Sample records for alpha autoradiography

  1. Alpha adrenergic receptors in dog coronary arteries as detected with autoradiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muntz, K.; Calianos, T.; Buja, L.M.


    The authors used previously established methods to determine the presence of alpha adrenergic receptors in different sizes of dog coronary arteries using autoradiography of /sup 3/H-prazosin (PRAZ) and /sup 125/I-BE 2254 (HEAT) to label alpha/sub 1/ adrenergic receptors and /sup 3/H-rauwolscine (RAUW) to label alpha/sub 2/ adrenergic receptors. Frozen sections of the left main coronary artery (LMA), the left anterior descending artery (LAD) and myocardium were incubated in 3 concentrations of PRAZ (0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 nM) (n=5 dogs), 3 concentrations of RAUW (1, 3 and 5 nM) (n=5) and one concentration of HEAT (50 pM) (n=3). All incubations were done in the absence of (total binding) or presence of (nonspecific binding) 10/sup -5/ M phentolamine or yohimbine. The sections were processed for autoradiography and silver grains quantitated using an image analyzer. Analysis of variance determined that there was a significant difference between total and nonspecific binding in the LMA incubated with PRAZ (p < 0.016), but no significant difference between total and nonspecific binding in the LAD (p < 0.19) or in the arterioles (p < 0.68). In the experiments with HEAT, similar results were obtained. With RAUW, there was significant labeling of arterioles (p < 0.004), but not over the LAD (p < 0.11) or the LMA (p < 0.49). The results suggest that the number of coronary alpha/sub 1/ receptors decreases as vessel size decreases, while the number of alpha/sub 2/ receptors increases as vessel size decreases.

  2. Evaluation of thermal neutron irradiation field using a cyclotron-based neutron source for alpha autoradiography. (United States)

    Tanaka, H; Sakurai, Y; Suzuki, M; Masunaga, S; Mitsumoto, T; Kinashi, Y; Kondo, N; Narabayashi, M; Nakagawa, Y; Watanabe, T; Fujimoto, N; Maruhashi, A; Ono, K


    It is important to measure the microdistribution of (10)B in a cell to predict the cell-killing effect of new boron compounds in the field of boron neutron capture therapy. Alpha autoradiography has generally been used to detect the microdistribution of (10)B in a cell. Although it has been performed using a reactor-based neutron source, the realization of an accelerator-based thermal neutron irradiation field is anticipated because of its easy installation at any location and stable operation. Therefore, we propose a method using a cyclotron-based epithermal neutron source in combination with a water phantom to produce a thermal neutron irradiation field for alpha autoradiography. This system can supply a uniform thermal neutron field with an intensity of 1.7×10(9) (cm(-2)s(-1)) and an area of 40mm in diameter. In this paper, we give an overview of our proposed system and describe a demonstration test using a mouse liver sample injected with 500mg/kg of boronophenyl-alanine.

  3. Polonium-210 in mussels and its implications for environmental alpha-autoradiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, P.; Baxter, M.S.; Fowler, S.W.; Heyraud, M.


    Alpha-autoradiographic and radiochemical studies of the distributions of transuranic nuclides in the tissues and organs of mussels collected from the vicinity of the British Nuclear Fuels reprocessing plant at Sellafield, England, appeared to require assessment also of baseline alpha-activities of natural /sup 210/ Po levels. To ensure that the levels of /sup 210/Po in Cumbrian mussels were not artificially enhanced by local discharges, mussels from remote British and French coastal sites were also analysed. General similarities in /sup 210/Po concentrations found in mussel soft parts suggest that the /sup 210/Po levels in the Ravenglass mussels are natural and largely unsupported by /sup 210/Pb; however these levels are as much as four times greater than the present day /sup 239 +240/Pu concentrations in the same samples. These findings severely limit the usefulness of alpha-autoradiography studies for transuranic nuclides performed on such samples. Because of the recently lower concentrations of alpha-emitting transuranic nuclides (mainly /sup 238/Pu, /sup 239 +240/Pu and /sup 241/Am) in the Ravenglass environment, natural /sup 210/Po is now a major contributor to alpha-track distributions in auto-radiographic studies.

  4. Quantitative autoradiography of alpha particle emission in geo-materials using the Beaver™ system (United States)

    Sardini, Paul; Angileri, Axel; Descostes, Michael; Duval, Samuel; Oger, Tugdual; Patrier, Patricia; Rividi, Nicolas; Siitari-Kauppi, Marja; Toubon, Hervé; Donnard, Jérôme


    In rocks or artificial geo-materials, radioactive isotopes emitting alpha particles are dispersed according to the mineralogy. At hand specimen scale, the achievement of quantitative chemical mapping of these isotopes takes on a specific importance. Knowledge of the distribution of the uranium and thorium series radionuclides is of prime interest to several disciplines, from the geochemistry of uranium deposits, to the dispersion of uranium mill tailings in the biosphere. The disequilibrium of these disintegration chains is also commonly used for dating. However, some prime importance isotopes, such as 226Ra, are complicated to localize in geo-materials. Because of its high specific activity, 226Ra is found in very low concentrations ( ppq), preventing its accurate localization in rock forming minerals. This paper formulates a quantitative answer to the following question: at hand specimen scale, how can alpha emitters in geo-materials be mapped quantitatively? In this study, we tested a new digital autoradiographic method (called the Beaver™) based on a Micro Patterned Gaseous Detector (MPGD) in order to quantitatively map alpha emission at the centimeter scale rock section. Firstly, for two thin sections containing U-bearing minerals at secular equilibrium, we compared the experimental and theoretical alpha count rates, measured by the Beaver™ and calculated from the uranium content, respectively. We found that they are very similar. Secondly, for a set of eight homemade standards made up of a mixture of inactive sand and low-radioactivity mud, we compared the count rates obtained by the Beaver™ and by an alpha spectrometer. The results indicate (i) a linearity between both count rates, and (ii) that the count obtained by the Beaver™ can be estimated from the count obtained by the alpha spectrometry using a factor of 0.82.

  5. Boron concentration measurements by alpha spectrometry and quantitative neutron autoradiography in cells and tissues treated with different boronated formulations and administration protocols. (United States)

    Bortolussi, Silva; Ciani, Laura; Postuma, Ian; Protti, Nicoletta; Luca Reversi; Bruschi, Piero; Ferrari, Cinzia; Cansolino, Laura; Panza, Luigi; Ristori, Sandra; Altieri, Saverio


    The possibility to measure boron concentration with high precision in tissues that will be irradiated represents a fundamental step for a safe and effective BNCT treatment. In Pavia, two techniques have been used for this purpose, a quantitative method based on charged particles spectrometry and a boron biodistribution imaging based on neutron autoradiography. A quantitative method to determine boron concentration by neutron autoradiography has been recently set-up and calibrated for the measurement of biological samples, both solid and liquid, in the frame of the feasibility study of BNCT. This technique was calibrated and the obtained results were cross checked with those of α spectrometry, in order to validate them. The comparisons were performed using tissues taken form animals treated with different boron administration protocols. Subsequently the quantitative neutron autoradiography was employed to measure osteosarcoma cell samples treated with BPA and with new boronated formulations.

  6. High-Resolution Autoradiography (United States)


    measurements see appendix ehrbide containced 6.68 percent carbon while the alpha iron 13). Theii Oak Ridge National Laboratory analysis gave (,t(e matrix...the cementite phase leaving only a (5) The sample was fixed for a minute, washed in water for very small amount of activity in the alpha iron phase. a

  7. Autoradiography and the Cell Cycle. (United States)

    Jones, C. Weldon


    Outlines the stages of a cell biology "pulse-chase" experiment in which the students apply autoradiography techniques to learn about the concept of the cell cycle. Includes (1) seed germination and plant growth; (2) radioactive labeling and fixation of root tips; (3) feulgen staining of root tips; (4) preparation of autoradiograms; and…

  8. Digital autoradiography using silicon strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overdick, M.


    Spatially resolving radiation detection systems operating in real time can be used to acquire autoradiographic images. An overview over alternatives to traditional autoradiography is given and the special features of these filmless methods are discussed. On this basis the design of a system for digital autoradiography using silicon strip detectors is presented. Special emphasis is put on the physical background of the detection process in the semiconductor and on the self-triggering read-out technique. The practical performance of the system is analyzed with respect to energy and spatial resolution. This analysis is complemented by case studies from cell biology (especially electrophoresis), botany and mineralogy. Also the results from a time-resolved autoradiographic experiment are presented. (orig.) 80 refs.

  9. Neutron induced autoradiography of some minerals from the Allchar mine

    CERN Document Server

    Lazaru, A; Skvarc, J; Kristof, E S; Stafilov, T


    The mineral lorandite from the Allchar mine (Kavadarci, Macedonia) will be used to estimate the average solar neutrino flux. Here, the amount of sup 2 sup 0 sup 5 Pb isotope induced by the sup 2 sup 0 sup 5 Tl(nu sub e , e sup -) sup 2 sup 0 sup 5 Pb reaction is measured and converted to neutrino flux. To determine the few sup 2 sup 0 sup 5 Pb atoms that are produced by solar neutrinos in the Tl ore it is necessary to know all the interfering reactions and/or impurities producing sup 2 sup 0 sup 5 Pb. The concentration and/or spatial distribution of some impurities such as U in lorandite should be known as accurately as possible. In the present work uranium and boron concentrations in some minerals from the Allchar mine (lorandite, realgar, stibnite, orpiment and dolomite) were measured by neutron induced autoradiography. The tracks of sup 1 sup 0 B(n, alpha) and sup 2 sup 3 sup 5 U(n, f) reaction products were recorded by CR-39 and phosphate glass (PSK-50) etched track detectors, respectively. Results showed...

  10. Autoradiography of geological fluorite samples for determination of uranium and thorium distribution using nuclear track methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pi, T.; Sole, J. [Instituto de Geologia, UNAM, Cd. Universitaria, Coyoacan, 04510 Mexico DF (Mexico); Golzarri, J.I; Rickards, J.; Espinosa, G. [IFUNAM, AP 20-364, 01000 Mexico DF (Mexico)]. e-mail:


    In this paper we present the uranium and thorium distribution analysis of several samples of the 'La Azul' an epithermal fluorspar deposit in southern Mexico, using nuclear track methodology (NTM), in the alpha-autoradiography mode, by placing the mineral sample in contact with a polycarbonate detector. This constitutes a non-destructive analysis, with sufficient sensitivity to provide valuable information about textural and para genetic characteristics of the geological samples. The selected nuclear track detector was CR-39 (Landauer). The region of interest of the geological samples was polished and put in contact with the detector material surface for 45 days in a vacuum chamber (10-3 torr). After this period of time, the detectors were chemically etched, revealing the auto radiograph of the radioactive material. The results show a clear distribution of bands of uranium and thorium in the fluorite samples. This is valuable information for the genetic or geochronological studies of the ore deposits. (Author)


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbs, K; Carol Kestin, C


    This report fulfills the FY 2006 Enhanced Surveillance Campaign Level 3 milestones for Task TSR 11.1 as defined in the execution plan [1, 2]. The purpose of this task is to reduce the cycle time necessary to complete analytical evaluations required for surveillance of reservoirs. The development of the digital autoradiography system supports this task. The digital autoradiography system is currently operational and ready for implementation in reservoir surveillance performed in the Materials Test Facility (MTF) at Savannah River Site (SRS). SRS requests design agency (Los Alamos National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratory) concurrence for the implementation of this system and on the establishment, in conjunction with the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), of the implementation requirements for this system. Stainless steel tritium reservoirs and pinch welded tubes, which have been exposed to tritium for a prolonged period, are destructively evaluated at the end of their service lives for a variety of reasons. One requirement of this evaluation is to assess the tritium diffusion into the reservoir material. The current method used to determine the geometry and depth of tritium penetration is autoradiography. This technique employs a photographic emulsion and has been effective for a number of years. The primary disadvantage of this technique is the time required to obtain results. The success of the traditional technique is dependent on many variables, such as the proficiency of the operators in conducting sample preparation, the geometry of the sample and the shelf life of the photographic chemicals. If results are not satisfactory, several repetitions are often required and usually add weeks to the total analysis time for the sample. Due to the extensive time required for the liquid emulsion autoradiography method, a new, faster technique was desired. Personnel from the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) have been working on a system based on

  12. Autoradiography of manganese: accumulation and retention in the pancreas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyden, A.; Lindquist, N.G. (National Board of Health and Welfare, Department of Drugs, Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Uppsala, Sweden); Larsson, B.S. (Department of Toxicology, University of Uppsala, Biomedical Center, Uppsala, Sweden)


    By means of whole-body autoradiography, the general distribution of /sup 54/MnCl/sub 2/ was studied in mice and a Marmoset monkey. High accumulation and retention were observed in the pancreas in both species. Gamma counting experiments in mice after a single intravenous injection of /sup 54/MnCl/sub 2/ showed that the level in the pancreas exceeded that of the liver at all survival times (20 min. - 30 days). Also in the monkey, the concentration in the pancreas exceeded that of the liver, and the pancreas had the highest tissue/liver ratio of the organs measured at 24 hours after injection. The high uptake and long retention in the pancreas suggest that manganese is of importance for the pancreatic function but also that the pancreas may be a target organ for manganese toxicity. Positron tomography, using /sup 11/C-labelled amino acids, has been found to be a promising diagnostic technique for the study of pancreatic disease. Positron emitting manganese isotopes may be worth further studies as possible agents for pancreatic imaging.

  13. Detection of androgen receptor in human prostatic adenoma by autoradiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demura, Takayoshi; Sakashita, Shigeo; Takamura, Takao; Kuroda, Kazuhide (Asahikawa Medical Coll., Hokkaido (Japan))


    We developed a new amplified method to detect the localization of androgen receptors within the human prostatic tissue specimens. The tissue sections were treated with 50 of 100 nM tritiated dihydrotestosterone (/sup 3/H-DHT). The binding of /sup 3/H-DHT to receptors was demonstrated as silver grains on the stained tissue sections. The binding of /sup 3/H-DHT to the prostatic tissue was inhibited by additional non-radioactive DHT remarkably and by testosterone partially, but not affected by additional progesterone and 17..beta..-estradiol. No binding of /sup 3/H-DHT to the bladder tissue was found. These results showed that the binding of /sup 3/H-DHT to the prostatic tissue was a specific reaction of /sup 3/H-DHT and androgen receptor. Androgen receptors were seen in the nuclei and the cytoplasmas of glandular epithelial cells of prostate. However, stromal cells contained less abundant androgen receptors. The method reported here has several advantages in detecting the androgen receptor of the prostatic tissue in comparison with the radioreceptor assay and other histochemical methods. 1) The needle biopsied specimens are big enough to examine. 2) Morphological observations are also possible on the same specimen because the specimens are stained with hematoxylin simultaneously. Therefore, we can know the relative ratio of androgen receptor positive cells and negative cells. 3) Binding of /sup 3/H-DHT to the receptor with this method may be more specific than other histochemical methods, since binding of /sup 3/H-DHT to the receptor was inhibited by 200-fold excess of non-radioactive DHT. 4) Treatment of scintillator, fluorographic technique shortens the exposure periods. The exposure periods are approximately six to twelve times shorter than that of the conventional autoradiography.

  14. Quantitative Single-Particle Digital Autoradiography with α-Particle Emitters for Targeted Radionuclide Therapy using the iQID Camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Brian W.; Frost, Sophia; Frayo, Shani; Kenoyer, Aimee L.; Santos, E. B.; Jones, Jon C.; Green, Damian J.; Hamlin, Donald K.; Wilbur, D. Scott; Fisher, Darrell R.; Orozco, Johnnie J.; Press, Oliver W.; Pagel, John M.; Sandmaier, B. M.


    Abstract Alpha emitting radionuclides exhibit a potential advantage for cancer treatments because they release large amounts of ionizing energy over a few cell diameters (50–80 μm) causing localized, irreparable double-strand DNA breaks that lead to cell death. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) approaches using monoclonal antibodies labeled with alpha emitters may inactivate targeted cells with minimal radiation damage to surrounding tissues. For accurate dosimetry in alpha-RIT, tools are needed to visualize and quantify the radioactivity distribution and absorbed dose to targeted and non-targeted cells, especially for organs and tumors with heterogeneous radionuclide distributions. The aim of this study was to evaluate and characterize a novel single-particle digital autoradiography imager, iQID (ionizing-radiation Quantum Imaging Detector), for use in alpha-RIT experiments. Methods: The iQID camera is a scintillator-based radiation detection technology that images and identifies charged-particle and gamma-ray/X-ray emissions spatially and temporally on an event-by-event basis. It employs recent advances in CCD/CMOS cameras and computing hardware for real-time imaging and activity quantification of tissue sections, approaching cellular resolutions. In this work, we evaluated this system’s characteristics for alpha particle imaging including measurements of spatial resolution and background count rates at various detector configurations and quantification of activity distributions. The technique was assessed for quantitative imaging of astatine-211 (211At) activity distributions in cryosections of murine and canine tissue samples. Results: The highest spatial resolution was measured at ~20 μm full width at half maximum (FWHM) and the alpha particle background was measured at a rate of (2.6 ± 0.5) × 10–4 cpm/cm2 (40 mm diameter detector area). Simultaneous imaging of multiple tissue sections was performed using a large-area iQID configuration (ø 11.5 cm

  15. Thymidine plaque autoradiography of thymidine kinase-positive and thymidine kinase-negative herpesviruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenser, R.B.; Jones, J.C.; Ressel, S.J.; Fralish, F.A.


    Plaques formed by herpes simplex virus (HSV), pseudorabies virus, and varicella-zoster virus were studied by plaque autoradiography after (/sup 14/C)thymidine labeling. Standard thymidine kinase-positive (TK+) viruses and TK- mutants of HSV types 1 and 2 and pseudorabies virus were studied, including cell cultured viruses and viruses isolated from animals. Autoradiography was performed with X-ray film with an exposure time of 5 days. After development of films, TK+ plaques showed dark rims due to isotope incorporation, whereas TK- plaques were minimally labeled. Plaque autoradiography of stock TK- viruses showed reversion frequencies to the TK+ phenotype of less than 10(-3). Autoradiography indicated that TK- virus retained the TK- phenotype after replication in vivo. In addition, it was shown that TK- HSV could be isolated from mouse trigeminal ganglion tissue after corneal inoculation of TK- HSV together with TK+ HSV. The plaque autoradiographic procedure was very useful to evaluate proportions of TK+ and TK- virus present in TK+-TK- virus mixtures.

  16. Assignment of two ultrastructures formed by a mixture of hexonamides using autoradiography and electron microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boettcher, Christoph; Boekema, Egbert J.; Fuhrhop, Juergen-H.


    The combined application of autoradiography and electron microscopy allowed the assignment of molecular components to individual micellar fibres in a mixed gel. Resolution was of the order of 0·1 µm. As a result, it was shown that bimolecular sheets of N-dodecyl-L-mannonamide (= L-Man-12) completely

  17. A Significant Contribution of INAA in Autoradiography for Elemental Profile Construction (United States)

    Khaweerat, Sasiphan; Ratanatongchai, Wichian; Channuie, Jatechan

    Autoradiography has been carried out occasionally at the out-of-pool neutron radiography (NR) facility of the Thai Research Reactor-1/M1 for more than a decade. Because of low and uncertain neutron flux at exposure position, the technique is not well recognized. The first attempt to conduct neutron activation autoradiography (NAAR) using in-pool irradiation facility was initiated in Thailand in early 2014. The technique combines fundamental concepts of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and autoradiography to fulfil their limitations. The elemental composition obtained from INAA, however, is for the whole sample and it is not possible to map specific location of particular elements. Autoradiography, on the other hand, provides visual images without elemental information. Here, a near triangle of 1.5 cm x 3.0 cm metal Buddha image was irradiated using the in-pool dry irradiation facility. Irradiation times were 10 seconds and 15 minutes and decay times were varied. In parallel to elemental analysis, the irradiated sample was placed in good contact with an imaging plate to record self- emitting radiation. At a condition of irradiation, autoradiographic image and elemental appearances in INAA spectrum were compared. The structural profile in complementary with elemental information will help address questions regarding provenance, manufacturing technology, traditional beliefs which can be further applied to conservation methodology and authenticity approval.

  18. Neutron autoradiography: working-out method and application in investigations of test paintings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalicki, A.; Panczyk, E.; Rowinska, L.; Sartowska, B. E-mail:; Walis, L.; Pytel, K.; Pytel, B.; Koziel, A.; Dabkowski, L.; Wierzchnicka, M.; Strzalkowski, L.; Ostrowski, T


    Neutron-induced autoradiography was carried out at MARIA research reactor in Poland. The paintings were exposed to the thermal neutrons. As a result, the radionuclides emitting beta particles and gamma rays were created from some of the elements existing in the painting. Beta particles were detected during successive exposure to a series of X-ray medical-sensitive films. The obtained images--blackening of the films depends mainly on the nuclear characteristic of recorded radionuclides and exposure parameters. The main purpose of this work was to work out a method, build a special stand and test sample paintings using neutron autoradiography. Samples of paintings were investigated and according to the obtained results, optimum test parameters have been selected: neutron irradiation conditions and autoradiographs exposure conditions.

  19. A study of Cs-137 spatial distribution in soil thin sections by digital autoradiography (United States)

    Korobova, Elena; Dogadkin, Nikolay; Shiryaev, Andrey; Kolotov, Vladimir; Turkov, Victor


    Recent studies have proved autoradiography to have high potential in detection of radiation in particles including geological objects [1-3]. We applied digital autoradiography based on usage of image plates to study Cs-137 microdistribution in thin sections of the podzolic sandy soil typical for the Chernobyl remote impact zone 25 years after the accident. The zone is noted for contamination of the so-called condensation type where the contribution of the "hot" fuel particles has been comparatively low. The initial 137Cs contamination level of the study plot approximated 40 Ci/km2. According to the soil core data twenty five years after the accident the main portion of cesium radioisotopes is still concentrated in the 10-20 cm thick surface layer. Thin sections have been prepared from the top 0-10 cm soil layer of the soil profile located on the shoulder of the relatively steep northern slope of the forested hill formed on the Iput river terrace ca 20 km to the east of the town of Novozybkov, Bryansk region. Undisturbed soil sample was impregnated with epoxy resin, then dissected in vertical triplicates and polished to obtain open surface. Autoradiography of the thin sections has clearly shown different patterns of Cs-137 distribution related to its concentration in organic material and on the surface of soil particles. High sensitivity and resolution of the applied technique enables to reveal concentration and dispersion zones on microscale level. Soil micro-morphology has shown to be helpful in deciphering soil components and properties responsible for Cs-137 retention in the soil top layer. References 1. Mihoko Hareyama, Noriyoshi Tsuchiya, Masahiro Takebe and Tadashi Chida. Two-dimensional measurement of natural radioactivity of granitic rocks by photostimulated luminescence technique Geochemical Journal, 2000, 34, 1- 9. 2. Zeissler C. J., R. M. Lindstrom, J. P. McKinley. Radioactive particle analysis by digital autoradiography. Journal of Radioanalytical and

  20. Characterization of a double-sided silicon strip detector autoradiography system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Örbom, Anders, E-mail:; Ahlstedt, Jonas; Östlund, Karl; Strand, Sven-Erik [Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Lund University, Lund SE-22185 (Sweden); Serén, Tom; Auterinen, Iiro; Kotiluoto, Petri [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo FI-02044 (Finland); Hauge, Håvard [Biomolex AS, Oslo NO-0319 (Norway); Olafsen, Tove; Wu, Anna M.; Dahlbom, Magnus [Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)


    Purpose: The most commonly used technology currently used for autoradiography is storage phosphor screens, which has many benefits such as a large field of view but lacks particle-counting detection of the time and energy of each detected radionuclide decay. A number of alternative designs, using either solid state or scintillator detectors, have been developed to address these issues. The aim of this study is to characterize the imaging performance of one such instrument, a double-sided silicon strip detector (DSSD) system for digital autoradiography. A novel aspect of this work is that the instrument, in contrast to previous prototype systems using the same detector type, provides the ability for user accessible imaging with higher throughput. Studies were performed to compare its spatial resolution to that of storage phosphor screens and test the implementation of multiradionuclide ex vivo imaging in a mouse preclinical animal study. Methods: Detector background counts were determined by measuring a nonradioactive sample slide for 52 h. Energy spectra and detection efficiency were measured for seven commonly used radionuclides under representative conditions for tissue imaging. System dead time was measured by imaging {sup 18}F samples of at least 5 kBq and studying the changes in count rate over time. A line source of {sup 58}Co was manufactured by irradiating a 10 μm nickel wire with fast neutrons in a research reactor. Samples of this wire were imaged in both the DSSD and storage phosphor screen systems and the full width at half maximum (FWHM) measured for the line profiles. Multiradionuclide imaging was employed in a two animal study to examine the intratumoral distribution of a {sup 125}I-labeled monoclonal antibody and a {sup 131}I-labeled engineered fragment (diabody) injected in the same mouse, both targeting carcinoembryonic antigen. Results: Detector background was 1.81 × 10{sup −6} counts per second per 50 × 50 μm pixel. Energy spectra and

  1. Cholinergic Depletion in Alzheimer’s Disease Shown by [18F]FEOBV Autoradiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime J. Parent


    Full Text Available Rationale. Alzheimer’s Disease (AD is a neurodegenerative condition characterized in part by deficits in cholinergic basalocortical and septohippocampal pathways. [18F]Fluoroethoxybenzovesamicol ([18F]FEOBV, a Positron Emission Tomography ligand for the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT, is a potential molecular agent to investigate brain diseases associated with presynaptic cholinergic losses. Purpose. To demonstrate this potential, we carried out an [18F]FEOBV autoradiography study to compare postmortem brain tissues from AD patients to those of age-matched controls. Methods. [18F]FEOBV autoradiography binding, defined as the ratio between regional grey and white matter, was estimated in the hippocampus (13 controls, 8 AD and prefrontal cortex (13 controls, 11 AD. Results. [18F]FEOBV binding was decreased by 33% in prefrontal cortex, 25% in CA3, and 20% in CA1. No changes were detected in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, possibly because of sprouting or upregulation toward the resilient glutamatergic neurons of the dentate gyrus. Conclusion. This is the first demonstration of [18F]FEOBV focal binding changes in cholinergic projections to the cortex and hippocampus in AD. Such cholinergic synaptic (and more specifically VAChT alterations, in line with the selective basalocortical and septohippocampal cholinergic losses documented in AD, indicate that [18F]FEOBV is indeed a promising ligand to explore cholinergic abnormalities in vivo.

  2. {sup 10}B concentration evaluation in autoradiography images by optical density measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portu, A., E-mail: [Centro Atomico Constituyentes (CAC), Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Av. Gral. Paz 1499, AC: B1650KNA, San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Rivadavia 1917, AC: C1033AAJ, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Saint Martin, G., E-mail: [Centro Atomico Constituyentes (CAC), Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Av. Gral. Paz 1499, AC: B1650KNA, San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Brandizzi, D., E-mail: [Centro Atomico Constituyentes (CAC), Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Av. Gral. Paz 1499, AC: B1650KNA, San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [Laboratorio de Microespectrofotometria (LANAIS-MEF), CONICET-CNEA (Argentina); Bernaola, O.A., E-mail: [Centro Atomico Constituyentes (CAC), Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Av. Gral. Paz 1499, AC: B1650KNA, San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)


    The quantification and analysis of the tracks forming the autoradiography image of a tissue section is essential for the measurement of particle emitter concentration and distribution (e.g. {sup 10}B) in the sample. Conventional counting techniques cannot be used when track density is high because of track overlapping. A densitometry supported by image analysis method suitable for these cases has been developed. Optical density measurements obtained for boron solutions of known concentrations showed a linear behavior in the range of concentrations under consideration. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A nuclear tracks quantification method was developed applying optical densitometry supported by image analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It will provide information about {sup 10}B distribution in samples whose autoradiographies present high density of tracks. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A calibration curve for optical density versus boron concentration was constructed and applied to the analysis of boron-doped silicon wafers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results were compared with those from an individual counting technique, obtaining a good agreement.

  3. Reference systems for the determination of {sup 10}B through autoradiography images: Application to a melanoma experimental model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portu, A., E-mail: [Centro Atomico Constituyentes (CAC), Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Av. Gral. Paz 1499, AC: B1650KNA, San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Rivadavia 1917, AC: C1033AAJ, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Carpano, M., E-mail: [Centro Atomico Constituyentes (CAC), Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Av. Gral. Paz 1499, AC: B1650KNA, San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Dagrosa, A., E-mail: [Centro Atomico Constituyentes (CAC), Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Av. Gral. Paz 1499, AC: B1650KNA, San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Rivadavia 1917, AC: C1033AAJ, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Nievas, S., E-mail: [Centro Atomico Constituyentes (CAC), Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Av. Gral. Paz 1499, AC: B1650KNA, San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina)


    The amount of {sup 10}B in tissue samples may be determined by measuring the track density in the autoradiography image produced on a nuclear track detector. Different systems were evaluated as reference standards to be used for a quantitative evaluation of boron concentration. The obtained calibration curves were applied to evaluate the concentration of {sup 10}B in melanoma tumour of NIH nude mice after a biodistribution study. The histological features observed in the tissue sections were accurately reproduced by the autoradiography images.

  4. Quantitative single-particle digital autoradiography with α-particle emitters for targeted radionuclide therapy using the iQID camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Brian W., E-mail: [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354 and College of Optical Sciences, The University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85719 (United States); Frost, Sofia H. L.; Frayo, Shani L.; Kenoyer, Aimee L.; Santos, Erlinda; Jones, Jon C.; Orozco, Johnnie J. [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98109 (United States); Green, Damian J.; Press, Oliver W.; Pagel, John M.; Sandmaier, Brenda M. [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington 98109 and Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Hamlin, Donald K.; Wilbur, D. Scott [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Fisher, Darrell R. [Dade Moeller Health Group, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States)


    Purpose: Alpha-emitting radionuclides exhibit a potential advantage for cancer treatments because they release large amounts of ionizing energy over a few cell diameters (50–80 μm), causing localized, irreparable double-strand DNA breaks that lead to cell death. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) approaches using monoclonal antibodies labeled with α emitters may thus inactivate targeted cells with minimal radiation damage to surrounding tissues. Tools are needed to visualize and quantify the radioactivity distribution and absorbed doses to targeted and nontargeted cells for accurate dosimetry of all treatment regimens utilizing α particles, including RIT and others (e.g., Ra-223), especially for organs and tumors with heterogeneous radionuclide distributions. The aim of this study was to evaluate and characterize a novel single-particle digital autoradiography imager, the ionizing-radiation quantum imaging detector (iQID) camera, for use in α-RIT experiments. Methods: The iQID camera is a scintillator-based radiation detection system that images and identifies charged-particle and gamma-ray/x-ray emissions spatially and temporally on an event-by-event basis. It employs CCD-CMOS cameras and high-performance computing hardware for real-time imaging and activity quantification of tissue sections, approaching cellular resolutions. In this work, the authors evaluated its characteristics for α-particle imaging, including measurements of intrinsic detector spatial resolutions and background count rates at various detector configurations and quantification of activity distributions. The technique was assessed for quantitative imaging of astatine-211 ({sup 211}At) activity distributions in cryosections of murine and canine tissue samples. Results: The highest spatial resolution was measured at ∼20 μm full width at half maximum and the α-particle background was measured at a rate as low as (2.6 ± 0.5) × 10{sup −4} cpm/cm{sup 2} (40 mm diameter detector area

  5. Opioid binding sites in the guinea pig and rat kidney: Radioligand homogenate binding and autoradiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dissanayake, V.U.; Hughes, J.; Hunter, J.C. (Parke-Davis Research Unit, Addenbrookes Hospital Site, Cambridge (England))


    The specific binding of the selective {mu}-, {delta}-, and {kappa}-opioid ligands (3H)(D-Ala2,MePhe4,Gly-ol5)enkephalin ((3H) DAGOL), (3H)(D-Pen2,D-Pen5)enkephalin ((3H)DPDPE), and (3H)U69593, respectively, to crude membranes of the guinea pig and rat whole kidney, kidney cortex, and kidney medulla was investigated. In addition, the distribution of specific 3H-opioid binding sites in the guinea pig and rat kidney was visualized by autoradiography. Homogenate binding and autoradiography demonstrated the absence of {mu}- and {kappa}-opioid binding sites in the guinea pig kidney. No opioid binding sites were demonstrable in the rat kidney. In the guinea pig whole kidney, cortex, and medulla, saturation studies demonstrated that (3H)DPDPE bound with high affinity (KD = 2.6-3.5 nM) to an apparently homogeneous population of binding sites (Bmax = 8.4-30 fmol/mg of protein). Competition studies using several opioid compounds confirmed the nature of the {delta}-opioid binding site. Autoradiography experiments demonstrated that specific (3H)DPDPE binding sites were distributed radially in regions of the inner and outer medulla and at the corticomedullary junction of the guinea pig kidney. Computer-assisted image analysis of saturation data yielded KD values (4.5-5.0 nM) that were in good agreement with those obtained from the homogenate binding studies. Further investigation of the {delta}-opioid binding site in medulla homogenates, using agonist ((3H)DPDPE) and antagonist ((3H)diprenorphine) binding in the presence of Na+, Mg2+, and nucleotides, suggested that the {delta}-opioid site is linked to a second messenger system via a GTP-binding protein. Further studies are required to establish the precise localization of the {delta} binding site in the guinea pig kidney and to determine the nature of the second messenger linked to the GTP-binding protein in the medulla.

  6. Quantitative autoradiography of (/sup 3/H)corticosterone receptors in rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapolsky, R.M.; McEwen, B.S. (Rockefeller Univ., New York (USA)); Rainbow, T.C. (Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia (USA). School of Medicine)


    The authors have quantified corticosterone receptors in rat brain by optical density measurements of tritium-film autoradiograms. Rats were injected i.v. with 500 (/sup 3/H)corticosterone to label brain receptors. Frozen sections of brain were cut with a cryostat and exposed for 2 months against tritium-sensitive sheet film (LKB Ultrofilm). Tritium standards were used to convert optical density readings into molar concentrations of receptor. High levels of corticosterone receptors were present throughout the pyramidal and granule cell layers of the hippocampus. Moderate levels of receptors were found in the neuropil of the hippocampus, the lateral septum, the cortical nucleus of the amygdala and the entorhinal cortex. All other brain regions had low levels of receptors. These results extend previous non-quantitative autoradiographic studies of corticosterone receptors and provide a general procedure for the quantitative autoradiography of steroid hormone receptors in brain tissue.

  7. Alpha Thalassemia (United States)

    Alpha Thalassemia Physicians often mistake alpha thalassemia trait for iron deficiency anemia and incorrectly prescribe iron supplements that have no effect 1 on the anemia. αα αα Normal alpha ...

  8. Estradiol receptor binding to the epithelium of uterine lumen and glands: region- and time-related changes during preimplantation and periimplantation periods studied by autoradiography. (United States)

    Zorn, Telma M T; Soto-Suazo, Mauricio; Pellegrini, Cleusa R; Oliveira, José G; Stumpf, Walter E


    The presence and changes of estradiol nuclear binding and related functions in uterine luminal and glandular epithelium were studied before and after blastocyst implantation using receptor autoradiography with (3)H-estradiol-17beta in association with (3)H-thymidine incorporation and immunocytochemical binding of antibody to estrogen receptor ER-alpha. (3)H-estradiol nuclear binding is present but variable during days 1.5-7.5 of pregnancy. Sites of strong nuclear binding of (3)H-estradiol exhibit strong immunocytochemical staining with ER-alpha antibody. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of autoradiograms reveal that there is a general increase of nuclear (3)H-estradiol binding during the first 3 days after fertilization in both luminal and glandular epithelium. The binding of estradiol is stronger in glandular epithelium from day 2.5 to day 7.5, paralleled by a rise in (3)H-thymidine incorporation on day 2.5. By comparison, in the epithelium of the uterine lumen (3)H-estradiol nuclear binding is low, but relatively high in epithelial cells at lateral branching of the lumen where the increase in (3)H-estradiol binding corresponds to an increased labeling index with (3)H-thymidine. A highly differentiated binding of (3)H-estradiol to luminal and glandular epithelium was demonstrated with region- and time-specific changes of related effects on cell proliferation, differentiation, and secretion, probably involving involution and remodeling. The strong (3)H-estradiol binding to glandular epithelium suggests that estradiol exerts pronounced effects on glandular activities in the periimplantation period.

  9. Down-regulation of rat kidney calcitonin receptors by salmon calcitonin infusion evidence by autoradiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouizar, Z.; Rostene, W.H.; Milhaud, G.


    In treating age-related osteoporosis and Paget disease of bone, it is of major importance to avoid an escape phenomenon that would reduce effectiveness of the treatment. The factors involved in the loss of therapeutic efficacy with administration of large pharmacological doses of the hormone require special consideration. Down-regulation of the hormone receptors could account for the escape phenomenon. Specific binding sites for salmon calcitonin (sCT) were characterized and localized by autoradiography on rat kidney sections incubated with /sup 125/I-labeled sCT. Autoradiograms demonstrated a heterogeneous distribution of /sup 125/I-labeled sCT binding sites in the kidney, with high densities in both the superficial layer of the cortex and the outer medulla. Infusion of different doses of unlabeled sCT by means of Alzet minipumps for 7 days produced rapid changes in plasma calcium, phosphate, and magnesium levels, which were no longer observed after 2 or 6 days of treatment. Besides, infusion of high doses of sCT induced down-regulation of renal sCT binding sites located mainly in the medulla, where calcitonin (CT) has been shown to exert it physiological effects on water and ion reabsorption. These data suggest that the resistance to high doses of sCT often observed during long-term treatment of patients may be the consequence of not only bone-cell desensitization but also down-regulation of CT-sensitive kidney receptor sites.

  10. Quantitative autoradiography using a radioimager based on a multiwire proportional chamber (United States)

    Petegnief, Yolande; Petiet, Anne; Peker, Muammer Can; Bonnin, François; Meulemans, Alain; LeGuludec, Dominique


    Determination of the biodistribution of radiopharmaceuticals is an important issue for the evaluation of their performance in diagnosis and therapy. In this study, we evaluated a digital radioimager (RI) based on a multiwire proportional chamber for quantitative autoradiography (AR). The RI allows direct detection of electronic emissions of gamma emitters. Its qualitative and quantitative performances were tested on Tc and In labelled sections and compared with conventional film AR. Linearity of count rate versus activity was verified over a range of activity. As compared with film AR, a substantial improvement of the detection limit was obtained even for acquisition periods up to 20 times less than film exposure times. We provided the basis for quantitative analysis with tissue equivalent paste standards: the Tc and In RI counting efficiencies were respectively 1.19% and 2.35%. We illustrated the respective values of RI and film AR in two rat studies: Tc-DMSA in kidney and dual-isotope Tc-MIBI and In-antimyosin in heart. Calculated activity concentrations on sections of rat organs confirmed good correlation to gamma counting (deviation less than 12%). We suggest RI as a convenient technique for fast localization of single or dual-isotope tracers and determination of activity distribution.

  11. Quantitative autoradiography using a radioimager based on a multiwire proportional chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petegnief, Y.; Peker, M.C.; Meulemans, A.; Le Guludec, D. [Service de Medecine Nucleaire et de Biophysique, Hopital Bichat-Claude Bernard, 46 rue H Huchard, F-75877 Paris Cedex 18 (France); Petiet, A.; Bonnin, F. [Laboratoire de Biophysique, Universite Paris 7, BP 416, F-75780 Paris (France)


    Determination of the biodistribution of radiopharmaceuticals is an important issue for the evaluation of their performance in diagnosis and therapy. In this study, we evaluated a digital radioimager (RI) based on a multiwire proportional chamber for quantitative autoradiography (AR). The RI allows direct detection of electronic emissions of gamma emitters. Its qualitative and quantitative performances were tested on {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 111}In labelled sections and compared with conventional film AR. Linearity of count rate versus activity was verified over a 10{sup 4} range of activity. As compared with film AR, a substantial improvement of the detection limit was obtained even for acquisition periods up to 20 times less than film exposure times. We provided the basis for quantitative analysis with tissue equivalent paste standards: the {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 111}In RI counting efficiencies were respectively 1.19% and 2.35%. We illustrated the respective values of RI and film AR in two rat studies: {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA in kidney and dual-isotope {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI and {sup 111}In-antimyosin in heart. Calculated activity concentrations on sections of rat organs confirmed good correlation to gamma counting (deviation less than 12%). We suggest RI as a convenient technique for fast localization of single or dual-isotope tracers and determination of activity distribution. (author)

  12. Autoradiography reveals selective changes in serotonin binding in neocortex of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. (United States)

    Rocha, Luisa; Lorigados-Pedre, Lourdes; Orozco-Suárez, Sandra; Morales-Chacón, Lilia; Alonso-Vanegas, Mario; García-Maeso, Iván; Villeda-Hernández, Juana; Osorio-Rico, Laura; Estupiñán, Bárbara; Quintana, Christian


    The main goal of the present study was to evaluate binding to serotonin in the neocortex surrounding the epileptic focus of patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). Binding to 5-HT, 5-HT(1A), 5-HT(4), 5-HT(7) receptors and serotonin transporter (5-HTT) in T1-T2 gyri of 15 patients with MTLE and their correlations with clinical data, neuronal count and volume were determined. Autopsy material acquired from subjects without epilepsy (n=6) was used as control. The neocortex from MTLE patients demonstrated decreased cell count in layers III-IV (21%). No significant changes were detected on the neuronal volume. Autoradiography experiments showed the following results: reduced 5-HT and 5-HT(1A) binding in layers I-II (24% and 92%, respectively); enhanced 5-HT(4) binding in layers V-VI (32%); no significant changes in 5-HT(7) binding; reduced 5-HTT binding in all layers (I-II, 90.3%; III-IV, 90.3%, V-VI, 86.9%). Significant correlations were found between binding to 5-HT(4) and 5-HT(7) receptors and age of seizure onset, duration of epilepsy and duration of antiepileptic treatment. The present results support an impaired serotoninergic transmission in the neocortex surrounding the epileptic focus of patients with MTLE, a situation that could be involved in the initiation and propagation of seizure activity.

  13. The impact of atrazine on lake periphyton communities, including carbon uptake dynamics using track autoradiography. (United States)

    Hamilton, P B; Jackson, G S; Kaushik, N K; Solomon, K R


    Chlorophyll a, freshweight biomass, ash-free dry weight, cell numbers, species richness, community carbon uptake and species-specific carbon uptake were used to monitor the impact of atrazine (2 chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine) on an in situ, enclosed periphyton community. Atrazine concentrations ranging from 0.08 to 1.56 mg litre(-1) were used during the 2 years of study. In both 1982 and 1983, there was a shift from a chlorophyte- to a diatom-dominated community. In 1982 the cyanobacterium Cylindrospermum stagnale and the chlorophyte Tetraspora cylindrica developed isolated colonies in the 1.56 mg litre(-1) treatment, indicating resistance to atrazine at this concentration. After atrazine exposure, community productivity was reduced by 21% to 82% in the low to high exposures, respectively. After day 21 productivity returned to control levels. It was shown, using track autoradiography, that the productivities of the larger algae Mougeotia sp., Oedogonium sp., Tolypothrix limbata and Epithemia turgida were the most affected, with reductions of 74.3% to 93.1% that of the controls. All the biotic measures indicated reduced growth after herbicide exposure.

  14. Quantitative autoradiography of angiotensin II receptors in the brain and kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehlert, D.R.


    The renin-angiotensin system is an important component in the regulation of systemic blood pressure. Angiotensin II is the principal effector peptide of this system. Interaction of angiotensin II with specific receptors can produce in several organic systems. When administered into the brain this octa-peptide produces a variety of responses including a stimulation of drinking, increased systemic blood pressure and several neuroendocrine responses. Its effects on the kidney include alterations in arteriolar resistance, mesangial cell contraction and a feedback inhibition of the release of renin. Since this peptide produces profound effects on homeostatis by an interaction with specific receptors, the quantitative technique of in vitro autoradiography was applied to localize receptor populations for angiotensin II. Specific binding sites for a radiolabeled form of angiotensin II were localized in various brain and kidney regions. In the rat brain high densities of angiotensin II receptors were observed in the paraventricular and suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus, supraoptic nucleus and the posterior lobe of the pituitary, brain areas in which angiotensin II modified neuroendocrine functions.

  15. Quantitative distribution of angiotensin II binding sites in rat brain by autoradiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saavedra, J.M.; Israel, A.; Plunkett, L.M.; Kurihara, M.; Shigematsu, K.; Correa, F.M.


    Angiotensin II binding sites were localized and quantified in individual brain nuclei from single rats by incubation of tissue sections with 1 nM /sup 125/I-(Sar1)-angiotensin II, (/sup 3/H)-Ultrofilm autoradiography, computerized microdensitometry and comparison with /sup 125/I-standards. High angiotensin II binding was present in the circumventricular organs (organon vasculosum laminae terminalis, organon subfornicalis and area postrema), in selected hypothalamic nuclei (nuclei suprachiasmatis, periventricularis and paraventricularis) and in the nucleus tractus olfactorii lateralis, the nucleus preopticus medianus, the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus and the nucleus tractus solitarii. High affinity (KA from 0.3 to 1.5 X 10(9) M-1) angiotensin II binding sites were demonstrated in the organon subfornicalis, the nucleus tractus solitarii and the area postrema after incubation of consecutive sections from single rat brains with /sup 125/I-(Sar1)-angiotensin II in concentrations from 100 pM to 5 nM. These results demonstrate and characterize brain binding sites for angiotensin II of variable high affinity binding both inside and outside the blood-brain barrier.

  16. Evaluation of the S phase distribution of flow cytometric DNA histograms by autoradiography and computer algorithms. (United States)

    Sheck, L E; Muirhead, K A; Horan, P K


    Cell sorting and tritiated thymidine autoradiography were used to define the distribution of S phase cells in flow cytometric DNA histograms obtained from exponential mouse lymphoma cells (L5178Y). The numbers of labeled S phase cells, autoradiographically determined from cells sorted at 2-channel intervals in the G1/early S and late S/G2M regions of the histogram, were compared with the numbers of computed S phase cells in comparable 2-channel intervals as predicted by several computer algorithms used to extract cell cycle phase distributions from DNA histograms. Polynomial and multirectangle algorithms gave computed estimates of total %S in close agreement with the tritiated thymidine labeling index for the cell population, while multi-Gaussian algorithms underestimated %S. Interval autoradiographic and algorithm studies confirmed these results in that no significant differences were found between the autoradiographic S phase distribution and S phase distributions calculated by the polynomial and multirectangle models. However, S phase cells were significantly underestimated in G1/early S by a constrained multi-Gaussian model and in both G1/early S and late S/G2 by an unconstrained multi-Gaussian model. For the particular cell line (L5178Y), staining protocol (mithramycin following ethanol fixation) and instrumentation (Coulter TPS-2 cell sorter) used in this study, close agreement between computed %S and tritiated thymidine labeling index was found to be a reliable indicator of an algorithm's success in resolving S phase cells in the G1/S and S/G2 transition regions of the DNA histograms.

  17. Application of neutron capture autoradiography to Boron Delivery seeking techniques for selective accumulation of boron compounds to tumor with intra-arterial administration of boron entrapped water-in-oil-in-water emulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikado, S. [Physical Science Laboratories, College of Industrial Technology, Nihon University, Chiba (Japan)], E-mail:; Yanagie, H. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Cooperative Unit of Medicine and Engineering, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Yasuda, N. [Fundamental Technology Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Higashi, S.; Ikushima, I. [Miyakonojyo Metropolitan Hospital, Miyazaki (Japan); Mizumachi, R.; Murata, Y. [Department of Pharmacology, Kumamoto Institute Branch, Mitsubishi Chemical Safety Institute Ltd., Kumamoto (Japan); Morishita, Y. [Department of Human and Molecular Pathology, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Nishimura, R. [Faculty of Agriculture, Laboratory of Veterinary Surgery, University of Tokyo (Japan); Shinohara, A. [Department of Humanities, The Graduate School of Seisen University, Tokyo (Japan); Ogura, K. [Physical Science Laboratories, College of Industrial Technology, Nihon University, Chiba (Japan); Sugiyama, H. [Cooperative Unit of Medicine and Engineering, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Iikura, H.; Ando, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki (Japan); Ishimoto, M. [Department of Nuclear Professional School, University of Tokyo (Japan); Takamoto, S. [Cooperative Unit of Medicine and Engineering, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Cardiac Surgery, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Eriguchi, M. [Cooperative Unit of Medicine and Engineering, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Microbiology, Syowa University School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokyo (Japan); Takahashi, H. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Cooperative Unit of Medicine and Engineering, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Kimura, M. [Department of Physics, Toho University, Chiba (Japan)


    It is necessary to accumulate the {sup 10}B atoms selectively to the tumor cells for effective Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). In order to achieve an accurate measurement of {sup 10}B accumulations in the biological samples, we employed a technique of neutron capture autoradiography (NCAR) of sliced samples of tumor tissues using CR-39 plastic track detectors. The CR-39 track detectors attached with the biological samples were exposed to thermal neutrons in the thermal column of the JRR3 of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). We obtained quantitative NCAR images of the samples for VX-2 tumor in rabbit liver after injection of {sup 10}BSH entrapped water-in-oil-in-water (WOW) emulsion by intra-arterial injection via proper hepatic artery. The {sup 10}B accumulations and distributions in VX-2 tumor and normal liver of rabbit were investigated by means of alpha-track density measurements. In this study, we showed the selective accumulation of {sup 10}B atoms in the VX-2 tumor by intra-arterial injection of {sup 10}B entrapped WOW emulsion until 3 days after injection by using digitized NCAR images (i.e. alpha-track mapping)

  18. /sup 99m/Tc-DPD uptake in juvenile hemarthrosis. Scintimetry and autoradiography of the knee in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, E.S.; Hjortdal, V.E.; Noer, I.; Christensen, S.B.; Holm, I.E.; Buenger, C.


    The pathogenesis of subchondral bone lesions and growth plate affection in hemophilic arthropathy was studied in puppies by means of repeated regional /sup 99m/Tc-diphosphonate scintimetry and contact autoradiography. Unilateral hemarthrosis of the knee was induced by biweekly intraarticular injections of autologous blood for 12 weeks. Hemarthrosis caused an early (2 to 4 weeks) decrease in uptake of /sup 99m/Tc-diphosphonate in the juxtaarticular growth plates (ratio 0.7) and a delayed (8 to 10 weeks) increase in epiphyseal uptake (ratio 1.5). In a recovery phase after hemarthrosis, growth plate uptake returned to normal, while the epiphyseal uptake remained elevated for 8 to 10 weeks. By contact autoradiography, the growth plate uptake was localized to the calcification layer at the metaphyseal aspect of the growth plates, while the epiphyseal uptake mainly was seen in the thin subchondral and subsynovial bone layer and around osteophytes. The changes in uptake of /sup 99m/Tc-diphosphonate following hemarthrosis for 3 months were reversible and could be ascribed to the presence of synovial inflammation.

  19. NOTE: First images of a digital autoradiography system based on a Medipix2 hybrid silicon pixel detector (United States)

    Mettivier, Giovanni; Montesi, Maria Cristina; Russo, Paolo


    We present the first images of beta autoradiography obtained with the high-resolution hybrid pixel detector consisting of the Medipix2 single photon counting read-out chip bump-bonded to a 300 µm thick silicon pixel detector. This room temperature system has 256 × 256 square pixels of 55 µm pitch (total sensitive area of 14 × 14 mm2), with a double threshold discriminator and a 13-bit counter in each pixel. It is read out via a dedicated electronic interface and control software, also developed in the framework of the European Medipix2 Collaboration. Digital beta autoradiograms of 14C microscale standard strips (containing separate bands of increasing specific activity in the range 0.0038-32.9 kBq g-1) indicate system linearity down to a total background noise of 1.8 × 10-3 counts mm-2 s-1. The minimum detectable activity is estimated to be 0.012 Bq for 36 000 s exposure and 0.023 Bq for 10 800 s exposure. The measured minimum detection threshold is less than 1600 electrons (equivalent to about 6 keV Si). This real-time system for beta autoradiography offers lower pixel pitch and higher sensitive area than the previous Medipix1-based system. It has a 14C sensitivity better than that of micro channel plate based systems, which, however, shows higher spatial resolution and sensitive area.

  20. Repeated administration of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonists, but not positive allosteric modulators, increases alpha7 nAChR levels in the brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ditte Z; Mikkelsen, Jens D; Hansen, Henrik H;


    -induced phosphorylation of Erk2 in the prefrontal cortex occurs following acute, but not repeated administration. Our results demonstrate that repeated agonist administration increases the number of alpha7 nAChRs in the brain, and leads to coupling versus uncoupling of specific intracellular signaling....... Here we investigate the effects of repeated agonism on alpha7 nAChR receptor levels and responsiveness in vivo in rats. Using [(125)I]-alpha-bungarotoxin (BTX) autoradiography we show that acute or repeated administration with the selective alpha7 nAChR agonist A-582941 increases the number of alpha7 n......-120596 and NS1738 do not increase [(125)I]-BTX binding. Furthermore, A-582941-induced increase in Arc and c-fos mRNA expression in the prefrontal cortex is enhanced and unaltered, respectively, after repeated administration, demonstrating that the alpha7 nAChRs remain responsive. Contrarily, A-582941...

  1. Alpha fetoprotein (United States)

    Fetal alpha globulin; AFP ... Greater than normal levels of AFP may be due to: Cancer in testes , ovaries, biliary (liver secretion) tract, stomach, or pancreas Cirrhosis of the liver Liver cancer ...

  2. Distribution of /sup 14/C-ochratoxin A in the mouse monitored by whole-body autoradiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, R.; Appelgren, L.-E.; Hult, K.


    The tissue distribution of /sup 14/C-labeled ochratoxin A was studied in mouse using whole-body autoradiography. The distribution was followed for 18 days after one single intravenous injection of 5, corresponding to 160-230 ng toxin/g body weight. Very long persistence of /sup 14/C-ochratoxin A in the circulation was noticed and the toxin was detected in the blood even after 18 days when the experiment was finished. The radioactivity in the kidney was unequallly distributed with a slightly higher concentration in the inner cortical and medullary parts. This was seen from 24 hrs and on after injection. Very high concentrations of radioactivity were found in the bile of treated animals. The radioactivity extracted from several sections was chemically characterized with thin-layer chromatography and was found to represent /sup 14/C-ochratoxin A.

  3. Carbon-14-ochratoxin A distribution in the Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) monitored by whole body autoradiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, R.; Appelgren, L.E.; Hagelberg, S.; Hult, K.


    Tissue distribution of the nephrotoxic mycotoxin ochratoxin A was characterized in laying Japanese quail by whole body autoradiography and scintillation counting using /sup 14/C-labelled toxin. Periodically for 8 days after one intravenous injection of 14 microCi/bird, corresponding to 70 ng/g body weight, birds were killed, frozen, and sagittal sections of the whole body were placed on X-ray film. In general, the ochratoxin disappeared from the avian body rapidly. Specific retention of radioactivity was seen as a ring-like distribution in yolks and growing follicles. After sectioning, organs and intestinal contents were removed from carcasses in a frozen condition, homogenized, extracted, chromatographed, and the radioactivity in fractions was measured by scintillation spectroscopy. High concentrations of ochratoxin A were found in gastric intestinal contents, probably originating from toxin excreted in the bile.

  4. Tolerance to salinity in Cucumis with neutron activation and autoradiography of sodium in seedlings of selected species of the genus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lathrop, B.L.


    Part I. Nineteen species of Cucumis were compared for tolerance to sodium chloride in solution and sand culture. C. sativus L., and C. hardwickii died at 270 meq/I NaCl, while C. melo L. can tolerate up to 340 meq/I. C. myriocarpus, C. ficifolius, C. membranifolius, and C. meeusii are the most tolerant, surviving up to about 500 meq/I NaCl. The initial response of all species to gradually increasing levels of salinization is a bluish-green deepening of foliage color and reduction in growth, followed by intervenal chlorosis of older leaves and more pronounced chlorosis of new growth. Death occurred first in the mesic species in about 12-18 days and was characterized by general wilting and necrosis. In more tolerant species which were generally more xeric and woody, death occurred in about 18-28 days as the leaf blades became necrotic on wilted petioles. Part II. A cyclotron generated proton beam was used to induce a high density thermal neutron flux from a NaI target for conversion of /sup 23/Na/sup 24/ to Na in living and dried seedlings of Cucumis sativus (sensitive to salinity) and C. myriocarpus (tolerant). There was little difference in movement of salt in the living seedlings of the cultivated and wild species of Cucumis during a 10 hour period following neutron activation and before autoradiography. Some suggestion of transport of Na in main vascular bundles occurred during this period in C. myriocarpus. The creation of /sup 24/Na in air-dried seedlings of this taxon that had been salinized also permitted autoradiography of sodium distribution and provided results similar to in vivo studies.

  5. Autoradiography: Biomedical applications. January, 1975-August, 1981 (citations from the International Information Service for the Physics and Engineering Communities Data Base). Report for January 75-August 81

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This bibliography contains citations concerning the methods, equipment, and biomedical applications of autoradiography. Electron microscopy (EM) is discussed at length, and sample preparation for EM is detailed. Numerous biological, biochemical and biophysical studies are discussed. (Contains 84 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  6. Differential regulation of alpha7 nicotinic receptor gene (CHRNA7) expression in schizophrenic smokers. (United States)

    Mexal, Sharon; Berger, Ralph; Logel, Judy; Ross, Randal G; Freedman, Robert; Leonard, Sherry


    The alpha7 neuronal nicotinic receptor gene (CHRNA7) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia by genetic and pharmacological studies. Expression of the alpha7* receptor, as measured by [(125)I]alpha-bungarotoxin autoradiography, is decreased in postmortem brain of schizophrenic subjects compared to non-mentally ill controls. Most schizophrenic patients are heavy smokers, with high levels of serum cotinine. Smoking changes the expression of multiple genes and differentially regulates gene expression in schizophrenic hippocampus. We examined the effects of smoking on CHRNA7 expression in the same tissue and find that smoking differentially regulates expression of both mRNA and protein for this gene. CHRNA7 mRNA and protein levels are significantly lower in schizophrenic nonsmokers compared to control nonsmokers and are brought to control levels in schizophrenic smokers. Sufficient protein but low surface expression of the alpha7* receptor, seen in the autoradiographic studies, suggests aberrant assembly or trafficking of the receptor.

  7. Statistical parametric maps of {sup 18}F-FDG PET and 3-D autoradiography in the rat brain: a cross-validation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prieto, Elena; Marti-Climent, Josep M. [Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Nuclear Medicine Department, Pamplona (Spain); Collantes, Maria; Molinet, Francisco [Center for Applied Medical Research (CIMA) and Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Small Animal Imaging Research Unit, Pamplona (Spain); Delgado, Mercedes; Garcia-Garcia, Luis; Pozo, Miguel A. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Brain Mapping Unit, Madrid (Spain); Juri, Carlos [Center for Applied Medical Research (CIMA), Movement Disorders Group, Neurosciences Division, Pamplona (Spain); Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Pamplona (Spain); Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED), Pamplona (Spain); Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Department of Neurology, Santiago (Chile); Fernandez-Valle, Maria E. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, MRI Research Center, Madrid (Spain); Gago, Belen [Center for Applied Medical Research (CIMA), Movement Disorders Group, Neurosciences Division, Pamplona (Spain); Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED), Pamplona (Spain); Obeso, Jose A. [Center for Applied Medical Research (CIMA), Movement Disorders Group, Neurosciences Division, Pamplona (Spain); Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Pamplona (Spain); Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED), Pamplona (Spain); Penuelas, Ivan [Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Nuclear Medicine Department, Pamplona (Spain); Center for Applied Medical Research (CIMA) and Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Small Animal Imaging Research Unit, Pamplona (Spain)


    Although specific positron emission tomography (PET) scanners have been developed for small animals, spatial resolution remains one of the most critical technical limitations, particularly in the evaluation of the rodent brain. The purpose of the present study was to examine the reliability of voxel-based statistical analysis (Statistical Parametric Mapping, SPM) applied to {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET images of the rat brain, acquired on a small animal PET not specifically designed for rodents. The gold standard for the validation of the PET results was the autoradiography of the same animals acquired under the same physiological conditions, reconstructed as a 3-D volume and analysed using SPM. Eleven rats were studied under two different conditions: conscious or under inhalatory anaesthesia during {sup 18}F-FDG uptake. All animals were studied in vivo under both conditions in a dedicated small animal Philips MOSAIC PET scanner and magnetic resonance images were obtained for subsequent spatial processing. Then, rats were randomly assigned to a conscious or anaesthetized group for postmortem autoradiography, and slices from each animal were aligned and stacked to create a 3-D autoradiographic volume. Finally, differences in {sup 18}F-FDG uptake between conscious and anaesthetized states were assessed from PET and autoradiography data by SPM analysis and results were compared. SPM results of PET and 3-D autoradiography are in good agreement and led to the detection of consistent cortical differences between the conscious and anaesthetized groups, particularly in the bilateral somatosensory cortices. However, SPM analysis of 3-D autoradiography also highlighted differences in the thalamus that were not detected with PET. This study demonstrates that any difference detected with SPM analysis of MOSAIC PET images of rat brain is detected also by the gold standard autoradiographic technique, confirming that this methodology provides reliable results, although

  8. $\\alpha_s$ review (2016)

    CERN Document Server

    d'Enterria, David


    The current world-average of the strong coupling at the Z pole mass, $\\alpha_s(m^2_{Z}) = 0.1181 \\pm 0.0013$, is obtained from a comparison of perturbative QCD calculations computed, at least, at next-to-next-to-leading-order accuracy, to a set of 6 groups of experimental observables: (i) lattice QCD "data", (ii) $\\tau$ hadronic decays, (iii) proton structure functions, (iv) event shapes and jet rates in $e^+e^-$ collisions, (v) Z boson hadronic decays, and (vi) top-quark cross sections in p-p collisions. In addition, at least 8 other $\\alpha_s$ extractions, usually with a lower level of theoretical and/or experimental precision today, have been proposed: pion, $\\Upsilon$, W hadronic decays; soft and hard fragmentation functions; jets cross sections in pp, e-p and $\\gamma$-p collisions; and photon F$_2$ structure function in $\\gamma\\,\\gamma$ collisions. These 14 $\\alpha_s$ determinations are reviewed, and the perspectives of reduction of their present uncertainties are discussed.

  9. Cerebral correlates of depressed behavior in rats, visualized using /sup 14/C-2-deoxyglucose autoradiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldecott-Hazard, S.; Mazziotta, J.; Phelps, M.


    /sup 14/C-2-Deoxyglucose (2DG) was used to investigate changes in the rate of cerebral metabolism in 3 rat models of depressed behavior. The models had already been established in the literature and were induced by injections of alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine, withdrawal from chronic amphetamine, or stress. We verified that exploratory behaviors were depressed in each model and that an antidepressant drug, tranylcypromine, prevented the depressed behavior in each model. 2DG studies revealed that the rate of regional glucose metabolism was elevated bilaterally in the lateral habenula of each of the 3 models. Regional metabolic rates were reduced in each model in the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex, anterior ventral nucleus of the thalamus, and inferior colliculus. Forebrain global metabolic rates were also reduced in each of the models. Tranylcypromine prevented the elevated rate of lateral habenula metabolism seen in each of the models alone but did not significantly affect the rates of global metabolism. Our findings of identical metabolic changes in each of the models indicate that these changes are not idiosyncratic to a particular model; rather, they correlate with a generalizable state of depressed exploratory behavior in rats.

  10. MO-G-17A-09: Quantitative Autoradiography of Biopsy Specimens Extracted Under PET/CT Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanchon, L; Carlin, S; Schmidtlein, C; Humm, J; Yorke, E; Solomon, S; Deasy, J; Kirov, A [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Burger, I [University Hospital of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland, Zurich (Switzerland)


    Purpose: To develop a procedure for accurate determination of PET tracer concentration with high spatial accuracy in situ by performing Quantitative Autoradiography of Biopsy Specimens (QABS) extracted under PET/CT guidance. Methods: Autoradiography (ARG) standards were produced from a gel loaded with a known concentration of FDG biopsied with 18G and 20G biopsy needles. Specimens obtained with these needles are generally cylindrical: up to 18 mm in length and about 0.8 and 0.6 mm in diameter respectively. These standards, with similar shape and density as biopsy specimens were used to generate ARG calibration curves.Quantitative ARG was performed to measure the activity concentration in biopsy specimens extracted from ten patients. The biopsy sites were determined according to PET/CT's obtained in the operating room. Additional CT scans were acquired with the needles in place to confirm correct needle placements. The ARG images were aligned with the needle tip in the PET/CT images using the open source CERR software. The mean SUV calculated from the specimen activities (SUVarg) were compared to that from PET (SUVpet) at the needle locations. Results: Calibration curves show that the relation between ARG signal and activity concentration in those standards is linear for the investigated range (up to 150 kBq/ml). The correlation coefficient of SUVarg with SUVpet is 0.74. Discrepancies between SUVarg and SUVpet can be attributed to the small size of the biopsy specimens compared to PET resolution. Conclusion: The calibration procedure using surrogate biopsy specimens provided a method for quantifying the activity within the biopsy cores obtained under FDG-PET guidance. QABS allows mapping the activity concentration in such biopsy specimens with a resolution of about 1mm. QABS is a promising tool for verification of biopsy adequacy by comparing specimen activity to that expected from the PET image. A portion of this research was funded by a research grant from

  11. Recent technologic developments on high-resolution beta imaging systems for quantitative autoradiography and double labeling applications

    CERN Document Server

    Barthe, N; Chatti, K; Coulon, P; Maitrejean, S; 10.1016/j.nima.2004.03.014


    Two novel beta imaging systems, particularly interesting in the field of radiopharmacology and molecular biology research, were developed these last years. (1) a beta imager was derived from research conducted by Pr Charpak at CERN. This parallel plate avalanche chamber is a direct detection system of beta radioactivity, which is particularly adapted for qualitative and quantitative autoradiography. With this detector, autoradiographic techniques can be performed with emitters such as /sup 99m/Tc because this radionuclide emits many low-energy electrons and the detector has a very low sensitivity to low-range gamma -rays. Its sensitivity (smallest activity detected: 0.007 cpm/mm/sup 2/ for /sup 3/H and 0.01 for /sup 14/C), linearity (over a dynamic range of 10/sup 4/) and spatial resolution (50 mu m for /sup 3/H or /sup 99m/Tc to 150 mu m for /sup 32/P or /sup 18/F ( beta /sup +/)) gives a real interest to this system as a new imaging device. Its principle of detection is based on the analysis of light emitte...

  12. Reproducibility of regional cerebral blood flow measurement at rest with autoradiography method using {sup 123}I-IMP and SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Kyoko; Murata, Hajime; Maruno, Hirotaka; Mori, Kazuaki; Tsuchida, Shoichi [Toranomon Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)


    Reproducibility of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) values obtained by the autoradiography (ARG) method with one SPECT scan and one point arterial blood sampling at 10 min after {sup 123}I-N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine (IMP) infusion was evaluated. The variation in the cross calibration factor between SPECT counts and well-type scintillation counts remained 2.2% for 13 months. The error in rCBF by sampling time difference was less than 3% when sampling time was within 10 min{+-}30 sec after infusion. There was a favorable correlation between the rCBF values in two separate resting scans measured by the ARG method in 10 patients (r=0.907). And the mean ratio of rCBF values by the second study to those by the first study in the cerebellum and cerebral lobes in 10 patients was 0.989{+-}0.056 (mean{+-}SD). There was no significant difference in rCBF values between two separate studies. Reproducibility of rCBF with the ARG method was proved to be good. The ARG method was thought to be useful for the assessment of treatment effects and clinical courses. (author)

  13. Mapping of odor-related neuronal activity in the olfactory bulb by high-resolution 2-deoxyglucose autoradiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lancet, D.; Greer, C.A.; Kauer, J.S.; Shepherd, G.M.


    The spatial distribution of odor-induced neuronal activity in the olfactory bulb, the first relay station of the olfactory pathway, is believed to reflect important aspects of chemosensory coding. We report here the application of high-resolution 2-deoxyglucose autoradiography to the mapping of spatial patterns of metabolic activity at the level of single neurons in the olfactory bulb. It was found that glomeruli, which are synaptic complexes containing the first synaptic relay, tend to be uniformly active or inactive during odor exposure. Differential 2-deoxyglucose uptake was also observed in the somata of projection neurons (mitral cells) and interneurons (periglomerular and granule cells). This confirms and extends our previous studies in which odor-specific laminar and focal uptake patterns were revealed by the conventional x-ray film 2-deoxyglucose method due to Sokoloff and colleagues (Sokoloff, L., Reivich, M., Kennedy, C., DesRosiers, M. H., Patlak, C. S., Pettigrew, K. D., Sakurada, O. and Shinohara, M. (1977) J. Neurochem. 28, 897-916). Based on results obtained by the two methods, it is suggested that the glomerulus as a whole serves as a functional unit of activity. The high-resolution results are interpreted in terms of the well-characterized synaptic organization of the olfactory bulb and also serve to illustrate the capability of the 2-deoxyglucose autoradiographic technique to map metabolic activity in single neurons of the vertebrate central nervous system.

  14. 64Cu-ATSM and 18FDG PET uptake and 64Cu-ATSM autoradiography in spontaneous canine tumors: comparison with pimonidazole hypoxia immunohistochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansen Anders E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to compare 64Cu-diacetyl-bis(N4-methylsemicarbazone (64Cu-ATSM and 18FDG PET uptake characteristics and 64Cu-ATSM autoradiography to pimonidazole immunohistochemistry in spontaneous canine sarcomas and carcinomas. Methods Biopsies were collected from individual tumors between approximately 3 and 25 hours after the intravenous injection of 64Cu-ATSM and pimonidazole. 64Cu-ATSM autoradiography and pimonidazole immunostaining was performed on sectioned biopsies. Acquired 64Cu-ATSM autoradiography and pimonidazole images were rescaled, aligned and their distribution patterns compared. 64Cu-ATSM and 18FDG PET/CT scans were performed in a concurrent study and uptake characteristics were obtained for tumors where available. Results Maximum pimonidazole pixel value and mean pimonidazole labeled fraction was found to be strongly correlated to 18FDG PET uptake levels, whereas more varying results were obtained for the comparison to 64Cu-ATSM. In the case of the latter, uptake at scans performed 3 h post injection (pi generally showed strong positive correlated to pimonidazole uptake. Comparison of distribution patterns of pimonidazole immunohistochemistry and 64Cu-ATSM autoradiography yielded varying results. Significant positive correlations were mainly found in sections displaying a heterogeneous distribution of tracers. Conclusions Tumors with high levels of pimonidazole staining generally displayed high uptake of 18FDG and 64Cu-ATSM (3 h pi.. Similar regional distribution of 64Cu-ATSM and pimonidazole was observed in most heterogeneous tumor regions. However, tumor and hypoxia level dependent differences may exist with regard to the hypoxia specificity of 64Cu-ATSM in canine tumors.

