors [Mozrzymas, J.W., Zarnowska, E.D., Pytel, M., Mercik, K., 2003a. Modulation of GABA(A) receptors by hydrogen ions reveals synaptic GABA transient and a crucial role of desensitiztion process. Journal of Neuroscience 23, 7981-7992]. However, GABAARs in neurons are heterogeneous and the effect of hydrogen ions depends on the receptor subtype. In particular, gamma2 subunit sets the receptor sensibility to several modulators including protons. However, the mechanisms whereby protons modulate gamma2-containing and gamma2-free GABAARs have not been fully elucidated. To this end, current responses to ultrafast GABA applications were recorded for alpha1beta2gamma2 and alpha1beta2 receptors at different pH values. For both receptor types, increase in pH induced a decrease in amplitudes of currents elicited by saturating [GABA] but this effect was stronger for alpha1beta2 receptors. In the case of alpha1beta2gamma2 receptors, protons strongly affected the current time course due to a down regulation of binding and desensitization rates. This effect was qualitatively similar to that described in neurons. Protons strongly influenced the amplitude of alpha1beta2 receptor-mediated currents but the effect on their kinetics was weak suggesting a predominant direct non-competitive inhibition with a minor allosteric modulation. In conclusion, we provide evidence that extracellular protons strongly affect GABAA receptors and that, depending on the presence of the gamma2 subunit, the modulatory mechanisms show profound quantitative and qualitative differences.

  11. Hydrogen and sliding at alpha/beta interfaces of titanium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolin, Harold

    1990-01-01

    Emerging evidence that the sliding between alpha and beta interfaces reported in both Ti-Mn alloys and the Ti-4.5Al-5Mo-1.5Cr ('Corona 5') alloy at room temperature is associated with hydrogen suggests that this may be a general problem contributing to Ti alloys' room-temperature creep. The present evaluation of experimental data indicates that while the hydrogen is concentrated at the Ti-Mn alloys' beta phase, no hydride formation at the alpha/beta interfaces has been reported for either the Ti-Mn alloys or Corona 5. If a hydrogen flux is needed, sliding at the alpha-beta interfaces should be a function of total hydrogen content in the alloy.

  12. The grand partition function Z ({alpha},{beta}) of a quantum system is studied, using diagrammatic representations of the perturbation expansion; La grande fonction de partition Z ({alpha},{beta}) d'un systeme quantique est etudies en utilisant des representations diagrammatiques du developpement en serie des perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominicis, C. de [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    The grand partition function Z ({alpha},{beta}) of a quantum system is studied, using diagrammatic representations of the perturbation expansion. For a fermions system, it is possible to show, by proper resummation, without approximations but under some 'regularity hypothesis', that Log Z ({alpha},{beta}) takes a form where, besides trivial dependences, {alpha} and {beta} only appear through a statistical factor F{sub k}{sup -} = [1 + e{sup -{alpha}}{sup +{beta}}{sup {epsilon}{sub k}{sup 0}}{sup -{beta}}{sup W{sub k}}]{sup -1}. W{sub k} is a (real) self-consistent potential, generalized to all orders and can be defined by a stationary condition on Log Z ({alpha},{beta}) under variations of F{sub k}{sup -}. The thermodynamical quantities take a form analogous to the expressions Landau introduced for the Fermi liquids. The zero temperature limit (for isotropic systems) gives back Goldstone expressions for the ground state of a system. (author) [French] La grande fonction de partition Z ({alpha},{beta}) d'un systeme quantique est etudiee en utilisant des representations diagrammatiques du developpement en serie des perturbations. Pour un systeme de fermions on peut, par des resommations adequates, sans approximations mais sous reserve d'une 'hypothese de regularite', mettre Log Z ({alpha},{beta}) sous une forme ou, en dehors de dependances triviales, {alpha} et {beta} n'interviennent que par l'intermediaire d'un facteur statistique F{sub k}{sup -} = [1 + e{sup -{alpha}}{sup +{beta}}{sup {epsilon}{sub k}{sup 0}}{sup -{beta}}{sup W{sub k}}]{sup -1}. W{sub k} est ici un potentiel self-consistant (reel) generalise a tous les ordres et peut etre defini par une condition de stationnarite de Log Z ({alpha},{beta}) pour des variations de F{sub k}{sup -}. Les grandeurs thermodynamiques prennent une forme analogue aux expressions que LANDAU a introduites pour les liquides de FERMI. A la limite de la temperature nulle (et pour un

  13. An X11alpha/FSBP complex represses transcription of the GSK3beta gene promoter.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lau, Kwok-Fai

    2010-08-04

    X11alpha is a neuronal adaptor protein that interacts with the amyloid precursor protein (APP) through a centrally located phosphotyrosine binding domain to inhibit the production of Abeta peptide that is deposited in Alzheimer\\'s disease brains. X11alpha also contains two C-terminal postsynaptic density-95, large discs, zona occludens 1 (PDZ) domains, and we show here that through its PDZ domains, X11alpha interacts with a novel transcription factor, fibrinogen silencer binding protein. Moreover, we show that an X11alpha\\/fibrinogen silencer binding protein complex signals to the nucleus to repress glycogen synthase kinase-3beta promoter activity. Glycogen synthase kinase-3beta is a favoured candidate kinase for phosphorylating tau in Alzheimer\\'s disease. Our findings show a new function for X11alpha that may impact on Alzheimer\\'s disease pathogenesis.

  14. Analysis of the local kinetics and localization of interleukin-1 alpha, tumour necrosis factor-alpha and transforming growth factor-beta, during the course of experimental pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Pando, R; Orozco, H; Arriaga, K; Sampieri, A; Larriva-Sahd, J; Madrid-Marina, V

    1997-01-01

    became large, vacuolated foamy cells, and containing numerous bacilli with immunoreactivity to mycobacterial lipids and lipoarabinomannan (LAM). These macrophages displayed poor and scarce TNF-alpha and IL-1 alpha immunostaining but still strong immunoreactivity to TGF-beta. These cytokine production kinetics and the spatial relationship between immunostained cells and lung lesions corroborate the important role of TNF-alpha and IL-1 alpha in the constitution of granulomas and immune protection during the early phase of the infection, and also suggest an important if not primary role for TGF-beta in the immunopathogenesis of the advanced forms of pulmonary tuberculosis. Images Figure 1 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9176116

  15. 3-substituted and 1, 3-disubstituted pyrroles synthesis from {alpha}, {beta} insaturated Nitriles. Formal total synthesis of Danaidona; Sintesis de pirroles 3-sustituidos y 1, 3-disustituidos a partir de Nitrilos {alpha}, {beta}- insaturados. Sintesis total formal de la Danaidona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Hector; Flores, Blas; Leon, Fernando; Mendez, Jose Manuel [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    1996-02-01

    We describe a short method to obtain 3-substituted and 1, 3-disubstituted pyrroles from {alpha}, {beta}-insaturated nitriles. We obtained the corresponding substituted succinonitriles from 1, 4-addition of hydrogen cyanide to {alpha}, {beta}-insaturated nitriles. [Spanish] Se describe un metodo corto para obtener pirroles 3-sustituidos y 1, 3-disustituidos a partir de nitrilos {alpha}, {beta}-insaturados. Se obtuvieron los correspondientes succinonitrilos sustituidos a partir de la adicion 1, 4 de acido cianhidrico a nitrilos {alpha}, {beta}-insaturados.

  16. Beta-globin gene haplotypes and alpha-thalassemia analysis in Babinga pygmies from Congo-Brazzaville.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouélé, R; Bodo, J M; Mpelé, D M; Feingold, J; Galactéros, F

    2000-04-01

    We analyzed beta-globin gene cluster haplotypes and deletional alpha+-thalassemia (-alpha3.7kb) in 54 Babinga pygmy subjects from Congo-Brazzaville. The beta(S)-globin gene frequency was 0.065 and that of the deletional alpha-globin gene (-alpha3.7kb) was 0.29. Eighty-five percent of the beta(S) chromosomes and 13% of the beta(A) chromosomes were associated with the Bantu haplotype, 10% of beta(A) chromosomes with the Senegal haplotype, and the remaining beta chromosomes with atypical haplotypes. None of the chromosomes were of the Benin haplotype. These results are clearly of anthropological and evolutionary interest. They also support earlier observations that alpha+-thalassemia is prevalent at a high frequency in African populations.

  17. Ozonolysis of alpha-pinene and beta-pinene: kinetics and mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dan; Zhang, Renyi

    2005-03-15

    A combined quantum-chemical and RRKM/ME (ME--master equation) approach is employed to investigate the structures, energetics, and kinetics of intermediate and stable species, and the yields of stabilized carbonyl oxides and OH radicals from the alpha-pinene and beta-pinene ozonolysis reactions. The cycloaddition of O(3) is highly exothermic, with the reaction energies of 55.1 and 51.1 kcal mol(-1) for alpha- and beta-pinenes, respectively. Cleavage of primary ozonides yields carbonyl oxides with the barrier height of 12.2-17.5 kcal mol(-1). For the prompt reactions of carbonyl oxides from alpha- and beta-pinene ozonolysis, H migration to hydroperoxides represents the dominant pathway over ring closure to dioxiranes. The kinetic calculations indicate a significant portion of stabilization for alpha- and beta-carbonyl oxides. The yields of stabilized carbonyl oxides are estimated to be 0.34 for alpha-pinene and 0.22 for beta-pinene. The applicability of theoretical methods for investigation of oxidation reactions of large hydrocarbon molecules is demonstrated.

  18. Rapid determination of gross alpha/beta activity in milk using liquid scintilation counter technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sas Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid determination of gross alpha and beta emitters in milk by liquid scintillation counter is discussed. This method is based on direct addition of different types of milk into scintillation cocktail and therefore it is very promising for fast determination of alpha/beta activity due to direct alpha and beta separation, measurement in close 4p geometry and without sample treatment. The selected group of radionuclides was chosen with the respect to military significance, radio-toxicity, and possibility of potential misuse. As model radionuclides 241Am, 239Pu, and 90Sr were selected. The Liquid Scintilation Counter Hidex 300 SL equipped with triple-double-coincidence-ratio technique was used for sample measurement. The aim of the work was focused on comparison of different cocktails produced by Hidex and Perkin Elmer, choosing the best cocktail based on our measurement results and adjustment of its appropriate volume. Furthermore, the optimization of ratio between the volume of scintillation cocktail and the volume of urine was investigated with the respect to the model radionuclides. According to the obtained results, the efficiency for alpha emitters was greater than 85% and for beta, greater than 95%. The obtained results allowed this method to be used for rapid determination of gross alpha/beta activity in cases where time is an essence, such as first responders or mass-scale samples, where ordinary means suffer from lack of capacity or simply collapse under the onslaught.

  19. The pharmacology of spontaneously open alpha 1 beta 3 epsilon GABA A receptor-ionophores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksay, Gábor; Thompson, Sally A; Wafford, Keith A

    2003-06-01

    Human alpha(1)beta(3) epsilon GABA(A) receptors were expressed in Xenopus oocytes and examined using the conventional two-electrode voltage-clamp technique and compared to alpha(1)beta(3)gamma(2) receptors. The effects of several GABA(A) agonists were studied, and the allosteric modulation of the channel by a number of GABAergic modulators investigated. The presence of the epsilon subunit increased the potency and efficacy of direct activation by partial GABA(A) agonists (piperidine-4-sulphonic acid and thio-4-PIOL), pentobarbital and neuro-steroids. Direct activation by 3-hydroxylated neurosteroids was restricted to 3alpha epimers, while chirality at C5 was indifferent. The 3beta-sulfate esters of pregnenolone and dehydroepiandrosterone inhibited the spontaneous currents with efficacies higher, while bicuculline methiodide and SR 95531 did so lower than picrotoxin and TBPS. Furosemide, fipronil, triphenylcyanoborate and Zn(2+) blocked the spontaneous currents of alpha(1)beta(3) epsilon receptors with different efficacies. Flunitrazepam and 4'-chlorodiazepam inhibited the spontaneous currents with micromolar potencies. In conclusion, spontaneously active alpha(1)beta(3) epsilon GABA(A) receptors can be potentiated and blocked by GABAergic agents within a broad range of efficacy.

  20. Ion-Induced Dipole Interactions and Fragmentation Times : C$\\alpha$ -C$\\beta$ Chromophore Bond Dissociation Channel

    CERN Document Server

    Soorkia, Satchin; Kumar, Sunil; Pérot-Taillandier, Marie; Lucas, Bruno; Jouvet, Christophe; Barat, Michel; Fayeton, Jacqueline A

    2015-01-01

    The fragmentation times corresponding to the loss of the chromophore (C$\\alpha$-- C$\\beta$ bond dissociation channel) after photoexcitation at 263 nm have been investigated for several small peptides containing tryptophan or tyrosine. For tryptophan-containing peptides, the aromatic chromophore is lost as an ionic fragment (m/z 130), and the fragmentation time increases with the mass of the neutral fragment. In contrast, for tyrosine-containing peptides the aromatic chromophore is always lost as a neutral fragment (mass = 107 amu) and the fragmentation time is found to be fast (\\textless{}20 ns). These different behaviors are explained by the role of the postfragmentation interaction in the complex formed after the C$\\alpha$--C$\\beta$ bond cleavage.

  1. Interaction of transforming growth factor-beta-1 with alpha-2-macroglobulin from normal and inflamed equine joints.

    OpenAIRE

    Coté, N; Trout, D R; Hayes, M. A.

    1998-01-01

    Binding between equine plasma alpha-2-macroglobulin (alpha 2M) and several cytokines known to participate in inflammatory reactions in other species was initially examined. Plasma was obtained from 5 horses with various abnormalities. Samples, both untreated and after reaction with methylamine, were incubated with exogenous, radiolabeled, porcine-derived transforming growth factor-beta-1 (125I-TGF-beta 1), recombinant human interleukin-1-beta (125I-IL-1 beta), and recombinant human tumor necr...

  2. Effect of Disturbance Regime on Alpha and Beta Diversity of Rock Pools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Séguin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Measures of alpha diversity are more frequently used to detect environmental changes and subsequent impacts on biodiversity, while measures based on variability (beta diversity are said to be more appropriate for detecting those impacts. Theory predicts that beta diversity should increase with disturbance frequency in patchy communities. Our objective in this study was to experimentally determine the effect of high and low disturbance regimes, frequency and intensity combined, on marine benthic alpha and beta diversity. The experiment was conducted in a rock pool system of the St. Lawrence estuary, Canada. Rock pools were disturbed by (1 nutrient enrichment and (2 draining according to three disturbance regimes (none, low, high. Disturbance regimes had little or no effect on alpha diversity of benthic algae and sessile animals. However, the low regime of nutrient enrichment induced greater within-group beta diversity than the reference rock pools, while the high disturbance regime induced equal or even smaller within-group beta diversity compared to the reference. Draining had an opposite effect on benthic beta diversity, with a greater variability of the community structure under the high regime of disturbance. Taking into account the effect of disturbance regimes on beta diversity could provide a useful diagnostic for disturbed benthic communities.

  3. Inclusion phenomena of clove oil with alpha-, beta-, gamma- and heptakis (2,6-di-O-methyl)-beta-cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, L X; Xu, P; Wang, H M; Yang, Y

    2009-01-01

    Inclusion interactions of alpha-, beta-, gamma- and heptakis (2,6-di-O-methyl)-beta-cyclodextrin (DMbeta-CD) as hosts with clove oil (an impure eugenol, I-Eug) as guest in aqueous solution were investigated by fluorescence emission spectra. The binding constants of different hosts to I-Eug in aqueous solution decreased in the order: gamma- > beta- > DMbeta- > alpha-CD. Two solid supramolecular inclusion complexes, I-Eug-beta-CD and I-Eug-gamma-CD, were prepared and characterised by nuclear magnetic resonance, powder X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. All the results proved the formation of I-Eug-CD. The inclusion differences between I-Eug and pure eugenol were discussed. The relative contents of the main component eugenol (Eug), second component (eugenol acetate, Eua) and others in I-Eug were found to be fairly different before and after being included by beta-CD, according to the data obtained from high performance liquid chromatography. This could be a practical method to extract the effective components (Eug and Eua) from I-Eug.

  4. Preparation and validation of gross alpha/beta samples used in EML's quality assessment program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A set of water and filter samples have been incorporated into the existing Environmental Measurements Laboratory's (EML) Quality Assessment Program (QAP) for gross alpha/beta determinations by participating DOE laboratories. The participating laboratories are evaluated by comparing their results with the EML value. The preferred EML method for measuring water and filter samples, described in this report, uses gas flow proportional counters with 2 in. detectors. Procedures for sample preparation, quality control and instrument calibration are presented. Liquid scintillation (LS) counting is an alternative technique that is suitable for quantifying both the alpha (241Am, 230Th and 238Pu) and beta (90Sr/90Y) activity concentrations in the solutions used to prepare the QAP water and air filter samples. Three LS counting techniques (Cerenkov, dual dpm and full spectrum analysis) are compared. These techniques may be used to validate the activity concentrations of each component in the alpha/beta solution before the QAP samples are actually prepared

  5. Stat3 isoforms, alpha and beta, demonstrate distinct intracellular dynamics with prolonged nuclear retention of Stat3beta mapping to its unique C-terminal end.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Qiu, Jihui; Dong, Shuo; Redell, Michele S; Poli, Valeria; Mancini, Michael A; Tweardy, David J

    2007-11-30

    Two isoforms of Stat3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) are expressed in cells, alpha (p92) and beta (p83), both derived from a single gene by alternative mRNA splicing. The 55-residue C-terminal transactivation domain of Stat3alpha is deleted in Stat3beta and replaced by seven unique C-terminal residues (CT7) whose function remains uncertain. We subcloned the open reading frames of Stat3alpha and Stat3beta into the C terminus of green fluorescent protein (GFP). Fluorescent microscopic analysis of HEK293T cells transiently transfected with GFP-Stat3alpha or GFP-Stat3beta revealed similar kinetics and cytokine concentration dependence of nuclear accumulation; these findings were confirmed by high throughput microscope analysis of murine embryonic fibroblasts that lacked endogenous Stat3 but stably expressed either GFP-Stat3alpha or GFP-Stat3beta. However, although time to half-maximal cytoplasmic reaccumulation after cytokine withdrawal was 15 min for GFP-Stat3alpha, it was >180 min for GFP-Stat3beta. Furthermore, although the intranuclear mobility of GFP-Stat3alpha was rapid and increased with cytokine stimulation, the intranuclear mobility of GFP-Stat3beta in unstimulated cells was slower than that of GFP-Stat3alpha in unstimulated cells and was slowed further following cytokine stimulation. Deletion of the unique CT7 domain from Stat3beta eliminated prolonged nuclear retention but did not alter its intranuclear mobility. Thus, Stat3alpha and Stat3beta have distinct intracellular dynamics, with Stat3beta exhibiting prolonged nuclear retention and reduced intranuclear mobility especially following ligand stimulation. Prolonged nuclear retention, but not reduced intranuclear mobility, mapped to the CT7 domain of Stat3beta.

  6. Dose-response effects of estrogenic mycotoxins (zearalenone, alpha- and beta-zearalenol on motility, hyperactivation and the acrosome reaction of stallion sperm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colenbrander Ben

    2011-10-01

    . Conversely, zearalenone and 17beta-estradiol did not induce the acrosome reaction but induced hyperactive motility albeit to a different extent. Conclusions Apparently, the mycotoxin zearalenone has 17beta-estradiol-like estrogenic activity that enables it to induce hyperactivated motility of equine sperm cells, whereas the zearalenol derivatives induce premature completion of the acrosome reaction and thereby adversely affect stallion sperm physiology. The alpha form of zearalenol still possessed the estrogenic ability to induce hyperactivated motility, whereas its beta stereo-isomere had lost this property.

  7. Purification and characterization of extremely thermostable beta-mannanase, beta-mannosidase, and alpha-galactosidase from the hyperthermophilic eubacterium Thermotoga neapolitana 5068.

    OpenAIRE

    Duffaud, G D; McCutchen, C M; Leduc, P; Parker, K N; Kelly, R M

    1997-01-01

    Thermostable and thermoactive beta-mannanase (1,4-beta-D-mannan mannanohydrolase [EC 3.2.1.78]), beta-mannosidase (beta-D-mannopyranoside hydrolase [EC 3.2.1.25]) and alpha-galactosidase (alpha-D-galactoside galactohydrolase [EC 3.2.1.22]) were purified to homogeneity from cell extracts and extracellular culture supernatants of the hyperthermophilic eubacterium Thermotoga neapolitana 5068 grown on guar gum-based media. The beta-mannanase was an extracellular monomeric enzyme with a molecular ...

  8. A genetic combination of silent beta-thalassaemia, high Hb A2 beta-thalassaemia, and single alpha globin gene deletion causing mild thalassaemia intermedia.

    OpenAIRE

    R. Galanello; Maccioni, L; ROSATELLI, M. C.; Ibba, P; Nurchi, A M; Cao, A

    1984-01-01

    This paper reports a Sardinian patient, who was a compound heterozygote for silent beta-thalassaemia and high Hb A2 beta o-thalassaemia with the clinical phenotype of mild thalassaemia intermedia; alpha globin gene mapping showed a single alpha globin gene deletion. The reduced alpha globin chain output resulted in more balanced globin chain synthesis, which in turn accounted for the mild clinical phenotype.

  9. Alpha and beta adrenergic effects on metabolism in contracting, perfused muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Erik; Ruderman, N B; Galbo, H

    1982-01-01

    The role of alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptor stimulation for the effect of epinephrine on muscle glycogenolysis, glucose- and oxygen uptake and muscle performance was studied in the perfused rat hindquarter at rest and during electrical stimulation (60 contractions/min). Adrenergic stimulation...... was obtained by epinephrine in a physiological concentration (2.4 X 10(-8) M) and alpha- and beta-adrenergic blockade by 10(-5) M phentolamine and propranolol, respectively. Epinephrine enhanced net glycogenolysis during contractions most markedly in slow-twitch red fibers. In these fibers the effect...

  10. Radioactivity Measurement Method for Environmental Monitoring Gross Alpha/beta Activities in Drinking Water in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahraman, Gülten; Aslan, Nazife; Şahin, Mihriban; Yüksek, Simay

    2015-01-01

    The determination of gross alpha/beta activity concentrations of drinking water is the first step of the environmental monitoring studies and can provide a rapid evaluation of the radioactive content of a sample. In this study, a procedure using liquid scintillation spectrometry (LSS) for the simultaneously monitoring of gross alpha/beta activity concentration in drinking water was determined, verificated with proficiency test sample and applied to the real drinking water samples in Turkey. The results indicate that the method provides good accuracy and precision. LSS can be employed as a screening technique in high activity concentrations. PMID:26454594

  11. A specific domain in alpha-catenin mediates binding to beta-catenin or plakoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, O; Krohn, M; Kemler, R

    1997-08-01

    The E-cadherin-catenin adhesion complex has been the subject of many structural and functional studies because of its importance in development, normal tissue function and carcinogenesis. It is well established that the cytoplasmic domain of E-cadherin binds either beta-catenin or plakoglobin, which both can assemble alpha-catenin into the complex. Recently we have identified an alpha-catenin binding site in beta-catenin and plakoglobin and postulated, based on sequence analysis, that these protein-protein interactions are mediated by a hydrophobic interaction mechanism. Here we have now identified the reciprocal complementary binding site in alpha-catenin which mediates its interaction with beta-catenin and plakoglobin. Using in vitro association assays with C-terminal truncations of alpha-catenin expressed as recombinant fusion proteins, we found that the N-terminal 146 amino acids are required for this interaction. We then identified a peptide of 27 amino acids within this sequence (amino acid positions 117-143) which is necessary and sufficient to bind beta-catenin or plakoglobin. As shown by mutational analysis, hydrophobic amino acids within this binding site are important for the interaction. The results described here, together with our previous work, give strong support for the idea that these proteins associate by hydrophobic interactions of two alpha-helices.

  12. Music genre preference and tempo alter alpha and beta waves in human non-musicians

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter Gentry; Ethan Humphries; Sebastian Pena; Aldijana Mekic; Nicole Hurless; David F Nichols

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of music genre and tempo on brain activation patterns in 10 nonmusicians.Two genres (rock and jazz) and three tempos (slowed, medium/normal, andquickened) were examined using EEG recording and analyzed through Fast Fourier Transform(FFT) analysis. When participants listened to their preferred genre, an increase in alpha waveamplitude was observed. Alpha waves were not significantly affected by tempo. Beta waveamplitude increased significantly as the tempo incre...

  13. Phylogenetic and functional alpha and beta diversity in temperate and tropical tree communities

    OpenAIRE

    Nathan G Swenson; Erikson, David L.; Mi, Xiangcheng; Norman A. Bourg; Forero-Montaña, Jimena; Ge, Xuejun; Howe, Robert; Lake, Jeffrey K.; Liu, Xiaojuan; Ma, Keping; Pei, Nancai; Thompson, Jill; Uriarte, Maria; Wolf, Amy; Wright, S. Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The study of biodiversity has tended to focus primarily on relatively information poor measures of species diversity. Recently, many studies of local diversity (alpha diversity) have begun to use measures of functional and phylogenetic alpha diversity. Investigations into the phylogenetic and functional dissimilarity (beta diversity) of communities have been far less numerous, but these dissimilarity measures have the potential to infer the mechanisms underlying community assembly and dynamic...

  14. New miniaturized alpha/beta spectrometric systems for the surface contamination monitoring and radon personal dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on a new miniaturized alpha/beta spectrometric system. This cheque cart 12 bit SARAD spectra 5011 spectrometric system we can combine with a new developed detector, preamp and forming unit. A very important application of this new measuring system is the alpha nuclidspecific surface contamination monitoring. Especially in old nuclear power station it is very important in the decommissioning process to know the nuclide vector. We report of applications to use this new technology to measure the nuclide vector in old lead cells or construction elements in old nuclear reactors. We measure surface contamination in the order of 1 Bq/cm2 of Pu-239 very easy. A other modification of this cheque cart spectrometer is the radon personal dosimeter. In this case we have integrated on a cheque cart a 8 bit spectrometer, a 1cm2 silicon detector, the signal processing, AD-conversion, data storage and transponder system for the data transfer. Using this transponder system we can also use a local resoluted dosimetry. The main application of this system is the radon dosimetry on workplaces, for instance water works, mines, show caves and other work places with high radon levels. This easy system can replace the passive screening methods and also the nuclear track etch dosimeters. Because the low price and the easy data read out the amortisation of such a electronic system is in the order of two years

  15. Xalpha-DVM investigation of double water molecule interactions with active sites of alpha- and beta-subunits of hemoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuryeva, Elmira I.

    In this work, the results of Xalpha-discrete variation method calculations of the electronic structure and interatomic parameters of chemical bonding between iron (II) and oxygen molecule with and without extra electrons and protons in active site (AS) of alpha- and beta-subunits of oxyhemoglobin are presented. The Skulachev model of O2 molecule existing in respiration medium in the 2H2O form was used. The introduction of extra electrons does not change considerably the interaction of the iron atom with the O2 oxygen molecule, but strengthens the repulsion in the Fe bond N bonds. In this case, the estimated effective charge of the iron atom is +1.8/1.5e for AS of alpha-/beta-subunits of oxyhemoglobin, and the magnetic moment of iron atoms becomes zero. The deoxygenation effect of the AS of the alpha- and beta-subunits of oxyhemoglobin is due to the ability of extra protons to break down covalent attraction between the iron atom and the nearest oxygen atom and also to weakening of the repulsive component of the covalent Fe bond N interactions.

  16. Determination of total alpha and beta activity in water for human consumption by LSC(Liquid Scintillation Counter)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ordinance Brazilian of Ministry of Health (MS 2914/2011) establishes the standards for quality of water intended for human consumption, being limits values of 5.0 Bq/L for gross alpha, and 1.0 Bq/L for gross beta radioactivity. The liquid scintillation spectrometry (LSC) technique has been presented as an alternative to conventional procedure using gas flow proportional counter. The present work shows a review of the methods for determination of gross alpha and gross beta in water by using LSC. Between the factors that influence the accuracy and repeatability of the analytical results we can highlight: thermal preconcentration, type of the acid and calibration standard. A procedure was established and carried out to samples of the National Program of Intercomparison of Radionuclides in Environmental Samples for evaluation of its performance. The gross alpha and gross beta analysis in samples of the public water supplies in the Metropolitan Region of Goiania, state of Goias was carried out. The results are consistent with the guideline values form the Ministry of Health concerning radioactivity. (author)

  17. Modulator effects of interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha on AMPA-induced excitotoxicity in mouse organotypic hippocampal slice cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernardino, Liliana; Xapelli, Sara; Silva, Ana P;

    2005-01-01

    The inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) have been identified as mediators of several forms of neurodegeneration in the brain. However, they can produce either deleterious or beneficial effects on neuronal function. We investigated the effects...... by macrophage antigen-1 and bromodeoxyuridine immunohistochemistry, suggesting a functional recruitment of cytokine-producing cells at sites of neurodegeneration. Together, these findings are relevant for understanding the role of proinflammatory cytokines and microglia activation in acute and chronic...

  18. Extrasynaptic location of alpha-2 and noninnervated beta-2 adrenoceptors in the vascular system of the pithed normotensive rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilffert, B.; Timmermans, P.B.M.W.M.; Van Zwieten, P.A.

    1982-01-01

    The receptors involved in the pressor and tachycardic effects of catecholamines applied systemically or released from sympathetic nerve endings were compared. Intravenously administered (-)-epinephrine activated alpha-1, alpha-2, beta-1 and beta-2 adrenoceptors as demonstrated in pithed rats, using

  19. Treatment of marrow stroma with interferon-alpha restores normal beta 1 integrin-dependent adhesion of chronic myelogenous leukemia hematopoietic progenitors. Role of MIP-1 alpha.

    OpenAIRE

    R Bhatia; McGlave, P B; Verfaillie, C M

    1995-01-01

    The mechanisms by which interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) restores normal hematopoiesis in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) are not well understood. We have recently demonstrated that IFN-alpha acts directly on CML hematopoietic progenitors to restore their adhesion to marrow stroma by modulating beta 1 integrin receptor function. In the present study we examined the effect of IFN-alpha treatment of marrow stroma on subsequent adhesion of CML progenitors. Stromal layers were preincubated with IF...

  20. Fragmentation of alpha- and beta-alanine molecules by ions at Bragg-peak energies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bari, S.; Sobocinski, P.; Postma, J.; Alvarado, F.; Hoekstra, R.; Bernigaud, V.; Manil, B.; Rangama, J.; Huber, B.; Schlathoelter, T.

    2008-01-01

    The interaction of keV He(+), He(2+), and O(5+) ions with isolated alpha and beta isomers of the amino acid alanine was studied by means of high resolution coincidence time-of-flight mass spectrometry. We observed a strong isomer dependence of characteristic fragmentation channels which manifests in

  1. Alpha and beta particle induced scintillations in liquid and solid neon

    CERN Document Server

    Michniak, R A; McKinsey, D N; Doyle, J M

    2002-01-01

    Scintillations induced by alpha and beta particles in liquid and solid neon are studied and their light yield measured. Charged particle scintillation in neon is primarily in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV). We detect this EUV light by converting it to blue using a wavelength shifting fluor and detecting the blue light with a photomultiplier tube. It is observed that liquid neon is a somewhat less-efficient scintillator than liquid helium for both alpha and beta radiation while the light yield in solid neon is greater than in liquid helium. Based on our measurements of the relative light yields of liquid and solid neon to liquid helium whose absolute light yield has previously been determined, we find that an alpha source in liquid neon produces up to 5900 photons per MeV while a beta source produces up to 7400 photons per MeV. In solid neon, we find that an alpha particle produces up to 9300 photons per MeV while a beta particle produces up to 17,000 photons per MeV. We observe a significant dependence of the ...

  2. Receptor density is key to the alpha2/beta interferon differential activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraga, Ignacio; Harari, Daniel; Schreiber, Gideon; Uzé, Gilles; Pellegrini, Sandra

    2009-09-01

    Multiple type I interferons (IFN-alpha/beta) elicit Jak/Stat activation, rapid gene induction, and pleiotropic effects, such as differentiation, antiviral protection, and blocks in proliferation, which are dependent on the IFN subtype and the cellular context. To date, ligand- and receptor-specific molecular determinants underlying IFN-alpha/beta differential activities or potencies have been well characterized. To analyze cellular determinants that impact subtype-specific potency, human fibrosarcoma U5A-derived clones, exhibiting a gradient of IFN sensitivity by virtue of increasing receptor levels, were monitored for Jak/Stat signaling, gene induction, cell cycle lengthening, and apoptosis. In cells with scarce receptors, IFN-beta was more potent than IFN-alpha2 in antiproliferative activity, while the two subtypes were equipotent in all other readouts. Conversely, in cells with abundant receptors, IFN-alpha2 matched or even surpassed IFN-beta in all readouts tested. Our results suggest that the differential activities of the IFN subtypes are dictated not only by the intrinsic ligand/receptor binding kinetics but also by the density of cell surface receptor components.

  3. A Multicomponent UV Analysis of ["alpha"]- and ["beta"]-Acids in Hops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egts, Haley; Durben, Dan J.; Dixson, John A.; Zehfus, Micheal H.

    2012-01-01

    A method is presented for the determination of ["alpha"]- and ["beta"]-acids (humulones and lupulones) in a hops sample using a multicomponent UV spectroscopic analysis of a methanolic hop extract. When compared with standard methods, this lab can be considered "greener" because it uses smaller volumes of safer solvents (methanol instead of…

  4. Beta-alanine/alpha-ketoglutarate aminotransferase for 3-hydroxypropionic acid production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jessen, Holly Jean; Liao, Hans H; Gort, Steven John; Selifonova, Olga V

    2014-11-18

    The present disclosure provides novel beta-alanine/alpha ketoglutarate aminotransferase nucleic acid and protein sequences having increased biological activity. Also provided are cells containing such enzymes, as well as methods of their use, for example to produce malonyl semialdehyde and downstream products thereof, such as 3-hydroxypropionic acid and derivatives thereof.

  5. Beta-alanine/alpha-ketoglutarate aminotransferase for 3-hydroxypropionic acid production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jessen, Holly Jean (Chanhassen, MN); Liao, Hans H. (Eden Prairie, MN); Gort, Steven John (Apple Valley, MN); Selifonova, Olga V. (Plymouth, MN)

    2011-10-04

    The present disclosure provides novel beta-alanine/alpha ketoglutarate aminotransferase nucleic acid and protein sequences having increased biological activity. Also provided are cells containing such enzymes, as well as methods of their use, for example to produce malonyl semialdehyde and downstream products thereof, such as 3-hydroxypropionic acid and derivatives thereof.

  6. Mechanical properties of ({alpha}+{beta})-titanium alloy at cryogenic temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivasishin, O.M. [Institute for Metal Physics, 36 Vernadsky str, Kiev 252142 (Ukraine); Markovsky, P.E. [Institute for Metal Physics, 36 Vernadsky str, Kiev 252142 (Ukraine); Pakharenko, G.A. [Institute for Metal Physics, 36 Vernadsky str, Kiev 252142 (Ukraine); Shevchenko, A.V. [Institute for Metal Physics, 36 Vernadsky str, Kiev 252142 (Ukraine)

    1995-06-15

    The influence of microstructure, fine surface stress concentrators and weak surface gas saturation on the mechanical properties of high-strength ({alpha}+{beta})-titanium alloy at cryogenics temperatures was studied. The results are discussed in terms of a new microcleavage model of brittle fracture. (orig.)

  7. PGC-1alpha and PGC-1beta have both similar and distinct effects on myofiber switching toward an oxidative phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Ole Hartvig; Frandsen, Lis; Schjerling, Peter;

    2006-01-01

    of myotubes, as seen by mRNA downregulation of the immature embryonal and perinatal myosin heavy-chain (MHC) isoforms. PGC-1alpha or PGC-1beta overexpression enhanced mRNA of the slow oxidative-associated MHC isoform MHCIb and downregulated mRNA levels of the fast glycolytic-associated MHC isoforms MHCIIX...... and MHCIIB. Only PGC-1beta overexpression caused an increase in mRNA of the intermediary fast oxidative-associated MHC isoform MHCIIA. PGC-1alpha or PGC-1beta overexpression upregulated GLUT4 mRNA and downregulated myocyte enhancer factor 2C transcription factor mRNA; only PGC-1alpha overexpression caused......Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha and -1beta (PGC-1alpha and PGC-1beta) were overexpressed by adenovirus-mediated gene transfer in cultures of primary rat skeletal muscle cells derived from neonatal myoblasts. Effects on muscle fiber type transition and metabolism...

  8. Alpha cells secrete acetylcholine as a non-neuronal paracrine signal priming human beta cell function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Diaz, Rayner; Dando, Robin; Jacques-Silva, M. Caroline; Fachado, Alberto; Molina, Judith; Abdulreda, Midhat; Ricordi, Camillo; Roper, Stephen D.; Berggren, Per-Olof; Caicedo, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter that plays a major role in the function of the insulin secreting pancreatic beta cell1,2. Parasympathetic innervation of the endocrine pancreas, the islets of Langerhans, has been shown to provide cholinergic input to the beta cell in several species1,3,4, but the role of autonomic innervation in human beta cell function is at present unclear. Here we show that, in contrast to mouse islets, cholinergic innervation of human islets is sparse. Instead, we find that the alpha cells of the human islet provide paracrine cholinergic input to surrounding endocrine cells. Human alpha cells express the vesicular acetylcholine transporter and release acetylcholine when stimulated with kainate or a lowering in glucose concentration. Acetylcholine secretion by alpha cells in turn sensitizes the beta cell response to increases in glucose concentration. Our results demonstrate that in human islets acetylcholine is a paracrine signal that primes the beta cell to respond optimally to subsequent increases in glucose concentration. We anticipate these results to revise models about neural input and cholinergic signaling in the endocrine pancreas. Cholinergic signaling within the islet represents a potential therapeutic target in diabetes5, highlighting the relevance of this advance to future drug development. PMID:21685896

  9. Time course and extent of alpha 1-adrenoceptor density changes in rat heart after beta-adrenoceptor blockade.

    OpenAIRE

    Steinkraus, V.; Nose, M; H. Scholz; Thormählen, K.

    1989-01-01

    1. It has been suggested that impaired beta-adrenoceptor stimulation is a condition under which the functional role of cardiac alpha 1-adrenoceptors is enhanced. We therefore investigated the extent and time course of changes in alpha 1-adrenoceptor characteristics after chronic treatment with the beta-adrenoceptor blocker propranolol in rat heart. For comparison beta-adrenoceptors were also studied. The mechanism of the changes in adrenoceptor density was investigated with cycloheximide, an ...

  10. Divergent evolution of a beta/alpha-barrel subclass: detection of numerous phosphate-binding sites by motif search.

    OpenAIRE

    Bork, P.; Gellerich, J.; Groth, H.; Hooft, R.; Martin, F.

    1995-01-01

    Study of the most conserved region in many beta/alpha-barrels, the phosphate-binding site, revealed a sequence motif in a few beta/alpha-barrels with known tertiary structure, namely glycolate oxidase (GOX), cytochrome b2 (Cyb2), tryptophan synthase alpha subunit (TrpA), and the indoleglycerolphosphate synthase (TrpC). Database searches identified this motif in numerous other enzyme families: (1) IMP dehydrogenase (IMPDH) and GMP reductase (GuaC); (2) phosphoribosylformimino-5-aminoimidazol c...

  11. Amino acid sequence of the alpha subunit and computer modelling of the alpha and beta subunits of echicetin from the venom of Echis carinatus (saw-scaled viper).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polgár, J; Magnenat, E M; Peitsch, M C; Wells, T N; Saqi, M S; Clemetson, K J

    1997-04-15

    Echicetin, a heterodimeric protein from the venom of Echis carinatus, binds to platelet glycoprotein Ib (GPIb) and so inhibits platelet aggregation or agglutination induced by various platelet agonists acting via GPIb. The amino acid sequence of the beta subunit of echicetin has been reported and found to belong to the recently identified snake venom subclass of the C-type lectin protein family. Echicetin alpha and beta subunits were purified. N-terminal sequence analysis provided direct evidence that the protein purified was echicetin. The paper presents the complete amino acid sequence of the alpha subunit and computer models of the alpha and beta subunits. The sequence of alpha echicetin is highly similar to the alpha and beta chains of various heterodimeric and homodimeric C-type lectins. Neither of the fully reduced and alkylated alpha or beta subunits of echicetin inhibited the platelet agglutination induced by von Willebrand factor-ristocetin or alpha-thrombin. Earlier reports about the inhibitory activity of reduced and alkylated echicetin beta subunit might have been due to partial reduction of the protein. PMID:9163349

  12. Measurement of (222)Rn by absorption in plastic scintillators and alpha/beta pulse shape discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitev, Krasimir K

    2016-04-01

    This work demonstrates that common plastic scintillators like BC-400, EJ-200 and SCSF-81 absorb radon and their scintillation pulse decay times are different for alpha- and beta-particles. This allows the application of pulse shape analysis for separation of the pulses of alpha- and beta-particles emitted by the absorbed radon and its progeny. It is shown that after pulse shape discrimination of beta-particles' pulses, the energy resolution of BC-400 and EJ-200 alpha spectra is sufficient to separate the peaks of (222)Rn, (218)Po and (214)Po and allows (222)Rn measurements that are unaffected by the presence of thoron ((220)Rn) in the environment. The alpha energy resolution of SCSF-81 in the experiments degrades due to imperfect collection of the light emitted inside the scintillating fibers. The experiments with plastic scintillation microspheres (PSM) confirm previous findings of other researchers that PSM have alpha-/beta-discrimination properties and show suitability for radon measurements. The diffusion length of radon in BC-400 and EJ-200 is determined. The pilot experiments show that the plastic scintillators are suitable for radon-in-soil-gas measurements. Overall, the results of this work suggest that it is possible to develop a new type of radon measurement instruments which employ absorption in plastic scintillators, pulse-shape discrimination and analysis of the alpha spectra. Such instruments can be very compact and can perform continuous, real-time radon measurements and thoron detection. They can find applications in various fields from radiation protection to earth sciences. PMID:26851823

  13. Detection of Ly$\\beta$ auto-correlations and Ly$\\alpha$-Ly$\\beta$ cross-correlations in BOSS Data Release 9

    CERN Document Server

    Iršič, Vid; Bailey, Stephen; Eisenstein, Daniel J; Font-Ribera, Andreu; Goff, Jean-Marc Le; Lundgren, Britt; McDonald, Patrick; O'Connell, Ross; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Petitjean, Patrick; Rich, Jim; Rossi, Graziano; Schneider, Donald P; Sheldon, Erin S; Yèche, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    The Lyman-$\\beta$ forest refers to a region in the spectra of distant quasars that lies between the rest-frame Lyman-$\\beta$ and Lyman-$\\gamma$ emissions. The forest in this region is dominated by a combination of absorption due to resonant Ly$\\alpha$ and Ly$\\beta$ scattering. When considering the 1D Ly$\\beta$ forest in addition to the 1D Ly$\\alpha$ forest, the full statistical description of the data requires four 1D power spectra: Ly$\\alpha$ and Ly$\\beta$ auto-power spectra and the Ly$\\alpha$-Ly$\\beta$ real and imaginary cross-power spectra. We describe how these can be measured using an optimal quadratic estimator that naturally disentangles Ly$\\alpha$ and Ly$\\beta$ contributions. Using a sample of approximately 60,000 quasar sight-lines from the BOSS Data Release 9, we make the measurement of the one-dimensional power spectrum of fluctuations due to the Ly$\\beta$ resonant scattering. While we have not corrected our measurements for resolution damping of the power and other systematic effects carefully eno...

  14. DMPD: The interferon-alpha/beta system in antiviral responses: a multimodal machineryof gene regulation by the IRF family of transcription factors. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 11790540 The interferon-alpha/beta system in antiviral responses: a multimodal mach...l. 2002 Feb;14(1):111-6. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show The interferon-alpha/beta system in antiviral responses: a multi...ion factors. PubmedID 11790540 Title The interferon-alpha/beta system in antiviral responses: a multimodal m

  15. PET imaging of alpha(v)beta(3) integrin expression in tumours with Ga-68-labelled mono-, di- and tetrameric RGD peptides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkgraaf, Ingrid; Yim, Cheng-Bin; Franssen, Gerben M.; Schuit, Robert C.; Luurtsema, Gert; Liu, Shuang; Oyen, Wim J. G.; Boerman, Otto C.

    2011-01-01

    Due to the restricted expression of alpha(v)beta(3) in tumours, alpha(v)beta(3) is considered a suitable receptor for tumour targeting. In this study the alpha(v)beta(3)-binding characteristics of Ga-68-labelled monomeric, dimeric and tetrameric RGD peptides were determined and compared with their I

  16. Inhibitory effects of Turkish folk remedies on inflammatory cytokines: interleukin-1alpha, interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeşilada, E; Ustün, O; Sezik, E; Takaishi, Y; Ono, Y; Honda, G

    1997-09-01

    In this study, in vitro inhibitory effects of 55 extracts or fractions obtained from 10 plant species on interleukin-1 (IL-1alpha, IL-1beta) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) biosynthesis were studied. The following plant materials from Turkish folk medicine for the treatment of various diseases which are thought to be inflammatory in nature e.g. rheumatism, fever, infections, edemas or related inflammatory diseases were selected as the subject of this study: Cistus laurifolius leaves, Clematis flammna flowering herbs, Crataegus orientalis roots, Daphne oleoides ssp. oleoides whole plant, Ecbalium elaterium roots, Rosa canina roots, Rubus discolor roots, Rubus hirtus roots, Sambucus ebulus flowers and leaves, Sambucus nigra flowers and leaves. All plants showed inhibitory activity against at least one of these models in various percentages depending upon the concentration, thus supporting the folkloric utilization. Daphne oleoides was found to be the most active plant against the test models. PMID:9324006

  17. Effects of microstructural parameters and back stress on damage mechanisms in {alpha}/{beta} titanium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helbert, A.L.; Feaugas, X.; Clavel, M. [Univ. de Technologie de Compiegne (France)

    1998-01-23

    Damage initiation and kinetics in four {alpha}/{beta} titanium alloys have been experimentally and numerically investigated. Efforts were focused on triaxiality, {chi} = {Sigma}{sub m}/{Sigma}{sub eq} and internal stresses effects. The study of void nucleation has provided nucleation criteria corresponding to voids at the {alpha}/{beta} interface. This macroscopic nucleation criterion, written as {Sigma}{sub m} = f({var_epsilon}{sub peq}), was explained with the help of microscopic observations. Microscopic parameters such as plastic strain in the {alpha}-phase or local hydrostatic stress {sigma}{sub m}{sup loc} at the {alpha}/{beta} interface have been linked to the damage initiation. Also, the influence of the different heterogeneity levels on the macroscopic nucleation criterion was demonstrated. It has also been shown that internal stresses increased both nucleation and growth kinetics. Damage mechanisms are well described by a Gurson-Tvergaard model modified to take into account internal stresses. In particular, the existence of a material physical property, f{sub c} (void volume fraction at fracture) was shown.

  18. Metal location and thickness in a multilayered sheet by measuring K{alpha}/K{beta}, L{alpha}/L{beta} and L{alpha}/L{gamma} X-ray ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesareo, Roberto [Dip. di Matematica e Fisica, Universita di Sassari, via Vienna 2, 07100 Sassari (Italy)], E-mail: cesareo@uniss.it; Rizzutto, Marcia A. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CEP 0558-090, Sao Paulo (Brazil)], E-mail: rizzutto@dfn.if.usp.br; Brunetti, Antonio [Dip. di Matematica e Fisica, Universita di Sassari, via Vienna 2, 07100 Sassari (Italy)], E-mail: brunetti@uniss.it; Rao, Donepudi V. [Dip. di Matematica e Fisica, Universita di Sassari, via Vienna 2, 07100 Sassari (Italy); Dept. of Physics, SIR CRR Autonomous College, Eluru, AP (India)], E-mail: donepudi_venkateswararao@rediffmail.com

    2009-09-01

    When a multilayered material is analyzed by means of energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis, then the X-ray ratios of K{alpha}/K{beta}, or L{alpha}/L{beta} and L{alpha}/L{gamma}, for an element in the multilayered material, depend on the composition and thickness of the layer in which the element is situated, and on the composition and thickness of the superimposed layer (or layers). Multilayered samples are common in archaeometry, for example, in the case of pigment layers in paintings, or in the case of gilded or silvered alloys. The latter situation is examined in detail in the present paper, with a specific reference to pre-Columbian alloys from various museums in the north of Peru.

  19. Evaluation of different parameters affecting the liquid scintillation spectrometry measurement of gross alpha and beta index in water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liquid scintillation spectrometry is a fast competitive technique for the simultaneous evaluation of gross alpha and beta indexes. However, the implementation of this technique should not be considered as straightforward, and the pre-concentration methods to decrease the detection limit together with quenching and alpha, and beta crossover corrections should be carefully chosen according to the needs of the laboratory. Both aspects are being approached in this work as to find an easy and robust method for alpha/beta measurement in water samples, taking into account the quenching and alpha/beta crossover interferences effects. Results showed that most of the pre-concentration methods increased the quenching in the measurement, although HNO3 0.05 M points to be the best solution for pre-concentration and re-dissolution of the sample as converges into low quenching and maximum recovery. Subsequently, in the measurement of water samples with different conductivities, the analysis of the raw counts to obtain gross alpha and beta indexes was carried out using different approaches to implement quenching and interference corrections. If quenching and salt content in the sample are relatively low, interference and quenching-efficiency corrections do not improve the accuracy of the results within the usual precision assumed for a result of gross alpha and beta index (25%). Special attention must be paid when corrections are applied to high quenched or saline samples and when alpha and beta activities values are different in several orders of magnitude. - Highlights: → Developed method for simultaneously quantifying gross alpha and gross beta indexes based on LSC was as accurate and precise as the results obtained from methods based on gas proportional counting and ZnS alpha counting. → Alpha/beta crossover and/or quenching corrections were applied and the results obtained did not improve accuracy within 25% dispersion, a widespread acceptance limit for gross alpha and

  20. Evaluation of different parameters affecting the liquid scintillation spectrometry measurement of gross alpha and beta index in water samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomo, M. [Unitat de Radioquimica Ambiental i Sanitaria, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona (Spain); Villa, M. [Centro de Investigacion, Tecnologia e Innovacion. Servicio Radioisotopos. Universidad de Sevilla (Spain); Casacuberta, N. [Institut de Ciencia i Tecnologia Ambientals-Departament de Fisica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona. Spain (Spain); Penalver, A.; Borrull, F. [Unitat de Radioquimica Ambiental i Sanitaria, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona (Spain); Aguilar, C., E-mail: carme.aguilar@urv.cat [Unitat de Radioquimica Ambiental i Sanitaria, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona (Spain)

    2011-09-15

    Liquid scintillation spectrometry is a fast competitive technique for the simultaneous evaluation of gross alpha and beta indexes. However, the implementation of this technique should not be considered as straightforward, and the pre-concentration methods to decrease the detection limit together with quenching and alpha, and beta crossover corrections should be carefully chosen according to the needs of the laboratory. Both aspects are being approached in this work as to find an easy and robust method for alpha/beta measurement in water samples, taking into account the quenching and alpha/beta crossover interferences effects. Results showed that most of the pre-concentration methods increased the quenching in the measurement, although HNO{sub 3} 0.05 M points to be the best solution for pre-concentration and re-dissolution of the sample as converges into low quenching and maximum recovery. Subsequently, in the measurement of water samples with different conductivities, the analysis of the raw counts to obtain gross alpha and beta indexes was carried out using different approaches to implement quenching and interference corrections. If quenching and salt content in the sample are relatively low, interference and quenching-efficiency corrections do not improve the accuracy of the results within the usual precision assumed for a result of gross alpha and beta index (25%). Special attention must be paid when corrections are applied to high quenched or saline samples and when alpha and beta activities values are different in several orders of magnitude. - Highlights: > Developed method for simultaneously quantifying gross alpha and gross beta indexes based on LSC was as accurate and precise as the results obtained from methods based on gas proportional counting and ZnS alpha counting. > Alpha/beta crossover and/or quenching corrections were applied and the results obtained did not improve accuracy within 25% dispersion, a widespread acceptance limit for gross alpha and

  1. Alpha9beta1 integrin in melanoma cells can signal different adhesion states for migration and anchorage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lydolph, Magnus C; Morgan-Fisher, Marie; Høye, Anette M;

    2009-01-01

    of endosomal vesicle recycling, but not inhibitors of protein kinase C or the small GTPase Rho. Our results demonstrated that although alpha9beta1 integrin can induce and localise to focal adhesions in a high activation state, its intermediate activity state normally supports cell adhesion consistent......Cell surface integrins are the primary receptors for cell migration on extracellular matrix, and exist in several activation states regulated in part by ectodomain conformation. The alpha9 integrin subunit, which pairs only with beta1, has specific roles in the immune system and may regulate cell...... migration. Melanoma cells express abundant alpha9beta1 integrin, and its role in cell migration was assessed. Ligands derived from Tenascin-C and ADAM12 supported alpha9beta1 integrin-mediated cell attachment and GTP-Rac dependent migration, but not focal adhesion formation. Manganese ions induced alpha9...

  2. The androgen 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone and its metabolite 5alpha-androstan-3beta, 17beta-diol inhibit the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal response to stress by acting through estrogen receptor beta-expressing neurons in the hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Trent D; Hinds, Laura R; Handa, Robert J

    2006-02-01

    Estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta) and androgen receptor (AR) are found in high levels within populations of neurons in the hypothalamus. To determine whether AR or ERbeta plays a role in regulating hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function by direct action on these neurons, we examined the effects of central implants of 17beta-estradiol (E2), 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), the DHT metabolite 5alpha-androstan-3beta, 17beta-diol (3beta-diol), and several ER subtype-selective agonists on the corticosterone and adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) response to immobilization stress. In addition, activation of neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) was monitored by examining c-fos mRNA expression. Pellets containing these compounds were stereotaxically implanted near the PVN of gonadectomized male rats. Seven days later, animals were killed directly from their home cage (nonstressed) or were restrained for 30 min (stressed) before they were killed. Compared with controls, E2 and the ERalpha-selective agonists moxestrol and propyl-pyrazole-triol significantly increased the stress induced release of corticosterone and ACTH. In contrast, central administration of DHT, 3beta-diol, and the ERbeta-selective compound diarylpropionitrile significantly decreased the corticosterone and ACTH response to immobilization. Cotreatment with the ER antagonist tamoxifen completely blocked the effects of 3beta-diol and partially blocked the effect of DHT, whereas the AR antagonist flutamide had no effect. Moreover, DHT, 3beta-diol, and diarylpropionitrile treatment significantly decreased restraint-induced c-fos mRNA expression in the PVN. Together, these studies indicate that the inhibitory effects of DHT on HPA axis activity may be in part mediated via its conversion to 3beta-diol and subsequent binding to ERbeta. PMID:16452668

  3. Renal and cardiac function during alpha1-beta-blockade in congestive heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heitmann, M; Davidsen, U; Stokholm, K H;

    2002-01-01

    The kidney and the neurohormonal systems are essential in the pathogenesis of congestive heart failure (CHF) and the physiologic response. Routine treatment of moderate to severe CHF consists of diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition and beta-blockade. The need for control...... of renal function during initiation of ACE-inhibition in patients with CHF is well known. The aim of this study was to investigate whether supplementation by a combined alpha1-beta-blockade to diuretics and ACE-inhibition might improve cardiac function without reducing renal function....

  4. Stereoselective synthesis of (E)-beta-tributylstannyl-alpha,beta-unsaturated ketones: Construction of a key intermediate for the total synthesis of zoanthamine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Eiland; Tanner, David Ackland

    2002-01-01

    (E)-beta-Trialkylstannyl-alpha,beta-unsaturated ketones are readily available from secondary propargylic alcohols via a two-step sequence involving highly regio- and stereoselective Pd(0)-catalyzed hydrostannation followed by mild oxidation (TPAP). The methodology has been applied to the synthesi...

  5. Homology modeling of human alpha 1 beta 2 gamma 2 and house fly beta 3 GABA receptor channels and Surflex-docking of fipronil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jin; Ju, Xiu-Lian; Chen, Xiang-Yang; Liu, Gen-Yan

    2009-09-01

    To further explore the mechanism of selective binding of the representative gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors (GABARs) noncompetitive antagonist (NCA) fipronil to insect over mammalian GABARs, three-dimensional models of human alpha 1 beta 2 gamma 2 and house fly beta 3 GABAR were generated by homology modeling, using the cryo-electron microscopy structure of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) of Torpedo marmorata as a template. Fipronil was docked into the putative binding site of the human alpha 1 beta 2 gamma 2 and house fly beta 3 receptors by Surflex-docking, and the calculated docking energies are in agreement with experimental results. The GABA receptor antagonist fipronil exhibited higher potency with house fly beta 3 GABAR than with human alpha 1 beta 2 gamma 2 GABAR. Furthermore, analyses of Surflex-docking suggest that the H-bond interaction of fipronil with Ala2 and Thr6 in the second transmembrane segment (TM2) of these GABARs plays a relatively important role in ligand selective binding. The different subunit assemblies of human alpha 1 beta 2 gamma 2 and house fly beta 3 GABARs may result in differential selectivity for fipronil.

  6. cDNA clone for the alpha-chain of human beta-hexosaminidase: deficiency of alpha-chain mRNA in Ashkenazi Tay-Sachs fibroblasts.

    OpenAIRE

    Myerowitz, R; Proia, R L

    1984-01-01

    We have isolated a cDNA clone containing sequences complementary to mRNA encoding the alpha-chain of the lysosomal enzyme beta-hexosaminidase. RNA from a human lung fibroblast strain, IMR90, was enriched for beta-hexosaminidase messenger by polysome immunoselection with antiserum against beta-hexosaminidase A. This preparation was used to construct cDNA recombinant plasmids by the Okayama-Berg vector primer procedure. After transformation of Escherichia coli, 385 ampicillin-resistant colonies...

  7. Six polymorphic crystal forms of alpha-cobratoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkinshaw, M D; Saenger, W

    1981-11-01

    Six different crystal forms of the long neurotoxin alpha-cobratoxin isolated from the venom of Naja naja siamensis have been obtained and the conditions for their crystallisation are described. Heavy atom derivatives for two of these forms have been prepared and have proven suitable for high-resolution X-ray studies and, with one of them, a 0.28-nm resolution structure has been determined. All but one of the crystal forms were grown between pH 2 and pH 3. Two novel suggestions are made which may be applicable to other protein crystallisation studies. One involves cocrystallisation with mercurous iodide and the other describes a two-step microdialysis procedure, first against salt solution, followed by dialysis against poly(ethylene glycol). PMID:7308208

  8. Urocortin 3 marks mature human primary and embryonic stem cell-derived pancreatic alpha and beta cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talitha van der Meulen

    Full Text Available The peptide hormone Urocortin 3 (Ucn 3 is abundantly and exclusively expressed in mouse pancreatic beta cells where it regulates insulin secretion. Here we demonstrate that Ucn 3 first appears at embryonic day (E 17.5 and, from approximately postnatal day (p 7 and onwards throughout adult life, becomes a unifying and exclusive feature of mouse beta cells. These observations identify Ucn 3 as a potential beta cell maturation marker. To determine whether Ucn 3 is similarly restricted to beta cells in humans, we conducted comprehensive immunohistochemistry and gene expression experiments on macaque and human pancreas and sorted primary human islet cells. This revealed that Ucn 3 is not restricted to the beta cell lineage in primates, but is also expressed in alpha cells. To substantiate these findings, we analyzed human embryonic stem cell (hESC-derived pancreatic endoderm that differentiates into mature endocrine cells upon engraftment in mice. Ucn 3 expression in hESC-derived grafts increased robustly upon differentiation into mature endocrine cells and localized to both alpha and beta cells. Collectively, these observations confirm that Ucn 3 is expressed in adult beta cells in both mouse and human and appears late in beta cell differentiation. Expression of Pdx1, Nkx6.1 and PC1/3 in hESC-derived Ucn 3(+ beta cells supports this. However, the expression of Ucn 3 in primary and hESC-derived alpha cells demonstrates that human Ucn 3 is not exclusive to the beta cell lineage but is a general marker for both the alpha and beta cell lineages. Ucn 3(+ hESC-derived alpha cells do not express Nkx6.1, Pdx1 or PC1/3 in agreement with the presence of a separate population of Ucn 3(+ alpha cells. Our study highlights important species differences in Ucn 3 expression, which have implications for its utility as a marker to identify mature beta cells in (reprogramming strategies.

