WorldWideScience

Sample records for alpha 1-0 serine

  1. Subcellular site of synthesis of the N-acetylgalactosamine (alpha 1-0) serine (or threonine) linkage in rat liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abeijon, C.; Hirschberg, C.B.

    1987-03-25

    We have studied the subcellular site of synthesis of the GalNAc(alpha-1-0) Ser/Thr linkage in rat liver. The specific and total activities of polypeptide:N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase (using apomucin as exogenous acceptor) were highly enriched in membrane fractions derived from the Golgi apparatus; virtually no activity was detected in membranes from the rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum. Vesicles of the above organelles (which were sealed and of the same membrane topographical orientation as in vivo) were able to translocate UDP-GalNAc into their lumen in an assay in vitro; the initial translocation rate into Golgi vesicles was 4-6-fold higher than that into vesicles from the rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum. Translocation of UDP-GalNAc into Golgi vesicles was temperature dependent and saturable with an apparent Km of 8-10 microM. UDP-GalNAc labeled with different radioisotopes in the uridine and sugar was used to determine that the intact sugar nucleotide was being translocated in a reaction coupled to the exit of luminal UMP. Following translocation of UDP-GalNAc, transfer of GalNAc into endogenous macromolecular acceptors was detected in Golgi vesicles and not in those from the rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum. The above results together with previous studies on the O-xylosylation of the linkage region of proteoglycans strongly suggest that, in rat liver, the bulk of O-glycosylation reactions occur in the Golgi apparatus.

  2. Serine proteinase inhibition by the active site titrant N alpha-(N, N-dimethylcarbamoyl)-alpha-azaornithine p-nitrophenyl ester. A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascenzi, P; Balliano, G; Gallina, C; Polticelli, F; Bolognesi, M

    2000-02-01

    Kinetics for the hydrolysis of the chromogenic active-site titrant N alpha-(N,N-dimethylcarbamoyl)-alpha-azaornithine p-nitrophenyl ester (Dmc-azaOrn-ONp) catalysed by bovine beta-trypsin, bovine alpha-thrombin, bovine Factor Xa, human alpha-thrombin, human Factor Xa, human Lys77-plasmin, human urinary kallikrein, Mr 33 000 and Mr 54 000 species of human urokinase, porcine pancreatic beta-kallikrein-A and -B and Ancrod (the coagulating serine proteinase from the Malayan pit viper Agkistrodon rhodostoma venom) have been obtained between pH 6.0 and 8.0, at 21.0 degrees C, and analysed in parallel with those for the enzymatic cleavage of N alpha-(N,N-dimethylcarbamoyl)-alpha-azalysine p-nitrophenyl ester (Dmc-azaLys-ONp). The enzyme kinetics are consistent with the minimum three-step catalytic mechanism of serine proteinases, the rate-limiting step being represented by the deacylation process. Bovine beta-trypsin kinetics are modulated by the acid-base equilibrium of the His57 catalytic residue (pKa approximately 6.9). Dmc-azaOrn-ONp and Dmc-azaLys-ONp bind stoichiometrically to the serine proteinase active site, and allow the reliable determination of the active enzyme concentration between 1.0 x 10-6 M and 3.0 x 10-4 M. The affinity and the reactivity for Dmc-azaOrn-ONp (expressed by Ks and k+2/Ks, respectively) of the serine proteinases considered are much lower than those for Dmc-azaLys-ONp. The very different affinity and reactivity properties for Dmc-azaOrn-ONp and Dmc-azaLys-ONp have been related to the different size of the ornithine/lysine side chains, and to the ensuing different positioning of the active-site titrants upon binding to the enzyme catalytic centre (i.e. to P1-S1 recognition). These data represent the first detailed comparative investigation on the catalytic properties of serine proteinases towards an ornithine derivative (i. e. Dmc-azaOrn-ONp).

  3. Nuclear and neuritic distribution of serine-129 phosphorylated alpha-synuclein in transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, H; Hasegawa, T; Neumann, M; Kahle, P J

    2009-06-02

    Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies are very frequent neurological disorders of the elderly. Mutations in the alpha-synuclein (alphaSYN) gene cause Parkinson's disease, often associated with dementia. Neuropathologically these diseases are characterized by the presence of Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites, intraneuronal inclusions mostly composed of alphaSYN protein fibrils. Moreover, alphaSYN is phosphorylated at S129 (phospho-serine-129 [PSer129]) in neuropathological lesions. Using our (Thy1)-[A30P]alphaSYN transgenic mouse model that develops age-dependent impairment in fear conditioning behavior, we investigated PSer129 immunostaining in the brain. We found distinct staining patterns using new, sensitive monoclonal antibodies. Somal and nuclear PSer129 immunoreactivity increased with age in hippocampal and cortical areas as well as the lateral/basolateral amygdalar nuclei and was present also in young, pre-symptomatic mice, but not wild-type controls. The tendency of PSer129 immunostaining to accumulate in the nucleus was confirmed in cell culture. (Thy1)-[A30P]alphaSYN transgenic mice further developed age-dependent, specific neuritic/terminal alphaSYN pathology in the medial parts of the central amygdalar nucleus and one of its projection areas, the lateral hypothalamus. Interestingly, this type of PSer129 neuropathology was thioflavine S negative, unlike the Lewy-like neuropathology present in the brain stem of (Thy1)-[A30P]alphaSYN mice. Thus, alphaSYN becomes phosphorylated in distinct parts of the brain in this alpha-synucleinopathy mouse model, showing age-dependent increases of nuclear PSer129 in cortical brain areas and the formation of neuritic/terminal PSer129 neuropathology with variable amyloid quality within the fear conditioning circuitry and the brain stem.

  4. ONO 3403, a synthetic serine protease inhibitor, inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha and nitric oxide production and protects mice from lethal endotoxic shock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tumurkhuu, Gantsetseg; Koide, Naoki; Hiwasa, Takaki; Ookoshi, Motohiro; Dagvadorj, Jargalsaikhan; Noman, Abu Shadat Mohammod; Iftakhar-E-Khuda, Imtiaz; Naiki, Yoshikazu; Komatsu, Takayuki; Yoshida, Tomoaki; Yokochi, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    ONO 3403, a new synthetic serine protease inhibitor, is a derivative of camostat mesilate and has a higher protease-inhibitory activity. The effect of ONO 3403 on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW 264.7 macrophage-like cells wa

  5. Serine protease espP subtype alpha, but not beta or gamma, of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli is associated with highly pathogenic serogroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abdul Basit; Naim, Asma; Orth, Dorothea; Grif, Katharina; Mohsin, Mashkoor; Prager, Rita; Dierich, Manfred P; Würzner, Reinhard

    2009-04-01

    Besides Shiga toxins (Stx), Stx-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) harbour several other putative virulence factors, including the serine protease EspP. We have investigated 214 STEC strains from Austria belonging to 61 different serotypes from humans, animals, and food for the presence of this serine protease gene and have determined the espP subtypes and their association with clinical outcome. espP was detected in 121 (57%) out of 214 strains. Sixty-five of 68 strains (96%) of non-sorbitol-fermenting (NSF) O157:H7/NM (NM, non-motile) were positive for espP, while none of 8 SF E. coli O157:NM isolates contained this gene. All 9 strains of serotype O145:NM and 17 of 21 strains (81%) of serotype O26:H11/NM were positive for espP. Nineteen STEC serogroups including O103 and O111 serogroups--considered to be highly pathogenic--were completely negative for espP. Only 5 of 12 strains isolated from patients suffering from haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) were espP-positive (all serogroup NSF O157) as well as 28 of 39 strains from patients with bloody diarrhoea, 40 of 63 strains from patients with non-bloody diarrhoea, and 15 of 19 strains from asymptomatic patients. In O157:H7/NM, O26:H11/NM, and O145:NM only espP subtype alpha was found, whereas in most of the other non-O157 serogroups, subtypes beta and gamma were found. Subtype delta was not detected in our strain collection. Regarding the espP subtypes, only subtype alpha, but not beta and gamma, were found in HUS patients. Moreover, we could demonstrate that espP, and in particular subtype alpha, is associated with highly pathogenic serogroups.

  6. Depeptidization efforts on P[subscript 3]-P[prime subscript 2] [alpha]-ketoamide inhibitors of HCV NS3-4A serine protease: Effect on HCV replicon activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogen, Stephane L.; Ruan, Sumei; Liu, Rong; Agrawal, Sony; Pichardo, John; Prongay, Andrew; Baroudy, Bahige; Saksena, Anil K.; Girijavallabhan, Viyyoor; Njoroge, F. George (SPRI)

    2008-06-30

    Depeptidization efforts of the P{sub 3}-P{sub 2} region of P{sub 3} capped {alpha}-ketoamide inhibitor of HCV NS3 serine protease 1 are reported. We clearly established that N-methylation of the P{sub 2} nitrogen and modification of the P{prime}{sub 2} carboxylic acid terminus were essential for activity in the replicon assay.

  7. Parcelhusatlas 1.0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    Parcelhusatlas 1.0 er et interaktivt GIS-kort i form af en web-app, der kan tilgås fra forskellige platforme. Kortet rummer data om Danmarks parcelhuse, aggregeret på sogneniveau. Referenceåret er 2013. Atlasset rummer forskellige temaer indenfor byggedata, socio-økonomiske data og energiforhold...

  8. Parcelhusatlas 1.0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    Parcelhusatlas 1.0 er et interaktivt GIS-kort i form af en web-app, der kan tilgås fra forskellige platforme. Kortet rummer data om Danmarks parcelhuse, aggregeret på sogneniveau. Referenceåret er 2013. Atlasset rummer forskellige temaer indenfor byggedata, socio-økonomiske data og energiforhold...

  9. Serine 350 of human pregnane X receptor is crucial for its heterodimerization with retinoid X receptor alpha and transactivation of target genes in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue-Ming; Chai, Sergio C; Lin, Wenwei; Chai, Xiaojuan; Elias, Ayesha; Wu, Jing; Ong, Su Sien; Pondugula, Satyanarayana R; Beard, Jordan A; Schuetz, Erin G; Zeng, Su; Xie, Wen; Chen, Taosheng

    2015-08-15

    The human pregnane X receptor (hPXR), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, senses xenobiotics and controls the transcription of genes encoding drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters. The regulation of hPXR's transcriptional activation of its target genes is important for xenobiotic detoxification and endobiotic metabolism, and hPXR dysregulation can cause various adverse drug effects. Studies have implicated the putative phosphorylation site serine 350 (Ser(350)) in regulating hPXR transcriptional activity, but the mechanism of regulation remains elusive. Here we investigated the transactivation of hPXR target genes in vitro and in vivo by hPXR with a phosphomimetic mutation at Ser(350) (hPXR(S350D)). The S350D phosphomimetic mutation reduced the endogenous expression of cytochrome P450 3A4 (an hPXR target gene) in HepG2 and LS180 cells. Biochemical assays and structural modeling revealed that Ser(350) of hPXR is crucial for formation of the hPXR-retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRα) heterodimer. The S350D mutation abrogated heterodimerization in a ligand-independent manner, impairing hPXR-mediated transactivation. Further, in a novel humanized transgenic mouse model expressing the hPXR(S350D) transgene, we demonstrated that the S350D mutation alone is sufficient to impair hPXR transcriptional activity in mouse liver. This transgenic mouse model provides a unique tool to investigate the regulation and function of hPXR, including its non-genomic function, in vivo. Our finding that phosphorylation regulates hPXR activity has implications for development of novel hPXR antagonists and for safety evaluation during drug development.

  10. Indico 1.0

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez, J B Gonzalez; Baron, T; Ferreira, P; Kolobara, B; Pugh, M A; Resco, A; Trzaskoma, J P

    2014-01-01

    Indico has evolved into the main event organization software, room booking tool and collaboration hub for CERN. The growth in its usage has only accelerated during the past 9 years, and today Indico holds more that 215,000 events and 1,100,000 files. The growth was also substantial in terms of functionalities and improvements. In the last year alone, Indico has matured considerably in 3 key areas: enhanced usability, optimized performance and additional features, especially those related to meeting collaboration. Along the course of 2012, much activity has centred around consolidating all this effort and investment into 'version 1.0', recently released in 2013.Version 1.0 brings along new features, such as the Microsoft Exchange calendar synchronization for participants, many new and clean interfaces (badges and poster generation, list of contributions, abstracts, etc) and so forth. But most importantly, it brings a message: Indico is now stable, consolidated and mature after more than 10 years of non-stop de...

  11. Surface and sub-surface oxidation of {alpha}-Cu-(17 at.%)Al(1 0 0) studied by X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy and low energy He{sup +} scattering spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravchuk, T. [Department of Chemistry, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Akhvlediani, R. [Department of Chemistry, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Hoffman, A. [Department of Chemistry, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)]. E-mail: choffman@tx.technion.ac.il

    2005-04-01

    In this study the initial stages of oxidation of the {alpha}-Cu-(17 at.%)Al(1 0 0) single crystal oriented alloy surface was investigated by X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy and low energy He{sup +} scattering spectroscopy. It was found that oxygen adsorption can be divided in two sequential stages: (i) a fast process, up to 15-20 L exposure, in which oxygen adsorbs on the alloy's surface resulting mostly in the formation of Al-O chemisorbed bonds; and (ii) a slower process during which oxygen adsorbs forming Cu-O and Al-O chemisorbed bonds concurrent with diffusion of O to the sub-surface and Al segregation to the surface region. The surface oxidation rate is much higher than the sub-surface one. The rate of Al segregation increases with oxygen exposure and involves both surface and sub-surface regions. Annealing of the oxidized alloy surface results in a pronounced segregation of Al and formation of an aluminum oxide layer.

  12. Serine34 phosphorylation of RHO guanine dissociation inhibitor (RHOGDI{alpha}) links signaling from conventional protein kinase C to RHO GTPase in cell adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dovas, Athanassios; Choi, Youngsil; Yoneda, Atsuko

    2010-01-01

    Protein kinase Calpha (PKCalpha) is an essential serine/threonine kinase regulating many signaling networks. At cell adhesion sites, PKCalpha can impact the actin cytoskeleton through its influence on RhoGTPases but the intermediate steps are not well known. One important regulator of Rho......GTPase function is the multifunctional guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor RhoGDIalpha that sequesters several related RhoGTPases in an inactive form, but may also target them through interactions with actin-associated proteins. Here it is demonstrated that PKCalpha phosphorylates RhoGDIalpha on serine 34...

  13. D-serine and serine racemase are associated with PSD-95 and glutamatergic synapse stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong eLin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available D-serine is an endogenous coagonist at the glycine site of synaptic NMDA receptors (NMDARs, synthesized by serine racemase (SR through conversion of L-serine. It is crucial for synaptic plasticity and is implicated in schizophrenia. Our previous studies demonstrated specific loss of SR, D-serine-responsive synaptic NMDARs, and glutamatergic synapses in cortical neurons lacking alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, which promotes glutamatergic synapse formation and maturation during development. We thus hypothesize that D-serine and SR (D-serine/SR are associated with glutamatergic synaptic development. Using morphological and molecular studies in cortical neuronal cultures, we demonstrate that D-serine/SR are associated with PSD-95 and NMDARs in postsynaptic neurons and with glutamatergic synapse stability during synaptic development. Endogenous D-serine and SR colocalize with PSD-95, but not presynaptic vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGLUT1, in glutamatergic synapses of cultured cortical neurons. Low-density astrocytes in cortical neuronal cultures lack SR expression but contain enriched D-serine in large vesicle-like structures, suggesting possible synthesis of D-serine in postsynaptic neurons and storage in astrocytes. More interestingly, endogenous D-serine and SR colocalize with PSD-95 in the postsynaptic terminals of glutamatergic synapses during early and late synaptic development, implicating involvement of D-serine/SR in glutamatergic synaptic development. Exogenous application of D-serine enhances the interactions of SR with PSD-95 and NR1, and increases the number of VGLUT1- and PSD-95-positive glutamatergic synapses, suggesting that exogenous D-serine enhances postsynaptic SR/PSD-95 signaling and stabilizes glutamatergic synapses during cortical synaptic development. This is blocked by NMDAR antagonist 2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (AP5 and 7-chlorokynurenic acid (7-CK, a specific antagonist at the glycine site of NMDARs

  14. Intracellular Transactivation of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor by alpha(1A)-Adrenoceptor Is Mediated by Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Independently of Activation of Extracellular Signal Regulated Kinases 1/2 and Serine-Threonine Kinases in Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulu, Nadir; Henning, Robert H.; Guner, Sahika; Zoto, Teuta; Duman-Dalkilic, Basak; Duin, Marry; Gurdal, Hakan

    2013-01-01

    Transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) by alpha(1)-adrenoceptor (alpha(1)-AR) is implicated in contraction and hypertrophy of vascular smooth muscle (VSM). We examine whether all alpha(1)-AR subtypes transactivate EGFR and explore the mechanism of transactivation. Chinese hamster

  15. Amesos 1.0 reference guide.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sala, Marzio; Stanley, Ken D. (Oberlin, OH)

    2004-05-01

    This document describes the main functionalities of the Amesos package, version 1.0. Amesos, available as part of Trilinos 4.0, provides an object-oriented interface to several serial and parallel sparse direct solvers libraries, for the solution of the linear systems of equations A X = B where A is a real sparse, distributed matrix, defined as an EpetraRowMatrix object, and X and B are defined as EpetraMultiVector objects. Amesos provides a common look-and-feel to several direct solvers, insulating the user from each package's details, such as matrix and vector formats, and data distribution.

  16. LAPACK users` guide: Release 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, E.; Bai, Z.; Bischof, C.; Demmel, J.; Dongarra, J.; Du Croz, J.; Greenbaum, A.; Hammarling, S.; McKenney, A.; Ostrouchov, S.; Sorensen, D.

    1992-01-31

    LAPACK is a transportable library of Fortran 77 subroutines for solving the most common problems in numerical linear algebra: systems of linear equations, linear least squares problems, eigenvalue problems and singular value problems. LAPACK is designed to supersede LINPACK and EISPACK, principally by restructuring the software to achieve much greater efficiency on vector processors, high-performance ``superscalar`` workstations, and shared-memory multi-processors. LAPACK also adds extra functionality, uses some new or improved algorithms, and integrates the two sets of algorithms into a unified package. The LAPACK Users` Guide gives an informal introduction to the design of the algorithms and software, summarizes the contents of the package, describes conventions used in the software and documentation, and includes complete specifications for calling the routines. This edition of the Users` guide describes Release 1.0 of LAPACK.

  17. An update on serine deficiency disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Crabben, S. N.; Verhoeven-Duif, N. M.; Brilstra, E. H.; Van Maldergem, L.; Coskun, T.; Rubio-Gozalbo, E.; Berger, R.; de Koning, T. J.

    Serine deficiency disorders are caused by a defect in one of the three synthesising enzymes of the L-serine biosynthesis pathway. Serine deficiency disorders give rise to a neurological phenotype with psychomotor retardation, microcephaly and seizures in newborns and children or progressive

  18. [Serine proteinases of lower vertebrates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodzeĭskaia, M V

    1986-01-01

    Recent data on the effect of serine proteinases of lower vertebrates are generalized. Hydrolysis specificity and kinetics of different synthetic substrates, dependence of the activity of enzymes on pH, their irreversible inhibition by chloromethyl ketones of amino acids and peptides as well as high-molecular proteinase inhibitors are considered in detail. The data testify to the fact that chymotrypsins and trypsins of higher vertebrates and serine proteinases of lower vertebrates act as an acid-base catalysis. Enzymes in the pyloric cacca of fishes are in the state of proenzymes and are transformed into an active form with the aid of their own proteolytic factors. The esterase and proteolytic activity of fish proteinases is concentrated in the same active site and reaches the highest values at pH 7,8. New data are presented on particularities of the lower vertebrate proteinases, on the similarity and differences in their specificity. A distinct difference is shown in the nature of the binding site of the active centre in a number of serine proteinases of fishes as compared to chymotrypsin and trypsin of higher vertebrates.

  19. NAS Parallel Benchmark Results 11-96. 1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, David H.; Bailey, David; Chancellor, Marisa K. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The NAS Parallel Benchmarks have been developed at NASA Ames Research Center to study the performance of parallel supercomputers. The eight benchmark problems are specified in a "pencil and paper" fashion. In other words, the complete details of the problem to be solved are given in a technical document, and except for a few restrictions, benchmarkers are free to select the language constructs and implementation techniques best suited for a particular system. These results represent the best results that have been reported to us by the vendors for the specific 3 systems listed. In this report, we present new NPB (Version 1.0) performance results for the following systems: DEC Alpha Server 8400 5/440, Fujitsu VPP Series (VX, VPP300, and VPP700), HP/Convex Exemplar SPP2000, IBM RS/6000 SP P2SC node (120 MHz), NEC SX-4/32, SGI/CRAY T3E, SGI Origin200, and SGI Origin2000. We also report High Performance Fortran (HPF) based NPB results for IBM SP2 Wide Nodes, HP/Convex Exemplar SPP2000, and SGI/CRAY T3D. These results have been submitted by Applied Parallel Research (APR) and Portland Group Inc. (PGI). We also present sustained performance per dollar for Class B LU, SP and BT benchmarks.

  20. Tryptophanase-catalyzed L-tryptophan synthesis from D-serine in the presence of diammonium hydrogen phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Akihiko; Ozaki, Haruka; Saito, Takeshi; Noriko, Fujii

    2009-06-01

    Tryptophanase, an enzyme with extreme absolute stereospecificity for optically active stereoisomers, catalyzes the synthesis of l-tryptophan from l-serine and indole through a beta-substitution mechanism of the ping-pong type, and has no activity on d-serine. We previously reported that tryptophanase changed its stereospecificity to degrade d-tryptophan in highly concentrated diammonium hydrogen phosphate, (NH(4))(2)HPO(4) solution. The present study provided the same stereospecific change seen in the d-tryptophan degradation reaction also occurs in tryptophan synthesis from d-serine. Tryptophanase became active to d-serine to synthesize l-tryptophan in the presence of diammonium hydrogen phosphate. This reaction has never been reported before. d-serine seems to undergo beta-replacement via an enzyme-bonded alpha-aminoacylate intermediate to yield l-tryptophan.

  1. Serine recombinases as tools for genome engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, William R A; Lee, Nicholas C O; Xu, Zhengyao; Smith, Margaret C M

    2011-04-01

    The serine recombinases differ mechanistically from the tyrosine recombinases and include proteins such as ϕC31 integrase which, unlike Cre and Flp, promote unidirectional reactions. The serine recombinase family is large and includes many other proteins besides ϕC31 integrase with the potential to be widely used in genome engineering. Here we review the details of the mechanism of the reactions promoted by the serine recombinases and discuss how these not only limit the utility of this class of recombinase but also creates opportunities for the engineering of new enzymes. We discuss the unanswered questions posed by genome engineering experiments in a variety of systems in which the serine recombinases have been used and finally describe more recently discovered serine recombinases that have the potential to be used in genome engineering.

  2. l-Serine Production by a Mutant of Sarcina albida Defective in l-Serine Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omori, Kenji; Kakimoto, Toshio; Chibata, Ichiro

    1983-01-01

    For improved l-serine production, an l-serine dehydratase-defective mutant of Sarcina albida IAM 1012 was obtained. In the mutant, the activities of the enzymes responsible for l-serine production were as high as those in the parent strain, and, at a low glycine concentration, the mutant accumulated l-serine more efficiently than the parent. Under optimum conditions, 21 mg of l-serine per ml accumulated from 100 mg of glycine per ml. l-Serine was isolated from a reaction mixture as l-serine m-xylene-4-sulfonate, and free amino acid was obtained in high yields by use of an ion-exchange resin. Residual glycine was recovered at a yield of 61%. PMID:16346305

  3. Role of a conserved arginine residue during catalysis in serine palmitoyltransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowther, Jonathan; Charmier, Guillaume; Raman, Marine C; Ikushiro, Hiroko; Hayashi, Hideyuki; Campopiano, Dominic J

    2011-06-23

    All sphingolipid-producing organisms require the pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT) to catalyse the first reaction on the de novo sphingolipid biosynthetic pathway. SPT is a member of the alpha oxoamine synthase (AOS) family that catalyses a Claisen-like condensation of palmitoyl-CoA and L-serine to form 3-ketodihydrosphingosine (KDS). Protein sequence alignment across various species reveals an arginine residue, not involved in PLP binding, to be strictly conserved in all prokaryotic SPTs, the lcb2 subunits of eukaryotic SPTs and all members of the AOS family. Here we use UV-vis spectroscopy and site-directed mutagenesis, in combination with a substrate analogue, to show that the equivalent residue (R370) in the SPT from Sphingomonas wittichii is required to form the key PLP:L-serine quinonoid intermediate that condenses with palmitoyl-CoA and thus plays an essential role enzyme catalysis.

  4. Serine deprivation enhances antineoplastic activity of biguanides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravel, Simon-Pierre; Hulea, Laura; Toban, Nader; Birman, Elena; Blouin, Marie-José; Zakikhani, Mahvash; Zhao, Yunhua; Topisirovic, Ivan; St-Pierre, Julie; Pollak, Michael

    2014-12-15

    Metformin, a biguanide widely used in the treatment of type II diabetes, clearly exhibits antineoplastic activity in experimental models and has been reported to reduce cancer incidence in diabetics. There are ongoing clinical trials to evaluate its antitumor properties, which may relate to its fundamental activity as an inhibitor of oxidative phosphorylation. Here, we show that serine withdrawal increases the antineoplastic effects of phenformin (a potent biguanide structurally related to metformin). Serine synthesis was not inhibited by biguanides. Instead, metabolic studies indicated a requirement for serine to allow cells to compensate for biguanide-induced decrease in oxidative phosphorylation by upregulating glycolysis. Furthermore, serine deprivation modified the impact of metformin on the relative abundance of metabolites within the citric acid cycle. In mice, a serine-deficient diet reduced serine levels in tumors and significantly enhanced the tumor growth-inhibitory actions of biguanide treatment. Our results define a dietary manipulation that can enhance the efficacy of biguanides as antineoplastic agents that target cancer cell energy metabolism.

  5. Characterization of the reaction of L-serine and indole with Escherichia coli tryptophan synthase via rapid-scanning ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewe, W F; Dunn, M F

    1986-05-06

    The pre-steady-state reaction of indole and L-serine with the alpha 2 beta 2 complex of Escherichia coli tryptophan synthase has been investigated under different premixing conditions with rapid-scanning stopped-flow (RSSF) UV-visible spectroscopy for the spectral range 300-550 nm. When alpha 2 beta 2 was mixed with indole and L-serine, the reaction of alpha 2 beta 2 was found to occur in three detectable relaxations (1/tau 1 greater than 1/tau 2 greater than 1/tau 3) with rate constants identical with the three relaxations seen in the partial reaction with L-serine [Drewe, W.F., Jr., & Dunn, M.F. (1985) Biochemistry 24, 3977-3987]. Kinetic isotope effects due to substitution of 2H for the alpha-1H of serine were found to be similar to the effects observed in the reaction with serine only. The observed spectral changes and isotope effects indicate that the aldimine of L-serine and PLP and the first quinoid derived from this external aldimine are transient species that accumulate during tau 1. Conversion of these intermediates to the alpha-aminoacrylate Schiff base during tau 2 and tau 3 limits the rate of formation of the second quinoidal species (lambda max 476 nm) generated via C-C bond formation between indole and the alpha-aminoacrylate intermediate. The pre-steady-state reaction of the alpha 2 beta 2-serine mixture with indole is comprised of four relaxations (1/tau 1* greater than 1/tau 2* greater than 1/tau 3* greater than 1/tau 4*).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Paradox of mistranslation of serine for alanine caused by AlaRS recognition dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Min; Chong, Yeeting E; Shapiro, Ryan; Beebe, Kirk; Yang, Xiang-Lei; Schimmel, Paul

    2009-12-10

    Mistranslation arising from confusion of serine for alanine by alanyl-tRNA synthetases (AlaRSs) has profound functional consequences. Throughout evolution, two editing checkpoints prevent disease-causing mistranslation from confusing glycine or serine for alanine at the active site of AlaRS. In both bacteria and mice, Ser poses a bigger challenge than Gly. One checkpoint is the AlaRS editing centre, and the other is from widely distributed AlaXps-free-standing, genome-encoded editing proteins that clear Ser-tRNA(Ala). The paradox of misincorporating both a smaller (glycine) and a larger (serine) amino acid suggests a deep conflict for nature-designed AlaRS. Here we show the chemical basis for this conflict. Nine crystal structures, together with kinetic and mutational analysis, provided snapshots of adenylate formation for each amino acid. An inherent dilemma is posed by constraints of a structural design that pins down the alpha-amino group of the bound amino acid by using an acidic residue. This design, dating back more than 3 billion years, creates a serendipitous interaction with the serine OH that is difficult to avoid. Apparently because no better architecture for the recognition of alanine could be found, the serine misactivation problem was solved through free-standing AlaXps, which appeared contemporaneously with early AlaRSs. The results reveal unconventional problems and solutions arising from the historical design of the protein synthesis machinery.

  7. Molecular CO(1-0) gas in the z~2 radio galaxy MRC 0152-209

    CERN Document Server

    Emonts, B H C; Mao, M Y; Norris, R P; Miley, G; Ekers, R D; Villar-Martin, M; Rottgering, H J A; Sadler, E M; Rees, G; Morganti, R; Saikia, D J; Oosterloo, T A; Stevens, J B; Tadhunter, C N

    2011-01-01

    We report the detection of molecular CO(1-0) gas in the high-z radio galaxy MRC 0152-209 (z = 1.92) with the Australia Telescope Compact Array Broadband Backend (ATCA/CABB). This is the third known detection of CO(1-0) in a high-z radio galaxy to date. CO(1-0) is the most robust tracer of the overall molecular gas content (including the wide-spread, low-density and subthermally excited component), hence observations of CO(1-0) are crucial for studying galaxy evolution in the Early Universe. We derive L'(CO) = (6.6 +- 2.0) x 10^10 K km/s pc^2 for MRC 0152-209, which is comparable to that derived from CO(1-0) observations of several high-z submillimetre and starforming BzK galaxies. The CO(1-0) traces a total molecular hydrogen mass of M(H2) = 5 x 10^10 (alpha_x/0.8) Msun. MRC 0152-209 is an infra-red bright radio galaxy, in which a large reservoir of cold molecular gas has not (yet) been depleted by star formation or radio source feedback. Its compact radio source is reliably detected at 40 GHz and has a steep...

  8. Alpha Thalassemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpha Thalassemia Physicians often mistake alpha thalassemia trait for iron deficiency anemia and incorrectly prescribe iron supplements that have no effect 1 on the anemia. αα αα Normal alpha ...

  9. Noncollinear magnetism of Mn nanowires on Fe(1 1 0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, R. N.; Miranda, I. P.; Eleno, L. T. F.; Klautau, A. B.; Petrilli, H. M.

    2016-08-01

    Magnetic properties of Mn linear nanochains on a bcc Fe(1 1 0) surface have been studied using the first-principles real space-linear muffin-tin orbital atomic sphere approximation (RS-LMTO-ASA) method. We have considered up to nine Mn atoms deposited on bcc Fe(1 1 0). Our ab initio calculations reveal the competition between the antiferromagnetic Mn-Mn and Mn-Fe couplings, presenting a behavior which is very different from Mn nanowires on Fe(0 0 1), as shown in a previous publication. Due to this competition and non-negligible Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, noncollinear magnetic structures are stabilized as ground states for the Mn nanochains on Fe(1 1 0).

  10. Significance of the D-serine-deaminase and D-serine metabolism of Staphylococcus saprophyticus for virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korte-Berwanger, Miriam; Sakinc, Türkan; Kline, Kimberly; Nielsen, Hailyn V; Hultgren, Scott; Gatermann, Sören G

    2013-12-01

    Staphylococcus saprophyticus is the only species of Staphylococcus that is typically uropathogenic and possesses a gene coding for a D-serine-deaminase (DsdA). As D-serine is prevalent in urine and toxic or bacteriostatic to many bacteria, it is not surprising that the D-serine-deaminase gene is found in the genome of uropathogens. It has been suggested that D-serine-deaminase or the ability to respond to or to metabolize D-serine is important for virulence. For uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), a high intracellular D-serine concentration affects expression of virulence factors. S. saprophyticus is able to grow in the presence of high D-serine concentrations; however, its D-serine metabolism has not been described. The activity of the D-serine-deaminase was verified by analyzing the formation of pyruvate from D-serine in different strains with and without D-serine-deaminase. Cocultivation experiments were performed to show that D-serine-deaminase confers a growth advantage to S. saprophyticus in the presence of D-serine. Furthermore, in vivo coinfection experiments showed a disadvantage for the ΔdsdA mutant during urinary tract infection. Expression analysis of known virulence factors by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) showed that the surface-associated lipase Ssp is upregulated in the presence of D-serine. In addition, we show that S. saprophyticus is able to use D-serine as the sole carbon source, but interestingly, D-serine had a negative effect on growth when glucose was also present. Taken together, D-serine metabolism is associated with virulence in S. saprophyticus, as at least one known virulence factor is upregulated in the presence of D-serine and a ΔdsdA mutant was attenuated in virulence murine model of urinary tract infection.

  11. A cyclic peptidic serine protease inhibitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Baoyu; Xu, Peng; Jiang, Longguang;

    2014-01-01

    Peptides are attracting increasing interest as protease inhibitors. Here, we demonstrate a new inhibitory mechanism and a new type of exosite interactions for a phage-displayed peptide library-derived competitive inhibitor, mupain-1 (CPAYSRYLDC), of the serine protease murine urokinase...

  12. Africa Soil Profiles Database, Version 1.0

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenaars, J.G.B.

    2014-01-01

    The Africa Soil Profiles Database, Version 1.0, was compiled by ISRIC - World Soil Information as a project activity for the Globally integrated- Africa Soil Information Service (AfSIS) project (www.africasoils.net/data/legacyprofile). The Africa Soil Profiles Database is a compilation of georeferen

  13. MULTIPLE PROJECTIONS SYSTEM (MPS) - USER'S MANUAL VERSION 1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report is a user's manual for version 1.0 of the Multiple Projections Systems (MPS), a computer system that can perform "what if" scenario analysis and report the final results (i.e., Rate of Further Progress - ROP - inventories) to EPA (i.e., the Aerometric Information Retri...

  14. Enhancement of Spatial Thinking with Virtual Spaces 1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauptman, Hanoch

    2010-01-01

    Developing a software environment to enhance 3D geometric proficiency demands the consideration of theoretical views of the learning process. Simultaneously, this effort requires taking into account the range of tools that technology offers, as well as their limitations. In this paper, we report on the design of Virtual Spaces 1.0 software, a…

  15. The Targets/IMage Energy (TIME) 1.0 Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries B de; Wijngaart RA van den; MNV

    1996-01-01

    Documentation of the five submodels of Targets/IMage Energy (TIME) 1.0 model are presented. Energy Demand, Liquid Fuel (LF), Gaseous Fuel (GF), Solid Fuel (SF) and Electric Power Generation (EPG) are described in detail. Some results of the model calibration for the world 1900-1990 are presented as

  16. IDC Use Case Model Survey Version 1.0.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, Dorthe B.; Harris, James M.

    2014-12-01

    This document contains the brief descriptions for the actors and use cases contained in the IDC Use Case Model Survey. REVISIONS Version Date Author/Team Revision Description Authorized by V1.0 12/2014 IDC Re- engineering Project Team Initial delivery M. Harris

  17. Africa Soil Profiles Database, Version 1.0

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenaars, J.G.B.

    2012-01-01

    The Africa Soil Profiles Database, Version 1.0, was compiled by ISRIC - World Soil Information as a project activity for the Globally integrated- Africa Soil Information Service (AfSIS) project (www.africasoils.net/data/legacyprofile). The Africa Soil Profiles Database is a compilation of georeferen

  18. Purification and functional characterisation of rhinocerase, a novel serine protease from the venom of Bitis gabonica rhinoceros.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakthivel Vaiyapuri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Serine proteases are a major component of viper venoms and are thought to disrupt several distinct elements of the blood coagulation system of envenomed victims. A detailed understanding of the functions of these enzymes is important both for acquiring a fuller understanding of the pathology of envenoming and because these venom proteins have shown potential in treating blood coagulation disorders. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study a novel, highly abundant serine protease, which we have named rhinocerase, has been isolated and characterised from the venom of Bitis gabonica rhinoceros using liquid phase isoelectric focusing and gel filtration. Like many viper venom serine proteases, this enzyme is glycosylated; the estimated molecular mass of the native enzyme is approximately 36 kDa, which reduces to 31 kDa after deglycosylation. The partial amino acid sequence shows similarity to other viper venom serine proteases, but is clearly distinct from the sequence of the only other sequenced serine protease from Bitis gabonica. Other viper venom serine proteases have been shown to exert distinct biological effects, and our preliminary functional characterization of rhinocerase suggest it to be multifunctional. It is capable of degrading alpha and beta chains of fibrinogen, dissolving plasma clots and of hydrolysing a kallikrein substrate. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A novel multifunctional viper venom serine protease has been isolated and characterised. The activities of the enzyme are consistent with the known in vivo effects of Bitis gabonica envenoming, including bleeding disorders, clotting disorders and hypotension. This study will form the basis for future research to understand the mechanisms of serine protease action, and examine the potential for rhinocerase to be used clinically to reduce the risk of human haemostatic disorders such as heart attacks and strokes.

  19. Catabolism of Serine by Pediococcus acidilactici and Pediococcus pentosaceus

    OpenAIRE

    Irmler, Stefan; Bavan, Tharmatha; Oberli, Andrea; Roetschi, Alexandra; Badertscher, René; Guggenbühl, Barbara; Berthoud, Hélène

    2013-01-01

    The ability to produce diacetyl from pyruvate and l-serine was studied in various strains of Pediococcus pentosaceus and Pediococcus acidilactici isolated from cheese. After being incubated on both substrates, only P. pentosaceus produced significant amounts of diacetyl. This property correlated with measurable serine dehydratase activity in cell extracts. A gene encoding the serine dehydratase (dsdA) was identified in P. pentosaceus, and strains that showed no serine dehydratase activity car...

  20. (0,1 ;0)-INTERPOLATION ON INFINITE INTERVAL (-∞, +∞)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pankaj Mathur

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we study the explicit representation and convergence of (0, 1; 0)-interpolation on infinite interval, which means to determine a polynomial of degree ≤ 3n - 2 when the function values are prescribed at two set of points namely the zeros of Hn(x) and H′n(x) and the first derivatives at the zeros of H′n(x).

  1. Increased tolerance towards serine obtained by adaptive laboratory evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mundhada, Hemanshu; Seoane, Jose Miguel; Koza, Anna;

    2014-01-01

    by glyA), the conversion of serine to pyruvate (encoded by sdaA, sdaB and tdcG) was also deleted. As expected, the resulting strain turned out to be susceptible to even low concentrations of serine in the media. In order to improve the tolerance of the strain towards serine, adaptive laboratory evolution...

  2. Cardioprotection by a novel recombinant serine protease inhibitor in myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murohara, T; Guo, J P; Lefer, A M

    1995-09-01

    Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) play an important role in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury; however, the role of neutrophilic proteases is less understood. The effects of a novel serine protease inhibitor (serpin), LEX032, were investigated in a murine model of MI (20 min) and R (24 hr) injury in vivo. LEX032 is a recombinant human alpha 1-antichymotrypsin in which six amino acid residues were replaced around the active center with those of alpha-1 protease inhibitor. LEX032 has the ability to inhibit both neutrophil elastase and cathepsin G, two major neutral serine proteases in neutrophils, as well as superoxide generation. LEX032 (25 or 50 mg/kg) administered i.v. 1 min before reperfusion significantly attenuated myocardial necrotic injury evaluated by cardiac creatine kinase loss compared to MI/R rats receiving only vehicle (P LEX032 as compared with rats receiving vehicle (P LEX032 also moderately attenuated leukotriene B4-stimulated PMN adherence to rat superior mesenteric artery endothelium and markedly diminished superoxide radical release from LTB4-stimulated PMN in vitro. In a glycogen-induced rat peritonitis model, LEX032 (50 mg/kg) significantly attenuated PMN transmigration into the peritoneal cavity in vivo. In conclusion, the recombinant serine protease inhibitor, LEX032, appears to be an effective agent for attenuating MI/R injury by inhibiting neutrophil-accumulation into the ischemic-reperfused myocardium and by inactivating cytotoxic metabolites (proteases and superoxide radical) released from neutrophils.

  3. Method for the production of l-serine using genetically engineered microorganisms deficient in serine degradation pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention generally relates to the microbiological industry, and specifically to the production of L-serine using genetically modified bacteria. The present invention provides genetically modified microorganisms, such as bacteria, wherein the expression of genes encoding for enzymes...... concentrations of serine. The present invention also provides methods for the production of L-serine or L-serine derivative using such genetically modified microorganisms....

  4. ANIR : Atacama Near-Infrared Camera for the 1.0-m miniTAO Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Konishi, Masahiro; Tateuchi, Ken; Takahashi, Hidenori; Kitagawa, Yutaro; Kato, Natsuko; Sako, Shigeyuki; Uchimoto, Yuka K; Toshikawa, Koji; Ohsawa, Ryou; Yamamuro, Tomoyasu; Asano, Kentaro; Ita, Yoshifusa; Kamizuka, Takafumi; Komugi, Shinya; Koshida, Shintaro; Manabe, Sho; Matsunaga, Noriyuki; Minezaki, Takeo; Morokuma, Tomoki; Nakashima, Asami; Takagi, Toshinobu; Tanabé, Toshihiko; Uchiyama, Mizuho; Aoki, Tsutomu; Doi, Mamoru; Handa, Toshihiro; Kato, Daisuke; Kawara, Kimiaki; Kohno, Kotaro; Miyata, Takashi; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Okada, Kazushi; Soyano, Takao; Tamura, Yoichi; Tanaka, Masuo; Tarusawa, Ken'ichi; Yoshii, Yuzuru

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a near-infrared camera called ANIR (Atacama Near-InfraRed camera) for the University of Tokyo Atacama Observatory 1.0m telescope (miniTAO) installed at the summit of Cerro Chajnantor (5640 m above sea level) in northern Chile. The camera provides a field of view of 5'.1 $\\times$ 5'.1 with a spatial resolution of 0".298 /pixel in the wavelength range of 0.95 to 2.4 $\\mu$m. Taking advantage of the dry site, the camera is capable of hydrogen Paschen-$\\alpha$ (Pa$\\alpha$, $\\lambda=$1.8751 $\\mu$m in air) narrow-band imaging observations, at which wavelength ground-based observations have been quite difficult due to deep atmospheric absorption mainly from water vapor. We have been successfully obtaining Pa$\\alpha$ images of Galactic objects and nearby galaxies since the first-light observation in 2009 with ANIR. The throughputs at the narrow-band filters ($N1875$, $N191$) including the atmospheric absorption show larger dispersion (~10%) than those at broad-band filters (a few %), indicating that ...

  5. Feedback inactivation of D-serine synthesis by NMDA receptor-elicited translocation of serine racemase to the membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balan, Livia; Foltyn, Veronika N; Zehl, Martin;

    2009-01-01

    D-serine is a physiological coagonist of N-methyl D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) that plays a major role in several NMDAR-dependent events. In this study we investigate mechanisms regulating D-serine production by the enzyme serine racemase (SR). We now report that NMDAR activation promotes trans...

  6. Treatment with amino acids in serine deficiency disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Koning, T J

    2006-01-01

    Serine deficiency disorders are rare defects in the biosynthesis of the amino acid L-serine. At present two disorders have been reported: 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase deficiency and 3-phosphoserine phosphatase deficiency. These enzyme defects lead to severe neurological symptoms such as congenital microcephaly and severe psychomotor retardation and in addition in patients with 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase deficiency to intractable seizures. These symptoms respond to a variable degree to treatment with L-serine, sometimes combined with glycine. In this paper the current practice of amino acid treatment with L-serine and glycine in serine deficiency is reviewed.

  7. METEOR v1.0 - User's Guide; METEOR v1.0 - Guia de Usuarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomo, E.

    1994-07-01

    This script is a User's Guide for the software package METEOR for statistical analysis of meteorological data series. The original version of METEOR have been developed by Ph.D. Elena Palomo, CIEMAT-IER, GIMASE. It is built by linking programs and routines written in FORTRAN 77 and it adds the graphical capabilities of GNUPLOT. The shape of this toolbox was designed following the criteria of modularity, flexibility and agility criteria. All the input, output and analysis options are structured in three main menus: i) the first is aimed to evaluate the quality of the data set; ii) the second is aimed for pre-processing of the data; and iii) the third is aimed towards the statistical analyses and for creating the graphical outputs. Actually the information about METEOR is constituted by three documents written in spanish: 1) METEOR v1.0: User's guide; 2) METEOR v1.0: A usage example; 3) METEOR v1.0: Design and structure of the software package. (Author)

  8. METEOR v1.0 - A usage example; METEOR v1.0 - Un ejemplo de uso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomo, E.

    1994-07-01

    This script describes a detailed example of the use of the software package METEOR for statistical analysis of meteorological data series. A real spanish meteorological data set is chosen to show the capabilities of METEOR. Output files and resultant plots provided of their interpretations are compiled in three appendixes. The original version of METEOR have been developed by Ph. D.Elena Palomo, CIEMAT-IER, GIASE. It is built by linking programs and routines written in FORTRAN 77 and it adds the graphical capabilities of GNUPLOT. The shape of this toolbox was designed following the criteria of modularity, flexibility and agility criteria. All the input, output and analysis options are structured in three main menus: i) the first is aimed to evaluate the quality of the data set; ii) the second is aimed for pre-processing of the data; and iii) the third is aimed towards the statistical analyses and for creating the graphical outputs. Actually the information about METEOR is constituted by three documents written is spanish: 1) METEOR v1.0: User's guide; 2) METEOR v1.0: A usage example; 3) METEOR v1 .0: Design and structure of the software package. (Author)

  9. Web 2.0 vs web 1.0

    OpenAIRE

    García Aretio, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    Web 2.0 es un concepto muy extendido hoy día pese a ser relativamente reciente. Más allá de algunas aseveraciones un tanto exageradas y que en ocasiones infravaloran realidades anteriores, debemos entenderla en el marco de la imparable evolución que se ha venido dando de y desde Internet, con un grado creciente de colaboración e interacción, pero no como contrapuesta a la llamada “web 1.0”. Cabe resaltar que supone una cierta apropiación social de la Red; en definitiva, mayor participación y ...