  15. Set-up and calibration of a method to measure 10B concentration in biological samples by neutron autoradiography (United States)

    Gadan, M. A.; Bortolussi, S.; Postuma, I.; Ballarini, F.; Bruschi, P.; Protti, N.; Santoro, D.; Stella, S.; Cansolino, L.; Clerici, A.; Ferrari, C.; Zonta, A.; Zonta, C.; Altieri, S.


    A selective uptake of boron in the tumor is the base of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy, which can destroy the tumor substantially sparing the normal tissue. In order to deliver a lethal dose to the tumor, keeping the dose absorbed by normal tissues below the tolerance level, it is mandatory to know the 10B concentration present in each kind of tissue at the moment of irradiation. This work presents the calibration procedure adopted for a boron concentration measurement method based on neutron autoradiography, where biological samples are deposited on sensitive films and irradiated in the thermal column of the TRIGA reactor (University of Pavia). The latent tracks produced in the film by the charged particles coming from the neutron capture in 10B are made visible by a proper etching, allowing the measurement of the track density. A calibration procedure with standard samples provides curves of track density as a function of boron concentration, to be used in the measurement of biological samples. In this paper, the bulk etch rate parameter and the calibration curves obtained for both liquid samples and biological tissues with known boron concentration are presented. A bulk etch rate value of (1.64 ± 0.02) μm/h and a linear dependence with etching time were found. The plots representing the track density versus the boron concentration in a range between 5 and 50 μg/g (ppm) are linear, with an angular coefficient of (1.614 ± 0.169)·10-3 tracks/(μm2 ppm) for liquids and (1.598 ± 0.097)·10-2 tracks/(μm2 ppm) for tissues.

  16. Binding of lurasidone, a novel antipsychotic, to rat 5-HT7 receptor: analysis by [3H]SB-269970 autoradiography. (United States)

    Horisawa, Tomoko; Ishiyama, Takeo; Ono, Michiko; Ishibashi, Tadashi; Taiji, Mutsuo


    Lurasidone is a novel antipsychotic agent with high affinity for dopamine D(2) and serotonin 5-HT(7), 5-HT(2A), and 5-HT(1A) receptors. We previously reported that in addition to its antipsychotic action, lurasidone shows beneficial effects on mood and cognition in rats, likely through 5-HT(7) receptor antagonistic actions. In this study, we evaluated binding of lurasidone to 5-HT(7) receptors in the rat brain by autoradiography using [(3)H]SB-269970, a specific radioligand for 5-HT(7) receptors. Brain slices were incubated with 4 nM [(3)H]SB-269970 at room temperature and exposed to imaging plates for 8 weeks before phosphorimager analysis. Using this method, we first investigated 5-HT(7) receptor distribution. We found that 5-HT(7) receptors are abundantly localized in brain limbic structures, including the lateral septum, thalamus, hypothalamus, hippocampus, and amygdala. On the other hand, its distribution was moderate in the cortex and low in the caudate putamen and cerebellum. Secondly, binding of lurasidone, a selective 5-HT(7) receptor antagonist SB-656104-A and an atypical antipsychotic olanzapine to this receptor was examined. Lurasidone, SB-656104-A (10–1000 nM), and olanzapine (100–10,000 nM) showed concentration-dependent inhibition of [(3)H]SB-269970 binding with IC(50) values of 90, 49, and 5200 nM, respectively. Similar inhibitory actions of these drugs were shown in in vitro [(3)H]SB-269970 binding to 5-HT(7) receptors expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Since there was no marked species difference in rat and human 5-HT(7) receptor binding by lurasidone (K(i) = 1.55 and 2.10 nM, respectively), these findings suggest that binding to 5-HT(7) receptors might play some role in its beneficial pharmacological actions in schizophrenic patients.

  17. Mapping the distribution of serotonin transporter in the human brainstem with high-resolution PET: Validation using postmortem autoradiography data. (United States)

    Fazio, P; Schain, M; Varnäs, K; Halldin, C; Farde, L; Varrone, A


    The human brainstem is a complex structure with several small nuclei and neural pathways of interest in the pathophysiology of central nervous system (CNS) disorders. In common with other monoaminergic systems, serotoninergic neurons originate from a group of nuclei located in the brainstem. The present study was designed to validate a user-independent approach for a detailed in vivo quantification of serotonin transporter (5-HTT) availability in the human brainstem using a template-based approach that consisted of three steps. First, 3T-MR images and parametric binding potential (BPND) [(11)C]MADAM images of ten healthy subjects were used to generate a PET template of 5-HTT availability. In the second step, volumes of interest (VOIs) for different brainstem nuclei were obtained using a method in which VOIs are initially delineated on MRI images using anatomical landmarks and then are finally tailored on the distribution of 5-HTT binding using a thresholding approach applied to the 5-HTT template. In the final step, the VOIs were transformed and applied individually to BPND images of 16 healthy subjects (14M/2F, 20-64years). The in vivo distribution of BPND values obtained with the template-based method were in good agreement with an individual-based approach taken as gold standard. Results were also in agreement with 5-HTT quantification using in vitro binding data obtained with autoradiography (ARG) studies using [(3)H]MADAM. The proposed template-based method can be applied to PET data acquired in several CNS disorders in which serotonin neurons in the brainstem might be affected.

  18. Digital Autoradiography as a novel complementary technique for the investigation of radioactive contamination in nuclear facilities under dismantlement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haudebourg, Raphael; Fichet, Pascal [Laboratory of Analyses and Operators Support, French Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies Commision (CEA), Saclay Center, 91191 Gif Sur Yvette Cedex, (France); Goutelard, Florence [NucLab, CEA Marcoule Center, (France)


    The detection (location and quantification) of nuclear facilities to be dismantled possible contamination with low-range particles emitters ({sup 3}H, other low-energy β emitters, a emitters) remains a tedious and expensive task. Indeed, usual remote counters show a too low sensitivity to these non-penetrating radiations, while conventional wipe tests are irrelevant for fixed radioactivity evaluation. The only method to accurately measure activity levels consists in sampling and running advanced laboratory analyses (spectroscopy, liquid scintillation counting, pyrolysis...). Such measurements generally induce sample preparation, waste production (destructive analyses, solvents), nuclear material transportation, long durations, and significant labor mobilization. Therefore, the search for the limitation of their number and cost easily conflicts with the necessity to perform a dense screening for sampling (to maximize the representativeness of the samples), in installations of thousands of square meters (floors, wells, ceilings), plus furniture, pipes, and other wastes. To overcome this contradiction, Digital Autoradiography (D. A.) was re-routed from bio molecular research to radiological mapping of nuclear installations under dismantling and to waste and sample analysis. After in-situ exposure to the possibly-contaminated areas to investigate, commercial reusable radiosensitive phosphor screens (of a few 100 cm{sup 2}) were scanned in the proper laboratory device and sharp quantitative images of the radioactivity could be obtained. The implementation of geostatistical tools in the data processing software enabled the exhaustive characterization of concrete floors at a rate of 2 weeks / 100 m{sup 2}, at lowest costs. Various samples such as drilled cores, or tank and wood pieces, were also successfully evaluated with this method, for decisive results. Thanks to the accurate location of potential contamination spots, this approach ensures relevant and representative

  19. Preclinical testing of F-18 and I-123 radioligands involving autoradiography and a phosphor-imaging device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gatley, S.J.; Pyatt, B.; Gifford, A.N. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)] [and others


    During the development and validation of a receptor-binding radiopharmaceutical it is necessary to assess its brain regional distribution. Film contact autoradiography (AR) points such distributions to be evaluated on a fine anatomical scale, and avoids the inherent risk a microdissection experiments of missing interesting localization pattern. However, in vivo film AR may require a 1000-fold higher activity of a F-18 or I-123 radioligand than microdissection. In addition to health physics considerations, problems with receptor saturation can easily occur after injecting, say, 10 mCi into a 250g rat. A less commonly appreciated problem even with in vitro AR, using slide-mounted brain sections, is that it may be impossible to use sufficient F-18 to obtain acceptable images using film, because of receptor saturation. Phosphorimaging is superior in sensitivity to film by a factor of 10-50, and so relaxes constraints on injected activities and specific activities. Furthermore, it is also superior to film in terms of dynamic range and linearity of response. We have recently used phosphorimaging in two situations where film AR gave unsatisfactory results. (1) the novel cannabinoid CB1 receptor radioligand, I-123 AM281, was injected intravenously at 800 microcurie per rat. Animals were sacrificed at 2 h, frozen and whole body sections prepared. I-123 was clearly visualized in discrete brain areas (substantia nigra, globus pallidus, entopeduncular nucleus , hippocampus and cerebellum) consistent with the distribution of CB1 receptors previously demonstrated only in in vitro studies. (2) Rat brain sections were thaw mounted on gelatin/alum coated glass and incubated with the novel nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ligand F-18 2{prime}-fluoro-2{prime} nor-chloroepibatidine (1 nM).

  20. Investigation of Figopitant and Its Metabolites in Rat Tissue by Combining Whole-Body Autoradiography with Liquid Extraction Surface Analysis Mass Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schadt, S.; Kallbach, S.; Almeida, R.;


    This article describes the combination of whole-body autoradiography with liquid extraction surface analysis (LESA) and mass spectrometry (MS) to study the distribution of the tachykinin neurokinin-1 antagonist figopitant and its metabolites in tissue sections of rats after intravenous...... tissue extraction, sample cleanup, and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. The parent drug and the N-dealkylated metabolite M474(1) (BIIF 1148) in varying ratios were the predominant compounds in all tissues investigated. In addition, several metabolites formed by oxygenation, dealkylation...

  1. Experimental studies on tissue distribution of /sup 14/C-labelled anitimicrobic drugs in otorhinolaryngological field. Special reference to apply macro-autoradiography to these studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murai, Kanetaka (Nagoya City Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)


    The distribution and concentration of antimicrobic drugs in the otorhinolaryngological field was studied together in the excised tissue by freezing macro-autoradiography in rabbits. Of the three Nalidixic acid antimicrobic analogues, i.e., pipemidic acid, AM-715 and rosoxacine, the first two accumulated remarkably in the soft palate, showing affinity for the cartilage. The concentrations of the three drugs in the paranasal sinus were higher on the medial portion of the maxilla than on the lateral portion, and the order of concentrations for ethmoidsinus were the lateral > anterior > posterior > medial portions. The present technique was thought to be a useful means for clarifying the distribution of drugs in vivo.

  2. Ab initio alpha-alpha scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Elhatisari, Serdar; Rupak, Gautam; Epelbaum, Evgeny; Krebs, Hermann; Lähde, Timo A; Luu, Thomas; Meißner, Ulf-G


    Processes involving alpha particles and alpha-like nuclei comprise a major part of stellar nucleosynthesis and hypothesized mechanisms for thermonuclear supernovae. In an effort towards understanding alpha processes from first principles, we describe in this letter the first ab initio calculation of alpha-alpha scattering. We use lattice effective field theory to describe the low-energy interactions of nucleons and apply a technique called the adiabatic projection method to reduce the eight-body system to an effective two-cluster system. We find good agreement between lattice results and experimental phase shifts for S-wave and D-wave scattering. The computational scaling with particle number suggests that alpha processes involving heavier nuclei are also within reach in the near future.

  3. A reproducible technique combining tritiated thymidine autoradiography with immunodetection of bromodeoxyuridine for double labelling studies of cell proliferation in paraffin sections of tissues. (United States)

    Hume, W J


    A method is described to combine tritiated thymidine autoradiography with immunoperoxidase detection of bromodeoxyuridine on the same paraffin sections. It overcomes the varied technical artefacts we encountered when first attempting to combine these techniques and results in preparations with extremely low peroxidase and autoradiographic backgrounds. In particular, we find it is important to avoid the use of detergents during immunostaining, otherwise grain counts are reduced and autoradiograph exposures need to be greatly increased, and to avoid excessive peroxidase staining which makes it difficult to visualize silver grains in the overlying emulsion. The advantages of a method to remove emulsion films using acid-alcohol, allowing the same sections to be dipped twice with a long and a short autoradiographic exposure, are presented. The routine combination of high quality tritiated thymidine autoradiography with clean immunoperoxidase staining of bromodeoxyuridine-positive nuclei provides a new and powerful cell kinetic, double-labelling method to augment existing techniques e.g. by labelling the same cells undergoing DNA synthesis in successive cell cycles.

  4. Recent technologic developments on high-resolution beta imaging systems for quantitative autoradiography and double labeling applications (United States)

    Barthe, N.; Chatti, K.; Coulon, P.; Maı̂trejean, S.; Basse-Cathalinat, B.


    Two novel beta imaging systems, particularly interesting in the field of radiopharmacology and molecular biology research, were developed these last years. (1) a beta imager was derived from research conducted by Pr Charpak at CERN. This parallel plate avalanche chamber is a direct detection system of β radioactivity, which is particularly adapted for qualitative and quantitative autoradiography. With this detector, autoradiographic techniques can be performed with emitters such as 99mTc because this radionuclide emits many low-energy electrons and the detector has a very low sensitivity to low-range γ-rays. Its sensitivity (smallest activity detected: 0.007 cpm/mm 2 for 3H and 0.01 for 14C), linearity (over a dynamic range of 10 4) and spatial resolution (50 μm for 3H or 99mTc to 150 μm for 32P or 18F (β +)) gives a real interest to this system as a new imaging device. Its principle of detection is based on the analysis of light emitted during the interaction with an intensified CCD camera. This property may suggest new potential applications, particularly in the field of β-rays selection according to their energy. This detector provides a new fast way to detect all β-emitting isotopes in biological samples up to 20 cm×25 cm (electrophoresis gels, hybridization membranes, tissue sections on glass slides, TLC plates and any other planar two-dimension samples). It is ideal for tritium detection, 500 times faster than classical film, thus maximizing the research productivity. (2) A micro imager is based on contact imaging through a solid scintillator sheet. Light emitted is amplified through an image intensifier tube and is analyzed with a CCD camera. The full field of view is smaller than the first one (24 mm×32 mm) but a better spatial resolution is obtained (typically 15 μm for 3H, 20 μm for 14C and 35S). The specifications of this detector are: efficiency 50-100% depending on isotope, linear response over a dynamic range of 10 4, smallest activity

  5. Faddeev calculation of 3 alpha and alpha alpha Lambda systems using alpha alpha resonating-group method kernel

    CERN Document Server

    Fujiwara, Y; Kohno, M; Suzuki, Y; Baye, D; Sparenberg, J M


    We carry out Faddeev calculations of three-alpha (3 alpha) and two-alpha plus Lambda (alpha alpha Lambda) systems, using two-cluster resonating-group method kernels. The input includes an effective two-nucleon force for the alpha alpha resonating-group method and a new effective Lambda N force for the Lambda alpha interaction. The latter force is a simple two-range Gaussian potential for each spin-singlet and triplet state, generated from the phase-shift behavior of the quark-model hyperon-nucleon interaction, fss2, by using an inversion method based on supersymmetric quantum mechanics. Owing to the exact treatment of the Pauli-forbidden states between the clusters, the present three-cluster Faddeev formalism can describe the mutually related, alpha alpha, 3 alpha and alpha alpha Lambda systems, in terms of a unique set of the baryon-baryon interactions. For the three-range Minnesota force which describes the alpha alpha phase shifts quite accurately, the ground-state and excitation energies of 9Be Lambda are...

  6. Quantitative autoradiography of ligands for dopamine receptors and transporters in brain of Göttingen minipig: comparison with results in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minuzzi, Luciano; Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen; Bender, Dirk


    The pig has been used as animal model for positron emission tomography (PET) studies of dopamine (DA) receptors and pharmacological perturbations of DA neurotransmission. However, the binding properties of DA receptors and transporters in pig brain have not been characterized in vitro. Therefore......, the saturation binding parameters of [3H]SCH 23390 for DA D1 receptors and [3H]raclopride for DA D2/3 receptors were measured by quantitative autoradiography in cryostat sections from brain of groups of 8 week old and adult female Göttingen minipigs. The magnitudes of Bmax and Kd for these ligands were similar...... in young and old pigs, and were close to those reported for rat and human brain. Furthermore, gradients in the concentrations of D1 and D2/3 sites in striatum measured in vitro agreed with earlier findings in PET studies. However, the dopamine transporter (DAT) ligand [3H]GBR12935 did not bind in pig brain...

  7. Systemic injection of kainic acid: Gliosis in olfactory and limbic brain regions quantified with ( sup 3 H)PK 11195 binding autoradiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altar, C.A.; Baudry, M. (Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, CA (USA))


    Neurodegenerative diseases may result from excessive stimulation of excitatory amino acid receptors by endogenous ligands. Because neuronal degeneration is associated with glial proliferation and hypertrophy, the degenerative changes throughout rat brain following the systemic administration of kainic acid (12 mg/kg) were mapped with quantitative autoradiography of (3H)PK 11195. This radioligand binds to a mitochondrial benzodiazepine binding site (MBBS) on microglia and astrocytes. Analysis of eight horizontal and four coronal brain levels revealed up to 16-fold increases in (3H)PK 11195 binding from 1 to 5 weeks but not 1 day after kainate injection. Increases in (3H)PK 11195 binding were predominantly in ventral limbic brain regions and olfactory projections to neocortical areas, with the olfactory cortex greater than subiculum/CA1 greater than anterior olfactory nucleus, medial thalamic nucleus, and piriform cortex greater than cingulate cortex and rostral hippocampus greater than dentate gyrus, septum, and amygdala greater than entorhinal cortex and temporal cortex. Little or no enhancement of (3H)PK 11195 binding was observed in numerous regions including the caudate-putamen, substantia nigra, nucleus accumbens, olfactory tubercle, cerebellum, thalamic nuclei, choroid plexus, medulla, parietal or occipital cortex, or pons. A 2-fold greater extent of neurodegeneration was obtained in ventral portions of the olfactory bulb, entorhinal cortex, temporal cortex, and dentate gyrus compared with the dorsal portions of these structures. The pattern of increase in (3H)PK 11195 binding closely matched the patterns of neuronal degeneration reported following parenteral kainate injection. These findings strengthen the notion that quantitative autoradiography of (3H)PK 11195 is a valuable tool to quantify the extent of neuronal degeneration.

  8. Experimental studies on tissue distribution of /sup 14/C-labelled antimicrobial agent in otorhinolaryngological field. Application of macro-autoradiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murai, K.; Baba, S. (Nagoya City Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Morita, S.; Ishigami, M.


    The tissue distribution of nalidixic acid analog OPC-7241 was investigated. Autoradiography was performed 30 minutes after intravenous administration of /sup 14/C-OPC-7241 in 2.96 MBq(80.0 mg/kg to New Zealand White rabbit. Radiometry was performed 30 minutes, 1 hour and 3 hours after intravenous administration of /sup 14/C-OPC-7241 in 740 kBq(20.0 mg/kg to NZW rabbits. Such care was taken in filling the carboxymethyl cellulose paste into the paranasal cavity, nasal cavity, oral cavity and external ear canal not to damage mechanically. Horizontal frozen sections parallel to mandibular basis were cut in 50 thickness in a cryostat. Blackening of /sup 14/C-OPC-7241 was most significant in soft palate and its expanse which is apparently the same gland-like tissues as soft palate when stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Significant radioactivity was recognized in tonsils, the cartilage of external ear canal, septal cartilage, periodontal membrane, dental pulp, muscle and concha nasalis ventralis. The levels were low in ethmoid cells, mucosa of tympanic cavity, cochlea, maxillary sinus and bone. Quantitatively, the levels of /sup 14/C-OPC-7241 radioactivity were high in soft palate, mandibular gland and tonsils. Radioactivity was significant in tongue and concha nasalis ventralis. The levels were low in turbinates, ethmoid cells, maxillary sinus, septal cartilage, septal mucosa, cochlea, brain, optic nerve and lens. Thus radiometric results agreed with the above autoradiographic findings. Macro-autoradiography can be one of useful means for the evaluation chemotherapeutic agents for possible clinical application.

  9. The determination of $\\alpha_s$ by the ALPHA collaboration

    CERN Document Server

    Bruno, Mattia; Fritzsch, Patrick; Korzec, Tomasz; Ramos, Alberto; Schaefer, Stefan; Simma, Hubert; Sint, Stefan; Sommer, Rainer


    We review the ALPHA collaboration strategy for obtaining the QCD coupling at high scale. In the three-flavor effective theory it avoids the use of perturbation theory at $\\alpha > 0.2$ and at the same time has the physical scales small compared to the cutoff $1/a$ in all stages of the computation. The result $\\Lambda_\\overline{MS}^{(3)}=332(14)$~MeV is translated to $\\alpha_\\overline{MS}(m_Z)=0.1179(10)(2)$ by use of (high order) perturbative relations between the effective theory couplings at the charm and beauty quark "thresholds". The error of this perturbative step is discussed and estimated as $0.0002$.

  10. New ALPHA-2 magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer


    On 21 June, members of the ALPHA collaboration celebrated the handover of the first solenoid designed for the ALPHA-2 experiment. The magnet has since been successfully installed and is working well.   Khalid Mansoor, Sumera Yamin and Jeffrey Hangst in front of the new ALPHA-2 solenoid. “This was the first of three identical solenoids that will be installed between now and September, as the rest of the ALPHA-2 device is installed and commissioned,” explains ALPHA spokesperson Jeffrey Hangst. “These magnets are designed to allow us to transfer particles - antiprotons, electrons and positrons - between various parts of the new ALPHA-2 device by controlling the transverse size of the particle bunch that is being transferred.” Sumera Yamin and Khalid Mansoor, two Pakistani scientists from the National Centre for Physics in Islamabad, came to CERN in February specifically to design and manufacture these magnets. “We had the chance to work on act...

  11. Lyman Alpha Control

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, Daniel Stefaniak


    This document gives an overview of how to operate the Lyman Alpha Control application written in LabVIEW along with things to watch out for. Overview of the LabVIEW code itself as well as the physical wiring of and connections from/to the NI PCI-6229 DAQ box is also included. The Lyman Alpha Control application is the interface between the ALPHA sequencer and the HighFinesse Wavelength Meter as well as the Lyman Alpha laser setup. The application measures the wavelength of the output light from the Lyman Alpha cavity through the Wavelength Meter. The application can use the Wavelength Meter’s PID capabilities to stabilize the Lyman Alpha laser output as well as switch between up to three frequencies.

  12. Interpreting EEG alpha activity. (United States)

    Bazanova, O M; Vernon, D


    Exploring EEG alpha oscillations has generated considerable interest, in particular with regards to the role they play in cognitive, psychomotor, psycho-emotional and physiological aspects of human life. However, there is no clearly agreed upon definition of what constitutes 'alpha activity' or which of the many indices should be used to characterize it. To address these issues this review attempts to delineate EEG alpha-activity, its physical, molecular and morphological nature, and examine the following indices: (1) the individual alpha peak frequency; (2) activation magnitude, as measured by alpha amplitude suppression across the individual alpha bandwidth in response to eyes opening, and (3) alpha "auto-rhythmicity" indices: which include intra-spindle amplitude variability, spindle length and steepness. Throughout, the article offers a number of suggestions regarding the mechanism(s) of alpha activity related to inter and intra-individual variability. In addition, it provides some insights into the various psychophysiological indices of alpha activity and highlights their role in optimal functioning and behavior.

  13. Alpha Shapes and Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Pawel; Sterner, Henrik; Sterner, Peter


    We provide a unified description of (weighted) alpha shapes, beta shapes and the corresponding simplicialcomplexes. We discuss their applicability to various protein-related problems. We also discuss filtrations of alpha shapes and touch upon related persistence issues.We claim that the full...... potential of alpha-shapes and related geometrical constructs in protein-related problems yet remains to be realized and verified. We suggest parallel algorithms for (weighted) alpha shapes, and we argue that future use of filtrations and kinetic variants for larger proteins will need such implementation....

  14. The centuries-old and thousand- year oscillations of uranium distribution in the Lake Baikal sediments, according to the neutron-fission (n,f)-autoradiography (United States)

    Kirichenko, Ivan; Zhmodik, Sergey; Belyanin, Dmitriy; Khlistov, Oleg


    The trace elements local distribution data, particularly (U, P, Br, Mo, BiSi et. all) in a lake and oceans bottom sediments reflects the conditions of those sediments formation, and correlates with changes in paleoclimatic conditions. In papers [Colman et all, 1995; Goldberg et all, 2000, etc.] established that the concentrations of some elements contained in the bottom sediments of Lake Baikal, in particular BiSi, Sr / Ba, Sr / Rb, Ti, U et al., reflect changes in insolation caused by periodic oscillations parameters Earth's orbit (Milankovitch cycles). At the same time, a bottom sediments of the largest continental lake (Lake Baikal), can keep a record of changes less periodicity. Our research focuses on the study of the spatial distribution of uranium with high resolution in the bottom sediments of Lake Baikal. The purpose of this research is determination the centure-old and thousand- old year oscillations in the concentration of uranium in the sediments of Lake Baikal. Fragments of the lake sediment columns taken from the axial part of the Akademicheskiy Ridge in Lake Baikal (stations coordinates St -8 (53 32'15"N 107 56'25"E); - and St11 - (53 33'51"N 108 00'05"E) were studied using complex of local analysis methods, such as: n, f - and n, β-autoradiography, SEM. The distributions of uranium and phosphorus in the authigenic component of sediments along the whole columns length (with the resolution of 10 micron which corresponds to the time resolution of about six months) have been studied by the autoradiography method. Statistical data analysis (Fourier and wavelet analysis) were used for detection oscillations in the uranium concentration Three main different factors of concentrators were established for uranium and phosphorus in the sediments of the Academic mountain range:1) sedimentation, 2) nutrient,3) diagenetic. The periodicity (range from 100 to 1,000 years), in the distribution of authigenic uranium in the sediment column were identified by

  15. Buffett’s Alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Kabiller, David; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    Berkshire Hathaway has realized a Sharpe ratio of 0.76, higher than any other stock or mutual fund with a history of more than 30 years, and Berkshire has a significant alpha to traditional risk factors. However, we find that the alpha becomes insignificant when controlling for exposures to Betting...

  16. Laser assisted {alpha} decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaneda Cortes, Hector Mauricio


    Excited or short-lived nuclei often decay by emitting alpha particles that are assumed to be preformed inside the nucleus and confined in the nuclear potential well. In this picture, {alpha} decay refers to the tunneling of the alpha particle through the potential barrier. In this thesis we investigate for the first time how strong laser fields can assist the tunneling of the alpha particle and thus influence the nuclear decay. Generally speaking, laser-assisted {alpha} decay can be described as laser-assisted tunneling of a quasistationary state, i.e, a slowly decaying state. Our theoretical treatment is developed starting from the complex trajectory formulation of the well-known strong-field approximation used to describe laser-induced ionization. We extend this formulation and develop a method to treat the decay of quasistationary states. The effect of both static and optical and X-ray monochromatic fields on the lifetimes and {alpha}-particle emission spectra are investigated for a number of {alpha}-emitting nuclei. We find that even at strong intensities, the laser-induced acceleration of the {alpha} decay is negligible, ranging from a relative modification in the decay rate of 10{sup -3} for static fields of electric field strengths of 10{sup 15} V/m, to 10{sup -8} for strong optical fields with intensities of 10{sup 22} W/cm{sup 2}, and to 10{sup -6} for strong X-ray fields with laser intensities around 10{sup 24} W/cm{sup 2}. However, the effect of the external field is visible in the spectrum of emitted alpha particles, leading in the case of optical fields even to rescattering phenomena for intensities approaching 6 x 10{sup 22} W/cm{sup 2}. The dynamics of the alpha particle in laser fields of intensities below the rescattering limit is investigated.

  17. Toxin a from Clostridium difficile binds to rabbit erythrocyte glycolipids with therminal Gal. cap alpha. 1-3Gal. beta. 1-4GlcNaC sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, G.F.; Krivan, H.; Wilkins, T.; Smith, D.F.


    Toxin A is one of two clostridial toxins implicated as the causative agent of pseudomembranous colitis in patients undergoing postoperative antibiotic therapy. Evidence that the carbohydrate binding determinant for this toxin is a glycoconjugate(s) with non-reducing Gal..cap alpha..1-3Gal..beta..1-4GlcNAc has recently been reported. Specific agglutination of rabbit erythrocytes by Toxin A is inhibited by bovine thyroglobulin and prevented by pretreatment of cells with ..cap alpha..-galactosidase. Total lipid extracts from rabbit erythrocytes were subjected to thin layer chromatography and the chromatogram overlaid with purified /sup 125/I-labeled Toxin A. Two major and several minor toxin-binding glycolipids were detected following autoradiography. The major toxin-binding glycolipids were identified as pentasaccharide- and decasaccharide-ceramides expressing terminal Gal..cap alpha..1-3Gal..beta..1-4GlcNAc sequences. Treatment of the toxin-binding glycolipids with ..cap alpha..-galactosidase abolished binding. Forsmann glycolipid, globoside, Gal..cap alpha..1-4 Gal..beta..1-4Glc-cer, and Gal..cap alpha..1-3Gal..beta..1-4Glc-cer did not bind the toxin. These observations are consistent with the proposed carbohydrate specificity of the toxin for the non-reducing terminal sequence, Gal..cap alpha..1-3Gal..beta..1-4GlcNAc.

  18. Genetics Home Reference: alpha thalassemia (United States)

    ... Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions alpha thalassemia alpha thalassemia Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Alpha thalassemia is a blood disorder that reduces the production ...

  19. Changes in mACh, NMDA and GABA(A) receptor binding after lateral fluid-percussion injury: in vitro autoradiography of rat brain frozen sections. (United States)

    Sihver, S; Marklund, N; Hillered, L; Långström, B; Watanabe, Y; Bergström, M


    Adult rats were subjected to a moderate lateral fluid percussion injury (FPI), followed by survival periods of 2 and 12 h. Regional NMDA subtype glutamate, muscarinic acetylcholine and GABA(A) receptor binding in various brain regions was analysed by quantitative in vitro autoradiography and short-lived positron emission tomography tracers [11C]cyano-dizocilpine, 4-N-[11C]methylpiperidylbenzilate (4-N-[11C]MPB), and [11C]flumazenil, respectively. The binding potential (BP, Bmax/KD) was calculated. The data with [11C]cyano-dizocilpine showed a significant decrease in BP bilaterally for the frontoparietal cortex and hippocampus at both time points, in comparison with that of the sham-operated controls. At 12 h the decrease was significantly more prominent for the ipsilateral cortex and hippocampus than for the contralateral side. The BP of 4-N-[11C]MPB was significantly decreased after 2 h for the trauma-side hippocampus, and after 12 h it had decreased for the trauma-site cortex and the bilateral hippocampus. The [11C]flumazenil exhibited a significant decrease in BP for the trauma-site cortex and the underlying hippocampus by 2 h after the traumatic brain injury. After 12 h a significantly decreased BP was observed only for the trauma-site cortex. The finding of a decreased BP demonstrates the involvement of these receptor systems in the development of cellular dysfunction, which is widespread and not limited to the site of lateral FPI.

  20. Double labelling of tissue combining tritiated thymidine autoradiography with immunodetection of bromodeoxyuridine: the autoradiographic significance of inhibition of thymidine incorporation into DNA by bromodeoxyuridine given simultaneously

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hume, W.J.; Thompson, J. (Leeds Univ. (UK). School of Dentistry)


    The authors describe a method for combining tritiated thymidine (({sup 3}H)TdR) autoradiography with immunoperoxidase detection of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) in paraffin-embedded tissues, which was used to examine, in mouse tongue epithelium, the inhibition of incorporation into DNA of ({sup 3}H)TdR by simultaneous injection of BrdU in the doses that both compounds are likely to be used in cell proliferation studies. The inhibition of uptake into DNA of ({sup 3}H)TdR from 0.23 to 1.85 MBq (6.25 to 50 {mu}Ci) per animal, produced by a simultaneous injection of 2.5 mg BrdU shows a linear, dose-dependent relationship. Provided the injected dose (in {mu}Ci per animal) multiplied by the autoradiographic exposure time (in days) is greater than a value of 700, then all cells that are labelled after incorporation of ({sup 3}H)TdR alone are also labelled after simultaneous double labelling, despite the latter producing a lower average grain count. (author).

  1. Fluorescence histochemistry and autoradiography of adrenergic nerves in the renal juxtaglomerular complex of mammals and man, with special regard to the efferent arteriole. (United States)

    Dolezel, S; Edvinsson, L; Owman, C; Owman, T


    The adrenergic innervation of the juxtaglomerular complex was studied in kidneys from mice, rats, guinea-pigs, rabbits, cats, dogs, pigs, monkeys, and humans using fluorescence histochemistry of neuronal noradrenaline and autoradiography of 3H-noradrenaline. The localization of the nerves was established by phase contrast optics or by perfusing the vascular system with India ink. Adrenergic nerve terminals, exhibiting a formaldehyde-induced fluorescence and having the ability to take up and accumulate 3H-noradrenaline, were easily identified when they enclosed the glomerular afferent arteriole. They continued in between and close to the macula densa and lacis cells to supply the glomerular efferent arteriole. The nerves could be seen to accompany this arteriole for a considerable distance until they branched off to the vasa recta in the juxtamedullary region and to adjacent cortical veins. This innervation pattern was found to be a constant feature except in kidneys from guinea-pigs and cats, in which post-glomerular units. The fluorescence in all adrenergic fibres supplying the juxtaglomerular complex disappeared after removal of the aortico-renal ganglion, showing that they belong to a common system of renal sympathetic nerves.

  2. Studies on the percutaneous absorption of /sup 14/C-labelled Flurbiprofen, 3. Whole body autoradiography of rats and guinea-pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagao, Soshichi; Sakai, Takeo; Hayakawa, Toru (Nihon Univ., Tokyo. Coll. of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine)


    Whole body autoradiography was carried out to clarify and compare the distribution of /sup 14/C-labelled Flurbiprofen which was applied to the skin as an ointment in rats and guinea-pigs. Both in rats and guinea-pigs almost the same autoradiogram was gained. The radioactivity was strongest at the skin area inspite of the time elapse, showing that the drug was fixed in the site of skin applied. In other parts of the body, however, it was small except the kidney and intestine. It seemed that the absorption of the drug was a little although the migration of the drug into the blood circulation is fast at the beginning as was shown in pigs previously. A stronger radioactivity in the kidney and intestine might indicate that a main pathway of excretion of this drug was through those two organs. Absorption, distribution and excretion of the drug were not different between rats and guinea-pigs, similar to those observed in pigs.

  3. Syntheses of [sup 14]C-ochratoxin A and [sup 14]C-ochratoxin B and a comparative study of their distribution in rats using whole body autoradiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breitholtz-Emanuelsson, A.; Hult, K. (Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)); Fuchs, R. (Department of Toxicology, Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, University of Zagreb, Zagreb (Yugoslavia)); Appelgren, L.-E. (Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden))


    Methods for preparation of labelled ochratoxin A and B are described. The method for preparation of labelled ochratoxin B involves the synthesis of the azide of ochratoxin [beta] via the mixed anhydride and subsequent conjugation to labelled phenylalanine to yield [sup 14]C-ochratoxin B. The labelled ochratoxins were injected into male Wistar rats and after different survival times they were sacrificed and subjected to whole body autoradiography. The distribution pattern of ochratoxin A in the rat did not differ from that earlier registered for mouse. The previously known, high susceptibility of rats (and not mice) to ochratoxin A-induced cancer could thus not be explained by an accumulation of the toxin in specific cells or organs. The distribution patterns of ochratoxin A and B were almost congruent - the only apparent difference being a much longer retention of the labelled ochratoxin A in the blood compared to ochratoxin B, which was much faster excreted. When analyzing tissue extract for labelled metabolites only the extracts from the rats injected with ochratoxin B were found to contain easily detectable concentrations, while no metabolites of ochratoxin A were seen. (au).

  4. Evaluation of 7 {alpha}-O-IADPN as a new potential SPECT opioid receptor imaging agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, R.F.; Mao, S.Y. [Fujian Medical College, Fuzhou (China). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Tafani, J.A.M.; Coulais, Y.; Guiraud, R. [Hospital Purpan, Toulouse (France). Service Central de medicine Nucleaire; Zajac, J.M. [LPTF-CNRS, Toulouse (France)


    Full text: A new iodinated diprenorphine antagonist analogue, [{sup 123}I]7 {alpha}.-O-IADPN, [E] - 17-(cyclopropylmethyl) -4,5 (x-epoxy- 18,19-dihydro-3-hydroxy-6-methoxy-7 {alpha}-[1-(3-iodoallyl)oxy-1-methylethyl]-6,14-endo-ethenomorphinan for in vivo and in vitro studies as a potential central nervous system (CNS) opioid receptor imaging agent was developed. In vivo biodistribution and metabolism of 7 {alpha}-O-lADPN in rat demonstrated that 0.16% of the iodinated compound was presented in mouse brain with a degradation-resistant at the first 60 min, and that 36% of the total cerebral radioactivity and 63% of its specific binding to opioid receptors were observed 20 min after i.v. injection. The cerebral radioactivity in mouse brain concentrated in the basal ganglion and cortex, and displayed a remarkably high target-to-non-target ratio (cortex/cerebellum = 60 min post-injection). The in vitro binding studies showed that [{sup 123}I]7 {alpha}-O-IADPN binds non selectively to multiple opioid receptors {mu} = 8 K) with a very high affinity (Ki = 0.4 + 0.2 nM). Ex vivo autoradiography results in mouse further confirmed the high uptake and retention of this agent in basal ganglion region and cortex. The planar imaging of monkey brains after i.v. injection of [{sup 123}I]7 {alpha}-O-IADPN clearly displayed that multiple opioid receptors can be visualized. With the excellent in vitro affinity and in vivo stability to deiodination and high target-to-nontarget ratio, [{sup 123}I]7 {alpha}- O-IADPN appears to be useful as a CNS opioid receptor imaging probe for SPECT in primate and non-primate.

  5. alpha_s from tau decays revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Boito, D; Golterman, M; Jamin, M; Maltman, K; Osborne, J; Peris, S


    Being a determination at low energies, the analysis of hadronic tau decay data provides a rather precise determination of the strong coupling alpha_s after evolving the result to M_Z. At such a level of precision, even small non-perturbative effects become relevant for the central value and error. While those effects had been taken into account in the framework of the operator product expansion, contributions going beyond it, so-called duality violations, have previously been neglected. The following investigation fills this gap through a finite-energy sum rule analysis of tau decay spectra from the OPAL experiment, including duality violations and performing a consistent fit of all appearing QCD parameters. The resulting values for alpha_s(M_tau) are 0.307(19) in fixed-order perturbation theory and 0.322(26) in contour-improved perturbation theory, which translates to the n_f=5 values 0.1169(25) and 0.1187(32) at M_Z, respectively.

  6. Changes in postnatal norepinephrine alter alpha-2 adrenergic receptor development. (United States)

    Sanders, J D; Happe, H K; Bylund, D B; Murrin, L C


    Alpha-2 adrenergic receptors (A2AR) regulate multiple brain functions and are enriched in developing brain. Studies demonstrate norepinephrine (NE) plays a role in regulating brain maturation, suggesting it is important in A2AR development. To investigate this we employed models of NE absence and excess during brain development. For decreases in NE we used N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine hydrochloride (DSP4), a specific noradrenergic neurotoxin. Increased noradrenergic terminal density was produced by methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) treatment. A2AR density was assayed with [(3)H]RX821002 autoradiography. DSP4 lesions on postnatal day (PND) 3 produce A2AR decreases in many regions by PND 5. A2AR recover to control levels by PND 15 and 25 and there is no further change in total receptor density. We also assayed A2AR in brains lesioned with DSP4 on PND 13, 23, 33 and 43 and harvested 22 days post-lesion. A2AR levels remain similar to control at each of these time points. We examined A2AR functionality and high affinity state with epinephrine-stimulated [(35)S]GTPγS and [(125)I]p-iodoclonidine autoradiography, respectively. On PND 25, control animals and animals lesioned with DSP4 on PND 3 have similar levels of [(35)S]GTPγS incorporation and no change in high affinity state. This is in contrast to increases in A2AR high affinity state produced by DSP4 lesions of mature brain. We next investigated A2AR response to increases in norepinephrine levels produced by MAM. In contrast to DSP4 lesions, increasing NE results in a large increase in A2AR. Animals treated with MAM on gestational day 14 had cortical [(3)H]RX821002 binding 100-200% greater than controls on PND 25, 35, 45, 55 and 65. These data indicate that NE regulation of A2AR differs in developing and mature brain and support the idea that NE regulates A2AR development and this has long term effects on A2AR function.

  7. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency (United States)

    ... by blood tests showing the low levels of alpha-1 antitrypsin and abnormal liver tests. Other tests such as ultrasound imaging or tests using specialized X-ray techniques may be necessary. A liver biopsy may ...

  8. AlphaACT (United States)


    CBR can be found in the world around us (e.g., a doctor’s diagnosis based on a prior patient case, a lawyer preparing arguments based on legal ... metaphors in decision research. Judgment & Decision Making, 3(3), 195-204. Payne, J., Bettman, J., & Johnson, E. (1993). The Adaptive Decision Maker...alphaact. com 64 AlphaACT HAZMAT User Guide 8.3 Changing Measurement Units AlphaACT HAZMAT lets you show distances in either metric or English

  9. ALPHA-2: the sequel

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony


    While many experiments are methodically planning for intense works over the long shutdown, there is one experiment that is already working at full steam: ALPHA-2. Its final components arrived last month and will completely replace the previous ALPHA set-up. Unlike its predecessor, this next generation experiment has been specifically designed to measure the properties of antimatter.   The ALPHA team lower the new superconducting solenoid magnet into place. The ALPHA collaboration is working at full speed to complete the ALPHA-2 set-up for mid-November – this will give them a few weeks of running before the AD shutdown on 17 December. “We really want to get some experience with this device this year so that, if we need to make any changes, we will have time during the long shutdown in which to make them,” says Jeffrey Hangst, ALPHA spokesperson. “Rather than starting the 2014 run in the commissioning stage, we will be up and running from the get go.&...

  10. Comparison of Drug Distribution Images from Thin Tissue Sections Obtained Using Desorption Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry and Whole-Body Autoradiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kertesz, Vilmos [ORNL; Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL; Vavek, Marissa [Merck Research Laboratories; Koeplinger, Kenneth A. [Merck Research Laboratories; Schneider, Bradley B [MDS Sciex; Covey, Thomas R. [MDS Sciex


    Desorption electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (DESI-MS/MS) and whole-body autoradiography (WBA) were used for chemical imaging of whole-body thin tissue sections of mice intravenously dosed with propranolol (7.5 mg/kg). DESI-MS/MS imaging utilized selected reaction monitoring detection performed on an AB/MDS SCIEX 4000 QTRAP mass spectrometer equipped with a prototype extended length particle discriminator interface. Propranolol images of the tissue sections using DESI-MS/MS were obtained at surface scan rates of 0.1, 0.5, 2 and 7 mm/s. Although signal decreased with increasing scan rate, useful whole-body images for propranolol were obtained from the tissues even at 7 mm/s, which required just 79 min of analysis time. Attempts to detect and image the distribution of the known propranolol metabolites were unsuccessful. Regions of the tissue sections showing the most radioactivity from WBA sections were excised and analyzed by HPLC with radiochemical detection to determine relative levels of propranolol and metabolites present. Comparison of the DESI-MS/MS signal for propranolol and the radioactivity attributed to propranolol from WBA sections indicated nominal agreement between the two techniques for the amount of propranolol in the brain, lung, and liver. Data from the kidney showed an unexplained disparity between the two techniques. The results of this study show the feasibility of using DESI-MS/MS to obtain useful chemical images of a drug in whole-body thin tissue sections following drug administration at a pharmacologically relevant level. Further optimization to improve sensitivity and enable detection of the drug metabolites will be among the requirements necessary to move DESI-MS/MS chemical imaging forward as a practical tool in drug discovery.

  11. Neurogenesis in the vomeronasal epithelium of adult garter snakes: 3. Use of /sup 3/H-thymidine autoradiography to trace the genesis and migration of bipolar neurons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, R.T.; Halpern, M.


    Use of 3H-thymidine autoradiography and unilateral vomeronasal (VN) axotomy has permitted us to demonstrate directly the existence of VN stem cells in the adult garter snake and to trace continuous bipolar neuron development and migration in the normal VN and deafferentated VN epithelium in the same animal. The vomeronasal epithelium and olfactory epithelium of adult garter snakes are both capable of incorporating 3H-thymidine. In the sensory epithelium of the vomeronasal organ, 3H-thymidine-labeled cells were initially restricted to the base of the undifferentiated cell layer in animals surviving 1 day following 3H-thymidine injection. With increasing survival time, labeled cells progressively migrated vertically within the receptor cell column toward the apex of the bipolar neuron layer. In both the normal and denervated VN epithelium, labeled cells were observed through the 56 days of postoperative survival. In the normal epithelium, labeled cells were always located within the matrix of the intact receptor cell columns. However, labeled cells of the denervated epithelium were always located at the apical front of the newly formed cell mass following depletion of the original neuronal cell population. In addition, at postoperative days 28 and 56, labeled cells of the denervated VN epithelium achieved neuronal differentiation and maturation by migrating much farther away from the base of the receptor cell column than the labeled cells on the normal, unoperated contralateral side. This study directly demonstrates that basal cells initially incorporating 3H-thymidine are indeed stem cells of the VN epithelium in adult garter snakes.

  12. Effect of irradiation on the formation of secretory granules in the mouse submandibular glands; Study of electron microscopic autoradiography with sup 3 H-leucine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaito, Tomoi; Nasu, Masanori; Kondoh, Nobuyoshi; Furumoto, Keiichi (Nippon Dental Univ., Tokyo (Japan))


    To determine the effect of radiation on secretory granule morphosis of the submandibular acinar cells, the lower jaw of the rat irradiated with 10 Gy of X-ray. We observed intracellular localization of reducing argentum grains three days after irradiation by electron microscopic autoradiography with {sup 3}H-Leucine (RI). The argentum grain ratio localizing in the ganular endoplasmic reticulum stood at the same level both in the irradiated group (IG) and in the non-irradiated group (NG) 30 minutes after injection of RI. But in NG the ratio declined sharply at the 60-minute mark. One hundred and eighty minutes after the injection of RI, the argentum grain ratio in NG showed the same level at the 60-minute mark. While in IG the ratio was lower than that at the 60 minutes after the injection but not as low as in NG. The argentum grain ratio localized in the Golgi complex showed the same level in both NG and IG and decreased with time after the injection of RI. The argentum grain ratio localized in the secretory granule increased with time after the injection of RI in both NG and IG. The ratio in IG was entirely lower than that in NG. A retarding trend of secretory progress was recognized, showing a high ratio even 180 minutes after injection in IG, while the ratio reached a peak of 60 minutes in NG after the injection of RI. The argentum grain localizing in the other cellular organelles which have no relation with secretory granule morphosis showed a ratio below 10 percent in both NG and IG at each testing time after the injection of RI and no distinctive change was recognized in the procedure. The secretory granule morphosis of the mouse's submandibule was clarified to be retarded three days after 10 Gy irradiation. (J.P.N.).

  13. The effect of irradiation on the intracellular transportation of the parotid gland acinar cells in the mouse. Localization of monosaccharides studied by electron microscopic autoradiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsunaga, Hajime (Nippon Dental Univ., Tokyo (Japan))


    The present study was designed to investigate the effects of radiation on the ability to ingest monosaccharides and intracellular transportation in the parotid gland in mice. The submandibular regions, including the parotid gland, was exposed to 10 Gy of X-rays. Three days after irradiation, the localization of reducing silver grains in organelles was determined, using electron microscopic autoradiography with H-3 labeled galactosamine, glucosamine, fucose, and mannose. In the non-irradiated group, the proportion of reducing silver grains in the acinar cells began to increase 15 min after administration of monosaccharides, reached a peak at 180 min, and thereafter decreased. Similar findings were observed in the irradiated group, although the values were lower than the non-irradiated group. The proportion of reducing silver grains in the endoplasmic reticulum reached a peak at 15 min in both the non-irradiated and irradiated groups, and gradually decreased until 120 min. Thereafter, it became almost constant and low, but the proportion in the irradiated group was slightly higher than in the non-irradiated group. The proportion of reducing silver grains in the Golgi apparatus was maximum at 60 min in the non-irradiated group, and gradually decreased until 360 min. A similar tendency was seen in the irradiated group, although its variation was not so marked as in the non-irradiated group. The proportion of reducing silver grains in the condensing vacuoles was maximum at 120 min, and thereafter, it decreased; the decrease was only slight in the irradiated group. The proportion of reducing silver grains in secretory granules increased with time in both the non-irradiated and irradiated groups, although this was only slight in the irradiated group, and reached a peak at 360 min. Transportation of monosaccharides in an acinar cell was found to be delayed by irradiation. (N.K.).

  14. Permissive role of the acidification caused by wheat aleurone layers upon. alpha. -amylase induction by GA sub 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Campos, E.; Bernal-Lugo, I.; Hamabata, A. (CINVESTAV-IPN (Mexico))


    Wheat aleurone has the capacity of acidifying the incubation medium in 1 to 2 pH units. The {alpha}-amylase induction by GA{sub 3} in isolated wheat aleurone layers is strongly dependent on acidic pH of the medium (pH < 5). To examine possible mechanisms {sup 35}-Met incorporation into proteins and {alpha}-amylase, in the presence of GA{sub 3} and Ca{sup 2+} at pH, 4, 5 and 6 was studied. Although {sup 35}-Met uptake decreased markedly ({approx} 90%) at pH 4 in thepresence of GA{sub 3}, incorporation into total protein did not change significantly from other conditions. Auto-radiography of SDS-PAGE showed that most of the amino acid was in the {alpha}-amylase band, meaning that the effect of acidic pH is specific for GA{sub 3} actions on aleurone tissue. On the other hand, an increase of protonated GA{sub 3} diffusion could be ruled out. Also, there was not {alpha}-amylase inactivation at pH 6. These findings point out to the important physiological role of the acidification caused by the aleurone.

  15. ALPHA MIS: Reference manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovin, J.K.; Haese, R.L.; Heatherly, R.D.; Hughes, S.E.; Ishee, J.S.; Pratt, S.M.; Smith, D.W.


    ALPHA is a powerful and versatile management information system (MIS) initiated and sponsored and by the Finance and Business Management Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, who maintain and develop it in concert with the Business Systems Division for its Information Center. A general-purpose MIS, ALPHA allows users to access System 1022 and System 1032 databases to obtain and manage information. From a personal computer or a data terminal, Energy Systems employees can use ALPHA to control their own report reprocessing. Using four general commands (Database, Select, Sort, and Report) they can (1) choose a mainframe database, (2) define subsets within it, (3) sequentially order a subset by one or more variables, and (4) generate a report with their own or a canned format.

  16. AlphaSphere


    Place, A.; Lacey, L.; Mitchell, T.


    The AlphaSphere is an electronic musical instrument featuring a series of tactile, pressure sensitive touch pads arranged in a spherical form. It is designed to offer a new playing style, while allowing for the expressive real-time modulation of sound available in electronic-based music. It is also designed to be programmable, enabling the flexibility to map a series of different notational arrangements to the pad-based interface.\\ud \\ud The AlphaSphere functions as an HID, MIDI and OSC devic...

  17. Alpha Antihydrogen Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Fujiwara, M C; Ashkezari, M D; Baquero-Ruiz, M; Bertsche, W; Bray, C C; Butler, E; Cesar, C L; Chapman, S; Charlton, M; Cesar, C L; Fajans, J; Friesen, T; Gill, D R; Hangst, J S; Hardy, W N; Hayano, R S; Hayden, M E; Humphries, A J; Hydomako, R; Jonsell, S; Kurchaninov, L; Lambo, R; Madsen, N; Menary, S; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Povilus, A; Pusa, P; Robicheaux, F; Sarid, E; Silveira, D M; So, C; Storey, J W; Thompson, R I; van der Werf, D P; Wilding, D; Wurtele, J S; Yamazaki, Y


    ALPHA is an experiment at CERN, whose ultimate goal is to perform a precise test of CPT symmetry with trapped antihydrogen atoms. After reviewing the motivations, we discuss our recent progress toward the initial goal of stable trapping of antihydrogen, with some emphasis on particle detection techniques.

  18. Case Study - Alpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Leybourne


    Full Text Available This case study was developed from an actual scenario by Dr. Steve Leybourne of Boston University.  The case documents the historical evolution of an organization, and has been used successfully in courses dealing with organizational and cultural change, and the utilization of ‘soft skills’ in project-based management. This is a short case, ideal for classroom use and discussion.  The issues are easily accessible to students, and there is a single wide ranging question that allows for the inclusion of many issues surrounding strategic decision-making, and behavioural and cultural change. Alpha was one of the earlier companies in the USA to invest in large, edge-of-town superstores, with plentiful free vehicle parking, selling food and related household products. Alpha was created in the 1950s as a subsidiary of a major publicly quoted retail group.  It started business by opening a string of very large discount stores in converted industrial and warehouse premises in the south of the United States. In the early days shoppers were offered a limited range of very competitively priced products. When Alpha went public in 1981 it was the fourth largest food retailer in the US, selling an ever-widening range of food and non-food products.  Its success continued to be based on high volume, low margins and good value for money, under the slogan of ‘Alpha Price.’

  19. Alpha-mannosidosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgwardt, Line; Stensland, Hilde Monica Frostad Riise; Olsen, Klaus Juul;


    of the three subgroups of genotype/subcellular localisation and the clinical and biochemical data were done to investigate the potential relationship between genotype and phenotype in alpha-mannosidosis. Statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS software. Analyses of covariance were performed...

  20. Evaluation of cardiac adrenergic neuronal damage in rats with doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy using iodine-131 MIBG autoradiography and PGP 9.5 immunohistochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, T.J.; Lee, J.D. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Yonsei University Medical College, Seoul (Korea); Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei University Medical College, Seoul (Korea); Ha, J.-W. [Cardiology Division, Yonsei Cardiovascular Center, Yonsei University Medical College, Seoul (Korea); Yang, W.I.; Cho, S.H. [Department of Pathology, Yonsei University Medical College, Seoul (Korea)


    Doxorubicin is one of the most useful anticancer agents, but its repeated administration can induce irreversible cardiomyopathy as a major complication. The purpose of this study was to investigate doxorubicin toxicity on cardiac sympathetic neurons using iodine-131-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) and protein gene product (PGP) 9.5 immunohistochemistry, which is a marker of cardiac innervation. Wistar rats were treated with doxorubicin (2 mg/kg, i.v.) once a week for 4 (n=5), 6 (n=6) or 8 (n=7) weeks consecutively. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), calculated by M-mode echocardiography, was used as an indicator of cardiac function. Plasma noradrenaline (NA) concentration was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). {sup 131}I-MIBG uptake of the left ventricular wall (24 ROIs) was measured by autoradiography. {sup 131}I-MIBG uptake pattern was compared with histopathological results, the neuronal population on PGP 9.5 immunohistochemistry and the degree of myocyte damage assessed using a visual scoring system on haematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome staining. LVEF was significantly decreased in the 8-week group (P<0.05). The serum NA level also showed no statistical difference until 4 weeks and was significantly increased in the 8-week group (P<0.05). MIBG uptake was decreased in the 6- and 8-week groups (P<0.05), and was closely correlated with the reduction in the number of nerve fibres on PGP 9.5 stain. Myocyte damage was seen only in the 8-week group. Neuronal population and the {sup 131}I-MIBG uptake ratio of subepicardium to subendocardium were significantly increased (P<0.05) in the 8-week group as compared with the control group. It may be concluded that radioiodinated MIBG is a reliable marker for the detection of cardiac adrenergic neuronal damage in doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy; it detects such damage earlier than do other clinical parameters and in this study showed a good correlation with the reduction in the

  1. Effect of irradiation for intracellular transport on mouse parotid gland; Study of electron microscopic autoradiography with [sup 3]H-leucine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondou, Nobuyoshi (Nippon Dental Univ., Tokyo (Japan))


    Using light and electron microscopic autoradiographies by means of [sup 3]H-leucine, the influence of X-radiation, 10 Gy upon the submandibular region including parotid gland of a mouse was examined. The number of reduced silver grain per unit area of acinar cell was compared, and the rate of reduced silver grain localized in the intracellular organelle involved in the synthesis and transport of protein was observed. In the non-radiation (NR) group, reduced silver grain in the acinar cell of parotid gland showed the maximum value 30 minutes after [sup 3]H-leucine administration and thereafter decreased with time. Even the 3 and 14 post-radiation (PR) day-groups showed the maximum values at 30 minutes, but to a lesser extent than the NR groups, and subsequent time-course was noted a little. Reduced silver grain localized in the rough surfaced reticulum showed the highest rate at 15 minutes for the NR, 3 and 14 PR groups, and thereafter decreased abruptly. In comparing the rate of reduced silver grain localized in Golgi apparatus, the NR group showed the highest rate at 60 minutes and gradually decreased thereafter. The 3 PR group showed the highest rate at 60 minutes and similar tendency up to 120 minutes. The 14 PR group showed almost the similar tendency to the NR group. Reduced silver particles localized peri- and intra-secretory granules showed higher rate at 60 minutes for the NR group. In the 3 PR group, peri- and intra-secretory granules showed almost the same rate at 180 minutes, with a time lag for the transition of [sup 3]H-leucine to the secretory granules. In the 3 and 14 PR groups, similar order of rate was noted at 60 minutes between peri- and intra-secretory granules, with a transition time approximating to that of the NR group. Subsequent discharge, however, showed a delay tendency. Pathohistological examination revealed strong morphological changes of intracellular organelle in the 3 PR group and less remarkable changes in the 14 PR group. (author).

  2. High resolution beta imaging systems for quantitative autoradiography. Potential applications in the field of drug or radiopharmaceuticals developments; Autoradiographie quantitative a l'aide des nouveaux systemes d'imagerie Beta a haute resolution: applications a l'evaluation de medicaments ou a la mise au point de radiopharmaceutiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthe, N


    Autoradiography, an imaging technique allowing to get the spatial distribution of a radioactive substance in a tissue, is generally obtained by means of films or photographic emulsions. This is a difficult methodology with several limitations: the major one being quantification which is not precise. We have contributed to the development of new high resolution beta imaging systems to replace the photographic emulsion by a direct counting of beta radioactivity. They have similar or improved performances compared to the film. The sensitivity of the detection is specially enhanced, multiplying by a factor of 100 to 500 the rapidity of image acquisition. Linearity of the detectors is improved giving a better dynamic range than the film. So quantification of radioactivity in the tissue sections is obtained with a good reliability. Multi-isotopes imaging is also achieved by using algorithms of separation based on the different characteristics of energies or decaying schemes of the isotopes. Many potential applications can be found in the development of drugs or radiopharmaceuticals. (author)

  3. HB Hillingdon [alpha46(CE4)Phe-->Val (alpha1 Or alpha2)]: a new alpha chain hemoglobin variant. (United States)

    Babb, Anna; Solaiman, Susannah; Green, Brian N; Mantio, Debbie; Patel, Ketan


    Routine antenatal hemoglobinopathy screening detected a new alpha chain variant that eluted with Hb A(2) on cation exchange high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in a lady of Sri Lankan origin who had normal hematological indices. The mutation was identified by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) as alpha46(CE4)Phe-->Val, inferring that the variant was due to a single base change at codon 46 (TTC>GTC) of the alpha1- or alpha2-globin genes.

  4. $\\alpha$-Representation for QCD


    Tuan, Richard Hong


    An $\\alpha$-parameter representation is derived for gauge field theories.It involves, relative to a scalar field theory, only constants and derivatives with respect to the $\\alpha$-parameters. Simple rules are given to obtain the $\\alpha$-representation for a Feynman graph with an arbitrary number of loops in gauge theories in the Feynman gauge.

  5. Transient elevation of amygdala alpha 2 adrenergic receptor binding sites during the early stages of amygdala kindling. (United States)

    Chen, M J; Vigil, A; Savage, D D; Weiss, G K


    Enhanced noradrenergic neurotransmission retards but does not prevent the development of kindling. We previously reported that locus coeruleus (LC) alpha 2 adrenergic receptor binding sites are transiently elevated during the early stages of kindling development. Since the firing activity of LC noradrenergic neurons is partially regulated via an alpha 2 receptor-mediated recurrent inhibition, the transient elevation in LC alpha 2 receptors could decrease LC activity and consequently facilitate the development of kindling. Transient elevation of alpha 2 receptor binding sites during early stages of kindling may also occur on noradrenergic axon terminals projecting to forebrain sites. Using in vitro neurotransmitter autoradiography techniques, we investigated this hypothesis by measuring specific [3H]idazoxan binding in 5 different areas of rat forebrain at 2 different stages of kindling development. After 2 class 1 kindled seizures, specific [3H]idazoxan binding was elevated significantly in the amygdala, but not in other forebrain regions. No differences in specific [3H]idazoxan binding were observed in any of the 5 brain regions in rats kindled to a single class 5 kindled motor seizure. Saturation of binding experiments indicated that the increase in amygdala [3H]idazoxan binding, following 2 class 1 kindled motor seizures, was due to an increase in the total number of alpha 2 receptor binding sites without a change in the affinity of the binding sites for [3H]idazoxan. Thus, the transient increase in alpha 2 receptors that occurs in the LC in the early stages of kindling also occurs in the forebrain region in which the kindled seizure originates.

  6. Alpha and Beta Determinations

    CERN Document Server

    Dunietz, Isard


    Because the Bd -> J/psi Ks asymmetry determines only sin(2 beta), a discrete ambiguity in the true value of beta remains. This note reviews how the ambiguity can be removed. Extractions of the CKM angle alpha are discussed next. Some of the methods require very large data samples and will not be feasible in the near future. In the near future, semi-inclusive CP-violating searches could be undertaken, which are reviewed last.

  7. Combining Alphas via Bounded Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zura Kakushadze


    Full Text Available We give an explicit algorithm and source code for combining alpha streams via bounded regression. In practical applications, typically, there is insufficient history to compute a sample covariance matrix (SCM for a large number of alphas. To compute alpha allocation weights, one then resorts to (weighted regression over SCM principal components. Regression often produces alpha weights with insufficient diversification and/or skewed distribution against, e.g., turnover. This can be rectified by imposing bounds on alpha weights within the regression procedure. Bounded regression can also be applied to stock and other asset portfolio construction. We discuss illustrative examples.

  8. Orthopositronium lifetime. Analytic results in O ({alpha}) and O ({alpha}{sup 3} ln {alpha})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kniehl, B.A.; Kotikov, A.V.; Veretin, O.L. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik


    We present the O({alpha}) and O({alpha}{sup 3}ln {alpha}) corrections to the total decay width of orthopositronium in closed analytic form, in terms of basic transcendental numbers, which can be evaluated numerically to arbitrary precision. (orig.)

  9. Direct comparison of local cerebral blood flow rates measured by MRI arterial spin-tagging and quantitative autoradiography in a rat model of experimental cerebral ischemia. (United States)

    Ewing, James R; Wei, Ling; Knight, Robert A; Pawa, Swati; Nagaraja, Tavarekere N; Brusca, Thomas; Divine, George W; Fenstermacher, Joseph D


    The present study determined cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the rat using two different magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) arterial spin-tagging (AST) methods and 14C-iodoantipyrine (IAP)-quantitative autoradiography (QAR), a standard but terminal technique used for imaging and quantitating CBF, and compared the resulting data sets to assess the precision and accuracy of the different techniques. Two hours after cerebral ischemia was produced in eight rats via permanent occlusion of one middle cerebral artery (MCA) with an intraluminal suture, MRI-CBF was measured over a 2.0-mm coronal slice using single-coil AST, and tissue magnetization was assessed by either a spin-echo (SE) or a variable tip-angle gradient-echo (VTA-GE) readout. Subsequently ( approximately 2.5 hours after MCA occlusion), CBF was assayed by QAR with the blood flow indicator 14C-IAP, which produced coronal images of local flow rates every 0.4 mm along the rostral-caudal axis. The IAP-QAR images that spanned the 2-mm MRI slice were selected, and regional flow rates (i.e., local CBF [lCBF]) were measured and averaged across this set of images by both the traditional approach, which involved reader interaction and avoidance of sectioning artifacts, and a whole film-scanning technique, which approximated total radioactivity in the entire MRI slice with minimal user bias. After alignment and coregistration, the concordance of the CBF rates generated by the two QAR approaches and the two AST methods was examined for nine regions of interest in each hemisphere. The QAR-lCBF rates were higher with the traditional method of assaying tissue radioactivity than with the MRI-analog approach; although the two sets of rates were highly correlated, the scatter was broad. The flow rates obtained with the whole film-scanning technique were chosen for subsequent comparisons to MRI-CBF results because of the similarity in tissue "sampling" among these three methods. As predicted by previous modeling, "true" flow rates

  10. Alpha-mannosidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilssen Øivind


    Full Text Available Abstract Alpha-mannosidosis is an inherited lysosomal storage disorder characterized by immune deficiency, facial and skeletal abnormalities, hearing impairment, and intellectual disability. It occurs in approximately 1 of 500,000 live births. The children are often born apparently normal, and their condition worsens progressively. Some children are born with ankle equinus or develop hydrocephalus in the first year of life. Main features are immune deficiency (manifested by recurrent infections, especially in the first decade of life, skeletal abnormalities (mild-to-moderate dysostosis multiplex, scoliosis and deformation of the sternum, hearing impairment (moderate-to-severe sensorineural hearing loss, gradual impairment of mental functions and speech, and often, periods of psychosis. Associated motor function disturbances include muscular weakness, joint abnormalities and ataxia. The facial trait include large head with prominent forehead, rounded eyebrows, flattened nasal bridge, macroglossia, widely spaced teeth, and prognathism. Slight strabismus is common. The clinical variability is significant, representing a continuum in severity. The disorder is caused by lysosomal alpha-mannosidase deficiency. Alpha-mannosidosis is inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion and is caused by mutations in the MAN2B1 gene located on chromosome 19 (19 p13.2-q12. Diagnosis is made by measuring acid alpha-mannosidase activity in leukocytes or other nucleated cells and can be confirmed by genetic testing. Elevated urinary secretion of mannose-rich oligosaccharides is suggestive, but not diagnostic. Differential diagnoses are mainly the other lysosomal storage diseases like the mucopolysaccharidoses. Genetic counseling should be given to explain the nature of the disease and to detect carriers. Antenatal diagnosis is possible, based on both biochemical and genetic methods. The management should be pro-active, preventing complications and treating

  11. Alpha phoenix公司

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    德国Alpha phoenix公司成立于2009年.专注于制药领域清洗机器的研发和生产,产品符合cGMP的要求。公司的人员是制药领域清洗机器研发和生产的专家,他们具有20多年的全自动清洗机器的设计和生产经验。

  12. Are alpha-gliadins glycosylated? (United States)

    Turner, J B; Garner, G V; Gordon, D B; Brookes, S J; Smith, C A


    Alpha-gliadins isolated by carboxymethylcellulose chromatography contain noncovalently bound glucose probably due to contaminating proteoglycans and to material shed from the column. Traces of carbohydrate remain strongly bound to alpha-gliadins even after harsh denaturation, but our results indicate alpha-gliadins are not glycoproteins. Suggestions that gliadins are glycoproteins are probably due to contamination with this glucose and the presence of these proteoglycans.

  13. Robust estimation of Cronbach's alpha



    Cronbach’s alpha is a popular method to measure reliability, e.g. in quantifying the reliability of a score to summarize the information of several items in questionnaires. The alpha coefficient is known to be non-robust. We study the behavior of this coefficient in different settings to identify situations, which can easily occur in practice, but under which the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient is extremely sensitive to violations of the classical model assumptions. Furthermore, we construct a r...

  14. PDFs, $\\alpha_s$, and quark masses from global fits

    CERN Document Server

    Alekhin, S; Moch, S; Placakyte, R


    The strong coupling constant $\\alpha_s$ and the heavy-quark masses, $m_c$, $m_b$, $m_t$ are extracted simultaneosly with the parton distribution functions (PDFs) in the updated ABM12 fit including recent data from CERN-SPS, HERA, Tevatron, and the LHC. The values of \\begin{eqnarray} \

  15. Molecular characterization of alpha 1- and alpha 2-adrenoceptors. (United States)

    Harrison, J K; Pearson, W R; Lynch, K R


    Three 'alpha 1-adrenoceptors' and three 'alpha 2-adrenoceptors' have now been cloned. How closely do these receptors match the native receptors that have been identified pharmacologically? What are the properties of these receptors, and how do they relate to other members of the cationic amine receptor family? Kevin Lynch and his colleagues discuss these questions in this review.

  16. Alpha-mannosidosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgwardt, Line Gutte; Danielsen, E R; Thomsen, Carsten;


    Alpha-mannosidosis (AM) (OMIM 248500) is a rare lysosomal storage disease. The understanding of the central nervous system (CNS) pathology is limited. This study is the first describing the CNS pathology and the correlation between the CNS pathology and intellectual disabilities in human AM. Thirty......-protein, glial fibrillary acidic protein and neurofilament light protein in 97 patients, 74% and 41% of CSF samples, respectively. A negative correlation between CSF-biomarkers and cognitive function and CSF-oligosaccharides and cognitive function was found. The combination of MRS/MRI changes, elevated...... concentrations of CSF-biomarkers and CSF-oligosaccharides suggests gliosis and reduced myelination, as part of the CNS pathology in AM. Our data demonstrate early neuropathological changes, which may be taken into consideration when planning initiation of treatment....


    Recent DFT optimization studies on alpha-maltose improved our understanding of the preferred conformations of alpha-maltose and the present study extends these studies to alpha-maltotriose with three alpha-D-glucopyranose residues linked by two alpha-[1-4] bridges, denoted herein as DP-3's. Combina...

  18. The ALPHA antihydrogen trapping apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amole, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto ON Canada, M3J 1P3 (Canada); Andresen, G.B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Ashkezari, M.D. [Department of Physics, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC Canada, V5A 1S6 (Canada); Baquero-Ruiz, M. [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States); Bertsche, W. [Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); The Cockcroft Institute, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Bowe, P.D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Butler, E. [Physics Department, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Capra, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto ON Canada, M3J 1P3 (Canada); Carpenter, P.T. [Department of Physics, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849-5311 (United States); Cesar, C.L. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 21941-972 (Brazil); Chapman, S. [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States); Charlton, M.; Deller, A.; Eriksson, S. [Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Escallier, J. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Fajans, J. [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States); Friesen, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary AB, Canada, T2N 1N4 (Canada); Fujiwara, M.C.; Gill, D.R. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver BC, Canada V6T 2A3 (Canada); Gutierrez, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver BC, Canada V6T 1Z4 (Canada); and others


    The ALPHA collaboration, based at CERN, has recently succeeded in confining cold antihydrogen atoms in a magnetic minimum neutral atom trap and has performed the first study of a resonant transition of the anti-atoms. The ALPHA apparatus will be described herein, with emphasis on the structural aspects, diagnostic methods and techniques that have enabled antihydrogen trapping and experimentation to be achieved.