  9. Effect of arteether alpha/beta on uncomplicated falciparum malaria cases in Upper Assam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, P K; Khan, A M; Prakash, A; Mahanta, J; Srivastava, V K

    1996-11-01

    Thirty patients of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria completed a clinical trial of arteether alpha/beta conducted in a malaria endemic tea garden of district Dibrugarh, Assam. Arteether was given intramuscularly in once a day dose of 150 mg for three consecutive days. The cure rate was 100 per cent with mean fever and parasite clearance time of 42.4 +/- 17.5 and 37.6 +/- 13.6 h respectively. Recrudescence/reinfection rate was 6.7 per cent. Palpable spleens of twenty out of twenty one cases on day 0 became non palpable within 28 days. Following the treatment, percentage of hemoglobin improved marginally with no remarkable change in total and differential leucocyte count. Arteether alpha/beta, besides being a potent and fast acting schizontocidal drug, also exhibited gametocytocidal action on P. falciparum. PMID:8979518

  10. A prototype low-background multiwire proportional chamber for measuring alphas and low-energy betas

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, Z; Bunker, R; Golwala, S R; Grant, D R; Kos, M; Nelson, R H; Rider, A; Schnee, R W; Sotolongo, D; Wang, B; Zahn, A

    2013-01-01

    A prototype low-background multiwire proportional chamber (MWPC) was developed to demonstrate the feasibility of constructing a radiopure MWPC to assay materials for alpha- and beta-emitting surface contaminants for future rare-event-search experiments, as well as other scientific fields. We discuss the design features and assembly techniques used to achieve the energy and position resolution for for efficient rejection of both intrinsic and external backgrounds. Results from a test setup using a 5.89\\,keV x-ray source indicate excellent operational stability and a near-ideal energy resolution of 15.8% FWHM. This detector technology promises significant advances in both alpha and low-energy (<200 keV) beta screening.

  11. Plant diversity predicts beta but not alpha diversity of soil microbes across grasslands worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prober, Suzanne M; Leff, Jonathan W; Bates, Scott T; Borer, Elizabeth T; Firn, Jennifer; Harpole, W Stanley; Lind, Eric M; Seabloom, Eric W; Adler, Peter B; Bakker, Jonathan D; Cleland, Elsa E; DeCrappeo, Nicole M; DeLorenze, Elizabeth; Hagenah, Nicole; Hautier, Yann; Hofmockel, Kirsten S; Kirkman, Kevin P; Knops, Johannes M H; La Pierre, Kimberly J; MacDougall, Andrew S; McCulley, Rebecca L; Mitchell, Charles E; Risch, Anita C; Schuetz, Martin; Stevens, Carly J; Williams, Ryan J; Fierer, Noah

    2015-01-01

    Aboveground-belowground interactions exert critical controls on the composition and function of terrestrial ecosystems, yet the fundamental relationships between plant diversity and soil microbial diversity remain elusive. Theory predicts predominantly positive associations but tests within single sites have shown variable relationships, and associations between plant and microbial diversity across broad spatial scales remain largely unexplored. We compared the diversity of plant, bacterial, archaeal and fungal communities in one hundred and forty-five 1 m(2) plots across 25 temperate grassland sites from four continents. Across sites, the plant alpha diversity patterns were poorly related to those observed for any soil microbial group. However, plant beta diversity (compositional dissimilarity between sites) was significantly correlated with the beta diversity of bacterial and fungal communities, even after controlling for environmental factors. Thus, across a global range of temperate grasslands, plant diversity can predict patterns in the composition of soil microbial communities, but not patterns in alpha diversity. PMID:25430889

  12. Improvement and automatization of a proportional alpha-beta counting system - FAG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An alpha and beta counting system - FAG*, for planchette samples is operated at the Health Physics department's laboratory of the NRCN. The original operation mode of the system was based on manual tasks handled by the FHT1 100 electronics. An option for a basic computer keyboard operation was available too. A computer with an appropriate I/O card was connected to the system and a new operating program was developed which enables full automatic control of the various components. The program includes activity calculations and statistical checks as well as data management. A bar-code laser system for sample number reading was integrated into the Alpha-Beta automatic counting system. The sample identification by means of an attached bar-code label enables unmistakable and reliable attribution of results to the counted sample. authors)

  13. Plant diversity predicts beta but not alpha diversity of soil microbes across grasslands worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prober, Suzanne M.; Leff, Jonathan W.; Bates, Scott T.; Borer, Elizabeth T.; Firn, Jennifer; Harpole, W. Stanley; Lind, Eric M.; Seabloom, Eric W.; Adler, Peter B.; Bakker, Jonathan D.; Cleland, Elsa E.; DeCrappeo, Nicole; DeLorenze, Elizabeth; Hagenah, Nicole; Hautier, Yann; Hofmockel, Kirsten S.; Kirkman, Kevin P.; Knops, Johannes M. H.; La Pierre, Kimberly J.; MacDougall, Andrew S.; McCulley, Rebecca L.; Mitchell, Charles E.; Risch, Anita C.; Schuetz, Martin; Stevens, Carly J.; Williams, Ryan J.; Fierer, Noah

    2015-01-01

    Aboveground–belowground interactions exert critical controls on the composition and function of terrestrial ecosystems, yet the fundamental relationships between plant diversity and soil microbial diversity remain elusive. Theory predicts predominantly positive associations but tests within single sites have shown variable relationships, and associations between plant and microbial diversity across broad spatial scales remain largely unexplored. We compared the diversity of plant, bacterial, archaeal and fungal communities in one hundred and forty-five 1 m2 plots across 25 temperate grassland sites from four continents. Across sites, the plant alpha diversity patterns were poorly related to those observed for any soil microbial group. However, plant beta diversity (compositional dissimilarity between sites) was significantly correlated with the beta diversity of bacterial and fungal communities, even after controlling for environmental factors. Thus, across a global range of temperate grasslands, plant diversity can predict patterns in the composition of soil microbial communities, but not patterns in alpha diversity.

  14. H-alpha and H-beta Photometry of Selected Open Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joner, Michael D.; Hintz, E. G.

    2012-05-01

    We present new data for the open clusters M35, M67, NGC 188, NGC 752, NGC 869, and NGC 884 secured at the Brigham Young University West Mountain Observatory using standard H-beta filters as well as standard filters for the recently defined BYU H-alpha photometric system. Aside from being well suited for surveys and studies of emmision line objects such as HMXBs and YSOs, the combination of these two reddening independent indices provides a reliable temperature measure for individual stars within a cluster with the H-alpha index reaching stars of slightly cooler temperature than can be found from H-beta measurements. We acknowledge the Brigham Young University College of Physical and Mathematical Sciences for continued support of the research programs at the West Mountain Observatory. Partial supprot for this research was received through NSF grant AST #0618209.

  15. The alpha3 laminin subunit, alpha6beta4 and alpha3beta1 integrin coordinately regulate wound healing in cultured epithelial cells and in the skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldfinger, L E; Hopkinson, S B; deHart, G W;

    1999-01-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that proteolytic processing within the globular domain of the alpha3 subunit of laminin-5 (LN5) converts LN5 from a cell motility-inducing factor to a protein complex that can trigger the formation of hemidesmosomes, certain cell-matrix attachment sites found in epithe......Previously, we demonstrated that proteolytic processing within the globular domain of the alpha3 subunit of laminin-5 (LN5) converts LN5 from a cell motility-inducing factor to a protein complex that can trigger the formation of hemidesmosomes, certain cell-matrix attachment sites found...... in epithelial cells. We have prepared a monoclonal antibody (12C4) whose epitope is located toward the carboxy terminus of the globular domain of the alpha3 laminin subunit. This epitope is lost from the alpha3 subunit as a consequence of proteolytic processing. Antibody 12C4 stains throughout the matrix...

  16. Interaction of radiation damage with strain field around. cap alpha. -precipitates in electron-irradiated. beta. -Nb-Zr alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakai, K.; Kinoshita, C.; Kitajima, S.; Muroo, Y. (Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering)

    1985-05-01

    The strain field around ..cap alpha..-precipitates (hcp) in the ..beta..-Nb-Zr phase has been evaluated to study its relaxation mechanism during electron irradiation in a high voltage electron microscope. The crystallography of the ..cap alpha..-precipitates is determined to be of Burgers' orientation relationship with the ..beta..-phase. The compressive strain field around the ..cap alpha..-precipitates is detected and determined by use of the strain contrast of electron microscopy and the elastic continuum theory. The relaxation process of the strain field around the ..cap alpha..-precipitates is observed during electron irradiation, and is analyzed in terms of accumulation of vacancies.

  17. Density functional theory study of electroreductive hydrocoupling of alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kise, Naoki

    2006-11-24

    [reaction: see text] The electroreductive hydrocoupling of methyl cinnamate, methyl crotonate, cumarin, and benzalacetone was studied by DFT (B3LYP/6-311++ G**) calculations. The computational outcomes for the transition states in the hydrocoupling of anion radicals generated by a one-electron transfer to the alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl compounds well agree with the diastereoselectivities in the experimental results previously reported. PMID:17109548

  18. PNNL OS3300 Alpha/Beta Monitoring System Software and Hardware Operations Manual, Revision 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) OS3300 Alpha/Beta Monitoring System Software and Hardware Operations Manual describes how to install and operate the software and hardware on a personal computer in conjunction with the EG and G Berthold LB150D continuous air monitor. Included are operational details for the software functions, how to read and use the drop-down menus, how to understand readings and calculations, and how to access the database tables

  19. PNNL OS3300 Alpha/Beta Monitoring System Software and Hardware Operations Manual, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, J. M.; Duchsherer, Cheryl J.; Sisk, Daniel R.; Carter, Gregory L.; Douglas, David D.; Carrell, Dorothy M.

    2006-01-25

    This Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) OS3300 Alpha/Beta Monitoring System Software and Hardware Operations Manual describes how to install and operate the software and hardware on a personal computer in conjunction with the EG&G Berthold LB150D continuous air monitor. Included are operational details for the software functions, how to read and use the drop-down menus, how to understand readings and calculations, and how to access the database tables.

  20. Modulation of transmission in rat sympathetic ganglia by activation of presynaptic alpha- and beta-adrenoceptors.

    OpenAIRE

    Medgett, I.C.

    1983-01-01

    1 Conditions under which transmission in rat isolated superior cervical ganglia may be affected by activation of presynaptic alpha- and beta-adrenoceptors have been investigated by means of an extracellular recording method. 2 Clonidine caused a small hyperpolarization of the ganglia (mean EC50 approximately 2 nM) in unstimulated preparations; with continuous preganglionic stimulation at 0.2 Hz, clonidine markedly decreased the height of the compound action potential (mean EC50 approximately ...

  1. Alzheimer Disease: Crosstalk between the Canonical Wnt/Beta-Catenin Pathway and PPARs Alpha and Gamma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallée, Alexandre; Lecarpentier, Yves

    2016-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are still not fully understood. In AD, Wnt/beta-catenin signaling has been shown to be downregulated while the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma (mARN and protein) is upregulated. Certain neurodegenerative diseases share the same Wnt/beta-catenin/PPAR gamma profile, such as bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Conversely, other NDs share an opposite profile, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, multiple sclerosis, and Friedreich's ataxia. AD is characterized by the deposition of extracellular Abeta plaques and the formation of intracellular neurofibrillary tangles in the central nervous system (CNS). Activation of Wnt signaling or inhibition of both glycogen synthase kinase-3beta and Dickkopf 1, two key negative regulators of the canonical Wnt pathway, are able to protect against Abeta neurotoxicity and to ameliorate cognitive performance in AD patients. Although PPAR gamma is upregulated in AD patients, and despite the fact that it has been shown that the PPAR gamma and Wnt/beta catenin pathway systems work in an opposite manner, PPAR gamma agonists diminish learning and memory deficits, decrease Abeta activation of microglia, and prevent hippocampal and cortical neurons from dying. These beneficial effects observed in AD transgenic mice and patients might be partially due to the anti-inflammatory properties of PPAR gamma agonists. Moreover, activation of PPAR alpha upregulates transcription of the alpha-secretase gene and represents a new therapeutic treatment for AD. This review focuses largely on the behavior of two opposing pathways in AD, namely Wnt/beta-catenin signaling and PPAR gamma. It is hoped that this approach may help to develop novel AD therapeutic strategies integrating PPAR alpha signaling.

  2. Synthesis of a metal binding protein designed on the alpha/beta scaffold of charybdotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierret, B; Virelizier, H; Vita, C

    1995-12-01

    The alpha/beta scaffold of the scorpion toxin charybdotoxin has been used for the engineering of a metal binding site. Nine substitutions, including three histidines as metal ligands, have been introduced into the original toxin sequence. The newly designed sequence, 37 amino acids long, has been assembled by solid-phase synthesis and HBTU (2-(1H-benzotriazol-1-yl)-1,1,3,3-tetramethyluronium hexafluorophosphate) coupling of Fmoc-protected amino acids. Formation of the three disulfide bonds occurred efficiently and rapidly in the presence of glutathione, and this post-synthesis modification has facilitated the purification task enormously. The process of synthesis and purification was performed in less than a week with an overall 10.2% yield. Circular dichroism analysis showed that the newly designed protein is folded in a alpha/beta structure, similarly to the parent toxin. Electronic absorption spectroscopy, circular dichroism and gel filtration experiments have been used to show that Cu2+ and Zn2+ ions bind with high affinity to the newly engineered protein. These results demonstrate that the alpha/beta fold, common to all scorpion toxins, is a very versatile basic structure, tolerant for substitutions and able to present new sequences in a predetermined conformation. The chemical approach is shown to be effective, rapid and practical for the production of novel designed small proteins.

  3. Identification of alpha beta and gamma delta T cell receptor-positive cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler, C; Larsen, J K; Plesner, T

    1988-01-01

    distribution and function of these different T cells. In immunofluorescence studies gamma delta TCR+ cells have been identified as CD3+WT-31- or CD3+CD4-CD8- cells. However, this may not be the optimal procedure because gamma delta TCR+ cells are weakly WT-31+, and some are CD8+. The aim of this study......Two lineages of T lymphocytes bearing the CD3 antigen can be defined on the basis of the nature of the heterodimeric receptor chain (alpha beta or gamma delta T cell receptor (TCR) expressed. Precise identification of alpha beta and gamma delta TCR+ cells is essential when studying the tissue...... was to evaluate a panel of monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) directed against different chains of the TCR-T3 complex for a more precise identification of alpha beta+ and gamma delta TCR+ cells in flow cytometric studies. We found that the MoAb anti-Ti-gamma A and delta-TCS-1, recognizing the TCR-gamma and the TCR...

  4. On the H$\\alpha$ emission from the $\\beta$ Cephei system

    CERN Document Server

    Schnerr, R S; Oudmaijer, R D; Telting, J H

    2006-01-01

    Be stars, which are characterised by intermittent emission in their hydrogen lines, are known to be fast rotators. This fast rotation is a requirement for the formation of a Keplerian disk, which in turn gives rise to the emission. However, the pulsating, magnetic B1IV star $\\beta$ Cephei is a very slow rotator that still shows H$\\alpha$ emission episodes like in other Be stars, contradicting current theories. We investigate the hypothesis that the H$\\alpha$ emission stems from the spectroscopically unresolved companion of $\\beta$ Cep. Spectra of the two unresolved components have been separated in the 6350-6850\\AA range with spectro-astrometric techniques, using 11 longslit spectra obtained with ALFOSC at the Nordic Optical Telescope, La Palma. We find that the H$\\alpha$ emission is not related to the primary in $\\beta$ Cep, but is due to its 3.4 magnitudes fainter companion. This companion has been resolved by speckle techniques, but it remains unresolved by traditional spectroscopy. The emission extends fr...

  5. Synthesis of a Round Robin about measurement of gross alpha and beta in various waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 2011 the CETAMA (Analytical Methods Committee) has organized 3 Round-Robin tests successively to determine the capability of laboratories to measure gross alpha and beta in various waters. Different parameters are considered such as the origin of radionuclides (natural and artificial) and the variation of the salt content (from a low mineralized solution to highly mineralized water such as seawater). Technical specifications are defined within the working group 'Water analysis' in order to solve some problems observed in measurement of gross alpha and beta activity concentrations. The objective is to identify the causes of a discrepancy between the values obtained from the total counts and the sum of the reference values of each radionuclide alone. These Round-Robin tests allow accredited laboratories (or nearly accredited) to train in order to obtain accepted results in French regulatory proficiency tests organized by the IRSN. From the reference values of the various radionuclides (delivered by a primary metrology laboratory) contained in the samples, the averages of the results obtained by the laboratories are calculated and compared. Synthesis of the results highlighted the difficulty in obtaining reference values for gross alpha and gross beta activity. A method is proposed, established from standard and official guidelines based on robust calculation, to determine these assigned values with their associated uncertainty. Feedback from the various interlaboratory comparisons led to suggesting recommendations, particularly in terms of calibration and sample preparation, which allow a significant improvement in the accuracy (trueness and precision) of the method. (authors)

  6. Gross alpha and beta radioactivity in surface soil and drinkable water around a steel processing facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.O. Ogundare

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The mean gross alpha and beta activities in surface soil and drinkable water in the surrounding communities of a steel processing company, following a continuous exposure of workers and dwellers is determined using a low background Gas-less counting system with a solid state silicon PIPS detector for alpha and beta detection. The average activities for gross alpha and beta in soil ranged between 48.5 ± 15.8–64.0 ± 10.0Bq/kg and 411.5 ± 11.5–2710.0 ± 150.0Bq/kg respectively, whereas in water it ranged between 0.0064 ± 0.0001–0.0182 ± 0.0001 Bq/l and 0.046 ± 0.001–0.126 ± 0.001 Bq/l respectively. The average annual committed effective dose from intake of water was between 0.0304 mSv and 0.0678 mSv which is lower than the recommended reference level for ingested dose from drinkable water.

  7. Plasmin-induced migration requires signaling through protease-activated receptor 1 and integrin alpha(9)beta(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Mousumi; Tarui, Takehiko; Shi, Biao; Akakura, Nobuaki; Ruf, Wolfram; Takada, Yoshikazu

    2004-09-01

    Plasmin is a major extracellular protease that elicits intracellular signals to mediate platelet aggregation, chemotaxis of peripheral blood monocytes, and release of arachidonate and leukotriene from several cell types in a G protein-dependent manner. Angiostatin, a fragment of plasmin(ogen), is a ligand and an antagonist for integrin alpha(9)beta(1). Here we report that plasmin specifically interacts with alpha(9)beta(1) and that plasmin induces of cells expressing migration recombinant alpha(9)beta(1) (alpha(9)-Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells). Migration was dependent on an interaction of the kringle domains of plasmin with alpha(9)beta(1) as well as the catalytic activity of plasmin. Angiostatin, representing the kringle domains of plasmin, alone did not induce the migration of alpha(9)-CHO cells, but simultaneous activation of the G protein-coupled protease-activated receptor (PAR)-1 with an agonist peptide induced the migration on angiostatin, whereas PAR-2 or PAR-4 agonist peptides were without effect. Furthermore, a small chemical inhibitor of PAR-1 (RWJ 58259) and a palmitoylated PAR-1-blocking peptide inhibited plasmin-induced migration of alpha(9)-CHO cells. These results suggest that plasmin induces migration by kringle-mediated binding to alpha(9)beta(1) and simultaneous proteolytic activation of PAR-1. PMID:15247268

  8. Screening procedures for alpha, beta and gamma emitting radionuclides in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gross actinide and beta screening methods currently used by the Bioassay Laboratory at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories have been documented and tested. The gross gamma method has also been documented. The gross actinide method was tested with Th-nat, Pu-239, Np-237, Am-241 and Cm-244 and the average percent recoveries were 90, 99, 45, 72 and 78, respectively. The gross beta method was tested with Sr-90/Y-90, Ce-144/Pr-144, Pm-147 and Ba-133 and the average percent recoveries were 78, 100, 46 and 46, respectively. Detection limits for the gross actinide (alpha) method are found to be about 0.4 mBq and about 39 mBq for the gross beta method

  9. Interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha are expressed by different subsets of microglia and macrophages after ischemic stroke in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Bettina Hjelm; Lambertsen, Kate Lykke; Babcock, Alicia;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) are expressed by microglia and infiltrating macrophages following ischemic stroke. Whereas IL-1beta is primarily neurotoxic in ischemic stroke, TNF-alpha may have neurotoxic and/or neuroprotective effects. We...... artery occlusion in mice, validating the results by the use of bone marrow chimeric mice. RESULTS: We found that IL-1beta and TNF-alpha were expressed in largely segregated populations of CD11b+CD45dim microglia and CD11b+CD45high macrophages, with cells expressing both cytokines only rarely. The number...... of Gr1+ granulocytes producing IL-1beta or TNF-alpha was very low, and we observed no IL-1beta- or TNF-alpha-expressing T cells or astrocytes. CONCLUSION: Taken together, the results show that IL-1beta and TNF-alpha are produced by largely segregated populations of microglia and macrophages after...

  10. Closed headpiece of integrin [alpah]IIb[beta]3 and its complex with an [alpha]IIb[beta]3-specific antagonist that does not induce opening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Jieqing; Zhu, Jianghai; Negri, Ana; Provasi, Davide; Filizola, Marta; Coller, Barry S.; Springer, Timothy A. (Sinai); (Rockefeller); (CH-Boston)

    2011-08-24

    The platelet integrin {alpha}{sub IIb}{beta}{sub 3} is essential for hemostasis and thrombosis through its binding of adhesive plasma proteins. We have determined crystal structures of the {alpha}{sub IIb}{beta}{sub 3} headpiece in the absence of ligand and after soaking in RUC-1, a novel small molecule antagonist. In the absence of ligand, the {alpha}{sub IIb}{beta}{sub 3} headpiece is in a closed conformation, distinct from the open conformation visualized in presence of Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) antagonists. In contrast to RGD antagonists, RUC-1 binds only to the {alpha}{sub IIb} subunit. Molecular dynamics revealed nearly identical binding. Two species-specific residues, {alpha}{sub IIb} Y190 and {alpha}{sub aIIb} D232, in the RUC-1 binding site were confirmed as important by mutagenesis. In sharp contrast to RGD-based antagonists, RUC-1 did not induce {alpha}{sub IIb}{beta}{sub 3} to adopt an open conformation, as determined by gel filtration and dynamic light scattering. These studies provide insights into the factors that regulate integrin headpiece opening, and demonstrate the molecular basis for a novel mechanism of integrin antagonism.

  11. Patterns of alpha, beta and gamma diversity of the herpetofauna in Mexico’s Pacific lowlands and adjacent interior valleys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García, A.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The latitudinal distribution patterns of alpha, beta and gamma diversity of reptiles, amphibians and herpetofauna were analyzed using individual binary models of potential distribution for 301 species predicted by ecological modelling for a grid of 9,932 quadrants of ~25 km2 each. We arranged quadrants in 312 latitudinal bands in which alpha, beta and gamma values were determined. Latitudinal trends of all scales of diversity were similar in all groups. Alpha and gamma responded inversely to latitude whereas beta showed a high latitudinal fluctuation due to the high number of endemic species. Alpha and gamma showed a strong correlation in all groups. Beta diversity is an important component of the herpetofauna distribution patterns as a continuous source of species diversity throughout the region.

  12. Synergistic effects of interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha: central monoamine, corticosterone, and behavioral variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brebner, K; Hayley, S; Zacharko, R; Merali, Z; Anisman, H

    2000-06-01

    The proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) influence neuroendocrine activity, promote central neurotransmitter alterations, and induce a constellation of symptoms collectively referred to as sickness behaviors. These cytokines may also elicit anxiety and anhedonia, and have been associated with psychological disturbances in humans. In the present investigation, systemic IL-1beta and TNF-alpha dose-dependently and synergistically disrupted consumption of a highly palatable food source (chocolate milk), possibly reflecting anorexia or anhedonia engendered by the treatments. As well, these cytokines synergistically increased plasma corticosterone levels. Although IL-1beta and TNF-alpha provoked variations of amine turnover in the hypothalamus, locus coeruleus, and central amygdala, synergistic effects were not evident in this respect. Nevertheless, in view of the central amine variations induced by the cytokines, it is suggested that immune activation may come to influence complex behavioral processes, as well as affective state. PMID:10788757

  13. Hydrogen Lyman-alpha and Lyman-beta radiances and profiles in polar coronal holes

    CERN Document Server

    Tian, Hui; Curdt, Werner; Vial, Jean-Claude

    2009-01-01

    The hydrogen Lyman-alpha plays a dominant role in the radiative energy transport in the lower transition region, and is important for the stud- ies of transition-region structure as well as solar wind origin. We investigate the Ly-alpha profiles obtained by SUMER in coronal holes and quiet Sun. In a subset of these observations, also the Hi Lyman-beta, Si iii, and O vi lines were (quasi-) simultaneously recorded. We find that the distances between the two peaks of Ly-alpha profiles are larger in coronal holes than in the quiet Sun, indicating a larger opacity in coronal holes. This difference might result from the different magnetic structures or the different radiation fields in the two regions. Most of the Ly-beta profiles in the coronal hole have a stronger blue peak, in contrast to those in quiet-Sun regions. Whilst in both regions the Ly-alpha profiles are stronger in the blue peak. Although the asymmetries are likely to be produced by differential flows in the solar atmosphere, their detailed formation ...

  14. The influence of internal stresses on the fracture toughness of {alpha}/{beta} titanium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helbert, A.L.; Feaugas, X.; Clavel, M.

    1999-11-01

    The influence of internal stresses on fracture toughness was investigated in {alpha}/{beta} titanium alloys. It was shown that the direct linkage of K{sub IC} to various microstructural parameters was not so conclusive, since the different parameters act simultaneously on fracture toughness. On the contrary, the metallurgical parameters change the plastic strain incompatibilities inside the material. Thus X, which is a macroscopic measurement of these incompatibilities, is the relevant parameter to account for the different metallurgical influences on toughness. The influence on X of the {alpha}-phase percentage, aspect ratio, and the secondary {alpha}-phase percentage was determined, and it was established that low internal stresses could provide high fracture toughness. The present work also showed the ability of a modified Gurson-Tvergaard (GT) model to calculate the experimental K{sub IC} value.

  15. Estrogen receptors alpha and beta in rat placenta: detection by RT-PCR, real time PCR and Western blotting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Bader Maie D

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High levels of estrogens during pregnancy not only retard placental and fetal growth but can lead to reproductive tract abnormalities in male progeny. Estrogens act through estrogen receptors (ER to modulate the transcription of target genes. These ER exist in two isoforms, ER alpha and ER beta and recently several variants of these isoforms have been identified. Methods The expressions of ER isoforms and variants have been studied in rat placenta at 16, 19 and 21 days gestation (dg. Gene expression was assessed using RT-PCR and real time PCR while protein expression was studied using Western blotting followed by immunodetection. Placental homogenates were probed with: a monoclonal antibody raised against the steroid binding domain of the ER alpha (ER alpha -S, a monoclonal antibody raised against the hinge region of ER alpha (ER alpha -H and a polyclonal antibody raised against the amino terminus of ER beta. Results ER alpha and ER beta mRNA and protein were detected from as early as 16 dg. Two PCR products were detected for ER alpha, one for the wild type ER alpha, and a smaller variant. Real time PCR results suggested the presence of a single product for ER beta. The antibodies used for detection of ER alpha protein both identified a single 67 kDa isoform; however a second 54 kDa band, which may be an ER alpha variant, was identified when using the ER alpha -H antibody. The abundance of both ER alpha bands decreased significantly between 16 and 19 dg. As for ER beta, four bands (76, 59, 54 and 41 kDa were detected. The abundance of the 59 and 54 kDa bands decreased significantly between 16 and 19 dg. Conclusion This study shows that both ER protein isoforms and their variants are present in rat placenta. The decrease in their expression near parturition suggests that the placenta may be relatively unresponsive to estrogens at this stage.

  16. Red cell genetic abnormalities in Peninsular Arabs: sickle haemoglobin, G6PD deficiency, and alpha and beta thalassaemia.

    OpenAIRE

    White, J. M.; Byrne, M; Richards, R; T. Buchanan; Katsoulis, E; Weerasingh, K

    1986-01-01

    The frequencies of four major red cell genetic defects, sickle haemoglobin (Hb S), glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD), and alpha and beta thalassaemia, have been determined in nearly 5000 subjects from the three major Peninsular Arab States, namely Yemen (North and South), the United Arab Emirates, and Oman. All four defects are common with an overall pattern of alpha thalassaemia greater than G6PD deficiency greater than beta thalassaemia greater than Hb A/S. However, the fr...

  17. De novo backbone and sequence design of an idealized alpha/beta-barrel protein: Evidence of stable tertiary structure

    OpenAIRE

    Offredi, Fabrice; Dubail, Fabien; Kischel, Philippe; Sarinski, K.; Stern, A S; Van de Weerdt, Cécile; Hoch, J. C.; Prosperi, Christelle; François, Jean-Marie; Mayo, S. L.; Martial, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    We have designed, synthesized, and characterized a 216 amino acid residue sequence encoding a putative idealized alpha/beta-barrel protein. The design was elaborated in two steps. First, the idealized backbone was defined with geometric parameters representing our target fold: a central eight parallel-stranded beta-sheet surrounded by eight parallel alpha-helices, connected together with short structural turns on both sides of the barrel. An automated sequence selection algorithm, based on th...

  18. Interactions of Plakoglobin and [beta]-Catenin with Desmosomal Cadherins BASIS OF SELECTIVE EXCLUSION OF [alpha]- AND [beta]-CATENIN FROM DESMOSOMES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hee-Jung; Gross, Julia C.; Pokutta, Sabine; Weis, William I.; Stanford-MED

    2009-11-18

    Plakoglobin and {beta}-catenin are homologous armadillo repeat proteins found in adherens junctions, where they interact with the cytoplasmic domain of classical cadherins and with {alpha}-catenin. Plakoglobin, but normally not {beta}-catenin, is also a structural constituent of desmosomes, where it binds to the cytoplasmic domains of the desmosomal cadherins, desmogleins and desmocollins. Here, we report structural, biophysical, and biochemical studies aimed at understanding the molecular basis of selective exclusion of {beta}-catenin and {alpha}-catenin from desmosomes. The crystal structure of the plakoglobin armadillo domain bound to phosphorylated E-cadherin shows virtually identical interactions to those observed between {beta}-catenin and E-cadherin. Trypsin sensitivity experiments indicate that the plakoglobin arm domain by itself is more flexible than that of {beta}-catenin. Binding of plakoglobin and {beta}-catenin to the intracellular regions of E-cadherin, desmoglein1, and desmocollin1 was measured by isothermal titration calorimetry. Plakoglobin and {beta}-catenin bind strongly and with similar thermodynamic parameters to E-cadherin. In contrast, {beta}-catenin binds to desmoglein-1 more weakly than does plakoglobin. {beta}-Catenin and plakoglobin bind with similar weak affinities to desmocollin-1. Full affinity binding of desmoglein-1 requires sequences C-terminal to the region homologous to the catenin-binding domain of classical cadherins. Although pulldown assays suggest that the presence of N- and C-terminal {beta}-catenin 'tails' that flank the armadillo repeat region reduces the affinity for desmosomal cadherins, calorimetric measurements show no significant effects of the tails on binding to the cadherins. Using purified proteins, we show that desmosomal cadherins and {alpha}-catenin compete directly for binding to plakoglobin, consistent with the absence of {alpha}-catenin in desmosomes.

  19. Sesquiterpenes and an intermediate 1alpha, 6beta, 11-eudesmanetriol in the biosynthesis of geosmin from Streptomyces sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ya-Bin; Yang, Zhi; Yang, Xue-Qiong; Zhang, Yong; Zhao, Li-Xing; Xu, Li-Hua; Ding, Zhong-Tao

    2012-03-01

    One new sesquiterpene was isolated from the fermentation broth of Streptomyces sp. and the structure was elucidated by spectral analysis as caryolane-1, 6beta-diol (1). An intermediate 1alpha, 6beta, 11-eudesmanetriol (2) in the biosynthesis of geosmin was also found in this strain which proved sequence for the reactions, especially bicyclization preceding dealkylation.

  20. Increased expression of integrin alpha2 and abnormal response to TGF-beta1 in hereditary gingival fibromatosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, J.; Meng, L.; Ye, X.Q.; Hoff, J.W. von den; Bian, Z.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the possible correlation between integrin alpha1, alpha2, and beta1 expression and excessive collagen synthesis in fibroblasts from 3 unrelated Chinese families with hereditary gingival fibromatosis (HGF). DESIGN: Gingival fibroblasts from three Chinese HGF patients and thr

  1. Adrenalectomy abolishes antagonism of alpha-adrenoceptor-mediated hypotension by a beta-blocker in conscious rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Tabrizchi, R.; Pang, C. C.

    1990-01-01

    1. The effects of a single bolus injection of propranolol, atenolol or ICI 118,551, non-selective beta-, selective beta 1- and selective beta 2-adrenoceptor antagonists, respectively, on mean arterial pressure (MAP) and plasma catecholamine concentrations were examined in seven groups of conscious and unrestrained adrenalectomized rats receiving a continuous infusion of the alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist phentolamine. In all rats adrenaline was undetectable in the plasma four days after adrena...

  2. Alpha/Beta and Gamma Interferons Are Induced by Infection with Noncytopathic Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus In Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Charleston, B; Brackenbury, L.S; Carr, B. V.; Fray, M D; Hope, Jayne; Howard, CJ; Morrison, Ivan

    2002-01-01

    In contrast to the results of previous in vitro studies, experimental infection of calves with noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (ncpBVDV) was found to induce strong alpha/beta and gamma interferon responses in gnotobiotic animals. These responses were associated with depressed levels of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) in serum. The results of this study indicate that the immunosuppression caused by ncpBVDV is not associated with low interferon responses or elevated levels ...

  3. Ischemia- and agonist-induced changes in. alpha. - and. beta. -adrenergic receptor traffic in guinea pig hearts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maisel, A.S.; Motulsky, H.J.; Ziegler, M.G.; Insel, P.A. (Univ. of California, La Jolla (USA))

    1987-11-01

    The authors have used radioligand binding techniques and subcellular fraction to assess whether changes in expression of myocardial {alpha}{sub 1}- and {beta}-adrenergic receptors are mediated by a redistribution of receptors between various membrane fractions. Three fractions were prepared from the left ventricles of guinea pigs that underwent either 1 h of ischemia or injection of epinephrine a crude membrane, a purified sarcolemma, and a light vesicle fraction. In control animals {alpha}{sub 1}-adrenergic receptors (({sup 3}H)prazosin binding) in light vesicles was only 25% of the total {alpha}{sub 1}-receptor density found in sarcolemmal and light vesicle fractions as compared with 50% for {beta}-adrenergic receptors (({sup 125}I)iodocyanopindolol binding sites). Although ischemia was associated with a 53% decrease in the number of light vesicle {beta}-adrenergic receptors and a 42% increase in the number of sarcolemma {beta}-receptors there was no change in the number of light vesicle {alpha}{sub 1}-receptors, even though the number of sarcolemmal {alpha}{sub 1}-receptors increased 34%. Epinephrine treatment promoted internalization of {beta}-adrenergic receptors. These results indicate that {alpha}{sub 1} and {beta}{sub 1}-adrenergic receptors may undergo a different cellular itinerary in guinea pig myocardium. Agonist and ischemia-induced changes in surface {beta}-receptors, but not {alpha}{sub 1}-receptors, appear to result from entry and exit of receptors from an intracellular pool that can be isolated in a light vesicle fraction. Changes in expression of {alpha}{sub 1}-adrenergic receptors may represent changes in the properties of receptors found in the sarcolemma or in a membrane fraction other than the light vesicle fraction that they have isolated.

  4. Induction of nuclear factor-kappaB and its downstream genes by TNF-alpha and IL-1beta has a pro-apoptotic role in pancreatic beta cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortis, F; Pirot, P; Naamane, N;

    2008-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: IL-1beta and TNF-alpha contribute to pancreatic beta cell death in type 1 diabetes. Both cytokines activate the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), but recent observations suggest that NF-kappaB blockade prevents IL-1beta + IFN-gamma- but not TNF-alpha + IFN-g...

  5. Structural Basis of the CD8[alpha beta]/MHC Class I Interaction: Focused Recognition Orients CD8[beta] to a T Cell Proximal Position[superscript 1,2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Rui; Natarajan, Kannan; Margulies, David H.; (NIH)

    2009-09-18

    In the immune system, B cells, dendritic cells, NK cells, and T lymphocytes all respond to signals received via ligand binding to receptors and coreceptors. Although the specificity of T cell recognition is determined by the interaction of T cell receptors with MHC/peptide complexes, the development of T cells in the thymus and their sensitivity to Ag are also dependent on coreceptor molecules CD8 (for MHC class I (MHCI)) and CD4 (for MHCII). The CD8{alpha}{beta} heterodimer is a potent coreceptor for T cell activation, but efforts to understand its function fully have been hampered by ignorance of the structural details of its interactions with MHCI. In this study we describe the structure of CD8{alpha}{beta} in complex with the murine MHCI molecule H-2D{sup d} at 2.6 {angstrom} resolution. The focus of the CD8{alpha}{beta} interaction is the acidic loop (residues 222-228) of the {alpha}3 domain of H-2D{sup d}. The {beta} subunit occupies a T cell membrane proximal position, defining the relative positions of the CD8{alpha} and CD8{beta} subunits. Unlike the CD8{alpha}{alpha} homodimer, CD8{alpha}{beta} does not contact the MHCI {alpha}{sub 2}- or {beta}{sub 2}-microglobulin domains. Movements of the CD8{alpha} CDR2 and CD8{beta} CDR1 and CDR2 loops as well as the flexibility of the H-2D{sup d} CD loop facilitate the monovalent interaction. The structure resolves inconclusive data on the topology of the CD8{alpha}{beta}/MHCI interaction, indicates that CD8{beta} is crucial in orienting the CD8{alpha}{beta} heterodimer, provides a framework for understanding the mechanistic role of CD8{alpha}{beta} in lymphoid cell signaling, and offers a tangible context for design of structurally altered coreceptors for tumor and viral immunotherapy.

  6. Alpha and beta EEG power reflects L-dopa acute administration in parkinsonian patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melgari, Jean-Marc; Curcio, Giuseppe; Mastrolilli, Francesca; Salomone, Gaetano; Trotta, Laura; Tombini, Mario; di Biase, Lazzaro; Scrascia, Federica; Fini, Rita; Fabrizio, Emma; Rossini, Paolo Maria; Vernieri, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effect of an acute L-dopa administration on eye-closed resting state electroencephalographic (EEG) activity of cognitively preserved Parkinsonian patients. Methods: We examined 24 right-handed patients diagnosed as uncomplicated probable Parkinson’s disease (PD). Each patient underwent Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS)-part-III evaluation before and 60 min after an oral load of L-dopa-methyl-ester/carbidopa 250/25 mg. Resting condition eyes-closed EEG data were recorded both pre- and post L-dopa load. Absolute EEG power values were calculated at each scalp derivation for Delta, Theta, Alpha and Beta frequency bands. UPDRS scores (both global and subscale scores) and EEG data (power values of different frequency bands for each scalp derivation) were submitted to a statistical analysis to compare Pre and Post L-Dopa conditions. Finally, a correlation analysis was carried out between EEG spectral content and UPDRS scores. Results: Considering EEG power spectral analysis, no statistically significant differences arose on Delta and Theta bands after L-dopa intake. Conversely, Alpha and Beta rhythms significantly increased on centro-parietal scalp derivations, as a function of L-dopa administration. Correlation analysis indicated a significant negative correlation between Beta power increase on centro-parietal areas and UPDRS subscores (Rigidity of arms and Bradykinesia). A minor significant negative correlation was also found between Alpha band increase and resting tremor. Conclusions: Assuming that a significant change in EEG power spectrum after L-dopa intake may be related to dopaminergic mechanisms, our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that dopaminergic defective networks are implicated in cortical oscillatory abnormalities at rest in non-demented PD patients. PMID:25452725

  7. Skylab-barium alpha and beta L = 6 field-line tracing experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Events SKYLAB-BARIUM ALPHA (27 November 1973) and BETA (4 December 1973) were shaped-charge barium field-line tracing experiments near L approximately equal to 6, conducted jointly by the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory and the University of Alaska Geophysical Institute. Image-orthicon and pulsed intensified auroral cameras provided data for triangulating the fast ion streaks. Using the POGO 10-68, epoch 1965.0, field-line model with Mead-Fairfield corrections for the outer field, the triangulated positions of the fast ion streak were projected down to the 100 km altitude northern conjugate surface. The projected positions moved toward magnetic east with a velocity of 725 m/sec for both SKYLAB-BARIUM ALPHA and BETA. Assuming only an E x B/B2 force, this drift velocity is consistent with an electric field toward magnetic south of 39 mV/m. Radiometric analysis of the filtered, intensified auroral camera records gave observed peak radiance values of about 2 x 10-11 watts/cm2-Sr in the 455.4 nm line of Ba+. The barium in the portion of the ion streak for which radiometric data were obtained had initial injection velocities of 9.5 to 13.5 km/sec in both events. This portion of the ion streak for both SKYLAB-BARIUM ALPHA and BETA contained approximately 4 x 1023 ions compared to the 6.4 x 1024 atoms contained in the barium liner. Ion inventory estimates are based on a solution of the statistical equilibrium equations. Corrections have been made in the ion inventory calculations for Doppler shifts of the solar spectrum as received in the rest frame of the high-velocity barium ions

  8. Alpha and beta EEG power reflects L-dopa acute administration in parkinsonian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marc eMelgari

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the effect of an acute L-dopa administration on eye-closed resting state electroencephalographic (EEG activity of cognitively preserved Parkinsonian patients. Methods. We examined 24 right-handed patients diagnosed as uncomplicated probable Parkinson’s disease (PD. Each patient underwent UPDRS-part-III evaluation before and 60 minutes after an oral load of L-dopa-methyl-ester/carbidopa 250/25 mg. Resting condition eyes-closed EEG data were recorded both pre- and post L-dopa load. Absolute EEG power values were calculated at each scalp derivation for Delta, Theta, Alpha and Beta frequency bands. UPDRS scores (both global and subscale scores and EEG data (power values of different frequency bands for each scalp derivation were submitted to a statistical analysis to compare Pre e Post L-Dopa conditions. Finally, a correlation analysis was carried out between EEG spectral content and UPDRS scores. Results. Considering EEG power spectral analysis, no statistically significant differences arose on Delta and Theta bands after L-dopa intake. Conversely, Alpha and Beta rhythms significantly increased on centro-parietal scalp derivations, as a function of L-dopa administration. Correlation analysis indicated a significant negative correlation between Beta power increase on centro-parietal areas and UPDRS subscores (Rigidity of arms and Bradykinesia. A minor significant negative correlation was also found between Alpha band increase and resting tremor. Conclusions. Assuming that a significant change in EEG power spectrum after L-dopa intake may be related to dopaminergic mechanisms, our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that dopaminergic defective networks are implicated in cortical oscillatory abnormalities at rest in non-demented PD patients.

  9. Gross Alpha Beta Radioactivity in Air Filters Measured by Ultra Low Level α/β Counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cfarku, Florinda; Bylyku, Elida; Deda, Antoneta; Dhoqina, Polikron; Bakiu, Erjona; Perpunja, Flamur

    2010-01-01

    Study of radioactivity in air as very important for life is done regularly using different methods in every country. As a result of nuclear reactors, atomic centrals, institutions and laboratories, which use the radioactivity substances in open or closed sources, there are a lot radioactive wastes. Mixing of these wastes after treatment with rivers and lakes waters makes very important control of radioactivity. At the other side nuclear and radiological accidents are another source of the contamination of air and water. Due to their radio toxicity, especially those of Sr90, Pu239, etc. a contamination hazard for human begins exist even at low concentration levels. Measurements of radioactivity in air have been performed in many parts of the world mostly for assessment of the doses and risk resulting from consuming air. In this study we present the results of international comparison organized by IAEA Vienna, Austria for the air filters spiked with unknown Alpha and Beta Activity. For the calibration of system we used the same filters spiked: a) with Pu-239 as alpha source; b) Sr-90 as beta source and also the blank filter. The measurements of air filter samples after calibration of the system are done with Ultra Low Level α/β Counter (MPC 9604) Protean Instrument Corporation. The high sensitivity of the system for the determination of the Gross Alpha and Beta activity makes sure detection of low values activity of air filters. Our laboratory results are: Aα = (0.19±0.01) Bq/filter and Aα (IAEA) = (0.17±0.009) Bq/filter; Aβ = (0.33±0.009) Bq/filter and Aβ (IAEA) = (0.29±0.01) Bq/filter. As it seems our results are in good agreement with reference values given by IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency).

  10. BEGe detector response to alpha and beta-radiation near its p+ electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Phase II of the GERDA (Germanium Detector Array) experiment Broad Energy Germanium (BEGe) detectors will continue the search for the neutrinoless double beta decay (0νββ) of 76Ge. The main feature of these detectors is their small p+ electrode used for signal read-out. Due to the thin dead layer of the p+ contact, surface events close to this electrode represent a potential background for the search of 0νββ. A study was conducted to determine the response of the detector to alpha and beta-radiation using movable collimated sources within a custom-build cryostat. Preliminary results of this study and a possible method to discriminate these events will be presented.

  11. Relative response of TL and component-resolved OSL to alpha and beta radiations in annealed sedimentary quartz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polymeris, George S., E-mail: polymers@auth.gr [Archaeometry Laboratory, Cultural and Educational Technology Institute, R.C. ' ATHENA' , Tsimiski 58, 67100 Xanthi (Greece); ISIK University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Physics Department, Sile 34980, Istanbul (Turkey); Afouxenidis, Dimitrios; Raptis, Spyridoula [Archaeometry Laboratory, Cultural and Educational Technology Institute, R.C. ' ATHENA' , Tsimiski 58, 67100 Xanthi (Greece); Nuclear Physics Laboratory, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece); Liritzis, Ioannis [Laboratory of Archaeometry, Dept. of Mediterranean Studies, University of the Aegean, 1 Demokratias Ave., 85100 Rhodes (Greece); Tsirliganis, Nestor C. [Archaeometry Laboratory, Cultural and Educational Technology Institute, R.C. ' ATHENA' , Tsimiski 58, 67100 Xanthi (Greece); Kitis, George [Nuclear Physics Laboratory, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece)

    2011-10-15

    Knowledge of the relative luminescence response to alpha and beta radiation is very important in TL and OSL dating. In the present study the relative alpha to beta response is studied in a sedimentary quartz sample, previously fired at 900 deg. C for 1 h, in the dose region between 1 and 128 Gy, for both thermoluminescence (TL) and linearly modulated optically stimulated luminescence (LM - OSL). The LM - OSL measurements were performed at room temperature and at 125 deg. C. All OSL signals were deconvolved into their individual components. Comparison of OSL curves after alpha and beta irradiation strongly supports that quartz OSL components follow first order kinetics in both cases. In the case of TL, the relative alpha to beta response is found to be very different for each TL glow-peak, but it does not depend strongly on irradiation dose. In the case of LM - OSL measurements, it is found that the relative behaviour of the alpha to beta response is different for three distinct regions, namely the fast OSL component, the region of medium OSL component originating from the TL glow-peak at 110 deg. C when stimulation takes place at room temperature and finally the region of slow OSL component. Following stimulation at ambient temperature, the relative alpha to beta response of all components was not observed to depend significantly on dose, with the value of ratio being 0.03 and a tendency to decrease with increasing dose. However, in the case of measurements performed at 125 deg. C, the relative response of the fast components is much enhanced, and for the remaining components it increases with increasing dose. Special care must be taken to examine the relative alpha to beta response of the fast component at 125 deg. C which contrasts the relative response of the TL peak at ca. 325 deg. C. The implications for the dating of annealed quartz are also briefly discussed. - Highlights: > Relative alpha to beta response for TL and LM-OSL is studied in annealed sedimentary

  12. Formation of fluorescent proteins by the attachment of phycoerythrobilin to R-phycoerythrin alpha and beta apo-subunits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isailovic, Dragan; Sultana, Ishrat; Phillips, Gregory J; Yeung, Edward S

    2006-11-01

    Formation of fluorescent proteins was explored after incubation of recombinant apo-subunits of phycobiliprotein R-phycoerythrin with phycoerythrobilin chromophore. Alpha and beta apo-subunit genes of R-phycoerythrin from red algae Polisiphonia boldii were cloned in plasmid pET-21d(+). Hexahistidine-tagged alpha and beta apo-subunits were expressed in Escherichia coli. Although expressed apo-subunits formed inclusion bodies, fluorescent holo-subunits were constituted after incubation of E. coli cells with phycoerythrobilin. Holo-subunits contained both phycoerythrobilin and urobilin chromophores. Fluorescence and differential interference contrast microscopy showed polar location of holo-subunit inclusion bodies in bacterial cells. Cells containing fluorescent holo-subunits were several times brighter than control cells as found by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. The addition of phycoerythrobilin to cells did not show cytotoxic effects, in contrast to expression of proteins in inclusion bodies. In an attempt to improve solubility, R-phycoerythrin apo-subunits were fused to maltose-binding protein and incubated with phycoerythrobilin both in vitro and in vivo. Highly fluorescent soluble fusion proteins containing phycoerythrobilin as the sole chromophore were formed. Fusion proteins were localized by fluorescence microscopy either throughout E. coli cells or at cell poles. Flow cytometry showed that cells containing fluorescent fusion proteins were up to 10 times brighter than control cells. Results indicate that fluorescent proteins formed by attachment of phycoerythrobilin to expressed apo-subunits of phycobiliproteins can be used as fluorescent probes for analysis of cells by microscopy and flow cytometry. A unique property of these fluorescent reporters is their utility in both properly folded (soluble) subunits and subunits aggregated in inclusion bodies.

  13. A bar-code reader for an alpha-beta automatic counting system - FAG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bar-code laser system for sample number reading was integrated into the FAG Alpha-Beta automatic counting system. The sample identification by means of an attached bar-code label enables unmistakable and reliable attribution of results to the counted sample. Installation of the bar-code reader system required several modifications: Mechanical changes in the automatic sample changer, design and production of new sample holders, modification of the sample planchettes, changes in the electronic system, update of the operating software of the system (authors)

  14. Highly Potent, Water Soluble Benzimidazole Antagonist for Activated (alpha)4(beta)1 Integrin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, R D; Andrei, M; Lau, E Y; Lightstone, F C; Liu, R; Lam, K S; Kurth, M J

    2007-08-29

    The cell surface receptor {alpha}{sub 4}{beta}{sub 1} integrin, activated constitutively in lymphoma, can be targeted with the bisaryl urea peptidomimetic antagonist 1 (LLP2A). However, concerns on its preliminary pharmacokinetic (PK) profile provided an impetus to change the pharmacophore from a bisaryl urea to a 2-arylaminobenzimidazole moiety resulting in improved solubility while maintaining picomolar potency [5 (KLCA4); IC{sub 50} = 305 pM]. With exceptional solubility, this finding has potential for improving PK to help diagnose and treat lymphomas.

  15. Transforming growth factor-beta suppresses tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression in monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaday, G G; Schor, H; Rahat, M A; Lahat, N; Lider, O

    2001-04-01

    The inflammatory response is marked by the release of several cytokines with multiple roles in regulating leukocyte activities, including the secretion of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Although the effects of individual cytokines on monocyte MMP expression have been studied extensively, few studies have examined the influence of combinations of cytokines, which are likely present at inflammatory sites. Herein, we report our investigation of the combinatorial effects of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta on MMP-9 synthesis. We found that TGF-beta suppressed TNF-alpha-induced MMP-9 secretion by MonoMac-6 monocytic cells in a dose-dependent manner, with a maximal effect of TGF-beta observed at 1 ng/ml. Such suppression was likely regulated at the pretranslational level, because steady-state mRNA levels of TNF-alpha-induced MMP-9 were reduced by TGF-beta, and pulse-chase radiolabeling also showed a decrease in new MMP-9 protein synthesis. The suppressive effects of TGF-beta were time dependent, because short exposures to TNF-alpha before TGF-beta or simultaneous exposure to both cytokines efficiently reduced MMP-9 secretion. Expression of the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-1 and TNF-alpha receptors was unaffected by either cytokine individually or in combination. Affinity binding with radiolabeled TGF-beta demonstrated that levels of TGF-beta receptors were not increased after preincubation with TGF-beta. Suppression of TNFalpha-induced MMP-9 secretion by TGF-beta correlated with a reduction in prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) secretion. Furthermore, the effect of TGF-beta or indomethacin on blockage of TNF-alpha-stimulated MMP-9 production was reversed by the addition of either exogenous PGE2 or the cyclic AMP (cAMP) analogue Bt2cAMP. Thus, we concluded that TGF-beta acts as a potent suppressor of TNF-alpha-induced monocyte MMP-9 synthesis via a PGE2- and cAMP-dependent mechanism. These results suggest that various

  16. Antimicrobial actions of the human epididymis 2 (HE2 protein isoforms, HE2alpha, HE2beta1 and HE2beta2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    French Frank S

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The HE2 gene encodes a group of isoforms with similarities to the antimicrobial beta-defensins. We demonstrated earlier that the antimicrobial activity of HE2 proteins and peptides is salt resistant and structure dependent and involves permeabilization of bacterial membranes. In this study, we further characterize the antimicrobial properties of HE2 peptides in terms of the structural changes induced in E. coli and the inhibition of macromolecular synthesis. Methods E. coli treated with 50 micro g/ml of HE2alpha, HE2beta1 or HE2beta2 peptides for 30 and 60 min were visualized using transmission and scanning electron microscopy to investigate the impact of these peptides on bacterial internal and external structure. The effects of HE2alpha, HE2beta1 and HE2beta2 on E. coli macromolecular synthesis was assayed by incubating the bacteria with 2, 10 and 25 micro g/ml of the individual peptides for 0–60 min and measuring the incorporation of the radioactive precursors [methyl-3H]thymidine, [5-3H]uridine and L-[4,5-3H(N]leucine into DNA, RNA and protein. Statistical analyses using Student's t-test were performed using Sigma Plot software. Values shown are Mean ± S.D. Results E. coli treated with HE2alpha, HE2beta1 and HE2beta2 peptides as visualized by transmission electron microscopy showed extensive damage characterized by membrane blebbing, thickening of the membrane, highly granulated cytoplasm and appearance of vacuoles in contrast to the smooth and continuous membrane structure of the untreated bacteria. Similarly, bacteria observed by scanning electron microscopy after treating with HE2alpha, HE2beta1 or HE2beta2 peptides exhibited membrane blebbing and wrinkling, leakage of cellular contents, especially at the dividing septa, and external accumulation of fibrous materials. In addition, HE2alpha, HE2beta1 and HE2beta2 peptides inhibited E. coli DNA, RNA and protein synthesis. Conclusions The morphological changes observed

  17. Characterization of the alpha and beta subunits of casein kinase 2 by far-UV CD spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issinger, O G; Brockel, C; Boldyreff, B;

    1992-01-01

    Although Chou-Fasman calculations of the secondary structure of recombinant casein kinase 2 subunits alpha and beta suggest they have a similar overall conformation, circular dichroism (CD) studies show that substantial differences in the conformation of the two subunits exist. In addition......, comparison of the far-UV CD spectrum of reconstituted CK-2 with the spectra of the subunits indicates that conformational changes occur in the backbone region upon association. Such changes may explain the increased enzyme activity of the holoenzyme relative to that of the alpha subunit itself. In contrast......, no changes in the far-UV CD spectrum of the alpha subunit are observed in the presence of casein or the synthetic decapeptide substrate RRRDDDSDDD. Furthermore, the alpha-helical structure of the alpha subunit (but not the beta subunit) can be increased in the presence of stoichiometric amounts of heparin...

  18. Artemia hemoglobins. Increase in net synthesis of the beta-polypeptide (relative to the alpha-polypeptide) in hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry, J A; Nichols, R C; Condon, S J; Stubbs, J D; Bowen, S T

    1983-04-15

    Previous studies have shown that in the brine shrimp there are three dimeric hemoglobins with polypeptide composition alpha 2, alpha beta, beta 2. Concentrations of the alpha- and beta-polypeptides increase in hypoxia. We now report a two-dimensional electrophoretic method for assay of radiolabelled polypeptides in each hemoglobin. Net synthesis (synthesis minus degradation) of the beta-chain, relative to that of the alpha-chain, increases more than 3-fold (in male and female adults) within 3 days following a downshift in oxygen concentration from 0.2 to 0.1 mM in the culture medium. 3 days after downshift (2 days after in vivo incorporation of radiolabelled leucine), the beta-homodimer contained 10-20% of the radiolabel in the three hemoglobins although beta 2 was usually not detectable in the protein stain of an overloaded gel. The amount of radioactive leucine incorporated per unit amount of protein was more than 300-times greater in the beta 2 homodimer than in the beta-subunit of the heterodimer, suggesting that beta 2 does not dissociate rapidly during electrophoresis on the first dimension non-denaturing gel. This evidence for stable association of the two beta-monomers and the 5-8 heme-binding domains within each monomer (in vivo and during electrophoresis on non-denaturing gels) allows us to exclude one of two alternative interpretations of genetic data published previously. We present an independent line of evidence for the dimer model of the native hemoglobins (which states that each polypeptide has many heme-binding domains). PMID:6830806

  19. Crystal Structure of Homoserine Transacetylase from Haemophilus Influenzae Reveals a New Family of alpha/beta-Hydrolases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirza,I.; Nazi, I.; Korczynska, M.; Wright, G.; Berghuis, A.

    2005-01-01

    Homoserine transacetylase catalyzes one of the required steps in the biosynthesis of methionine in fungi and several bacteria. We have determined the crystal structure of homoserine transacetylase from Haemophilus influenzae to a resolution of 1.65 A. The structure identifies this enzyme to be a member of the alpha/beta-hydrolase structural superfamily. The active site of the enzyme is located near the end of a deep tunnel formed by the juxtaposition of two domains and incorporates a catalytic triad involving Ser143, His337, and Asp304. A structural basis is given for the observed double displacement kinetic mechanism of homoserine transacetylase. Furthermore, the properties of the tunnel provide a rationale for how homoserine transacetylase catalyzes a transferase reaction vs. hydrolysis, despite extensive similarity in active site architecture to hydrolytic enzymes.