  10. Sequence Handling by Sequence Analysis Toolbox v1.0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingrell, Christian Ravnsborg; Matthiesen, Rune; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard

    2006-01-01

    The fact that mass spectrometry have become a high-throughput method calls for bioinformatic tools for automated sequence handling and prediction. For efficient use of bioinformatic tools, it is important that these tools are integrated or interfaced with each other. The purpose of sequence...... analysis toolbox v1.0 was to have a general purpose sequence analyzing tool that can import sequences obtained by high-throughput sequencing methods. The program includes algorithms for calculation or prediction of isoelectric point, hydropathicity index, transmembrane segments, and glycosylphosphatidyl...

  11. geophylobuilder 1.0: an arcgis extension for creating 'geophylogenies'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, David M; Liu, Xianhua

    2008-01-01

    Evolution is inherently a spatiotemporal process; however, despite this, phylogenetic and geographical data and models remain largely isolated from one another. Geographical information systems provide a ready-made spatial modelling, analysis and dissemination environment within which phylogenetic models can be explicitly linked with their associated spatial data and subsequently integrated with other georeferenced data sets describing the biotic and abiotic environment. geophylobuilder 1.0 is an extension for the arcgis geographical information system that builds a 'geophylogenetic' data model from a phylogenetic tree and associated geographical data. Geophylogenetic database objects can subsequently be queried, spatially analysed and visualized in both 2D and 3D within a geographical information systems.

  12. Radiolysis of Serine in High Radiation Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Y. Aguilar-Ovando

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The formation of amino acids under simulated condition suggests that this type of compounds were readily formed on the primitive Earth. Nevertheless, there is no conclusive explanation to the origin of their specific chirality in biological systems. Differences in their stability in the primitive conditions may give some clues about this unsolved problem. Protection mechanisms have been considered, such as the adsorption of the organic compounds onto mineral surfaces. By using HPLC/ELSD to analyze aqueous suspensions of serine adsorbed on clay (sodium montmorillonite and a meteorite (Allende irradiated in different doses with a cobalt-60 gamma source, the aim of this work was to study the possible protector role of these mineral surfaces when an amino acid, serine, is adsorbed onto them and the system is exposed to a high radiation source. The results showed that adsorption is better at acidic pH and desorption from the mineral at basic pH. The irradiation of the free amino acid destroyed it almost completely at a dose of 91 kGy, but the presence of the mineral abruptly decreases the decomposition, acting as a protective agent. At the same time, the results in aqueous solution show no statistically significant differences in adsorption or radiolysis of D and L serine.

  13. Characterization of AGIPD1.0: The full scale chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezza, D.; Allahgholi, A.; Arino-Estrada, G.; Bianco, L.; Delfs, A.; Dinapoli, R.; Goettlicher, P.; Graafsma, H.; Greiffenberg, D.; Hirsemann, H.; Jack, S.; Klanner, R.; Klyuev, A.; Krueger, H.; Marras, A.; Mozzanica, A.; Poehlsen, J.; Schmitt, B.; Schwandt, J.; Sheviakov, I.; Shi, X.; Trunk, U.; Xia, Q.; Zhang, J.; Zimmer, M.

    2016-12-01

    The AGIPD (adaptive gain integrating pixel detector) detector is a high frame rate (4.5 MHz) and high dynamic range (up to 104 ·12.4 keV photons) detector with single photon resolution (down to 4 keV taking 5σ as limit and lowest noise settings) developed for the European XFEL (XFEL.EU). This work is focused on the characterization of AGIPD1.0, which is the first full scale version of the chip. The chip is 64×64 pixels and each pixel has a size of 200×200 μm2. Each pixel can store up to 352 images at a rate of 4.5 MHz (corresponding to 220 ns). A detailed characterization of the AGIPD1.0 chip has been performed in order to assess the main performance of the ASIC in terms of gain, noise, speed and dynamic range. From the measurements presented in this paper a good uniformity of the gain, a noise around 320 e- (rms) in standard mode and around 240 e- (rms) in high gain mode has been measured. Furthermore a detailed discussion about the non-linear behavior after the gain switching is presented with both experimental results and simulations.

  14. CHEETAH 1.0 user`s manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fried, L.E.

    1994-06-24

    CHEETAH is an effort to bring the TIGER thermochemical code into the 1990s. A wide variety of improvements have been made in Version 1.0, and a host of others will be implemented in the future. In CHEETAH 1.0 I have improved the robustness and ease of use of TIGER. All of TIGER`s solvers have been replaced by new algorithms. I find that CHEETAH solves a wider variety of problems with no user intervention (e.g. no guesses for the C-J state) than TIGER did. CHEETAH has been made simpler to use than TIGER; typical use of the code occurs with the new standard run command. I hope that CHEETAH makes the use of thermochemical codes more attractive to practical explosive formulators. In the future I plan to improve the underlying science in CHEETAH. More accurate equations of state will be used in the gas and the condensed phase. A kinetics capability will be added to the code that will predict reaction zone thickness. CHEETAH is currently a numerical implementation of C-J theory. It will,become an implementation of ZND theory. Further ease of use features will eventually be added; an automatic formulator that adjusts concentrations to match desired properties is planned.

  15. Termination and hydration of forsteritic olivine (0 1 0) surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hongping; Park, Changyong; Ahn, Gun; Hong, Seungbum; Keane, Denis T.; Kenney-Benson, Curtis; Chow, Paul; Xiao, Yuming; Shen, Guoyin

    2014-11-01

    Termination and hydration of the forsteritic (Fo90Fa10) olivine (0 1 0) surface have been investigated with high-resolution specular X-ray reflectivity and Atomic Force Microscopy. The surface was prepared by polishing a naturally grown {0 1 0} face, from which we found the polished surface in acidic (pH 3.5) alumina suspension exhibits regular steps while the basic (pH 9.5) silica polished surface is irregularly roughened, indicating there are two distinguishable mechanochemical processes for the surface dissolution. The quantitative interpretation of the regular steps from the alumina-polished surface suggests that the observed step heights correspond to multiples of crystallographic unit cell. Only this atomically terraced surface is investigated with the high-resolution X-ray reflectivity (HRXR) to determine the surface termination and hydration. The basic silica paste polished surface turned out too rough to measure with X-ray reflectivity. HRXR reveals that the alumina polished olivine (0 1 0) surface in pure water is terminated at a plane including half-occupied metal ion sites (M1), an oxygen vacancy site, and a silicate tetrahedral unit with one of its apices pointing outward with respect to the surface. An ideal termination with the oxygen vacancy would fulfill the stoichiometry of the formula unit; however, in the observation, the vacancy site is filled by an adsorbed water species and about a quarter of the remaining metal ions are further depleted. The terminating plane generates two distinct atomic layers in the laterally averaged electron density profile, on which two highly ordered adsorbed water layers are formed. The first layer formation is likely through the direct interaction with the M1 plane and the second layer is likely through the hydrogen bonding interaction with the first water layer. With this multilayered adsorbed water structure, the surface metal ion is partially hydrated by the vacancy-filling water species and adsorbed water

  16. 4d N=1 from 6d (1,0)

    CERN Document Server

    Razamat, Shlomo S; Zafrir, Gabi

    2016-01-01

    We study the geometry of 4d N=1 SCFT's arising from compactification of 6d (1,0) SCFT's on a Riemann surface. We show that the conformal manifold of the resulting theory is characterized, in addition to moduli of complex structure of the Riemann surface, by the choice of a connection for a vector bundle on the surface arising from flavor symmetries in 6d. We exemplify this by considering the case of 4d N=1 SCFT's arising from M5 branes probing Z_k singularity compactified on a Riemann surface. In particular, we study in detail the four dimensional theories arising in the case of two M5 branes on Z_2 singularity. We compute the conformal anomalies and indices of such theories in 4d and find that they are consistent with expectations based on anomaly and the moduli structure derived from the 6 dimensional perspective.

  17. LAPACK users' guide: Release 1. 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, E.; Bai, Z.; Bischof, C.; Demmel, J.; Dongarra, J.; Du Croz, J.; Greenbaum, A.; Hammarling, S.; McKenney, A.; Ostrouchov, S.; Sorensen, D.

    1992-01-31

    LAPACK is a transportable library of Fortran 77 subroutines for solving the most common problems in numerical linear algebra: systems of linear equations, linear least squares problems, eigenvalue problems and singular value problems. LAPACK is designed to supersede LINPACK and EISPACK, principally by restructuring the software to achieve much greater efficiency on vector processors, high-performance superscalar'' workstations, and shared-memory multi-processors. LAPACK also adds extra functionality, uses some new or improved algorithms, and integrates the two sets of algorithms into a unified package. The LAPACK Users' Guide gives an informal introduction to the design of the algorithms and software, summarizes the contents of the package, describes conventions used in the software and documentation, and includes complete specifications for calling the routines. This edition of the Users' guide describes Release 1.0 of LAPACK.

  18. (1,0) superconformal models in six dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Samtleben, Henning; Wimmer, Robert

    2011-01-01

    We construct six-dimensional (1,0) superconformal models with non-abelian gauge couplings for multiple tensor multiplets. A crucial ingredient in the construction is the introduction of three-form gauge potentials which communicate degrees of freedom between the tensor multiplets and the Yang-Mills multiplet, but do not introduce additional degrees of freedom. Generically these models provide only equations of motions. For a subclass also a Lagrangian formulation exists, however it appears to exhibit indefinite metrics in the kinetic sector. We discuss several examples and analyze the excitation spectra in their supersymmetric vacua. In general, the models are perturbatively defined only in the spontaneously broken phase with the vev of the tensor multiplet scalars serving as the inverse coupling constants of the Yang-Mills multiplet. We briefly discuss the inclusion of hypermultiplets which complete the field content to that of superconformal (2,0) theories.

  19. Verification and validation of RADMODL Version 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimball, K.D.

    1993-03-01

    RADMODL is a system of linked computer codes designed to calculate the radiation environment following an accident in which nuclear materials are released. The RADMODL code and the corresponding Verification and Validation (V&V) calculations (Appendix A), were developed for Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) by EGS Corporation (EGS). Each module of RADMODL is an independent code and was verified separately. The full system was validated by comparing the output of the various modules with the corresponding output of a previously verified version of the modules. The results of the verification and validation tests show that RADMODL correctly calculates the transport of radionuclides and radiation doses. As a result of this verification and validation effort, RADMODL Version 1.0 is certified for use in calculating the radiation environment following an accident.

  20. Serine proteases, serine protease inhibitors, and protease-activated receptors: roles in synaptic function and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almonte, Antoine G; Sweatt, J David

    2011-08-17

    Serine proteases, serine protease inhibitors, and protease-activated receptors have been intensively investigated in the periphery and their roles in a wide range of processes-coagulation, inflammation, and digestion, for example-have been well characterized (see Coughlin, 2000; Macfarlane et al., 2001; Molinari et al., 2003; Wang et al., 2008; Di Cera, 2009 for reviews). A growing number of studies demonstrate that these protein systems are widely expressed in many cell types and regions in mammalian brains. Accumulating lines of evidence suggest that the brain has co-opted the activities of these interesting proteins to regulate various processes underlying synaptic activity and behavior. In this review, we discuss emerging roles for serine proteases in the regulation of mechanisms underlying synaptic plasticity and memory formation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. D-serine transporter in Staphylococcus saprophyticus identified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlinghaus, Lennart; Huß, Melanie; Korte-Berwanger, Miriam; Sakinc-Güler, Türkan; Gatermann, Sören G

    2016-07-01

    Among staphylococci Staphylococcus saprophyticus is the only species that is typically uropathogenic and an important cause of urinary tract infections in young women. The amino acid D-serine occurs in relatively high concentrations in human urine and has a bacteriostatic or toxic effect on many bacteria. In uropathogenic Escherichia coli and S. saprophyticus, the amino acid regulates the expression of virulence factors and can be used as a nutrient. The ability of uropathogens to respond to or to metabolize D-serine has been suggested as a factor that enables colonization of the urinary tract. Until now nothing is known about D-serine transport in S. saprophyticus We generated mutants of putative transporter genes in S. saprophyticus 7108 that show homology to the D-serine transporter cycA of E. coli and tested them in a D-serine depletion assay to analyze the D-serine uptake rate of the cells. The mutant of SPP1070 showed a strong decrease in D-serine uptake. Therefore, SSP1070 was identified as a major D-serine transporter in S. saprophyticus 7108 and was named D-serine transporter A (DstA). D-serine caused a prolonged lag phase of S. saprophyticus in a chemically defined medium. This negative effect was dependent on the presence of DstA.

  2. Land-Use Portfolio Modeler, Version 1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taketa, Richard; Hong, Makiko

    2010-01-01

    -on-investment. The portfolio model, now known as the Land-Use Portfolio Model (LUPM), provided the framework for the development of the Land-Use Portfolio Modeler, Version 1.0 software (LUPM v1.0). The software provides a geographic information system (GIS)-based modeling tool for evaluating alternative risk-reduction mitigation strategies for specific natural-hazard events. The modeler uses information about a specific natural-hazard event and the features exposed to that event within the targeted study region to derive a measure of a given mitigation strategy`s effectiveness. Harnessing the spatial capabilities of a GIS enables the tool to provide a rich, interactive mapping environment in which users can create, analyze, visualize, and compare different

  3. SLR-PLUS version 1.0 user's manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, J. M.

    1982-11-01

    Version 1.0 of Solar Load Ratio heating plus cooling (SLR-PLUS), developed as an advanced passive solar system design and evaluation tool, is discussed. SLR-PLUS maintains the friendly user interface structure developed for the active solar system FCHART program. Users familiar with the FCHART programs and the FCHART/SLR program will find the operation of the SLR-PLUS program very familiar SLR-PLUS differs significantly from its parent program in three major ways. First, SLR-PLUS is strictly for the evaluation of passive solar energy systems. Second, the latest correlations from the Los Alamos National Laboratory serve as the basis to the passive heating analysis used by SLR-PLUS. Finally, SLR-PLUS includes cooling loads imposed by passive systems in the form of an annual cooling load for the building modelled and for the individual passive systems. The present version was developed on an Hewlett-Packard 1000 minicomputer using an RTE-IVB operating system. The present version requires approximately 22K 16-bit words of core with overlays to run. The FORTRAN source code will compile with minor changes on any FORTRAN 77 compiler.

  4. A cyclic peptidic serine protease inhibitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Baoyu; Xu, Peng; Jiang, Longguang;

    2014-01-01

    Peptides are attracting increasing interest as protease inhibitors. Here, we demonstrate a new inhibitory mechanism and a new type of exosite interactions for a phage-displayed peptide library-derived competitive inhibitor, mupain-1 (CPAYSRYLDC), of the serine protease murine urokinase...... pocket, its carbonyl group aligning improperly relative to Ser195 and the oxyanion hole, explaining why the peptide is an inhibitor rather than a substrate. Substitution of the P1 Arg with novel unnatural Arg analogues with aliphatic or aromatic ring structures led to an increased affinity, depending...... of this peptidic inhibitor, a concept different from conventional attempts at improving inhibitor affinity by reducing the entropic burden....

  5. Distinct biochemical properties of human serine hydroxymethyltransferase compared with the Plasmodium enzyme: implications for selective inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinthong, Chatchadaporn; Maenpuen, Somchart; Amornwatcharapong, Watcharee; Yuthavong, Yongyuth; Leartsakulpanich, Ubolsree; Chaiyen, Pimchai

    2014-06-01

    Serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT) catalyzes the transfer of a hydroxymethyl group from l-serine to tetrahydrofolate to yield glycine and 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate. Our previous investigations have shown that SHMTs from Plasmodium spp. (P. falciparum, Pf; P. vivax, Pv) are different from the enzyme from rabbit liver in that Plasmodium SHMT can use d-serine as a substrate. In this report, the biochemical and biophysical properties of the Plasmodium and the human cytosolic form (hcSHMT) enzymes including ligand binding and kinetics were investigated. The data indicate that, similar to Plasmodium enzymes, hcSHMT can use d-serine as a substrate. However, hcSHMT displays many properties that are different from those of the Plasmodium enzymes. The molar absorption coefficient of hcSHMT-bound pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP) is much greater than PvSHMT-bound or PfSHMT-bound PLP. The binding interactions of hcSHMT and Plasmodium SHMT with d-serine are different, as only the Plasmodium enzyme undergoes formation of a quinonoid-like species upon binding to d-serine. Furthermore, it has been noted that hcSHMT displays strong substrate inhibition by tetrahydrofolate (THF) (at THF > 40 μm), compared with SHMTs from Plasmodium and other species. The pH-activity profile of hcSHMT shows higher activities at lower pH values corresponding to a pKa value of 7.8 ± 0.1. Thiosemicarbazide reacts with hcSHMT following a one-step model [k1 of 12 ± 0.6 m(-1) ·s(-1) and k-1 of (1.0 ± 0.6) × 10(-3) s(-1) ], while the same reaction with PfSHMT involves at least three steps. All data indicated that the ligand binding environment of SHMT from human and Plasmodium are different, indicating that it should be possible to develop species-selective inhibitors in future studies. serine hydroxymethyltransferase, EC 2.1.2.1; 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase, EC 1.5.1.5. © 2014 FEBS.

  6. Fatal cerebral edema associated with serine deficiency in CSF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keularts, Irene M L W; Leroy, Piet L J M; Rubio-Gozalbo, Estela M; Spaapen, Leo J M; Weber, Biene; Dorland, Bert; de Koning, Tom J; Verhoeven-Duif, Nanda M

    2010-12-01

    Two young girls without a notable medical history except for asthma presented with an acute toxic encephalopathy with very low serine concentrations both in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) comparable to patients with 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (3-PGDH) deficiency. Clinical symptoms and enzyme measurement (in one patient) excluded 3-PGDH deficiency. Deficiencies in other serine biosynthesis enzymes were highly unlikely on clinical grounds. On basis of the fasting state, ketone bodies and lactate in plasma, urine and CSF, we speculate that reduced serine levels were due to its use as gluconeogenic substrate, conversion to pyruvate by brain serine racemase or decreased L-serine production because of a lack of glucose. These are the first strikingly similar cases of patients with a clear secondary serine deficiency associated with a toxic encephalopathy.

  7. Sistema E.V.A. 1.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz Córdova, D. M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentro del campo del crecimiento y desarrollo, el cálculo antropométrico, es una de las herramientas más utilizadas para encontrar indicadores válidos del estado general del crecimiento biológico de una población en su interacción con los diversos factores sociales. Frente al evidente proceso de pauperización por el que viene transcurriendo el país, la evaluación del estado nutricional de la población infantil, tanto en sus aspectos poblacionales como individuales, se hace necesaria y cotidiana. Presentamos aquí un software de escritorio que permite el cálculo y la graficación de las principales variables antropométricas. El E.V.A. 1.0 (Evaluación y Visualización Antropométrica brinda también la posibilidad de almacenar los datos, de incorporar tablas de comparación (por default el sistema trae las tablas de la SAP y del NCHS, y de exportar la información al programa EPINFO y a la mayoría de las aplicaciones estándar de escritorio (planillas de cálculo, procesadores de texto, etc.. La aplicación posee también una modalidad de sugerencias de diagnóstico, con referencias bibliográficas, que puede ser de ayuda, tanto para el profesional de A.P.S. como para el investigador.

  8. A serine hydroxymethyltransferase from marine bacterium Shewanella algae: Isolation, purification, characterization and l-serine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei; Xia, Bingzhao; Liu, Ziduo

    2013-10-01

    Currently, l-serine is mainly produced by enzymatic conversion, in which serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT) is the key enzyme, suggesting the importance of searching for a SHMT with high activity. Shewanella algae, a methanol-utilizing marine bacterium showing high SHMT activity, was selected based on screening bacterial strains and comparison of the activities of SHMTs. A glyA was isolated from the S. algae through thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR (TAIL-PCR) and it encoded a 417 amino acid polypeptide. The SaSHMT, encoded by the glyA, showed the optimal activity at 50°C and pH 7.0, and retained over 45% of its maximal activity after incubation at 40°C for 3h. The enzyme showed better stability under alkaline environment (pH 6.5-9.0) than Hyphomicrobium methylovorum GM2's SHMT (pH 6.0-7.5). The SaSHMT can produce 77.76mM of l-serine by enzymatic conversion, with the molecular conversion rate in catalyzing glycine to l-serine being 1.41-fold higher than that of Escherichia coli. Therefore, the SaSHMT has the potential for industrial applications due to its tolerance of alkaline environment and a relatively high enzymatic conversion rate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Regulation of hemolysin expression and virulence of Staphylococcus aureus by a serine/threonine kinase and phosphatase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kellie Burnside

    Full Text Available Exotoxins, including the hemolysins known as the alpha (alpha and beta (beta toxins, play an important role in the pathogenesis of Staphylococcus aureus infections. A random transposon library was screened for S. aureus mutants exhibiting altered hemolysin expression compared to wild type. Transposon insertions in 72 genes resulting in increased or decreased hemolysin expression were identified. Mutations inactivating a putative cyclic di-GMP synthetase and a serine/threonine phosphatase (Stp1 were found to reduce hemolysin expression, and mutations in genes encoding a two component regulator PhoR, LysR family transcriptional regulator, purine biosynthetic enzymes and a serine/threonine kinase (Stk1 increased expression. Transcription of the hla gene encoding alpha toxin was decreased in a Deltastp1 mutant strain and increased in a Deltastk1 strain. Microarray analysis of a Deltastk1 mutant revealed increased transcription of additional exotoxins. A Deltastp1 strain is severely attenuated for virulence in mice and elicits less inflammation and IL-6 production than the Deltastk1 strain. In vivo phosphopeptide enrichment and mass spectrometric analysis revealed that threonine phosphorylated peptides corresponding to Stk1, DNA binding histone like protein (HU, serine-aspartate rich fibrinogen/bone sialoprotein binding protein (SdrE and a hypothetical protein (NWMN_1123 were present in the wild type and not in the Deltastk1 mutant. Collectively, these studies suggest that Stk1 mediated phosphorylation of HU, SrdE and NWMN_1123 affects S. aureus gene expression and virulence.

  10. Neonatal disruption of serine racemase causes schizophrenia-like behavioral abnormalities in adulthood: clinical rescue by d-serine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Hagiwara

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: D-Serine, an endogenous co-agonist of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor, is synthesized from L-serine by serine racemase (SRR. Given the role of D-serine in both neurodevelopment and the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, we examined whether neonatal disruption of D-serine synthesis by SRR inhibition could induce behavioral abnormalities relevant to schizophrenia, in later life. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Neonatal mice (7-9 days were injected with vehicle or phenazine methosulfate (Met-Phen: 3 mg/kg/day, an SRR inhibitor. Behavioral evaluations, such as spontaneous locomotion, novel object recognition test (NORT, and prepulse inhibition (PPI were performed at juvenile (5-6 weeks old and adult (10-12 weeks old stages. In addition, we tested the effects of D-serine on PPI deficits in adult mice after neonatal Met-Phen exposure. Finally, we assessed whether D-serine could prevent the onset of schizophrenia-like behavior in these mice. Neonatal Met-Phen treatment reduced D-serine levels in the brain, 24 hours after the final dose. Additionally, this treatment caused behavioral abnormalities relevant to prodromal symptoms in juveniles and to schizophrenia in adults. A single dose of D-serine improved PPI deficits in adult mice. Interestingly, chronic administration of D-serine (900 mg/kg/day from P35 to P70 significantly prevented the onset of PPI deficits after neonatal Met-Phen exposure. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study shows that disruption of D-serine synthesis during developmental stages leads to behavioral abnormalities relevant to prodromal symptoms and schizophrenia, in later life. Furthermore, early pharmacological intervention with D-serine may prevent the onset of psychosis in adult.

  11. Alpha Blockers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... positive side, alpha blockers might decrease low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (the "bad" cholesterol). Alpha blockers can ... PreventionTreatmentofHighBloodPressure/Types-of-Blood-Pressure-Medications_UCM_303247_Article.jsp. Accessed June 4, 2016. Kaplan NM, et ...

  12. Serine phosphorylation of syndecan-2 proteoglycan cytoplasmic domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oh, E S; Couchman, J R; Woods, A

    1997-01-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) is involved in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion, and the cytoplasmic domain of syndecan-2 contains two serines (residues 197 and 198) which lie in a consensus sequence for phosphorylation by PKC. Other serine and threonine residues are present but not in a consensus seque...

  13. Selective N-hydroxyhydantoin carbamate inhibitors of mammalian serine hydrolases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cognetta, Armand B.; Niphakis, Micah J.; Lee, Hyeon-Cheol; Martini, Michael L.; Hulce, Jonathan J.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.

    2015-01-01

    Serine hydrolase inhibitors, which facilitate enzyme function assignment and are used to treat a range of human disorders, often act by an irreversible mechanism that involves covalent modification of the serine hydrolase catalytic nucleophile. The portion of mammalian serine hydrolases for which selective inhibitors have been developed, however, remains small. Here, we show that N-hydroxyhydantoin (NHH) carbamates are a versatile class of irreversible serine hydrolase inhibitors that can be modified on both the staying (carbamylating) and leaving (NHH) groups to optimize potency and selectivity. Synthesis and screening of a small library of NHH carbamates by competitive activity-based protein profiling furnished selective, in vivo-active inhibitors and tailored activity-based probes for multiple mammalian serine hydrolases, including palmitoyl protein thioesterease-1 (PPT1), mutations of which cause the human disease infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. PMID:26120000

  14. Participation of D-serine in the development and reproduction of the silkworm Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanigawa, Minoru; Suzuki, Chihiro; Niwano, Kimio; Kanekatsu, Rensuke; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Horiike, Kihachiro; Hamase, Kenji; Nagata, Yoko

    2016-04-01

    The silkworm Bombyx mori contains high concentrations of free D-serine, an optical isomer of L-serine. To elucidate its function, we first investigated the localization of D-serine in various organs of silkworm larvae, pupae, and adult moths. Using immunohistochemical analysis with an anti-D-serine antibody, we found D-serine in the microvilli of midgut goblet and cylindrical cells and in peripheral matrix components of testicular and ovarian cells. By spectrophotometric analysis, D-serine was also found in the hemolymph and fat body. D-Alanine was not detected in the various organs by immunohistochemistry. Serine racemase, which catalyzes the inter-conversion of L- and D-serine, was found to co-localize with D-serine, and D-serine production from L-serine by intrinsic serine racemase was suggested. O-Phospho-L-serine is an inhibitor of serine racemase, and it was administered to the larvae to reduce the D-serine level. This reagent decreased the midgut caspase-3 level and caused a delay in spermatogenesis and oogenesis. The reagent also decreased mature sperm and egg numbers, suggesting D-serine participation in these processes. D-Serine administration induced an increase in pyruvate levels in testis, midgut, and fat body, indicating conversion of D-serine to pyruvate. On the basis of these results, together with our previous investigation of ATP biosynthesis in testis, we consider the possible involvement of D-serine in ATP synthesis for metamorphosis and reproduction.

  15. Effect of Recombinant alpha1-Antitrypsin Fc-Fused (AAT-Fc)Protein on the Inhibition of Inflammatory Cytokine Production and Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, S.; Lee, Y.; Hong, K.; Hong, J.; Bae, S.; Choi, J.; Jhun, H.; Kwak, A.; Kim, E.; Jo, S.; Dinarello, C.A.; Kim, S.

    2013-01-01

    alpha1-Antitrypsin (AAT) is a member of the serine proteinase inhibitor family that impedes the enzymatic activity of serine proteinases, including human neutrophil elastase, cathepsin G and neutrophil proteinase 3. Here, we expressed recombinant AAT by fusing the intact AAT gene to the constant reg

  16. Effect of Recombinant alpha1-Antitrypsin Fc-Fused (AAT-Fc)Protein on the Inhibition of Inflammatory Cytokine Production and Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, S.; Lee, Y.; Hong, K.; Hong, J.; Bae, S.; Choi, J.; Jhun, H.; Kwak, A.; Kim, E.; Jo, S.; Dinarello, C.A.; Kim, S.

    2013-01-01

    alpha1-Antitrypsin (AAT) is a member of the serine proteinase inhibitor family that impedes the enzymatic activity of serine proteinases, including human neutrophil elastase, cathepsin G and neutrophil proteinase 3. Here, we expressed recombinant AAT by fusing the intact AAT gene to the constant reg

  17. Effect of Recombinant alpha1-Antitrypsin Fc-Fused (AAT-Fc)Protein on the Inhibition of Inflammatory Cytokine Production and Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, S.; Lee, Y.; Hong, K.; Hong, J.; Bae, S.; Choi, J.; Jhun, H.; Kwak, A.; Kim, E.; Jo, S.; Dinarello, C.A.; Kim, S.

    2013-01-01

    alpha1-Antitrypsin (AAT) is a member of the serine proteinase inhibitor family that impedes the enzymatic activity of serine proteinases, including human neutrophil elastase, cathepsin G and neutrophil proteinase 3. Here, we expressed recombinant AAT by fusing the intact AAT gene to the constant

  18. Alpha fetoprotein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetal alpha globulin; AFP ... Greater than normal levels of AFP may be due to: Cancer in testes , ovaries, biliary (liver secretion) tract, stomach, or pancreas Cirrhosis of the liver Liver cancer ...

  19. Catabolism of serine by Pediococcus acidilactici and Pediococcus pentosaceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irmler, Stefan; Bavan, Tharmatha; Oberli, Andrea; Roetschi, Alexandra; Badertscher, René; Guggenbühl, Barbara; Berthoud, Hélène

    2013-02-01

    The ability to produce diacetyl from pyruvate and l-serine was studied in various strains of Pediococcus pentosaceus and Pediococcus acidilactici isolated from cheese. After being incubated on both substrates, only P. pentosaceus produced significant amounts of diacetyl. This property correlated with measurable serine dehydratase activity in cell extracts. A gene encoding the serine dehydratase (dsdA) was identified in P. pentosaceus, and strains that showed no serine dehydratase activity carried mutations that rendered the gene product inactive. A functional dsdA was cloned from P. pentosaceus FAM19132 and expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified recombinant enzyme catalyzed the formation of pyruvate from L- and D-serine and was active at low pH and elevated NaCl concentrations, environmental conditions usually present in cheese. Analysis of the amino acid profiles of culture supernatants from dsdA wild-type and dsdA mutant strains of P. pentosaceus did not show differences in serine levels. In contrast, P. acidilactici degraded serine. Moreover, this species also catabolized threonine and produced alanine and α-aminobutyrate.

  20. Excitation Mechanisms for HCN (1-0) and HCO+ (1-0) in Galaxies from the Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Privon, G C; Evans, A S; Iwasawa, K; Perez-Torres, M A; Armus, L; Diaz-Santos, T; Murphy, E J; Stierwalt, S; Aalto, S; Mazzarella, J M; Barcos-Munoz, L; Borish, H J; Inami, H; Kim, D -C; Treister, E; Surace, J A; Lord, S; Conway, J; Frayer, D T; Alberdi, A

    2015-01-01

    We present new IRAM 30m spectroscopic observations of the $\\sim88$ GHz band, including emission from the CCH (n=1-0) multiplet, HCN (1-0), HCO+ (1-0), and HNC (1-0), for a sample of 58 local luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies from the Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS). By combining our new IRAM data with literature data and Spitzer/IRS spectroscopy, we study the correspondence between these putative tracers of dense gas and the relative contribution of active galactic nuclei (AGN) and star formation to the mid-infrared luminosity of each system. We find the HCN (1-0) emission to be enhanced in AGN-dominated systems ($\\langle$L'$_{HCN (1-0)}$/L'$_{HCO^+ (1-0)}\\rangle=1.84$), compared to composite and starburst-dominated systems ($\\langle$L'$_{HCN (1-0)}$/L'$_{HCO^+ (1-0)}\\rangle=1.14$, and 0.88, respectively). However, some composite and starburst systems have L'$_{HCN (1-0)}$/L'$_{HCO^+ (1-0)}$ ratios comparable to those of AGN, indicating that enhanced HCN emission is not uniquely ass...

  1. Induction of serine racemase expression and D-serine release from microglia by secreted amyloid precursor protein (sAPP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shengzhou; Basile, Anthony S; Barger, Steven W

    2007-07-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) involves neuronal loss and reduction of synaptic density in specific brain region. Some of the neuronal deaths are associated with excitotoxicity. We previously reported that amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta) induced release of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R) co-agonists, including glutamate and D-serine. The induction of D-serine production by Abeta involves transcriptional and/or translational regulation of serine racemase gene. Similarly, we report here that conditioned medium from microglia treated with secreted amyloid precursor protein (sAPP) contained elevated levels of D-serine. In microglia, sAPP increased the steady-state dimeric protein level of serine racemase. Promoter-reporter and mRNA analyses suggested that serine racemase is transcriptionally induced by sAPP. These data extend the link between excitotoxicity and neuroinflammation. D-serine may cooperate with glutamate to link neuroinflammation with excitotoxicity, suggesting a pathogenic mechanism applicable to neuronal death in AD and other neurodegenerative diseases.

  2. Sugarcane Serine Peptidase Inhibitors, Serine Peptidases, and Clp Protease System Subunits Associated with Sugarcane Borer (Diatraea saccharalis) Herbivory and Wounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Ane H.; Mingossi, Fabiana B.; Dias, Renata O.; Franco, Flávia P.; Vicentini, Renato; Mello, Marcia O.; Moura, Daniel S.; Silva-Filho, Marcio C.

    2016-01-01

    Sugarcane’s (Saccharum spp.) response to Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: (Crambidae) herbivory was investigated using a macroarray spotted with 248 sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) encoding serine peptidase inhibitors, serine peptidases. and Clp protease system subunits. Our results showed that after nine hours of herbivory, 13 sugarcane genes were upregulated and nine were downregulated. Among the upregulated genes, nine were similar to serine peptidase inhibitors and four were similar to Bowman-Birk Inhibitors (BBIs). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these sequences belong to a phylogenetic group of sugarcane BBIs that are potentially involved in plant defense against insect predation. The remaining four upregulated genes included serine peptidases and one homolog to the Arabidopsis AAA+ chaperone subunit ClpD, which is a member of the Clp protease system. Among the downregulated genes, five were homologous to serine peptidases and four were homologous to Arabidopsis Clp subunits (three homologous to Clp AAA+ chaperones and one to a ClpP-related ClpR subunit). Although the roles of serine peptidase inhibitors in plant defenses against herbivory have been extensively investigated, the roles of plant serine peptidases and the Clp protease system represent a new and underexplored field of study. The up- and downregulated D. saccharalis genes presented in this study may be candidate genes for the further investigation of the sugarcane response to herbivory. PMID:27598134

  3. Serine one-carbon catabolism with formate overflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiser, Johannes; Tumanov, Sergey; Maddocks, Oliver; Labuschagne, Christiaan Fred; Athineos, Dimitris; Van Den Broek, Niels; Mackay, Gillian M.; Gottlieb, Eyal; Blyth, Karen; Vousden, Karen; Kamphorst, Jurre J.; Vazquez, Alexei

    2016-01-01

    Serine catabolism to glycine and a one-carbon unit has been linked to the anabolic requirements of proliferating mammalian cells. However, genome-scale modeling predicts a catabolic role with one-carbon release as formate. We experimentally prove that in cultured cancer cells and nontransformed fibroblasts, most of the serine-derived one-carbon units are released from cells as formate, and that formate release is dependent on mitochondrial reverse 10-CHO-THF synthetase activity. We also show that in cancer cells, formate release is coupled to mitochondrial complex I activity, whereas in nontransformed fibroblasts, it is partially insensitive to inhibition of complex I activity. We demonstrate that in mice, about 50% of plasma formate is derived from serine and that serine starvation or complex I inhibition reduces formate synthesis in vivo. These observations transform our understanding of one-carbon metabolism and have implications for the treatment of diabetes and cancer with complex I inhibitors.

  4. Stimulation of receptor protein-tyrosine phosphatase alpha activity and phosphorylation by phorbol ester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    den Hertog, J; Sap, J; Pals, C E

    1995-01-01

    with the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate, a direct activator of protein kinase C, induced a rapid, transient increase in RPTP alpha activity due to a 2- to 3-fold increase in substrate affinity. A transient increase in RPTP alpha serine phosphorylation was concomitant with the enhanced activity....... Tryptic phosphopeptide mapping of RPTP alpha demonstrated that phosphorylation of three tryptic peptides was enhanced in response to phorbol ester. In vitro dephosphorylation of RPTP alpha from phorbol ester-treated cells reduced RPTP alpha activity to prestimulation levels, indicating that enhanced...

  5. Effects of temperature on structure and mobility of the <1 0 0> edge dislocation in body-centred cubic iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terentyev, D.A., E-mail: dterenty@sckcen.be [Nuclear Materials Science Institute, SCK CEN, Boeretang 200, B-2400, Mol (Belgium); Osetsky, Yu. N. [Materials Sciences and Technology, ORNL, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Bacon, D.J. [Department of Engineering, University of Liverpool, Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L69 3GH (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-15

    Dislocation segments with Burgers vector b = <1 0 0> are formed during deformation of body-centred-cubic (bcc) metals by the interaction between dislocations with b = 1/2<1 1 1>. Such segments are also created by reactions between dislocations and dislocation loops in irradiated bcc metals. The obstacle resistance produced by these segments on gliding dislocations is controlled by their mobility, which is determined in turn by the atomic structure of their cores. The core structure of a straight <1 0 0> edge dislocation is investigated here by atomic-scale computer simulation for {alpha}-iron using three different interatomic potentials. At low temperature the dislocation has a non-planar core consisting of two 1/2<1 1 1> fractional dislocations with atomic disregistry spread on planes inclined to the main glide plane. Increasing temperature modifies this core structure and so reduces the critical applied shear stress for glide of the <1 0 0> dislocation. It is concluded that the response of the <1 0 0> edge dislocation to temperature or applied stress determines specific reaction pathways occurring between a moving dislocation and 1/2<1 1 1> dislocation loops. The implications of this for plastic flow in unirradiated and irradiated ferritic materials are discussed and demonstrated by examples.

  6. $\\alpha_s$ review (2016)

    CERN Document Server

    d'Enterria, David

    2016-01-01

    The current world-average of the strong coupling at the Z pole mass, $\\alpha_s(m^2_{Z}) = 0.1181 \\pm 0.0013$, is obtained from a comparison of perturbative QCD calculations computed, at least, at next-to-next-to-leading-order accuracy, to a set of 6 groups of experimental observables: (i) lattice QCD "data", (ii) $\\tau$ hadronic decays, (iii) proton structure functions, (iv) event shapes and jet rates in $e^+e^-$ collisions, (v) Z boson hadronic decays, and (vi) top-quark cross sections in p-p collisions. In addition, at least 8 other $\\alpha_s$ extractions, usually with a lower level of theoretical and/or experimental precision today, have been proposed: pion, $\\Upsilon$, W hadronic decays; soft and hard fragmentation functions; jets cross sections in pp, e-p and $\\gamma$-p collisions; and photon F$_2$ structure function in $\\gamma\\,\\gamma$ collisions. These 14 $\\alpha_s$ determinations are reviewed, and the perspectives of reduction of their present uncertainties are discussed.

  7. ACTIVATION OF A CRYPTIC D-SERINE DEAMINASE (DSD) GENE FROM PSEUDOMONAS CEPACIA 17616

    Science.gov (United States)

    D-serine inhibits growth of P. cepacia 17616; however, resistant mutants able to express an ordinarily cryptic D-serine deaminase (dsd) gene were isolated readily. The resistant strains formed high levels of a D-serine deaminase active on D-threonine as well as D-serine. IS eleme...

  8. Observations and light curve solutions of the eclipsing binaries USNO-B1.0 1395-0370184 and USNO-B1.0 1395-0370731

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjurkchieva D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present follow-up photometric observations in Sloan filters g', i' of the newly discovered eclipsing stars USNO-B1.0 1395-0370184 and USNO-B1.0 1395-0370731. Our data revealed that their orbital periods are considerably bigger than the previous values. This result changed the classification of USNO-B1.0 1395-0370184 from ultrashort-period binary (P=0.197 d to short-period system (P=0.251 d. The light curve solutions of our observations revealed that USNOB1.0 1395-0370184 and USNO-B1.0 1395-0370731 are overcontact binaries in which components are K dwarfs, close in masses and radii. The light curve distortions were reproduced by cool spots with angular radius of around 20°.

  9. Mechanism-based inactivation of serine transhydroxymethylases by D-fluoroalanine and related amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, E A; Kallen, R; Walsh, C

    1981-07-10

    Serine transhydroxymethylase, from lamb or rabbit liver, is known to catalyze slow transamination of D-alanine, but not of L-amino acids, in a tetrahydrofolate-independent reaction. Both enzymes will process the D-isomer of beta-fluoroalanine for alpha, beta-elimination of HF to yield an aminoacrylate-pyridoxal-P-enzyme intermediate. This intermediate partitions between harmless hydrolysis to pyruvate, NH4+, and active enzyme-pyridoxal-P (catalytic turnover) and suicidal enzyme alkylation by covalent modification with an average partition ratio of 40-60 turnovers/inactivation event/monomer unit of this tetrameric enzyme. Enzyme inactivation occurs with stoichiometric incorporation of radioactive label from D-[1,2-14C]fluoroalanine. Titration of enzymic cysteinyl --SH groups with 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoate) indicates loss of 1 --SH group on inactivation. Acid hydrolysis of radioactive-inactive enzyme confirms cysteine residue modification. Treatment of inactive enzyme with 6 M urea, then KBH4, followed by acid hydrolysis yields two radioactive compounds, lanthionine and S-carboxyhydroxyethylcysteine, in about equal amounts. The addition of tetrahydrofolate stimulates both pyruvate production and inactivation to equal extents with about a 200-fold rate acceleration at 0.5 mM tetrahydrofolate to turnover numbers of approximately 120 min-1. The Km for D-fluoroalanine is high, 10-60 mM, and this low substrate affinity suggests D-fluoroalanine will not be a useful in vivo agent for selective inactivation of liver cell serine transhydroxymethylases.

  10. Domain 15 of the serine proteinase inhibitor LEKTI blocks HIV infection in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Palesch

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lympho-epithelial Kazal-type-related inhibitor (LEKTI is a 15-domain serine proteinase inhibitor, parts of which have first been isolated from human blood filtrate. It is encoded by the gene SPINK5. In the past, different groups reported antiviral activities of certain serine proteinase inhibitors, such as mucous proteinase inhibitor and alpha1-proteinase inhibitor. The purpose of this study was to test two representative domains of the proteinase inhibitor LEKTI for anti-HIV activities.Methods: LEKTI domains 6 and 15 were recombinantly produced in E.coli. To test their inhibitory activity against HIV infection, the reporter cell line P4-R5 MAGI carrying an HIV-inducible reporter gene was infected by a CCR5-tropic HIV strain in the presence of different inhibitor concentrations. After three days, infection rates were determined by quantifying ß-galactosidase activities using the Galacto-Light Plus™ ß-Galactosidase Reporter Gene Assay.Results: In contrast to LEKTI domain 6, LEKTI domain 15 suppressed HIV-induced reporter gene activities with an IC50 value of approximately 29 µM.Conclusion: LEKTI domain 15 represents an inhibitor of HIV infection. (Med J Indones. 2013;22:131-5. doi: 10.13181/mji.v22i3.580Keywords: HIV, inhibition, LEKTI, P4-R5 MAGI

  11. Moreton and EUV Waves Associated with an X1.0 Flare and CME Ejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francile, Carlos; López, Fernando M.; Cremades, Hebe; Mandrini, Cristina H.; Luoni, María Luisa; Long, David M.

    2016-11-01

    A Moreton wave was detected in active region (AR) 12017 on 29 March 2014 with very high cadence with the H-Alpha Solar Telescope for Argentina (HASTA) in association with an X1.0 flare (SOL2014-03-29T17:48). Several other phenomena took place in connection with this event, such as low-coronal waves and a coronal mass ejection (CME). We analyze the association between the Moreton wave and the EUV signatures observed with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory. These include their low-coronal surface-imprint, and the signatures of the full wave and shock dome propagating outward in the corona. We also study their relation to the white-light CME. We perform a kinematic analysis by tracking the wavefronts in several directions. This analysis reveals a high-directional dependence of accelerations and speeds determined from data at various wavelengths. We speculate that a region of open magnetic field lines northward of our defined radiant point sets favorable conditions for the propagation of a coronal magnetohydrodynamic shock in this direction. The hypothesis that the Moreton wavefront is produced by a coronal shock-wave that pushes the chromosphere downward is supported by the high compression ratio in that region. Furthermore, we propose a 3D geometrical model to explain the observed wavefronts as the chromospheric and low-coronal traces of an expanding and outward-traveling bubble intersecting the Sun. The results of the model are in agreement with the coronal shock-wave being generated by a 3D piston that expands at the speed of the associated rising filament. The piston is attributed to the fast ejection of the filament-CME ensemble, which is also consistent with the good match between the speed profiles of the low-coronal and white-light shock waves.

  12. Moreton and EUV Waves Associated with an X1.0 Flare and CME Ejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francile, Carlos; López, Fernando M.; Cremades, Hebe; Mandrini, Cristina H.; Luoni, María Luisa; Long, David M.