  19. Alpha particle emitters in medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, D.R.


    Radiation-induced cancer of bone, liver and lung has been a prominent harmful side-effect of medical applications of alpha emitters. In recent years, however, the potential use of antibodies labeled with alpha emitting radionuclides against cancer has seemed promising because alpha particles are highly effective in cell killing. High dose rates at high LET, effectiveness under hypoxic conditions, and minimal expectancy of repair are additional advantages of alpha emitters over antibodies labeled with beta emitting radionuclides for cancer therapy. Cyclotron-produced astatine-211 ({sup 211}At) and natural bismuth-212 ({sup 212}Bi) have been proposed and are under extensive study in the United States and Europe. Radium-223 ({sup 223}Ra) also has favorable properties as a potential alpha emitting label, including a short-lived daughter chain with four alpha emissions. The radiation dosimetry of internal alpha emitters is complex due to nonuniformly distributed sources, short particle tracks, and high relative specific ionization. The variations in dose at the cellular level may be extreme. Alpha-particle radiation dosimetry, therefore, must involve analysis of statistical energy deposition probabilities for cellular level targets. It must also account fully for nonuniform distributions of sources in tissues, source-target geometries, and particle-track physics. 18 refs., 4 figs.

  20. Proteinaceous alpha-araylase inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Birte; Fukuda, Kenji; Nielsen, P.K.;


    Proteins that inhibit alpha-amylases have been isolated from plants and microorganisms. These inhibitors can have natural roles in the control of endogenous a-amylase activity or in defence against pathogens and pests; certain inhibitors are reported to be antinutritional factors. The alpha-amylase...... inhibitors belong to seven different protein structural families, most of which also contain evolutionary related proteins without inhibitory activity. Two families include bifunctional inhibitors acting both on alpha-amylases and proteases. High-resolution structures are available of target alpha-amylases...... in complex with inhibitors from five families. These structures indicate major diversity but also some similarity in the structural basis of alpha-amylase inhibition. Mutational analysis of the mechanism of inhibition was performed in a few cases and various protein engineering and biotechnological...

  1. Simultaneous quantification of GABAergic 3alpha,5alpha/3alpha,5beta neuroactive steroids in human and rat serum. (United States)

    Porcu, Patrizia; O'Buckley, Todd K; Alward, Sarah E; Marx, Christine E; Shampine, Lawrence J; Girdler, Susan S; Morrow, A Leslie


    The 3alpha,5alpha- and 3alpha,5beta-reduced derivatives of progesterone, deoxycorticosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone and testosterone enhance GABAergic neurotransmission and produce inhibitory neurobehavioral and anti-inflammatory effects. Despite substantial information on the progesterone derivative (3alpha,5alpha)-3-hydroxypregnan-20-one (3alpha,5alpha-THP, allopregnanolone), the physiological significance of the other endogenous GABAergic neuroactive steroids has remained elusive. Here, we describe the validation of a method using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to simultaneously identify serum levels of the eight 3alpha,5alpha- and 3alpha,5beta-reduced derivatives of progesterone, deoxycorticosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone and testosterone. The method shows specificity, sensitivity and enhanced throughput compared to other methods already available for neuroactive steroid quantification. Administration of pregnenolone to rats and progesterone to women produced selective effects on the 3alpha,5alpha- and 3alpha,5beta-reduced neuroactive steroids, indicating differential regulation of their biosynthetic pathways. Pregnenolone administration increased serum levels of 3alpha,5alpha-THP (+1488%, psteroid was detected only in 3/16 control subjects. Levels of 3alpha,5alpha-A, 3alpha,5beta-A and pregnenolone were not altered. This method can be used to investigate the physiological and pathological role of neuroactive steroids and to develop biomarkers and new therapeutics for neurological and psychiatric disorders.

  2. Radiative Corrections to the Muonium Hyperfine Structure; 2, The $\\alpha (Z\\alpha)^2$ Correction

    CERN Document Server

    Nio, M


    This is the second of a series of papers on the radiative corrections of order $\\alpha^2 (Z\\alpha)$, $\\alpha (Z\\alpha )^2$, and various logarithmic terms of order $\\alpha^4$, to the hyperfine structure of the muonium ground state. This paper deals with the $\\alpha (Z\\alpha)^2$ correction. Based on the NRQED bound state theory, we isolated the term of order $\\alpha(Z\\alpha)^2$ exactly. Our result $+16.904~2~(11) \\alpha(Z\\alpha)^2 E_F / \\pi$ for the non-logarithmic part is consistent with the $\\alpha (Z\\alpha)^2$ part of Sapirstein's calculation and the recent result of Pachucki, and reduces the numerical uncertainty in the $\\alpha (Z\\alpha)^2$ term by two orders of magnitude.

  3. ALPHA freezes antiprotons

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin


    Laboratories like CERN can routinely produce many different types of antiparticles. In 1995, the PS210 experiment formed the first antihydrogen atoms and a few years later, in 2002, ATRAP and ATHENA were already able to produce several thousand of them. However, no experiment in the world has succeeded in ‘trapping’ these anti-atoms in order to study them. This is the goal of the ALPHA experiment, which has recently managed to cool down the antiprotons to just a few Kelvin. This represents a major step towards trapping the anti-atom, thus opening a new avenue into the investigation of antimatter properties.   Members of the ALPHA collaboration working on the apparatus in the Antiproton Decelerator experimental hall at CERN. Just like the atom, the anti-atom is neutral. Unlike the atom, the anti-atom is made up of antiprotons (as opposed to protons in the atom) and positrons (as opposed to electrons). In order to thoroughly study the properties of the anti-atoms, scien...

  4. Venus - Alpha Regio (United States)


    The eastern edge of Alpha Regio is shown in this image centered at 30 degrees south latitude and 11.8 degrees east longitude (longitude on Venus is measured from 0 degrees to 360 degrees east). Seven circular, dome-like hills, averaging 25 kilometers (15 miles) in diameter with maximum heights of 750 meters (2,475 feet) dominate the scene. These features are interpreted as very thick lava flows that came from an opening on the relatively level ground, which allowed the lava to flow in an even pattern outward from the opening. The complex fractures on top of the domes suggest that if the domes were created by lava flows, a cooled outer layer formed and then further lava flowing in the interior stretched the surface. The domes may be similar to volcanic domes on Earth. Another interpretation is that the domes are the result of molten rock or magma in the interior that pushed the surface layer upward. The near-surface magma then withdrew to deeper levels, causing the collapse and fracturing of the dome surface. The bright margins possibly indicate the presence of rock debris on the slopes of the domes. Some of the fractures on the plains cut through the domes, while others appear to be covered by the domes. This indicates that active processes pre date and post date the dome-like hills. The prominent black area in the northeast corner of the image is a data gap. North is at the top of the image.

  5. Localization of [3H]nicotine, [3H]cytisine, [3H]epibatidine, and [125I]alpha-bungarotoxin binding sites in the brain of Macaca mulatta. (United States)

    Han, Zhi-Yan; Zoli, Michele; Cardona, Ana; Bourgeois, Jean-Pierre; Changeux, Jean-Pierre; Le Novère, Nicolas


    We determined the localization of [(3)H]nicotine, [(3)H]cytisine, [(3)H]epibatidine, and [(125)I]alpha-bungarotoxin binding sites in the brain of rhesus monkey by means of receptor autoradiography. The labelings by [(3)H]nicotine, [(3)H]cytisine, and [(3)H]epibatidine were highly concordant, except for epibatidine. Layer IV of some cortical areas, most thalamic nuclei, and presubiculum displayed high levels of labeling for the three ligands. Moderate levels of binding were detected in the subiculum, the septum, and the mesencephalon. Low levels were present in layers I-II and VI of the cortex, the cornu Ammonis, the dentate gyrus, and the amygdala. In addition, the level of epibatidine labeling was very high in the epithalamic nuclei and the interpeduncular nucleus, whereas labeling by nicotine and cytisine was very weak in the same regions. The distribution of [(125)I]alpha-bungarotoxin binding differed from the binding of the three agonists. The labeling was dense in layer I of most cortical areas, dentate gyrus, stratum lacunosum-moleculare of CA1 field, several thalamic nuclei, and medial habenula. A moderate labeling was found in layers V and VI of the prefrontal and frontal cortices, layer IV of primary visual cortex, amygdala, septum, hypothalamus, and some mesencenphalic nuclei. A weak signal was also detected in subiculum, claustrum, stratum oriens, and stratum lucidum of cornu Ammonis and also in some mesencephalic nuclei. The distribution of nicotine, cytisine, and epibatidine bindings corresponds broadly to the patterns observed in rodents, with the marked exception of the epithalamus. However, in monkey, those distributions match the distribution of alpha2 messenger RNA, rather than that of alpha4 transcripts as it exists in rodent brains. The distribution of the binding sites for alpha-bungarotoxin is larger in the brain of rhesus monkeys than in rodent brain, suggesting a more important role of alpha7 receptors in primates.

  6. Anti-interleukin-1 alpha autoantibodies in humans: Characterization, isotype distribution, and receptor-binding inhibition--higher frequency in Schnitzler's syndrome (urticaria and macroglobulinemia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saurat, J.H.; Schifferli, J.; Steiger, G.; Dayer, J.M.; Didierjean, L. (Department of Dermatology, University Hospital, Geneva (Switzerland))


    Since autoantibodies (Abs) to cytokines may modify their biologic activities, high-affinity binding factors for interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha BF) were characterized in human sera. IL-1 alpha BF was identified as IgG (1) by sucrose density-gradient centrifugation followed by immunodiffusion autoradiography, (2) by ligand-blotting method, (3) by ligand binding to affinity-immobilized serum IgG, and (4) by IgG affinity purification followed by sucrose density-gradient centrifugation. IL-1 alpha binding activity resided in the F(ab)2 fragment. The apparent equilibrium constant was in the range of IgG found after immunization with conventional antigens (i.e., 10(-9) to 10(-10) mol/L). Anti-IL-1 alpha IgG auto-Abs represented only an extremely small fraction of total IgG (less than 1/10(-5)). Some sera with IL-1 alpha BF and purified IgG thereof were able to inhibit by 96% to 98% the binding of human recombinant IL-1 alpha to its receptor on murine thymoma EL4-6.1 cells, whereas other sera did not. When 125I-labeled anti-IL-1 alpha IgG complexes were injected into rats, they prolonged the plasma half-life of 125I-labeled IL-1 alpha several fold and altered its tissue distribution. The predominant class was IgG (12/19), mainly IgG4 (9/19), but in five of the sera, anti-IL-1 alpha IgA was also detected. In a screening of 271 sera, IL-1 alpha BF was detected in 17/98 normal subjects and was not more frequent in several control groups of patients, except in patients with Schnitzler's syndrome (fever, chronic urticaria, bone pain, and monoclonal IgM paraprotein) (6/9; p less than 0.005). The pathologic significance of these auto-Abs remains to be determined.

  7. Partitioning $\\alpha$-large sets for $\\alpha<\\varepsilon_{\\omega}$

    CERN Document Server

    De Smet, Michiel


    We generalise the results by Bigorajska and Kotlarski about partitioning $\\alpha$-large sets, by extending the domain up to ordinals below $\\varepsilon_{\\omega}$. These results will be very useful to give a miniaturisation of the infinite Ramsey Theorem.

  8. Two alpha, three alpha and multiple heavy-ion radioactivities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poenaru, D.N.; Ivascu, M. (Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania))


    New decay modes by spontaneous emission of two and three ..cap alpha.. particles and two identical or different heavy ions, are predicted. The analytical variant of the superasymmetric fission model is used to estimate the half lives.

  9. Alpha heating in toroidal devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miley, G.H.


    Ignition (or near-ignition) by alpha heating is a key objective for the achievement of economic fusion reactors. While good confinement of high-energy alphas appears possible in larger reactors, near-term tokamak-type ignition experiments as well as some concepts for small reactors (e.g., the Field-Reversed Mirror or FRM) potentially face marginal situations. Consequently, there is a strong motivation to develop methods to evaluate alpha losses and heating profiles in some detail. Such studies for a TFTR-size tokamak and for a small FRM are described here.

  10. The Lyman alpha reference sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayes, M.; Östlin, G.; Schaerer, D.


    We report on new imaging observations of the Lyman alpha emission line (Lyα), performed with the Hubble Space Telescope, that comprise the backbone of the Lyman alpha Reference Sample. We present images of 14 starburst galaxies at redshifts 0.028 alpha emission line (Lyα), performed with the Hubble Space Telescope, that comprise the backbone of the Lyman alpha Reference Sample. We present images of 14 starburst galaxies at redshifts 0.028 ... with quantities that scale with dust content, in the sense that a low dust abundance is a necessary requirement (although not the only one) in order to spread Lyα photons throughout the interstellar medium and drive a large extended Lyα halo. © 2013. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved....

  11. Almost Redundant Components in the 3 alpha Faddeev Equation for the Buck, Friedlich and Wheatly alpha alpha Potential

    CERN Document Server

    Fujiwara, Y; Kohno, M


    The 3 alpha orthogonality condition model using the Pauli-forbidden bound states of the Buck, Friedlich and Wheatly alpha alpha potential can yield a compact 3 alpha ground state with a large binding energy, in which a small admixture of the redundant components can never be eliminated.

  12. Imidazoline receptors but not alpha 2-adrenoceptors are regulated in spontaneously hypertensive rat heart by chronic moxonidine treatment. (United States)

    El-Ayoubi, Rouwayda; Menaouar, Ahmed; Gutkowska, Jolanta; Mukaddam-Daher, Suhayla


    We have recently identified imidazoline I(1)-receptors in the heart. In the present study, we tested regulation of cardiac I(1)-receptors versus alpha(2) -adrenoceptors in response to hypertension and to chronic exposure to agonist. Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR, 12-14 weeks old) received moxonidine (10, 60, and 120 microg/kg/h s.c.) for 1 and 4 weeks. Autoradiographic binding of (125)I-paraiodoclonidine (0.5 nM, 1 h, 22 degrees C) and inhibition of binding with epinephrine (10(-10)-10(-5) M) demonstrated the presence of alpha(2)-adrenoceptors in heart atria and ventricles. Immunoblotting and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction identified alpha(2A)-alpha(2B)-, and alpha(2C), and -adrenoceptor proteins and mRNA, respectively. However, compared with normotensive controls, cardiac alpha(2) -adrenoceptor kinetic parameters, receptor proteins, and mRNAs were not altered in SHR with or without moxonidine treatment. In contrast, autoradiography showed that up-regulated atrial I(1)-receptors in SHR are dose-dependently normalized by 1 week, with no additional effect after 4 weeks of treatment. Moxonidine (120 microg/kg/h) decreased B(max) in right (40.0 +/- 2.9-7.0 +/- 0.6 fmol/unit area; p < 0.01) and left (27.7 +/- 2.8-7.1 +/- 0.4 fmol/unit area; p < 0.01) atria, and decreased the 85- and 29-kDa imidazoline receptor protein bands, in right atria, to 51.8 +/- 3.0% (p < 0.01) and 82.7 +/- 5.2% (p < 0.03) of vehicle-treated SHR, respectively. Moxonidine-associated percentage of decrease in B(max) only correlated with the 85-kDa protein (R(2) = 0.57; p < 0.006), suggesting that this protein may represent I(2)-receptors. The weak but significant correlation between the two imidazoline receptor proteins (R(2) = 0.28; p < 0.03) implies that they arise from the same gene. In conclusion, the heart possesses I(1)-receptors and alpha(2)-adrenoceptors, but only I(1)-receptors are responsive to hypertension and to chronic in vivo treatment with a selective I(1

  13. Syntheses and in vitro evaluation of fluorinated naphthoxazines as dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonists: radiosynthesis, ex vivo biodistribution and autoradiography of [{sup 18}F]F-PHNO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasdev, Neil [PET Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5T-1R8 (Canada) and Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5T-1R8 (Canada)]. E-mail:; Seeman, Philip [Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5T-1R8 (Canada); Department of Pharmacology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5S-1A8 (Canada); Garcia, Armando [PET Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario, M5T-1R8 (Canada); Stableford, Winston T. [PET Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario, M5T-1R8 (Canada); Nobrega, Jose N. [PET Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario, M5T-1R8 (Canada); Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5T-1R8 (Canada); Department of Pharmacology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5S-1A8 (Canada); Houle, Sylvain [PET Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario, M5T-1R8 (Canada); Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5T-1R8 (Canada); Wilson, Alan A. [PET Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ontario, M5T-1R8 (Canada); Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5T-1R8 (Canada)


    Introduction: Carbon-11-labeled (+)-4-propyl-3,4,4a,5,6,10b-hexahydro-2H-naphtho[1,2-b][1,4]oxazin-9-ol ([{sup 11}C]-(+)-PHNO) is a dopamine D2/D3 agonist radioligand that is currently used to image the high-affinity state of dopamine receptors in humans with positron emission tomography (PET). The present study reports the preparation and evaluation of fluorinated (+)-PHNO derivatives. Methods: Five fluorinated (+)-PHNO derivatives were synthesized and tested in vitro for inhibition of binding of [{sup 3}H]domperidone in homogenates of rat striatum and inhibition of binding to [{sup 3}H]-(+)-PHNO in homogenates of human-cloned D2Long receptors in Chinese hamster ovary cells and rat striatum. Radiolabeling with fluorine-18 was carried out for the most promising candidate, N-fluoropropyl-(+)-HNO (F-PHNO), and ex vivo biodistribution and autoradiography studies with this radiopharmaceutical were performed in rodents. Results: (+)-PHNO and the fluorinated analogs inhibited binding of [{sup 3}H]domperidone and [{sup 3}H]-(+)-PHNO to the high- and low-affinity states of dopamine D2 receptors, consistent with D2 agonist behavior. The average dissociation constant at the high-affinity state of D2, K {sub i} {sup High}, was 0.4 nM for F-PHNO and proved to be equipotent with (+)-PHNO (0.7 nM). All other fluorinated derivatives were significantly less potent (K {sub i} {sup High}=2-102 nM). The most promising candidate, F-PHNO, was labeled with fluorine-18 in 5% uncorrected radiochemical yield, with respect to starting fluoride. Ex vivo biodistribution and autoradiography studies in rodents revealed that [{sup 18}F]F-PHNO rapidly enters the rodent brain. However, this radiotracer does not reveal specific binding in the brain and is rapidly cleared. Conclusions: Five novel dopamine D2/D3 agonists based on (+)-PHNO were synthesized and evaluated in vitro. F-PHNO was shown to behave as a potent D2 agonist in vitro and was therefore radiolabeled with fluorine-18. Despite the

  14. Investigation of the Pygmy Dipole Resonance in (alpha, alpha 'gamma) coincidence experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savran, D.; Babilon, M.; van den Berg, A. M.; Harakeh, M. N.; Hasper, J.; Wortche, H. J.; Zilges, A.


    We report on first results from experiments using the (alpha, alpha'gamma) reaction at E alpha = 136 MeV to investigate bound electric dipole (El) excitations building the so-called Pygmy Dipole Resonance (PDR) in the semi-magic nucleus Ce-140. The method of (alpha, alpha'gamma) allows the separatio

  15. Workshop on Precision Measurements of $\\alpha_s$

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bethke, Siegfried; /Munich, Max Planck Inst.; Hoang, Andre H.; /Vienna U.; Kluth, Stefan; /Munich, Max Planck Inst.; Schieck, Jochen; /Munich U.; Stewart, Iain W.; Aoki, S.; Beneke, M.; Bethke, S.; Blumlein, J.; Brambilla, N.; Brodsky, S.; /MIT, LNS


    These are the proceedings of the Workshop on Precision Measurements of {alpha}{sub s} held at the Max-Planck-Institute for Physics, Munich, February 9-11, 2011. The workshop explored in depth the determination of {alpha}{sub s}(m{sub Z}) in the {ovr MS} scheme from the key categories where high precision measurements are currently being made, including DIS and global PDF fits, {tau}-decays, electro-weak precision observables and Z-decays, event-shapes, and lattice QCD. These proceedings contain a short summary contribution from the speakers, as well as the lists of authors, conveners, participants, and talks.

  16. Scale Setting for $\\alpha_{s}$ Beyond Leading Order

    CERN Document Server

    Hornbostel, K; Morningstar, C J


    We present a general procedure for applying the scale-setting prescription of Brodsky, Lepage and Mackenzie to higher orders in the strong coupling constant $\\alphas$. In particular, we show how to apply this prescription when the leading coefficient or coefficients in a series in $\\alphas$ are anomalously small. We give a general method for computing an optimum scale numerically, within dimensional regularization, and in cases when the coefficients of a series are known. We find significant corrections to the scales for $R_{e^+ e^-}$, $\\Gamma(B \\to X_u e \\bar{\

  17. Proxima's orbit around Alpha Centauri

    CERN Document Server

    Kervella, P


    Proxima and Alpha Centauri AB have almost identical distances and proper motions with respect to the Sun. Although the probability of such similar parameters is in principle very low, the question whether they actually form a single gravitationally bound triple system has been open since the discovery of Proxima one century ago. Owing to recent high precision radial velocity measurements and the revision of the parameters of the Alpha Cen pair, we show that Proxima and Alpha Cen are gravitationally bound with a high degree of confidence. The orbital period of Proxima is approximately 600 000 years, with a moderate excentricity of 0.42 +0.07 -0.08. Proxima comes within 5.3 -0.9 +1.2 kAU of Alpha Cen at periastron, and the apastron occurs at 12.9 +0.3 -0.1 kAU. This orbital motion may have influenced the formation or evolution of the recently discovered planet orbiting Proxima as well as circumbinary planet formation around Alpha Cen.

  18. Noninvasive visualization and quantification of tumor {alpha}{sub V{beta}3} integrin expression using a novel positron emission tomography probe, {sup 64}Cu-cyclam-RAFT-c(-RGDfK-){sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Zhao-Hui [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Furukawa, Takako, E-mail: tfuru@nirs.go.j [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Biomedical Imaging Research Center, University of Fukui, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Galibert, Mathieu; Boturyn, Didier [Departement de Chimie Moleculaire, UMR 5250, CNRS-Universite Joseph Fourier, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Coll, Jean-Luc [INSERM U823, Institut Albert Bonniot and Universite Joseph Fourier, 38706 La Tronche Cedex, Grenoble (France); Fukumura, Toshimitsu; Saga, Tsuneo [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Dumy, Pascal [Departement de Chimie Moleculaire, UMR 5250, CNRS-Universite Joseph Fourier, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Fujibayashi, Yasuhisa [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Biomedical Imaging Research Center, University of Fukui, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan)


    Introduction: The {alpha}{sub V{beta}3} integrin is a well-known transmembrane receptor involved in tumor invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis. Our aim was to evaluate a novel positron emission tomography (PET) probe, {sup 64}Cu-cyclam-RAFT-c(-RGDfK-){sub 4}, for noninvasive visualization and quantification of {alpha}{sub V{beta}3} integrin expression. Methods: RAFT-c(-RGDfK-){sub 4}, a tetrameric cyclic Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)-based peptide, was conjugated with a bifunctional chelator, 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane (cyclam), radiolabeled with the positron emitter {sup 64}Cu and evaluated in vitro by cell binding and competitive inhibition assays and in vivo by biodistribution and receptor blocking studies, and PET imaging. The following cell lines, human embryonic kidney HEK293({beta}{sub 1}) [{alpha}{sub V{beta}3}-negative] and HEK293({beta}{sub 3}) [{alpha}{sub V{beta}3}-overexpressing] and human glioblastoma U87MG [naturally expressing {alpha}{sub V{beta}3}], together with their subcutaneous xenografts in athymic nude mice, were used for the present study. The expression levels of {alpha}{sub V{beta}3} on these cell lines and tumor xenografts were analyzed by flow cytometry and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis/autoradiography, respectively. Results: {sup 64}Cu-cyclam-RAFT-c(-RGDfK-){sub 4} demonstrated the in vitro and in vivo specificity for the {alpha}{sub V{beta}3} integrin and displayed rapid blood clearance, predominantly renal excretion and low uptake in nontumor tissues. Tumor uptake of {sup 64}Cu-cyclam-RAFT-c(-RGDfK-){sub 4} (3 h postinjection) in HEK293({beta}{sub 3}) (high levels of {alpha}{sub V{beta}3}), U87MG (moderate levels of {alpha}{sub V{beta}3}) and HEK293({beta}{sub 1}) (undetectable levels of {alpha}{sub V{beta}3}) tumors was 9.35%{+-}1.19%, 3.46%{+-}0.45% and 1.18%{+-}0.30% injected dose per gram, respectively, with a strong and positive correlation with the tumor {alpha}{sub V{beta}3} expression levels

  19. Bioisosteric phentolamine analogs as selective human alpha(2)- versus alpha(1)-adrenoceptor ligands. (United States)

    Bavadekar, Supriya A; Hong, Seoung-Soo; Lee, Sang-Ii; Miller, Duane D; Feller, Dennis R


    Phentolamine is known to act as a competitive, non-subtype-selective alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist. In an attempt to improve alpha(2)- versus alpha(1)-adrenoceptor selectivity and alpha(2)-adrenoceptor subtype-selectivity, two new chemical series of bioisosteric phentolamine analogs were prepared and evaluated. These compounds were evaluated for binding affinities on alpha(1)- (alpha(1A)-, alpha(1B)-, alpha(1D)-) and alpha(2)- (alpha(2A)-, alpha(2B)-, alpha(2C)-) adrenoceptor subtypes that had been stably expressed in human embryonic kidney and Chinese hamster ovary cell lines, respectively. Methylation of the phenolic hydroxy group and replacement of the 4-methyl group of phentolamine with varying lipophilic substituents yielded bioisosteric analogs selective for the alpha(2)- versus alpha(1)-adrenoceptors. Within the alpha(2)-adrenoceptors, these analogs bound with higher affinity at the alpha(2A)- and alpha(2C)-subtypes as compared to the alpha(2B)-subtype. In particular, the t-butyl analog was found to be the most selective, its binding at the alpha(2C)-adrenoceptor (Ki=3.6 nM) being 37- to 173-fold higher than that at the alpha(1)-adrenoceptors, and around 2- and 19-fold higher than at the alpha(2A)- and alpha(2B)-adrenoceptors, respectively. Data from luciferase reporter gene assays confirmed the functional antagonist activities of selected compounds from the bioisosteric series on human alpha(1A)- and alpha(2C)-adrenoceptors. Thus, the results with these bioisosteric analogs of phentolamine provide a lead to the rational design of potent and selective alpha(2)-adrenoceptor ligands that may be useful in improving the therapeutic profile of this drug class for human disorders.

  20. NACA Physicist Studying Alpha Rays (United States)


    NACA Physicits studying Alpha Rays in a continuous cloud chamber. A cloud chamber is used by Lewis scientists to obtain information aimed at minimizing undesirable effects of radiation on nuclear-powered aircraft components. Here, alpha particles from a polonium source emit in a flower-like pattern at the cloud chamber's center. The particles are made visible by means of alcohol vapor diffusing from an area at room temperature to an area at minus -78 deg. Centigrade. Nuclear-powered aircraft were never developed and aircraft nuclear propulsion systems were canceled in the early 1960s.

  1. Simulating the Lyman Alpha Forest

    CERN Document Server

    Machacek, M E; Anninos, P; Meiksin, A; Norman, M L; Machacek, Marie E.; Bryan, Greg L.; Anninos, Peter; Meiksin, Avery; Norman, Michael L.


    In this paper we review the importance of the Lyman alpha forest as a probe of structure formation in the universe. We first discuss the statistics used to describe the Lyman alpha forest and the numerical techniques used to produce simulated spectra of the forest from a given cosmological model. We then discuss the physical picture of the absorbing structures that emerges from these numerical simulations. Finally, we comment on how two of the statistics, the slope of the column density distribution and the b parameter distribution, may be used to constrain competing cosmologies.

  2. Alpha-nucleus potential for alpha-decay and sub-barrier fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Denisov, V Y


    The set of parameters for alpha-nucleus potential is derived by using the data for both the alpha-decay half-lives and the fusion cross-sections around the barrier for reactions alpha+40Ca, alpha+59Co, alpha+208Pb. The alpha-decay half-lives are obtained in the framework of a cluster model using the WKB approximation. The evaluated alpha-decay half-lives and the fusion cross-sections agreed well with the data. Fusion reactions between alpha-particle and heavy nuclei can be used for both the formation of very heavy nuclei and spectroscopic studies of the formed compound nuclei.

  3. Alpha-nucleus potential for alpha-decay and sub-barrier fusion


    Denisov, V. Yu.; Ikezoe, H.


    The set of parameters for alpha-nucleus potential is derived by using the data for both the alpha-decay half-lives and the fusion cross-sections around the barrier for reactions alpha+40Ca, alpha+59Co, alpha+208Pb. The alpha-decay half-lives are obtained in the framework of a cluster model using the WKB approximation. The evaluated alpha-decay half-lives and the fusion cross-sections agreed well with the data. Fusion reactions between alpha-particle and heavy nuclei can be used for both the f...

  4. Inflaton Decay in an Alpha Vacuum

    CERN Document Server

    Naidu, S; Naidu, Siddartha; Holman, Richard


    We study the alpha vacua of de Sitter space by considering the decay rate of the inflaton field coupled to a scalar field placed in an alpha vacuum. We find an {\\em alpha dependent} Bose enhancement relative to the Bunch-Davies vacuum and, surprisingly, no non-renormalizable divergences. We also consider a modified alpha dependent time ordering prescription for the Feynman propagator and show that it leads to an alpha independent result. This result suggests that it may be possible to calculate in any alpha vacuum if we employ the appropriate causality preserving prescription.

  5. What Powers Lyman alpha Blobs?

    CERN Document Server

    Ao, Y; Beelen, A; Henkel, C; Cen, R; De Breuck, C; Francis, P; Kovacs, A; Lagache, G; Lehnert, M; Mao, M; Menten, K M; Norris, R; Omont, A; Tatemastu, K; Weiss, A; Zheng, Z


    Lyman alpha blobs (LABs) are spatially extended lyman alpha nebulae seen at high redshift. The origin of Lyman alpha emission in the LABs is still unclear and under debate. To study their heating mechanism(s), we present Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) observations of the 20 cm radio emission and Herschel PACS and SPIRE measurements of the far-infrared (FIR) emission towards the four LABs in the protocluster J2143-4423 at z=2.38. Among the four LABs, B6 and B7 are detected in the radio with fluxes of 67+/-17 microJy and 77+/-16 microJy, respectively, and B5 is marginally detected at 3 sigma (51+/-16 microJy). For all detected sources, their radio positions are consistent with the central positions of the LABs. B6 and B7 are obviously also detected in the FIR. By fitting the data with different templates, we obtained redshifts of 2.20$^{+0.30}_{-0.35}$ for B6 and 2.20$^{+0.45}_{-0.30}$ for B7 which are consistent with the redshift of the lyman alpha emission within uncertainties, indicating that both ...

  6. Alpha proton x ray spectrometer (United States)

    Rieder, Rudi; Waeke, H.; Economou, T.


    Mars Pathfinder will carry an alpha-proton x ray spectrometer (APX) for the determination of the elemental chemical composition of Martian rocks and soils. The instrument will measure the concentration of all major and some minor elements, including C, N, and O at levels above typically 1 percent.

  7. Sparse Coding for Alpha Matting. (United States)

    Johnson, Jubin; Varnousfaderani, Ehsan; Cholakkal, Hisham; Rajan, Deepu


    Existing color sampling based alpha matting methods use the compositing equation to estimate alpha at a pixel from pairs of foreground (F) and background (B) samples. The quality of the matte depends on the selected (F,B) pairs. In this paper, the matting problem is reinterpreted as a sparse coding of pixel features, wherein the sum of the codes gives the estimate of the alpha matte from a set of unpaired F and B samples. A non-parametric probabilistic segmentation provides a certainty measure on the pixel belonging to foreground or background, based on which a dictionary is formed for use in sparse coding. By removing the restriction to conform to (F,B) pairs, this method allows for better alpha estimation from multiple F and B samples. The same framework is extended to videos, where the requirement of temporal coherence is handled effectively. Here, the dictionary is formed by samples from multiple frames. A multi-frame graph model, as opposed to a single image as for image matting, is proposed that can be solved efficiently in closed form. Quantitative and qualitative evaluations on a benchmark dataset are provided to show that the proposed method outperforms current state-of-the-art in image and video matting.

  8. Evolution and seismology of alpha Centauri

    CERN Document Server

    Montalban, J; Montalban, Josefina; Miglio, Andrea


    Solar-like oscillations detected in both components of the binary system alpha Centauri provide strong constraints on the fundamental parameters of the stellar system. We model alpha Centauri by means of a Levenberg-Marquardt minimization algorithm including seismic and classical constraints. Computations, that were perfomed decreasing significanly the weight of alpha Cen B seismic data in the calibration procedure, predict small separations in good agreement with new observations of solar-like oscillations in alpha Cen B by Bedding (these proceedings).

  9. Astrophysical reaction rate for $\\alpha(\\alpha n,\\gamma)$

    CERN Document Server

    Sumiyoshi, K; Goko, S; Kajino, T


    We study the astrophysical reaction rate for the formation of $^{9}$Be through the three body reaction $\\alpha(\\alpha n,\\gamma)$. This reaction is one of the key reactions which could bridge the mass gap at A = 8 nuclear systems to produce intermediate-to-heavy mass elements in alpha- and neutron-rich environments such as r-process nucleosynthesis in supernova explosions, s-process nucleosynthesis in asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, and primordial nucleosynthesis in baryon inhomogeneous cosmological models. To calculate the thermonuclear reaction rate in a wide range of temperatures, we numerically integrate the thermal average of cross sections assuming a two-steps formation through a metastable $^{8}$Be. Off-resonant and on-resonant contributions from the ground state in $^{8}$Be are taken into account. As input cross section, we adopt the latest experimental data by photodisintegration of $^{9}$Be with laser-electron photon beams, which covers all relevant resonances in $^{9}$Be. We provide the reactio...


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    We have identified a new protein fold-the alpha/beta-hydrolase fold-that is common to several hydrolytic enzymes of widely differing phylogenetic origin and catalytic function. The core of each enzyme is similar: an alpha/beta-sheet, not barrel, of eight beta-sheets connected by alpha-helices. These

  11. Effectiveness of Alpha Biofeedback Therapy: Negative Results. (United States)

    Watson, Charles G.; Herder, Joseph


    Assessed the utility of alpha biofeedback training in the treatment of patients (N=66). Biofeedback and placebo biofeedback groups were given alpha or mock-alpha training sessions. Improvement on 54 variables was compared to that of no-treatment controls. Only a chance number of significant changes appeared among the groups. (Author)

  12. Enzyme replacement therapy for alpha-mannosidosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgwardt, Line Gutte; Dali, Christine I.; Fogh, J


    Alpha-mannosidosis (OMIM 248500) is a rare lysosomal storage disease (LSD) caused by alpha-mannosidase deficiency. Manifestations include intellectual disabilities, facial characteristics and hearing impairment. A recombinant human alpha-mannosidase (rhLAMAN) has been developed for weekly intrave...... intravenous enzyme replacement therapy (ERT). We present the preliminary data after 12 months of treatment....

  13. Neutron activation autoradiography and scanning macro-XRF of Rembrandt van Rijn's Susanna and the Elders (Gemäldegalerie Berlin): a comparison of two methods for imaging of historical paintings with elemental contrast (United States)

    Alfeld, Matthias; Laurenze-Landsberg, Claudia; Denker, Andrea; Janssens, Koen; Noble, Petria


    Imaging methods with elemental contrast are of great value for the investigation of historical paintings, as they allow for study of sub-surface layers that provide insight into a painting's creation process. Two of the most important methods are neutron activation autoradiography (NAAR) and scanning macro-XRF (MA-XRF). Given the differences between these methods in the fundamental physical phenomena exploited, a theoretical comparison of their capabilities is difficult and until now a critical comparison of their use on the same painting is missing. In this paper, we present a study of Rembrandt van Rijn's painting Susanna and the Elders from the Gemäldegalerie in Berlin employing both techniques. The painting features a considerable number of overpainted features and a wide range of pigments with different elemental tracers, including earth pigments (Mn/Fe), Azurite (Cu), lead white (Pb), vermilion (Hg) and smalt (Co, As). MA-XRF can detect all elements above Si ( Z = 14), suffers from few spectral overlaps and can be performed in a few tens of hours in situ, i.e. in a museum. NAAR requires the stay of the painting at a research facility for several weeks, and inter-element interferences can be difficult to resolve. Also, only a limited number of elements contribute to the acquired autoradiographs, most notably Mn, Cu, As, Co, Hg and P. However, NAAR provides a higher lateral resolution and is less hindered by absorption in covering layers, which makes it the only method capable of visualizing P in lower paint layers.

  14. A comparative autoradiography study in post mortem whole hemisphere human brain slices taken from Alzheimer patients and age-matched controls using two radiolabelled DAA1106 analogues with high affinity to the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) system. (United States)

    Gulyás, Balázs; Makkai, Boglárka; Kása, Péter; Gulya, Károly; Bakota, Lidia; Várszegi, Szilvia; Beliczai, Zsuzsa; Andersson, Jan; Csiba, László; Thiele, Andrea; Dyrks, Thomas; Suhara, Tetsua; Suzuki, Kazutoshi; Higuchi, Makato; Halldin, Christer


    The binding of two radiolabelled analogues (N-(5-[125I]Iodo-2-phenoxyphenyl)-N-(2,5-dimethoxybenzyl)acetamide ([125I]desfluoro-DAA1106) and N-(5-[125I]Fluoro-2-phenoxyphenyl)-N-(2-[125I]Iodo-5-methoxybenzyl)acetamide ([125I]desmethoxy-DAA1106) of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) (or TSPO, 18kDa translocator protein) ligand DAA1106 was examined by in vitro autoradiography on human post mortem whole hemisphere brain slices obtained from Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and age-matched controls. Both [(125)I]desfluoro-IDAA1106 and [(125)I]desmethoxy-IDAA1106 were effectively binding to various brain structures. The binding could be blocked by the unlabelled ligand as well as by other PBR specific ligands. With both radiolabelled compounds, the binding showed regional inhomogeneity and the specific binding values proved to be the highest in the hippocampus, temporal and parietal cortex, the basal ganglia and thalamus in the AD brains. Compared with age-matched control brains, specific binding in several brain structures (temporal and parietal lobes, thalamus and white matter) in Alzheimer brains was significantly higher, indicating that the radioligands can effectively label-activated microglia and the up-regulated PBR/TSPO system in AD. Complementary immunohistochemical studies demonstrated reactive microglia activation in the AD brain tissue and indicated that increased ligand binding coincides with increased regional microglia activation due to neuroinflammation. These investigations yield further support to the PBR/TSPO binding capacity of DAA1106 in human brain tissue, demonstrate the effective usefulness of its radio-iodinated analogues as imaging biomarkers in post mortem human studies, and indicate that its radiolabelled analogues, labelled with short half-time bioisotopes, can serve as prospective in vivo imaging biomarkers of activated microglia and the up-regulated PBR/TSPO system in the human brain.

  15. Examining dopamine D3 receptor occupancy by antipsychotic drugs via [3H]7-OH-DPAT ex vivo autoradiography and its cross-validation via c-fos immunohistochemistry in the rat brain. (United States)

    Davoodi, Nima; te Riele, Paula; Langlois, Xavier


    Dopamine D3 receptors are a major target for drug discovery programs related to psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. The ability of a compound to occupy significant levels of D3 receptors is important for achieving therapeutic efficacy in both pre-clinical and clinical settings. Here we attempt to characterise antipsychotic drug-effects at D3 receptors by measuring receptor occupancy via ex-vivo [3H]7-OH-DPAT autoradiography, and further validating this outcome via analysis of Fos-like immunoreactivity (Fos-LI) in the rat major islands of Calleja (ICjM), a brain structure with high D3 expression. Rats were treated subcutaneously with haloperidol (0.04 mg/kg), clozapine (20 mg/kg) and olanzapine (0.63 mg/kg), the selective D2 antagonist L-741626 (2.5 mg/kg) and the selective D3 antagonist SB-277011-A (10 mg/kg). Doses were based on levels of D2 occupancy considered clinically relevant (60-80%). When measuring D3 occupancy, clozapine and SB-277011-A displayed meaningful levels of occupancy (60% and 77%, respectively), haloperidol and olanzapine showed limited occupancy (16% and 27%, respectively), whereas L-741626 showed no occupancy. There were no significant changes in ICjM Fos-LI after L-741626 and haloperidol treatment, minor but significant increases after olanzapine treatment, whereas highly significant increases were seen with SB-277011-A and clozapine. Additionally, pre-treating clozapine with the D1 antagonist SCH23390 caused a significant, albeit non-complete, reduction in Fos-LI, highlighting the D1 agonist property of clozapine. In conclusion, it appears that drugs occupying >50% D3 receptors produce robust increases in ICjM Fos-LI. This study may help to identify the appropriate D3 receptor antagonists that have the potential to be tested in the clinic.

  16. Refinement of the $n-\\alpha$ and $p-\\alpha$ fish-bone potential

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, E; Papp, Z


    The fishbone potential of composite particles simulates the Pauli effect by nonlocal terms. We determine the $n-\\alpha$ and $p-\\alpha$ fish-bone potential by simultaneously fitting to the experimental phase shifts. We found that with a double Gaussian parametrization of the local potential can describe the $n-\\alpha$ and $p-\\alpha$ phase shifts for all partial waves.

  17. Nature of the pygmy dipole resonance in Ce-140 studied in (alpha, alpha 'gamma) experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savran, D.; Babilon, M.; van den Berg, A. M.; Harakeh, M. N.; Hasper, J.; Matic, A.; Wortche, H. J.; Zilges, A.


    A concentration of electric-dipole excitations below the particle threshold, which is frequently denoted as the pygmy dipole resonance, has been studied in the semimagic nucleus Ce-140 in (alpha, alpha(')gamma) experiments at E-alpha=136 MeV. The technique of alpha-gamma coincidence experiments allo

  18. Separation of the subtypes of type V collagen molecules, [alpha 1(V)]2 alpha 2(V) and alpha 1(V) alpha 2(V) alpha 3(V), by chain composition-dependent affinity for heparin: single alpha 1(V) chain shows intermediate heparin affinity between those of the type V collagen subtypes composed of [alpha 1(V)]2 alpha 2(V) and of alpha 1(V) alpha 2(V) alpha 3(V). (United States)

    Mizuno, K; Hayashi, T


    The heparin affinities of heat-treated type V collagen alpha-chains and the triple-helical molecules were evaluated in terms of the NaCl concentration required for prevention of binding to a heparin-Sepharose column. After heat treatment, alpha 1(V) chain required approximately two-fold higher NaCl concentration to pass through the column than the other two chains, alpha 2(V) and alpha 3(V). Thus, the heparin affinity of alpha 1(V) may be approximately two-fold higher than those of the other alpha (V)-chains. The type V collagen molecules in triple-helical conformation were separated into two fractions at 170 mM NaCl in 20 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.2, containing 2 M urea; bound and non-bound. The ratio of the three alpha-chains, alpha 1(V): alpha 2(V): alpha 3(V) was 2 : 1 : 0 and 1 : 1 : 1 in the bound and flow-through fractions, respectively, on analysis by SDS-PAGE. The differential affinity of the two fractions could be accounted for by the number of alpha 1(V) chains in the triple-helical molecule, if these fractions contained triple-helical subtypes with the chain compositions of [alpha 1(V)]2 alpha 2(V) and alpha 1(V) alpha 2(V) alpha 3(V), respectively. From the comparison of the NaCl concentration required for prevention of the binding, [alpha 1(V)]2, alpha 2(V) had about two-fold higher affinity than alpha 1(V) alpha 2(V) alpha 3(V), and the separated alpha 1(V) chain showed an intermediate affinity. A possible explanation for difference in heparin affinity among the subtypes of molecules and the separated alpha-chains is that the heparin affinity of type V collagen molecule is governed by the number of alpha 1(V) chains contained in the molecule and that steric restraint in a triple-helical conformation weakens the binding of alpha 1(V) chain to heparin.

  19. Crystalline anhydrous {alpha},{alpha}-trehalose (polymorph {beta}) and crystalline dihydrate {alpha},{alpha}-trehalose: A calorimetric study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Susana S. [Centro de Quimica Estrutural, Complexo Interdisciplinar, Instituto Superior Tecnico, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)]. E-mail:; Diogo, Herminio P. [Centro de Quimica Estrutural, Complexo Interdisciplinar, Instituto Superior Tecnico, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)]. E-mail:; Moura-Ramos, Joaquim J. [Centro de Quimica-Fisica Molecular, Complexo Interdisciplinar, Instituto Superior Tecnico, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)]. E-mail:


    The mean values of the standard massic energy of combustion of crystalline anhydrous {alpha},{alpha}-trehalose (C{sub 12}H{sub 22}O{sub 11}, polymorph {beta}) and crystalline dihydrate {alpha},{alpha}-trehalose (C{sub 12}H{sub 26}O{sub 13}) measured by static-bomb combustion calorimetry in oxygen, at the temperature T=298.15K, are {delta}{sub c}u{sup o}=-(16434.05+/-4.50)J.g{sup -1} and {delta}{sub c}u{sup o}=-(14816.05+/-3.52)J.g{sup -1}, respectively. The standard (p{sup o}=0.1MPa) molar enthalpy of formation of these compounds were derived from the corresponding standard molar enthalpies of combustion, respectively, {delta}{sub f}H{sub m}{sup o} (C{sub 12}H{sub 22}O{sub 11},cr)=-(2240.9+/-3.9)kJ.mol{sup -1}, and {delta}{sub f}H{sub m}{sup o} (C{sub 12}H{sub 26}O{sub 13},cr)=-(2832.6+/-3.6)kJ.mol{sup -1}. The values of the standard enthalpies of formation obtained in this work, together with data on enthalpies of solution at infinite dilution ({delta}{sub sol}H{sup {approx}}) for crystalline dihydrate and amorphous anhydrous trehalose, allow a better insight on the thermodynamic description of the trehalose system which can provide, together with the future research on the subject, a contribution for understanding the metabolism in several organisms, as well as the phase transition between the different polymorphs.

  20. Alpha voltaic batteries and methods thereof (United States)

    Raffaelle, Ryne P. (Inventor); Jenkins, Phillip (Inventor); Wilt, David (Inventor); Scheiman, David (Inventor); Chubb, Donald (Inventor); Castro, Stephanie (Inventor)


    An alpha voltaic battery includes at least one layer of a semiconductor material comprising at least one p/n junction, at least one absorption and conversion layer on the at least one layer of semiconductor layer, and at least one alpha particle emitter. The absorption and conversion layer prevents at least a portion of alpha particles from the alpha particle emitter from damaging the p/n junction in the layer of semiconductor material. The absorption and conversion layer also converts at least a portion of energy from the alpha particles into electron-hole pairs for collection by the one p/n junction in the layer of semiconductor material.

  1. Collagen IV alpha 3, alpha 4, and alpha 5 chains in rodent basal laminae: sequence, distribution, association with laminins, and developmental switches



    Collagen IV is a major component of vertebrate basal laminae (BLs). Studies in humans have revealed a family of genes encoding alpha 1- alpha 6 collagen IV chains and implicated alpha 3-alpha 6 in disease processes (Goodpasture and Alport syndromes and diffuse leiomyomatosis). To extend studies of these components to an experimentally accessible animal, we cloned cDNAs encoding partial collagen alpha 3, alpha 4, and alpha 5(IV) chains from the mouse. Ribonuclease protection assays showed that...

  2. Further Precise Determinations of $\\alpha_s$ from Lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Davies, C T H; Lepage, G P; McCallum, P; Shigemitsu, J; Sloan, J


    We present a new determination of the strong coupling constant from lattice QCD simulations. We use four different short-distance quantities to obtain the coupling, three different (infrared) meson splittings to tune the simulation parameters, and a wide range of lattice spacings, quark masses, and lattice volumes to test for systematic errors. Our final result consists of ten different determinations of $\\alpha^{(3)}_{P}(8.2 GeV)$, which agree well with each other and with our previous results. The most accurate of these, when evolved perturbatively to the $Z^0$ mass, gives obtained from other recent lattice simulations.

  3. Double-real corrections at O(alpha alpha_s) to single gauge boson production

    CERN Document Server

    Bonciani, Roberto; Mondini, Roberto; Vicini, Alessandro


    We consider the O(alpha alpha_s) corrections to single on-shell gauge boson production at hadron colliders. We concentrate on the contribution of all the subprocesses where the gauge boson is accompanied by the emission of two additional real partons and we evaluate the corresponding total cross sections. The latter are divergent quantities, because of soft and collinear emissions, and are expressed as Laurent series in the dimensional regularization parameter. The total cross sections are evaluated by means of reverse unitarity, i.e. expressing the phase-space integrals in terms of two-loop forward box integrals with cuts on the final state particles. The results are reduced to a combination of Master Integrals, which eventually are evaluated in terms of Generalized Polylogarithms. The presence of internal massive lines in the Feynman diagrams, due to the exchange of electroweak gauge bosons, causes the appearance of 14 Master Integrals which were not previously known in the literature and have been evaluate...

  4. Folding model study of the elastic $\\alpha + \\alpha$ scattering at low energies

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Ngo Hai; Khoa, Dao T


    The folding model analysis of the elastic $\\alpha + \\alpha$ scattering at the incident energies below the reaction threshold of 34.7 MeV (in the lab system) has been done using the well-tested density dependent versions of the M3Y interaction and realistic choices for the $^4$He density. Because the absorption is negligible at the energies below the reaction threshold, we were able to probe the $\\alpha + \\alpha$ optical potential at low energies quite unambiguously and found that the $\\alpha + \\alpha$ overlap density used to construct the density dependence of the M3Y interaction is strongly distorted by the Pauli blocking. This result gives possible explanation of a long-standing inconsistency of the double-folding model in its study of the elastic $\\alpha + \\alpha$ and $\\alpha$-nucleus scattering at low energies using the same realistic density dependent M3Y interaction.

  5. Scale setting for alpha_s beyond leading order

    CERN Document Server

    Hornbostel, K; Morningstar, C J


    We present a general procedure for incorporating higher-order information into the scale-setting prescription of Brodsky, Lepage and Mackenzie. In particular, we show how to apply this prescription when the leading coefficient or coefficients in a series in the strong coupling alpha_s are anomalously small and the original prescription can give an unphysical scale. We give a general method for computing an optimum scale numerically, within dimensional regularization, and in cases when the coefficients of a series are known. We apply it to the heavy quark mass and energy renormalization in lattice NRQCD, and to a variety of known series. Among the latter, we find significant corrections to the scales for the ratio of e+e- to hadrons over muons, the ratio of the quark pole to MSbar mass, the semi-leptonic B-meson decay width, and the top decay width. Scales for the latter two decay widths, expressed in terms of MSbar masses, increase by factors of five and thirteen, respectively, substantially reducing the size...

  6. Recoil-alpha-fission and recoil-alpha-alpha-fission events observed in the reaction Ca-48 + Am-243

    CERN Document Server

    Forsberg, U; Andersson, L -L; Di Nitto, A; Düllmann, Ch E; Gates, J M; Golubev, P; Gregorich, K E; Gross, C J; Herzberg, R -D; Hessberger, F P; Khuyagbaatar, J; Kratz, J V; Rykaczewski, K; Sarmiento, L G; Schädel, M; Yakushev, A; Åberg, S; Ackermann, D; Block, M; Brand, H; Carlsson, B G; Cox, D; Derkx, X; Dobaczewski, J; Eberhardt, K; Even, J; Fahlander, C; Gerl, J; Jäger, E; Kindler, B; Krier, J; Kojouharov, I; Kurz, N; Lommel, B; Mistry, A; Mokry, C; Nazarewicz, W; Nitsche, H; Omtvedt, J P; Papadakis, P; Ragnarsson, I; Runke, J; Schaffner, H; Schausten, B; Shi, Y; Thörle-Pospiech, P; Torres, T; Traut, T; Trautmann, N; Türler, A; Ward, A; Ward, D E; Wiehl, N


    Products of the fusion-evaporation reaction Ca-48 + Am-243 were studied with the TASISpec set-up at the gas-filled separator TASCA at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum f\\"ur Schwerionenforschung. Amongst the detected thirty correlated alpha-decay chains associated with the production of element Z=115, two recoil-alpha-fission and five recoil-alpha-alpha-fission events were observed. The latter are similar to four such events reported from experiments performed at the Dubna gas-filled separator. Contrary to their interpretation, we propose an alternative view, namely to assign eight of these eleven decay chains of recoil-alpha(-alpha)-fission type to start from the 3n-evaporation channel 115-288. The other three decay chains remain viable candidates for the 2n-evaporation channel 115-289.

  7. Targeted alpha therapy for cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Barry J [Centre for Experimental Radiation Oncology, St George Cancer Care Centre, Gray St, Kogarah 2217, NSW (Australia); Raja, Chand [Centre for Experimental Radiation Oncology, St George Cancer Care Centre, Gray St, Kogarah 2217, NSW (Australia); Rizvi, Syed [Centre for Experimental Radiation Oncology, St George Cancer Care Centre, Gray St, Kogarah 2217, NSW (Australia); Li Yong [Centre for Experimental Radiation Oncology, St George Cancer Care Centre, Gray St, Kogarah 2217, NSW (Australia); Tsui, Wendy [Centre for Experimental Radiation Oncology, St George Cancer Care Centre, Gray St, Kogarah 2217, NSW (Australia); Zhang, David [Centre for Experimental Radiation Oncology, St George Cancer Care Centre, Gray St, Kogarah 2217, NSW (Australia); Song, Emma [Centre for Experimental Radiation Oncology, St George Cancer Care Centre, Gray St, Kogarah 2217, NSW (Australia); Qu, C F [Centre for Experimental Radiation Oncology, St George Cancer Care Centre, Gray St, Kogarah 2217, NSW (Australia); Kearsley, John [Centre for Experimental Radiation Oncology, St George Cancer Care Centre, Gray St, Kogarah 2217, NSW (Australia); Graham, Peter [Centre for Experimental Radiation Oncology, St George Cancer Care Centre, Gray St, Kogarah 2217, NSW (Australia); Thompson, John [Sydney Melanoma Unit, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown 2050 NSW (Australia)


    Targeted alpha therapy (TAT) offers the potential to inhibit the growth of micrometastases by selectively killing isolated and preangiogenic clusters of cancer cells. The practicality and efficacy of TAT is tested by in vitro and in vivo studies in melanoma, leukaemia, colorectal, breast and prostate cancers, and by a phase 1 trial of intralesional TAT for melanoma. The alpha-emitting radioisotope used is Bi-213, which is eluted from the Ac-225 generator and chelated to a cancer specific monoclonal antibody (mab) or protein (e.g. plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 PAI2) to form the alpha-conjugate (AC). Stable alpha-ACs have been produced which have been tested for specificity and cytotoxicity in vitro against melanoma (9.2.27 mab), leukaemia (WM60), colorectal (C30.6), breast (PAI2, herceptin), ovarian (PAI2, herceptin, C595), prostate (PAI2, J591) and pancreatic (PAI2, C595) cancers. Subcutaneous inoculation of 1-1.5 million human cancer cells into the flanks of nude mice causes tumours to grow in all mice. Tumour growth is compared for untreated controls, nonspecific AC and specific AC, for local (subcutaneous) and systemic (tail vein or intraperitoneal) injection models. The {sup 213}Bi-9.2.27 AC is injected into secondary skin melanomas in stage 4 patients in a dose escalation study to determine the effective tolerance dose, and to measure kinematics to obtain the equivalent dose to organs. In vitro studies show that TAT is one to two orders of magnitude more cytotoxic to targeted cells than non-specific ACs, specific beta emitting conjugates or free isotopes. In vivo local TAT at 2 days post-inoculation completely prevents tumour formation for all cancers tested so far. Intra-lesional TAT can completely regress advanced sc melanoma but is less successful for breast and prostate cancers. Systemic TAT inhibits the growth of sc melanoma xenografts and gives almost complete control of breast and prostate cancer tumour growth. Intralesional doses up to 450 {mu

  8. Linearized Bekenstein Varying Alpha Models

    CERN Document Server

    Pina-Avelino, P; Oliveira, J C


    We study the simplest class of Bekenstein-type, varying $\\alpha$ models, in which the two available free functions (potential and gauge kinetic function) are Taylor-expanded up to linear order. Any realistic model of this type reduces to a model in this class for a certain time interval around the present day. Nevertheless, we show that no such model is consistent with all existing observational results. We discuss possible implications of these findings, and in particular clarify the ambiguous statement (often found in the literature) that ``the Webb results are inconsistent with Oklo''.

  9. The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcaraz, J.; Alpat, B.; Ambrosi, G.; Anderhub, H.; Ao, L.; Arefiev, A.; Azzarello, P.; Babucci, E.; Baldini, L.; Basile, M.; Barancourt, D.; Barao, F.; Barbier, G.; Barreira, G.; Battiston, R.; Becker, R.; Becker, U.; Bellagamba, L.; Bene, P.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Biland, A.; Bizzaglia, S.; Blasko, S.; Boella, G.; Boschini, M.; Bourquin, M.; Brocco, L.; Bruni, G.; Buenerd, M.; Burger, J.D.; Burger, W.J.; Cai, X.D.; Camps, C.; Cannarsa, P.; Capell, M.; Casadei, D.; Casaus, J.; Castellini, G.; Cecchi, C.; Chang, Y.H.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, H.S.; Chen, Z.G.; Chernoplekov, N.A.; Chiueh, T.H.; Chuang, Y.L.; Cindolo, F.; Commichau, V.; Contin, A. E-mail:; Crespo, P.; Cristinziani, M.; Cunha, J.P. da; Dai, T.S.; Deus, J.D.; Dinu, N.; Djambazov, L.; DAntone, I.; Dong, Z.R.; Emonet, P.; Engelberg, J.; Eppling, F.J.; Eronen, T.; Esposito, G.; Extermann, P.; Favier, J.; Fiandrini, E.; Fisher, P.H.; Fluegge, G.; Fouque, N.; Galaktionov, Yu.; Gervasi, M.; Giusti, P.; Grandi, D.; Grimm, O.; Gu, W.Q.; Hangarter, K.; Hasan, A.; Hermel, V.; Hofer, H.; Huang, M.A.; Hungerford, W.; Ionica, M.; Ionica, R.; Jongmanns, M.; Karlamaa, K.; Karpinski, W.; Kenney, G.; Kenny, J.; Kim, W.; Klimentov, A.; Kossakowski, R.; Koutsenko, V.; Kraeber, M.; Laborie, G.; Laitinen, T.; Lamanna, G.; Laurenti, G.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, S.C.; Levi, G.; Levtchenko, P.; Liu, C.L.; Liu, H.T.; Lopes, I.; Lu, G.; Lu, Y.S.; Luebelsmeyer, K.; Luckey, D.; Lustermann, W.; Mana, C.; Margotti, A.; Mayet, F.; McNeil, R.R.; Meillon, B.; Menichelli, M.; Mihul, A.; Mourao, A.; Mujunen, A.; Palmonari, F.; Papi, A.; Park, I.H.; Pauluzzi, M.; Pauss, F.; Perrin, E.; Pesci, A.; Pevsner, A.; Pimenta, M.; Plyaskin, V.; Pojidaev, V.; Postolache, V.; Produit, N.; Rancoita, P.G.; Rapin, D.; Raupach, F.; Ren, D.; Ren, Z.; Ribordy, M.; Richeux, J.P.; Riihonen, E.; Ritakari, J.; Roeser, U.; Roissin, C.; Sagdeev, R.; Sartorelli, G.; Schultz von Dratzig, A.; Schwering, G.; Scolieri, G.; Seo, E.S.; Shoutko, V.


    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is a large acceptance (0.65 sr m{sup 2}) detector designed to operate in the International Space Station (ISS) for three years. The purposes of the experiment are to search for cosmic antimatter and dark matter and to study the composition and energy spectrum of the primary cosmic rays. A 'scaled-down' version has been flown on the Space Shuttle Discovery for 10 days in June 1998. The complete AMS is programmed for installation on the ISS in October 2003 for an operational period of 3 yr. This contribution reports on the experimental configuration that will be installed on the ISS.

  10. The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS)

    CERN Document Server

    Alcaraz, J; Ambrosi, G; Anderhub, H; Ao, L; Arefev, A; Azzarello, P; Babucci, E; Baldini, L; Basile, M; Barancourt, D; Barão, F; Barbier, G; Barreira, G; Battiston, R; Becker, R; Becker, U; Bellagamba, L; Bene, P; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Biland, A; Bizzaglia, S; Blasko, S; Bölla, G; Boschini, M; Bourquin, Maurice; Brocco, L; Bruni, G; Buénerd, M; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Cai, X D; Camps, C; Cannarsa, P; Capell, M; Casadei, D; Casaus, J; Castellini, G; Cecchi, C; Chang, Y H; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chen, Z G; Chernoplekov, N A; Tzi Hong Chiueh; Chuang, Y L; Cindolo, F; Commichau, V; Contin, A; Crespo, P; Cristinziani, M; Cunha, J P D; Dai, T S; Deus, J D; Dinu, N; Djambazov, L; Dantone, I; Dong, Z R; Emonet, P; Engelberg, J; Eppling, F J; Eronen, T; Esposito, G; Extermann, P; Favier, Jean; Fiandrini, E; Fisher, P H; Flügge, G; Fouque, N; Galaktionov, Yu; Gervasi, M; Giusti, P; Grandi, D; Grimm, O; Gu, W Q; Hangarter, K; Hasan, A; Hermel, V; Hofer, H; Huang, M A; Hungerford, W; Ionica, M; Ionica, R; Jongmanns, M; Karlamaa, K; Karpinski, W; Kenney, G; Kenny, J; Kim, W; Klimentov, A; Kossakowski, R; Koutsenko, V F; Kraeber, M; Laborie, G; Laitinen, T; Lamanna, G; Laurenti, G; Lebedev, A; Lee, S C; Levi, G; Levchenko, P M; Liu, C L; Liu, H T; Lopes, I; Lu, G; Lü, Y S; Lübelsmeyer, K; Luckey, D; Lustermann, W; Maña, C; Margotti, A; Mayet, F; McNeil, R R; Meillon, B; Menichelli, M; Mihul, A; Mourao, A; Mujunen, A; Palmonari, F; Papi, A; Park, I H; Pauluzzi, M; Pauss, Felicitas; Perrin, E; Pesci, A; Pevsner, A; Pimenta, M; Plyaskin, V; Pozhidaev, V; Postolache, V; Produit, N; Rancoita, P G; Rapin, D; Raupach, F; Ren, D; Ren, Z; Ribordy, M; Richeux, J P; Riihonen, E; Ritakari, J; Röser, U; Roissin, C; Sagdeev, R; Sartorelli, G; Schwering, G; Scolieri, G; Seo, E S; Shoutko, V; Shoumilov, E; Siedling, R; Son, D; Song, T; Steuer, M; Sun, G S; Suter, H; Tang, X W; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tornikoski, M; Torsti, J; Ulbricht, J; Urpo, S; Usoskin, I; Valtonen, E; Vandenhirtz, J; Velcea, F; Velikhov, E P; Verlaat, B; Vetlitskii, I; Vezzu, F; Vialle, J P; Viertel, Gert M; Vitè, Davide F; Gunten, H V; Wallraff, W; Wang, B C; Wang, J Z; Wang, Y H; Wiik, K; Williams, C; Wu, S X; Xia, P C; Yan, J L; Yan, L G; Yang, C G; Yang, M; Ye, S W; Yeh, P; Xu, Z Z; Zhang, H Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, D X; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, W Z; Zhuang, H L; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, B


    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is a large acceptance (0.65 sr m sup 2) detector designed to operate in the International Space Station (ISS) for three years. The purposes of the experiment are to search for cosmic antimatter and dark matter and to study the composition and energy spectrum of the primary cosmic rays. A 'scaled-down' version has been flown on the Space Shuttle Discovery for 10 days in June 1998. The complete AMS is programmed for installation on the ISS in October 2003 for an operational period of 3 yr. This contribution reports on the experimental configuration that will be installed on the ISS.

  11. Orthopositronium lifetime at O({alpha}) and O({alpha}{sup 3} ln {alpha}) in closed form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kniehl, B.A.; Kotikov, A.V.; Veretin, O.L. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik


    Recently, the O({alpha}) and O({alpha}{sup 3} ln{alpha}) radiative corrections to the orthopositronium lifetime have been presented in closed analytical form, in terms of basic irrational numbers that can be evaluated numerically to arbitrary precision [Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 193401 (2008)]. Here, we present the details of this calculation and reveal the nature of these new constants. We also list explicit transformation formulas for generalized polylogarithms of weight four, which may be useful for other applications. (orig.)

  12. Localization of GABA(B) (R1) receptors in the rat hippocampus by immunocytochemistry and high resolution autoradiography, with specific reference to its localization in identified hippocampal interneuron subpopulations. (United States)

    Sloviter, R S; Ali-Akbarian, L; Elliott, R C; Bowery, B J; Bowery, N G


    Immunocytochemical and autoradiographic methods were used to localize the GABA(B) receptor in the normal rat hippocampus. GABA(B) receptor 1-like immunoreactivity (GBR1-LI) was most intense in presumed GABAergic interneurons of all hippocampal subregions. It was also present throughout the hippocampal neuropil, where it was most intense in the dendritic strata of the dentate gyrus, which are innervated by the perforant pathway and inhibitory dentate hilar cells, and in strata oriens and radiatum of area CA3. The dendritic regions of area CA1 exhibited less GBR1-LI than area CA3. GBR1-LI was detectable in the somata of CA1 pyramidal cells, but was minimal or undetectable within the somata of dentate granule cells and CA3 pyramidal cells. GBR1-LI was similarly minimal in the dentate hilar neuropil, and in stratum lucidum, the two regions that contain granule cell axons and terminals. Nor was GBR1-LI detectable in the inhibitory basket cell fiber systems that surround hippocampal principal cell somata. Fluorescence co-localization studies indicated that significant proportions of interneurons expressing somatostatin, neuropeptide Y, cholecystokinin, calbindin, or calretinin also expressed GBR1-LI constitutively. Conversely, parvalbumin-positive GABAergic basket cells of the dentate gyrus and hippocampus, which form GABA(A) receptor-mediated inhibitory axo-somatic synapses, rarely contained detectable GBR1-LI. High resolution autoradiography with the GABA(B) receptor antagonist CGP 62349 revealed a close correspondence between receptor ligand binding and GBR1-LI, with several notable exceptions. Ligand binding closely matched GBR1-LI throughout the hippocampal, cortical, thalamic, and cerebellar neuropil. However, the hippocampal interneuron somata and dendrites that exhibited the most intense GBR1-LI, and the GBR1-positive somata of CA1 pyramidal cells, did not exhibit a similar density of [3H]-CGP 62349 binding. These data clarify the relationship between

  13. Selective sorting of alpha-granule proteins. (United States)

    Italiano, J E; Battinelli, E M


    One of the main functions of blood platelets is to secrete a variety of substances that can modify a developing thrombus, regulate the growth of the vasculature, promote wound repair, and contribute to cell-adhesive events. A majority of this vast array of secreted proteins are stored in alpha-granules. Until recently, it was assumed that platelets contained one homogeneous population of alpha-granules that undergo complete de-granulation during platelet activation. This review focuses on the mechanisms of alpha-granule biogenesis and secretion, with a particular emphasis on recent findings that clearly demonstrate that platelets contain distinct subpopulations of alpha-granules that undergo differential release during activation. We consider the implications of this new paradigm of platelet secretion, discuss mechanisms of alpha-granule biogenesis, and review the molecular basis of transport and delivery of alpha-granules to assembling platelets.

  14. The alpha,alpha-(1-->1) linkage of trehalose is key to anhydrobiotic preservation. (United States)

    Albertorio, Fernando; Chapa, Vanessa A; Chen, Xin; Diaz, Arnaldo J; Cremer, Paul S


    This study compares the efficacy of six disaccharides and glucose for the preservation of solid supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) upon exposure to air. Disaccharide molecules containing an alpha,alpha-(1-->1) linkage, such as alpha,alpha-trehalose and alpha,alpha-galacto-trehalose, were found to be effective at retaining bilayer structure in the absence of water. These sugars are known to crystallize in a clam shell conformation. Other saccharides, which are found to crystallize in more open structures, did not preserve the SLB structure during the drying process. These included the nonreducing sugar, sucrose, as well as maltose, lactose, and the monosaccharide, glucose. In fact, even close analogs to alpha,alpha-trehalose, such as alpha,beta-trehalose, which connects its glucopyranose rings via a (1-->1) linkage in an axial, equatorial fashion, permitted nearly complete delamination and destruction of supported bilayers upon exposure to air. Lipids with covalently attached sugar molecules such as ganglioside GM1, lactosyl phosphatidylethanolamine, and glucosylcerebroside were also ineffective at preserving bilayer structure. The liquid crystalline-to-gel phase transition temperature of supported phospholipid bilayers was tested in the presence of sugars in a final set of experiments. Only alpha,alpha-trehalose and alpha,alpha-galacto-trehalose depressed the phase transition temperature, whereas the introduction of other sugar molecules into the bulk solution caused the phase transition temperature of the bilayer to increase. These results point to the importance of the axial-axial linkage of disaccharides for preserving SLB structure.

  15. Further studies on the covalent crosslinking of thyrotropin to its receptor: evidence that both the alpha and beta subunits of thyrotropin are crosslinked to the receptor. (United States)

    McQuade, R; Thomas, C G; Nayfeh, S N


    Highly purified alpha- and beta-subunits of thyrotropin were individually radioiodinated and, subsequently, recombined with their unlabeled complementary subunits. This procedure resulted in the formation of [125I]thyrotropin(TSH) hybrid molecules which were labeled on only one hormone subunit. Characterization of the binding properties of these two hybrid molecules demonstrated that both yielded nonlinear Scatchard plots with Kd and Bmax values similar to those obtained with radioiodinated native TSH and that both were capable of interaction with the high- and low-affinity binding components of the TSH receptor. The recombined [125I]TSH molecules were then crosslinked to the TSH receptor using disuccinimidyl suberate. Following electrophoresis and autoradiography, two labeled TSH-receptor complexes with Mr of 68,000 and 80,000 were observed. These two complexes exhibited hormone specificity and electrophoretic mobility identical to those previously observed using native [125I]TSH. Crosslinking with increasing concentrations of disuccinimidyl suberate suggested that the formation of the 68,000 and 80,000 complexes was sequential with the 68,000 appearing before the 80,000. Furthermore, the two bands were labeled regardless of which TSH subunit of the hybrid TSH was radioiodinated. These data strongly suggest that the 68,000 and 80,000 TSH-receptor complexes are the result of crosslinking to the TSH alpha-beta dimer and not to one subunit in the case of the 68,000 complex and to the TSH alpha-beta dimer in the case of the 80,000 complex, as had been hypothesized previously.