  20. Antimigratory effect of TK1-2 is mediated in part by interfering with integrin alpha2beta1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Kyung; Oh, Dae-Shik; Lee, Sang-Bae; Ha, Jung-Min; Joe, Young Ae

    2008-07-01

    The recombinant two kringle domain of human tissue-type plasminogen activator (TK1-2) has been shown to inhibit endothelial cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and tumor cell growth despite of sharing a low amino acid sequence homology with angiostatin. Here, we explored a possible inhibitory mechanism of action of TK1-2 by focusing on antimigratory effect. TK1-2 effectively inhibited endothelial cell migration induced by basic fibroblast growth factor or vascular endothelial growth factor in a dose-dependent manner and tube formation on Matrigel. It blocked basic fibroblast growth factor-induced or vascular endothelial growth factor-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and formation of actin stress fibers and focal adhesions. Interestingly, TK1-2 alone induced the weak phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase, whereas it inhibited focal adhesion kinase phosphorylation induced by growth factors. When immobilized, TK1-2 promoted adhesion and spreading of endothelial cells compared with bovine serum albumin. However, treatment with anti-alpha(2)beta(1) blocking antibody markedly diminished endothelial cell adhesion to immobilized TK1-2 compared with anti-alpha(v)beta(3) or anti-alpha(5)beta(1) antibody. Pretreatment of soluble TK1-2 also altered the binding level of anti-alpha(2)beta(1) antibody to endothelial cells in fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis. Indeed, a blocking antibody against integrin alpha(2)beta(1) or knocking down of integrin alpha(2) expression prevented the inhibitory effect of TK1-2 in cell migration. Therefore, these results suggest that TK1-2 inhibits endothelial cell migration through inhibition of signaling and cytoskeleton rearrangement in part by interfering with integrin alpha(2)beta(1). PMID:18645023

  1. Correlation between polymerizability and conformation in scallop beta-like actin and rabbit skeletal muscle alpha-actin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaitlina, S; Antropova, O; Kuznetsova, I; Turoverov, K; Collins, J H

    1999-08-01

    In order to investigate the structural basis for functional differences among actin isoforms, we have compared the polymerization properties and conformations of scallop adductor muscle beta-like actin and rabbit skeletal muscle alpha-actin. Polymerization of scallop Ca(2+)-actin was slower than that of skeletal muscle Ca(2+)-actin. Cleavage of the actin polypeptide chain between Gly-42 and Val-43 with Escherichia coli protease ECP 32 impaired the polymerization of scallop Mg(2+)-actin to a greater extent than skeletal muscle Mg(2+)-actin. When monomeric scallop and skeletal muscle Ca(2+)-actins were subjected to limited proteolysis with trypsin, subtilisin, or ECP 32, no differences in the conformation of actin subdomain 2 were detected. At the same time, local differences in the conformations of scallop and skeletal muscle actin subdomains 1 were revealed as intrinsic fluorescence differences. Replacement of tightly bound Ca(2+) with Mg(2+) resulted in more extensive proteolysis of segment 61-69 of scallop actin than in the case of skeletal muscle actin. Furthermore, segment 61-69 was more accessible to proteolysis with subtilisin in polymerized scallop Ca(2+)-actin than in polymerized skeletal muscle Ca(2+)-actin, indicating that, in the polymeric form, the nucleotide-containing cleft is in a more open conformation in beta-like scallop actin than in skeletal muscle alpha-actin. We suggest that this difference between scallop and skeletal muscle actins is due to a less efficient shift of scallop actin subdomain 2 to the position it has in the polymer. The possible consequences of amino acid substitutions in actin subdomain 1 in the allosteric regulation of the actin cleft, and hence in the different stabilities of polymers formed by different actins, are discussed. PMID:10415117

  2. Placental transfer and metabolism of 17 alpha-ethynylestradiol-17 beta and estradiol-17 beta in the rhesus monkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synthetic estrogen component of many oral contraceptives, 17 alpha-ethynylestradiol-17 beta (EE2) and the naturally occurring estrogen, estradiol-17 beta (E2) were studied in four pregnant rhesus monkeys (71% term: 108-121 days gestational age). Under ketamine anesthesia, catheters were implanted in the maternal femoral artery and fetal interplacental artery. After simultaneous i.v. administration of [3H]EE2-[14C]E2 to the maternal animal, serial blood samples were drawn from both mother and fetus. The estrogens and metabolites were identified and quantified by the comigration of radioactivity with reference standards in several high-performance liquid chromatography systems and subsequent selective enzyme hydrolysis of the conjugates. Only estrone (E1), E1 sulfate, EE2 and EE2-3 sulfate were observed in the fetal circulation, whereas the major radiolabeled compounds in the maternal circulation consisted of the above plus E2, E1 glucuronide and EE2-3 glucuronide. In order to determine whether the placenta could convert E2 to its metabolite E1, the placentas of three term rhesus monkeys were perfused in situ via the umbilical artery with 120 ml (15 ml/min) of Hanks' balanced salt solution (pH 7.4) containing [3H]E2. High-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of umbilical vein samples revealed that 96% of the E2 was metabolized to E1. These studies indicate that the placenta can metabolize the potent naturally occurring estrogen E2 to the less potent E1. In contrast, the synthetic estrogen EE2 does not undergo this placental metabolic conversion and thus enters the fetal circulation as the parent compound

  3. Synthesis of High-Purity alpha-and beta-PbO and Possible Applications to Synthesis and Processing of Other Lead Oxide Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, Dale L.; Wilkinson, T. J.

    2009-11-12

    The red, tetragonal form of lead oxide, alpha-PbO, litharge, and the yellow, orthorhombic form, beta-PbO, massicot, have been synthesized from lead(II) salts in aqueous media at elevated temperature. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the size, morphology, and crystallographic structural forms of the products. The role of impurities in the experimental synthesis of the materials and microstructural variations in the final products are described, and the implications of these observations with respect to the synthesis of different conducting lead oxides and other related materials are discussed.

  4. Dietary carotenoids, serum beta-carotene, and retinol and risk of lung cancer in the alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holick, Crystal N; Michaud, Dominique S; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael; Mayne, Susan T; Pietinen, Pirjo; Taylor, Philip R; Virtamo, Jarmo; Albanes, Demetrius

    2002-09-15

    Findings from several beta-carotene supplementation trials were unexpected and conflicted with most observational studies. Carotenoids other than beta-carotene are found in a variety of fruits and vegetables and may play a role in this important malignancy, but previous findings regarding the five major carotenoids are inconsistent. The authors analyzed the associations between dietary beta-carotene, beta-carotene, lutein/zeaxanthin, lycopene, beta-cryptoxanthin, vitamin A, serum beta-carotene, and serum retinol and the lung cancer risk in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study cohort of male smokers conducted in southwestern Finland between 1985 and 1993. Of the 27,084 male smokers aged 50-69 years who completed the 276-food item dietary questionnaire at baseline, 1,644 developed lung cancer during up to 14 years of follow-up. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate relative risks and 95% confidence intervals. Consumption of fruits and vegetables was associated with a lower lung cancer risk (relative risk = 0.73, 95% confidence interval: 0.62, 0.86, highest vs. lowest quintile). Lower risks of lung cancer were observed for the highest versus the lowest quintiles of lycopene (28%), lutein/zeaxanthin (17%), beta-cryptoxanthin (15%), total carotenoids (16%), serum beta-carotene (19%), and serum retinol (27%). These findings suggest that high fruit and vegetable consumption, particularly a diet rich in carotenoids, tomatoes, and tomato-based products, may reduce the risk of lung cancer.

  5. The essential oil of Eucalyptus tereticornis, and its constituents alpha- and beta-pinene, potentiate acetylcholine-induced contractions in isolated rat trachea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Francisco J B; Brito, Teresinha S; Freire, Walter B S; Costa, Roberta C; Linhares, Maria I; Sousa, Francisca C F; Lahlou, Saad; Leal-Cardoso, José H; Santos, Armênio A; Magalhães, Pedro J C

    2010-09-01

    The effects of the essential oil of Eucalyptus tereticornis (EOET), especially the effects of its constituents alpha- and beta-pinene, were studied on rat trachea in vitro. In tracheal rings, EOET, alpha- or beta-pinene potentiated the contractions induced by acetylcholine (ACh). Contractions induced by K(+) (60mM) were also potentiated by alpha- and beta-pinene, but were reduced by EOET. Our findings show that EOET has myorelaxant effects on rat airways, but potentiates ACh-induced contractions. Monoterpenes alpha- and beta-pinene are involved in its potentiating actions, but are not responsible for its myorelaxant effects. A putative inhibition of the acetylcholinesterase enzyme is involved.

  6. HB KURDISTAN [ALPHA-47(CE5)ASP-]TYR], A NEW ALPHA-CHAIN VARIANT IN COMBINATION WITH BETA-THALASSEMIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GIORDANO, PC; HARTEVELD, CL; STRENG, H; Oosterwijk, Jan; HEISTER, JGAM; AMONS, R; BERNINI, LF

    1994-01-01

    We have characterized the structural abnormality of a new alpha chain mutant found in a Kurdish; family. The clinical and hematological investigation of eight individuals have shown that the a variant is associated with a beta degrees-thalassemia mutation (nonsense codon 39). The tryptic peptide map

  7. The nicotinic alpha7 acetylcholine receptor agonist ssr180711 is unable to activate limbic neurons in mice overexpressing human amyloid-beta1-42

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soderman, A.; Spang-Thomsen, Mogens; Hansen, H.;

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that amyloid-beta1-42 (Abeta1-42) binds to the nicotinergic alpha7 acetylcholine receptor (alpha7 nAChR) and that the application of Abeta1-42 to cells inhibits the function of the alpha7 nAChR. The in vivo consequences of the pharmacological activation of the alpha...

  8. Restriction fragment length polymorphism of ovine casein genes: close linkage between the alpha s1-, alpha s2-, beta- and kappa-casein loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leveziel, H; Metenier, L; Guerin, G; Cullen, P; Provot, C; Bertaud, M; Mercier, J C

    1991-01-01

    Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of ovine casein genes was investigated. Genomic DNA from 56 rams was digested with 10 restriction endonucleases and Southern blots probed with the four ovine casein cDNAs (alpha s1-, beta-, alpha s2- and kappa-Cn). Five enzymes, namely, BglI, PvuII, RsaI, TaqI and HindIII revealed nine different RFLPs. The inheritance of six of these polymorphisms was studied by segregation analysis of gametes in nine rams' families, and each of them could be related to the existence of alleles at the relevant casein locus. A close linkage between the four ovine casein genes was demonstrated since no recombination within the four pairs of loci examined, alpha s1-beta-Cn, alpha s1-kappa-Cn, beta-kappa-Cn and alpha s2-kappa-Cn, was observed in the progeny of double heterozygous rams. The casein genes are thus clustered in the ovine species as in the case of other mammals.

  9. Metastatic dissemination of human ovarian epithelial carcinoma is promoted by alpha2beta1-integrin-mediated interaction with type I collagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, D A; Kearns, A; Chilukuri, K; Bafetti, L M; O'Toole, E A; Georgacopoulos, J; Ravosa, M J; Stack, M S

    1998-01-01

    Metastatic dissemination of epithelial ovarian carcinoma is thought to be mediated via tumor cell exfoliation into the peritoneal cavity, followed by adhesion to and invasion through the mesothelium which overlies the contents of the peritoneal cavity. In this study, we have utilized short-term primary cultures to analyze the effect of specific extracellular matrix proteins on properties of human ovarian epithelial carcinoma cells which contribute to the invasive phenotype. Analysis of cell:matrix adhesive profiles indicated that ovarian carcinoma cells adhere preferentially to type I collagen. Immunoprecipitation analyses demonstrated the presence of the collagen-binding alpha2beta1 integrin in biotin-labeled ovarian carcinoma cell membranes, and cellular adhesion was inhibited by blocking antibodies directed against the alpha2 and beta1 integrin subunits. The alpha2beta1-binding peptide Asp-Gly-Glu-Ala (DGEA) was also moderately effective at blocking adhesion to collagen relative to the control peptide Ala-Gly-Glu-Ala (AGEA). Analysis of cell motility on protein-coated colloidal gold coverslips demonstrated that ovarian carcinoma cells migrate preferentially on type I collagen coated surfaces. Type I collagen promoted migration in a concentration-dependent, saturable manner, with maximal migration observed at a collagen-coating concentration of 50 microg/ml. Migration on collagen was inhibited by antibodies directed against the alpha2 and beta1 integrin subunits and by DGEA peptide, providing evidence for the role of the alpha2beta1 integrin in ovarian carcinoma cell motility. Culturing ovarian carcinoma cells on type I collagen gels led to a significant increase in conversion of the matrix metalloproteinase 2 zymogen to the 66-kD form, suggesting that adhesion to collagen also influences matrix-degrading proteinases. These data suggest that alpha2beta1-integrin-mediated interaction of ovarian carcinoma cells with type I collagen, a protein prevalent both in the

  10. Modelling of the partial oxidation of {alpha}, {beta}-unsaturated aldehydes on Mo-V-oxides based catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehnke, H.; Petzoldt, J.C.; Stein, B.; Weimer, C.; Gaube, J.W. [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Chemische Technologie

    1998-12-31

    A kinetic model based on the Mars-van Krevelen mechanism that allows to describe the microkinetics of the heterogeneously catalysed partial oxidation of {alpha}, {beta}-unsaturated aldehydes is presented. This conversion is represented by a network, composed of the oxidation of the {alpha}, {beta}-unsaturated aldehyde towards the {alpha}, {beta}-unsaturated carboxylic acid and the consecutive oxidation of the acid as well as the parallel reaction of the aldehyde to products of deeper oxidation. The reaction steps of aldehyde respectively acid oxidation and catalyst reoxidation have been investigated separately in transient experiments. The combination of steady state and transient experiments has led to an improved understanding of the interaction of the catalyst with the aldehyde and the carboxylic acids as well as to a support of the kinetic model assumptions. (orig.)

  11. Rapid and simultaneous detection of alpha/beta radioactivity in food by solid phase extraction liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to develop a practical radioanalytical method suitable for screening for beta- and alpha-emitting radioactive contamination in a large number and wide variety of foods in the event of a nuclear or radiological emergency. Simple and rapid solid-phase extraction was used to overcome matrix and radiometric interferences that occurred during food analysis. Benefiting from discriminative liquid scintillation counting, simultaneous detection of alpha and beta radioactivity was achieved with negligible quench effects and ∼95 % counting efficiencies. Method limits of detection were ∼0.06 Bq/kg for alpha and ∼0.4 Bq/kg for beta radioactivity and the results were within ±20 % of the known values. (author)

  12. A role for the androgen metabolite, 5alpha-androstane-3beta,17beta-diol, in modulating oestrogen receptor beta-mediated regulation of hormonal stress reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, R J; Weiser, M J; Zuloaga, D G

    2009-03-01

    Activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is a basic response of animals to environmental perturbations that threaten homeostasis. These responses are regulated by neurones in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) that synthesise and secrete corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH). Other PVN neuropeptides, such as arginine vasopressin and oxytocin, can also modulate activity of CRH neurones in the PVN and enhance CRH secretagogue activity of the anterior pituitary gland. In rodents, sex differences in HPA reactivity are well established; females exhibit a more robust activation of the HPA axis after stress than do males. These sex differences primarily result from opposing actions of sex steroids, testosterone and oestrogen, on HPA function. Ostreogen enhances stress activated adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone (CORT) secretion, whereas testosterone decreases the gain of the HPA axis and inhibits ACTH and CORT responses to stress. Data show that androgens can act directly on PVN neurones in the male rat through a novel pathway involving oestrogen receptor (ER)beta, whereas oestrogen acts predominantly through ERalpha. Thus, we examined the hypothesis that, in males, testosterone suppresses HPA function via an androgen metabolite that binds ERbeta. Clues to the neurobiological mechanisms underlying such a novel action can be gleaned from studies showing extensive colocalisation of ERbeta in oxytocin-containing cells of the PVN. Hence, in this review, we address the possibility that testosterone inhibits HPA reactivity by metabolising to 5alpha-androstane-3beta,17beta-diol, a compound that binds ERbeta and regulates oxytocin containing neurones of the PVN. These findings suggest a re-evaluation of studies examining pathways for androgen receptor signalling. PMID:19207807

  13. Platelets prevent IFN-alpha/beta-induced lethal hemorrhage promoting CTL-dependent clearance of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannacone, Matteo; Sitia, Giovanni; Isogawa, Masanori; Whitmire, Jason K; Marchese, Patrizia; Chisari, Francis V; Ruggeri, Zaverio M; Guidotti, Luca G

    2008-01-15

    We found that mice infected with different isolates of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) develop a mild hemorrhagic anemia, which becomes severe and eventually lethal in animals depleted of platelets or lacking integrin beta3. Lethal hemorrhagic anemia is mediated by virus-induced IFN-alpha/beta that causes platelet dysfunction, mucocutaneous blood loss and suppression of erythropoiesis. In addition to the life-threatening hemorrhagic anemia, platelet-depleted mice fail to mount an efficient cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response and cannot clear LCMV. Transfusion of functional platelets into these animals reduces hemorrhage, prevents death and restores CTL-induced viral clearance in a manner partially dependent on CD40 ligand (CD40L). These results indicate that, upon activation, platelets expressing integrin beta3 and CD40L are required for protecting the host against the induction of an IFN-alpha/beta-dependent lethal hemorrhagic diathesis and for clearing LCMV infection through CTLs.

  14. Levels of alpha- and beta-secretase cleaved amyloid precursor protein in the cerebrospinal fluid of Alzheimer's disease patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sennvik, K; Fastbom, J; Blomberg, M;

    2000-01-01

    Alternative cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) results in generation and secretion of both soluble APP (sAPP) and beta-amyloid (Abeta). Abeta is the main component of the amyloid depositions in the brains of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Using Western blotting, we compared the...... levels of alpha-secretase cleaved sAPP, beta-secretase cleaved sAPP and total sAPP, in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 13 sporadic AD patients and 13 healthy controls. Our findings show significant amounts of beta-secretase cleaved sAPP in CSF. There was no statistically significant difference in the...... levels of beta-secretase cleaved sAPP between AD patients and controls. The levels of alpha-secretase cleaved sAPP and total sAPP were, however, found to be significantly lower in the AD patients than in the controls....

  15. Resolution of the discrepancy between Balmer alpha emission rates, the solar Lyman beta flux, and models of geocoronal hydrogen concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levasseur, A.-C.; Meier, R. R.; Tinsley, B. A.

    1976-01-01

    New satellite Balmer alpha measurements and solar Lyman beta flux and line profile measurements, together with new measurements of the zodiacal light intensity used in correcting both ground and satellite Balmer alpha measurements for the effects of the Fraunhofer line in the zodiacal light, have been used in a reevaluation of the long-standing discrepancy between ground-based Balmer alpha emission rates and other geocoronal hydrogen parameters. The solar Lyman beta line center flux is found to be (4.1 plus or minus 1.3) billion photons per sq cm per sec per angstrom at S(10.7) equals 110 and, together with a current hydrogen model which has 92,000 atoms per cu cm at 650 km for T(inf) equals 950 K, gives good agreement between calculated Balmer alpha emission rates and the ground-based and satellite measurements.

  16. [IMPACT OF INDIVIDUAL PERSONALITY FEATURES ON ABILITY TO VOLUNTARY REGULATION OF EXPRESSION EEG ALPHA AND BETA FREQUENCIES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslanyan, E V; Kiroy, V N; Stoletniy, A S; Lazurenko, D M; Bahtin, O M; Minyaeva, N R; Kiroy, R I

    2015-05-01

    The ability to voluntary control severity of alpha- and beta-2 frequency bands in the parietal and frontal cortical areas was investigated at 17 volunteers using biofeedback. The impact of different personality traits on the effectiveness of control was evaluated. According to the data, it was easier task to decrease expression beta-2 frequency in the frontal cortex than to decline the power of alpha frequency in the parietal cortex. The effectiveness of voluntary control of brain activity is influenced by personality features as extraversion, psychoticism, neuroticism, mobility and steadiness of nerve processes, level of person anxiety. PMID:26263685

  17. (Ternary liquid + liquid) equilibria for (water + acetone + {alpha}-pinene, or {beta}-pinene, or limonene) mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Xiaoli [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Division of Material Sciences, Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan); Tamura, Kazuhiro, E-mail: tamura@t.kanazawa-u.ac.j [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Division of Material Sciences, Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan)

    2010-11-15

    (Ternary liquid + liquid) equilibria (tie-lines) of (water + acetone + {alpha}-pinene) at T = (288.15, 298.15, and 308.15) K and (water + acetone + {beta}-pinene, or limonene) at T = 298.15 K have been measured. The experimental (ternary liquid + liquid) equilibrium data have been correlated successfully by the original UNIQUAC and modified UNIQUAC models. The modified UNIQUAC model reproduced accurately the experimental results for the (water + acetone + {alpha}-pinene) system at all the temperatures but fairly agreed with the experimental data for the (water + acetone + {beta}-pinene, or limonene) systems.

  18. Improved targeting of the {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} integrin by multimerisation of RGD peptides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dijkgraaf, Ingrid [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Department of Nuclear Medicine, P.O. Box 9101, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Utrecht University, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, P.O. Box 80082, Utrecht (Netherlands); Kruijtzer, John A.W.; Liskamp, Rob M.J. [Utrecht University, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, P.O. Box 80082, Utrecht (Netherlands); Liu, Shuang [Purdue University, School of Health Sciences, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Soede, Annemieke C.; Oyen, Wim J.G.; Corstens, Frans H.M.; Boerman, Otto C. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Department of Nuclear Medicine, P.O. Box 9101, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2007-02-15

    The integrin {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} is expressed on sprouting endothelial cells and on various tumour cell types. Due to the restricted expression of {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} in tumours, {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} is considered a suitable receptor for tumour targeting. In this study the {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} binding characteristics of an {sup 111}In-labelled monomeric, dimeric and tetrameric RGD analogue were compared. A monomeric (E-c(RGDfK)), dimeric (E-[c(RGDfK)]{sub 2}), and tetrameric (E{l_brace}E[c(RGDfK)]{sub 2}{r_brace}{sub 2}) RGD peptide were synthesised, conjugated with DOTA and radiolabelled with {sup 111}In. In vitro {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} binding characteristics were determined in a competitive binding assay. In vivo {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} targeting characteristics of the compounds were assessed in mice with SK-RC-52 xenografts. The IC{sub 50} values for DOTA-E-c(RGDfK), DOTA-E-[c(RGDfK)]{sub 2}, and DOTA-E{l_brace}E[c(RGDfK)]{sub 2}{r_brace}{sub 2}were 120 nM, 69.9 nM and 19.6 nM, respectively. At all time points, the tumour uptake of the dimer was significantly higher as compared to that of the monomer. At 8 h p.i., tumour uptake of the tetramer (7.40 {+-}1.12%ID/g) was significantly higher than that of the monomer (2.30 {+-}0.34%ID/g), p <0.001, and the dimer (5.17 {+-}1.22%ID/g), p <0.05. At 24 h p.i., the tumour uptake was significantly higher for the tetramer (6.82 {+-}1.41%ID/g) than for the dimer (4.22 {+-}0.96%ID/g), p <0.01, and the monomer (1.90 {+-}0.29%ID/g), p <0.001. Multimerisation of c(RGDfK) resulted in enhanced affinity for {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} as determined in vitro. Tumour uptake of a tetrameric RGD peptide was significantly higher than that of the monomeric and dimeric analogues, presumably owing to the enhanced statistical likelihood for rebinding to {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3}. (orig.)

  19. Design of a Quality Control Program for the Measurement of Gross Alpha and Gross Beta Activities (LMPR-CIEMAT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In accordance with international standards, general requirements for testing laboratories have to include a quality system for planning, implementing, and assessing the work performed by the organization and for carrying out required quality assurance and quality control. The purpose of internal laboratory quality control is to monitor performance, identify problems, and initiate corrective actions. This report describes the internal quality control to monitor the gross alpha and beta activities determination. Identification of specific performance indicators, the principles that govern their use and statistical means of evaluation are explained. Finally, calculation of alpha and beta specific activities, uncertainties and detection limits are performed. (Author) 10 refs.

  20. The Inactivation of Arx in Pancreatic alpha-Cells Triggers Their Neogenesis and Conversion into Functional beta-Like Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Monica Courtney; Elisabet Gjernes; Noémie Druelle; Christophe Ravaud; Andhira Vieira; Nouha Ben-Othman; Anja Pfeifer; Fabio Avolio; Gunter Leuckx; Sandra Lacas-Gervais; Fanny Burel-Vandenbos; Damien Ambrosetti; Jacob Hecksher-Sorensen; Philippe Ravassard; Harry Heimberg

    2013-01-01

    Recently, it was demonstrated that pancreatic new-born glucagon-producing cells can regenerate and convert into insulinproducing beta-like cells through the ectopic expression of a single gene, Pax4. Here, combining conditional loss-of-function and lineage tracing approaches, we show that the selective inhibition of the Arx gene in alpha-cells is sufficient to promote the conversion of adult alpha-cells into beta-like cells at any age. Interestingly, this conversion induces the continuous mob...

  1. Effect of alpha thalassaemia trait and enhanced gamma chain production on disease severity in beta thalassaemia major and intermedia.

    OpenAIRE

    Gringras, P; Wonke, B; Old, J.; Fitches, A; Valler, D; Kuan, A M; Hoffbrand, V

    1994-01-01

    One hundred and twenty patients with homozygous beta thalassaemia were selected to determine the clinical effects of certain genetic factors which may modify disease severity. Genetic analysis defined specific beta thalassaemia mutations, the alpha thalassaemia genotype, and the presence of an XmnI restriction enzyme site, associated with increased fetal haemoglobin (HbF) production under certain conditions. Genotypic data with globin chain synthesis were related to the age when regular trans...

  2. Determination of total alpha and beta activity in water for human consumption by LSC(Liquid Scintillation Counter); Determinacao de atividades alfa e beta total em agua para consumo humano por LSC (Contador de Cintilacao Liquida))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    The Ordinance Brazilian of Ministry of Health (MS 2914/2011) establishes the standards for quality of water intended for human consumption, being limits values of 5.0 Bq/L for gross alpha, and 1.0 Bq/L for gross beta radioactivity. The liquid scintillation spectrometry (LSC) technique has been presented as an alternative to conventional procedure using gas flow proportional counter. The present work shows a review of the methods for determination of gross alpha and gross beta in water by using LSC. Between the factors that influence the accuracy and repeatability of the analytical results we can highlight: thermal preconcentration, type of the acid and calibration standard. A procedure was established and carried out to samples of the National Program of Intercomparison of Radionuclides in Environmental Samples for evaluation of its performance. The gross alpha and gross beta analysis in samples of the public water supplies in the Metropolitan Region of Goiania, state of Goias was carried out. The results are consistent with the guideline values form the Ministry of Health concerning radioactivity. (author)

  3. Oxygen binding by alpha(Fe2+)2beta(Ni2+)2 hemoglobin crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, S; Bettati, S; Manfredini, M; Mozzarelli, A; Bolognesi, M; Deriu, D; Rosano, C; Tsuneshige, A; Yonetani, T; Henry, E R

    2000-04-01

    Oxygen binding by hemoglobin fixed in the T state either by crystallization or by encapsulation in silica gels is apparently noncooperative. However, cooperativity might be masked by different oxygen affinities of alpha and beta subunits. Metal hybrid hemoglobins, where the noniron metal does not bind oxygen, provide the opportunity to determine the oxygen affinities of alpha and beta hemes separately. Previous studies have characterized the oxygen binding by alpha(Ni2+)2beta(Fe2+)2 crystals. Here, we have determined the three-dimensional (3D) structure and oxygen binding of alpha(Fe2+)2beta(Ni2+)2 crystals grown from polyethylene glycol solutions. Polarized absorption spectra were recorded at different oxygen pressures with light polarized parallel either to the b or c crystal axis by single crystal microspectrophotometry. The oxygen pressures at 50% saturation (p50s) are 95 +/- 3 and 87 +/- 4 Torr along the b and c crystal axes, respectively, and the corresponding Hill coefficients are 0.96 +/- 0.06 and 0.90 +/- 0.03. Analysis of the binding curves, taking into account the different projections of the alpha hemes along the optical directions, indicates that the oxygen affinity of alpha1 hemes is 1.3-fold lower than alpha2 hemes. Inspection of the 3D structure suggests that this inequivalence may arise from packing interactions of the Hb tetramer within the monoclinic crystal lattice. A similar inequivalence was found for the beta subunits of alpha(Ni2+)2beta(Fe2+)2 crystals. The average oxygen affinity of the alpha subunits (p50 = 91 Torr) is about 1.2-fold higher than the beta subunits (p50 = 110 Torr). In the absence of cooperativity, this heterogeneity yields an oxygen binding curve of Hb A with a Hill coefficient of 0.999. Since the binding curves of Hb A crystals exhibit a Hill coefficient very close to unity, these findings indicate that oxygen binding by T-state hemoglobin is noncooperative, in keeping with the Monod, Wyman, and Changeux model.

  4. Inhibition of IkappaB kinase alpha (IKK{alpha}) or IKKbeta (IKK{beta}) plus forkhead box O (Foxo) abolishes skeletal muscle atrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, S.A. [Department of Physical Therapy, University of Florida, 101 S. Newell Drive, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States); Senf, S.M. [Department of Applied Physiology and Kinesiology, University of Florida, 25 Stadium Road, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States); Cornwell, E.W.; Kandarian, S.C. [Department of Health Sciences, Boston University, 635 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Judge, A.R., E-mail: arjudge@phhp.ufl.edu [Department of Physical Therapy, University of Florida, 101 S. Newell Drive, Gainesville, FL 32610 (United States)

    2011-02-18

    Research highlights: {yields} Independent inhibition of Foxo, IKK{alpha} and IKK{beta} activities does not alter muscle fiber size in weight bearing muscles. {yields} Inhibition of Foxo activity plus IKK{alpha} or IKK{beta} activities increases muscle fiber size. {yields} Independent inhibition of Foxo and IKK{beta} activities attenuates cast immobilization-induced muscle fiber atrophy. {yields} Disuse muscle fiber atrophy is abolished by inhibition of Foxo activity plus IKK{alpha} or IKK{beta} activities. -- Abstract: Two transcription factor families that are activated during multiple conditions of skeletal muscle wasting are nuclear factor {kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) and forkhead box O (Foxo). There is clear evidence that both NF-{kappa}B and Foxo activation are sufficient to cause muscle fiber atrophy and they are individually required for at least half of the fiber atrophy during muscle disuse, but there is no work determining the combined effect of inhibiting these factors during a physiological condition of muscle atrophy. Here, we determined whether inhibition of Foxo activation plus inhibition of NF-{kappa}B activation, the latter by blocking the upstream inhibitor of kappaB kinases (IKK{alpha} and IKK{beta}), would prevent muscle atrophy induced by 7 days of cast immobilization. Results were based on measurements of mean fiber cross-sectional area (CSA) from 72 muscles transfected with 5 different mutant expression plasmids or plasmid combinations. Immobilization caused a 47% decrease in fiber CSA in muscles injected with control plasmids. Fibers from immobilized muscles transfected with dominant negative (d.n.) IKK{alpha}-EGFP, d.n. IKK{beta}-EGFP or d.n. Foxo-DsRed showed a 22%, 57%, and 76% inhibition of atrophy, respectively. Co-expression of d.n. IKK{alpha}-EGFP and d.n. Foxo-DsRed significantly inhibited 89% of the immobilization-induced fiber atrophy. Similarly, co-expression of d.n. IKK{beta}-EGFP and d.n. Foxo-DsRed inhibited the immobilization

  5. A shortened beta-hexosaminidase alpha-chain in an Italian patient with infantile Tay-Sachs disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Zokaeem, G; Bayleran, J; Kaplan, P; Hechtman, P; Neufeld, E F

    1987-01-01

    Fibroblasts derived from a beta-hexosaminidase A (HexA)-deficient infant with clinically classic Tay-Sachs disease synthesized a precursor alpha-chain that was smaller than its normal counterpart. Fibroblasts from the infant's parents, who were consanguinous, produced both normal and mutant alpha-chains. The size difference, estimated to be 2-3 kilodaltons on the basis of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, persisted after removal of oligosaccharides with endo-H and is ...

  6. Functional oestrogen receptor {alpha} imaging in endometrial carcinoma using 16{alpha}-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-17{beta}-oestradiol PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsujikawa, Tetsuya; Kiyono, Yasushi; Kudo, Takashi; Fujibayashi, Yasuhisa [University of Fukui, Biomedical Imaging Research Center, Fukui (Japan); Yoshida, Yoshio; Kurokawa, Tetsuji; Kotsuji, Fumikazu [University of Fukui, Department of Gynecology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Fukui (Japan); Okazawa, Hidehiko [University of Fukui, Biomedical Imaging Research Center, Fukui (Japan); University of Fukui, Research and Education Program for Life Science, Fukui (Japan)

    2011-01-15

    To investigate the correlation between uptake of 16{alpha}-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-17{beta}-oestradiol (FES) and expression of oestrogen receptors as well as other related immunohistochemistry markers, positron emission tomography (PET) was performed in patients with endometrial carcinoma before surgery. Nineteen patients with endometrioid adenocarcinoma underwent preoperative PET studies with FES and 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG). Standardized uptake values (SUVs) for each tracer and the regional FDG to FES SUV ratio were calculated using images after coregistration. PET values were compared with postoperative stage, differentiation grade and immunohistochemical scores including oestrogen receptor subtypes (ER{alpha}, ER{beta}), progesterone receptor B (PR-B), Ki-67 and glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1). FES uptake showed a significantly positive correlation with expression of ER{alpha}. The FDG to FES ratio showed a significantly negative correlation with expression of ER{alpha} and PR-B. The FES uptake and FDG to FES ratio did not correlate with expression of ER{beta}, Ki-67 or GLUT1. FDG uptake was not correlated with any of the immunohistochemical scores. The PR-B score was strongly correlated with the ER{alpha} score. Well-differentiated carcinoma (grade 1) showed a significantly higher FES uptake and significantly lower FDG to FES ratio than moderately or poorly differentiated carcinoma (grade 2-3). None of the PET parameters were significantly different between advanced-stage carcinoma ({>=} stage IB) and early-stage carcinoma (IA) based on the Federation International de Gynecologie et d'Obstetrique (FIGO) staging classification. Differentiation grade was the most closely correlated parameter to FES uptake and FDG to FES ratio by multivariate analyses. FES PET combined with FDG would be useful for non-invasive evaluation of ER{alpha} distribution, as well as ER{alpha} function, which reflects differentiation grade in endometrial carcinoma. (orig.)

  7. Primary structure determination of five sialylated oligosaccharides derived from bronchial mucus glycoproteins of patients suffering from cystic fibrosis. The occurrence of the NeuAc alpha(2----3)Gal beta(1----4)[Fuc alpha(1----3)] GlcNAc beta(1----.) structural element revealed by 500-MHz 1H NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamblin, G; Boersma, A; Klein, A; Roussel, P; van Halbeek, H; Vliegenthart, J F

    1984-07-25

    The structure of sialylated carbohydrate units of bronchial mucins obtained from cystic fibrosis patients was investigated by 500-MHz 1H NMR spectroscopy in conjunction with sugar analysis. After subjecting the mucins to alkaline borohydride degradation, sialylated oligosaccharide-alditols were isolated by anion-exchange chromatography and fractionated by high performance liquid chromatography. Five compounds could be obtained in a rather pure state; their structures were established as the following: A-1, NeuAc alpha(2----3)Gal beta(1----4) [Fuc alpha(1----3)]GlcNAc beta(1----3)Gal-NAc-ol; A-2, NeuAc alpha(2----3)Gal beta(1----4)GlcNAc beta(1----6)-[GlcNAc beta (1----3)]GalNAc-o1; A-3, NeuAc alpha(2----3)Gal beta-(1----4)[Fuc alpha(1----3)]GlcNAc beta(1----3)Gal beta(1----3) GalNAc-o1; A-4, NeuAc alpha(2----3)Gal beta(1----4)[Fuc alpha(1----3)]Glc-NAc NAc beta(1----6)[GlcNAc beta(1----3)]GalNAc-o1; A-6,NeuAc alpha-(2----3) Gal beta(1----4)[Fuc alpha(1----3)]GlcNAc beta(1----6)[Gal beta-(1----4) GlcNAc beta(1----3)]GalNAc-o1. The simultaneous presence of sialic acid in alpha(2----3)-linkage to Gal and fucose in alpha(1----3)-linkage to GlcNAc of the same N-acetyllactosamine unit could be adequately proved by high resolution 1H NMR spectroscopy. This sequence constitutes a novel structural element for mucins.

  8. Primary structure determination of five sialylated oligosaccharides derived from bronchial mucus glycoproteins of patients suffering from cystic fibrosis. The occurrence of the NeuAc alpha(2----3)Gal beta(1----4)[Fuc alpha(1----3)] GlcNAc beta(1----.) structural element revealed by 500-MHz 1H NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamblin, G; Boersma, A; Klein, A; Roussel, P; van Halbeek, H; Vliegenthart, J F

    1984-07-25

    The structure of sialylated carbohydrate units of bronchial mucins obtained from cystic fibrosis patients was investigated by 500-MHz 1H NMR spectroscopy in conjunction with sugar analysis. After subjecting the mucins to alkaline borohydride degradation, sialylated oligosaccharide-alditols were isolated by anion-exchange chromatography and fractionated by high performance liquid chromatography. Five compounds could be obtained in a rather pure state; their structures were established as the following: A-1, NeuAc alpha(2----3)Gal beta(1----4) [Fuc alpha(1----3)]GlcNAc beta(1----3)Gal-NAc-ol; A-2, NeuAc alpha(2----3)Gal beta(1----4)GlcNAc beta(1----6)-[GlcNAc beta (1----3)]GalNAc-o1; A-3, NeuAc alpha(2----3)Gal beta-(1----4)[Fuc alpha(1----3)]GlcNAc beta(1----3)Gal beta(1----3) GalNAc-o1; A-4, NeuAc alpha(2----3)Gal beta(1----4)[Fuc alpha(1----3)]Glc-NAc NAc beta(1----6)[GlcNAc beta(1----3)]GalNAc-o1; A-6,NeuAc alpha-(2----3) Gal beta(1----4)[Fuc alpha(1----3)]GlcNAc beta(1----6)[Gal beta-(1----4) GlcNAc beta(1----3)]GalNAc-o1. The simultaneous presence of sialic acid in alpha(2----3)-linkage to Gal and fucose in alpha(1----3)-linkage to GlcNAc of the same N-acetyllactosamine unit could be adequately proved by high resolution 1H NMR spectroscopy. This sequence constitutes a novel structural element for mucins. PMID:6746638

  9. Cytokines interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha regulate different transcriptional and alternative splicing networks in primary beta-cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortis, Fernanda; Naamane, Najib; Flamez, Daisy;

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cytokines contribute to pancreatic beta-cell death in type 1 diabetes. This effect is mediated by complex gene networks that remain to be characterized. We presently utilized array analysis to define the global expression pattern of genes, including spliced variants, modified...... of genes involved in the maintenance of beta-cell phenotype and growth/regeneration. Cytokines induced hypoxia-inducible factor-alpha, which in this context has a proapoptotic role. Cytokines also modified the expression of >20 genes involved in RNA splicing, and exon array analysis showed cytokine......-induced changes in alternative splicing of >50% of the cytokine-modified genes. CONCLUSIONS: The present study doubles the number of known genes expressed in primary beta-cells, modified or not by cytokines, and indicates the biological role for several novel cytokine-modified pathways in beta-cells. It also...

  10. Assessment of gamma, beta and alpha-particle-emitting nuclides in marine samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depending on the physical properties of radionuclides different systems must be used for their measurement. Most convenient is if gamma spectrometry can be used by germanium, Silicon or Scintillation detectors (eg. NaI). If, however, the main emission consists of beta or alpha particles or low-energy photons as is the case for radionuclides decaying by electron capture, radiochemical separation and specific source preparations must be undertaken. In such cases also the radiochemical yield must be determined. The radiochemical part mainly follows the lines presented by prof. T. Jaakkola, Department of Radiochemistry, Helsinki, Finland, at a course in radioecology in Lurid, 1991. For very long-lived radionuclides other methods such as mass spectrometry are superior although often associated with sophisticated expensive instrumentation. (author)

  11. Interpretation of heart rate variability via detrended fluctuation analysis and alpha-beta filter

    CERN Document Server

    Echeverria, J C; Crowe, J A; Hayes-Gill, B R; Croaker, G D H; Vyas, H

    2003-01-01

    Detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), suitable for the analysis of nonstationary time series, has confirmed the existence of persistent long-range correlations in healthy heart rate variability data. In this paper, we present the incorporation of the alpha-beta filter to DFA to determine patterns in the power-law behaviour that can be found in these correlations. Well-known simulated scenarios and real data involving normal and pathological circumstances were used to evaluate this process. The results presented here suggest the existence of evolving patterns, not always following a uniform power-law behaviour, that cannot be described by scaling exponents estimated using a linear procedure over two predefined ranges. Instead, the power law is observed to have a continuous variation with segment length. We also show that the study of these patterns, avoiding initial assumptions about the nature of the data, may confer advantages to DFA by revealing more clearly abnormal physiological conditions detected in con...

  12. Chemokines, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 and stromal cell-derived factor-1{alpha}, suppress amyloid {beta}-induced neurotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raman, Dayanidhi; Milatovic, Snjezana-Zaja [Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University, School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Milatovic, Dejan [Department of Pediatrics/Pediatric Toxicology, Vanderbilt University, School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Splittgerber, Ryan [Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University, School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Fan, Guo-Huang [Department of Neurobiology and Neurotoxicology, Meharry Medical College, Nashville, TN 37221 (United States); Richmond, Ann, E-mail: ann.richmond@vanderbilt.edu [VA Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University, School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by a progressive cognitive decline and accumulation of neurotoxic oligomeric peptides amyloid-{beta} (A{beta}). Although the molecular events are not entirely known, it has become evident that inflammation, environmental and other risk factors may play a causal, disruptive and/or protective role in the development of AD. The present study investigated the ability of the chemokines, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) and stromal cell-derived factor-1{alpha} (SDF-1{alpha}), the respective ligands for chemokine receptors CXCR2 and CXCR4, to suppress A{beta}-induced neurotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. Pretreatment with MIP-2 or SDF-1{alpha} significantly protected neurons from A{beta}-induced dendritic regression and apoptosis in vitro through activation of Akt, ERK1/2 and maintenance of metalloproteinase ADAM17 especially with SDF-1{alpha}. Intra-cerebroventricular (ICV) injection of A{beta} led to reduction in dendritic length and spine density of pyramidal neurons in the CA1 area of the hippocampus and increased oxidative damage 24 h following the exposure. The A{beta}-induced morphometric changes of neurons and increase in biomarkers of oxidative damage, F{sub 2}-isoprostanes, were significantly inhibited by pretreatment with the chemokines MIP-2 or SDF-1{alpha}. Additionally, MIP-2 or SDF-1{alpha} was able to suppress the aberrant mislocalization of p21-activated kinase (PAK), one of the proteins involved in the maintenance of dendritic spines. Furthermore, MIP-2 also protected neurons against A{beta} neurotoxicity in CXCR2-/- mice, potentially through observed up regulation of CXCR1 mRNA. Understanding the neuroprotective potential of chemokines is crucial in defining the role for their employment during the early stages of neurodegeneration. -- Research highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Neuroprotective ability of the chemokines MIP2 and CXCL12 against A{beta} toxicity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MIP

  13. Signal regulatory protein alpha negatively regulates beta2 integrin-mediated monocyte adhesion, transendothelial migration and phagocytosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan-Qing Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Signal regulate protein alpha (SIRPalpha is involved in many functional aspects of monocytes. Here we investigate the role of SIRPalpha in regulating beta(2 integrin-mediated monocyte adhesion, transendothelial migration (TEM and phagocytosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: THP-1 monocytes/macropahges treated with advanced glycation end products (AGEs resulted in a decrease of SIRPalpha expression but an increase of beta(2 integrin cell surface expression and beta(2 integrin-mediated adhesion to tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha-stimulated human microvascular endothelial cell (HMEC-1 monolayers. In contrast, SIRPalpha overexpression in THP-1 cells showed a significant less monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1-triggered cell surface expression of beta(2 integrins, in particular CD11b/CD18. SIRPalpha overexpression reduced beta(2 integrin-mediated firm adhesion of THP-1 cells to either TNFalpha-stimulated HMEC-1 monolayers or to immobilized intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1. SIRPalpha overexpression also reduced MCP-1-initiated migration of THP-1 cells across TNFalpha-stimulated HMEC-1 monolayers. Furthermore, beta(2 integrin-mediated THP-1 cell spreading and actin polymerization in response to MCP-1, and phagocytosis of bacteria were both inhibited by SIRPalpha overexpression. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: SIRPalpha negatively regulates beta(2 integrin-mediated monocyte adhesion, transendothelial migration and phagocytosis, thus may serve as a critical molecule in preventing excessive activation and accumulation of monocytes in the arterial wall during early stage of atherosclerosis.

  14. Necessary Optimality Conditions for Fractional Action-Like Integrals of Variational Calculus with Riemann-Liouville Derivatives of Order $(\\alpha,\\beta)$

    OpenAIRE

    El-Nabulsi, Rami Ahmad; Delfim F. M. Torres

    2007-01-01

    We derive Euler-Lagrange type equations for fractional action-like integrals of the calculus of variations which depend on the Riemann-Liouville derivatives of order $(\\alpha,\\beta)$, $\\alpha > 0$, $\\beta > 0$, recently introduced by J. Cresson and S. Darses. Some interesting consequences are obtained and discussed.

  15. Phenylalanine Aminomutase-Catalyzed Addition of Ammonia to Substituted Cinnamic Acids : a Route to Enantiopure alpha- and beta-Amino Acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szymanski, Wiktor; Wu, Bian; Weiner, Barbara; Wildeman, Stefaan de; Feringa, Ben L.; Janssen, Dick B.

    2009-01-01

    An approach is described for the synthesis of aromatic alpha- and beta-amino acids that Uses phenylalanine aminomutase to catalyze a highly enantioselective addition of ammonia to substituted cinnamic acids. The reaction has a broad scope and yields Substituted alpha- and beta-phenylalanines with ex

  16. Alpha-interferon induces enhanced expression of HLA-ABC antigens and beta-2-microglobulin in vivo and in vitro in various subsets of human lymphoid cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Mogens Holst; Larsen, J K; Plesner, T;

    1987-01-01

    The effect of cloned alpha-interferon (alpha-IFN) on the in vitro and in vivo expression of HLA-ABC antigens and beta-2-microglobulin (beta-2-m) on subpopulations of human lymphoid cells was studied by flow cytometry. Mononuclear cells isolated from patients and cell cultures were labelled...

  17. Elicitor and resistance-inducing activities of beta-1,4 cellodextrins in grapevine, comparison with beta-1,3 glucans and alpha-1,4 oligogalacturonides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Aziz; Gauthier, Adrien; Bézier, Annie; Poinssot, Benoît; Joubert, Jean-Marie; Pugin, Alain; Heyraud, Alain; Baillieul, Fabienne

    2007-01-01

    Cellodextrins (CD), water-soluble derivatives of cellulose composed of beta-1,4 glucoside residues, have been shown to induce a variety of defence responses in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) cells. The larger oligomers of CD rapidly induced transient generation of H2O2 and elevation in free cytosolic calcium, followed by a differential expression of genes encoding key enzymes of the phenylpropanoid pathway and pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins as well as stimulation of chitinase and beta-1,3 glucanase activities. Most of these defence reactions were also induced by linear beta-1,3 glucans (betaGlu) and alpha-1,4 oligogalacturonides (OGA) of different degree of polymerization (DP), but the intensity of some reactions induced by CD was different when compared with betaGlu and OGA effects. Moreover, desensitization assays using H2O2 production showed that cells treated with CD remained fully responsive to a second application of OGA, suggesting a different mode of perception of these oligosaccharides by grape cells. None of CD, betaGlu, or OGA induced HSR gene expression nor did they induce cell death. In accordance with elicitor activity in grapevine cells, CD-incubated leaves challenged with Botrytis cinerea also resulted in a significant reduction of the disease. Data suggest that CD could operate via other distinct reaction pathways than betaGlu and OGA. They also highlight the requirement of a specific DP for each oligosaccharide to induce the defence response. PMID:17322548

  18. Simultaneous determination of gross alpha, gross beta and 226Ra in natural water by liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The determination of gross alpha, gross beta and 226Ra activity in natural waters is useful in a wide range of environmental studies. Furthermore, gross alpha and gross beta parameters are included in international legislation on the quality of drinking water [Council Directive 98/83/EC]. In this work, a low-background liquid scintillation counter (Wallac, Quantulus 1220) was used to simultaneously determine gross alpha, gross beta and 226Ra activity in natural water samples. Sample preparation involved evaporation to remove 222Rn and its short-lived decay daughters. The evaporation process concentrated the sample ten-fold. Afterwards, a sample aliquot of 8 mL was mixed with 12 mL of Ultima Gold AB scintillation cocktail in low-diffusion vials. In this study, a theoretical mathematical model based on secular equilibrium conditions between 226Ra and its short-lived decay daughters is presented. The proposed model makes it possible to determine 226Ra activity from two measurements. These measurements also allow determining gross alpha and gross beta simultaneously. To validate the proposed model, spiked samples with different activity levels for each parameter were analysed. Additionally, to evaluate the model's applicability in natural water, eight natural water samples from different parts of Spain were analysed. The eight natural water samples were also characterised by alpha spectrometry for the naturally occurring isotopes of uranium (234U, 235U and 238U), radium (224Ra and 226Ra), 210Po and 232Th. The results for gross alpha and 226Ra activity were compared with alpha spectrometry characterization, and an acceptable concordance was obtained

  19. Enzymatic hydrolysis of water-soluble wheat arabinoxylan. 1. Synergy between alpha-L-arabinofuranosidases, endo-1,4-beta-xylanases, and beta-xylosidase activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, H.R.; Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge; Pedersen, S.

    2003-01-01

    , but a synergistic interaction in xylose release was found between Ultraflo L and Celluclast 1.5 L. On the basis of high-performance anion exchange chromatography (HPAEC) analysis of the hydrolysates after enzymatic reaction, we propose that the observed synergism between Celluclast 1.5 L and Ultraflo L...... is the result of positive interaction between alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase and endo-1,4-beta-xylanase activities present in Ultraflo L that released arabinose, xylobiose and xylotriose, and beta-xylosidase activities in Celluclast 1.5 L, capable of catalyzing the hydrolysis of xylobiose and xylotriose to xylose....

  20. Cx43, ZO-1, alpha-catenin and beta-catenin in cataractous lens epithelial cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anshul I Arora; Kaid Johar; Devarshi U Gajjar; Darshini A Ganatra; Forum B Kayastha; Anuradha K Pal; Alpesh R Patel; Rajkumar S; Abhay R Vasavada

    2012-12-01

    Specimens of the anterior lens capsule with an attached monolayer of lens epithelial cells (LECs) were obtained from patients (=52) undergoing cataract surgery. Specimens were divided into three groups based on the type of cataract: nuclear cataract, cortical cataract and posterior subcapsular cataract (PSC). Clear lenses (=11) obtained from donor eyes were used as controls. Expression was studied by immunofluorescence, real-time PCR and Western blot. Statistical analysis was done using the student’s -test. Immunofluorescence results showed punctate localization of Cx43 at the cell boundaries in controls, nuclear cataract and PSC groups. In the cortical cataract group, cytoplasmic pools of Cx43 without any localization at the cell boundaries were observed. Real-time PCR results showed significant up-regulation of Cx43 in nuclear and cortical cataract groups. Western blot results revealed significant increase in protein levels of Cx43 and significant decrease of ZO-1 in all three cataract groups. Protein levels of alpha-catenin were decreased significantly in nuclear and cortical cataract group. There was no significant change in expression of beta-catenin in the cataractous groups. Our findings suggest that ZO-1 and alpha-catenin are important for gap junctions containing Cx43 in the LECs. Alterations in cell junction proteins may play a role during formation of different types of cataract.

  1. Low cycle fatigue behavior of an [alpha] + [beta] titanium alloy: Ti6246

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beranger, A.S. (Dept. de Genie Mecanique, Univ. de Technologie de Compiegne, Centre de Recherche de Royallieu, 60 Compiegne (France)); Feaugas, X. (Dept. de Genie Mecanique, Univ. de Technologie de Compiegne, Centre de Recherche de Royallieu, 60 Compiegne (France)); Clavel, M. (Dept. de Genie Mecanique, Univ. de Technologie de Compiegne, Centre de Recherche de Royallieu, 60 Compiegne (France))

    1993-11-30

    The present study focused on the cyclic behavior of an [alpha] + [beta] titanium alloy, Ti6246. Low cycle fatigue tests were carried out between 20 C and 500 C under plastic strain control. The experimental results show that the 6246 alloy exhibits cyclic softening irrespective of the imposed temperature or strain. Nevertheless, careful analysis of the stress-strain hysteresis loops revealed that the physical origins and the underlying physical mechanisms of the softening are strongly temperature dependent. At room temperature, the softening appears to proceed from a decrease in the kinematic component of stress; it is governed by the gradual homogenization of the initially heterogeneous distribution of dislocations (localized slip bands) in the [alpha] phase in relation to the long-range internal stress field. In contrast, at high temperatures, the second phase shearing process due to the homogeneously distributed dislocations, and the occurrence of cross-slip, lower the isotropic contribution and lead to the observed cyclic softening. The mechanical results and the microstructural observations are therefore fairly consistent with one another. (orig.)

  2. Estimates of dose to intraperitoneal micrometastases from alpha and beta emitters in radioimmunotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intraperitoneal metastases from ovarian and other gynecologic tumors are a significant source of treatment failure. In recent years, investigators have used radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies to treat this disease with encouraging results. We have developed a dose calculational technique which generates isodose distributions from intraperitoneally administered alpha and beta particle emitters. In this study we apply the calculations to tissue biopsy samples to determine the adequacy of dose to ovarian micrometastases. Tissue samples from staging biopsies at the time of surgical debulking are scanned to identify small metastases. The patient population studied comprised those with ovarian disease who based on clinical criteria would be considered good candidates for intraperitoneal radioimmunotherapy. The regions of interest (which include the tumor and surface of the peritoneum) are digitized and tumor volumes are contoured. Dose calculations based on the modeling of intraperitoneally administered antibodies radiolabeled with various isotopes is performed and the minimum dose to tumor and normal tissue is assessed. For example, with tumor uptake of 0.1% injected dose per gram of tissue, the surface tumor dose from alpha emitters is up to 45,000 rads. The dose falls to 6000 rads at approximately 40 microns from the peritoneal surface. The surface dose from 20 mCi 90Y administered in 1500 ml saline is up to 10,000 rads, and at a 2-mm depth, approximately 2000 rads. From our calculation dose distribution from radioimmunotherapy varies as a function of physical characteristics of the isotope, absorption of activity, and amount of disease being treated

  3. INTERACTION OF PAH-RELATED COMPOUNDS WITH THE ALPHA AND BETA ISOFORMS OF ESTROGEN RECEPTOR. (R826192)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of several 4- and 5-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), heterocyclic PAHs, and their monohydroxy derivatives to interact with the estrogen receptor (ER) alpha and beta isoforms was examined. Only compounds possessing a hydroxyl group were able to compete wit...

  4. Development and validation of fluorescent receptor assays based on the human recombinant estrogen receptor subtypes alpha and beta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de boer, T; Otjens, D; Muntendam, A; Meulman, E; van Oostijen, M; Ensing, K

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the development and validation of two fluorescent receptor assays for the hRec-estrogen receptor subtypes alpha and beta. As a labelled ligand an autofluorescent phyto-estrogen (coumestrol) has been used. The estrogen receptor (ER) belongs to the nuclear receptor family, a cla

  5. HPLC-MS determination of the oxidation products of the reaction between alpha- and beta-pinene and OH radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Bergh, V; Coeckelberghs, H; Vanhees, I; De Boer, R; Compernolle, F; Vinckier, C

    2002-03-01

    Biogenic non-methane hydrocarbons such as isoprene, alpha-pinene, and beta-pinene, are emitted by forests in very large quantities. To evaluate the role of alpha- and beta-pinene and their contribution to the global production of trace gases and especially aerosol precursors, a study of the oxidation mechanism of alpha- and beta-pinene with hydroxyl radicals must be conducted. The degradation products of both monoterpenes with hydroxyl radicals were identified and quantified in a fast-flow reactor. The products were collected on a liquid-nitrogen trap coated with a 2,4-DNPH solution to which two internal standards (benzaldehyde-2,4-DNPH and tolualdehyde-2,4-DNPH) had been added. The collection method was based on the in situ conversion of aldehyde and/or ketone compounds to their 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone derivatives. The derivatives were analyzed by HPLC-MS using APCI(-). TIC chromatograms and mass spectral data for the various oxidation products are presented. For alpha-pinene, pinonaldehyde is the most important degradation product, with smaller amounts of acetone, formaldehyde, campholenealdehyde, and acetaldehyde. For beta-pinene, nopinone and formaldehyde are the most abundant products, of almost equal importance, whereas acetone and acetaldehyde are minor compounds.

  6. [Determination of alpha-arbutin, beta-arbutin and niacinamide in cosmetics by high performance liquid chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Peng; Chen, Meilan; Zhu, Yan

    2010-01-01

    A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the determination of two optical isomers of arbutin (alpha-arbutin and beta-arbutin) and niacinamide in cosmetics was developed. The samples were extracted by the mixture of salt water and chloroform (2:1, v/v). The separation was performed on an ODS-BP column (200 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm, Elite) with methanol-water (10:90, v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min and 25 degrees C. The detection wavelength was set at 220 nm and the sample injection volume was 20 microL. There were good linear relationships between the mass concentration and the peak areas of alpha-arbutin, beta-arbutin and niacinamide in the ranges of 0.07-50, 0.06-50 and 0.05-50 mg/L, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSDs, n = 7) of alpha-arbutin, beta-arbutin and niacinamide were 1.65%, 1.73% and 1.33%, respectively. The proposed method has been applied for the determination of alpha-arbutin, beta-arbutin and niacinamide in cosmetics with recoveries of 91.7%-109.6%. This method is rapid, simple and suitable for the detection of whitening ingredients in cosmetic.

  7. Straightforward synthesis of alpha,beta-unsaturated thioesters via ruthenium-catalyzed olefin cross-metathesis with thioacrylate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zijl, Anthoni W.; Minnaard, Adriaan J.; Feringa, Ben L.

    2008-01-01

    The cross-metathesis reaction of S-ethyl thioacrylate with a variety of olefins is effectively catalyzed by using a ruthenium benzylidene olefin metathesis catalyst. This reaction provides a convenient and versatile route to substituted alpha,beta-unsaturated thioesters, key building blocks in organ

  8. Use of studies with laboratory animals to assess the potential early health effects of combined internal alpha and beta irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential health impacts of radionuclides released in nuclear accidents are of major concern to the public and to regulatory and other governmental agencies. One mode of potential exposure is by inhalation of airborne radionuclides, which could lead to combined internal irradiation by high (alpha) and low (beta) linear energy transfer (LET) radiations. Epidemiological data for health effects of human inhalation exposure are too limited to derive reliable estimates of risks of potential health effects. However, results of studies in which beagle dogs were exposed by inhalation to insoluble radioactive aerosols can be used to estimate expected effects in humans. Data for mortality from radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis caused by internal irradiation of dog lungs by alpha or beta radiations are used to derive the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of alpha irradiation compared to beta irradiation; predict the expected combined effects of alpha and beta irradiation of dog lungs; and extrapolate the results to humans. The extrapolation to humans assumed that, for similar ages at exposure, dog and human lungs have similar sensitivities to lung irradiation. Results of theoretical calculations related to mortality from early effects indicated that the synergistic effects of high- and low-LET radiations should depend on the percentages of the total dose contributed by high- and low-LET radiations, and for very low or very high doses, synergistic effects should be negligible. 23 refs., 8 figs

  9. Effect of alpha and beta adrenergic blockade on epinephrine induced pulmonary insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, J L; Hagen, J F; Koo, R

    1976-04-01

    Recent studies demonstrated that epinephrine causes significant pulmonary A-V shunting. This study reports the effect of alpha and beta adrenergic blockade on this shunting. Sixty-three anesthetized mongrel dogs were ventilated with a mechanical respirator. Measurements of (1) the pulmonary shunt, (2) cardiac output, (3) mean pulmonary artery, pulmonary capillary wedge and systemic pressures, and (4) pulmonary and systemic vascular resistances were obtained at 5, 15 and 30 minute intervals during the first hour and hourly for 5 hours. Fifteen dogs received no treatment. All others received epinephrine hydrochloride, 2 mug/kg/min for 5 hours. Ten received epinephrine only. Ten were pretreated with propranolol hydrochloride, 250 mug/kg, 12 with phenoxybenzamine, 1 mg/kg, and 16 with phenoxybenzamine and propranolol. Propranolol significantly decreased the epinephrine induced pulmonary shunt at all times and was the most effective drug. Phenoxybenzamine decreased the early shunting, but less than propranolol, and did not decrease the late shunting. Blockade with propranolol and phenoxybenzamine was less effective than propranolol alone. Based on the observed hemodynamic changes it was suggested that beta blockade is effective in reducing epinephrine induced pulmonary insufficiency by favorably altering the flow and distribution of pulmonary blood flow which in turn decreases epinephrine induced ventilation-perfusion inequalities and capillary hypertension both of which result in shunting. Conversely phenoxybenzamine has an unfavorable effect on the pulmonary flow. These studies support previous work in animals and man which showed that beta adrenergic stimulation is important in the pathogenesis of pulmonary insufficiency. Because the amounts of epinephrine used produce blood levels observed in critical illness, these studies add support to a relationship between the increased catecholamine stimulation of critical illness and the associated and often unexplained

  10. Alpha damage in non-reference waste form matrix materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although bitumen is the matrix material currently used for European α-bearing intermediate level waste streams, polymer and polymer-modified cement matrices could have advantages over bitumen for such wastes. Two organic matrix systems have been studied - an epoxide resin, and an epoxide modified cement. Alpha irradiations were carried out by incorporating 241Am at approx. 0.9 Ci/l. Comparisons have been made with unirradiated material and with materials which had been γ-irradiated to the same dose as the α-irradiated samples. Measurements were made of dimensional changes, mechanical properties and the leaching behaviour of 241Am and 137Cs. A limited amount of swelling (< 3%) was observed in α-irradiated epoxide resin; none was observed in the epoxide modified cement. Gamma irradiation to 300 kGy has no significant effect on the mechanical properties of either system. However, alpha irradiation to the same dose produced significant changes in flexural strength, an increase for the polymer and a decrease for the polymer-cement. Leaching in these systems was found to be a diffusion-controlled process; alpha irradiation to approx. 250 kGy has little effect on the leaching behaviour of either system. (author)

  11. The fibronectin-binding integrins alpha5beta1 and alphavbeta3 differentially modulate RhoA-GTP loading, organization of cell matrix adhesions, and fibronectin fibrillogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danen, Erik H J; Sonneveld, Petra; Brakebusch, Cord;

    2002-01-01

    We have studied the formation of different types of cell matrix adhesions in cells that bind to fibronectin via either alpha5beta1 or alphavbeta3. In both cases, cell adhesion to fibronectin leads to a rapid decrease in RhoA activity. However, alpha5beta1 but not alphavbeta3 supports high levels...... of RhoA activity at later stages of cell spreading, which are associated with a translocation of focal contacts to peripheral cell protrusions, recruitment of tensin into fibrillar adhesions, and fibronectin fibrillogenesis. Expression of an activated mutant of RhoA stimulates alphavbeta3-mediated...... fibrillogenesis. Despite the fact that alpha5beta1-mediated adhesion to the central cell-binding domain of fibronectin supports activation of RhoA, other regions of fibronectin are required for the development of alpha5beta1-mediated but not alphavbeta3-mediated focal contacts. Using chimeras of beta1 and beta3...