    2016-09-01

    A Moreton wave was detected in active region (AR) 12017 on 29 March 2014 with very high cadence with the H-Alpha Solar Telescope for Argentina (HASTA) in association with an X1.0 flare (SOL2014-03-29T17:48). Several other phenomena took place in connection with this event, such as low-coronal waves and a coronal mass ejection (CME). We analyze the association between the Moreton wave and the EUV signatures observed with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory. These include their low-coronal surface-imprint, and the signatures of the full wave and shock dome propagating outward in the corona. We also study their relation to the white-light CME. We perform a kinematic analysis by tracking the wavefronts in several directions. This analysis reveals a high-directional dependence of accelerations and speeds determined from data at various wavelengths. We speculate that a region of open magnetic field lines northward of our defined radiant point sets favorable conditions for the propagation of a coronal magnetohydrodynamic shock in this direction. The hypothesis that the Moreton wavefront is produced by a coronal shock-wave that pushes the chromosphere downward is supported by the high compression ratio in that region. Furthermore, we propose a 3D geometrical model to explain the observed wavefronts as the chromospheric and low-coronal traces of an expanding and outward-traveling bubble intersecting the Sun. The results of the model are in agreement with the coronal shock-wave being generated by a 3D piston that expands at the speed of the associated rising filament. The piston is attributed to the fast ejection of the filament-CME ensemble, which is also consistent with the good match between the speed profiles of the low-coronal and white-light shock waves.

  13. Cross genome comparisons of serine proteases in Arabidopsis and rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowdhamini R

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Serine proteases are one of the largest groups of proteolytic enzymes found across all kingdoms of life and are associated with several essential physiological pathways. The availability of Arabidopsis thaliana and rice (Oryza sativa genome sequences has permitted the identification and comparison of the repertoire of serine protease-like proteins in the two plant species. Results Despite the differences in genome sizes between Arabidopsis and rice, we identified a very similar number of serine protease-like proteins in the two plant species (206 and 222, respectively. Nearly 40% of the above sequences were identified as potential orthologues. Atypical members could be identified in the plant genomes for Deg, Clp, Lon, rhomboid proteases and species-specific members were observed for the highly populated subtilisin and serine carboxypeptidase families suggesting multiple lateral gene transfers. DegP proteases, prolyl oligopeptidases, Clp proteases and rhomboids share a significantly higher percentage orthology between the two genomes indicating substantial evolutionary divergence was set prior to speciation. Single domain architectures and paralogues for several putative subtilisins, serine carboxypeptidases and rhomboids suggest they may have been recruited for additional roles in secondary metabolism with spatial and temporal regulation. The analysis reveals some domain architectures unique to either or both of the plant species and some inactive proteases, like in rhomboids and Clp proteases, which could be involved in chaperone function. Conclusion The systematic analysis of the serine protease-like proteins in the two plant species has provided some insight into the possible functional associations of previously uncharacterised serine protease-like proteins. Further investigation of these aspects may prove beneficial in our understanding of similar processes in commercially significant crop plant species.

  14. The degradation of Abeta(25-35) by the serine protease plasmin is inhibited by aluminium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korchazhkina, Olga V; Ashcroft, Alison E; Kiss, Tamas; Exley, Christopher

    2002-10-01

    The catabolism of amyloid beta peptides (Abeta) may be important in their accumulation in the brain in both early and late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). The serine protease plasmin is one of a suite of proteases implicated in AD. It is a promoter of alpha-cleavage of the amyloid beta precursor protein (AbetaPP) and will degrade Abeta in vitro. Herein we have demonstrated cleavage of the amyloidogenic Abeta(25-35) by plasmin to produce the non-amyloidogenic fragment Abeta(29-35). The activity of plasmin was halved by pre-mixing it with aluminium (Al) prior to its addition to the peptide. An interaction between Al and proteases involved in the catabolism of Abeta might define the putative link between Al and AD.

  15. Separation of the subtypes of type V collagen molecules, [alpha 1(V)]2 alpha 2(V) and alpha 1(V) alpha 2(V) alpha 3(V), by chain composition-dependent affinity for heparin: single alpha 1(V) chain shows intermediate heparin affinity between those of the type V collagen subtypes composed of [alpha 1(V)]2 alpha 2(V) and of alpha 1(V) alpha 2(V) alpha 3(V).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, K; Hayashi, T

    1996-11-01

    The heparin affinities of heat-treated type V collagen alpha-chains and the triple-helical molecules were evaluated in terms of the NaCl concentration required for prevention of binding to a heparin-Sepharose column. After heat treatment, alpha 1(V) chain required approximately two-fold higher NaCl concentration to pass through the column than the other two chains, alpha 2(V) and alpha 3(V). Thus, the heparin affinity of alpha 1(V) may be approximately two-fold higher than those of the other alpha (V)-chains. The type V collagen molecules in triple-helical conformation were separated into two fractions at 170 mM NaCl in 20 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.2, containing 2 M urea; bound and non-bound. The ratio of the three alpha-chains, alpha 1(V): alpha 2(V): alpha 3(V) was 2 : 1 : 0 and 1 : 1 : 1 in the bound and flow-through fractions, respectively, on analysis by SDS-PAGE. The differential affinity of the two fractions could be accounted for by the number of alpha 1(V) chains in the triple-helical molecule, if these fractions contained triple-helical subtypes with the chain compositions of [alpha 1(V)]2 alpha 2(V) and alpha 1(V) alpha 2(V) alpha 3(V), respectively. From the comparison of the NaCl concentration required for prevention of the binding, [alpha 1(V)]2, alpha 2(V) had about two-fold higher affinity than alpha 1(V) alpha 2(V) alpha 3(V), and the separated alpha 1(V) chain showed an intermediate affinity. A possible explanation for difference in heparin affinity among the subtypes of molecules and the separated alpha-chains is that the heparin affinity of type V collagen molecule is governed by the number of alpha 1(V) chains contained in the molecule and that steric restraint in a triple-helical conformation weakens the binding of alpha 1(V) chain to heparin.

  16. Microstructure and nanomechanical properties of enamel remineralized with asparagine-serine-serine peptide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Hsiu-Ying, E-mail: hychung@mail.fcu.edu.tw; Li, Cheng Che

    2013-03-01

    A highly biocompatible peptide, triplet repeats of asparagine-serine-serine (3NSS) was designed to regulate mineral deposition from aqueous ions in saliva for the reconstruction of enamel lesions. Healthy human enamel was sectioned and acid demineralized to create lesions, then exposed to the 3NSS peptide solution, and finally immersed in artificial saliva for 24 h. The surface morphology and roughness were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to identify the phases and crystallinity of the deposited minerals observed on the enamel surface. Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) was used to quantitatively analyze the mineral variation by calculating the relative integrated-area of characteristic bands. Nanohardness and elastic modulus measured by nanoindentation at various treatment stages were utilized to evaluate the degree of recovery. Biomimetic effects were accessed according to the degree of nanohardness recovery and the amount of hydroxyapatite deposition. The charged segments in the 3NSS peptide greatly attracted aqueous ions from artificial saliva to form hydroxyapatite crystals to fill enamel caries, in particular the interrod areas, resulting in a slight reduction in overall surface roughness. Additionally, the deposited hydroxyapatites were of a small crystalline size in the presence of the 3NSS peptide, which effectively restrained the plastic deformations and thus resulted in greater improvements in nanohardness and elastic modulus. The degree of nanohardness recovery was 5 times greater for remineralized enamel samples treated with the 3NSS peptide compared to samples without peptide treatment. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The degree of nanohardness recovery of enamel was 4 times greater with the aid of 3NSS peptide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 3NSS peptide promoted the formation of hydroxyapatites with

  17. Overexpression of serine racemase in retina and overproduction of D-serine in eyes of streptozotocin-induced diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Guibin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent data indicate that inflammatory mechanisms contribute to diabetic retinopathy (DR. We have determined that serine racemase (SR expression is increased by inflammatory stimuli including liposaccharide (LPS, amyloid β-peptide (A-beta, and secreted amyloid precursor protein (sAPP; expression is decreased by the anti-inflammatory drug, dexamethasone. We tested possibility that SR and its product, D-serine, were altered in a rat model of DR. Methods Intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ; 70 mg/kg body weight to Sprague-Dawley rats produced type-I diabetic mellitus (fasting blood sugar higher than 300 mg/dL. At 3 and 5 months after STZ or saline injection, retinas from some rats were subjected to cryosectioning for immunofluorescent analysis of SR and TUNEL assay of apoptosis. Retinal homogenates were used to detect SR levels and Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK activation by immunoblotting. Aqueous humor and retina were also collected to assay for neurotransmitters, including glutamate and D-serine, by reverse-phase HPLC. Results Compared to saline-injected rats, STZ-injected (diabetic rats showed elevation of SR protein levels in retinal homogenates, attributed to the inner nuclear layer (INL by immunofluorescence. Aqueous humor fluid from STZ-injected rats contained significantly higher levels of glutamate and D-serine compared to controls; by contrast, D-serine levels in retinas did not differ. Levels of activated JNK were elevated in diabetic retinas compared to controls. Conclusions Increased expression of SR in retina and higher levels of glutamate and D-serine in aqueous humor of STZ-treated rats may result from activation of the JNK pathway in diabetic sequelae. Our data suggest that the inflammatory conditions that prevail during DR result in elevation of D-serine, a neurotransmitter contributing to glutamate toxicity, potentially exacerbating the death of retinal ganglion cells in this condition.

  18. Initial Analysis of Hadoop 1.0 & 2.0 Design Principle%浅析Hadoop 1.0与2.0设计原理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尧炜; 马又良

    2014-01-01

    简要介绍了Hadoop发展历史及其版本演进进程;详细阐述了Hadoop 1.0中的HDFS设计理念、架构、读取/写入数据流程和MapReduce架构、任务执行流程,以及Hadoop 1.0功能不足问题;详细阐述了针对Hadoop 1.0功能不足问题,Hadoop 2.0所做的增强功能应对方案,包括NameNode HA方案、HDFS Federation方案和YARN设计原理等。%It briefly introduces the Hadoop version development history and its evolution process, elaborates the Hadoop 1.0 HDFS design idea, architecture, read/write data process and graphs architecture, task execution process, and Hadoop 1.0 function shortage problems. In view of the shortage of Hadoop 1.0 function, it introduces the Hadoop 2.0 enhancements solutions, including Na-meNode HA solutions, HDFS Federation scheme and YARN design principle, etc.

  19. Adsorption of water on TiN (1 0 0), (1 1 0) and (1 1 1) surfaces: A first-principles study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyal, Suchismita; Waghmare, Umesh V.; Ruud, James A.

    2011-05-01

    We use first-principles density functional theory-based calculations in the analysis of the interaction of H 2O with (1 0 0), (1 1 0) and (1 1 1) surfaces of TiN, and develop understanding in terms of surface energies, polarity of the surface and chemistry of the cation, through comparison with H 2O adsorption on ZrN. While water molecule physisorbs preferentially at Ti site of (1 0 0) and (1 1 1) surfaces, it adsorbs dissociatively on (1 1 0) surface of TiN with binding stronger than almost 1.32 eV/molecule. Our analysis reveals the following general trends: (a) surfaces with higher energies typically lead to stronger adsorption, (b) dissociative adsorption of H 2O necessarily occurs on a charge neutral high energy surface and (c) lower symmetry of the (1 1 0) plane results in many configurations of comparable stability, as opposed to the higher symmetry (1 0 0) and (1 1 1) surfaces, which also consistently explain the results of H 2O adsorption on MgO available in literature. Finally, weaker adsorption of H 2O on TiN than on ZrN can be rationalized in terms of greater chemical stability of Ti arising from its ability to be in mixed valence.

  20. Accelerated evolution of crotalinae snake venom gland serine proteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshimaru, M; Ogawa, T; Nakashima, K; Nobuhisa, I; Chijiwa, T; Shimohigashi, Y; Fukumaki, Y; Niwa, M; Yamashina, I; Hattori, S; Ohno, M

    1996-11-11

    Eight cDNAs encoding serine proteases isolated from Trimeresurus flavoviridis (habu snake) and T. gramineus (green habu snake) venom gland cDNA libraries showed that nonsynonymous nucleotide substitutions have accumulated in the mature protein-coding regions to cause amino acid changes. Southern blot analysis of T. flavoviridis genomic DNAs using two proper probes indicated that venom gland serine protease genes form a multigene family in the genome. These observations suggest that venom gland serine proteases have diversified their amino acid sequences in an accelerating manner. Since a similar feature has been previously discovered in crotalinae snake venom gland phospholipase A2 (PLA2) isozyme genes, accelerated evolution appears to be universal in plural isozyme families of crotalinae snake venom gland.

  1. Positive control of D-serine deaminase synthesis in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heincz, M C; Kelker, N E; McFall, E

    1978-04-01

    Efficient constitutive synthesis of D-serine deaminase [D-serine hydro-lyase (deaminating); EC 4.2.1.14] is obtained in vitro by using a slightly modified Zubay system programmed with dsdO6 dsdA+DNA. Synthesis from a dsdO+ dsdA+ template requires active dsdC gene product and 3':5'-cyclic AMP. In vitro synthesis of dsdC product is obtained with a dsdC+ dsdO+ dsdA+ or a dsdCc dsdO+ dsdA+ template; this synthesis is thermosensitive and can be uncoupled from D-serine deaminase synthesis by temperature shift.

  2. Synthesis of o-L-α-glycerylphosphoryl-L-serine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Rui-ren; YAN Zi-er; LUO Yi-ming

    2005-01-01

    A new efficient method for preparing o-L-α-glycerylphosphoryl-L-serine was presented. D-α, β-isopropylidene glycerol was phosphorylated with phenylphosphoryl dichloride and the resulting o-D-α,β-isopropylidene glycerylphenylphosphoryl chloride was esterified with N-tert-butoxycarbonyl-L-serine ethyl ester in the presence of pyridine to give acetone L-α-glycerylphenylphosphoryl-N-tert-butoxycarbonyl-L-serine ethyl ester. Finally, the protective groups were removed by two-step hydrolysis while strictly controlling pH value. The reaction to produce (1, 2), (5, 6)-diisopropylidene-D-mannitol, which is the key precursor for the preparation of D-α, β-isopropylidene glycerol, was monitored by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometer in order to obtain an optimum yield of 65%. All compounds were characterized through elemental analysis, infrared spectra, 1H, 13C, 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance spectra and mass spectra.

  3. Serine Protease Autotransporters of Enterobacteriaceae (SPATEs: Biogenesis and Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Dautin

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Serine Protease Autotransporters of Enterobacteriaceae (SPATEs constitute a large family of proteases secreted by Escherichia coli and Shigella. SPATEs exhibit two distinct proteolytic activities. First, a C-terminal catalytic site triggers an intra-molecular cleavage that releases the N-terminal portion of these proteins in the extracellular medium. Second, the secreted N-terminal domains of SPATEs are themselves proteases; each contains a canonical serine-protease catalytic site. Some of these secreted proteases are toxins, eliciting various effects on mammalian cells. Here, we discuss the biogenesis of SPATEs and their function as toxins.

  4. Fibroblast Activation Protein-Alpha, a Serine Protease that Facilitates Metastasis by Modification of Diverse Microenvironments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    alanine (S624A). (Needed for Specific aims (1 & 2). Restriction and/or sequence analysis indicates that we were successful in introducing the FAP cDNA...suppress angiogenesis in a mouse model of lung cancer [27]. More recently it was observed that FAP can cleave neuropeptide Y ( NPY ) [28]. NPY is a...normal adult tissues. FAP has 50% amino acid sequence homology to another family member, dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV), and there is overlap in

  5. Comparative study of H{sub 2} adsorption on W(1 0 0)-c(2 x 2)Cu and W(1 0 0): Surface alloying effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, A.E. [Instituto de Fisica Rosario (CONICET-UNR) and Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Ingenieria y Agrimensura, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Av. Pellegrini 250, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Dong, W. [Laboratoire de Chimie, Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, 46 Allee d' Italie, F-69364 Lyon Cedex (France); Busnengo, H.F. [Instituto de Fisica Rosario (CONICET-UNR) and Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Ingenieria y Agrimensura, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Av. Pellegrini 250, 2000 Rosario (Argentina)], E-mail: busnengo@ifir.edu.ar

    2007-10-31

    The interactions of H and H{sub 2} with W(1 0 0)-c(2 x 2)Cu and W(1 0 0) have been investigated through density functional theory (DFT) calculations to elucidate the effect of Cu atoms on the reactivity of the alloy. Cu atoms do not alter the attraction towards top-W sites felt by H{sub 2} molecules approaching the W(1 0 0) surface but make dissociation more difficult due to the rise of late activation barriers. This is mainly due to the strong decrease in the stability of the atomic adsorbed state on bridge sites, the most favourable ones for H adsorption on W(1 0 0). Still, our results show unambiguously that H{sub 2} dissociative adsorption on perfect terraces of the W(1 0 0)-c(2 x 2)Cu surface is a non-activated process which is consistent with the high sticking probability found in molecular beam experiments at low energies.

  6. Ge(001)-(<2 1>, <0 3>)-Pb(<2 1>, <0 6>)↔Pb: Low-temperature two-dimensional phase transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunk, Oliver; Nielsen, Martin Meedom; Zeysing, J.H.;

    2001-01-01

    The Ge(001)-((2 1)(0 3))-Pb surface reconstruction with a lead coverage of 5/3 monolayer is on the borderline between the low-coverage covalently-bonded and high-coverage metallic lead overlayers. This gives rise to an unusual low-temperature phase transition with concomitant changes in the bonding...... configuration. Both the room-temperature and low-temperature phases of this system were investigated by surface x-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation. The room-temperature Ge(001)-((2 1)(0 3)) phase is best described by a model with dynamically flipping germanium dimers underneath a distorted Pb(111......) overlayer with predominantly metallic properties. In the low-temperature Ge(001)-((2 1)(0 6)) phase the dimers are static and the interaction between adsorbate and substrate and within the adsorbate is stronger than at room temperature. These results suggest that the phase transition is of order...

  7. The structure of molecular cloud W51 and dense cores--CO(J=1-0) and HCO+(J=1-0) spectral line mapping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA; Hongjun; PEI; Chunchuan; ZENG; Qin

    2005-01-01

    We present a large scale map of about 15′×15′of CO(J=1-0) toward W51 giant molecular cloud (GMC), which covers the most active star-forming region of W51 GMC, and an interferometry HCO+(J=1-0) map of a high spatial resolution (I.e. 8″.7×6″.1) with a field of view (2′×2′) centered at W51IRS1. A structure model of W51GMC is obtained according to the results of the observations and analyses. The observations demonstrate that some small molecular cores generated by the collision between the W51GMC and the 60-73 km·s-1 foreground cloud are collapsing toward their own centers. In addition, 16 new molecular cores are discovered from the HCO+(J=1-0) map.

  8. Antiviral cytokines induce hepatic expression of the granzyme B inhibitors, proteinase inhibitor 9 and serine proteinase inhibitor 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrie, Mahmoud B; Stout, Heather W; Abougergi, Marwan S; Miller, Bonnie C; Thiele, Dwain L

    2004-05-15

    Expression of the granzyme B inhibitors, human proteinase inhibitor 9 (PI-9), or the murine orthologue, serine proteinase inhibitor 6 (SPI-6), confers resistance to CTL or NK killing by perforin- and granzyme-dependent effector mechanisms. In light of prior studies indicating that virally infected hepatocytes are selectively resistant to this CTL effector mechanism, the present studies investigated PI-9 and SPI-6 expression in hepatocytes and hepatoma cells in response to adenoviral infection and to cytokines produced during antiviral immune responses. Neither PI-9 nor SPI-6 expression was detected by immunoblotting in uninfected murine or human hepatocytes. Similarly, human Huh-7 hepatoma cells were found to express only very low levels of PI-9 relative to levels detected in perforin- and granzyme-resistant CTL or lymphokine-activated killer cells. Following in vivo adenoviral infection or in vitro culture with IFN-alphabeta or IFN-gamma, SPI-6 expression was induced in murine hepatocytes. Similarly, after culture with IFN-alpha, induction of PI-9 mRNA and protein expression was observed in human hepatocytes and Huh-7 cells. IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha also induced 4- to 10-fold higher levels of PI-9 mRNA expression in Huh-7 cells, whereas levels of mRNA encoding a related serine proteinase inhibitor, proteinase inhibitor 8, were unaffected by culture of Huh-7 cells with IFN-alpha, IFN-gamma, or TNF-alpha. These findings indicate that cytokines that promote antiviral cytopathic responses also regulate expression of the cytoprotective molecules, PI-9 and SPI-6, in hepatocytes that are potential targets of CTL and NK effector mechanisms.

  9. Expression and characterization of Coprothermobacter proteolyticus alkaline serine protease

    Science.gov (United States)

    TECHNICAL ABSTRACT A putative protease gene (aprE) from the thermophilic bacterium Coprothermobacter proteolyticus was cloned and expressed in Bacillus subtilis. The enzyme was determined to be a serine protease based on inhibition by PMSF. Biochemical characterization demonstrated the enzyme had...

  10. Intervention with Serine Protease Activity with Small Peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Peng

    2015-01-01

    , plasma kallikrein, which contributes to the pathogenesis in hereditary angioedema. According to the X-ray crystal structure analysis, we proposed a principle for designing inhibitors of other serine proteases from mupain-1. In order to be able to evaluate the inhibitory activities of our peptides in vivo...

  11. Intermolecular Phosphoryl Transfer Between Serine and Histidine Residues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Qian SU; Ming Yu NIU; Shu Xia CAO; Jian Chen ZHANG; Yu Fen ZHAO

    2004-01-01

    A novel intermolecular phosphoryl transfer from O-trimethylsilyl-N-(O, O-diisopropyl) phosphoryl serine trimethylsilyl ester to N, N'-bis(trimethylsilyl) histidine trimethylsilyl ester was studied through electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). It was proposed that the transfer reaction went through penta-coordinated phosphorus intermediate.

  12. Sphingoid bases and the serine catabolic enzyme CHA1 define a novel feedforward/feedback mechanism in the response to serine availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montefusco, David J; Newcomb, Benjamin; Gandy, Jason L; Brice, Sarah E; Matmati, Nabil; Cowart, L Ashley; Hannun, Yusuf A

    2012-03-16

    Targets of bioactive sphingolipids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae were previously identified using microarray experiments focused on sphingolipid-dependent responses to heat stress. One of these heat-induced genes is the serine deamidase/dehydratase Cha1 known to be regulated by increased serine availability. This study investigated the hypothesis that sphingolipids may mediate the induction of Cha1 in response to serine availability. The results showed that inhibition of de novo synthesis of sphingolipids, pharmacologically or genetically, prevented the induction of Cha1 in response to increased serine availability. Additional studies implicated the sphingoid bases phytosphingosine and dihydrosphingosine as the likely mediators of Cha1 up-regulation. The yeast protein kinases Pkh1 and Pkh2, known sphingoid base effectors, were found to mediate CHA1 up-regulation via the transcription factor Cha4. Because the results disclosed a role for sphingolipids in negative feedback regulation of serine metabolism, we investigated the effects of disrupting this mechanism on sphingolipid levels and on cell growth. Intriguingly, exposure of the cha1Δ strain to high serine resulted in hyperaccumulation of endogenous serine and in turn a significant accumulation of sphingoid bases and ceramides. Under these conditions, the cha1Δ strain displayed a significant growth defect that was sphingolipid-dependent. Together, this work reveals a feedforward/feedback loop whereby the sphingoid bases serve as sensors of serine availability and mediate up-regulation of Cha1 in response to serine availability, which in turn regulates sphingolipid levels by limiting serine accumulation.

  13. Development of activity-based probes for trypsin-family serine proteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zhengying; Jeffery, Douglas A; Chehade, Kareem; Beltman, Jerlyn; Clark, James M; Grothaus, Paul; Bogyo, Matthew; Baruch, Amos

    2006-06-01

    A series of diphenylphosphonate-based probes were developed for the trypsin-like serine proteases. These probes selectively target serine proteases rather than general serine hydrolases that are targets for fluorophosphonate-based probes. This increased selectivity allows detection of low abundance serine proteases in complex proteomes using simple SDS-PAGE methods. We present here the application of multiple probes in enzyme activity profiling of intact mast cells, a type of inflammatory cell implicated in allergy and autoimmune diseases.

  14. Computational program to design heat pumps by compression (ciclo 1.0); Programa computacional para diseno de bombas de calor por compresion (ciclo 1.0)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Alba Rosano, Mauricio [CIE, UNAM, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    A new computational program has been developed in order to design single stage compression heat pumps. This software, named CICLO 1.0 allows the design of water-water, water-air, air-water and air-air heat pumps, for industrial and residential applications. CICLO 1.0 simulates three types of compressors: reciprocating, screw and scroll. Also has a data base created with REFPROP software which includes eleven refrigerants. The condenser and evaporator simulation includes global conductance (UA) determination, and when one or both are shell and tube's type, this software shows the even number of tube passes by shell. The software determines the best compressor and refrigerant setup taking the COP as a parameter; in order to obtain this, is necessary to know the inlet/outlet conditions of the fluid to be heated, the inlet conditions of the fluid that gives heat, and the electric motor efficiency that drives the compressor. The afforded results by CICLO 1.0 are: operation conditions from compression cycle, that means, pressures and temperatures at the inlet/outlet from every heat pump component are determined: as well as refrigerant mass flux, COP, power required by compressor, volumetric and isentropic efficiencies, heat exchangers global conductance and more data. CICLO 1.0 has been executed with heat pump data that nowadays are operating, and the results from the simulation have been very similar each other with data reported from operational facilities. [Spanish] Se ha desarrollado un nuevo programa computacional para el diseno de bombas de calor por compresion de vapor de una sola etapa. Este programa, CICLO 1.0, permite el diseno de bombas de calor de tipo: agua-agua, agua-aire, aire-agua y aire-aire, que se utilicen para aplicaciones industriales, de servicios y residenciales. CICLO 1.0 simula tres tipos de compresores: reciprocante, de tornillo y scroll: cuenta con una base de datos de refrigerantes creada con el programa REFPROP la cual incluye once

  15. Adsorption behavior of terephthalic acid on Au(1 0 0), Au(1 1 1) and Au(1 1 0) electrodes in neutral solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikezawa, Yasunari [Development of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Rikkyo University, Nishi-Ikebukuro, Toshima-ku, Tokyo 171 (Japan)], E-mail: ikezawa@rikkyo.ac.jp; Masuda, Ryoko [Development of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Rikkyo University, Nishi-Ikebukuro, Toshima-ku, Tokyo 171 (Japan)

    2008-06-30

    Adsorption of terephthalic acid on Au(1 0 0), Au(1 1 1) and Au(1 1 0) electrodes in neutral solution has been investigated using in situ Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, differential capacity measurements and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). At negative potentials, the terephthalate anions in solution adsorb in a flat orientation onto the electrode via the {pi} electrons of the aromatic ring. At positive potentials, the terephthalate anions adsorb in a vertical orientation via the oxygen atoms of one of the carboxyl groups as a form of dianion. At more positive potentials, the anions adsorb in a vertical orientation as a form of hydrogen terephthalate. For the three electrodes examined, the overtone and/or combination bands, due to vertically oriented hydrogen terephthalate, were observed at 2642 and 2517 cm{sup -1}, respectively. For the Au(1 1 1) electrode, STM observations indicated a flat orientation in the form of terephthalic acid.

  16. XHTML™ 1.0 The Extensible HyperText Markup Language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pemberton, S.; et al, not CWI

    2000-01-01

    This specification defines XHTML 1.0, a reformulation of HTML 4 as an XML 1.0 application, and three DTDs corresponding to the ones defined by HTML 4. The semantics of the elements and their attributes are defined in the W3C Recommendation for HTML 4. These semantics provide the foundation for futur

  17. XHTML™ 1.0 The Extensible HyperText Markup Language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Pemberton (Steven); not CWI et al

    2000-01-01

    textabstractThis specification defines XHTML 1.0, a reformulation of HTML 4 as an XML 1.0 application, and three DTDs corresponding to the ones defined by HTML 4. The semantics of the elements and their attributes are defined in the W3C Recommendation for HTML 4. These semantics provide the

  18. Anomaly of strings of 6d $\\mathcal{N}{=}(1,0)$ theories

    CERN Document Server

    Shimizu, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    We obtain the anomaly polynomial of strings of general 6d $\\mathcal{N}{=}(1,0)$ theories in terms of anomaly inflow. Our computation sheds some light on the reason why the simplest 6d $\\mathcal{N}{=}(1,0)$ theory has $E_8$ flavor symmetry, and also partially explains a curious numerology in F-theory.

  19. Anomaly of strings of 6d {N}=(1,0) theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Tachikawa, Yuji

    2016-11-01

    We obtain the anomaly polynomial of strings of general 6d {N}=(1,0) theories in terms of anomaly inflow. Our computation sheds some light on the reason why the simplest 6d {N}=(1,0) theory has E 8 flavor symmetry, and also partially explains a curious numerology in F-theory.

  20. METEOR v1.0 - Design and structure of the software package; METEOR v1.0 - Estructura y modulos informaticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomo, E.

    1994-07-01

    This script describes the structure and the separated modules of the software package METEOR for the statistical analysis of meteorological data series. It contains a systematic description of the subroutines of METEOR and, also, of the required shape for input and output files. The original version of METEOR have been developed by Ph.D. Elena Palomo, CIEMAT-IER, GIMASE. It is built by linking programs and routines written in FORTRAN 77 and it adds thc graphical capabilities of GNUPLOT. The shape of this toolbox was designed following the criteria of modularity, flexibility and agility criteria. All the input, output and analysis options are structured in three main menus: i) the first is aimed to evaluate the quality of the data set; ii) the second is aimed for pre-processing of the data; and iii) the third is aimed towards the statistical analyses and for creating the graphical outputs. Actually the information about METEOR is constituted by three documents written in spanish: 1) METEOR v1.0: User's guide; 2) METEOR v1.0: A usage example; 3) METEOR v 1.0: Design and structure of the software package. (Author)

  1. Extracellular vesicles shed by melanoma cells contain a modified form of H1.0 linker histone and H1.0 mRNA-binding proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiera, Gabriella; Di Liegro, Carlo Maria; Puleo, Veronica; Colletta, Oriana; Fricano, Anna; Cancemi, Patrizia; Di Cara, Gianluca; Di Liegro, Italia

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are now recognized as a fundamental way for cell-to-cell horizontal transfer of properties, in both physiological and pathological conditions. Most of EV-mediated cross-talk among cells depend on the exchange of proteins, and nucleic acids, among which mRNAs, and non-coding RNAs such as different species of miRNAs. Cancer cells, in particular, use EVs to discard molecules which could be dangerous to them (for example differentiation-inducing proteins such as histone H1.0, or antitumor drugs), to transfer molecules which, after entering the surrounding cells, are able to transform their phenotype, and even to secrete factors, which allow escaping from immune surveillance. Herein we report that melanoma cells not only secrete EVs which contain a modified form of H1.0 histone, but also transport the corresponding mRNA. Given the already known role in tumorigenesis of some RNA binding proteins (RBPs), we also searched for proteins of this class in EVs. This study revealed the presence in A375 melanoma cells of at least three RBPs, with apparent MW of about 65, 45 and 38 kDa, which are able to bind H1.0 mRNA. Moreover, we purified one of these proteins, which by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry was identified as the already known transcription factor MYEF2. PMID:27633859

  2. Modeling and structural analysis of PA clan serine proteases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laskar Aparna

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Serine proteases account for over a third of all known proteolytic enzymes; they are involved in a variety of physiological processes and are classified into clans sharing structural homology. The PA clan of endopeptidases is the most abundant and over two thirds of this clan is comprised of the S1 family of serine proteases, which bear the archetypal trypsin fold and have a catalytic triad in the order Histidine, Aspartate, Serine. These proteases have been studied in depth and many three dimensional structures have been experimentally determined. However, these structures mostly consist of bacterial and animal proteases, with a small number of plant and fungal proteases and as yet no structures have been determined for protozoa or archaea. The core structure and active site geometry of these proteases is of interest for many applications. This study investigated the structural properties of different S1 family serine proteases from a diverse range of taxa using molecular modeling techniques. Results Our predicted models from protozoa, archaea, fungi and plants were combined with the experimentally determined structures of 16 S1 family members and used for analysis of the catalytic core. Amino acid sequences were submitted to SWISS-MODEL for homology-based structure prediction or the LOOPP server for threading-based structure prediction. Predicted models were refined using INSIGHT II and SCRWL and validated against experimental structures. Investigation of secondary structures and electrostatic surface potential was performed using MOLMOL. The structural geometry of the catalytic core shows clear deviations between taxa, but the relative positions of the catalytic triad residues were conserved. Some highly conserved residues potentially contributing to the stability of the structural core were identified. Evolutionary divergence was also exhibited by large variation in secondary structure features outside the core

  3. Antinociceptive Effect of Rat D-Serine Racemase Inhibitors, L-Serine-O-Sulfate, and L-Erythro-3-Hydroxyaspartate in an Arthritic Pain Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Laurido

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor (NMDAr activation requires the presence of D-serine, synthesized from L-serine by a pyridoxal 5′-phosphate-dependent serine racemase (SR. D-serine levels can be lowered by inhibiting the racemization of L-serine. L-serine-O-sulfate (LSOS and L-erythro-3-hydroxyaspartate (LEHA, among others, have proven to be effective in reducing the D-serine levels in culture cells. It is tempting then to try these compounds in their effectiveness to decrease nociceptive levels in rat arthritic pain. We measured the C-reflex paradigm and wind-up potentiation in the presence of intrathecally injected LSOS (100 μg/10 μL and LEHA (100 μg/10 μL in normal and monoarthritic rats. Both compounds decreased the wind-up activity in normal and monoarthritic rats. Accordingly, all the antinociceptive effects were abolished when 300 μg/10 μL of D-serine were injected intrathecally. Since no in vivo results have been presented so far, this constitutes the first evidence that SR inhibitions lower the D-serine levels, thus decreasing the NMDAr activity and the consequent development and maintenance of chronic pain.

  4. The binding mechanism of a peptidic cyclic serine protease inhibitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Longguang; Svane, Anna S P; Sørensen, Hans Peter

    2011-01-01

    Serine proteases are classical objects for studies of catalytic and inhibitory mechanisms as well as interesting as therapeutic targets. Since small-molecule serine protease inhibitors generally suffer from specificity problems, peptidic inhibitors, isolated from phage-displayed peptide libraries...... inhibitory mechanism and an unusually high specificity. Using a number of modified variants of upain-1, we characterised the upain-1-urokinase-type plasminogen activator complex using X-ray crystal structure analysis, determined a model of the peptide in solution by NMR spectroscopy, and analysed binding...... kinetics and thermodynamics by surface plasmon resonance and isothermal titration calorimetry. We found that upain-1 changes both main-chain conformation and side-chain orientations as it binds to the protease, in particular its Trp3 residue and the surrounding backbone. The properties of upain-1...

  5. New Insights into the Regulation of Serine Palmitoyltransferase

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-07

    is catalyzed by the enzyme serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT) which is present in all eukaryotes and even in some prokaryotes . The S. cerevisiae SPT...based on their molecular shapes and chemical properties. They are important components of membranes , predominantly found in the plasma membrane in...contrast to the intracellular membranes which have less sphingolipids (87). The chemical properties of the sphingolipids modulate the physical

  6. Dynamics simulation of the interaction between serine and water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Peng; Lu, Ying-Bo; Han, Sheng-Hao; Yu, Hui

    2013-05-01

    Using the first principles density functional theory (DFT), we simulated the neutron scattering spectra of the hydration dynamics of serine. Experimental data analyses have shown that dissociative H2O molecules were more likely to form hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) with an -OH group in monohydrated serine and easily shift to a -NH_3 ^ + group at a higher hydration level [P. Zhang, Y. Zhang, S. H. Han, Q. W. Yan, R. C. Ford, and J. C. Li, J. Phys. Chem. A 110, 5000 (2006), 10.1021/jp0569741]. We set the 1:1 ratio hydrated compounds at the two positions and found that the H2O could be optimized to form H-bonds with -OH and -NH3+ separately. When the simulated phonon signals of the -OH…H2O and -NH3+…H2O combinations were summed on a 3:1 scale, the calculating spectra were in good agreement with the experimental results, especially for the peak at 423 cm-1 of the -OH…H2O combination and the peak at 367 cm-1 of the -NH3+…H2O combination, which mutually complemented the real spectrum. We confirm that H2O may break the intermolecular H-bonds of the interlaced binding -OH to form a new structure, and that with the skeleton deformation of serine, H2O forms stronger H-bonds more often with the -NH3+ side indicating the flexible dynamic mechanism of the serine hydration process.

  7. Pnserpin: A Novel Serine Protease Inhibitor from Extremophile Pyrobaculum neutrophilum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Serine protease inhibitors (serpins are native inhibitors of serine proteases, constituting a large protein family with members spread over eukaryotes and prokaryotes. However, only very few prokaryotic serpins, especially from extremophiles, have been characterized to date. In this study, Pnserpin, a putative serine protease inhibitor from the thermophile Pyrobaculum neutrophilum, was overexpressed in Escherichia coli for purification and characterization. It irreversibly inhibits chymotrypsin-, trypsin-, elastase-, and subtilisin-like proteases in a temperature range from 20 to 100 °C in a concentration-dependent manner. The stoichiometry of inhibition (SI of Pnserpin for proteases decreases as the temperature increases, indicating that the inhibitory activity of Pnserpin increases with the temperature. SDS-PAGE (sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that Pnserpin inhibits proteases by forming a SDS-resistant covalent complex. Homology modeling and molecular dynamic simulations predicted that Pnserpin can form a stable common serpin fold. Results of the present work will help in understanding the structural and functional characteristics of thermophilic serpin and will broaden the current knowledge about serpins from extremophiles.

  8. A serine proteinase inhibitor from frog eggs with bacteriostatic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yaoping; Yu, Haining; Yang, Xinbo; Rees, Huw H; Liu, Jingze; Lai, Ren

    2008-01-01

    By Sephadex G-50 gel filtration, Resource Q anionic exchange and C4 reversed phase liquid high performance liquid chromatography, a proteinase inhibitor protein (Ranaserpin) was identified and purified from the eggs of the odour frog, Rana grahami. The protein displayed a single band adjacent to the molecular weight marker of 14.4 kDa analyzed by SDS-PAGE. The inhibitor protein homogeneity and its molecular weight were confirmed again by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis. The MALDI-TOF mass spectrum analysis gave this inhibitor protein an m/z of 14422.26 that was matched well with the result from SDS-PAGE. This protein is a serine proteinase inhibitor targeting multiple proteinases including trypsin, elastase, and subtilisin. Ranaserpin inhibited the proteolytic activities of trypsin, elastase, and subtilisin. It has an inhibitory constant (K(i)) of 6.2 x 10(-8) M, 2.7 x 10(-7) M and 2.2 x 10(-8) M for trypsin, elastase, and subtilisin, respectively. This serine proteinase inhibitor exhibited bacteriostatic effect on Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633). It was suggested that ranaserpin might act as a defensive role in resistance to invasion of pests or pathogens. This is the first report of serine proteinase inhibitor and its direct defensive role from amphibian eggs.

  9. graal: a Drosophila gene coding for several mosaic serine proteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munier, Anne Isabelle; Medzhitov, Ruslan; Janeway, Charles A; Doucet, Daniel; Capovilla, Maria; Lagueux, Marie

    2004-10-01

    Serine proteases play vital roles in several biological processes such as development and immunity. We have characterized Graal, a large multi-domain serine protease from Drosophila. Graal is spliced in at least three transcripts that are present throughout development. The domains found in Graal proteins are: chitin-binding domains (CBD), scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) domains, low density lipoprotein receptor cysteine-rich (LDLR-CR) domains, histidine and proline-rich domains, a NGGYQPP-repeat domain and a serine protease domain. The last 2370 nucleotides of these RNAs are identical and encode a His-rich domain, two SRCR domains, two LDLR-CR domains and a protease domain. The transcription of graal is upregulated after fungal or bacterial infection. Analysis of the Iso1 (y;cn,sp,bw) strain shows that graal transcription is impaired in this fly line due to the insertion of a retrotransposon in the sixth exon. However, no phenotype could be observed consecutive to the absence of graal full length transcripts, particularly in the context of an immune challenge.

  10. Pnserpin: A Novel Serine Protease Inhibitor from Extremophile Pyrobaculum neutrophilum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huan; Fei, Rui; Xue, Baigong; Yu, Shanshan; Zhang, Zuoming; Zhong, Sheng; Gao, Yuanqi; Zhou, Xiaoli

    2017-01-01

    Serine protease inhibitors (serpins) are native inhibitors of serine proteases, constituting a large protein family with members spread over eukaryotes and prokaryotes. However, only very few prokaryotic serpins, especially from extremophiles, have been characterized to date. In this study, Pnserpin, a putative serine protease inhibitor from the thermophile Pyrobaculum neutrophilum, was overexpressed in Escherichia coli for purification and characterization. It irreversibly inhibits chymotrypsin-, trypsin-, elastase-, and subtilisin-like proteases in a temperature range from 20 to 100 °C in a concentration-dependent manner. The stoichiometry of inhibition (SI) of Pnserpin for proteases decreases as the temperature increases, indicating that the inhibitory activity of Pnserpin increases with the temperature. SDS-PAGE (sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) showed that Pnserpin inhibits proteases by forming a SDS-resistant covalent complex. Homology modeling and molecular dynamic simulations predicted that Pnserpin can form a stable common serpin fold. Results of the present work will help in understanding the structural and functional characteristics of thermophilic serpin and will broaden the current knowledge about serpins from extremophiles. PMID:28067849

  11. Antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles synthesized from serine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayaprakash, N. [Catalysis and Nanomaterials Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Loyola College, Chennai 600 034 (India); SRM Valliammai Engineering College, Department of Chemistry, Chennai 603 203 (India); Judith Vijaya, J., E-mail: jjvijayaloyola@yahoo.co.in [Catalysis and Nanomaterials Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Loyola College, Chennai 600 034 (India); John Kennedy, L. [Materials Division, School of Advanced Sciences, VIT University, Chennai Campus, Chennai 600 048 (India); Priadharsini, K.; Palani, P. [Department of Center for Advanced Study in Botany, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600 025 (India)

    2015-04-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were synthesized by a simple microwave irradiation method using polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) as a capping agent and serine as a reducing agent. UV–Visible spectra were used to confirm the formation of Ag NPs by observing the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band at 443 nm. The emission spectrum of Ag NPs showed an emission band at 484 nm. In the presence of microwave radiation, serine acts as a reducing agent, which was confirmed by Fourier transformed infrared (FT-IR) spectrum. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HR-SEM) were used to investigate the morphology of the synthesized sample. These images showed the sphere-like morphology. The elemental composition of the sample was determined by the energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). Selected area electron diffraction (SAED) was used to find the crystalline nature of the Ag NPs. The electrochemical behavior of the synthesized Ag NPs was analyzed by the cyclic voltammetry (CV). Antibacterial experiments showed that the prepared Ag NPs showed relatively similar antibacterial activities, when compared with AgNO{sub 3} against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. - Highlights: • Microwave irradiation method is used to synthesize silver nanoparticles. • Highly stable silver nanoparticles are produced from serine. • A detailed study of antibacterial activities is discussed. • Formation mechanism of silver microspheres has been proposed.

  12. Serine racemase: a key player in apoptosis and necrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia eCanu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A fine balance between cell survival and cell death is required to sculpt the nervous system during development. However, an excess of cell death can occur following trauma, exposure to neurotoxins or alcohol, and some developmental and neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD. N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs support synaptic plasticity and survival of many neuronal populations whereas inappropriate activation may promote various forms of cell death, apoptosis and necrosis representing the two extremes of a continuum of cell death processes both in vitro and in vivo. Hence, by identifying the switches controlling pro-survival vs. apoptosis and apoptosis vs. pro-excitotoxic outcome of NMDAR stimulation, NMDAR modulators could be developed that selectively block the cell death enhancing pro-survival signaling or synaptic plasticity mediated by NMDAR. Among these modulators, a role is emerging for the enzyme serine racemase (SR that synthesizes D-serine, a key co-agonist with glutamate at NMDAR. This review summarizes the experimental evidence from in vitro neuronal cultures -- with special emphasis on cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs -- and in vivo models of neurodegeneration, where the dual role of the SR/D-serine pathway as a master regulator of apoptosis and the apoptosis-necrosis shift will be discussed.

  13. Serine racemase expression in mouse cerebral cortex after permanent focal cerebral ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-zhen WANG; Xing-zu ZHU

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the alterations of the expressions of serine racemase in C57BL/6 mouse brain after permanent focal cerebral ischemia. METHODS: The mRNA level and the protein level of serine racemase were assayed by semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot, respectively. The amount of D-serine and L-serine were measured by HPLC. RESULTS: High levels of serine racemase were constitutively expressed in the normal cortex of mouse. At early stage after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), no significant change in expression of serine racemase was observed in temporoparietal cortex in ipsilateral hemisphere. However,delayed transient decreases of serine racemase in both mRNA and protein levels were detected from d 6 to d 10 after ischemia. Correspondingly, D-serine concentration also declined in the ipsilateral cortex during this period when compared with the D-serine level in the contralateral cortex. CONCLUSION:Delayed decreases in serine racemase expression and D-serine level occurred in the temporoparietal cortex at the late stage after focal cerebral ischemia.

  14. Glutamatergic transmission in hydra: NMDA/D-serine affects the electrical activity of the body and tentacles of Hydra vulgaris (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, J C; Kass-Simon, G

    2009-04-01

    Previous electrophysiological studies on the early-evolved metazoan Hydra vulgaris provided evidence that glutamate, acting through alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) and kainate receptors, affects hydra's pacemaker systems; immunocytochemical studies showed that N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors were present in hydra tentacles; behavioral studies demonstrated that NMDA/d-serine affected mouth opening induced by reduced glutathione, and with AMPA/kainate, discharge of nematocysts. In this study, extracellular recordings were made from the tentacle and peduncle of hydra during bath application of NMDA and d-serine (both at 1 x 10(-5) mol l(-1) to 1 x 10(-9) mol l(-1)) in the presence of 1 x 10(-7) mol l(-1) AMPA or kainate. NMDA/d-serine produced a significant increase in tentacle activity, increasing the rate of tentacle pacemaker pulses (TPs) at 1 x 10(-7) mol l(-1), and small, behaviorally uncorrelated tentacle pulses (SUTPs) at 1 x 10(-5) mol l(-1). The NMDA antagonist, d-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (D-AP5), counteracted the effects. NMDA/d-serine (1 x 10(-7) mol l(-1)) also caused a potentially significant (trend) decrease in the rate of small, behaviorally uncorrelated electrical body pulses (SUBPs) and rhythmic potentials (RPs). The effect was counteracted by D-AP5. The ectodermal contraction burst (CB) pacemaker system was unaffected by NMDA/d-serine. Our results indicate that glutamate, acting on NMDA/AMPA-kainate receptors, may cause opposing effects on the coordinating systems of tentacle and body-exciting the tentacle effectors and potentially causing an inhibition in the body column.