  16. Role of macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1 alpha) in acute lung injury in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shanley, T P; Schmal, H; Friedl, H P


    The role of macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1 alpha) in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury in rats after intrapulmonary deposition of IgG immune complexes or intratracheal administration of LPS has been assessed. Critical to these studies was the cloning and functional expression...... of rat MIP-1 alpha. The resulting product shared 92% and 90% homology with the known murine sequence at the cDNA level and protein level, respectively. Recombinant rat MIP-1 alpha exhibited dose-dependent chemotactic activity for both rat and human monocytes and neutrophils, which could be blocked...... by anti-murine MIP-1 alpha Ab. Rat MIP-1 alpha mRNA and protein expression were determined as a function of time in both injury models. A time-dependent increase in MIP-1 alpha mRNA in lung extracts was observed in both models. In the LPS model, MIP-1 alpha protein could also be detected...

  17. $\\alpha_{s}$ from the (revised) ALEPH data for $\\tau$ decay

    CERN Document Server

    Boito, Diogo; Maltman, Kim; Osborne, James; Peris, Santiago


    We present a new analysis of $\\alpha_s$ from hadronic $\\tau$ decays based on the recently revised ALEPH data. The analysis is based on a strategy which we previously applied to the OPAL data. We critically compare our strategy to the one traditionally used and comment on the main differences. Our analysis yields the values $\\alpha_s(m_\\tau^2)=0.296\\pm 0.010$ using fixed-order perturbation theory, and $\\alpha_s(m_\\tau^2)=0.310\\pm 0.014$ using contour-improved perturbation theory. Averaging these values with our previously obtained values from the OPAL data, we find $\\alpha_s(m_\\tau^2)=0.303\\pm 0.009$, respectively, $\\alpha_s(m_\\tau^2)=0.319\\pm 0.012$, as the most reliable results for $\\alpha_s$ from $\\tau$ decays currently available.

  18. EEG, alpha waves and coherence (United States)

    Ascolani, Gianluca

    This thesis addresses some theoretical issues generated by the results of recent analysis of EEG time series proving the brain dynamics are driven by abrupt changes making them depart from the ordinary Poisson condition. These changes are renewal, unpredictable and non-ergodic. We refer to them as crucial events. How is it possible that this form of randomness be compatible with the generation of waves, for instance alpha waves, whose observation seems to suggest the opposite view the brain is characterized by surprisingly extended coherence? To shed light into this apparently irretrievable contradiction we propose a model based on a generalized form of Langevin equation under the influence of a periodic stimulus. We assume that there exist two different forms of time, a subjective form compatible with Poisson statistical physical and an objective form that is accessible to experimental observation. The transition from the former to the latter form is determined by the brain dynamics interpreted as emerging from the cooperative interaction among many units that, in the absence of cooperation would generate Poisson fluctuations. We call natural time the brain internal time and we make the assumption that in the natural time representation the time evolution of the EEG variable y(t) is determined by a Langevin equation perturbed by a periodic process that in this time representation is hardly distinguishable from an erratic process. We show that the representation of this random process in the experimental time scale is characterized by a surprisingly extended coherence. We show that this model generates a sequence of damped oscillations with a time behavior that is remarkably similar to that derived from the analysis of real EEG's. The main result of this research work is that the existence of crucial events is not incompatible with the alpha wave coherence. In addition to this important result, we find another result that may help our group, or any other research

  19. Carbohydrate composition of the alpha-subunit of human choriogonadotropin (hCG alpha) and the free alpha molecules produced in pregnancy: most free alpha and some combined hCG alpha molecules are fucosylated. (United States)

    Blithe, D L


    The carbohydrate compositions of pregnancy-derived hCG alpha (dissociated from intact hCG) and free alpha-subunit were analyzed using a combination of chemical analysis, lectin affinity chromatography, and glycosidase sensitivity. For direct compositional analysis, parallel samples were hydrolyzed in trifluoroacetic acid and analyzed for sialic acid and neutral sugars without prior derivatization. Separation of the monosaccharides was achieved by HPLC on a Dionex CarboPac column eluted at high pH, and the resolved monosaccharides were quantified by pulsed amperometric detection. The amounts of sugar that were found relative to peptide indicated the presence of two N-linked oligosaccharides per molecule on both hCG alpha and free alpha. Free alpha contained 2.5-fold higher amounts of sialic acid and galactose as well as a higher amount of N-acetylglucosamine than did hCG alpha. Free alpha also contained a 6-fold higher amount of fucose than did hCG alpha (1.2 vs. 0.2 residues of fucose/molecule). Serial fractionation of intact hCG alpha and free alpha molecules by lectin affinity chromatography indicated that virtually all of the hCG alpha-subunits contained at least one Concanavalin-A (Con-A)-binding site, whereas as many as 32% of the free alpha molecules could not bind to Con-A. Chromatography on Lens culinaris (Lch) resulted in 12% binding of hCG alpha and approximately 72% binding of free alpha (80-85% of the Con-A-bound free alpha and 47-48% of the Con-A-nonbound free alpha bound to Lch). Endoglycosidase-H (endo-H) treatment of hCG alpha released a portion of the oligosaccharides. The endo-H-released material appeared to be a monoantennary hybrid based on DEAE-binding properties and carbohydrate composition. In contrast to hCG alpha, free alpha was completely resistant to endo-H treatment. Incubation of endo-H-resistant hCG alpha with glycopeptidase-A resulted in the release of two components, which could be separated into monoantennary and biantennary


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    The enzymatic hydrolyses of a variety of alpha-substituted mandelic and lactic esters using pig liver esterase (PLE) have been investigated. High to moderate enantioselectivity was found for various alpha-substituted mandelic esters, whereas PLE showed low to no enantioselectivity for alpha-substitu

  1. Matching coefficients for alpha_s and m_b to O(alpha_s^2) in the MSSM

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, A; Salomon, J


    We compute the exact two-loop matching coefficients for the strong coupling constant alpha_s and the bottom-quark mass m_b within the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM), taking into account O(alpha_s^2) contributions from Supersymmetric Quantum Chromodynamics (SQCD). We find that the explicit mass pattern of the supersymmetric particles has a significant impact on the predictions of alpha_s and m_b at high energies. Further on, the three-loop corrections exceed the uncertainty due to the current experimental accuracy. In case of the the running bottom-quark mass, they can reach in the large tan(beta) regime up to 30% from the tree-level value.

  2. Local Varying-Alpha Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Barrow, John D


    In a recent paper we demonstrated how the simplest model for varying alpha may be interpreted as the effect of a dielectric material, generalized to be consistent with Lorentz invariance. Unlike normal dielectrics, such a medium cannot change the speed of light, and its dynamics obey a Klein-Gordon equation. This work immediately suggests an extension of the standard theory, even if we require compliance with Lorentz invariance. Instead of a wave equation, the dynamics may satisfy a local algebraic relation involving the permittivity and the properties of the electromagnetic field, in analogy with more conventional dielectric (but still preserving Lorentz invariance). We develop the formalism for such theories and investigate some phenomenological implications. The problem of the divergence of the classical self-energy can be solved, or at least softened, in this framework. Some interesting new cosmological solutions for the very early universe are found, including the possibility of a bounce, inflation and e...

  3. Alpha Shape Topology of the Cosmic Web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weygaert, Rien van de; Platen, Erwin; Vegter, Gert; Eldering, Bob; Kruithof, Nico


    We study the topology of the Megaparsec Cosmic Web on the basis of the Alpha Shapes of the galaxy distribution. The simplicial complexes of the alpha shapes are used to determine the set of Betti numbers (βk, k = 1, . . . , D), which represent a complete characterization of the topology of a manifol

  4. The ALPHA detector : Module Production and Assembly

    CERN Document Server

    Andresen, G; Bowe, P D; Cesar, C L; Chapman, S; Charlton, M; Fajans, J; Fujiwara, M C; Gill, D R; Hangst, J S; Hydomako, R; Jenkins, M J; Kurchaninov, L; Madsen, N; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Povilus, A; Robicheaux, F; Sarid, E; Silveira, D M; Storey, J W; Thompson, R I; van der Werf, D P; Wurtele, J S; Yamazaki, Y; Ashkezari, M D; Baquero-Ruiz, M; Butler, E; Deller, A; Eriksson, S; Friesen, T; Gutierrez, A; Hardy, W N; Hayden, M E; Humphries, A J; Jonsell, S; McKenna, J T K; Menary, S; Pusa, P; Sampson, J; Seddon, D; Seif el Nasr, S; So, C; Thornhill, J; Wells, D; Jorgensen, L V


    ALPHA is one of the experiments situated at CERN's Antiproton Decelerator (AD). A Silicon Vertex Detector (SVD) is placed to surround the ALPHA atom trap. The main purpose of the SVD is to detect and locate antiproton annihilation events by means of the emitted charged pions. The SVD system is presented with special focus given to the design, fabrication and performance of the modules.

  5. Bayesian Meta-Analysis of Coefficient Alpha (United States)

    Brannick, Michael T.; Zhang, Nanhua


    The current paper describes and illustrates a Bayesian approach to the meta-analysis of coefficient alpha. Alpha is the most commonly used estimate of the reliability or consistency (freedom from measurement error) for educational and psychological measures. The conventional approach to meta-analysis uses inverse variance weights to combine…

  6. Remote Associates Test and Alpha Brain Waves (United States)

    Haarmann, Henk J.; George, Timothy; Smaliy, Alexei; Dien, Joseph


    Previous studies found that performance on the remote associates test (RAT) improves after a period of incubation and that increased alpha brain waves over the right posterior brain predict the emergence of RAT insight solutions. We report an experiment that tested whether increased alpha brain waves during incubation improve RAT performance.…

  7. ALPHA experiment facility and Prof. Jeffrey Hangst.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice


    Picture 01-07: General views of the ALPHA experiment Picture 5: Andrea Gutierrez, a PhD student from UBC, transfers liquid helium from a storage dewar into the cryostat containing the superconducting magnetic trap used by the ALPHA experiment.Picture 08-11: Jeffery Hangst, spokesperson for ALPHA Picture 12: The ALPHA silicon detector, which surrounds the trapping resion and is used for imaging antiproton annihilations (Credit University of Liverpool) Picture 13: Untrapped antihydrogen atoms annihilating on the inner surface of the ALPHA trap. These are measured by the ALPHA annihilation detector. The events are concentrated at the electrode radius of about 22.3 mm. The coordinates are defined in the Nature article, Figure 1b. Picture 14: The electrodes (gold) for the ALPHA Penning trap being inserted into the vacuum chamber and cryostat assembly. This is the trap used to combine or "mix" positrons and antiprotons to make antihydrogen. (Credit: Niels Madsen ALPHA/Swansea.) Picture 15: Top, a diagram of the...

  8. Measurement of the angle alpha at BABAR

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez, A


    We present recent measurements of the CKM angle alpha using data collected by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy e^+e^- collider at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, operating at the Upsilon(4S) resonance. We present constraints on alpha from B->pipi, B->rhorho and B->rhopi decays.

  9. Atypical Alpha Asymmetry in Adults with ADHD (United States)

    Hale, T. Sigi; Smalley, Susan L.; Hanada, Grant; Macion, James; McCracken, James T.; McGough, James J.; Loo, Sandra K.


    Introduction: A growing body of literature suggests atypical cerebral asymmetry and interhemispheric interaction in ADHD. A common means of assessing lateralized brain function in clinical populations has been to examine the relative proportion of EEG alpha activity (8-12 Hz) in each hemisphere (i.e., alpha asymmetry). Increased rightward alpha…

  10. Psychiatric Symptoms in Alpha-Mannosidosis (United States)

    Malm, D.; Pantel, J.; Linaker, O. M.


    Alpha-mannosidosis is characterized by mild to moderate intellectual disability (ID), moderate to severe neurosensory hearing loss, frequent infections, psychomotor disturbances and skeletal dysmorphism. For the first time, a panel of nine alpha-mannosidosis patients with psychiatric symptoms is presented. The clinical picture has several…

  11. Confidence Intervals for Cronbach's Coefficient Alpha Values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Koning (Alex); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)


    textabstractCoefficient Alpha, which is widely used in empirical research, estimates the reliability of a test consisting of parallel items. In practice it is difficult to compare values of alpha across studies as it depends on the number of items used. In this paper we provide a simple solution, wh

  12. Teaching Calculus with Wolfram|Alpha (United States)

    Dimiceli, Vincent E.; Lang, Andrew S. I. D.; Locke, LeighAnne


    This article describes the benefits and drawbacks of using Wolfram|Alpha as the platform for teaching calculus concepts in the lab setting. It is a result of our experiences designing and creating an entirely new set of labs using Wolfram|Alpha. We present the reasoning behind our transition from using a standard computer algebra system (CAS) to…

  13. Anomalous atomic volume of alpha-Pu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kollar, J.; Vitos, Levente; Skriver, Hans Lomholt


    .3%. The comparison between the LDA and GGA results show that the anomalously large atomic volume of alpha-Pu relative to alpha-Np can be ascribed to exchange-correlation effects connected with the presence of low coordinated sites in the structure where the f electrons are close to the onset of localization...

  14. Folate receptor {alpha} regulates cell proliferation in mouse gonadotroph {alpha}T3-1 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Congjun; Evans, Chheng-Orn [Department of Neurosurgery and Laboratory of Molecular Neurosurgery and Biotechnology, Emory University, School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Stevens, Victoria L. [Epidemiology and Surveillance Research, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Owens, Timothy R. [Emory University, School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Oyesiku, Nelson M., E-mail: [Department of Neurosurgery and Laboratory of Molecular Neurosurgery and Biotechnology, Emory University, School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)


    We have previously found that the mRNA and protein levels of the folate receptor alpha (FR{alpha}) are uniquely over-expressed in clinically human nonfunctional (NF) pituitary adenomas, but the mechanistic role of FR{alpha} has not fully been determined. We investigated the effect of FR{alpha} over-expression in the mouse gonadotroph {alpha}T3-1 cell line as a model for NF pituitary adenomas. We found that the expression and function of FR{alpha} were strongly up-regulated, by Western blotting and folic acid binding assay. Furthermore, we found a higher cell growth rate, an enhanced percentage of cells in S-phase by BrdU assay, and a higher PCNA staining. These observations indicate that over-expression of FR{alpha} promotes cell proliferation. These effects were abrogated in the same {alpha}T3-1 cells when transfected with a mutant FR{alpha} cDNA that confers a dominant-negative phenotype by inhibiting folic acid binding. Finally, by real-time quantitative PCR, we found that mRNA expression of NOTCH3 was up-regulated in FR{alpha} over-expressing cells. In summary, our data suggests that FR{alpha} regulates pituitary tumor cell proliferation and mechanistically may involve the NOTCH pathway. Potentially, this finding could be exploited to develop new, innovative molecular targeted treatment for human NF pituitary adenomas.

  15. Alpha1 and Alpha2 Integrins Mediate Invasive Activity of Mouse Mammary Carcinoma Cells through Regulation of Stromelysin-1 Expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lochter, Andre; Navre, Marc; Werb, Zena; Bissell, Mina J


    Tumor cell invasion relies on cell migration and extracellular matrix proteolysis. We investigated the contribution of different integrins to the invasive activity of mouse mammary carcinoma cells. Antibodies against integrin subunits {alpha}6 and {beta}1, but not against {alpha}1 and {alpha}2, inhibited cell locomotion on a reconstituted basement membrane in two-dimensional cell migration assays, whereas antibodies against {beta}1, but not against a6 or {alpha}2, interfered with cell adhesion to basement membrane constituents. Blocking antibodies against {alpha}1 integrins impaired only cell adhesion to type IV collagen. Antibodies against {alpha}1, {alpha}2, {alpha}6, and {beta}1, but not {alpha}5, integrin subunits reduced invasion of a reconstituted basement membrane. Integrins {alpha}1 and {alpha}2, which contributed only marginally to motility and adhesion, regulated proteinase production. Antibodies against {alpha}1 and {alpha}2, but not {alpha}6 and {beta}1, integrin subunits inhibited both transcription and protein expression of the matrix metalloproteinase stromelysin-1. Inhibition of tumor cell invasion by antibodies against {alpha}1 and {alpha}2 was reversed by addition of recombinant stromelysin-1. In contrast, stromelysin-1 could not rescue invasion inhibited by anti-{alpha}6 antibodies. Our data indicate that {alpha}1 and {alpha}2 integrins confer invasive behavior by regulating stromelysin-1 expression, whereas {alpha}6 integrins regulate cell motility. These results provide new insights into the specific functions of integrins during tumor cell invasion.

  16. Alpha macroglobulins and the low-density-lipoprotein-related protein alpha-2-macroglobulin receptor in experimental renal fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goor, H; Diamond, [No Value; Ding, GH; Kaysen, GA


    In this study, we evaluated the location of non-specific proteinase inhibitors and their receptor in experimental glomerular and interstitial fibrosis. The alpha macroglobulins alpha-2-macroglobulin (alpha 2M) and alpha-1-inhibitor 3 (alpha 1I3) are proteinase inhibitors, including metalloproteinase

  17. Radiative corrections to the muonium hyperfine structure; 1, the $\\alpha^{2}$ (Z$\\alpha$) correction

    CERN Document Server

    Kinoshita, T


    This is the first of a series of papers on a systematic application of the NRQED bound state theory of Caswell and Lepage to higher-order radiative corrections to the hyperfine structure of the muonium ground state. This paper describes the calculation of the \\alpha^2 (Z\\alpha) radiative correction. Our result for the complete \\alpha^2 (Z\\alpha) correction is 0.424(4) kHz, which reduces the theoretical uncertainty significantly. The remaining uncertainty is dominated by that of the numerical evaluation of the nonlogarithmic part of the \\alpha (Z\\alpha )^2 term and logarithmic terms of order \\alpha^4. These terms will be treated in the subsequent papers.

  18. The fratricide of alpha-Omega dynamos by their alpha-squared siblings

    CERN Document Server

    Hubbard, Alexander; Brandenburg, Axel


    Context. Helically forced magneto-hydrodynamic shearing-sheet turbulence can support different large-scale dynamo modes, although the {\\alpha} - {\\Omega} mode is generally expected to dominate because it is the fastest growing. In an {\\alpha} - {\\Omega} dynamo, most of the field amplification is produced by the shear. As differential rotation is an ubiquitous source of shear in astrophysics, such dynamos are believed to be the source of most astrophysical large-scale magnetic fields. Aims. We study the stability of oscillatory migratory {\\alpha} - {\\Omega} type dynamos in turbulence simulations. Methods. We use shearing-sheet simulations of hydromagnetic turbulence that is helically forced at a wavenumber that is about three times larger than the lowest wavenumber in the domain so that both {\\alpha} - {\\Omega} and {\\alpha}2 dynamo action is possible. Results. After initial dominance and saturation, the {\\alpha} - {\\Omega} mode is found to be destroyed by an orthogonal {\\alpha}2 mode sustained by the helical t...

  19. [Contents and its change during storage of alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine in potatoes]. (United States)

    Shindo, Tetsuya; Ushiyama, Hirofumi; Kan, Kimiko; Yasuda, Kazuo; Saito, Kazuo


    Contents of alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine in native species of potato (May Queen, Danshaku and Waseshiro), and in species (Jagakids Red '90 (Red) and Jagakids Purple '90 (Purple)) on the market, and their change during storage at room temparature were investigated. alpha-Solanine and alpha-chaconine were extracted from potatoes with methanol, cleaned up by using a Sep-Pak Plus C18 cartridge, and then subjected to HPLC. The recoveries of alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine from potatoes were both more than 96%, and the quantitation limits were both 2 microg/g. alpha-Solanine and alpha-chaconine were detected in periderm in all samples at the levels of 260-320 microg/g in May Queen,190-240 microg/g in Danshaku, 43-63 microg/g in Waseshiro, 140-200 microg/g in Red and 84-130 microg/g in Purple, respectively. alpha-Solanine and alpha-chaconine were detected in the cortex in all samples of May Queen and Danshaku at the levels of 2.7-12 microg/g and 5.8-31 microg/g, respectively. Contents of alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine in the cortex of May Queen and Danshaku were less than 10% of those in the periderm. When potatoes were stored for 90 days at room temparature in a dark place, no marked change in the contents of alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine was observed in any of the potato samples.

  20. Involvement of central alpha1-adrenoceptors on renal responses to central moxonidine and alpha-methylnoradrenaline. (United States)

    de Andrade, Carina A F; de Andrade, Glaucia M F; De Paula, Patricia M; De Luca, Laurival A; Menani, José V


    Moxonidine (alpha2-adrenoceptor/imidazoline receptor agonist) injected into the lateral ventricle induces diuresis, natriuresis and renal vasodilation. Moxonidine-induced diuresis and natriuresis depend on central imidazoline receptors, while central alpha1-adrenoceptors are involved in renal vasodilation. However, the involvement of central alpha1-adrenoceptors on diuresis and natriuresis to central moxonidine was not investigated yet. In the present study, the effects of moxonidine, alpha-methylnoradrenaline (alpha2-adrenoceptor agonist) or phenylephrine (alpha1-adrenoceptor agonist) alone or combined with previous injections of prazosin (alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonist), yohimbine or RX 821002 (alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonists) intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) on urinary sodium, potassium and volume were investigated. Male Holtzman rats (n = 5-18/group) with stainless steel cannula implanted into the lateral ventricle and submitted to gastric water load (10% of body weight) were used. Injections of moxonidine (20 nmol) or alpha-methylnoradrenaline (80 nmol) i.c.v. induced natriuresis (196 +/- 25 and 171 +/- 30, respectively, vs. vehicle: 101 +/- 9 microEq/2 h) and diuresis (9.0 +/- 0.4 and 12.3 +/- 1.6, respectively, vs. vehicle: 5.2 +/- 0.5 ml/2 h). Pre-treatment with prazosin (320 nmol) i.c.v. abolished the natriuresis (23 +/- 4 and 76 +/- 11 microEq/2 h, respectively) and diuresis (5 +/- 1 and 7.6 +/- 0.8 ml/2 h, respectively) produced by i.c.v. moxonidine or alpha-methylnoradrenaline. RX 821002 (320 nmol) i.c.v. abolished the natriuretic effect of alpha-methylnoradrenaline, however, yohimbine (320 nmol) did not change renal responses to moxonidine. Phenylephrine (80 nmol) i.c.v. induced natriuresis and kaliuresis that were blocked by prazosin. Therefore, the present data suggest that moxonidine and alpha-methylnoradrenaline acting on central imidazoline receptors and alpha2-adrenoceptors, respectively, activate central alpha1-adrenergic mechanisms to

  1. Mapping High-Velocity H-alpha and Lyman-alpha Emission from Supernova 1987A (United States)

    France, Kevin; McCray, Richard; Fransson, Claes; Larsson, Josefin; Frank, Kari A.; Burrows, David N.; Challis, Peter; Kirshner, Robert P.; Chevalier, Roger A.; Garnavich, Peter; Heng, Kevin; Lawrence, Stephen S.; Lundqvist, Peter; Smith, Nathan; Sonneborn, George


    We present new Hubble Space Telescope images of high-velocity H-alpha and Lyman-alpha emission in the outer debris of SN 1987A. The H-alpha images are dominated by emission from hydrogen atoms crossing the reverse shock. For the first time we observe emission from the reverse shock surface well above and below the equatorial ring, suggesting a bipolar or conical structure perpendicular to the ring plane. Using the H-alpha imaging, we measure the mass flux of hydrogen atoms crossing the reverse shock front, in the velocity intervals (-7,500 < V(sub obs) < -2,800 km/s) and (1,000 < V(sub obs) < 7,500 km/s), ?M(sub H) = 1.2 × 10(exp -3) M/ y. We also present the first Lyman-alpha imaging of the whole remnant and new Chandra X-ray observations. Comparing the spatial distribution of the Lyman-alpha and X-ray emission, we observe that the majority of the high-velocity Lyman-alpha emission originates interior to the equatorial ring. The observed Lyman-alpha/H-alpha photon ratio, R(L-alpha/H-alpha) approx. = 17, is significantly higher than the theoretically predicted ratio of approx. = 5 for neutral atoms crossing the reverse shock front. We attribute this excess to Lyman-alpha emission produced by X-ray heating of the outer debris. The spatial orientation of the Lyman-alpha and X-ray emission suggests that X-ray heating of the outer debris is the dominant Lyman-alpha production mechanism in SN 1987A at this phase in its evolution.

  2. A new alpha chain hemoglobin variant: Hb Al-Hammadi Riyadh [alpha75(EF4)Asp-->Val (alpha2)]. (United States)

    Burnichon, Nelly; Lacan, Philippe; Becchi, Michel; Zanella-Cleon, Isabelle; Aubry, Martine; Mowafy, Mohammed; Couprie, Nicole; Francina, Alain


    A new hemoglobin (Hb) variant in the heterozygous state, Hb Al-Hammadi Riyadh [codon 75 (GAC-->GTC); alpha75(EF4)Asp-->Val (alpha2)] corresponding to an A-->T transversion on the second exon of the alpha2-globin gene, is described. The variant was characterized by DNA sequencing and mass spectrometry (MS). The variant was found during a routine Hb analysis for anemia in a 16-month-old boy who lived in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

  3. $Q_{\\alpha}$-Normal Families and entire functions

    CERN Document Server

    Gul, Shai


    For every countable ordinal number $\\alpha$ we construct an entire function $f=f_\\alpha$ such that the family $\\left\\{f(nz):n\\in\\mathbb{N}\\right\\}$ is exactly $Q_\\alpha$-normal in the unit disk.

  4. Lucid dreaming and alpha activity: a preliminary report. (United States)

    Ogilvie, R D; Hunt, H T; Tyson, P D; Lucescu, M L; Jeakins, D B


    10 good dream recallers spent 2 nights in the sleep lab during which they were awakened 4 times per night from REM sleep, twice during their highest alpha activity in REM, and twice during low REM alpha. 5 were given alpha feedback training prior to sleep onset. Arousals from high alpha REM sleep yielded significantly higher lucidity ratings. Alpha feedback had no effect upon lucidity or REM alpha levels. Similarities between lucid dreams and meditative phenomena are discussed.

  5. Lyman alpha emission in starburst galaxies (United States)

    Kunth, Daniel


    We propose to perform a deep study of Ly-alpha emission and destruction in 3 star-forming galaxies. These objects have been already observed with the GHRS and exhibit a variety of situations, with Ly-alpha showing P Cyg profiles, secondary emissions or even a deep damped absorption line with no emission. They also span a range of intrinsic properties: IZW18 is a gas-rich, metal deficient dust free dwarf galaxy, Haro 2 has a simple morphology while IRAS 08339+6517 is a luminous IRAS starburst galaxy with more dust and complex Ly- alpha profile. The use of STIS will allow for the first time to study the geometrical/kinematical configuration of the ionized and neutral gas across the galaxies nuclear regions and pin point the effects of porosity and the kinematical structure of the ISM, that may play the key roles {in addition to dust} in the detectability of the line. This study will have important impact for cosmology since Ly-alpha emitters are nowaday found at high-re dshift. We strongly emphasize that since Ly-alpha is primarely a diagnostic of the ISM, a full understanding of how the ISM and Ly-alpha are related is a necessary step before we can hope to correlate Ly-alpha to the cosmic star-formation rate. Our results will be interpreted against the model of superbubble evolution developed with G. Tenorio Tagle.

  6. Diagnostics for PLX-alpha (United States)

    Gilmore, Mark; Hsu, Scott


    The goal of the Plasma Liner eXperiment PLX-alpha at Los Alamos National Laboratory is to establish the viability of creating a spherically imploding plasma liner for MIF and HED applications, using a spherical array of supersonic plasma jets launched by innovative contoured-gap coaxial plasma guns. PLX- α experiments will focus in particular on establishing the ram pressure and uniformity scalings of partial and fully spherical plasma liners. In order to characterize these parameters experimentally, a suite of diagnostics is planned, including multi-camera fast imaging, a 16-channel visible interferometer (upgraded from 8 channels) with reconfigurable, fiber-coupled front end, and visible and VUV high-resolution and survey spectroscopy. Tomographic reconstruction and data fusion techniques will be used in conjunction with interferometry, imaging, and synthetic diagnostics from modeling to characterize liner uniformity in 3D. Diagnostic and data analysis design, implementation, and status will be presented. Supported by the Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy - U.S. Department of Energy.

  7. Lyman Alpha Spicule Observatory (LASO) (United States)

    Chamberlin, P. C.; Allred, J. C.; Airapetian, V.; Gong, Q.; Mcintosh, S. W.; De Pontieu, B.; Fontenla, J. M.


    The Lyman Alpha Spicule Observatory (LASO) sounding rocket will observe small-scale eruptive events called "Rapid Blue-shifted Events" (RBEs) [Rouppe van der Voort et al., 2009], the on-disk equivalent of Type-II spicules, and extend observations that explore their role in the solar coronal heating problem [De Pontieu et al., 2011]. LASO utilizes a new and novel optical design to simultaneously observe two spatial dimensions at 4.2" spatial resolution (2.1" pixels) over a 2'x2' field of view with high spectral resolution of 66mÅ (33mÅ pixels) across a broad 20Å spectral window. This spectral window contains three strong chromospheric and transition region emissions and is centered on the strong Hydrogen Lyman-α emission at 1216Å. This instrument makes it possible to obtain new data crucial to the physical understanding of these phenomena and their role in the overall energy and momentum balance from the upper chromosphere to lower corona. LASO was submitted March 2011 in response to the ROSES SHP-LCAS call.

  8. Measurements of $\\alpha_s$ in $pp$ Collisions at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Warburton, Andreas; The ATLAS collaboration


    The coupling of the strong force, $\\alpha_s$, is deemed to be a fundamental parameter of Nature, and, beyond the quark masses, constitutes the only free parameter in the QCD Lagrangian. Provided is an overview of CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) measurements of $\\alpha_s(M_Z)$ evaluated at the $Z$-boson mass and of the running of $\\alpha_s(Q)$ as a function of energy-momentum transfer $Q$. The measurements were performed by the ATLAS and CMS Collaborations using proton-proton ($pp$) collisions with centre-of-mass energies of 7 TeV and data samples with time-integrated luminosities of up to 5 fb$^{-1}$. Four different categories of observable were used in the described extractions of $\\alpha_s$: inclusive jet cross sections, 3-jet to 2-jet inclusive cross-section ratios, 3-jet mass cross sections, and top-quark pair production cross sections. These results, which include the first NNLO measurement of $\\alpha_s$ at a hadron collider and the first determinations of $\\alpha_s$ at energy scales above 1 TeV, are co...

  9. Generalized dual symmetry of nonabelian theories and the freezing of \\alpha_s

    CERN Document Server

    Das, C R; Nielsen, H B


    The quantum Yang-Mills theory, describing a system of fields with non-dual (chromo-electric g) and dual (chromo-magnetic \\tilde g) charges and revealing the generalized dual symmetry, is developed by analogy with the Zwanziger formalism in QED. The renormalization group equations (RGEs) for pure nonabelian theories are analysed for both constants, \\alpha = g^2 / 4\\pi and \\tilde\\alpha = {\\tilde g}^2 / 4\\pi. The pure SU(3) \\times \\widetilde{SU(3)} gauge theory is investigated as an example. We consider not only monopoles, but also dyons. The behaviour of the total SU(3) \\beta-function is investigated in the whole region of \\alpha \\equiv \\alpha_s: 0 \\le \\alpha < \\infty. It is shown that this \\beta-function is antisymmetric under the interchange \\alpha \\leftrightarrow 1/\\alpha and is given by the well-known perturbative expansion not only for \\alpha \\ll 1, but also for \\alpha \\gg 1. Using an idea of the Maximal Abelian Projection by t' Hooft, we considered the formation of strings - the ANO flux tubes - in the...

  10. $\\alpha_s$ from the updated ALEPH data for hadronic $\\tau$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    Boito, Diogo; Maltman, Kim; Osborne, James; Peris, Santiago


    We extract the strong coupling $\\alpha_s(m_\\tau^2)$ from the recently updated ALEPH non-strange spectral functions obtained from hadronic $\\tau$ decays. We apply a self-consistent analysis method, first tested in the analysis of OPAL data, to extract $\\alpha_s(m_\\tau^2)$ and non-perturbative contributions. The analysis yields $\\alpha_s^{\\rm FO}(m_\\tau^2)=0.296\\pm0.010 $, using Fixed Order Perturbation Theory (FOPT), and $\\alpha^{\\rm CI}_s(m_\\tau^2)= 0.310\\pm0.014$, using Contour Improved Perturbation Theory (CIPT). The weighted average of these results with those previously obtained from OPAL data give $\\alpha_s^{\\rm FO}(m_\\tau^2)=0.303\\pm 0.009$ and $\\alpha_s^{\\rm CI}(m_\\tau^2)=0.319\\pm 0.012$, which gives, after evolution to the $Z$ boson mass scale, $\\alpha^{\\rm FO}_s(m_Z^2)=0.1165\\pm0.0012 $ and $\\alpha_s^{\\rm CI}(m_Z^2)=0.1185\\pm0.0015 $, respectively. We observe that non-perturbative effects limit the accuracy with which $\\alpha_s$ can be extracted from $\\tau$ decay data.

  11. Collagen alpha5 and alpha2(IV) chain coexpression: analysis of skin biopsies of Alport patients. (United States)

    Patey-Mariaud de Serre, N; Garfa, M; Bessiéres, B; Noël, L H; Knebelmann, B


    Alport syndrome is a collagen type IV disease caused by mutations in the COL4A5 gene with the X-linked form being most prevalent. The resultant alpha5(IV) collagen chain is a component of the glomerular and skin basement membranes (SBMs). Immunofluorescent determination of the alpha5(IV) chain in skin biopsies is the procedure of choice to identify patients. In 30% of patients, however, the mutant protein is still found in the SBM resulting in a normal staining pattern. In order to minimize or eliminate false results, we compared the distribution of the alpha2(IV) chain (another SBM component) and the alpha5(IV) chain by standard double label immunofluorescence (IF) and by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The study was performed on 55 skin biopsies of patients suspected of Alports and five normal control specimens. In normal skin, IF showed the classical linear pattern for both collagens along the basement membrane. Additionally, decreased alpha5(IV) was found in the bottom of the dermal papillary basement membrane. Confocal analysis confirmed the results and show alpha5(IV) focal interruptions. In suspected patients, both techniques showed the same rate of abnormal alpha5(IV) expression: segmental in women and absent in men. Our results show a physiological variation of alpha5(IV) location with focal interruptions and decreased expression in the bottom of the dermal basement membrane. Comparison of alpha5(IV) with alpha2(IV) expression is simple and eliminates technical artifacts.

  12. Variable displacement alpha-type Stirling engine (United States)

    Homutescu, V. M.; Bălănescu, D. T.; Panaite, C. E.; Atanasiu, M. V.


    The basic design and construction of an alpha-type Stirling engine with on load variable displacement is presented. The variable displacement is obtained through a planar quadrilateral linkage with one on load movable ground link. The physico-mathematical model used for analyzing the variable displacement alpha-type Stirling engine behavior is an isothermal model that takes into account the real movement of the pistons. Performances and power adjustment capabilities of such alpha-type Stirling engine are calculated and analyzed. An exemplification through the use of the numerical simulation was performed in this regard.

  13. First Attempts at Antihydrogen Trapping in ALPHA

    CERN Document Server

    Andresen, G B; Bowe, P D; Bray, C C; Butler, E; Cesar, C L; Chapman, S; Charlton, M; Fajans, J; Funakoshi, R; Gill, D R; Hangst, J S; Hardy, W N; Hayano, R S; Hayden, M E; Humphries, A J; Hydomako, R; Jenkins, M J; Jørgensen, L V; Kurchaninov, L; Lambo, R; Madsen, N; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Page, R D; Povilus, A; Pusa, P; Robicheaux, F; Sarid, E; Seif El Nasr, S; Silveira, D M; Storey, J W; Thompson, R I; Van der Werf, D P; Wasilenko, L; Wurtele, J S; Yamazaki, Y; Fujiwara, M C


    We discuss aspects of antihydrogen studies, that relate to particle physics ideas and techniques, within the context of the ALPHA experiment at CERN's Antiproton Decelerator facility. We review the fundamental physics motivations for antihydrogen studies, and their potential physics reach. We argue that initial spectroscopy measurements, once antihydrogen is trapped, could provide competitive tests of CPT, possibly probing physics at the Planck Scale. We discuss some of the particle detection techniques used in ALPHA. Preliminary results from commissioning studies of a partial system of the ALPHA Si vertex detector are presented, the results of which highlight the power of annihilation vertex detection capability in antihydrogen studies.

  14. On $\\alpha$-roughly weighted games

    CERN Document Server

    Freixas, Josep


    Very recently Gvozdeva, Hemaspaandra, and Slinko (2011) have introduced three hierarchies for simple games in order to measure the distance of a given simple game to the class of weighted voting games or roughly weighted voting games. Their third class $\\mathcal{C}_\\alpha$ consists of all simple games permitting a weighted representation such that each winning coalition has a weight of at least 1 and each losing coalition a weight of at most $\\alpha$. We continue their work and contribute some new results on the possible values of $\\alpha$ for a given number of voters.

  15. Alpha decay chains from superheavy nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Samanta, C


    Magic islands for extra-stable nuclei in the midst of the sea of fission-instability were predicted to be around Z=114, 124 or, 126 with N=184, and Z=120, with N=172. Whether these fission-survived superheavy nuclei with high Z and N would live long enough for detection or, undergo alpha-decay in a very short time remains an open question. Alpha-decay half lives of nuclei with 130 118 are found to have alpha-decay half lives of the order of microseconds or, less.

  16. Synthesis of alpha-phosphorylated alpha,beta-unsaturated imines and their selective reduction to vinylogous and saturated alpha-aminophosphonates. (United States)

    Palacios, Francisco; Vicario, Javier; Maliszewska, Agnieszka; Aparicio, Domitila


    An efficient synthesis of alpha,beta-unsaturated imines derived from alpha-aminophosphonates is achieved through aza-Wittig reaction of P-trimethyl phosphazenes with beta,gamma-unsaturated alpha-ketophosphonates. Selective 1,2-reduction of such 1-azadienes affords beta,gamma-unsaturated alpha-aminophosphonates, phosphorylated analogs of vinylglycines, which are hydrogenated to yield saturated alpha-aminophosphonate derivatives.

  17. Lambda alpha, Sigma alpha and Xi alpha potentials derived from the SU6 quark-model baryon-baryon interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Fujiwara, Y; Suzuki, Y


    We calculate Lambda alpha, Sigma alpha and Xi alpha potentials from the nuclear-matter G-matrices of the SU6 quark-model baryon-baryon interaction. The alpha-cluster wave function is assumed to be a simple harmonic-oscillator shell-model wave function. A new method is proposed to derive the direct and knock-on terms of the interaction Born kernel from the hyperon-nucleon G-matrices, with explicit treatments of the nonlocality and the center-of-mass motion between the hyperon and alpha. We find that the SU6 quark-model baryon-baryon interactions, FSS and fss2, yield a reasonable bound-state energy for 5 He Lambda, -3.18 -- -3.62 MeV, in spite of the fact that they give relatively large depths for the Lambda single-particle potentials, 46 -- 48 MeV, in symmetric nuclear matter. An equivalent local potential derived from the Wigner transform of the nonlocal Lambda alpha kernel shows a strong energy dependence for the incident Lambda-particle, indicating the importance of the strangeness-exchange process in the o...

  18. Is coefficient alpha robust to nonnormal data?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyan eSheng


    Full Text Available Coefficient alpha has been a widely used measure by which internal consistency reliability is assessed. In addition to essential tau-equivalence and uncorrelated errors, normality has been noted as another important assumption for alpha. Earlier work on evaluating this assumption considered either exclusively nonnormal error score distributions, or limited conditions. In view of this and the availability of advanced methods for generating univariate nonnormal data, Monte Carlo simulations were conducted to show that nonnormal distributions for true or error scores do create problems for using alpha to estimate the internal consistency reliability. The sample coefficient alpha is affected by leptokurtic true score distributions, or skewed and/or kurtotic error score distributions. Increased sample sizes, not test lengths, help improve the accuracy, bias or precision of using it with nonnormal data.

  19. The QSE-reduced $\\alpha$ Network

    CERN Document Server

    Hix, W R; Wheeler, J C; Thielemann, F K


    Examination of the process of silicon burning, the burning stage that leads to the production of the iron peak nuclei, reveals that the nuclear evolution is dominated by large groups of nuclei in mutual equilibrium. These quasi-equilibrium (QSE) groups form well in advance of the global Nuclear Statistical Equilibrium (NSE). We present an improved ``minimal'' nuclear network, which takes advantage of quasi-equilibrium in order to calculate the nuclear evolution and energy generation while further reducing the computational cost compared to a conventional \\alpha-chain network. During silicon burning, the resultant \\emph{QSE-reduced} \\alpha network is twice as fast as the full \\alpha network it replaces and requires the tracking of only half as many abundance variables, without significant loss of accuracy. When the QSE-reduced \\alpha network is used in combination with a conventional an accurate approximation for all of the burning stages from He burning to NSE, while tracking only 7 abundances. These reductio...

  20. T-branes and $\\alpha'$-corrections

    CERN Document Server

    Marchesano, Fernando


    We study $\\alpha'$-corrections in multiple D7-brane configurations with non-commuting profiles for their transverse position fields. We focus on T-brane systems, crucial in F-theory GUT model building. There $\\alpha'$-corrections modify the D-term piece of the BPS equations which, already at leading order, require a non-primitive Abelian worldvolume flux background. We find that $\\alpha'$-corrections may either i) leave this flux background invariant, ii) modify the Abelian non-primitive flux profile, or iii) deform it to a non-Abelian profile. The last case typically occurs when primitive fluxes, a necessary ingredient to build 4d chiral models, are added to the system. We illustrate these three cases by solving the $\\alpha'$-corrected D-term equations in explicit examples, and describe their appearance in more general T-brane backgrounds. Finally, we discuss implications of our findings for F-theory GUT local models.

  1. Strichartz estimates on $alpha$-modulation spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weichao Guo


    Full Text Available In this article, we consider some dispersive equations, including Schrodinger equations, nonelliptic Schrodinger equations, and wave equations. We develop some Strichartz estimates in the frame of alpha-modulation spaces.

  2. Solar Imagery - Chromosphere - H-Alpha (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of H-alpha photographic datasets contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. Solar...

  3. Energy dependence of event shapes and of $\\alpha_s$ at LEP 2

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P; Adye, T; Adzic, P; Albrecht, Z; Alderweireld, T; Alekseev, G D; Alemany, R; Allmendinger, T; Allport, P P; Almehed, S; Amaldi, Ugo; Amapane, N; Amato, S; Anassontzis, E G; Andersson, P; Andreazza, A; Andringa, S; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Bambade, P; Barão, F; Barbiellini, Guido; Barbier, R; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Barker, G; Baroncelli, A; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Behrmann, A; Beillière, P; Belokopytov, Yu A; Belous, K S; Benekos, N C; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Bérat, C; Berggren, M; Bertini, D; Bertrand, D; Besançon, M; Bianchi, F; Bigi, M; Bilenky, S M; Bizouard, M A; Bloch, D; Blom, H M; Bonesini, M; Bonivento, W; Boonekamp, M; Booth, P S L; Borgland, A W; Borisov, G; Bosio, C; Botner, O; Boudinov, E; Bouquet, B; Bourdarios, C; Bowcock, T J V; Boyko, I; Bozovic, I; Bozzo, M; Branchini, P; Brenke, T; Brenner, R A; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buran, T; Burgsmüller, T; Buschbeck, Brigitte; Buschmann, P; Cabrera, S; Caccia, M; Calvi, M; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Carena, F; Carroll, L; Caso, Carlo; Castillo-Gimenez, M V; Cattai, A; Cavallo, F R; Chabaud, V; Chapkin, M M; Charpentier, P; Chaussard, L; Checchia, P; Chelkov, G A; Chierici, R; Chliapnikov, P V; Chochula, P; Chorowicz, V; Chudoba, J; Cieslik, K; Collins, P; Contri, R; Cortina, E; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Cowell, J H; Crawley, H B; Crennell, D J; Crépé, S; Crosetti, G; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Czellar, S; Davenport, Martyn; Da Silva, W; Deghorain, A; Della Ricca, G; Delpierre, P A; Demaria, N; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Clercq, C; De Lotto, B; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; Dijkstra, H; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Dolbeau, J; Doroba, K; Dracos, M; Drees, J; Dris, M; Duperrin, A; Durand, J D; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ekspong, Gösta; Ellert, M; Elsing, M; Engel, J P; Erzen, B; Espirito-Santo, M C; Falk, E; Fanourakis, G K; Fassouliotis, D; Fayot, J; Feindt, Michael; Fenyuk, A; Ferrari, P; Ferrer, A; Ferrer-Ribas, E; Ferro, F; Fichet, S; Firestone, A; Flagmeyer, U; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fontanelli, F; Franek, B J; Frodesen, A G; Frühwirth, R; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Galloni, A; Gamba, D; Gamblin, S; Gandelman, M; García, C; Gaspar, C; Gaspar, M; Gasparini, U; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gelé, D; Ghodbane, N; Gil, I; Glege, F; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gómez-Ceballos, G; Gonçalves, P; González-Caballero, I; Gopal, Gian P; Gorn, L; Górski, M; Guz, Yu; Gracco, Valerio; Grahl, J; Graziani, E; Green, C; Grimm, H J; Gris, P; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Günther, M; Guy, J; Hahn, F; Hahn, S; Haider, S; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hansen, J; Harris, F J; Hedberg, V; Heising, S; Hernández, J J; Herquet, P; Herr, H; Hessing, T L; Heuser, J M; Higón, E; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Hoorelbeke, S; Houlden, M A; Hrubec, Josef; Huet, K; Hughes, G J; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jacobsson, R; Jalocha, P; Janik, R; Jarlskog, C; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jean-Marie, B; Johansson, E K; Jönsson, P E; Joram, C; Juillot, P; Kapusta, F; Karafasoulis, K; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Keränen, R; Kersevan, Borut P; Khomenko, B A; Khovanskii, N N; Kiiskinen, A P; King, B J; Kinvig, A; Kjaer, N J; Klapp, O; Klein, H; Kluit, P M; Kokkinias, P; Koratzinos, M; Kostyukhin, V; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Krammer, Manfred; Kriznic, E; Krstic, J; Krumshtein, Z; Kubinec, P; Kurowska, J; Kurvinen, K L; Lamsa, J; Lane, D W; Langefeld, P; Lapin, V; Laugier, J P; Lauhakangas, R; Leder, Gerhard; Ledroit, F; Lefébure, V; Leinonen, L; Leisos, A; Leitner, R; Lemonne, J; Lenzen, Georg; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Lethuillier, M; Libby, J; Liko, D; Lipniacka, A; Lippi, I; Lörstad, B; Loken, J G; Lopes, J H; López, J M; López-Fernandez, R; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J N; Mahon, J R; Maio, A; Malek, A; Malmgren, T G M; Maltezos, S; Malychev, V; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Marco, R P; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Martínez-Rivero, C; Martínez-Vidal, F; Martí i García, S; Mastroyiannopoulos, N; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Matthiae, Giorgio; Masik, J; Mazzucato, F; Mazzucato, M; McCubbin, M L; McKay, R; McNulty, R; McPherson, G; Meroni, C; Meyer, W T; Migliore, E; Mirabito, L; Mitaroff, Winfried A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Moch, M; Møller, R; Mönig, K; Monge, M R; Moreau, X; Morettini, P; Morton, G A; Müller, U; Münich, K; Mulders, M; Mulet-Marquis, C; Muresan, R; Murray, W J; Muryn, B; Myatt, Gerald; Myklebust, T; Naraghi, F; Nassiakou, M; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Navas, S; Nawrocki, K; Negri, P; Némécek, S; Neufeld, N; Neumeister, N; Nicolaidou, R; Nielsen, B S; Nikolenko, M; Nomokonov, V P; Normand, Ainsley; Nygren, A; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, Risto; Orazi, G; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Paganoni, M; Paiano, S; Pain, R; Paiva, R; Palacios, J; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Papageorgiou, K; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Parzefall, U; Passeri, A; Passon, O; Pegoraro, M; Peralta, L; Pernicka, Manfred; Perrotta, A; Petridou, C; Petrolini, A; Phillips, H T; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Piotto, E; Podobnik, T; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Poropat, P; Pozdnyakov, V; Privitera, P; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, Antonio; Radojicic, D; Ragazzi, S; Rahmani, H; Ratoff, P N; Read, A L; Rebecchi, P; Redaelli, N G; Regler, Meinhard; Reid, D; Reinhardt, R; Renton, P B; Resvanis, L K; Richard, F; Rídky, J; Rinaudo, G; Røhne, O M; Romero, A; Ronchese, P; Rosenberg, E I; Rosinsky, P; Roudeau, Patrick; Rovelli, T; Royon, C; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ruiz, A; Saarikko, H; Sacquin, Yu; Sadovskii, A; Sajot, G; Salt, J; Sampsonidis, D; Sannino, M; Schneider, H; Schwemling, P; Schwering, B; Schwickerath, U; Schyns, M A E; Scuri, F; Seager, P; Sedykh, Yu; Segar, A M; Sekulin, R L; Shellard, R C; Sheridan, A; Siebel, M; Simard, L C; Simonetto, F; Sissakian, A N; Smadja, G; Smirnov, N; Smirnova, O G; Smith, G R; Sopczak, André; Sosnowski, R; Spassoff, Tz; Spiriti, E; Sponholz, P; Squarcia, S; Stanescu, C; Stanic, S; Stevenson, K; Stocchi, A; Strub, R; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Tegenfeldt, F; Terranova, F; Thomas, J; Timmermans, J; Tinti, N; Tkatchev, L G; Todorova-Nová, S; Tomaradze, A G; Tomé, B; Tonazzo, A; Tortora, L; Tranströmer, G; Treille, D; Tristram, G; Trochimczuk, M; Troncon, C; Tsirou, A L; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tzamarias, S; Ullaland, O; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; Vallazza, E; Van der Velde, C; van Apeldoorn, G W; van Dam, P; Van Doninck, W K; Van Eldik, J; Van Lysebetten, A; Van Vulpen, I B; Vassilopoulos, N; Vegni, G; Ventura, L; Venus, W A; Verbeure, F; Verlato, M; Vertogradov, L S; Verzi, V; Vilanova, D; Vitale, L; Vlasov, E; Vodopyanov, A S; Vollmer, C F; Voulgaris, G; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Walck, C; Weiser, C; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wilkinson, G R; Winter, M; Witek, M; Wolf, G; Yi, J; Yushchenko, O P; Zaitsev, A; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, Piotr; Zavrtanik, D; Zevgolatakos, E; Zimin, N I; Zucchelli, G C; Zumerle, G


    Infrared and collinear safe event shape distributions and their mean values are determined using the data taken at ve di erent centre of mass energies above $M_Z$ with the DELPHI detector at LEP. From the event shapes, the strong coupling $\\alpha_s$ is extracted in $O(\\alpha^2_s)$, NLLA and a combined scheme using hadronisation corrections evaluated with fragmentation model generators as well as using an analytical power ansatz. Comparing these measurements to those obtained at MZ, the energy dependence (running) of $\\alpha_s$ is accessible. The logarithmic energy slope of the inverse strong coupling is measured to be $d\\alpha_{s}^{-1}/d log(E_{cm}) = 1.39 \\pm 0.34(stat) \\pm 0.17(syst)$, in good agreement with the QCD expectation of 1.27.

  4. Improved parametrization of the unified model for alpha decay and alpha capture

    CERN Document Server

    Denisov, V Yu; Sedykh, I Yu


    The updated data for the ground-state-to-ground-state alpha-transition half-lives in 401 nuclei and the alpha capture cross sections of 40Ca, 44Ca, 59Co, 208Pb and 209Bi are well described in the framework of the unified model for alpha-decay and alpha-capture. The updated values of the alpha decay half-lives, the binding energies of nuclei, the spins of parent and daughter nuclei, and the surface deformation parameters are used for the reevaluation of the model parameters. The data for the ground-state-to-ground-state alpha-decay half-lives are also well described by the empirical relationships.

  5. Investigation of the Pygmy Dipole Resonance in ({alpha},{alpha}{sup '}{gamma}) coincidence experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savran, D. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, TU Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstrasse 9, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Babilon, M. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, TU Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstrasse 9, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Berg, A.M. van den [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, Zernikelaan 25, NL-9747 AA Groningen (Netherlands); Harakeh, M.N. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, Zernikelaan 25, NL-9747 AA Groningen (Netherlands); Hasper, J. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, TU Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstrasse 9, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Woertche, H.J. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, Zernikelaan 25, NL-9747 AA Groningen (Netherlands); Zilges, A. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, TU Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstrasse 9, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany)


    We report on first results from experiments using the ({alpha},{alpha}{sup '}{gamma}) reaction at E{sub {alpha}}=136 MeV to investigate bound electric dipole (E1) excitations building the so-called Pygmy Dipole Resonance (PDR) in the semi-magic nucleus {sup 140}Ce. The method of ({alpha},{alpha}{sup '}{gamma}) allows the separation of E1 excitations from states of higher multipolarity, provides an excellent energy resolution and therefore allows a detailed analysis for each single state. Studying bound E1 excitations in {alpha}-scattering experiments at intermediate energies becomes feasible for the first time even in nuclei with a high level density. The surprising results of the first experiment on {sup 140}Ce point to a splitting of the PDR in this nucleus.

  6. Cytokine vaccination: neutralising IL-1alpha autoantibodies induced by immunisation with homologous IL-1alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenson, M; Hansen, M B; Thomsen, A R;


    High-affinity IgG autoantibodies (aAb) to IL-1alpha are among the most frequently found aAb to cytokines in humans. To establish an animal model with aAb to IL-1alpha, we immunised mice with recombinant murine IL-1alpha. Unprimed and Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG)-primed BALB/cA mice were vaccinated...... in mice by vaccination with recombinant murine IL-1alpha conjugated to PPD. Studies of the effects of IL-1alpha aAb in such animals may help clarify the importance of naturally occurring IL-1alpha aAb in humans and permit the evaluation of future therapies with cytokine aAb in patients...... with immunoinflammatory diseases and cytokine-dependent tumours....

  7. Lattice measurement of \\alpha_s with a realistic charm quark

    CERN Document Server

    Blossier, B; Brinet, M; De Soto, F; Du, X; Morenas, V; Pene, O; Petrov, K; Rodriguez-Quintero, J


    We report on an estimate of \\alpha_s, renormalised in the MSbar scheme at the tau and Z^0 mass scales, by means of lattice QCD. Our major improvement compared to previous lattice calculations is that, for the first time, no perturbative treatment at the charm threshold has been required since we have used statistical samples of gluon fields built by incorporating the vacuum polarisation effects of u/d, s and c sea quarks. Extracting \\alpha_s in the Taylor scheme from the lattice measurement of the ghost-ghost-gluon vertex, we obtain \\alpha_s^{MSbar}(m^2_Z)=0.1200(14) and \\alpha_s^{MSbar}(m^2_tau)=0.339(13).

  8. The ALPHA Experiment a Cold Antihydrogen Trap

    CERN Document Server

    Bertsche, W; Bowe, P D; Cesar, C L; Chapman, S; Charlton, M; Chartier, M; Deutsch, A; Fajans, J; Fujiwara, M C; Funakoshi, R; Gill, D; Gomberoff, K; Grote, D P; Hangst, J S; Hayano, R S; Jenkins, M; Jørgensen, L V; Madsen, N; Miranda, D; Nolan, P; Ochanski, K; Olin, A; Page, R D; Posada, L G C; Robicheaux, F; Sarid, E; Telle, H H; Vay, J L; Wurtele, J; van der Werf, D P; Yamazaki, Y


    The ALPHA experiment aims to trap antihydrogen as the next crucial step towards a precise CPT test, by a spectroscopic comparison of antihydrogen with hydrogen. The experiment will retain the salient techniques developed by the ATHENA collaboration during the previous phase of antihydrogen experiments at the antiproton decelerator (AD) at CERN. The collaboration has identified the key problems in adding a neutral antiatom trap to the previously developed experimental configuration. The solutions identified by ALPHA are described in this paper.

  9. Self-assembling, dynamic alphaPNAs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter E


    In the recent report published in Science, Ghadiri and coworkers describe dynamic tPNAs, alphaPNA derivatives with a nucleobase attached via a thioester bond that are a step forward toward self-repairing and replicating molecules.......In the recent report published in Science, Ghadiri and coworkers describe dynamic tPNAs, alphaPNA derivatives with a nucleobase attached via a thioester bond that are a step forward toward self-repairing and replicating molecules....

  10. Selective sorting of alpha-granule proteins


    Italiano, J.E.; Battinelli, E. M.


    One of the main functions of blood platelets is to secrete a variety of substances that can modify a developing thrombus, regulate the growth of the vasculature, promote wound repair, and contribute to cell-adhesive events. The majority of this vast array of secreted proteins is stored in alpha-granules. Until recently, it was assumed that platelets contained one homogeneous population of alpha-granules that undergo complete de-granulation during platelet activation. This review focuses on th...

  11. Lectin interactions with alpha-galactosylated xenoantigens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Svend; Moe, Dennis


    alpha-Galactosylated xenoantigens (Galalpha1-3Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta1 and Galalpha1-3Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1-4Glc) are often detected with the alpha-Gal specific lectin Griffonia simplicifolia 1 isolectin B4 (GS1 B4). However, this lectin exhibits a broad and variable specificity for carboh...

  12. Scaling Property in the Alpha Predominant EEG

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, D C; Kwan, H; Lin, Der Chyan; Sharif, Asif; Kwan, Hon


    The $\\alpha$ predominant electroencephalographic (EEG) recording of the human brain during eyes open and closed is studied using the zero-crossing time statistics. A model is presented to demonstrate and compare the key characteristics of the brain state. We found the zero-crossing time statistic is more accurate than the power spectral analysis and the detrend fluctuation analysis. Our results indicate different EEG fractal scaling in eyes closed and open for individuals capable of strong $\\alpha$ rhythm.

  13. Measurement of the angle alpha at BABAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, A.; /Orsay, LAL


    The authors present recent measurements of the CKM angle {alpha} using data collected by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, operating at the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance. They present constraints on {alpha} from B {yields} {pi}{pi}, B {yields} {rho}{rho} and B {yields} {rho}{pi} decays.

  14. EEG alpha power and creative ideation ☆



    Neuroscientific studies revealed first insights into neural mechanisms underlying creativity, but existing findings are highly variegated and often inconsistent. Despite the disappointing picture on the neuroscience of creativity drawn in recent reviews, there appears to be robust evidence that EEG alpha power is particularly sensitive to various creativity-related demands involved in creative ideation. Alpha power varies as a function of creativity-related task demands and the originality of...

  15. Alpha-emitters for medical therapy workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feinendegen, L.E.; McClure, J.J.


    A workshop on ``Alpha-Emitters for Medical Therapy`` was held May 30-31, 1996 in Denver Colorado to identify research goals and potential clinical needs for applying alpha-particle emitters and to provide DOE with sufficient information for future planning. The workshop was attended by 36 participants representing radiooncology, nuclear medicine, immunotherapy, radiobiology, molecular biology, biochemistry, radiopharmaceutical chemistry, dosimetry, and physics. This report provides a summary of the key points and recommendations arrived at during the conference.

  16. Neurophysiological assessment of alpha pattern coma.



    Somatosensory evoked potentials, blink reflexes, and H wave reflexes, were recorded on several days from three patients with alpha pattern coma. Coma was secondary to cardiac arrest in two cases and to brainstem infarction in one. Results are compatible with damage to the brainstem reticular formation with sparing of thalamo-cortical circuits as the main physiopathological characteristic of alpha pattern coma. This condition should not be regarded as a discrete entity when establishing the pr...

  17. [Studies on determination of alpha-amylase with p-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-maltotetraoside]. (United States)

    Kruse-Jarres, J D; Schott, F J; Klein, B; Rastetter, N; Wallenfels, K


    Nitrophenylmaltodextrins are alpha-amylase substrates which allow a continuous determination with a zero order kinetics over a period of at least 10 min, without deviations from linearity. Only one auxiliary enzyme is necessary. Practicability and clinical evidence of alpha-amylase determinations by means of p-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-maltotetraoside are demonstrated. The interserial precision of 0.84% cannot conceal an only moderate correlation with previous methods. This fact, however, does not negate the advantages.

  18. Rapid detection of hypoxia-inducible factor-1-active tumours: pretargeted imaging with a protein degrading in a mechanism similar to hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, Masashi [Kyoto University, Radioisotopes Research Laboratory, Kyoto University Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Kyoto University, Department of Patho-Functional Bioanalysis, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto (Japan); Kudo, Takashi; Konishi, Hiroaki; Miyano, Azusa; Ono, Masahiro; Saji, Hideo [Kyoto University, Department of Patho-Functional Bioanalysis, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto (Japan); Kuge, Yuji [Kyoto University, Department of Patho-Functional Bioanalysis, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto (Japan); Hokkaido University, Central Institute of Isotope Science, Sapporo (Japan); Mukai, Takahiro [Kyushu University, Department of Biomolecular Recognition Chemistry, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan); Tanaka, Shotaro; Kizaka-Kondoh, Shinae; Hiraoka, Masahiro [Kyoto University, Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-applied Therapy, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan)


    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) plays an important role in malignant tumour progression. For the imaging of HIF-1-active tumours, we previously developed a protein, POS, which is effectively delivered to and selectively stabilized in HIF-1-active cells, and a radioiodinated biotin derivative, (3-{sup 123}I-iodobenzoyl)norbiotinamide ({sup 123}I-IBB), which can bind to the streptavidin moiety of POS. In this study, we aimed to investigate the feasibility of the pretargeting method using POS and {sup 123}I-IBB for rapid imaging of HIF-1-active tumours. Tumour-implanted mice were pretargeted with POS. After 24 h, {sup 125}I-IBB was administered and subsequently, the biodistribution of radioactivity was investigated at several time points. In vivo planar imaging, comparison between {sup 125}I-IBB accumulation and HIF-1 transcriptional activity, and autoradiography were performed at 6 h after the administration of {sup 125}I-IBB. The same sections that were used in autoradiographic analysis were subjected to HIF-1{alpha} immunohistochemistry. {sup 125}I-IBB accumulation was observed in tumours of mice pretargeted with POS (1.6%ID/g at 6 h). This result is comparable to the data derived from {sup 125}I-IBB-conjugated POS-treated mice (1.4%ID/g at 24 h). In vivo planar imaging provided clear tumour images. The tumoral accumulation of {sup 125}I-IBB significantly correlated with HIF-1-dependent luciferase bioluminescence (R=0.84, p<0.01). The intratumoral distribution of {sup 125}I-IBB was heterogeneous and was significantly correlated with HIF-1{alpha}-positive regions (R=0.58, p<0.0001). POS pretargeting with {sup 123}I-IBB is a useful technique in the rapid imaging and detection of HIF-1-active regions in tumours. (orig.)

  19. Therapeutic use of alpha-emitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lassmann, M. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin der Univ. Wuerzburg (Germany)


    In recent years there is a growing interest in the therapeutic use of {alpha}-emitters for patient treatment, {alpha}-particles have much higher energy and their range is only a few cell diameters. Their high LET and the limited ability of cells to repair DNA damage from {alpha}-radiation explain their high relative biological effectiveness and cytotoxicity. Potential {alpha}-emitting isotopes for therapeutic applications are {sup 224}Ra, {sup 223}Ra, {sup 213}Bi and {sup 211}At. The treatment with {alpha}-particles is focused upon targeted cancer therapy using radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies, on palliation of bone metastases or upon pain relief in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Examples for targeted cancer therapy are the treatment of melanoma with {sup 213}Bi and non-Hodgkin lymphoma with {sup 211}At. For metastatic bone pain palliation {sup 223}Ra was applied in a phase I clinical trial. For amelioration of pain in AS-patients {sup 224}Ra-chloride is used. This radiopharmaceutical is licensed for this particular application in Germany. Today there are some potential clinical applications for {alpha}-emitters although most of them are in the state of scientific, non-routine investigations. In-vivo dosimetry for risk assessment associated with this treatment is even more difficult to perform than for therapies using beta-emitting radiopharmaceuticals. (orig.)

  20. Compatibility of $\\alpha_s(M_\\tau)$ with $\\alpha_s(M_Z)$


    Steele, T. G.; Elias, V.


    The current phenomenological determinations of $\\alpha_s(M_\\tau)$ and $\\alpha_s(M_Z)$ are shown to be only marginally consistent with the QCD evolution of the strong coupling constant between $M_Z$ and $M_\\tau$. This motivates a revised estimate of $\\alpha_s(M_\\tau)$ since the perturbative series used to extract $\\alpha_s(M_\\tau)$ from the $\\tau$ hadronic width exhibits slow convergence. Pad\\'e summation techniques provide an estimate of these unknown higher-order effects, leading to the revi...

  1. Cytokine vaccination: neutralising IL-1alpha autoantibodies induced by immunisation with homologous IL-1alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenson, M; Hansen, M B; Thomsen, Allan Randrup;


    High-affinity IgG autoantibodies (aAb) to IL-1alpha are among the most frequently found aAb to cytokines in humans. To establish an animal model with aAb to IL-1alpha, we immunised mice with recombinant murine IL-1alpha. Unprimed and Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG)-primed BALB/cA mice were vaccinated...... in mice by vaccination with recombinant murine IL-1alpha conjugated to PPD. Studies of the effects of IL-1alpha aAb in such animals may help clarify the importance of naturally occurring IL-1alpha aAb in humans and permit the evaluation of future therapies with cytokine aAb in patients...... with IL-1alpha coupled to purified protein derivative of tuberculin (PPD). Both unprimed and primed animals developed IgG aAb to IL-1alpha. These aAb persisted at high levels more than 100 days after vaccination and did not cross-react with murine IL-1beta. The induced anti-IL-1alpha aAb inhibited binding...

  2. Mapping High-velocity H-alpha and Lyman-alpha Emission from Supernova 1987A


    France, Kevin; McCray, Richard; Fransson, Claes; Larsson, Josefin; Frank, Kari A.; Burrows, David N.; Challis, Peter; Kirshner, Robert P.; Chevalier, Roger A.; Garnavich, Peter; Heng, Kevin; Lawrence, Stephen S.; Lundqvist, Peter; Smith, Nathan; Sonneborn, George


    We present new {\\it Hubble Space Telescope} images of high-velocity H-$\\alpha$ and Lyman-$\\alpha$ emission in the outer debris of SN~1987A. The H-$\\alpha$ images are dominated by emission from hydrogen atoms crossing the reverse shock. For the first time we observe emission from the reverse shock surface well above and below the equatorial ring, suggesting a bipolar or conical structure perpendicular to the ring plane. Using the H$\\alpha$ imaging, we measure the mass flux of hydrogen atoms cr...

  3. H-alpha features with hot onsets III. Fibrils in Lyman-alpha and with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Rutten, Robert J


    In H-alpha most of the solar surface is covered by a dense canopy of long opaque fibrils, but predictions for quiet-Sun observations with ALMA have ignored this fact. Comparison with Ly-alpha suggests that the large opacity of H-alpha fibrils is caused by hot precursor events. Application of a recipe that assumes momentary Saha-Boltzmann extinction during their hot onset to millimeter wavelengths suggests that ALMA will observe the H-alpha fibril canopy, not acoustic shocks underneath, and will yield data more interesting than if this canopy were transparent.

  4. Synthesis of tritiated 1-alpha-methadol and 1-alpha-acetylmethadol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thang, D.C.; Nam, N.H.; Pontikis, R. (Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM), Hopital Fernand Widal, 75 - Paris (France)); Pichat, L. (CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Service des Molecules Marquees)


    dl-Methadone was resolved by crystallization of its ammonium d- ..cap alpha.. -bromocamphor-..pi..-sulfonate salt to give d-methadone. The latter in ethyl acetate solution was reduced with tritium gas to 1-..cap alpha..-methadol /sup 3/H in presence of Adams platinum oxide at normal temperature and pressure. Acetylation of 1-..cap alpha..-carbinol hydrochloride by means of acetyl chloride afforded 1-..cap alpha..-acetylmethadol /sup 3/H, specific activity: 20 Ci/mMole. The positions and extent of tritium labelling were determined by /sup 3/H NMR spectroscopy.

  5. Alpha 1-blockers vs 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors in benign prostatic hyperplasia. A comparative review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J T


    During recent years, pharmacological treatment of symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) has become the primary treatment choice for an increasing number of patients. The 2 principal drug classes employed are alpha 1-blockers and 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors. Current information from...... of patients who will respond well to alpha 1-blockers have yet to be identified, and data concerning the long term effects of these drugs are not yet available. 5 alpha-Reductase inhibitors have a slow onset of effect, but treatment leads to improvement in symptoms, reduction of the size of the prostate gland...... or unwilling to undergo surgical resection of the prostate will benefit from such therapy....

  6. Anti-IL-1alpha autoantibodies in early rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forslind, K; Svensson, Birte; Svenson, M;


    To investigate the potential predictive value of autoantibodies against IL1-alpha (anti-IL-1alpha) in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA).......To investigate the potential predictive value of autoantibodies against IL1-alpha (anti-IL-1alpha) in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA)....