  12. PGC-1{beta} regulates mouse carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase through estrogen-related receptor {alpha}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gacias, Mar; Perez-Marti, Albert; Pujol-Vidal, Magdalena; Marrero, Pedro F. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Pharmacy and the Institute of Biomedicine of the University of Barcelona (IBUB) (Spain); Haro, Diego, E-mail: dharo@ub.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Pharmacy and the Institute of Biomedicine of the University of Barcelona (IBUB) (Spain); Relat, Joana [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Pharmacy and the Institute of Biomedicine of the University of Barcelona (IBUB) (Spain)

    2012-07-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Cact gene is induced in mouse skeletal muscle after 24 h of fasting. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Cact gene contains a functional consensus sequence for ERR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This sequence binds ERR{alpha} both in vivo and in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This ERRE is required for the activation of Cact expression by the PGC-1/ERR axis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our results add Cact as a genuine gene target of these transcriptional regulators. -- Abstract: Carnitine/acylcarnitine translocase (CACT) is a mitochondrial-membrane carrier proteins that mediates the transport of acylcarnitines into the mitochondrial matrix for their oxidation by the mitochondrial fatty acid-oxidation pathway. CACT deficiency causes a variety of pathological conditions, such as hypoketotic hypoglycemia, cardiac arrest, hepatomegaly, hepatic dysfunction and muscle weakness, and it can be fatal in newborns and infants. Here we report that expression of the Cact gene is induced in mouse skeletal muscle after 24 h of fasting. To gain insight into the control of Cact gene expression, we examine the transcriptional regulation of the mouse Cact gene. We show that the 5 Prime -flanking region of this gene is transcriptionally active and contains a consensus sequence for the estrogen-related receptor (ERR), a member of the nuclear receptor family of transcription factors. This sequence binds ERR{alpha}in vivo and in vitro and is required for the activation of Cact expression by the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator (PGC)-1/ERR axis. We also demonstrate that XTC790, the inverse agonist of ERR{alpha}, specifically blocks Cact activation by PGC-1{beta} in C2C12 cells.

  13. Hyperresponsive febrile reactions to interleukin (IL) 1alpha and IL-1beta, and altered brain cytokine mRNA and serum cytokine levels, in IL-1beta-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alheim, K; Chai, Z; Fantuzzi, G; Hasanvan, H; Malinowsky, D; Di Santo, E; Ghezzi, P; Dinarello, C A; Bartfai, T

    1997-03-18

    IL-1beta is an endogenous pyrogen that is induced during systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- or IL-1-induced fever. We have examined the fever and cytokine responses following i.p. injection of IL-1 agonists, IL-1alpha and IL-1beta, and compared these with response to LPS (i.p.) in wild-type and IL-1beta-deficient mice. The IL-1beta deficient mice appear to have elevated body temperature but exhibit a normal circadian temperature cycle. Exogenously injected IL-1beta, IL-1alpha, or LPS induced hyperresponsive fevers in the IL-1beta-deficient mice. We also observed phenotypic differences between wild-type and IL-1beta-deficient mice in hypothalamic basal mRNA levels for IL-1alpha and IL-6, but not for IL-1beta-converting enzyme or IL-1 receptor type I or type II. The IL-1alpha mRNA levels were down-regulated, whereas the IL-6 mRNA levels were up-regulated in the hypothalamus of IL-1beta-deficient mice as compared with wild-type mice. The IL-1beta-deficient mice also responded to LPS challenge with significantly higher serum corticosterone and with lower serum tumor necrosis factor type alpha levels than the wild-type mice. The data suggest that, in the redundant cascade of proinflammatory cytokines, IL-1beta plays an important but not obligatory role in fever induction by LPS or IL-1alpha, as well as in the induction of serum tumor necrosis factor type alpha and corticosterone responses either by LPS or by IL-1alpha or IL-1beta.

  14. Radionuclide, scintillation cocktail and chemical/color quench influence on discriminator setting in gross alpha/beta measurements by LSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross alpha/beta measurements in drinking waters enable radiochemical composition analysis in environmental studies providing efficient screening method that can indicate whether water contains elevated levels of any radionuclide. Routine gross alpha/beta activity monitoring in drinking waters has been carried out for a few years in laboratory for low-level radioactivity measurements in Novi Sad according to ASTM method, performing measurements on liquid scintillation counter Quantulus 1220 which can simultaneously generate alpha/beta spectra of samples by Pulse Shape Analysis (PSA circuit). In this paper, PSA discriminator impact was investigated to ensure obtaining of accurate and reliable alpha/beta activities. One novelty of presented work is PSA parameter setup with two combinations of radionuclides (241Am, 226Ra and 90Sr/90Y) with varying activity concentrations. Performed experiments also make contribution to investigations on the manner in which chemical and color quench affect optimal PSA parameter setting and further on, their altogether influence on gross alpha/beta activity measurements. Nitromethane, 15.8 M nitric acid and water, as well as yellow and yellow-orange dye, were used as quenching agents in order to test PSA/interference factor behavior in the presence of quenchers with different quenching strengths. Variation of PSA setting in quenched samples with two different commercially available cocktails (Ultima Gold LLT and OptiPhase HiSafe 3) was also tested. Lastly, application i.e. assessment of obtained PSA-SQP(E) correlation on the obtained results of activity concentrations of few artesian well water samples and colored spiked samples, based on the measured SQP(E) value of samples, has been demonstrated. - Highlights: • Thorough study on influence of relevant factors on optimal PSA level in gross alpha/beta measurements in waters is presented. • Experiments were performed on liquid scintillation counter Quantulus 1220™ according to

  15. Synthesis and biological evaluation of potent {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3}-integrin receptor antagonists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dijkgraaf, Ingrid [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands) and Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands)]. E-mail: i.dijkgraaf@nucmed.umcn.nl; Kruijtzer, John A.W. [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands); Frielink, Cathelijne [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Soede, Annemieke C. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Hilbers, Hans W. [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands); Oyen, Wim J.G. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Corstens, Frans H.M. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Liskamp, Rob M.J. [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands); Boerman, Otto C. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2006-11-15

    Introduction: {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} Integrin is expressed in sprouting endothelial cells in growing tumors, whereas it is absent in quiescent blood vessels. In addition, various tumor cell types express {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} integrin. {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} Integrin, a transmembrane heterodimeric protein, binds to the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) amino acid sequence of extracellular matrix proteins such as vitronectin and plays a pivotal role in invasion, proliferation and metastasis. Due to the selective expression of {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} integrin in tumors, radiolabeled RGD peptides and peptidomimetics are attractive candidates for tumor targeting. Methods: A cyclic RGD peptide, a peptoid-peptide hybrid, an all-peptoid and a peptidomimetic compound were synthesized, conjugated with 1,4,7,10-tetraazadodecane-N,N',N'',N'''-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) and radiolabeled with {sup 111}In. Their in vitro and in vivo {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3}-binding characteristics were determined. Results: IC{sub 5} values were 236 nM for DOTA-E-c(RGDfK), 219 nM for DOTA-peptidomimetic, >10 mM for DOTA-all-peptoid and 9.25 mM for the peptoid-peptide hybrid DOTA-E-c(nRGDfK). {sup 111}In-labeled compounds, except for [{sup 111}In]DOTA-all-peptoid, showed specific uptake in human {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3}-expressing tumors xenografted in athymic mice. Tumor uptake for [{sup 111}In]DOTA-E-c(RGDfK) was 1.73{+-}0.4% ID/g (2 h postinjection) and that of [{sup 111}In]DOTA-peptidomimetic was 2.04{+-}0.3% ID/g. Tumor uptake for the peptoid-peptide hybrid [{sup 111}In]DOTA-E-c(nRGDfK) was markedly lower (0.45{+-}0.07% ID/g). The all-peptoid [{sup 111}In]DOTA-E-c(nRGnDnFnK) did not show specific uptake in tumors (0.11{+-}0.04% ID/g). Conclusions: The peptidomimetic compound and the cyclic RGD peptide have a high affinity for {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} integrin, and these compounds have better tumor-targeting characteristics than the

  16. Crystallochemical study of amides derived from 6{alpha}, 7{beta}-diidroxivoacapan-17{beta}-oic acid by X-ray diffraction; Estudo cristaloquimico de amidas derivadas do acido 6{alpha}, 7{beta}-di- hidroxivouacapan-17 {beta}-oico por difracao de raios-X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branco, Marcello Cardoso; Prado Gambardella, Maria Teresa do [Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica e Fisica Molecular

    1995-12-31

    Abstract. The 6{alpha}, 7{beta}-diidroxivoacapan-17{beta}-oic acid (DVA) is a Furane-diterpene isolated from Peterodon genus. It has anti inflammatory and analgesic properties. The purpose of this work is the characterization of amides derived from DVA, in order to understand the relationship between Chemical Structure and Biological Activity of Vouacapanes. The structures of DVA derivatives will be solved by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. (author) 15 refs., 2 figs.

  17. Crystallochemical study of esters derived from 6{alpha}, 7{beta}-diidroxivouacapan-17{beta}-oic acid by x-ray diffraction; Estudo cristaloquimico de esteres derivados do acido 6{alpha}, 6{beta}-di-hidroxivouacapan-17{beta}-oico por difracao de raios-X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrahao Junior, Odonirio [Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    1995-12-31

    The 6{alpha}, 7{beta}-diidroxivoacapan-17{beta}-oic acid (DVA) is a Furane-diterpene isolated from Peterodon genus. It has anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. The purpose of this work is the characterisation by x-ray single crystal diffraction technique of esters derived from DVA, to understand the relationship between chemical structure and biological activity of vouacapanes. (author) 15 refs.

  18. Impact of ionization of ferrocene: EOES of alpha- and beta- electrons and the fingerprint orbital of ferrocenium

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Ionization process of ferrocene (Fc) to produce ferrocenium cation (Fc+) has been debated as much as the eclipsed and staggered ferrocene conformers. The present quantum mechanical study reveals that removal of an electron does not apparently affect the geometry and symmetry of the cation, as the geometric changes are < 2% with respect to neutral Fc, but produce the fingerprint orbital 8a1 of Fc+. The excess orbital energy spectrum (EOES) of the \\alpha- and \\beta-electrons reveals that the electrons originated from the transition metal Fe in both core and valence shells experience significant energy changes in the cation with respect to the neutral ferrocene counterparts, indicating that the Fe-electrons correlate stronger than electrons from other atoms such as carbons in ferrocene. The EOES also exhibits that the orbital energies of the \\alpha-electrons in ferrocenium change more significantly than the \\beta-electrons after one \\beta-electron being ionized with respect to ferrocene. The most significant ...

  19. Constraining the temperature-density relation of the intergalactic medium with the Lyman-$\\alpha$ and $\\beta$ forests

    CERN Document Server

    Boera, Elisa; Becker, George D; Bolton, James S

    2015-01-01

    The post-reionization thermal state of the intergalactic medium is characterized by a power-law relationship between temperature and density, with a slope determined by the parameter $\\gamma$. We describe a new method to measure $\\gamma$ using the ratio of flux curvature in the Lyman-$\\alpha$ and $\\beta$ forests. At a given redshift, this curvature ratio incorporates information from the different gas densities traced by Lyman-$\\alpha$ and $\\beta$ absorption. It is relatively simple and fast to compute and appears robust against several observational uncertainties. We apply this technique to a sample of 27 high-resolution quasar spectra from the Very Large Telescope. While promising statistical errors on $\\gamma$ appear to be achievable with these spectra, to reach its full potential, the dependence of the curvature ratio on the thermal state of the gas in the foreground Lyman-$\\alpha$ forest will require further, detailed forward modelling.

  20. Mutation Analysis of 16 Mucolipidosis II and III Alpha/Beta Chinese Children Revealed Genotype-Phenotype Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuang; Zhang, Weimin; Shi, Huiping; Yao, Fengxia; Wei, Min; Qiu, Zhengqing

    2016-01-01

    Mucolipidosis II and III alpha/beta are autosomal recessive diseases caused by mutations in the GNPTAB gene which encodes the α and β subunits of the N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphotransferase. Clinically, mucolipidosis II (MLII) is characterized by severe developmental delay, coarse facial features, skeletal deformities, and other systemic involvement. In contrast, MLIII alpha/beta is a much milder disorder, the symptoms of which include progressive joint stiffness, short stature, and scoliosis. To study the relationship between the genotypes and phenotypes of the MLII and MLIII alpha/beta patients, we analyzed the GNPTAB gene in 16 Chinese MLII and MLIII alpha/beta patients. We collected and analyzed the patients’ available clinical data and all showed clinical features typical of MLII or MLIII alpha/beta. Moreover, the activity of several lysosomal enzymes was measured in the plasma and finally the GNPTAB gene was sequenced. We detected 30 mutant alleles out of 32 alleles in our patients. These include 10 new mutations (c.99delC, c.118-1G>A, c.523_524delAAinsG, c.1212C>G, c.2213C>A, c.2345C>T, c.2356C>T, c.2455G>T, c.2821dupA, and c.3136-2A>G) and 5 previously reported mutations (c.1071G>A, c.1090C>T, c.2715+1G>A, c.2550_2554delGAAA, and c.3613C>T). The most frequent mutation was the splicing mutation c.2715+1G>A, which accounted for 28% of the mutations. The majority of the mutations reported in the Chinese patients (57%) were located on exon 13 or in its intronic flanking regions. PMID:27662472

  1. Toxin A from Clostridium difficile binds to rabbit erythrocyte glycolipids with terminal Gal alpha 1-3Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The binding of Toxin A isolated from Clostridium difficile to rabbit erythrocyte glycolipids has been studied. Total lipid extracts from rabbit erythrocytes were subjected to thin-layer chromatography and toxin-binding glycolipids detected by using 125I-labeled Toxin A in a direct binding overlay technique. Two major and several minor toxin-binding glycolipids were detected in rabbit erythrocytes by this method. The results of structural analyses of the major toxin-binding glycolipids were consistent with a pentasaccharide-ceramide (Gal alpha 1-3Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc beta 1-3Gal beta 1-4Glc-Cer) and a branched decasaccharide-ceramide (Gal alpha 1-3Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc beta 1-3[Gal alpha 1-3Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc beta 1-6]Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc beta 1-3Gal beta 1-4Glc-Cer) previously identified as the two most abundant glycolipids in rabbit erythrocytes. 125I-Toxin A binding to these glycolipids could be inhibited by bovine thyroglobulin, monospecific antiserum to the toxin, or by treatment of the glycolipids with alpha-galactosidase. The absence of toxin interaction with isoglobotriaosylceramide (Gal alpha 1-3Gal beta 1-4Glc-Cer) isolated from canine intestine suggested that the GlcNAc residue present in the terminal Gal alpha 1-3Gal beta 1-4GLcNAc sequence common to all known toxin binding glycoconjugates is required for carbohydrate-specific recognition by Toxin A. These observations are consistent with the proposed carbohydrate binding specificity of Toxin A for the nonreducing terminal sequence, Gal alpha 1-3Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc

  2. Toxin A from Clostridium difficile binds to rabbit erythrocyte glycolipids with terminal Gal alpha 1-3Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, G.F.; Krivan, H.C.; Wilkins, T.D.; Smith, D.F.

    1987-08-15

    The binding of Toxin A isolated from Clostridium difficile to rabbit erythrocyte glycolipids has been studied. Total lipid extracts from rabbit erythrocytes were subjected to thin-layer chromatography and toxin-binding glycolipids detected by using /sup 125/I-labeled Toxin A in a direct binding overlay technique. Two major and several minor toxin-binding glycolipids were detected in rabbit erythrocytes by this method. The results of structural analyses of the major toxin-binding glycolipids were consistent with a pentasaccharide-ceramide (Gal alpha 1-3Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc beta 1-3Gal beta 1-4Glc-Cer) and a branched decasaccharide-ceramide (Gal alpha 1-3Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc beta 1-3(Gal alpha 1-3Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc beta 1-6)Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc beta 1-3Gal beta 1-4Glc-Cer) previously identified as the two most abundant glycolipids in rabbit erythrocytes. /sup 125/I-Toxin A binding to these glycolipids could be inhibited by bovine thyroglobulin, monospecific antiserum to the toxin, or by treatment of the glycolipids with alpha-galactosidase. The absence of toxin interaction with isoglobotriaosylceramide (Gal alpha 1-3Gal beta 1-4Glc-Cer) isolated from canine intestine suggested that the GlcNAc residue present in the terminal Gal alpha 1-3Gal beta 1-4GLcNAc sequence common to all known toxin binding glycoconjugates is required for carbohydrate-specific recognition by Toxin A. These observations are consistent with the proposed carbohydrate binding specificity of Toxin A for the nonreducing terminal sequence, Gal alpha 1-3Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc.

  3. Vector Correlator in Massless QCD at Order O(alpha_s^4) and the QED beta-function at five loop

    CERN Document Server

    Baikov, P A; Kühn, J H; Rittinger, J

    2012-01-01

    We present a concise summary of recent results for the vector correlator in massless QCD at order ${\\cal O}(\\alpha_s^4)$, with all colour factors being given for a generic colour group. As a direct consequence we arrive at: (i) the full QCD contribution to the QED $\\beta$--function of order $\\alpha^2\\, \\alpha_s^4$ in the \\MSbar- \\ and MOM-schemes; (ii) the full five-loop result of order $\\alpha^6$ for the $\\beta$-function of QED with a generic number of single-charged fermions, again for the \\MSbar- \\ and MOM-schemes.

  4. Biogenesis of lysosomal enzymes in the alpha-glucosidase II-deficient modA mutant of Dictyostelium discoideum: retention of alpha-1,3-linked glucose on N-linked oligosaccharides delays intracellular transport but does not alter sorting of alpha-mannosidase or beta-glucosidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, D L; Bush, J M; Dimond, R L; Cardelli, J A

    1989-09-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum-localized enzyme alpha-glucosidase II is responsible for removing the two alpha-1,3-linked glucose residues from N-linked oligosaccharides of glycoproteins. This activity is missing in the modA mutant strain, M31, of Dictyostelium discoideum. Results from both radiolabeled pulse-chase and subcellular fractionation experiments indicate that this deficiency did not prevent intracellular transport and proteolytic processing of the lysosomal enzymes, alpha-mannosidase and beta-glucosidase. However, the rate at which the glucosylated precursors left the rough endoplasmic reticulum was several-fold slower than the rate at which the wild-type precursors left this compartment. Retention of glucose residues did not disrupt the binding of the precursor forms of the enzymes with intracellular membranes, indicating that the delay in movement of proteins from the ER did not result from lack of association with membranes. However, the mutant alpha-mannosidase precursor contained more trypsin-sensitive sites than did the wild-type precursor, suggesting that improper folding of precursor molecules might account for the slow rate of transport to the Golgi complex. Percoll density gradient fractionation of extracts prepared from M31 cells indicated that the proteolytically processed mature forms of alpha-mannosidase and beta-glucosidase were localized to lysosomes. Finally, the mutation in M31 may have other, more dramatic, effects on the lysosomal system since two enzymes, N-acetylglucosaminidase and acid phosphatase, were secreted much less efficiently from lysosomal compartments by the mutant strain.

  5. Intron-exon organization of the active human protein S gene PS. alpha. and its pseudogene PS. beta. : Duplication and silencing during primate evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ploos van Amstel, H.; Reitsma, P.H.; van der Logt, C.P.; Bertina, R.M. (University Hospital, Leiden (Netherlands))

    1990-08-28

    The human protein S locus on chromosome 3 consists of two protein S genes, PS{alpha} and PS{beta}. Here the authors report the cloning and characterization of both genes. Fifteen exons of the PS{alpha} gene were identified that together code for protein S mRNA as derived from the reported protein S cDNAs. Analysis by primer extension of liver protein S mRNA, however, reveals the presence of two mRNA forms that differ in the length of their 5{prime}-noncoding region. Both transcripts contain a 5{prime}-noncoding region longer than found in the protein S cDNAs. The two products may arise from alternative splicing of an additional intron in this region or from the usage of two start sites for transcription. The intron-exon organization of the PS{alpha} gene fully supports the hypothesis that the protein S gene is the product of an evolutional assembling process in which gene modules coding for structural/functional protein units also found in other coagulation proteins have been put upstream of the ancestral gene of a steroid hormone binding protein. The PS{beta} gene is identified as a pseudogene. It contains a large variety of detrimental aberrations, viz., the absence of exon I, a splice site mutation, three stop codons, and a frame shift mutation. Overall the two genes PS{alpha} and PS{beta} show between their exonic sequences 96.5% homology. Southern analysis of primate DNA showed that the duplication of the ancestral protein S gene has occurred after the branching of the orangutan from the African apes. A nonsense mutation that is present in the pseudogene of man also could be identified in one of the two protein S genes of both chimpanzee and gorilla. This implicates that silencing of one of the two protein S genes must have taken place before the divergence of the three African apes.

  6. Effects of cigarette smoke exposure on nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits {alpha}7 and {beta}2 in the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) brainstem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machaalani, Rita, E-mail: rita.machaalani@sydney.edu.au [Department of Medicine, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Bosch Institute, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, NSW 2145 (Australia); Say, Meichien [Department of Medicine, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Bosch Institute, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Waters, Karen A. [Department of Medicine, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Bosch Institute, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, NSW 2145 (Australia)

    2011-12-15

    It is postulated that nicotine, as the main neurotoxic constituent of cigarette smoke, influences SIDS risk through effects on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in brainstem nuclei that control respiration and arousal. This study compared {alpha}7 and {beta}2 nAChR subunit expression in eight nuclei of the caudal and rostral medulla and seven nuclei of the pons between SIDS (n = 46) and non-SIDS infants (n = 14). Evaluation for associations with known SIDS risk factors included comparison according to whether infants had a history of exposure to cigarette smoke in the home, and stratification for sleep position and gender. Compared to non-SIDS infants, SIDS infants had significantly decreased {alpha}7 in the caudal nucleus of the solitary tract (cNTS), gracile and cuneate nuclei, with decreased {beta}2 in the cNTS and increased {beta}2 in the facial. When considering only the SIDS cohort: 1-cigarette smoke exposure was associated with increased {alpha}7 in the vestibular nucleus and increased {beta}2 in the rostral dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus, rNTS and Cuneate, 2-there was a gender interaction for {alpha}7 in the gracile and cuneate, and {beta}2 in the cNTS and rostral arcuate nucleus, and 3-there was no effect of sleep position on {alpha}7, but prone sleep was associated with decreased {beta}2 in three nuclei of the pons. In conclusion, SIDS infants demonstrate differences in expression of {alpha}7 and {beta}2 nAChRs within brainstem nuclei that control respiration and arousal, which is independent on prior history of cigarette smoke exposure, especially for the NTS, with additional differences for smoke exposure ({beta}2), gender ({alpha}7 and {beta}2) and sleep position ({beta}2) evident. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The 'normal' response to smoke exposure is decreased {alpha}7 and {beta}2 in certain nuclei. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SIDS infants have decreased {alpha}7 in cNTS, Grac and Cun. Black

  7. Inhibition of L-Deleted Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Replication by Alpha/Beta Interferon Involves Double-Stranded RNA-Dependent Protein Kinase

    OpenAIRE

    Chinsangaram, Jarasvech; Koster, Marla; Grubman, Marvin J.

    2001-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that the ability of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) to form plaques in cell culture is associated with the suppression of alpha/beta interferon (IFN-α/β). In the present study, we used Escherichia coli-expressed porcine and bovine IFN-α or -β individually to demonstrate that each was equally effective in inhibiting FMDV replication. The block in FMDV replication appeared to be at the level of protein translation, suggesting a role for double-stranded RNA-depende...

  8. The role of 14-3-3{beta} in transcriptional activation of estrogen receptor {alpha} and its involvement in proliferation of breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yoonseo; Kim, Hyungjin; Jang, Sung-Wuk [School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Jesang, E-mail: jesangko@korea.ac.kr [School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-14

    Highlights: {yields} 14-3-3{beta} interacts with ER{alpha} and the interaction is Akt-dependent. {yields} 14-3-3{beta} regulates the transcriptional activity of ER{alpha} in a ligand-dependent manner. {yields} 14-3-3{beta} increases expressions of ER{alpha} target genes. {yields} 14-3-3{beta} increases breast cancer cell proliferation. -- Abstract: The estrogen receptor (ER) functions as a transcription factor that mediates the effects of estrogen. ER{alpha}, which plays a crucial role in the development and progression of breast cancer, is activated by estrogen binding, leading to receptor phosphorylation, dimerization, and recruitment of co-activators and chaperons to the estrogen-bound receptor complex. The 14-3-3 proteins bind to target proteins via phosphorylation and influence many cellular events by altering their subcellular localization or acting as a chaperone. However, regulation of ER{alpha} expression and transactivation by the 14-3-3 proteins has not been reported. We demonstrate that 14-3-3{beta} functions as a positive regulator of ER{alpha} through a direct protein-protein interaction in an estrogen-dependent manner. Ectopic expression of 14-3-3{beta} stimulated ER{alpha}-mediated transcriptional activity in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Enhanced ER{alpha} transcriptional activity due to 14-3-3{beta} increased the expressions of the endogenous ER{alpha} target genes, leading to proliferation of breast cancer cells. We suggest that 14-3-3{beta} has oncogenic potential in breast cancer via binding to ER{alpha} and activation of the transcriptional activity of ER{alpha}.

  9. Lateral mobility of integrin alpha IIb beta 3 (glycoprotein IIb/IIIa) in the plasma membrane of a human megakaryocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schootemeijer, A; van Willigen, G; van der Vuurst, H; Tertoolen, L G; De Laat, S W; Akkerman, J W

    1997-01-01

    The migration of integrins to sites of cell-cell and cell-matrix contact is thought to be important for adhesion strengthening. We studied the lateral diffusion of integrin alpha IIb beta 3 (glycoprotein IIb/IIIa) in the plasma membrane of a cultured human megakaryocyte by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching of FITC-labelled monovalent Fab fragments directed against the beta 3 subunit. The diffusion of beta 3 on the unstimulated megakaryocyte showed a lateral diffusion coefficient (D) of 0.37 x 10(-9) cm2/s and a mobile fraction of about 50%. Stimulation with ADP (20 microM) or alpha-thrombin (10 U/ml) at 22 degrees C induced transient decreases in both parameters reducing D to 0.21 x 10(-9) cm2/s and the mobile fraction to about 25%. The fall in D was observed within 1 min after stimulation but the fall in mobile fraction showed a lag phase of 5 min. The lag phase was absent in the presence of Calpain I inhibitor, where-as cytochalasin D completely abolished the decreased in mobile fraction. The data are compatible with the concept that cell activation induces anchorage of 50% of the mobile alpha IIb beta 3 (25% of the whole population of receptor) to the cytoplasmic actin filaments, although, as discussed, other rationals are not ruled out. PMID:9031465

  10. Lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokine production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells : Intracellular localization of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 1 beta detected with a three-color immunofluorescence technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deBont, ESJM; Niemarkt, AE; Tamminga, RYJ; Kimpen, JLL; Kamps, WA; deLeij, LHMF

    1996-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) can induce monocytes to produce various cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta). In the present study, the kinetics of both intracellular and extra cellular accumulation of TNF alpha and IL-1 beta in LPS stimulated mononuc

  11. Alpha4beta1 integrin and erythropoietin mediate temporally distinct steps in erythropoiesis: integrins in red cell development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshghi, Shawdee; Vogelezang, Mariette G; Hynes, Richard O; Griffith, Linda G; Lodish, Harvey F

    2007-06-01

    Erythropoietin (Epo) is essential for the terminal proliferation and differentiation of erythroid progenitor cells. Fibronectin is an important part of the erythroid niche, but its precise role in erythropoiesis is unknown. By culturing fetal liver erythroid progenitors, we show that fibronectin and Epo regulate erythroid proliferation in temporally distinct steps: an early Epo-dependent phase is followed by a fibronectin-dependent phase. In each phase, Epo and fibronectin promote expansion by preventing apoptosis partly through bcl-xL. We show that alpha(4), alpha(5), and beta(1) are the principal integrins expressed on erythroid progenitors; their down-regulation during erythropoiesis parallels the loss of cell adhesion to fibronectin. Culturing erythroid progenitors on recombinant fibronectin fragments revealed that only substrates that engage alpha(4)beta(1)-integrin support normal proliferation. Collectively, these data suggest a two-phase model for growth factor and extracellular matrix regulation of erythropoiesis, with an early Epo-dependent, integrin-independent phase followed by an Epo-independent, alpha(4)beta(1)-integrin-dependent phase.

  12. Mechanisms of transcriptional activation of the mouse claudin-5 promoter by estrogen receptor alpha and beta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burek, Malgorzata; Steinberg, Katrin; Förster, Carola Y

    2014-07-01

    Claudin-5 is an integral membrane protein and a critical component of endothelial tight junctions that control paracellular permeability. Claudin-5 is expressed at high levels in the brain vascular endothelium. Estrogens have multiple effects on vascular physiology and function. The biological actions of estrogens are mediated by two different estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes, ER alpha and ER beta. Estrogens have beneficial effects in several vascular disorders. Recently we have cloned and characterized a murine claudin-5 promoter and demonstrated 17beta-estradiol (E2)-mediated regulation of claudin-5 in brain and heart microvascular endothelium on promoter, mRNA and protein level. Sequence analysis revealed a putative estrogen response element (ERE) and a putative Sp1 transcription factor binding site in the claudin-5 promoter. The aim of the present study was to further characterize the estrogen-responsive elements of claudin-5 promoter. First, we introduced point mutations in ERE or Sp1 site in -500/+111 or in Sp1 site of -268/+111 claudin-5 promoter construct, respectively. Basal and E2-mediated transcriptional activation of mutated constructs was abrogated in the luciferase reporter gene assay. Next, we examined whether estrogen receptor subtypes bind to the claudin-5 promoter region. For this purpose we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation assays using anti-estrogen receptor antibodies and cellular lysates of E2-treated endothelial cells followed by quantitative PCR analysis. We show enrichment of claudin-5 promoter fragments containing the ERE- and Sp1-binding site in immunoprecipitates after E2 treatment. Finally, in a gel mobility shift assay, we demonstrated DNA-protein interaction of both ER subtypes at ERE. In summary, this study provides evidence that both a non-consensus ERE and a Sp1 site in the claudin-5 promoter are functional and necessary for the basal and E2-mediated activation of the promoter.

  13. The MOSDEF Survey: Dissecting the star-formation rate vs. stellar mass relation using H$\\alpha$ and H$\\beta$ emission lines at z ~ 2

    CERN Document Server

    Shivaei, Irene; Shapley, Alice E; Kriek, Mariska; Siana, Brian; Mobasher, Bahram; Coil, Alison L; Freeman, William R; Sanders, Ryan; Price, Sedona H; de Groot, Laura; Azadi, Mojegan

    2015-01-01

    We present results on the SFR-$M_*$ relation (i.e., the "main sequence") among star-forming galaxies at $1.37\\leq z \\leq2.61$ using the MOSFIRE Deep Evolution Field (MOSDEF) survey. Based on a sample of 261 star-forming galaxies with observations of H$\\alpha$ and H$\\beta$ emission lines, we have estimated robust dust-corrected instantaneous star-formation rates (SFRs) over a large dynamic range in stellar mass ($\\sim 10^{9.0}-10^{11.5}M_\\odot$). We find a tight correlation between SFR(H$\\alpha$) and $M_*$ with an intrinsic scatter of 0.36 dex, 0.05 dex larger than that of UV-based SFRs. This increased scatter is consistent with predictions from numerical simulations of 0.03 - 0.1 dex, and is attributed to H$\\alpha$ more accurately tracing SFR variations. The slope of the $\\log(\\text{SFR})-\\log(M_*)$ relation, using SFR(H$\\alpha$), at $1.4< z<2.6$ and over the stellar mass range of $10^{9.5}$ to $10^{11.5}M_\\odot$ is $0.65\\pm 0.09$. We find that different assumptions for the dust correction, such as usin...

  14. [Alpha and beta arthropods diversity from the different environments of Parque Nacional Los Cardones, Salta, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belén Cava, Maria; Antonio Corronca, José; José Echeverría, Alejandro

    2013-12-01

    The essential role of the National Parks is to protect nature, in order to prevent the deterioration and loss of the ecosystem under protection. Very few records about the diversity of arthropods are known from Los Cardones National Park, where three eco-regions are protected: Puna and Monte eco-regions and the High Andean Grassland of the Yungas. Here, we aimed to compare the alpha and beta diversity of arthropods in these eco-regions, and to prove if sites from the same ecoregion, show greater similarity between them in their assemblages, than with sites of the other eco-regions. We also identified arthropod orders with higher species richness, and indicated the families that contribute the most to the registered beta diversity. Three sampling sites were established on each eco-region and the arthropods were sampled using pitfall traps and suction samples. We evaluated the obtained inventory through nonparametric estimators of species richness, and compared diversity among eco-regions through "diversity profiles" and "effective number of species". Beta diversity was assessed by different methods such as the Morisita Index, nonmetric multidimentional scaling analysis, a multiple permutation procedure, and a Similarity Percentage analysis. We recorded 469 spp/morphospecies and recognized three arthropod orders (spiders, dipterans and hymenopterans) that are diverse and abundant in the Park. Besides, the diversity in Los Cardones National Park was found to be high, but it was observed higher in the High Andean Grassland of the Yungas, and lower in the Puna. The inventory obtained was good, reached up to the 81% of the species richness estimated by nonparametric estimators. Each eco-region of the park showed a very particular arthropod community that was tested by a multi-response permutation procedure. The species turnover between eco-regions was high, so that the different environments of the protected area are contributing to the maintenance of the regional

  15. Identification of distinct physiochemical properties of toxic prefibrillar species formed by A{beta} peptide variants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goeransson, Anna-Lena, E-mail: anngo@ifm.liu.se [Division of Molecular Biotechnology, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linkoeping University (Sweden); Nilsson, K. Peter R., E-mail: petni@ifm.liu.se [Division of Organic Chemistry, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linkoeping University (Sweden); Kagedal, Katarina, E-mail: katarina.kagedal@liu.se [Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linkoeping University (Sweden); Brorsson, Ann-Christin, E-mail: anki@ifm.liu.se [Division of Molecular Biotechnology, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linkoeping University (Sweden)

    2012-04-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Identification of toxic prefibrillar A{beta} species. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fluorescence measurements using a combined set of fluorophores. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Morphology studies using transmission electron microscopy. -- Abstract: The formation of amyloid-{beta} peptide (A{beta}) aggregates at an early stage during the self-assembly process is an important factor in the development of Alzheimer's disease. The toxic effect is believed to be exerted by prefibrillar species of A{beta}. It is therefore important to identify which prefibrillar species are toxic and characterize their distinct properties. In the present study, we investigated the in vitro aggregation behavior of A{beta}-derived peptides possessing different levels of neurotoxic activity, using fluorescence spectroscopy in combination with transmission electron microscopy. The toxicity of various A{beta} aggregates was assessed by using cultures of human neuroblastoma cells. Through combined use of the fluorescence probe 8-anilino-1-napthalenesulfonate (ANS) and the novel luminescent probe pentamer formyl thiophene acetic acid (p-FTAA), we were able to identify those A{beta} peptide-derived prefibrillar species which exhibited cellular toxicity. In particular, species, which formed early during the aggregation process and showed strong p-FTAA and ANS fluorescence, were the species that possessed toxic activities. Moreover, by manipulating the aggregation conditions, it was possible to change the capacity of the A{beta} peptide to form nontoxic versus toxic species.

  16. A Role for the Androgen Metabolite, 5alpha androstane, 3beta, 17beta Diol (3b-DIol in the regulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert James Handa

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis is a basic reaction of animals to environmental perturbations that threaten homeostasis. These responses are ultimately regulated by neurons residing within the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN. Within the PVN, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH, vasopressin (AVP and oxytocin (OT expressing neurons are critical as they can regulate both neuroendocrine and autonomic responses. Estradiol (E2 and testosterone (T are well known reproductive hormones, however, they have also been shown to modulate stress reactivity. In rodent models, evidence shows that under some conditions E2 enhances stress activated ACTH and corticosterone secretion. In contrast, T decreases the gain of the HPA axis. The modulatory role of testosterone was originally thought to be via 5 alpha reduction to the potent androgen, dihydrotestosterone, whereas E2 effects were thought to be mediated by both estrogen receptors alpha (ERα and beta (ERβ. However, DHT has been shown to be metabolized to the ERβ agonist, 5alpha- androstane 3beta,17beta diol (3b-Diol. The actions of 3β-Diol on the HPA axis are mediated by ERbeta which inhibits the PVN response to stressors. In gonadectomized rats, ERbeta agonists reduce CORT and ACTH responses to restraint stress, an effect that is also present in wild-type but not ERbeta knockout mice. The neurobiological mechanisms underlying the actions of ERbeta to alter HPA reactivity are not currently known. CRH, AVP and OT have all been shown to be regulated by estradiol and recent studies indicate an important role of ERbeta in these regulatory processes. Moreover, activation of the CRH and AVP promoters have been shown by 3β-Diol binding to ERbeta and this is thought to be through alternate pathways of gene regulation. Based on available data, a novel and important role for 3beta Diol in the regulation of the HPA axis is suggested.

  17. First principles calculations of ceramics surfaces and interfaces: Examples from beta-silicon nitride and alpha-alumina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Jennifer Synowczynski

    the sum of the energies of the constituent atoms. In the second study, we performed constrained geometry barrier calculations of the interaction of CO with the (001) beta-Si3N4 surface to answer the following questions: (1) Does the CO combustion product interact with the Si3N4 surface and if so, what is the mechanism? (2) Once adsorbed, can CO further dissociate into isolated surface active C and O species? (3) Is it more energetically favorable for C to diffuse into the bulk beta-Si3N4 or along its surface? and (4) What is the barrier to C diffusing into an amorphous SiO2 intergranular film? Our calculations indicated that CO spontaneously adsorbs to the (001) beta-Si 3N4 surface. However, at ambient temperatures, further dissociation into isolated surface adsorbed C and O species was not thermodynamically or kinetically feasible. The barrier to C diffusing interstitially 1A and 5A into the bulk crystalline lattice is 2.12 and 4.42 eV respectively for a defect free, clean surface. However, the barrier for C surface diffusion is much smaller, ˜ 0.87 eV. Therefore, we concluded that surface is rich in C which can diffuse to the Si3N4/SiO2 interface and contribute to chemical erosion near the grain boundary interface. In the final study, we created a DFT model to investigate the 'inverse spillover effect' that occurs during hydrogen combustion on catalytically active Pt clusters supported by alpha-Al2O3. Our results indicated that the dissociation of O2 was not thermodynamically favored on the alpha-Al2O3 surface. However, both H2 and H2O dissociated, forming hydroxyls with oxygen atoms in the second atomic layer. Once dissociated, the oxygen species could diffuse locally but encountered a large barrier to long-range surface diffusion in the absence of defects or other species. In contrast, the barrier to the long-range surface diffusion of hydrogen was modest under ideal conditions. We also identified several adsorption and dissociation products for Pt, Pt-O [ads] Pt

  18. Adult Pancreatic Alpha-Cells: A New Source of Cells for Beta-Cell Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Cheng-Ho; Levine, Fred

    2010-01-01

    Beta-cell deficit is the major pathological feature in type 1 and type 2 diabetes patients, and plays a key role in disease progression. In principle, beta-cell regeneration can occur by replication of pre-existing beta-cells, or by beta-cell neogenesis from stem/progenitors. Unfortunately, beta-cell replication is limited by the almost complete absence of beta-cells in patients with type 1 diabetes, and the increasing recognition that the beta-cell replicative capacity declines severely with...

  19. Up-regulation of the integrin alpha 1/beta 1 in human neuroblastoma cells differentiated by retinoic acid: correlation with increased neurite outgrowth response to laminin.

    OpenAIRE

    Rossino, P; P. Defilippi; Silengo, L; Tarone, G.

    1991-01-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) is known to induce differentiation of neuroblastoma cells in vitro. Here we show that treatment of two human neuroblastoma cell lines, SY5Y and IMR32, with RA resulted in a fivefold increase of the integrin alpha 1/beta 1 expression. The effect was selective because expression of the alpha 3/beta 1 integrin, also present in these cells, was not increased. The up-regulation of the alpha 1/beta 1 differentiated SY5Y cells correlated with increased neurite response to laminin....

  20. Expression of the alpha 6 beta 4 integrin by squamous cell carcinomas and basal cell carcinomas: possible relation to invasive potential?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossen, K; Dahlstrøm, K K; Mercurio, A M;

    1994-01-01

    We have studied the expression of alpha 6 beta 4 integrin, a carcinoma laminin receptor in ten squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) and ten basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) of the skin in order to examine whether changes in alpha 6 beta 4 integrin expression may be related to invasive and metastatic...... potential. Monoclonal antibodies specific for each subunit were applied on cryosections, using a three step indirect peroxidase technique. In normal epidermis the basal cells expressed both the alpha 6 and the beta 4 subunits, and the expression was polarized against the basement membrane. In SCCs the...

  1. Line C17: alpha and medium-level beta-gamma laboratory pilot facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calor, J.N.; Mauborgne, B.; Montuir, M. [CEA/VALRHO - site de Marcoule, Dept. de Recherche en Retraitement et en Vitrification (DRRV), 30 - Marcoule (France)

    2000-07-01

    The Process Development Laboratory (LDP) uses the ATALANTE C17 line for integral testing in order to develop and validate spent fuel reprocessing methods and for overall qualification of calculation codes. Line C 17 comprises shielded cells and glove boxes, equipped with centrifugal extractors and laboratory-scale mixer-settlers to test liquid-liquid extraction processes in an alpha and medium-level beta-gamma environment. The high reliability and precision of the process instrumentation and control system allow full control of operating parameters and comprehensive operating data recording, meeting the experimentation quality requirements necessary for qualifying calculation codes. Direct online spectrophotometric analysis at various points in the process provides real-time concentration data for vital elements, some of which are difficult to analyze offline because of their poor chemical stability. Online analyses, supplemented when necessary by gamma spectrometry, provide valuable process control input for reaching stabilized operating conditions. Fifteen radioactive test campaigns have been successfully completed since line C 17 was commissioned in June 1995. (authors)

  2. Diet Diversity Is Associated with Beta but not Alpha Diversity of Pika Gut Microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huan; Li, Tongtong; Beasley, DeAnna E.; Heděnec, Petr; Xiao, Zhishu; Zhang, Shiheng; Li, Jiabao; Lin, Qiang; Li, Xiangzhen

    2016-01-01

    Wild mammals often consume different food sources as they become geographical available. This change in diet composition is likely to influence the gut microbial community, yet it remains unclear what the relationship looks like—particularly in small herbivores—under natural conditions. We used DNA sequencing approaches to characterize the diet composition and gut microbial community of wild plateau pikas (Ochotona curzoniae) collected from three altitudes. We tested if diet and gut microbiota composition changes across altitudes, and the relationship between diet diversity and gut microbiota diversity. Our results showed that altitude significantly influences the composition of diet and gut microbial communities. Notably, the alpha diversity (Shannon diversity and observed OTUs) of individual diet was not significantly correlated with that of gut microbiota, whereas the beta diversity (Jaccard and Bray-Curtis dissimilarity) of diet was positively correlated with that of gut microbiota. Our study is the first time to highlight the relationship between diet and gut microbiota composition in wild pikas on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. It suggests that the species richness within individual gut microbiota does not linearly increase with diet diversity, whereas those individuals that are more similar in diet composition harbor more similar gut microbiota. PMID:27512391

  3. The influence of internal stresses on plastic instabilities in {alpha}/{beta} titanium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helbert, A.L.; Feaugas, X. [Univ. de Technologie de Compiegne (France). Div. Mecanique

    1997-05-01

    It is now well established that the plastic strain localization in shear bands is a natural process in the domain of large deformations. This phenomenon has been particularly studied in the last few years, especially in c.c. and c.f.c. alloys but less in h.c.p. alloys. The influence of several parameters, such as stacking fault energy, crystallographic orientation, grain size or hardening, on the nucleation and the propagation of shear bands has been largely studied. In polycrystals, it has been noted that plastic strain incompatibilities at grain boundaries promoted shear band nucleation. {alpha}/{beta} titanium alloys, which are two phase alloys, develop more plastic strain incompatibilities than the polycrystals. Also, the purpose of this work is to study the effect of these internal stresses on the nucleation and the propagation of shear bands. Besides, the plastic strain localization is not only a deformation mode but is also involved in fracture. Indeed, numerous authors have revealed that fracture could occur in shear bands. In this study, the influence of these shear bands on the fracture process under low triaxiality ({chi} < 1) will be analyzed.

  4. Intensity mapping of H-alpha, H-beta, [OII] and [OIII] lines at z<5

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, Yan; Silva, Marta B; Zemcov, Michael; Feng, Chang; Santos, Mario G; Dore, Olivier; Chen, Xuelei

    2016-01-01

    Intensity mapping is now becoming a useful tool to study the large-scale structure of the universe through spatial variations in the integrated emission from galaxies and the intergalactic medium. We study intensity mapping of the H-alpha6563A, [OIII]5007A, [OII]3727A and H-beta4861A lines at 0.8

  5. A precession electron diffraction study of {alpha}, {beta} phases and Dauphine twin in quartz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, D., E-mail: damien.jacob@univ-lille1.fr [Unite Materiaux et Transformations, UMR 8207 CNRS-Universite Lille 1, Univ Lille Nord de France, F-59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Cordier, P. [Unite Materiaux et Transformations, UMR 8207 CNRS-Universite Lille 1, Univ Lille Nord de France, F-59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France)

    2010-08-15

    Precession electron diffraction is used to distinguish between the hexagonal {beta} high-temperature and the trigonal {alpha} low-temperature phases of SiO{sub 2} quartz. The structures just differ by a kink of the SiO{sub 4} tetrahedra arranged along spiraling chains, which induces a loss of the two-fold axis and subsequent twinning in the low-temperature phase. Conventional selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) does not enable the phases distinction since only the intensity of reflections is different. It becomes possible with precession that reduces the dynamical interactions between reflections and makes their intensity very sensitive to small variations of the electron structure factors. Distinction between the twinned individuals in the low-temperature phase is then easily made and the twin law is characterized using stereographic projections. The actual symmetry of precessed zone axis patterns is also examined in detail. Using dynamical intensity simulations, it is shown that under certain thickness conditions, the diffraction class symmetry can be observed on selected area patterns that are to be used in the case of beam sensitive materials such as quartz.

  6. Toward Separating Alpha-lactalbumin and Beta-lactoglobulin Proteins from Whey through Cation-exchange Adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Mayyada; Chase, Howard

    2009-05-01

    This paper describes the cation-exchange adsorption of the two major whey proteins, alpha-lactalbumin (ALA) and beta-lactoglobulin (BLG) with the purpose of establishing a process for isolating them from cow's milk whey. The single- and two-component adsorption of 1.5 mg/ml ALA and 3 mg/ml BLG to the cation-exchanger SP Sepharose FF at 20° C using 0.1 M acetate buffer of pH 3.7 was studied. Langmuir isotherm parameters were determined for the pure proteins. In two-component systems, BLG breakthrough curve exhibited an overshoot phenomenon that gave evidence for the presence of a competitive adsorption between the two proteins. Complete separation occurred and it was possible to obtain each of the two proteins in a pure form. The process was then applied to a whey concentrate mixture where incomplete separation took place. However, BLG was produced with 95% purity and a recovery of 80%, while ALA showed an 84% recovery with low purity.

  7. Comparison of the effects of inhaled alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides on pulmonary function in the dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alterations of pulmonary function in representative groups of dogs developing nonneoplastic lung disease, after single inhalation exposures to cerium-144 or plutonium-238 in relatively insoluble particulate forms, were compared. The inhaled particles had similar aerodynamic diameters and effective half-lives of retention in the lung. The mean initial lung burdens of the 144Ce- and 238Pu-exposed groups were 51 and 0.65 μCi/kg of body weight, respectively. Because of the respective ranges of the beta emissions from 144Ce and the alpha emissions from 238Pu, the lungs of the 144Ce-exposed dogs were relatively uniformly irradiated, whereas only approximately 6% of the lung tissue of rates to the 238Pu-exposed dogs was irradiated. The calculated average dose rates to the irradiated tissue were similar for both radionuclides. Pulmonary function was measured serially without sedation. Both groups developed progressive, restrictive lung disease, which ended in death from pulmonary failure. Dogs that inhaled 144Ce had an early reduction of CO diffusing capacity followed by a progressive mechanical and gas-exchange impairment similar to that reported for dogs and men exposed to external irradiation. Dogs that inhaled 238Pu had increased respiratory frequencies which often persisted for months before mechanical and gas-exchange abnormalities became evident

  8. Microenvironmental effects in the excited state properties of p-dimethylaminobenzonitrile complexed to alpha- and beta-cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, Sandra; Bortolus, Pietro; Manoli, Francesco; Marconi, Giancarlo; Grabner, Gottfried; Köhler, Gottfried; Mayer, Bernd; Boszczyk, Wojciech; Rotkiewicz, Krystyna

    2003-03-01

    The steady state and time resolved fluorescence and the triplet-triplet absorption of p-dimethylaminobenzonitrile (DMABN) in presence of alpha- and beta-cyclodextrin (CD) were investigated at various host and guest concentrations and temperatures. The formation of 1:1 and 1:2 DMABN:alpha-CD and 1:1 and 2:2 complexes DMABN:beta-CD complexes was ascertained by applying global analysis methods. The "pure" fluorescence spectra as well as the emission quantum yields and lifetimes and the triplet properties of the various associates were determined. The role of environmental features in the radiative and non-radiative deactivation of the LE and ICT excited states of the complexed DMABN was elucidated. PMID:12713218

  9. Synergistic effect of interleukin 1 alpha on nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae-induced up-regulation of human beta-defensin 2 in middle ear epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Raekil

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We recently showed that beta-defensins have antimicrobial activity against nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi and that interleukin 1 alpha (IL-1 alpha up-regulates the transcription of beta-defensin 2 (DEFB4 according to new nomenclature of the Human Genome Organization in human middle ear epithelial cells via a Src-dependent Raf-MEK1/2-ERK signaling pathway. Based on these observations, we investigated if human middle ear epithelial cells could release IL-1 alpha upon exposure to a lysate of NTHi and if this cytokine could have a synergistic effect on beta-defensin 2 up-regulation by the bacterial components. Methods The studies described herein were carried out using epithelial cell lines as well as a murine model of acute otitis media (OM. Human cytokine macroarray analysis was performed to detect the released cytokines in response to NTHi exposure. Real time quantitative PCR was done to compare the induction of IL-1 alpha or beta-defensin 2 mRNAs and to identify the signaling pathways involved. Direct activation of the beta-defensin 2 promoter was monitored using a beta-defensin 2 promoter-Luciferase construct. An IL-1 alpha blocking antibody was used to demonstrate the direct involvement of this cytokine on DEFB4 induction. Results Middle ear epithelial cells released IL-1 alpha when stimulated by NTHi components and this cytokine acted in an autocrine/paracrine synergistic manner with NTHi to up-regulate beta-defensin 2. This synergistic effect of IL-1 alpha on NTHi-induced beta-defensin 2 up-regulation appeared to be mediated by the p38 MAP kinase pathway. Conclusion We demonstrate that IL-1 alpha is secreted by middle ear epithelial cells upon exposure to NTHi components and that it can synergistically act with certain of these molecules to up-regulate beta-defensin 2 via the p38 MAP kinase pathway.

  10. Structural basis for distinctive recognition of fibrinogen [gamma]C peptide by the platelet integrin [alpha][subscript IIb][beta]3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, Timothy A.; Zhu, Jianghai; Xiao, Tsan (Harvard-Med)

    2009-01-12

    Hemostasis and thrombosis (blood clotting) involve fibrinogen binding to integrin {alpha}{sub IIb}{beta}{sub 3} on platelets, resulting in platelet aggregation. {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} binding fibrinogen via an Arg-Asp-Gly (RGD) motif in fibrinogen's {alpha} subunit. {alpha}{sub IIb}{beta}{sub 3} also binds to fibrinogen; however, it does so via an unstructured RGD-lacking C-terminal region of the {gamma} subunit ({gamma}C peptide). These distinct modes of fibrinogen binding enable {alpha}{sub IIb}{beta}{sub 3} and {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} to function cooperatively in hemostasis. In this study, crystal structures reveal the integrin {alpha}{sub IIb}{beta}{sub 3}-{gamma}C peptide interface, and, for comparison, integrin {alpha}{sub IIb}{beta}{sub 3} bound to a lamprey {gamma}C primordial RGD motif. Compared with RGD, the GAKQAGDV motif in {gamma}C adopts a different backbone configuration and binds over a more extended region. The integrin metal ion-dependent adhesion site (MIDAS) Mg{sup 2+} ion binds the {gamma}C Asp side chain. The adjacent to MIDAS (ADMIDAS) Ca{sup 2+} ion binds the {gamma}C C terminus, revealing a contribution for ADMIDAS in ligand binding. Structural data from this natively disordered {gamma}C peptide enhances our understanding of the involvement of {gamma}C peptide and integrin {alpha}{sub IIb}{beta}{sub 3} in hemostasis and thrombosis.

  11. The implications of particle energy and acidic media on gross alpha and gross beta determination using liquid scintillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapata-Garcia, D. [Laboratori de Radiologia Ambiental (LRA), Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, 1-11 Planta 3, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Llaurado, M., E-mail: montse.llaurado@ub.edu [Laboratori de Radiologia Ambiental (LRA), Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, 1-11 Planta 3, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Rauret, G. [Laboratori de Radiologia Ambiental (LRA), Departament de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques, 1-11 Planta 3, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-04-15

    The interaction of humans with radioactivity present in the environment from natural and artificial sources necessitates an evaluation of its risk on human health. Gross alpha and gross beta activities can provide a rapid evaluation of the radioactive content of a sample and can be simultaneously determined by using liquid scintillation counters. However, calibration of the liquid scintillation counter is required and is affected by many factors, such as particle energy and the acidity of the media. This study investigates what effect the particle energy used for calibration has on misclassification and how to account for this misclassification in routine measurements. The variability in measurement produced by the final pH, as well as any acids used in sample treatment, was also studied. These results showed that the most commonly used acid for these types of analyses, HNO{sub 3}, produced a high amount of misclassifications at very low pH. The results improved when HCl was used to adjust the sample to low pH. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study the effect of alpha and beta energies on PSA optimisation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The optimum PSA shifts to higher values as the alpha energy increases. Beta energies do not affect it. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study the effect of pH on the simultaneous determination of gross alpha/beta activities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HNO{sub 3} produces a high amount of misclassification at very low pH. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The results improve when HCl is used to adjust the sample to low pH.

  12. Identification of three coated vesicle components as alpha- and beta- tubulin linked to a phosphorylated 50,000-dalton polypeptide

    OpenAIRE

    1983-01-01

    Coated vesicles are involved in the intracellular transport of membrane proteins between a variety of membrane compartments. The coats of bovine brain coated vesicles contain at least six polypeptides in addition to an 180,000-dalton polypeptide called clathrin. In this report we show that the 54,000- and 56,000-dalton coated vesicle polypeptides are alpha- and beta-tubulin, determined by immunoblotting and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. An affinity-purified tubulin antiserum can precip...

  13. Differential transcription of multiple forms of alpha-2-macroglobulin in carp (Cyprinus carpio) infected with parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onara, Dalia F; Forlenza, Maria; Gonzalez, Santiago F; Rakus, Krzysztof Ł; Pilarczyk, Andrzej; Irnazarow, Ilgiz; Wiegertjes, Geert F

    2008-01-01

    Alpha-2-macroglobulin (a2M) is a non-specific protease inhibitor involved in host defense mechanisms, inhibiting both endogenous and exogenous proteases. It is unique among the plasma anti-proteases with respect to the diversity of proteases that it can inactivate. Carp a2M consists of an alpha and beta chain of which the first includes the bioactive regions. Previously, three a2M alpha chain sequences were reported for East-Asian common carp. We studied a2M alpha chain variability in European common carp and report the cloning of a fourth a2M alpha chain with distinct sequence diversity in the bait region. The role of a2M in the immune response to parasites was studied in the liver of carp infected with Trypanoplasma borreli or with Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. Quantitative gene transcription analysis showed a differential regulation of the four isoforms, most clearly seen in infections with I. multifiliis. A2M3 was the only a2M isoform with a highly upregulated transcription during infection, suggesting that this particular isoform is of foremost biological importance.

  14. Nonstereogenic alpha-aminoisobutyryl-glycyl dipeptidyl unit nucleates type I' beta-turn in linear peptides in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, Larry R; Etienne, Marcus A; Porcelli, Fernando; Barany, George; Hammer, Robert P; Veglia, Gianluigi

    2007-01-01

    The use of alpha,alpha-disubstituted amino acids represents a valuable strategy to exercise conformational control in peptides. Incorporation of the nonstereogenic alpha-aminoisobutyryl-glycyl (Aib-Gly) dipeptidyl sequence into i+1 and i+2 positions of an acyclic peptide sequence, originally designed and investigated by Gellman and coworkers, [H-Arg-Tyr-Val-Glu-Val-Yyy-Xxx-Orn-Lys-Ile-Leu-Gln-NH2] nucleates a stable [2:4] left-handed type I' beta-turn in water. NMR spectra show that this newly designed beta-hairpin does not aggregate in water up to a concentration of approximately 1 mM, and that its backbone conformation is superimposable on corresponding hairpins containing the DPro-Gly (literature) and Aib-DAla (this work) sequences. The Aib-Gly turn-inducer sequence eliminates complications because of cis-trans isomerization of Zzz-Pro bonds, and constitutes an attractive alternative to the proteogenic Asn-Gly and nonproteogenic DPro-Gly motifs previously suggested as turn-inducer sequences. These design principles could be exploited to prepare water-soluble beta-hairpin peptides with robust structures and novel function. PMID:17427180

  15. Reduced number of alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors in the myocardium of rats exposed to tobacco smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larue, D.; Kato, G.

    1981-04-09

    The concentration of alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors--as measured by specific (/sup 3/H)WB-4101 and (-)-(/sup 3/H)dihydroalprenolol binding--was diminished by 60% below control values in the hearts of rats exposed to tobacco smoke. These changes in receptor numbers took place almost immediately after tobacco smoke exposure and were rapidly reversible after termination of the exposure. The dissociation constant, KD, for (/sup 3/H)WB-4101 was identical in exposed (KD . 0.34 +/- 0.09 nM) and control (KD . 0.35 +/- 0.07 nM) hearts but was significantly different in the case of (-)-(3H)dihydroalprenolol binding (exposed, KD . 2.83 +/- 0.30 mM vs. control KD . 5.22 +/- 0.61 nM). For beta-receptor binding there was no significant difference between exposed and control animals in the Ki values for (-)-epinephrine, (-)-norepinephrine, (-)-alprenolol, (+/-)-propranolol or timolol. (-)-Isoproterenol, however, was found to bind with lower affinity in exposed compared with control hearts. For alpha-receptor binding there was no significant difference between control and 'smoked' animals in the Ki values for (-)-epinephrine, (-0)-norepinephrine or phentolamine. The decrease in alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptor concentration may be related to the phenomenon of receptor desensitization resulting from a release of catecholamines in rats exposed to tobacco smoke.