  15. U.S. EPA River Reach File Version 1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Reach File Version 1.0 (RF1) is a vector database of approximately 700,000 miles of streams and open waters in the conterminous United States. It is used extensively...

  16. Detection and identification of intermediates in the reaction of L-serine with Escherichia coli tryptophan synthase via rapid-scanning ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewe, W F; Dunn, M F

    1985-07-16

    Rapid-scanning stopped-flow (RSSF) UV-visible spectroscopy has been used to investigate the UV-visible absorption changes (300-550 nm) that occur in the spectrum of enzyme-bound pyridoxal 5'-phosphate during the reaction of L-serine with the alpha 2 beta 2 and beta 2 forms of Escherichia coli tryptophan synthase. In agreement with previous kinetic studies [Lane, A., & Kirschner, K. (1983) Eur. J. Biochem. 129, 561-570], the reaction with alpha 2 beta 2 was found to occur in three detectable relaxations (1/tau 1 greater than 1/tau 2 greater than 1/tau 3). The RSSF data reveal that during tau 1, the internal aldimine, E(PLP), with lambda max = 412 nm (pH 7.8), undergoes rapid conversion to two transient species, one with lambda max congruent to 420 nm and one with lambda max congruent to 460 nm. These species decay in a biphasic process (1/tau 2, 1/tau 3) to a complicated final spectrum with lambda max congruent to 350 nm and with a broad envelope of absorbance extending out to approximately 525 nm. Analysis of the time-resolved spectra establishes that the spectral changes in tau 2 are nearly identical with the spectral changes in tau 3. Kinetic isotope effects due to substitution of 2H for the alpha-1H of serine were found to increase the amount of the 420-nm transient and to decrease the amount of the species with lambda max congruent to 460 nm. These findings identify the serine Schiff base (the external aldimine) as the 420 nm absorbing, highly fluorescent transient; the species with lambda max congruent to 460 nm is the delocalized carbanion (quinoidal) species derived from abstraction of the alpha proton from the external aldimine. The reaction of L-serine with beta 2 consists of two relaxations (1/tau 1 beta greater than 1/tau 2 beta) and yields a quasi-stable species with lambda max = 420 nm, in good agreement with a previous report [Miles, E. W., Hatanaka, M., & Crawford, I. P. (1968) Biochemistry 7, 2742-2753]. Analysis of the RSSF spectra indicates that

  17. Monitoring preparation and phase transitions of carburized W(1 1 0) by reflectance difference spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachmann, Magdalena [Institute of Physical Chemistry, University of Innsbruck, Innrain 52a, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Memmel, Norbert, E-mail: norbert.memmel@uibk.ac.at [Institute of Physical Chemistry, University of Innsbruck, Innrain 52a, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Bertel, Erminald [Institute of Physical Chemistry, University of Innsbruck, Innrain 52a, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Denk, Mariella; Hohage, Michael; Zeppenfeld, Peter [Institute of Experimental Physics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Altenbergerstr. 69, A-4040 Linz (Austria)

    2012-10-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Real-time in situ monitoring of W(1 1 0) surface cleaning. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Real-time in situ monitoring of carburazation kinetics on W(1 1 0) by RDS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phase transformation R(15 Multiplication-Sign 3)-C/W(1 1 0)-R(15 Multiplication-Sign 12)-C/W(1 1 0) studied by RDS, AES and LEED. - Abstract: Reflectance difference spectroscopy (RDS) is applied to follow in situ the preparation of clean and carburized W(1 1 0) surfaces and to study the temperature-induced transition between the R(15 Multiplication-Sign 3) and R(15 Multiplication-Sign 12) carbon/tungsten surface phases. RDS data for this transition are compared to data obtained from Auger-electron spectroscopy and low-energy electron diffraction. All techniques reveal that this transition, occurring around 1870 K, is reversible with a small hysteresis, indicating a first-order-like behaviour. The present results also prove a high surface sensitivity of RDS, which is attributed to the excitation of electronic p-like surface resonances of W(1 1 0).

  18. Temperature dependence of lattice disorder in Ar-irradiated (1 0 0), (1 1 0) and (1 1 1) MgO single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usov, I. O.; Valdez, J. A.; Sickafus, K. E.

    2011-02-01

    To better appreciate dynamic annealing processes in ion irradiated MgO single crystals of three low-index crystallographic orientations, lattice damage variation with irradiation temperature was investigated. Irradiations were performed with 100 keV Ar ions to a fluence of 1 × 10 15 Ar/cm 2 in a temperature interval from -150 to 1100 °C. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy combined with ion channeling was used to analyze lattice damage. Damage recovery with increasing irradiation temperature proceeded via two characteristic stages separated by 200 °C. Strong radiation damage anisotropy was observed at temperatures below 200 °C, with (1 1 0) MgO being the most radiation damage tolerant. Above 200 °C damage recovery was isotropic and almost complete recovery was reached at 1100 °C. We attributed this orientation dependence to a variation of dynamic annealing mechanisms with irradiation temperature.

  19. Ab initio alpha-alpha scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Elhatisari, Serdar; Rupak, Gautam; Epelbaum, Evgeny; Krebs, Hermann; Lähde, Timo A; Luu, Thomas; Meißner, Ulf-G

    2015-01-01

    Processes involving alpha particles and alpha-like nuclei comprise a major part of stellar nucleosynthesis and hypothesized mechanisms for thermonuclear supernovae. In an effort towards understanding alpha processes from first principles, we describe in this letter the first ab initio calculation of alpha-alpha scattering. We use lattice effective field theory to describe the low-energy interactions of nucleons and apply a technique called the adiabatic projection method to reduce the eight-body system to an effective two-cluster system. We find good agreement between lattice results and experimental phase shifts for S-wave and D-wave scattering. The computational scaling with particle number suggests that alpha processes involving heavier nuclei are also within reach in the near future.

  20. Combined Moho Parameters Determination Using CRUST1.0 and Vening Meinesz-Moritz Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Majid Abrehdary; Lars E Sjberg; Mohammad Bagherbandi

    2015-01-01

    According to Vening Meinesz-Moritz (VMM) global inverse isostatic problem, either the Moho density contrast (crust-mantle density contrast) or the Moho geometry can be estimated by solv-ing a non-linear Fredholm integral equation of the first kind. Here solutions to the two Moho parame-ters are presented by combining the global geopotential model (GOCO-03S), topography (DTM2006) and a seismic crust model, the latter being the recent digital global crustal model (CRUST1.0) with a resolution of 1º×1º. The numerical results show that the estimated Moho density contrast varies from 21 to 637 kg/m3, with a global average of 321 kg/m3, and the estimated Moho depth varies from 6 to 86 km with a global average of 24 km. Comparing the Moho density contrasts estimated using our least-squares method and those derived by the CRUST1.0, CRUST2.0, and PREM models shows that our es-timate agrees fairly well with CRUST1.0 model and rather poor with other models. The estimated Moho depths by our least-squares method and the CRUST1.0 model agree to 4.8 km in RMS and with the GEMMA1.0 based model to 6.3 km.

  1. Genome-wide survey of prokaryotic serine proteases: Analysis of distribution and domain architectures of five serine protease families in prokaryotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripathi Lokesh P

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Serine proteases are one of the most abundant groups of proteolytic enzymes found in all the kingdoms of life. While studies have established significant roles for many prokaryotic serine proteases in several physiological processes, such as those associated with metabolism, cell signalling, defense response and development, functional associations for a large number of prokaryotic serine proteases are relatively unknown. Current analysis is aimed at understanding the distribution and probable biological functions of the select serine proteases encoded in representative prokaryotic organisms. Results A total of 966 putative serine proteases, belonging to five families, were identified in the 91 prokaryotic genomes using various sensitive sequence search techniques. Phylogenetic analysis reveals several species-specific clusters of serine proteases suggesting their possible involvement in organism-specific functions. Atypical phylogenetic associations suggest an important role for lateral gene transfer events in facilitating the widespread distribution of the serine proteases in the prokaryotes. Domain organisations of the gene products were analysed, employing sensitive sequence search methods, to infer their probable biological functions. Trypsin, subtilisin and Lon protease families account for a significant proportion of the multi-domain representatives, while the D-Ala-D-Ala carboxypeptidase and the Clp protease families are mostly single-domain polypeptides in prokaryotes. Regulatory domains for protein interaction, signalling, pathogenesis, cell adhesion etc. were found tethered to the serine protease domains. Some domain combinations (such as S1-PDZ; LON-AAA-S16 etc. were found to be widespread in the prokaryotic lineages suggesting a critical role in prokaryotes. Conclusion Domain architectures of many serine proteases and their homologues identified in prokaryotes are very different from those observed in eukaryotes

  2. Cloning of a serine proteinase inhibitor from bovine brain: expression in the brain and characterization of its target proteinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaya, N; Nishibori, M; Kawabata, M; Saeki, K

    1996-12-01

    A cDNA encoding of the serine proteinase inhibitor (serpin), B-43, was cloned from the cDNA library of the bovine brain. It encoded 378 amino acids, and the MW of the protein was estimated to be 42.6 kDa, which is consistent with that of the native B-43 purified from the bovine brain. The homology search revealed that B-43 belongs to the ovalbumin branch of the serpin superfamily. Among them, B-43 was most homologous to human placental thrombin inhibitor (PI-6) and its murine counterpart, with the amino acid identity of 76% and 71%, respectively. Northern blot analysis showed that the size of the transcript was 1.4 kb, and that the expression of B-43 in the bovine brain varied depending on the brain regions, i.e. a lower level of expression was observed in the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus compared to the level of expression that was observed in the medulla oblongata. [35S]-labeled B-43 protein was synthesized in vitro by using a rabbit reticulocyte lysate system, which formed complexes with proteinases such as thrombin, trypsin, alpha-chymotrypsin, and 7S nerve growth factor (NGF), but not with urokinase or plasmin. These results, together with the immunohistochemical localization of B-43 in astrocytes and in some neurons which was observed in the previous study suggest that B-43 may be involved in the regulation of serine proteinases present in the brain or extravasated from the blood.

  3. MicroRNA-449a enhances radiosensitivity in CL1-0 lung adenocarcinoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Jyun Liu

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Radiotherapy is often applied for treating lung cancer, but it often fails because of the relative non-susceptibility of lung cancer cells to radiation. MicroRNAs (miRNAs have been reported to modulate the radiosensitivity of lung cancer cells and have the potential to improve the efficacy of radiotherapy. The purpose of this study was to identify a miRNA that can adjust radiosensitivity in lung adenocarcinoma cells. Two lung adenocarcinoma cell lines (CL1-0 and CL1-5 with different metastatic ability and radiosensitivity were used. In order to understand the regulatory mechanisms of differential radiosensitivity in these isogenic tumor cells, both CL1-0 and CL1-5 were treated with 10 Gy radiation, and were harvested respectively at 0, 1, 4, and 24 h after radiation exposure. The changes in expression of miRNA upon irradiation were examined using Illumina Human microRNA BeadChips. Twenty-six miRNAs were identified as having differential expression post-irradiation in CL1-0 or CL1-5 cells. Among these miRNAs, miR-449a, which was down-regulated in CL1-0 cells at 24 h after irradiation, was chosen for further investigation. Overexpression of miR-449a in CL1-0 cells effectively increased irradiation-induced DNA damage and apoptosis, altered the cell cycle distribution and eventually led to sensitization of CL1-0 to irradiation.

  4. Spacesuit Portable Life Support System Breadboard (PLSS 1.0) Development and Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Matt R.; Watts, Carly

    2011-01-01

    A multi-year effort has been carried out at NASA-JSC to develop an advanced Extravehicular Activity (EVA) PLSS design intended to further the current state of the art by increasing operational flexibility, reducing consumables, and increasing robustness. Previous efforts have focused on modeling and analyzing the advanced PLSS architecture, as well as developing key enabling technologies. Like the current International Space Station (ISS) Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) PLSS, the advanced PLSS comprises of three subsystems required to sustain the crew during EVA including the Thermal, Ventilation, and Oxygen Subsystems. This multi-year effort has culminated in the construction and operation of PLSS 1.0, a test rig that simulates full functionality of the advanced PLSS design. PLSS 1.0 integrates commercial off the shelf hardware with prototype technology development components, including the primary and secondary oxygen regulators, ventilation loop fan, Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) swingbed, and Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME). Testing accumulated 239 hours over 45 days, while executing 172 test points. Specific PLSS 1.0 test objectives assessed during this testing include: confirming key individual components perform in a system level test as they have performed during component level testing; identifying unexpected system-level interactions; operating PLSS 1.0 in nominal steady-state EVA modes to baseline subsystem performance with respect to metabolic rate, ventilation loop pressure and flow rate, and environmental conditions; simulating nominal transient EVA operational scenarios; simulating contingency EVA operational scenarios; and further evaluating individual technology development components. Successful testing of the PLSS 1.0 provided a large database of test results that characterize system level and component performance. With the exception of several minor anomalies, the PLSS 1.0 test rig performed as expected; furthermore, many system

  5. Purification and characterization of a serine protease (CPM-2) with fibrinolytic activity from the dung beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Mi Young; Hahn, Bum-Soo; Ryu, Kang Sun; Hwang, Jae Sam; Kim, Yeong Shik

    2005-07-01

    Catharsius protease-2 (CPM-2) was isolated from the body of dung beetles, Catharsius molossus, using a three step purification process (ammonium sulfate fractionation, gel filtration on Bio-Gel P-60, and affinity chromatography on DEAE Affi-Gel blue). The purified CPM-2, having a molecular weight of 24 kDa, was assessed homogeneously by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of CPM-2 was composed of X Val Gln Asp Phe Val Glu Glu Ile Leu. CPM-2 was inactivated by Cu2+ and Zn2+ and strongly inhibited by typical serine proteinase inhibitors such as TLCK, soybean trypsin inhibitor, aprotinin, benzamidine, and alpha1-antitrypsin. However, EDTA, EGTA, cysteine, beta-mercaptoethanol, E64, and elastatinal had little effect on enzyme activity. In addition, antiplasmin and antithrombin III were not sensitive to CPM-2. Based on the results of a fibrinolytic activity test, CPM-2 readily cleaved Aalpha- and Bbeta-chains of fibrinogen and fibrin, and gamma-chain of fibrinogen more slowly. The nonspecific action of the enzyme resulted in extensive hydrolysis, releasing a variety of fibrinopeptides of fibrinogen and fibrin. Polyclonal antibodies of CPM-2 were reactive to the native form of antigen. The ELISA was applied to detect quantities, in nanograms, of the antigen in CPM-2 protein.

  6. Serine proteinase inhibitors from Vipera ammodytes venom. Isolation and kinetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritonja, A; Turk, V; Gubensek, F

    1983-06-15

    Three protein inhibitors of serine proteinases were isolated from the crude venom of the long-nosed viper Vipera ammodytes ammodytes by ion-exchange and gel chromatography. Two of them strongly inhibit trypsin (Ki = 3.4 X 10(-10) and 5.6 X 10(-10) M), while the third one primarily inhibits chymotrypsin (Ki = 4.3 X 10(-9) M). Their Mr values are close to 7000, and pI is 9.8 in both trypsin inhibitors and 10.0 in the chymotrypsin inhibitor. The N-terminal group in the former inhibitors is blocked; arginine is the N-terminal amino acid in the latter. Besides trypsin and alpha-chymotrypsin, the trypsin inhibitors also inhibit plasmin, human plasma kallikrein and porcine pancreatic kallikrein. The chymotrypsin inhibitor inhibits trypsin and human plasma kallikrein only weakly and does not inhibit plasmin and porcine pancreatic kallikrein. According to their properties, all three inhibitors belong to the Kunitz-pancreatic trypsin inhibitor family of inhibitors.

  7. Molecular Radiation of {13CO (J=1-0) and C18O (J=1-0) from OMC--3%OMC--3的13CO(1--0)和C18O(1--0)分子辐射

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙锦; 宋丽敏; 张燕平; 张海燕

    2000-01-01

    13CO (J=1-0) and C18O (J=1-0)emissions of the OMC--3 in the Orion Amolecular cloud were mapped with the 13.7 m millimeter wave telescopeof Purple Mountain Observatory using a higher spatial resolution. Theoverall structure of the cloud and the average physical parameters of all the 13CO (J=1-0)and C18O (J=1-0) cores are derived. We find that the cores are well associated withthe youngest objects --- class 0 sources: MMS1, MMS4, MMS6 with the 13CO core centers and MMS7, MMS8, MMS9 with the C18O core centers. The velocity structure is also analyzed for the whole OMC--3 region. There is a 1.7 km/s velocity gradient from south tonorth connecting the 13CO (J=1-0) and C18O (J=1-0) cores. And the redshifted clumps are consistently to the north, and the blushifted clumps, to the south of OMC--3. Star formation in the region is also discussed.%利用紫金山天文台青海站的13.7 m毫米波望远镜,对Orion A 分子云中的OMC--3区域, 进行了较高分辨率的13CO(J=1-0)和C18O(J=1-0)分子辐射的成图观测. 给出了该分子云中13CO和 C18O云核分布的整体结构和平均物理参数.观测发现, 该分子云的13CO和 C18O的云核中心分别与最年轻的天体---Class 0类源MMS1, MMS4, MMS6和MMS7, MMS8, MMS9成协. 此外,通过分析OMC--3整个区域的速度场结构,发现沿C18O和13CO云核方向从南到北有一个 1.7 km/s 的速度场梯度,而分子云的红、蓝移团块则分别趋于云的北部和南部. 并对OMC--3区的恒星形成特征进行了讨论.

  8. Psychometric properties of the NOMO 1.0 tested among adult powered-mobility users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sund, Terje; Brandt, Åse; Anttila, Heidi

    2017-01-01

    (Participation Repertoire). PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate a range of psychometric properties of the NOMO 1.0 in a sample of adult powered mobility device (PMD) users. METHOD: Data collected from PMD users ( N = 248) in Denmark, Finland, and Norway as part of a larger study were analyzed using state...... scale and six components of the Frequency scale. IMPLICATIONS: The NOMO 1.0 should be used for research purposes and not for clinical practice. Better reliability should be established for the Need for Assistance and Ease/Difficulty scales prior to further psychometric testing to establish the validity...

  9. Spacesuit Portable Life Support System Breadboard (PLSS 1.0) Development and Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Carly A.; Vogel, Matt

    2012-01-01

    A multi-year effort has been carried out at the Johnson Space Center to develop an advanced EVA PLSS design intended to further the current state of the art by increasing operational flexibility, reducing consumables, and increasing robustness. This multi-year effort has culminated in the construction and operation of PLSS 1.0, a test rig that simulates full functionality of the advanced PLSS design. PLSS 1.0 integrates commercial off-the-shelf hardware with prototype technology development components, including the primary and secondary oxygen regulators, ventilation loop fan, Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) swingbed, and Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME). PLSS 1.0 was tested from June 17th through September 30th, 2011. Testing accumulated 233 hours over 45 days, while executing 119 test points. An additional 164 hours of operational time were accrued during the test series, bringing the total operational time for PLSS 1.0 testing to 397 hours. Specific PLSS 1.0 test objectives assessed during this testing include: (1) Confirming prototype components perform in a system level test as they have performed during component level testing, (2) Identifying unexpected system-level interactions (3) Operating PLSS 1.0 in nominal steady-state EVA modes to baseline subsystem performance with respect to metabolic rate, ventilation loop pressure and flow rate, and environmental conditions (4) Simulating nominal transient EVA operational scenarios (5) Simulating contingency EVA operational scenarios (6) Further evaluating prototype technology development components Successful testing of the PLSS 1.0 provided a large database of test results that characterize system level and component performance. With the exception of several minor anomalies, the PLSS 1.0 test rig performed as expected. Documented anomalies and observations include: (1) Ventilation loop fan controller issues at high fan speeds (near 70,000 rpm, whereas the fan speed during nominal operations would be closer

  10. ELEFUNT test results under FX/FORTRAN Version 1. 0 on the Alliant FX/8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cody, W.J.

    1986-07-01

    This paper summarizes and analyzes the results of running various programs designed to test the arithmetic and the Fortran elementary and intrinsic function packages. The programs run include MACHAR and the ELEFUNT suite of transportable Fortran test programs, from the Software Manual for the Elementary Functions by Cody and Waite, the Fortran version of the arithmetic test program PARANOIA, and the prototype programs from the nascent INTFUNT test suite for intrinsic functions. All tests were run using Release 1.0 of FX/Fortran under Release 1.0 of the Concentrix operating system. 7 refs., 4 tabs.

  11. caGrid 1.0: a Grid enterprise architecture for cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oster, Scott; Langella, Stephen; Hastings, Shannon; Ervin, David; Madduri, Ravi; Kurc, Tahsin; Siebenlist, Frank; Covitz, Peter; Shanbhag, Krishnakant; Foster, Ian; Saltz, Joel

    2007-10-11

    caGrid is the core Grid architecture of the NCI-sponsored cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG) program. The current release, caGrid version 1.0, is developed as the production Grid software infrastructure of caBIG. Based on feedback from adopters of the previous version (caGrid 0.5), it has been significantly enhanced with new features and improvements to existing components. This paper presents an overview of caGrid 1.0, its main components, and enhancements over caGrid 0.5.

  12. EVOLUTION OF THE WORLD WIDE WEB: FROM WEB 1.0 TO WEB 4.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sareh Aghaei

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The World Wide Web as the largest information construct has had much progress since its advent. Thispaper provides a background of the evolution of the web from web 1.0 to web 4.0. Web 1.0 as a web ofinformation connections, Web 2.0 as a web of people connections, Web 3.0 as a web of knowledgeconnections and web 4.0 as a web of intelligence connections are described as four generations of the webin the paper.

  13. Theoretical Study of the Photochemical Reaction Mechanism of Bicyclo[4.1.0]heptane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The photochemical reaction of bicyclo[4.1.0]heptane was studied at the complete active space SCF(CASSCF) level with a 6-31G* basis set. A multireference MP2 algorithm that has been implemented in the Gaussian program was used to correct the energetics for the dynamic correlation. Starting from the Franck-Condon excitation of bicyclo [4.1.0] heptane, the reaction is via two bonds' breakage to give rise to 1,6-heptdiene. One internal conversion(IC) and two intersystem crossing points(ISC) were located and are discussed separately. The reaction proceeds to its own characteristic product on the ground state.

  14. Heterodiffusion of Ag adatoms on imperfect Au(1 1 0) surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    El koraychy, E.; Sbiaai, K.; Mazroui, M.; Ferrando, R.; Boughaleb, Y.

    2017-02-01

    The hetero-diffusion of Ag adatoms on imperfect Au(1 1 0) surfaces is studied using Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations. The atomic interactions are described by an Embedded Atom Method (EAM) potential. Static activation energies governing various diffusion processes (jumps and exchanges) are calculated by quenched MD, finding that activation energies for interlayer mobility at straight step edges are somewhat larger than those on the flat surface in the cross-channel [1 0 0]-direction, while interlayer barriers at kinks are considerably lower. Dynamic activation energies are calculated at high temperature from the Arrhenius plots of different diffusion mechanisms and compared to static barriers.

  15. Covariance Data File Formats for Whisper-1.0 & Whisper-1.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Forrest B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rising, Michael Evan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-01-09

    Whisper is a statistical analysis package developed in 2014 to support nuclear criticality safety (NCS) validation. It uses the sensitivity profile data for an application as computed by MCNP6 along with covariance files for the nuclear data to determine a baseline upper-subcritical-limit (USL) for the application. Whisper version 1.0 was first developed and used at LANL in 2014. During 2015-2016, Whisper was updated to version 1.1 and is to be included with the upcoming release of MCNP6.2. This report describes the file formats used for the covariance data in both Whisper-1.0 and Whisper-1.1.

  16. Data-driven Radiative Hydrodynamic Modeling of the 2014 March 29 X1.0 Solar Flare

    CERN Document Server

    da Costa, Fatima Rubio; Petrosian, Vahe'; Liu, Wei; Allred, Joel C

    2016-01-01

    Spectroscopic observations of solar flares provide critical diagnostics of the physical conditions in the flaring atmosphere. Some key features in observed spectra have not yet been accounted for in existing flare models. Here we report a data-driven simulation of the well-observed X1.0 flare on 2014 March 29 that can reconcile some well-known spectral discrepancies. We analyzed spectra of the flaring region from the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) in MgII h&k, the Interferometric BIdimensional Spectropolarimeter at the Dunn Solar Telescope (DST/IBIS) in H$\\alpha$ 6563 {\\AA} and CaII 8542 {\\AA}, and the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscope Imager (RHESSI) in hard X-rays. We constructed a multi-threaded flare loop model and used the electron flux inferred from RHESSI data as the input to the radiative hydrodynamic code RADYN to simulate the atmospheric response. We then synthesized various chromospheric emission lines and compared them with the IRIS and IBIS observations. In general, t...

  17. An analysis of five serine transfer ribonucleic acids from Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, B N; Dunn, R; Gillam, I; Tener, G M; Armstrong, D J; Skoog, F; Frihart, C R; Leonard, N J

    1975-01-25

    Crude tRNA from adult Drosophila melanogaster was fractionated on bensoylated-diethylaminoethyl cellulose columns. The eluate was assayed for both amino acid acceptance and cytokinin activity. Most of the cytokinin activity was associated with a peak of serine acceptance. The five major serine tRNAs were purified by chromatography on benzoylated-dietyhlaminoethyl cellulose and reversed phase chromatography-5 columns. The major species, tRNA7-Ser was isolated from this tRNA and was shown to be N-6-(delta-2-isopentenyl)adenosine (i-6A) on the basis of ultraviolet and mass spectral data. The nucleoside somposition of all five serine tRNAs was determined directly and by the 3-H derivative method. They all contain pseudouridine, ribothymidine, 1-methyladenosine, 5-methylcytosine, N-2-dimethylguanosine, 5, 6-hydrouridine, and 3-methylcytosine, while two contain an unidentified nucleoside, and one containes 1-methylguanosine. These techniques also confirmed the presence of i-6A in tRNA7-Ser as well as showing its presence in tRNA6-Ser and tRNA4-Ser. These three tRNA-Ser species exhibit marked changes in elution from reversed phase chromatography-5 columns as a function of temperature and this may be related to their minor base composition. The tRNAs-Ser were bound to ribosomes in response to the following triplets: tRNA2-Ser, AGU, AGC; tRNA4-Ser, UCG; tRNA5-Ser, AGU, AGC; tRNA7-Ser, UCG.

  18. RBI, a one-domain alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitor with completely independent binding sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskos, K; Huber-Wunderlich, M; Glockshuber, R

    1996-11-11

    The bifunctional inhibitor from Ragi (Eleusine coracana Gaertneri) (RBI) is the only member of the alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitor family that inhibits both trypsin and alpha-amylase. Here, we show that both enzymes simultaneously and independently bind to RBI. The recently solved three-dimensional NMR structure of RBI has revealed that the inhibitor possesses a hitherto unknown fold for serine proteinase and alpha-amylase inhibitors. Despite its different fold, RBI obeys the standard mechanism observed for most protein inhibitors of serine proteinases and is a strong, competitive inhibitor of bovine trypsin (Ki = 1.2 +/- 0.2 nM). RBI is also a competitive inhibitor of porcine alpha-amylase (Ki = 11 +/- 2 nM) when a disaccharide is used as a substrate of alpha-amylase. However, the inhibition mode becomes complex when larger (> or = 7 saccharide units) alpha-amylase substrates are used. A second saccharide binding site on porcine alpha-amylase may enable larger oligosaccharides to displace RBI from its binding site in an intramolecular reaction.

  19. SHIELD 1.0: development of a shielding calculator program in diagnostic radiology; SHIELD 1.0: desenvolvimento de um programa de calculo de blindagem em radiodiagnostico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Romulo R.; Real, Jessica V.; Luz, Renata M. da [Hospital Sao Lucas (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Friedrich, Barbara Q.; Silva, Ana Maria Marques da, E-mail: ana.marques@pucrs.br [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2013-08-15

    In shielding calculation of radiological facilities, several parameters are required, such as occupancy, use factor, number of patients, source-barrier distance, area type (controlled and uncontrolled), radiation (primary or secondary) and material used in the barrier. The shielding design optimization requires a review of several options about the physical facility design and, mainly, the achievement of the best cost-benefit relationship for the shielding material. To facilitate the development of this kind of design, a program to calculate the shielding in diagnostic radiology was implemented, based on data and limits established by National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) 147 and SVS-MS 453/98. The program was developed in C⌗ language, and presents a graphical interface for user data input and reporting capabilities. The module initially implemented, called SHIELD 1.0, refers to calculating barriers for conventional X-ray rooms. The program validation was performed by the comparison with the results of examples of shielding calculations presented in NCRP 147.

  20. Properties of serine: glyoxylate aminotransferase purified from Arabidopsis thaliana leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maria Kendziorek; Andrzej Paszkowski

    2008-01-01

    The photorespiratory enzyme L-serine: glyoxylate aminotransferase (SGAT; EC 2.6.1.45) was purified from Arabidopsis thaliana leaves. The final enzyme was approximately 80% pure as revealed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with silver staining. The identity of the enzyme was confirmed by LC/MS/MS analysis.The molecular mass estimated by gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex G-150 under non-denaturing conditions, mass spectrometry (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization/time of flight technique) and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was 82.4 kDa,42.0 kDa, and 39.8 kDa, respectively, indicating dimer as the active form. The optimum Ph value was 9.2. The enzyme activity was inhibited by aminooxyacetate and β-chloro-L-alanine both compounds reacting with the carbonyl group of pyridoxal phosphate. The enzyme's transaminating activity with L-alanine and glyoxylate as substrates was approximately 55% of that observed with L-serine and glyoxylate, The lower Km value (1.25 Mm) for L-alanine, compared with that of other plant SGATs, and the kcat/Km(Ala) ratio being approximately 2-fold higher than kcat/Km(Ser) suggested that, during photorespiration, Ala and Ser are used by Arabidopsis SGAT with equal efficiency as amino group donors for glyoxylate. The equilibrium constant (Keq), derived from the Haldane relation, for the transamination reaction between L-serine and glyoxylate with the formation of hydroxypyruvate and glycine was 79.1, strongly favoring glycine synthesis. However, it was accompanied by a low Km value of 2.83 Mm for glycine. A comparison of some kinetic properties of the studied enzymes with the recombinant Arabidopsis SGATs previously obtained revealed substantial differences. The ratio of the velocity of the transamination reaction with L-alanine and glyoxylate as substrates versus that with L-serine and glyoxylate was 1:1.8 for the native enzyme, whereas it was 1: 7 for the recombinant SGAT

  1. Association between intrinsic disorder and serine/threonine phosphorylation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajinder Pal Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Serine/threonine phosphorylation is an important mechanism that is involved in the regulation of protein function. In eukaryotes, phosphorylation occurs predominantly in intrinsically disordered regions of proteins. Though serine/threonine phosphorylation and protein disorder are much less prevalent in prokaryotes, some bacteria have high levels of serine/threonine phosphorylation and disorder, including the medically important M. tuberculosis. Here I show that serine/threonine phosphorylation sites in M. tuberculosis are highly enriched in intrinsically disordered regions, indicating similarity in the substrate recognition mechanisms of eukaryotic and M. tuberculosis kinases. Serine/threonine phosphorylation has been linked to the pathogenicity and survival of M. tuberculosis. Thus, a better understanding of how its kinases recognize their substrates could have important implications in understanding and controlling the biology of this deadly pathogen. These results also indicate that the association between serine/threonine phosphorylation and disorder is not a feature restricted to eukaryotes.

  2. Jean Lafitte 2013, 1.0 Meter LiDAR, Classified point cloud

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) dataset is a survey of the Jean Lafitte,G13PD00214, 1.0 Meter LiDAR Survey Area in south of New Orleans and encompasses 77...

  3. Optical Positions of ICRF Sources from CTIO 1.0M Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE...proyecto del USNO para enlazar los sistemas de referencia en radio y óptico, se tomaron datos con el telescopio CTIO de 1.0 m in 2009. Los primeros

  4. Structural changes in VT1-0 titanium induced by deformation during explosion welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarova, E. B.; Esikov, M. A.; Gontarenko, A. S.; Sameishcheva, T. S.

    2012-09-01

    The hardening of VT1-0 titanium is studied during the formation of a multilayer material by explosion welding. The structural transformations in titanium plates are analyzed by metallographic and electron-microscopic methods. The mechanical properties of the welded multilayer titanium stacks are estimated using static and dynamic mechanical tests.

  5. Synthesis NiAl{sub 1,0}Fe{sub 1,0}O{sub 4} catalyst by the combustion reaction to their use in the shift reaction (WGSR); Sintese do catalisador de NiAl{sub 1,0}Fe{sub 1,0}O{sub 4} por reacao de combustao visando sua utilizacao na reacao de shift (WGSR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, P.T.A.; Costa, A.C.F.M.; Neiva, L.S.; Gama, L. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais; Argolo, F.; Andrade, H.M.C. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2009-07-01

    This work aims at the synthesis of catalyst NiAl{sub 1,0}Fe{sub 1,0}O{sub 4} by combustion reaction using urea as fuel, to evaluate its performance in the production of hydrogen by the reaction of displacement of water vapor (WGSR). The initial composition of the solution was based on valencia total oxidizing and reducing reagents based on the concepts of the chemistry of propellants, using container as a crucible of glassy silica. The resulting powder was characterized by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption isotherms (BET), scanning electronic microscope and catalytic tests. The DRX results reveal the presents majoritary phase NiAl{sub 1,0}Fe{sub 1,0}O{sub 4} spinel, the catalyst presents surface area 28 m{sup 2}/g and isotherms type III. Higher conversion CO/CO{sub 2} of 75% CO conversion observed at 500 deg C and catalytic activity of 43 mmolg{sup -1}.h{sup -1} at 450 deg C. (author)

  6. SAGE FOR WINDOWS (WSAGE) VERSION 1.0 SOLVENT ALTERNATIVES GUIDE - USER'S GUIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The guide provides instructions for using the Solvent Alternatives Guide (SAGE) for Windows, version 1.0. The guide assumes that the user is familiar with the fundamentals of operating Windows 3.1 (or higher) on a personal computer under the DOS 5.0 (or higher) operating system. ...

  7. SAGE FOR MACINTOSH (MSAGE) VERSION 1.0 SOLVENT ALTERNATIVES GUIDE - USER'S GUIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The guide provides instructions for using the Solvent Alternatives Guide (SAGE) for Macintosh, version 1.0. The guide assumes that the user is familiar with the fundamentals of operating aMacintosh personal computer under the System 7.0 (or higher) operating system. SAGE for ...

  8. On-farm evaluation of the Salmon Welfare Index Model (SWIM 1.0)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folkedal, O.; Pettersen, J.M.; Bracke, M.B.; Stien, L.H.; Nilsson, J.; Martins, C.; Breck, O.; Midtlyng, P.J.; Kristiansen, T.

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the operational feasibility of the recently developed Salmon Welfare Index Model (SWIM 1.0) designed for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L) in production cages. Ten salmon farms containing spring smolts were visited twice, first between May and June the first year in s

  9. Aging Strengthening Mechanism of the Cu-1.0Zr Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ka; Tian, Baohong; Zhang, Yi; Liu, Yong; Volinsky, Alex A.

    2017-08-01

    The effects of different aging processes on electrical conductivity and microhardness of a Cu-1.0Zr alloy were investigated. Microstructure and precipitates of the aged alloy were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy, and the aging strengthening mechanism of the Cu-1.0Zr alloy is discussed. Good comprehensive performance of the Cu-1.0Zr alloy can be obtained by aging at 773K (500 °C) for 1 hour, for which electrical conductivity reached 80.2 pct IACS, while microhardness reached 155.6 HV. Small amounts of a Zr-rich phase and annealing twins were present in the solid solution. A large amount of 3-18 nm Cu10Zr7 precipitates were present in the copper matrix. At the early stage of aging, the precipitates were small and their density was relatively low. As aging time progressed, the precipitates gradually increased in size. After overaging, the precipitated phase was dissolved, resulting in reduced microhardness. After aging at 723 K (450 °C) for 6 hours, the precipitates were Cu10Zr7. The peak Cu-1.0Zr alloy performance was achieved after aging at 773 K (500 °C) for 1 hour, and the main reason for the performance increase is coherent strain hardening.

  10. Soil and Terrain Database for Malawi (ver. 1.0) (SOTER_Malawi)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempen, B.

    2014-01-01

    The Soil and Terrain database for Malawi (version 1.0), at scale 1:1 million, was compiled based on the soil map of Malawi at scale 1:250,000 (compiled by the Land Resources Evaluation Project) that was complemented with soil boundary information from the provisional soil map at scale 1:1 million. T

  11. SOTER-based soil parameter estimates for Southern Africa (ver. 1.0)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batjes, N.H.

    2014-01-01

    This harmonized set of soil parameter estimates for Southern Africa has been derived from the 1:2M scale Soil and Terrain Database for Southern Africa (SOTERSAF ver. 1.0) and ISRIC-WISE soil profile database. The land surface of Southern Africa has been characterized using 4022 unique SOTER units, c

  12. Soil and Terrain Database of Central Africa (ver. 1.0) SOTERCAF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, van V.W.P.; Verdoodt, A.; Dijkshoorn, J.A.; Batjes, N.H.

    2013-01-01

    The Soil and Terrrain database of Central Africa (SOTERCAF, version 1.0) was compiled at scale 1:2 million for the Democratic Republic of Congo and at scale 1:1 million for Rwanda and Burundi. The SOTERCAF compilation has been a joint collaboration of the Soil Science Laboratory of the University of

  13. Natuurplangenerator maken van natuurscenario's voor Nederland : gebruikershandleiding (versie 1.0)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eupen, van M.; Nieuwenhuizen, W.; Farjon, J.M.J.; Hilferink, M.

    2002-01-01

    Met als uitgangspunt de door RIVM, Vrije Universiteit en DLO ontwikkelde Ruimtescanner, is het NPG 1.0-model ontwikkeld door de functionaliteit voor natuurscenario’s uit te breiden, natuurspecifieke criteria en strategieën inpasbaar te maken en de gebruiksvriendelijkheid te vergroten

  14. STATE ACID RAIN RESEARCH AND SCREENING SYSTEM - VERSION 1.0 USER'S MANUAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report is a user's manual that describes Version 1.0 of EPA's STate Acid Rain Research and Screening System (STARRSS), developed to assist utility regulatory commissions in reviewing utility acid rain compliance plans. It is a screening tool that is based on scenario analysis...

  15. Wayne and Washtenaw Counties 1.0 PPSM LiDAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TASK NAME: Wayne and Washtenaw Counties 1.0 PPSM LiDAR LiDAR Data Acquisition and Processing Production Task USGS CONTRACT: 07CRCN0006 TASK ORDER NUMBER: G09PD00300...

  16. HCN(1-0) enhancement in the bar of NGC 2903

    CERN Document Server

    Leon, S; Pérez-Ramírez, D; Verdes-Montenegro, L; Lee, S W; Flaquer, B Ocana

    2008-01-01

    We have mapped the \\hcn emission from two spiral galaxies, NGC2903 and NGC3504 to study the gas properties in the bars. The HCN(1-0) emission is detected in the center and along the bar of NGC2903. The line ratio HCN(1-0)/CO(1-0) ranges from 0.07 to 0.12 with the lowest value in the center. The enhancement of HCN(1-0) emission along the bar indicates a higher fraction of dense molecular gas in the bar than at the center. The mass of dense molecular gas in the center (2.2x 10^7 Msun) is about 6 times lower than that in the bar (1.2x 10^8 Msun). The total star formation rate (SFR) is estimated to be 1.4 Msun/yr, where the SFR at the center is 1.9 times higher than that in the bar. The time scale of consumption of the dense molecular gas in the center is about 3x 10^7 yr which is much shorter than that in the bar of about 2 to 10 x 10^8 yr. The dynamical time scale of inflow of the gas from the bar to the center is shorter than the consumption time scale in the bar, which suggests that the star formation (SF) ac...

  17. Temperature programmed desorption of CO from CO pre-covered Mo(1 1 0)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raaen, Steinar, E-mail: sraaen@ntnu.no [Physics Department, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NTNU, 7491 Trondheim (Norway); Yu, Xiaofeng [Seksjon for naturfag, Høgskolen i Nesna, 8700 Nesna (Norway)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Desorption of CO from CO pre-covered Mo(1 1 0) is investigated. • Large variations in CO desorption spectra are observed. • Multiple adsorption sites are available on the surface. • Lateral interaction between adsorbed molecules is important. - Abstract: Adsorption and desorption of CO on clean and CO pre-covered Mo(1 1 0) have been studied by temperature programmed desorption (TPD), low energy electron diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. It was found that adsorption and subsequent desorption of CO from Mo(1 1 0) and CO pre-covered Mo(1 1 0) show large differences in the TPD spectra in the low temperature region from 150 to 400 K. In the case of the pre-covered sample a dramatically increased width to lower temperatures was observed. The increased width at higher CO coverage is argued to result from a distribution of adsorption sites and increased lateral interactions between adsorbed CO molecules.

  18. Safe Surgery Trainer Project Management Plan (PMP), Version 1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-30

    Methodology including SCRUM (see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scrum_(management) for more info). Although this Safe Surgery Trainer - PMP Version 1.0 5...3.5  High Level Task Identification and Scheduling Methodology ......................................................................... 8  4...30/2014 Distribution Statement – Approved for Public Release, Distribution is Unlimited. 8 methodology does not specifically describe a life cycle

  19. SiO adsorption on a p(2 × 2) reconstructed Si(1 0 0) surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Violanda, M.; Rudolph, H.

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated the adsorption mechanism of SiO molecule incident on a clean Si(1 0 0) p(2 × 2) reconstructed surface using density functional theory based methods. Stable adsorption geometries of SiO on Si surface, as well as their corresponding activation and adsorption energies are identifie

  20. STATE ACID RAIN RESEARCH AND SCREENING SYSTEM - VERSION 1.0 USER'S MANUAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report is a user's manual that describes Version 1.0 of EPA's STate Acid Rain Research and Screening System (STARRSS), developed to assist utility regulatory commissions in reviewing utility acid rain compliance plans. It is a screening tool that is based on scenario analysis...

  1. Patriot Script 1.0.13 User Guide for PEM 1.3.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleland, Timothy James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kubicek, Deborah Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stroud, Phillip David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Cuellar-Hengartner, Leticia [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mathis, Mark [Descartes Labs, Inc., Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-02

    This document provides an updated user guide for Patriot Script Version 1.0.13, for release with PEM 1.3.1 (LAUR-1422817) that adds description and instructions for the new excursion capability (see section 4.5.1).

  2. CloneAssistant 1.0: a stand-alone software for automated cloning primer design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Chaogang; Meng, Yijun; Lv, Shaolei; Zhong, Wei; Wang, Zheyu; Chen, Ming

    2010-11-01

    "CloneAssistant 1.0" is a stand-alone software compatible with the current Windows operating systems, which can automatically design cloning primers with full consideration of the sequence information of vectors and genes, cloning strategies, the principles of primer design, reading frames, position effects, and enzymatic reaction conditions for users. Five internal XML (extensible markup language) databases [restriction enzymes, plasmids, universal buffers, PCR (polymerase chain reaction) protection bases, and an MCS (multiple cloning site) double digest interference database] were established to serve as the basic support for "CloneAssistant 1.0". The primer pairs designed are sorted according to the difficulty of the follow-up experiments. Once a primer pair is selected by the user, detailed experimental guidance for this primer pair will be provided. In addition, "CloneAssistant 1.0" can be used for restriction map analysis, ORF (open reading frame) finding, sequence alignment and complementary analysis, translation, restriction enzyme and universal buffer queries, and isocaudamer analysis. "CloneAssistant 1.0" makes gene clone design much easier, and it can be freely downloaded from http://bis.zju.edu.cn/clone. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. VO2@RER1.0: a novel submaximal cardiopulmonary exercise index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Clifford; Kazmucha, Jeffrey; Kim, Nancy; Suryani, Reny; Olson, Inger

    2010-01-01

    Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) is the "gold standard" by which to assess functional capacity; however, it is effort dependent. VO2@RER1.0 is defined when VO2 = VCO2. Between December 22, 1997 and November 9, 2004, 305 pediatric subjects underwent cycle ergometer cardiopulmonary exercise testing, exercised to exhaustion, and reached a peak respiratory exchange ratio > or = 1.10. Group 1 subjects achieved a peak VO2 > or = 80% of predicted VO2max; group 2 subjects achieved a peak VO2 equation was created. VO2@RER1.0 data from groups 2 and 3 were plotted onto the normative graph. Contingency table and relative-risk analysis showed that an abnormal VO2@RER1.0 predicted an abnormal peak VO2(positive-predictive value 83%, negative-predictive value 85%, sensitivity 84%, and specificity 84%). VO2@RER1.0 is a highly sensitive, specific, and predictive submaximal index of functional capacity. This submaximal index is easy to identify without subjectivity. This index may aid in the evaluation of subjects who cannot exercise to maximal parameters.