  7. Contribution of alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) Collagen IV to the Mechanical Properties of the Glomerular Basement Membrane (United States)

    Gyoneva, Lazarina

    The glomerular basement membrane (GBM) is a vital part of the blood-urine filtration barrier in the kidneys. In healthy GBMs, the main tension-resisting component is alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) type IV collagen, but in some diseases it is replaced by other collagen IV isoforms. As a result, the GBM becomes leaky and disorganized, ultimately resulting in kidney failure. Our goal is to understanding the biomechanical aspects of the alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) chains and how their absence could be responsible for (1) the initial injury to the GBM and (2) progression to kidney failure. A combination of experiments and computational models were designed for that purpose. A model basement membrane was used to compare experimentally the distensibility of tissues with the alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) chains present and missing. The experiments showed basement membranes containing alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) chains were less distensible. It has been postulated that the higher level of lateral cross-linking (supercoiling) in the alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) networks contributes additional strength/stability to basement membranes. In a computational model of supercoiled networks, we found that supercoiling greatly increased the stiffness of collagen IV networks but only minimally decreased the permeability, which is well suited for the needs of the GBM. It is also known that the alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) networks are more protected from enzymatic degradation, and we explored their significance in GBM remodeling. Our simulations showed that the more protected network was needed to prevent the system from entering a dangerous feedback cycle due to autoregulation mechanisms in the kidneys. Overall, the work adds to the evidence of biomechanical differences between the alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV) networks and other collagen IV networks, points to supercoiling as the main source of biomechanical differences, discusses the suitability of alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha

  8. Recent advances in the discovery of alpha1-adrenoceptor agonists. (United States)

    Bishop, Michael J


    The alpha(1) adrenoceptors are three of nine well-characterized receptors that are activated by epinephrine and norepinephrine. Agonists acting at the alpha(1) adrenoceptors produce numerous physiological effects, and are used therapeutically for several indications. Many known alpha(1) adrenoceptor agonists are alpha(1A) selective, but the discovery of highly selective alpha(1B) and alpha(1D) adrenoceptor agonists has proven to be an extremely difficult goal to achieve. This review will focus on recent advances in the discovery, development and clinical utility of subtype-specific alpha(1) agonists as well as contributions to our understanding of agonist-receptor interactions.

  9. Pharmacologic specificity of alpha-2 adrenergic receptor subtypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrash, A.; Bylund, D.


    The authors have defined alpha-2 adrenergic receptor subtypes in human and rat tissues using prazosin as a subtype selective drug. Prazosin has a lower affinity (250 nM) at alpha-2A receptor and a higher affinity (5 nM) at alpha-2B receptors. In order to determine if other adrenergic drugs are selective for one or the other subtypes, the authors performed (/sup 3/H)yohimbine inhibition experiments with various adrenergic drugs in tissues containing alpha-2A, alpha-2B or both subtypes. Oxymetazoline, WB4101 and yohimbine were found to be 80-, 20- and 10-fold more potent at alpha-2A receptors than at alpha-2B receptors. Phentolamine, adazoxan, (+)- and (-)-mianserin, clonidine, (+)-butaclamol, (-)- and (+)-norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine and thioridazine were found to have equal affinities for the two subtypes. These results further validate the subdivision of alpha-2 adrenergic receptors into alpha-2A and alpha-2B subtypes.

  10. [Individual alpha activity of electroencephalogram and nonverbal creativity]. (United States)

    Bazanova, O M; Aftanas, L I


    The main objective of present correlational investigation was to clarify relationships between nonverbal creativity indices and individual electroencephalogram alpha activity indices: individual alpha peak frequency, alpha band width, magnitude of alpha desynchronization and alpha spindle indices such as duration, amplitude, variability and skewness. The EEG was recorded in 98 healthy male right-handed subjects. Scores of nonverbal creativity (i. e., fluency, originality, and flexibility) were assessed using the Torrance test of nonverbal performance. The study showed that fluency in creative performance was associated with individual alpha peak frequency and alpha spindles duration, whereas originality and plasticity--with individual alpha band width and spindle amplitude variability. The findings also show that both highest and lowest individual alpha peak frequency indices are associated with enhanced scores of originality. It is suggested that individual alpha activity indices could be presented as individual predictors of fluency, plasticity and originality of nonverbal creativity.

  11. Endometrial receptivity: expression of alpha3beta1, alpha4beta1 and alphaVbeta1 endometrial integrins in women with impaired fertility. (United States)

    Skrzypczak, J; Mikołajczyk, M; Szymanowski, K


    Advances in immunohistochemical methods with the specificity of poly- and monoclonal antibodies allow the description of the endometrial receptivity, which is characterized by the ability of secretion of phase specific proteins and glikoproteins by epithelial and stromal cells. We studied the differences in the expression of alpha3beta1, alpha4beta1 and alphaVbeta1 integrins in endometrium of women with recurrent miscarriages and women with unexplained infertility. The endometrial tissue was collected during hysteroscopy performed between 7th and 9th day after ovulation. The immunohistochemical evaluation of alpha3beta1, alpha4beta1 and alphaVbeta1 integrin expression was determined in all endometrial biopsies. Staining intensity of alpha3beta1 in glandular epithelium and endometrial stroma was similar in both groups. In women with recurrent miscarriages we noted a lower concentrations of the alpha4beta1 and alphaVbeta1 integrins during the midluteal phase than in women with unexplained infertility. Moreover, integrins alpha4beta1 and alphaVbeta1 were expressed more frequently in glandular epithelium and endometrial stroma of women with unexplained infertility than those of women with recurrent miscarriages. However, alphaV(2)1 staining in endometrial stroma was stronger than that of alpha4beta1. It can be concluded, that these integrins may play an important role in the implantation process.

  12. Alpha Channeling in Rotating Plasma with Stationary Waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Fetterman and N.J. Fisch


    An extension of the alpha channeling effect to supersonically rotating mirrors shows that the rotation itself can be driven using alpha particle energy. Alpha channeling uses radiofrequency waves to remove alpha particles collisionlessly at low energy. We show that stationary magnetic fields with high nθ can be used for this purpose, and simulations show that a large fraction of the alpha energy can be converted to rotation energy.

  13. {alpha}-nucleus potentials and photon-induced nucleosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galaviz, D. E-mail:; Babilon, M.; Fueloep, Zs.; Gyuerky, Gy.; Hillier, R.; Mate, Z.; Mohr, P.; Rauscher, T.; Somorjai, E.; Zilges, A.; Zolnai, L


    New data for the {sup 112,124}Sn({alpha},{alpha}){sup 112,124}Sn reaction have been measured and are presently analyzed. Results of the {sup 112} Sn x {alpha} potential at the energy E{sub c.m.} {approx} 14 MeV are presented. The determination of this {alpha}-nucleus potential may allow a prediction of the {sup 112}Sn({alpha},{gamma}){sup 116}Te cross section.

  14. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Alpha Target Genes


    Maryam Rakhshandehroo; Bianca Knoch; Michael Müller; Sander Kersten


    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR alpha) is a ligand-activated transcription factor involved in the regulation of a variety of processes, ranging from inflammation and immunity to nutrient metabolism and energy homeostasis. PPAR alpha serves as a molecular target for hypolipidemic fibrates drugs which bind the receptor with high affinity. Furthermore, PPAR alpha binds and is activated by numerous fatty acids and fatty acid-derived compounds. PPAR alpha governs biologi...

  15. Infusions of 3alpha,5alpha-THP to the VTA enhance exploratory, anti-anxiety, social, and sexual behavior and increase levels of 3alpha,5alpha-THP in midbrain, hippocampus, diencephalon, and cortex of female rats. (United States)

    Frye, Cheryl A; Rhodes, Madeline E


    17beta-Estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) influence the onset and duration of sexual behavior and are also associated with changes in behaviors that may contribute to mating, such as exploration, anxiety, and social behaviors (socio-sexual behaviors). In the midbrain ventral tegmental area (VTA), the P4 metabolite, 5alpha-pregnan-3alpha-ol-20-one (3alpha,5alpha-THP), modulates lordosis of E2-primed rodents; 3alpha,5alpha-THP can also influence anxiety and social behaviors. To examine if 3alpha,5alpha-THP in the VTA mediates socio-sexual behaviors, we infused 3alpha,5alpha-THP to the VTA of diestrous and proestrous rats. As expected, proestrous, compared to diestrous, rats showed more exploratory (open field), anxiolytic (elevated plus maze), pro-social (partner preference, social interaction), and sexual (paced mating) behavior and had increased E2, P4, dihydroprogesterone (DHP), and 3alpha,5alpha-THP in serum, midbrain, hippocampus, diencephalon, and cortex. Infusions of 3alpha,5alpha-THP to the VTA, but not control sites, such as the substantia nigra (SN) or central grey (CG), of diestrous rats produced behavioral and endocrine effects akin to that of proestrous rats and increased DHP and 3alpha,5alpha-THP levels in midbrain, hippocampus, and diencephalon. Levels of DHP and 3alpha,5alpha-THP, but neither E2 nor P4 concentrations, in midbrain, hippocampus, diencephalon, and/or cortex were positively correlated with socio-sexual behaviors. Thus, 3alpha,5alpha-THP infusions to the VTA, but not SN or CG, can enhance socio-sexual behaviors and increase levels in midbrain, hippocampus, and diencephalon.

  16. The biological effects of five feline IFN-alpha subtypes. (United States)

    Baldwin, Susan L; Powell, Tim D; Sellins, Karen S; Radecki, Steven V; Cohen, J John; Milhausen, Michael J


    IFN-alpha has been shown to induce both antiviral and antiproliferative activities in animals. This report describes the biological activity of five recently identified feline IFN-alpha subtypes expressed in the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line (rfeIFN-alpha1[CHO], rfeIFN-alpha2[CHO], rfeIFN-alpha3[CHO], rfeIFN-alpha5[CHO] and rfeIFN-alpha6[CHO]) and the feIFN-alpha6 subtype expressed in and purified from Pichia pastoris (rfeIFN-alpha6[P. pastoris]). The rfeIFN-alpha[CHO] subtypes were tested for antiviral activity against either Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) or feline calicivirus (FCV) infected feline embryonic fibroblast cell line (AH927) or Crandell feline kidney cell line (CRFK). Antiviral activity was induced against both VSV and FCV infected AH927 cells and VSV infected CRFK cells by all five of the rfeIFN-alpha[CHO] subtypes and rfeIFN-alpha6[P. pastoris]. In addition, the IFN-alpha inducible Mx gene (associated with antiviral activity) was upregulated in vivo 24 h following treatment with rfeIFN-alpha6[P. pastoris], compared to baseline levels seen prior to treatment. All of the rfeIFN-alpha[CHO] subtypes and rfeIFN-alpha6[P. pastoris] exhibited antiproliferative activity in the FeT-J cell line (an IL-2 independent feline T-cell line). Both necrosis and apoptosis were observed in rfeIFN-alpha6[P. pastoris]-treated FeT-J cells. The rfeIFN-alpha3[CHO] subtype consistently exhibited lower antiviral and antiproliferative activity compared to that observed with the other four rfeIFN-alpha[CHO] subtypes. In summary, this paper demonstrates that five previously described feIFN-alpha subtypes induce both antiviral and antiproliferative activities in vitro and are capable of upregulating the feMx gene in vivo.

  17. Lyman-alpha emission in star-forming galaxies (United States)

    Hartmann, Lee W.; Huchra, John P.; Geller, Margaret J.; O'Brien, Paul; Wilson, Robert


    IUE observations of five blue, low-metallicity, star-forming galaxies sufficiently redshifted to permit detection of Lyman-alpha are reported. The galaxies with metallicities 0.1 time solar or more have weak or absent Lyman-alpha emission. There is evidence for increasing Lyman-alpha emission with decreasing metallicity. The reduction of Lyman-alpha fluxes from recombination values is attributed to absorption of multiply scattered Lyman-alpha by dust.

  18. Consistent Measurements of $\\alpha_{s}$ from Precise Oriented Event Shape Distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P.; Adye, T.; Adzic, P.; Albrecht, Z.; Alderweireld, T.; Alekseev, G.D.; Alemany, R.; Allmendinger, T.; Allport, P.P.; Almehed, S.; Amaldi, U.; Amapane, N.; Amato, S.; Anassontzis, E.G.; Andersson, P.; Andreazza, A.; Andringa, S.; Antilogus, P.; Apel, W.D.; Arnoud, Y.; Asman, B.; Augustin, J.E.; Augustinus, A.; Baillon, P.; Bambade, P.; Barao, F.; Barbiellini, G.; Barbier, R.; Bardin, D.Yu.; Barker, G.J.; Baroncelli, A.; Battaglia, M.; Baubillier, M.; Becks, K.H.; Begalli, M.; Behrmann, A.; Beilliere, P.; Belokopytov, Yu.; Benekos, N.C.; Benvenuti, A.C.; Berat, C.; Berggren, M.; Bertini, D.; Bertrand, D.; Besancon, M.; Bigi, M.; Bilenky, Mikhail S.; Bizouard, M.A.; Bloch, D.; Blom, H.M.; Bonesini, M.; Bonivento, W.; Boonekamp, M.; Booth, P.S.L.; Borgland, A.W.; Borisov, G.; Bosio, C.; Botner, O.; Boudinov, E.; Bouquet, B.; Bourdarios, C.; Bowcock, T.J.V.; Boyko, I.; Bozovic, I.; Bozzo, M.; Branchini, P.; Brenke, T.; Brenner, R.A.; Bruckman, P.; Brunet, J.M.; Bugge, L.; Buran, T.; Burgsmuller, T.; Buschbeck, B.; Buschmann, P.; Cabrera, S.; Caccia, M.; Calvi, M.; Camporesi, T.; Canale, V.; Carena, F.; Carroll, L.; Caso, C.; Castillo Gimenez, M.V.; Cattai, A.; Cavallo, F.R.; Chabaud, V.; Charpentier, P.; Chaussard, L.; Checchia, P.; Chelkov, G.A.; Chierici, R.; Chochula, P.; Chorowicz, V.; Chudoba, J.; Cieslik, K.; Collins, P.; Contri, R.; Cortina, E.; Cosme, G.; Cossutti, F.; Cowell, J.H.; Crawley, H.B.; Crennell, D.; Crepe-Renaudin, Sabine; Crosetti, G.; Cuevas Maestro, J.; Czellar, S.; Davenport, M.; Da Silva, W.; Deghorain, A.; Della Ricca, G.; Delpierre, P.; Demaria, N.; De Angelis, A.; De Boer, W.; De Clercq, C.; De Lotto, B.; De Min, A.; De Paula, L.; Dijkstra, H.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Dolbeau, J.; Doroba, K.; Dracos, M.; Drees, J.; Dris, M.; Duperrin, A.; Durand, J.D.; Eigen, G.; Ekelof, T.; Ekspong, G.; Ellert, M.; Elsing, M.; Engel, J.P.; Erzen, B.; Espirito Santo, M.C.; Fanourakis, G.; Fassouliotis, D.; Fayot, J.; Feindt, M.; Ferrari, P.; Ferrer, A.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Ferro, F.; Fichet, S.; Firestone, A.; Flagmeyer, U.; Foeth, H.; Fokitis, E.; Fontanelli, F.; Franek, B.; Frodesen, A.G.; Fruhwirth, R.; Fulda-Quenzer, F.; Fuster, J.; Galloni, A.; Gamba, D.; Gamblin, S.; Gandelman, M.; Garcia, C.; Gaspar, C.; Gaspar, M.; Gasparini, U.; Gavillet, P.; Gazis, Evangelos; Gele, D.; Ghodbane, N.; Gil Botella, Ines; Glege, F.; Gokieli, R.; Golob, B.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncalves, P.; Gonzalez Caballero, I.; Gopal, G.; Gorn, L.; Gracco, V.; Grahl, J.; Graziani, E.; Green, C.; Grimm, H.J.; Gris, P.; Grosdidier, G.; Grzelak, K.; Gunther, M.; Guy, J.; Hahn, F.; Hahn, S.; Haider, S.; Hallgren, A.; Hamacher, K.; Hansen, J.; Harris, F.J.; Hedberg, V.; Heising, S.; Hernandez, J.J.; Herquet, P.; Herr, H.; Hessing, T.L.; Heuser, J.M.; Higon, E.; Holmgren, S.O.; Holt, P.J.; Hoorelbeke, S.; Houlden, M.; Hrubec, J.; Huet, K.; Hughes, G.J.; Hultqvist, K.; Jackson, John Neil; Jacobsson, R.; Jalocha, P.; Janik, R.; Jarlskog, C.; Jarlskog, G.; Jarry, P.; Jean-Marie, B.; Johansson, Erik Karl; Jonsson, P.; Joram, C.; Juillot, P.; Kapusta, Frederic; Karafasoulis, K.; Katsanevas, S.; Katsoufis, E.C.; Keranen, R.; Kersevan, B.P.; Khomenko, B.A.; Khovansky, N.N.; Kiiskinen, A.; King, B.; Kinvig, A.; Kjaer, N.J.; Klapp, O.; Klein, Hansjorg; Kluit, P.; Kokkinias, P.; Koratzinos, M.; Kourkoumelis, C.; Kuznetsov, O.; Krammer, M.; Kriznic, E.; Krumshtein, Z.; Kubinec, P.; Kurowska, J.; Kurvinen, K.; Lamsa, J.W.; Lane, D.W.; Langefeld, P.; Laugier, J.P.; Lauhakangas, R.; Leder, G.; Ledroit, Fabienne; Lefebure, V.; Leinonen, L.; Leisos, A.; Leitner, R.; Lemonne, J.; Lenzen, G.; Lepeltier, V.; Lesiak, T.; Lethuillier, M.; Libby, J.; Liko, D.; Lipniacka, A.; Lippi, I.; Lorstad, B.; Loken, J.G.; Lopes, J.H.; Lopez, J.M.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Loukas, D.; Lutz, P.; Lyons, L.; MacNaughton, J.; Mahon, J.R.; Maio, A.; Malek, A.; Malmgren, T.G.M.; Maltezos, S.; Malychev, V.; Mandl, F.; Marco, J.; Marco, R.; Marechal, B.; Margoni, M.; Marin, J.C.; Mariotti, C.; Markou, A.; Martinez-Rivero, C.; Martinez-Vidal, F.; Marti i Garcia, S.; Masik, J.; Mastroyiannopoulos, N.; Matorras, F.; Matteuzzi, C.; Matthiae, G.; Mazzucato, F.; Mazzucato, M.; McCubbin, M.; McKay, R.; McNulty, R.; McPherson, G.; Meroni, C.; Meyer, W.T.; Migliore, E.; Mirabito, L.; Mitaroff, W.A.; Mjornmark, U.; Moa, T.; Moch, M.; Moller, Rasmus; Monig, Klaus; Monge, M.R.; Moreau, X.; Morettini, P.; Morton, G.; Muller, U.; Munich, K.; Mulders, M.; Mulet-Marquis, C.; Muresan, R.; Murray, W.J.; Muryn, B.; Myatt, G.; Myklebust, T.; Naraghi, F.; Nassiakou, M.; Navarria, F.L.; Navas, Sergio; Nawrocki, K.; Negri, P.; Nemecek, S.; Neufeld, N.; Nicolaidou, R.; Nielsen, B.S.; Niezurawski, P.; Nikolenko, M.; Nomokonov, V.; Normand, A.; Nygren, A.; Olshevsky, A.G.; Onofre, A.; Orava, R.; Orazi, G.; Osterberg, K.; Ouraou, A.; Paganoni, M.; Paiano, S.; Pain, R.; Paiva, R.; Palacios, J.; Palka, H.; Papadopoulou, T.D.; Papageorgiou, K.; Pape, L.; Parkes, C.; Parodi, F.; Parzefall, U.; Passeri, A.; Passon, O.; Pegoraro, M.; Peralta, L.; Pernicka, M.; Perrotta, A.; Petridou, C.; Petrolini, A.; Phillips, H.T.; Pierre, F.; Pimenta, M.; Piotto, E.; Podobnik, T.; Pol, M.E.; Polok, G.; Poropat, P.; Pozdnyakov, V.; Privitera, P.; Pukhaeva, N.; Pullia, A.; Radojicic, D.; Ragazzi, S.; Rahmani, H.; Ratoff, P.N.; Read, Alexander L.; Rebecchi, P.; Redaelli, Nicola Giuseppe; Regler, M.; Reid, D.; Reinhardt, R.; Renton, P.B.; Resvanis, L.K.; Richard, F.; Ridky, J.; Rinaudo, G.; Rodrigo, German; Rohne, O.; Romero, A.; Ronchese, P.; Rosenberg, E.I.; Rosinsky, P.; Roudeau, P.; Rovelli, T.; Royon, C.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Ruiz, A.; Saarikko, H.; Sacquin, Y.; Sadovsky, A.; Sajot, G.; Salt, J.; Sampsonidis, D.; Sannino, M.; Schneider, H.; Schwemling, P.; Schwering, B.; Schwickerath, U.; Schyns, M.A.E.; Scuri, Fabrizio; Seager, P.; Sedykh, Yu.; Segar, A.M.; Sekulin, R.; Shellard, R.C.; Sheridan, A.; Siebel, M.; Simard, L.; Simonetto, F.; Sisakian, A.N.; Smadja, G.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, G.R.; Sopczak, A.; Sosnowski, R.; Spassoff, T.; Spiriti, E.; Sponholz, P.; Squarcia, S.; Stanescu, C.; Stanic, S.; Stevenson, K.; Stocchi, A.; Strauss, J.; Strub, R.; Stugu, B.; Szczekowski, M.; Szeptycka, M.; Tabarelli, T.; Tegenfeldt, F.; Terranova, F.; Thomas, J.; Timmermans, Jan; Tinti, N.; Tkachev, L.G.; Todorova, S.; Tomaradze, A.; Tome, B.; Tonazzo, A.; Tortora, L.; Transtromer, G.; Treille, D.; Tristram, G.; Trochimczuk, M.; Troncon, C.; Tsirou, A.; Turluer, M.L.; Tyapkin, I.A.; Tzamarias, S.; Ullaland, O.; Valenti, G.; Vallazza, E.; Vander Velde, C.; Van Apeldoorn, G.W.; Van Dam, Piet; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Eldik, J.; Van Lysebetten, A.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Vulpen, I.; Vassilopoulos, N.; Vegni, G.; Ventura, L.; Venus, W.; Verbeure, F.; Verlato, M.; Vertogradov, L.S.; Verzi, V.; Vilanova, D.; Vitale, L.; Vodopianov, A.S.; Vollmer, C.; Voulgaris, G.; Vrba, V.; Wahlen, H.; Walck, C.; Weiser, C.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, J.H.; Wilkinson, G.R.; Winter, M.; Witek, M.; Wolf, G.; Yi, J.; Zalewska, A.; Zalewski, P.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zevgolatakos, E.; Zimine, N.I.; Zucchelli, G.C.; Zumerle, G.


    An updated analysis using about 1.5 million events recorded at $\\sqrt{s} =M_Z$ with the DELPHI detector in 1994 is presented. Eighteen infrared and collinear safe event shape observables are measured as a function of the polar angle of the thrust axis. The data are compared to theoretical calculations in${\\cal O} (\\alpha_s^2)$ including the event orientation. A combined fit of $\\alpha_s$ and of the renormalization scale $x_{\\mu}$ in $\\cal O(\\alpha_s^2$)yields an excellent description of the high statistics data. The weighted average from 18 observables including quark mass effects and correlations is $\\alpha_s(M_Z^2) = 0.1174 \\pm 0.0026$. The final result, derived from the jet cone energy fraction, the observable with the smallest theoretical and experimental uncertainty, is $\\alpha_s(M_Z^2) = =0:1180 0:0006(exp:) 0:0013(hadr:) 0:0008(scale) 0:0007(mass). Further studies include an s determination using theoretical predictions in the next-to-leading log approximation (NLLA), matched NLLA and O(\\alpha^{2}_{s})...

  19. On the Diffuse Lyman-alpha Halo Around Lyman-alpha Emitting Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Lake, Ethan; Cen, Renyue; Sadoun, Raphael; Momose, Rieko; Ouchi, Masami


    Ly$\\alpha$ photons scattered by neutral hydrogen atoms in the circumgalactic media or produced in the halos of star-forming galaxies are expected to lead to extended Ly$\\alpha$ emission around galaxies. Such low surface brightness Ly$\\alpha$ halos (LAHs) have been detected by stacking Ly$\\alpha$ images of high-redshift star-forming galaxies. We study the origin of LAHs by performing radiative transfer modeling of nine $z=3.1$ Lyman-Alpha Emitters (LAEs) in a high resolution hydrodynamic galaxy formation simulation. We develop a method of computing the mean Ly$\\alpha$ surface brightness profile of each LAE by effectively integrating over many different observing directions. Without adjusting any parameters, our model yields an average Ly$\\alpha$ surface brightness profile in remarkable agreement with observations. We find that observed LAHs can not be accounted for solely by photons originating from the central LAE and scattered to large radii by hydrogen atoms in the circumgalactic gas. Instead, Ly$\\alpha$ em...

  20. ALPHA spokesperson Jeffrey Hangst gives a tour of the new ALPHA-2

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Video Productions


    While many experiments are methodically planning for intense works over the long shutdown, there is one experiment that is already working at full steam: ALPHA-2. Its final components arrived last month and will completely replace the previous ALPHA set-up. Unlike its predecessor, this next generation experiment has been specifically designed to measure the properties of antimatter.

  1. Changes in vascular alpha 1- and alpha 2-adrenoceptor responsiveness by selegiline treatment. (United States)

    Pelat, M; Verwaerde, P; Tran, M A; Berlan, M; Senard, J M; Montastruc, J L


    Pharmacoepidemiological studies have reported an excess of mortality with selegiline, a MAO B inhibitor used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. The mechanism of this putative adverse effect remains unknown but an interaction with the sympathetic nervous system was suggested. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of selegiline (10 mg/daily, orally during one week) on vascular alpha1- and alpha2-adrenoceptor responsiveness in conscious unrestrained dogs. Selegiline significantly increased resting values of both systolic and diastolic blood pressures and noradrenaline plasma levels (HPLC) without changing heart rate. Moreover, spectral analysis of systolic blood pressure (Fast Fourier Transformation) showed that selegiline increased the relative energy of a low frequency band without modifying the total spectrum. ED 50 calculated from dose-pressor response curves with phenylephrine (after beta-blockade by propranolol), an index of alpha1-adrenoceptor response or with noradrenaline (after alpha1- and beta blockade by prazosin plus propranolol), an index of alpha2-adrenoceptor response, were significantly higher after selegiline. Selegiline failed to modify the number of platelet alpha2-adrenoceptors measured by [(3)H] RX 821002 binding. Yohimbine-induced increase in noradrenaline release was significantly more marked after selegiline. These results support the evidence that selegiline induces a vascular alpha1- and alpha2-adrenoceptor-hyposensitivity that can be explained by the increase in noradrenaline release elicited by the drug.

  2. Radiative-nonrecoil corrections of order alpha^2 (Z alpha)^5 to the Lamb shift

    CERN Document Server

    Dowling, Matthew; Piclum, Jan H; Czarnecki, Andrzej


    We present results for the corrections of order alpha^2 (Z alpha)^5 to the Lamb shift. We compute all the contributing Feynman diagrams in dimensional regularization and a general covariant gauge using a mixture of analytical and numerical methods. We confirm results obtained by other groups and improve their precision. Values of the 32 master integrals for this and similar problems are provided.

  3. Cortical Alpha Oscillations Predict Speech Intelligibility (United States)

    Dimitrijevic, Andrew; Smith, Michael L.; Kadis, Darren S.; Moore, David R.


    Understanding speech in noise (SiN) is a complex task involving sensory encoding and cognitive resources including working memory and attention. Previous work has shown that brain oscillations, particularly alpha rhythms (8–12 Hz) play important roles in sensory processes involving working memory and attention. However, no previous study has examined brain oscillations during performance of a continuous speech perception test. The aim of this study was to measure cortical alpha during attentive listening in a commonly used SiN task (digits-in-noise, DiN) to better understand the neural processes associated with “top-down” cognitive processing in adverse listening environments. We recruited 14 normal hearing (NH) young adults. DiN speech reception threshold (SRT) was measured in an initial behavioral experiment. EEG activity was then collected: (i) while performing the DiN near SRT; and (ii) while attending to a silent, close-caption video during presentation of identical digit stimuli that the participant was instructed to ignore. Three main results were obtained: (1) during attentive (“active”) listening to the DiN, a number of distinct neural oscillations were observed (mainly alpha with some beta; 15–30 Hz). No oscillations were observed during attention to the video (“passive” listening); (2) overall, alpha event-related synchronization (ERS) of central/parietal sources were observed during active listening when data were grand averaged across all participants. In some participants, a smaller magnitude alpha event-related desynchronization (ERD), originating in temporal regions, was observed; and (3) when individual EEG trials were sorted according to correct and incorrect digit identification, the temporal alpha ERD was consistently greater on correctly identified trials. No such consistency was observed with the central/parietal alpha ERS. These data demonstrate that changes in alpha activity are specific to listening conditions. To our

  4. Role of Frontal Alpha Oscillations in Creativity (United States)

    Lustenberger, Caroline; Boyle, Michael R.; Foulser, A. Alban; Mellin, Juliann M.; Fröhlich, Flavio


    Creativity, the ability to produce innovative ideas, is a key higher-order cognitive function that is poorly understood. At the level of macroscopic cortical network dynamics, recent EEG data suggests that cortical oscillations in the alpha frequency band (8 – 12 Hz) are correlated with creative thinking. However, whether alpha oscillations play a fundamental role in creativity has remained unknown. Here we show that creativity is increased by enhancing alpha power using 10 Hz transcranial alternating current stimulation (10Hz-tACS) of the frontal cortex. In a study of 20 healthy participants with a randomized, balanced cross-over design, we found a significant improvement of 7.4% in the Creativity Index measured by the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking, a comprehensive and most frequently used assay of creative potential and strengths. In a second similar study with 20 subjects, 40Hz-tACS was used in instead of 10Hz-tACS to rule out a general “electrical stimulation” effect. No significant change in the Creativity Index was found for such frontal gamma stimulation. Our results suggest that alpha activity in frontal brain areas is selectively involved in creativity; this enhancement represents the first demonstration of specific neuronal dynamics that drive creativity and can be modulated by non-invasive brain stimulation. Our findings agree with the model that alpha recruitment increases with internal processing demands and is involved in inhibitory top-down control, which is an important requirement for creative ideation. PMID:25913062

  5. H-alpha Photometry of Abell 2390

    CERN Document Server

    Balogh, M L; Balogh, Michael L.; Morris, Simon L.


    We present the results of a search for strong H-alpha emission line galaxies (rest frame equivalent widths greater than 50 A) in the z=0.23 cluster Abell 2390. The survey contains 1189 galaxies over 270 square arcminutes, and is 50% complete at M_r=-17.5+5 log h. The fraction of galaxies in which H-alpha is detected at the 2sigma level rises from 0.0 in the central regions (excluding the cD galaxy) to 12.5+/-8% at R200. For 165 of the galaxies in our catalogue, we compare the H-alpha equivalent widths with their [OII] equivalent widths, from the CNOC1 spectra. The fraction of strong H-alpha emission line galaxies is consistent with the fraction of strong [OII] emission galaxies in the CNOC1 sample: only 2+/-1% have no detectable [OII] emission and yet significant (>2sigma) H-alpha equivalent widths. Dust obscuration, non-thermal ionization, and aperture effects are all likely to contribute to this non-correspondence of emission lines. We identify six spectroscopically 'secure' k+a galaxies (W(OII)5 A); at lea...

  6. Alpha methyldopa induced hepatotoxicity in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmasri Ramalingappa


    Full Text Available We report a case of gestational hepatitis due to alpha-methyldopa and briefly review the literature on alpha-methyldopa-induced hepatotoxicity in pregnancy. A 32 year old woman, primigravida with 34 weeks of gestation with pre eclampsia, presented with symptoms of nausea, dark coloured urine and jaundice. She was on alpha methyldopa (Aldomet 250 mg thrice a day since the last five weeks. Laboratory investigations revealed raised bilirubin, serum aspartate transaminases and serum alanine transaminases. Platelets were normal. Peripheral smear did not show haemolysis. With the exclusion of viral, haemolytic and obstructive causes, drug induced jaundice was considered as a differential diagnosis. Alpha methyldopa was withdrawn and replaced with nifedipine for her pre eclampsia treatment. Her repeat bilirubin level done two weeks later showed a drop. She went into labour at 38 weeks and delivered vaginally. In postpartum follow up her liver tests returned to normal in two weeks, about six weeks after stopping methyldopa. Hepatotoxicity should be considered as one of the adverse drug reaction of alpha methyldopa. It is not possible at present to predict which patients will develop liver disease following the administration of this drug. An awareness of the possibility of methyldopa induced hepatotoxicity should be present in the clinician's mind and liver function tests should be done at regular intervals. The occasional occurrence of this harmful side effect is not a contraindication to the use of this antihypertensive agent. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(3.000: 805-807

  7. H-alpha Observations of MKW10 (United States)

    Johnson, Harold; Coble, Kimberly A.; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Durbala, Adriana; Undergraduate ALFALFA Team


    As part of the Undergraduate ALFALFA Team project looking at clusters and groups of galaxies to investigate the effects of environment on star formation, we analyzed H-alpha and R-band observations of the group MKW10 from the WIYN 0.9-m telescope with MOSAIC camera at Kitt Peak. We continuum-subtract the H-alpha images by scaling and subtracting the broadband R images. This process includes: determining the seeing of each image by calculating the FWHM values of several stars in the image; convolving all images to the worst seeing; stacking images for each filter; subtracting sky background; scaling the R image to H-alpha; and subtracting the scaled R from H-alpha. We then use the H-alpha-continuum-subtracted image to perform surface photometry of individual galaxies in MKW10. The data will be used to determine star formation rates and distributions of galaxies in this group environment and will be compared to results for galaxies in other UAT group and cluster environments. Analysis is ongoing.This work has been supported by NSF grant AST-1211005 and the Illinois Space Grant Consortium.

  8. Measurements of $\\alpha_{s}$ with the DELPHI detector at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Flagmeyer, U


    The data collected with DELPHI during the LEP1 period is used to perform a simultaneous fit to the strong coupling constant alpha /sub s/ in 2/sup nd/ order perturbation theory and to the renormalisation scale x/sub mu /. The results are compared to alpha /sub s/ fits in 2 /sup nd/ order perturbation theory with fixed scale x/sub mu / and to other theoretically motivated scale setting methods. To determine the energy dependence of alpha /sub s/, event shape distributions and their mean values are measured for square root (s)=48 GeV to 189 GeV. The strong coupling alpha /sub s/ is extracted in O( alpha /sub s //sup 2/). Next to leading log approximation (NLLA) and in a combined scheme using - evaluated with fragmentation model generators, and an analytical power ansatz. (16 refs).

  9. Benchmarking the External Surrogate Ratio Method using the (alpha,alpha' f) reaction at STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesher, S R; Bernstein, L A; Ai, H; Beausang, C W; Bleuel, D; Burke, J T; Clark, R M; Fallon, P; Gibelin, J; Lee, I Y; Lyles, B F; Macchiavelli, A O; McMahan, M A; Moody, K J; Norman, E B; Phair, L; Rodriguez-Vieitez, E; Wiedeking, M


    We measured the ratio of the fission probabilities of {sup 234}U* relative to {sup 236}U* formed via an ({alpha},{alpha}{prime}) direct reactions using the STARS array at the 88-inch cyclotron at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. This ratio has a shape similar to the ratio of neutron capture probabilities from {sup 233}U(n; f) and {sup 235}U(n; f), indicating the alpha reactions likely formed a compound nucleus. This result indicates that the ratios of fission exit channel probabilities for two actinide nuclei populated via ({alpha}, {alpha}{prime}) can be used to determine an unknown fission cross section relative to a known one. The validity of the External Surrogate Ratio Method (ESRM) is tested and the results support the conclusions of Burke et al. [1].

  10. Efficient synthesis of 1-azadienes derived from alpha-aminoesters. Regioselective preparation of alpha-dehydroamino acids, vinylglycines, and alpha-amino acids. (United States)

    Palacios, Francisco; Vicario, Javier; Aparicio, Domitila


    An efficient synthesis of 1-azadienes derived from alpha-aminoesters is achieved through an aza-Wittig reaction of phosphazenes with beta,gamma-unsaturated alpha-ketoesters. Regioselective 1,2-reduction of these functionalized 1-azadienes affords vinylglycine derivatives, while conjugative 1,4-reduction gives alpha-dehydroamino acid compounds. Reduction of both the carbon-carbon and the imine-carbon-nitrogen double bonds leads to the formation of alpha-amino acid derivatives.

  11. Review on alpha sub s at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Wicke, D


    To measure the strong coupling alpha sub s from event shape observables two ingredients are necessary: a perturbative prediction containing the dependence of observables on alpha sub s and a description of the hadronisation process to match the perturbative prediction with the hadronic data. As perturbative prediction O(alpha sup 2 sub s), NLLA and combined calculations are available. Beside the well known Monte-Carlo based models also analytical predictions, so called power corrections, exist to describe the hadronisation. Advantages and disadvantages of the different resulting methods for determining the strong coupling and its energy dependence will be discussed, the newest DELPHI results will be presented, and an overview of the LEP results will be included.

  12. ALPHA MIS: Reference manual. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovin, J.K.; Haese, R.L.; Heatherly, R.D.; Hughes, S.E.; Ishee, J.S.; Pratt, S.M.; Smith, D.W.


    ALPHA is a powerful and versatile management information system (MIS) initiated and sponsored and by the Finance and Business Management Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, who maintain and develop it in concert with the Business Systems Division for its Information Center. A general-purpose MIS, ALPHA allows users to access System 1022 and System 1032 databases to obtain and manage information. From a personal computer or a data terminal, Energy Systems employees can use ALPHA to control their own report reprocessing. Using four general commands (Database, Select, Sort, and Report) they can (1) choose a mainframe database, (2) define subsets within it, (3) sequentially order a subset by one or more variables, and (4) generate a report with their own or a canned format.

  13. Iron modulates the alpha chain of fibrinogen. (United States)

    Nielsen, Vance G; Jacobsen, Wayne K


    Iron-bound fibrinogen has been noted to accelerate plasmatic coagulation in patients with divergent conditions involving upregulation of heme oxygenase activity, including hemodialysis, Alzheimer's disease, sickle cell anemia, and chronic migraine. Our goal was to determine if a site of iron-fibrinogen interaction was on the alpha chain. Using thrombelastography, we compared the coagulation kinetic profiles of plasma exposed to 0-10 µM ferric chloride after activation of coagulation with thrombin generated by contact activation of plasma with the plastic sample cup or by exposure to 1 µg/ml of Calloselasma rhodostoma venom (rich in ancrod activity), which causes coagulation via polymerization of alpha chain monomers. Venom mediated coagulation always occurred before thrombin activated thrombus formation, and ferric chloride always diminished the time of onset of coagulation and increased the velocity of clot growth. Iron enhances plasmatic coagulation kinetics by modulating the alpha chain of fibrinogen.

  14. Lyman-alpha Absorption from Heliosheath Neutrals

    CERN Document Server

    Wood, B E; Linsky, J L; Malama, Y G; Wood, Brian E.; Izmodenov, Vladislav V.; Linsky, Jeffrey L.; Malama, Yury G.


    We assess what information HST observations of stellar Ly-alpha lines can provide on the heliosheath, the region of the heliosphere between the termination shock and heliopause. To search for evidence of heliosheath absorption, we conduct a systematic inspection of stellar Ly-alpha lines reconstructed after correcting for ISM absorption (and heliospheric/astrospheric absorption, if present). Most of the stellar lines are well centered on the stellar radial velocity, as expected, but the three lines of sight with the most downwind orientations relative to the ISM flow (Chi1 Ori, HD 28205, and HD 28568) have significantly blueshifted Ly-alpha lines. Since it is in downwind directions where heliosheath absorption should be strongest, the blueshifts are almost certainly caused by previously undetected heliosheath absorption. We make an initial comparison between the heliosheath absorption and the predictions of a pair of heliospheric models. A model with a complex multi-component treatment of plasma within the he...

  15. Synthesis of peptide .alpha.-thioesters (United States)

    Camarero, Julio A.; Mitchell, Alexander R.; De Yoreo, James J.


    Disclosed herein is a new method for the solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) of C-terminal peptide .alpha. thioesters using Fmoc/t-Bu chemistry. This method is based on the use of an aryl hydrazine linker, which is totally stable to conditions required for Fmoc-SPPS. When the peptide synthesis has been completed, activation of the linker is achieved by mild oxidation. The oxidation step converts the acyl-hydrazine group into a highly reactive acyl-diazene intermediate which reacts with an .alpha.-amino acid alkylthioester (H-AA-SR) to yield the corresponding peptide .alpha.-thioester in good yield. A variety of peptide thioesters, cyclic peptides and a fully functional Src homology 3 (SH3) protein domain have been successfully prepared.

  16. Alpha indirect conversion radioisotope power source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sychov, Maxim [TRACE Photonics Inc., 1680 West Polk, Charleston, IL 61920 (United States)], E-mail:; Kavetsky, Alexandr; Yakubova, Galina; Walter, Gabriel; Yousaf, Shahid; Lin, Qian; Chan, Doris; Socarras, Heather; Bower, Kenneth [TRACE Photonics Inc., 1680 West Polk, Charleston, IL 61920 (United States)


    Advantages of radioisotope-powered electric generators include long service life, wide temperature range operation and high-energy density. We report development of a long-life generator based on indirect conversion of alpha decay energy. Prototyping used 300 mCi Pu-238 alpha emitter and AlGaAs photovoltaic cells designed for low light intensity conditions. The alpha emitter, phosphor screens, and voltaic arrays were assembled into a power source with the following characteristics: I{sub sc}=14 {mu}A; U{sub oc}=2.3 V; power output -21 {mu}W. Using this prototype we have powered an eight-digit electronic calculator and wrist watch.

  17. Existence of six-$\\alpha$ linear structure

    CERN Document Server

    Iwata, Yoritaka; Itagaki, Naoyuki; Maruhn, Joachim A; Otsuka, Takaharu


    The stable existence of a six-$\\alpha$ linear structure in highly excited states of $^{24}$Mg is studied based on a systematic Cranked Hartree-Fock calculation with various Skyrme-type interactions. Its stability is examined by allowing the transition of the cluster structure to the shell-model like structure. Especially, the six-$\\alpha$ linear state is exposed to two major instabilities: the bending motion, which is the main path for the transition to low-lying states, and the spin-orbit interaction, which is the driving force to break the $\\alpha$ clusters and enhance the independent motion of the nucleons. The linear structure with large angular momentum is obtained as a meta-stable stationary state.

  18. Relativistic effects in Lyman-alpha forest

    CERN Document Server

    Iršič, Vid; Viel, Matteo


    We present the calculation of the Lyman-alpha (Lyman-$\\alpha$) transmitted flux fluctuations with full relativistic corrections to the first order. Even though several studies exist on relativistic effects in galaxy clustering, this is the first study to extend the formalism to a different tracer of underlying matter at unique redshift range ($z = 2 - 5$). Furthermore, we show a comprehensive application of our calculations to the Quasar- Lyman-$\\alpha$ cross-correlation function. Our results indicate that the signal of relativistic effects can be as large as 30% at Baryonic Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) scale, which is much larger than anticipated and mainly due to the large differences in density bias factors of our tracers. We construct an observable, the anti-symmetric part of the cross- correlation function, that is dominated by the relativistic signal and offers a new way to measure the relativistic terms at relatively small scales. The analysis shows that relativistic effects are important when considerin...

  19. Varying Alpha and the Electroweak Model

    CERN Document Server

    Kimberly, D; Kimberly, Dagny; Magueijo, Joao


    Inspired by recent claims for a varying fine structure constant, alpha, we investigate the effect of ``promoting coupling constants to variables'' upon various parameters of the standard model. We first consider a toy model: Proca's theory of the massive photon. We then explore the electroweak theory with one and two dilaton fields. We find that a varying alpha unavoidably implies varying W and Z masses. This follows from gauge invariance, and is to be contrasted with Proca' theory. For the two dilaton theory the Weinberg angle is also variable, but Fermi's constant and the tree level fermion masses remain constant unless the Higgs' potential becomes dynamical. We outline some cosmological implications.

  20. X-rays from Alpha Centauri (United States)

    Nugent, J.; Garmire, G.


    HEAO 1 observations of soft X-ray emission from a point source in the vicinity of Alpha Cen are reported. The source, designated H1437-61, is tentatively identified with Alpha Cen, and an X-ray luminosity comparable to that of the sun in an active state is estimated. A temperature of about 500,000 K and an emission integral of 5 x 10 to the 50th per cu cm are obtained. Coronal emission is suggested as the X-ray-producing mechanism.

  1. Parallel Genetic Algorithm for Alpha Spectra Fitting (United States)

    García-Orellana, Carlos J.; Rubio-Montero, Pilar; González-Velasco, Horacio


    We present a performance study of alpha-particle spectra fitting using parallel Genetic Algorithm (GA). The method uses a two-step approach. In the first step we run parallel GA to find an initial solution for the second step, in which we use Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) method for a precise final fit. GA is a high resources-demanding method, so we use a Beowulf cluster for parallel simulation. The relationship between simulation time (and parallel efficiency) and processors number is studied using several alpha spectra, with the aim of obtaining a method to estimate the optimal processors number that must be used in a simulation.

  2. Enteric alpha defensins in norm and pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisitsyn Nikolai A


    Full Text Available Abstract Microbes living in the mammalian gut exist in constant contact with immunity system that prevents infection and maintains homeostasis. Enteric alpha defensins play an important role in regulation of bacterial colonization of the gut, as well as in activation of pro- and anti-inflammatory responses of the adaptive immune system cells in lamina propria. This review summarizes currently available data on functions of mammalian enteric alpha defensins in the immune defense and changes in their secretion in intestinal inflammatory diseases and cancer.

  3. Interferon-alpha caused reversible parkinsonism. (United States)

    Lu, Chieh-Sheng; Kao, Wei-Yau; Lin, Jiann-Chyun; Chang, Ping-Ying


    Interferon has been used to treat chronic viral hepatitis and several malignancies. However, it may cause various neuropsychiatric adverse effects including parkinsonism. We report a rare case of interferon alpha-2a therapy-related parkinsonism in a 67-year-old man with metastatic papillary renal cell carcinoma and our experience of using Tc-99m-TRODAT-1 single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) as a tool for evaluation of parkinsonism. Physicians should be alert to the possibility of interferon alpha-2a-related parkinsonism.

  4. Workshop on Precision Measurements of alphas

    CERN Document Server

    Bethke, S; Kluth, S; Schieck, J; Stewart, I W; Aoki, S; Beneke, M; Blumlein, J; Brambilla, N; Brodsky, S; Descotes-Genon, S; Erler, J; Forte, S; Gehrmann, T; Golterman, M; Hashimoto, S; Kronfeld, A; Kuhn, J; Lepage, P; Martin, A; Mateu, V; Menke, S; Nomura, Y; Pahl, C; Petriello, F; Pich, A; Rabbertz, K; Salam, G; Schulz, H; Sommer, R; Steinhauser, M; Webber, B; Yuan, CP; Zanderighi, G


    These are the proceedings of the "Workshop on Precision Measurements of alphas" held at the Max-Planck-Institute for Physics, Munich, February 9-11, 2011. The workshop explored in depth the determination of alphas(mZ) in the MS-bar scheme from the key categories where high precision measurements are currently being made, including DIS and global PDF fits, tau-decays, electroweak precision observables and Z-decays, event-shapes, and lattice QCD. These proceedings contain a short summary contribution from the speakers, as well as the lists of authors, conveners, participants, and talks.

  5. Dipole oscillation modes in $\\alpha$-clustering light nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    He, W B; Cao, X G; Cai, X Z; Zhang, G Q


    The alpha cluster states are discussed in an extended quantum molecular dynamics (EQMD) model frame. Different alpha cluster structures are studied in details, such as $^8$Be two-alpha cluster structure, $^{12}$C triangle structure, $^{12}$C chain structure, $^{16}$O chain structure, $^{16}$O kite structure, and $^{16}$O square structure. The properties like width of wave packets for different alpha clusters, momentum distribution, and the binding energy among alpha clusters are studied. It is also discussed how the $\\alpha$ cluster degree of freedom affects nuclear collective vibrations. The different $\\alpha$ cluster configurations in $^{12}$C and $^{16}$O have corresponding characteristic spectra of GDR and the coherence of different alpha clusters's dipole oscillation are described in details. The number and centroid energies of peaks in the GDR spectra can be reasonably explained by the geometrical and dynamical symmetries of $\\alpha$-clustering configurations. The GDR can be regarded as a very effective...

  6. Green Pea Galaxies Reveal Secrets of Ly$\\alpha$ Escape

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Huan; Gronke, Max; Rhoads, James E; Jaskot, Anne; Zheng, Zhenya; Dijkstra, Mark


    Star-formation in galaxies generates a lot of Ly$\\alpha$ photons. Understanding the escape of Ly$\\alpha$ photons from galaxies is a key issue in studying high redshift galaxies and probing cosmic reionization with Ly$\\alpha$. To understand Ly$\\alpha$ escape, it is valuable to study analogs of high redshift Ly$\\alpha$ emitters in nearby universe. However, most nearby analogs have too small a Ly$\\alpha$ equivalent width and escape fraction compared to high redshift Ly$\\alpha$ emitters. One different group of nearby analogs are "Green Pea" galaxies, selected by their high equivalent width optical emission lines. Here we show that Green Pea galaxies have strong Ly$\\alpha$ emission lines and high Ly$\\alpha$ escape fraction (see also Henry et al. 2015), providing an opportunity to solve Ly$\\alpha$ escape problem. Green Peas have a Ly$\\alpha$ equivalent width distribution similar to high redshift Ly$\\alpha$ emitters. The Ly$\\alpha$ escape fraction correlates with many quantities of Ly$\\alpha$ profile, especially the...

  7. The PPAR alpha-humanized mouse: a model to investigate species differences in liver toxicity mediated by PPAR alpha. (United States)

    Yang, Qian; Nagano, Tomokazu; Shah, Yatrik; Cheung, Connie; Ito, Shinji; Gonzalez, Frank J


    To determine the impact of the species difference between rodents and humans in response to peroxisome proliferators (PPs) mediated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)alpha, PPAR alpha-humanized transgenic mice were generated using a P1 phage artificial chromosome (PAC) genomic clone bred onto a ppar alpha-null mouse background, designated hPPAR alpha PAC. In hPPAR alpha PAC mice, the human PPAR alpha gene is expressed in tissues with high fatty acid catabolism and induced upon fasting, similar to mouse PPAR alpha in wild-type (Wt) mice. Upon treatment with the PP fenofibrate, hPPAR alpha PAC mice exhibited responses similar to Wt mice, including peroxisome proliferation, lowering of serum triglycerides, and induction of PPAR alpha target genes encoding enzymes involved in fatty acid metabolism in liver, kidney, and heart, suggesting that human PPAR alpha (hPPAR alpha) functions in the same manner as mouse PPAR alpha in regulating fatty acid metabolism and lowering serum triglycerides. However, in contrast to Wt mice, treatment of hPPAR alpha PAC mice with fenofibrate did not cause significant hepatomegaly and hepatocyte proliferation, thus indicating that the mechanisms by which PPAR alpha affects lipid metabolism are distinct from the hepatocyte proliferation response, the latter of which is only induced by mouse PPAR alpha. In addition, a differential regulation of several genes, including the oncogenic let-7C miRNA by PPs, was observed between Wt and hPPAR alpha PAC mice that may contribute to the inherent difference between mouse and human PPAR alpha in activation of hepatocellular proliferation. The hPPAR alpha PAC mouse model provides an in vivo platform to investigate the species difference mediated by PPAR alpha and an ideal model for human risk assessment PPs exposure.

  8. Plant alpha-amylase inhibitors and their interaction with insect alpha-amylases. (United States)

    Franco, Octávio L; Rigden, Daniel J; Melo, Francislete R; Grossi-De-Sá, Maria F


    Insect pests and pathogens (fungi, bacteria and viruses) are responsible for severe crop losses. Insects feed directly on the plant tissues, while the pathogens lead to damage or death of the plant. Plants have evolved a certain degree of resistance through the production of defence compounds, which may be aproteic, e.g. antibiotics, alkaloids, terpenes, cyanogenic glucosides or proteic, e.g. chitinases, beta-1,3-glucanases, lectins, arcelins, vicilins, systemins and enzyme inhibitors. The enzyme inhibitors impede digestion through their action on insect gut digestive alpha-amylases and proteinases, which play a key role in the digestion of plant starch and proteins. The natural defences of crop plants may be improved through the use of transgenic technology. Current research in the area focuses particularly on weevils as these are highly dependent on starch for their energy supply. Six different alpha-amylase inhibitor classes, lectin-like, knottin-like, cereal-type, Kunitz-like, gamma-purothionin-like and thaumatin-like could be used in pest control. These classes of inhibitors show remarkable structural variety leading to different modes of inhibition and different specificity profiles against diverse alpha-amylases. Specificity of inhibition is an important issue as the introduced inhibitor must not adversely affect the plant's own alpha-amylases, nor the nutritional value of the crop. Of particular interest are some bifunctional inhibitors with additional favourable properties, such as proteinase inhibitory activity or chitinase activity. The area has benefited from the recent determination of many structures of alpha-amylases, inhibitors and complexes. These structures highlight the remarkable variety in structural modes of alpha-amylase inhibition. The continuing discovery of new classes of alpha-amylase inhibitor ensures that exciting discoveries remain to be made. In this review, we summarize existing knowledge of insect alpha-amylases, plant alpha

  9. Functional contribution of alpha3L8' to the neuronal nicotinic alpha3 receptor. (United States)

    Nieves-Cintrón, Madeline; Caballero-Rivera, Daniel; Silva, Walter I; Navedo, Manuel F; Lasalde-Dominicci, José A


    The role of position L8', located in transmembrane domain 1 of the neuronal nicotinic alpha3 subunit, was characterized by using two-electrode voltage clamp in Xenopus oocytes. Four amino acids (Ala, Ser, Phe, and Tyr) were inserted at this conserved position, and the mutant subunit was coexpressed with either wild-type beta2 or beta4 subunits. These substitutions led to significant alterations in the pharmacodynamic parameters of cholinergic agents, resulting in loss of function. Ala and Ser substitutions resulted in losses in agonist (ACh, nicotine, and DMPP) potency and intrinsic activity at both alpha3beta2 and alpha3beta4 receptors. Similarly, significant changes in antagonist potency were produced by the Ala and Ser substitutions. Phe and Tyr mutations did not alter the receptor's EC(50) for ACh or nicotine but reduced the EC(50) for DMPP at both receptors. The Phe mutation also reduced the intrinsic activity of all agonists tested at both receptors. The Tyr mutation, though, led to a decrease in intrinsic activity for all agonists at the alpha3beta2 receptor, yet resulted in no changes for DMPP, a decrease for nicotine, and an increase for ACh at the alpha3beta4 receptor. The most dramatic changes in the receptor's functional properties were produced by substitutions that introduced the largest changes in amino acid volume. Additional replacements (Gly, Thr, and Val) suggested an inverse correlation between amino acid volume at position alpha3L8' and EC(50) for alpha3beta4 nAChRs; however, alpha3beta2 nAChRs displayed a nonlinear correlation. These data demonstrate that structural alterations at position alpha3L8' could propagate to the agonist-binding site.

  10. \\alpha-Discounting Multi-Criteria Decision Making (\\alpha-D MCDM)

    CERN Document Server

    Smarandache, Florentin


    In this paper we introduce a new method called \\alpha-Discounting Multi-Criteria Decision Making (\\alpha-D MCDM), which is an aletrnative and extension of Saaty's Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). It works for any set of preferences that can be transformed into a system of homogeneous linear equations. A degree of consistency (and implicitly a degree of inconsistency) of a decision-making problem are defined. \\alpha-D MCDM is then generalized to a set of preferences that can be transformed into a system of linear and/or non-linear equations and/or inequalities. Many consistent, weak inconsistent, and strong inconsistent examples are given.

  11. Aspergillus nidulans alpha-galactosidase of glycoside hydrolase family 36 catalyses the formation of alpha-galacto-oligosaccharides by transglycosylation. (United States)

    Nakai, Hiroyuki; Baumann, Martin J; Petersen, Bent O; Westphal, Yvonne; Hachem, Maher Abou; Dilokpimol, Adiphol; Duus, Jens Ø; Schols, Henk A; Svensson, Birte


    The alpha-galactosidase from Aspergillus nidulans (AglC) belongs to a phylogenetic cluster containing eukaryotic alpha-galactosidases and alpha-galacto-oligosaccharide synthases of glycoside hydrolase family 36 (GH36). The recombinant AglC, produced in high yield (0.65 g.L(-1) culture) as His-tag fusion in Escherichia coli, catalysed efficient transglycosylation with alpha-(1-->6) regioselectivity from 40 mm 4-nitrophenol alpha-d-galactopyranoside, melibiose or raffinose, resulting in a 37-74% yield of 4-nitrophenol alpha-D-Galp-(1-->6)-D-Galp, alpha-D-Galp-(1-->6)-alpha-D-Galp-(1-->6)-D-Glcp and alpha-D-Galp-(1-->6)-alpha-D-Galp-(1-->6)-D-Glcp-(alpha1-->beta2)-d-Fruf (stachyose), respectively. Furthermore, among 10 monosaccharide acceptor candidates (400 mm) and the donor 4-nitrophenol alpha-D-galactopyranoside (40 mm), alpha-(1-->6) linked galactodisaccharides were also obtained with galactose, glucose and mannose in high yields of 39-58%. AglC did not transglycosylate monosaccharides without the 6-hydroxymethyl group, i.e. xylose, L-arabinose, L-fucose and L-rhamnose, or with axial 3-OH, i.e. gulose, allose, altrose and L-rhamnose. Structural modelling using Thermotoga maritima GH36 alpha-galactosidase as the template and superimposition of melibiose from the complex with human GH27 alpha-galactosidase supported that recognition at subsite +1 in AglC presumably requires a hydrogen bond between 3-OH and Trp358 and a hydrophobic environment around the C-6 hydroxymethyl group. In addition, successful transglycosylation of eight of 10 disaccharides (400 mm), except xylobiose and arabinobiose, indicated broad specificity for interaction with the +2 subsite. AglC thus transferred alpha-galactosyl to 6-OH of the terminal residue in the alpha-linked melibiose, maltose, trehalose, sucrose and turanose in 6-46% yield and the beta-linked lactose, lactulose and cellobiose in 28-38% yield. The product structures were identified using NMR and ESI-MS and five of the 13

  12. Cosmological attractors from alpha-scale supergravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roest, Diederik; Scalisi, Marco


    The Planck value of the spectral index can be interpreted as n(s) = 1 - 2/N in terms of the number of e-foldings N. An appealing explanation for this phenomenological observation is provided by alpha-attractors: the inflationary predictions of these supergravity models are fully determined by the cu

  13. Alpha-actinin structure and regulation. (United States)

    Sjöblom, B; Salmazo, A; Djinović-Carugo, K


    Alpha-actinin is a cytoskeletal actin-binding protein and a member of the spectrin superfamily, which comprises spectrin, dystrophin and their homologues and isoforms. It forms an anti-parallel rod-shaped dimer with one actin-binding domain at each end of the rod and bundles actin filaments in multiple cell-type and cytoskeleton frameworks. In non-muscle cells, alpha-actinin is found along the actin filaments and in adhesion sites. In striated, cardiac and smooth muscle cells, it is localized at the Z-disk and analogous dense bodies, where it forms a lattice-like structure and stabilizes the muscle contractile apparatus. Besides binding to actin filaments alpha-actinin associates with a number of cytoskeletal and signaling molecules, cytoplasmic domains of transmembrane receptors and ion channels, rendering it important structural and regulatory roles in cytoskeleton organization and muscle contraction. This review reports on the current knowledge on structure and regulation of alpha-actinin.

  14. Alpha Background Rejection in Bolometer Detectors (United States)

    Deporzio, Nicholas


    This study presents the modification of bolometer detectors used in particle searches to veto or otherwise reject alpha radiation background and the statistical advantages of doing so. Several techniques are presented in detail - plastic film scintillator vetoes, metallic film ionization vetoes, and scintillating bolometer vetoes. Plastic scintillator films are cooled to bolometer temperatures and bombarded with 1.4MeV to 6.0MeV alpha particles representative of documented detector background. Photomultipliers detect this scintillation light and produce a veto signal. Layered metallic films of a primary metal, dielectric, and secondary metal, such as gold-polyethylene-gold films, are cooled to milli-kelvin temperatures and biased to produce a current signal veto when incident 1.4MeV to 6.0MeV alpha particles ionize conduction paths through the film. Modified Zinc Molybdate Bolometers are used to produce scintillation light when stimulated by alpha background. Calibration of veto signal to background energy is presented. Results are used to quantify the statistical impact of such modifications on bolometer searches.

  15. Alpha particles diffusion due to charge changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clauser, C. F., E-mail:; Farengo, R. [Centro Atómico Bariloche and Instituto Balseiro, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica and Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Av. Bustillo 9500, 8400 Bariloche (Argentina)


    Alpha particles diffusion due to charge changes in a magnetized plasma is studied. Analytical calculations and numerical simulations are employed to show that this process can be very important in the pedestal-edge-SOL regions. This is the first study that presents clear evidence of the importance of atomic processes on the diffusion of alpha particles. A simple 1D model that includes inelastic collisions with plasma species, “cold” neutrals, and partially ionized species was employed. The code, which follows the exact particle orbits and includes the effect of inelastic collisions via a Monte Carlo type random process, runs on a graphic processor unit (GPU). The analytical and numerical results show excellent agreement when a uniform background (plasma and cold species) is assumed. The simulations also show that the gradients in the density of the plasma and cold species, which are large and opposite in the edge region, produce an inward flux of alpha particles. Calculations of the alpha particles flux reaching the walls or divertor plates should include these processes.

  16. Syndecan-4 associates with alpha-actinin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greene, Daniel K; Tumova, Sarka; Couchman, John R;


    during the formation of focal adhesions. To date, a direct link between syndecan-4 and the cytoskeleton has remained elusive. We now demonstrate by Triton X-100 extraction immunoprecipitation and in vitro binding assays that the focal adhesion component alpha-actinin interacts with syndecan-4 in a beta...

  17. Alpha particle radiography of small insects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chingshen Su [National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu (Taiwan) Inst. of Nuclear Science


    Radiographies of ants, mosquitoes, cockroaches and small bugs have been done with a radioisotope {sup 244}Cm alpha source. Energy of alpha particles was varied by attenuating the 5.81 MeV alpha particles with adjustable air spacings from the source to the sample. The LR-115 was used to register radiographs. The image of the insect registered on the LR-115 was etched out in a 2.5 N NaOH solution at 52{sup o}C for certain minutes, depending on various irradiation conditions for the insects. For larger insects, a scanning device for the alpha particle irradiation has been fabricated to take the radiograph of whole body of the insect, and the scanning period can be selected to give desired irradiation dosage. A CCDTV camera system connected to a microscope interfaced to an IBM/AT computer is used to register the microscopic image of the radiograph and to print it out with a video copy processor. (Author).

  18. Interferon alpha association with neuromyelitis optica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asgari, Nasrin; Voss, Anne; Steenstrup, Troels;


    Interferon-alpha (IFN- α ) has immunoregulatory functions in autoimmune inflammatory diseases. The goal of this study was to determine occurrence and clinical consequences of IFN- α in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) patients. Thirty-six NMO and 41 multiple sclerosis (MS) patients from a population...

  19. Synthesis of stabilized alpha-helical peptides. (United States)

    Bernal, Federico; Katz, Samuel G


    Stabilized alpha-helical (SAH) peptides are valuable laboratory tools to explore important protein-protein interactions. Whereas most peptides lose their secondary structure when isolated from the host protein, stapled peptides incorporate an all-hydrocarbon "staple" that reinforces their natural alpha-helical structure. Thus, stapled peptides retain their functional ability to bind their native protein targets and serve multiple experimental uses. First, they are useful for structural studies such as NMR or crystal structures that map and better define binding sites. Second, they can be used to identify small molecules that specifically target that interaction site. Third, stapled peptides can be used to test the importance of specific amino acid residues or posttranslational modifications to the binding. Fourth, they can serve as structurally competent bait to identify novel binding partners to specific alpha-helical motifs. In addition to markedly improved alpha-helicity, stapled peptides also display resistance to protease cleavage and enhanced cell permeability. Most importantly, they are useful for intracellular experiments that explore the functional consequences of blocking particular protein interactions. Because of their remarkable stability, stapled peptides can be applied to whole-animal, in vivo studies. Here we describe a protocol for the synthesis of a peptide that incorporates an all-hydrocarbon "staple" employing a ring-closing olefin metathesis reaction. With proper optimization, stapled peptides can be a fundamental, accurate laboratory tool in the modern chemical biologist's armory.

  20. First stars in Damped Lyman Alpha systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salvadori, Stefania; Ferrara, Andrea


    In order to characterize Damped Lyman Alpha systems (DLAs) potentially host- ing first stars, we present a novel approach to investigate DLAs in the context of Milky Way (MW) formation, along with their connection with the most metal-poor stars and local dwarf galaxies. The merger tree method previo

  1. Superparamagnetic relaxation in alpha-Fe particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Franz; Mørup, Steen; Pedersen, Michael Stanley;


    The superparamagnetic relaxation time of carbon-supported alpha-Fe particles with an average size of 3.0 Mm has been studied over a large temperature range by the use of Mossbauer spectroscopy combined with AC and DC magnetization measurements. It is found that the relaxation time varies with tem...

  2. Understanding a Widely Misunderstood Statistic: Cronbach's "Alpha" (United States)

    Ritter, Nicola L.


    It is important to explore score reliability in virtually all studies, because tests are not reliable. The present paper explains the most frequently used reliability estimate, coefficient alpha, so that the coefficient's conceptual underpinnings will be understood. Researchers need to understand score reliability because of the possible impact…

  3. A method for extracting $cos\\alpha$

    CERN Document Server

    Grinstein, B; Rothstein, I Z; Grinstein, Benjamin; Nolte, Detlef R.; Rothstein, Ira Z.


    We show that it is possible to extract the weak mixing angle alpha via a measurement of the rate for B^+(-) -> \\pi^+(-) e^+e^-. The sensitivity to cos(alpha) results from the interference between the long and short distance contributions. The short distance contribution can be computed, using heavy quark symmetry, in terms of semi-leptonic form factors. More importantly, we show that, using Ward identities and a short distance operator product expansion, the long distance contribution can be calculated without recourse to light cone wave functions when the invariant mass of the lepton pair, q^2, is much larger than LQCDs. We find that for q^2 > 2 GeV^2 the branching fraction is approximately 1 * 10^{-8}|V_{td}/0.008|^2. The shape of the differential rate is very sensitive to the value of cos(alpha) at small values of q^2 with dGamma /dq^2 varying up to 50% in the interval -1< cos(alpha)< 1 at q^2= 2 GeV^2. The size of the variation depends upon the ratio V_{ub}/V_{td}.

  4. EEG alpha power and creative ideation☆ (United States)

    Fink, Andreas; Benedek, Mathias


    Neuroscientific studies revealed first insights into neural mechanisms underlying creativity, but existing findings are highly variegated and often inconsistent. Despite the disappointing picture on the neuroscience of creativity drawn in recent reviews, there appears to be robust evidence that EEG alpha power is particularly sensitive to various creativity-related demands involved in creative ideation. Alpha power varies as a function of creativity-related task demands and the originality of ideas, is positively related to an individuals’ creativity level, and has been observed to increase as a result of creativity interventions. Alpha increases during creative ideation could reflect more internally oriented attention that is characterized by the absence of external bottom-up stimulation and, thus, a form of top-down activity. Moreover, they could indicate the involvement of specific memory processes such as the efficient (re-)combination of unrelated semantic information. We conclude that increased alpha power during creative ideation is among the most consistent findings in neuroscientific research on creativity and discuss possible future directions to better understand the manifold brain mechanisms involved in creativity. PMID:23246442

  5. Alpha and Beta at the B Factories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finocchiaro, Giuseppe; /Frascati


    We review recent experimental results on time-dependent CP asymmetries in the B system from the BABAR and Belle experiments. Measurements of the {alpha} and {beta} angles of the Unitarity Triangle of the CKM matrix are discussed. These measurements constitute stringent tests of the Standard Model, and are also used to search for new physics.

  6. EEG alpha power and creative ideation. (United States)

    Fink, Andreas; Benedek, Mathias


    Neuroscientific studies revealed first insights into neural mechanisms underlying creativity, but existing findings are highly variegated and often inconsistent. Despite the disappointing picture on the neuroscience of creativity drawn in recent reviews, there appears to be robust evidence that EEG alpha power is particularly sensitive to various creativity-related demands involved in creative ideation. Alpha power varies as a function of creativity-related task demands and the originality of ideas, is positively related to an individuals' creativity level, and has been observed to increase as a result of creativity interventions. Alpha increases during creative ideation could reflect more internally oriented attention that is characterized by the absence of external bottom-up stimulation and, thus, a form of top-down activity. Moreover, they could indicate the involvement of specific memory processes such as the efficient (re-)combination of unrelated semantic information. We conclude that increased alpha power during creative ideation is among the most consistent findings in neuroscientific research on creativity and discuss possible future directions to better understand the manifold brain mechanisms involved in creativity.

  7. Alpha thalassaemia-mental retardation, X linked

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibbons Richard


    Full Text Available Abstract X-linked alpha thalassaemia mental retardation (ATR-X syndrome in males is associated with profound developmental delay, facial dysmorphism, genital abnormalities and alpha thalassaemia. Female carriers are usually physically and intellectually normal. So far, 168 patients have been reported. Language is usually very limited. Seizures occur in about one third of the cases. While many patients are affectionate with their caregivers, some exhibit autistic-like behaviour. Patients present with facial hypotonia and a characteristic mouth. Genital abnormalities are observed in 80% of children and range from undescended testes to ambiguous genitalia. Alpha-thalassaemia is not always present. This syndrome is X-linked recessive and results from mutations in the ATRX gene. This gene encodes the widely expressed ATRX protein. ATRX mutations cause diverse changes in the pattern of DNA methylation at heterochromatic loci but it is not yet known whether this is responsible for the clinical phenotype. The diagnosis can be established by detection of alpha thalassaemia, identification of ATRX gene mutations, ATRX protein studies and X-inactivation studies. Genetic counselling can be offered to families. Management is multidisciplinary: young children must be carefully monitored for gastro-oesophageal reflux as it may cause death. A number of individuals with ATR-X are fit and well in their 30s and 40s.