  16. Lycopene is a more potent inhibitor of human cancer cell proliferation than either alpha-carotene or beta-carotene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, J; Bosin, E; Feldman, B; Giat, Y; Miinster, A; Danilenko, M; Sharoni, Y

    1995-01-01

    The antiproliferative properties of lycopene, the major tomato carotenoid, were compared with those of alpha- and beta-carotene. Lycopene, delivered in cell culture medium from stock solutions in tetrahydrofuran, strongly inhibited proliferation of endometrial (Ishikawa), mammary (MCF-7), and lung (NCI-H226) human cancer cells with half-maximal inhibitory concentration of 1-2 microM; alpha- and beta-carotene were far less effective inhibitors. For example, in Ishikawa cells, a 4-fold higher concentration of alpha-carotene or a 10-fold higher concentration of beta-carotene was needed for the same order of growth suppression. The inhibitory effect of lycopene was detected after 24 hours of incubation, and it was maintained for at least three days. In contrast to cancer cells, human fibroblasts were less sensitive to lycopene, and the cells gradually escaped growth inhibition over time. In addition to its inhibitory effect on basal endometrial cancer cell proliferation, lycopene also suppressed insulin-like growth factor-I-stimulated growth. Insulin-like growth factors are major autocrine/paracrine regulators of mammary and endometrial cancer cell growth. Therefore, lycopene interference in this major autocrine/paracrine system may open new avenues for research on the role of lycopene in the regulation of endometrial cancer and other tumors. PMID:8610045

  17. Systematic determination of the peptide acceptor preferences for the human UDP-Gal:glycoprotein-alpha-GalNAc beta 3 galactosyltransferase (T-synthase).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrine, Cynthia; Ju, Tongzhong; Cummings, Richard D; Gerken, Thomas A

    2009-03-01

    Mucin-type protein O-glycosylation is initiated by the addition of alpha-GalNAc to Ser/Thr residues of a polypeptide chain. The addition of beta-Gal to GalNAc by the UDP-Gal:glycoprotein-alpha-GalNAc beta 3 galactosyltransferase (T-synthase), forming the Core 1 structure (beta-Gal(1-3)-alpha-GalNAc-O-Ser/Thr), is a common and biologically significant subsequent step in O-glycan biosynthesis. What dictates the sites of Core 1 glycosylation is poorly understood; however, the peptide sequence and neighboring glycosylation effects have been implicated. To systematically address the role of the peptide sequence on the specificity of T-synthase, we used the oriented random glycopeptide: GAGAXXXX(T-O-GalNAc)XXXXAGAG (where X = G, A, P, V, I, F, Y, S, N, D, E, H, R, and K) as a substrate. The Core 1 glycosylated product was isolated on immobilized PNA (Arachis hypogaea) lectin and its composition determined by Edman amino acid sequencing for comparison with the initial substrate composition, from which transferase preferences were obtained. From these studies, elevated preferences for Gly at the +1 position with moderately high preferences for Phe and Tyr in the +3 position relative to the acceptor Thr-O-GalNAc were found. A number of smaller Pro enhancements were also observed. Basic residues, i.e., Lys, Arg, and His, in any position were disfavored, suggesting electrostatic interactions as an additional important component modulating transferase specificity. This work suggests that there are indeed subtle specific and nonspecific protein-targeting sequence motifs for this transferase.

  18. Mapping of the {alpha}{sub 4} subunit gene (GABRA4) to human chromosome 4 defines an {alpha}{sub 2}-{alpha}{sub 4}-{beta}{sub 1}-{gamma}{sub 1} gene cluster: Further evidence that modern GABA{sub a} receptor gene clusters are derived from an ancestral cluster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLean, P.J.; Farb, D.H.; Russek, S.J. [Boston Univ. School of Medicine, MA (United States)] [and others

    1995-04-10

    We demonstrated previously that an {alpha}{sub 1}-{beta}{sub 2}-{gamma}{sub 2} gene cluster of the {gamma}-aminobutyric acid (GABA{sub A}) receptor is located on human chromosome 5q34-q35 and that an ancestral {alpha}-{beta}-{gamma} gene cluster probably spawned clusters on chromosomes 4, 5, and 15. Here, we report that the {alpha}{sub 4} gene (GABRA4) maps to human chromosome 4p14-q12, defining a cluster comprising the {alpha}{sub 2}, {alpha}{sub 4}, {beta}{sub 1}, and {gamma}{sub 1} genes. The existence of an {alpha}{sub 2}-{alpha}{sub 4}-{beta}{sub 1}-{gamma}{sub 2} cluster on chromosome 4 and an {alpha}{sub 1}-{alpha}{sub 6}-{beta}{sub 2}-{gamma}{sub 2} cluster on chromosome 5 provides further evidence that the number of ancestral GABA{sub A} receptor subunit genes has been expanded by duplication within an ancestral gene cluster. Moreover, if duplication of the {alpha} gene occurred before duplication of the ancestral gene cluster, then a heretofore undiscovered subtype of a subunit should be located on human chromosome 15q11-q13 within an {alpha}{sub 5}-{alpha}{sub x}-{beta}{sub 3}-{gamma}{sub 3} gene cluster at the locus for Angelman and Prader-Willi syndromes. 34 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Micro-mechanical modeling of alpha/beta two-phased titanium alloy behaviour; Modelisation micromecanique du comportement d`un alliage de titane biphase {alpha}/{beta}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feaugas, X.; Clavel, M. [Universite de Technologie de Compiegne, 60 (France); Pilvin, P. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines, 91 - Evry (France). Centre des Materiaux

    1996-12-31

    In order to better describe the mechanical behaviour of the Ti-6246 alloy, a two-phase material where the alpha phase inelastic behaviour is strongly anisotropic, a micro-mechanical approach has been developed to consider the various heterogeneity levels and the role of the various internal stresses induced by its heterogenous character. Among the simulation results, it is shown that the cyclic softening (or over-softening) is not only the consequence of a reduction of transgranular internal stresses (multiplication of the number of slip bands in the alpha phase) but is also related to the inter-cellular-type internal stress redistribution. (A.B.). 24 refs.

  20. Development of Rapid Radiochemical Method for Gross Alpha and Gross Beta Activity Concentration in Flowback and Produced Waters from Hydraulic Fracturing Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report summarizes the development and validation of an improved method for the Determination of Gross Alpha and Gross Beta Activity in Flowback and Produced Waters from Hydraulic Fracturing Operations (FPWHFO). Flowback and produced waters are characterized by high concentra...

  1. A revised model for AMP-activated protein kinase structure: The alpha-subunit binds to both the beta- and gamma-subunits although there is no direct binding between the beta- and gamma-subunits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kelly A; Lodish, Harvey F

    2006-11-24

    The 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a master sensor for cellular metabolic energy state. It is activated by a high AMP/ATP ratio and leads to metabolic changes that conserve energy and utilize alternative cellular fuel sources. The kinase is composed of a heterotrimeric protein complex containing a catalytic alpha-subunit, an AMP-binding gamma-subunit, and a scaffolding beta-subunit thought to bind directly both the alpha- and gamma-subunits. Here, we use coimmunoprecipitation of proteins in transiently transfected cells to show that the alpha2-subunit binds directly not only to the beta-subunit, confirming previous work, but also to the gamma1-subunit. Deletion analysis of the alpha2-subunit reveals that the C-terminal 386-552 residues are sufficient to bind to the beta-subunit. The gamma1-subunit binds directly to the alpha2-subunit at two interaction sites, one within the catalytic domain consisting of alpha2 amino acids 1-312 and a second within residues 386-552. Binding of the alpha2 and the gamma1-subunits was not affected by 400 mum AMP or ATP. Furthermore, we show that the beta-subunit C terminus is essential for binding to the alpha2-subunit but, in contrast to previous work, the beta-subunit does not bind directly to the gamma1-subunit. Taken together, this study presents a new model for AMPK heterotrimer structure where through its C terminus the beta-subunit binds to the alpha-subunit that, in turn, binds to the gamma-subunit. There is no direct interaction between the beta- and gamma-subunits.

  2. Direct interaction of the kringle domain of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and integrin alpha v beta 3 induces signal transduction and enhances plasminogen activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarui, Takehiko; Akakura, Nobuaki; Majumdar, Mousumi; Andronicos, Nicholas; Takagi, Junichi; Mazar, Andrew P; Bdeir, Khalil; Kuo, Alice; Yarovoi, Serge V; Cines, Douglas B; Takada, Yoshikazu

    2006-03-01

    It has been questioned whether there are receptors for urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) that facilitate plasminogen activation other than the high affinity uPA receptor (uPAR/CD87) since studies of uPAR knockout mice did not support a major role of uPAR in plasminogen activation. uPA also promotes cell adhesion, chemotaxis, and proliferation besides plasminogen activation. These uPA-induced signaling events are not mediated by uPAR, but mediated by unidentified, lower-affinity receptors for the uPA kringle. We found that uPA binds specifically to integrin alpha v beta 3 on CHO cells depleted of uPAR. The binding of uPA to alpha v beta 3 required the uPA kringle domain. The isolated uPA kringle domain binds specifically to purified, recombinant soluble, and cell surface alpha v beta 3, and other integrins (alpha 4 beta 1 and alpha 9 beta 1), and induced migration of CHO cells in an alpha v beta 3-dependent manner. The binding of the uPA kringle to alpha v beta 3 and uPA kringle-induced alpha v beta 3-dependent cell migration were blocked by homologous plasminogen kringles 1-3 or 1-4 (angiostatin), a known integrin antagonist. We studied whether the binding of uPA to integrin alpha v beta 3 through the kringle domain plays a role in plasminogen activation. On CHO cell depleted of uPAR, uPA enhanced plasminogen activation in a kringle and alpha v beta 3-dependent manner. Endothelial cells bound to and migrated on uPA and uPA kringle in an alpha v beta 3-dependent manner. These results suggest that uPA binding to integrins through the kringle domain plays an important role in both plasminogen activation and uPA-induced intracellular signaling. The uPA kringle-integrin interaction may represent a novel therapeutic target for cancer, inflammation, and vascular remodeling. PMID:16525582

  3. Rhodocytin (aggretin) activates platelets lacking alpha(2)beta(1) integrin, glycoprotein VI, and the ligand-binding domain of glycoprotein Ibalpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergmeier, W; Bouvard, D; Eble, J A;

    2001-01-01

    Although alpha(2)beta(1) integrin (glycoprotein Ia/IIa) has been established as a platelet collagen receptor, its role in collagen-induced platelet activation has been controversial. Recently, it has been demonstrated that rhodocytin (also termed aggretin), a snake venom toxin purified from...... that collagen may activate platelets by a similar mechanism. In contrast to these findings, we provided evidence that rhodocytin does not bind to alpha(2)beta(1) integrin. Here we show that the Cre/loxP-mediated loss of beta(1) integrin on mouse platelets has no effect on rhodocytin-induced platelet activation......, excluding an essential role of alpha(2)beta(1) integrin in this process. Furthermore, proteolytic cleavage of the 45-kDa N-terminal domain of glycoprotein (GP) Ibalpha either on normal or on beta(1)-null platelets had no significant effect on rhodocytin-induced platelet activation. Moreover, mouse platelets...

  4. How to find soluble proteins: a comprehensive analysis of alpha/beta hydrolases for recombinant expression in E. coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barth Sandra

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In screening of libraries derived by expression cloning, expression of active proteins in E. coli can be limited by formation of inclusion bodies. In these cases it would be desirable to enrich gene libraries for coding sequences with soluble gene products in E. coli and thus to improve the efficiency of screening. Previously Wilkinson and Harrison showed that solubility can be predicted from amino acid composition (Biotechnology 1991, 9(5:443–448. We have applied this analysis to members of the alpha/beta hydrolase fold family to predict their solubility in E. coli. alpha/beta hydrolases are a highly diverse family with more than 1800 proteins which have been grouped into homologous families and superfamilies. Results The predicted solubility in E. coli depends on hydrolase size, phylogenetic origin of the host organism, the homologous family and the superfamily, to which the hydrolase belongs. In general small hydrolases are predicted to be more soluble than large hydrolases, and eukaryotic hydrolases are predicted to be less soluble in E. coli than prokaryotic ones. However, combining phylogenetic origin and size leads to more complex conclusions. Hydrolases from prokaryotic, fungal and metazoan origin are predicted to be most soluble if they are of small, medium and large size, respectively. We observed large variations of predicted solubility between hydrolases from different homologous families and from different taxa. Conclusion A comprehensive analysis of all alpha/beta hydrolase sequences allows more efficient screenings for new soluble alpha/beta hydrolases by the use of libraries which contain more soluble gene products. Screening of hydrolases from families whose members are hard to express as soluble proteins in E. coli should first be done in coding sequences of organisms from phylogenetic groups with the highest average of predicted solubility for proteins of this family. The tools developed here can be used

  5. Alpha beta-crystallin expression and presentation following infection with murine gammaherpesvirus 68

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Vinita S.; Nelson, Daniel A.; Marriott, Ian; Bost, Kenneth L.

    2014-01-01

    Alpha beta-crystallin (CRYAB) is a small heat shock protein that can function as a molecular chaperone and has protective effects for cells undergoing a variety of stressors. Surprisingly, CRYAB has been identified as one of the dominant autoantigens in multiple sclerosis. It has been suggested that autoimmune mediated destruction of this small heat shock protein may limit its protective effects, thereby exacerbating inflammation and cellular damage during multiple sclerosis. It is not altogether clear how autoimmunity against CRYAB might develop, or whether there are environmental factors which might facilitate the presentation of this autoantigen to CD4+ T lymphocytes. In the present study, we utilized an animal model of an Epstein Barr Virus (EBV)-like infection, murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (HV-68), to question whether such a virus could modulate the expression of CRYAB by antigen presenting cells. Following exposure to HV-68 and several other stimuli, in vitro secretion of CRYAB and subsequent intracellular accumulation were observed in cultured macrophages and dendritic cells. Following infection of mice with this virus, it was possible to track CRYAB expression in the spleen and in antigen presenting cell subpopulations, as well as its secretion into the blood. Mice immunized with human CRYAB mounted a significant immune response against this heat shock protein. Further, dendritic cells that were exposed to HV-68 could stimulate CD4+ T cells from CRYAB immunized mice to secrete interferon gamma. Taken together these studies are consistent with the notion of a gammaherpesvirus-induced CRYAB response in professional antigen presenting cells in this mouse model. PMID:23586607

  6. Physical consequences of the alpha/beta rule which accurately calculates particle masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the fine structure constant α (=1/137.036), the proton vs. electron mass ratio β (= 1836.2) and the integers m and n, the α/β rule: mparticle = α-n x β m x 27.2 eV/c2 allows almost exact calculation of particle masses. (K.O.Greulich, DPG Spring meeting 2014, Mainz, T99.4) With n=2, m=0 the electron mass becomes 510.79 keV/c2 (experimental 511 keV/c2) With n=2, m=1 the proton mass is 937.9 MeV/c2 (literature 938.3 MeV/c2). For n=3 and m=1 a particle with 128.6 GeV/c2 close to the reported Higgs mass, is expected. For n=14 and m=-1 the Planck mass results. The calculated masses for gauge bosons and for quarks have similar accuracy. All masses fit into the same scheme (the alpha/beta rule), indicating that non of these particle masses play an extraordinary role. Particularly, the Higgs Boson, often termed the *God particle* plays in this sense no extraordinary role. In addition, particle masses are intimately correlated with the fine structure constant α. If particle masses have been constant over all times, α must have been constant over these times. In addition, the ionization energy of the hydrogen atom (13.6 eV) needs to have been constant if particle masses have been unchanged or vice versa. In conclusion, the α/β rule needs to be taken into account when cosmological models are developed.

  7. Category-specific visual responses: an intracranial study comparing gamma, beta, alpha and ERP response selectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan R Vidal

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The specificity of neural responses to visual objects is a major topic in visual neuroscience. In humans, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI studies have identified several regions of the occipital and temporal lobe that appear specific to faces, letter-strings, scenes, or tools. Direct electrophysiological recordings in the visual cortical areas of epileptic patients have largely confirmed this modular organization, using either single-neuron peri-stimulus time-histogram or intracerebral event-related potentials (iERP. In parallel, a new research stream has emerged using high-frequency gamma-band activity (50-150 Hz (GBR and low-frequency alpha/beta activity (8-24 Hz (ABR to map functional networks in humans. An obvious question is now whether the functional organization of the visual cortex revealed by fMRI, ERP, GBR, and ABR coincide. We used direct intracerebral recordings in 18 epileptic patients to directly compare GBR, ABR, and ERP elicited by the presentation of seven major visual object categories (faces, scenes, houses, consonants, pseudowords, tools, and animals, in relation to previous fMRI studies. Remarkably both GBR and iERP showed strong category-specificity that was in many cases sufficient to infer stimulus object category from the neural response at single-trial level. However, we also found a strong discrepancy between the selectivity of GBR, ABR, and ERP with less than 10% of spatial overlap between sites eliciting the same category-specificity. Overall, we found that selective neural responses to visual objects were broadly distributed in the brain with a prominent spatial cluster located in the posterior temporal cortex. Moreover, the different neural markers (GBR, ABR, and iERP that elicit selectivity towards specific visual object categories present little spatial overlap suggesting that the information content of each marker can uniquely characterize high-level visual information in the brain.

  8. Physical consequences of the alpha/beta rule which accurately calculates particle masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greulich, Karl Otto [Fritz Lipmann Institute, Beutenbergstr.11, D07745 Jena (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Using the fine structure constant α (=1/137.036), the proton vs. electron mass ratio β (= 1836.2) and the integers m and n, the α/β rule: m{sub particle} = α{sup -n} x β m x 27.2 eV/c{sup 2} allows almost exact calculation of particle masses. (K.O.Greulich, DPG Spring meeting 2014, Mainz, T99.4) With n=2, m=0 the electron mass becomes 510.79 keV/c{sup 2} (experimental 511 keV/c{sup 2}) With n=2, m=1 the proton mass is 937.9 MeV/c{sup 2} (literature 938.3 MeV/c{sup 2}). For n=3 and m=1 a particle with 128.6 GeV/c{sup 2} close to the reported Higgs mass, is expected. For n=14 and m=-1 the Planck mass results. The calculated masses for gauge bosons and for quarks have similar accuracy. All masses fit into the same scheme (the alpha/beta rule), indicating that non of these particle masses play an extraordinary role. Particularly, the Higgs Boson, often termed the *God particle* plays in this sense no extraordinary role. In addition, particle masses are intimately correlated with the fine structure constant α. If particle masses have been constant over all times, α must have been constant over these times. In addition, the ionization energy of the hydrogen atom (13.6 eV) needs to have been constant if particle masses have been unchanged or vice versa. In conclusion, the α/β rule needs to be taken into account when cosmological models are developed.

  9. An application of LSC method for the measurement of gross alpha and beta activities in spiked water and drinking water samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çakal Gaye Özgür

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, after the pulse shape calibration of a liquid scintillation counting (LSC spectrometer (Quantulus 1220, the effi ciency was determined depending on sample quenching parameters. Then, gross alpha and beta activities in two spiked water samples obtained from International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA were used for the validation of the ASTM D7283-06 method, which is a standard test method for alpha and beta activity in water by LSC. Later, the drinking water samples (35 tap water and 9 bottled water obtained from different districts of Ankara, Turkey, were measured. The maximum gross alpha activities are measured to be 0.08 Bq/L for tap waters and 0.13 Bq/L for bottled waters, whereas the maximum gross beta activities are found to be 0.18 Bq/L for tap waters and 0.16 Bq/L for bottled waters. These results indicate that these drinking water samples are below the required limits, which are 0.1 Bq/L for alpha emitting radionuclides and 1 Bq/L for beta emitting radionuclides. As a result, gross alpha and beta activities in drinking water of Ankara were determined accurately by this validated LSC method. It is also worth noting that LSC is a rapid and accurate method for the determination of gross alpha and beta activities without requiring a tedious sample preparation.

  10. Ternary and quaternary (liquid + liquid) equilibria for (water + ethanol + {alpha}-pinene, +{beta}-pinene, or +limonene) and (water + ethanol + {alpha}-pinene + limonene) at the temperature 298.15 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Hengde [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Division of Material Engineering and Material Sciences, Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan); Tamura, Kazuhiro [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Division of Material Engineering and Material Sciences, Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan)]. E-mail: tamura@t.kanazawa-u.ac.jp

    2006-08-15

    (Liquid + liquid) equilibria and tie-lines for the ternary (water + ethanol + {alpha}-pinene, or {beta}-pinene or limonene) and quaternary (water + ethanol + {alpha}-pinene + limonene) mixtures have been measured at T = 298.15 K. The experimental multicomponent (liquid + liquid) equilibrium data have been successfully represented in terms of the modified UNIQUAC model with binary parameters.

  11. Toxin a from Clostridium difficile binds to rabbit erythrocyte glycolipids with therminal Gal. cap alpha. 1-3Gal. beta. 1-4GlcNaC sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, G.F.; Krivan, H.; Wilkins, T.; Smith, D.F.

    1987-05-01

    Toxin A is one of two clostridial toxins implicated as the causative agent of pseudomembranous colitis in patients undergoing postoperative antibiotic therapy. Evidence that the carbohydrate binding determinant for this toxin is a glycoconjugate(s) with non-reducing Gal..cap alpha..1-3Gal..beta..1-4GlcNAc has recently been reported. Specific agglutination of rabbit erythrocytes by Toxin A is inhibited by bovine thyroglobulin and prevented by pretreatment of cells with ..cap alpha..-galactosidase. Total lipid extracts from rabbit erythrocytes were subjected to thin layer chromatography and the chromatogram overlaid with purified /sup 125/I-labeled Toxin A. Two major and several minor toxin-binding glycolipids were detected following autoradiography. The major toxin-binding glycolipids were identified as pentasaccharide- and decasaccharide-ceramides expressing terminal Gal..cap alpha..1-3Gal..beta..1-4GlcNAc sequences. Treatment of the toxin-binding glycolipids with ..cap alpha..-galactosidase abolished binding. Forsmann glycolipid, globoside, Gal..cap alpha..1-4 Gal..beta..1-4Glc-cer, and Gal..cap alpha..1-3Gal..beta..1-4Glc-cer did not bind the toxin. These observations are consistent with the proposed carbohydrate specificity of the toxin for the non-reducing terminal sequence, Gal..cap alpha..1-3Gal..beta..1-4GlcNAc.

  12. [beta subsccript 2]-microglobulin forms three-dimensional domain-swapped amyloid fibrils with disulfide linkages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Cong; Sawaya, Michael R.; Eisenberg, David (UCLA)

    2011-08-09

    {beta}{sub 2}-microglobulin ({beta}{sub 2}-m) is the light chain of the type I major histocompatibility complex. It deposits as amyloid fibrils within joints during long-term hemodialysis treatment. Despite the devastating effects of dialysis-related amyloidosis, full understanding of how fibrils form from soluble {beta}{sub 2}-m remains elusive. Here we show that {beta}{sub 2}-m can oligomerize and fibrillize via three-dimensional domain swapping. Isolating a covalently bound, domain-swapped dimer from {beta}{sub 2}-m oligomers on the pathway to fibrils, we were able to determine its crystal structure. The hinge loop that connects the swapped domain to the core domain includes the fibrillizing segment LSFSKD, whose atomic structure we also determined. The LSFSKD structure reveals a class 5 steric zipper, akin to other amyloid spines. The structures of the dimer and the zipper spine fit well into an atomic model for this fibrillar form of {beta}{sub 2}-m, which assembles slowly under physiological conditions.

  13. Biosynthesis of monoterpenes. Stereochemistry of the enzymatic cyclizations of geranyl pyrophosphate to (+)-alpha-pinene and (-)-beta-pinene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croteau, R.; Satterwhite, D.M.; Wheeler, C.J.; Felton, N.M.

    1989-02-05

    The conversion of geranyl pyrophosphate to (+)-alpha-pinene and to (-)-beta-pinene is considered to proceed by the initial isomerization of the substrate to (-)-(3R)- and to (+)-(3S)-linalyl pyrophosphate, respectively, and the subsequent cyclization of the anti, endo-conformer of these bound intermediates by mirror-image sequences which should result in the net retention of configuration at C1 of the geranyl precursor. Incubation of (1R)-(2-14C,1-3H)- and (1S)-(2-14C,1-3H)geranyl pyrophosphate with (+)-pinene cyclase and with (-)-pinene cyclase from common sage (Salvia officinalis) gave labeled (+)-alpha- and (-)-beta-pinene of unchanged 3H/14C ratio in all cases, and the (+)- and (-)-olefins were stereoselectively converted to (+)- and (-)-borneol, respectively, which were oxidized to the corresponding (+)- and (-)-isomers of camphor, again without change in isotope ratio. The location of the tritium was determined in each case by stereoselective, base-catalyzed exchange of the exo-alpha-hydrogens of these derived ketones. The results indicated that the configuration at C1 of the substrate was retained in the enzymatic transformations to the (+)- and (-)-pinenes, which is entirely consistent with the syn-isomerization of geranyl pyrophosphate to linalyl pyrophosphate, transoid to cisoid rotation, and anti, endo-cyclization of the latter. The absolute stereochemical elements of the antipodal reaction sequences were confirmed by the selective enzymatic conversions of (3R)- and (3S)-1Z-(1-3H)linalyl pyrophosphate to (+)-alpha-pinene and (-)-beta-pinene, respectively, and by the location of the tritium in the derived camphors as before. The summation of the results fully defines the overall stereochemistry of the coupled isomerization and cyclization of geranyl pyrophosphate to the antipodal pinenes.

  14. Biosynthesis of monoterpenes. Stereochemistry of the enzymatic cyclizations of geranyl pyrophosphate to (+)-alpha-pinene and (-)-beta-pinene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conversion of geranyl pyrophosphate to (+)-alpha-pinene and to (-)-beta-pinene is considered to proceed by the initial isomerization of the substrate to (-)-(3R)- and to (+)-(3S)-linalyl pyrophosphate, respectively, and the subsequent cyclization of the anti, endo-conformer of these bound intermediates by mirror-image sequences which should result in the net retention of configuration at C1 of the geranyl precursor. Incubation of (1R)-[2-14C,1-3H]- and (1S)-[2-14C,1-3H]geranyl pyrophosphate with (+)-pinene cyclase and with (-)-pinene cyclase from common sage (Salvia officinalis) gave labeled (+)-alpha- and (-)-beta-pinene of unchanged 3H/14C ratio in all cases, and the (+)- and (-)-olefins were stereoselectively converted to (+)- and (-)-borneol, respectively, which were oxidized to the corresponding (+)- and (-)-isomers of camphor, again without change in isotope ratio. The location of the tritium was determined in each case by stereoselective, base-catalyzed exchange of the exo-alpha-hydrogens of these derived ketones. The results indicated that the configuration at C1 of the substrate was retained in the enzymatic transformations to the (+)- and (-)-pinenes, which is entirely consistent with the syn-isomerization of geranyl pyrophosphate to linalyl pyrophosphate, transoid to cisoid rotation, and anti, endo-cyclization of the latter. The absolute stereochemical elements of the antipodal reaction sequences were confirmed by the selective enzymatic conversions of (3R)- and (3S)-1Z-[1-3H]linalyl pyrophosphate to (+)-alpha-pinene and (-)-beta-pinene, respectively, and by the location of the tritium in the derived camphors as before. The summation of the results fully defines the overall stereochemistry of the coupled isomerization and cyclization of geranyl pyrophosphate to the antipodal pinenes

  15. Protein kinase CK2: evidence for a protein kinase CK2beta subunit fraction, devoid of the catalytic CK2alpha subunit, in mouse brain and testicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerra, B; Siemer, S; Boldyreff, B;

    1999-01-01

    The highest CK2 activity was found in mouse testicles and brain, followed by spleen, liver, lung, kidney and heart. The activity values were directly correlated with the protein expression level of the CK2 subunits alpha (catalytic) and beta (regulatory). The alpha' subunit was only detected...... found for testicles and brain. The amount of CK2beta protein in brain in comparison to the other organs (except testicles) was estimated to be ca. 2-3-fold higher whereas the ratio of CK2beta between testicles and brain was estimated to be 3-4-fold. Results from the immunoprecipitation experiments...... support the notion for the existence of free CK2beta population and/or CK2beta in complex with other protein(s) present in brain and testicles. In all other mouse organs investigated, i.e. heart, lung, liver, kidney and spleen, no comparable amount of free CK2beta was observed. This is the first...

  16. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): Bivariate functions of H$\\alpha$ star forming galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Gunawardhana, M L P; Taylor, E N; Bland-Hawthorn, J; Norberg, P; Baldry, I K; Loveday, J; Owers, M S; Wilkins, S M; Colless, M; Brown, M J I; Driver, S P; Alpaslan, M; Brough, S; Cluver, M; Croom, S; Kelvin, L; Lara-López, M A; Liske, J; López-Sánchez, A R; Robotham, A S G

    2014-01-01

    We present bivariate luminosity and stellar mass functions of H$\\alpha$ star forming galaxies drawn from the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey. While optically deep spectroscopic observations of GAMA over a wide sky area enable the detection of a large number of $0.001<{SFR}_{H\\alpha}$ (M$_{\\odot}$ yr$^{-1}$)$<100$ galaxies, the requirement for an H$\\alpha$ detection in targets selected from an $r$-band magnitude limited survey leads to an incompleteness due to missing optically faint star forming galaxies. Using $z<0.1$ bivariate distributions as a reference we model the higher-$z$ distributions, thereby approximating a correction for the missing optically faint star forming galaxies to the local SFR and stellar mass densities. Furthermore, we obtain the $r$-band LFs and stellar mass functions of H$\\alpha$ star forming galaxies from the bivariate LFs. As our sample is selected on the basis of detected H$\\alpha$ emission, a direct tracer of on-going star formation, this sample represents a true ...

  17. Peculiarities of high-temperature. beta. -phase formation during rapid heating of titanium-molybdenum alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gridnev, V.N.; Zhuravlev, A.F.; Zhuravlev, B.F.; Ivasishin, O.M.; Oshkaderov, S.P. (AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev. Inst. Metallofiziki)

    1983-11-01

    In the framework of the diffusion mechanism of ..cap alpha..+..beta.. ..-->.. ..beta.. transformation the model for calculating interface location determining the degree of transformation and concentration of the formed ..beta..-phase during continuous heating under different rates in titanium alloys with ..beta..-isomorphous alloying elements is suggested. On the example of Ti-10% Mo alloy the comparison of calculation and experimental results of determining parameters of ..cap alpha..+..beta.. ..-->.. ..beta.. transformation is performed.

  18. A highly conserved phenylalanine in the alpha, beta-T cell receptor (TCR) constant region determines the integrity of TCR/CD3 complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caspar-Bauguil, S; Arnaud, J; Huchenq, A;

    1994-01-01

    In the present study, we have investigated the importance of a phenylalanine (phe195) in the Tcr-C alpha region on Tcr-alpha,beta/CD3 membrane expression. An exchange of phe195 with a tyrosine residue does not affect Tcr/CD3 membrane expression; however, exchange with aspartic acid, histidine...

  19. Binding of receptor-recognized forms of alpha2-macroglobulin to the alpha2-macroglobulin signaling receptor activates phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, U K; Pizzo, S V

    1998-05-29

    Ligation of the alpha2-macroglobulin (alpha2M) signaling receptor by receptor-recognized forms of alpha2M (alpha2M*) initiates mitogenesis secondary to increased intracellular Ca2+. We report here that ligation of the alpha2M signaling receptor also causes a 1. 5-2.5-fold increase in wortmannin-sensitive phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activity as measured by the quantitation of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3). PIP3 formation was alpha2M* concentration-dependent with a maximal response at approximately 50 pM ligand concentration. The peak formation of PIP3 occurred at 10 min of incubation. The alpha2M receptor binding fragment mutant K1370R which binds to the alpha2M signaling receptor activating the signaling cascade, increased PIP3 formation by 2-fold. The mutant K1374A, which binds very poorly to the alpha2M signaling receptor, did not cause any increase in PIP3 formation. alpha2M*-induced DNA synthesis was inhibited by wortmannin. 1, 2Bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acetoxymethylester a chelator of intracellular Ca2+, drastically reduced alpha2M*-induced increases in PIP3 formation. We conclude that PI3K is involved in alpha2M*-induced mitogenesis in macrophages and intracellular Ca2+ plays a role in PI3K activation. PMID:9593670

  20. D-Ribulose 5-Phosphate 3-Epimerase: Functional and Structural Relationships to Members of the Ribulose-Phosphate Binding (beta/alpha)8-Barrel Superfamily

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akana,J.; Federov, A.; Federov, E.; Novak, W.; Babbitt, P.; Almo, S.; Gerlt, J.

    2006-01-01

    The 'ribulose phosphate binding' superfamily defined by the Structural Classification of Proteins (SCOP) database is considered the result of divergent evolution from a common ({beta}/{alpha}){sub 8}-barrel ancestor. The superfamily includes D-ribulose 5-phosphate 3-epimerase (RPE), orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (OMPDC), and 3-keto-L-gulonate 6-phosphate decarboxylase (KGPDC), members of the OMPDC suprafamily, as well as enzymes involved in histidine and tryptophan biosynthesis that utilize phosphorylated metabolites as substrates. We now report studies of the functional and structural relationships of RPE to the members of the superfamily. As suggested by the results of crystallographic studies of the RPEs from rice and Plasmodium falciparum, the RPE from Streptococcus pyogenes is activated by Zn{sup 2+} which binds with a stoichiometry of one ion per polypeptide. Although wild type RPE has a high affinity for Zn{sup 2+} and inactive apoenzyme cannot be prepared, the affinity for Zn{sup 2+} is decreased by alanine substitutions for the two histidine residues that coordinate the Zn{sup 2+} ion (H34A and H67A); these mutant proteins can be prepared in an inactive, metal-free form and activated by exogenous Zn{sup 2+}. The crystal structure of the RPE was solved at 1.8 Angstroms resolution in the presence of D-xylitol 5-phosphate, an inert analogue of the D-xylulose 5-phosphate substrate. This structure suggests that the 2,3-enediolate intermediate in the 1,1-proton transfer reaction is stabilized by bidentate coordination to the Zn{sup 2+} that also is liganded to His 34, Asp 36, His 67, and Asp 176; the carboxylate groups of the Asp residues are positioned also to function as the acid/base catalysts. Although the conformation of the bound analogue resembles those of ligands bound in the active sites of OMPDC and KGPDC, the identities of the active site residues that coordinate the essential Zn{sup 2+} and participate as acid/base catalysts

  1. Enzymatic synthesis of enantiopure alpha- and beta-amino acids by phenylalanine aminomutase-catalysed amination of cinnamic acid derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bian; Szymanski, Wiktor; Wietzes, Piet; de Wildeman, Stefaan; Poelarends, Gerrit J; Feringa, Ben L; Janssen, Dick B

    2009-01-26

    The phenylalanine aminomutase (PAM) from Taxus chinensis catalyses the conversion of alpha-phenylalanine to beta-phenylalanine, an important step in the biosynthesis of the N-benzoyl phenylisoserinoyl side-chain of the anticancer drug taxol. Mechanistic studies on PAM have suggested that (E)-cinnamic acid is an intermediate in the mutase reaction and that it can be released from the enzyme's active site. Here we describe a novel synthetic strategy that is based on the finding that ring-substituted (E)-cinnamic acids can serve as a substrate in PAM-catalysed ammonia addition reactions for the biocatalytic production of several important beta-amino acids. The enzyme has a broad substrate range and a high enantioselectivity with cinnamic acid derivatives; this allows the synthesis of several non-natural aromatic alpha- and beta-amino acids in excellent enantiomeric excess (ee >99 %). The internal 5-methylene-3,5-dihydroimidazol-4-one (MIO) cofactor is essential for the PAM-catalysed amination reactions. The regioselectivity of amination reactions was influenced by the nature of the ring substituent.

  2. Synthesis and biological evaluation of two new radiolabelled estrogens: [{sup 125}I](E)-3-methoxy-17{alpha}-iodovinylestra-1,3,5(10),6-tetraen-17{beta}-o= l and [{sup 125}I](Z)-3-methoxy-17{alpha}-iodovinylestra-1,3,5(10),6-tetraen-17{beta}-o= l

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo e Silva, M.C.M. Cristina; Patricio, Luciana E-mail: lucianap@itn1.itn.pt; Gano, Lurdes; Sa e Melo, M. Luisa; Inohae, Eiko; Mataka, Shuntaro; Thiemann, Thies

    2001-02-01

    The synthesis of two novel radiolabelled estrogen derivatives, [{sup 125}I](E)-3-methoxy-17{alpha}-iodovinylestra-1,3,5(10),6-tetraen-17{beta}-o= l (E[{sup 125}I]IVDE) and [{sup 125}I](Z)-3-methoxy-17{alpha}-iodovinylestra-1,3,5(10),6-tetraen-17{beta}-o= l (Z[{sup 125}I]IVDE), was carried out aiming to study the influence of the introduction of a C6-C7 double bond on the biological properties of the estradiol molecule. 3-Methoxyestra-1,3,5(10),6-tetraen-17-one was synthesised starting from a suitably protected estrone and subsequently converted into the 17{alpha}-ethynyl derivative. The radioiodinated derivatives were stereoselectively formed by radioiododestannylation of the corresponding tributylstannyl precursors. The biodistribution of the novel [{sup 125}I]iodovinylestradiol derivatives was evaluated in immature female mice. Biological data indicated that the Z-isomer, owing to its higher in vivo uptake by the target tissue, has the preferable configuration for further development of similar compounds for estrogen receptor detection.

  3. Bovine colostrum CMP-NeuAc:Gal beta(1-->4)GlcNAc-R alpha(2-->6)-sialyltransferase is involved in the synthesis of the terminal NeuAc alpha(2-->6)GalNAc beta(1-->4)GlcNAc sequence occurring on N-linked glycans of bovine milk glycoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemansky, M; Van den Eijnden, D H

    1992-01-01

    Bovine colostrum CMP-NeuAc:Gal beta(-->4)GlcNAc-R alpha(2-->6)-sialyltransferase (alpha 6-sialyltransferase) appears to be capable of catalysing alpha 6-sialylation of the disaccharide GalNAc beta(1-->4)GlcNAc to yield the trisaccharide NeuAc alpha(2-->6)GalNAc beta(1-->4)GlcNAc. This provides an enzymic basis for the occurrence of this sialylated structure on the N-linked glycans of a number of bovine milk glycoproteins. Competition experiments using Gal beta(1-->4)GlcNAc and GalNAc beta(-->4)GlcNAc as acceptors indicate that both substrates are recognized by a single active site on the alpha 6-sialyltransferase. Extrapolation of these results suggests that the NeuAc alpha(2-->6)GalNAc beta(1-->4)GlcNAc structural element occurring on the N-linked glycans of several human glycoproteins are similarly synthesized by the action of a Gal beta(1-->4)GlcNAc-R alpha(2-->6)-sialyltransferase. PMID:1417784

  4. Functional interactions of phospholemman (PLM) (FXYD1) with Na+,K+-ATPase. Purification of alpha1/beta1/PLM complexes expressed in Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifshitz, Yael; Lindzen, Moshit; Garty, Haim; Karlish, Steven J D

    2006-06-01

    Human FXYD1 (phospholemman, PLM) has been expressed in Pichia pastoris with porcine alpha1/His10-beta1 subunits of Na+,K+-ATPase or alone. Dodecyl-beta-maltoside-soluble complexes of alpha1/beta1/PLM have been purified by metal chelate chromatography, either from membranes co-expressing alpha1,His10-beta1, and PLM or by in vitro reconstitution of PLM with alpha1/His10-beta1 subunits. Comparison of functional properties of purified alpha1/His10-beta1 and alpha1/His10-beta1/PLM complexes show that PLM lowered K0.5 for Na+ ions moderately (approximately 30%) but did not affect the turnover rate or Km of ATP for activating Na+,K+-ATPase activity. PLM also stabilized the alpha1/His10-beta1 complex. In addition, PLM markedly (>3-fold) reduced the K0.5 of Na+ ions for activating Na+-ATPase activity. In membranes co-expressing alpha1/His10-beta1 with PLM the K0.5 of Na+ ions was also reduced, compared with the control, excluding the possibility that detergent or lipid in purified complexes compromise functional interactions. When expressed in HeLa cells with rat alpha1, rat PLM significantly raised the K0.5 of Na+ ions, whereas for a chimeric molecule consisting of transmembranes segments of PLM and extramembrane segments of FXYD4, the K0.5 of Na+ ions was significantly reduced, compared with the control. The opposite functional effects in P. pastoris and HeLa cells are correlated with endogenous phosphorylation of PLM at Ser68 or unphosphorylated PLM, respectively, as detected with antibodies, which recognize PLM phosphorylated at Ser68 (protein kinase A site) or unphosphorylated PLM. We hypothesize that PLM interacts with alpha1/His10-beta1 subunits at multiple locations, the different functional effects depending on the degree of phosphorylation at Ser68. We discuss the role of PLM in regulation of Na+,K+-ATPase in cardiac or skeletal muscle cells.

  5. [Hemoglobin Boumerdès alpha 2(37) (C2) Pro----Arg beta 2: a new variant of the alpha chain associated with hemoglobin S in an Algerian family].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahmane-Arbane, M; Blouquit, Y; Arous, N; Bardakdjian, J; Benamani, M; Riou, J; Benabadji, M; Rosa, J; Galacteros, F

    1987-01-01

    We report the first case of Hb Boumerdes, an alpha chain variant alpha 2(37) (C2) Pro----Arg beta 2, in an Algerian family. The propositus was also homozygous for the sickle cell gene. The abnormal hybrid Hb alpha 2Boum. beta 2S had an electrophoretic mobility on cellulose acetate pH 8.7 electrophoresis between those of Hb S and Hb A2. Its expression was about 16%. The alpha 2Boum. beta 2A fraction has a mobility between those of Hb F and Hb S. The effects of this mutation on Hb oxygen affinity and deoxy Hb S polymer formation were not studied. The propositus' sickle cell phenotype was benign. PMID:3438164

  6. Drosophila egghead encodes a beta 1,4-mannosyltransferase predicted to form the immediate precursor glycosphingolipid substrate for brainiac

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wandall, Hans H; Pedersen, Johannes W; Park, Chaeho;

    2002-01-01

    The neurogenic Drosophila genes brainiac and egghead are essential for epithelial development in the embryo and in oogenesis. Analysis of egghead and brainiac mutants has led to the suggestion that the two genes function in a common signaling pathway. Recently, brainiac was shown to encode a UDP-N......-acetylglucosamine:beta Man beta 1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (beta 3GlcNAc-transferase) tentatively assigned a key role in biosynthesis of arthroseries glycosphingolipids and forming the trihexosylceramide, GlcNAc beta 1-3Man beta 1-4Glc beta 1-1Cer. In the present study we demonstrate that egghead encodes a Golgi...

  7. The PapG protein is the alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-(1----4)-beta-D-galactopyranose-binding adhesin of uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Lund, B; Lindberg, F; Marklund, B I; Normark, S

    1987-01-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli adhere to uroepithelial cells by their digalactoside alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-(1----4)-beta-D-galactopyranose [alpha-D-Galp-(1----4)-beta-D-Galp or Gal alpha (1----4)Gal]-binding pili, which are composed of repeating identical subunits. The major subunit (PapA) of these pili is not required for binding, but the papF and papG gene products are essential for adhesion. Transcomplementation analysis between the pap gene cluster and a related gene cluster encoding a ...

  8. Evaluation of estrogen receptor alpha and beta and progesterone receptor expression and correlation with clinicopathologic factors and proliferative marker Ki-67 in breast cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosa, Fabíola E; Caldeira, José R F; Felipes, Joice;

    2008-01-01

    To elucidate the molecular profile of hormonal steroid receptor status, we analyzed ER-alpha, ER-beta, and PGR mRNA and protein expression in 80 breast carcinomas using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), quantitative RT-PCR, and immunohistochemical analysis. Qualitative...... analysis revealed positive expression of ER-alpha, ER-beta, and PGR mRNA in 48%, 59%, and 48% of the breast carcinomas, respectively. ER-alpha, ER-beta, and PGR transcript overexpression was observed in 51%, 0%, and 12% of the cases, respectively, whereas moderate or strong protein expression was detected...... in 68%, 78%, and 49% of the cases, respectively. Tumor grade was negatively correlated with transcript and protein levels of ER-alpha (P = .0169 and P = .0006, respectively) and PGR (P = .0034 and P = .0005, respectively). Similarly, proliferative index Ki-67 was negatively associated with transcript...

  9. Glycoprotein VI but not alpha2beta1 integrin is essential for platelet interaction with collagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nieswandt, B; Brakebusch, C; Bergmeier, W;

    2001-01-01

    subsequent interactions with the activating platelet collagen receptor, glycoprotein VI (GPVI). Here we show that Cre/loxP-mediated loss of beta1 integrin on platelets has no significant effect on the bleeding time in mice. Aggregation of beta1-null platelets to native fibrillar collagen is delayed...

  10. Clostridium perfringens delta toxin is sequence related to beta toxin, NetB, and Staphylococcus pore-forming toxins, but shows functional differences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Manich

    Full Text Available Clostridium perfringens produces numerous toxins, which are responsible for severe diseases in man and animals. Delta toxin is one of the three hemolysins released by a number of C. perfringens type C and possibly type B strains. Delta toxin was characterized to be cytotoxic for cells expressing the ganglioside G(M2 in their membrane. Here we report the genetic characterization of Delta toxin and its pore forming activity in lipid bilayers. Delta toxin consists of 318 amino acids, its 28 N-terminal amino acids corresponding to a signal peptide. The secreted Delta toxin (290 amino acids; 32619 Da is a basic protein (pI 9.1 which shows a significant homology with C. perfringens Beta toxin (43% identity, with C. perfringens NetB (40% identity and, to a lesser extent, with Staphylococcus aureus alpha toxin and leukotoxins. Recombinant Delta toxin showed a preference for binding to G(M2, in contrast to Beta toxin, which did not bind to gangliosides. It is hemolytic for sheep red blood cells and cytotoxic for HeLa cells. In artificial diphytanoyl phosphatidylcholine membranes, Delta and Beta toxin formed channels. Conductance of the channels formed by Delta toxin, with a value of about 100 pS to more than 1 nS in 1 M KCl and a membrane potential of 20 mV, was higher than those formed by Beta toxin and their distribution was broader. The results of zero-current membrane potential measurements and single channel experiments suggest that Delta toxin forms slightly anion-selective channels, whereas the Beta toxin channels showed a preference for cations under the same conditions. C. perfringens Delta toxin shows a significant sequence homolgy with C. perfringens Beta and NetB toxins, as well as with S. aureus alpha hemolysin and leukotoxins, but exhibits different channel properties in lipid bilayers. In contrast to Beta toxin, Delta toxin recognizes G(M2 as receptor and forms anion-selective channels.

  11. N-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranosylamine: a potent T-state inhibitor of glycogen phosphorylase. A comparison with alpha-D-glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikonomakos, N G; Kontou, M; Zographos, S E; Watson, K A; Johnson, L N; Bichard, C J; Fleet, G W; Acharya, K R

    1995-12-01

    Structure-based drug design has led to the discovery of a number of glucose analogue inhibitors of glycogen phosphorylase that have an increased affinity compared to alpha-D-glucose (Ki = 1.7 mM). The best inhibitor in the class of N-acyl derivatives of beta-D-glucopyranosylamine, N-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranosylamine (1-GlcNAc), has been characterized by kinetic, ultracentrifugation, and crystallographic studies. 1-GlcNAc acts as a competitive inhibitor for both the b (Ki = 32 microM) and the a (Ki = 35 microM) forms of the enzyme with respect to glucose 1-phosphate and in synergism with caffeine, mimicking the binding of glucose. Sedimentation velocity experiments demonstrated that 1-GlcNAc was able to induce dissociation of tetrameric phosphorylase a and stabilization of the dimeric T-state conformation. Co-crystals of the phosphorylase b-1-GlcNAc-IMP complex were grown in space group P4(3)2(1)2, with native-like unit cell dimensions, and the complex structure has been refined to give a crystallographic R factor of 18.1%, for data between 8 and 2.3 A resolution. 1-GlcNAc binds tightly at the catalytic site of T-state phosphorylase b at approximately the same position as that of alpha-D-glucose. The ligand can be accommodated in the catalytic site with very little change in the protein structure and stabilizes the T-state conformation of the 280s loop by making several favorable contacts to Asn 284 of this loop. Structural comparisons show that the T-state phosphorylase b-1-GlcNAc-IMP complex structure is overall similar to the T-state phosphorylase b-alpha-D-glucose complex structure. The structure of the 1-GlcNAc complex provides a rational for the biochemical properties of the inhibitor. PMID:8580837

  12. Glomerular clusterin is associated with PKC-alpha/beta regulation and good outcome of membranous glomerulonephritis in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastaldi, M P; Candiano, G; Musante, L; Bruschi, M; Armelloni, S; Rimoldi, L; Tardanico, R; Sanna-Cherchi, S; Cherchi, S Sanna; Ferrario, F; Montinaro, V; Haupt, R; Parodi, S; Carnevali, M L; Allegri, L; Camussi, G; Gesualdo, L; Scolari, F; Ghiggeri, G M

    2006-08-01

    Mechanisms for human membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN) remain elusive. Most up-to-date concepts still rely on the rat model of Passive Heymann Nephritis that derives from an autoimmune response to glomerular megalin, with complement activation and membrane attack complex assembly. Clusterin has been reported as a megalin ligand in immunodeposits, although its role has not been clarified. We studied renal biopsies of 60 MGN patients by immunohistochemistry utilizing antibodies against clusterin, C5b-9, and phosphorylated-protien kinase C (PKC) isoforms (pPKC). In vitro experiments were performed to investigate the role of clusterin during podocyte damage by MGN serum and define clusterin binding to human podocytes, where megalin is known to be absent. Clusterin, C5b-9, and pPKC-alpha/beta showed highly variable glomerular staining, where high clusterin profiles were inversely correlated to C5b-9 and PKC-alpha/beta expression (P=0.029), and co-localized with the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R). Glomerular clusterin emerged as the single factor influencing proteinuria at multivariate analysis and was associated with a reduction of proteinuria after a follow-up of 1.5 years (-88.1%, P=0.027). Incubation of podocytes with MGN sera determined strong upregulation of pPKC-alpha/beta that was reverted by pre-incubation with clusterin, serum de-complementation, or protein-A treatment. Preliminary in vitro experiments showed podocyte binding of biotinilated clusterin, co-localization with LDL-R and specific binding inhibition with anti-LDL-R antibodies and with specific ligands. These data suggest a central role for glomerular clusterin in MGN as a modulator of inflammation that potentially influences the clinical outcome. Binding of clusterin to the LDL-R might offer an interpretative key for the pathogenesis of MGN in humans.

  13. [Determination of rate constants of gas-phase reactions of alpha-pinene and beta-pinene with ozone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z R; Hu, D

    2001-10-01

    alpha-pinene and beta-pinene are the most dominating species among natural terpenes. Terpenes are mainly emitted from forest trees, flowers and grass. In the lower troposphere terpenes can react fast with OH radical, ozone, NO3 radical and ground state oxygen atom. These reactions may contribute to the occurring of aerosols, peroxides (hydrogen peroxide and organic peroxide), carbon cycle (mainly CO), acid rain (organic acids, NO3- and SO4(2-), ozone and active radicals such as OH radical. Reactions with ozone occur both in the daytime and in the night. The study in this field in China began in the late 1980. The main work focus on the source emission and the experimental simulation has just started. It is most of our group's work. In this paper preliminary experimental simulation of the gas-phase reactions of alpha-pinene and beta-pinene with ozone were carried out in the quartz chamber. The rate constants of these reactions were measured using long-path Fourier transform infra-red combined with relative rate constant method. And the rate constants for the gas-phase reactions of alpha-pinene, beta-pinene with ozone were determined as 2.83 x 10(17) cm3.molecule-1.s-1 and 1.48 x 10(17) cm3.molecule-1.s-1 at 1.0 x 10(5) Pa and 296 +/- 3 K. The results are quite similar to the data from Atkinson group. No cyclohexane was added to the reaction system during the measurement to restrain the formation of OH radical. The formation of OH radical could not be quantified, so that the effect of subsidiary reactions induced by OH radical has not been calculated. In the later simulation study and model this effect should be considered.

  14. Immunogenicity of a Trivalent Recombinant Vaccine Against Clostridium perfringens Alpha, Beta, and Epsilon Toxins in Farm Ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Gustavo Marçal Schmidt Garcia; Salvarani, Felipe Masiero; da Cunha, Carlos Eduardo Pouey; Mendonça, Marcelo; Moreira, Ângela Nunes; Gonçalves, Luciana Aramuni; Pires, Prhiscylla Sadanã; Lobato, Francisco Carlos Faria; Conceição, Fabricio Rochedo

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens is an anaerobic bacterium that produces several toxins. Of these, the alpha, beta, and epsilon toxins are responsible for causing the most severe C. perfringens-related diseases in farm animals. The best way to control these diseases is through vaccination. However, commercially available vaccines are based on inactivated toxins and have many production drawbacks, which can be overcome through the use of recombinant antigens. In this study, we produced recombinant alpha, beta, and epsilon toxins in Escherichia coli to formulate a trivalent vaccine. Its effectiveness was evaluated through a potency test in rabbits, in which the vaccine generated 9.6, 24.4, and 25.0 IU/mL of neutralizing antibodies against the respective toxins. Following this, cattle, sheep, and goats received the same formulation, generating, respectively, 5.19 ± 0.48, 4.34 ± 0.43, and 4.70 ± 0.58 IU/mL against alpha toxin, 13.71 ± 1.17 IU/mL (for all three species) against beta toxin, and 12.74 ± 1.70, 7.66 ± 1.69, and 8.91 ± 2.14 IU/mL against epsilon toxin. These levels were above the minimum recommended by international protocols. As such, our vaccine was effective in generating protective antibodies and, thus, may represent an interesting alternative for the prevention of C. perfringens-related intoxications in farm animals. PMID:27004612

  15. Plutonium-238 alpha-decay damage study of the ceramic waste form.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, S M [U.S. Department of Energy, Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415; Barber, T L [U.S. Department of Energy, Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415; Cummings, D G [U.S. Department of Energy, Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415; DiSanto, T [U.S. Department of Energy, Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415; Esh, D W [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC 20555-0001; Giglio, J J [U.S. Department of Energy, Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415; Goff, K M [U.S. Department of Energy, Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415; Johnson, S G [U.S. Department of Energy, Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415; Kennedy, J R [U.S. Department of Energy, Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415; Jue, J-F [U.S. Department of Energy, Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415; Noy, M [U.S. Department of Energy, Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415; O' Holleran, T P [U.S. Department of Energy, Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415; Sinkler, W [UOP LLC, 25 E Algonquin Road, Des Plaines, IL 60017

    2006-03-27

    An accelerated alpha-decay damage study of a glass-bonded sodalite ceramic waste form has recently been completed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the physical and chemical durability of the waste form after significant exposure to alpha decay. This accelerated alpha-decay study was performed by doping the ceramic waste form with {sup 238}Pu which has a much greater specific activity than {sup 239}Pu that is normally present in the waste form. The alpha-decay dose at the end of the four year study was approximately 1 x 10{sup 18} alpha-decays/gram of material. An equivalent time period for a similar dose of {sup 239}Pu would require approximately 1100 years. After four years of exposure to {sup 238}Pu alpha decay, the investigation observed little change to the physical or chemical durability of the ceramic waste form (CWF). Specifically, the {sup 238}Pu-loaded CWF maintained it's physical integrity, namely that the density remained constant and no cracking or phase de-bonding was observed. The materials chemical durability and phase stability also did not change significantly over the duration of the study. The only significant measured change was an increase of the unit-cell lattice parameters of the plutonium oxide and sodalite phases of the material and an increase in the release of salt components and plutonium of the waste form during leaching tests, but, as mentioned, these did not lead to any overall loss of waste form durability. The principal findings from this study are: (1) {sup 238}Pu-loaded CWF is similar in microstructure and phase composition to referenced waste form. (2) Pu was observed primarily as oxide comprised of aggregates of nano crystals with aggregates ranging in size from submicron to twenty microns in diameter. (3) Pu phases were primarily found in the intergranular glassy regions. (4) PuO phase shows expected unit cell volume expansion due to alpha decay damage of approximately 0.7%, and the sodalite phase unit cell

  16. A novel, secreted form of human ADAM 12 (meltrin alpha) provokes myogenesis in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilpin, B J; Loechel, F; Mattei, M G;

    1998-01-01

    The ADAM (A Disintegrin And Metalloprotease) family of cell-surface proteins may have an important role in cellular interactions and in modulating cellular responses. In this report we describe a novel, secreted form of human ADAM 12 (meltrin alpha), designated ADAM 12-S (S for short), and a larg...

  17. Cyclic deformation behavior of an {alpha}/{beta} titanium alloy. 1: Micromechanisms of plasticity under various loading paths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feaugas, X.; Clavel, M. [Univ. de Technologie de Compiegne (France)

    1997-07-01

    The cyclic behavior of an {alpha}/{beta} titanium alloy is discussed in terms of back and friction stresses with the help of TEM observations between 300 and 773 K. The existence of a transition temperature (500 K) is clearly shown below which cyclic softening results from a back stress component decrease. However, at T > 500 K the cyclic softening appears to proceed from a decrease in the friction stress. In fact, this temperature corresponds to a transition planar-wavy slip. The physical origins associated with each component of the stress (back and friction) are discussed in the whole temperature range. The effects of non-proportional loadings (oversoftening and overhardening) are also studied and discussed. It appears that softening and or oversoftening (T < 500 K) result from prismatic slip band multiplication in the {alpha}-phase and that overhardening is a consequence of the slip activation.

  18. Positive Alpha and Negative Beta (A Strategy for Counteracting Systematic Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Sonne Noddeboe

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Undiversifiable (or systematic risk has long been an enemy of investors. Many countercyclical strategies have been developed to counter this. However, like all insurance types, these strategies are generally costly to implement, and over time can significantly reduce portfolio returns in long and extended bull markets. In this paper, we discuss an alternative technique, founded on the premise of physiological bias and risk-aversion. We take a behavioral discussion in order to contextualize the insurance like characteristics of option pricing and discuss how this can lead to a mispricing of the asymmetric relationship between the VIX and the S&P 500. To test this, we perform studies in which we find statistical inefficiencies, thereby making it possible to implement a method of hedging index option premium in a way that has displayed no monthly drawdowns in bullish periods, while still providing large returns in major sell-offs. The three versions of the strategy discussed have negative betas to the S&P 500, while exhibiting similar risk-adjusted excess returns over both bull and bear markets. Further, the performance generated over the entire period, for all three strategies, is highly statistically significant. The results challenge the weak form of the Efficient Market Hypothesis and provide evidence that the methods of hedging could be a valuable addition to an equity rich portfolio for the purpose of counteracting systematic risk.

  19. Tay-Sachs disease in Moroccan Jews: deletion of a phenylalanine in the alpha-subunit of beta-hexosaminidase.

    OpenAIRE

    Navon, R; Proia, R L

    1991-01-01

    Tay-Sachs disease is an inherited lysosomal storage disorder caused by defects in the beta-hexosaminidase alpha-subunit gene. The carrier frequency for Tay-Sachs disease is significantly elevated in both the Ashkenazi Jewish and Moroccan Jewish populations but not in other Jewish groups. We have found that the mutations underlying Tay-Sachs disease in Ashkenazi and Moroccan Jews are different. Analysis of a Moroccan Jewish Tay-Sachs patient had revealed an in-frame deletion (delta F) of one o...

  20. Polymorphism analysis in estrogen receptors alpha and beta genes and their association with infertile population in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Liaqat, Sinha; Hasnain, Shahida; Muzammil, Saima; Hayat, Sumreen

    2015-01-01

    Studies on polymorphism of estrogen receptor (ESR) alpha and beta genes have been mostly implicated in infertility, but the results have been controversial due to lack of comprehensive data. The present study focused on association of ESR genes with both male and female infertility. In ESRα, PvuII (rs2234693) and XbaI (rs9340799) were studied while in ESRβ gene, risk of infertility was determined for silent G/A RsaI (rs1256049) polymorphism. Total 124 subjects (74 cases and 50 controls) were ...

  1. Creep deformation of Westinghouse zircaloy-4 fuel cladding tubes in the alpha plus beta phase temperature range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The creep behaviour of Westinghouse Zircaloy-4 fuel cladding tubes of the 17 x 17 PWR design has been examined between 1098 and 1223K using constant pressure biaxial creep tests. The cladding exhibits a duplex microstructure of alpha and beta phase at these temperatures. Data is presented on minimum creep rates, rupture strains and times to rupture as a function of stress and temperature. The effect of varying heat treatments and pre-straining on subsequent deformation behaviour is examined. A general equation which describes the variation of the minimum creep rate with stress and temperature is formulated for cladding exposed to a constant heat treatment. (author)

  2. Microstructural evolutions in warm compression of Betacez and 6246 titanium alloys and influence of the forging on the transformation {beta} {yields} {alpha}; Evolutions microstructurales en compression a chaud des alliages de titane Betacez et 6246 et influence du forgeage sur la transformation {beta} {yields} {alpha}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaussy Mraizika, F.