  4. Space Suit Portable Life Support System Test Bed (PLSS 1.0) Development and Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Carly; Campbell, Colin; Vogel, Matthew; Conger, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    A multi-year effort has been carried out at NASA-JSC to develop an advanced extra-vehicular activity Portable Life Support System (PLSS) design intended to further the current state of the art by increasing operational flexibility, reducing consumables, and increasing robustness. Previous efforts have focused on modeling and analyzing the advanced PLSS architecture, as well as developing key enabling technologies. Like the current International Space Station Extra-vehicular Mobility Unit PLSS, the advanced PLSS comprises three subsystems required to sustain the crew during extra-vehicular activity including the Thermal, Ventilation, and Oxygen Subsystems. This multi-year effort has culminated in the construction and operation of PLSS 1.0, a test bed that simulates full functionality of the advanced PLSS design. PLSS 1.0 integrates commercial off the shelf hardware with prototype technology development components, including the primary and secondary oxygen regulators, Ventilation Subsystem fan, Rapid Cycle Amine swingbed carbon dioxide and water vapor removal device, and Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator heat rejection device. The overall PLSS 1.0 test objective was to demonstrate the capability of the Advanced PLSS to provide key life support functions including suit pressure regulation, carbon dioxide and water vapor removal, thermal control and contingency purge operations. Supplying oxygen was not one of the specific life support functions because the PLSS 1.0 test was not oxygen rated. Nitrogen was used for the working gas. Additional test objectives were to confirm PLSS technology development components performance within an integrated test bed, identify unexpected system level interactions, and map the PLSS 1.0 performance with respect to key variables such as crewmember metabolic rate and suit pressure. Successful PLSS 1.0 testing completed 168 test points over 44 days of testing and produced a large database of test results that characterize system level

  5. Reaction pathway of tryptophanase-catalyzed L-tryptophan synthesis from D-serine

    OpenAIRE

    Shimada, Akihiko; Ozaki, Haruka; Saito, Takeshi; Fujii, Noriko

    2011-01-01

    Tryptophanase, L-tryptophan indole-lyase with extremely absolute stereospecificity, can change the stereospecificity in concentrated diammonium hydrogenphosphate solution. While tryptophanase is not inert to d-serine in the absence of diammonium hydrogenphosphate, it can undergo L-tryptophan synthesis from d-serine along with indole in the presence of it. It has been well known that tryptophanase synthesizes L-tryptophan from l-serine through a β-substitution mechanism of the ping-pong type. ...

  6. Faddeev calculation of 3 alpha and alpha alpha Lambda systems using alpha alpha resonating-group method kernel

    CERN Document Server

    Fujiwara, Y; Kohno, M; Suzuki, Y; Baye, D; Sparenberg, J M

    2004-01-01

    We carry out Faddeev calculations of three-alpha (3 alpha) and two-alpha plus Lambda (alpha alpha Lambda) systems, using two-cluster resonating-group method kernels. The input includes an effective two-nucleon force for the alpha alpha resonating-group method and a new effective Lambda N force for the Lambda alpha interaction. The latter force is a simple two-range Gaussian potential for each spin-singlet and triplet state, generated from the phase-shift behavior of the quark-model hyperon-nucleon interaction, fss2, by using an inversion method based on supersymmetric quantum mechanics. Owing to the exact treatment of the Pauli-forbidden states between the clusters, the present three-cluster Faddeev formalism can describe the mutually related, alpha alpha, 3 alpha and alpha alpha Lambda systems, in terms of a unique set of the baryon-baryon interactions. For the three-range Minnesota force which describes the alpha alpha phase shifts quite accurately, the ground-state and excitation energies of 9Be Lambda are...

  7. Short hydrogen bonds in the catalytic mechanism of serine proteases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLADIMIR LESKOVAC

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The survey of crystallographic data from the Protein Data Bank for 37 structures of trypsin and other serine proteases at a resolution of 0.78–1.28 Å revealed the presence of hydrogen bonds in the active site of the enzymes, which are formed between the catalytic histidine and aspartate residues and are on average 2.7 Å long. This is the typical bond length for normal hydrogen bonds. The geometric properties of the hydrogen bonds in the active site indicate that the H atom is not centered between the heteroatoms of the catalytic histidine and aspartate residues in the active site. Taken together, these findings exclude the possibility that short “low-barrier” hydrogen bonds are formed in the ground state structure of the active sites examined in this work. Some time ago, it was suggested by Cleland that the “low-barrier hydrogen bond” hypothesis is operative in the catalytic mechanism of serine proteases, and requires the presence of short hydrogen bonds around 2.4 Å long in the active site, with the H atom centered between the catalytic heteroatoms. The conclusions drawn from this work do not exclude the validity of the “low-barrier hydrogen bond” hypothesis at all, but they merely do not support it in this particular case, with this particular class of enzymes.

  8. Purification and characterization of D-serine deaminase activator protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heincz, M C; Bornstein, S M; McFall, E

    1984-10-01

    We purified the dsdC gene product, the specific activator of dsdA (D-serine deaminase) gene expression, to about 25% homogeneity from a strain in which its expression was amplified 100-fold. The purification involved, successively: DNase and high-salt treatment of cell extracts, DNA-cellulose chromatography, and Dyematrex (Amicon Corp.) column chromatography. We identified the protein as a discrete spot on two-dimensional O'Farrell gels after the DNA-cellulose step and quantitated it by densitometry. The active form was found to be a dimer. We estimated that there were eight activator dimers per wild-type cell. The activator is a slightly basic protein, with an experimental Km for its ligand D-serine of about 7 X 10(-6)M. The low concentration of the activator in wild-type cells and its autorepression may explain the previously observed partial dominance of dsdC+ in dsdCc/dsdC+ merodiploids.

  9. Biochemical characterization of Acacia schweinfurthii serine proteinase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odei-Addo, Frank; Frost, Carminita; Smith, Nanette; Ogawa, Tomohisa; Muramoto, Koji; Oliva, Maria Luiza Vilela; Gráf, László; Naude, Ryno

    2014-10-01

    One of the many control mechanisms of serine proteinases is their specific inhibition by protein proteinase inhibitors. An extract of Acacia schweinfurthii was screened for potential serine proteinase inhibition. It was successfully purified to homogeneity by precipitating with 80% (v/v) acetone and sequential chromatographic steps, including ion-exchange, affinity purification and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Reducing sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis conditions revealed an inhibitor (ASTI) consisting of two polypeptide chains A and B of approximate molecular weights of 16 and 10 kDa, respectively, and under non-reducing conditions, 26 kDa was observed. The inhibitor was shown to inhibit bovine trypsin (Ki of 3.45 nM) at an approximate molar ratio of inhibitor:trypsin (1:1). The A- and B-chains revealed complete sequences of 140 and 40 amino acid residues, respectively. Sequence similarity (70%) was reported between ASTI A-chain and ACTI A-chain (Acacia confusa) using ClustalW. The B-chain produced a 76% sequence similarity between ASTI and Leucaena leucocephala trypsin inhibitor.

  10. Okadaic acid: the archetypal serine/threonine protein phosphatase inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dounay, A B; Forsyth, C J

    2002-11-01

    As the first recognized member of the "okadaic acid class" of phosphatase inhibitors, the marine natural product okadaic acid is perhaps the most well-known member of a diverse array of secondary metabolites that have emerged as valuable probes for studying the roles of various cellular protein serine/threonine phosphatases. This review provides a historical perspective on the role that okadaic acid has played in stimulating a broad spectrum of modern scientific research as a result of the natural product's ability to bind to and inhibit important classes of protein serine / threonine phosphatases. The relationships between the structure and biological activities of okadaic acid are briefly reviewed, as well as the structural information regarding the particular cellular receptors protein phosphatases 1 (PP1) and 2A. Laboratory syntheses of okadaic acid and its analogs are thoroughly reviewed. Finally, an interpretation of the critical contacts observed between okadaic acid and PP1 by X-ray crystallography is provided, and specific molecular recognition hypotheses that are testable via the synthesis and assay of non-natural analogs of okadaic acid are suggested.

  11. Mechanism of Ribonuclease III Catalytic Regulation by Serine Phosphorylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gone, Swapna; Alfonso-Prieto, Mercedes; Paudyal, Samridhdi; Nicholson, Allen W.

    2016-05-01

    Ribonuclease III (RNase III) is a conserved, gene-regulatory bacterial endonuclease that cleaves double-helical structures in diverse coding and noncoding RNAs. RNase III is subject to multiple levels of control, reflective of its global regulatory functions. Escherichia coli (Ec) RNase III catalytic activity is known to increase during bacteriophage T7 infection, reflecting the expression of the phage-encoded protein kinase, T7PK. However, the mechanism of catalytic enhancement is unknown. This study shows that Ec-RNase III is phosphorylated on serine in vitro by purified T7PK, and identifies the targets as Ser33 and Ser34 in the N-terminal catalytic domain. Kinetic experiments reveal a 5-fold increase in kcat and a 1.4-fold decrease in Km following phosphorylation, providing a 7.4–fold increase in catalytic efficiency. Phosphorylation does not change the rate of substrate cleavage under single-turnover conditions, indicating that phosphorylation enhances product release, which also is the rate-limiting step in the steady-state. Molecular dynamics simulations provide a mechanism for facilitated product release, in which the Ser33 phosphomonoester forms a salt bridge with the Arg95 guanidinium group, thereby weakening RNase III engagement of product. The simulations also show why glutamic acid substitution at either serine does not confer enhancement, thus underscoring the specific requirement for a phosphomonoester.

  12. Antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles synthesized from serine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaprakash, N; Judith Vijaya, J; John Kennedy, L; Priadharsini, K; Palani, P

    2015-04-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were synthesized by a simple microwave irradiation method using polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) as a capping agent and serine as a reducing agent. UV-Visible spectra were used to confirm the formation of Ag NPs by observing the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band at 443nm. The emission spectrum of Ag NPs showed an emission band at 484nm. In the presence of microwave radiation, serine acts as a reducing agent, which was confirmed by Fourier transformed infrared (FT-IR) spectrum. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HR-SEM) were used to investigate the morphology of the synthesized sample. These images showed the sphere-like morphology. The elemental composition of the sample was determined by the energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). Selected area electron diffraction (SAED) was used to find the crystalline nature of the Ag NPs. The electrochemical behavior of the synthesized Ag NPs was analyzed by the cyclic voltammetry (CV). Antibacterial experiments showed that the prepared Ag NPs showed relatively similar antibacterial activities, when compared with AgNO3 against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

  13. Heterogeneity of D-Serine Distribution in the Human Central Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masataka; Imanishi, Nobuaki; Mita, Masashi; Hamase, Kenji; Aiso, Sadakazu

    2017-01-01

    D-serine is an endogenous ligand for N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptors. Accumulating evidence including genetic associations of D-serine metabolism with neurological or psychiatric diseases suggest that D-serine is crucial in human neurophysiology. However, distribution and regulation of D-serine in humans are not well understood. Here, we found that D-serine is heterogeneously distributed in the human central nervous system (CNS). The cerebrum contains the highest level of D-serine among the areas in the CNS. There is heterogeneity in its distribution in the cerebrum and even within the cerebral neocortex. The neocortical heterogeneity is associated with Brodmann or functional areas but is unrelated to basic patterns of cortical layer structure or regional expressional variation of metabolic enzymes for D-serine. Such D-serine distribution may reflect functional diversity of glutamatergic neurons in the human CNS, which may serve as a basis for clinical and pharmacological studies on D-serine modulation. PMID:28604057

  14. The VA, VCD, Raman and ROA spectra of tri-L-serine in aqueous solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jürgensen, Vibeke Würtz; Jalkanen, Karl J.

    2006-01-01

    The structures of one conformer of the nonionic neutral and zwitterionic species of L-serinyl L-serinyl L-serine (SSS or tri-L-serine), together with its cationic and anionic species and the capped N-acetyl tri-L-serine N'-methylamide analog were optimized with density functional theory...... the latest methods in experimental and theoretical vibrational spectroscopy are used to gain useful information about the coupling of the nuclear, electronic and magnetic degrees of freedom and structure of tri-L-serine and its capped peptide analog with the environment....

  15. Alpha Thalassemia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Alpha Thalassemia KidsHealth > For Parents > Alpha Thalassemia Print A A ... Complications Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment en español Alfa talasemia Thalassemias Thalassemias are a group of blood disorders that ...

  16. Inhibition of the 20S proteosome by a protein proteinase inhibitor: evidence that a natural serine proteinase inhibitor can inhibit a threonine proteinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabe, Kimihiko; Koide, Takehiko

    2009-02-01

    The 20S proteasome (20S) is an intracellular threonine proteinase (Mr 750,000) that plays important roles in many cellular regulations. Several synthetic peptide inhibitors and bacteria-derived inhibitors such as lactacystin and epoxomicin have been identified as potent proteasome inhibitors. However, essentially no protein proteinase inhibitor has been characterized. By examining several small size protein proteinase inhibitors, we found that a well-known serine proteinase inhibitor from bovine pancreas, basic pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI), inhibits the 20S in vitro and ex vivo. Inhibition of the 20S by BPTI was time- and concentration-dependent, and stoichiometric. To inhibit the 20S activity, BPTI needs to enter into the interior of the 20S molecule. The molar ratio of BPTI to the 20S in the complex was estimated as approximately six BPTI to one 20S, thereby two sets of three peptidase activities (trypsin-like, chymotrypsin-like and caspase-like) of the 20S were all inhibited. These results indicate that an entrance hole to the 20S formed by seven alpha-subunits is sufficiently large for BPTI to enter. This report is essentially the initial description of the inhibition of a threonine proteinase by a protein serine proteinase inhibitor, suggesting a common mechanism of inhibition between serine and threonine proteinases by a natural protein proteinase inhibitor.

  17. The Alpha Antihydrogen Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, N.; Andresen, G.; Bertsche, W.; Boston, A.; Bowe, P. D.; Butler, E.; Cesar, C. L.; Chapman, S.; Charlton, M.; Chartier, M.; Fajans, J.; Funakoshi, R.; Gill, D. R.; Hangst, J. S.; Hardy, W. N.; Hayano, R. S.; Hayden, M.; Hydomako, R.; Jenkins, M. J.; Jørgensen, L. V.; Kurchaninov, L.; Nolan, P.; Olchanski, K.; Olin, A.; Page, R. D.; Povilus, A.; Robicheaux, F.; Sarid, E.; Seif El Nasr, S.; Silveira, D. M.; Storey, J. W.; Thompson, R. I.; van der Werf, D. P.; Wurtele, J. S.; Yamazaki, Y.

    2008-03-01

    ALPHA is a new experiment at the CERN Antiproton Decelerator (AD). The short term goal of ALPHA is trapping of cold antihydrogen, with the long term goal of conducting precise spectroscopic comparisons of hydrogen and antihydrogen. Here we present the current status of ALPHA and the physics considerations and results leading to its design as well as recent progress towards trapping.

  18. Characterization of benzenethiolate self-assembled monolayer on Cu(1 0 0) by XPS and NEXAFS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beccari, Marco [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, I-00185 Roma (Italy)], E-mail: Marco.Beccari@uniroma1.it; Kanjilal, Aloke [INFM-CNR Center on nanoStructures and bioSystems at Surfaces (S3), Via G. Campi 231/A, I-41100 Modena (Italy); Betti, Maria Grazia; Mariani, Carlo [Dipartimento di Fisica, CNISM, CNIS, Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, I-00185 Roma (Italy); Floreano, Luca; Cossaro, Albano [Laboratorio TASC-INFM, Basovizza SS14 Km 163.5, I-34012 Trieste (Italy); Di Castro, Valeria [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, I-00185 Roma (Italy)

    2009-05-15

    The composition, electronic structure and molecular orientation of a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of benzenethiolate on the Cu(1 0 0) surface have been investigated by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS). An ordered benzenethiolate SAM with c(2 x 6) superstructure has been obtained by the reaction of diphenyldisulfide with the Cu(1 0 0) surface at room temperature. S 2p and C 1s XP spectra show S-Cu bond formation without significant thiolate decomposition. The strong dichroic signal of C K-edge NEXAFS upon varying polarization angle indicates upstanding of the adsorbed molecules with the benzene ring tilted by 20 deg. from the surface normal.

  19. CO (v = 1-0) emission in the molecular shock regions of OMC-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasdalen, G. L.; Hackwell, John A.; Lynch, David K.; Russell, Ray W.

    1992-01-01

    Using the new Aerospace spectrometer on the Kuiper Airborne Observatory, we have obtained observations of the molecular shocks associated with OMC-1. Unexpectedly these observations reveal (b = 1-0) emission from CO at 4.6 microns superposed on a strong continuum. Our observations strongly suggest that both the emission feature and the continuum are produced in molecular shocks. Since the (v = 1-0) band of CO is only excited in high-velocity shocks, we may be observing for the first time the primary driving mechanism in these regions. Even if these features are produced by scattering, the characteristics will provide new constraints on the conditions in and the geometry of the shock regions.

  20. Formaldehyde adsorption geometry and energies over TiO2(1 1 0) rutile surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, J. M. R.; Idriss, H.

    2013-05-01

    The adsorption modes and electronic structure of formaldehyde on TiO2(1 1 0) were investigated using the PWDFT method. The η1(O) adsorbed mode has two stable structures: perpendicular to surface plane and tilted along the [1 1 0] direction. The η1(O) tilt geometry is ∼25 kJ/mol more stable than the η1(O) straight geometry. In the case of tilted adsorption, orbital 2b2 of formaldehyde (HOMO; O2px) has considerable overlap with Ti3d states while in the case of perpendicular adsorption, orbital 5a1 (HOMO-2; O2pz) has the strongest overlap. All lower energy adsorbed formaldehyde orbitals have better Ti overlap in the straight configuration, however.

  1. Validating WCAG versions 1.0 and 2.0 through usability testing with disabled users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rømen, Dagfinn; Svanæs, Dag

    2012-01-01

    accessibility evaluations and guidelines in many countries. WCAG version 2.0 was released in 2008. This paper reports on a study that empirically validated the usefulness of using WCAG as a heuristic for website accessibility. Through controlled usability tests of two websites with disabled users (N = 7......) and a control group (N = 6), it was found that only 27% of the identified website accessibility problems could have been identified through the use of WCAG 1.0. A similar analysis of conformance to WCAG 2.0 showed a marginal 5% improvement concerning identified website accessibility problems. Compensating...... for the low number of test subjects with confidence tests gave results that were still low (42% for WCAG 1.0 and 49% for WCAG 2.0, with 95% confidence). It is concluded from this that the application of WAI accessibility guidelines is not sufficient to guarantee website accessibility. It is recommended...

  2. Preparation of {0 1 0}-faceted anatase TiO2 nanocuboids from peroxotitanium complex solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yigao; Gao, Jiacheng

    2012-12-01

    {0 1 0}-faceted anatase TiO2 nanocuboids have been fabricated by hydrothermal route using peroxotitanium complex solution as precursor. The effects of reaction time, the amount of urea and temperature on the formation of {0 1 0}-faceted anatase TiO2 were characterized by XRD, FESEM and TEM. The growth mechanism of nanocuboids was proposed that the nanocuboids were formed by the transition from H2Ti2O5·H2O phase to anatase TiO2 in the basic condition. The photocatalytic performance of the prepared samples was tested in the degradation of Rhodamine B and the anatase nanocuboids exhibited enhanced photocatalytic activity compared with the standard P25 powders.

  3. Crystal growth mechanisms of the (0 1 0) face of α-lactose monohydrate crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dincer, T. D.; Ogden, M. I.; Parkinson, G. M.

    2009-04-01

    The growth rates of the (0 1 0) face of α-lactose monohydrate crystals were measured at 30, 40 and 50 °C in the relative supersaturation range 0.55-2.33 in aqueous solutions. The mechanisms of growth were investigated. Spiral growth was found to be the mechanism of growth up to a critical relative supersaturation ( s-1) crit=1.9 at 30 °C. Above the critical relative supersaturation, the crystal growth mechanisms were predicted to change. All growth models fit equally well to the growth rates. No two-dimensional nucleation was observed above critical supersaturation by AFM. On the other hand increased step height and roughness on the edges of steps were observed. It was concluded that the growth mechanism of the (0 1 0) face of α-lactose monohydrate crystal is spiral growth. A parabolic relationship was obtained below critical supersaturation followed by a linear relationship with relative supersaturation.

  4. SU(2) Reduction of Six-dimensional (1,0) Supergravity

    CERN Document Server

    Lü, H; Sezgin, E

    2003-01-01

    We obtain a gauged supergravity theory in three dimensions with eight real supersymmetries by means of a Scherk-Schwarz reduction of pure N=(1,0) supergravity in six dimension on the SU(2) group manifold. The SU(2) Yang-Mills fields in the model propagate, since they have an ordinary kinetic term in addition to Chern-Simons couplings. The other propagating degrees of freedom consist of a dilaton, five scalars which parameterise the coset SL(3,R)/SO(3), three vector fields in the adjoint of SU(2), and twelve spin 1/2 fermions. The model admits an AdS_3 vacuum solution. We also show how a charged black hole solution can be obtained, by performing a dimensional reduction of the rotating self-dual string of six-dimensional (1,0) supergravity.

  5. Application of ARIMA(1,1,0 Model for Predicting Time Delay of Search Engine Crawlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeeva JOSE

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available World Wide Web is growing at a tremendous rate in terms of the number of visitors and number of web pages. Search engine crawlers are highly automated programs that periodically visit the web and index web pages. The behavior of search engines could be used in analyzing server load, quality of search engines, dynamics of search engine crawlers, ethics of search engines etc. The more the number of visits of a crawler to a web site, the more it contributes to the workload. The time delay between two consecutive visits of a crawler determines the dynamicity of the crawlers. The ARIMA(1,1,0 Model in time series analysis works well with the forecasting of the time delay between the visits of search crawlers at web sites. We considered 5 search engine crawlers, all of which could be modeled using ARIMA(1,1,0.The results of this study is useful in analyzing the server load.

  6. Symmetry enhancements via 5d instantons, qW-algebrae and (1,0) superconformal index

    CERN Document Server

    Benvenuti, Sergio; Ronzani, Massimiliano; Tanzini, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    We explore N=(1,0) superconformal six-dimensional theories arising from M5-branes probing a transverse A_k singularity. Upon circle compactification to 5 dimensions, we describe this system with a dual pq-web of five-branes and propose the spectrum of basic five-dimensional instanton operators driving global symmetry enhancement. For a single M5-brane, we find that the exact partition function of the 5d quiver gauge theory matches the 6d (1,0) index, which we compute by letter counting. We finally show that S-duality of the pq-web implies new relations among vertex correlators of qW-algebrae.

  7. CO (v = 1-0) emission in the molecular shock regions of OMC-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasdalen, G. L.; Hackwell, John A.; Lynch, David K.; Russell, Ray W.

    1992-01-01

    Using the new Aerospace spectrometer on the Kuiper Airborne Observatory, we have obtained observations of the molecular shocks associated with OMC-1. Unexpectedly these observations reveal (b = 1-0) emission from CO at 4.6 microns superposed on a strong continuum. Our observations strongly suggest that both the emission feature and the continuum are produced in molecular shocks. Since the (v = 1-0) band of CO is only excited in high-velocity shocks, we may be observing for the first time the primary driving mechanism in these regions. Even if these features are produced by scattering, the characteristics will provide new constraints on the conditions in and the geometry of the shock regions.

  8. Visual Sample Plan Version 1.0 User's Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, James R.; Hassig, Nancy L.; Wilson, John E.; Gilbert, Richard O.

    2001-04-13

    This user's guide describes Visual Sample Plan (VSP) Version 1.0 and provides instructions for using the software. VSP selects the appropriate number and location of environmental samples to ensure that the results of statistical tests performed to provide input to environmental decisions have the required confidence and performance. VSP Version 1.0 provides sample-size equations or algorithms needed by specific statistical tests appropriate for specific environmental sampling objectives. The easy-to-use program is highly visual and graphic. VSP runs on personal computers with Microsoft Windows operating systems (95, 98, Millenium Edition, 2000, and Windows NT). Designed primarily for project managers and users without expertise in statistics, VSP is applicable to any two-dimensional geographical population to be sampled (e.g., surface soil, a defined layer of subsurface soil, building surfaces, water bodies, and other similar applications) for studies of environmental quality.

  9. RGUI 1.0, New Graphical User Interface for RELAP5-3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. L. Mesina; J. Galbraith

    1999-04-01

    With the advent of three-dimensional modeling in nuclear safety analysis codes, the need has arisen for a new display methodology. Currently, analysts either sort through voluminous numerical displays of data at points in a region, or view color coded interpretations of the data on a two-dimensional rendition of the plant. RGUI 1.0 provides 3D capability for displaying data. The 3D isometric hydrodynamic image is built automatically from the input deck without additional input from the user. Standard view change features allow the user to focus on only the important data. Familiar features that are standard to the nuclear industry, such as run, interact, and monitor, are included. RGUI 1.0 reduces the difficulty of analyzing complex three-dimensional plants.

  10. RGUI 1.0, New Graphical User Interface for RELAP5-3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesina, George Lee; Galbraith, James Andrew

    1999-04-01

    With the advent of three-dimensional modeling in nuclear safety analysis codes, the need has arisen for a new display methodology. Currently, analysts either sort through voluminous numerical displays of data at points in a region, or view color coded interpretations of the data on a two-dimensional rendition of the plant. RGUI 1.0 provides 3D capability for displaying data. The 3D isometric hydrodynamic image is built automatically from the input deck without additional input from the user. Standard view change features allow the user to focus on only the important data. Familiar features that are standard to the nuclear industry, such as run, interact, and monitor, are included. RGUI 1.0 reduces the difficulty of analyzing complex three dimensional plants.

  11. Building the Fire Energetics and Emissions Research (FEER) Smoke Emissions Inventory Version 1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Luke; Ichoku, Charles; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The Fire Energetics and Emissions Research (FEER) group's new coefficient of emission global gridded product at 1x1 resolution that directly relates fire readiative energy (FRE) to smoke aerosol release, FEERv1.0 Ce, made its public debut in August 2013. Since then, steps have been taken to generate corresponding maps and totals of total particulate matter (PM) emissions using different sources of FRE, and subsequently to simulate the resulting PM(sub 2.5) in the WRF-Chem 3.5 model using emission rates from FEERv1.0 as well as other standard biomass burning emission inventories. An flowchart of the FEER algorithm to calculate Ce is outlined here along with a display of the resulting emissions of total PM globally and also regionally. The modeling results from the WRF-Chem3.5 simulations are also shown.

  12. Barley alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor: structure, biophysics and protein engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, P.K.; Bønsager, Birgit Christine; Fukuda, Kenji;

    2004-01-01

    Bifunctional alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitors have been implicated in plant defence and regulation of endogenous alpha-amylase action. The barley alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor (BASI) inhibits the barley alpha-amylase 2 (AMY2) and subtilisin-type serine proteases. BASI belongs to the Kunitz...... Ca2+-modulated kinetics of the AMY2/BASl interaction and found that the complex formation involves minimal structural changes. The modulation of the interaction by calcium ions makes it unique among the currently known binding mechanisms of proteinaceous alpha-amylase inhibitors.......-type trypsin inhibitor family of the beta-trefoil fold proteins. Diverse approaches including site-directed mutagenesis, hybrid constructions, and crystallography have been used to characterise the structures and contact residues in the AMY2/BASI complex. The three-dimensional structure of the AMY2/BASI...

  13. Status of Higgs couplings after Run-1 of the LHC using Lilith 1.0

    CERN Document Server

    Bernon, Jeremy; Kraml, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    We provide an update of the global fits of the couplings of the 125.5 GeV Higgs boson using all publicly available experimental results from Run-1 of the LHC as per Summer 2014. The fits are done by means of the new public code Lilith 1.0. We present a selection of results given in terms of signal strengths, reduced couplings, and for the Two-Higgs-Doublet Models of Type I and II.

  14. Theoretical Study on the Bicyclo[4.1.0]heptatriene Rearrangement in a Molecular Container

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The conversion process from bicyclo[4.1.0]heptatriene (BCT) to 1,2,4,6-cycloheptatetraene (CHTE) within a molecular container was studied with AM1 method, and single point energies for all stationary points were evaluated by B3LYP and HF methods. The conversion potential barrier for the encapsulation complex became smooth when compared with that for the rearrangement in free state. The influences of the inner phase of the molecular container on the conversion process were discussed.

  15. From batch to continuous extractive distillation using thermodynamic insight: class 1.0-2 case B

    OpenAIRE

    Shen,Weifeng; Benyounes, Hassiba; Gerbaud, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    A systematic feasibility analysis is presented for the separation azeotropic mixtures by batch and continuous extractive distillation. Based on batch feasibility knowledge, batch and continuous separation feasibility is studied under reflux ratio and entrainer flow-rate for the ternary system chloroform-vinyl acetate-butyl acetate, which belongs to the class 1.0-2 separating maximum boiling temperature azeotropes using a heavy entrainer. How information on feasibility of batch mode could be e...

  16. VisiMark1_0: An Assistance Tool for Evaluating Robustness of Video Watermarking Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeta Deshpande

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available the paper proposes a tool, VisiMark1_0, as assistance for evaluating the robustness of video watermarking algorithms as evaluation of a video watermarking algorithm for robustness with available tools is a tedious task. It is our belief that for researchers of robust video watermarking, a tool needs to be designed that will assist in the evaluation procedure irrespective of the design algorithm. This tool provides a test bed of various attacks. The input to this tool will be a watermarked video whereas the outputs will be attacked videos, evaluated parameters PSNR, MSE, MSAD and DELTA, graphical comparisons of the attacked and watermarked videos with all parameters needed by researchers, and the attacks report. Provision for comparison of any two videos is an additional facility provided in the tool. The attacks implemented in VisiMark1_0 are categorized mainly in three. Firstly, Video attacks: Frame dropping, Frame averaging, Frame swapping, Changing the sequence of the scenes, Changing Frame rate, Fade and dissolve, Contrast stretching, Motion blurring, Chroma sampling, Inter frame averaging are some of the novel offerings in video frame attacks category. Secondly, Geometrical attacks: Apart from the traditional Rotation, Scaling and Cropping attacks for images, VisiMark1_0 contributed towards Sharpening, Shearing, Flipping, Up/down sampling and Dithering attacks for a video and signal processing attacks like Conventional Noising, Denoising and Filtering attacks for images are incorporated for video along with Pixel removal attack as a novel contribution. VisiMark1_0 is an endeavor to design a tool for evaluating a raw video (an .avi file currently incorporating various attacks having a prospect for numerous video formats in near future.

  17. Poblano v1.0 : a Matlab toolbox for gradient-based optimization.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Acar, Evrim (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Kolda, Tamara Gibson (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA)

    2010-03-01

    We present Poblano v1.0, a Matlab toolbox for solving gradient-based unconstrained optimization problems. Poblano implements three optimization methods (nonlinear conjugate gradients, limited-memory BFGS, and truncated Newton) that require only first order derivative information. In this paper, we describe the Poblano methods, provide numerous examples on how to use Poblano, and present results of Poblano used in solving problems from a standard test collection of unconstrained optimization problems.

  18. Intrinsic magnetic properties of L1(0) FeNi obtained from meteorite NWA 6259

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, E; Pinkerton, FE; Kubic, R; Mishra, RK; Bordeaux, N; Mubarok, A; Lewis, LH; Goldstein, JI; Skomski, R; Barmak, K

    2015-05-07

    FeNi having the tetragonal L1(0) crystal structure is a promising new rare-earth-free permanent magnet material. Laboratory synthesis is challenging, however, tetragonal L1(0) FeNi-the mineral "tetrataenite"-has been characterized using specimens found in nickel-iron meteorites. Most notably, the meteorite NWA 6259 recovered from Northwest Africa is 95 vol.% tetrataenite with a composition of 43 at.% Ni. Hysteresis loops were measured as a function of sample orientation on a specimen cut from NWA 6259 in order to rigorously deduce the intrinsic hard magnetic properties of its L1(0) phase. Electron backscatter diffraction showed that NWA 6259 is strongly textured, containing L1(0) grains oriented along any one of the three equivalent cubic directions of the parent fcc structure. The magnetic structure was modeled as a superposition of the three orthonormal uniaxial variants. By simultaneously fitting first-quadrant magnetization data for 13 different orientations of the sample with respect to the applied field direction, the intrinsic magnetic properties were estimated to be saturation magnetization 4 pi M-s = 14.7 kG and anisotropy field H-a = 14.4 kOe. The anisotropy constant K = 0.84 MJ/m(3) is somewhat smaller than the value K = 1.3 MJ/m(3) obtained by earlier researchers from nominally equiatomic FeNi prepared by neutron irradiation accompanied by annealing in a magnetic field, suggesting that higher Ni content (fewer Fe antisite defects) may improve the anisotropy. The fit also indicated that NWA 6259 contains one dominant variant (62% by volume), the remainder of the sample being a second variant, and the third variant being absent altogether. (C) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC.

  19. Slab1.0: A three-dimensional model of global subduction zone geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, G.P.; Wald, D.J.; Johnson, R.L.

    2012-01-01

    We describe and present a new model of global subduction zone geometries, called Slab1.0. An extension of previous efforts to constrain the two-dimensional non-planar geometry of subduction zones around the focus of large earthquakes, Slab1.0 describes the detailed, non-planar, three-dimensional geometry of approximately 85% of subduction zones worldwide. While the model focuses on the detailed form of each slab from their trenches through the seismogenic zone, where it combines data sets from active source and passive seismology, it also continues to the limits of their seismic extent in the upper-mid mantle, providing a uniform approach to the definition of the entire seismically active slab geometry. Examples are shown for two well-constrained global locations; models for many other regions are available and can be freely downloaded in several formats from our new Slab1.0 website, http://on.doi.gov/ d9ARbS. We describe improvements in our two-dimensional geometry constraint inversion, including the use of average active source seismic data profiles in the shallow trench regions where data are otherwise lacking, derived from the interpolation between other active source seismic data along-strike in the same subduction zone. We include several analyses of the uncertainty and robustness of our three-dimensional interpolation methods. In addition, we use the filtered, subduction-related earthquake data sets compiled to build Slab1.0 in a reassessment of previous analyses of the deep limit of the thrust interface seismogenic zone for all subduction zones included in our global model thus far, concluding that the width of these seismogenic zones is on average 30% larger than previous studies have suggested. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  20. Quantum states of hydrogen atom on Pd(1 1 0) surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padama, Allan Abraham B.; Nakanishi, Hiroshi; Kasai, Hideaki

    2015-12-01

    The quantum states of adsorbed hydrogen atom on Pd(1 1 0) surface are investigated in this work. From the calculated potential energy surface (PES) of hydrogen atom on Pd(1 1 0), the wave functions and eigenenergies in the ground and few excited states of protium (H) and deuterium (D) are calculated. Localized wave functions of hydrogen atom exist on pseudo-threefold and long bridge sites of Pd(1 1 0). The short bridge site is a local minimum from the result of PES, however, quantum behavior of hydrogen revealed that its vibration would allow it to hop to other pseudo-threefold site (that crosses the short bridge site) than to stay on the short bridge site. Exchange of ordering of the wave functions between H and D is attributed to the difference in their masses. The calculated eigenenergies are found to be in fair agreement with experimental data based from the identified vibrations of hydrogen with component perpendicular to the surface. The activation barriers measured from the eigenenergies are in better agreement with experimental findings in comparison to the data gathered from PES.

  1. Silicon quantum wires on Ag(1 1 0): Fermi surface and quantum well states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valbuena, M.A. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), C/ Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz, 3, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Avila, J. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, Orme des Merisiers, Saint Aubin BP 48, 91192 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France)], E-mail: jose.avila@synchrotron-soleil.fr; Davila, M.E. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), C/ Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz, 3, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Leandri, C.; Aufray, B.; Le Lay, G. [CRMCN-CNRS, Campus de Luminy, Case 913, 13288 Marseille Cedex 9 (France); Asensio, M.C. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, Orme des Merisiers, Saint Aubin BP 48, 91192 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France)

    2007-10-31

    One-dimensional Si quantum wires have been grown on silver single crystals upon deposition of {approx}0.25 monolayer of Si on Ag(1 1 0) surfaces. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) clearly shows parallel 1D Si chains along the [-1 1 0] Ag crystallographic direction. Low Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED) confirms the massively parallel assembly of these selforganized Nanowires (NWs). We have characterized these nano-objects by measuring the dispersion of the NWs valence band at room temperature using Angle-Resolved PhotoEmission Spectroscopy (ARPES). Also, the Fermi Surface (FS) of the Ag(1 1 0) substrate has been mapped before and after the silicon deposition, trying to put in evidence the metallic or semiconductor character of the NWs silicon's states close to the Fermi level. Our results show the existence of well-defined quantum states associated to the silicon super-structure. Both LEED and ARUPS results confirm that the NWs have typical 1D features, however their metallic or semiconductor character could not be confirmed.

  2. Structure and self-assembly of alkanethiols on III-V semiconductor (1 1 0) surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerulla, D. [UCD Dublin, School of Physics, Science Centre North, Dublin 4 (Ireland)], E-mail: dominic.zerulla@ucd.ie; Chasse, T. [Universitaet Tuebingen, Institut fuer Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie, Auf der Morgenstelle 8, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany)

    2009-05-15

    We report on the self-assembly, binding, and structural properties of alkanethiol monolayers on III-V semiconductor (1 1 0) surfaces. In particular, the focus will be on medium size n-alkanethiols adsorbed on InP(1 1 0) and GaP(1 1 0) using soft X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (SXPS), X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and electrochemical methods to reveal the binding and the inner structure of the systems. The results show that the sulfur from the thiol groups binds directly, under cleavage of its hydrogen atoms, to the indium atoms of the substrate while the hydrogen is bound to the phosphorous of the substrate. The angular (azimuthal and polar) resolved measurements reveal a substrate-dependent tilt of 34 deg. from normal for InP and 15 deg. for GaP. A unique feature observed on these systems is the complete alignment of the alkyl chains with respect to the azimuthal orientation. Further structural data confirm that this adsorbate system represents the case of a huge, single domain organic monolayer. We interprete this behaviour, which deviates strongly from the well known thiol films on gold, silver or copper, in terms of structural constraints and dangling-bond induced preorientation of the alkanethiol chains.

  3. IVSPlat 1.0: an integrated virtual screening platform with a molecular graphical interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yin Xue; Huang, Yan Xin; Li, Feng Li; Wang, Hong Yan; Fan, Cong; Bao, Yong Li; Sun, Lu Guo; Ma, Zhi Qiang; Kong, Jun; Li, Yu Xin

    2012-01-05

    The virtual screening (VS) of lead compounds using molecular docking and pharmacophore detection is now an important tool in drug discovery. VS tasks typically require a combination of several software tools and a molecular graphics system. Thus, the integration of all the requisite tools in a single operating environment could reduce the complexity of running VS experiments. However, only a few freely available integrated software platforms have been developed. A free open-source platform, IVSPlat 1.0, was developed in this study for the management and automation of VS tasks. We integrated several VS-related programs into a molecular graphics system to provide a comprehensive platform for the solution of VS tasks based on molecular docking, pharmacophore detection, and a combination of both methods. This tool can be used to visualize intermediate and final results of the VS execution, while also providing a clustering tool for the analysis of VS results. A case study was conducted to demonstrate the applicability of this platform. IVSPlat 1.0 provides a plug-in-based solution for the management, automation, and visualization of VS tasks. IVSPlat 1.0 is an open framework that allows the integration of extra software to extend its functionality and modified versions can be freely distributed. The open source code and documentation are available at http://kyc.nenu.edu.cn/IVSPlat/.

  4. Understanding the mechanism of H atom absorption in the Pd(1 1 0) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padama, Allan Abraham B. [Institute of Mathematical Sciences and Physics, College of Arts and Sciences, University of the Philippines Los Baños, Los Baños, Laguna 4031 (Philippines); Kasai, Hideaki, E-mail: kasai@dyn.ap.eg.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Applied Physics, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Center for Atomic and Molecular Technologies, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Center for Continuing Professional Development, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • This study elucidates the absorption of H in Pd(1 1 0) (1 × 2) missing-row surface. • Electronic structure depicts the stronger adsorption on ridge than on trough site. • The geometry of missing-row Pd(1 1 0) allows Pd atoms to accommodate H and H{sub 2}. • Assisted absorption is facilitated by the repulsion between H atoms. - Abstract: The underlying mechanism of H atom absorption in the Pd(1 1 0) (1 × 2) missing-row reconstructed surface is investigated by performing density functional theory based calculations. The stronger binding energy of H on ridge than on trough site of the missing-row surface is due to the more pronounced creation of derived bonding state as had been depicted from the electronic structure of the system. Hydrogen absorption takes place with the involvement of other incoming H atoms through an assisted absorption process that is facilitated by the repulsion between the incoming H and the absorbing H. The geometry of the missing-row surface enables the Pd atoms to accommodate the H atoms efficiently leading to H absorption as well as H{sub 2} dissociation.

  5. Geometric engineering, mirror symmetry and 6{d}_{(1,0)}to 4{d}_{(N=2)}

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Zotto, Michele; Vafa, Cumrun; Xie, Dan

    2015-11-01

    We study compactification of 6 dimensional (1,0) theories on T 2. We use geometric engineering of these theories via F-theory and employ mirror symmetry technology to solve for the effective 4d N=2 geometry for a large number of the (1 ,0) theories including those associated with conformal matter. Using this we show that for a given 6d theory we can obtain many inequivalent 4d N=2 SCFTs. Some of these respect the global symmetries of the 6d theory while others exhibit SL(2 , ℤ) duality symmetry inherited from global diffeomorphisms of the T 2. This construction also explains the 6d origin of moduli space of 4d affine ADE quiver theories as flat ADE connections on T 2. Among the resulting 4 d N=2 CFTs we find theories whose vacuum geometry is captured by an LG theory (as opposed to a curve or a local CY geometry). We obtain arbitrary genus curves of class S with punctures from toroidal compactification of (1 , 0) SCFTs where the curve of the class S theory emerges through mirror symmetry. We also show that toroidal compactification of the little string version of these theories can lead to class S theories with no punctures on arbitrary genus Riemann surface.

  6. Geometric Engineering, Mirror Symmetry and 6d (1,0) -> 4d, N=2

    CERN Document Server

    Del Zotto, Michele; Xie, Dan

    2015-01-01

    We study compactification of 6 dimensional (1,0) theories on T^2. We use geometric engineering of these theories via F-theory and employ mirror symmetry technology to solve for the effective 4d N=2 geometry for a large number of the (1,0) theories including those associated with conformal matter. Using this we show that for a given 6d theory we can obtain many inequivalent 4d N=2 SCFTs. Some of these respect the global symmetries of the 6d theory while others exhibit SL(2,Z) duality symmetry inherited from global diffeomorphisms of the T^2. This construction also explains the 6d origin of moduli space of 4d affine ADE quiver theories as flat ADE connections on T^2. Among the resulting 4d N=2 CFTs we find theories whose vacuum geometry is captured by an LG theory (as opposed to a curve or a local CY geometry). We obtain arbitrary genus curves of class S with punctures from toroidal compactification of (1,0) SCFT's where the curve of the class S theory emerges through mirror symmetry. We also show that toroidal...

  7. Engineering of high yield production of L-serine in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundhada, Hemanshu; Schneider, Konstantin; Christensen, Hanne Bjerre; Nielsen, Alex Toftgaard

    2016-04-01

    L-serine is a widely used amino acid that has been proposed as a potential building block biochemical. The high theoretical yield from glucose makes a fermentation based production attractive. In order to achieve this goal, serine degradation to pyruvate and glycine in E. coli MG1655 was prevented by deletion of three L-serine deaminases sdaA, sdaB, and tdcG, as well as serine hydroxyl methyl transferase (SHMT) encoded by glyA. Upon overexpression of the serine production pathway, consisting of a feedback resistant version of serA along with serB and serC, this quadruple deletion strain showed a very high serine production yield (0.45 g/g glucose) during small-scale batch fermentation in minimal medium. Serine, however, was found to be highly toxic even at low concentrations to this strain, which lead to slow growth and production during fed batch fermentation, resulting in a serine production of 8.3 g/L. The production strain was therefore evolved by random mutagenesis to achieve increased tolerance towards serine. Additionally, overexpression of eamA, a cysteine/homoserine transporter was demonstrated to increase serine tolerance from 1.6 g/L to 25 g/L. During fed batch fermentation, the resulting strain lead to the serine production titer of 11.7 g/L with yield of 0.43 g/g glucose, which is the highest yield reported so far for any organism.

  8. Metabolic engineering and flux analysis of Corynebacterium glutamicum for L-serine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Shujuan; Zhang, Yun; Liu, Shuwen; Liang, Yong; Shang, Xiuling; Chai, Xin; Wen, Tingyi

    2012-04-01

    L-Serine plays a critical role as a building block for cell growth, and thus it is difficult to achieve the direct fermentation of L-serine from glucose. In this study, Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032 was engineered de novo by blocking and attenuating the conversion of L-serine to pyruvate and glycine, releasing the feedback inhibition by L-serine to 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PGDH), in combination with the co-expression of 3-phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) and feedback-resistant PGDH (PGDH(r)). The resulting strain, SER-8, exhibited a lower specific growth rate and significant differences in L-serine levels from Phase I to Phase V as determined for fed-batch fermentation. The intracellular L-serine pool reached (14.22 ± 1.41) μmol g(CDM) (-1), which was higher than glycine pool, contrary to fermentation with the wild-type strain. Furthermore, metabolic flux analysis demonstrated that the over-expression of PGK directed the flux of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) towards the glycolysis pathway (EMP), and the expression of PGDH(r) improved the L-serine biosynthesis pathway. In addition, the flux from L-serine to glycine dropped by 24%, indicating that the deletion of the activator GlyR resulted in down-regulation of serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT) expression. Taken together, our findings imply that L-serine pool management is fundamental for sustaining the viability of C. glutamicum, and improvement of C(1) units generation by introducing the glycine cleavage system (GCV) to degrade the excessive glycine is a promising target for L-serine production in C. glutamicum.