  8. Human alpha 2-adrenergic receptor subtype distribution: widespread and subtype-selective expression of alpha 2C10, alpha 2C4, and alpha 2C2 mRNA in multiple tissues. (United States)

    Eason, M G; Liggett, S B


    At present, molecular cloning and pharmacological studies have delineated three human alpha 2-adrenergic receptor (alpha 2AR) subtypes, alpha 2C10, alpha 2C4, and alpha 2C2. Assignment of the alpha 2AR subtypes to specific functions has been limited by an unclear definition of tissue alpha 2AR expression outside of the central nervous system. It has been suggested that alpha 2C4 expression is confined to the brain, that alpha 2C2 expression is only in the liver and kidney, and that there is nearly ubiquitous expression of alpha 2C10. However, this is based on studies of a limited number of rat tissues or on studies using non-species-specific approaches. Therefore, to define alpha 2C10, alpha 2C4, and alpha 2C2 tissue expression, we used reverse transcription of total RNA isolated from 20 human tissues, followed by amplification of alpha 2AR cDNA using the polymerase chain reaction. This technique provided two advantages: high sensitivity and, with the use of subtype-specific oligonucleotide primers and probes, differentiation between the alpha 2AR subtypes. The tissues studied were aorta, vena cava, heart (epicardium and endocardium), lung, skeletal muscle, liver, pancreas (head and tail), fat (perinephric and subcutaneous), kidney (cortex and medulla), prostate, stomach, ileum, jejunum, colon, adrenal gland, and spleen. We found that the majority of these tissues expressed alpha 2C10, with the exceptions being the head of the pancreas, subcutaneous fat, colon, and spleen. In marked distinction to other studies, however, we found a prolific expression of the alpha 2C4 and alpha 2C2 subtypes. Expression of alpha 2C4 was found in all tissues with the exception of liver, fat, stomach, and colon, and a virtually ubiquitous expression of alpha 2C2 was found, with the exception of epicardium. Of all tissues studied, only colon and subcutaneous fat expressed a single alpha 2AR subtype, which was alpha 2C2. Thus, the alpha 2AR subtypes do not have a confined expression but

  9. Alpha decay of {sup 181}Pb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davids, C.N.; Henderson, D.J.; Hermann, R. [and others


    The {alpha}-decay energy of {sup 181}Pb was measured as 7211(10) keV and 7044(15). In the first study the isotope was produced in {sup 90}Zr bombardments of {sup 94}Mo and, after traversing a velocity filter, implanted in a position-sensitive Si detector; no half life for {sup 181}Pb was reported. In the second study the isotope was produced in {sup 40}Ca bombardments of {sup 144}Sm and transported to a position in front of a Si(Au) surface barrier detector with a fast He-gas-jet capillary system; an estimate of 50 ms was determined for the {sup 181}Pb half life. Recently we investigated {sup 181}Pb {alpha} decay at ATLAS as part of a survey experiment in which a l-pnA beam of 400-MeV {sup 92}Mo was used to irradiate targets of {sup 89}Y, {sup 90,92,94}Zr, and {sup 92}Mo to examine yields for one- and two-nucleon evaporation products from symmetric cold-fusion reactions. Recoiling nuclei of interest were passed through the Fragment Mass Analyzer and implanted in a double-sided silicon strip detector for {alpha}-particle assay. With the {sup 90}Zr target we observed a group at 7065(20) keV which was correlated with A = 181 recoils and had a half life of 45(20) ms. Our new results for {sup 181}Pb therefore agreed with those of the second study. There was no indication in the {sup 90}Zr + {sup 92}Mo data of the 7211(10)-keV {alpha} particles seen by Keller et al. The interested reader is referred to the 1993 atomic mass evaluation wherein the input {alpha}-decay energies and resultant masses of the light Pb isotopes (including {sup 181}Pb) are discussed.

  10. The measurement of $\\alpha_s$ from event shapes with the DELPHI detector at the highest LEP energies

    CERN Document Server

    Abdallah, J; Adam, W; Adzic, P; Albrecht, T; Alderweireld, T; Alemany-Fernandez, R; Allmendinger, T; Allport, P P; Amaldi, Ugo; Amapane, N; Amato, S; Anashkin, E; Andreazza, A; Andringa, S; Anjos, N; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Ask, S; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Ballestrero, A; Bambade, P; Barbier, R; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Barker, G; Baroncelli, A; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Behrmann, A; Ben-Haim, E; Benekos, N C; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Bérat, C; Berggren, M; Berntzon, L; Bertrand, D; Besançon, M; Besson, N; Bloch, D; Blom, M; Bluj, M; Bonesini, M; Boonekamp, M; Booth, P S L; Borisov, G; Botner, O; Bouquet, B; Bowcock, T J V; Boyko, I; Bracko, M; Brenner, R; Brodet, E; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buschmann, P; Calvi, M; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Carena, F; Castro, N; Cavallo, F R; Chapkin, M M; Charpentier, P; Checchia, P; Chierici, R; Shlyapnikov, P; Chudoba, J; Chung, S U; Cieslik, K; Collins, P; Contri, R; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Costa, M J; Crennell, D J; Cuevas-Maestro, J; D'Hondt, J; Dalmau, J; Da Silva, T; Da Silva, W; Della Ricca, G; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Clercq, C; De Lotto, B; De Maria, N; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Simone, A; Doroba, K; Drees, J; Dris, M; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ellert, M; Elsing, M; Espirito-Santo, M C; Fanourakis, G K; Fassouliotis, D; Feindt, M; Fernández, J; Ferrer, A; Ferro, F; Flagmeyer, U; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Gandelman, M; García, C; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gómez-Ceballos, G; Gonçalves, P; Graziani, E; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Guy, J; Haag, C; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hamilton, K; Haug, S; Hauler, F; Hedberg, V; Hennecke, M; Herr, H; Hoffman, J; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Houlden, M A; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jeans, D; Johansson, E K; Johansson, P D; Jonsson, P; Joram, C; Jungermann, L; Kapusta, F; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Kernel, G; Kersevan, Borut P; Kerzel, U; Kiiskinen, A P; King, B T; Kjaer, N J; Kluit, P; Kokkinias, P; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Krumshtein, Z; Kucharczyk, M; Lamsa, J; Leder, G; Ledroit, F; Leinonen, L; Leitner, R; Lemonne, J; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Liebig, W; Liko, D; Lipniacka, A; Lopes, J H; López, J M; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J; Malek, A; Maltezos, S; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Marco, R; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Martínez-Rivero, C; Masik, J; Mastroyiannopoulos, N; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Mazzucato, F; Mazzucato, M; McNulty, R; Meroni, C; Migliore, E; Mitaroff, W A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Moch, M; Mönig, K; Monge, R; Montenegro, J; Moraes, D; Moreno, S; Morettini, P; Müller, U; Münich, K; Mulders, M; Mundim, L M; Murray, W; Muryn, B; Myatt, Gerald; Myklebust, T; Nassiakou, M; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Nawrocki, K; Nicolaidou, R; Nikolenko, M; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, Risto; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Oyanguren, A; Paganoni, M; Paiano, S; Palacios, J P; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Parzefall, U; Passeri, A; Passon, O; Peralta, L; Perepelitsa, V F; Perrotta, A; Petrolini, A; Piedra, J; Pieri, L; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Piotto, E; Podobnik, T; Poireau, V; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Poropat, P; Pozdnyakov, V; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, Antonio; Rames, J; Ramler, L; Read, A; Rebecchi, P; Rehn, J; Reid, D; Reinhardt, R; Renton, P B; Richard, F; Rídky, J; Rivero, M; Rodríguez, D; Romero, A; Ronchese, P; Roudeau, Patrick; Rovelli, T; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ryabtchikov, D; Sadovskii, A; Salmi, L; Salt, J; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schwickerath, U; Segar, A; Sekulin, R L; Siebel, M; Sissakian, A N; Smadja, G; Smirnova, O G; Sokolov, A; Sopczak, A; Sosnowski, R; Spassoff, Tz; Stanitzki, M; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Szumlak, T; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Taffard, A C; Tegenfeldt, F; Timmermans, J; Tkatchev, L G; Tobin, M; Todorovova, S; Tomé, B; Tonazzo, A; Tortosa, P; Travnicek, P; Treille, D; Tristram, G; Trochimczuk, M; Troncon, C; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tyapkin, P; Tzamarias, S; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; van Dam, P; Van Eldik, J; Van Lysebetten, A; Van Remortel, N; Van Vulpen, I B; Vegni, G; Veloso, F; Venus, W A; Verdier, P; Verzi, V; Vilanova, D; Vitale, L; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Washbrook, A J; Weiser, C; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wilkinson, G; Winter, M; Witek, M; Yushchenko, O P; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, Piotr; Zavrtanik, D; Zhuravlov, V; Zimin, N I; Zinchenko, A I; Zupan, M


    Hadronic event shape distributions are determined from data in e+e- collisions between 183 and 207 GeV. From these the strong coupling alpha_s is extracted in O(alpha_s^2), NLLA and matched O(alpha_s^2)+NLLA theory. Hadronisation corrections evaluated with fragmentation model generators as well as an analytical power ansatz are applied. Comparing these measurements to those obtained at and around M_Z allows a combined measurement of alpha_s from all DELPHI data and a test of the energy dependence of the strong coupling.

  11. Degradation of the potato glycoalkaloids--alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine in groundwater. (United States)

    Jensen, Pia H; Jacobsen, Ole S; Henriksen, Trine; Strobel, Bjarne W; Hansen, Hans Christian B


    The potato glycoalkaloids alpha-chaconine and alpha-solanine are produced in high amounts in potato plants from where release to soil takes place. Degradation of the compounds in groundwater was investigated, as their fate in the terrestrial environment is unknown. Abiotic and microbial degradation were followed in groundwater sampled from below a potato field and spiked with the glycoalkaloids (115 nmol/l). Degradation was primarily microbial and the glycoalkaloids were degraded within 21-42 days. The metabolites beta(1)-solanine, gamma-solanine, and solanidine were formed from alpha-solanine, while beta-chaconine, gamma-chaconine and solanidine were detected from alpha-chaconine. Thus, indigenous groundwater microorganisms are capable of degrading the glycoalkaloids.

  12. Constraints on the Preferred-Frame {\\alpha}1, {\\alpha}2 parameters from Solar System planetary precessions

    CERN Document Server

    Iorio, Lorenzo


    Analytical expressions for the orbital precessions affecting the relative motion of the components of a local binary system induced by Lorentz-violating Preferred Frame Effects (PFE) are explicitly computed in terms of the PPN parameters {\\alpha}1, {\\alpha}2. A linear combination of the supplementary perihelion precessions of all the inner planets of the Solar System, able to remove the a-priori bias of unmodelled/mismodelled standard effects such as the general relativistic Lense-Thirring precessions and the classical rates due to the Sun's oblateness J2, allows to infer {\\alpha}1 <= 10^-6, {\\alpha}2 <= 10^-5. Such bounds should be improved in the near future after processing the data that are being collected by the MESSENGER spacecraft, currently orbiting Mercury. Further improvements may come in the mid-future from the approved BepiColombo mission to Mercury (Abridged).

  13. Dynamical Screening Effect on $\\alpha$-$\\alpha$ Resonant Scattering and Thermal Nuclear Scattering Rate

    CERN Document Server

    Yao, Xiaojun; Müller, Berndt


    We study the dynamical screening effect in the QED plasma on the $\\alpha$-$\\alpha$ scattering at the $^8$Be resonance. Dynamical screening leads to an imaginary part of the potential which results in a thermal width for the resonance and dominates over the previously considered static screening effect. As a result, both the resonance energy and width increase with the plasma temperature. Furthermore, dynamical screening can have a huge impact on the $\\alpha$-$\\alpha$ thermal nuclear scattering rate. For example, when the temperature is around $10$ keV, the rate is suppressed by a factor of about $900$. We expect similar thermal suppressions of nuclear reaction rates to occur in nuclear reactions dominated by an above threshold resonance with a thermal energy. Dynamical screening effects on nuclear reactions can be relevant to cosmology and astrophysics.

  14. Precision determination of alpha_s using an unbiased global NLO parton set

    CERN Document Server

    Lionetti, Simone; Bertone, Valerio; Cerutti, Francesco; Del Debbio, Luigi; Forte, Stefano; Guffanti, Alberto; Latorre, Jose I; Rojo, Juan; Ubiali, Maria


    We determine the strong coupling alpha_s from a next-to-leading order analysis of processes used for the NNPDF2.1 parton determination, which includes data from neutral and charged current deep-inelastic scattering, Drell-Yan and inclusive jet production. We find alpha_s(M_Z)=0.1191+-0.0006 (exp), where the uncertainty includes all statistical and systematic experimental uncertainties, but not purely theoretical uncertainties. We study the dependence of the results on the dataset, by providing further determinations based respectively on deep-inelastic data only, and on HERA data only. The deep-inelastic fit gives the consistent result alpha_s(M_Z)=0.1177+-0.0009(exp), but the result of the HERA-only fit is only marginally consistent. We provide evidence that individual data subsets can have runaway directions due to poorly determined PDFs, thus suggesting that a global dataset is necessary for a reliable determination.

  15. Interaction of alphaVbeta3 and alphaVbeta6 integrins with human parechovirus 1. (United States)

    Seitsonen, Jani; Susi, Petri; Heikkilä, Outi; Sinkovits, Robert S; Laurinmäki, Pasi; Hyypiä, Timo; Butcher, Sarah J


    Human parechovirus (HPEV) infections are very common in early childhood and can be severe in neonates. It has been shown that integrins are important for cellular infectivity of HPEV1 through experiments using peptide blocking assays and function-blocking antibodies to alpha(V) integrins. The interaction of HPEV1 with alpha(V) integrins is presumably mediated by a C-terminal RGD motif in the capsid protein VP1. We characterized the binding of integrins alpha(V)beta(3) and alpha(V)beta(6) to HPEV1 by biochemical and structural studies. We showed that although HPEV1 bound efficiently to immobilized integrins, alpha(V)beta(6) bound more efficiently than alpha(V)beta(3) to immobilized HPEV1. Moreover, soluble alpha(V)beta(6), but not alpha(V)beta(3), blocked HPEV1 cellular infectivity, indicating that it is a high-affinity receptor for HPEV1. We also showed that HPEV1 binding to integrins in vitro could be partially blocked by RGD peptides. Using electron cryo-microscopy and image reconstruction, we showed that HPEV1 has the typical T=1 (pseudo T=3) organization of a picornavirus. Complexes of HPEV1 and integrins indicated that both integrin footprints reside between the 5-fold and 3-fold symmetry axes. This result does not match the RGD position predicted from the coxsackievirus A9 X-ray structure but is consistent with the predicted location of this motif in the shorter C terminus found in HPEV1. This first structural characterization of a parechovirus indicates that the differences in receptor binding are due to the amino acid differences in the integrins rather than to significantly different viral footprints.

  16. Catalytic enantioselective Michael addition reactions of alpha-nitroesters to alpha,beta-unsaturated ketones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keller, E; Veldman, N; Spek, AL; Feringa, BL


    Enantioselective Michael additions of alpha-nitroesters 2a-d with alpha,beta-unsaturated ketones were carried out in the presence of a catalytic amount of chiral Al-Li-(R,R')-2,2'-dihydroxy-1,1'-binaphthyl ('AlLiBINOL') complex prepared in situ from LiAlH4 and 2.45 equiv. of (R,R')-BINOL. The enanti

  17. Plasma Ubiquinone, Alpha-Tocopherol and Cholesterol in Man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Jan; Diamant, Bertil; Edlund, Per Olof


    Farmakologi, Coenzyme Q10, free cholesterol, vitamin E, antioxidants, Alpha-Tocopherol, vitamin Q, plasma, LDL-particle......Farmakologi, Coenzyme Q10, free cholesterol, vitamin E, antioxidants, Alpha-Tocopherol, vitamin Q, plasma, LDL-particle...

  18. Estimation of Time-Varying Autoregressive Symmetric Alpha Stable (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In the last decade alpha-stable distributions have become a standard model for impulsive data. Especially the linear symmetric alpha-stable processes have found...

  19. Effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) in epidermal keratinocytes revealed using global transcriptional profiling. (United States)

    Banno, Tomohiro; Gazel, Alix; Blumenberg, Miroslav


    Identification of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) as the key agent in inflammatory disorders, e.g. rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease, and psoriasis, led to TNF alpha-targeting therapies, which, although avoiding many of the side-effects of previous drugs, nonetheless causes other side-effects, including secondary infections and cancer. By controlling gene expression, TNF alpha orchestrates the cutaneous responses to environmental damage and inflammation. To define TNF alpha action in epidermis, we compared the transcriptional profiles of normal human keratinocytes untreated and treated with TNF alpha for 1, 4, 24, and 48 h by using oligonucleotide microarrays. We found that TNF alpha regulates not only immune and inflammatory responses but also tissue remodeling, cell motility, cell cycle, and apoptosis. Specifically, TNF alpha regulates innate immunity and inflammation by inducing a characteristic large set of chemokines, including newly identified TNF alpha targets, that attract neutrophils, macrophages, and skin-specific memory T-cells. This implicates TNF alpha in the pathogenesis of psoriasis, fixed drug eruption, atopic and allergic contact dermatitis. TNF alpha promotes tissue repair by inducing basement membrane components and collagen-degrading proteases. Unexpectedly, TNF alpha induces actin cytoskeleton regulators and integrins, enhancing keratinocyte motility and attachment, effects not previously associated with TNF alpha. Also unanticipated was the influence of TNF alpha upon keratinocyte cell fate by regulating cell-cycle and apoptosis-associated genes. Therefore, TNF alpha initiates not only the initiation of inflammation and responses to injury, but also the subsequent epidermal repair. The results provide new insights into the harmful and beneficial TNF alpha effects and define the mechanisms and genes that achieve these outcomes, both of which are important for TNF alpha-targeted therapies.

  20. Extended Ly$\\alpha$ emission around quasars with eclipsing damped Ly$\\alpha$ systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fathivavsari, Hassan; Noterdaeme, Pasquier; Pâris, Isabelle; Finley, Hayley; López, Sebastian; Srianand, Raghunathan


    We present spectroscopic observations of six high redshift ($z_{\\rm em}$ $>$ 2) quasars, which have been selected for their Lyman $\\alpha$ (Ly$\\alpha$) emission region being only partially covered by a strong proximate ($z_{\\rm abs}$ $\\sim$ $z_{\\rm em}$) coronagraphic damped Ly$\\alpha$ system (DLA). We detected spatially extended Ly$\\alpha$ emission envelopes surrounding these six quasars, with projected spatial extent in the range 26 $\\le$ $d_{\\rm Ly\\alpha}$ $\\le$ 51 kpc. No correlation is found between the quasar ionizing luminosity and the Ly$\\alpha$ luminosity of their extended envelopes. This could be related to the limited covering factor of the extended gas and/or due to the AGN being obscured in other directions than towards the observer. Indeed, we find a strong correlation between the luminosity of the envelope and its spatial extent, which suggests that the envelopes are probably ionized by the AGN. The metallicity of the coronagraphic DLAs is low and varies in the range $-$1.75 $<$ [Si/H] $<...

  1. Silicon vertex detector upgrade in the ALPHA experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amole, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto, ON, M3J 1P3 (Canada); Andresen, G.B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Ashkezari, M.D. [Department of Physics, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, V5A 1S6 (Canada); Baquero-Ruiz, M. [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States); Bertsche, W. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, M13 9PL Manchester (United Kingdom); The Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury Laboratory, WA4 4AD Warrington (United Kingdom); Burrows, C. [Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Butler, E. [Physics Department, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Capra, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto, ON, M3J 1P3 (Canada); Cesar, C.L. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 21941-972 (Brazil); Chapman, S. [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States); Charlton, M.; Deller, A.; Eriksson, S. [Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Fajans, J. [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Friesen, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada); Fujiwara, M.C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada); TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Gill, D.R. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Gutierrez, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z4 (Canada); and others


    The Silicon Vertex Detector (SVD) is the main diagnostic tool in the ALPHA-experiment. It provides precise spatial and timing information of antiproton (antihydrogen) annihilation events (vertices), and most importantly, the SVD is capable of directly identifying and analysing single annihilation events, thereby forming the basis of ALPHA's analysis. This paper describes the ALPHA SVD and its upgrade, installed in the ALPHA's new neutral atom trap.

  2. Silicon vertex detector upgrade in the ALPHA experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Amole, C; Ashkezari, M.D; Baquero-Ruiz, M; Bertsche, W; Burrows, C; Butler, E; Capra, A; Cesar, C.L; Chapman, S; Charlton, M; Deller, A; Eriksson, S; Fajans, J; Friesen, T; Fujiwara, M.C; Gill, D.R; Gutierrez, A; Hangst, J.S; Hardy, W.N; Hayden, M.E; Humphries, A.J; Isaac, C.A; Jonsell, S; Kurchaninov, L; Little, A; Madsen, N; McKenna, J.T.K; Menary, S; Napoli, S.C; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Povilus, A; Pusa, P; Rasmussen, C.Ø; Robicheaux, F; Sacramento, R.L; Sampson, J.A; Sarid, E; Seddon, D; Silveira, D.M; So, C; Stracka, S; Tharp, T; Thompson, R.I; Thornhill, J; Tooley, M.P; Van Der Werf, D.P; Wells, D


    The Silicon Vertex Detector (SVD) is the main diagnostic tool in the ALPHA-experiment. It provides precise spatial and timing information of antiproton (antihydrogen) annihilation events (vertices), and most importantly, the SVD is capable of directly identifying and analysing single annihilation events, thereby forming the basis of ALPHA ' s analysis. This paper describes the ALPHA SVD and its upgrade, installed in the ALPHA ' s new neutral atom trap.

  3. Towards Antihydrogen Confinement with the ALPHA Antihydrogen Trap

    CERN Document Server

    Fujiwara, M C; Bertsche, W; Boston, A; Bowe, P D; Cesar, C L; Chapman, S; Charlton, M; Chartier, M; Deutsch, A; Fajans, J; Funakoshi, R; Gill, D R; Gomberoff, K; Hangst, J S; Hardy, W N; Hayano, R S; Hydomako, R; Jenkins, M J; Jørgensen, L V; Kurchaninov, L; Madsen, N; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Page, R D; Povilus, A; Robicheaux, F; Sarid, E; Silveira, D M; Storey, J W; Thompson, R I; Van der Werf, D P; Wurtele, J S; Yamazaki, Y


    ALPHA is an international project that has recently begun experimentation at CERN's Antiproton Decelerator (AD) facility. The primary goal of ALPHA is stable trapping of cold antihydrogen atoms with the ultimate goal of precise spectroscopic comparisons with hydrogen. We discuss the status of the ALPHA project and the prospects for antihydrogen trapping.

  4. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Alpha Target Genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rakhshandehroo, M.; Knoch, B.; Müller, M.R.; Kersten, A.H.


    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR alpha) is a ligand-activated transcription factor involved in the regulation of a variety of processes, ranging from inflammation and immunity to nutrient metabolism and energy homeostasis. PPAR alpha serves as a molecular target for hypolip

  5. Alpha Models for 3D Eulerian mean fluid circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm, D.D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States). Center for Nonlinear Studies and Theoretical Division


    The study provides the known analytical properties of the alpha models, including an outline of their derivation and the associated assumptions, their simplification for the case of constant dispersion length (alpha) and their conservation properties. Interpretations of nonlinear dynamics of viscous alpha models are also showed and the differences one might expect from the dynamics of the Navier-Stokes equations are indicated.

  6. Acute toxicity of high doses of the glycoalkaloids, alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine, in the Syrian Golden hamster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkilde, Søren; Schrøder, Malene; Stewart, Derek


    Sprouted, stressed, or spoiled potato tubers have reportedly led to human acute intoxication, coma, and death when consumed in high amounts. These effects have been attributed to glycoalkaloids (GAs), primarily alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine, naturally present in all potatoes. The level of GAs...... in potato tubers has previously been shown to increase substantially as a result of improper handling and postharvest storage. A short-term study was performed to investigate the dose-response profile of alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine alone or in combination, administered daily by oral gavage to Syrian...... Golden hamsters. Daily doses of 100 mg of alpha-solanine [kg body weight (BW)](-1) induced death in two of four hamsters within 4 days, when administered by gavage to female Syrian hamsters. Doses of 100 mg of alpha-chaconine alone or alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine combined in a ratio of 1...

  7. Varying alpha and the electroweak model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimberly, Dagny; Magueijo, Joao


    Inspired by recent claims for a varying fine structure constant, alpha, we investigate the effect of 'promoting coupling constants to variables' upon various parameters of the standard model. We first consider a toy model: Proca theory of the massive photon. We then explore the electroweak theory with one and two dilaton fields. We find that a varying alpha unavoidably implies varying W and Z masses. This follows from gauge invariance, and is to be contrasted with Proca theory. For the two dilaton theory the Weinberg angle is also variable, but Fermi's constant and the tree level fermion masses remain constant unless the Higgs potential becomes dynamical. We outline some cosmological implications.

  8. Gravitational waves in $\\alpha-$attractors

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, K Sravan; Moniz, Paulo Vargas; Das, Suratna


    We study inflation in the $\\alpha-$attractor model under a non-slow-roll dynamics with an ansatz proposed by Gong \\& Sasaki \\cite{Gong:2015ypa} of assuming $N=N\\left(\\phi\\right)$. Under this approach, we construct a class of local shapes of inflaton potential that are different from the T-models. We find this type of inflationary scenario predicts an attractor at $n_{s}\\sim0.967$ and $r\\sim0.00055$. In our approach, the non-slow-roll inflaton dynamics are related to the $\\alpha-$parameter which is the curvature of K\\"ahler geometry in the SUGRA embedding of this model.

  9. Alpha self-absorption in monazite dusts. (United States)

    Terry, K W


    Measurements have been made of the self-absorption effects in monazite of alpha particles of the 232Th decay series. Samples of six size fractions of monazite were deposited on filters at different dust concentrations and then the gross alpha activity determined. Self-absorption effects were negligible in monazite particles up to 8 microns diameter provided dust concentrations were less than 1 mg cm-2. Significant self-absorption effects occurred for both larger particle sizes and higher dust loadings. As reported AMAD values in the mineral sands industry range up to 15 microns, which is equivalent to an actual mean size of 8 microns diameter monazite particle, minimal self-absorption occurs in samples collected in air monitoring programs conducted in the industry provided that dust concentrations on the filters are less than 1 mg cm-2.

  10. Do marine bacteria degrade. alpha. -hexachlorocyclohexane stereoselectively

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faller, J.; Huehnerfuss, H.; Koenig, W.A.; Krebber, R.; Ludwig, P. (Univ. Hamburg (West Germany))


    The enantiomeric ratio of a chiral organic pollutant has been determined gas chromatographically for the first time at low concentrations as encountered in a North Sea water sample by using heptakis (3-O-butyryl-2,6-di-O-pentyl)-{beta}-cyclodextrin as a chiral stationary phase. As an example, the separation of the enantiomers of {alpha}-hexachlorocyclo-hexane ({alpha}-HCH) is shown herein. However, the method is expected to be generally applicable to many environmental problems that are related to chiral biogenic and anthropogenic substances and chiral degradation products. The potential of this experimental approach for a discrimination between enzymatic and nonenzymatic processes in marine and terrestric ecosystems is discussed.

  11. Source preparations for alpha and beta measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm, E. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)


    Regarding alpha particle emitters subject for environmental studies, electrodeposition or co-precipitation as fluorides are the most common methods. For electro deposition stainless steel is generally used as cathode material but also other metals such as Ni, Ag, and Cu showed promising results. The use of other anode material than platinum, such as graphite should be investigated. For other purposes such as optimal resolution other more sophisticated methods are used but often resulting in poorer recovery. For beta particle emitters the type of detection system will decide the source preparation. Similar methods as for alpha particle emitters, electrodeposition or precipitation techniques can be used. Due to the continuous energy distribution of the beta pulse height distribution a high resolution is not required. Thicker sources from the precipitates or a stable isotopic carrier can be accepted but correction for absorption in the source must be done. (au)

  12. Sneutrino Inflation with $\\alpha$-attractors

    CERN Document Server

    Kallosh, Renata; Roest, Diederik; Wrase, Timm


    Sneutrino inflation employs the fermionic partners of the inflaton and stabilizer field as right-handed neutrinos to realize the seesaw mechanism for light neutrino masses. A crucial ingredient in existing constructions for sneutrino (multi-)natural inflation is an unbroken discrete shift symmetry. We demonstrate that a similar construction applies to $\\alpha$-attractor models. In this case the hyperbolic geometry protects the neutrino Yukawa couplings to the inflaton field, and the masses of leptons and Higgs fields, from blowing up when the inflaton is super-Planckian. We find that the predictions for $n_s$ and $r$ for $\\alpha$-attractor cosmological models, compatible with the current cosmological data, are preserved in the presence of the neutrino sector.

  13. Bakers' asthma caused by alpha amylase. (United States)

    Valdivieso, R; Subiza, J; Subiza, J L; Hinojosa, M; de Carlos, E; Subiza, E


    Two bakers with bronchial asthma and two with rhinoconjunctivitis are described. Prick and RAST tests were positive with wheat flour in all of them, but the challenge test (nasal or bronchial) with wheat flour extract was positive only in one asthmatic baker. The prick test, RAST, and nasal or bronchial challenge done with alpha amylase extract (a glycolytic enzyme obtained from Aspergillus oryzae and used as a flour additive) were positive in all four patients. Our results support previous data indicating that alpha amylase used in bakeries is an important antigen that could cause respiratory allergy in bakers. It can function as sole causative allergen or in addition with other allergens used in the baking industry.

  14. Alpha Decay, Shell Structure, and New Elements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Zhong-Zhou; TAI Fei; SHEN Wen-Qing


    We systematically analyze the experimental data of alpha decay in even-even heavy nuclei far from stabilityand find that the Geiger-Nuttall law breaks for an isotopic chain when its neutron number is across a magic numberor there is a deformed subshell. This break can be used to identify new magic numbers of superheavy nuclei. It is alsodiscovered that there is a new linear relation between the logarithm of half-life and the reciprocal of the square root ofdecay energy for N = 126 and N = 152 isotones. It could be a new law of alpha decay for nuclei with magic neutronnumbers but the physics behind it is to be explored. The significance of these researches for the search of new elementsis discussed.

  15. Alpha Decay, Shell Structure, and New Elements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENZhong-Zhou; TAIFei; SHENWen-Qing


    We systematically analyze the experimental data of alpha decay in even-even heavy nuclei far from stability and find that the Geiger-Nuttall law brea~s for an isotopic chain when its neutron number is across a marc number or there is a deformed subshell. This break can be used to identify new magic numbers of superheavy nuclei. It is also discovered that there is a new linear relation between the logarithm of half-life and the reciprocal of the square root of decay energy for N = 126 and N = 152 isotones. It could be a new law of alpha decay for nuclei with magic neutron numbers but the physics behind it is to be explored. The significance of these researches for the search of new elements is discussed.

  16. Possibilities of life around Alpha Centauri B

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez, Antolin; Hearnshaw, John


    We make a preliminary assessment on the habitability of potential rocky exoplanets around Alpha Centauri B. We use several indexes: the Earth Similarity Index, a mathematical model for photosynthesis, and a biological productivity model. Considering the atmospheres of the exoplanets similar to current Earth's atmosphere, we find consistent predictions of both the Earth Similarity Index and the biological productivity model. The mathematical model for photosynthesis clearly failed because does not consider the temperature explicitly. For the case of Alpha Centauri B, several simulation runs give 11 planets in the habitable zone. Applying to them above mentioned indexes, we select the five exoplanets more prone for photosynthetic life; showing that two of them in principle have better conditions than Earth for this kind of life.

  17. The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer Silicon Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Burger, W J


    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is designed as a independent module for installation on the International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) in the year 2002 for an operational period of three years. The principal scientific objectives are the searches for antimatter and dark matter in cosmic rays. The AMS uses 5.5 m sup 2 of silicon microstrip sensors to reconstruct charged particle trajectories in the field of a permanent magnet. The detector design and construction covered a 3 yr period which terminated with a test flight on the NASA space shuttle Discovery during June 2-12, 1988. In this contribution, we describe the shuttle version of the AMS silicon tracker, including preliminary results of the tracker performance during the flight. (author)

  18. The predominantly nonhydrolytic action of alpha amylases on alpha-maltosyl fluoride. (United States)

    Okada, G; Genghof, D S; Hehre, E J


    Crystalline alpha amylases from a number of sources utilized alpha-maltosyl fluoride as a glycosyl donor and acceptor at high rates (approximately 10 to approximately 1550 mumol/min/mg of protein, for 30 mM substrate). All enzymes catalyzed conversion of this compound into maltooligosaccharides in preference to causing its hydrolysis. Maltotetraosyl flouride and maltooligosaccharides of d.p. 3 to 6+ accounted for 75--93% (by weight) of early reaction-products. At a late stage, the yield of maltooligosaccharides was 2--5 times that of maltose, with chains as long as 12 D-glucosyl residues formed by one amylase (from Asp. oryzae), which utilized alpha-maltosyl fluoride as a donor and as an acceptor at extremely high rates. These results indicate that alpha amylases have a substantial capacity for binding two molecules of this small substrate in a distinctive way, with the C--F glycosylic bond of one and the free C-4 hydroxyl group of the other located in the region of the enzyme's catalytic groups, therby favoring glycosylation of the suitably positioned acceptor over solvent water. Hydrolysis is assumed to prevail when only a single substrate molecule or segment binds to alpha amylase with a (1 linked to 4)-alpha-D-glucosidic linkage of glycosylic C--F bond positioned at the catalytic center. The present demonstration that glycosyl-transfer reactions can be dominantly expressed by alpha amylases, given an appropriate substrate, illustrates the inadequacy of the usual characterization of these enzymes as hydrolases that produce overwhelming hydrolysis of all substrates.

  19. Proceedings, High-Precision $\\alpha_s$ Measurements from LHC to FCC-ee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    d' Enterria, David [CERN; Skands, Peter Z. [Monash U.


    This document provides a writeup of all contributions to the workshop on "High precision measurements of $\\alpha_s$: From LHC to FCC-ee" held at CERN, Oct. 12--13, 2015. The workshop explored in depth the latest developments on the determination of the QCD coupling $\\alpha_s$ from 15 methods where high precision measurements are (or will be) available. Those include low-energy observables: (i) lattice QCD, (ii) pion decay factor, (iii) quarkonia and (iv) $\\tau$ decays, (v) soft parton-to-hadron fragmentation functions, as well as high-energy observables: (vi) global fits of parton distribution functions, (vii) hard parton-to-hadron fragmentation functions, (viii) jets in $e^\\pm$p DIS and $\\gamma$-p photoproduction, (ix) photon structure function in $\\gamma$-$\\gamma$, (x) event shapes and (xi) jet cross sections in $e^+e^-$ collisions, (xii) W boson and (xiii) Z boson decays, and (xiv) jets and (xv) top-quark cross sections in proton-(anti)proton collisions. The current status of the theoretical and experimental uncertainties associated to each extraction method, the improvements expected from LHC data in the coming years, and future perspectives achievable in $e^+e^-$ collisions at the Future Circular Collider (FCC-ee) with $\\cal{O}$(1--100 ab$^{-1}$) integrated luminosities yielding 10$^{12}$ Z bosons and jets, and 10$^{8}$ W bosons and $\\tau$ leptons, are thoroughly reviewed. The current uncertainty of the (preliminary) 2015 strong coupling world-average value, $\\alpha_s(m_Z)$ = 0.1177 $\\pm$ 0.0013, is about 1\\%. Some participants believed this may be reduced by a factor of three in the near future by including novel high-precision observables, although this opinion was not universally shared. At the FCC-ee facility, a factor of ten reduction in the $\\alpha_s$ uncertainty should be possible, mostly thanks to the huge Z and W data samples available.

  20. Biomarkers of Alpha Particle Radiation Exposure (United States)


    Increased forensic capability through the development of biological tools to help identify those involved should be an integral to a national strategy... forensics capabilities and emergency preparedness response plans through the detection of those exposed to alpha-particle emitting radioactive...exposure and stored at -40°C before being processed next day. Plasma was analysed using the Piccolo Express Chemistry Analyser (Fisher Scientific

  1. Properties of observed Ly-$\\alpha$ forest


    Demianski, M.; Doroshkevich, A.; Turchaninov, V.


    The main observed properties of Ly-$\\alpha$ absorbers are investigated on the basis of theoretical model of formation and evolution of DM structure elements. This model is generally consistent with simulations of absorbers formation and with statistical description of structure evolution based on the Zel'dovich theory. The analysis of redshift variations of comoving linear number density of absorbers was performed in our previous paper. We show that the observed characteristics of Doppler par...

  2. Heterodiffusion coefficients in alpha-iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsika-Tsigourakou, Vassiliki, E-mail: vkatsik@phys.uoa.g [Department of Solid State Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis Zografos, 15784 Athens (Greece); Skordas, Efthimios S. [Department of Solid State Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis Zografos, 15784 Athens (Greece)


    The diffusion of tungsten in alpha-iron is important for the application of ferritic-iron alloys to thermal power plants. These data, over a wide temperature range across the Curie temperature, have been recently reported. We show that these diffusion coefficients can be satisfactory reproduced in terms of the bulk elastic and expansivity data by means of a thermodynamical model that interconnects point defects parameters with bulk qualities.

  3. Alpha-beta bidirectional associative memories


    María Elena Acevedo Mosqueda; Cornelio Yáñez Márquez


    Most models of Bidirectional associative memories intend to achieve that all trained pattern correspond to stable states; however, this has not been possible. Also, none of the former models has been able to recall all the trained patterns. In this work we introduce a new model of bidirectional associative memory which is not iterative and has no stability problems. It is based on the Alpha-Beta associative memories. This model allows perfect recall of all trained patterns, with no ambiguity ...

  4. Fasting induces basolateral uptake transporters of the SLC family in the liver via HNF4alpha and PGC1alpha. (United States)

    Dietrich, Christoph G; Martin, Ina V; Porn, Anne C; Voigt, Sebastian; Gartung, Carsten; Trautwein, Christian; Geier, Andreas


    Fasting induces numerous adaptive changes in metabolism by several central signaling pathways, the most important represented by the HNF4alpha/PGC-1alpha-pathway. Because HNF4alpha has been identified as central regulator of basolateral bile acid transporters and a previous study reports increased basolateral bile acid uptake into the liver during fasting, we hypothesized that HNF4alpha is involved in fasting-induced bile acid uptake via upregulation of basolateral bile acid transporters. In rats, mRNA of Ntcp, Oatp1, and Oatp2 were significantly increased after 48 h of fasting. Protein expression as determined by Western blot showed significant increases for all three transporters 72 h after the onset of fasting. Whereas binding activity of HNF1alpha in electrophoretic mobility shift assays remained unchanged, HNF4alpha binding activity to the Ntcp promoter was increased significantly. In line with this result, we found significantly increased mRNA expression of HNF4alpha and PGC-1alpha. Functional studies in HepG2 cells revealed an increased endogenous NTCP mRNA expression upon cotransfection with either HNF4alpha, PGC-1alpha, or a combination of both. We conclude that upregulation of the basolateral bile acid transporters Ntcp, Oatp1, and Oatp2 in fasted rats is mediated via the HNF4alpha/PGC-1alpha pathway.

  5. Hypoxia inducible factor-1-alpha (HIF-1 alpha) is related to both angiogenesis and inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, E.; Gouw, A. S. H.; Posthumus, M. D.; van Leeuwen, M. A.; Boerboom, A. L.; Bijzet, J.; Limburg, P. C.; Kallenberg, C. G. M.; Westra, J.; Bos, R


    Objectives Despite the important role of the transcription factor HIF-1 alpha in angiogenesis and inflammation, only a few studies on HIF-1 alpha expression have been performed in RA patients. The aim of the present study was to identify the layer in synovial tissue of RA patients where HIF1 alpha i

  6. Tritiated-nicotine- and /sup 125/I-alpha-bungarotoxin-labeled nicotinic receptors in the interpeduncular nucleus of rats. II. Effects of habenular destruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, P.B.; Hamill, G.S.; Nadi, N.S.; Jacobowitz, D.M.; Pert, A.


    The cholinergic innervation of the interpeduncular nucleus (IPN) is wholly extrinsic and is greatly attenuated by bilateral habenular destruction. We describe changes in the labeling of putative nicotinic receptors within this nucleus at 3, 5, or 11 days after bilateral habenular lesions. Adjacent tissue sections of the rat IPN were utilized for /sup 3/H-nicotine and /sup 125/I-alpha-bungarotoxin (/sup 125/I-BTX) receptor autoradiography. Compared to sham-operated controls, habenular destruction significantly reduced autoradiographic /sup 3/H-nicotine labeling in rostral (-25%), intermediate (-13%), and lateral subnuclei (-36%). Labeling in the central subnucleus was unchanged. Loss of labeling was maximal at the shortest survival time (3 days) and did not change thereafter. In order to establish whether this loss was due to a reduction in the number or the affinity of /sup 3/H-nicotine-binding sites, a membrane assay was performed on microdissected IPN tissue from rats that had received surgery 3 days previously. Bilateral habenular lesions produced a 35% reduction of high-affinity /sup 3/H-nicotine-binding sites, with no change in binding affinity. Bilateral habenular lesions reduced /sup 125/I-BTX labeling in the intermediate subnuclei, and a slight increase occurred in the rostral subnucleus. In the lateral subnuclei, /sup 125/I-BTX labeling was significantly reduced (27%) at 3 days but not at later survival times. In view of the known synaptic morphology of the habenulointerpeduncular tract, it is concluded that a subpopulation of /sup 3/H-nicotine binding sites within the IPN is located on afferent axons and/or terminals. This subpopulation, located within rostral, intermediate, and lateral subnuclei, may correspond to presynaptic nicotinic cholinergic receptors. Sites that bind /sup 125/I-BTX may include a presynaptic subpopulation located in the lateral and possibly the intermediate subnuclei.

  7. The Alpha Dynamo Effects in Laboratory Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hantao Ji; Stewart C. Prager


    A concise review of observations of the alpha dynamo effect in laboratory plasmas is given. Unlike many astrophysical systems, the laboratory pinch plasmas are driven magnetically. When the system is overdriven, the resultant instabilities cause magnetic and flow fields to fluctuate, and their correlation induces electromotive forces along the mean magnetic field. This alpha-effect drives mean parallel electric current, which, in turn, modifies the initial background mean magnetic structure towards the stable regime. This drive-and-relax cycle, or the so-called self-organization process, happens in magnetized plasmas in a timescale much shorter than resistive diffusion time, thus it is a fast and unquenched dynamo process. The observed alpha-effect redistributes magnetic helicity (a measure of twistedness and knottedness of magnetic field lines) but conserves its total value. It can be shown that fast and unquenched dynamos are natural consequences of a driven system where fluctuations are statistically either not stationary in time or not homogeneous in space, or both. Implications to astrophysical phenomena will be discussed.

  8. Parallax and masses of alpha Centauri revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Pourbaix, Dimitri


    Context. Despite the thorough work of van Leeuwen (2007), the parallax of alpha Centauri is still far from being carved in stone. Any derivation of the individual masses is therefore uncertain, if not questionable. And yet, that does not prevent this system from being used for calibration purpose in several studies. Aims. Obtaining more accurate model-free parallax and individual masses of this system. Methods. With HARPS, the radial velocities are not only precise but also accurate. Ten years of HARPS data are enough to derive the complement of the visual orbit for a full 3D orbit of alpha Cen. Results. We locate alpha Cen (743 mas) right where Hipparcos (ESA 1997) had put it, i.e. slightly further away than derived by Soderhjelm (1999). The components are thus a bit more massive than previously thought (1.13 and 0.97 Msun for A and B respectively). These values are now in excellent agreement with the latest asteroseismologic results.

  9. $\\alpha$-cluster ANCs for nuclear astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Avila, M L; Koshchiy, E; Baby, L T; Belarge, J; Kemper, K W; Kuchera, A N; Santiago-Gonzalez, D


    Background. Many important $\\alpha$-particle induced reactions for nuclear astrophysics may only be measured using indirect techniques due to small cross sections at the energy of interest. One of such indirect technique, is to determine the Asymptotic Normalization Coefficients (ANC) for near threshold resonances extracted from sub-Coulomb $\\alpha$-transfer reactions. This approach provides a very valuable tool for studies of astrophysically important reaction rates since the results are practically model independent. However, the validity of the method has not been directly verified. Purpose. The aim of this letter is to verify the technique using the $^{16}$O($^6$Li,$d$)$^{20}$Ne reaction as a benchmark. The $^{20}$Ne nucleus has a well known $1^-$ state at excitation energy of 5.79 MeV with a width of 28 eV. Reproducing the known value with this technique is an ideal opportunity to verify the method. Method. The 1$^-$ state at 5.79 MeV is studied using the $\\alpha$-transfer reaction $^{16}$O($^6$Li,$d$)$^...

  10. $\\alpha$ Centauri A in the far infrared

    CERN Document Server

    Liseau, R; Olofsson, G; Bryden, G; Marshall, J P; Ardila, D; Aran, A Bayo; Danchi, W C; del Burgo, C; Eiroa, C; Ertel, S; Fridlund, M C W; Krivov, A V; Pilbratt, G L; Roberge, A; Thébault, P; Wiegert, J; White, G J


    Chromospheres and coronae are common phenomena on solar-type stars. Understanding the energy transfer to these heated atmospheric layers requires direct access to the relevant empirical data. Study of these structures has, by and large, been limited to the Sun thus far. The region of the temperature reversal can be directly observed only in the far infrared and submm. We aim at the determination of the characteristics of the atmosphere in the region of the temperature minimum of the solar sister star alpha Cen A. For the nearby binary system alpha Centauri, stellar parameters are known with high accuracy from measurements. For the basic model parameters Teff, log g and [Fe/H], we interpolate in the grid of GAIA/PHOENIX stellar model atmospheres and compute the corresponding model for the G2 V star alpha Cen A. Comparison with photometric measurements shows excellent agreement between observed photospheric data in the optical and infrared. For longer wavelengths, the modelled spectral energy distribution is co...

  11. Alpha Particle Physics Experiments in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budny, R.V.; Darrow, D.S.; Medley, S.S.; Nazikian, R.; Zweben, S.J.; et al.


    Alpha particle physics experiments were done on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) during its deuterium-tritium (DT) run from 1993-1997. These experiments utilized several new alpha particle diagnostics and hundreds of DT discharges to characterize the alpha particle confinement and wave-particle interactions. In general, the results from the alpha particle diagnostics agreed with the classical single-particle confinement model in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) quiescent discharges. Also, the observed alpha particle interactions with sawteeth, toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes (TAE), and ion cyclotron resonant frequency (ICRF) waves were roughly consistent with theoretical modeling. This paper reviews what was learned and identifies what remains to be understood.

  12. Multimode fiber with z-dependent alpha-value. (United States)

    Marcuse, D


    The width of the impulse response of multimode fibers with power law index profiles depends on the alpha-value of the power law exponent. For constant alpha, optimum pulse width is achievable only in a very narrow range of values centered around alpha = 2 - (12/5)Delta. We show in this paper that the optimum width of the impulse response is achievable for fibers with nonoptimum alpha-values provided alpha varies slowly along the fiber and deviates on average by equal amounts to either side of its (constant) optimum value.

  13. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy after treatment with interferon-alpha. (United States)

    Hirotani, Makoto; Nakano, Hitoshi; Ura, Shigehisa; Yoshida, Kazuto; Niino, Masaaki; Yabe, Ichiro; Sasaki, Hidenao


    Interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha), though widely used for the treatment of chronic viral hepatitis, may be associated with the occurrence of autoimmune disorders. In this case report, a patient with chronic hepatitis C virus infection had chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) after the initiation of IFN-alpha therapy. The neurological symptoms of this patient continued to progress even though the treatment with IFN-alpha had been withdrawn; the symptoms improved dramatically following treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin. This case may therefore provide an important clue to understand the immune mechanism of CIDP and IFN-alpha.

  14. Bioisosteric phentolamine analogs as potent alpha-adrenergic antagonists. (United States)

    Hong, Seoung-Soo; Bavadekar, Supriya A; Lee, Sang-Il; Patil, Popat N; Lalchandani, S G; Feller, Dennis R; Miller, Duane D


    The synthesis and biological evaluation of a new series of bioisosteric phentolamine analogs are described. Replacement of the carbon next to the imidazoline ring of phentolamine with a nitrogen atom provides compounds (2, 3) that are about 1.6 times and 4.1 times more potent functionally than phentolamine on rat alpha1-adrenergic receptors, respectively. In receptor binding assays, the affinities of phentolamine and its bioisosteric analogs were determined on the human embryonic kidney (HEK) and Chinese Hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines expressing the human alpha1- and alpha2-AR subtypes, respectively. Analogs 2 and 3, both, displayed higher binding affinities at the alpha2- versus the alpha1-ARs, affinities being the least at the alpha1B-AR. Binding affinities of the methoxy ether analog 2 were greater than those of the phenolic analog 3 at all six alpha-AR subtypes. One of the nitrogen atoms in the imidazoline ring of phentolamine was replaced with an oxygen atom to give compounds 4 and 5, resulting in a 2-substituted oxazoline ring. The low functional antagonist activity on rat aorta, and binding potencies of these two compounds on human alpha1A- and alpha2A-AR subtypes indicate that a basic functional group is important for optimum binding to the alpha1- and alpha2A-adrenergic receptors.

  15. Functional and genomic analyses of alpha-solenoid proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Fournier

    Full Text Available Alpha-solenoids are flexible protein structural domains formed by ensembles of alpha-helical repeats (Armadillo and HEAT repeats among others. While homology can be used to detect many of these repeats, some alpha-solenoids have very little sequence homology to proteins of known structure and we expect that many remain undetected. We previously developed a method for detection of alpha-helical repeats based on a neural network trained on a dataset of protein structures. Here we improved the detection algorithm and updated the training dataset using recently solved structures of alpha-solenoids. Unexpectedly, we identified occurrences of alpha-solenoids in solved protein structures that escaped attention, for example within the core of the catalytic subunit of PI3KC. Our results expand the current set of known alpha-solenoids. Application of our tool to the protein universe allowed us to detect their significant enrichment in proteins interacting with many proteins, confirming that alpha-solenoids are generally involved in protein-protein interactions. We then studied the taxonomic distribution of alpha-solenoids to discuss an evolutionary scenario for the emergence of this type of domain, speculating that alpha-solenoids have emerged in multiple taxa in independent events by convergent evolution. We observe a higher rate of alpha-solenoids in eukaryotic genomes and in some prokaryotic families, such as Cyanobacteria and Planctomycetes, which could be associated to increased cellular complexity. The method is available at

  16. Determination of $\\alpha_{s}$ using Jet Rates at LEP with the OPAL detector

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G.; Akesson, P.F.; Alexander, G.; Anagnostou, G.; Anderson, K.J.; Asai, S.; Axen, D.; Bailey, I.; Barberio, E.; Barillari, T.; Barlow, R.J.; Batley, R.J.; Bechtle, P.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bell, P.J.; Bella, G.; Bellerive, A.; Benelli, G.; Bethke, S.; Biebel, O.; Boeriu, O.; Bock, P.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Brown, Robert M.; Burckhart, H.J.; Campana, S.; Capiluppi, P.; Carnegie, R.K.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, D.G.; Ciocca, C.; Csilling, A.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Donkers, M.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Etzion, E.; Fabbri, F.; Ferrari, P.; Fiedler, F.; Fleck, I.; Ford, M.; Frey, A.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, John William; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Giunta, Marina; Goldberg, J.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Gunther, P.O.; Gupta, A.; Hajdu, C.; Hamann, M.; Hanson, G.G.; Harel, A.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hill, J.C.; Horvath, D.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Ishii, K.; Jeremie, H.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Kanzaki, J.; Karlen, D.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kramer, T.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kuhl, T.; Kupper, M.; Lafferty, G.D.; Landsman, H.; Lanske, D.; Lellouch, D.; Lettso, J.; Levinson, L.; Lillich, J.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Lu, J.; Ludwig, A.; Ludwig, J.; Mader, W.; Marcellini, S.; Martin, A.J.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McKenna, J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Menges, W.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Meyer, Niels T.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Mohr, W.; Mori, T.; Mutter, A.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Nanjo, H.; Neal, H.A.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oh, A.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Pahl, C.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Pooth, O.; Przybycien, M.; Quadt, A.; Rabbertz, K.; Rembser, C.; Renkel, P.; Roney, J.M.; Rossi, A.M.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sarkisyan, E.K.G.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schorner-Sadenius, T.; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Sherwood, P.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Spano, F.; Stahl, A.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Tarem, S.; Tasevsky, M.; Teuscher, R.; Thomson, M.A.; Torrence, E.; Toya, D.; Tran, P.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Ueda, I.; Ujvari, B.; Vollmer, C.F.; Vannerem, P.; Vertesi, R.; Verzocchi, M.; Voss, H.; Vossebeld, J.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wengler, T.; Wermes, N.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wolf, G.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Zer-Zion, D.; Zivkovic, Lidija


    Hadronic events produced in e+e- collisions by the LEP collider and recorded by the OPAL detector were used to form distributions based on the number of reconstructed jets. The data were collected between 1995 and 2000 and correspond to energies of 91 GeV, 130-136 GeV and 161-209 GeV. The jet rates were determined using four different jet-finding algorithms (Cone, JADE, Durham and Cambridge). The differential two-jet rate and the average jet rate with the Durham and Cambridge algorithms were used to measure alpha(s) in the LEP energy range by fitting an expression in which order alpah_2s calculations were matched to a NLLA prediction and fitted to the data. Combining the measurements at different centre-of-mass energies, the value of alpha_s (Mz) was determined to be alpha(s)(Mz)=0.1177+-0.0006(stat.)+-0.0012$(expt.)+-0.0010(had.)+-0.0032

  17. Systematics of alpha decay half-life: new evaluations for alpha-emitter nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, E.L.; Rodrigues, M.M.N.; Duarte, S.B.; Tavares, O.A.P. E-mail:


    A semiempirical model based on the quantum mechanical tunnelling mechanism of alpha emission from nuclei has been used to systematize the alpha decay half-lives of a set of 336 nuclides, comprising all the alpha-emitter nuclides whose T{sub 1/2} {sup a}lpha-data for ground-state to ground-state transitions of mutual angular momentum l = 0 are known. With a minimum of data rejection (only {approx} 5% of cases), the procedure has been successful in reproducing quite satisfactorily (within a factor {approx} 2) most of the cases ({approx} 80%) investigated. The few significant discrepancies found between measured and calculated results are analysed and discussed. Also reported is the prediction from the model for possible new alpha-emitter nuclides, namely {sup 180} W, {sup 184} Os, and {sup 228} Ra for which cases the calculated partial alpha decay half-lives fall within the range of half-lives measurable by the current techniques. (author)

  18. Probing surface distribution of $\\alpha$-cluster in $^{20}$Ne via $\\alpha$-transfer reaction

    CERN Document Server

    Fukui, Tokuro; Suhara, Tadahiro; Kanada-En'yo, Yoshiko; Ogata, Kazuyuki


    Direct evidence of the $\\alpha$-cluster development in bound states has not been obtained yet although a number of experimental studies were carried out to extract the information of the clustering. In particular in conventional analyses of $\\alpha$-transfer reactions, there exist a few significant problems on reaction models, which are insufficient to qualitatively discuss the cluster structure. We aim to verify the development of the $\\alpha$-cluster structure from observables. As the first application, it is argued to extract the spatial information of the cluster structure of the $^{20}$Ne nucleus in its ground state through the cross section of the $\\alpha$-transfer reaction $^{16}$O($^6$Li,~$d$)$^{20}$Ne. For the analysis of the transfer reaction, we work with the coupled-channels Born approximation (CCBA) approach, in which the breakup effect of $^6$Li is explicitly taken into account by means of the continuum-discretized coupled-channels method (CDCC) based on the three-body $\\alpha + d + {}^{16}$O mo...

  19. $\\alpha_s$ analyses from hadronic tau decays with OPAL and ALEPH data

    CERN Document Server

    Boito, Diogo; Maltman, Kim; Peris, Santiago


    Recently, we extracted the strong coupling, $\\alpha_s(m_\\tau^2)$, from the revised ALEPH data for non-strange hadronic tau decays. Our analysis is based on a method previously used for the determination of the strong coupling from OPAL data. In our strategy, we employ different moments of the spectral functions both with and without pinching, including Duality Violations, in order to obtain fully self-consistent analyses that do not rely on untested assumptions (such as the smallness of higher dimension contributions in the OPE). Here we discuss the $\\alpha_s$ values obtained from the ALEPH and the OPAL data, the robustness of the analysis, as well as non-perturbative contributions from DVs and the OPE. We show that, although the $\\alpha_s$ determination is sound, non-perturbative effects limit the accuracy with which one can extract the strong coupling from tau decay data. Finally, we discuss the compatibility of the data sets and the possibility of a combined analysis.

  20. Extreme alpha-clustering in the 18O nucleus

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, E D; Goldberg, V Z; Brown, S; Robson, D; Crisp, A M; Cottle, P D; Fu, C; Giles, J; Green, B W; Kemper, K W; Lee, K; Roeder, B T; Tribble, R E


    The structure of the 18O nucleus at excitation energies above the alpha decay threshold was studied using 14C+alpha resonance elastic scattering. A number of states with large alpha reduced widths have been observed, indicating that the alpha-cluster degree of freedom plays an important role in this N not equal Z nucleus. However, the alpha-cluster structure of this nucleus is very different from the relatively simple pattern of strong alpha-cluster quasi-rotational bands in the neighboring 16O and 20Ne nuclei. A 0+ state with an alpha reduced width exceeding the single particle limit was identified at an excitation energy of 9.9+/-0.3 MeV. We discuss evidence that states of this kind are common in light nuclei and give possible explanations of this feature.

  1. Expression of Integrin Alpha10 Is Induced in Malignant Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Kathrin Wenke


    Full Text Available Recently, integrin alpha10 was described as a collagen type II-binding integrin expressed mainly in chondrocytes. However, by array studies we detected integrin alpha10 also to be upregulated in malignant melanoma compared to primary melanocytes. Subsequent analysis of melanoma cell lines and melanoma tumor samples confirmed this finding. Further, we demonstrated that expression of integrin alpha10 is controlled by AP-2 and Ets-1, two transcription factors known to be involved in melanoma development and progression. To investigate the functional relevance of integrin alpha10, expression was downregulated via stable antisense transfection. Proliferation assays and colony forming assays revealed no differences comparing antisense integrin alpha10 cell clones with control and wild type melanoma cells, respectively. However, antisense integrin alpha10 cell clones and Mel Im cells treated with an inhibitory antibody against integrin alpha10 showed a reduced migratory potential.

  2. Determination of {alpha}-nucleus potentials by {alpha}-elastic scattering and its implications for the {gamma}-process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galaviz, D. E-mail:; Babilon, M.; Fueloep, Zs.; Gyuerky, Gy.; Mate, Z.; Hillier, R.; Mohr, P.; Rauscher, T.; Somorjai, E.; Zilges, A.; Zolnai, L


    Complete angular distributions for the reactions {sup 112,124}Sn({alpha},{alpha}){sup 112,124}Sn have been measured at different energies around the Coulomb barrier. Preliminary results for the {sup 112}Sn x {alpha} and {sup 124}Sn x {alpha} potentials at the energy E{sub c.m.} {approx} 19 MeV are presented. The full determination of the a-nucleus potential for both nuclides may also help to understand the behaviour of {alpha}-nucleus potentials along an isotopic chain.

  3. A measurement of $\\alpha_{s}$ (M$_{Z}^{2}$) from the Gross Llewellyn Smith sum rule

    CERN Document Server

    Harris, D A; Auchincloss, P S; De Barbaro, P; Bazarko, A O; Bernstein, R H; Bodek, A; Bolton, T; Budd, H; Conrad, J; Drucker, R B; Johnson, R A; Kim, J H; King, B J; Kinnel, T; Koizumi, G; Koutsoliotas, S; Lamm, M J; Lefmann, W C; Marsh, W; McFarland, K S; McNulty, C; Mishra, S R; Naples, D; Nienaber, P; Nussbaum, M; Oreglia, M J; Perera, L; Quintas, P Z; Romosan, A; Sakumoto, W K; Schumm, B A; Sciulli, F J; Seligman, W G; Shaevitz, M H; Smith, W H; Spentzouris, P; Steiner, R; Stern, E G; Vakili, M; Yang, U K


    The Gross Llewellyn Smith sum rule has been measured at different values of four-momentum transfer squared (Q^{2}) by combining the precise CCFR neutrino data with data from other deep-inelastic scattering experiments at lower values of Q^{2}. A comparison with the {\\cal O}(\\alpha^{3}_{s}) predictions of perturbative QCD yields a determination of \\alpha_{s} and its dependence on Q^{2} in the range 1\\,GeV^2 < Q^{2} < 20 \\,GeV^{2}. Low \\qsq\\ tests have greater sensitivity to \\alfs(\\mztwo) than high \\qsq\\ tests, since at low Q^2, \\alpha_s is large and changing rapidly.

  4. Tetrahydro-iso-alpha Acids Antagonize Estrogen Receptor Alpha Activity in MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maëlle Lempereur


    Full Text Available Tetrahydro-iso-alpha acids commonly called THIAA or Tetra are modified hop acids extracted from hop (Humulus lupulus L. which are frequently used in brewing industry mainly in order to provide beer bitterness and foam stability. Interestingly, molecular structure of tetrahydro-iso-alpha acids is close to a new type of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα antagonists aimed at disrupting the binding of coactivators containing an LxxLL motif (NR-box. In this work we show that THIAA decreases estradiol-stimulated proliferation of MCF-7 (ERα-positive breast cancer cells. Besides, we show that it inhibits ERα transcriptional activity. Interestingly, this extract fails to compete with estradiol for ERα binding and does not significantly impact the receptor turnover rate in MCF-7 cells, suggesting that it does not act like classical antiestrogens. Hence, we demonstrate that THIAA is able to antagonize ERα estradiol-induced recruitment of the LxxLL binding motif.

  5. Expression of G alpha 16, a G-protein alpha subunit specific for hematopoiesis in acute leukemia. (United States)

    Pfeilstöcker, M; Karlic, H; Salamon, J; Krömer, E; Mühlberger, H; Pavlova, B; Selim, U; Tüchler, H; Fritsch, G; Kneissl, S; Heinz, R; Pitterman, E; Paukovits, M R


    G-proteins are essential in signal transduction pathways. A G-protein alpha subunit termed G alpha 16 was found to be exclusively expressed in hematopoietic cell lines. In cells derived from patients, G alpha 16 expression has been detected in progenitor- and pre-B ALL cells and also in peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC). In this study, we analyzed G alpha 16 expression using a RT-PCR technique by testing elutriated blood cells from normal donors, PBSC from breast cancer patients and bone marrow or peripheral blood cells from acute leukemia patients. Both of two ALL patients and 15/16 AML patients expressed G alpha 16. In elutriation experiments, G alpha 16 expression was found in fractions containing the highest number of precursor cells but was absent in mature T and B cell fractions. In addition, CD34-enriched PBSC were positive for G alpha 16 expression. Further in vitro experiments using the cell line KG1 showed that G alpha 16 expression was not affected by the growth inhibiting hemoregulatory peptide pEEDCK which has a sequence homology present within G alpha 16. Taken together, these data demonstrate that G alpha 16 is expressed in various normal and malignant hematopietic progenitors but not in their differentiated counterparts. G alpha 16 could play a vital role in signal transduction pathways controlling proliferation in early normal and malignant hematopoiesis.

  6. Expression and Purification of PI3 Kinase {alpha} and Development of an ATP Depletion and an AlphaScreen PI3 Kinase Activity Assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldyreff, Brigitte; Rasmussen, Tine L; Jensen, Hans H


    -terminal His-tag and the p85alpha regulatory domain in Sf9 insect cells. The complex consisting of p110alpha and p85alpha was purified by nickel affinity chromatography. The authors established an adenosine triphosphate (ATP) depletion assay to measure the activity of p110alpha/p85alpha. The assay...

  7. Test of the Flavour Independence of $\\alpha_{s}$ using Next-to-Leading Order Calculations for Heavy Quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G; Alexander, Gideon; Allison, J; Altekamp, N; Anderson, K J; Anderson, S; Arcelli, S; Asai, S; Ashby, S F; Axen, D A; Azuelos, Georges; Ball, A H; Barberio, E; Barlow, R J; Batley, J Richard; Baumann, S; Bechtluft, J; Behnke, T; Bell, K W; Bella, G; Bellerive, A; Bentvelsen, Stanislaus Cornelius Maria; Bethke, Siegfried; Betts, S; Biebel, O; Biguzzi, A; Bloodworth, Ian J; Bock, P; Böhme, J; Bonacorsi, D; Boutemeur, M; Braibant, S; Bright-Thomas, P G; Brigliadori, L; Brown, R M; Burckhart, Helfried J; Capiluppi, P; Carnegie, R K; Carter, A A; Carter, J R; Chang, C Y; Charlton, D G; Chrisman, D; Ciocca, C; Clarke, P E L; Clay, E; Cohen, I; Conboy, J E; Cooke, O C; Couchman, J; Couyoumtzelis, C; Coxe, R L; Cuffiani, M; Dado, S; Dallavalle, G M; Davis, R; De Jong, S; de Roeck, A; Dervan, P J; Desch, Klaus; Dienes, B; Dixit, M S; Dubbert, J; Duchovni, E; Duckeck, G; Duerdoth, I P; Estabrooks, P G; Etzion, E; Fabbri, Franco Luigi; Fanfani, A; Fanti, M; Faust, A A; Fiedler, F; Fierro, M; Fleck, I; Frey, A; Fürtjes, A; Futyan, D I; Gagnon, P; Gary, J W; Gascon-Shotkin, S M; Gaycken, G; Geich-Gimbel, C; Giacomelli, G; Giacomelli, P; Gibson, V; Gibson, W R; Gingrich, D M; Glenzinski, D A; Goldberg, J; Gorn, W; Grandi, C; Graham, K; Gross, E; Grunhaus, Jacob; Gruwé, M; Hajdu, C; Hanson, G G; Hansroul, M; Hapke, M; Harder, K; Harel, A; Hargrove, C K; Harin-Dirac, M; Hauschild, M; Hawkes, C M; Hawkings, R; Hemingway, Richard J; Herndon, M; Herten, G; Heuer, R D; Hildreth, M D; Hill, J C; Hobson, P R; Höcker, Andreas; Hoffman, K; Homer, R James; Honma, A K; Horváth, D; Hossain, K R; Howard, R; Hüntemeyer, P; Igo-Kemenes, P; Imrie, D C; Ishii, K; Jacob, F R; Jawahery, A; Jeremie, H; Jimack, Martin Paul; Jones, C R; Jovanovic, P; Junk, T R; Kanaya, N; Kanzaki, J I; Karlen, D A; Kartvelishvili, V G; Kawagoe, K; Kawamoto, T; Kayal, P I; Keeler, Richard K; Kellogg, R G; Kennedy, B W; Kim, D H; Klier, A; Kobayashi, T; Kobel, M; Kokott, T P; Kolrep, M; Komamiya, S; Kowalewski, R V; Kress, T; Krieger, P; Von Krogh, J; Kühl, T; Kyberd, P; Lafferty, G D; Landsman, Hagar Yaël; Lanske, D; Lauber, J; Lawson, I; Layter, J G; Lellouch, Daniel; Letts, J; Levinson, L; Liebisch, R; List, B; Littlewood, C; Lloyd, A W; Lloyd, S L; Loebinger, F K; Long, G D; Losty, Michael J; Lü, J; Ludwig, J; Liu, D; Macchiolo, A; MacPherson, A L; Mader, W F; Mannelli, M; Marcellini, S; Martin, A J; Martin, J P; Martínez, G; Mashimo, T; Mättig, P; McDonald, W J; McKenna, J A; McKigney, E A; McMahon, T J; McPherson, R A; Meijers, F; Méndez-Lorenzo, P; Merritt, F S; Mes, H; Michelini, Aldo; Mihara, S; Mikenberg, G; Miller, D J; Mohr, W; Montanari, A; Mori, T; Nagai, K; Nakamura, I; Neal, H A; Nisius, R; O'Neale, S W; Oakham, F G; Odorici, F; Ögren, H O; Okpara, A N; Oreglia, M J; Orito, S; Pásztor, G; Pater, J R; Patrick, G N; Patt, J; Pérez-Ochoa, R; Petzold, S; Pfeifenschneider, P; Pilcher, J E; Pinfold, James L; Plane, D E; Poffenberger, P R; Poli, B; Polok, J; Przybycien, M B; Quadt, A; Rembser, C; Rick, Hartmut; Robertson, S; Robins, S A; Rodning, N L; Roney, J M; Rosati, S; Roscoe, K; Rossi, A M; Rozen, Y; Runge, K; Runólfsson, O; Rust, D R; Sachs, K; Saeki, T; Sahr, O; Sang, W M; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E; Sbarra, C; Schaile, A D; Schaile, O; Scharff-Hansen, P; Schieck, J; Schmitt, S; Schöning, A; Schröder, M; Schumacher, M; Schwick, C; Scott, W G; Seuster, R; Shears, T G; Shen, B C; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C H; Sherwood, P; Siroli, G P; Sittler, A; Skuja, A; Smith, A M; Snow, G A; Sobie, Randall J; Söldner-Rembold, S; Spagnolo, S; Sproston, M; Stahl, A; Stephens, K; Steuerer, J; Stoll, K; Strom, D; Ströhmer, R; Surrow, B; Talbot, S D; Taras, P; Tarem, S; Teuscher, R; Thiergen, M; Thomas, J; Thomson, M A; Torrence, E; Towers, S; Trigger, I; Trócsányi, Z L; Tsur, E; Turner-Watson, M F; Ueda, I; Van Kooten, R; Vannerem, P; Verzocchi, M; Voss, H; Wäckerle, F; Wagner, A; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Wells, P S; Wermes, N; Wetterling, D; White, J S; Wilson, G W; Wilson, J A; Wyatt, T R; Yamashita, S; Zacek, V; Zer-Zion, D


    We present a test of the flavour independence of the strong coupling constant for charm and bottom quarks with respect to light (uds) quarks, based on a hadronic event sample obtained with the OPAL detector at LEP. Five observables related to global event shapes were used to measure alpha_s in three flavour tagged samples (uds, c and b). The event shape distributions were fitted by Order(alpha_s**2) calculations of jet production taking into account mass effects for the c and b quarks. We find: = 0.997 +- 0.038(stat.) +- 0.030(syst.) +- 0.012(theory) and = 0.993 +- 0.008(stat.) +- 0.006(syst.) +- 0.011(theory) for the ratios alpha_s(charm)/alpha_s(uds) and alpha_s(b)/alpha_s(uds) respectively.

  8. Peginterferon alpha-2a versus peginterferon alpha-2b for chronic hepatitis C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauser, Goran; Awad, Tahany; Thorlund, Kristian


    : We searched the Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded, and LILACS until October 2013. We also searched conference abstracts, journals, and grey...... literature. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised clinical trials comparing peginterferon alpha-2a versus peginterferon alpha-2b given with or without co-intervention(s) (for example, ribavirin) for chronic hepatitis C. Quasi-randomised studies and observational studies as identified by the searches...