    1996-06-26

    The relations between the thermomechanical ranges and the microstructures of titanium alloys are still insufficient. This work proposes to improve the knowledge of structural state coming from the {beta} forging and the ulterior transformation {beta} to {alpha}+{beta}. The influence of the two parameters, rate and strain speed, on the microstructural and textural evolutions appear during the forging and also during the {beta}/{alpha} transformation are systematically studied. The two titanium alloys which are studied are Betacez titanium alloy and the 6246 titanium alloy. (N.C.)

  3. Liver X receptors alpha and beta regulate renin expression in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morello, Fulvio; de Boer, Rudolf A; Steffensen, Knut R; Gnecchi, Massimiliano; Chisholm, Jeffrey W; Boomsma, Frans; Anderson, Leonard M; Lawn, Richard M; Gustafsson, Jan-Ake; Lopez-Ilasaca, Marco; Pratt, Richard E; Dzau, Victor J

    2005-01-01

    The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system controls blood pressure and salt-volume homeostasis. Renin, which is the first enzymatic step of the cascade, is critically regulated at the transcriptional level. In the present study, we investigated the role of liver X receptor alpha (LXR(alpha)) and LXR(b

  4. alpha-Synuclein enhances secretion and toxicity of amyloid beta peptides in PC12 cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kazmierczak, Anna; Strosznajder, Joanna B.; Adamczyk, Agata

    2008-01-01

    alpha-Synuclein is the fundamental component of Lewy bodies which occur in the brain of 60% of sporadic and familial Alzheimer's disease patients. Moreover, a proteolytic fragment of alpha-synuclein, the so-called non-amyloid component of Alzheimer's disease amyloid, was found to be an integral part

  5. Electronic, optical and transport properties of {alpha}-, {beta}- and {gamma}-phases of spinel indium sulphide: An ab initio study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Yamini, E-mail: sharma.yamini62@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Feroze Gandhi College, Rae Bareli 229001, U.P. (India); Srivastava, Pankaj [Department of Physics, Feroze Gandhi College, Rae Bareli 229001, U.P. (India)

    2012-08-15

    Spinel indium sulphide exists in three phases. The tetragonal {beta}-phase transforms to the cubic {alpha}-phase at 420 Degree-Sign C which further transforms to the trigonal {gamma}-phase at 754 Degree-Sign C. Due to wide energy bandgap, the phases of indium sulphide have possibilities of applications in photo-electrochemical solar cell devices as a replacement of toxic CdS. The electronic, optical and transport properties of the three phases have therefore been investigated using full potential linear augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) + local orbitals (lo) scheme, in the framework of density functional theory (DFT) with generalized gradient approximation (GGA) for the purpose of exchange-correlation energy functional. We present the structure, energy bands and density of states (DOS) for {alpha}-, {beta}- and {gamma}-phases. The partial density of states (PDOS) of {beta}-In{sub 2}S{sub 3} is in good agreement with experiment and earlier ab initio calculations. To obtain the fundamental characteristics of these phases we have analysed their linear optical properties such as the dynamic dielectric function in the energy range of 0-15 eV. From the dynamic dielectric function it is seen that there is no directional anisotropy for {alpha}-phase since the longitudinal and transverse components are almost identical, however the {beta} and {gamma}-phases show birefringence. The optical absorption profiles clearly indicate that {beta}-phase has possibility of greater multiple direct and indirect interband transitions in the visible regions compared to the other phases. To study the existence of interesting thermoelectric properties, transport properties like electrical and thermal conductivities, Seebeck and Hall coefficients etc. are also calculated. Good agreements are found with the available experimental results. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The electronic properties of phases of In{sub 2}S{sub 3} have been investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The

  6. Late-onset form of beta-electron transfer flavoprotein deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curcoy, A; Olsen, R K J; Ribes, A;

    2003-01-01

    and biochemical and molecular genetic analyses of a patient with a mild late-onset form of GAII due to beta-ETF deficiency. Biochemical data showed an abnormal urine organic acid profile, low levels of free carnitine, increased levels of C(10:1n-6), and C(14:1n-9) in plasma, and decreased oxidation of [9,10-3H...... in the ETFB gene resulting in the deletion of lysine-202 (K202del). The present report delineates further the phenotype of mild beta-ETF deficiency and illustrates that the differential diagnosis of GAII is readily achieved by mutational analysis....

  7. Design and device construction for plane tables preparation for counter alpha/beta total; Diseno y construccion de dispositivo para preparacion de planchetas para contador alfa/beta total

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galicia C, F. J.; Monroy G, F., E-mail: fgalicia82@yahoo.com [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    This work presents the design and assembly of a device for plane tables preparation for quantification alpha/beta total of radioactive waste samples. The determination of the activity index alpha/beta total is used to detect a wide variety of matrices quickly and the concentration of alpha and/or beta emitters of the contained radionuclides in different samples. In particular, the determination of the activity index alpha and beta total of radioactive wastes involves the digestion of samples in aggressive means that will be evaporated to dryness for its quantification. With the purpose of controlling the emission of corrosive gases during the preparation of the plane tables for the quantification of the index alpha and beta total, was designed and built the device in the Radioactive Waste Laboratory that allows to prepare plane tables for proportional counters in a sure and efficient way. The device is constituted by heating equipment, evaporation cylinder and a gases cleaning system. The self-absorption curve got ready starting from the device. (Author)

  8. Meta-analysis of the Alpha/Beta Ratio for Prostate Cancer in the Presence of an Overall Time Factor: Bad News, Good News, or No News?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogelius, Ivan R., E-mail: vogelius@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Bentzen, Soren M. [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To present a novel method for meta-analysis of the fractionation sensitivity of tumors as applied to prostate cancer in the presence of an overall time factor. Methods and Materials: A systematic search for radiation dose-fractionation trials in prostate cancer was performed using PubMed and by manual search. Published trials comparing standard fractionated external beam radiation therapy with alternative fractionation were eligible. For each trial the {alpha}/{beta} ratio and its 95% confidence interval (CI) were extracted, and the data were synthesized with each study weighted by the inverse variance. An overall time factor was included in the analysis, and its influence on {alpha}/{beta} was investigated. Results: Five studies involving 1965 patients were included in the meta-analysis of {alpha}/{beta}. The synthesized {alpha}/{beta} assuming no effect of overall treatment time was -0.07 Gy (95% CI -0.73-0.59), which was increased to 0.47 Gy (95% CI -0.55-1.50) if a single highly weighted study was excluded. In a separate analysis, 2 studies based on 10,808 patients in total allowed extraction of a synthesized estimate of a time factor of 0.31 Gy/d (95% CI 0.20-0.42). The time factor increased the {alpha}/{beta} estimate to 0.58 Gy (95% CI -0.53-1.69)/1.93 Gy (95% CI -0.27-4.14) with/without the heavily weighted study. An analysis of the uncertainty of the {alpha}/{beta} estimate showed a loss of information when the hypofractionated arm was underdosed compared with the normo-fractionated arm. Conclusions: The current external beam fractionation studies are consistent with a very low {alpha}/{beta} ratio for prostate cancer, although the CIs include {alpha}/{beta} ratios up to 4.14 Gy in the presence of a time factor. Details of the dose fractionation in the 2 trial arms have critical influence on the information that can be extracted from a study. Studies with unfortunate designs will supply little or no information about {alpha}/{beta} regardless of

  9. Code Betal to calculation Alpha/Beta activities in environmental samples; Programa de ordenador Betal para el calculo de la actividad Beta/Alfa de muestras ambientales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, L.; Travesi, A.

    1983-07-01

    A codes, BETAL, was developed, written in FORTRAN IV, to automatize calculations and presentations of the result of the total alpha-beta activities measurements in environmental samples. This code performs the necessary calculations for transformation the activities measured in total counts, to pCi/1., bearing in mind the efficiency of the detector used and the other necessary parameters. Further more, it appraise the standard deviation of the result, and calculus the Lower limit of detection for each measurement. This code is written in iterative way by screen-operator dialogue, and asking the necessary data to perform the calculation of the activity in each case by a screen label. The code could be executed through any screen and keyboard terminal, (whose computer accepts Fortran IV) with a printer connected to the said computer. (Author) 5 refs.

  10. Synthesis of alpha- and beta-D-glucopyranosyl triazoles by CuAAC 'click chemistry': reactant tolerance, reaction rate, product structure and glucosidase inhibitory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedola, Simone; Hughes, David L; Nepogodiev, Sergey A; Rejzek, Martin; Field, Robert A

    2010-06-16

    Cu(I)-catalysed azide alkyne 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition (CuAAC) 'click chemistry' was used to assemble a library of 21 alpha-D- and beta-D-glucopyranosyl triazoles, which were assessed as potential glycosidase inhibitors. In the course of this work, different reactivities of isomeric alpha- and beta-glucopyranosyl azides under CuAAC conditions were noted. This difference was further investigated using competition reactions and rationalised on the basis of X-ray crystallographic data, which revealed significant differences in bond lengths within the azido groups of the alpha- and beta-anomers. Structural studies also revealed a preference for perpendicular orientation of the sugar and triazole rings in both the alpha- and beta-glucosyl triazoles in the solid state. The triazole library was assayed for inhibition of sweet almond beta-glucosidase (GH1) and yeast alpha-glucosidase (GH13), which led to the identification of a set of glucosidase inhibitors effective in the 100 microM range. The preference for inhibition of one enzyme over the other proved to be dependent on the anomeric configuration of the inhibitor, as expected.

  11. Structure of the T-cell receptor in a Ti alpha beta, Ti gamma delta double positive T-cell line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhlmann, J; Geisler, C

    1993-01-01

    is still not known. It has been suggested that each T-cell receptor contains two Ti dimers. To gain insight into the structure of the T-cell receptor we constructed a Ti alpha beta, Ti gamma delta double positive T-cell line which contained four functional Ti chains (Ti alpha, beta, gamma, and delta......The multichain T-cell receptor is composed of at least six different polypeptide chains. The clonotypic Ti heterodimer (Ti alpha beta or Ti gamma delta) is non-covalently associated with the CD3 chains (CD3 gamma delta epsilon zeta). The exact number of subunits constituting the T-cell receptor......). The data demonstrated an absence of Ti dimers containing mixtures of chains other than the typical Ti alpha beta and Ti gamma delta combinations. Furthermore, by co-modulation experiments we demonstrated that the Ti alpha beta and the Ti gamma delta dimers were not expressed in the same T-cell receptor...

  12. Design, synthesis and validation of integrin {alpha}{sub 2}{beta}{sub 1}-targeted probe for microPET imaging of prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Chiun-Wei; Li, Zibo; Cai, Hancheng; Chen, Kai; Shahinian, Tony; Conti, Peter S. [University of Southern California, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2011-07-15

    The ability of PET to aid in the diagnosis and management of recurrent and/or disseminated metastatic prostate cancer may be enhanced by the development of novel prognostic imaging probes. Accumulating experimental evidence indicates that overexpression of integrin {alpha}{sub 2}{beta}{sub 1} may correlate with progression in human prostate cancer. In this study, {sup 64}Cu-labeled integrin {alpha}{sub 2}{beta}{sub 1}-targeted PET probes were designed and evaluated for the imaging of prostate cancer. DGEA peptides conjugated with a bifunctional chelator (BFC) were developed to image integrin {alpha}{sub 2}{beta}{sub 1} expression with PET in a subcutaneous PC-3 xenograft model. The microPET images were reconstructed by a two-dimensional ordered subsets expectation maximum algorithm. The average radioactivity accumulation within a tumor or an organ was quantified from the multiple region of interest volumes. The PET tracer demonstrated prominent tumor uptake in the PC-3 xenograft (integrin {alpha}{sub 2}{beta}{sub 1}-positive). The receptor specificity was confirmed in a blocking experiment. Moreover, the low tracer uptake in a CWR-22 tumor model (negative control) further confirmed the receptor specificity. The sarcophagine-conjugated DGEA peptide allows noninvasive imaging of tumor-associated {alpha}{sub 2}{beta}{sub 1} expression, which may be a useful PET probe for evaluating the metastatic potential of prostate cancer. (orig.)

  13. Identification and characterization of cis elements in the STAT3 gene regulating STAT3 alpha and STAT3 beta messenger RNA splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, H; Quintero, A J; Tweardy, D J

    2001-12-15

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is an oncogene and a critical regulator of multiple cell-fate decisions, including myeloid cell differentiation. Two isoforms of STAT3 have been identified: alpha (p92) and beta (p83). These differ structurally in their C-terminal transactivation domains, resulting in distinct functional activities. The cis genetic elements that regulate the ratio of alpha to beta messenger RNA (mRNA) are unknown. In this study, cloning, sequencing, and splicing analysis of the human and murine STAT3 genes revealed a highly conserved 5' donor site for generation of both alpha and beta mRNA and distinct branch-point sequences, polypyrimidine tracts, and 3' acceptor sites (ASs) for each. The beta 3' AS was found to be located 50 nucleotides downstream of the alpha 3' AS in exon 23. Two additional cryptic 3' ASs (delta and epsilon) were also identified. Thus, we identified for the first time the cis regulatory sequences responsible for generation of STAT3 alpha and STAT3 beta mRNA.

  14. A double mutation in exon 6 of the [beta]-hexosaminidase [alpha] subunit in a patient with the B1 variant of Tay-Sachs disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ainsworth, P.J. (Univ. of Western Ontario, Ontario (Canada) Child Health Research Institute, London, Ontario (Canada)); Coulter-Mackie, M.B. (Univ. of Western Ontario, Ontario (Canada) Child Health Research Institute, London, Ontario (Canada) Children' s Psychiatric Research Institute, London, Ontario (Canada))

    1992-10-01

    The B1 variant form of Tay-Sachs disease is enzymologically unique in that the causative mutation(s) appear to affect the active site in the [alpha] subunit of [beta]-hexosaminidase A without altering its ability to associate with the [beta] subunit. Most previously reported B1 variant mutations were found in exon 5 within codon 178. The coding sequence of the [alpha] subunit gene of a patient with the B1 variant form was examined with a combination of reverse transcription of mRNA to cDNA, PCR, and dideoxy sequencing. A double mutation in exon 6 has been identified: a G[sub 574][yields]C transversion causing a val[sub 192][yields]leu change and a G[sub 598][yields] A transition resulting in a val[sub 200][yields]met alteration. The amplified cDNAs were otherwise normal throughout their sequence. The 574 and 598 alterations have been confirmed by amplification directly from genomic DNA from the patient and her mother. Transient-expression studies of the two exon 6 mutations (singly or together) in COS-1 cells show that the G[sub 574][yields]C change is sufficient to cause the loss of enzyme activity. The biochemical phenotype of the 574 alteration in transfection studies is consistent with that expected for a B1 variant mutation. As such, this mutation differs from previously reported B1 variant mutations, all of which occur in exon 5. 31 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Uranium, thorium, gross alpha and gross beta assessment in fountain waters in towns of the Iron Quadrangle, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Iron Quadrangle region is known worldwide for its diversity, both ores and rock types, which record a long and important period of Earth's history. For thousands of years erosive processes have exposed ancient rocks, Archean and Proterozoic, in this region. The concentration of uranium, thorium, gross alpha and gross beta activities has been assessed in 34 fountains water samples collected from different towns in the Iron Quadrangle. The results obtained were compared to values established by CONAMA nº 396/2008 and Decree nº 2914/2011 by the Ministry of Health. For Th in water consumption there is no value established in the Brazilian legislation and the concentrations in all samples were lower than 0.01 μg L-1. For uranium, the values ranged from less than 0.002 to 0.61 μg L-1, and all results were lower than the value allowed of 15 μg L-1 and 30 μg L-1 established by the legislations above, respectively. The results for the radiation levels of gross alpha and gross beta activity in some fountains waters were slightly above the limits (0.5 Bq L-1 and 1.0 Bq L-1) established by CONAMA nº 396/2008 and Decreet nº 2914/2011, respectively. (author)

  16. Gross alpha and beta activity analyses in urine-a routine laboratory method for internal human radioactivity detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaowen; Zhao, Luqian; Qin, Hongran; Zhao, Meijia; Zhou, Yirui; Yang, Shuqiang; Su, Xu; Xu, Xiaohua

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a method to provide rapid results for humans with internal radioactive contamination. The authors hypothesized that valuable information could be obtained from gas proportional counter techniques by screening urine samples from potentially exposed individuals rapidly. Recommended gross alpha and beta activity screening methods generally employ gas proportional counting techniques. Based on International Standards Organization (ISO) methods, improvements were made in the evaporation process to develop a method to provide rapid results, adequate sensitivity, and minimum sample preparation and operator intervention for humans with internal radioactive contamination. The method described by an American National Standards Institute publication was used to calibrate the gas proportional counter, and urine samples from patients with or without radionuclide treatment were measured to validate the method. By improving the evaporation process, the time required to perform the assay was reduced dramatically. Compared with the reference data, the results of the validation samples were very satisfactory with respect to gross-alpha and gross-beta activities. The gas flow proportional counting method described here has the potential for radioactivity monitoring in the body. This method was easy, efficient, and fast, and its application is of great utility in determining whether a sample should be analyzed by a more complicated method, for example radiochemical and/or γ-spectroscopy. In the future, it may be used commonly in medical examination and nuclear emergency treatment.Health Phys. 106(5):000-000; 2014.

  17. Uranium, thorium, gross alpha and gross beta assessment in fountain waters in towns of the Iron Quadrangle, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Claudia A.; Palmieri, Helena E.L.; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.C.; Chaves, Renata D.A.; Dalmazio, Ilza, E-mail: cferreiraquimica@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: help@cdtn.br, E-mail: menezes@cdtn.br, E-mail: rda@cdtn.br, E-mail: id@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The Iron Quadrangle region is known worldwide for its diversity, both ores and rock types, which record a long and important period of Earth's history. For thousands of years erosive processes have exposed ancient rocks, Archean and Proterozoic, in this region. The concentration of uranium, thorium, gross alpha and gross beta activities has been assessed in 34 fountains water samples collected from different towns in the Iron Quadrangle. The results obtained were compared to values established by CONAMA nº 396/2008 and Decree nº 2914/2011 by the Ministry of Health. For Th in water consumption there is no value established in the Brazilian legislation and the concentrations in all samples were lower than 0.01 μg L{sup -1}. For uranium, the values ranged from less than 0.002 to 0.61 μg L{sup -1}, and all results were lower than the value allowed of 15 μg L{sup -1} and 30 μg L{sup -1} established by the legislations above, respectively. The results for the radiation levels of gross alpha and gross beta activity in some fountains waters were slightly above the limits (0.5 Bq L{sup -1} and 1.0 Bq L{sup -1}) established by CONAMA nº 396/2008 and Decreet nº 2914/2011, respectively. (author)

  18. alpha2-Adrenoceptor stimulation promotes actin polymerization and focal adhesion in 3T3F442A and BFC-1beta preadipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bétuing, S; Daviaud, D; Valet, P; Bouloumié, A; Lafontan, M; Saulnier-Blache, J S

    1996-12-01

    We previously demonstrated that in white fat cell precursors alpha2-adrenoceptor stimulation lead to the phosphorylation of p44 and p42 mitogen-activated protein kinases and an increase in cell number. Regulation of cell adhesion and cell cytoskeleton plays a crucial role in the control of cell growth by various growth factors. Here, we report that in mouse 3T3F442A preadipocytes expressing 2500 fmol/mg protein of the human alpha2C10-adrenoceptor (alpha2AF2 cells), alpha2-adrenergic stimulation rapidly restored the spreading of cells previously retracted by serum withdrawal. This effect was pertussis toxin sensitive and was blocked by pretreatment of the cells with dihydrocytochalasin B (a blocker of actin polymerization), genistein (a tyrosine kinase inhibitor), or agents that increase cell cAMP content. Spreading was accompanied by cell membrane ruffling, formation of lamelipodia and filipodia, appearance of focal adhesion plaques, and induction of actin stress fibers. alpha2-Adrenergic stimulation also lead to a rapid Gi- and actin-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of the pp125 focal adhesion kinase (FAK) as well as of the p42 and p44 mitogen-activated protein kinases. alpha2-Adrenergic-dependent spreading and FAK and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation were also observed in 3T3F442A preadipocytes permanently expressing 20 fmol/mg protein of the human alpha2C10-adrenoceptor (alpha2AF3 cells) as well as in BFC-1beta preadipocytes, which constitutively express 25 fmol/mg protein of mouse alpha2A-adrenoceptors. In BFC-1beta preadipocytes, alpha2-adrenergic-dependent spreading and pp125FAK phosphorylation were counteracted by beta-adrenergic stimulation. Our results suggest that alpha2-adrenergic control of actin polymerization and focal adhesion assembly could play a crucial role in the regulation of preadipocyte growth by the sympathetic nervous system.

  19. Revisiting the oligomerization mechanism of Vibrio cholerae cytolysin, a beta-barrel pore-forming toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Anand Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Kausik

    2016-06-01

    Vibrio cholerae cytolysin (VCC) is a membrane-damaging beta-barrel pore-forming toxin (beta-PFT). VCC causes permeabilization of the target membranes by forming transmembrane oligomeric beta-barrel pores. Oligomerization is a key step in the mode of action of any beta-PFT, including that of VCC. Earlier studies have identified some of the key residues in VCC that are directly involved in the generation of the inter-protomer contacts, thus playing critical roles in the oligomerization of the membrane-bound toxin. Analysis of the VCC oligomeric pore structure reveals a potential hydrogen-bond network that appears to connect the sidechain of an asparagine residue (Asn582; located within an inter-domain linker sequence) from one protomer to the backbone CO- and NH-groups of the neighbouring protomer, indirectly through water molecules at most of the inter-protomer interfaces. In the present study, we show that the mutation of Asn582Ala affects the oligomerization and the pore-forming activity of VCC in the membrane lipid bilayer of the synthetic lipid vesicles, while the replacement of Asn582Gln results into the restoration of the oligomeric pore-forming ability of the toxin. Using a number of truncated variants of VCC, having deletion in the C-terminal region of the toxin starting from the Asn582 residue or beyond, we also show that the presence of Asn582 is critically required for the oligomerization of the truncated form of the protein. PMID:27150630

  20. {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} imaging can accurately distinguish between mature teratoma and necrosis in {sup 18}F-FDG-negative residual masses after treatment of non-seminomatous testicular cancer: a preclinical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aide, Nicolas [Francois Baclesse Cancer Centre and Caen University, Bioticla Team, EA1772, IFR 146 ICORE, GRECAN, Caen (France); Caen University Hospital and Francois Baclesse Cancer Centre, PET Unit, Caen (France); Centre Francois Baclesse, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Caen (France); Briand, Melanie; Dutoit, Soizic; Deslandes, Edwiges; Poulain, Laurent [Francois Baclesse Cancer Centre and Caen University, Bioticla Team, EA1772, IFR 146 ICORE, GRECAN, Caen (France); Bohn, Pierre; Rouvet, Jean; Modzelewski, Romain; Vera, Pierre [Henri Becquerel Cancer Center and Rouen University Hospital and QuantIF- LITIS (EA4108), Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rouen (France); Lasnon, Charline [Caen University Hospital and Francois Baclesse Cancer Centre, PET Unit, Caen (France); Chasle, Jacques [Francois Baclesse Cancer Centre and Caen University, Pathology Department, Caen (France); Vela, Antony [Francois Baclesse Cancer Centre and Caen University, Radiophysics Unit, Caen (France); Carreiras, Franck [Universite de Cergy Pontoise, UFR Sciences et Techniques, ERRMECe, EA 1391, Institut des materiaux, Cergy-Pontoise (France)

    2011-02-15

    We assessed whether imaging {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} integrin could distinguish mature teratoma from necrosis in human non-seminomatous germ cell tumour (NSGCT) post-chemotherapy residual masses. Human embryonal carcinoma xenografts (six/rat) were untreated (controls) or treated to form mature teratomas with low-dose cisplatin and all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) over a period of 8 weeks. In another group, necrosis was induced in xenografts with high-dose cisplatin plus etoposide (two cycles).{sup 18}F-Fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) small animal positron emission tomography (SA PET) imaging was performed in three rats (one control and two treated for 4 and 8 weeks with cisplatin+ATRA). Imaging of {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} expression was performed in six rats bearing mature teratomas and two rats with necrotic lesions on a microSPECT/CT device after injection of the tracer [{sup 99m}Tc]HYNIC-RGD [6-hydrazinonicotinic acid conjugated to cyclo(Arg-Gly-Asp-D-Phe-Lys)]. Correlative immunohistochemistry studies of human and mouse {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} expression were performed. Cisplatin+ATRA induced differentiation of the xenografts. After 8 weeks, some glandular structures and mesenchymal cells were visible; in contrast, control tumours showed undifferentiated tissues. SA PET imaging showed that mature teratoma had very low avidity for {sup 18}F-FDG [mean standardised uptake value (SUV{sub mean}) = 0.48 {+-} 0.05] compared to untreated embryonal carcinoma (SUV{sub mean} = 0.92 {+-} 0.13) (p = 0.005). {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} imaging accurately distinguished mature teratoma (tumour to muscle ratio = 4.29 {+-} 1.57) from necrosis (tumour to muscle ratio = 1.3 {+-} 0.26) (p = 0.0002). Immunohistochemistry studies showed that {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} integrin expression was strong in the glandular structures of mature teratoma lesions and negative in host stroma. Imaging {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} integrin accurately distinguished mature teratoma from

  1. Differential interleukin-1 receptor antagonism on pancreatic beta and alpha cells. Studies in rodent and human islets and in normal rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zumsteg, U; Reimers, J I; Pociot, F;

    1993-01-01

    , mouse and human islets exposed to recombinant human interleukin-1 beta, and on interleukin-1 beta induced changes in blood glucose, serum insulin and serum glucagon levels in Wistar Kyoto rats. The interleukin-1 receptor antagonist reduced the co-mitogenic effect of interleukin-1 beta on mouse and rat......The monokines interleukin-1 alpha and -beta have been implicated as effector molecules in the immune-mediated pancreatic beta-cell destruction leading to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Here we investigated the effects of interleukin-1 receptor antagonism on insulin and glucagon release of rat...... thymocytes with a 50% inhibitory concentration of 10- and 100-fold molar excess, respectively. Complete inhibition was obtained with a 100-1,000-fold molar excess. However, at a 100-fold molar excess the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist did not antagonise the potentiating effect of interleukin-1 beta on rat...

  2. Expression of estrogen receptors alpha and beta in the corpus luteum and uterus from non-pregnant and pregnant llamas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Susan A; Smith, Bradford B; Timm, Karen I; Menino, Alfred R

    2007-08-01

    Because estrogen may be involved in maternal recognition of pregnancy and embryonic migration in llamas, expression of estrogen receptor subtypes alpha (ERalpha) and beta (ERbeta) was evaluated in corpus luteum (CL), endometrium, and uterus using relative RT-PCR. Tissues were recovered from sterile-mated (SM) and pregnant (PG) females during Days 7-11 and 7-13 (Day 0 = day of mating), respectively, and follicular phase and juvenile females. Luteal expression of ERalpha and beta was similar (P > 0.10) in SM and PG females and within Days 7-11, however, expression of ERalpha in ovarian tissue from follicular phase females was greater (P Uterus expressed less ERalpha and beta compared to endometrium (P = 0.07 and P 0.10) between SM and PG females or by day. The presence of luteal ER during this period may mean a role for estradiol in maternal recognition of pregnancy. Observed increases in uterine ER expression with no changes in endometrium suggest expression increased in myometrium and/or perimetrium. Upregulation of myometrial ERbeta in PG females may be involved in supporting uterine migration of the embryo. PMID:17219432

  3. SDSS J083253.18+064316.7: one strange object with double-peaked narrow H\\alpha but single-peaked narrow H\\beta

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, XueGuang

    2015-01-01

    In this letter, we firstly report one unique object SDSS J0832+0643 with particular features of narrow balmer emission lines: double-peaked narrow H\\alpha but single-peaked narrow H\\beta. The particular features can not be expected by currently proposed kinematic models for double-peaked narrow emission lines, because the proposed kinematic models lead to similar line profiles of narrow balmer emission lines. However, due to radiative transfer effects, the non-kinematic model can be naturally applied to well explain the particular features of narrow balmer emission lines: larger optical depth in H\\alpha than 10 leads to observed double-peaked narrow H\\alpha, but smaller optical depth in H\\beta around 2 leads to observed single-peaked narrow H\\beta. Therefore, SDSS J0832+0643 can be used as strong evidence to support the non-kinematic model for double-peaked narrow emission lines.

  4. On the general solution for the modified Emden-type equation x-doubledot + {alpha}xx-dot + {beta}x{sup 3} = 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandrasekar, V K; Senthilvelan, M; Lakshmanan, M [Centre for Nonlinear Dynamics, Department of Physics, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirapalli 620 024 (India)

    2007-05-04

    In this paper, we demonstrate that the modified equation of Emden type (MEE), x-doubledot + {alpha}xx-dot + {beta}x{sup 3} = 0, is integrable either explicitly or by quadrature for any value of {alpha} and {beta}. We also prove that the MEE possesses appropriate time-independent Hamiltonian functions for the full range of parameters {alpha} and {beta}. In addition we show that the MEE is intimately connected with two well-known nonlinear models, namely the equation of force-free Duffing-type oscillator and the two-dimensional Lotka-Volterra equation, and thus the complete integrability of the latter two models can also be understood in terms of the MEE.

  5. Transcriptomic profiling of pancreatic alpha, beta and delta cell populations identifies delta cells as a principal target for ghrelin in mouse islets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriaenssens, Alice E; Svendsen, Berit; Lam, Brian Y H;

    2016-01-01

    and delta cells. METHODS: Sst-Cre mice crossed with fluorescent reporters were used to identify delta cells, while Glu-Venus (with Venus reported under the control of the Glu [also known as Gcg] promoter) mice were used to identify alpha and beta cells. Alpha, beta and delta cells were purified using flow...... cytometry and analysed by RNA sequencing. The role of the ghrelin receptor was validated by imaging delta cell calcium concentrations using islets with delta cell restricted expression of the calcium reporter GCaMP3, and in perfused mouse pancreases. RESULTS: A database was constructed of all genes...... expressed in alpha, beta and delta cells. The gene encoding the ghrelin receptor, Ghsr, was highlighted as being highly expressed and enriched in delta cells. Activation of the ghrelin receptor raised cytosolic calcium levels in primary pancreatic delta cells and enhanced somatostatin secretion in perfused...

  6. QCD corrections to polarized Σ- beta decay: second class form factor effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Working within the framework of the MIT bag model, all six form factors describing the Σ- → n beta decay matrix element of the strangeness-changing weak current in the standard electroweak theory have been calculated, including QCD vertex corrections to order α/sub s/. The results are close to the predictions of the Cabibbo model, the QCD corrections not being very large. In particular, we found the induced second class weak electric dipole form factor to be small (g2 ≅ -0.04), in spite of the rather sizeable s - u quark mass difference, because it is significantly suppressed by quark confinement effects. Our results are in excellent agreement with the recent high statistics data on polarized Σ- beta decay, as are the Cabibbo model predictions. 10 refs

  7. Design of a Quality Control Program for the Measurement of Gross Alpha and Gross Beta Activities (LMPR-CIEMAT); Diseno del Control de Calidad de las Medidas de Actividad Alfa-Beta Total (LMPR-CIEMAT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, A.; Yague, L.; Gasco, C.; Navarro, N.; Higueras, E.; Noguerales, C.

    2010-10-21

    In accordance with international standards, general requirements for testing laboratories have to include a quality system for planning, implementing, and assessing the work performed by the organization and for carrying out required quality assurance and quality control. The purpose of internal laboratory quality control is to monitor performance, identify problems, and initiate corrective actions. This report describes the internal quality control to monitor the gross alpha and beta activities determination. Identification of specific performance indicators, the principles that govern their use and statistical means of evaluation are explained. Finally, calculation of alpha and beta specific activities, uncertainties and detection limits are performed. (Author) 10 refs.

  8. Neu1 desialylation of sialyl alpha-2,3-linked beta-galactosyl residues of TOLL-like receptor 4 is essential for receptor activation and cellular signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amith, Schammim Ray; Jayanth, Preethi; Franchuk, Susan; Finlay, Trisha; Seyrantepe, Volkan; Beyaert, Rudi; Pshezhetsky, Alexey V; Szewczuk, Myron R

    2010-02-01

    The ectodomain of TOLL-like receptors (TLR) is highly glycosylated with several N-linked gylcosylation sites located in the inner concave surface. The precise role of these sugar N-glycans in TLR receptor activation is unknown. Recently, we have shown that Neu1 sialidase and not Neu2, -3 and -4 forms a complex with TLR-2, -3 and -4 receptors on the cell-surface membrane of naïve and activated macrophage cells (Glycoconj J DOI 10.1007/s10719-009-9239-8). Activation of Neu1 is induced by TLR ligands binding to their respective receptors. Here, we show that endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced MyD88/TLR4 complex formation and subsequent NFkappaB activation is dependent on the removal of alpha-2,3-sialyl residue linked to beta-galactoside of TLR4 by the Neu1 activity associated with LPS-stimulated live primary macrophage cells, macrophage and dendritic cell lines but not with primary Neu1-deficient macrophage cells. Exogenous alpha-2,3 sialyl specific neuraminidase (Streptoccocus pneumoniae) and wild-type T. cruzi trans-sialidase (TS) but not the catalytically inactive mutant TSAsp98-Glu mediate TLR4 dimerization to facilitate MyD88/TLR4 complex formation and NFkappaB activation similar to those responses seen with LPS. These same TLR ligand-induced NFkappaB responses are not observed in TLR deficient HEK293 cells, but are re-established in HEK293 cells stably transfected with TLR4/MD2, and are significantly inhibited by alpha-2,3-sialyl specific Maackia amurensis (MAL-2) lectin, alpha-2,3-sialyl specific galectin-1 and neuraminidase inhibitor Tamiflu but not by alpha-2,6-sialyl specific Sambucus nigra lectin (SNA). Taken together, the findings suggest that Neu1 desialylation of alpha-2,3-sialyl residues of TLR receptors enables in removing a steric hinderance to receptor association for TLR activation and cellular signaling. PMID:19796680

  9. Association and linkage analyses of the alpha and beta genes of the sodium-potassium ATPase with age-related changes in blood pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perusse, L.; Deriaz, O.; Dlonne, F.T. [Laval Univ., Quebec (Canada)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Sodium-potassium-adenosine triphosphatase (Na-K-ATPase), a membrane-bound enzyme responsible for the maintenance of Na{sup +} and K{sup +} gradients in the cell, has been hypothesized to play a role in the etiology of hypertension. To test whether genetic variation in the alpha ({alpha}) and beta ({beta}) genes of the Na-K-ATPase were related to changes in blood pressure with age, systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressures were measured in 1980 (T1) and 1991 (T2) in 293 members of 74 randomly ascertained families. Changes ({Delta}) between these two time periods (T2-T1) were also computed. Four RFLPs in the {alpha}1, {alpha}2 (exon 1 and exon 21-22) and {beta} genes were identified. Analysis of variance performed in the unrelated parents revealed no significant differences between genotypes at the {alpha}1 and {alpha}2 loci for both {Delta}SBP and {Delta}DBP. However, significant differences between genotypes at the {beta} locus were observed for {Delta}SBP adjusted for age at T1. Linkage analysis of {Delta}SBP and {Delta}DBP with these RFLPs was performed using the sib-pair method. Results revealed a strong linkage (p=.0005) of {Delta}SBP with the RFLP and the {beta} locus, but not with the other RFLPs. No evidence of association or linkage was observed for any of the cross-sectional (T1 or T2) blood pressure values. These results suggest that genetic variation at the {beta} locus of the Na-K-ATPase identified by a PvuII RFLP is related to changes of SBP with age and that this gene could play a role in the development of hypertension.

  10. Stoichiometry of expressed alpha(4)beta(2)delta gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors depends on the ratio of subunit cDNA transfected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagoner, Kelly R; Czajkowski, Cynthia

    2010-05-01

    The gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABA(A)R) is the target of many depressants, including benzodiazepines, anesthetics, and alcohol. Although the highly prevalent alphabetagamma GABA(A)R subtype mediates the majority of fast synaptic inhibition in the brain, receptors containing delta subunits also play a key role, mediating tonic inhibition and the actions of endogenous neurosteroids and alcohol. However, the fundamental properties of delta-containing GABA(A)Rs, such as subunit stoichiometry, are not well established. To determine subunit stoichiometry of expressed delta-containing GABA(A)Rs, we inserted the alpha-bungarotoxin binding site tag in the alpha(4), beta(2), and delta subunit N termini. An enhanced green fluorescent protein tag was also inserted into the beta(2) subunit to shift its molecular weight, allowing us to separate subunits using SDS-PAGE. Tagged alpha(4)beta(2)delta GABA(A)Rs were expressed in HEK293T cells using various ratios of subunit cDNA, and receptor subunit stoichiometry was determined by quantitating fluorescent alpha-bungarotoxin bound to each subunit on Western blots of surface immunopurified tagged GABA(A)Rs. The results demonstrate that the subunit stoichiometry of alpha(4)beta(2)delta GABA(A)Rs is regulated by the ratio of subunit cDNAs transfected. Increasing the ratio of delta subunit cDNA transfected increased delta subunit incorporation into surface receptors with a concomitant decrease in beta(2) subunit incorporation. Because receptor subunit stoichiometry can directly influence GABA(A)R pharmacological and functional properties, considering how the transfection protocols used affect subunit stoichiometry is essential when studying heterologously expressed alpha(4)beta(2)delta GABA(A)Rs. Successful bungarotoxin binding site tagging of GABA(A)R subunits is a novel tool with which to accurately quantitate subunit stoichiometry and will be useful for monitoring GABA(A)R trafficking in live cells.

  11. Using the ALPHA form in practice to assess antenatal psychosocial health

    OpenAIRE

    Reid, A. J.; Biringer, A; Carroll, J D; Midmer, D; Wilson, L. M.; Chalmers, B; Stewart, D.E.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The assessment of the psychosocial health of pregnant women and their families, although recommended, is not carried out by most practitioners. One reason is the lack of a practical and evidence-based tool. In response, a multidisciplinary group created the Antenatal Psychosocial Health Assessment (ALPHA) form. This article describes the development of this tool and experience with it in an initial field trial. METHODS: A systematic literature review revealed 15 antenatal psychoso...

  12. Measurements of $L_{31}, L_{3}\\alpha, L_{3}\\beta, L_{2}\\beta, L_{2} \\gamma, L_{1}\\beta, L_{1}\\gamma, L_{\\beta}, L_{\\gamma}, L_{1x}, L_{2x}$ and $L_{3x}$ X-ray production cross sections and L subshell fluorescence

    CERN Document Server

    Ertugrul, M

    2001-01-01

    The L/sub 3l/, L/sub 3 alpha /, L/sub 3 beta /, L/sub 2 beta /, L/sub 2 gamma /, L/sub 1 beta /, L/sub 1 gamma /, L/sub beta /, L/sub gamma /, L/sub 1x/, L/sub 2x/ and L/sub 3x/ X-ray production cross sections in Re, W and Ta have been measured using the 59.5 keV incident photon energy. The measurements were performed using an Am-241 radioisotope as the photon source and a Si(Li) detector. The L X-rays are resolved with a new analytical method. The obtained L/sub l/, L/sub alpha /, L /sub 3 beta /, L/sub 2 beta /, L/sub 2 gamma /, L/sub 1 beta /, L/sub 1 gamma /, L/sub beta /, L/sub gamma /, L/sub 1x/, L/sub 2x/ and L /sub 3x/ X-rays are compared with the theoretical calculations using the most reliable theoretical values of L/sub i/ (i=1, 2, 3) subshell photoionization cross sections, fluorescence yields, X-ray emission rates and Coster-Kronig transition probabilities. The results in the present paper are found to be in good agreement with the calculated values. (23 refs).

  13. Specific interaction of capsid protein and importin-{alpha}/{beta} influences West Nile virus production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhuvanakantham, Raghavan; Chong, Mun-Keat [Flavivirology Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, 5 Science Drive 2, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117597 (Singapore); Ng, Mah-Lee, E-mail: micngml@nus.edu.sg [Flavivirology Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, 5 Science Drive 2, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117597 (Singapore)

    2009-11-06

    West Nile virus (WNV) capsid (C) protein has been shown to enter the nucleus of infected cells. However, the mechanism by which C protein enters the nucleus is unknown. In this study, we have unveiled for the first time that nuclear transport of WNV and Dengue virus C protein is mediated by their direct association with importin-{alpha}. This interplay is mediated by the consensus sequences of bipartite nuclear localization signal located between amino acid residues 85-101 together with amino acid residues 42 and 43 of C protein. Elucidation of biological significance of importin-{alpha}/C protein interaction demonstrated that the binding efficiency of this association influenced the nuclear entry of C protein and virus production. Collectively, this study illustrated the molecular mechanism by which the C protein of arthropod-borne flavivirus enters the nucleus and showed the importance of importin-{alpha}/C protein interaction in the context of flavivirus life-cycle.

  14. Cloning and sequencing of the genes encoding the alpha and beta subunits of C-phycocyanin from the cyanobacterium Agmenellum quadruplicatum.

    OpenAIRE

    Pilot, T J; Fox, J L

    1984-01-01

    Synthetic oligonucleotide probes were used to identify a cloned DNA fragment from the cyanobacterium Agmenellum quadruplicatum that contains the genes for the alpha and beta subunits of C-phycocyanin. The coding region for the alpha-subunit gene begins 108 base pairs downstream from the 3' end of the beta-subunit structural gene. The sequences of the coding regions for both genes have been determined as well as 379 base pairs of 5' flanking region, 204 base pairs of 3' flanking region, and th...

  15. The CK2 alpha/CK2 beta interface of human protein kinase CK2 harbors a binding pocket for small molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaf, Jennifer; Brunstein, Elena; Issinger, Olaf-Georg;

    2008-01-01

    , selective CK2 inhibitors are required. An often-used CK2 inhibitor is 5,6-dichloro-1-beta-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole (DRB). In a complex structure with human CK2 alpha, DRB binds to the canonical ATP cleft, but additionally it occupies an allosteric site that can be alternatively filled by glycerol....... Inhibition kinetic studies corroborate the dual binding mode of the inhibitor. Structural comparisons reveal a surprising conformational plasticity of human CK2 alpha around both DRB binding sites. After local rearrangement, the allosteric site serves as a CK2 beta interface. This opens the potential...

  16. Enantioselective organocatalytic formal [3 + 3]-cycloaddition of alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes and application to the asymmetric synthesis of (-)-isopulegol hydrate and (-)-cubebaol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Bor-Cherng; Wu, Ming-Fun; Tseng, Hsing-Chang; Liao, Ju-Hsiou

    2006-05-25

    [reaction: see text] The first highly enantioselective organocatalyzed carbo [3 + 3] cascade cycloaddition of alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes is reported. Using this methodology, crotonaldehyde is converted to 6-hydroxy-4-methylcyclohex-1-enecarbaldehyde, which is used in the synthesis of (-)-isopulegol hydrate, (-)-cubebaol, and p-tolualdehyde as well as (-)-6-hydroxy-4-methyl-1-cyclohexene-1-methanol acetate, an intermediate in the total synthesis of lycopodium alkaloid magellanine. Other alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes give rise to chiral cyclohexadienes via formal [4 + 2] reactions. PMID:16706490

  17. Interaction between {alpha}5{beta}1 integrin and secreted fibronectin is involved in macrophage differentiation of human HL-60 myeloid leukemia cells.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laouar, A.; Collart, F. R.; Chubb, C. B. H.; Xie, B.; Huberman, E.; Center for Mechanistic Biology and Biotechnology; anl-cmb

    1999-01-01

    We examined the role of fibronectin (FN) and FN-binding integrins in macrophage differentiation. Increased FN and {alpha}5{beta}1 integrin gene expression was observed in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate PMA-treated HL-60 cells and PMA- or macrophage-CSF-treated blood monocytes before the manifestation of macrophage markers. After treatment of HL-60 cells and monocytes, newly synthesized FN was released and deposited on the dishes. An HL-60 cell variant, HL-525, which is deficient in the protein kinase C{beta} (PKC-{beta}) and resistant to PMA-induced differentiation, failed to express FN after PMA treatment. Transfecting HL-525 cells with a PKC-{beta} expression plasmid restored PMA-induced FN gene expression and macrophage differentiation. Untreated HL-525 cells (which have a high level of the {alpha}5{beta}1 integrin) incubated on FN differentiated into macrophages. The percentage of cells having a macrophage phenotype induced by PMA in HL-60 cells, by FN in HL-525 cells, or by either PMA or macrophage-CSF in monocytes was reduced in the presence of mAbs to FN and {alpha}5{beta}1 integrin. The integrin-signaling nonreceptor tyrosine kinase, p72{sup Syk}, was activated in PMA-treated HL-60 and FN-treated HL-525 cells. We suggest that macrophage differentiation involves the activation of PKC-{beta} and expression of extracellular matrix proteins such as FN and the corresponding integrins, {alpha}5{beta}1 integrin in particular. The stimulated cells, through the integrins, attach to substrates by binding to the deposited FN. This attachment, in turn, may through integrin signaling activate nonreceptor tyrosine kinases, including p72{sup Syk}, and later lead to expression of other genes involved in evoking the macrophage phenotype.

  18. Micro-mechanical modeling of alpha/beta two-phased titanium alloy behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to better describe the mechanical behaviour of the Ti-6246 alloy, a two-phase material where the alpha phase inelastic behaviour is strongly anisotropic, a micro-mechanical approach has been developed to consider the various heterogeneity levels and the role of the various internal stresses induced by its heterogenous character. Among the simulation results, it is shown that the cyclic softening (or over-softening) is not only the consequence of a reduction of transgranular internal stresses (multiplication of the number of slip bands in the alpha phase) but is also related to the inter-cellular-type internal stress redistribution. (A.B.)

  19. Effects of meal size and composition on incretin, alpha-cell, and beta-cell responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkelijkhuizen, Josina M; McQuarrie, Kelly; Girman, Cynthia J;

    2009-01-01

    The incretins glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) regulate postprandial insulin release from the beta-cells. We investigated the effects of 3 standardized meals with different caloric and nutritional content in terms of postprandial glucose, insu...

  20. Conversion of mature human beta-cells into glucagon-producing alpha-cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijker, H.S.; Ravelli, R.B.; Mommaas-Kienhuis, A.M.; van Apeldoorn, A.A.; Engelse, M.A.; Zaldumbide, A.; Bonner-Weir, S.; Rabelink, T.J.; Hoeben, R.C.; Clevers, H.; Mummery, C.L.; Carlotti, F.; de Koning, E.

    2013-01-01

    Conversion of one terminally differentiated cell type into another (or transdifferentiation) usually requires the forced expression of key transcription factors. We examined the plasticity of human insulin-producing beta-cells in a model of islet cell aggregate formation. Here, we show that primary

  1. Lipidated alpha-Peptide/beta-Peptoid Hybrids with Potent Antiinflammatory Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbakke, Sarah L.; Larsen, Camilla J.; Heegaard, Peter M. H.;

    2015-01-01

    , in contrast to polymyxin B, displayed only minor activity in the Limulus amebocyte lysate assay. Flow cytometry data showed specific interaction of a fluorophore-labeled lipidated a-peptide/beta-peptoid hybrid with monocytes and granulocytes indicating a cellular target expressed by these leukocyte subsets....

  2. Noninvasive visualization and quantification of tumor {alpha}{sub V{beta}3} integrin expression using a novel positron emission tomography probe, {sup 64}Cu-cyclam-RAFT-c(-RGDfK-){sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Zhao-Hui [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Furukawa, Takako, E-mail: tfuru@nirs.go.j [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Biomedical Imaging Research Center, University of Fukui, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Galibert, Mathieu; Boturyn, Didier [Departement de Chimie Moleculaire, UMR 5250, CNRS-Universite Joseph Fourier, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Coll, Jean-Luc [INSERM U823, Institut Albert Bonniot and Universite Joseph Fourier, 38706 La Tronche Cedex, Grenoble (France); Fukumura, Toshimitsu; Saga, Tsuneo [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Dumy, Pascal [Departement de Chimie Moleculaire, UMR 5250, CNRS-Universite Joseph Fourier, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Fujibayashi, Yasuhisa [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Biomedical Imaging Research Center, University of Fukui, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan)

    2011-05-15

    Introduction: The {alpha}{sub V{beta}3} integrin is a well-known transmembrane receptor involved in tumor invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis. Our aim was to evaluate a novel positron emission tomography (PET) probe, {sup 64}Cu-cyclam-RAFT-c(-RGDfK-){sub 4}, for noninvasive visualization and quantification of {alpha}{sub V{beta}3} integrin expression. Methods: RAFT-c(-RGDfK-){sub 4}, a tetrameric cyclic Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)-based peptide, was conjugated with a bifunctional chelator, 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane (cyclam), radiolabeled with the positron emitter {sup 64}Cu and evaluated in vitro by cell binding and competitive inhibition assays and in vivo by biodistribution and receptor blocking studies, and PET imaging. The following cell lines, human embryonic kidney HEK293({beta}{sub 1}) [{alpha}{sub V{beta}3}-negative] and HEK293({beta}{sub 3}) [{alpha}{sub V{beta}3}-overexpressing] and human glioblastoma U87MG [naturally expressing {alpha}{sub V{beta}3}], together with their subcutaneous xenografts in athymic nude mice, were used for the present study. The expression levels of {alpha}{sub V{beta}3} on these cell lines and tumor xenografts were analyzed by flow cytometry and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis/autoradiography, respectively. Results: {sup 64}Cu-cyclam-RAFT-c(-RGDfK-){sub 4} demonstrated the in vitro and in vivo specificity for the {alpha}{sub V{beta}3} integrin and displayed rapid blood clearance, predominantly renal excretion and low uptake in nontumor tissues. Tumor uptake of {sup 64}Cu-cyclam-RAFT-c(-RGDfK-){sub 4} (3 h postinjection) in HEK293({beta}{sub 3}) (high levels of {alpha}{sub V{beta}3}), U87MG (moderate levels of {alpha}{sub V{beta}3}) and HEK293({beta}{sub 1}) (undetectable levels of {alpha}{sub V{beta}3}) tumors was 9.35%{+-}1.19%, 3.46%{+-}0.45% and 1.18%{+-}0.30% injected dose per gram, respectively, with a strong and positive correlation with the tumor {alpha}{sub V{beta}3} expression levels

  3. Genetic evidence that HNF-1alpha-dependent transcriptional control of HNF-4alpha is essential for human pancreatic beta cell function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sara K; Párrizas, Marcelina; Jensen, Maria L;

    2002-01-01

    Mutations in the genes encoding hepatocyte nuclear factor 4alpha (HNF-4alpha) and HNF-1alpha impair insulin secretion and cause maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY). HNF-4alpha is known to be an essential positive regulator of HNF-1alpha. More recent data demonstrates that HNF-4alpha......, and consequently in reduced HNF-1alpha-dependent activation. These findings provide genetic evidence that HNF-1alpha serves as an upstream regulator of HNF-4alpha and interacts directly with the P2 promoter in human pancreatic cells. Furthermore, they indicate that this regulation is essential to maintain normal...

  4. Expression of recombinant alpha and beta tubulins from the yew Taxus cuspidata and analysis of the microtubule assembly in the presence of taxol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Yuma; Abe, Akihiro; Ito, Kumiko; Cho, Yuko; Yotsu-Yamashita, Mari; Konoki, Keiichi

    2014-01-01

    Taxol was originally isolated from the yew Taxus brevifolia. Because taxol inhibits the depolymerization of microtubules, the presence of a self-resistance mechanism in Taxus spp. was hypothesized. The cloning of the cDNA for alpha and beta tubulins from Taxus cuspidata and those from the human embryonic kidney cell line HEK293T revealed that the (26)Asp, (359)Arg, and (361)Leu residues in the human beta tubulin, which are important for taxol binding, were replaced with Glu, Trp, and Met in the beta tubulin of T. cuspidata, respectively. The microtubule assembly of the recombinant alpha and beta tubulins was monitored turbidimetrically, and the results clearly demonstrated that the microtubule from T. cuspidata is less sensitive to taxol than that from HEK293T cells. The Taxus microtubule composed of the wild-type alpha tubulin and the beta tubulin with the E26D mutation restored the sensitivity to taxol. We thus postulated that the mutation identified in the beta tubulin of T. cuspidata plays a role in the self-resistance of this species against taxol.

  5. The role of alpha3beta1 integrin in determining the supramolecular organization of laminin-5 in the extracellular matrix of keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    deHart, Gregory W; Healy, Kevin E; Jones, Jonathan C R

    2003-02-01

    Analyses of mice with targeted deletions in the genes for alpha3 and beta1 integrin suggest that the alpha3beta1 integrin heterodimer likely determines the organization of the extracellular matrix within the basement membrane of skin. Here we tested this hypothesis using keratinocytes derived from alpha3 integrin-null mice. We have compared the organizational state of laminin-5, a ligand of alpha3beta1 integrin, in the matrix of wild-type keratinocytes with that of laminin-5 in the matrix of alpha3 integrin-null cells. Laminin-5 distributes diffusely in arc structures in the matrix of wild-type mouse keratinocytes, whereas laminin-5 is organized into linear, spike-like arrays by the alpha3 integrin-null cells. The fact that alpha3 integrin-null cells are deficient in their ability to assemble a proper laminin-5 matrix is also shown by their failure to remodel laminin-5 when plated onto surfaces coated with purified laminin-5 protein. In sharp contrast, wild-type keratinocytes organize exogenously added laminin-5 into discrete ring-like organizations. These findings led us next to assess whether differences in laminin-5 organization in the matrix of the wild-type and alpha3 integrin-null cells impact cell behavior. Our results indicate that alpha3 integrin-null cells are more motile than their wild-type counterparts and leave extensive trails of laminin-5 over the surface on which they move. Moreover, HEK 293 cells migrate significantly more on the laminin-5-rich matrix derived from the alpha3 integrin-null cells than on the wild-type keratinocyte laminin-5 matrix. In addition, alpha3 integrin-null cells show low strength of adhesion to surfaces coated with purified laminin-5 compared to wild-type cells although both the wild type and the alpha3 integrin-null keratinocytes adhere equally strongly to laminin-5 that has been organized into arrays by other epithelial cells. These data suggest: (1) that alpha3beta1 integrin plays an important role in determining the

  6. Some rules to improve the energy resolution in alpha liquid scintillation with beta rejection

    CERN Document Server

    Aupiais, J; Dacheux, N

    2003-01-01

    Two common scintillating mixtures dedicated to alpha measurements by means of alpha liquid scintillation with pulse shape discrimination were tested: the di-isopropylnaphthalene - based and the toluene-based solvents containing the commercial cocktails Ultima Gold AB trademark and Alphaex trademark. We show the possibility to enhance the resolution up to 200% by using no-water miscible cocktails and by reducing the optical path. Under these conditions, the resolution of about 200 keV can be obtained either by the Tri Carb sup T sup M or by the Perals sup T sup M spectrometers. The time responses, e.g., the time required for a complete energy transfer between the initial interaction alpha particle-solvent and the final fluorescence of the organic scintillator, have been compared. Both cocktails present similar behavior. According to the Foerster theory, about 6-10 ns are required to complete the energy transfer. For both apparatus, the detection limits were determined for alpha emitters. The sensitivity of the...

  7. Increased messenger RNA levels of the antagonist thyroid hormone receptor erbA-alpha 2 and decreased levels of erbA-alpha 1 and erbA-beta 1 receptor messenger RNAs in neoplastic rodent cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Too, C K; Guernsey, D L

    1992-04-15

    Nothern blot analysis of total RNA from the mouse C3H/10T1/2 cell line indicated that the erbA alpha gene transcribed three mRNA species of similar sizes (2.6, 5.5, 6.6 kilobases) as found in rodents. The 2.6-kilobase mRNA (erbA-alpha 2) was approximately 7- to 8-fold more abundant than either the 5.5- (erbA-alpha 1) or 6.6-kilobase species. The expression of the erbA-alpha 2 transcript increased 3- to 30-fold when "normal" mouse or rat cells were growth arrested by concluence. Triiodothyronine, at a concentration of 1 nM, had no effect on the levels of the erbA-alpha mRNA species in confluent cells nor on the levels of erbA-alpha 2 in proliferative normal or transformed C3H/10T1/2 cells. In log-phase growing cells there was a 2.5- to 5-fold increase in the relative expression of erbA-alpha 2 mRNA in transformed mouse C3H/10T1/2 cells, transformed cloned rat embryo fibroblasts (CREF), transformed rat embryo fibroblasts (REF), and a transformed temperature-sensitive rat mutant cell line (ts7E) when compared with their non-transformed counterparts. In contrast to the elevation of erbA-alpha 2 in transformed cells, erbA-alpha 1 and erbA-beta 1 mRNAs decreased in transformed mouse and rat cell lines. In conclusion, it is suggested that the increased levels of the erbA-alpha 2 transcript and the decreased levels of erbA-alpha 1 and erbA-beta 1 in neoplastic cells may account for the loss of thyroid hormone regulation of inducible pathways and decreased nuclear triiodothyronine binding as previously reported.

  8. The influence of stress triaxiality on the damage mechanisms in an equiaxed {alpha}/{beta} Ti-6Al-4V alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helbert, A.L.; Feaugas, X.; Clavel, M. [Univ. de Technologie de Compiegne (France). Div. Mecanique

    1996-10-01

    The influence of the stress triaxiality on void formation, void growth, and fracture was investigated for an equiaxed Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Void nucleation in the {alpha} phase was found to occur for a critical value of macroscopic plastic strain, whereas void nucleation at the {alpha}/{beta} interface also depends on triaxiality. Under low triaxiality and important plastic strain, voids appear and grow in the area where the microshear bands develop, with an angle close to 45 deg to the stress axis in the {alpha} particles. In contrast, with high triaxiality, voids nucleate preferably at the {alpha}/{beta} interfaces and grow perpendicular to the stress axis by a cleavage mechanism. In a middle range of triaxiality and plastic strain, voids nucleate in {alpha} because of the sufficient plastic strain and also at the {alpha}/{beta} interfaces because of the sufficient triaxiality ({chi}). Void growth occurs with an angle of 60 deg to the stress axis, since {chi} is not high enough to create cleavage and {epsilon}{sub p} is high enough to provide a ductile growth. Two types of fracture were identified and reported on a fracture map: under low triaxiality, failure appears by plastic instability, whereas for high triaxiality, the instability is induced by a void-growth process discussed with the help of Rice and Tracey`s approach.

  9. Behaviour of spectral entropy, spectral edge frequency 90%, and alpha and beta power parameters during low-dose propofol infusion.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mahon, P

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: In this study we analyse the behaviour, potential clinical application and optimal cortical sampling location of the spectral parameters: (i) relative alpha and beta power; (ii) spectral edge frequency 90%; and (iii) spectral entropy as monitors of moderate propofol-induced sedation. METHODS: Multi-channel EEG recorded from 12 ASA 1 (American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status 1) patients during low-dose, target effect-site controlled propofol infusion was used for this analysis. The initial target effect-site concentration was 0.5 microg ml(-1) and increased at 4 min intervals in increments of 0.5 to 2 microg ml(-1). EEG parameters were calculated for 2 s epochs in the frequency ranges 0.5-32 and 0.5-47 Hz. All parameters were calculated in the channels: P4-O2, P3-O1, F4-C4, F3-C3, F3-F4, and Fp1-Fp2. Sedation was assessed clinically using the OAA\\/S (observer\\'s assessment of alertness\\/sedation) scale. RESULTS: Relative beta power and spectral entropy increased with increasing propofol effect-site concentration in both the 0.5-47 Hz [F(18, 90) = 3.455, P<0.05 and F(18, 90) = 3.33, P<0.05, respectively] and 0.5-32 Hz frequency range. This effect was significant in each individual channel (P<0.05). No effect was seen of increasing effect-site concentration on relative power in the alpha band. Averaged across all channels, spectral entropy did not outperform relative beta power in either the 0.5-32 Hz [Pk=0.79 vs 0.814 (P>0.05)] or 0.5-47 Hz range [Pk=0.81 vs 0.82 (P>0.05)]. The best performing indicator in any single channel was spectral entropy in the frequency range 0.5-47 Hz in the frontal channel F3-F4 (Pk=0.85). CONCLUSIONS: Relative beta power and spectral entropy when considered over the propofol effect-site range studied here increase in value, and correlate well with clinical assessment of sedation.