  9. Ring-strain-enabled reaction discovery: new heterocycles from bicyclo[1.1.0]butanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczak, Maciej A A; Krainz, Tanja; Wipf, Peter

    2015-04-21

    Mechanistically as well as synthetically, bicyclo[1.1.0]butanes represent one of the most fascinating classes of organic compounds. They offer a unique blend of compact size (four carbon atoms), high reactivity (strain energy of 66 kcal/mol), and mechanistic pathway diversity that can be harvested for the rapid assembly of complex scaffolds. The C(1)-C(3) bond combines the electronic features of both σ and π bonds with facile homolytic and heterolytic bond dissociation properties and thereby readily engages pericyclic, transition-metal-mediated, nucleophilic, and electrophilic pathways as well as radical acceptor and donor substrates. Despite this multifaceted reaction profile and recent advances in the preparation of bicylo[1.1.0]butanes, the current portfolio of synthetic applications is still limited compared with those of cyclopropanes and cyclobutanes. In this Account, we describe our work over the past decade on the exploration of substituent effects on the ring strain and the reactivity of bicyclo[1.1.0]butanes, particularly in the context of metal-mediated processes. We first describe Rh(I)-catalyzed cycloisomerization reactions of N-allyl amines to give pyrrolidine and azepine heterocycles. The regioselectivity of the C,C-bond insertion/ring-opening step in these reactions is controlled by the phosphine ligand. After metal carbene formation, an intramolecular cyclopropanation adds a second fused ring system. A proposed mechanism rationalizes why rhodium(I) complexes with monodentate ligands favor five-membered heterocycles, as opposed to Rh(I)-bidentate ligand catalysts, which rearrange N-allyl amines to seven-membered heterocycles. The scope of Rh(I)-catalyzed cycloisomerization reactions was extended to allyl ethers, which provide a mixture of five- and seven-membered cyclic ethers regardless of the nature of the phosphine additive and Rh(I) precatalyst. The chemical diversity of these cycloisomerization products was further expanded by a consecutive

  10. Degradation of plasma proteins by the trypsin-like enzyme of Porphyromonas gingivalis and inhibition of protease activity by a serine protease inhibitor of human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishburn, C S; Slaney, J M; Carman, R J; Curtis, M A

    1991-08-01

    The interaction between Porphyromonas gingivalis culture supernatant and human serum was examined. Hydrolysis of the major serum proteins was thiol-dependent and correlated with the trypsin-like activity of the sample. Transferrin and IgG light chains were less susceptible to degradation than albumin and IgG heavy chains and partially degraded IgG retained antigen-binding capability. Serum inhibited the trypsin-like activity in a fluorimetric assay. The inhibition was shown to be independent of the level of IgG antibody reactive with whole cells of P. gingivalis. Purified preparations of antithrombin III, a serine protease inhibitor, but not alpha 1-antitrypsin nor alpha 2-macroglobulin inhibited the trypsin-like activity in the fluorometric assay.

  11. Development of the Digital Health Literacy Instrument: Measuring a Broad Spectrum of Health 1.0 and Health 2.0 Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Vaart, Rosalie; Drossaert, Constance

    2017-01-24

    With the digitization of health care and the wide availability of Web-based applications, a broad set of skills is essential to properly use such facilities; these skills are called digital health literacy or eHealth literacy. Current instruments to measure digital health literacy focus only on information gathering (Health 1.0 skills) and do not pay attention to interactivity on the Web (Health 2.0). To measure the complete spectrum of Health 1.0 and Health 2.0 skills, including actual competencies, we developed a new instrument. The Digital Health Literacy Instrument (DHLI) measures operational skills, navigation skills, information searching, evaluating reliability, determining relevance, adding self-generated content, and protecting privacy. Our objective was to study the distributional properties, reliability, content validity, and construct validity of the DHLI's self-report scale (21 items) and to explore the feasibility of an additional set of performance-based items (7 items). We used a paper-and-pencil survey among a sample of the general Dutch population, stratified by age, sex, and educational level (T1; N=200). The survey consisted of the DHLI, sociodemographics, Internet use, health status, health literacy and the eHealth Literacy Scale (eHEALS). After 2 weeks, we asked participants to complete the DHLI again (T2; n=67). Cronbach alpha and intraclass correlation analysis between T1 and T2 were used to investigate reliability. Principal component analysis was performed to determine content validity. Correlation analyses were used to determine the construct validity. Respondents (107 female and 93 male) ranged in age from 18 to 84 years (mean 46.4, SD 19.0); 23.0% (46/200) had a lower educational level. Internal consistencies of the total scale (alpha=.87) and the subscales (alpha range .70-.89) were satisfactory, except for protecting privacy (alpha=.57). Distributional properties showed an approximately normal distribution. Test-retest analysis was

  12. The determination of $\\alpha_s$ by the ALPHA collaboration

    CERN Document Server

    Bruno, Mattia

    2016-01-01

    We review the ALPHA collaboration strategy for obtaining the QCD coupling at high scale. In the three-flavor effective theory it avoids the use of perturbation theory at $\\alpha > 0.2$ and at the same time has the physical scales small compared to the cutoff $1/a$ in all stages of the computation. The result $\\Lambda_\\overline{MS}^{(3)}=332(14)$~MeV is translated to $\\alpha_\\overline{MS}(m_Z)=0.1179(10)(2)$ by use of (high order) perturbative relations between the effective theory couplings at the charm and beauty quark "thresholds". The error of this perturbative step is discussed and estimated as $0.0002$.

  13. Structural diversity in serine derived homochiral metal organic frameworks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tanay Kundu; Rahul Banerjee

    2014-09-01

    Two new Zn(II) and Cd(II) based homochiral metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) [SerCdOAc and Zn(Ser)2] have been synthesized using pyridyl functionalized amino acid, viz., serine, as an organic linker. The SerCdOAc structure is three dimensional, while that of the Zn(Ser)2 is two dimensional. The polar voids of the corresponding MOFs are filled with solvent molecules (water in the case of SerCdOAc and methanol in the case of Zn(Ser)2). In both cases, metal centres, i.e., Zn(II) and Cd(II), are hexacoordinated. However, with a change in the solvent for synthesis, ligand coordinationmode and incorporation of additional coordinated anion resulted in a great change in the final MOF architecture. Herein, for the first time, we could achieve structural variety and synthesize MOFs composed of only metal ion and pyridyl functionalized amino acid linker.

  14. Serine Proteases an Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics Study

    CERN Document Server

    De Santis, L

    1999-01-01

    In serine proteases (SP's), the H-bond between His-57 and Asp-102, and that between Gly-193 and the transition state intermediate play a crucial role for enzymatic function. To shed light on the nature of these interactions, we have carried out ab initio molecular dynamics simulations on complexes representing adducts between the reaction intermediate and elastase (one protein belonging to the SP family). Our calculations indicate the presence of a low--barrier H-bond between His-57 and Asp-102, in complete agreement with NMR experiments on enzyme--transition state analog complexes. Comparison with an ab initio molecular dynamics simulation on a model of the substrate--enzyme adduct indicates that the Gly-193--induced strong stabilization of the intermediate is accomplished by charge/dipole interactions and not by H-bonding as previously suggested. Inclusion of the protein electric field in the calculations does not affect significantly the charge distribution.

  15. Conformation effects on the molecular orbitals of serine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Ke-Dong; Ma Peng-Fei; Shan Xu

    2011-01-01

    This paper calculates the five most stable conformers of serine with Hartree-Fock theory, density functional theory (B3LYP), M0ller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP4(SDQ)) and electron propagation theory with the 6-311++G(2d,2p) basis set. The calculated vertical ionization energies for the valence molecular orbitals of each conformer are in agreement with the experimental data, indicating that a range of molecular conformations would coexist in an equilibrium sample. Information of the five outer valence molecular orbitals for each conformer is explored in coordinate and momentum spaces using dual space analysis to investigate the conformational processes, which are generated from the global minimum conformer Serl by rotation of C2-C3 (Ser4), C1-C2 (Ser5) and C1-O2 (Ser2 and Ser3). Orbitals 28a, 27a and 26a are identified as the fingerprint orbitals for all the conformational processes.

  16. A Massive Shell of Supernova-formed Dust in SNR G54.1+0.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temim, Tea; Dwek, Eli; Arendt, Richard G.; Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Reynolds, Stephen P.; Slane, Patrick; Gelfand, Joseph D.; Raymond, John C.

    2017-02-01

    While theoretical models of dust condensation predict that most refractory elements produced in core-collapse supernovae (SNe) efficiently condense into dust, a large quantity of dust has so far only been observed in SN 1987A. We present an analysis of observations from the Spitzer Space Telescope, Herschel Space Observatory, Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, and AKARI of the infrared shell surrounding the pulsar wind nebula in the supernova remnant G54.1+0.3. We attribute a distinctive spectral feature at 21 μm to a magnesium silicate grain species that has been invoked in modeling the ejecta-condensed dust in Cas A, which exhibits the same spectral signature. If this species is responsible for producing the observed spectral feature and accounts for a significant fraction of the observed infrared continuum, we find that it would be the dominant constituent of the dust in G54.1+0.3, with possible secondary contributions from other compositions, such as carbon, silicate, or alumina grains. The total mass of SN-formed dust required by this model is at least 0.3 M ⊙. We discuss how these results may be affected by varying dust grain properties and self-consistent grain heating models. The spatial distribution of the dust mass and temperature in G54.1+0.3 confirms the scenario in which the SN-formed dust has not yet been processed by the SN reverse shock and is being heated by stars belonging to a cluster in which the SN progenitor exploded. The dust mass and composition suggest a progenitor mass of 16–27 M ⊙ and imply a high dust condensation efficiency, similar to that found for Cas A and SN 1987A. The study provides another example of significant dust formation in a Type IIP SN explosion and sheds light on the properties of pristine SN-condensed dust.

  17. A Massive Shell of Supernova-Formed Dust in SNR G54.1+0.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temim, Tea; Dwek, Eli; Arendt, Richard G.; Borkowski, Kazimiera J.; Reynolds, Stephen P.; Slane, Patrick; Gelfand, Joseph D.; Raymond, John C.

    2017-01-01

    While theoretical models of dust condensation predict that most refractory elements produced in core-collapsesupernovae (SNe) efficiently condense into dust, a large quantity of dust has so far only been observed inSN1987A. We present an analysis of observations from the Spitzer Space Telescope, Herschel SpaceObservatory, Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, and AKARI of the infrared shell surrounding thepulsar wind nebula in the supernova remnant G54.1+0.3. We attribute a distinctive spectral feature at 21 m to amagnesium silicate grain species that has been invoked in modeling the ejecta-condensed dust in Cas A, whichexhibits the same spectral signature. If this species is responsible for producing the observed spectral feature andaccounts for a significant fraction of the observed infrared continuum, we find that it would be the dominantconstituent of the dust in G54.1+0.3, with possible secondary contributions from other compositions, such ascarbon, silicate, or alumina grains. The total mass of SN-formed dust required by this model is at least 0.3Me. Wediscuss how these results may be affected by varying dust grain properties and self-consistent grain heating models.The spatial distribution of the dust mass and temperature in G54.1+0.3 confirms the scenario in which the SNformeddust has not yet been processed by the SN reverse shock and is being heated by stars belonging to a clusterin which the SN progenitor exploded. The dust mass and composition suggest a progenitor mass of 1627Me andimply a high dust condensation efficiency, similar to that found for Cas A and SN1987A. The study providesanother example of significant dust formation in a Type IIP SN explosion and sheds light on the properties ofpristine SN-condensed dust.

  18. Crystallographic Refinement by Incorporation of Molecular Dynamics : Thermostable Serine Protease Thermitase Complexed with Eglin c

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gros, Piet; Fujinaga, Masao; Dijkstra, Bauke W.; Kalk, Kor H.; Hol, W G J

    1989-01-01

    In order to investigate the principles of protein thermostability, the crystal structure of thermitase from Thermoactinomyces vulgaris, a thermostable member of the subtilisin family of serine proteases, has been determined in a complex with eglin c. Eglin c is a serine protease inhibitor from the l

  19. Astrocytes are involved in trigeminal dynamic mechanical allodynia: potential role of D-serine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieb, W; Hafidi, A

    2013-09-01

    Trigeminal neuropathic pain affects millions of people worldwide. Despite decades of study on the neuronal processing of pain, mechanisms underlying enhanced pain states after injury remain unclear. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-dependent changes play a critical role in triggering central sensitization in neuropathic pain. These receptors are regulated at the glycine site through a mandatory endogenous co-agonist D-serine, which is synthesized by astrocytes. Therefore, the present study was carried out to determine whether astrocytes are involved, through D-serine secretion, in dynamic mechanical allodynia (DMA) obtained after chronic constriction of the infraorbital nerve (CCI-IoN) in rats. Two weeks after CCI-IoN, an important reaction of astrocytes was present in the medullary dorsal horn (MDH), as revealed by an up-regulation of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in allodynic rats. In parallel, an increase in D-serine synthesis, which co-localized with its synthesis enzyme serine racemase, was strictly observed in astrocytes. Blocking astrocyte metabolism by intracisternal delivery of fluorocitrate alleviated DMA. Furthermore, the administration of D-amino-acid oxidase (DAAO), a D-serine-degrading enzyme, or that of L-serine O-sulfate (LSOS), a serine racemase inhibitor, significantly decreased pain behavior in allodynic rats. These results demonstrate that astrocytes are involved in the modulation of orofacial post-traumatic neuropathic pain via the release of the gliotransmitter D-serine.

  20. Engineering of High Yield Production of L-serine in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mundhada, Hemanshu; Schneider, Konstantin; Christensen, Hanne Bjerre

    2016-01-01

    L-serine is a widely used amino acid that has been proposed as a potential building block biochemical. The high theoretical yield from glucose makes a fermentation based production attractive. In order to achieve this goal, serine degradation to pyruvate and glycine in E. coli MG1655 was prevente...

  1. DMPD: The serine/threonine kinase Pim-1. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15694833 The serine/threonine kinase Pim-1. Bachmann M, Moroy T. Int J Biochem Cell... Biol. 2005 Apr;37(4):726-30. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show The serine/threonine kinase Pim-1. PubmedID 15694833 Title The

  2. Cobalamin deficiency results in severe metabolic disorder of serine and threonine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebara, S; Toyoshima, S; Matsumura, T; Adachi, S; Takenaka, S; Yamaji, R; Watanabe, F; Miyatake, K; Inui, H; Nakano, Y

    2001-12-05

    Dietary cobalamin (vitamin B12; Cbl) deficiency caused significant increases in plasma serine, threonine, glycine, alanine, tyrosine, lysine and histidine levels in rats. In particular, the serine and threonine levels were over five and eight times, respectively, higher in the Cbl-deficient rats than those in the sufficient controls. In addition, some amino acids, including serine and threonine, were excreted into urine at significantly higher levels in the deficient rats. When Cbl was supplemented into the deficient rats for 2 weeks, in coincidence with the disappearance of the urinary excretion of methylmalonic acid (an index of Cbl deficiency), the plasma serine and threonine levels were normalized. These results indicate that Cbl deficiency results in metabolic disorder of certain amino acids, including serine and threonine. The expression level of hepatic serine dehydratase (SDH), which catalyzes the conversion of serine and threonine to pyruvate and 2-oxobutyrate, respectively, was significantly lowered by Cbl deficiency, even though Cbl does not participate directly in the enzyme reaction. The SDH activity in the deficient rats was less than 20% of that in the sufficient controls, and was normalized 2 weeks after the Cbl supplementation. It is thus suggested that the decrease of the SDH expression relates closely with the abnormalities in the plasma and urinary levels of serine and threonine in the Cbl-deficient rats.

  3. Investigation of characteristics and radiation hardness of the Beetle 1.0 front-end chip

    CERN Document Server

    Van Bakel, N; Jans, E; Klous, S; Verkooijen, H

    2001-01-01

    Noise characteristics of the Beetle 1.0 front-end chip have been investigated as a function of input capacitance. Values for the equivalent noise charge and ballastic deficit have been extracted. Amplification and pulse shape have been studied by varying the bias settings over a wide range. Results are compared with simulations that include realistic impedances at the input and output. The chip has been subjected to 10 Mrad of radiation. Subsequently, its behaviour is measured again and compared to that preceeding the irradiation. Observed radiation damage effects are discussed.

  4. Magnetic properties of iron adatoms and small iron clusters on Ag(1 0 0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarovits, B.; Szunyogh, L.; Weinberger, P.

    2002-02-01

    A Green's function embedding technique based on the fully relativistic spin-polarized Screened Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker method is used to calculate the electronic and magnetic properties of magnetic nanostructures. Strongly enhanced spin and orbital moments are obtained for an Fe adatom and for small clusters of Fe on a Ag(1 0 0) surface. As a consequence, for an Fe adatom a magnetic anisotropy energy is found that is about 10 times larger than for an Fe monolayer. Furthermore, the exchange coupling energy between two Fe adatoms is calculated in terms of the force theorem, showing a very rapid decay with increasing distance.

  5. CorpusMiner 1.0: Herramienta para el agrupamiento de documentos

    OpenAIRE

    Yoisy Pérez; Juan Manuel Mederos; Libernys Valdés; Rafael Bello; Leticia Arco

    2011-01-01

    CorpusMiner 1.0 permite formar grupos de documentos similares en un corpus textual. El agrupamiento puede ser duro o borroso. Mediante el uso de métodos de agrupamiento concatenados, no es necesario tener un conocimiento del dominio para inicializar los métodos a utilizar. El agrupamiento se realiza a partir de una representación espacio-vectorial del corpus. Se permite la aplicación de técnicas de selección de rasgos, así como diferentes funciones para el cálculo de la similitud de documento...

  6. The SeaFlux Turbulent Flux Dataset Version 1.0 Documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayson, Carol Anne; Roberts, J. Brent; Bogdanoff, Alec S.

    2012-01-01

    Under the auspices of the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) Global Energy and Water cycle EXperiment (GEWEX) Data and Assessment Panel (GDAP), the SeaFlux Project was created to investigate producing a high-resolution satellite-based dataset of surface turbulent fluxes over the global oceans. The most current release of the SeaFlux product is Version 1.0; this represents the initial release of turbulent surface heat fluxes, associated near-surface variables including a diurnally varying sea surface temperature.

  7. Patient Condition Occurrence Frequency (PCOF) Tool Version 1.0.0.0 User Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    value. Diarrhea is common. 29.5% 26.0% Genitourinary disorders Low incidence when reported. 0.0% 1.5% Cardiovascular disorders Non-zero 0.0% 0.5...especially in children . Figure could definitely go higher in catastrophic floods in poorer regions. 0.0% 4.5% OB/Gyn disorders Figure may go higher in...from Haiti surveillance data 20.1% 11.0% Metabolism disorders Non-zero and greater than .5 because diabetes is common worldwide 0.0% 1.0

  8. Modeling of the deposition of Ni and Pd on Mo(1 1 0)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canzian, Adrian [Grupo de Caracterizacion y Modelacion de Materiales, UTN, FRGP, H. Yrigoyen 288, (B1617FRP) Gral. Pacheco (Argentina); Mosca, Hugo [Grupo de Caracterizacion y Modelacion de Materiales, UTN, FRGP, H. Yrigoyen 288, (B1617FRP) Gral. Pacheco (Argentina); Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, U.A. Fisica, Av. Gral Paz 1499, (B1650KNA) San Martin (Argentina); Bozzolo, Guillermo [NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, OH 44135 (United States); Ohio Aerospace Institute, 22800 Cedar Point Road, Cleveland, OH 44142 (United States)], E-mail: Guillermo.H.Bozzolo@grc.nasa.gov

    2007-10-31

    Recent experimental work on the deposition of fcc metals on a bcc substrate motivates this atomistic modeling analysis of Ni and Pd deposition on Mo(1 1 0). A detailed atom-by-atom analysis of the early stages of growth, focusing on the formation of surface alloys and 3D islands is presented, identifying the interactions leading to each type of behavior. Further analysis describes the growth pattern as a function of coverage. Temperature effects are studied via Monte Carlo simulations using the Bozzolo-Ferrante-Smith (BFS) method for alloys for the energetics.

  9. 12CO (1-0 AND (2-1 OBSERVATIONS OF ISOLATED EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Chavez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present 12CO(J=1-0 and 2-1 observations of a small sample of isolated early-type galaxies (ETGs. The data has been collected with the Arizona Radio Observatories (ARO 12 m telescope at Kitt Peak. One object (KIG137 was unambiguously detected in both bands. For this detected galaxy we estimate of the molecular hydrogen mass. These observations are part of a larger project aimed at complementing existing data bases for the study of environmental e ects on the interstellar medium in ETGs.

  10. Single and chronic L-serine treatments exert antidepressant-like effects in rats possibly by different means.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasawa, Mao; Otsuka, Tsuyoshi; Togo, Yuki; Yamanaga, Masakazu; Yoshida, Junki; Uotsu, Nobuo; Teramoto, Sachiyuki; Yasuo, Shinobu; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2017-06-06

    In the present study, the effects of both single (6 mmol L-serine/10 ml/kg orally administrated) and chronic (2% L-serine solution freely given for 28 days) treatments on depression-like behavior were evaluated in Wistar rats, representing the control, and Wistar Kyoto rats, representing an animal model of depression. Both single and chronic L-serine treatments decreased the duration of immobility, which is an index of a depressive-like state, in the forced swimming test in both strains. However, the decreases in the duration of immobility appear to be regulated differently by the different mechanisms involved in single and chronic L-serine treatments. In the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, single L-serine treatment increased the concentrations of L-serine, but not D-serine, while chronic L-serine treatment increased those of D-serine, but not L-serine. These data suggest that the antidepressant-like effects of single and chronic L-serine treatments may have been induced by the increased L-serine and D-serine concentrations, respectively, in the brain. In addition, chronic L-serine treatment increased cystathionine concentrations in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex in Wistar rats, but not in Wistar Kyoto rats, suggesting that Wistar Kyoto rats have an abnormality in the serine-cystathionine metabolic pathway. In conclusion, single and chronic L-serine treatments may induce antidepressant-like effects via the different mechanisms related to serine metabolism in the brain.

  11. Peptidoglycan inducible expression of a serine proteinase homologue from kuruma shrimp (Marsupenaeus japonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanachai, Achara; Hirono, Ikuo; Ohira, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Yukinori; Aoki, Takashi

    2005-01-01

    A cDNA encoding a serine proteinase homologue of kuruma shrimp (Marsupenaeus japonicus) was cloned. The 1257 bp cDNA encodes a 339 amino acid putative peptide, with a signal sequence of 16 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequence is 42-67% similar to the immune-related serine proteinases and serine proteinase homologues of arthropods. It contains catalytic triad residues in the putative catalytic domain except for one substitution of Ser by a Gly residue. The six cysteine residues that form three disulphide bridges in most serine proteinases were conserved. The M. japonicus serine proteinase homologue was mainly expressed in haemocytes, in which expression dramatically increased after 3 days feeding with peptidoglycan at 0.2 mg kg(-1) shrimp body weight per day.

  12. Transcribing RNA polymerase II is phosphorylated at CTD residue serine-7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Rob D; Heidemann, Martin; Albert, Thomas K; Mailhammer, Reinhard; Flatley, Andrew; Meisterernst, Michael; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Eick, Dirk

    2007-12-14

    RNA polymerase II is distinguished by its large carboxyl-terminal repeat domain (CTD), composed of repeats of the consensus heptapeptide Tyr1-Ser2-Pro3-Thr4-Ser5-Pro6-Ser7. Differential phosphorylation of serine-2 and serine-5 at the 5' and 3' regions of genes appears to coordinate the localization of transcription and RNA processing factors to the elongating polymerase complex. Using monoclonal antibodies, we reveal serine-7 phosphorylation on transcribed genes. This position does not appear to be phosphorylated in CTDs of less than 20 consensus repeats. The position of repeats where serine-7 is substituted influenced the appearance of distinct phosphorylated forms, suggesting functional differences between CTD regions. Our results indicate that restriction of serine-7 epitopes to the Linker-proximal region limits CTD phosphorylation patterns and is a requirement for optimal gene expression.

  13. A CO J=1-0 Survey of common optical/uv absorption sightlines

    CERN Document Server

    Liszt, H S

    2009-01-01

    Context: Over the past thirty years a wealth of observations of CO and other molecules in optical/uv absorption in diffuse clouds has accumulated for which no comparable CO emission line data exist. Aims: To acquire mm-wave J=1-0 CO emission line profiles toward a substantial sample of commonly-studied optical/uv absorption line targets and to compare with the properties of the absorbing gas, especially the predicted emission line strengths. Methods: Using the ARO 12m telescope we observed mm-wavelength J=1-0 CO emission with spectral resolution R ~ 3x10^6 and spatial resolution 1' toward a sample of 110 lines of sight previously studied in optical/uv absorption lines of CO, \\HH, CH, etc. Results: Interstellar CO emission was detected along 65 of the 110 lines of sight surveyed and there is a general superabundance of CO emission given the distribution of galactic latitudes in the survey sample. Much of the emission is optically thick or very intense and must emanate from dark clouds or warm dense gas near HI...

  14. Discovery of VHE $\\gamma$-ray emission from the SNR G54.1+0.3

    CERN Document Server

    Acciari, V A; Arlen, T; Aune, T; Bautista, M; Beilicke, M; Benbow, W; Boltuch, D; Bradbury, S M; Buckley, J H; Bugaev, V; Butt, Y; Byrum, K; Cesarini, A; Ciupik, L; Cui, W; Dickherber, R; Duke, C; Finley, J P; Finnegan, G; Fortson, L; Furniss, A; Galante, N; Gall, D; Gillanders, G H; Godambe, S; Gotthelf, E V; Grube, J; Guenette, R; Gyuk, G; Hanna, D; Holder, J; Hui, C M; Humensky, T B; Imran, A; Kaaret, P; Karlsson, N; Kertzman, M; Kieda, D; Konopelko, A; Krawczynski, H; Krennrich, F; Lang, M J; LeBohec, S; Maier, G; McArthur, S; McCann, A; McCutcheon, M; Moriarty, P; Muhkerjee, R; Ong, R A; Otte, A N; Pandel, D; Perkins, J S; Pohl, M; Quinn, J; Ragan, K; Reyes, L C; Reynolds, P T; Roache, E; Rose, H J; Schroedter, M; Sembroski, G H; Senturk, G Demet; Slane, P; Smith, A W; Steele, D; Swordy, S P; Těsić, G; Theiling, M; Thibadeau, S; Vassiliev, V V; Vincent, S; Wakely, S P; Ward, J E; Weekes, T C; Weinstein, A; Weisgarber, T; Williams, D A; Wissel, S; Wood, M; Zitzer, B

    2010-01-01

    We report the discovery of very high energy gamma-ray emission from the direction of the SNR G54.1+0.3 using the VERITAS ground-based gamma-ray observatory. The TeV signal has an overall significance of 6.8$\\sigma$ and appears point-like given the 5$^{arcminute}$ resolution of the instrument. The integral flux above 1 TeV is 2.5\\% of the Crab Nebula flux and significant emission is measured between 250 GeV and 4 TeV, well described by a power-law energy spectrum dN/dE $\\sim$ E$^{-\\Gamma}$ with a photon index $\\Gamma= 2.39\\pm0.23_{stat}\\pm0.30_{sys}$. We find no evidence of time variability among observations spanning almost two years. Based on the location, the morphology, the measured spectrum, the lack of variability and a comparison with similar systems previously detected in the TeV band, the most likely counterpart of this new VHE gamma-ray source is the PWN in the SNR G54.1+0.3. The measured X-ray to VHE gamma-ray luminosity ratio is the lowest among all the nebulae supposedly driven by young rotation-p...

  15. 28 SiO v=0 J=1-0 emission from evolved stars

    CERN Document Server

    de Vicente, P; Díaz-Pulido, A; Albo, C; Alcolea, J; Barcia, A; Barbas, L; Bolaño, R; Colomer, F; Diez, M C; Gallego, J D; Gómez-González, J; López-Fernández, I; López-Fernández, J A; López-Pérez, J A; Malo, I; Moreno, A; Patino, M; Serna, J M; Tercero, F; Vaquero, B

    2016-01-01

    Observations of 28SiO v=0 J=1-0 line emission (7-mm wavelength) from AGB stars show in some cases peculiar profiles, composed of a central intense component plus a wider plateau. Very similar profiles have been observed in CO lines from some AGB stars and most post-AGB nebulae and, in these cases, they are clearly associated with the presence of conspicuous axial symmetry and bipolar dynamics. We present systematic observations of 28SiO v=0 J=1-0 emission in 28 evolved stars, performed with the 40~m radio telescope of the IGN in Yebes, Spain. We find that the composite core plus plateau profiles are almost always present in O-rich Miras, OH/IR stars, and red supergiants. They are also found in one S-type Mira ($\\chi$ Cyg), as well as in two semiregular variables (X Her and RS Cnc) that are known to show axial symmetry. In the other objects, the profiles are simpler and similar to those of other molecular lines. The composite structure appears in the objects in which SiO emission is thought to come from the ve...

  16. Geoacoustic inversion techniques (GAIT) Version 1.0 global search (GS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Peter; Muncill, Gregory

    2003-04-01

    Geoacoustic Inversion Techniques (GAIT) Version 1.0 is a PEO (C4I and Space) PMW 155 funded product that accepts measured acoustic data and produces an optimized estimate of the bottom environment that produced the observed acoustic data. The Global Search (GS) segment of GAIT pairs the Adaptive Simulated Annealing (ASA) algorithm with a variety of Navy standard propagation loss models (PE, ASTRAL and Nautilus) and an active sonar performance prediction model (ASPM). The goal of the GS segment of GAIT is to provide a best estimate of the geoacoustic properties of the ocean bottom that, when paired with a selected model, result in the observed acoustic data. An overview of the GS segment of GAIT 1.0 will be presented with details on the ASA algorithm, component models, cost functions and geoacoustic parametrizations. Inversion results will be shown for synthetic test cases from the Inversion Technique Workshop (ITW) held in May 2001 and from both narrowband and broadband measured data test cases. [Work supported by PEO (C4I and Space) PMW 155 and uses the products of a Phase I and II SBIR from the ONR (Code 321US).

  17. VLA Mapping of the CO(1-0) Line in SMM J14011+0252

    CERN Document Server

    Sharon, Chelsea E; Harris, Andrew I; Thomson, Alasdair P

    2012-01-01

    We present high-resolution CO(1-0) observations of the lensed submillimeter galaxy (SMG) SMM J14011+0252 at z=2.6. Comparison to the previously-detected CO(3-2) line gives an intensity ratio of r_3,1=0.97+/-0.16 in temperature units, larger than is typical for SMGs but within the range seen in the low-z ultraluminous infrared galaxy population. Combining our new data with previous mid-J CO observations, we perform a single-phase large velocity gradient (LVG) analysis to constrain the physical conditions of the molecular gas. Acceptable models have significant degeneracies between parameters, even when we rule out all models that produce optically thin emission, but we find that the bulk of the molecular gas has T_kin=20-60 K, n_{H_2}~10^4-10^5 cm^-3, and N_CO/Delta-v=10^{17.00+/-0.25} cm^-2 km^-1 s. For our best-fit models to self-consistently recover a typical CO-to-H_2 abundance and a plausible degree of virialization, the local velocity gradient in the molecular gas must be substantially larger than its ga...

  18. A 1.0 V differential VCO in 0.13μm CMOS technology*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Shengguo; Han Kefeng; Tan Xi; Yan Na; Min Hao

    2011-01-01

    A differential complementary LC voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) with high Q on-chip inductor is presented. The parallel resonator of the VCO consists of inversion-mode MOS (I-MOS) capacitors and an on-chip inductor. The resonator Q factor is mainly limited by the on-chip inductor. It is optimized by designing a single turn inductor that has a simulated Q factor of about 35 at 6 GHz. The proposed VCO is implemented in the SMIC 0.13μm 1P8M MMRF CMOS process, and the chip area is 1.0 × 0.8 mm2. The free-running frequency is from 5.73 to 6.35 GHz. When oscillating at 6.35 GHz, the current consumption is 2.55 mA from a supply voltage of 1.0 V and the measured phase noise at 1 MHz offset is -120.14 dBc/Hz. The figure of merit of the proposed VCO is -192.13 dBc/Hz.

  19. High Resolution Imaging of PHIBSS z~2 Main Sequence Galaxies in CO J=1-0

    CERN Document Server

    Bolatto, A D; Leroy, A K; Tacconi, L J; Bouché, N; Schreiber, N M Förster; Genzel, R; Cooper, M C; Fisher, D B; Combes, F; García-Burillo, S; Burkert, A; Bournaud, F; Weiss, A; Saintonge, A; Wuyts, S; Sternberg, A

    2015-01-01

    We present Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array observations of the CO J=1-0 transition in a sample of four $z\\sim2$ main sequence galaxies. These galaxies are in the blue sequence of star-forming galaxies at their redshift, and are part of the IRAM Plateau de Bure HIgh-$z$ Blue Sequence Survey (PHIBSS) which imaged them in CO J=3-2. Two galaxies are imaged here at high signal-to-noise, allowing determinations of their disk sizes, line profiles, molecular surface densities, and excitation. Using these and published measurements, we show that the CO and optical disks have similar sizes in main-sequence galaxies, and in the galaxy where we can compare CO J=1-0 and J=3-2 sizes we find these are also very similar. Assuming a Galactic CO-to-H$_2$ conversion, we measure surface densities of $\\Sigma_{mol}\\sim1200$ M$_\\odot$pc$^{-2}$ in projection and estimate $\\Sigma_{mol}\\sim500-900$ M$_\\odot$pc$^{-2}$ deprojected. Finally, our data yields velocity-integrated Rayleigh-Jeans brightness temperature line ratios $r_{31}$ th...

  20. The Production of HI in Photodissociation Regions and A Comparison with CO(1-0) Emission

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, R J; Kaufman, M J; Allen, Ronald J.; Heaton, Harold I.; Kaufman, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    The gas at the surfaces of molecular clouds in galaxies is heated and dissociated by photons from young stars both near and far. HI resulting from the dissociation of molecular hydrogen H2 emits hyperfine line emission at 21 cm, and warmed CO emits dipole rotational lines such as the 2.6 mm line of CO(1-0). We use previously developed models for photodissociation regions (PDRs) to compute the intensities of these HI and CO(1-0) lines as a function of the total volume density n in the cloud and the far ultraviolet flux G0 incident upon it and present the results in units familiar to observers. The intensities of these two lines behave differently with changing physical conditions in the PDR, and, taken together, the two lines can provide a ground-based radio astronomy diagnostic for determining n and G0 separately in distant molecular clouds. This diagnostic is particularly useful in the range Gzero <~ 100, 10 cm^{-3} <~ n <~ 10^5 cm^{-3}, which applies to a large fraction of the volume of the interst...

  1. Density Functional Study of the L1(0-alpha)IrV Transition in IrV and RhV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    Rh5V3, Cmmm and Amm2 are the only structures with eight or fewer atoms in the primitive cell which can be gener- ated by relaxing the unstable phonon...cell, either from experiment or an unstable phonon in the indicated structure. “Atoms” is the number of atoms in the primitive cell . Lattice constants

  2. Differential gene expression for suicide-substrate serine proteinase inhibitors (serpins) in vegetative and grain tissues of barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, T.H.; Marttila, S.; Rasmussen, S.K.;

    2003-01-01

    Proteins of the serpin superfamily (similar to43 kDa) from mature cereal grains are in vitro suicide-substrate inhibitors of specific mammalian serine proteinases of the chymotrypsin family. However, unlike the 'standard-mechanism' serine proteinase inhibitors (

  3. New ALPHA-2 magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    On 21 June, members of the ALPHA collaboration celebrated the handover of the first solenoid designed for the ALPHA-2 experiment. The magnet has since been successfully installed and is working well.   Khalid Mansoor, Sumera Yamin and Jeffrey Hangst in front of the new ALPHA-2 solenoid. “This was the first of three identical solenoids that will be installed between now and September, as the rest of the ALPHA-2 device is installed and commissioned,” explains ALPHA spokesperson Jeffrey Hangst. “These magnets are designed to allow us to transfer particles - antiprotons, electrons and positrons - between various parts of the new ALPHA-2 device by controlling the transverse size of the particle bunch that is being transferred.” Sumera Yamin and Khalid Mansoor, two Pakistani scientists from the National Centre for Physics in Islamabad, came to CERN in February specifically to design and manufacture these magnets. “We had the chance to work on act...

  4. Lyman Alpha Control

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, Daniel Stefaniak

    2015-01-01

    This document gives an overview of how to operate the Lyman Alpha Control application written in LabVIEW along with things to watch out for. Overview of the LabVIEW code itself as well as the physical wiring of and connections from/to the NI PCI-6229 DAQ box is also included. The Lyman Alpha Control application is the interface between the ALPHA sequencer and the HighFinesse Wavelength Meter as well as the Lyman Alpha laser setup. The application measures the wavelength of the output light from the Lyman Alpha cavity through the Wavelength Meter. The application can use the Wavelength Meter’s PID capabilities to stabilize the Lyman Alpha laser output as well as switch between up to three frequencies.

  5. Serine 249 phosphorylation by ATM protein kinase regulates hepatocyte nuclear factor-1α transactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Long; Chen, Hui; Zhan, Yi-Qun; Li, Chang-Yan; Ge, Chang-Hui; Zhang, Jian-Hong; Wang, Xiao-Hui; Yu, Miao; Yang, Xiao-Ming

    2014-07-01

    Hepatocyte nuclear factor-1 alpha (HNF1α) exerts important effects on gene expression in multiple tissues. Several studies have directly or indirectly supported the role of phosphorylation processes in the activity of HNF1α. However, the molecular mechanism of this phosphorylation remains largely unknown. Using microcapillary liquid chromatography MS/MS and biochemical assays, we identified a novel phosphorylation site in HNF1α at Ser249. We also found that the ATM protein kinase phosphorylated HNF1α at Ser249 in vitro in an ATM-dependent manner and that ATM inhibitor KU55933 treatment inhibited phosphorylation of HNF1α at Ser249 in vivo. Coimmunoprecipitation assays confirmed the association between HNF1α and ATM. Moreover, ATM enhanced HNF1α transcriptional activity in a dose-dependent manner, whereas the ATM kinase-inactive mutant did not. The use of KU55933 confirmed our observation. Compared with wild-type HNF1α, a mutation in Ser249 resulted in a pronounced decrease in HNF1α transactivation, whereas no dominant-negative effect was observed. The HNF1αSer249 mutant also exhibited normal nuclear localization but decreased DNA-binding activity. Accordingly, the functional studies of HNF1αSer249 mutant revealed a defect in glucose metabolism. Our results suggested that ATM regulates the activity of HNF1α by phosphorylation of serine 249, particularly in glucose metabolism, which provides valuable insights into the undiscovered mechanisms of ATM in the regulation of glucose homeostasis.

  6. Homology modelling and protein engineering strategy of subtilases, the family of subtilisin-like serine proteinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siezen, R J; de Vos, W M; Leunissen, J A; Dijkstra, B W

    1991-10-01

    Subtilases are members of the family of subtilisin-like serine proteases. Presently, greater than 50 subtilases are known, greater than 40 of which with their complete amino acid sequences. We have compared these sequences and the available three-dimensional structures (subtilisin BPN', subtilisin Carlsberg, thermitase and proteinase K). The mature enzymes contain up to 1775 residues, with N-terminal catalytic domains ranging from 268 to 511 residues, and signal and/or activation-peptides ranging from 27 to 280 residues. Several members contain C-terminal extensions, relative to the subtilisins, which display additional properties such as sequence repeats, processing sites and membrane anchor segments. Multiple sequence alignment of the N-terminal catalytic domains allows the definition of two main classes of subtilases. A structurally conserved framework of 191 core residues has been defined from a comparison of the four known three-dimensional structures. Eighteen of these core residues are highly conserved, nine of which are glycines. While the alpha-helix and beta-sheet secondary structure elements show considerable sequence homology, this is less so for peptide loops that connect the core secondary structure elements. These loops can vary in length by greater than 150 residues. While the core three-dimensional structure is conserved, insertions and deletions are preferentially confined to surface loops. From the known three-dimensional structures various predictions are made for the other subtilases concerning essential conserved residues, allowable amino acid substitutions, disulphide bonds, Ca(2+)-binding sites, substrate-binding site residues, ionic and aromatic interactions, proteolytically susceptible surface loops, etc. These predictions form a basis for protein engineering of members of the subtilase family, for which no three-dimensional structure is known.

  7. Role of class 1 serine protease autotransporter in the pathogenesis of Citrobacter rodentium colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Vidhya; Santiago, Araceli; Smith, Rachel; Smith, Mark; Robins-Browne, Roy M; Nataro, James P; Ruiz-Perez, Fernando

    2014-06-01

    A growing family of virulence factors called serine protease autotransporters of Enterobacteriaceae (SPATEs) are secreted by Shigella, Salmonella, and Escherichia coli pathotypes. SPATEs are subdivided into class 1 and class 2 based on structural features and phylogenetics. Class 1 SPATEs induce cytopathic effects in numerous epithelial cell lines, and several have been shown to cleave the cytoskeletal protein spectrin in vitro. However, to date the in vivo role of class 1 SPATEs in enteric pathogenesis is unknown. Citrobacter rodentium, a natural mouse pathogen, has recently been shown to harbor class 1 and class 2 SPATEs. To better understand the contribution of class 1 SPATEs in enteric infection, we constructed a class 1 SPATE null mutant (Δcrc1) in C. rodentium. Upon infection of C57BL/6 mice, the Δcrc1 mutant exhibited a hypervirulent, hyperinflammatory phenotype compared with its parent, accompanied by greater weight loss and a trend toward increased mortality in young mice; the effect was reversed when the crc1 gene was restored. Using flow cytometry, we observed increased infiltration of T cells, B cells, and neutrophils into the lamina propria of the distal colon in mice fed the Δcrc1 mutant, starting as early as 5 days after infection. No significant difference in epithelial cytotoxicity was observed. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) analysis of distal colonic tissue on day 10 postinfection showed significant increases in mRNA encoding cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), gamma interferon (IFN-γ), IL-1β, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) but not in mRNA encoding IL-17, IL-4, or IL-10 in the Δcrc1 mutant-infected mice. Our data suggest a previously unsuspected role for class 1 SPATEs in enteric infection.

  8. Substrate-inhibitor interactions in the kinetics of alpha-amylase inhibition by ragi alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitor (RATI) and its various N-terminal fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, N; Gourinath, S; Dey, S; Srinivasan, A; Singh, T P

    2001-04-10

    The ragi alpha-amylase/trypsin bifunctional inhibitor (RATI) from Indian finger millet, Ragi (Eleucine coracana Gaertneri), represents a new class of cereal inhibitor family. It exhibits a completely new motif of trypsin inhibitory site and is not found in any known trypsin inhibitor structures. The alpha-amylase inhibitory site resides at the N-terminal region. These two sites are independent of each other and the inhibitor forms a ternary (1:1:1) complex with trypsin and alpha-amylase. The trypsin inhibition follows a simple competitive inhibition obeying the canonical serine protease inhibitor mechanism. However, the alpha-amylase inhibition kinetics is a complex one if larger (> or =7 glucose units) substrate is used. While a complete inhibition of trypsin activity can be achieved, the inhibition of amylase is not complete even at very high molar concentration. We have isolated the N-terminal fragment (10 amino acids long) by CNBr hydrolysis of RATI. This fragment shows a simple competitive inhibition of alpha-amylase activity. We have also synthesized various peptides homologous to the N-terminal sequence of RATI. These peptides also show a normal competitive inhibition of alpha-amylase with varying potencies. It has also been shown that RATI binds to the larger substrates of alpha-amylase. In light of these observations, we have reexamined the binding of proteinaceous inhibitors to alpha-amylase and its implications on the mechanism and kinetics of inhibition.

  9. The Mars Analysis Correction Data Assimilation (MACDA) Dataset V1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montabone, L.; Marsh, K.; Lewis, S. R.; Read, P. L.; Smith, M. D.; Holmes, J.; Spiga, A.; Lowe, D.; Pamment, A.

    2014-06-01

    The Mars Analysis Correction Data Assimilation (MACDA) dataset version 1.0 contains the reanalysis of fundamental atmospheric and surface variables for the planet Mars covering a period of about three Martian years (a Martian year is about 1.88 terrestrial years). This has been produced by data assimilation of observations from NASA's Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft during its science mapping phase (February 1999-August 2004). In particular, we have used retrieved thermal profiles and total dust optical depths from the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) on board MGS. Data have been assimilated into a Mars global climate model (MGCM) using the Analysis Correction scheme developed at the UK Meteorological Office. The MGCM used is the UK spectral version of the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique (LMD, Paris, France) MGCM. MACDA is a joint project of the University of Oxford and The Open University in the UK.

  10. Study of (1 0 0) orientated ZnO films by APCVD system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacio, M. [Centro de Investigacion en Dispositivos Semiconductores, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, 14 Sur and Av. San Claudio, San Manuel 72000, Puebla (Mexico); Juarez, H., E-mail: hjuarez@cs.buap.mx [Centro de Investigacion en Dispositivos Semiconductores, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, 14 Sur and Av. San Claudio, San Manuel 72000, Puebla (Mexico); Escalante, G.; Garcia, G.; Diaz, T.; Rosendo, E. [Centro de Investigacion en Dispositivos Semiconductores, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, 14 Sur and Av. San Claudio, San Manuel 72000, Puebla (Mexico)

    2010-10-25

    ZnO thin films were grown on glass substrate by Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition system (APCVD), using zinc acetate (Zn(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2}) as precursor of Zn. The solution was prepared with zinc acetate in ammonium hydroxide (NH{sub 4}OH). Ozone was used as an oxidant agent to obtain ZnO films. The aqueous solution of zinc acetate was bubbled with nitrogen flow into the reaction chamber. The structural and optical properties of ZnO films were investigated in different deposition temperatures (300-375 deg. C in steps of 25 deg. C). X-ray diffraction results show that all deposited films were polycrystallined in (1 0 0) preferred orientation. Our samples showed a transmittance bigger or similar to 80% in the visible region. Preliminary studies show that the room-temperature photoluminescence spectrum of all films exhibits a strong peak in visible region at 492.31 nm.

  11. First-principles investigation of helium dissolution and clustering at a tungsten (1 1 0) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jinlong; Zhang, Ying, E-mail: zhyi@buaa.edu.cn; Zhou, Hong-Bo; Jin, Shuo; Lu, Guang-Hong, E-mail: lgh@buaa.edu.cn

    2015-06-15

    Using a first-principles method, we have investigated dissolution, self-trapping and clustering of He at a W(1 1 0) surface. We found that the He atom is not energetically favorable at both the surface and the subsurface, but it becomes stable under the second atomic layer from the surface. The He is easier to be self-trapped to form an He cluster at the near surface in comparison with the bulk due to the larger self-trapping range and the stronger binding energy. With the formation of such He cluster, the vacancy and thus the He-vacancy complex are able to form at the near surface. The results will provide a useful reference for understanding formation of the He bubble at the W surface.