  9. Multijet production in neutral current deep inelastic scattering at HERA and determination of alpha_s

    CERN Document Server

    Abramowicz, H; Adamczyk, L; Adamus, M; Adler, V; Aghuzumtsyan, G; Allfrey, P D; Antonioli, P; Antonov, A; Arneodo, M; Bailey, D S; Bamberger, A; Barakbaev, A N; Barbagli, G; Barbi, M; Bari, G; Barreiro, F; Bartsch, D; Basile, M; Behrens, U; Bell, M A; Bellagamba, L; Bellan, P M; Benen, A; Bertolin, A; Bhadra, S; Bloch, I; Bold, T; Boos, E G; Borras, K; Boscherini, D; Freiburgi, B; Brock, I; Brook, N H; Brugnera, R; Brümmer, N; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Bussey, P J; Butterworth, J M; Büttner, C; Bylsma, B; Caldwell, A; Capua, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carli, T; Carlin, R; Catterall, C D; Chekanov, S; Chwastowski, J; Ciborowski, J; Ciesielski, R; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Cole, J E; Collins-Tooth, C; Contin, A; Cooper-Sarkar, A M; Coppola, N; Corradi, M; Corriveau, F; Costa, M; Cottrell, A; Cui, Y; D'Agostini, G; Dal Corso, F; Danilov, P; De Pasquale, S; Dementiev, R K; Derrick, M; Devenish, R C E; Dhawan, S; Dobur, D; Dolgoshein, B A; Doyle, A T; Drews, G; Durkin, L S; Dusini, S; Eisenberg, Y; Ermolov, P F; Eskreys, Andrzej; Everett, A; Ferrando, J; Ferrero, M I; Figiel, J; Foster, B; Foudas, C; Fourletov, S; Fourletova, J; Fry, C; Gabareen, A; Galas, A; Gallo, E; Garfagnini, A; Geiser, A; Genta, C; Gialas, I; Giusti, P; Gladilin, L K; Gladkov, D; Glasman, C; Goers, S; Goncalo, R; González, O; Gosau, T; Göttlicher, P; Grabowska-Bold, I; Grigorescu, G; Grijpink, S; Grzelak, G; Gutsche, O; Gwenlan, C; Haas, T; Hain, W; Hall-Wilton, R; Hamatsu, R; Hamilton, J; Hanlon, S; Hart, C; Hartmann, H; Hartner, G; Heaphy, E A; Heath, G P; Helbich, M; Hilger, E; Hochman, D; Holm, U; Horn, C; Iacobucci, G; Iga, Y; Irrgang, P; Jakob, P; Jiménez, M; Jones, T W; Kagawa, S; Kahle, B; Kaji, H; Kananov, S; Karshon, U; Karstens, F; Kataoka, M; Katkov, I I; Kcira, D; Keramidas, A; Khein, L A; Kim, J Y; Kind, O; Kisielewska, D; Kitamura, S; Koffeman, E; Kohno, T; Kooijman, P; Koop, T; Korzhav--, I A; Kotanski, A; Kötz, U; Kowal, A M; Kowal--, H; Kramberger, G; Kreisel, A; Krumnack, N; Kulinski, P; Kuze, M; Kuzmin, V A; Labarga, L; Lammers, S; Lelas, D; Levchenko, B B; Levy, A; Li, L; Lightwood, M S; Lim, H; Limentani, S; Ling, T Y; Liu, C; Liu, X; Löhr, B; Lohrmann, E; Loizides, J H; Long, K R; Longhin, A; Lukasik, J; Lukina, O Yu; Luzniak, P; Ma, K J; Maddox, E; Magill, S; Malka, J; Mankel, R; Margotti, A; Marini, G; Martin, J F; Mastroberardino, A; Matsuzawa, K; Mattingly, M C K; Melzer-Pellmann, I A; Menary, S R; Metlica, F; Meyer, U; Miglioranzi, S; Milite, M; Mirea, A; Monaco, V; Montanari, A; Musgrave, B; Nagano, K; Namsoo, T; Nania, R; Nguyen, C N; Nigro, A; Ning, Y; Noor, U; Notz, D; Nowak, R J; Nuncio-Quiroz, A E; Oh, B Y; Olkiewicz, K; Ota, O; Padhi, S; Palmonari, F; Patel, S; Paul, E; Pavel, Usan; Pawlak, J M; Pelfer, P G; Pellegrino, A; Pesci, A; Piotrzkowski, K; Plamondon, M; Plucinsky, P P; Pokrovskiy, N S; Polini, A; Proskuryakov, A S; Przybycien, M B; Rautenberg, J; Raval, A; Reeder, D D; Ren, Z; Renner, R; Repond, J; Ri, Y D; Rinaldi, L; Robins, S; Rosin, M; Ruspa, M; Ryan, P; Sacchi, R; Salehi, H; Santamarta, R; Sartorelli, G; Savin, A A; Saxon, D H; Schagen, S; Schioppa, M; Schlenstedt, S; Schleper, P; Schmidke, W B; Schneekloth, U; Schörner-Sadenius, T; Sciulli, F; Shcheglova, L M; Skillicorn, I O; Slominski, W; Smith, W H; Soares, M; Solano, A; Son, D; Sosnovtsev, V V; Stairs, D G; Stanco, L; Standage, J; Stifutkin, A; Stonjek, S; Stopa, P; Stösslein, U; Straub, P B; Suchkov, S; Susinno, G; Suszycki, L; Sutiak, J; Sutton, M R; Sztuk, J; Szuba, D; Szuba, J; Tapper, A D; Targett--, C; Tassi, E; Tawara, T; Terron, J; Tiecke, H G; Tokushuku, K; Tsurugai, T; Turcato, M; Tymieniecka, T; Tyszkiewicz, A; Ukleja, A; Ukleja, J; Vázquez, M; Vlasov, N N; Voss, K C; Walczak, R; Walsh, R; Wang, M; Whitmore, J J; Whyte, J; Wichmann, K; Wick, K; Wiggers, L; Wills, H H; Wing, M; Wlasenko, M; Wolf, G; Yagues-Molina, A G; Yamada, S; Yamazaki, Y; Yoshida, R; Youngman, C; Za, L; Zambrana, M; Zeuner, W; Zhautykov, B O; Zhou, C; Zichichi, A; Ziegler, A; Zotkin, D S; Zotkin, S A; De Favereau, J; De Wolf, E; Del Peso, J


    Multijet production rates in neutral current deep inelastic scattering have been measured in the range of exchanged boson virtualities 10 5 GeV and -1 < eta_{LAB}{jet} < 2.5. Next-to-leading-order QCD calculations describe the data well. The value of the strong coupling constant alpha_s(M_Z), determined from the ratio of the trijet to dijet cross sections, is alpha_s(M_Z) = 0.1179 pm 0.0013(stat.) {+0.0028}_{-0.0046}(exp.) {+0.0064}_{-0.0046}(th.)

  10. Li production in alpha-alpha reactions. [relation to gamma ray observation (United States)

    Kozlovsky, B.; Ramaty, R.


    The cross section for Li-7 production in alpha-alpha reactions is shown to be increased by about a factor of 2 due to the excitation levels of Li-7 and Be-7 at 478 keV and 431 keV, respectively. The cross section for Li-6 production, however, remains the same as calculated on the basis of the detailed balance principle. The lines at 478 keV and 431 keV may link Li-7 production to feasible gamma-ray observations.

  11. Involvement of central alpha1- and alpha2-adrenoceptors on cardiovascular responses to moxonidine. (United States)

    Moreira, Thiago S; Takakura, Ana C; Menani, José V; Colombari, Eduardo


    In the present study we compared the effects produced by moxonidine (alpha2-adrenoceptor/imidazoline agonist) injected into the 4th cerebral ventricle and into the lateral cerebral ventricle on mean arterial pressure, heart rate and on renal, mesenteric and hindquarter vascular resistances, as well as the possible action of moxonidine on central alpha1- or alpha2-adrenoceptors to produce cardiovascular responses. Male Holtzman rats (n=7-8) anesthetized with urethane (0.5 g/kg, intravenously-i.v.) and alpha-chloralose (60 mg/kg, i.v.) were used. Moxonidine (5, 10 and 20 nmol) injected into the 4th ventricle reduced arterial pressure (-19+/-5, -30+/-7 and -43+/-8 mmHg vs. vehicle: 2+/-4 mmHg), heart rate (-10+/-6, -16+/-7 and -27+/-9 beats per minute-bpm, vs. vehicle: 4+/-5 bpm), and renal, mesenteric and hindquarter vascular resistances. Moxonidine (5, 10 and 20 nmol) into the lateral ventricle only reduced renal vascular resistance (-77+/-17%, -85+/-13%, -89+/-10% vs. vehicle: 3+/-4%), without changes on arterial pressure, heart rate and mesenteric and hindquarter vascular resistances. Pre-treatment with the selective alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine (80, 160 and 320 nmol) injected into the 4th ventricle attenuated the hypotension (-32+/-5, -25+/-4 and -12+/-6 mmHg), bradycardia (-26+/-11, -23+/-5 and -11+/-6 bpm) and the reduction in renal, mesenteric and hindquarter vascular resistances produced by moxonidine (20 nmol) into the 4th ventricle. Pre-treatment with yohimbine (320 nmol) into the lateral ventricle did not change the renal vasodilation produced by moxonidine (20 nmol) into the lateral ventricle. The alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin (320 nmol) injected into the 4th ventricle did not affect the cardiovascular effects of moxonidine. However, prazosin (80, 160 and 320 nmol) into the lateral ventricle abolished the renal vasodilation (-17+/-4, -6+/-9 and 2+/-11%) produced by moxonidine. The results indicate that the decrease in renal vascular

  12. R-matrix and K-matrix analysis of elastic $\\alpha - \\alpha$ scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Humblet, J; Langanke, K


    The R- and K-matrix parametrizations are analyzed and compared for the elastic alpha-alpha scattering at center-of-mass energies below 40 MeV. The two parametrizations differ in their definitions of the resonance energy which can lead to quite different results. The physical values of the best-fit parameters are compared with those computed for a potential model. The existence of a broad resonance near 9 MeV is not supported by the data or by the potential model. We discuss the positive and negative aspects for both parametrizations.

  13. Pharmacological profiles of a novel alpha 1-adrenoceptor agonist, PNO-49B, at alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtypes. (United States)

    Muramatsu, I; Ohmura, T; Kigoshi, S


    The effects of a newly synthesized compound, PNO-49B, (R)-(-)-3'-(2-amino-1-hydroxyethyl)-4'-fluoromethanesulfonanilide hydrochloride, on alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtypes were examined in various tissues in which the following distribution of alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtypes has been suggested: dog carotid artery (alpha 1B), dog mesenteric artery (alpha 1N), rabbit thoracic aorta (alpha 1B + alpha 1L), rat liver (alpha 1B), rat vas deferens (alpha 1A + alpha 1L), rat cerebral cortex (alpha 1A + alpha 1B) and rat thoracic aorta (controversial subtype). PNO-49B (0.1-100 microM) produced concentration-dependent contractions in dog mesenteric artery, rabbit thoracic aorta, rat thoracic aorta and rat vas deferens; and the maximal amplitudes of contraction were almost the same as or slightly less than those of noradrenaline. By contrast, the maximal response to PNO-49B in dog carotid artery was markedly smaller than the response to noradrenaline. In rabbit thoracic aorta, the contractile response to PNO-49B was not affected by inactivation of the alpha 1B subtype with chloroethylclonidine (CEC), although the response to noradrenaline was attenuated by that treatment. The dissociation constants (KA) of PNO-49B were not different among the rat thoracic aorta, dog carotid and mesenteric arteries and rabbit thoracic aorta (CEC-pretreated). The contractile responses to PNO-49B were inhibited competitively by prazosin, HV723 (alpha-ethyl-3,4,5-trimethoxy-alpha-(3-((2-(2-methoxyphenoxy)-ethyl)- amino(propyl)benzeneacetonitrile fumarate) and by WB4101 (2-(2,6-dimethoxyphenoxyethyl)-aminomethyl-1,4- benzodioxane).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Proteasomal degradation of TRIM5alpha during retrovirus restriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher James Rold


    Full Text Available The host protein TRIM5alpha inhibits retroviral infection at an early post-penetration stage by targeting the incoming viral capsid. While the detailed mechanism of restriction remains unclear, recent studies have implicated the activity of cellular proteasomes in the restriction of retroviral reverse transcription imposed by TRIM5alpha. Here, we show that TRIM5alpha is rapidly degraded upon encounter of a restriction-susceptible retroviral core. Inoculation of TRIM5alpha-expressing human 293T cells with a saturating level of HIV-1 particles resulted in accelerated degradation of the HIV-1-restrictive rhesus macaque TRIM5alpha protein but not the nonrestrictive human TRIM5alpha protein. Exposure of cells to HIV-1 also destabilized the owl monkey restriction factor TRIMCyp; this was prevented by addition of the inhibitor cyclosporin A and was not observed with an HIV-1 virus containing a mutation in the capsid protein that relieves restriction by TRIMCyp IVHIV. Likewise, human TRIM5alpha was rapidly degraded upon encounter of the restriction-sensitive N-tropic murine leukemia virus (N-MLV but not the unrestricted B-MLV. Pretreatment of cells with proteasome inhibitors prevented the HIV-1-induced loss of both rhesus macaque TRIM5alpha and TRIMCyp proteins. We also detected degradation of endogenous TRIM5alpha in rhesus macaque cells following HIV-1 infection. We conclude that engagement of a restriction-sensitive retrovirus core results in TRIM5alpha degradation by a proteasome-dependent mechanism.

  15. Alpha-resonance structure in $^{11}$C studied via resonant scattering of $^{7}$Be+$\\alpha$ and $^{7}$Be($\\alpha$, $p$) reaction

    CERN Document Server

    Yamaguchi, H; Wakabayashi, Y; Kubono, S; Hashimoto, T; Hayakawa, S; Kawabata, T; Iwasa, N; Teranishi, T; Kwon, Y K; Binh, D N; Khiem, L H; Duy, N N


    The resonance structure in $^{11}$C is particularly of interest with regard to the astrophysical $^{7}$Be($\\alpha$, $\\gamma$) reaction, relevant at high temperature, and to the $\\alpha$-cluster structure in $^{11}$C. The measurement was to determine unknown resonance parameters for the high excited states of $^{11}$C. In particular, the $\\alpha$ decay width can be useful information to discuss $\\alpha$ cluster structure in $^{11}$C. New measurements of the $^{7}$Be+$\\alpha$ resonant scattering and the $^{7}$Be($\\alpha$, $p$)$^{10}$B reaction in inverse kinematics were performed for center-of-mass energy up to 5.5 MeV, and the resonances at excitation energies of 8.9--12.7 MeV in the compound $^{11}$C nucleus were studied. Inelastic scattering of $^{7}$Be+$\\alpha$ and the $^{7}$Be($\\alpha$, $p_1$)$^{10}$B$^*$ reaction were also studied with a simultaneous $\\gamma$-ray measurement. The measurements were performed at the low-energy RI beam facility CRIB (CNS Radioactive Ion Beam separator) of the Center for Nucl...

  16. Lyman-alpha observations of astrospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Linsky, Jeffrey L


    Charge-exchange reactions between outflowing stellar wind protons and interstellar neutral hydrogen atoms entering a stellar astrosphere produce a region of piled-up-decelerated neutral hydrogen called the hydrogen wall. Absorption by this gas, which is observed in stellar Lyman-alpha emission lines, provides the only viable technique at this time for measuring the mass-loss rates of F-M dwarf stars. We describe this technique, present an alternative way for understanding the relation of mass-loss rate with X-ray emission, and identify several critical issues.

  17. Towards Antihydrogen Trapping and Spectroscopy at ALPHA

    CERN Document Server

    Butler, Eoin; Ashkezari, Mohammad D; Baquero-Ruiz, Marcelo; Bertsche, William; Bowe, Paul D; Bray, Crystal C; Cesar, Claudio L; Chapman, Steven; Charlton, Michael; Fajans, Joel; Friesen, Tim; Fujiwara, Makoto C; Gill, David R; Hangst, Jeffrey S; Hardy, Walter N; Hayano, Ruyugo S; Hayden, Michael E; Humphries, Andrew J; Hydomako, Richard; Jonsell, Svante; Kurchaninov, Leonid; Lambo, Ricardo; Madsen, Niels; Menary, Scott; Nolan, Paul; Olchanski, Konstantin; Olin, Art; Povilus, Alexander; Pusa, Petteri; Robicheaux, Francis; Sarid, Eli; Silveira, Daniel M; So, Chukman; Storey, James W; Thompson, Robert I; van der Werf, Dirk P; Wilding, Dean; Wurtele, Jonathan S; Yamazaki, Yasunori


    Spectroscopy of antihydrogen has the potential to yield high-precision tests of the CPT theorem and shed light on the matter-antimatter imbalance in the Universe. The ALPHA antihydrogen trap at CERN's Antiproton Decelerator aims to prepare a sample of antihydrogen atoms confined in an octupole-based Ioffe trap and to measure the frequency of several atomic transitions. We describe our techniques to directly measure the antiproton temperature and a new technique to cool them to below 10 K. We also show how our unique position-sensitive annihilation detector provides us with a highly sensitive method of identifying antiproton annihilations and effectively rejecting the cosmic-ray background.

  18. Alpha Channeling in a Rotating Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham J. Fetterman and Nathaniel J. Fisch


    The wave-particle α-channeling effect is generalized to include rotating plasma. Specifically, radio frequency waves can resonate with α particles in a mirror machine with E × B rotation to diffuse the α particles along constrained paths in phase space. Of major interest is that the α-particle energy, in addition to amplifying the RF waves, can directly enhance the rotation energy which in turn provides additional plasma confinement in centrifugal fusion reactors. An ancillary benefit is the rapid removal of alpha particles, which increases the fusion reactivity.

  19. Alpha decay from fission isomeric states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poenaru, D.N.; Ivascu, M. (Institutul de Fizica si Inginerie Nucleara, Bucharest (Romania))


    Alpha-decay half-lives from shape isomeric states of some even-even isotopes of U, Pu and Cm nuclei are calculated by using fission theory in the parametrisation of a spheroid intersected with a sphere. The potential barrier was calculated in the framework of the liquid-drop model of Myers and Swiatecki (Art. Fys.; 36: 343 (1967)) extended for systems with different charge densities; a phenomenological shell correction was introduced. The WKB computed lifetimes are many orders of magnitude longer than that of the spontaneous fission process, in agreement with experimental results.

  20. Alpha particle collective Thomson scattering in TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machuzak, J.S.; Woskov, P.P.; Rhee, D.Y.; Gilmore, J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Fusion Center; Bretz, N.L.; Park, H.K. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.; Aamodt, R.E.; Cheung, P.Y.; Russell, D.A. [Lodestar Research Corp., Boulder, CO (United States); Bindslev, H. [JET Joint Undertaking, Abingdon (United Kingdom)


    A collective Thomson scattering diagnostic is being implemented on TFTR to measure alpha particle, energetic and thermal ion densities and velocity distributions. A 60 GHz, 0.1-1 kW gyrotron will be used as the transmitter source, and the scattering geometry will be perpendicular to the magnetic field in the extraordinary mode polarization. An enhanced scattered signal is anticipated from fluctuations in the lower hybrid frequency range with this scattering geometry. Millimeter wave collective Thomson scattering diagnostics have the advantage of larger scattering angles to decrease the amount of stray light, and long, high power, modulated pulses to obtain improved signal to noise through synchronous detection techniques.

  1. Clinical significance of human alpha-fetoprotein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yachnin, S.


    Deviations from the normal of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) concentrations in fetal serum, amniotic fluid, maternal serum and adult human serum can be explained by understanding the normal physiology and the pathophysiology of AFP synthesis and metabolism. AFP is the prototype of oncofetal markers. Emphasis is given to the usefulness of elevated serum AFP levels in the diagnosis and management of primary hepatomas and tumors of germ cell origin. The ability to detect neural tube defects early in gestation by monitoring maternal serum and amniotic fluid AFP concentrations is discussed.

  2. Alpha resonant scattering for astrophysical reaction studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, H.; Kahl, D.; Nakao, T. [Center for Nuclear Study (CNS), University of Tokyo, RIKEN campus, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Wakabayashi, Y.; Kubano, S. [The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Hashimoto, T. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University, 10-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Hayakawa, S. [Istituto Nazionale Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (INFN-LNS), Via S. Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); Kawabata, T. [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kita-Shirakawa, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Iwasa, N. [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Aoba, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Teranishi, T. [Department of Physics, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Kwon, Y. K. [Institute for Basic Science, 70, Yuseong-daero 1689-gil, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-811 (Korea, Republic of); Binh, D. N. [30 MeV Cyclotron Center, Tran Hung Dao Hospital, Hoan Kiem District, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Khiem, L. H.; Duy, N. G. [Institute of Physics, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hong Quoc Viet, Nghia do, Hanoi (Viet Nam)


    Several alpha-induced astrophysical reactions have been studied at CRIB (CNS Radioactive Ion Beam separator), which is a low-energy RI beam separator at Center for Nuclear Study (CNS) of the University of Tokyo. One of the methods to study them is the α resonant scattering using the thick-target method in inverse kinematics. Among the recent studies at CRIB, the measurement of {sup 7}Be+α resonant scattering is discussed. Based on the result of the experiment, we evaluated the contributions of high-lying resonances for the {sup 7}Be(α,γ) reaction, and proposed a new cluster band in {sup 11}C.

  3. H$\\alpha$ kinematics of KPG 390

    CERN Document Server

    Repetto, P; Fuentes-Carrera, R Gabbasov I


    In this work we present scanning Fabry-Perot H$\\alpha$ observations of the isolated interacting galaxy pair NGC 5278/79 obtained with the PUMA Fabry-Perot interferometer. We derived velocity fields, various kinematic parameters and rotation curves for both galaxies. Our kinematical results together with the fact that dust lanes have been detected in both galaxies, as well as the analysis of surface brightness profiles along the minor axis, allowed us to determine that both components of the interacting pair are trailing spirals.

  4. Taraxacum officinale induces cytotoxicity through TNF-alpha and IL-1alpha secretion in Hep G2 cells. (United States)

    Koo, Hyun-Na; Hong, Seung-Heon; Song, Bong-Keun; Kim, Cheorl-Ho; Yoo, Young-Hyun; Kim, Hyung-Min


    Taraxacum officinale (TO) has been frequently used as a remedy for women's disease (e.g. breast and uterus cancer) and disorders of the liver and gallbladder. Several earlier studies have indicated that TO exhibits anti-tumor properties, but its mechanism remains to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the effect of TO on the cytotoxicity and production of cytokines in human hepatoma cell line, Hep G2. Our results show that TO decreased the cell viability by 26%, and significantly increased the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin (IL)-1alpha production compared with media control (about 1.6-fold for TNF-alpha, and 2.4-fold for IL-1alpha, P < 0.05). Also, TO strongly induced apoptosis of Hep G2 cells as determined by flow cytometry. Increased amounts of TNF-alpha and IL-1alpha contributed to TO-induced apoptosis. Anti-TNF-alpha and IL-1alpha antibodies almost abolished it. These results suggest that TO induces cytotoxicity through TNF-alpha and IL-1alpha secretion in Hep G2 cells.

  5. A cis-proline in alpha-hemoglobin stabilizing protein directs the structural reorganization of alpha-hemoglobin. (United States)

    Gell, David A; Feng, Liang; Zhou, Suiping; Jeffrey, Philip D; Bendak, Katerina; Gow, Andrew; Weiss, Mitchell J; Shi, Yigong; Mackay, Joel P


    alpha-Hemoglobin (alphaHb) stabilizing protein (AHSP) is expressed in erythropoietic tissues as an accessory factor in hemoglobin synthesis. AHSP forms a specific complex with alphaHb and suppresses the heme-catalyzed evolution of reactive oxygen species by converting alphaHb to a conformation in which the heme is coordinated at both axial positions by histidine side chains (bis-histidyl coordination). Currently, the detailed mechanism by which AHSP induces structural changes in alphaHb has not been determined. Here, we present x-ray crystallography, NMR spectroscopy, and mutagenesis data that identify, for the first time, the importance of an evolutionarily conserved proline, Pro(30), in loop 1 of AHSP. Mutation of Pro(30) to a variety of residue types results in reduced ability to convert alphaHb. In complex with alphaHb, AHSP Pro(30) adopts a cis-peptidyl conformation and makes contact with the N terminus of helix G in alphaHb. Mutations that stabilize the cis-peptidyl conformation of free AHSP, also enhance the alphaHb conversion activity. These findings suggest that AHSP loop 1 can transmit structural changes to the heme pocket of alphaHb, and, more generally, highlight the importance of cis-peptidyl prolyl residues in defining the conformation of regulatory protein loops.

  6. On the Relative Ages of the $\\alpha$-Rich and $\\alpha$-Poor Stellar Populations in the Galactic Halo

    CERN Document Server

    Hawkins, Keith; Gilmore, Gerry; Masseron, Thomas


    We study the ages of $\\alpha$-rich and $\\alpha$-poor stars in the halo using a sample of F and G dwarfs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). To separate stars based on [$\\alpha$/Fe], we have developed a new semi-empirical spectral-index based method and applied it to the low-resolution, moderate signal-to-noise SDSS spectra. The method can be used to estimate the [$\\alpha$/Fe] directly providing a new and widely applicable way to estimate [$\\alpha$/Fe] from low-resolution spectra. We measured the main-sequence turnoff temperature and combined it with the metallicities and a set of isochrones to estimate the age of the $\\alpha$-rich and $\\alpha$-poor populations in our sample. We found all stars appear to be older than 8 Gyr confirming the idea that the Galactic halo was formed very early on. A bifurcation appears in the age-metallicity relation such that in the low metallicity regime the $\\alpha$-rich and $\\alpha$-poor populations are coeval while in the high metallicity regime the $\\alpha$-rich populati...

  7. Immunostimulatory effects of natural human interferon-alpha (huIFN-alpha) on carps Cyprinus carpio L. (United States)

    Watanuki, Hironobu; Chakraborty, Gunimala; Korenaga, Hiroki; Kono, Tomoya; Shivappa, R B; Sakai, Masahiro


    Human interferon-alpha (huIFN-alpha) is an important immunomodulatory substance used in the treatment and prevention of numerous infectious and immune-related diseases in animals. However, the immunostimulatory effects of huIFN-alpha in fish remain to be investigated. In the current study, the immune responses of the carp species Cyprinus carpio L. to treatment with huIFN-alpha were analyzed via measurement of superoxide anion production, phagocytic activity and the expression of cytokine genes including interleukin-1beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin 10. Low doses of huIFN-alpha were administered orally once a day for 3 days, and sampling was carried out at 1, 3 and 5 days post-treatment. Our results indicate that a low dose of huIFN-alpha significantly increased phagocytic activity and superoxide anion production in the carp kidney. The huIFN-alpha-treated fish also displayed a significant upregulation in cytokine gene expression. The current study demonstrates the stimulatory effects of huIFN-alpha on the carp immune system and highlights the immunomodulatory role of huIFN-alpha in fish.

  8. Stochastic model error in the LANS-alpha and NS-alpha deconvolution models of turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Olson, Eric


    This paper reports on a computational study of the model error in the LANS-alpha and NS-alpha deconvolution models of homogeneous isotropic turbulence. The focus is on how well the model error may be characterized by a stochastic force. Computations are also performed for a new turbulence model obtained as a rescaled limit of the deconvolution model. The technique used is to plug a solution obtained from direct numerical simulation of the incompressible Navier--Stokes equations into the competing turbulence models and to then compute the time evolution of the resulting residual. All computations have been done in two dimensions rather than three for convenience and efficiency. When the effective averaging length scale in any of the models is $\\alpha_0=0.01$ the time evolution of the root-mean-squared residual error grows as $\\sqrt t$. This growth rate is consistent with the hypothesis that the model error may be characterized by a stochastic force. When $\\alpha_0=0.20$ the residual error grows linearly. Linea...

  9. Arachidonic acid mediates the formation of abundant alpha-helical multimers of alpha-synuclein (United States)

    Iljina, Marija; Tosatto, Laura; Choi, Minee L.; Sang, Jason C.; Ye, Yu; Hughes, Craig D.; Bryant, Clare E.; Gandhi, Sonia; Klenerman, David


    The protein alpha-synuclein (αS) self-assembles into toxic beta-sheet aggregates in Parkinson’s disease, while it is proposed that αS forms soluble alpha-helical multimers in healthy neurons. Here, we have made αS multimers in vitro using arachidonic acid (ARA), one of the most abundant fatty acids in the brain, and characterized them by a combination of bulk experiments and single-molecule Fӧrster resonance energy transfer (sm-FRET) measurements. The data suggest that ARA-induced oligomers are alpha-helical, resistant to fibril formation, more prone to disaggregation, enzymatic digestion and degradation by the 26S proteasome, and lead to lower neuronal damage and reduced activation of microglia compared to the oligomers formed in the absence of ARA. These multimers can be formed at physiologically-relevant concentrations, and pathological mutants of αS form less multimers than wild-type αS. Our work provides strong biophysical evidence for the formation of alpha-helical multimers of αS in the presence of a biologically relevant fatty acid, which may have a protective role with respect to the generation of beta-sheet toxic structures during αS fibrillation.

  10. An alpha particle instrument with alpha, proton, and X-ray modes for planetary chemical analyses (United States)

    Economou, T. E.; Turkevich, A. L.


    The interaction of alpha particles with matter is employed in a compact instrument that could provide rather complete in-situ chemical analyses of surfaces and thin atmospheres of extraterrestrial bodies. The instrument is a miniaturized and improved version of the Surveyor lunar instrument. The backscattering of alpha particles and (alpha, p) reactions provide analytical data on the light elements (carbon-iron). An X-ray mode that detects the photons produced by the alpha sources provides sensitivity and resolution for the chemical elements heavier than about silicon. The X-rays are detected by semiconductor detectors having a resolution between 150 and 250 eV at 5.9 keV. Such an instrument can identify and determine with good accuracy 99 percent of the atoms (except hydrogen) in rocks. For many trace elements, the detecting sensitivity is a few ppm. Auxiliary sources could be used to enhance the sensitivities for elements of special interest. The instrument could probably withstand the acceleration involved in semi-hard landings.

  11. Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF{alpha}) regulates CD40 expression through SMAR1 phosphorylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Kamini; Sinha, Surajit; Malonia, Sunil Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Samit, E-mail:


    CD40 plays an important role in mediating inflammatory response and is mainly induced by JAK/STAT phosphorylation cascade. TNF{alpha} is the key cytokine that activates CD40 during inflammation and tumorigenesis. We have earlier shown that SMAR1 can repress the transcription of Cyclin D1 promoter by forming a HDAC1 dependent repressor complex. In this study, we show that SMAR1 regulates the transcription of NF-{kappa}B target gene CD40. SMAR1 recruits HDAC1 and forms a repressor complex on CD40 promoter and keeps its basal transcription in check. Further, we show that TNF{alpha} stimulation induces SMAR1 phosphorylation at Ser-347 and promotes its cytoplasmic translocation, thus releasing its negative effect. Concomitantly, TNF{alpha} induced phosphorylation of STAT1 at Tyr-701 by JAK1 facilitates its nuclear translocation and activation of CD40 through p300 recruitment and core Histone-3 acetylation. Thus, TNF{alpha} mediated regulation of CD40 expression occurs by dual phosphorylation of SMAR1 and STAT1.

  12. Workshop on High-precision $\\alpha_s$ measurements from LHC to FCC-ee

    CERN Document Server

    S. Alekhin; d'Enterria, David; A. Banfi; S. Bethke; J. Blümlein; K.G. Chetyrkin; D. d’Enterria; G. Dissertori; X. Garcia i Tormo; A. H. Hoang; M. Klasen; T. Klijnsma; S. Kluth; J.-L. Kneur; B.A. Kniehl; D. W. Kolodrubetz; J. Kühn; P. Mackenzie; B. Malaescu; V. Mateu; L. Mihaila; S. Moch; K. Mönig; R. Pérez-Ramos; A. Pich; J. Pires; K. Rabbertz; G. P. Salam; F. Sannino; J. Soto i Riera; M. Srebre; I. W. Stewart


    This document provides a writeup of all contributions to the workshop on "High precision measurements of $\\alpha_s$: From LHC to FCC-ee" held at CERN, Oct. 12--13, 2015. The workshop explored in depth the latest developments on the determination of the QCD coupling $\\alpha_s$ from 15 methods where high precision measurements are (or will be) available. Those include low-energy observables: (i) lattice QCD, (ii) pion decay factor, (iii) quarkonia and (iv) $\\tau$ decays, (v) soft parton-to-hadron fragmentation functions, as well as high-energy observables: (vi) global fits of parton distribution functions, (vii) hard parton-to-hadron fragmentation functions, (viii) jets in $e^\\pm$p DIS and $\\gamma$-p photoproduction, (ix) photon structure function in $\\gamma$-$\\gamma$, (x) event shapes and (xi) jet cross sections in $e^+e^-$ collisions, (xii) W boson and (xiii) Z boson decays, and (xiv) jets and (xv) top-quark cross sections in proton-(anti)proton collisions. The current status of the theoretical and experiment...

  13. Increased sensitivity to interferon-alpha in psoriatic T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Karsten Wessel; Lovato, Paola; Skov, Lone


    disease characterized by CD8(+)-infiltrating T cells. In this study, we therefore investigate IFN-alpha signaling in T cells isolated from involved skin of psoriatic patients. We show that psoriatic T cells have increased and prolonged responses to IFN-alpha, on the level of signal transducers......Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by abnormal epidermal proliferation. Several studies have shown that skin-infiltrating activated T cells and cytokines play a pivotal role during the initiation and maintenance of the disease. Interferon (IFN)-alpha plays an important...... role in host defense against infections, but recent data have also implicated IFN-alpha in psoriasis. Thus, IFN-alpha induces or aggravates psoriasis in some patients, and mice lacking a transcriptional attenuator of IFN-alpha/beta signaling spontaneously develop a psoriasis-like inflammatory skin...

  14. CMB and reheating constraints to \\alpha-attractor inflationary models

    CERN Document Server

    Eshaghi, Mehdi; Riazi, Nematollah; Kiasatpour, Ahmad


    After Planck 2013, a broad class of inflationary models called \\alpha-attractors was developed which has universal observational predictions. For small values of the parameter \\alpha, the models have good consistency with the recent CMB data. In this work, we first calculate analytically (and verify numerically) the predictions of these models for spectral index, n_s and tensor-to-scalar ratio, r and then using BICEP2/Keck 2015 data we impose constraints on \\alpha-attractors. Then, we study the reheating in \\alpha-attractors. The reheating temperature, T_{re} and the number of e-folds during reheating, N_{re} are calculated as functions of n_s. Using these results, we determine the range of free parameter \\alpha for two clasees of \\alpha-attractors which satisfy the constraints of recent CMB data.

  15. [Bifunctional inhibitor of alpha-amylase/trypsin from wheat grain]. (United States)

    Islamov, R A; Furusov, O V


    A trypsin inhibitor, isolated from whole-wheat grain (Triticum aestivum L.) by the method of bio-specific chromatography on trypsin-Sepharose, was potent in inhibiting human salivary alpha-amylase. The bi-functional alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitor was characterized by a narrow specificity for other alpha-amylases and proteinases. The high thermostability of the inhibitor was lost in the presence of SH group-reducing agents. The inhibitor-trypsin complex retained its activity against alpha-amylase. The inhibitor-alpha-amylase complex was active against trypsin. Studies of the enzyme kinetics demonstrated that the inhibition of alpha-amylase and trypsin was noncompetitive. Our results suggest the existence of two independent active sites responsible for the interaction with the enzymes.

  16. H$\\alpha$ and EUV observations of a partial CME

    CERN Document Server

    Christian, Damian J; Antolin, Patrick; Mathioudakis, Mihalis


    We have obtained H$\\alpha$ high spatial and time resolution observations of the upper solar chromosphere and supplemented these with multi-wavelength observations from the Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO) and the {\\it Hinode} ExtremeUltraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS). The H$\\alpha$ observations were conducted on 11 February 2012 with the Hydrogen-Alpha Rapid Dynamics Camera (HARDcam) instrument at the National Solar Observatory's Dunn Solar Telescope. Our H$\\alpha$ observations found large downflows of chromospheric material returning from coronal heights following a failed prominence eruption. We have detected several large condensations ("blobs") returning to the solar surface at velocities of $\\approx$200 km s$^{-1}$ in both H$\\alpha$ and several SDO AIA band passes. The average derived size of these "blobs" in H$\\alpha$ is 500 by 3000 km$^2$ in the directions perpendicular and parallel to the direction of travel, respectively. A comparison of our "blob" widths to those found from coronal rain, indicate...

  17. Characterizing Lyman Alpha Scattering in Nearby Galaxies (United States)

    Bridge, Joanna; Hayes, Matthew; Melinder, Jens; Östlin, Göran; Gronwall, Caryl


    The hydrogen emission line of Lyman alpha (Lyα) has long been recognized as key to studying high redshift star-forming galaxies. However, due to the resonance of the emission line, the path that a Lyα photon takes from emission to eventual escape from the galaxy is essentially a mystery. This scattering poses a problem for using Lyα as a key emission feature of galaxies because it results in Lyα not being observed in all star-forming galaxies, and, in galaxies where it is observed, the place where the photon is originally emitted and where it is observed are two very different things. We discuss here how the Lyman-Alpha Reference Sample (LARS) provides a unique sample of 14 nearby (0.02 Space Telescope imaging. We compare the Lyα/Hα ratios with those expected from pure dust attenuation models, finding that in some cases significant positive departures are found on small scales, consistent with geometrical effects being important on sizes comparable to the HII regions. We then develop a simple scattering model in which we are able to estimate the average path length a Lyα photon travels with respect to non-resonant radiation, and quantifiy the excess dust optical depth to which Lyα radiation may be susceptible.

  18. GHRS Observations of the Lyman $\\alpha$ Forest

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, S L


    I review the results obtained using the GHRS on low redshift Lyman alpha absorbers. Until the advent of HST and the GHRS, the existence of such absorbers was doubted. The confirmation of their existence, in one of the first GHRS GTO team results to be published, must rank as one of the HSTs most interesting results. The GHRS resolution allows us to probe equivalent widths well below those detectable with the FOS, and has led to a number of interesting new questions. One example is the apparent disagreement between the GHRS result that there are many Lyman alpha absorbers which are not associated with luminous galaxies, and FOS studies which suggest that all such absorbers have a nearby galaxy causing them. This almost certainly shows that the equivalent width (or column density) range reachable by the GHRS includes gas from a wide range of causes, and not only the halos of luminous galaxies. With these data, we are seeing the debris left over from Galaxy formation, material flung out from galaxy interactions ...

  19. MFTF-. cap alpha. + T progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, W.D. (ed.)


    Early in FY 1983, several upgrades of the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) were proposed to the fusion community. The one most favorably received was designated MFTF-..cap alpha..+T. The engineering design of this device, guided by LLNL, has been a principal activity of the Fusion Engineering Design Center during FY 1983. This interim progress report represents a snapshot of the device design, which was begun in FY 1983 and will continue for several years. The report is organized as a complete design description. Because it is an interim report, some parts are incomplete; they will be supplied as the design study proceeds. As described in this report, MFTF-..cap alpha..+T uses existing facilities, many MFTF-B components, and a number of innovations to improve on the physics parameters of MFTF-B. It burns deuterium-tritium and has a central-cell Q of 2, a wall loading GAMMA/sub n/ of 2 MW/m/sup 2/ (with a central-cell insert module), and an availability of 10%. The machine is fully shielded, allows hands-on maintenance of components outside the vacuum vessel 24 h after shutdown, and has provisions for repair of all operating components.

  20. Oral phentolamine: an alpha-1, alpha-2 adrenergic antagonist for the treatment of erectile dysfunction. (United States)

    Goldstein, I


    Phentolamine mesylate is an alpha-1 and alpha-2 selective adrenergic receptor antagonist which has undergone clinical trials for erectile dysfunction treatment. Biochemical and physiological studies in human erectile tissue have revealed a high affinity of phentolamine for alpha-1 and alpha-2 adrenergic receptors. Based on pharmacokinetic studies, it is suggested that 30-40 min following oral ingestion of 40 or 80 mg of phentolamine (Vasomax), the mean plasma phentolamine concentrations are sufficient to occupy the alpha-1 and -2 adrenergic receptors in erectile tissue and thereby result in inhibition of adrenergic-mediated physiologic activity. In large multi-center, placebo-controlled pivotal phase III clinical trials, the mean change in the erectile function domain of the International Index of Erectile Function scores (Questions 1-5 and 15) from screening to the end of treatment was significantly higher following use of active drug (40 mg and 80 mg) compared to placebo. Three to four times as many patients receiving phentolamine reported being satisfied or very satisfied compared with those receiving placebo. At doses of 40 mg and 80 mg respectively, 55% and 59% of men were able to achieve vaginal penetration with 51% and 53% achieving penetration on 75% of attempts. The correction of erectile dysfunction or improvement to a less severe category of dysfunction was experienced by 53% of men with the 80 mg dose and 40% with the 40 mg dose of phentolamine. All trends of response were the same regardless of any concomitant medication. There were no severe adverse events. At 40 mg, 7.7% experienced rhinitis and fewer than 3.1% experienced any other side effect of treatment. Phentolamine is safe, well tolerated and efficacious for the treatment of erectile dysfunction.

  1. alpha 1-Antitrypsin and coeliac disease in spain. (United States)

    Klasen, E C; Polanco, I; Biemond, I; Vazquez, C; Peña, A S


    Ninety-three Spanish children suffering from coeliac disease and 103 control subjects from the same area were screened for the amount of alpha 1-antitrypsin (alpha 1AT) and for any electrophoretic variations in it. In this case-control study no significant differences were detected either in phenotype distribution or amount. The present results indicate that no genetic association exists between alpha 1AT and coeliac disease. PMID:6969683

  2. Waves for Alpha-Channeling in Mirror Machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. I. Zhmoginov and N. J. Fisch


    Alpha-channeling can, in principle, be implemented in mirror machines via exciting weaklydamped modes in the ion cyclotron frequency range with perpendicular wavelengths smaller than the alpha particle gyroradius. Assuming quasi-longitudinal or quasi-transverse wave propagation, we search systematically for suitable modes in mirror plasmas. Considering two device designs, a proof-of-principle facility and a fusion rector prototype, we in fact identify candidate modes suitable for alpha-channeling.

  3. Context based Coding of Quantized Alpha Planes for Video Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aghito, Shankar Manuel; Forchhammer, Søren


    In object based video, each frame is a composition of objects that are coded separately. The composition is performed through the alpha plane that represents the transparency of the object. We present an alternative to MPEG-4 for coding of alpha planes that considers their specific properties....... Comparisons in terms of rate and distortion are provided, showing that the proposed coding scheme for still alpha planes is better than the algorithms for I-frames used in MPEG-4....

  4. Increased 5. cap alpha. -reductase activity in idiopathic hirsutism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serafini, P.; Lobo, R.A.


    In vitro, genital skin 5..cap alpha..-reductase activity (5..cap alpha..-RA) was measured in ten hirsute women with normal androgen levels (idiopathic hirsutism (IH)) and in ten hirsute women with elevated androgen levels (polycystic ovary syndrome (PCO)) in order to determine the influence of secreted androgens on 5..cap alpha..-RA. In vitro 5..cap alpha..-RA was assessed by incubations of skin with /sup 14/C-testosterone (T) for 2 hours, after which steroids were separated and the radioactivity of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and 5..cap alpha..-androstane 3..cap alpha..-17..beta..-estradiol (3..cap alpha..-diol) in specific eluates were determined. All androgens were normal in IH with the exception of higher levels of 3..cap alpha..-diol glucuronide which were similar to the levels of PCO. The conversion ratio (CR) of T to DHT in IH and PCO were similar, yet significantly greater than the CR of control subjects. The CR of T to 3..cap alpha..-diol in IH and PCO were similar, yet higher than in control subjects. Serum androgens showed no correlation with 5..cap alpha..-RA, while the CR of T to DHT showed a significant positive correlation with the Ferriman and Gallwey score. The increased 5..cap alpha..-RA in IH appears to be independent of serum androgen levels and is, therefore, an inherent abnormality. The term idiopathic is a misnomer, because hirsutism in these patients may be explained on the basis of increased skin 5..cap alpha..-RA.

  5. Sourcing Dark Matter and Dark Energy from $\\alpha$-attractors


    Mishra, Swagat S.; Sahni, Varun; Shtanov, Yuri(Department of Physics, Taras Shevchenko National University, Kiev, Ukraine)


    Recently, Kallosh and Linde have drawn attention to a new family of superconformal inflationary potentials, subsequently called $\\alpha$-attractors. The $\\alpha$-attractor family can interpolate between a large class of inflationary models. It also has an important theoretical underpinning within the framework of supergravity. We demonstrate that the $\\alpha$-attractors have an even wider appeal since they may describe dark matter and perhaps even dark energy. The dark matter associated with ...

  6. Scintillation of thin tetraphenyl butadiene films under alpha particle excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollmann, Tina, E-mail: tina@owl.phy.queensu.c [Department of Physics, Engineering Physics, and Astronomy, Queens University, Kingston, Ontario, K7L 3N6 (Canada); Boulay, Mark; Kuzniak, Marcin [Department of Physics, Engineering Physics, and Astronomy, Queens University, Kingston, Ontario, K7L 3N6 (Canada)


    The alpha induced scintillation of the wavelength shifter 1,1,4,4-tetraphenyl-1,3-butadiene (TPB) was studied to improve the understanding of possible surface alpha backgrounds in the DEAP dark matter search experiment. We found that vacuum deposited thin TPB films emit 882{+-}210 photons per MeV under alpha particle excitation. The scintillation pulse shape consists of a double exponential decay with lifetimes of 11{+-}5 and 275{+-}10ns.

  7. alpha-synuclein and LRRK2: partners in crime. (United States)

    Tong, Youren; Shen, Jie


    In this issue of Neuron, Lin et al. report that LRRK2 modulates age-related neurodegeneration caused by overexpression of alpha-synuclein in the forebrain of transgenic mice. Overexpression of LRRK2 accelerates the progression of alpha-synuclein-mediated neuropathological changes, whereas deletion of LRRK2 alleviates these alterations. The results reveal an interesting interaction between alpha-synuclein and LRRK2, two gene products linked to dominantly inherited Parkinson's disease.

  8. Evidence for Alpha Receptors in the Human Ureter (United States)

    Madeb, Ralph; Knopf, Joy; Golijanin, Dragan; Bourne, Patricia; Erturk, Erdal


    An immunohistochemical and western blot expression analysis of human ureters was performed in order to characterize the alpha-1-adrenergic receptor distribution along the length of the human ureteral wall. Mapping the distribution will assist in understanding the potential role alpha -1-adrenergic receptors and their subtype density might have in the pathophysiology of ureteral colic and stone passage. Patients diagnosed with renal cancer or bladder cancer undergoing nephrectomy, nephroureterectomy, or cystectomy had ureteral specimens taken from the proximal, mid, distal and tunneled ureter. Tissues were processed for fresh frozen examination and fixed in formalin. None of the ureteral specimens were involved with cancer. Serial histologic sections and immunohistochemical studies were performed using antibodies specific for alpha-1-adrenergic receptor subtypes (alpha 1a, alpha 1b, alpha 1d). The sections were examined under a light microscope and scored as positive or negative. In order to validate and quantify the alpha receptor subtypes along the human ureter. Western blotting techniques were applied. Human ureter stained positively for alpha -1-adrenergic receptors. Immunostaining appeared red, with intense reaction in the smooth muscle of the ureter and endothelium of the neighboring blood vessels. There was differential expression between all the receptors with the highest staining for alpha-1D subtype. The highest protein expression for all three subtypes was in the renal pelvis and decreased with advancement along the ureter to the distal ureter. At the distal ureter, there was marked increase in expression as one progressed towards the ureteral orifice. The same pattern of protein expression was exhibited for all three alpha -1-adrenergic receptor subtypes. We provide preliminary evidence for the ability to detect and quantify the alpha-1-receptor subtypes along the human ureter which to the best of our knowledge has never been done with

  9. Laminin isoforms and their integrin receptors in glioma cell migration and invasiveness: Evidence for a role of alpha5-laminin(s) and alpha3beta1 integrin. (United States)

    Kawataki, Tomoyuki; Yamane, Tetsu; Naganuma, Hirofumi; Rousselle, Patricia; Andurén, Ingegerd; Tryggvason, Karl; Patarroyo, Manuel


    Glioma cell infiltration of brain tissue often occurs along the basement membrane (BM) of blood vessels. In the present study we have investigated the role of laminins, major structural components of BMs and strong promoters of cell migration. Immunohistochemical studies of glioma tumor tissue demonstrated expression of alpha2-, alpha3-, alpha4- and alpha5-, but not alpha1-, laminins by the tumor vasculature. In functional assays, alpha3 (Lm-332/laminin-5)- and alpha5 (Lm-511/laminin-10)-laminins strongly promoted migration of all glioma cell lines tested. alpha1-Laminin (Lm-111/laminin-1) displayed lower activity, whereas alpha2 (Lm-211/laminin-2)- and alpha4 (Lm-411/laminin-8)-laminins were practically inactive. Global integrin phenotyping identified alpha3beta1 as the most abundant integrin in all the glioma cell lines, and this laminin-binding integrin exclusively or largely mediate the cell migration. Moreover, pretreatment of U251 glioma cells with blocking antibodies to alpha3beta1 integrin followed by intracerebral injection into nude mice inhibited invasion of the tumor cells into the brain tissue. The cell lines secreted Lm-211, Lm-411 and Lm-511, at different ratios. The results indicate that glioma cells secrete alpha2-, alpha4- and alpha5-laminins and that alpha3- and alpha5-laminins, found in brain vasculature, selectively promote glioma cell migration. They identify alpha3beta1 as the predominant integrin and laminin receptor in glioma cells, and as a brain invasion-mediating integrin.

  10. Unique copper-induced oligomers mediate alpha-synuclein toxicity. (United States)

    Wright, Josephine A; Wang, Xiaoyan; Brown, David R


    Parkinson's disease and a number of other neurodegenerative diseases have been linked to either genetic mutations in the alpha-synuclein gene or show evidence of aggregates of the alpha-synuclein protein, sometimes in the form of Lewy bodies. There currently is no clear evidence of a distinct neurotoxic species of alpha-synuclein to explain the death of neurons in these diseases. We undertook to assess the toxicity of alpha-synuclein via exogenous application in cell culture. Initially, we showed that only aggregated alpha-synuclein is neurotoxic and requires the presence copper but not iron. Other members of the synuclein family showed no toxicity in any form and inherited point mutations did not alter the effective toxic concentration of alpha-synuclein. Through protein fractionation techniques, we were able to isolate an oligomeric species responsible for the toxicity of alpha-synuclein. This oligomeric species has a unique stellate appearance under EM and again, requires association with copper to induce cell death. The results allow us to suggest that the toxic species of alpha-synuclein in vivo could possibly be these stellate oligomers and not fibrils. Our data provide a link between the recently noted association of copper and alpha-synuclein and a potential role for the combination in causing neurodegeneration.

  11. The visibility of Lyman Alpha Emitters during reionization

    CERN Document Server

    Dayal, Pratika; Ferrara, Andrea


    We present the first Lyman Alpha Emitter (LAE) study that combines: (i) cosmological SPH simulations run using GADGET-2, (ii) radiative transfer simulations (CRASH), and (iii) a previously developed LAE model. This complete LAE model accounts for the intrinsic LAE Lyman Alpha/continuum luminosity, dust enrichment and Lyman Alpha transmission through the intergalactic medium (IGM), to quantify the effects of reionization, dust and velocity fields on the Lyman Alpha and UV Luminosity Functions (LF). We find that a model neglecting dust sorely fails to reproduce either the slope or the magnitude of the observed Lyman Alpha and UV LFs. Clumped dust is required to simultaneously fit the observed UV and Lyman Alpha LFs, such that the intrinsic Lyman Alpha-to-continuum luminosity is enhanced by a factor f_alpha/f_c ~ 1.5 (3.7) excluding (including) peculiar velocities. The higher value including velocity fields arises since LAEs reside in large potential wells and inflows decrease their Lyman Alpha transmission. For...

  12. alpha-thalassemia mutations in Khuzestan Province, Southwest Iran. (United States)

    Zandian, Khodamorad; Nateghi, Jamal; Keikhaie, Bijan; Pedram, Mohammad; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Hadavi, Valeh; Oberkanins, Christian; Azarkeivan, Azita; Law, Hai-Yang; Najmabadi, Hossein


    Although alpha-thalassemia (alpha-thal) is the most common hereditary hemoglobin (Hb) disorder in Iran, no comprehensive data are so far available on the prevalence of the disease in the province of Khuzestan in Southwest Iran. This study investigates the spectrum of alpha-thal mutations in this region. One hundred and twenty-one subjects from Khuzestan Province, Iran, were initially tested for the three most common Iranian alpha-thal mutations (- alpha3.7, -alpha4.2, and --MED) by gap-polymerase chain reaction (gap-PCR). Reverse hybridization test strips and DNA sequencing were used to identify additional alpha-globin mutations. A total of 131 mutated alpha-globin alleles were identified in these patients. Of the 13 mutations that were detected in Khuzestan Province, Iran, the - alpha3.7 single gene deletion was the most frequently identified variant, representing 62.6% of the total; we also observed significant numbers of individuals with compound heterozygous mutations. On the basis of our results, we strongly recommend screening for the most common mutations to improve the molecular diagnosis of anemia in this region.

  13. Biophysical Modeling of Alpha Rhythms During Halothane-Induced Unconsciousness. (United States)

    Vijayan, Sujith; Ching, ShiNung; Purdon, Patrick L; Brown, Emery N; Kopell, Nancy J


    During the induction of general anesthesia there is a shift in power from the posterior regions of the brain to the frontal cortices; this shift in power is called anteriorization. For many anesthetics, a prominent feature of anteriorization is a shift specifically in the alpha band (8-13 Hz) from posterior to frontal cortices. Here we present a biophysical computational model that describes thalamocortical circuit-level dynamics underlying anteriorization of the alpha rhythm in the case of halothane. Halothane potentiates GABAA and increases potassium leak conductances. According to our model, an increase in potassium leak conductances hyperpolarizes and silences the high-threshold thalamocortical (HTC) cells, a specialized subset of thalamocortical cells that fire at the alpha frequency at relatively depolarized membrane potentials (>-60 mV) and are thought to be the generators of quiet awake occipital alpha. At the same time the potentiation of GABAA imposes an alpha time scale on both the cortical and the thalamic component of the frontal portion of our model. The alpha activity in the frontal component is further strengthened by reciprocal thalamocortical feedback. Thus, we argue that the dual molecular targets of halothane induce the anteriorization of the alpha rhythm by increasing potassium leak conductances, which abolishes occipital alpha, and by potentiating GABAA, which induces frontal alpha. These results provide a computational modeling formulation for studying highly detailed biophysical mechanisms of anesthetic action in silico.

  14. [Extraction and properties of microcapsulated alpha-chymotrypsin]. (United States)

    Aĭsina, R B; Kazanskaia, N F; Lukasheva, E V; Berezin, I V


    A method of microencapsulating of the proteolytic enzyme alpha-chymotrypsin into semi-permeable nylon membranes is worked out. The membrane is a polimer of 1,6-hexamethylenediamine and sebacoyl chloride. alpha-Chymotrypsin is enclosed into the capsule together with polyethyleneimine, capable of joining the walls of microcapsules and making the membrane more stable. The optimal concentrations of polyenthyleneimine and alpha-chymotrypsin are 5% and 1% correspondingly. The highest yield of microencapsulated enzyme was obtained for completely acetylated delta-chymotrypsin. The kinetic properties of microencapsulated alpha-chymotrypsin change very slightly as compared to those of the native one.

  15. Modeling of non-stationary autoregressive alpha-stable processe (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In the literature, impulsive signals are mostly modeled by symmetric alpha-stable processes. To represent their temporal dependencies, usually autoregressive models...

  16. Measurements of escaping alphas in the TFTR DT experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweben, S.J.; Darrow, D.S.; Herrmann, H.W.


    Alpha particle loss to the wall of TFTR has been measured during the initial TFTR DT run period. These measurements were made with the same lost alpha scintillator detector system used previously for DD fusion products, except for a switch of the scintillator material from zinc sulfide (P31) to yttrium aluminate (P46) to insure a linear response up to the maximum alpha flux expected in DT. The alpha loss signals in DT are {approx} 100 times larger than the DD fusion product loss signals, as expected from the neutron rates and the relative sensitivity to DT vs. DD fusion products.

  17. Ly$\\alpha$ and UV Sizes of Green Pea Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Huan; Rhoads, James E; Leitherer, Claus; Wofford, Aida; Jiang, Tianxing; Wang, Junxian


    Green Peas are nearby analogs of high-redshift Ly$\\alpha$-emitting galaxies. To probe their Ly$\\alpha$ escape, we study the spatial profiles of Ly$\\alpha$ and UV continuum emission of 24 Green Pea galaxies using the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) on Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We extract the spatial profiles of Ly$\\alpha$ emission from their 2D COS spectra, and of UV continuum from both the 2D spectra and NUV images. The Ly$\\alpha$ emission shows more extended spatial profiles than the UV continuum in most Green Peas. The deconvolved Full Width Half Maximum (FWHM) of the Ly$\\alpha$ spatial profile is about 2 to 4 times that of the UV continuum in most cases. The Ly$\\alpha$ light shows significant offsets from the UV continuum in four galaxies and central absorption in one galaxy. We also compare the spatial profiles of Ly$\\alpha$ photons at blueshifted and redshifted velocities in eight Green Peas with sufficient data quality, and find the blue wing of the Ly$\\alpha$ line has a larger spatial extent than...

  18. Intraperitoneal alpha-radioimmunotherapy in mice using different specific activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elgqvist, Jörgen; Andersson, Håkan; Haglund, Elin;


    The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of the alpha-radioimmunotherapy of ovarian cancer in mice, using different specific activities. This study was performed by using the monoclonal antibody, MX35 F(ab')(2), labeled with the alpha-particle-emitter, 211At.......The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of the alpha-radioimmunotherapy of ovarian cancer in mice, using different specific activities. This study was performed by using the monoclonal antibody, MX35 F(ab')(2), labeled with the alpha-particle-emitter, 211At....

  19. New potential uroselective NO-donor alpha1-antagonists. (United States)

    Boschi, Donatella; Tron, Gian Cesare; Di Stilo, Antonella; Fruttero, Roberta; Gasco, Alberto; Poggesi, Elena; Motta, Gianni; Leonardi, Amedeo


    A recent uroselective alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist, REC15/2739, has been joined with nitrooxy and furoxan NO-donor moieties to give new NO-donor alpha(1)-antagonists. All the compounds studied proved to be potent and selective ligands of human cloned alpha(1a)-receptor subtype. Derivatives 6 and 7 were able to relax the prostatic portion of rat vas deferens contracted by (-)-noradrenaline because of both their alpha(1A)-antagonist and their NO-donor properties.

  20. The alpha3 laminin subunit, alpha6beta4 and alpha3beta1 integrin coordinately regulate wound healing in cultured epithelial cells and in the skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldfinger, L E; Hopkinson, S B; deHart, G W


    Previously, we demonstrated that proteolytic processing within the globular domain of the alpha3 subunit of laminin-5 (LN5) converts LN5 from a cell motility-inducing factor to a protein complex that can trigger the formation of hemidesmosomes, certain cell-matrix attachment sites found in epithe......-inhibiting antibodies, we provide evidence that LN5 and its two integrin receptors (alpha6beta4 and alpha3beta1) appear necessary for wound healing to occur in MCF-10A cell culture wounds. We propose a model for healing of wounded epithelial tissues based on these results....... in epithelial cells. We have prepared a monoclonal antibody (12C4) whose epitope is located toward the carboxy terminus of the globular domain of the alpha3 laminin subunit. This epitope is lost from the alpha3 subunit as a consequence of proteolytic processing. Antibody 12C4 stains throughout the matrix...... the wound site. A similar phenomenon is observed in human skin wounds, since we also detect expression of the unprocessed alpha3 laminin subunit at the leading tip of the sheet of epidermal cells that epithelializes skin wounds in vivo. In addition, using alpha3 laminin subunit and integrin function...

  1. Affinity chromatography of alpha/sub 2/-adrenergic receptors (. cap alpha. /sub 2/AR) from pig cerebral cortex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Repaske, M.G.; Limbird, L.E.


    A high capacity, ..cap alpha../sub 2/AR-selective affinity resin (YOH. ag) has been prepared by coupling yohimbinic acid to diaminodipropylamine agarose with 1,3 dicyclohexylcarbodiimide. Unreacted amino groups on the agarose matrix are blocked subsequently by acetylation. One volume of YOH. ag adsorbs 75% of the ..cap alpha../sub 2/AR from 50 volumes of digitonin-solubilized preparation containing 0.2 pmol ..cap alpha../sub 2/AR/mg protein. Digitonin-solubilized preparations are derived from cholate extracts of porcine cerebral cortex containing approx. 0.075 pmol ..cap alpha../sub 2/AR/mg protein. Adsorption of ..cap alpha../sub 2/AR to YOH. ag is selective and thus is blocked by the ..cap alpha..-adrenergic antagonist phentolamine. Adsorbed ..cap alpha../sub 2/AR are eluted with 10 phentolamine (20% yield) after removal of non-related proteins with NaCl gradients. Following hydroxylapatite chromatography to concentrate ..cap alpha..''AR and to remove phentolamine, the ..cap alpha..AR is present at 200-400 pmol/mg protein, assayed using sub-saturating concentrations of (/sup 3/H)-yohimbine. (It is estimated that the specific activity of a homogeneous ..cap alpha../sub 2/AR preparation would be 12,000-16,000 pmol/mg protein.) The availability of large quantities of cortical ..cap alpha../sub 2/AR and a resin easily prepared from commercially-supplied reagents suggests that purification of quantities of ..cap alpha../sub 2/AR sufficient for subsequent biochemical studies is feasible.

  2. Hereditary persistence of alpha-fetoprotein: a rare cause for unexplained alpha-fetoprotein elevations in pregnancy. (United States)

    Rood, Kara; Stiller, Robert


    Markedly elevated maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) levels were found in a 26 year old healthy, nulliparous Polish woman during pregnancy. No fetal abnormalities were identified on targeted ultrasound and amniocentesis revealed normal amniotic fluid alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) values. Maternal ultrasound screening for liver and ovarian germ cell malignancies were also negative. The mother delivered a live, healthy female at term and a repeat maternal serum AFP postpartum remained markedly elevated, suggestive of hereditary persistence of alpha-fetoprotein.

  3. HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha are differentially activated in distinct cell populations in retinal ischaemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freya M Mowat

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hypoxia plays a key role in ischaemic and neovascular disorders of the retina. Cellular responses to oxygen are mediated by hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs that are stabilised in hypoxia and induce the expression of a diverse range of genes. The purpose of this study was to define the cellular specificities of HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha in retinal ischaemia, and to determine their correlation with the pattern of retinal hypoxia and the expression profiles of induced molecular mediators. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the tissue distribution of retinal hypoxia during oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR in mice using the bio-reductive drug pimonidazole. We measured the levels of HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha proteins by Western blotting and determined their cellular distribution by immunohistochemistry during the development of OIR. We measured the temporal expression profiles of two downstream mediators, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and erythropoietin (Epo by ELISA. Pimonidazole labelling was evident specifically in the inner retina. Labelling peaked at 2 hours after the onset of hypoxia and gradually declined thereafter. Marked binding to Müller glia was evident during the early hypoxic stages of OIR. Both HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha protein levels were significantly increased during retinal hypoxia but were evident in distinct cellular distributions; HIF-1alpha stabilisation was evident in neuronal cells throughout the inner retinal layers whereas HIF-2alpha was restricted to Müller glia and astrocytes. Hypoxia and HIF-alpha stabilisation in the retina were closely followed by upregulated expression of the downstream mediators VEGF and EPO. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Both HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha are activated in close correlation with retinal hypoxia but have contrasting cell specificities, consistent with differential roles in retinal ischaemia. Our findings suggest that HIF-2alpha activation

  4. Decoupling constant for $\\alpha_s$ and the effective gluon-Higgs coupling to three loops in supersymmetric QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Kurz, Alexander; Zerf, Nikolai


    We compute the three-loop QCD corrections to the decoupling constant for $\\alpha_s$ which relates the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model to Quantum Chromodynamics with five or six active flavours. The new results can be used to study the stability of $\\alpha_s$ evaluated at a high scale from the knowledge of its value at $M_Z$. We furthermore derive a low-energy theorem which allows the calculation of the coefficient function of the effective Higgs boson-gluon operator from the decoupling constant. This constitutes the first independent check of the matching coefficient to three loops.

  5. The Ly$\\alpha$ emission from high-$z$ galaxies hosting strong Damped Ly$\\alpha$ systems

    CERN Document Server

    Joshi, Ravi; Noterdaeme, Pasquier; Petitjean, Patrick


    We study the average Ly$\\alpha$ emission associated with high-$z$ strong (log $N$(H I) $\\ge$ 21) damped Ly$\\alpha$ systems (DLAs). We report Ly$\\alpha$ luminosities ($L_{\\rm Ly\\alpha}$) for the full as well as various sub-samples based on $N$(H I), $z$, $(r-i)$ colours of QSOs and rest equivalent width of Si II$\\lambda$1526 line (i.e., $W_{1526}$). For the full sample, we find $L_{\\rm Ly\\alpha}$$< 10^{41} (3\\sigma)\\ \\rm erg\\ s^{-1}$ with a $2.8\\sigma$ level detection of Ly$\\alpha$ emission in the red part of the DLA trough. The $L_{\\rm Ly\\alpha}$ is found to be higher for systems with higher $W_{1526}$ with its peak, detected at $\\geq 3\\sigma$, redshifted by about 300-400 $\\rm km\\ s^{-1}$ with respect to the systemic absorption redshift, as seen in Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs) and Ly$\\alpha$ emitters. A clear signature of a double-hump Ly$\\alpha$ profile is seen when we consider $W_{1526} \\ge 0.4$ \\AA\\ and $(r-i) < 0.05$. Based on the known correlation between metallicity and $W_{1526}$, we interpret our...

  6. Effect of Pilates Training on Alpha Rhythm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijie Bian


    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of Pilates training on the brain function was investigated through five case studies. Alpha rhythm changes during the Pilates training over the different regions and the whole brain were mainly analyzed, including power spectral density and global synchronization index (GSI. It was found that the neural network of the brain was more active, and the synchronization strength reduced in the frontal and temporal regions due to the Pilates training. These results supported that the Pilates training is very beneficial for improving brain function or intelligence. These findings maybe give us some line evidence to suggest that the Pilates training is very helpful for the intervention of brain degenerative diseases and cogitative dysfunction rehabilitation.

  7. Alpha-Ketoglutarate: Physiological Functions and Applications. (United States)

    Wu, Nan; Yang, Mingyao; Gaur, Uma; Xu, Huailiang; Yao, Yongfang; Li, Diyan


    Alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) is a key molecule in the Krebs cycle determining the overall rate of the citric acid cycle of the organism. It is a nitrogen scavenger and a source of glutamate and glutamine that stimulates protein synthesis and inhibits protein degradation in muscles. AKG as a precursor of glutamate and glutamine is a central metabolic fuel for cells of the gastrointestinal tract as well. AKG can decrease protein catabolism and increase protein synthesis to enhance bone tissue formation in the skeletal muscles and can be used in clinical applications. In addition to these health benefits, a recent study has shown that AKG can extend the lifespan of adult Caenorhabditis elegans by inhibiting ATP synthase and TOR. AKG not only extends lifespan, but also delays age-related disease. In this review, we will summarize the advances in AKG research field, in the content of its physiological functions and applications.

  8. Alpha-cluster model of atomic nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosin, Zbigniew; Kallunkathariyil, Jinesh [Jagiellonian University, M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Krakow (Poland); Blocki, Jan [NCBJ, Theoretical Physics Division (BP2), Swierk (Poland); Lukasik, Jerzy; Pawlowski, Piotr [IFJ PAN, Krakow (Poland)


    The description of a nuclear system in its ground state and at low excitations based on the equation of state (EoS) around normal density is presented. In the expansion of the EoS around the saturation point, additional spin polarization terms are taken into account. These terms, together with the standard symmetry term, are responsible for the appearance of the α-like clusters in the ground-state configurations of the N=Z even-even nuclei. At the nuclear surface these clusters can be identified as alpha particles. A correction for the surface effects is introduced for atomic nuclei. Taking into account an additional interaction between clusters the binding energies and sizes of the considered nuclei are very accurately described. The limits of the EoS parameters are established from the properties of the α, {sup 3}He and t particles. (orig.)

  9. Properties of observed Ly-$\\alpha$ forest

    CERN Document Server

    Demianski, M; Turchaninov, V I


    The main observed properties of Ly-$\\alpha$ absorbers are investigated on the basis of theoretical model of formation and evolution of DM structure elements. This model is generally consistent with simulations of absorbers formation and with statistical description of structure evolution based on the Zel'dovich theory. The analysis of redshift variations of comoving linear number density of absorbers was performed in our previous paper. We show that the observed characteristics of Doppler parameter can be related to the size of DM structure elements what allows us to explain the observed distribution of Doppler parameter. This distribution is found to be consistent with the Gaussian initial perturbations. The observed characteristics of entropy and column density, $N_{HI}$, confirm that merging of pancakes is the main evolutionary process at redshifts $z\\geq 2$. The observed sample of absorbers characterizes mainly the matter distribution within large low density regions and therefore it is difficult to recon...

  10. T-duality and $\\alpha'$-corrections

    CERN Document Server

    Marques, Diego


    We construct an $O(d,d)$ invariant universal formulation of the first-order $\\alpha'$-corrections of the string effective actions involving the dilaton, metric and two-form fields. Two free parameters interpolate between four-derivative terms that are even and odd with respect to a $Z_2$-parity transformation that changes the sign of the two-form field. The $Z_2$-symmetric model reproduces the closed bosonic string, and the heterotic string effective action is obtained through a $Z_2$-parity-breaking choice of parameters. The theory is an extension of the generalized frame formulation of Double Field Theory, in which the gauge transformations are deformed by a first-order generalized Green-Schwarz transformation. This deformation defines a duality covariant gauge principle that requires and fixes the four-derivative terms. We discuss the $O(d,d)$ structure of the theory and the (non-)covariance of the required field redefinitions.

  11. Alpha Radiation Effects on Silicon Oxynitride Waveguides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morichetti, Francesco; Grillanda, Stefano; Manandhar, Sandeep; Shutthanandan, Vaithiyalingam; Kimerling, Lionel; Melloni, Andrea; Agarwal, Anuradha M.


    Photonic technologies are today of great interest for use in harsh environments, such as outer space, where they can potentially replace current communication systems based on radiofrequency components. However, very much alike to electronic devices, the behavior of optical materials and circuits can be strongly altered by high-energy and high-dose ionizing radiations. Here, we investigate the effects of alpha () radiation with MeV-range energy on silicon oxynitride (SiON) optical waveguides. Irradiation with a dose of 5×1015 cm-2 increases the refractive index of the SiON core by nearly 10-2, twice as much that of the surrounding silica cladding, leading to a significant increase of the refractive index contrast of the waveguide. The higher mode confinement induced by -radiation reduces the loss of tightly bent waveguides. We show that this increases the quality factor of microring resonators by 20%, with values larger than 105 after irradiation.