  10. Short-Time Beta Relaxation in Glass-Forming Liquids Is Cooperative in Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, Smarajit; Dasgupta, Chandan; Sastry, Srikanth

    2016-02-01

    Temporal relaxation of density fluctuations in supercooled liquids near the glass transition occurs in multiple steps. Using molecular dynamics simulations for three model glass-forming liquids, we show that the short-time β relaxation is cooperative in nature. Using finite-size scaling analysis, we extract a growing length scale associated with beta relaxation from the observed dependence of the beta relaxation time on the system size. We find, in qualitative agreement with the prediction of the inhomogeneous mode coupling theory, that the temperature dependence of this length scale is the same as that of the length scale that describes the spatial heterogeneity of local dynamics in the long-time α -relaxation regime.

  11. Sugar derivatives containing oxiranes and alpha,beta-unsaturated gamma-lactones as potential environmentally friendly insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justino, Jorge; Rauter, Amélia P; Canda, Tana; Wilkins, Richard; Matthews, Elizabeth

    2005-10-01

    A range of novel sugar derivatives containing oxiranes or alpha,beta-unsaturated gamma-lactones in their structure were evaluated as potential insecticides with the added possible benefit of being benign in the environment. A number of arthropod species were chosen to represent those in the terrestrial, aerial and aquatic environments, covering target adult insects such as Musca domestica L (housefly) and Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (glasshouse whitefly), which are public health and horticultural pests, Drosophila melanogaster Meig (fruitfly), both adult and larva, and a marine non-target crustacean, Artemia salina L. The tested compounds possessed efficacy and selectivity against these insect species, but were not toxic to brine shrimps, a reference organism in assays to evaluate the potential toxicity hazard to invertebrates in ecosystems.

  12. An X-ray diffraction procedure for the estimation of the alpha and beta polymorph proportion in sintered silicon carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of X-ray powder diffraction for the determination of the proportions of the alpha and beta polymorphs in the sintered silicon carbide of furnace elements has been investigated. There are several α-SiC reflections without β-SiC counterparts but no unique β-SiC reflection. An internal ratio method cannot therefore be employed and direct reliance must be placed on the intensity change of distinctive α-SiC peaks with progressive β-SiC dilution. Uniformity of sample preparation, sample presentation and machine operating conditions during calibration and subsequent application is therefore essential. The 0.266 nm α-SiC peak was selected for use in calibration as it is readily discriminated above a relatively flat background even at low levels of α-SiC in mixtures of the two polymorphs. (author)

  13. Evaluating practicability of an LSC method for routine monitoring gross alpha and beta activities in water samples in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A procedure using liquid scintillation counting for the monitoring of gross alpha and beta activities in environmental water was implemented to improve the conventional procedure using GFPC adopted in Taiwan. The new procedure was acquired through calibration and validation, and then was applied to the monitoring of surface water in Taiwan. This procedure can improve 2–4 times of detection efficiencies and takes only 70–80% of analysis time with reliable accuracy. With these features, the newly developed procedure is favorable during emergency situations. - Highlights: ► An improvement of the monitoring of gross α/β activities in water in Taiwan. ► Improving 2–4 times of detection efficiencies and taking 70–80% of analysis time. ► Twenty three sites of surface water were monitored after the Fukushima accident.

  14. Fracture of an {alpha}/{beta} titanium alloy under stress triaxiality states at 773 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeois, M.; Feaugas, X.; Clavel, M. [Univ. de Technologie de Compiegne (France). Division Mecanique

    1996-05-01

    This study has shown that the fracture of titanium alloy 6246 at high temperature is very sensitive to the loading path. In addition, it is demonstrated that the concept of the critical void size, provided by Rice and Tracey`s approach, is only applicable to high triaxialities ({chi} > 0.9). Under low triaxiality ({chi} {le} 0.9) the plastic flow instigates the damage process, favoring shearing instability in prior {beta} grain.

  15. A role for the androgen metabolite, 5alpha androstane 3beta, 17beta diol (3β-diol) in the regulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, Robert J; Sharma, Dharmendra; Uht, Rosalie

    2011-01-01

    Activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is a basic reaction of animals to environmental perturbations that threaten homeostasis. These responses are ultimately regulated by neurons residing within the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus. Within the PVN, corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH), vasopressin (AVP), and oxytocin (OT) expressing neurons are critical as they can regulate both neuroendocrine and autonomic responses. Estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T) are well known reproductive hormones; however, they have also been shown to modulate stress reactivity. In rodent models, evidence shows that under some conditions E2 enhances stress activated adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone secretion. In contrast, T decreases the gain of the HPA axis. The modulatory role of testosterone was originally thought to be via 5 alpha reduction to the potent androgen dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and its subsequent binding to the androgen receptor, whereas E2 effects were thought to be mediated by estrogen receptors alpha (ERalpha) and beta (ERbeta). However, DHT has been shown to be metabolized to the ERbeta agonist, 5α- androstane 3β, 17β Diol (3β-Diol). The actions of 3β-Diol on the HPA axis are mediated by ERbeta which inhibits the PVN response to stressors. In gonadectomized rats, ERbeta agonists reduce CORT and ACTH responses to restraint stress, an effect that is also present in wild-type but not ERbeta-knockout mice. The neurobiological mechanisms underlying the ability of ERbeta to alter HPA reactivity are not currently known. CRH, AVP, and OT have all been shown to be regulated by estradiol and recent studies indicate an important role of ERbeta in these regulatory processes. Moreover, activation of the CRH and AVP promoters has been shown to occur by 3β-Diol binding to ERbeta and this is thought to occur through alternate pathways of gene regulation. Based on available data, a novel and important role of 3β-Diol in

  16. A Role for the Androgen Metabolite, 5alpha Androstane 3beta, 17beta Diol (3β-Diol) in the Regulation of the Hypothalamo-Pituitary–Adrenal Axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, Robert J.; Sharma, Dharmendra; Uht, Rosalie

    2011-01-01

    Activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis is a basic reaction of animals to environmental perturbations that threaten homeostasis. These responses are ultimately regulated by neurons residing within the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus. Within the PVN, corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH), vasopressin (AVP), and oxytocin (OT) expressing neurons are critical as they can regulate both neuroendocrine and autonomic responses. Estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T) are well known reproductive hormones; however, they have also been shown to modulate stress reactivity. In rodent models, evidence shows that under some conditions E2 enhances stress activated adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone secretion. In contrast, T decreases the gain of the HPA axis. The modulatory role of testosterone was originally thought to be via 5 alpha reduction to the potent androgen dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and its subsequent binding to the androgen receptor, whereas E2 effects were thought to be mediated by estrogen receptors alpha (ERalpha) and beta (ERbeta). However, DHT has been shown to be metabolized to the ERbeta agonist, 5α- androstane 3β, 17β Diol (3β-Diol). The actions of 3β-Diol on the HPA axis are mediated by ERbeta which inhibits the PVN response to stressors. In gonadectomized rats, ERbeta agonists reduce CORT and ACTH responses to restraint stress, an effect that is also present in wild-type but not ERbeta-knockout mice. The neurobiological mechanisms underlying the ability of ERbeta to alter HPA reactivity are not currently known. CRH, AVP, and OT have all been shown to be regulated by estradiol and recent studies indicate an important role of ERbeta in these regulatory processes. Moreover, activation of the CRH and AVP promoters has been shown to occur by 3β-Diol binding to ERbeta and this is thought to occur through alternate pathways of gene regulation. Based on available data, a novel and important role of 3

  17. Precision Fe K-Alpha and Fe K-Beta Line Spectroscopy of the Seyfert 1.9 Galaxy NGC 2992 with Suzaku

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaqoob, Tahir; Murphy, Kendrah D.; Griffiths, Richard E.; Haba, Yoshito; Inoue, Hajime; Itoh, Takeshi; Kelley, Richard; Kokubun, Motohide; Markowitz, Alex; Mushotzky, Richard; Okajima, Takashi; Ptak, Andrew; Reeves, James; Selemitos, Peter J.; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Terashima, Yuichi

    2006-01-01

    the line-of-sight, and that the mean (historically-averaged) continuum luminosity responsible for forming the line could be a factor of several higher than that measured from the data. We also detect the Fe K Beta line (corresponding to the narrow Fe K alpha line) with a high signal-to-noise ratio and describe a new robust method to constrain the ionization state of Fe responsible for the Fe K alpha and Fe K Beta lines that does not require any knowledge of possible gravitational and Doppler energy shifts affecting the line energies. For the distant line-emitting matter (e. g. the putative obscuring torus) we deduce that the predominant ionization state is lower than Fe VIII (at 99% confidence), conservatively taking into account residual calibration uncertainties in the XIS energy scale and theoretical and experimental uncertainties in the Fe K fluorescent line energies. From the limits on a possible Compton-reflection continuum it is likely that the narrow Fe K alpha and Fe K Beta lines originate in a Compton-thin structure.

  18. Subcellular localization and dynamics of Mac-1 (alpha m beta 2) in human neutrophils.

    OpenAIRE

    Sengeløv, H.; Kjeldsen, L; Diamond, M S; Springer, T A; Borregaard, N

    1993-01-01

    The subcellular localization of Mac-1 was determined in resting and stimulated human neutrophils after disruption by nitrogen cavitation and fractionation on two-layer Percoll density gradients. Light membranes were further separated by high voltage free flow electrophoresis. Mac-1 was determined by an ELISA with monoclonal antibodies that were specific for the alpha-chain (CD11b). In unstimulated neutrophils, 75% of Mac-1 colocalized with specific granules including gelatinase granules, 20% ...

  19. Restricted TCR-alpha CDR3 diversity disadvantages natural regulatory T cell development in the B6.2.16 beta-chain transgenic mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Yogesh; Ferreira, Cristina; Chan, Andrew C Y; Dyson, Julian; Garden, Oliver A

    2010-09-15

    To date, analysis of mice expressing TCR-beta transgenes derived from CD4(+) T cell clones has demonstrated equivalent or higher TCR diversity in naturally occurring regulatory CD4(+) T cells (Tregs) versus conventional CD4(+) T cells (Tcons). However, TCR-alpha-chain diversity in these mice may be influenced by the inherent bias toward the CD4(+) lineage in the selected repertoires. We wished to determine whether the choice of TCR-beta-chain influences the relative diversity of the Treg and Tcon repertoires, examining as a model the B6.2.16beta-transgenic mouse, in which the fixed beta-chain is derived from a CD8(+) T cell clone. B6.2.16beta Treg thymocytes showed significantly lower TRAV17 (AV9) CDR3 sequence diversity than both syngeneic Tcon thymocytes, and Treg and Tcon thymocytes from wild-type C57BL/6 (B6) mice. The ratio of single-positive CD4(+)/single-positive CD8(+) thymocytes in B6.2.16beta mice was similar to that in B6, yet both the proportional frequency and absolute number of CD4(+)Foxp3(+) cells was significantly lower in the thymi and peripheral lymph nodes of B6.2.16beta mice. Furthermore, B6 + B6.2.16beta-->B6 mixed bone marrow chimeras revealed that the transgenic beta-chain disadvantaged Treg development in a competitive environment. These data underline the importance of the beta-chain in assessments of Treg alpha-chain diversity and provide further support for the notion that interclonal competition for entry into the Treg lineage is a significant factor in determining the composition of this lineage.

  20. Behaviour of {alpha}-, {beta}-, {gamma}-, and {delta}-hexachlorocyclohexane in the soil-plant system of a contaminated site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvelo Pereira, R. [Departamento de Edafoloxia e Quimica Agricola, Facultade de Bioloxia, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15782-Santiago de Compostela (Spain)]. E-mail: edrobert@usc.es; Camps-Arbestain, M. [Departamento de Edafoloxia e Quimica Agricola, Facultade de Bioloxia, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15782-Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Rodriguez Garrido, B. [Departamento de Edafoloxia e Quimica Agricola, Facultade de Bioloxia, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15782-Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Macias, F. [Departamento de Edafoloxia e Quimica Agricola, Facultade de Bioloxia, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15782-Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Monterroso, C. [Departamento de Edafoloxia e Quimica Agricola, Facultade de Bioloxia, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 15782-Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2006-11-15

    The behaviour of the organochlorine pesticide hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) is investigated. The concentrations of {alpha}-, {beta}-, {gamma}-, and {delta}-HCH isomers were measured in soils, rhizosphere and vegetation in a contaminated area in Galicia (NW Spain). The total concentration of HCH in soils reached values close to 20 000 mg kg{sup -1}. The plants analysed (Avena sativa L., Chenopodium spp., Solanum nigrum L., Cytisus striatus (Hill) Roth, and Vicia sativa L.) accumulated HCH, especially the {beta}-HCH isomer, in their tissues. The most likely mechanisms of HCH accumulation in plants were sorption of soil HCH on roots and sorption of volatilized HCH on aerial plant tissues. The concentrations of HCH obtained from the bulk and rhizosphere soils of selected plant species suggest that roots tend to reduce levels of the HCH isomers in the rhizosphere. The results reflect the importance of vegetation in the distribution of organochlorine compounds in the soil-plant system. - This paper describes the soil-plant relationship of hexachlorocyclohexane isomers in a contaminated site, with special focus on the rhizosphere effect.

  1. Cronbach's [Alpha], Revelle's [Beta], and McDonald's [Omega][sub H]: Their Relations with Each Other and Two Alternative Conceptualizations of Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinbarg, Richard E.; Revelle, William; Yovel, Iftah; Li, Wen

    2005-01-01

    We make theoretical comparisons among five coefficients--Cronbach's [alpha], Revelle's [beta], McDonald's [omega][sub h], and two alternative conceptualizations of reliability. Though many end users and psychometricians alike may not distinguish among these five coefficients, we demonstrate formally their nonequivalence. Specifically, whereas…

  2. Unlike PPAR{gamma}, PPAR{alpha} or PPAR{beta}/{delta} activation does not promote human monocyte differentiation toward alternative macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouhlel, Mohamed Amine [Univ Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Inserm U545, F-59000 Lille (France); UDSL, F-59000 Lille (France); Institut Pasteur de Lille, F-59019 Lille (France); Brozek, John [Genfit, Loos (France); Derudas, Bruno [Univ Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Inserm U545, F-59000 Lille (France); UDSL, F-59000 Lille (France); Institut Pasteur de Lille, F-59019 Lille (France); Zawadzki, Christophe; Jude, Brigitte [Inserm ERI-9 and Equipe d' Accueil 2693, IFR114, Universite de Lille, Lille (France); Staels, Bart, E-mail: bart.staels@pasteur-lille.fr [Univ Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Inserm U545, F-59000 Lille (France); UDSL, F-59000 Lille (France); Institut Pasteur de Lille, F-59019 Lille (France); Chinetti-Gbaguidi, Giulia [Univ Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Inserm U545, F-59000 Lille (France); UDSL, F-59000 Lille (France); Institut Pasteur de Lille, F-59019 Lille (France)

    2009-08-28

    Macrophages adapt their response to micro-environmental signals. While Th1 cytokines promote pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages, Th2 cytokines promote an 'alternative' anti-inflammatory M2 macrophage phenotype. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors expressed in macrophages where they control the inflammatory response. It has been shown that PPAR{gamma} promotes the differentiation of monocytes into anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages in humans and mice, while a role for PPAR{beta}/{delta} in this process has been reported only in mice and no data are available for PPAR{alpha}. Here, we show that in contrast to PPAR{gamma}, expression of PPAR{alpha} and PPAR{beta}/{delta} overall does not correlate with the expression of M2 markers in human atherosclerotic lesions, whereas a positive correlation with genes of lipid metabolism exists. Moreover, unlike PPAR{gamma}, PPAR{alpha} or PPAR{beta}/{delta} activation does not influence human monocyte differentiation into M2 macrophages in vitro. Thus, PPAR{alpha} and PPAR{beta}/{delta} do not appear to modulate the alternative differentiation of human macrophages.

  3. Estrogen and the selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) protection against cell death in estrogen receptor alpha and beta expressing U2OS cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kallio, Anu; Guo, Tao; Lamminen, Elisa; Seppänen, Jani; Kangas, Lauri; Väänänen, H Kalervo; Härkönen, Pirkko

    2008-01-01

    Estrogen and the selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) protection against cell death in estrogen receptor alpha and beta expressing U2OS cells SWEDEN (Kallio, Anu) SWEDEN Received: 2007-12-01 Revised: 2008-03-12 Accepted: 2008-03-12

  4. Development of a high-throughput screening-compatible assay to identify inhibitors of the CK2alpha/CK2beta interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hochscherf, Jennifer; Lindenblatt, Dirk; Steinkrueger, Michaela;

    2015-01-01

    active site-directed approaches. The current article describes the development of a fluorescence anisotropy-based assay that mimics the principle of CK2 subunit interaction by using CK2alpha1-335 and the fluorescent probe CF-Ahx-Pc as a CK2beta analog. In addition, we identified new inhibitors able...

  5. Binding of peptides to HLA-DQ molecules: peptide binding properties of the disease-associated HLA-DQ(alpha 1*0501, beta 1*0201) molecule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, B H; Buus, S; Vartdal, F;

    1994-01-01

    Peptide binding to DQ molecules has not previously been described. Here we report a biochemical peptide-binding assay specific for the DQ2 [i.e. DQ(alpha 1*0501, beta 1*0201)] molecule. This molecule was chosen since it shows a strong association to diseases such as celiac disease and insulin...

  6. Messenger RNAs from the Scutellum and Aleurone of Germinating Barley Encode (1-->3,1-->4)-beta-d-Glucanase, alpha-Amylase and Carboxypeptidase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mundy, John; Brandt, Anders; Fincher, Geoffrey B

    1985-01-01

    Polyclonal antibodies raised against barley (1-->3,1-->4)-beta-d-glucanase, alpha-amylase and carboxypeptidase were used to detect precursor polypeptides of these hydrolytic enzymes among the in vitro translation products of mRNA isolated from the scutellum and aleurone of germinating barley. In ...

  7. Specific in vitro toxicity of crude and refined petroleum products: II. Estrogen (alpha and beta) and androgen receptor-mediated responses in yeast assays.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrabie, C.M.; Candido, A.; van Duursen, M.B.M.; Jonker, M.T.O.

    2010-01-01

    The present study is the second in a series aiming at a systematic inventory of specific toxic effects of oils. By employing a recombinant yeast stably transfected with human estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha) or -beta (ERbeta) or androgen receptor (AR) and expressing yeast enhanced green fluorescent

  8. Synthesis of {alpha}- and {beta}-lapachone derivatives from hetero diels-alder trapping of alkyl and aryl o-quinone methides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Fernando de C. da; Ferreira, Sabrina B.; Ferreira, Vitor F. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Organica], e-mail: cegvito@vm.uff.br; Kaiser, Carlos R.; Pinto, Angelo C. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2009-07-01

    Methylene and aryl o-quinone methides (o-QMs) generated by Knoevenagel condensation of 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone with formaldehyde and arylaldehydes, undergo facile hetero Diels-Alder reaction with some substituted styrenes (as dienophiles) in aqueous ethanol media providing derivatives of {alpha}- and {beta}-lapachone (author)

  9. 16Beta-hydroxy-5alpha-cholestane-3,6-dione, a novel cytotoxic oxysterol from the red alga Jania rubens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ktari, L; Blond, A; Guyot, M

    2000-11-20

    A new cytotoxic oxysterol, 16beta-hydroxy-5alpha-cholestane-3,6-dione was isolated from the red alga Jania rubens. Its structure was established by spectroscopic method. The ID50 value was 0.5 microg/mL. PMID:11086730

  10. Estimation of {sup 3}J{sub HN-H{alpha}} and {sup 3}J{sub H}{alpha}{sub -H{beta}} coupling constants from heteronuclear TOCSY spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagano, Katiuscia; Fogolari, Federico, E-mail: ffogolari@mail.dstb.uniud.it; Corazza, Alessandra; Viglino, Paolo; Esposito, Gennaro [Universita di Udine, Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biomediche (Italy)

    2007-11-15

    {sup 3}J proton-proton coupling constants bear information on the intervening dihedral angles. Methods have been developed to derive this information from NMR spectra of proteins. Using series expansion of the time dependent density matrix, and exploiting the simple topology of amino acid spin-systems, formulae for estimation of {sup 3}J{sub HN-H{alpha}} and {sup 3}J{sub H}{alpha}{sub -H{beta}} from HSQC-TOCSY spectra are derived. The results obtained on a protein entailing both {alpha}-helix and {beta}-sheet secondary structure elements agree very well with J-coupling constants computed from the X-ray structure. The method compares well with existing methods and requires only 2D spectra which would be typically otherwise recorded for structural studies.

  11. Absolute measurement of {beta} {sub eff} based on Feynman-{alpha} experiments and the two-region model in the IPEN/MB-01 research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuramoto, Renato Y.R. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN/CNEN-SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242 Cidade Universitaria, 05508-000 Pinheiros, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Santos, Adimir dos [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN/CNEN-SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242 Cidade Universitaria, 05508-000 Pinheiros, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: asantos@ipen.br; Jerez, Rogerio [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN/CNEN-SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242 Cidade Universitaria, 05508-000 Pinheiros, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Diniz, Ricardo [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN/CNEN-SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242 Cidade Universitaria, 05508-000 Pinheiros, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2007-06-15

    A new methodology for absolute measurement of the effective delayed neutron fraction {beta} {sub eff} based on Feynman-{alpha} experiments and the two-region model was developed. This method made use of Feynman-{alpha} experiments and the two-region model. To examine the present methodology, a series of Feynman-{alpha} experiments were conducted at the IPEN/MB-01 research reactor facility. In contrast with other techniques like the slope method, Nelson-number method and {sup 252}Cf-source method, the main advantage of this new methodology is to obtain {beta} {sub eff} with the required accuracy and without knowledge of any other parameter. By adopting the present approach, {beta} {sub eff} was measured with a 0.67% uncertainty. In addition, the prompt neutron generation time, {lambda}, and other parameters, was also obtained in an absolute experimental way. In general, the measured parameters are in good agreement with the values found from frequency analysis experiments. The theory-experiment comparison for the {beta} {sub eff} measured in this work shows that JENDL3.3 presented the best agreement (within 1%). The reduction of the {sup 235}U thermal yield as proposed by Okajima and Sakurai is completely justified according to the {beta} {sub eff} measurements performed in this work.

  12. Absolute measurement of {beta}{sub eff} based on Feynman-{alpha} experiments and the two-region model in the IPEN/MB-01 research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuramoto, Renato Yoichi Ribeiro; Santos, Adimir dos; Jerez, Rogerio; Diniz, Ricardo [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: ryrkuram@ipen.br; asantos@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    A new methodology for absolute measurement of the effective delayed neutron fraction {beta}{sub eff} based on Feynman-alpha experiments and the two-region model was developed. This method made use of Feynman-{alpha} experiments and the two-region model. To examine the present methodology, a series of Feynman-{alpha} experiments were conducted at the IPEN/MB-01 research reactor facility. In contrast with other techniques like the slope method, Nelson-number method and 252Cf-source method, the main advantage of this new methodology is to obtain {beta}{sub eff} with the required accuracy and without knowledge of any other parameter. By adopting the present approach, {beta}{sub eff} was measured with a 0.67% uncertainty. In addition, the prompt neutron generation time, {lambda}, and other parameters, was also obtained in an absolute experimental way. In general, the measured parameters are in good agreement with the values found from frequency analysis experiments. The theory-experiment comparison for the {beta}{sub eff} measured in this work shows that JENDL3.3 presented the best agreement (within 1%). The reduction of the {sup 235}U thermal yield as proposed by Okajima and Sakurai is completely justified according to the {beta}{sub eff} measurements performed in this work. (author)

  13. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha triggers mucus production in airway epithelium through an IkappaB kinase beta-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lora, José M; Zhang, Dong Mei; Liao, Sha Mei; Burwell, Timothy; King, Anne Marie; Barker, Philip A; Singh, Latika; Keaveney, Marie; Morgenstern, Jay; Gutiérrez-Ramos, José Carlos; Coyle, Anthony J; Fraser, Christopher C

    2005-10-28

    Excessive mucus production by airway epithelium is a major characteristic of a number of respiratory diseases, including asthma, chronic bronchitis, and cystic fibrosis. However, the signal transduction pathways leading to mucus production are poorly understood. Here we examined the potential role of IkappaB kinase beta (IKKbeta) in mucus synthesis in vitro and in vivo. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) or transforming growth factor-alpha stimulation of human epithelial cells resulted in mucus secretion as measured by MUC5AC mRNA and protein. TNF-alpha stimulation induced IKKbeta-dependent p65 nuclear translocation, mucus synthesis, and production of cytokines from epithelial cells. TNF-alpha, but not transforming growth factor-alpha, induced mucus production dependent on IKKbeta-mediated NF-kappaB activation. In vivo, TNF-alpha induced NF-kappaB as determined by whole mouse body bioluminescence. This activation was localized to the epithelium as revealed by LacZ staining in NF-kappaB-LacZ transgenic mice. TNF-alpha-induced mucus production in vivo could also be inhibited by administration into the epithelium of an IKKbeta dominant negative adenovirus. Taken together, our results demonstrated the important role of IKKbeta in TNF-alpha-mediated mucus production in airway epithelium in vitro and in vivo. PMID:16123045

  14. On the contribution of fluorescence to Ly$\\alpha$ halos (LAHs) around star forming galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Mas-Ribas, Lluís

    2016-01-01

    We quantify the contribution of Ly$\\alpha$ fluorescence to observed spatially extended Ly$\\alpha$ halos around Ly$\\alpha$ emitters (LAE) at redshift ${\\rm z=3.1}$. The key physical quantities that describe the fluorescent signal include (${\\it i}$) the distribution of cold gas in the circum-galactic medium (CGM); we explore simple analytic models and fitting functions to recent hydrodynamical simulations; (${\\it ii}$) local variations in the ionizing background due to ionizing sources that cluster around the central galaxy. We account for clustering by boosting the observationally inferred volumetric production rate of ionizing photons, $\\epsilon_{\\rm LyC}$, by a factor $1+\\xi_{\\rm LyC}(r)$, in which $\\xi_{\\rm LyC}(r)$ quantifies the clustering of ionizing sources around the central galaxy. We compute $\\xi_{\\rm LyC}(r)$ by assigning an 'effective' bias parameter to the ionizing sources. This novel approach allows us to quantify our ignorance of the population of ionizing sources in a simple parametrized form....

  15. Consistent Analysis of $O(\\alpha_s)$ Corrections to Pion Elastic Form Factor

    CERN Document Server

    Szczepaniak, A P; Ji, C R; Szczepaniak, Adam; Radyushkin, Anatoly; Ji, Chueng-Ryong

    1998-01-01

    We examine the role of O(\\alpha_s) perturbative corrections to the pion elastic form factor F_\\pi(Q^2). We express the quark current three-point function in terms of light cone variables and use Borel transformation to simultaneously model the Feynman mechanism contribution determined by the soft part of the pion light cone wave function and the hard term involving one gluon exchange. We find that for Q^2 \\sim 5 GeV^2 the total one gluon exchange contribution may reach 40% of the soft contribution, even though its hard, factorization scale dependent part remains relatively small.

  16. TNF{alpha} and IL-1{beta} are mediated by both TLR4 and Nod1 pathways in the cultured HAPI cells stimulated by LPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Wenwen; Zheng, Xuexing [College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, Changchun 130062, Jilin Province (China); Department of Anesthesiology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33136 (United States); Liu, Shue [Department of Anesthesiology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33136 (United States); Ouyang, Hongsheng [College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, Changchun 130062, Jilin Province (China); Levitt, Roy C.; Candiotti, Keith A. [Department of Anesthesiology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33136 (United States); Hao, Shuanglin, E-mail: shao@med.miami.edu [Department of Anesthesiology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33136 (United States)

    2012-04-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LPS induces proinflammatory cytokine release in HAPI cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer JNK pathway is dependent on TLR4 signaling to release cytokines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NF-{kappa}B pathway is dependent on Nod1 signaling to release cytokines. -- Abstract: A growing body of evidence recently suggests that glial cell activation plays an important role in several neurodegenerative diseases and neuropathic pain. Microglia in the central nervous system express toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) that is traditionally accepted as the primary receptor of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS activates TLR4 signaling pathways to induce the production of proinflammatory molecules. In the present studies, we verified the LPS signaling pathways using cultured highly aggressively proliferating immortalized (HAPI) microglial cells. We found that HAPI cells treated with LPS upregulated the expression of TLR4, phospho-JNK (pJNK) and phospho-NF-{kappa}B (pNF-{kappa}B), TNF{alpha} and IL-1{beta}. Silencing TLR4 with siRNA reduced the expression of pJNK, TNF{alpha} and IL-1{beta}, but not pNF-{kappa}B in the cells. Inhibition of JNK with SP600125 (a JNK inhibitor) decreased the expression of TNF{alpha} and IL-1{beta}. Unexpectedly, we found that inhibition of Nod1 with ML130 significantly reduced the expression of pNF-{kappa}B. Inhibition of NF-{kappa}B also reduced the expression of TNF{alpha} and IL-1{beta}. Nod1 ligand, DAP induced the upregulation of pNF-{kappa}B which was blocked by Nod1 inhibitor. These data indicate that LPS-induced pJNK is TLR4-dependent, and that pNF-{kappa}B is Nod1-dependent in HAPI cells treated with LPS. Either TLR4-JNK or Nod1-NF-{kappa}B pathways is involved in the expression of TNF{alpha} and IL-1{beta}.

  17. Special Form Testing of Sealed Source Encapsulation for High-Alpha-Activity Actinide Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Oscar A [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    In the United States all transportation of radioactive material is regulated by the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). Beginning in 2008 a new type of sealed-source encapsulation package was developed and tested by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These packages contain high-alpha-activity actinides and are regulated and transported in accordance with the requirements for DOT Class 7 hazardous material. The DOT provides specific regulations pertaining to special form encapsulation designs. The special form designation indicates that the encapsulated radioactive contents have a very low probability of dispersion even when subjected to significant structural events. The special form designs have been shown to simplify the delivery, transport, acceptance, and receipt processes. It is intended for these sealed-source encapsulations to be shipped to various facilities making it very advantageous for them to be certified as special form. To this end, DOT Certificates of Competent Authority (CoCAs) have been sought for the design suitable for containing high-alpha-activity actinide materials. This design consists of the high-alpha-activity material encapsulated within a triangular zirconia canister, referred to as a ZipCan, tile that is then enclosed by a spherical shell. The spherical shell design, with ZipCan tile inside, was tested for compliance with the special form regulations found in 49 CFR 173.469. The spherical enclosure was subjected to 9-m impact, 1 m percussion, and 10-minute thermal tests at the Packaging Evaluation Facility located at the National Transportation Research Center in Knoxville, TN USA and operated by ORNL. Before and after each test, the test units were subjected to a helium leak check and a bubble test. The ZipCan tiles and core were also subjected to the tests required for ISO 2919:2012(E), including a Class IV impact test and heat test and subsequently subjected to helium leakage rate tests [49 CFR 173.469(a)(4)(i)]. The impact

  18. Manganese-induced integrin affinity maturation promotes recruitment of alpha V beta 3 integrin to focal adhesions in endothelial cells: evidence for a role of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and Src.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormond, Olivier; Ponsonnet, Lionel; Hasmim, Meriem; Foletti, Alessandro; Rüegg, Curzio

    2004-07-01

    Integrin activity is controlled by changes in affinity (i.e. ligand binding) and avidity (i.e. receptor clustering). Little is known, however, about the effect of affinity maturation on integrin avidity and on the associated signaling pathways. To study the effect of affinity maturation on integrin avidity, we stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) with MnCl(2) to increase integrin affinity and monitored clustering of beta 1 and beta 3 integrins. In unstimulated HUVEC, beta 1 integrins were present in fibrillar adhesions, while alpha V beta 3 was detected in peripheral focal adhesions. Clustered beta 1 and beta 3 integrins expressed high affinity/ligand-induced binding site (LIBS) epitopes. MnCl(2)-stimulation promoted focal adhesion and actin stress fiber formation at the basal surface of the cells, and strongly enhanced mAb LM609 staining and expression of beta 3 high affinity/LIBS epitopes at focal adhesions. MnCl(2)-induced alpha V beta 3 clustering was blocked by a soluble RGD peptide, by wortmannin and LY294002, two pharmacological inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-K), and by over-expressing a dominant negative PI 3-K mutant protein. Conversely, over-expression of active PI 3-K and pharmacological inhibiton of Src with PP2 and CGP77675, enhanced basal and manganese-induced alpha V beta 3 clustering. Transient increased phosphorylation of protein kinase B/Akt, a direct target of PI 3K, occurred upon manganese stimulation. MnCl(2) did not alter beta 1 integrin distribution or beta1 high-affinity/LIBS epitope expression. Based on these results, we conclude that MnCl(2)-induced alpha V beta 3 integrin affinity maturation stimulates focal adhesion and actin stress fiber formation, and promotes recruitment of high affinity alpha V beta 3 to focal adhesions. Affinity-modulated alpha V beta 3 clustering requires PI3-K signaling and is negatively regulate by Src.

  19. Effects of meal size and composition on incretin, alpha-cell, and beta-cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijkelijkhuizen, Josina M; McQuarrie, Kelly; Girman, Cynthia J; Stein, Peter P; Mari, Andrea; Holst, Jens J; Nijpels, Giel; Dekker, Jacqueline M

    2010-04-01

    The incretins glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) regulate postprandial insulin release from the beta-cells. We investigated the effects of 3 standardized meals with different caloric and nutritional content in terms of postprandial glucose, insulin, glucagon, and incretin responses. In a randomized crossover study, 18 subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus and 6 healthy volunteers underwent three 4-hour meal tolerance tests (small carbohydrate [CH]-rich meal, large CH-rich meal, and fat-rich meal). Non-model-based and model-based estimates of beta-cell function and incremental areas under the curve of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, GLP-1, and GIP were calculated. Mixed models and Friedman tests were used to test for differences in meal responses. The large CH-rich meal and fat-rich meal resulted in a slightly larger insulin response as compared with the small CH-rich meal and led to a slightly shorter period of hyperglycemia, but only in healthy subjects. Model-based insulin secretion estimates did not show pronounced differences between meals. Both in healthy individuals and in those with diabetes, more CH resulted in higher GLP-1 release. In contrast with the other meals, GIP release was still rising 2 hours after the fat-rich meal. The initial glucagon response was stimulated by the large CH-rich meal, whereas the fat-rich meal induced a late glucagon response. Fat preferentially stimulates GIP secretion, whereas CH stimulates GLP-1 secretion. Differences in meal size and composition led to differences in insulin and incretin responses but not to differences in postprandial glucose levels of the well-controlled patients with diabetes. PMID:19846181

  20. Measurements of {beta} or {alpha} emitter long lived radionuclides using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry; Dosage a tres bas niveau de radionucleides a longue periode emetteurs {beta} ou {alpha} par spectrometrie de masse a couplage plasma inductif

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Provitina, O.

    1993-10-18

    The measurement of long-lived radionuclides is highly important for characterizing nuclear wastes for their later storage. The main techniques are {alpha} spectrometry, {beta} counting and {gamma} spectrometry. The large period of these isotopes leads to low specific activity needing time consuming measurements. Moreover, the radiometric techniques are often limited by problems of interferences involving several steps of pretreatments. Among these steps, the specific extraction with crown ethers is highly selective for the separation of {sup 99}Tc, {sup 129}I and {sup 135}Cs. The radiometric techniques are here replaced by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) the advantages of which are: few interferences, sensitivity which does not depend on the radiologic period as compared to radiochemistry. ICP-MS can then measure {sup 237}Np in enriched uranium matrix and reduce by a factor of 4 the sample pretreatment and the duration of the analysis usually performed by {alpha} spectrometry. Another technique, electrothermal vaporization (ETV), is consequently used. Crown ether extraction-ETV-ICP-MS is employed for measuring the long lived radionuclides {sup 99}Tc and {sup 129}I. The conditions of the extraction and the parameters of the ETV and the ICP-MS are studied and optimized. The methods optimized (extraction, electrothermal vaporization) are validated in the case of {sup 99}Tc, in real samples. The spike method is required to quantify technetium, the quantification with calibration leading to bad results. The results obtained are in good agreement with the expected values. Extraction of technetium on anionic resin and its measurement by the spike method with pneumatic nebulization-ICP-MS is also performed on other samples. Measured values are also in agreement with expected values, but the method of extraction is more time consuming (half a day) than the extraction with crown ether (one hour). (author). 54 figs., 38 tabs.

  1. Cyclic softening and strain mode evolution of an alpha/beta two-phase titanium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study (that may be applied to zirconium alloys) deals with the identification of the different physical mechanisms at the source of cyclic softening, combining the concepts of internal and effective stresses with the transmission electronic microscopy observations. The influence of non proportional load trajectories on the Ti-6246 is emphasized. Results show that plasticity is mostly confined in the alpha phase, and that shearing of the Ti3Al phase is at the source of the slip localization in prismatic slip bands; slip delocalization is correlated to biased slip action; softening of internal stresses (temperature inferior to 500 K) results from the multiplication of the number of slip bands with respect to cumulative plastic deformation, and softening of effective stresses (temperature superior to 500 K) is associated to the shearing of the Ti3Al phase but also to the activation of the biased slip

  2. Cooling Radiation and the Lyman-alpha Luminosity of Forming Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Fardal, M A; Gardner, J P; Hernquist, L E; Weinberg, D H; Davé, R; Fardal, Mark A.; Katz, Neal; Gardner, Jeffrey P.; Hernquist, Lars; Weinberg, David H.; Dav\\'e, Romeel

    2000-01-01

    We examine the cooling radiation from forming galaxies in hydrodynamic simulations of the LCDM model (cold dark matter with a cosmological constant), focusing on the Ly-alpha line luminosities of high-redshift systems. Primordial composition gas condenses within dark matter potential wells, forming objects with masses and sizes comparable to the luminous regions of observed galaxies. As expected, the energy radiated in this process is comparable to the gravitational binding energy of the baryons, and the total cooling luminosity of the galaxy population peaks at z ~= 2. However, in contrast to the classical picture of gas cooling from the \\sim 10^6 K virial temperature of a typical dark matter halo, we find that most of the cooling radiation is emitted by gas with T < 20,000 K. As a consequence, roughly 50% of this cooling radiation emerges in the Ly-alpha line. While a galaxy's cooling luminosity is usually smaller than the ionizing continuum luminosity of its young stars, the two are comparable in the mo...

  3. Evolution of Substrate Specificity within a Diverse Family of [beta/alpha]-Barrel-fold Basic Amino Acid Decarboxylases X-ray Structure Determination of Enzymes with Specificity for L-Arginine and Carboxynorspermidine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Xiaoyi; Lee, Jeongmi; Michael, Anthony J.; Tomchick, Diana R.; Goldsmith, Elizabeth J.; Phillips, Margaret A. (Sungkyunkwan); (UTSMC)

    2010-08-26

    Pyridoxal 5{prime}-phosphate (PLP)-dependent basic amino acid decarboxylases from the {beta}/{alpha}-barrel-fold class (group IV) exist in most organisms and catalyze the decarboxylation of diverse substrates, essential for polyamine and lysine biosynthesis. Herein we describe the first x-ray structure determination of bacterial biosynthetic arginine decarboxylase (ADC) and carboxynorspermidine decarboxylase (CANSDC) to 2.3- and 2.0-{angstrom} resolution, solved as product complexes with agmatine and norspermidine. Despite low overall sequence identity, the monomeric and dimeric structures are similar to other enzymes in the family, with the active sites formed between the {beta}/{alpha}-barrel domain of one subunit and the {beta}-barrel of the other. ADC contains both a unique interdomain insertion (4-helical bundle) and a C-terminal extension (3-helical bundle) and it packs as a tetramer in the asymmetric unit with the insertions forming part of the dimer and tetramer interfaces. Analytical ultracentrifugation studies confirmed that the ADC solution structure is a tetramer. Specificity for different basic amino acids appears to arise primarily from changes in the position of, and amino acid replacements in, a helix in the {beta}-barrel domain we refer to as the 'specificity helix.' Additionally, in CANSDC a key acidic residue that interacts with the distal amino group of other substrates is replaced by Leu{sup 314}, which interacts with the aliphatic portion of norspermidine. Neither product, agmatine in ADC nor norspermidine in CANSDC, form a Schiff base to pyridoxal 5{prime}-phosphate, suggesting that the product complexes may promote product release by slowing the back reaction. These studies provide insight into the structural basis for the evolution of novel function within a common structural-fold.

  4. Triplex formation with alpha anomers of purine-rich and pyrimidine-rich oligodeoxynucleotides.

    OpenAIRE

    Noonberg, S B; François, J C; Praseuth, D; Guieysse-Peugeot, A L; Lacoste, J; Garestier, T; Hélène, C

    1995-01-01

    Nuclease-resistant alpha anomers of pyrimidine-rich CT- and purine-rich GA- and GT-containing oligonucleotides were investigated for their triplex-forming potential and compared with their corresponding nuclease-sensitive beta anomers. Both 23mer CT-alpha and 23mer CT-beta had quite similar triplex binding affinities. Synthetic 23mer GT-alpha oligonucleotides were capable of triplex formation with binding affinities slightly lower than corresponding 23mer GT-beta oligonucleotides. The orienta...

  5. In vitro expression of the alpha-smooth muscle actin isoform by rat lung mesenchymal cells: regulation by culture condition and transforming growth factor-beta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, J J; Woodcock-Mitchell, J L; Perry, L; Zhao, J; Low, R B; Baldor, L; Absher, P M

    1993-07-01

    alpha-Smooth muscle actin (alpha SM actin)-containing cells recently have been demonstrated in intraalveolar lesions in both rat and human tissues following lung injury. In order to develop model systems for the study of such cells, we examined cultured lung cell lines for this phenotype. The adult rat lung fibroblast-like "RL" cell lines were found to express alpha SM actin mRNA and protein and to organize this actin into stress fiber-like structures. Immunocytochemical staining of subclones of the RL87 line demonstrated the presence in the cultures of at least four cell phenotypes, one that fails to express alpha SM actin and three distinct morphologic types that do express alpha SM actin. The proportion of cellular actin that is the alpha-isoform was modulated by the culture conditions. RL cells growing at low density expressed minimal alpha SM actin. On reaching confluent densities, however, alpha SM actin increased to at least 20% of the total actin content. This effect, combined with the observation that the most immunoreactive cells were those that displayed overlapping cell processes in culture, suggests that cell-cell contact may be involved in actin isoform regulation in these cells. Similar to the response of some smooth muscle cell lines, alpha SM actin expression in RL cells also was promoted by conditions, e.g., maintenance in low serum medium, which minimize cell division. alpha SM actin expression was modulated in RL cells by the growth factor transforming growth factor-beta. Addition of this cytokine to growing cells substantially elevated the proportion of alpha SM actin protein.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. The Kinematics of Multiple-Peaked Ly-alpha Emission in Star-Forming Galaxies at z~2-3

    CERN Document Server

    Kulas, Kristin R; Kollmeier, Juna A; Zheng, Zheng; Steidel, Charles C; Hainline, Kevin N

    2011-01-01

    We present new results on the Ly-alpha emission-line kinematics of 18 z~2-3 star-forming galaxies with multiple-peaked Ly-alpha profiles. With our large spectroscopic database of UV-selected star-forming galaxies at these redshifts, we have determined that ~30% of such objects with detectable Ly-alpha emission display multiple-peaked emission profiles. These profiles provide additional constraints on the escape of Ly-alpha photons due to the rich velocity structure in the emergent line. Despite recent advances in modeling the escape of Ly-alpha from star-forming galaxies at high redshifts, comparisons between models and data are often missing crucial observational information. Using Keck II NIRSPEC spectra of H-alpha (z~2) and [OIII] 5007 (z~3), we have measured accurate systemic redshifts, rest-frame optical nebular velocity dispersions and emission-line fluxes for the objects in the sample. Accurate systemic redshifts allow us to translate the multiple-peaked Ly-alpha profiles into velocity space, revealing...

  7. beta-Naphthoflavone protects from peritonitis by reducing TNF-alpha-induced endothelial cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Sheng-Yao; Liou, Je-Wen; Cheng, Tsung-Lin; Peng, Shih-Yi; Lin, Chi-Chen; Chu, Yuan-Yuan; Luo, Wei-Cheng; Huang, Zheng-Kai; Jiang, Shinn-Jong

    2015-12-01

    β-Naphthoflavone (β-NF), a ligand of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, has been shown to possess anti-oxidative properties. We investigated the anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory potential of β-NF in human microvascular endothelial cells treated with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). Pretreatment with β-NF significantly inhibited TNF-α-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species, translocation of p67(phox), and TNF-α-induced monocyte binding and transmigration. In addition, β-NF significantly inhibited TNF-α-induced ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression. The mRNA expression levels of the inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 were reduced by β-NF, as was the infiltration of white blood cells, in a peritonitis model. The inhibition of adhesion molecules was associated with suppressed nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 and Akt, and suppressed phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38. The translocation of Egr-1, a downstream transcription factor involved in the MEK-ERK signaling pathway, was suppressed by β-NF treatment. Our findings show that β-NF inhibits TNF-α-induced NF-kB and ERK1/2 activation and ROS generation, thereby suppressing the expression of adhesion molecules. This results in reduced adhesion and transmigration of leukocytes in vitro and prevents the infiltration of leukocytes in a peritonitis model. Our findings also suggest that β-NF might prevent TNF-α-induced inflammation.

  8. Triple helix formation with the promoter of human alpha1(I) procollagen gene by an antiparallel triplex-forming oligodeoxyribonucleotide.

    OpenAIRE

    Nakanishi, M.; K. T. Weber; Guntaka, R V

    1998-01-01

    The promoters of alpha1(I) procollagen genes of vertebrates contain two contiguous stretches of polypyrimidine/polypurine sequences, referred to as C1 (-140 to -170) and C2 (-171 to -200). Antiparallel triplex-forming upstream oligonucleotides form efficient triplexes with C1. The C1 tract of human differs from rodent alpha1(I) promoters by 7 nt which are mainly A-->G transitions. Human triplex-forming oligodeoxyribonucleotide (TFO) formed stable triplexes efficiently with a K d of approximat...

  9. PET imaging of {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} integrin expression in tumours with {sup 68}Ga-labelled mono-, di- and tetrameric RGD peptides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dijkgraaf, Ingrid; Franssen, Gerben M.; Oyen, Wim J.G.; Boerman, Otto C. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Department of Nuclear Medicine, P.O. Box 9101, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Yim, Cheng-Bin [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Department of Nuclear Medicine, P.O. Box 9101, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Utrecht University, Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Utrecht (Netherlands); Schuit, Robert C. [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET Research, P.O. Box 7057, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Luurtsema, Gert [University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Hanzeplein 1, P.O. Box 30.001, Groningen (Netherlands); Liu, Shuang [Purdue University, School of Health Sciences, West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Due to the restricted expression of {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} in tumours, {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} is considered a suitable receptor for tumour targeting. In this study the {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3}-binding characteristics of {sup 68}Ga-labelled monomeric, dimeric and tetrameric RGD peptides were determined and compared with their {sup 111}In-labelled counterparts. A monomeric (E-c(RGDfK)), a dimeric (E-[c(RGDfK)]{sub 2}) and a tetrameric (E{l_brace}E[c(RGDfK)]{sub 2}{r_brace}{sub 2}) RGD peptide were synthesised, conjugated with DOTA and radiolabelled with {sup 68}Ga. In vitro {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3}-binding characteristics were determined in a competitive binding assay. In vivo {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3}-targeting characteristics of the compounds were assessed in mice with subcutaneously growing SK-RC-52 xenografts. In addition, microPET images were acquired using a microPET/CT scanner. The IC{sub 50} values for the Ga(III)-labelled DOTA-E-c(RGDfK), DOTA-E-[c(RGDfK)]{sub 2} and DOTA-E{l_brace}E[c(RGDfK)]{sub 2}{r_brace}{sub 2} were 23.9 {+-} 1.22, 8.99 {+-} 1.20 and 1.74 {+-} 1.18 nM, respectively, and were similar to those of the In(III)-labelled mono-, di- and tetrameric RGD peptides (26.6 {+-} 1.15, 3.34 {+-} 1.16 and 1.80 {+-} 1.37 nM, respectively). At 2 h post-injection, tumour uptake of the {sup 68}Ga-labelled mono-, di- and tetrameric RGD peptides (3.30 {+-} 0.30, 5.24 {+-} 0.27 and 7.11 {+-} 0.67%ID/g, respectively) was comparable to that of their {sup 111}In-labelled counterparts (2.70 {+-} 0.29, 5.61 {+-} 0.85 and 7.32 {+-} 2.45%ID/g, respectively). PET scans were in line with the biodistribution data. On all PET scans, the tumour could be clearly visualised. The integrin affinity and the tumour uptake followed the order of DOTA-tetramer > DOTA-dimer > DOTA-monomer. The {sup 68}Ga-labelled tetrameric RGD peptide has excellent characteristics for imaging of {alpha}{sub v} {beta}{sub 3} expression with PET. (orig.)

  10. Boxy H$\\alpha$ Emission Profiles in Star-Forming Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yan-Mei; Tremonti, Christy A; Shi, Yong; Jin, Yi-Fei

    2016-01-01

    We assemble a sample of disk star-forming galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7, studying the structure of H$\\alpha$ emission lines, finding a large fraction of this sample contains boxy H$\\alpha$ line profiles. This fraction depends on galaxy physical and geometric parameters in the following way: (1) it increases monotonically with star formation rate per unit area ($\\Sigma_{\\rm SFR}$), and stellar mass ($M_*$), with the trend being much stronger with $M_*$, from $\\sim$0% at $M_*=10^{10}M_{\\odot}$ to about 50% at $M_*=10^{11}M_\\odot$; (2) the fraction is much smaller in face-on systems than in edge-on systems. It increases with galaxy inclination ($i$) while $i < 60\\,^{\\circ}$ and is roughly a constant of 25% beyond this range; (3) for the sources which can be modeled well with two velocity components, blueshifted and redshifted from the systemic velocity, these is a positive correlation between the velocity difference of these two components and the stellar mass, with a slope similar...

  11. Roles of oestrogen receptors alpha and beta in behavioural neuroendocrinology: beyond Yin/Yang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissman, E F

    2008-06-01

    Oestrogen receptor beta (ERbeta) was discovered more than 10 years ago. It is widely distributed in the brain. In some areas, such as the entorhinal cortex, it is present as the only ER, whereas in other regions, such as the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and preoptic area, it can be found co-expressed with ERalpha, often within the same neurones. These ERs share ligands, and there are several complex relationships between the two receptors. Initially, the relationship between them was labelled as 'yin/yang', meaning that the actions of each complemented those of the other, but now, years later, other relationships have been described. Based on evidence from neuroendocrine and behavioural studies, three types of interactions between the two oestrogen receptors are described in this review. The first relationship is antagonistic; this is evident from studies on the role of oestrogen in spatial learning. When oestradiol is given in a high, chronic dose, spatial learning is impaired. This action of oestradiol requires ERalpha, and when ERbeta is not functional, lower doses of oestradiol have this negative effect on behaviour. The second relationship between the two receptors is one that is synergistic, and this is illustrated in the combined effects of the two receptors on the production of the neuropeptide oxytocin and its receptor. The third relationship is sequential; separate actions of the two receptors are postulated in activation and organisation of sexually dimorphic reproductive behaviours. Future studies on all of these topics will inform us about how ER selective ligands might affect oestrogen functions at the organismal level.

  12. Coexistence of dopamine-beta-hydroxylase and activated protein-2 alpha in rat cerebellar Purkinje cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kejian Wang; Wei Li; Shanquan Sun; Zhongqin Ren; Guiqiong He

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Tyrosine hydroxylase and phenylethanolamine-n-methyl transferase expression coexist in Purkinje cells of the rat cerebellum.Numerous reports have also been published addressing whether dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DBH) expression exists in cerebellar Purkinje cells.OBJECTIVE:To investigate the coexistence of DBH and activator protein-2α expression in rat cerebellar Purkinje cells.DESIGN,TIME AND SETTING:A cell morphological study was performed at the Institute of Neuroscience,Chongqing Medical University,China in May 2007.MATERIALS:Ten healthy Wistar rats,of either gender,aged 14 weeks,served as experimental animals.Rabbit anti-mouse DBH,goat anti-mouse activator protein-2α and rabbit anti-mouse β-actin (Santa Cruz Biotechnology,Inc.,USA),horseradish peroxidase-labeled goat anti-rabbit IgG,FITC-labeled mouse anti-rabbit IgG,and Cy3-labeled mouse anti-goat IgG (Boster,Wuhan,China),were used in this study.METHODS:Immunohistochemical staining was used to measure the expression of DBH or activator protein-2α,with double-label immunofluorescence being employed to determine coexpression of both,in the cerebellum of 5 randomly selected rats.Western blot assay was utilized to determine the expression of DBH and activator protein-2α in the cerebellum of the remaining 5 rats.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Expression,localization and coexistence of DBH and activator protein-2α in the cerebellum were measured separately.RESULTS:Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that cerebellar Purkinje cells stained positive for DBH and activator protein-2α.Western blot assay also demonstrated DBH and activator protein-2α expression in the cerebellum.Double-labeling immunofluorescence showed the coexistence of DBH and activator protein-2α in cerebellar Purkinje cells.CONCLUSION:Norepinephrine and activator protein-2α coexist in rat cerebellar Purkinje cells.

  13. The effect of temperature on the crystallization of {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles from dense {beta}-FeOOH suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zic, Mark [Division of Materials Chemistry, Ruder Boskovic Institute, P.O. Box 180, HR-10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Ristic, Mira, E-mail: ristic@irb.hr [Division of Materials Chemistry, Ruder Boskovic Institute, P.O. Box 180, HR-10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Music, Svetozar [Division of Materials Chemistry, Ruder Boskovic Institute, P.O. Box 180, HR-10002 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2010-03-15

    The effect of temperature on the crystallization of {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles from dense {beta}-FeOOH suspensions was monitored by {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Dense suspensions of very long laterally arranged {beta}-FeOOH fibrils were obtained at 90 deg. C. Crystallization at 120 deg. C between 18 and 72 h yielded monodisperse {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles of a shape close to that of double spheres with ring. The double spheres with ring showed two narrow particle size distributions. In these particles a substructure was detected, i.e., the spheres consisted of the linear chains of interconnected {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} subparticles. With further rise in the crystallization temperature the increase in {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles and porosity became pronounced. Obviously, the aggregation mechanism played an important role in the formation of {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles.

  14. N-Acetyl-Beta-D-Glucopyranosylamine - a Potent T-State Inhibitor of Glycogen-Phosphorylase - a Comparison with Alpha-D-Glucose

    OpenAIRE

    Oikonomakos, Nikos G.; Kontou, M.; Zographos, Spyros E.; Watson, K. A.; Johnson, L N; Bichard, C. J. F.; Fleet, G. W. J.; Acharya, K. R.

    2008-01-01

    Structure-based drug design has led to the discovery of a number of glucose analogue inhibitors of glycogen phosphorylase that have an increased affinity compared to alpha-D-glucose (Ki = 1.7 mM). The best inhibitor in the class of N-acyl derivatives of beta-D-glucopyranosylamine, N-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranosylamine (1-GlcNAc), has been characterized by kinetic, ultracentrifugation, and crystallographic studies. 1-GlcNAc acts as a competitive inhibitor for both the b (Ki = 32 microM) and the ...

  15. A convenient procedure for the synthesis of 3{beta}-hydroxy-6-oxo-5{alpha}-steroids. Application to the synthesis of laxogenin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iglesias-Arteaga, Martin A. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico D.F. (Mexico). Facultad de Quimica Dept. de Quimica Organica]. E-mail: martin.iglesias@servidor.unam.mx; Simuta-Lopez, Eva M.; Xochihua-Moreno, Sergio; Vinas-Bravo, Omar; Smith, Sara Montiel; Meza Reyes, Socorro; Sandoval-Ramirez, Jesus [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Pue., (Mexico). Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas]. E-mail: jsandova@siu.buap.mx

    2005-05-15

    A convenient pathway to obtain 3{beta}-hydroxy-6-oxo-5{alpha}-steroids from 3{beta}-acetoxy {delta}5-steroids is reported; the methodology was applied to the synthesis of laxogenin (7), substance that behaves as a plant growth hormone. This is an alternative way to produce an important functionality found in many examples of naturally occurring steroids. The developed procedure uses inexpensive reagents and can be carried out in four steps. The oxidizing and acidic steps used in this methodology did not affect the labile spiroketal side chain present in diosgenin (16). (author)

  16. Changes in adult olfactory bulb neurogenesis in mice expressing the A30P mutant form of alpha-synuclein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marxreiter, Franz; Nuber, Silke; Kandasamy, Mahesh; Klucken, Jochen; Aigner, Robert; Burgmayer, Ralf; Couillard-Despres, Sebastien; Riess, Olaf; Winkler, Jürgen; Winner, Beate

    2009-03-01

    In familial and sporadic forms of Parkinson's disease (PD), alpha-synuclein pathology is present in the brain stem nuclei and olfactory bulb (OB) long before Lewy bodies are detected in the substantia nigra. The OB is an active region of adult neurogenesis, where newly generated neurons physiologically integrate. While accumulation of wild-type alpha-synuclein is one of the pathogenic hallmarks of non-genetic forms of PD, the A30P alpha-synuclein mutation results in an earlier disease onset and a severe clinical phenotype. Here, we study the regulation of adult neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ)/OB system in a tetracycline-suppressive (tet-off) transgenic model of synucleinopathies, expressing human mutant A30P alpha-synuclein under the control of the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II alpha (CaMK) promoter. In A30P transgenic mice alpha-synuclein was abundant at the site of integration in the glomerular cell layer of the OB. Without changes in proliferation in the SVZ, significantly fewer newly generated neurons were observed in the OB granule cell and glomerular layers of A30P transgenic mice than in controls, most probably due to increased cell death. By tetracycline-dependent abrogation of A30P alpha-synuclein expression, OB neurogenesis and programmed cell death was restored to control levels. Our results indicate that, using A30P conditional (tet-off) mice, A30P alpha-synuclein has a negative impact on olfactory neurogenesis and suppression of A30P alpha-synuclein enhances survival of newly generated neurons. This finding suggests that interfering with alpha-synuclein pathology can rescue newly generated neurons, possibly leading to new targets for therapeutic interventions in synucleinopathies. PMID:19291219

  17. Human trifunctional protein alpha links cardiolipin remodeling to beta-oxidation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A Taylor

    Full Text Available Cardiolipin (CL is a mitochondrial membrane phospholipid which plays a key role in apoptosis and supports mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes involved in the generation of ATP. In order to facilitate its role CL must be remodeled with appropriate fatty acids. We previously identified a human monolysocardiolipin acyltransferase activity which remodels CL via acylation of monolysocardiolipin (MLCL to CL and was identical to the alpha subunit of trifunctional protein (αTFP lacking the first 227 amino acids. Full length αTFP is an enzyme that plays a prominent role in mitochondrial β-oxidation, and in this study we assessed the role, if any, which this metabolic enzyme plays in the remodeling of CL. Purified human recombinant αTFP exhibited acyl-CoA acyltransferase activity in the acylation of MLCL to CL with linoleoyl-CoA, oleoyl-CoA and palmitoyl-CoA as substrates. Expression of αTFP increased radioactive linoleate or oleate or palmitate incorporation into CL in HeLa cells. Expression of αTFP in Barth Syndrome lymphoblasts, which exhibit reduced tetralinoleoyl-CL, elevated linoleoyl-CoA acylation of MLCL to CL in vitro, increased mitochondrial respiratory Complex proteins and increased linoleate-containing species of CL. Knock down of αTFP in Barth Syndrome lymphoblasts resulted in greater accumulation of MLCL than those with normal αTFP levels. The results clearly indicate that the human αTFP exhibits MLCL acyltransferase activity for the resynthesis of CL from MLCL and directly links an enzyme of mitochondrial β-oxidation to CL remodeling.

  18. Two new mutations in a late infantile Tay-Sachs patient are both in exon 1 of the beta-hexosaminidase alpha subunit gene.

    OpenAIRE

    Harmon, D L; Gardner-Medwin, D; Stirling, J L

    1993-01-01

    We have identified two new point mutations in the beta-hexosaminidase alpha subunit (HEX A) gene in a non-Jewish Tay-Sachs disease patient with an unusual late infantile onset disease phenotype. The patient was a compound heterozygote with each allele of the HEX A gene containing a different mutation in exon 1. One of these is a T to C transition in the initiation codon, expected to produce no alpha subunit and therefore a classical infantile phenotype. The unusual clinical aspects and later ...