  12. Ultra-broadband dual-comb spectroscopy across 1.0-1.9 {\\mu}m

    CERN Document Server

    Okubo, Sho; Inaba, Hajime; Hosaka, Kazumoto; Onae, Atsushi; Sasada, Hiroyuki; Hong, Feng-Lei

    2015-01-01

    We have carried out dual-comb spectroscopy and observed in a simultaneous acquisition a 140-THz-wide spectrum from 1.0 to 1.9 {\\mu}m using two fiber-based frequency combs phase-locked to each other. This ultra-broad wavelength bandwidth is realized by setting the difference between the repetition rates of the two combs to 7.6 Hz using the sub-Hz-linewidth fiber combs. The recorded spectrum contains five vibration-rotation bands of C${_2}$H${_2}$, CH${_4}$, and H${_2}$O at different wavelengths across the whole spectrum. The determined transition frequencies of C${_2}$H${_2}$ agree with those from the previous sub-Doppler resolution measurement of individual lines using CW lasers within 2 MHz.

  13. 4d \\mathcal{N}=1 from 6d (1, 0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razamat, Shlomo S.; Vafa, Cumrun; Zafrir, Gabi

    2017-04-01

    We study the geometry of 4d \\mathcal{N}=1 SCFT's arising from compactification of 6d (1, 0) SCFT's on a Riemann surface. We show that the conformal manifold of the resulting theory is characterized, in addition to moduli of complex structure of the Riemann surface, by the choice of a connection for a vector bundle on the surface arising from flavor symmetries in 6d. We exemplify this by considering the case of 4d \\mathcal{N}=1 SCFT's arising from M5 branes probing ℤ k singularity compactified on a Riemann surface. In particular, we study in detail the four dimensional theories arising in the case of two M5 branes on ℤ 2 singularity. We compute the conformal anomalies and indices of such theories in 4d and find that they are consistent with expectations based on anomaly and the moduli structure derived from the 6 dimensional perspective.

  14. The Central Point Source in G76.9+1.0

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V. R. Marthi; J. N. Chengalur; Y. Gupta; G. C. Dewangan; D. Bhattacharya

    2011-12-01

    We describe the serendipitous discovery of a very steep-spectrum radio point source in low-frequency Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) images of the supernova remnant (SNR) G76.9+1.0. The steep spectrum, as well as the location of the point source near the centre of this SNR confirm that this indeed is the pulsar J2022+3842. Archival Chandra X-ray data shows a point source coincident with the radio point source. However, no pulsed radio emission was detected despite deep searches at 610 MHz and 1160 MHz – which can be understood to be due to temporal broadening of the pulses. Weak pulsed emission has indeed been seen at 2 GHz with the Green Bank Telescope (GBT), establishing the fact that scattering is responsible for its non-detection at low radio frequencies. We underline the usefulness of low-frequency radio imaging as a good technique to prospect for pulsar candidates.

  15. On the microstructure and interfacial properties of sputtered nickel thin film on Si (1 0 0)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B Geetha Priyadarshini; S Aich; M Chakraborty

    2014-10-01

    Ni films of thickness ranging from 150 to 250 nm were deposited by DC magnetron sputtering on to Si (100) substrates maintained at room temperature and followed by post-annealing at 300 and 500 °C for 30 min. Other set of Ni films were deposited on to Si (1 0 0) substrates held at annealing temperature of 300 and 500 °C for 30 min. Microstructural investigation by field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) revealed columnar morphology with voided boundaries for films deposited at room temperature and was retained after post-deposition annealing at higher temperatures. Nickel silicide formation with isosceles triangle diffusion front was confirmed by cross-sectional highresolution transmission electron microscopy (X-HRTEM) for post-annealed Ni films. Thin film deposited at high substrate temperatures having near-equiaxed structure found to be the best route to fabricate thin films without silicide formation.

  16. Design document for the Surface Currents Data Base (SCDB) Management System (SCDBMS), version 1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisnnamagaru, Ramesh; Cesario, Cheryl; Foster, M. S.; Das, Vishnumohan

    1994-01-01

    The Surface Currents Database Management System (SCDBMS) provides access to the Surface Currents Data Base (SCDB) which is maintained by the Naval Oceanographic Office (NAVOCEANO). The SCDBMS incorporates database technology in providing seamless access to surface current data. The SCDBMS is an interactive software application with a graphical user interface (GUI) that supports user control of SCDBMS functional capabilities. The purpose of this document is to define and describe the structural framework and logistical design of the software components/units which are integrated into the major computer software configuration item (CSCI) identified as the SCDBMS, Version 1.0. The preliminary design is based on functional specifications and requirements identified in the governing Statement of Work prepared by the Naval Oceanographic Office (NAVOCEANO) and distributed as a request for proposal by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

  17. Design document for the MOODS Data Management System (MDMS), version 1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The MOODS Data Management System (MDMS) provides access to the Master Oceanographic Observation Data Set (MOODS) which is maintained by the Naval Oceanographic Office (NAVOCEANO). The MDMS incorporates database technology in providing seamless access to parameter (temperature, salinity, soundspeed) vs. depth observational profile data. The MDMS is an interactive software application with a graphical user interface (GUI) that supports user control of MDMS functional capabilities. The purpose of this document is to define and describe the structural framework and logical design of the software components/units which are integrated into the major computer software configuration item (CSCI) identified as MDMS, Version 1.0. The preliminary design is based on functional specifications and requirements identified in the governing Statement of Work prepared by the Naval Oceanographic Office (NAVOCEANO) and distributed as a request for proposal by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

  18. Transition-metal and metalloid substitutions in L1(0)-ordered FeNi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manchanda, P; Skomski, R; Bordeaux, N; Lewis, LH; Kashyap, A

    2014-05-07

    The effect of atomic substitutions on the magnetization, exchange, and magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy of L1(0)-ordered FeNi (tetrataenite) is computationally investigated. The compound naturally occurs in meteorites but has attracted renewed attention as a potential material for permanent magnets, and elemental additives will likely be necessary to facilitate the phase formation. Our density functional theory calculations use the Vienna ab-initio simulation package, applied to 4-atom unit cells of Fe2XNi and 32-atom supercells (X = Al, P, S, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co). While it is found that most additives deteriorate the magnetic properties, there are exceptions: excess substitutional Fe and Co additions improve the magnetization, whereas Cr, S, and interstitial B additions improve the magnetocrystalline anisotropy. (C) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.

  19. Forensic age estimation from the clavicle using 1.0 T MRI—Preliminary results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sara Tangmose; Jensen, Karl Erik; Villa, Chiara;

    2014-01-01

    : Motion artefacts reduced image resolution in living subjects. However, mean age at stage 4 was significantly different from mean age at stage 2 and 3. The minimum age at stage 4 was 19.8 years. Inter-observer agreement was moderate for autopsy cases and slight for living subjects. By contrasting subjects......OBJECTIVES: As forensic age estimations in the living are performed without medical indication, there is a need for the development of non-ionizing methods. This study investigates the use of 1.0T MRI to visualize the ossification status of the medial end of the clavicle. MATERIAL AND METHODS: T2...... of "incomplete fusion" (≤ stage 3 on both sides) against "fused" (at least one stage 4), agreement rate rose to moderate (K=0.414) for living subjects. Despite the low agreement rate, no subject younger than 18 years was assessed as having "fused" clavicles. CONCLUSION: At lower image resolution, a 2-stage...

  20. 5-2-1-0 Activity and Nutrition Challenge for Elementary Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Cynthia Miller

    2017-01-01

    Obesity prevention in youth is a health priority, and teaching healthy habits toward this end is one of a school nurse's many responsibilities. A school nurse developed and implemented a school-wide, 2-week-long Activity and Nutrition Challenge (ANC) using the evidence-based 5-2-1-0 initiative to prevent and fight childhood obesity. Despite minimal promotion, nearly half of the students at two elementary schools participated and earned points by following the guidelines in the ANC. The amount of chocolate milk consumed by students dropped significantly during the ANC, showing that the healthy behavior of choosing beverages without added sugar had been positively impacted. Anecdotal evidence suggested positive changes in other healthy behaviors as well. This ANC was a new way for a school nurse to teach healthy habits to a large group of children in a short period of time, with limited extra work, and with promising results.

  1. Solidification of the Undercooled Al-Si Alloy Containing 1.0 PctRE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Bo; Jian, Zengyun; Xu, Junfeng; Yan, Junhui

    2017-02-01

    Al-80 pctSi-1.0 pctRE alloy was levitated and melted using the electromagnetic levitation facility in combination with a laser heating unit. The growth morphologies of primary silicon were observed using a high-speed video, and the microstructure was analyzed by the scanning electron microscopy. The morphologies of primary silicon at low, intermediate, and high undercooling are dendrites, fragmented bulks and granular grains, and equiaxed grains, respectively. In addition, the growth velocities of primary silicon were measured, which were consistent with the theoretical prediction. The microstructure refinements of primary silicon played a dominant role in its large microhardness, which increased with the increase of undercooling. Moreover, the hardening effect of dendritic structure was stronger than that of equiaxed grain.

  2. SRS BUILDER 1.0: An Upper Type CASE Tool For Requirement Specification

    CERN Document Server

    Mandal, Ardhendu

    2011-01-01

    Software (SW) development is a labor intensive activity. Modern software projects generally have to deal with producing and managing large and complex software products. Developing such software has become an extremely challenging job not only because of inherent complexity, but also mainly for economic constraints unlike time, quality, maintainability concerns. Hence, developing modern software within the budget still remains as one of the main software crisis. The most significant way to reduce the software development cost is to use the Computer-Aided Software Engineering (CASE) tools over the entire Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) process as substitute to expensive human labor cost. We think that automation of software development methods is a valuable support for the software engineers in coping with this complexity and for improving quality too. This paper demonstrates the newly developed CASE tools name "SRS Builder 1.0" for software requirement specification developed at our university laborato...

  3. Hardening of the surface layers of commercial pure titanium VT1-0 under combined treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashchenko, Lyudmila P.; Gromov, Viktor E.; Budovskikh, Evgenii A.; Ivanov, Yurii F.; Soskova, Nina A.

    2015-10-01

    The treatment of VT1-0 titanium samples was carried out by concentrated energy fluxes. The combined treatment included surface carburizing with the joint use of powder samples of compounds with high physical and mechanical properties (namely, titanium diboride TiB2, silicon carbide SiC and zirconium oxide ZrO2) and subsequent electron beam treatment of surface layers formed in electroexplosive treatment. The combined treatment of surface layers resulted in the multifold increase in microhardness, which reduces depending on the depth of hardening zone. After electron-beam treatment, the depth of hardening zone is increased. During electron-beam treatment, the two-layer hardening zone forms.

  4. Hardening of the surface layers of commercial pure titanium VT1-0 under combined treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bashchenko, Lyudmila P., E-mail: luda.baschenko@gmail.com; Gromov, Viktor E., E-mail: gromov@physics.sibsiu.ru; Budovskikh, Evgenii A., E-mail: budovskih-ea@physics.sibsiu.ru; Soskova, Nina A., E-mail: gromov@physics.sibsiu.ru [Siberian State Industrial University, Novokuznetsk, 654007 (Russian Federation); Ivanov, Yurii F., E-mail: yufi55@mail.ru [Institute of High Current Electronics SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-27

    The treatment of VT1-0 titanium samples was carried out by concentrated energy fluxes. The combined treatment included surface carburizing with the joint use of powder samples of compounds with high physical and mechanical properties (namely, titanium diboride TiB{sub 2}, silicon carbide SiC and zirconium oxide ZrO{sub 2}) and subsequent electron beam treatment of surface layers formed in electroexplosive treatment. The combined treatment of surface layers resulted in the multifold increase in microhardness, which reduces depending on the depth of hardening zone. After electron-beam treatment, the depth of hardening zone is increased. During electron-beam treatment, the two-layer hardening zone forms.

  5. GridLAB-D Technical Support Document: Residential End-Use Module Version 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Zachary T.; Gowri, Krishnan; Katipamula, Srinivas

    2008-07-31

    1.0 Introduction The residential module implements the following end uses and characteristics to simulate the power demand in a single family home: • Water heater • Lights • Dishwasher • Range • Microwave • Refrigerator • Internal gains (plug loads) • House (heating/cooling loads) The house model considers the following four major heat gains/losses that contribute to the building heating/cooling load: 1. Conduction through exterior walls, roof and fenestration (based on envelope UA) 2. Air infiltration (based on specified air change rate) 3. Solar radiation (based on CLTD model and using tmy data) 4. Internal gains from lighting, people, equipment and other end use objects. The Equivalent Thermal Parameter (ETP) approach is used to model the residential loads and energy consumption. The following sections describe the modeling assumptions for each of the above end uses and the details of power demand calculations in the residential module.

  6. Power, Avionics and Software - Phase 1.0:. [Subsystem Integration Test Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.; Sands, Obed S.; Bakula, Casey J.; Oldham, Daniel R.; Wright, Ted; Bradish, Martin A.; Klebau, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    This report describes Power, Avionics and Software (PAS) 1.0 subsystem integration testing and test results that occurred in August and September of 2013. This report covers the capabilities of each PAS assembly to meet integration test objectives for non-safety critical, non-flight, non-human-rated hardware and software development. This test report is the outcome of the first integration of the PAS subsystem and is meant to provide data for subsequent designs, development and testing of the future PAS subsystems. The two main objectives were to assess the ability of the PAS assemblies to exchange messages and to perform audio testing of both inbound and outbound channels. This report describes each test performed, defines the test, the data, and provides conclusions and recommendations.

  7. Exchange coupling and noncollinear magnetic states in Ni/Fen/Ni(1 0 0) multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malonda-Boungou, B. R.; Stojić, N.; Binggeli, N.; M'Passi-Mabiala, B.

    2015-01-01

    The Ni interlayer exchange coupling (IEC) and the atomic-scale magnetic configurations in fcc Ni /Fen /Ni (1 0 0) multilayers, with ultrathin Fe spacers, are investigated using first-principles density-functional theory including the noncollinear spin formalism. The trends with changing Fe thickness (n) between 3 and 5 monolayers (MLs) are examined. For n = 3 and 4 MLs, we find the ground state to display antiferromagnetic IEC between the Ni films, while for the 5-ML Fe spacer, the IEC changes into ferromagnetic. Upon reversal of the magnetization alignment, from antiparallel to parallel, between the Ni films with 3- and 4-ML thick Fe spacer, we find noncollinear magnetic configurations in the Fe layer as the lowest-energy states, which are related to the magnetic instability towards noncollinear solutions in bulk γ -Fe.

  8. ESMO - Magnitude of Clinical Benefit Scale V.1.0 questions and answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherny, N I; Sullivan, R; Dafni, U; Kerst, J M; Sobrero, A; Zielinski, C; Piccart, M J; Bogaerts, J; Tabernero, J; Latino, N J; de Vries, E G E

    2016-01-01

    The ESMO Magnitude of Clinical Benefit Scale (ESMO-MCBS) is a standardised, generic, validated tool to stratify the magnitude of clinical benefit that can be anticipated from anticancer therapies. The ESMO-MCBS is intended to both assist oncologists in explaining the likely benefits of a particular treatment to their patients as well as to aid public health decision makers' prioritise therapies for reimbursement. From its inception the ESMO-MCBS Working Group has invited questions and critiques to promote understanding and to address misunderstandings regarding the nuanced use of the scale, and to identify shortcomings in the scale to be addressed in future planned revisions and updates. The ESMO-MCBS V.1.0 has attracted many questions regarding its development, structure and potential applications. These questions, together with responses from the ESMO-MCBS Working Group, have been edited and collated, and are herein presented as a supplementary resource. PMID:27900206

  9. CorpusMiner 1.0: Herramienta para el agrupamiento de documentos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoisy Pérez

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available CorpusMiner 1.0 permite formar grupos de documentos similares en un corpus textual. El agrupamiento puede ser duro o borroso. Mediante el uso de métodos de agrupamiento concatenados, no es necesario tener un conocimiento del dominio para inicializar los métodos a utilizar. El agrupamiento se realiza a partir de una representación espacio-vectorial del corpus. Se permite la aplicación de técnicas de selección de rasgos, así como diferentes funciones para el cálculo de la similitud de documentos que mejoran la eficiencia del mismo. Esta herramienta es útil en la extracción de resúmenes, categorización, clasificación, y verificación de homogeneidad de un corpus textual.

  10. Spacecraft Orbit Design and Analysis (SODA), version 1.0 user's guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallcup, Scott S.; Davis, John S.

    1989-01-01

    The Spacecraft Orbit Design and Analysis (SODA) computer program, Version 1.0 is described. SODA is a spaceflight mission planning system which consists of five program modules integrated around a common database and user interface. SODA runs on a VAX/VMS computer with an EVANS & SUTHERLAND PS300 graphics workstation. BOEING RIM-Version 7 relational database management system performs transparent database services. In the current version three program modules produce an interactive three dimensional (3D) animation of one or more satellites in planetary orbit. Satellite visibility and sensor coverage capabilities are also provided. One module produces an interactive 3D animation of the solar system. Another module calculates cumulative satellite sensor coverage and revisit time for one or more satellites. Currently Earth, Moon, and Mars systems are supported for all modules except the solar system module.

  11. Interoperability with Moby 1.0--it's better than sharing your toothbrush!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Mark D; Senger, Martin; Kawas, Edward; Bruskiewich, Richard; Gouzy, Jerome; Noirot, Celine; Bardou, Philippe; Ng, Ambrose; Haase, Dirk; Saiz, Enrique de Andres; Wang, Dennis; Gibbons, Frank; Gordon, Paul M K; Sensen, Christoph W; Carrasco, Jose Manuel Rodriguez; Fernández, José M; Shen, Lixin; Links, Matthew; Ng, Michael; Opushneva, Nina; Neerincx, Pieter B T; Leunissen, Jack A M; Ernst, Rebecca; Twigger, Simon; Usadel, Bjorn; Good, Benjamin; Wong, Yan; Stein, Lincoln; Crosby, William; Karlsson, Johan; Royo, Romina; Párraga, Iván; Ramírez, Sergio; Gelpi, Josep Lluis; Trelles, Oswaldo; Pisano, David G; Jimenez, Natalia; Kerhornou, Arnaud; Rosset, Roman; Zamacola, Leire; Tarraga, Joaquin; Huerta-Cepas, Jaime; Carazo, Jose María; Dopazo, Joaquin; Guigo, Roderic; Navarro, Arcadi; Orozco, Modesto; Valencia, Alfonso; Claros, M Gonzalo; Pérez, Antonio J; Aldana, Jose; Rojano, M Mar; Fernandez-Santa Cruz, Raul; Navas, Ismael; Schiltz, Gary; Farmer, Andrew; Gessler, Damian; Schoof, Heiko; Groscurth, Andreas

    2008-05-01

    The BioMoby project was initiated in 2001 from within the model organism database community. It aimed to standardize methodologies to facilitate information exchange and access to analytical resources, using a consensus driven approach. Six years later, the BioMoby development community is pleased to announce the release of the 1.0 version of the interoperability framework, registry Application Programming Interface and supporting Perl and Java code-bases. Together, these provide interoperable access to over 1400 bioinformatics resources worldwide through the BioMoby platform, and this number continues to grow. Here we highlight and discuss the features of BioMoby that make it distinct from other Semantic Web Service and interoperability initiatives, and that have been instrumental to its deployment and use by a wide community of bioinformatics service providers. The standard, client software, and supporting code libraries are all freely available at http://www.biomoby.org/.

  12. LDA and molecular dynamics determination of Ag deposition onto (1 0 0) surfaces in silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzone, A.M

    2003-03-20

    This study analyzes the effects of the surface morphology on the deposition of Ag onto Si using LDA and isothermal molecular dynamics. The (1 0 0) silicon surface has either a bulk termination or the dimerization pattern experimentally observed. Small clusters representing a section of these surfaces have been used in LDA calculations to find preferred adsorption sites. Isothermal molecular dynamics describe the motions of the diffusing adatoms in a temperature range from T=10 to 1000 K. Both calculations indicate that Ag and Si do not mix and the deposited structure is formed by linear chains located in the trench between surface atoms. However, MD calculations show that, due to the relaxation of the surface and to thermal lattice vibrations, the stable state of the deposited atoms may considerably differ from the one calculated from LDA. This result has both a practical and a methodological significance.

  13. Molecular excitation in Centaurus A: the ^13^CO J=1-0 map and CO line ratios.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wild, W.; Eckart, A.; Wiklind, T.

    1997-01-01

    We present a fully sampled map of the ^13^CO J=1-0 emission in the dust lane of Centaurus A as well as ^13^CO 2-1 and for the first time C^18^O 1-0 spectra at selected positions. The morphology of the ^13^CO map is similar to the ^12^CO 1-0 and 2-1 maps. Maps of the ^12^CO 2-1/1-0 and ^12^CO/^13^CO

  14. Intraperitoneal injection of d-serine inhibits high-fat diet intake and preference in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Tsutomu; Yasoshima, Yasunobu; Matsui, Sho; Yokota-Hashimoto, Hiromi; Kobayashi, Masaki; Kitamura, Tadahiro

    2017-11-01

    d-serine is a co-agonist of the N-methyl d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, an important modulator of glutamatergic excitatory synaptic transmission. We previously reported that oral d-serine ingestion inhibited the intake of highly preferred food and promoted the intake of less preferred food in mice. Here, we analyzed the effects of intraperitoneal (IP) d-serine injections on feeding behavior in mice. We assessed the effects of d-serine during both the acquisition and maintenance of a preference for high-fat diets (HFDs). Aversiveness of IP d-serine was analyzed in the conditioned taste aversion paradigm. The effects on food intake were assessed by providing liquid meals with different fat contents. Finally, we measured brain d-serine and l-serine levels after d-serine administration. We found that IP-injected d-serine effectively inhibited the acquisition of a HFD preference, but failed to prevent expression of a previously learned HFD preference. IP-injected d-serine was not sufficient to condition taste aversion. The effect on HFD preference acquisition was associated with increases in d-serine levels in the cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, and cerebellum. IP-injected d-serine most effectively inhibited the intake of liquid meals with high fat content. This effect was dose-dependent, but the responses varied significantly among male C57BL/6J mice. The differential responses to d-serine were consistent among multiple trials in each mouse. In summary, IP-injected d-serine inhibited HFD intake and the acquisition of an HFD preference. Individual mice with the same genetic background showed different sensitivities to d-serine; thus, d-serine sensitivity may be associated with unidentified traits. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Alpha Shapes and Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Pawel; Sterner, Henrik; Sterner, Peter

    2009-01-01

    We provide a unified description of (weighted) alpha shapes, beta shapes and the corresponding simplicialcomplexes. We discuss their applicability to various protein-related problems. We also discuss filtrations of alpha shapes and touch upon related persistence issues.We claim that the full...... potential of alpha-shapes and related geometrical constructs in protein-related problems yet remains to be realized and verified. We suggest parallel algorithms for (weighted) alpha shapes, and we argue that future use of filtrations and kinetic variants for larger proteins will need such implementation....

  16. Interpreting EEG alpha activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazanova, O M; Vernon, D

    2014-07-01

    Exploring EEG alpha oscillations has generated considerable interest, in particular with regards to the role they play in cognitive, psychomotor, psycho-emotional and physiological aspects of human life. However, there is no clearly agreed upon definition of what constitutes 'alpha activity' or which of the many indices should be used to characterize it. To address these issues this review attempts to delineate EEG alpha-activity, its physical, molecular and morphological nature, and examine the following indices: (1) the individual alpha peak frequency; (2) activation magnitude, as measured by alpha amplitude suppression across the individual alpha bandwidth in response to eyes opening, and (3) alpha "auto-rhythmicity" indices: which include intra-spindle amplitude variability, spindle length and steepness. Throughout, the article offers a number of suggestions regarding the mechanism(s) of alpha activity related to inter and intra-individual variability. In addition, it provides some insights into the various psychophysiological indices of alpha activity and highlights their role in optimal functioning and behavior.

  17. J=1-0 HCN toward bright far-infrared sources in the outer Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirogov, L.

    1999-08-01

    Results of the J=1-0 HCN observations toward 34 bright far-infrared sources selected from the IRAS Point Source Catalog are reported. Together with 17 sources observed in this line earlier (Pirogov et al., 1996) they form a complete sample of the sources with flux densities S(100 mu m)>500 Jy and delta > 0degr in the outer Galaxy. The HCN data are compared with the HCO(+) , NH_3, CS and CO data taken from literature. Prominent correlations with nearly similar slopes of ~ 1 are revealed between line integrated intensities of the molecules known to be high density tracers (HCN, HCO(+) , NH_3 and CS). The correlations become higher after adding the data for dark clouds, small globules and cirrus cores implying similar excitation and formation mechanisms of the considered molecules. Collisional excitation in regions with different densities as well as different molecular abundances and velocity dispersions in different types of cores seem to be important in producing these correlations. The following relations hold on the average over ~ 3 orders of magnitude of integrated intensities: I(HCN)>~ I(HCO(+) ~ ) I(CS) > I(NH_3) where ammonia integrated intensities are several times lower than HCN ones. Correlations are also found between HCN and CO integrated intensities for the sample sources as well as between HCN line widths and those of other species. The HCN lines have the same widths as the HCO(+) ones and are larger than CS and especially NH_3 line widths. Weak correlations are found between HCN line widths and luminosities of IRAS sources as well as between HCN integrated intensities, IRAS flux densities at 100mu m and luminosities of IRAS sources divided by distance squared. The sources with most intense HCN lines have associated water masers and molecular outflows while the lack of associated maser and outflow implies weak or no HCN emission. In order to reproduce the anomalies of the J=1-0 HCN hyperfine structure (R12 factor.

  18. Gelatinases and serine proteinase inhibitors of seminal plasma and the reproductive tract of turkey (Meleagris gallopavo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotłowska, M; Kowalski, R; Glogowski, J; Jankowski, J; Ciereszko, A

    2005-04-01

    This study examined proteolytic enzymes and serine proteinase inhibitors in turkey seminal plasma with relation to their distribution within the reproductive tract and to yellow semen syndrome (YSS). Proteases of blood plasma, extracts from the reproductive tract, and seminal plasma were analyzed by gelatin zymography. We found a clear regional distribution of proteolytic enzymes in the turkey reproductive tract. Each part was characterized by a unique profile of serine proteolytic enzymes of molecular weights ranging from 29 to 88 kDa. The ductus deferens was found to be a site of very intense proteolytic activity. Two metalloproteases of 58 and 66 kDa were detected in all parts of the reproductive tract and seminal plasma. Using electrophoretic methods for detection of anti-trypsin activity, we found three serine proteinase inhibitors in turkey seminal plasma. Two inhibitors were found in the testis and epididymis and a third in the ductus deferens and seminal plasma. Blood plasma was characterized by the presence of two metalloproteinases and one serine proteinase inhibitor (of low migration rate) that were also detected in the reproductive tract. Amidase and anti-trypsin activities (expressed per gram of protein) differed for yellow and white seminal plasma. We concluded that turkey seminal plasma contains metalloproteases, serine proteinases, and serine proteinase inhibitors. The metalloproteases and one proteinase inhibitor are related to blood proteinases but the other two inhibitors and serine proteinases seem to be unique for the reproductive tract.

  19. Characterization of a novel Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitor of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pariani, Sebastián; Contreras, Marisol; Rossi, Franco R; Sander, Valeria; Corigliano, Mariana G; Simón, Francisco; Busi, María V; Gomez-Casati, Diego F; Pieckenstain, Fernando L; Duschak, Vilma G; Clemente, Marina

    2016-04-01

    Many different types of serine proteinase inhibitors have been involved in several kinds of plant physiological processes, including defense mechanisms against phytopathogens. Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitors, which are included in the serine proteinase inhibitor family, are present in several organisms. These proteins play a regulatory role in processes that involve serine proteinases like trypsin, chymotrypsin, thrombin, elastase and/or subtilisin. In the present work, we characterized two putative Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitors from Arabidopsis thaliana, which have a single putative Kazal-type domain. The expression of these inhibitors is transiently induced in response to leaf infection by Botrytis cinerea, suggesting that they play some role in defense against pathogens. We also evaluated the inhibitory specificity of one of the Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitors, which resulted to be induced during the local response to B. cinerea infection. The recombinant Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitor displayed high specificity for elastase and subtilisin, but low specificity for trypsin, suggesting differences in its selectivity. In addition, this inhibitor exhibited a strong antifungal activity inhibiting the germination rate of B. cinerea conidia in vitro. Due to the important role of proteinase inhibitors in plant protection against pathogens and pests, the information about Kazal-type proteinase inhibitors described in the present work could contribute to improving current methods for plant protection against pathogens.

  20. Reaction pathway of tryptophanase-catalyzed L-tryptophan synthesis from D-serine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Akihiko; Ozaki, Haruka; Saito, Takeshi; Fujii, Noriko

    2011-11-01

    Tryptophanase, L-tryptophan indole-lyase with extremely absolute stereospecificity, can change the stereospecificity in concentrated diammonium hydrogenphosphate solution. While tryptophanase is not inert to D-serine in the absence of diammonium hydrogenphosphate, it can undergo L-tryptophan synthesis from D-serine along with indole in the presence of it. It has been well known that tryptophanase synthesizes L-tryptophan from L-serine through a β-substitution mechanism of the ping-pong type. However, a metabolic pathway of L-tryptophan synthesis from D-serine has remained unclear. The present study aims to elucidate it. Diammonium hydrogenphosphate plays a role in the emergence of catalytic activity on D-serine. The salt gives tryptophanase a small conformational change, which makes it possible to catalyze D-serine. Tryptophanase-bound D-serine produces L-tryptophan synthesis by β-replacement reaction via the enzyme-bound aminoacrylate intermediate. Our result will be valuable in studying the origin of homochirality.

  1. Traditional Food Items in Ogimi, Okinawa: l-Serine Content and the Potential for Neuroprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Paul Alan; Metcalf, James S

    2017-01-01

    Ogimi village is renowned for its aging population. We sought to determine if the l-serine content of their diet could account for their neurological health. The most frequently consumed food items, including tofu and seaweeds, are rich in the dietary amino acid l-serine. l-serine content of the Ogimi diet >8 grams/day for Ogimi women significantly exceeds the average American dietary intake of 2.5 grams/day for women >70 years old. Our hypothesis that the high l-serine content of the Ogimi diet is related to the paucity of tangle diseases among villagers is buttressed by in vivo results with non-human primates where dietary l-serine slowed development of neurofibrillary tangles and β-amyloid plaques by up to 85% and a human clinical trial finding that l-serine at 15 grams/day twice daily slows functional decline in ALS patients. Analysis of the Ogimi diet suggests that l-serine should be evaluated for therapeutic potential as a neuroprotective agent.

  2. Enzymatic Synthesis of Galactosylated Serine/Threonine Derivatives by β-Galactosidase from Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sooyoun Seo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The transgalactosylations of serine/threonine derivatives were investigated using β-galactosidase from Escherichia coli as biocatalyst. Using ortho-nitrophenyl-β-D-galactoside as donor, the highest bioconversion yield of transgalactosylated N-carboxy benzyl L-serine benzyl ester (23.2% was achieved in heptane:buffer medium (70:30, whereas with the lactose, the highest bioconversion yield (3.94% was obtained in the buffer reaction system. The structures of most abundant galactosylated serine products were characterized by MS/MS. The molecular docking simulation revealed that the binding of serine/threonine derivatives to the enzyme’s active site was stronger (−4.6~−7.9 kcal/mol than that of the natural acceptor, glucose, and mainly occurred through interactions with aromatic residues. For N-tert-butoxycarbonyl serine methyl ester (6.8% and N-carboxybenzyl serine benzyl ester (3.4%, their binding affinities and the distances between their hydroxyl side chain and the 1′-OH group of galactose moiety were in good accordance with the quantified bioconversion yields. Despite its lower predicted bioconversion yield, the high experimental bioconversion yield obtained with N-carboxybenzyl serine methyl ester (23.2% demonstrated the importance of the thermodynamically-driven nature of the transgalactosylation reaction.

  3. Proteome-wide reactivity profiling identifies diverse carbamate chemotypes tuned for serine hydrolase inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jae Won; Cognetta, Armand B; Niphakis, Micah J; Cravatt, Benjamin F

    2013-07-19

    Serine hydrolases are one of the largest and most diverse enzyme classes in Nature. Inhibitors of serine hydrolases are used to treat many diseases, including obesity, diabetes, cognitive dementia, and bacterial and viral infections. Nonetheless, the majority of the 200+ serine hydrolases in mammals still lack selective inhibitors for their functional characterization. We and others have shown that activated carbamates, through covalent reaction with the conserved serine nucleophile of serine hydrolases, can serve as useful inhibitors for members of this enzyme family. The extent to which carbamates, however, cross-react with other protein classes remains mostly unexplored. Here, we address this problem by investigating the proteome-wide reactivity of a diverse set of activated carbamates in vitro and in vivo, using a combination of competitive and click chemistry (CC)-activity-based protein profiling (ABPP). We identify multiple classes of carbamates, including O-aryl, O-hexafluoroisopropyl (HFIP), and O-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl (NHS) carbamates that react selectively with serine hydrolases across entire mouse tissue proteomes in vivo. We exploit the proteome-wide specificity of HFIP carbamates to create in situ imaging probes for the endocannabinoid hydrolases monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) and α-β hydrolase-6 (ABHD6). These findings, taken together, designate the carbamate as a privileged reactive group for serine hydrolases that can accommodate diverse structural modifications to produce inhibitors that display exceptional potency and selectivity across the mammalian proteome.

  4. Structural Basis for the Catalytic Activity of Human Serine/Threonine Protein Phosphatase type 5 (PP5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swingle, Mark R.; Ciszak, Ewa M.; Honkanen, Richard E.

    2004-01-01

    Serine/threonine protein phosphatase-5 (PP5) is a member of the PPP-gene family of protein phosphatases that is widely expressed in mammalian tissues and is highly conserved among eukaryotes. PP5 associates with several proteins that affect signal transduction networks, including the glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-heat shock protein-90 (Hsp90)-heterocomplex, the CDC16 and CDC27 subunits of the anaphase-promoting complex, elF2alpha kinase, the A subunit of PP2A, the G12-alpha / G13-alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins and DNA-PK. The catalytic domain of PP5 (PP5c) shares 35-45% sequence identity with the catalytic domains of other PPP-phosphatases, including protein phosphatase-1 (PP1), -2A (PP2A), -2B / calcineurin (PP2B), -4 (PP4), -6 (PP6), and -7 (PP7). Like PP1, PP2A and PP4, PP5 is also sensitive to inhibition by okadaic acid, microcystin, cantharidin, tautomycin, and calyculin A. Here we report the crystal structure of the PP5 catalytic domain (PP5c) at a resolution of 1.6 angstroms. From this structure we propose a mechanism for PP5-mediated hydrolysis of phosphoprotein substrates, which requires the precise positioning of two metal ions within a conserved Asp(sup 271)-M(sub 1):M(sub 2)-W(sup 1)-His(sup 304)-Asp(sup 274) catalytic motif. The structure of PP5c provides a possible structural basis for explaining the exceptional catalytic proficiency of protein phosphatases, which are among the most powerful known catalysts. Resolution of the entire C-terminus revealed a novel subdomain, and the structure of the PP5c should also aid development of type-specific inhibitors.

  5. Identification of the catalytic residues of alpha-amino acid ester hydrolase from Acetobacter turbidans by labeling and site-directed mutagenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polderman - Tijmes, Jolanda j.; Jekel, Peter A.; Jeronimus-Stratingh, CM; Bruins, Andries P.; van der Laan, Jan-Metske; Sonke, Theo; Janssen, Dick B.

    2002-01-01

    The alpha-amino acid ester hydrolase from Acetobacter turbidans ATCC 9325 is capable of hydrolyzing and synthesizing the side chain peptide bond in beta-lactam antibiotics. Data base searches revealed that the enzyme contains an active site serine consensus sequence Gly-X-Ser-Tyr-X-Gly that is also

  6. BADGER v1.0: A Fortran equation of state library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heltemes, T. A.; Moses, G. A.

    2012-12-01

    The BADGER equation of state library was developed to enable inertial confinement fusion plasma codes to more accurately model plasmas in the high-density, low-temperature regime. The code had the capability to calculate 1- and 2-T plasmas using the Thomas-Fermi model and an individual electron accounting model. Ion equation of state data can be calculated using an ideal gas model or via a quotidian equation of state with scaled binding energies. Electron equation of state data can be calculated via the ideal gas model or with an adaptation of the screened hydrogenic model with ℓ-splitting. The ionization and equation of state calculations can be done in local thermodynamic equilibrium or in a non-LTE mode using a variant of the Busquet equivalent temperature method. The code was written as a stand-alone Fortran library for ease of implementation by external codes. EOS results for aluminum are presented that show good agreement with the SESAME library and ionization calculations show good agreement with the FLYCHK code. Program summaryProgram title: BADGERLIB v1.0 Catalogue identifier: AEND_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEND_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 41 480 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 2 904 451 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 90. Computer: 32- or 64-bit PC, or Mac. Operating system: Windows, Linux, MacOS X. RAM: 249.496 kB plus 195.630 kB per isotope record in memory Classification: 19.1, 19.7. Nature of problem: Equation of State (EOS) calculations are necessary for the accurate simulation of high energy density plasmas. Historically, most EOS codes used in these simulations have relied on an ideal gas model. This model is inadequate for low

  7. D-Serine and D-Cycloserine Reduce Compulsive Alcohol Intake in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seif, Taban; Simms, Jeffrey A; Lei, Kelly; Wegner, Scott; Bonci, Antonello; Messing, Robert O; Hopf, F Woodward

    2015-09-01

    There is considerable interest in NMDAR modulators to enhance memory and treat neuropsychiatric disorders such as addiction, depression, and schizophrenia. D-serine and D-cycloserine, the NMDAR activators at the glycine site, are of particular interest because they have been used in humans without serious adverse effects. Interestingly, D-serine also inhibits some NMDARs active at hyperpolarized potentials (HA-NMDARs), and we previously found that HA-NMDARs within the nucleus accumbens core (NAcore) are critical for promoting compulsion-like alcohol drinking, where rats consume alcohol despite pairing with an aversive stimulus such as quinine, a paradigm considered to model compulsive aspects of human alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Here, we examined the impact of D-serine and D-cycloserine on this aversion-resistant alcohol intake (that persists despite adulteration with quinine) and consumption of quinine-free alcohol. Systemic D-serine reduced aversion-resistant alcohol drinking, without altering consumption of quinine-free alcohol or saccharin with or without quinine. Importantly, D-serine within the NAcore but not the dorsolateral striatum also selectively reduced aversion-resistant alcohol drinking. In addition, D-serine inhibited EPSCs evoked at -70 mV in vitro by optogenetic stimulation of mPFC-NAcore terminals in alcohol-drinking rats, similar to reported effects of the NMDAR blocker AP5. Further, D-serine preexposure occluded AP5 inhibition of mPFC-evoked EPSCs, suggesting that D-serine reduced EPSCs by inhibiting HA-NMDARs. Systemic D-cycloserine also selectively reduced intake of quinine-adulterated alcohol, and D-cycloserine inhibited NAcore HA-NMDARs in vitro. Our results indicate that HA-NMDAR modulators can reduce aversion-resistant alcohol drinking, and support testing of D-serine and D-cycloserine as immediately accessible, FDA-approved drugs to treat AUDs.

  8. D-Serine and D-Cycloserine Reduce Compulsive Alcohol Intake in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seif, Taban; Simms, Jeffrey A; Lei, Kelly; Wegner, Scott; Bonci, Antonello; Messing, Robert O; Hopf, F Woodward

    2015-01-01

    There is considerable interest in NMDAR modulators to enhance memory and treat neuropsychiatric disorders such as addiction, depression, and schizophrenia. D-serine and D-cycloserine, the NMDAR activators at the glycine site, are of particular interest because they have been used in humans without serious adverse effects. Interestingly, D-serine also inhibits some NMDARs active at hyperpolarized potentials (HA-NMDARs), and we previously found that HA-NMDARs within the nucleus accumbens core (NAcore) are critical for promoting compulsion-like alcohol drinking, where rats consume alcohol despite pairing with an aversive stimulus such as quinine, a paradigm considered to model compulsive aspects of human alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Here, we examined the impact of D-serine and D-cycloserine on this aversion-resistant alcohol intake (that persists despite adulteration with quinine) and consumption of quinine-free alcohol. Systemic D-serine reduced aversion-resistant alcohol drinking, without altering consumption of quinine-free alcohol or saccharin with or without quinine. Importantly, D-serine within the NAcore but not the dorsolateral striatum also selectively reduced aversion-resistant alcohol drinking. In addition, D-serine inhibited EPSCs evoked at −70 mV in vitro by optogenetic stimulation of mPFC–NAcore terminals in alcohol-drinking rats, similar to reported effects of the NMDAR blocker AP5. Further, D-serine preexposure occluded AP5 inhibition of mPFC-evoked EPSCs, suggesting that D-serine reduced EPSCs by inhibiting HA-NMDARs. Systemic D-cycloserine also selectively reduced intake of quinine-adulterated alcohol, and D-cycloserine inhibited NAcore HA-NMDARs in vitro. Our results indicate that HA-NMDAR modulators can reduce aversion-resistant alcohol drinking, and support testing of D-serine and D-cycloserine as immediately accessible, FDA-approved drugs to treat AUDs. PMID:25801502

  9. Involvement of serine proteases in the excystation and metacystic development of Entamoeba invadens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makioka, Asao; Kumagai, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Seiki; Takeuchi, Tsutomu

    2009-10-01

    Although the functions of cysteine proteases involved in the pathogenicity and differentiation of Entamoeba histolytica have been demonstrated, little is known about the functions of serine proteases. We examined the involvement of serine proteases in amoebic excystation and metacystic development using inhibitors specific for serine proteases. Entamoeba invadens IP-1 strain was used as the model of excystation and metacystic development of E. histolytica. Four serine protease inhibitors, phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), 4-(2-aminoethyl) bezensulfonylfluoride hydrochloride, 3, 4-dichloroisocoumarin, and N-tosyl-phe-chloromethylketone, decreased the number of metacystic amoebae in a dose-dependent manner, without showing cytotoxicity to cysts. PMSF inhibited not only the increase but also the development of metacystic amoebae as determined by the change of nucleus number from four- to one-nucleate amoebae. The protease activity in cyst lysates was also inhibited by PMSF and the band of protease on gelatin sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was weaker than controls when treated with PMSF. Three serine protease families, S28 (three types), S9 (two), and S26 (one) were retrieved from the database of E. invadens. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that amebic enzymes from the serine protease families formed different clades from those from other organisms. The expression levels of these serine proteases in cysts 5 h after the induction of excystation as assessed by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were higher than those observed prior to induction assayed by real-time RT-PCR; the increase in one type of S9 (named S9-3) expression was the highest. The expression of S9 enzymes also increased from cysts to trophozoites higher than the other family serine proteases. Thus, the results show that Entamoeba uses their serine proteases in the excystation and metacystic development, which leads to successful infection.

  10. H{sub 2} reduction of surface oxides on Pd-based membrane model systems – The case of Pd(1 0 0) and Pd{sub 75}Ag{sub 25}(1 0 0)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, V.R. [Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Gustafson, J. [Division of Synchrotron Radiation Research, Lund University, Box 117, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Farstad, M.H.; Walle, L.E. [Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Blomberg, S.; Lundgren, E. [Division of Synchrotron Radiation Research, Lund University, Box 117, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Venvik, H.J. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Borg, A., E-mail: anne.borg@ntnu.no [Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • H{sub 2} reduction of the surface oxide is significantly slower for Pd{sub 75}Ag{sub 25}(1 0 0) compared to Pd(1 0 0). • The reduction behavior shows complex temperature dependence, not well described by Avrami kinetics. • Oxygen spillover effects during the surface oxide reduction are observed for Pd(1 0 0). • For Pd(1 0 0) the observed reduction rate is rather independent of temperature. • For Pd{sub 75}Ag{sub 25}(1 0 0) the reduction rate displays a non-monotonic variation with temperature. - Abstract: Reduction of the (√(5)×√(5))R27° surface oxide on Pd(1 0 0) and Pd{sub 75}Ag{sub 25}(1 0 0) surfaces by H{sub 2} has been studied using high-resolution photoelectron spectroscopy in situ at H{sub 2} pressures 5 × 10{sup −9} mbar and 5 × 10{sup −8} mbar and selected temperatures in the range 30 °C to 170 °C. The reduction is slower on Pd{sub 75}Ag{sub 25}(1 0 0) compared to Pd(1 0 0) for all temperatures and pressures investigated. For Pd(1 0 0), the surface oxide reduction rate is rather independent of temperature, while for Pd{sub 75}Ag{sub 25}(1 0 0) a non-monotonic variation is observed. As indicated by kinetic analysis, the complex reduction behavior is not well described by Avrami kinetics. Oxygen spillover effects contribute to this picture for Pd(1 0 0), while surface compositional effects appear to dominate the performance for Pd{sub 75}Ag{sub 25}(1 0 0). These findings may have implications for understanding the oxidation, reduction and hydrogen transport properties of Pd–Ag membranes.

  11. V-SUIT Model Validation Using PLSS 1.0 Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olthoff, Claas

    2015-01-01

    The dynamic portable life support system (PLSS) simulation software Virtual Space Suit (V-SUIT) has been under development at the Technische Universitat Munchen since 2011 as a spin-off from the Virtual Habitat (V-HAB) project. The MATLAB(trademark)-based V-SUIT simulates space suit portable life support systems and their interaction with a detailed and also dynamic human model, as well as the dynamic external environment of a space suit moving on a planetary surface. To demonstrate the feasibility of a large, system level simulation like V-SUIT, a model of NASA's PLSS 1.0 prototype was created. This prototype was run through an extensive series of tests in 2011. Since the test setup was heavily instrumented, it produced a wealth of data making it ideal for model validation. The implemented model includes all components of the PLSS in both the ventilation and thermal loops. The major components are modeled in greater detail, while smaller and ancillary components are low fidelity black box models. The major components include the Rapid Cycle Amine (RCA) CO2 removal system, the Primary and Secondary Oxygen Assembly (POS/SOA), the Pressure Garment System Volume Simulator (PGSVS), the Human Metabolic Simulator (HMS), the heat exchanger between the ventilation and thermal loops, the Space Suit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME) and finally the Liquid Cooling Garment Simulator (LCGS). Using the created model, dynamic simulations were performed using same test points also used during PLSS 1.0 testing. The results of the simulation were then compared to the test data with special focus on absolute values during the steady state phases and dynamic behavior during the transition between test points. Quantified simulation results are presented that demonstrate which areas of the V-SUIT model are in need of further refinement and those that are sufficiently close to the test results. Finally, lessons learned from the modelling and validation process are given in combination

  12. Buffett’s Alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Kabiller, David; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    Berkshire Hathaway has realized a Sharpe ratio of 0.76, higher than any other stock or mutual fund with a history of more than 30 years, and Berkshire has a significant alpha to traditional risk factors. However, we find that the alpha becomes insignificant when controlling for exposures to Betting...