  12. Logarithms of alpha in QED bound states from the renormalization group (United States)

    Manohar; Stewart


    The velocity renormalization group is used to determine lnalpha contributions to QED bound state energies. The leading-order anomalous dimension for the potential gives the alpha(5)lnalpha Lamb shift. The next-to-leading-order anomalous dimension determines the alpha(6)lnalpha, alpha(7)ln (2)alpha, and alpha(8)ln (3)alpha corrections to the energy. These are used to obtain the alpha(8)ln (3)alpha Lamb shift and alpha(7)ln (2)alpha hyperfine splitting for hydrogen, muonium, and positronium, as well as the alpha(2)lnalpha and alpha(3)ln (2)alpha corrections to the ortho- and parapositronium lifetimes. This shows for the first time that these logarithms can be computed from the renormalization group.

  13. Jet Production in ep Collisions at Low Q^2 and Determination of $\\alpha_{s}$

    CERN Document Server

    Aaron, FD; Alexa, C; Andreev, V; Antunovic, B; Backovic, S; Baghdasaryan, A; Barrelet, E; Bartel, W; Begzsuren, K; Belousov, A; Bizot, J C; Boudry, V; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I; Bracinik, J; Brandt, G; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Bruncko, D; Bunyatyan, A; Buschhorn, G; Bystritskaya, L; Campbell, A J; Cantun Avila, K B; Cerny, K; Cerny, V; Chekelian, V; Cholewa, A; Contreras, J G; Coughlan, J A; Cozzika, G; Cvach, J; Dainton, J B; Daum, K; Deak, M; Delcourt, B; Delvax, J; De Wolf, E A; Diaconu, C; Dodonov, V; Dossanov, A; Dubak, A; Eckerlin, G; Efremenko, V; Egli, S; Eliseev, A; Elsen, E; Falkiewicz, A; Favart, L; Fedotov, A; Felst, R; Feltesse, J; Ferencei, J; Fischer, D J; Fleischer, M; Fomenko, A; Gabathuler, E; Gayler, J; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Glazov, A; Glushkov, I; Goerlich, L; Gogitidze, N; Gouzevitch, M; Grab, C; Greenshaw, T; Grell, B R; Grindhammer, G; Habib, S; Haidt, D; Helebrant, C; Henderson, R C W; Hennekemper, E; Henschel, H; Herbst, M; Herrera, G; Hildebrandt, M; Hiller, K H; Hoffmann, D; Horisberger, R; Hreus, T; Jacquet, M; Janssen, X; Jonsson, L; Jung, A W; Jung, H; Kapichine, M; Katzy, J; Kenyon, I R; Kiesling, C; Klein, M; Kleinwort, C; Kluge, T; Knutsson, A; Kogler, R; Kosior, E; Kostka, P; Kraemer, M; Krastev, K; Kretzschmar, J; Kropivnitskaya, A; Kruger, K; Kutak, K; Landon, M P J; Lange, W; Lastovicka-Medin, G; Laycock, P; Lebedev, A; Lendermann, V; Levonian, S; Li, G; Lipka, K; Liptaj, A; List, B; List, J; Loktionova, N; Lopez-Fernandez, R; Lubimov, V; Makankine, A; Malinovski, E; Marage, P; Marti, Ll; Martyn, H U; Maxfield, S J; Mehta, A; Meyer, A B; Meyer, H; Meyer, H; Meyer, J; Mikocki, S; Milcewicz-Mika, I; Moreau, F; Morozov, A; Morris, J V; Mozer, M U; Mudrinic, M; Muller, K; Murin, P; Naumann, Th; Newman, P R; Niebuhr, C; Nikiforov, A; Nikitin, D; Nowak, G; Nowak, K; Olsson, J E; Osman, S; Ozerov, D; Palichik, V; Panagoulias, I; Pandurovic, M; Papadopoulou, Th; Pascaud, C; Patel, G D; Pejchal, O; Perez, E; Petrukhin, A; Picuric, I; Piec, S; Pitzl, D; Placakyte, R; Pokorny, B; Polifka, R; Povh, B; Radescu, V; Rahmat, A J; Raicevic, N; Raspiareza, A; Ravdandorj, T; Reimer, P; Rizvi, E; Robmann, P; Roland, B; Roosen, R; Rostovtsev, A; Rotaru, M; Tabasco, J E Ruiz; Rusakov, S; Salek, D; Sankey, D P C; Sauter, M; Sauvan, E; Schmitt, S; Schoeffel, L; Schoning, A; Schultz-Coulon, H C; Sefkow, F; Shaw-West, R N; Shtarkov, L N; Shushkevich, S; Sloan, T; Smiljanic, Ivan; Soloviev, Y; Sopicki, P; South, D; Spaskov, V; Specka, A; Staykova, Z; Steder, M; Stella, B; Stoicea, G; Straumann, U; Sunar, D; Sykora, T; Tchoulakov, V; Thompson, G; Thompson, P D; Toll, T; Tomasz, F; Tran, T H; Traynor, D; Trinh, T N; Truol, P; Tsakov, I; Tseepeldorj, B; Turnau, J; Urban, K; Valkarova, A; Vallee, C; Van Mechelen, P; Trevino, A Vargas; Vazdik, Y; Vinokurova, S; Volchinski, V; von den Driesch, M; Wegener, D; Wissing, Ch; Wunsch, E; Zacek, J; Zalesak, J; Zhang, Z; Zhokin, A; Zimmermann, T; Zohrabyan, H; Zomer, F


    The production of jets is studied in deep-inelastic e+p scattering at low negative four momentum transfer squared 5alpha_s.

  14. ALPHA spokesperson Jeffrey Hangst gives a tour of the new ALPHA-2 french subtitles

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Video Productions


    Alors qu’un grand nombre d’expériences se préparent à un rythme de travail soutenu pendant la longue période d’arrêt, il en est une dont l’activité est déjà intense : ALPHA-2. Les derniers éléments, qui sont arrivés le mois dernier, vont permettre de remplacer complètement le dispositif expérimental ALPHA. À la différence de celle qui l’a précédée, cette expérience a été spécialement conçue pour mesurer les propriétés de l’antimatière.

  15. A new alpha(0)-thalassemia deletion found in a Dutch family (--(AW)).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phylipsen, M.; Vogelaar, I.P.; Schaap, R.A.; Arkesteijn, S.G.; Boxma, G.L.; Helden, W.C. van; Wildschut, I.C.; Bruin-Roest, A.C. de; Giordano, P.C.; Harteveld, C.L.


    Alpha-thalassemia is an inherited hemoglobin disorder characterized by a microcytic hypochromic anemia caused by a quantitative reduction of the alpha-globin chain. The majority of the alpha-thalassemias is caused by deletions in the alpha-globin gene cluster. A deletion in the alpha-globin gene clu

  16. Genetics Home Reference: mucolipidosis II alpha/beta (United States)

    ... lysosomes, including mucolipidosis II alpha/beta , are called lysosomal storage disorders. The signs and symptoms of mucolipidosis II alpha/beta are most likely caused by the lack of digestive enzymes within lysosomes and the effects these enzymes have outside the cell. Mutations in ...

  17. Determination of thin layer thickness from alpha particle energy spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hnatowicz, V.; Kvitek, J. (Ceskoslovenska Akademie Ved, Prague. Ustav pro Elektrotechniku); Rybka, V.; Krejci, P. (Tesla, Prague (Czechoslovakia). Vyzkumny Ustav pro Sdelovaci Techniku); Pelikan, L. (Ceske Vysoke Uceni Technicke, Prague (Czechoslovakia). Fakulta Elektrotechnicka); Mikusik, P. (Ceskoslovenska Akademie Ved, Prague. Ustav Fyzikalni Chemie a Elektrochemie J. Heyrovskeho)


    A method which uses alpha particles from the /sup 10/B(n,alpha)/sup 7/Li nuclear reaction for the determination of surface layer thicknesses is described and experimentally checked. The thickness measurements can be performed on samples implanted with boron.

  18. [Mivazerol and other benzylimidazoles with alpha-2 adrenergic properties]. (United States)

    Cossement, E; Geerts, J P; Michel, P; Motte, G; Noyer, M


    4-Benzyl-imidazole compounds derived from Salbutanol are evaluated for potential adrenergic activities. The prevalent property of a series of new bioisosteres of catecholamines either of the saligenol-(ucb LO61) or benzamide-(Mivazerol) type is a selective alpha-adrenergic agonism, at the presynaptic level. The present study stresses the structural features responsible for the alpha-2-agonistic property.

  19. Method for using a yeast alpha-amylase promoter (United States)

    Gao, Johnway; Skeen, Rodney S.; Hooker, Brian S.; Anderson, Daniel B.


    The present invention provides the promoter clone discovery of an alpha-amylase gene of a starch utilizing yeast strain Schwanniomyces castellii. The isolated alpha-amylase promoter is an inducible promoter, which can regulate strong gene expression in starch culture medium.

  20. Metathesis process for preparing an alpha, omega-functionalized olefin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdett, Kenneth A. (Midland, MI); Mokhtarzadeh, Morteza (Charleston, WV); Timmers, Francis J. (Midland, MI)


    A cross-metathesis process for preparing an .alpha.,.omega.-functionalized olefin, such as methyl 9-decenoate, and an .alpha.-olefin having three or more carbon atoms, such as 1-decene. The process involves contacting in a first reaction zone an .alpha.-functionalized internal olefin, such as methyl oleate, and an .alpha.-olefinic monomer having three or more carbon atoms, such as 1-decene, with a first metathesis catalyst to prepare an effluent stream containing the .alpha.,.omega.-functionalized olefin, such as methyl 9-decenoate, an unfunctionalized internal olefin, such as 9-octadecene, unconverted reactant olefins, and optionally, an .alpha.,.omega.-difunctionalized internal olefinic dimer, such as dimethyl 9-octadecen-1,18-dioate; separating said effluent streams; then contacting in a second reaction zone the unfunctionalized internal olefin with ethylene in the presence of a second metathesis catalyst to obtain a second product effluent containing the .alpha.-olefinic monomer having three or more carbon atoms; and cycling a portion of the .alpha.-olefinic monomer stream(s) to the first zone.

  1. Role of TNF-alpha and its receptors in pericoronitis. (United States)

    Beklen, A; Laine, M; Ventä, I; Hyrkäs, T; Konttinen, Y T


    The classic stimulus for cellular cytokine production is bacterial lipopolysaccharide (endotoxin). It was therefore hypothesized that tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) may be responsible for pericoronitis. TNF-alpha and its receptors were detected by immunohistochemical staining in third molar pericoronitis in ten patients and ten healthy control samples. The percentage of TNF-alpha positive cells was high in pericoronitis (p = 0.0317). TNF receptors TNF-R1 and TNF-R2 were found in macrophage- and fibroblast-like cells, vascular endothelial cells in post-capillary venules, and basal epithelial cells in pericoronitis, but were only weakly expressed in controls. Increased expression of interleukin-1beta and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 was found as a biological indicator of TNF-alpha ligand-receptor interaction. Explanted tissues acquired destructive potential upon TNF-alpha stimulation, whereas TNF-alpha blockers controlled it in inflamed tissues. These findings suggest that, in pericoronitis, inflammatory and resident cells produce and respond to potent pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha, with pathogenic and potential therapeutic relevance.

  2. Technical Equivalency Documentation for a Newly Aquired Alpha Spectroscopy System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickman, D P; Fisher, S K; Hann, P R; Hume, R


    The response of a recently acquired Canberra{trademark} Alpha Analyst 'Blue' system (Chamber Number's 173-208) used by the Hazards Control, Radiation Safety Section, WBC/Spectroscopy Team has been studied with respect to an existing Canberra system. The existing Canberra system consists of thirty Alpha Analyst dual chambers Model XXXX comprising a total of sixty detectors (Chambers Number's 101-124 and 137-172). The existing chambers were previously compared to an older system consisting of thirty-six Model 7401 alpha spectrometry chambers (Chamber Number's 1-36) Chambers 101-124 and 137-172 are DOELAP accredited. The older system was previously DOELAP accredited for the routine Alpha Spectroscopy program used in LLNL's in vitro bioassay program. The newly acquired Alpha Analyst system operates on a network with software that controls and performs analysis of the current Alpha Analyst system (Chamber Number's 101-124 and 137-172). This exact same software is used for the current system and the newly acquired system and is DOELAP accredited. This document compares results from the existing Alpha System with the newer Alpha Analyst system.

  3. Production of secreted guar alpha-galactosidase by Lactococcus lactis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenhouts, KJ; Bolhuis, A; Ledeboer, A; Venema, G; Kok, J


    A plant alpha-galactosidase gene was inserted in the expression vector pGKV259. The resulting plasmid pGAL2 consisted of the replication functions of the broad-host-range lactococcal plasmid pWVO1, the lactococcal promoter P59, and the DNA sequences encoding the alpha-amylase signal sequence from Ba

  4. Hereditary fructose intolerance and alpha(1) antitrypsin deficiency. (United States)

    Hillebrand, G; Schneppenheim, R; Oldigs, H D; Santer, R


    A patient with coexisting hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) and alpha(1) antitrypsin deficiency (alpha(1)ATD) is described. Protease inhibitor typing was not conclusive, presumably because of impaired N-glycosylation secondary to HFI. The case underlines the diagnostic role of molecular genetic techniques in inborn errors of metabolism.

  5. Dynamical stability of the alpha and theta phases of alumina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lodziana, Zbigniew; Parlinski, K.


    Using density functional calculations the phonon dispersion relations, phonon density of states, and free energy of theta and alpha phases of alumina are investigated. The temperature dependence of the free energy indicates that entropy contributes to the destabilization of the alpha phase at the...

  6. Repeated Intraperitoneal alpha-Radioimmunotherapy of Ovarian Cancer in Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elgqvist, Jörgen; Andersson, Håkan; Jensen, Holger;


    The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of alpha-radioimmunotherapy of ovarian cancer in mice using different fractionated treatment regimens. The study was performed using the monoclonal antibody MX35 F(ab')(2) labeled with the alpha-particle emitter (211)At. Methods...

  7. Molecular diagnosis of intermediate and severe alpha(1)-antitrypsin deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Morten; Nordestgaard, B G; Lange, P;


    We tested whether intermediate (MZ, SZ) and severe (ZZ) alpha(1)-antitrypsin deficiency affects lung function in the population at large.......We tested whether intermediate (MZ, SZ) and severe (ZZ) alpha(1)-antitrypsin deficiency affects lung function in the population at large....

  8. Detecting alpha radiation by scintillation in porous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keillor, M.E. [McClellan Central Lab., McClellan AFB, CA (United States); Burggraf, L.W. [Air Force Inst. of Tech., Wright-Patterson AFB, OH (United States)


    This paper presents a study of some parameters essential to the development of a heterogeneous scintillation detector with improved alpha energy resolution and detection efficiency. Such a detector with better than 10% alpha energy resolution could provide in situ capability to identify and quantify important alpha-emitting radionuclides in dilute aqueous solutions. Nanoporous gel-silica is a potential scintillation matrix with the promise of improved energy resolution and 100% detection efficiency. Scintillating gel-silica made by a sol-gel process is under development. As a step toward realizing the system described, the dependence of alpha detection efficiency and intrinsic energy resolution in particulate and porous glass scintillation detectors is examined. The two main areas of this research are: (1) computer modeling of the geometric detection efficiency and energy dispersion in particulate and porous glass scintillation detectors and (2) experiments to test model predictions for detection of alphas in liquid-infiltrated porous glass structures. To confirm the predicted alpha energy deposition, the authors measured scintillation in nanoporous gel-silica infiltrated with an organic liquid scintillator. Results show that phase dimensions must be considered in constructing a heterogeneous detector for alpha spectroscopy. Nanometer-scale dimensions available in gel-silica essentially eliminate degradation of energy resolution due to energy dispersion of alpha particles within the liquid sample, while providing 100% detection efficiency.

  9. Distribution of alpha-amylase activity in selected broiler tissues. (United States)

    Rodeheaver, D P; Wyatt, R D


    In an examination of broiler alpha-amylase, significant variation in the serum enzyme activity level was noted, adult levels were lower than those of young chicks. Analysis of alpha-amylase activity in various body fluids and tissues of 11-day and 7-week-old broilers indicated that the liver cannot be considered a source of alpha-amylase, although there was activity in both liver tissue and bile of 10 units/g wet weight and 35 units/100 ml, respectively. Fluid from the oral cavity had low levels of alpha-amylase activity, less than 100 units/100 ml, which decreased with age, indicating that the salivary glands may synthesize some alpha-amylase but are not a primary source. Sonication of the pancreatic homogenates was found to significantly increase the apparent activity of alpha-amylase 35-fold over unsonicated homogenates. The pancreas was the major source of alpha-amylase with activities ranging from 89 X 10(2) to 445 X 10(2) units/g wet weight. The level of activity increased with age of the bird. The electrophoretic zymograms of serum, liver, and pancreatic homogenates indicate a similar pancreatic origin for the alpha-amylase found in each tissue or fluid.

  10. Lyman alpha SMM/UVSP absolute calibration and geocoronal correction (United States)

    Fontenla, Juan M.; Reichmann, Edwin J.


    Lyman alpha observations from the Ultraviolet Spectrometer Polarimeter (UVSP) instrument of the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) spacecraft were analyzed and provide instrumental calibration details. Specific values of the instrument quantum efficiency, Lyman alpha absolute intensity, and correction for geocoronal absorption are presented.

  11. Prostaglandin F2alpha elevates blood pressure and promotes atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Ying; Lucitt, Margaret B; Stubbe, Jane


    Little is known about prostaglandin F(2alpha) in cardiovascular homeostasis. Prostaglandin F(2alpha) dose-dependently elevates blood pressure in WT mice via activation of the F prostanoid (FP) receptor. The FP is expressed in preglomerular arterioles, renal collecting ducts, and the hypothalamus....

  12. Alpha-tocopherol inhibits pore formation in the oxidized bilayers

    CERN Document Server

    Boonnoy, Phansiri; Wong-ekkabut, Jirasak


    In biological membranes, alpha-tocopherols ({\\alpha}-toc; vitamin E) protect polyunsaturated lipids from free radicals. Although the interactions of {\\alpha}-toc with non-oxidized lipid bilayers have been studied, their on oxidized bilayers remain unknown. In this study, atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of oxidized lipid bilayers were performed with varying concentrations of {\\alpha}-toc. Bilayers with 1-palmitoyl-2-lauroyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PLPC) lipids and its aldehyde derivatives at 1:1 ratio were studied. Our simulations show that oxidized lipids self-assemble into aggregates with a water pore rapidly developing across the lipid bilayer. The free energy of transporting an {\\alpha}-toc molecule in a lipid bilayer suggests that {\\alpha}-tocs can passively adsorb into the bilayer. When {\\alpha}-toc molecules were present at low concentrations in bilayers containing oxidized lipids, the formation of water pores was slowed down. At high {\\alpha}-toc concentra-tions, no pores were observ...

  13. Sign of helicity in the alpha-Omega geodynamo

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Xing


    In this paper we investigate the sign of helicity in the alpha-Omega dynamo and point out that the alpha effect in the geodynamo is induced by helical wave but not helical flow as in the solar dynamo. We then postulate the mechanisms of the Earth's magnetic tilt angle, westward drift and dipole reversals.

  14. Does formate reduce alpha-ketoglutarate and ammonia to glutamate? (United States)

    Maughan, Q.; Miller, S. L.; Bada, J. L. (Principal Investigator)


    The reported reduction of alpha-ketoglutarate and ammonia by formate is much slower than described (Morowitz et al., 1995). The formate reduction if any is small under these conditions. Glutamate is produced from a reduction by a second molecule of alpha-ketoglutarate involving an oxidative decarboxylation.

  15. alpha-Amanitin induced apoptosis in primary cultured dog hepatocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Szelag


    Full Text Available Amatoxin poisoning is caused by mushroom species belonging to the genera Amanita, Galerina and Lepiota with the majority of lethal mushroom exposures attributable to Amanita phalloides. High mortality rate in intoxications with these mushrooms is principally a result of the acute liver failure following significant hepatocyte damage due to hepatocellular uptake of amatoxins. A wide variety of amatoxins have been isolated; however, alpha-amanitin (alpha-AMA appears to be the primary toxin. Studies in vitro and in vivo suggest that alpha-AMA does not only cause hepatocyte necrosis, but also may lead to apoptotic cell death. The objective of this study was to evaluate the complex hepatocyte apoptosis in alpha-AMA cytotoxicity. All experiments were performed on primary cultured canine hepatocytes. The cells were incubated for 12 h with alpha-AMA at a final concentration of 1, 5, 10 and 20 microM. Viability test (MTT assay, apoptosis evaluation (TUNEL reaction, detection of DNA laddering and electron microscopy were performed at 6 and 12 h of exposure to alpha-AMA. There was a clear correlation between hepatocyte viability, concentration of alpha-AMA and time of exposure to this toxin. The decline in cultured dog hepatocyte viability during the exposure to alpha-AMA is most likely preceded by enhanced cellular apoptosis. Our results demonstrate that apoptosis might contribute to pathogenesis of the severe liver injury in the course of amanitin intoxication, particularly during the early phase of poisoning.

  16. Acute toxicity of high doses of the glycoalkaloids, alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine, in the Syrian Golden hamster. (United States)

    Langkilde, Søren; Schrøder, Malene; Stewart, Derek; Meyer, Otto; Conner, Sean; Davies, Howard; Poulsen, Morten


    Sprouted, stressed, or spoiled potato tubers have reportedly led to human acute intoxication, coma, and death when consumed in high amounts. These effects have been attributed to glycoalkaloids (GAs), primarily alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine, naturally present in all potatoes. The level of GAs in potato tubers has previously been shown to increase substantially as a result of improper handling and postharvest storage. A short-term study was performed to investigate the dose-response profile of alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine alone or in combination, administered daily by oral gavage to Syrian Golden hamsters. Daily doses of 100 mg of alpha-solanine [kg body weight (BW)] (-1) induced death in two of four hamsters within 4 days, when administered by gavage to female Syrian hamsters. Doses of 100 mg of alpha-chaconine alone or alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine combined in a ratio of 1:2.5, in doses of 75 or 100 mg (kg BW) (-1), induced death in one of four hamsters within the same period. Animals dosed with alpha-solanine alone or in combination with alpha-chaconine suffered from fluid-filled and dilated small intestines. The GA administration had no effect on acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) or butyryl cholinesterase (BuChE) activity in plasma or brain. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomics showed that there was a specific accumulation of alpha-chaconine in the liver tissues. In addition, metabolomics gave direct evidence of glycolytic metabolism of the GA with the beta 1, beta 2, and gamma-GAs detected in the urine and, to a lesser extent, the feces. Doses from 75 mg (kg BW) (-1) of alpha-chaconine, alpha-solanine, or the two compounds combined were potentially lethal within 4-5 days in the Syrian Golden hamster. However, the cause of death in these studies could not be established. No synergistic effects of alpha-solanine combined with alpha-chaconine were evident.

  17. A new alpha-globin variant with increased oxygen affinity in a Swiss family: Hb Frauenfeld [alpha 138(H21)Ser-->Phe, TCC>TTC (alpha 2)]. (United States)

    Hochuli, Michel; Zurbriggen, Karin; Schmid, Marlis; Speer, Oliver; Rochat, Philippe; Frauchiger, Beat; Kleinert, Peter; Schmugge, Markus; Troxler, Heinz


    A new alpha-globin mutation [alpha 138(H21)Ser-->Phe] was found in a 55-year-old male proband with an erythrocytosis known since his youth. Cation exchange high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) revealed an additional peak eluting slightly before Hb A indicating the presence of a variant. The peak area of the variant was approximately one-third that of Hb A suggesting an alpha-globin variant. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis confirmed the mutation at the protein level. The variant is also detectable with isoelectric focusing and reversed phase HPLC. DNA analysis revealed a heterozygous sequence mutation at codon 138 of the alpha2 gene. A C>T transition at the second nucleotide of the codon indicated a Ser-->Phe exchange. The variant showed increased oxygen affinity and was named Hb Frauenfeld.

  18. Human fat cell alpha-2 adrenoceptors. I. Functional exploration and pharmacological definition with selected alpha-2 agonists and antagonists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galitzky, J.; Mauriege, P.; Berlan, M.; Lafontan, M.


    This study was undertaken to investigate more fully the pharmacological characteristics of the human fat cell alpha-2 adrenoceptor. Biological assays were performed on intact isolated fat cells while radioligand binding studies were carried out with (/sup 3/H)yohimbine in membranes. These pharmacological studies brought: (1) a critical definition of the limits of the experimental conditions required for the exploration of alpha-2 adrenergic responsiveness on human fat cells and membranes; (2) an improvement in the pharmacological definition of the human fat cell postsynaptic alpha-2 adrenoceptor. Among alpha-2 agonists, UK-14,304 was the most potent and the relative order of potency was: UK-14,304 greater than p-aminoclonidine greater than clonidine = B-HT 920 greater than rilmenidine. For alpha-2 antagonists, the potency order was: yohimbine greater than idazoxan greater than SK F-86,466 much greater than benextramine; (3) a description of the impact of benextramine (irreversible alpha-1/alpha-2 antagonist) on human fat cell alpha-2 adrenergic receptors and on human fat cell function; the drug inactivates the alpha-2 adrenergic receptors with a minor impact on beta adrenergic receptors and without noticeable alterations of fat cell function as assessed by preservation of beta adrenergic and Al-adenosine receptor-mediated lipolytic responses; and (4) a definition of the relationship existing between alpha-2 adrenergic receptor occupancy, inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity and antilipolysis with full and partial agonists. The existence of a receptor reserve must be taken into account when evaluating alpha-2 adrenergic receptor distribution and regulation of human fat cells.

  19. Thermodynamics in $f(R,R_{\\alpha\\beta}R^{\\alpha\\beta},\\phi)$ theory of gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Zubair, M; Bahamonde, Sebastian


    First and second laws of black hole thermodynamics are examined at the apparent horizon of FRW spacetime in $f(R,R_{\\alpha\\beta}R^{\\alpha\\beta} ,\\phi)$ gravity, where $R$, $R_{\\alpha\\beta}$ and $\\phi$ are the Ricci scalar, Ricci invariant and the scalar field respectively. In this modified theory, Friedmann equations are formulated for any spatial curvature. These equations can be presented into the form of first law of thermodynamics $T_{h}d\\hat{S}_{h}+ T_{h}d_{i}\\hat{S}_{h}+W dV=dE$, where $d_{i}\\hat{S}_{h}$ is an extra entropy term because of the non-equilibrium presentation of the equations. The generalized second law of thermodynamics (GSLT) is expressed in an inclusive form where these results can be represented, in GR, $f(R)$ and $f(R, \\phi)$ gravities. Finally to check the validity of GSLT, we take some particular models and produce constraints of the parameters.

  20. $\\alpha$-scattering and $\\alpha$-induced reaction cross sections of $^{64}$Zn at low energies

    CERN Document Server

    Ornelas, A; Gyürky, Gy; Elekes, Z; Fülöp, Zs; Halász, Z; Kiss, G G; Somorjai, E; Szücs, T; Takács, M P; Galaviz, D; Güray, R T; Korkulu, Z; Özkan, N; Yalçın, C


    Background: alpha-nucleus potentials play an essential role for the calculation of alpha-induced reaction cross sections at low energies in the statistical model... Purpose: The present work studies the total reaction cross section sigma_reac of alpha-induced reactions at low energies which can be determined from the elastic scattering angular distribution or from the sum over the cross sections of all open non-elastic channels. Method: Elastic and inelastic 64Zn(a,a)64Zn angular distributions were measured at two energies around the Coulomb barrier at 12.1 MeV and 16.1 MeV. Reaction cross sections of the (a,g), (a,n), and (a,p) reactions were measured at the same energies using the activation technique. The contributions of missing non-elastic channels were estimated from statistical model calculations. Results: The total reaction cross sections from elastic scattering and from the sum of the cross sections over all open non-elastic channels agree well within the uncertainties. This finding confirms the cons...

  1. Binding of [alpha, alpha]-Disubstituted Amino Acids to Arginase Suggests New Avenues for Inhibitor Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilies, Monica; Di Costanzo, Luigi; Dowling, Daniel P.; Thorn, Katherine J.; Christianson, David W. (MIT); (Episcopal U); (Rutgers); (Drexel); (Penn)


    Arginase is a binuclear manganese metalloenzyme that hydrolyzes L-arginine to form L-ornithine and urea, and aberrant arginase activity is implicated in various diseases such as erectile dysfunction, asthma, atherosclerosis, and cerebral malaria. Accordingly, arginase inhibitors may be therapeutically useful. Continuing our efforts to expand the chemical space of arginase inhibitor design and inspired by the binding of 2-(difluoromethyl)-L-ornithine to human arginase I, we now report the first study of the binding of {alpha},{alpha}-disubstituted amino acids to arginase. Specifically, we report the design, synthesis, and assay of racemic 2-amino-6-borono-2-methylhexanoic acid and racemic 2-amino-6-borono-2-(difluoromethyl)hexanoic acid. X-ray crystal structures of human arginase I and Plasmodium falciparum arginase complexed with these inhibitors reveal the exclusive binding of the L-stereoisomer; the additional {alpha}-substituent of each inhibitor is readily accommodated and makes new intermolecular interactions in the outer active site of each enzyme. Therefore, this work highlights a new region of the protein surface that can be targeted for additional affinity interactions, as well as the first comparative structural insights on inhibitor discrimination between a human and a parasitic arginase.

  2. Hb Bronte or alpha93(FG5)Val-->Gly: a new unstable variant of the alpha2-globin gene, associated with a mild alpha(+)-thalassemia phenotype. (United States)

    Lacerra, Giuseppina; Testa, Rosario; De Angioletti, Maria; Schilirò, Gino; Carestia, Clementina


    We report a new unstable variant identified in three carriers of a family from East Sicily; it was named Hb Bronte after the place from which the family originated. DNA sequencing from nucleotides -181 to +894 (alpha1) and to +884 (alpha2) revealed a GTG-->GGG substitution at codon 93 of the alpha2-globin gene. The MCV and MCH values were at the lower end of the normal range in the carriers. On cation exchange high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), the Hb A2 level was apparently increased to around 6%, and a small abnormal peak (0.3-0.4%) was detected after Hb A2. Two abnormal bands were detected by cellulose acetate electrophoresis: a major band (about 3-4%) migrated between Hb A and Hb F; a minor band (<1%) migrated between Hb A2 and carbonic anhydrase. Normal values of Hb A2 were detected by DEAE microchromatography. On reversed phase HPLC the variant chain was not detected, and most likely it was eluted with the alpha chain peak. The isopropanol stability test was very slightly positive in the carriers. Hemolytic symptoms were absent with the exception of indirect bilirubin, which was at high borderline in 2/3 carriers. In biosynthesis in vitro, the specific activity of the alpha chains was much higher than that of the beta-globin chains, and the alpha/beta biosynthetic ratio in the mother and proband was of the beta-thalassemia (thal) type (2.24 and 2.54, respectively). Time course experiments showed that the increase of the 3H-specific activity of the peak containing normal and variant alpha chains was not linear and was much higher than that of beta chains; moreover, the alpha/beta biosynthetic ratio varied during the 2 hours incubation.

  3. Particularization of alpha contamination using CR-39 track detectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M F Zaki; Y H El-Shaer


    Solid-state nuclear track detectors have found wide use in various domains of science and technology, e.g. in environmental experiments. The measurement of alpha activity on sources in an environment, such as air is not easy because of short penetration range of alpha particles. Furthermore, measurement of alpha activity by most gas ionization detectors suffers from high background induced by the accompanying gamma radiation. Solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) have been used successfully as detecting devices and as a passive system to detect alpha contamination on different surfaces. This work presents the response of CR-39 (for two types) to alpha particles from two sources, 238Pu with energy 5 MeV and 241Am with energy 5.4 MeV. The methods of etching and counting are investigated, along with the achievable linearity, efficiency and reproducibility. The sensitivity to low activity and energy resolution are studied.

  4. Comparative Analysis of Eubacterial DNA Polymerase Ⅲ Alpha Subunits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Qian Zhao; Jian-Fei Hu; Jun Yu


    DNA polymerase Ⅲ is one of the five eubacterial DNA polymerases that is responsible for the replication of DNA duplex. Among the ten subunits of the DNA polymerase Ⅲ core enzyme, the alpha subunit catalyzes the reaction for polymerizing both DNA strands. In this study, we extracted genomic sequences of the alpha subunit from 159 sequenced eubacterial genomes, and carried out sequencebased phylogenetic and structural analyses. We found that all eubacterial genomes have one or more alpha subunits, which form either homodimers or heterodimers.Phylogenetic and domain structural analyses as well as copy number variations of the alpha subunit in each bacterium indicate the classification of alpha subunit into four basic groups: polC, dnaE1, dnaE2, and dnaE3. This classification is of essence in genome composition analysis. We also consolidated the naming convention to avoid further confusion in gene annotations.

  5. The activity of granulocyte alpha-amylase in acute appendicitis. (United States)

    Zakrzewska, I; Gajda, R


    The activity of alpha-amylase was measured in isolated granulocytes, serum and urine of 35 patients with acute appendicitis. The measurements were performed before operation and on the 7th day after operation. Slightly increased activity of alpha-amylase was found in the serum and urine of 15 patients. On the 7th day after operation the activity of this enzyme reached normal value. The activity of granulocyte alpha-amylase was elevated in 22 patients. In 2 of them the increased activity still maintained on the 7th day after operation. Positive correlation between the serum and granulocyte alpha-amylase activities was found. These observations allow to conclude that granulocytes are the source of increased alpha-amylase activity in the serum of patients with acute appendicitis.

  6. Fire Hose instability driven by alpha particle temperature anisotropy

    CERN Document Server

    Matteini, Lorenzo; Schwartz, Steven; Landi, Simone


    We investigate properties of a solar wind-like plasma including a secondary alpha particle population exhibiting a parallel temperature anisotropy with respect to the background magnetic field, using linear and quasi-linear predictions and by means of one-dimensional hybrid simulations. We show that anisotropic alpha particles can drive a parallel fire hose instability analogous to that generated by protons, but that, remarkably, the instability can be triggered also when the parallel plasma beta of alpha particles is below unity. The wave activity generated by the alpha anisotropy affects the evolution of the more abundant protons, leading to their anisotropic heating. When both ion species have sufficient parallel anisotropies both of them can drive the instability, and we observe generation of two distinct peaks in the spectra of the fluctuations, with longer wavelengths associated to alphas and shorter ones to protons. If a non-zero relative drift is present, the unstable modes propagate preferentially in...

  7. User acceptability of an alpha-fetoprotein screening programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Finn Stener


    and duration of anxiety, influence on daily life and whether the woman wanted the alpha-fetoprotein test again in a new pregnancy. Three thousand, three hundred and thirty-one questionnaires were analyzed. The participation rate was 81.2%. For 219 women (6.6%), the first alpha-fetoprotein test was abnormal...... (high or low) and the tests were later found to be false positives. There was a strong association between anxiety experienced in conjunction with the alpha-fetoprotein screening programme and the alpha-fetoprotein test result. Two percent of the women with a normal test result reported severe anxiety......The objective of the study was to determine user acceptability among women who were classified as false positives or test negatives in an alpha-fetoprotein screening programme. The study was performed as a questionnaire study over a one-year period from October 1, 1988 to September 30, 1989...

  8. Urinary alpha1-antichymotrypsin: a biomarker of prion infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gino Miele

    Full Text Available The occurrence of blood-borne prion transmission incidents calls for identification of potential prion carriers. However, current methods for intravital diagnosis of prion disease rely on invasive tissue biopsies and are unsuitable for large-scale screening. Sensitive biomarkers may help meeting this need. Here we scanned the genome for transcripts elevated upon prion infection and encoding secreted proteins. We found that alpha(1-antichymotrypsin (alpha(1-ACT was highly upregulated in brains of scrapie-infected mice. Furthermore, alpha(1-ACT levels were dramatically increased in urine of patients suffering from sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and increased progressively throughout the disease. Increased alpha(1-ACT excretion was also found in cases of natural prion disease of animals. Therefore measurement of urinary alpha(1-ACT levels may be useful for monitoring the efficacy of therapeutic regimens for prion disease, and possibly also for deferring blood and organ donors that may be at risk of transmitting prion infections.

  9. Entanglement entropy of $\\alpha$-vacua in de Sitter space

    CERN Document Server

    Kanno, Sugumi; Shock, Jonathan P; Soda, Jiro


    We consider the entanglement entropy of a free massive scalar field in the one parameter family of $\\alpha$-vacua in de Sitter space by using a method developed by Maldacena and Pimentel. An $\\alpha$-vacuum can be thought of as a state filled with particles from the point of view of the Bunch-Davies vacuum. Of all the $\\alpha$-vacua we find that the entanglement entropy takes the minimal value in the Bunch-Davies solution. We also calculate the asymptotic value of the R\\'enyi entropy and find that it increases as $\\alpha$ increases. We argue these feature stem from pair condensation within the non-trivial $\\alpha$-vacua where the pairs have an intrinsic quantum correlation.

  10. Validating modelling assumptions of alpha particles in electrostatic turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Wilkie, George; Highcock, Edmund; Dorland, William


    To rigorously model fast ions in fusion plasmas, a non-Maxwellian equilibrium distribution must be used. In the work, the response of high-energy alpha particles to electrostatic turbulence has been analyzed for several different tokamak parameters. Our results are consistent with known scalings and experimental evidence that alpha particles are generally well-confined: on the order of several seconds. It is also confirmed that the effect of alphas on the turbulence is negligible at realistically low concentrations, consistent with linear theory. It is demonstrated that the usual practice of using a high-temperature Maxwellian gives incorrect estimates for the radial alpha particle flux, and a method of correcting it is provided. Furthermore, we see that the timescales associated with collisions and transport compete at moderate energies, calling into question the assumption that alpha particles remain confined to a flux surface that is used in the derivation of the slowing-down distribution.

  11. Protolytic properties and complexation of DL-alpha-alanine and DL-alpha-valine and their dipeptides in aqueous and micellar solutions of surfactants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chernyshova, O. S.; Boychenko, Oleksandr; Abdulrahman, H.; Loginova, L. P.


    In this work we investigated the effect of the micellar media of anionic (sodium dodecylsulfate, SDS), cationic (cetylpiridinium chloride, CPC) and non-ionic (Brij-35) surfactants on the protolytic properties of amino acids DL-alpha-alanine, DL-alpha-valine and dipeptides L-alpha-alanyl-L-alpha-alan

  12. Study of $\\boldsymbol{(\\alpha,p)}$ and $\\boldsymbol{(\\alpha,n)}$ reactions with a Multi-Sampling Ionization Chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Avila, M L; Almaraz-Calderon, S; Ayangeakaa, A D; Dickerson, C; Hoffman, C R; Jiang, C L; Kay, B P; Lai, J; Nusair, O; Pardo, R C; Santiago-Gonzalez, D; Talwar, R; Ugalde, C


    A large number of $(\\alpha,p)$ and $(\\alpha,n)$ reactions are known to play a fundamental role in nuclear astrophysics. This work presents a novel technique to study these reactions with the active target system MUSIC whose segmented anode allows the investigation of a large energy range of the excitation function with a single beam energy. In order to verify the method, we performed a direct measurements of the previously measured reactions $^{17}$O$(\\alpha,n)^{20}$Ne, $^{23}$Na$(\\alpha,p)^{26}$Mg, and $^{23}$Na$(\\alpha,n)^{26}$Al. These reactions were investigated in inverse kinematics using $^{4}$He gas in the detector to study the excitation function in the range of about 2 to 6 MeV in the center of mass. We found good agreement between the cross sections of the $^{17}$O$(\\alpha,n)^{20}$Ne reaction measured in this work and previous measurements. Furthermore we have successfully performed a simultaneous measurement of the $^{23}$Na$(\\alpha,p)^{26}$Mg and $^{23}$Na$(\\alpha,n)^{26}$Al reactions.

  13. Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency resulting in a hitherto unseen presentation of hepatocellular carcinoma: Polycythemia but with normal alpha fetoprotein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David Ryan Owen; Ramachandran Sivakumar; Eui-Sik Suh; Murugiah Seevaratnam


    Polycythemia is a known paraneopastic manifestation of hepatoma, but only in the presence of alpha-fetopro (AFP). We present a case of polycythemia in the absence of AFP, and suggest concurrent alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency as the cause for breaking this rule. We also suggest a reason for the apparent constant conjunction between polycythemia and AFP in hepatoma.

  14. Role of G{alpha}12 and G{alpha}13 as Novel Switches for the Activity of Nrf2, a Key Antioxidative Transcription Factor



    G{alpha}12 and G{alpha}13 function as molecular regulators responding to extracellular stimuli. NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is involved in a protective adaptive response to oxidative stress. This study investigated the regulation of Nrf2 by G{alpha}12 and G{alpha}13. A deficiency of G{alpha}12, but not of G{alpha}13, enhanced Nrf2 activity and target gene transactivation in embryo fibroblasts. In mice, G{alpha}12 knockout activated Nrf2 and thereby facilitated heme catabolism to bilirubin a...

  15. A 28-day repeat dose toxicity study of steroidal glycoalkaloids, alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine in the Syrian Golden hamster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkilde, Søren; Mandimika, T.; Schrøder, Malene


    Glycoalkaloids alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine are naturally present toxicants in the potato plant (Solanum tuberosum). Human intake of high doses of glycoalkaloids has led to acute intoxication, in severe cases coma and death. Previous studies have indicated that the ratio of alpha-solanine...... to alpha-chaconine may determine the degree and nature of the glycoalkaloid toxicity in potatoes, as the toxicity of the two alkaloids act synergistically. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether an altered ratio of alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine would reduce the toxicity...... of the glycoalkaloids. The Syrian Golden hamster was given daily doses of alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine by gavage for 28 days. Doses of up to 33.3 mg total glycoalkaloids/kg body weight were applied in ratios of 1:3.7 and 1:70 (alpha-solanine:alpha-chaconine). Administration of the highest doses of both ratios...

  16. Macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha expression in interstitial lung disease. (United States)

    Standiford, T J; Rolfe, M W; Kunkel, S L; Lynch, J P; Burdick, M D; Gilbert, A R; Orringer, M B; Whyte, R I; Strieter, R M


    Mononuclear phagocyte (M phi) recruitment and activation is a hallmark of a number of chronic inflammatory diseases of the lung, including sarcoidosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). We hypothesized that macrophage inflammatory protein-1 (MIP-1 alpha), a peptide with leukocyte activating and chemotactic properties, may play an important role in mediating many of the cellular changes that occur in sarcoidosis and IPF. In initial experiments, we demonstrated that human rMIP-1 alpha exerted chemotactic activities toward both polymorphonuclear leukocytes and monocytes, and these activities were inhibited by treatment with rabbit anti-human MIP-1 alpha antiserum. In support of the potential role of MIP-1 alpha in interstitial lung disease, we detected MIP-1 alpha in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of 22/23 patients with sarcoidosis (mean 443 +/- 76 pg/ml) and 9/9 patients with IPF (mean 427 +/- 81 pg/ml), whereas detectable MIP-1 alpha was found in only 1/7 healthy subjects (mean 64 +/- 64 pg/ml). In addition, we found a 2.5- and 1.8-fold increase in monocyte chemotactic activity in BALF obtained from patients with sarcoidosis and IPF respectively, as compared to healthy subjects, and this monocyte chemotactic activity, but not neutrophil chemotactic activity, was reduced by approximately 22% when bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from sarcoidosis and IPF patients were preincubated with rabbit antihuman MIP-1 alpha antibodies. To determine the cellular source(s) of MIP-1 alpha within the lung, we performed immunohistochemical analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage cell pellets, transbronchial biopsies, and open lung biopsies obtained from patients with IPF and sarcoidosis. Substantial expression of cell-associated MIP-1 alpha was detected in M phi, including both alveolar AM phi and interstitial M phi. In addition, interstitial fibroblasts within biopsies obtained from sarcoid and IPF patients also expressed immunoreactive MIP-1 alpha. Minimal to no detectable MIP-1

  17. Alpha-thalassemia in northern Thailand. Frequency of deletional types characterized at the DNA level. (United States)

    Hundrieser, J; Sanguansermsri, T; Papp, T; Flatz, G


    The frequency of alpha-thalassemias in northern Thailand was estimated using DNA techniques. Among 106 healthy adult Thais from the Chiangmai area, 28 were shown to carry alpha-globin gene anomalies. There were 19 heterozygotes and 1 homozygote for alpha-thalassemia-2. One of the alpha-thalassemia-2 deletions was of the -alpha 4.2 type and the remaining 20 of the -alpha 3.7 type (subtype I). Deletions of both alpha-globin genes on one chromosome (alpha-thalassemia-1) of the Southeast Asian type were observed in 5 cases, and 3 alpha-globin gene triplications were identified. Compared with a previous report on alpha-thalassemia in northern Thailand which was based on the determination of hemoglobin Bart's in cord blood, the present DNA study reveals a similar frequency of alpha-thalassemia-2 but a considerably lower frequency of alpha-thalassemia-1.

  18. Genetics Home Reference: alpha thalassemia X-linked intellectual disability syndrome (United States)

    ... alpha thalassemia X-linked intellectual disability syndrome alpha thalassemia X-linked intellectual disability syndrome Enable Javascript to ... Download PDF Open All Close All Description Alpha thalassemia X-linked intellectual disability syndrome is an inherited ...

  19. Alpha 2-adrenergic receptor turnover in adipose tissue and kidney: irreversible blockade of alpha 2-adrenergic receptors by benextramine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taouis, M.; Berlan, M.; Lafontan, M.


    The recovery of post- and extrasynaptic alpha 2-adrenergic receptor-binding sites was studied in vivo in male golden hamsters after treatment with an irreversible alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist benextramine, a tetramine disulfide that possesses a high affinity for alpha 2-binding sites. The kidney alpha 2-adrenergic receptor number was measured with (/sup 3/H)yohimbine, whereas (/sup 3/H)clonidine was used for fat cell and brain membrane alpha 2-binding site identification. Benextramine treatment of fat cell, kidney, and brain membranes reduced or completely suppressed, in an irreversible manner, (/sup 3/H) clonidine and (/sup 3/H)yohimbine binding without modifying adenosine (A1-receptor) and beta-adrenergic receptor sites. This irreversible binding was also found 1 and 2 hr after intraperitoneal administration of benextramine to the hamsters. Although it bound irreversibly to peripheral and central alpha 2-adrenergic receptors on isolated membranes, benextramine was unable to cross the blood-brain barrier of the hamster at the concentrations used (10-20 mg/kg). After the irreversible blockade, alpha 2-binding sites reappeared in kidney and adipose tissue following a monoexponential time course. Recovery of binding sites was more rapid in kidney than in adipose tissue; the half-lives of the receptor were 31 and 46 hr, respectively in the tissues. The rates of receptor production were 1.5 and 1.8 fmol/mg of protein/hr in kidney and adipose tissue. Reappearance of alpha 2-binding sites was associated with a rapid recovery of function (antilipolytic potencies of alpha 2-agonists) in fat cells inasmuch as occupancy of 15% of (/sup 3/H)clonidine-binding sites was sufficient to promote 40% inhibition of lipolysis. Benextramine is a useful tool to estimate turnover of alpha 2-adrenergic receptors under normal and pathological situations.

  20. Iron-regulated excretion of alpha-keto acids by Salmonella typhimurium.


    Reissbrodt, R.; Kingsley, R; Rabsch, W.; Beer, W.; Roberts, M.; Williams, P H


    Excretion of alpha-keto acids by clinical isolates and laboratory strains of Salmonella typhimurium was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of culture supernatants. The levels of excretion increased markedly with increasing iron stress imposed by the presence of alpha,alpha'-dipyridyl or conalbumin in the medium. The major product was pyruvic acid, but significant concentrations of alpha-ketoglutaric acid, alpha-ketoisovaleric acid, and alpha-ketoisocaproic acid were...

  1. [alpha-Latrotoxin as an instrument for studying neurosecretions]. (United States)

    Himmel'reĭkh, N H


    alpha-Latrotoxin, a presynaptic toxin from black widow spider venom Latrodectus mactans tredecimguttatus, triggers exocytosis in a variety of neurosecretory cells both in the presence and absence of calcium in the medium. The toxin interacts with two types of membrane the receptors which belong to different families of neuronal proteins and have different structures. Calcium-dependent receptor of alpha-latrotoxin is identified as neurexin I alpha and belongs to the family of neurexins. This family is selectively expressed in nerve tissue. The calcium-independent receptor of alpha-latrotoxin belongs to the family of G-protein-coupled receptors and proteins which homologous to it are found in heart, lung, kidney and spleen tissues. As a result of alpha-latrotoxin interaction with membrane receptor in the calcium medium the toxin forms the ionic channels in plasmalemma and enhances its calcium permeability. The effects of alpha-latrotoxin on exocytosis in the calcium and calcium-free media and question concerning coupling of channel-forming and secretogenic properties of alpha-latrotoxin are discussed.

  2. Rare-earth doped (alpha'/beta')-sialon ceramics

    CERN Document Server

    Gajum, N R


    combination of light and heavy rare-earth (Yb-Nd and Gd-Nd), and then pressureless sintered and compared with the single cation materials. Materials in the as sintered state were composed of a high alpha' sialon content with a minor amount of beta' sialon and 12H A1N polytype indicating that the heavy rare-earth (which is the principal alpha' stabilizer) has a dominant effect although EDAX analysis confirmed the presence of both cations (light and heavy) within the alpha' structure. The research also compared, and developed an understanding of, the thermal stability of alpha'-sialon using single Yb or mixed cations. The Yb single cation alpha'/beta' materials exhibited excellent stability over a range of temperature (1200 - 1600 deg C) and for different periods of time up to 168 hrs. The heat treatments result in the crystallisation of the residual phase as a Yb garnet phase which formed at approx 1300 deg C. The mixed cation alpha'/beta' materials showed some alpha'-beta' transformation. The transformation w...

  3. The role of TNF-alpha in amygdala kindled rats. (United States)

    Shandra, A A; Godlevsky, L S; Vastyanov, R S; Oleinik, A A; Konovalenko, V L; Rapoport, E N; Korobka, N N


    In the present study, the interaction between epileptogenesis and the immune system were studied in a kindling model. First, the effects of a single administration of TNF-alpha (5.0 microg/kg, i.p.) on seizure and EEG activity were investigated in amygdala-kindled rats. TNF-alpha treated rats showed more prolonged epileptiformic discharges than control rats. TNF-alpha also induced a decrease in the power of delta band and an increase in theta and alpha activity. In addition, a marked increase in the power of beta and gamma band was observed. The EEG changes were most numerous in the frontal cortex and amygdala. All effects were registered 24 h after TNF-alpha administration. Finally, electrical stimulation enhanced the level of TNF-alpha in blood serum from 1.9 +/- 1.5 to 12.7 +/- 3.8 pg/ml and in brain tissue 56.8 +/- 6.0 to 109.2 +/- 6.0 pg/mg, as was determined via the ELISA method. It can be concluded that there is a mutual facilitative interaction of both epileptogenic and cytokine-derived mechanisms on this type of seizure. The changes in the power spectrum of the EEG after TNF-alpha might contribute to intensify thalamic-derived facilitation of epileptic discharge in cortical structures.

  4. Deficient attention modulation of lateralized alpha power in schizophrenia. (United States)

    Kustermann, Thomas; Rockstroh, Brigitte; Kienle, Johanna; Miller, Gregory A; Popov, Tzvetan


    Modulation of 8-14 Hz (alpha) activity in posterior brain regions is associated with covert attention deployment in visuospatial tasks. Alpha power decrease contralateral to to-be-attended stimuli is believed to foster subsequent processing, such as retention of task-relevant input. Degradation of this alpha-regulation mechanism may reflect an early stage of disturbed attention regulation contributing to impaired attention and working memory commonly found in schizophrenia. The present study tested this hypothesis of early disturbed attention regulation by examining alpha power modulation in a lateralized cued delayed response task in 14 schizophrenia patients (SZ) and 25 healthy controls (HC). Participants were instructed to remember the location of a 100-ms saccade-target cue in the left or right visual hemifield in order to perform a delayed saccade to that location after a retention interval. As expected, alpha power decrease during the retention interval was larger in contralateral than ipsilateral posterior regions, and SZ showed less of this lateralization than did HC. In particular, SZ failed to show hemifield-specific alpha modulation in posterior right hemisphere. Results suggest less efficient modulation of alpha oscillations that are considered critical for attention deployment and item encoding and, hence, may affect subsequent spatial working memory performance.

  5. Alpha and beta dose gradients in tooth enamel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennan, B.J. E-mail:; Prestwich, W.V.; Rink, W.J.; Marsh, R.E.; Schwarcz, H.P


    New results describing gradients in effective alpha and beta doses within a layer of tooth enamel in planar geometry are presented. The alpha (track) dose to an enamel layer is calculated using an algorithm similar to that of Aitken (Aitken, M.J., 1987. Alpha dose to a thin layer. Ancient TL 5, 1-3.). The code for ROSY version 1.4 incorporates this algorithm. The approach allows for variation of the alpha track dose near the edges of the enamel, and we describe the gradient of the alpha track dose within 40 {mu}m of each edge of the enamel for natural sources. In ESR or luminescence dating of naturally thin layers, for which stripping of the surface layer containing the alpha dose gradients may not be feasible, age estimates may change by as much as 5-10% when the detailed alpha dose calculation is included. Modern Monte Carlo-based results for the variation of beta dose for depths up to 2 mm are compared with ROSY results. For external irradiation by different sources, the attenuation of the ROSY dose estimate with depth is usually less rapid than that of the Monte Carlo-based estimate. The ROSY estimate of average beta dose to a layer in this case is between 5 and 18% higher than the Monte Carlo estimate.

  6. Scattered H-alpha light from Galactic dust clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Mattila, K; Lehtinen, K


    Bright emission nebulae, or HII regions, around hot stars are readily seen in H-alpha light. However, the all-pervasive faint H-alpha emission has only recently been detected and mapped over the whole sky. Mostly the H-alpha emission observed along a line of sight is produced by ionised gas in situ. There are, however, cases where all or most of the H-alpha radiation is due to scattering by electrons or dust particles which are illuminated by an H-alpha emitting source off the line of sight. Here we demonstrate that diffuse, translucent and dark dust clouds at high galactic latitudes are in many cases observed to have an excess of diffuse H-alpha surface brightness, i.e. they are brighter than the surrounding sky. We show that the majority of this excess surface brightness can be understood as light scattered off the interstellar dust grains. The source of incident photons is the general Galactic H-alpha background radiation impinging on the dust clouds from all over the sky.

  7. IGFBP-3, hypoxia and TNF-{alpha} inhibit adiponectin transcription

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zappala, Giovanna, E-mail: [Diabetes Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Rechler, Matthew M. [Diabetes Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Clinical Endocrinology Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)


    The thiazolidinedione rosiglitazone, an agonist ligand for the nuclear receptor PPAR-{gamma}, improves insulin sensitivity in part by stimulating transcription of the insulin-sensitizing adipokine adiponectin. It activates PPAR-{gamma}-RXR-{alpha} heterodimers bound to PPAR-{gamma} response elements in the adiponectin promoter. Rosiglitazone-stimulated adiponectin protein synthesis in 3T3-L1 mouse adipocytes has been shown to be inhibited by IGFBP-3, which can be induced by hypoxia and the proinflammatory cytokine, TNF-{alpha}, two inhibitors of adiponectin transcription. The present study demonstrates that IGFBP-3, the hypoxia-mimetic agent cobalt chloride, and TNF-{alpha} inhibit rosiglitazone-induced adiponectin transcription in mouse embryo fibroblasts that stably express PPAR-{gamma}2. Native IGFBP-3 can bind RXR-{alpha} and inhibited rosiglitazone stimulated promoter activity, whereas an IGFBP-3 mutant that does not bind RXR-{alpha} did not. These results suggest that IGFBP-3 may mediate the inhibition of adiponectin transcription by hypoxia and TNF-{alpha}, and that IGFBP-3 binding to RXR-{alpha} may be required for the observed inhibition.

  8. A radioimmunoassay for alpha- and beta-gliadins. (United States)

    Ciclitira, P J; Lennox, E S


    1. A rapid, sensitive specific radioimmunoassay for alpha- and beta-gliadin has been developed using an antiserum raised in rabbits to A-gliadin, a component of alpha-gliadin. 2. The antigen used in the assay was alpha-gliadin labelled with 125I; antigen-antibody complexes were collected after adsorption to Staphylococcus aureus in suspension. 3. The sensitivity of the assay, as judged by competitive binding with unlabelled antigen, was 1 ng of alpha- or beta-gliadin, which show complete cross-reaction with this antiserum. 4. Cross-reactivity to other wheat proteins was less than 1% and no cross-reactivity to extracts of rye, barley or oats was observed. 5. This radioimmunoassay for alpha- and beta-gliadin has been used to measure their amount in different varieties of wheat flour, several foods prepared from flour, e.g. bread, biscuits and products prepared as 'gluten free'. The possibility of assaying for alpha-gliadin in prepared foods is of special value since alpha-, beta-, gamma- and omega-gliadin have been shown to exacerbate coeliac disease.

  9. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-. alpha. in human milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Masaki; Wakai, Kae; Shizume, Kazuo (Research Institute for Growth Sciences, Tokyo (Japan)); Iwashita, Mitsutoshi (Tokyo Women' s Medical College (Japan)); Ohmura, Eiji; Kamiya, Yoshinobu; Murakami, Hitomi; Onoda, Noritaka; Tsushima, Toshio


    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-{alpha} and epidermal growth factor (EGF) were measured in human milk by means of homologous radioimmunoassay. As previously reported, EGF concentration in the colostrum was approximately 200 ng/ml and decreased to 50 ng/ml by day 7 postpartum. The value of immunoreactive (IR)-TGF-{alpha} was 2.2-7.2 ng/ml, much lower than that of EGF. In contrast to EGF, the concentration of IR-TGF-{alpha} was fairly stable during the 7 postpartum days. There was no relationship between the concentrations of IR-TGF-{alpha} and IR-EGF, suggesting that the regulatory mechanism in the release of the two growth factors is different. On gel-chromatography using a Sephadex G-50 column, IR-EGF appeared in the fraction corresponding to that of authentic human EGF, while 70%-80% of the IR-TGF-{alpha} was eluted as a species with a molecular weight greater than that of authentic human TGF-{alpha}. Although the physiological role of TGF-{alpha} in milk is not known, it is possible that it is involved in the development of the mammary gland and/or the growth of newborn infants.

  10. Trafficking of. cap alpha. -L-fucosidase in lymphoid cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiCioccio, R.A.; Brown, K.S.


    The quantity of ..cap alpha..-L-fucosidase in human serum is determined by heredity. The mechanism controlling levels of the enzyme in serum is unknown. To investigate this, lymphoid cell lines derived from individuals with either low, intermediate or high ..cap alpha..-L-fucosidase in serum were established. Steady state levels of extracellular ..cap alpha..-L-fucosidase protein and activity overlapped among the cell lines. Thus, in vivo serum phenotypes of ..cap alpha..-L-fucosidase are not adequately expressed in this system. ..cap alpha..-L-Fucosidase was also metabolically labelled with /sup 35/S-methionine, immunoprecipitated, and examined by SDS-PAGE. Cells pulse-labelled from 0.25-2 h had a major intracellular form of enzyme (Mr = 58,000). Cells pulsed for 1.5 h and chased for 21 h with unlabeled methionine had an intracellular form of Mr = 60,000 and an extracellular form of Mr = 62,000. Cells treated with chloroquine had only the 58,000-form both intra- and extra-cellularly. Moreover, chloroquine did not effect the quantitative distribution of ..cap alpha..-L-fucosidase between cells and medium. In fibroblasts, chloroquine enhanced the secretion of newly made lysosomal enzymes and blocked the processing of intercellular enzyme forms from a higher to a lower molecular mass. Thus, there are trafficking differences between ..cap alpha..-L-fucosidase in lymphoid cells and lysosomal enzymes in fibroblasts. This suggests that alternative targeting mechanisms for lysosomal enzymes exist in these cells.

  11. alpha-Tocopherol modulates liver toxicity of the pyrethroid cypermethrin. (United States)

    Aldana, L; Tsutsumi, V; Craigmill, A; Silveira, M I; Gonzalez de Mejia, E


    The objective of the current study was to analyze the hepatotoxic effect caused by cypermethrin (CYP) in rats, and to evaluate the possible protective effect of the antioxidant alpha-tocopherol (alpha-T). Fifty male Wistar rats were given daily i.p. doses of 300 mg/kg per day of CYP during 7 days. Half of them were administered three previous doses of 100 mg/kg per day of alpha-T, followed by seven subsequent oral doses of 40 mg/kg per day of alpha-T. The levels of biochemical indicators and histological liver damage were determined, as well as DCVA in urine. CYP altered the lipid metabolism. Such alterations were inhibited 32% by alpha-T, except for LDL. Alterations in AST were modulated in 29%. In the histology, alpha-T reduced mitochondria damage, and swelling of the endoplasmic reticulum of the liver cells. The results suggest that alpha-T can modify CYP metabolism, changing the lipidic profile and the histological analysis.

  12. On the Analytic Estimation of Radioactive Contamination from Degraded Alphas

    CERN Document Server

    Kadel, Richard W


    The high energy spectrum of alpha particles emitted from a single isotope uniformly contaminating a bulk solid has a flat energy spectrum with a high end cutoff energy equal to the maximal alpha kinetic energy ($T_{\\alpha}$) of the decay. In this flat region of the spectrum, we show the surface rate $r_b\\text{\\,(Bq/keV-cm}^{2})$ arising from a bulk alpha contamination $\\rho_b$ (Bq/cm$^3$) from a single isotope is given by $r_b =\\rho_b \\Delta R/ 4 \\Delta E $, where $\\Delta E = E_1-E_2>0\\ $ is the energy interval considered (keV) in the flat region of the spectrum and $\\Delta R = R_2-R_1$, where $R_2$ ($R_1$) is the amount of the bulk material (cm) necessary to degrade the energy of the alpha from $T_{\\alpha}$ to $E_2$ ($E_1$). We compare our calculation to a rate measurement of alphas from $^{147}$Sm, ($15.32\\%\\,\\pm\\,0.03\\%$ of Sm($nat$) and half life of $(1.06\\,\\pm\\,0.01)\\times\\,10^{11} \\text{yr}$, and find good agreement, with the ratio between prediction to measurement of $100.2\\%\\pm 1.6\\%\\,\\text{(stat)}\\pm...

  13. Giant Lyman-Alpha Nebulae in the Illustris Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Gronke, Max


    Several `giant' Lyman-$\\alpha$ (Ly$\\alpha$) nebulae with extent $\\gtrsim 300\\,$kpc and observed Ly$\\alpha$ luminosity of $\\gtrsim 10^{44}\\,{\\rm erg}\\,{\\rm s}^{-1}\\,{\\rm cm}^{-2}\\,{\\rm arcsec}^{-2}$ have recently been detected, and it has been speculated that their presence hints at a substantial cold gas reservoir in small cool clumps not resolved in modern hydro-dynamical simulations. We use the Illustris simulation to predict the Ly$\\alpha$ emission emerging from large halos ($M > 10^{11.5}M_{\\odot}$) at $z\\sim 2$ and thus test this model. We consider both AGN and star driven ionization, and compared the simulated surface brightness maps, profiles and Ly$\\alpha$ spectra to a model where most gas is clumped below the simulation resolution scale. We find that while the cold clumps boost the Ly$\\alpha$ luminosity especially in the outer regions of the halo -- as expected by previous work -- with Illustris no additional clumping is necessary to explain the extents and luminosities of the `giant Ly$\\alpha$ nebul...

  14. Biomedical applications of digital autoradiography with a MWPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellazzini, R.; Betti, G.; Del Guerra, A.; Massai, M.M.; Ragadini, M.; Spandre, G.; Tonelli, G.; Venturi, R.; Zito, F.


    A Multiwire Proportional Chamber (MWPC) was used as a ..beta../sup -/ radioactivity detector in biological and medical applications. Two different kinds of experiments were performed: the study of variations in the ability of cell clones to incorporate a radioactive precursor of DNA biosynthesis (/sup 3/H-thymidine) and the regional carbohydrate consumption in myocardial tissue by means of a deposit tracer of glucose metabolism (/sup 3/H-deoxyglucose).

  15. Geocoronal Lyman Alpha Observations with COS (United States)

    Ake, Thomas B.


    The time-tagged mode of the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) provides a convenient method of studying the orbital variation of geocoronal Lyman-alpha emission at the altitude of HST. We have analyzed G130M blank sky exposures from scheduled STIS parallels and observations for which the target acquisition failed. We supplement these with observations of WD standard stars from flat field and sensitivity monitoring programs where the stellar Lyα profile can be modeled and its contribution to the geocoronal emission removed. Data were corrected for time-dependent sensitivity changes and gain sag. The measurements have been fit by an analytical model based on the orbital position of HST and the angle between the target and the Earth as seen from HST. The Lyα emission varies from less than 2 kR for a target observed at orbit midnight to 37 kR for one observed at the bright Earth limb at orbit noon. A long-term trend of increasing flux is evident, consistent with solar Lyα measurements by SOLSTICE on SORCE as the next solar maximum is approached. We expect the irradiance at solar maximum to be at least 50-55 kR. This level still should not trigger local count rate violations for the FUV detector, but will accelerate gain sag of the microchannel plates in the regions where Lyα falls.

  16. Modelling high redshift Lyman-alpha Emitters

    CERN Document Server

    Garel, Thibault; Guiderdoni, Bruno; Schaerer, Daniel; Verhamme, Anne; Hayes, Matthew


    We present a new model for high redshift Lyman-Alpha Emitters (LAEs) in the cosmological context which takes into account the resonant scattering of Ly-a photons through expanding gas. The GALICS semi-analytic model provides us with the physical properties of a large sample of high redshift galaxies. We implement a gas outflow model for each galaxy based on simple scaling arguments. The coupling with a library of numerical experiments of Ly-a transfer through expanding or static dusty shells of gas allows us to derive the Ly-a escape fractions and profiles. The predicted distribution of Ly-a photons escape fraction shows that galaxies with a low star formation rate have a f_esc of the order of unity, suggesting that, for those objects, Ly-a may be used to trace the star formation rate assuming a given conversion law. In galaxies forming stars intensely, the escape fraction spans the whole range from 0 to 1. The model is able to get a good match to the UV and Ly-a luminosity function (LF) data at 3 < z <...

  17. The Ups and Downs of Alpha Centauri

    CERN Document Server

    Ayres, Thomas R


    The following is a progress report on the long-term coronal activity of Alpha Centauri A (HD128620: G2V) and B (HD128621: K1V). Since 2005, Chandra X-ray Observatory has carried out semiannual pointings on AB, mainly with the High Resolution Camera (HRC-I), but also on two occasions with the Low-Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (LETGS), fully resolving the close pair in all cases. During 2008-2013, Chandra captured the rise, peak, and initial decline of B's coronal luminosity. Together with previous high states documented by ROSAT and XMM-Newton, the long-term X-ray record suggests a period of 8.2+/-0.2 yr, compared to 11 yr for the Sun; with a minimum-to-peak contrast of 4.5, about half the typical solar cycle amplitude. Meanwhile, the A component has been mired in a Maunder-Minimum-like low state since 2005, initially recognized by XMM. But now, A finally appears to be climbing out of the extended lull. If interpreted simply as an over-long cycle, the period would be 19.1+/-0.7 yr, with a minimum-to...

  18. Permanent magnet system of alpha magnetic spectrometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Alpha magnetic spectrometer (AMS) is the first large magnetic spectrometer in space. Its precursor flight was completed successfully in June 1998. The key part of AMS is the permanent magnet system, which was built by the Institute of Electric Engineering, the Institute of High Energy Physics and the Chinese Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology. This system includes a permanent magnet made of high grade NdFeB and a support structure. The unique design of the permanent magnet based on the magic ring fulfills the severe requirements on the magnetic field leakage and the dipole moment for space experiments. The permanent magnet weighs about 2 tons, and provides a geometric acceptance of 0.6 m2 ·sr and an analyzing power BL2 of 0.135 T·m2. It works up to 40℃ without demagnetization. The main structure is a thin double shell, which undergoes the strong magnetic force and torque of the permanent magnet, as well as the large load during launching and landing. The permanent magnet system fulfills the requirements from AMS, and satisfies the strict safety standards of NASA.

  19. Permanent magnet system of alpha magnetic spectrometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Alpha magnetic spectrometer (AMS) is the first large magnetic spectrometer in space. Its precursor flight was completed successfully in June 1998. The key part of AMS is the permanent magnet system, which was built by the Institute of Electric Engineering, the Institute of High Energy Physics and the Chinese Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology. This system includes a permanent magnet made of high grade NdFeB and a support structure. The unique design of the permanent magnet based on the magic ring fulfills the severe requirements on the magnetic field leakage and the dipole moment for space experiments. The permanent magnet weighs about 2 tons, and provides a geometric acceptance of 0.6 m2·sr and an analyzing power BL2 of 0.135 T·m2. It works up to 40℃ without demagnetization. The main structure is a thin double shell, which undergoes the strong magnetic force and torque of the permanent magnet, as well as the large load during launching and landing. The permanent magnet system fulfills the requirem

  20. Interferon Alpha Association with Neuromyelitis Optica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Asgari


    Full Text Available Interferon-alpha (IFN-α has immunoregulatory functions in autoimmune inflammatory diseases. The goal of this study was to determine occurrence and clinical consequences of IFN-α in neuromyelitis optica (NMO patients. Thirty-six NMO and 41 multiple sclerosis (MS patients from a population-based retrospective case series were included. Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS score and MRI findings determined disease activity. Linear regression was used to assess the effects of the level of IFN-α on disability (EDSS. IFN-α was determined by sensitive ELISA assays. IFN-α was detectable in sera from 9/36 NMO patients, significantly more often than in the MS group (2/41 (P=0.0197. A higher frequency of IFN-α was observed in NMO patients with acute relapse compared to NMO patients in remission (P<0.001 and compared to the MS patients with relapse (P=0.010. In NMO patients, the levels of IFN-α were significantly associated with EDSS (P=0.0062. It may be concluded that IFN-α was detectable in a subgroup of NMO patients. Association of IFN-α levels with clinical disease activity and severity suggests a role for IFN-α in disease perpetuation and may provide a plausible explanation for a negative effect of IFN-1 treatment in NMO patients.