  19. cPLA2alpha-evoked formation of arachidonic acid and lysophospholipids is required for exocytosis in mouse pancreatic beta-cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Kirstine; Høy, Marianne; Olsen, Hervør L;

    2003-01-01

    Using capacitance measurements, we investigated the effects of intracellularly applied recombinant human cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2alpha) and its lipolytic products arachidonic acid and lysophosphatidylcholine on Ca2+-dependent exocytosis in single mouse pancreatic beta-cells. cPLA2alpha...... dose dependently (EC50 = 86 nM) stimulated depolarization-evoked exocytosis by 450% without affecting the whole cell Ca2+ current or cytoplasmic Ca2+ levels. The stimulatory effect involved priming of secretory granules as reflected by an increase in the size of the readily releasable pool of granules...

  20. Isolation and immunological characterization of a novel Cladosporium herbarum allergen structurally homologous to the alpha/beta hydrolase fold superfamily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rid, Raphaela; Onder, Kamil; Hawranek, Thomas; Laimer, Martin; Bauer, Johann W; Holler, Claudia; Simon-Nobbe, Birgit; Breitenbach, Michael

    2010-03-01

    Because the ascomycete Cladosporium herbarum embodies one of the most important, world-wide occurring fungal species responsible for eliciting typical IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions ranging from rhinitis and ocular symptoms to severe involvement of the lower respiratory tract, a more comprehensive definition of its detailed allergen repertoire is unquestionably of critical medical as well as therapeutic significance. By screening a C. herbarum cDNA library with IgE antibodies pooled from 3 mold-reactive sera, we were able to identify, clone and affinity-purify a novel allergen candidate (29.9 kDa) exhibiting considerable (three-dimensional) homology to the alpha/beta hydrolase fold superfamily. The latter covers a collection of hydrolytic enzymes of widely differing phylogenetic origin as well as catalytic activity (operating in countless biological contexts) that in general exhibit only little sequence similarity yet show a remarkable conservation of structural topology. Our present study (i) characterizes recombinant non-fusion C. herbarum hydrolase as a natively folded, minor mold allergen that displays a prevalence of IgE reactivity of approximately 17% in our in vitro immunoblot experiments, (ii) proposes the existence of several putative (speculatively cross-reactive) ascomycete orthologues as determined via genome-wide in silico predictions, and (iii) finally implies that C. herbarum hydrolase could be included in forthcoming minimal testing sets when fungal allergy is suspected.

  1. Gut-homing CD4+ T cell receptor alpha beta+ T cells in the pathogenesis of murine inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudolphi, A; Boll, G; Poulsen, S S;

    1994-01-01

    We studied which T cell subsets from the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) can migrate out of the gut mucosa and repopulate GALT compartments of an immunodeficient (semi)syngeneic host. Many distinct lymphocyte subsets were found in GALT of immunocompetent H-2d (BALB/c, BALB/cdm2, C.B-17......+/+) mice. No antigen receptor-expressing lymphoid cells were found in GALT of congenic C.B-17 scid/scid (scid) mice. The heterotopic transplantation of a full-thickness gut wall graft from the ileum or colon of immunocompetent (C.B-17+/+, BALB/cdm2) donor mice onto immunodeficient scid mice selectively...... reconstituted a CD3+ T cell receptor alpha beta+ CD4+ T cell subset. CD4+ cells of this subset expressed the surface phenotype of mucosa-seeking, memory T cells. In the immunodeficient scid host, this gut-derived CD4+ T cell subset was found in spleen, peritoneal cavity, mesenteric lymph nodes (LN), epithelial...

  2. Effect ALPHA Globalin Gene Deletion and GAMMA Globin Gene -158 (C/T) Polymorphism in BETA- Thalassaemic Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The beta-thalassemias (β- thalassemias) are among the most common autosomal recessive disorders. They have a remarkably high frequency in the Mediterranean region and represent one of the most common genetic diseases in Egypt. In this study, the spectrum of P- thalassemia mutations and genotype-to-phenotype correlations were defined in 32 β- thalassaemic patients (β- thalassemias major and intermedia) with varying disease severity in two cities of the Suez Canal region. Ten different mutations were identified and the most frequent ones were: Isi-6 (T-C) (37.5%), IVSI-110 (G-A) (34.4%) and both IVSI-1 (G-A), IVSII-745 (C-G) and -102 (C-G) (12.5% each). There was a wide spectrum of phenotypic severity in all patients. We studied the Xmnl polymorphism (C/T) in γ- globin gene position -158 of P- thalassemia as a modulating factor of the disease severity. Presence of the polymorphism was found in two patients and this was not sufficient to explain the diversity of the phenotype encountered. Co-inheritance of alpha thalassaemia as a modulating factor was not evident in our patients. In conclusion, we have been unable to find a molecular basis for the benign clinical course in all our patients. Other genetic or acquired factors must be hypothesized which ameliorate the clinical condition.

  3. PB1-F2 influenza A virus protein adopts a beta-sheet conformation and forms amyloid fibers in membrane environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Christophe; Al Bazzal, Ali; Vidic, Jasmina; Février, Vincent; Bourdieu, Christiane; Bouguyon, Edwige; Le Goffic, Ronan; Vautherot, Jean-François; Bernard, Julie; Moudjou, Mohammed; Noinville, Sylvie; Chich, Jean-François; Da Costa, Bruno; Rezaei, Human; Delmas, Bernard

    2010-04-23

    The influenza A virus PB1-F2 protein, encoded by an alternative reading frame in the PB1 polymerase gene, displays a high sequence polymorphism and is reported to contribute to viral pathogenesis in a sequence-specific manner. To gain insights into the functions of PB1-F2, the molecular structure of several PB1-F2 variants produced in Escherichia coli was investigated in different environments. Circular dichroism spectroscopy shows that all variants have a random coil secondary structure in aqueous solution. When incubated in trifluoroethanol polar solvent, all PB1-F2 variants adopt an alpha-helix-rich structure, whereas incubated in acetonitrile, a solvent of medium polarity mimicking the membrane environment, they display beta-sheet secondary structures. Incubated with asolectin liposomes and SDS micelles, PB1-F2 variants also acquire a beta-sheet structure. Dynamic light scattering revealed that the presence of beta-sheets is correlated with an oligomerization/aggregation of PB1-F2. Electron microscopy showed that PB1-F2 forms amorphous aggregates in acetonitrile. In contrast, at low concentrations of SDS, PB1-F2 variants exhibited various abilities to form fibers that were evidenced as amyloid fibers in a thioflavin T assay. Using a recombinant virus and its PB1-F2 knock-out mutant, we show that PB1-F2 also forms amyloid structures in infected cells. Functional membrane permeabilization assays revealed that the PB1-F2 variants can perforate membranes at nanomolar concentrations but with activities found to be sequence-dependent and not obviously correlated with their differential ability to form amyloid fibers. All of these observations suggest that PB1-F2 could be involved in physiological processes through different pathways, permeabilization of cellular membranes, and amyloid fiber formation.

  4. ZINC-CHLORIDE INDUCED STEREOSELECTION IN SYNTHESES OF ALPHA-AMINO-BETA-HYDROXY ACID-DERIVATIVES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERWERF, AW; KELLOGG, RM; VANBOLHUIS, F

    1991-01-01

    Schiff bases formed from condensation of glycine esters with diphenylmethyleneamine have been silylated followed by condensation with aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes at room temperature in the presence of catalytic amounts of ZnCl2; the syn-condensation products are obtained in good yield and stere

  5. A comparison study on Raman scattering properties of alpha- and beta-MnO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Tao; Fjellväg, Helmer; Norby, Poul

    2009-01-01

    In this comment to a recent paper [Anal. Chim. Acta 585 (2007) 241–245], we report a comparison study on Mn oxide-related compounds with different crystallographic forms, which distinguish between β-MnO2 and α-MnO2 type materials via Raman scattering (RS) spectroscopy. The tetragonal rutile-type β...

  6. Reconstitution of normal and hyperactivated forms of casein kinase-2 by variably mutated beta-subunits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldyreff, B; Meggio, F; Pinna, L A;

    1993-01-01

    Twenty-one mutants of the noncatalytic beta-subunit of human casein kinase-2 have been created, expressed in Escherichia coli, and purified to homogeneity. They are either modified at the autophosphorylation site (mutants beta delta 1-4 and beta A 5,6) or bear variable deletions in their C...

  7. The Lyman-$\\alpha$ emission in local Star-Forming Galaxies Scenario and Connection with Primeval Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kunth, D; Terlevich, R J; Tenorio-Tagle, G

    1998-01-01

    We review the Lyan alpha emission in local star-forming galaxies. In most cases as already shown by the IUE, the emission is absent or much weaker than expected. This occurs because Lyman alpha photons can be resonantly scattered by the neutral gas and destroyed by even very low amounts of dust. However new Hubble Space Telescope observations (HST) indicate that other factors such as the velocity structure of the gas play a crucial role. Gas flows are likely to occur as powered by the kinetic energy released via stellar winds and supernova. We propose a scenario based on the hydrodynamics of superbubbles powered by massive bursts of star formation that naturally accounts for the variety of Lyman alpha line detections in star-forming galaxies. We caution with the attempts to derive the co-moving star formation rate at high redshift from Lyman alpha emission searches.

  8. Single-cell TCRseq: paired recovery of entire T-cell alpha and beta chain transcripts in T-cell receptors from single-cell RNAseq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, David; Poran, Asaf; Elemento, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Accurate characterization of the repertoire of the T-cell receptor (TCR) alpha and beta chains is critical to understanding adaptive immunity. Such characterization has many applications across such fields as vaccine development and response, clone-tracking in cancer, and immunotherapy. Here we present a new methodology called single-cell TCRseq (scTCRseq) for the identification and assembly of full-length rearranged V(D)J T-cell receptor sequences from paired-end single-cell RNA sequencing reads. The method allows accurate identification of the V(D)J rearrangements for each individual T-cell and has the novel ability to recover paired alpha and beta segments. Source code is available at https://github.com/ElementoLab/scTCRseq . PMID:27460926

  9. Rossi-{alpha} experiment in the IPEN/MB-01 research reactor: Validation of two-region model and absolute measurement of {beta}{sub eff} and {Lambda}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuramoto, R.; Dos Santos, A.; Jerez, R.; Diniz, R.; Bitelli, U. D.; Madi Filho, T.; Veneziani, C. L. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN/CNEN-SP, Cidade Universitaria, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, 05508-000, Pinheiros Sao Paulo-SP (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    A new method for absolute measurement of the effective delayed neutron fraction, {beta}{sub eff}, and the prompt neutron generation time, {Lambda}, based on Rossi-{alpha} experiments and the Two-Region Model was developed at the IPEN/MB-01 Research Reactor facility. In contrast with other techniques like the Slope Method, Nelson-Number Method and {sup 252}Cf- Source Method, the main advantage of this new methodology is to obtain the parameters in a purely experimental way, eliminating all parameters that are difficult to measure or calculate. In this way, Rossi-{alpha} experiments for validation of this method were performed at the IPEN/MB-01 facility. The final results agree well with values from frequency analysis experiments and show uncertainties of 1.46% and 0.97% for {beta}{sub eff}, and {Lambda} respectively. This work supports the reduction of the {sup 235}U thermal yield as proposed by Okajima and Sakurai. (authors)

  10. Variations in maternal care alter corticosterone and 17beta-estradiol levels, estrous cycle and folliculogenesis and stimulate the expression of estrogen receptors alpha and beta in the ovaries of UCh rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amorim João PA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variations in maternal care are associated with neonatal stress, hormonal disturbances and reproductive injuries during adulthood. However, the effects of these variations on sex hormones and steroid receptors during ovary development remain undetermined. This study aimed to investigate whether variations in maternal care are able to influence the hormonal profile, follicular dynamics and expression of AR, ER-alpha and ER-beta in the ovaries of UCh rat offspring. Methods Twenty-four adult UCh rats, aged 120 days, were randomly divided into two groups (UChA and UChB and mated. Maternal care was assessed from birth (day 0 to the 10th postnatal day (PND. In adulthood, twenty adult female rats (UChA and UChB offspring; n = 10/group, aged 120 days, were euthanized by decapitation during the morning estrus. Results UChA females (providing high maternal care more frequently displayed the behaviors of carrying pups, as well as licking/grooming and arched back nursing cares. Also, mothers providing high care had elevated corticosterone levels. Additionally, offspring receiving low maternal care showed the highest estrous cycle duration, increased corticosterone and 17beta-estradiol levels, overexpression of receptors ER-alpha and ER-beta, increased numbers of primordial, antral and mature follicles and accentuated granulosa cell proliferation. Conclusions Our study suggests that low maternal care alters corticosterone and 17beta-estradiol levels, disrupting the estrous cycle and folliculogenesis and differentially regulating the expression of ER-alpha and ER-beta in the ovaries of adult rats.

  11. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 translocates protein kinase C beta to nucleus and enhances plasma membrane association of protein kinase C alpha in renal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simboli-Campbell, M; Gagnon, A; Franks, D J; Welsh, J

    1994-02-01

    1,25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25-(OH)2-D3) increases membrane-associated protein kinase C (PKC) activity and immunoreactivity in renal epithelial (Madin Darby bovine kidney, MDBK) cells (Simboli-Campbell, M., Franks, D. J., and Welsh, J. E. (1992) Cell Signalling 4, 99-109). We have now characterized the effects of 1,25-(OH)2-D3 on the subcellular localization of three individual isozymes by immunofluorescence and immunoblotting. Although the total amount of PKC alpha, PKC beta, and PKC zeta are unaffected by 1,25-(OH)2-D3, this steroid hormone induces subcellular redistribution of both PKC alpha and PKC beta. Treatment with 1,25-(OH)2-D3 (100 nM, 24 h) enhances plasma membrane association of PKC alpha and induces translocation of PKC beta to the nuclear membrane. The effects of 1,25-(OH)2-D3 appear to be limited to the calcium-dependent PKC isozymes, since 1,25-(OH)2-D3 has no effect on the calcium independent isozyme, PKC zeta. In contrast to rapid transient PKC translocation seen in response to agents which interact with membrane receptors to induce phospholipid hydrolysis, modulation of PKC alpha and PKC beta is observed after 24 h treatment with 1,25-(OH)2-D3. In MDBK cells, the phorbol ester 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) (100 nM, 24 h) down-regulates PKC alpha and, to a lesser extent, PKC zeta, without altering their subcellular distribution. TPA also induces translocation of PKC beta to the nuclear membrane. MDBK cells treated with 1,25-(OH)2-D3, but not TPA, exhibit enhanced phosphorylation of endogenous nuclear proteins. In addition to the distinct effects of 1,25-(OH)2-D3 and TPA on PKC isozyme patterns, 1,25-(OH)2-D3 up-regulates both the vitamin D receptor and calbindin D-28K, whereas TPA down-regulates the expression of both proteins. These data support the involvement of PKC in the mechanism of action of 1,25-(OH)2-D3 and specifically implicate PKC beta in 1,25-(OH)2-D3-mediated nuclear events. PMID:8106362

  12. Influence of mycotoxin zearalenone and its derivatives (alpha and beta zearalenol on apoptosis and proliferation of cultured granulosa cells from equine ovaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoia Paolo

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEA and its derivatives, alpha and beta-zearalenol (alpha and beta-ZOL, synthesized by genera Fusarium, often occur as contaminants in cereal grains and animal feeds. The importance of ZEA on reproductive disorders is well known in domestic animals species, particularly in swine and cattle. In the horse, limited data are available to date on the influence of dietary exposure to ZEA on reproductive health and on its in vitro effects on reproductive cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ZEA and its derivatives, alpha and beta-ZOL, on granulosa cells (GCs from the ovaries of cycling mares. Methods The cell proliferation was evaluated by using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT test after 3 days exposure at different concentrations of ZEA and its derivatives (from 1 × 10-7 to 0.1 microM. The apoptosis induction was evaluated after 1 day exposure, by DNA analysis using flow cytometry. Results An increase in cell proliferation with respect to the control was observed in the presence of ZEA at 1 × 10-3 and 1 × 10-4 microM and apoptosis was induced by all mycotoxins at different concentrations. Conclusion The simultaneous presence of apoptosis and proliferation in GC cultures treated with zearalenones could indicate that these mycotoxins could be effective in inducing follicular atresia. These effects of zearalenones may result from both direct interaction with oestrogen-receptors as well as interaction with the enzymes 3alpha (beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD, involved in the synthesis and metabolism of endogenous steroid hormones. These cellular disturbances, described for the first time in equine GCs cultured in vitro, could be hypothesized as referred to reproductive failures of unknown ethiology in the mare.

  13. Later Outcomes and Alpha/Beta Estimate From Hypofractionated Conformal Three-Dimensional Radiotherapy Versus Standard Fractionation for Localized Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leborgne, Felix [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital Italiano, Montevideo (Uruguay); Fowler, Jack, E-mail: jackfowlersbox@gmail.com [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin Medical School, Madison, WI (United States); Leborgne, Jose H.; Mezzera, Julieta [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital Italiano, Montevideo (Uruguay)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: Now that the follow-up time has exceeded 5 years, an estimate of the {alpha}/{beta} ratio can be presented. The additional late outcomes in patients treated with three-dimensional conformal external beam radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer using a hypofractionated vs. a standard fractionation regimen are reported from this prospective nonrandomized contemporary comparison. Methods and Materials: A total of 114 nonrandomized patients chose hypofractionation delivered in 20 fractions of 3 Gy or 3.15 Gy (mean 3.06 Gy) for localized prostate cancer within a median overall time of 32 days (range, 29-49) using four fractions weekly. A total of 160 comparable patients were contemporarily treated within a median of 55 days (range 49-66). The median follow-up was 66 months (range, 24-95) for the hypofractionated arm and 63 months (range, 36-92) for the standard arm. The percentage of patients in the low-, medium-, and high-risk groups was 36%, 46%, and 18% in the hypofractionated arm and 44%, 50%, and 6% in standard arm (2 Gy), respectively. Results: The 5-year actuarial biochemical absence of disease (prostate-specific antigen nadir + 2 ng/mL) and disease-free survival rate was the same at 89% in both arms, making the {alpha}/{beta} calculation unambiguous. The point ratio of {alpha}/{beta} was 1.86 (95% confidence interval, 0.7-5.1 Gy). The 95% confidence interval was determined entirely by the binomial confidence limits in the numbers of patients. Rectal reactions of grade 3 and 4 occurred in 1 of 114 (hypofractionated) and 2 of 160 (standard) patients. Conclusions: The presented three-dimensional conformal regimen was acceptable, and the {alpha}/{beta} value was 1.8, in agreement with other very recent low meta-analyses (reviewed in the '' section).

  14. The influence of the primary solutes in the study of the yield of alpha/beta discrimination in 241 Am and 210 Po

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied the yields in efficiency and alpha/beta discrimination for two commercial cocktails, Ultima-Gold''TM AB and Insta-Gel and three laboratory-made mixtures made of Insta-Gel and naphthalene, pyrene or 9,10-diphenylanthracene. Also, we have tested the samples made of radioactive solutions of ''241 Am and ''210 Po in HNO3 of different concentrations in all scintillator solutions. (Author)

  15. Organically-Templated Zinc Hydrogen Phosphites: Syntheses, Structures and Properties of {alpha}- and {Beta}-ZnHOP{sub 3}{center_dot}N{sub 4}C{sub 2}H{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HARRISON,WILLIAM T.A.; PHILLIPS,MARK L.F.; STANCHFIELD,JESSE; NENOFF,TINA M.

    2000-07-14

    The syntheses, crystal structures and some properties of {alpha}- and {beta}-ZnHPO{sub 3}{center_dot}N{sub 4}C{sub 2}H{sub 4} are reported. These two polymorphs are the first organically-templated hydrogen phosphites. They are built up from vertex-sharing HPO{sub 3} pseudo pyramids and ZnO{sub 3}N tetrahedra, where the Zn-N bond represents a direct link between zinc and the neutral 2-cyanoguanidine template. {alpha}-ZnHPO{sub 3}{center_dot}N{sub 4}C{sub 2}H{sub 4} is built up from infinite layers of vertex-sharing ZnO{sub 3}N and HPO{sub 3} groups forming 4-rings and 8-rings. {beta}-ZnHPO{sub 3}{center_dot}N{sub 4}C{sub 2}H{sub 4} has strong one-dimensional character, with the polyhedral building units forming 4-ring ladders. Similarities and differences to related zinc phosphates are discussed. Crystal data: {alpha}-ZnHPO{sub 3}{center_dot}N{sub 4}C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, M{sub r} = 229.44, monoclinic, P2{sub 1}/c, a = 9.7718 (5) {angstrom}, b = 8.2503 (4) {angstrom}, c = 9.2491 (5) {angstrom}, {beta} = 104.146 (1){sup 0}, V = 723.1 (1) {angstrom}{sup 3}, R(F) = 2.33%, wR(F) = 2.52%. {beta}-ZnHPO{sub 3}{center_dot}N{sub 4}C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, M{sub r} = 229.44, monoclinic, C2/c, a = 14.5092 (9) {angstrom}, b = 10.5464 (6) {angstrom}, c = 10.3342 (6) {angstrom}, {beta} = 114.290 (1){sup 0}, V = 1441.4 (3) {angstrom}{sup 3}, R(F) = 3.01%, wR(F) = 3.40%.

  16. 18-Substituted steroids: synthesis of 18-hydroxycortisol (11 beta,17 alpha,18,21-tetrahydroxy-4-pregnene-3,20-dione) and 18-hydroxycortisone (17 alpha,18,21-trihydroxy-4-pregnene-3,11,20-trione).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Sanchez, C E; Kirk, D N; Farrant, R D; Milewich, L

    1985-01-01

    The isolation of 18-hydroxycortisol from the urine of patients with primary aldosteronism was recently described and no synthetic procedure was available for its preparation. The C-13 angular methyl group of prednisolone-17 alpha,21-acetonide-11 beta-nitrite was functionalized by photolysis in the presence of oxygen to give the product 18-hydroxy-prednisolone-17 alpha,21-acetonide-18-nitrate. The 18-nitrate was reduced with zinc and ammonium acetate to the corresponding 18-hydroxy compound, 18-hydroxy-prednisolone-17 alpha,21-acetonide. Homogeneous hydrogenation with Tris(triphenyl-phosphine)rhodium (I) chloride as catalyst resulted in the formation of 18-hydroxy-cortisol-17 alpha,21-acetonide. Acid hydrolysis of the latter compound gave 18-hydroxycortisol. Oxidation of 18-hydroxycortisol-17 alpha,21-acetonide with pyridinium dichromate followed by acid hydrolysis gave 18-hydroxycortisone. The 18-hydroxylated steroids exist as the 18,21-hemiacetals. Catalytic reduction with tritium gas with Tris(triphenyl-phosphine)rhodium (I) chloride of 18-hydroxyprednisolone-17 alpha,21-acetonide and acid hydrolysis gave [1,2(3)H]18-hydroxycortisol. PMID:3974224

  17. 19F nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of the carbamate reaction of alpha-fluoro-beta-alanine (FBAL), the major catabolite of fluoropyrimidines. Application to FBAL carbamate determination in body fluids of patients treated with 5'-deoxy-5-fluorouridine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    alpha-Fluoro-beta-alanine (FBAL), the major catabolite of the antineoplastic fluoropyrimidines, is an amino acid which is in equilibrium with its carbamate derivative in weakly alkaline aqueous solutions containing carbonate. In both water and control biological fluids (urine, plasma) spiked with FBAL (and sodium bicarbonate, in some cases), 19F NMR was used: (i) to determine the pH range over which FBAL carbamate is present (pH greater than or equal to 7), the maximum concentration formed occurring around pH 9, (ii) to show that the amino group of FBAL interacts very slowly with a non-protein plasma component to form a compound X, unstable in acid medium. The presumed structure of X is RCONHCH2CHFCOOH, with R different from an alkyl group but still unidentified. The behavior of FBAL in urine and plasma of rats treated with FBAL or 5'-deoxy-5-fluorouridine (5'-dFUrd), a prodrug of 5-fluorouracil, and from patients treated with 5'-dFUrd was investigated. FBAL carbamate was not present in acid medium and was therefore absent in acidic human urine. However, it was found in alkaline rat urine. FBAL carbamate was found in plasma along with the compound X. The 19F NMR spectra of FBAL and derivatives are complex since alpha-fluoro-beta-ureido-propionic acid, the precursor of FBAL in the catabolic pathway of antineoplastic fluoropyrimidines, produces a signal overlapping that of FBAL carbamate, and very close to that of compound X

  18. Effect of secondary structure on the potential of mean force for poly-L-lysine in the alpha-Helix and beta-sheet conformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigsby, J.J.; Blanch, H.W.; Prausnitz, J.M.

    2001-10-30

    Because poly-L-lysine (PLL) can exist in the {alpha}-helix or {beta}-sheet conformation depending on solution preparation and solution conditions, PLL is a suitable candidate to probe the dependence of protein interactions on secondary structure. The osmotic second virial coefficient and weight-average molecular weight are reported from low-angle laser-light scattering measurements for PLL as a function of NaCl concentration, pH, and {alpha}-helix or {beta}-sheet content. Interactions between PLL molecules become more attractive as salt concentration increases due to screening of PLL charge by salt ions and at low salt concentration become more attractive as pH increases due to decreased net charge on PLL. The experimental results show that interactions are stronger for the {beta}-sheet conformation than for the {alpha}-helix conformation. A spherically-symmetric model for the potential of mean force is used to account for specific interactions not described by DLVO theory and to show how differences in secondary structure affect PLL interactions.

  19. Binding studies of alpha-GalNAc-specific lectins to the alpha-GalNAc (Tn-antigen) form of porcine submaxillary mucin and its smaller fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dam, Tarun K; Gerken, Thomas A; Cavada, Benildo S; Nascimento, Kyria S; Moura, Tales R; Brewer, C Fred

    2007-09-21

    Isothermal titration microcalorimetry (ITC) and hemagglutination inhibition measurements demonstrate that a chemically and enzymatically prepared form of porcine submaxillary mucin that possesses a molecular mass of approximately 10(6) daltons and approximately 2300 alpha-GalNAc residues (Tn-PSM) binds to the soybean agglutinin (SBA) with a K(d) of 0.2 nm, which is approximately 10(6)-fold enhanced affinity relative to GalNAcalpha1-O-Ser (Tn), the pancarcinoma carbohydrate antigen. The enzymatically derived 81 amino acid tandem repeat domain of Tn-PSM containing approximately 23 alpha-GalNAc residues binds with approximately 10(3)-fold enhanced affinity, while the enzymatically derived 38/40 amino acid cleavage product(s) of Tn-PSM containing approximately 11-12 alpha-GalNAc residues shows approximately 10(2)-fold enhanced affinity. A natural carbohydrate decorated form of PSM (Fd-PSM) containing 40% of the core 1 blood group type A tetrasaccharide, and 58% peptide-linked GalNAcalpha1-O-Ser/Thr residues, with 45% of the peptide-linked alpha-GalNAc residues linked alpha-(2,6) to N-glycolylneuraminic acid, shows approximately 10(4) enhanced affinity for SBA. Vatairea macrocarpa lectin (VML), which is also a GalNAc binding lectin, displays a similar pattern of binding to the four forms of PSM, although there are quantitative differences in its affinities as compared with SBA. The higher affinities of SBA and VML for Tn-PSM relative to Fd-PSM indicate the importance of carbohydrate composition and epitope density of mucins on their affinities for lectins. The higher affinities of SBA and VML for Tn-PSM relative to its two shorter chain analogs demonstrate that the length of a mucin polypeptide and hence total carbohydrate valence determines the affinities of the three Tn-PSM analogs. The results suggest a binding model in which lectin molecules "bind and jump" from alpha-GalNAc residue to alpha-GalNAc residue along the polypeptide chain of Tn-PSM before dissociating

  20. Hydration and flexibility of {alpha}-, {beta}-, {gamma}- and {delta}-cyclodextrin: A molecular dynamics study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raffaini, Giuseppina [Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e Ingegneria Chimica ' G. Natta' , Sez. Chimica, Politecnico di Milano, via L. Mancinelli 7, 20131 Milano (Italy)], E-mail: Giuseppina.Raffaini@polimi.it; Ganazzoli, Fabio [Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e Ingegneria Chimica ' G. Natta' , Sez. Chimica, Politecnico di Milano, via L. Mancinelli 7, 20131 Milano (Italy)

    2007-03-30

    The conformational behaviour in vacuo and in explicit water, and the hydration of the macrocyclic oligosaccharides cyclodextrins (CDs) containing from six up to nine sugar rings have been studied by atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. CDs are relatively soluble in water, but show a hydrophobic cavity wherein they may host appropriate guests, thus acting as a carrier of lipophilic molecules in an aqueous environment. In this paper, we discuss the size and conformation of cyclodextrins, including in particular their flexibility in solution, and their hydration pattern through the description of clusters of water molecules included within the cavity, as observed experimentally in the crystalline state. The resulting picture allows a better understanding of the efficiency of these molecules to form host-guest adducts.

  1. GDP-L-fucose: .beta.-D-galactoside 2-.alpha.-L-fucosyltransferases, DNA sequences encoding the same, method for producing the same and a method of genotyping a person

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, John B.; Lennon, Gregory; Rouquier, Sylvie; Giorgi, Dominique; Kelly, Robert J.

    1998-01-01

    The gene encoding GDP-L-fucose: .beta.-D-Galactoside 2-.alpha.-L-fucosyltransferase has been cloned, and a mutation in this gene has been found to be responsible for an individual being a non-secretor.

  2. GDP-L-fucose: {beta}-D-galactoside 2-{alpha}-Lfucosyltransferases, DNA sequences encoding the same, method for producing the same and a method of genotyping a person

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, J.B.; Lennon, G.; Rouquier, S.; Giorgi, D.; Kelly, R.J.

    1998-09-15

    The gene encoding GDP-L-fucose: {beta}-D-Galactoside 2-{alpha}-Lfucosyltransferase has been cloned, and a mutation in this gene has been found to be responsible for an individual being a non-secretor. 30 figs.

  3. Low dietary intake of beta-carotene, alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid is associated with increased inflammatory and oxidative stress status in a Swedish cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmersson, Johanna; Arnlöv, Johan; Larsson, Anders; Basu, Samar

    2009-06-01

    Fruit and vegetable consumption has been associated with a reduced risk of several diseases including CVD. A part of these effects seen could be linked to anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects, although this has not been thoroughly investigated. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of the dietary intake of beta-carotene, alpha-tocopherol and ascorbic acid on in vivo biomarkers of inflammation (PGF2alpha, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and IL-6 formation) and oxidative stress (F2-isoprostane formation), the two important factors associated with accelerated atherosclerosis. The dietary intake of 704 participants in the Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (ULSAM) at age 70 years was registered and inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers were quantified 7 years later. The registered dietary intakes of ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol were negatively associated linearly and in quartiles with both PGF2alpha, hsCRP, IL-6 and F2-isoprostanes, where ascorbic acid intake generally was more strongly associated. Dietary intake of beta-carotene was only significantly negatively associated with F2-isoprostanes. In conclusion, the present study is the first to suggest that the intake of food rich in antioxidants is associated with reduced cyclo-oxygenase- and cytokine-mediated inflammation and oxidative stress at 7 years of follow-up. These associations could be linked to the beneficial effects of fruit and vegetables observed on CVD.

  4. In cellulo examination of a beta-alpha hybrid construct of beta-hexosaminidase A subunits, reported to interact with the GM2 activator protein and hydrolyze GM2 ganglioside.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Incilay Sinici

    Full Text Available The hydrolysis in lysosomes of GM2 ganglioside to GM3 ganglioside requires the correct synthesis, intracellular assembly and transport of three separate gene products; i.e., the alpha and beta subunits of heterodimeric beta-hexosaminidase A, E.C. # 3.2.1.52 (encoded by the HEXA and HEXB genes, respectively, and the GM2-activator protein (GM2AP, encoded by the GM2A gene. Mutations in any one of these genes can result in one of three neurodegenerative diseases collectively known as GM2 gangliosidosis (HEXA, Tay-Sachs disease, MIM # 272800; HEXB, Sandhoff disease, MIM # 268800; and GM2A, AB-variant form, MIM # 272750. Elements of both of the hexosaminidase A subunits are needed to productively interact with the GM2 ganglioside-GM2AP complex in the lysosome. Some of these elements have been predicted from the crystal structures of hexosaminidase and the activator. Recently a hybrid of the two subunits has been constructed and reported to be capable of forming homodimers that can perform this reaction in vivo, which could greatly simplify vector-mediated gene transfer approaches for Tay-Sachs or Sandhoff diseases. A cDNA encoding a hybrid hexosaminidase subunit capable of dimerizing and hydrolyzing GM2 ganglioside could be incorporated into a single vector, whereas packaging both subunits of hexosaminidase A into vectors, such as adeno-associated virus, would be impractical due to size constraints. In this report we examine the previously published hybrid construct (H1 and a new more extensive hybrid (H2, with our documented in cellulo (live cell- based assay utilizing a fluorescent GM2 ganglioside derivative. Unfortunately when Tay-Sachs cells were transfected with either the H1 or H2 hybrid construct and then were fed the GM2 derivative, no significant increase in its turnover was detected. In vitro assays with the isolated H1 or H2 homodimers confirmed that neither was capable of human GM2AP-dependent hydrolysis of GM2 ganglioside.

  5. In cellulo examination of a beta-alpha hybrid construct of beta-hexosaminidase A subunits, reported to interact with the GM2 activator protein and hydrolyze GM2 ganglioside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinici, Incilay; Yonekawa, Sayuri; Tkachyova, Ilona; Gray, Steven J; Samulski, R Jude; Wakarchuk, Warren; Mark, Brian L; Mahuran, Don J

    2013-01-01

    The hydrolysis in lysosomes of GM2 ganglioside to GM3 ganglioside requires the correct synthesis, intracellular assembly and transport of three separate gene products; i.e., the alpha and beta subunits of heterodimeric beta-hexosaminidase A, E.C. # 3.2.1.52 (encoded by the HEXA and HEXB genes, respectively), and the GM2-activator protein (GM2AP, encoded by the GM2A gene). Mutations in any one of these genes can result in one of three neurodegenerative diseases collectively known as GM2 gangliosidosis (HEXA, Tay-Sachs disease, MIM # 272800; HEXB, Sandhoff disease, MIM # 268800; and GM2A, AB-variant form, MIM # 272750). Elements of both of the hexosaminidase A subunits are needed to productively interact with the GM2 ganglioside-GM2AP complex in the lysosome. Some of these elements have been predicted from the crystal structures of hexosaminidase and the activator. Recently a hybrid of the two subunits has been constructed and reported to be capable of forming homodimers that can perform this reaction in vivo, which could greatly simplify vector-mediated gene transfer approaches for Tay-Sachs or Sandhoff diseases. A cDNA encoding a hybrid hexosaminidase subunit capable of dimerizing and hydrolyzing GM2 ganglioside could be incorporated into a single vector, whereas packaging both subunits of hexosaminidase A into vectors, such as adeno-associated virus, would be impractical due to size constraints. In this report we examine the previously published hybrid construct (H1) and a new more extensive hybrid (H2), with our documented in cellulo (live cell- based) assay utilizing a fluorescent GM2 ganglioside derivative. Unfortunately when Tay-Sachs cells were transfected with either the H1 or H2 hybrid construct and then were fed the GM2 derivative, no significant increase in its turnover was detected. In vitro assays with the isolated H1 or H2 homodimers confirmed that neither was capable of human GM2AP-dependent hydrolysis of GM2 ganglioside. PMID:23483939

  6. Truncated Bovine Integrin Alpha-v/Beta-6 as a Universal Capture Ligand for FMD Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimmon, Gareth; Wood, Britta A.; Morris, Alison; Mioulet, Valerie; Grazioli, Santina; Brocchi, Emiliana; Berryman, Stephen; Tuthill, Toby; King, Donald P.; Burman, Alison; Jackson, Terry

    2016-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in many regions of the world and is one of the most prevalent epizootic animal diseases. FMD affects livestock, such as cattle, sheep, goats and pigs, and causes enormous economic losses due to reduced productivity and trade restrictions. Preparedness and early diagnosis are essential for effective control of FMD. Many diagnostic assays are dependent on raising high-affinity, anti-FMD virus (FMDV) serotype-specific antibodies in small animals (rabbits and guinea pigs) that give broad virus coverage. Here we show that soluble, truncated forms of bovine αvβ6 bind FMDV in an authentic RGD and divalent cation dependent interaction and can be used as the trapping reagent in a FMDV sandwich ELISA. In addition, inclusion of FLAG or His tags facilitates simple purification without the loss of virus binding. We also provide evidence that when combined with a guinea pig polyclonal serum, or serotype-specific monoclonal antibodies, the integrin can be used to detect viruses representative of all FMDV serotypes. We also show that recombinant FMDV empty capsids, with stabilising disulphide bonds, can serve as an antigen in the ELISA and can therefore replace inactivated virus antigen as a positive control for the assay. Our results demonstrate the potential use of bovine αvβ6 and FMDV empty capsids in FMD diagnostic assays. PMID:27494135

  7. Truncated Bovine Integrin Alpha-v/Beta-6 as a Universal Capture Ligand for FMD Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimmon, Gareth; Wood, Britta A; Morris, Alison; Mioulet, Valerie; Grazioli, Santina; Brocchi, Emiliana; Berryman, Stephen; Tuthill, Toby; King, Donald P; Burman, Alison; Jackson, Terry

    2016-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in many regions of the world and is one of the most prevalent epizootic animal diseases. FMD affects livestock, such as cattle, sheep, goats and pigs, and causes enormous economic losses due to reduced productivity and trade restrictions. Preparedness and early diagnosis are essential for effective control of FMD. Many diagnostic assays are dependent on raising high-affinity, anti-FMD virus (FMDV) serotype-specific antibodies in small animals (rabbits and guinea pigs) that give broad virus coverage. Here we show that soluble, truncated forms of bovine αvβ6 bind FMDV in an authentic RGD and divalent cation dependent interaction and can be used as the trapping reagent in a FMDV sandwich ELISA. In addition, inclusion of FLAG or His tags facilitates simple purification without the loss of virus binding. We also provide evidence that when combined with a guinea pig polyclonal serum, or serotype-specific monoclonal antibodies, the integrin can be used to detect viruses representative of all FMDV serotypes. We also show that recombinant FMDV empty capsids, with stabilising disulphide bonds, can serve as an antigen in the ELISA and can therefore replace inactivated virus antigen as a positive control for the assay. Our results demonstrate the potential use of bovine αvβ6 and FMDV empty capsids in FMD diagnostic assays. PMID:27494135

  8. Libraries of RGD analogs, labeled through ReO{sup 3+} or TcO{sup 3+} coordination, targeting {alpha}V{beta}3 integrin: development of tracers for the early detection of tumor neo-angiogenesis; Chimiotheques de complexes du technetium et du rhenium ciblant l'integrine {alpha}V{beta}3: developpement de traceurs pour la detection precoce de la neoangiogenese tumorale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aufort, M.

    2008-11-15

    Integrins form a family of hetero-dimeric integral glycoproteins which play a central role in cell-cell adhesion and cell-matrix interactions. In particular, they are over expressed during tumor neo-angiogenesis. About 10 of them recognize a structured RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) sequence. Analogs of this sequence can be used for the early detection of tumors and metastases. We developed new tracers, labeled with {sup 99m}Tc, for the molecular imaging of {alpha}{sub V{beta}3} integrin. Until recently, there was no reliable ab initio structure prediction of complex molecules containing Re and Tc chelates. Therefore, we preferred a combinatorial approach to develop potential ligands of {alpha}{sub V{beta}3} integrin and we attempted to identify efficient tracers by in vivo screening. This method would account for biodistribution and pharmacokinetics properties in the early steps of the study. Tracers were obtained according two strategies: i) cyclization of linear RGD analogs; ii) combinatorial assembling of independent modules through metal core coordination by the well-known NS{sub 2}+S motif. After synthesis and labeling, the stability of the tracers was investigated in presence of glutathione and in murine plasma. In vitro screening on purified integrin showed that a cyclic rhenium coordinate binds specifically {alpha}{sub V{beta}3}. A tumor model (U87-MG tumor on nude mice) was validated in the laboratory and a method was developed to analyze in vivo experiments. Biodistribution data and percentage of activity found in tumors are encouraging for cyclic compounds though identification of efficient tracers is difficult due to their instability in the conditions of analyses. (author)

  9. Placental expression of estrogen receptor beta and its hormone binding variant – comparison with estrogen receptor alpha and a role for estrogen receptors in asymmetric division and differentiation of estrogen-dependent cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henley Donald C

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During human pregnancy, the production of 17-beta-estradiol (E2 rises steadily to eighty fold at term, and placenta has been found to specifically bind estrogens. We have recently demonstrated the expression of estrogen receptor alpha (ER-alpha protein in human placenta and its localization in villous cytotrophoblast (CT, vascular pericytes, and amniotic fibroblasts. In vitro, E2 stimulated development of large syncytiotrophoblast (ST aggregates. In the present study we utilized ER-beta affinity purified polyclonal (N19:sc6820 and ER-alpha monoclonal (clone h-151 antibodies. Western blot analysis revealed a single ~52 kDa ER-beta band in chorionic villi (CV protein extracts. In CV, strong cytoplasmic ER-beta immunoreactivity was confined to ST. Dual color immunohistochemistry revealed asymmetric segregation of ER-alpha in dividing villous CT cells. Prior to separation, the cell nuclei more distant from ST exhibited high ER-alpha, while cell nuclei associated with ST showed diminution of ER-alpha and appearance of ER-beta. In trophoblast cultures, development of ST aggregates was associated with diminution of ER-alpha and appearance of ER-beta immunoreactivity. ER-beta was also detected in endothelial cells, amniotic epithelial cells and fibroblasts, extravillous trophoblast (nuclear and cytoplasmic and decidual cells (cytoplasmic only. In addition, CFK-E12 (E12 and CWK-F12 (F12 monoclonal antibodies, which recognize ~64 kDa ER-beta with hormone binding domain, showed nuclear-specific reactivity with villous ST, extravillous trophoblast, and amniotic epithelium and fibroblasts. Western blot analysis indicated abundant expression of a ~64 kDa ER-beta variant in trophoblast cultures, significantly higher when compared to the chorionic villi and freshly isolated trophoblast cell protein extracts. This is the first report on ER-beta expression in human placenta and cultured trophoblast. Our data indicate that during trophoblast

  10. The Inflammasome and the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR Are Involved in the Staphylococcus aureus-Mediated Induction of IL-1alpha and IL-1beta in Human Keratinocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren Simanski

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus (S. aureus is an important pathogen causing various infections including those of the skin. Keratinocytes are able to sense invading S. aureus and to initiate a fast defense reaction by the rapid release of innate defense mediators such as antimicrobial peptides and cytokines. There is increasing evidence that the cytokines IL-1alpha and IL-1beta, which both signal through the IL-1 receptor, play an important role in cutaneous defense against S. aureus. The aim of this study was to gain more insight into the underlying mechanisms leading to the S. aureus-induced IL-1alpha and IL-1beta expression in keratinocytes. Infection of human primary keratinocytes with S. aureus led to the induction of gene expression and protein secretion of IL-1alpha and IL-1beta. Full S. aureus-induced IL-1 protein release required the inflammasome components caspase-1 and ASC (apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD whereas gene induction of IL-1alpha and IL-beta by S. aureus was not dependent on caspase-1 and ASC. Since patients receiving anti-cancer therapy by inhibition of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR often suffer from skin infections caused by S. aureus we additionally evaluated whether the EGFR pathway may be involved in the IL-1alpha and IL-1beta induction by S. aureus. Inactivation of the EGFR with a blocking antibody decreased the S. aureus-mediated IL-1alpha and IL-1beta induction in primary keratinocytes. Moreover, the use of siRNA experiments revealed that ADAM17 (A Disintegrin and A Metalloprotease 17, a metalloproteinase known to mediate the shedding and release of EGFR ligands, was required for full induction of IL-1alpha and IL-1beta in keratinocytes infected with S. aureus. A failure of keratinocytes to adequately upregulate IL-1alpha and IL-1beta may promote S. aureus skin infections.

  11. Purification and partial characterization of three forms of alpha-glucosidase from the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimura, T; Kitamura, K; Fukuda, T; Kikuchi, T

    1979-01-01

    Three forms of alpha-glucosidase, I, II, and III, have been purified from the whole body extract of adult flies of Drosophila melanogaster in yields of 2.1, 5.3, and 6.7%, respectively. The purification procedures involved ammonium sulfate fractionation, Con A-Sepharose 4B affinity chromatography, DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B ion exchange chromatography, Sephacryl S-200 gel filtration, and preparative gel electrophoresis. Each purified enzyme showed a single band on polyacrylamide gel on both protein and enzyme activity staining. The molecular weights of alpha-glucosidases I, II, and III were estimated to be 200,000, 56,000, and 76,000, respectively, by gel filtration. SDS gels indicated that alpha-glucosidases II and III were each composed of a single polypeptide chain, whereas alpha-glucosidase I was composed of two identical subunits. Both alpha-glucosidases II and III hydrolyzed sucrose and p-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-glucoside (PNPG), but alpha-glucosidase I hydrolyzed PNPG to a much lesser extent than sucrose. For sucrose the pH optima of alpha-glucosidases I, II, and III were pH 6.0, 5.0, and 6.0 and the Km values were 13.1, 8.9, and 10 mM, respectively. For PNPG the pH optima of alpha-glucosidases II and III were pH 5.5 and 6.5 and the Km values were 0.77 and 0.21 mM, respectively.

  12. Carbene vs olefin products of C-H activation on ruthenium via competing alpha- and beta-H elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, Vladimir F; Abdur-Rashid, Kamaluddin; Lough, Alan J; Gusev, Dmitry G

    2006-11-01

    Bulky pincer complexes of ruthenium are capable of C-H activation and H-elimination from the pincer ligand backbone to produce mixtures of olefin and carbene products. To characterize the products and determine the mechanisms of the C-H cleavage, reactions of [RuCl(2)(p-cymene)](2) with N,N'-bis(di-tert-butylphosphino)-1,3-diaminopropane (L1) and 1,3-bis(di-tert-butylphosphinomethyl)cyclohexane (L2) were studied using a combination of X-ray crystallography, NMR spectroscopy, and DFT computational techniques. The reaction of L1 afforded a mixture of an alkylidene, a Fischer carbene, and two olefin isomers of the 16-e monohydride RuHCl[(t)Bu(2)PNHC(3)H(4)NHPBu(t)(2)] (2), whereas the reaction of L2 gave two olefin and two alkylidene isomers of 16-e RuHCl[2,6-(CH(2)PBu(t)(2))(2)C(6)H(8)] (3), all resulting from dehydrogenations of the ligand backbone of L1 and L2. The key intermediates implicated in the C-H activation reactions were identified as 14-electron paramagnetic species RuCl(PCP), where PCP = cyclometalated L1 or L2. Thus the alpha- and beta-H elimination reactions of RuCl(PCP) involved spin change and were formally spin-forbidden. Hydrogenation of 2 and 3 afforded 16-electron dihydrides RuH(2)Cl(PCP) distinguished by a large quantum exchange coupling between the hydrides. PMID:17076513

  13. Exposure assessment to alpha- and beta-pinene, delta(3)-carene and wood dust in industrial production of wood pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edman, K; Lofstedt, H; Berg, P; Eriksson, K; Axelsson, S; Bryngelsson, I; Fedeli, C

    2003-04-01

    The main aim of the study was to measure the exposure to monoterpenes (alpha- and beta-pinene and Delta(3)-carene) and wood dust during industrial production of wood pellets and briquettes. Additional aims were to compare the results from wood dust sampled on a filter with real time measurements using a direct reading instrument and to identify peak exposures to dust. Twenty-four men working at six companies involved in industrial production of wood pellets and briquettes participated in the study. Monoterpenes were measured by diffusive sampling and wood dust was measured as total dust. A data logger (DataRAM) was used for continuous monitoring of dust concentration for 18 of the participants. The sampling time was approximately 8 h. The personal exposure to monoterpenes ranged from 0.64 to 28 mg/m(3) and a statistically significant (Kruskal-Wallis test, P = 0.0002) difference in levels of monoterpenes for workers at different companies was seen. In the companies the personal exposure to wood dust varied between 0.16 and 19 mg/m(3) and for 10 participants the levels exceeded the present Swedish occupational exposure limit (OEL) of 2 mg/m(3). The levels of wood dust during the morning shift were significantly (Mann-Whitney test, P = 0.04) higher compared with the afternoon shift. Continuous registration of dust concentration showed peak values for several working operations, especially cleaning of truck engines with compressed air. For 24 workers in six companies involved in industrial production of wood pellets the personal exposure to monoterpenes was low and to wood dust high compared with the present Swedish OEL and previous studies in Swedish wood industries. Since the DataRAM can identify critical working tasks with high wood dust exposure a reduction in exposure levels could probably be achieved by changes in working routines and by the use of protective equipment.

  14. Interleukin-1beta and TNF-alpha: reliable targets for protective therapies in Parkinson´s Disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Celeste Leal

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Neuroinflammation has received increased attention as a target for putative neuroprotective therapies in Parkinson´s Disease (PD. Two prototypic pro-inflammatory cytokines Interleukin-1beta (IL-1 and Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF have been implicated as main effectors of the functional consequences of neuroinflammation on neurodegeneration in PD models. In this review, we describe that the functional interaction between these cytokines in the brain differs from the periphery (e.g. their expression is not induced by each other and present data showing predominantly a toxic effect of these cytokines when expressed at high doses and for a sustained period of time in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SN. In addition, we highlight opposite evidence showing protective effects of these two main cytokines when conditions of duration, amount of expression or state of activation of the target or neighboring cells are changed. Furthermore, we discuss these results in the frame of previous disappointing results from anti-TNF clinical trials against Multiple Sclerosis, another neurodegenerative disease with a clear neuroinflammatory component. In conclusion, we hypothesize that the available evidence suggests that the duration and dose of IL-1 or TNF expression is crucial to predict their functional effect on the SN. Since these parameters are not amenable for measurement in the SN of PD patients, we call for an in-depth analysis to identify downstream mediators that could be common to the toxic (and not the protective effects of these cytokines in the SN. This strategy could spare the possible neuroprotective effect of these cytokines operative in the patient at the time of treatment, increasing the probability of efficacy in a clinical setting. Alternatively, receptor-specific agonists or antagonists could also provide a way to circumvent undesired effects of general anti-inflammatory or specific anti IL-1 or TNF therapies against PD.

  15. Archaeal translation initiation revisited: the initiation factor 2 and eukaryotic initiation factor 2B alpha-beta-delta subunit families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrpides, N. C.; Woese, C. R.

    1998-01-01

    As the amount of available sequence data increases, it becomes apparent that our understanding of translation initiation is far from comprehensive and that prior conclusions concerning the origin of the process are wrong. Contrary to earlier conclusions, key elements of translation initiation originated at the Universal Ancestor stage, for homologous counterparts exist in all three primary taxa. Herein, we explore the evolutionary relationships among the components of bacterial initiation factor 2 (IF-2) and eukaryotic IF-2 (eIF-2)/eIF-2B, i.e., the initiation factors involved in introducing the initiator tRNA into the translation mechanism and performing the first step in the peptide chain elongation cycle. All Archaea appear to posses a fully functional eIF-2 molecule, but they lack the associated GTP recycling function, eIF-2B (a five-subunit molecule). Yet, the Archaea do posses members of the gene family defined by the (related) eIF-2B subunits alpha, beta, and delta, although these are not specifically related to any of the three eukaryotic subunits. Additional members of this family also occur in some (but by no means all) Bacteria and even in some eukaryotes. The functional significance of the other members of this family is unclear and requires experimental resolution. Similarly, the occurrence of bacterial IF-2-like molecules in all Archaea and in some eukaryotes further complicates the picture of translation initiation. Overall, these data lend further support to the suggestion that the rudiments of translation initiation were present at the Universal Ancestor stage.

  16. Probing the Orientation and Conformation of alpha-Helix and beta-Strand Model Peptides on Self-Assembled Monolayers Using Sum Frequency Generation and NEXAFS Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidner, T.; Apte, J; Gamble, L; Castner, D

    2010-01-01

    The structure and orientation of amphiphilic {alpha}-helix and {beta}-strand model peptide films on self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) have been studied with sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy. The {alpha}-helix peptide is a 14-mer, and the {beta}-strand is a 15-mer of hydrophilic lysine and hydrophobic leucine residues with hydrophobic periodicities of 3.5 and 2, respectively. These periodicities result in the leucine side chains located on one side of the peptides and the lysine side chains on the other side. The SAMs were prepared from the assembly of either carboxylic acid- or methyl-terminated alkyl thiols onto gold surfaces. For SFG studies, the deuterated analog of the methyl SAM was used. SFG vibrational spectra in the C-H region of air-dried peptides films on both SAMs exhibit strong peaks near 2965, 2940, and 2875 cm{sup -1} related to ordered leucine side chains. The orientation of the leucine side chains was determined from the phase of these features relative to the nonresonant gold background. The relative phase for both the {alpha}-helix and {beta}-strand peptides showed that the leucine side chains were oriented away from the carboxylic acid SAM surface and oriented toward the methyl SAM surface. Amide I peaks observed near 1656 cm{sup -1} for the {alpha}-helix peptide confirm that the secondary structure is preserved on both SAMs. Strong linear dichroism related to the amide {pi}* orbital at 400.8 eV was observed in the nitrogen K-edge NEXAFS spectra for the adsorbed {beta}-strand peptides, suggesting that the peptide backbones are oriented parallel to the SAM surface with the side chains pointing toward or away from the interface. For the {alpha}-helix the dichroism of the amide {pi}* is significantly weaker, probably because of the broad distribution of amide bond orientations in the {alpha}-helix secondary structure.

  17. Radiolabeled high affinity peptidomimetic antagonist selectively targets {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} receptor-positive tumor in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Beom-Su [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Warren G. Magnuson Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Lim, Esther [Department of Radiology, Warren G. Magnuson Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Hee Park, Seung [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Warren G. Magnuson Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Shin, In Soo [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Warren G. Magnuson Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Danthi, S. Narasimhan [Department of Radiology, Warren G. Magnuson Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Hwang, In Sook [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Warren G. Magnuson Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Le, Nhat [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Warren G. Magnuson Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Yu, Sarah [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Warren G. Magnuson Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Xie Jianwu [Department of Radiology, Warren G. Magnuson Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Li, King C.P. [Department of Radiology, Warren G. Magnuson Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Carrasquillo, Jorge A. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Warren G. Magnuson Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Paik, Chang H. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Warren G. Magnuson Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)]. E-mail: cpaik@mail.nih.gov

    2007-05-15

    Objectives: The aim of this research was to synthesize radiolabeled peptidomimetic integrin {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} antagonists that selectively target integrin {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} receptor and clear rapidly from the whole body. Methods: Integrin {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} antagonists, 4-[2-(3,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidine-2-ylamino) ethyloxy]benzoyl-2-(S)-aminoethylsulfonyl-amino-{beta}-alanine (IA) and 4-[2-(3,4,5,6-tetrahydro-pyrimidin-2-ylamino)-ethyloxy]benzoyl-2-(S)-[N- (3-amino-neopenta-1-carbamyl)]-aminoethylsulfonylamino-{beta}-alanine hydrochloride (IAC), a hydrophobic carbamate derivative of IA, were conjugated with 2-p-isothiocyanatobenzyl-DOTA at the amino terminus and labeled with {sup 111}In. The {sup 111}In labeled IA and IAC were subjected to in vitro receptor binding, biodistribution and imaging studies using nude mice bearing the receptor-positive M21 human melanoma xenografts. Results: The {sup 111}In-labeled IA (40%) and -IAC (72%) specifically bound in vitro to {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3} (0.8 {mu}M) at a molar excess. This receptor binding was completely blocked by a molar excess of cold IA to {alpha}{sub v}{beta}{sub 3}. The higher receptor-binding affinity of the {sup 111}In-labeled IAC was reflected in higher tumor uptake and retention: 5.6{+-}1.4 and 4.5{+-}0.7 %ID/g vs. 3.8{+-}0.9 and 2.0{+-}0.3 %ID/g for the {sup 111}In-labeled IA at 0.33 and 2 h. The tumor uptakes were inhibited by the co-injection of 200 {mu}g of IA, indicating that the uptake was receptor mediated. These antagonists were excreted primarily via the renal system. The {sup 111}In activity retained in the whole body was quite comparable between the {sup 111}In-labeled IA (24% ID) and the {sup 111}In-labeled IAC (33% ID) at 2 h. The higher peak tumor uptake and longer retention resulted in higher tumor-to-background ratios for the {sup 111}In-labeled IAC at 2 h with 9.7, 2.3, 0.8, 1.9, 7.1, 2.2, 0.9, 3.7 and 9.9 for blood, liver, kidney, lung, heart, stomach

  18. Chaperone-like activities of different molecular forms of beta-casein. Importance of polarity of N-terminal hydrophilic domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Reza; Shchutskaya, Yulia Y; Zimny, Jaroslaw; Gaudin, Jean-Charles; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali A; Muronetz, Vladimir I; Zuev, Yuriy F; Chobert, Jean-Marc; Haertlé, Thomas

    2009-08-01

    As a member of intrinsically unstructured protein family, beta-casein (beta-CN) contains relatively high amount of prolyl residues, adopts noncompact and flexible structure and exhibits chaperone-like activity in vitro. Like many chaperones, native beta-CN does not contain cysteinyl residues and exhibits strong tendencies for self-association. The chaperone-like activities of three recombinant beta-CNs wild type (WT) beta-CN, C4 beta-CN (with cysteinyl residue in position 4) and C208 beta-CN (with cysteinyl residue in position 208), expressed and purified from E. coli, which, consequently, lack the phosphorylated residues, were examined and compared with that of native beta-CN using insulin and alcohol dehydrogenase as target/substrate proteins. The dimers (beta-CND) of C4-beta-CN and C208 beta-CN were also studied and their chaperone-like activities were compared with those of their monomeric forms. Lacking phosphorylation, WT beta-CN, C208 beta-CN, C4 beta-CN and C4 beta-CND exhibited significantly lower chaperone-like activities than native beta-CN. Dimerization of C208 beta-CN with two distal hydrophilic domains considerably improved its chaperone-like activity in comparison with its monomeric form. The obtained results demonstrate the significant role played by the polar contributions of phosphorylated residues and N-terminal hydrophilic domain as important functional elements in enhancing the chaperone-like activity of native beta-CN. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 91: 623-632, 2009.This article was originally published online as an accepted preprint. The "Published Online" date corresponds to the preprint version. You can request a copy of the preprint by emailing the Biopolymers editorial office at biopolymers@wiley.com. PMID:19322774

  19. Mutant U5A cells are complemented by an interferon-alpha beta receptor subunit generated by alternative processing of a new member of a cytokine receptor gene cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutfalla, G; Holland, S J; Cinato, E; Monneron, D; Reboul, J; Rogers, N C; Smith, J M; Stark, G R; Gardiner, K; Mogensen, K E

    1995-10-16

    The cellular receptor for the alpha/beta interferons contains at least two components that interact with interferon. The ifnar1 component is well characterized and a putative ifnar2 cDNA has recently been identified. We have cloned the gene for ifnar2 and show that it produces four different transcripts encoding three different polypeptides that are generated by exon skipping, alternative splicing and differential use of polyadenylation sites. One polypeptide is likely to be secreted and two are transmembrane proteins with identical extracellular and transmembrane domains but divergent cytoplasmic tails of 67 and 251 amino acids. A mutant cell line U5A, completely defective in IFN-alpha beta binding and response, has been isolated and characterized. Expression in U5A cells of the polypeptide with the long cytoplasmic domain reconstitutes a functional receptor that restores normal interferon binding, activation of the JAK/STAT signal transduction pathway, interferon-inducible gene expression and antiviral response. The IFNAR2 gene maps at 0.5 kb from the CRFB4 gene, establishing that together IFNAR2, CRFB4, IFNAR1 and AF1 form a cluster of class II cytokine receptor genes on human chromosome 21.

  20. Late-onset form of beta-electron transfer flavoprotein deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curcoy, A; Olsen, Rikke Katrine Jentoft; Ribes, A;

    2003-01-01

    Multiple acyl-CoA-dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD) or glutaric aciduria type II (GAII) are a group of metabolic disorders due to deficiency of either electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF) or electron transfer flavoprotein ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETF-QO). We report the clinical features...... and biochemical and molecular genetic analyses of a patient with a mild late-onset form of GAII due to beta-ETF deficiency. Biochemical data showed an abnormal urine organic acid profile, low levels of free carnitine, increased levels of C(10:1n-6), and C(14:1n-9) in plasma, and decreased oxidation of [9,10-3H......]palmitate and [9,10-3H]myristate in fibroblasts, suggesting MAD deficiency. In agreement with these findings, mutational analysis of the ETF/ETFDH genes demonstrated an ETFB missense mutation 124T>C in exon 2 leading to replacement of cysteine-42 with arginine (C42R), and a 604_606AAG deletion in exon 6...