  13. In situ activity-based protein profiling of serine hydrolases in E. coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Shamshurin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A fluorophosphonate based alkyne activity probe was used for the selective labeling of active serine hydrolases in intact Escherichia coli cells. A biotin-azide tag was subsequently attached to the alkyne functionality of the probe with copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC reaction. Comparison of proteins from in-cell and lysate labeled preparations suggested qualitatively similar patterns of reactivity in both preparations. Approximately 68%, 30 of the total 44 serine hydrolases detectable in E. coli were labeled with the probe indicating significant coverage with a single probe. The methods described here offer a useful tool for profiling and monitoring serine hydrolase activity in situ.

  14. Exploring a new serine protease from Cucumis sativus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafeesa, Zohara; Shivalingu, B R; Vivek, H K; Priya, B S; Swamy, S Nanjunda

    2015-03-01

    Coagulation is an important physiological process in hemostasis which is activated by sequential action of proteases. This study aims to understand the involvement of aqueous fruit extract of Cucumis sativus L. (AqFEC) European burp less variety in blood coagulation cascade. AqFEC hydrolyzed casein in a dose-dependent manner. The presence of protease activity was further confirmed by casein zymography which revealed the possible presence of two high molecular weight protease(s). The proteolytic activity was inhibited only by phenyl methyl sulphonyl fluoride suggesting the presence of serine protease(s). In a dose-dependent manner, AqFEC also hydrolysed Aα and Bβ subunits of fibrinogen, whereas it failed to degrade the γ subunit of fibrinogen even at a concentration as high as 100 μg and incubation time up to 4 h. AqFEC reduced the clotting time of citrated plasma by 87.65%. The protease and fibrinogenolytic activity of AqFEC suggests its possible role in stopping the bleeding and ensuing wound healing process.

  15. Regulation of Adrenal Aldosterone Production by Serine Protease Prostasin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehiro Ko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A serine protease prostasin has been demonstrated to have a pivotal role in the activation of the epithelial sodium channel. Systemic administration of adenovirus carrying human prostasin gene in rats resulted in an increase in plasma prostasin and aldosterone levels. However, the mechanism by which the elevation of prostasin levels in the systemic circulation stimulated the plasma aldosterone levels remains unknown. Therefore, we examined if prostasin increases the aldosterone synthesis in a human adrenocortical cell line (H295R cells. Luciferase assay using CYP11B2 promoter revealed that prostasin significantly increased the transcriptional activity of CYP11B2. Prostasin significantly increased both CYP11B2 mRNA expression and aldosterone production in a dose-dependent manner. Surprisingly, treatment with camostat mesilate, a potent prostasin inhibitor, had no effect on the aldosterone synthesis by prostasin and also a protease-dead mutant of prostasin significantly stimulated the aldosterone production. A T-type/L-type calcium channel blocker and a protein kinase C (PKC inhibitor significantly reduced the aldosterone synthesis by prostasin. Our findings suggest a stimulatory effect of prostasin on the aldosterone synthesis by adrenal gland through the nonproteolytic action and indicate a new role of prostasin in the systemic circulation.

  16. D-Serine in Neuropsychiatric Disorders: New Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea R. Durrant

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available D-Serine (DSR is an endogenous amino acid involved in glia-synapse interactions that has unique neurotransmitter characteristics. DSR acts as obligatory coagonist at the glycine site associated with the N-methyl-D-aspartate subtype of glutamate receptors (NMDAR and has a cardinal modulatory role in major NMDAR-dependent processes including NMDAR-mediated neurotransmission, neurotoxicity, synaptic plasticity, and cell migration. Since either over- or underfunction of NMDARs may be involved in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders; the pharmacological manipulation of DSR signaling represents a major drug development target. A first generation of proof-of-concept animal and clinical studies suggest beneficial DSR effects in treatment-refractory schizophrenia, movement, depression, and anxiety disorders and for the improvement of cognitive performance. A related developing pharmacological strategy is the indirect modification of DSR synaptic levels by use of compounds that alter the function of main enzymes responsible for DSR production and degradation. Accumulating data indicate that, during the next decade, we will witness important advances in the understanding of DSR role that will further contribute to elucidating the causes of neuropsychiatric disorders and will be instrumental in the development of innovative treatments.

  17. Homologous inhibitors from potato tubers of serine endopeptidases and metallocarboxypeptidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hass, C M; Venkatakrishnan, R; Ryan, C A

    1976-06-01

    A potent polypeptide inhibitor of chymotrypsin has been purified from Russett Burbank potatoes. The inhibitor has no effect on bovine carboxypeptidases A or B but exhibits homology with a carboxypeptidase inhibitor that is also present in potato tubers. The chymotrypsin inhibitor has a molecular weight of approximately 5400 as estimated by gel filtration, amino acid analysis, and titration with chymotrypsin. The polypeptide chain consists of 49 amino acid residues, of which six are half-cystine, forming three disulfide bonds. Its size is similar to that of the carboxypeptidase inhibitor, which contains 39 amino acid residues and also has three disulfide bridges. In immunological double diffusion assays, the chymotrypsin inhibitor and the carboxypeptidase inhibitor do not crossreact; however, automatic Edman degradation of reduced and alkylated derivatives of the chymotrypsin inhibitor, yielding a partial sequence of 18 amino acid residues at the NH2-terminus, reveals a similarity in sequence to that of the carboxypeptidase inhibitor. Thus, inhibitors directed toward two distinct classes of proteases, the serine endopeptidases and the metallocarboxypeptidases, appear to have evolved from a common ancestor.

  18. Systematic comparisons between PRISM version 1.0.0, BAP, and CSMIP ground-motion processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Erol; Stephens, Christopher

    2017-02-23

    A series of benchmark tests was run by comparing results of the Processing and Review Interface for Strong Motion data (PRISM) software version 1.0.0 to Basic Strong-Motion Accelerogram Processing Software (BAP; Converse and Brady, 1992), and to California Strong Motion Instrumentation Program (CSMIP) processing (Shakal and others, 2003, 2004). These tests were performed by using the MatLAB implementation of PRISM, which is equivalent to its public release version in Java language. Systematic comparisons were made in time and frequency domains of records processed in PRISM and BAP, and in CSMIP, by using a set of representative input motions with varying resolutions, frequency content, and amplitudes. Although the details of strong-motion records vary among the processing procedures, there are only minor differences among the waveforms for each component and within the frequency passband common to these procedures. A comprehensive statistical evaluation considering more than 1,800 ground-motion components demonstrates that differences in peak amplitudes of acceleration, velocity, and displacement time series obtained from PRISM and CSMIP processing are equal to or less than 4 percent for 99 percent of the data, and equal to or less than 2 percent for 96 percent of the data. Other statistical measures, including the Euclidian distance (L2 norm) and the windowed root mean square level of processed time series, also indicate that both processing schemes produce statistically similar products.

  19. Evolution of ripple morphology on Si(1 0 0) by 60-keV argon ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, Sandeep Kumar, E-mail: sandeep@iopb.res.in [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India); Venugopal, V.; Basu, T. [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India); Sinha, O.P. [Amity Institute of Nano Technology, Amity University, Noida 201303 (India); Rath, S. [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Kanjilal, D. [Inter-Univeristy Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India); Som, T. [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751005 (India)

    2012-02-15

    In this paper, we report on evolution of ripple morphology on Si(1 0 0) surface due to 60 keV Ar{sup +}-ion implantation to the fluence of 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 18} ions cm{sup -2} and over a large incident angular window of 075 Degree-Sign . Room temperature implantations were carried out by using a uniform current density of 20 {mu}A cm{sup -2}. Atomic force microscopic (AFM) studies indicate that ripple morphology starts to appear at an incident angle 45 Degree-Sign and becomes more prominent at higher incident angles. AFM studies also reveal that while the ripple wavelength decreases with increasing angle of incidence, the amplitude increases with the same. We also observe a systematic variation in the surface roughness with incident angle. Micro-Raman studies show that the sub-surface silicon layer becomes amorphous whose depth keeps reducing at higher incident angles. The results are attributed to viscous flow mechanism.

  20. GBL-2D Version 1.0: a 2D geometry boolean library.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McBride, Cory L. (Elemental Technologies, American Fort, UT); Schmidt, Rodney Cannon; Yarberry, Victor R.; Meyers, Ray J. (Elemental Technologies, American Fort, UT)

    2006-11-01

    This report describes version 1.0 of GBL-2D, a geometric Boolean library for 2D objects. The library is written in C++ and consists of a set of classes and routines. The classes primarily represent geometric data and relationships. Classes are provided for 2D points, lines, arcs, edge uses, loops, surfaces and mask sets. The routines contain algorithms for geometric Boolean operations and utility functions. Routines are provided that incorporate the Boolean operations: Union(OR), XOR, Intersection and Difference. A variety of additional analytical geometry routines and routines for importing and exporting the data in various file formats are also provided. The GBL-2D library was originally developed as a geometric modeling engine for use with a separate software tool, called SummitView [1], that manipulates the 2D mask sets created by designers of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS). However, many other practical applications for this type of software can be envisioned because the need to perform 2D Boolean operations can arise in many contexts.

  1. 12CO(1-0) observations of NGC 4848 a Coma galaxy after stripping

    CERN Document Server

    Vollmer, B; Balkowski, C; Cayatte, V; Duschl, W J

    2001-01-01

    We study the molecular gas content and distribution in the Coma cluster spiral galaxy NGC 4848. Plateau de Bure interferometric CO(1-0) observations reveal a lopsided H_2 distribution with an off-center secondary maximum coincident with the inner part of the HI. NGC 4848 is not at all deficient in molecular gas as it contains M_H_2~4x10^9 M_solar. At the interface between the CO and HI emission regions, about 8 kpc NW of the center, however, strong star formation is present as witnessed by Halpha and radio continuum emission. This is the region in which earlier Fabry-Perot observations revealed a double-peaked Halpha line, indicating gas at two different velocities at the same sky position. In order to understand these observations, we present the results of numerical simulations of the ISM-ICM interaction. We suggest that NGC 4848 already passed through the center of the cluster about 4x10^8 years ago. At the observed stage ram pressure has no more direct dynamical influence on the galaxy's ISM. We observe t...

  2. VALDRIFT 1.0: A valley atmospheric dispersion model with deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allwine, K.J.; Bian, X.; Whiteman, C.D.

    1995-05-01

    VALDRIFT version 1.0 is an atmospheric transport and diffusion model for use in well-defined mountain valleys. It is designed to determine the extent of ddft from aedal pesticide spraying activities, but can also be applied to estimate the transport and diffusion of various air pollutants in valleys. The model is phenomenological -- that is, the dominant meteorological processes goveming the behavior of the valley atmosphere are formulated explicitly in the model, albeit in a highly parameterized fashion. The key meteorological processes treated are: (1) nonsteady and nonhomogeneous along-valley winds and turbulent diffusivities, (2) convective boundary layer growth, (3) inversion descent, (4) noctumal temperature inversion breakup, and (5) subsidence. The model is applicable under relatively cloud-free, undisturbed synoptic conditions and is configured to operate through one diumal cycle for a single valley. The inputs required are the valley topographical characteristics, pesticide release rate as a function of time and space, along-valley wind speed as a function of time and space, temperature inversion characteristics at sunrise, and sensible heat flux as a function of time following sunrise. Default values are provided for certain inputs in the absence of detailed observations. The outputs are three-dimensional air concentration and ground-level deposition fields as a function of time.

  3. CaveMan Enterprise version 1.0 Software Validation and Verification.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, David

    2014-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Strategic Petroleum Reserve stores crude oil in caverns solution-mined in salt domes along the Gulf Coast of Louisiana and Texas. The CaveMan software program has been used since the late 1990s as one tool to analyze pressure mea- surements monitored at each cavern. The purpose of this monitoring is to catch potential cavern integrity issues as soon as possible. The CaveMan software was written in Microsoft Visual Basic, and embedded in a Microsoft Excel workbook; this method of running the CaveMan software is no longer sustainable. As such, a new version called CaveMan Enter- prise has been developed. CaveMan Enterprise version 1.0 does not have any changes to the CaveMan numerical models. CaveMan Enterprise represents, instead, a change from desktop-managed work- books to an enterprise framework, moving data management into coordinated databases and porting the numerical modeling codes into the Python programming language. This document provides a report of the code validation and verification testing.

  4. Adsorption of 2,3-butanediol on Si(1 0 0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J. W.; Carbone, M.; Tallarida, M.; Dil, J. H.; Horn, K.; Casaletto, M. P.; Flammini, R.; Piancastelli, M. N.

    2004-06-01

    The adsorption of 2,3-butanediol on a Si(1 0 0) surface has been investigated by photoelectron spectroscopy. The valence band spectra show features assigned to molecular orbitals of 2,3-butanediol by comparison with calculations, and the surface states of clean Si are removed. The Si 2p reveals core-level shifts with two new components at 0.24 and 0.97 eV from the bulk, which are assigned to Si-H and Si-O bonds, respectively. The C 1s core-level spectrum consists of two major peaks separated by 1.3 eV, which are attributed to carbon atoms in -CHOH and -CH 3 groups, in the molecule respectively. From the analysis of the valence band, the Si 2p, C 1s, and O 1s core-level spectra, we conclude that the 2,3-butanediol molecule undergoes a cleavage of the O-H bonds, and is bonded to the surface by the oxygen atoms. The molecule shows no further fragmentation and probably forms a six-membered ring of the O-C-C-O segment with the Si dimer atoms.

  5. [Variation of Raman spectra of oligoclase under 1.0-4.4 GPa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chao; Du, Jian-guo; Cui, Yue-ju; Chen, Zhi; Zhang, Wei-bin; Yi, Li; Deng, Li

    2012-03-01

    Variation of crystal structure of oligoclase with pressure was investigated by the approach of diamond anvil cell (DAC) and in situ micro-Raman spectroscopic measurement at room temperature and under pressures from 1.0 to 4.4 GPa. At 2.9 GPa a new peak round 517 cm(-1) appeared, and a new phase was produced. Near 3.4 GPa a major discontinuity occurs in the pressure dependence of 288 cm(-1) peak arising from the stretching mode of M-O, and 517 cm(-1) peak disappeared, it implied that the oligoclase underwent triclinic to monoclinic phase transition completely at about 3.4 GPa. The peaks at 458 and 516 cm(-1) peaks arising from flexural vibrational mode of Si-O-Si shifted linearly with the increasing pressures, the pressure-related slopes are 1.667 cm(-1)/GPa and 3.560 cm(-1)/GPa, respectively, whereas, the flexural vibrational mode of Al-O-Al at 480 cm(-1) did not shifted linearly with the increasing pressures. The position of 288 cm(-1) peak did not change obviously in comparision with 458, 516 and 480 cm(-1) peaks, which shifted to lower frequency during decompression. The phase transition pressure of feldspar relates to the species of cation in the octatomic rings.

  6. Slicken 1.0: Program for calculating the orientation of shear on reactivated faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hong; Xu, Shunshan; Nieto-Samaniego, Ángel F.; Alaniz-Álvarez, Susana A.

    2017-07-01

    The slip vector on a fault is an important parameter in the study of the movement history of a fault and its faulting mechanism. Although there exist many graphical programs to represent the shear stress (or slickenline) orientations on faults, programs to quantitatively calculate the orientation of fault slip based on a given stress field are scarce. In consequence, we develop Slicken 1.0, a software to rapidly calculate the orientation of maximum shear stress on any fault plane. For this direct method of calculating the resolved shear stress on a planar surface, the input data are the unit vector normal to the involved plane, the unit vectors of the three principal stress axes, and the stress ratio. The advantage of this program is that the vertical or horizontal principal stresses are not necessarily required. Due to its nimble design using Java SE 8.0, it runs on most operating systems with the corresponding Java VM. The software program will be practical for geoscience students, geologists and engineers and will help resolve a deficiency in field geology, and structural and engineering geology.

  7. Shocked molecular gas towards the SNR G359.1-0.5 and the Snake

    CERN Document Server

    Lazendic, J S; Burton, M G; Yusef-Zadeh, F; Whiteoak, J B; Green, A J; Ashley, M C B

    2002-01-01

    We have found a bar of shocked molecular hydrogen (H2) towards the OH(1720 MHz) maser located at the projected intersection of supernova remnant (SNR) G359.1-0.5 and the nonthermal radio filament, known as the Snake. The H2 bar is well aligned with the SNR shell and almost perpendicular to the Snake. The OH(1720 MHz) maser is located inside the sharp western edge of the H2 emission, which is consistent with the scenario in which the SNR drives a shock into a molecular cloud at that location. The spectral-line profiles of 12CO, HCO+ and CS towards the maser show broad-line absorption, which is absent in the 13CO spectra and most probably originates from the pre-shock gas. A density gradient is present across the region and is consistent with the passage of the SNR shock while the H2 filament is located at the boundary between the pre--shocked and post-shock regions.

  8. First-principles study of hydrogen adsorption on Mo(1 1 0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y. G.; Zu, X. T.; Nie, J. L.; Xiao, H. Y.

    2008-07-01

    First-principles calculations based on density functional theory-generalized gradient approximation method have been performed for hydrogen (H) adsorption on Mo(1 1 0) surface. For various coverages, the hollow (hol) site was found to be the most stable binding site. The adsorption energy of this site was slightly increased as the increasing of hydrogen coverage. Subsurface (sub) occupation at low and medium coverages was ruled out while it became to be stable at the coverage of 1 ML. This is also supported by the potential energy surface (PES) study for hydrogen diffusing from hol to sub site. It's interesting to find a surface reconstruction at the coverage of 1 ML, which is characterized by the lateral shift of the topmost layer for the sub adsorption. At higher coverage, the local density of states (LDOS) analysis showed that a new peak was clearly visible which was ascribed to a surface state induced by hydrogen adsorption. This surface state was mostly localized on the hydrogen atom and the first Mo layer, implying the hybridization of the hydrogen 1s states and the Mo metal states.

  9. VALDRIFT 1.0: A valley atmospheric dispersion model with deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allwine, K.J.; Bian, X.; Whiteman, C.D.

    1995-05-01

    VALDRIFT version 1.0 is an atmospheric transport and diffusion model for use in well-defined mountain valleys. It is designed to determine the extent of ddft from aedal pesticide spraying activities, but can also be applied to estimate the transport and diffusion of various air pollutants in valleys. The model is phenomenological -- that is, the dominant meteorological processes goveming the behavior of the valley atmosphere are formulated explicitly in the model, albeit in a highly parameterized fashion. The key meteorological processes treated are: (1) nonsteady and nonhomogeneous along-valley winds and turbulent diffusivities, (2) convective boundary layer growth, (3) inversion descent, (4) noctumal temperature inversion breakup, and (5) subsidence. The model is applicable under relatively cloud-free, undisturbed synoptic conditions and is configured to operate through one diumal cycle for a single valley. The inputs required are the valley topographical characteristics, pesticide release rate as a function of time and space, along-valley wind speed as a function of time and space, temperature inversion characteristics at sunrise, and sensible heat flux as a function of time following sunrise. Default values are provided for certain inputs in the absence of detailed observations. The outputs are three-dimensional air concentration and ground-level deposition fields as a function of time.

  10. [Implementation of the COBAS Taqman HIV-1 Test, v1.0 for vertical transmission diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Gonzalo M; Sosa, María P; Gallego, Sandra V; Sicilia, Paola; Marin, Ángeles L; Altamirano, Natalia; Kademian, Silvia; Barbás, María G; Cudolá, Analía

    2015-01-01

    Vertical transmission is the main route of HIV infection in childhood. Because of the persistence of maternal HIV antibodies, virologic assays that directly detect HIV are required to diagnose HIV infection in infants younger than 18 months of age. The sensitivity of HIV RNA/DNA assays increases as the child becomes older. These tests have specificity values greater than 95%. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the COBAS Taqman HIV-1 Test, v1.0 assay (Roche) and its concordance with a Multiplex Nested-PCR. Of 341 samples processed, 15 were positive and 326 negative by both methods. Sensitivity and specificity overall values for the viral load assay were 88.2% and 100%, respectively. Our results indicate that the COBAS Taqman assay evaluated could be used as an alternative method to diagnose HIV congenital infection. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Growth and properties of electrodeposited cobalt films on Pt/Si(1 0 0) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azizi, A.; Sahari, A.; Felloussia, M.L.; Schmerber, G.; Meny, C.; Dinia, A

    2004-04-30

    In this paper, the growth, structural and magnetic properties of cobalt (Co) films electrodeposited on a Pt/Si(1 0 0) substrate have been investigated. Co films with metallic appearance were obtained from aqueous solution of 0.1 M CoSO{sub 4}, 10 mM CoCl{sub 2} as the source of metal ions and 1 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} as a supporting electrolyte with 0.5 M H{sub 3}BO{sub 3} at pH 4.2. This electrochemical technique indicated a deposition peak signature of limited diffusion growth with the transition from progressive to instantaneous nucleation mechanism. The atomic force microscopy (AFM) images showed a granular structure of the electrodeposited layers. X-ray measurements (XRD) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) indicate a small grain size with the presence of a mixture of Co hcp and fcc structures. The magnetic properties of the deposited films were investigated with a magnetic field in the parallel and perpendicular direction and showed that the easy magnetization axis is in the plane.

  12. Motivation and Design of the Sirocco Storage System Version 1.0.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curry, Matthew Leon [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ward, H. Lee [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Danielson, Geoffrey Charles [Hewlett-Packard Company, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Sirocco is a massively parallel, high performance storage system for the exascale era. It emphasizes client-to-client coordination, low server-side coupling, and free data movement to improve resilience and performance. Its architecture is inspired by peer-to-peer and victim- cache architectures. By leveraging these ideas, Sirocco natively supports several media types, including RAM, flash, disk, and archival storage, with automatic migration between levels. Sirocco also includes storage interfaces and support that are more advanced than typical block storage. Sirocco enables clients to efficiently use key-value storage or block-based storage with the same interface. It also provides several levels of transactional data updates within a single storage command, including full ACID-compliant updates. This transaction support extends to updating several objects within a single transaction. Further support is provided for con- currency control, enabling greater performance for workloads while providing safe concurrent modification. By pioneering these and other technologies and techniques in the storage system, Sirocco is poised to fulfill a need for a massively scalable, write-optimized storage system for exascale systems. This is version 1.0 of a document reflecting the current and planned state of Sirocco. Further versions of this document will be accessible at http://www.cs.sandia.gov/Scalable_IO/ sirocco .

  13. xLPR Sim Editor 1.0 User's Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariner, Paul

    2017-03-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission in cooperation with the Electric Power Research Institute contracted Sandia National Laboratories to develop the framework of a probabilistic fracture mechanics assessment code called xLPR ( Extremely Low Probability of Rupture) Version 2.0 . The purpose of xLPR is to evaluate degradation mechanisms in piping systems at nuclear power plants and to predict the probability of rupture. This report is a user's guide for xLPR Sim Editor 1.0 , a graphical user interface for creating and editing the xLPR Version 2.0 input file and for creating, editing, and using the xLPR Version 2.0 database files . The xLPR Sim Editor, provides a user - friendly way for users to change simulation options and input values, s elect input datasets from xLPR data bases, identify inputs needed for a simulation, and create and modify an input file for xLPR.

  14. NANTEN 12CO (J=1-0) observations around the star WR 55

    CERN Document Server

    Duronea, N U; Testori, J C

    2012-01-01

    Context: A complete study of the molecular and ionized gas in the environs of the nebula RCW 78 around WR 55 is presented. Aims: The aim of this work is to investigate the spatial distribution, physical characteristics, and kinematical properties of the molecular gas linked to the galactic nebula RCW 78 to achieve a better understanding of its interaction with the star and with the ionized gas. Methods: This study was based on 12CO(1-0) fully sampled observations of a region of ~0.45{\\deg} in size around the star WR 55 and the nebula RCW 78 obtained with the 4-m NANTEN telescope, radio continuum archival data at 1.4 and 4.85 GHz, obtained from SGPS and PMNRAO Southern Radio Survey, respectively, and available infrared MIPSGAL images at 24 microns. Results: A molecular gas component in the velocity range from ~ -58 to -45 km s-1, compatible with the velocity of the ionized gas, was found to be associated with the optical nebula. Adopting a distance of ~ 5 kpc, the mass of this molecular component is about 3.4 ...

  15. CLEPS 1.0: A new protocol for cloud aqueous phase oxidation of VOC mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouchel-Vallon, Camille; Deguillaume, Laurent; Monod, Anne; Perroux, Hélène; Rose, Clémence; Ghigo, Giovanni; Long, Yoann; Leriche, Maud; Aumont, Bernard; Patryl, Luc; Armand, Patrick; Chaumerliac, Nadine

    2017-03-01

    A new detailed aqueous phase mechanism named the Cloud Explicit Physico-chemical Scheme (CLEPS 1.0) is proposed to describe the oxidation of water soluble organic compounds resulting from isoprene oxidation. It is based on structure activity relationships (SARs) which provide global rate constants together with branching ratios for HOṡ abstraction and addition on atmospheric organic compounds. The GROMHE SAR allows the evaluation of Henry's law constants for undocumented organic compounds. This new aqueous phase mechanism is coupled with the MCM v3.3.1 gas phase mechanism through a mass transfer scheme between gas phase and aqueous phase. The resulting multiphase mechanism has then been implemented in a model based on the Dynamically Simple Model for Atmospheric Chemical Complexity (DSMACC) using the Kinetic PreProcessor (KPP) that can serve to analyze data from cloud chamber experiments and field campaigns. The simulation of permanent cloud under low-NOx conditions describes the formation of oxidized monoacids and diacids in the aqueous phase as well as a significant influence on the gas phase chemistry and composition and shows that the aqueous phase reactivity leads to an efficient fragmentation and functionalization of organic compounds.

  16. Electrodeposition of Te onto monocrystalline n- and p-Si(1 0 0) wafers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanova, Yu.A. [Belarusian State University, Chemistry Department, Leningradskaya st. 14, 220050 Minsk (Belarus); Ivanou, D.K. [Belarusian State University, Chemistry Department, Leningradskaya st. 14, 220050 Minsk (Belarus); Streltsov, E.A. [Belarusian State University, Chemistry Department, Leningradskaya st. 14, 220050 Minsk (Belarus)]. E-mail: streltea@bsu.by

    2007-04-30

    Electrochemical deposition of Te onto n- and p-Si(1 0 0) wafers from 0.1 M HNO{sub 3} + 1 mM TeO{sub 2} solution was studied using cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry, ex situ SEM and XRD. Electrodeposition of Te onto n-Si takes place both in the dark and under illumination. Electrodeposition of Te onto p-Si proceeds only under illumination, when the photoelectrons are generated in silicon substrate and reduce Te(IV) species in solution. Electrochemical reduction of Te(IV) on n- and p-Si occurs with large cathodic overvoltage (0.22-0.62 V). Nucleation of Te on n- and p-Si proceeds via 3D island growth, it is characterised correspondingly by progressive and instantaneous nucleation mechanisms followed by diffusion limited growth. Cathodic deposition of Te onto n- and p-Si is irreversible. Anodic stripping of Te electrodeposited onto p-Si occurs both in the dark and under illumination and anodic stripping of Te from n-Si proceeds only under illumination.

  17. PScan 1.0: flexible software framework for polygon based multiphoton microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongxiao; Lee, Woei Ming

    2016-12-01

    Multiphoton laser scanning microscopes exhibit highly localized nonlinear optical excitation and are powerful instruments for in-vivo deep tissue imaging. Customized multiphoton microscopy has a significantly superior performance for in-vivo imaging because of precise control over the scanning and detection system. To date, there have been several flexible software platforms catered to custom built microscopy systems i.e. ScanImage, HelioScan, MicroManager, that perform at imaging speeds of 30-100fps. In this paper, we describe a flexible software framework for high speed imaging systems capable of operating from 5 fps to 1600 fps. The software is based on the MATLAB image processing toolbox. It has the capability to communicate directly with a high performing imaging card (Matrox Solios eA/XA), thus retaining high speed acquisition. The program is also designed to communicate with LabVIEW and Fiji for instrument control and image processing. Pscan 1.0 can handle high imaging rates and contains sufficient flexibility for users to adapt to their high speed imaging systems.

  18. The mGA1.0: A common LISP implementation of a messy genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, David E.; Kerzic, Travis

    1990-01-01

    Genetic algorithms (GAs) are finding increased application in difficult search, optimization, and machine learning problems in science and engineering. Increasing demands are being placed on algorithm performance, and the remaining challenges of genetic algorithm theory and practice are becoming increasingly unavoidable. Perhaps the most difficult of these challenges is the so-called linkage problem. Messy GAs were created to overcome the linkage problem of simple genetic algorithms by combining variable-length strings, gene expression, messy operators, and a nonhomogeneous phasing of evolutionary processing. Results on a number of difficult deceptive test functions are encouraging with the mGA always finding global optima in a polynomial number of function evaluations. Theoretical and empirical studies are continuing, and a first version of a messy GA is ready for testing by others. A Common LISP implementation called mGA1.0 is documented and related to the basic principles and operators developed by Goldberg et. al. (1989, 1990). Although the code was prepared with care, it is not a general-purpose code, only a research version. Important data structures and global variations are described. Thereafter brief function descriptions are given, and sample input data are presented together with sample program output. A source listing with comments is also included.

  19. Influence of Ce-H bonding on the physical properties of the hydrides CeCoSiH(1.0) and CeCoGeH(1.0).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, B; Matar, S F; Ménétrier, M; Marcos, J Sanchez; Fernandez, J Rodriguez

    2006-07-05

    The hydrides CeCoSiH(1.0) and CeCoGeH(1.0) which crystallize like the parent antiferromagnetic compounds CeCoSi and CeCoGe in the tetragonal CeFeSi-type structure, have been investigated by specific heat and thermoelectric power measurements and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). CeCoSiH(1.0) is an intermediate valence compound whereas CeCoGeH(1.0) can be considered as a nearly trivalent cerium compound. This behaviour is corroborated by the occurrence of a slight broadening of the (1)H NMR signal in the sequence [Formula: see text]. The band structure calculations performed on these hydrides reveal the existence of strong bonding Ce-H interaction, found to be larger in CeCoSiH(1.0) than in CeCoGeH(1.0).

  20. Laser assisted {alpha} decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaneda Cortes, Hector Mauricio

    2012-02-01

    Excited or short-lived nuclei often decay by emitting alpha particles that are assumed to be preformed inside the nucleus and confined in the nuclear potential well. In this picture, {alpha} decay refers to the tunneling of the alpha particle through the potential barrier. In this thesis we investigate for the first time how strong laser fields can assist the tunneling of the alpha particle and thus influence the nuclear decay. Generally speaking, laser-assisted {alpha} decay can be described as laser-assisted tunneling of a quasistationary state, i.e, a slowly decaying state. Our theoretical treatment is developed starting from the complex trajectory formulation of the well-known strong-field approximation used to describe laser-induced ionization. We extend this formulation and develop a method to treat the decay of quasistationary states. The effect of both static and optical and X-ray monochromatic fields on the lifetimes and {alpha}-particle emission spectra are investigated for a number of {alpha}-emitting nuclei. We find that even at strong intensities, the laser-induced acceleration of the {alpha} decay is negligible, ranging from a relative modification in the decay rate of 10{sup -3} for static fields of electric field strengths of 10{sup 15} V/m, to 10{sup -8} for strong optical fields with intensities of 10{sup 22} W/cm{sup 2}, and to 10{sup -6} for strong X-ray fields with laser intensities around 10{sup 24} W/cm{sup 2}. However, the effect of the external field is visible in the spectrum of emitted alpha particles, leading in the case of optical fields even to rescattering phenomena for intensities approaching 6 x 10{sup 22} W/cm{sup 2}. The dynamics of the alpha particle in laser fields of intensities below the rescattering limit is investigated.

  1. Complete conformational stability of kinetically stable dimeric serine protease milin against pH, temperature, urea, and proteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Subhash Chandra; Jagannadham, Medicherla V

    2009-09-01

    Spectroscopic, calorimetric, and proteolytic methods were utilized to evaluate the stability of the kinetically stable, differentially glycosylated, dimeric serine protease milin as a function of pH (1.0-11.0), temperature, urea, and GuHCl denaturation in presence of 8 M urea at pH 2.0. The stability of milin remains equivalent to that of native at pH 1.0-11.0. However, negligible and reversible alteration in structure upon temperature transition has been observed at pH 2.0 and with 1.6 M GuHCl. Irreversible and incomplete calorimetric transition with apparent T (m) > 100 degrees C was observed at basic pH (9.0 and 10.0). Urea-induced unfolding at pH 4.0, and at pH 2.0 with GuHCl, in presence of 8 M urea also reveals incomplete unfolding. Milin has been found to exhibit proteolytic resistant in either native or denatured state against various commercial proteases. These results imply that the high conformational stability of milin against various denaturating conditions enable its potential use in protease-based industries.

  2. NST and IRIS multi-wavelength observations of an M1.0 class solar flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas Domínguez, Santiago; Sadykov, Viacheslav; Kosovichev, Alexander; Sharykin, Ivan; Struminsky, Alexei; Zimovets, Ivan

    2015-08-01

    Although solar flares are the most energetic events in the Solar System and have direct impact in the interplanetary space and ultimately in our planet, there are still many unresolved issues concerning their generation, the underlying processes of particle acceleration involved, the effect at different layer in the solar atmosphere, among others. This work presents new coordinated observations from the New Solar Telescope (NST) and the space telescope IRIS that acquired simultaneous observations of an M1.0 class flare occurred on 12 June, 2014 in active region NOAA 12087. NST filtergrams using the TiO filter, together with chromospheric data from the Halpha line allow us to study the evolution of the event from the first signs of the intensification of the intensity in the region. We focused on a small portion where the intensity enhancement in Halpha (blue and red wings) seems to be triggered, and discovered a rapid expansion of a flux-rope structure near the magnetic neutral line, in the sequence of high-resolution photospheric images. IRIS observations evidenced strong emission of the chromospheric and transition region lines during the flare. Jet-like structures are detected before the initiation of the flare in chromospheric lines and strong non-thermal emission in the transition region at the beginning of the impulsive phase. Evaporation flows with velocities up to 50 km/s occurred in the hot chromospheric plasma. We interpreted the result in terms of the “gentle” evaporation that occurs after accelerated particles heat the chromosphere.

  3. Aspects of native oxides etching on n-GaSb(1 0 0) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotirlan, C., E-mail: cotirlan@infim.ro; Ghita, R.V.; Negrila, C.C.; Logofatu, C.; Frumosu, F.; Lungu, G.A.

    2016-02-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A technology for GaSb surface cleaning is proposed. • The technology combines ion sputtering, chemical etching, annealing for oxide removal. • The ARXPS studies on GaSb surfaces are presented in a detailed manner. • The surface stoichiometry is restored after recommended technology for contacting. - Abstract: Gallium antimonide (GaSb) is the basis of the most photovoltaic and thermophotovoltaic (TPV) systems and its innovative technological aspects based on modern ultra-high vacuum techniques are in trend for device achievement. The real surface of GaSb is modified by technological processes that can conduce to problems related to the reproducible control of its surface properties. The GaSb surface is reactive in atmosphere due to oxygen presence and exhibits a native oxide layer. The evolution of native oxides during the ion sputtering, chemical etching and thermal annealing processes for preparing the surface is presented in detailed way. Ratios of surface constituents are obtained by Angle Resolved X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (ARXPS). Moreover, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Low-Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED) are used for characterization. The surface stoichiometry is changed using a specific etchant (e.g. citric acid) at different etching time and is analyzed by ARXPS, SEM, EDS and AFM methods. The experimental results provide useful information regarding surface native oxides characteristics on n-GaSb(1 0 0) to be taken into account for development of low resistance contacts for TPV devices based on GaSb alloy.

  4. [Interpretation of the updates of NCCN 2017 version 1.0 guideline for colorectal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gong

    2017-01-25

    The NCCN has recently released its 2017 version 1.0 guideline for colorectal cancer. There are several updates from this new version guideline which are believed to change the current clinical practice. Update one, low-dose aspirin is recommended for patients with colorectal cancer after colectomy for secondary chemoprevention. Update two, biological agents are removed from the neoadjuvant treatment regimen for resectable metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). This update is based on lack of evidence to support benefits of biological agents including bevacizumab and cetuximab in the neoadjuvant setting. Both technical criteria and prognostic information should be considered for decision-making. Currently biological agents may not be excluded from the neoadjuvant setting for patients with resectable but poor prognostic disease. Update three, panitumumab and cetuximab combination therapy is only recommended for left-sided tumors in the first line therapy. The location of the primary tumor can be both prognostic and predictive in response to EGFR inhibitors in metastatic colorectal cancer. Cetuximab and panitumumab confer little benefit to patients with metastatic colorectal cancer in the primary tumor originated on the right side. On the other hand, EGFR inhibitors provide significant benefit compared with bevacizumab-containing therapy or chemotherapy alone for patients with left primary tumor. Update four, PD-1 immune checkpoint inhibitors including pembrolizumab or nivolumab are recommended as treatment options in patients with metastatic deficient mismatch repair (dMMR) colorectal cancer in second- or third-line therapy. dMMR tumors contain thousands of mutations, which can encode mutant proteins with the potential to be recognized and targeted by the immune system. It has therefore been hypothesized that dMMR tumors may be sensitive to PD-1 inhibitors.

  5. Electrochemical and optical characterizations of anodic porous n-InP(1 0 0) layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santinacci, Lionel, E-mail: santinacci@cinam.univ-mrs.f [Institut Lavoisier de Versailles (UMR CNRS 8180), University of Versailles Saint-Quentin, 45 avenue des Etats-Unis, F-78000 Versailles (France); Goncalves, Anne-Marie; Simon, Nathalie; Etcheberry, Arnaud [Institut Lavoisier de Versailles (UMR CNRS 8180), University of Versailles Saint-Quentin, 45 avenue des Etats-Unis, F-78000 Versailles (France)

    2010-12-30

    In this paper, electrochemical and optical characterizations of anodic porous n-InP(1 0 0) are reported. The direct relation between the observed pore morphology and the physical properties is demonstrated using electrochemical methods such as cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy as well as optical techniques like photocurrent spectroscopy and photoluminescence measurements. An enhancement of the interfacial capacitance, proportional to the anodic charge, is revealed by voltammetry and Mott-Schottky analysis. It is related to the drastic increase of the area of the porous electrode. However, when the porous samples are sufficiently reverse-biased, the capacitance enlargement disappears because the nanosized pore walls are fully depleted and the electroactive area recovers its initial value. Photocurrent spectroscopy and photoluminescence measurements show the porous film behaves like an absorbent layer. This effect is also ascribed to the specific geometry of the space charge layer within the pore walls. A model based on the absorption coefficient and the effective optical path length is thus used to describe the phenomenon. However the model is not sufficient to depict the phenomenon and the charge recombination in the additional surface states created during the pore formation and the long transit time of electrons in the porous matrix are also significant. Additional effects such as the initial enhancement of the photocurrent response and the redshift of the absorption edge of the photocurrent spectra are observed. Inversely, no shift of the photoluminescence peak is detected. However an exponential quenching of the photoluminescence is also attributed to an absorbent behavior of the porous layer.

  6. Gids of rotating stellar models with masses between 1.0 and 3.0 M⊙

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu-Ming Yang; Shao-Lan Bi; Xiang-Cun Meng

    2013-01-01

    We calculated a grid of evolutionary tracks of rotating models with masses between 1.0 and 3.0 M⊙ and resolution δM ≤ 0.02 M⊙,which can be used to study the effects of rotation on stellar evolution and on the characteristics of star clusters.The value of ~ 2.05 M⊙ is a critical mass for the effects of rotation on stellar structure and evolution.For stars with M > 2.05 M⊙,rotation leads to an increase in the convective core and prolongs their lifetime on the main sequence (MS); rotating models evolve more slowly than non-rotating ones; the effects of rotation on the evolution of these stars are similar to those of convective core overshooting.However for stars with 1.1 < M/M⊙ < 2.05,rotation results in a decrease in the convective core and shortens the duration of the MS stage; rotating models evolve faster than non-rotating ones.When the mass has values in the range ~ 1.7-2.0 M⊙,the mixing caused by rotationally induced instabilities is not efficient; the hydrostatic effects dominate processes associated with the evolution of these stars.For models with masses between about 1.6 and 2.0 M⊙,rotating models always exhibit lower effective temperatures than non-rotating ones at the same age during the MS stage.For a given age,the lower the mass,the smaller the change in the effective temperature.Thus rotations could lead to a color spread near the MS turnoff in the color-magnitude diagram for intermediate-age star clusters.

  7. Improvement in regional CBF by L-serine contributes to its neuroprotective effect in rats after focal cerebral ischemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao-Jie Ren

    Full Text Available To investigate the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effect of L-serine, permanent focal cerebral ischemia was induced by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery while monitoring cerebral blood flow (CBF. Rats were divided into control and L-serine-treated groups after middle cerebral artery occlusion. The neurological deficit score and brain infarct volume were assessed. Nissl staining was used to quantify the cortical injury. L-serine and D-serine levels in the ischemic cortex were analyzed with high performance liquid chromatography. We found that L-serine treatment: 1 reduced the neurological deficit score, infarct volume and cortical neuron loss in a dose-dependent manner; 2 improved CBF in the cortex, and this effect was inhibited in the presence of apamin plus charybdotoxin while the alleviation of both neurological deficit score and infarct volume was blocked; and 3 increased the amount of L-serine and D-serine in the cortex, and inhibition of the conversion of L-serine into D-serine by aminooxyacetic acid did not affect the reduction of neurological deficit score and infarct volume by L-serine. In conclusion, improvement in regional CBF by L-serine may contribute to its neuroprotective effect on the ischemic brain, potentially through vasodilation which is mediated by the small- and intermediate-conductance Ca(2+-activated K(+ channels on the cerebral blood vessel endothelium.

  8. Effects of Chronic D-Serine Elevation on Animal Models of Depression and Anxiety-Related Behavior.

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    David-Marian Otte

    Full Text Available NMDA receptors are activated after binding of the agonist glutamate to the NR2 subunit along with a co-agonist, either L-glycine or D-serine, to the NR1 subunit. There is substantial evidence to suggest that D-serine is the most relevant co-agonist in forebrain regions and that alterations in D-serine levels contribute to psychiatric disorders. D-serine is produced through isomerization of L-serine by serine racemase (Srr, either in neurons or in astrocytes. It is released by astrocytes by an activity-dependent mechanism involving secretory vesicles. In the present study we generated transgenic mice (SrrTg expressing serine racemase under a human GFAP promoter. These mice were biochemically and behaviorally analyzed using paradigms of anxiety, depression and cognition. Furthermore, we investigated the behavioral effects of long-term administration of D-serine added to the drinking water. Elevated brain D-serine levels in SrrTg mice resulted in specific behavioral phenotypes in the forced swim, novelty suppression of feeding and olfactory bulbectomy paradigms that are indicative of a reduced proneness towards depression-related behavior. Chronic dietary D-serine supplement mimics the depression-related behavioral phenotype observed in SrrTg mice. Our results suggest that D-serine supplementation may improve mood disorders.

  9. Genetics Home Reference: alpha thalassemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions alpha thalassemia alpha thalassemia Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Alpha thalassemia is a blood disorder that reduces the production ...

  10. The role of Serine Proteases and Serine Protease Inhibitors in the migration of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silverman Ann-Judith

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mechanisms regulating neuronal migration during development remain largely undefined. Extracellular matrix cues, target site released factors, and components of the migratory neurons themselves are likely all coordinated in time and space directing neurons to their appropriate locations. We have studied the effects of proteases and their inhibitors on the extracellular matrix and the consequences to the migration of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH neurons in the embryonic chick. Chick GnRH neurons differentiate in the olfactory epithelium, migrate along the olfactory nerve and enter the forebrain. The accessibility of this coherent cell group make it amenable for studying protease/inhibitor roles in migratory processes. Results Affigel blue beads were used to deliver a serine protease inhibitor, protease nexin-1 (PN-1, and a target protease, trypsin, to the olfactory epithelium coincident with initiation of GnRH neuronal migration. PN-1 inhibited neuronal migration while trypsin accelerated their transit into the CNS. Prior to initiation of migration, neither PN-1 nor trypsin altered the timing of neuronal exit. Trypsin did, however, accelerate the timing of neuronal crossing into the nerve-forebrain junction. Conclusions These data support the hypothesis that protease activity modulates neuronal movements across barriers. Moreover, the data suggest, for the first time, that aspects of GnRH neuronal migration may be cell autonomous but modulated by ECM alterations.

  11. Chasing One-Carbon Units to Understand the Role of Serine in Epigenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Seth J; Metallo, Christian M

    2016-01-21

    In this issue of Molecular Cell, Maddocks et al. (2016) use stable isotope tracing, mass spectrometry, and nutrient modulation in cancer cells to highlight the role of serine in supporting methylation through maintenance of nucleotide levels.

  12. Optical properties of D-serine doped TGS crystals for pyroelectric sensors*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurlyak V.Yu.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Refractive and birefringence indices in the range of transparency of 300 to 700 nm for triglycine sulphate crystals doped with D-serine molecules have been measured in the temperature range of 290 K to 340 K. The obtained optical properties are discussed together with characteristic electrical features of these materials used as pyroelectric sensors for measurement of temperature. The experimental results obtained in this study will be necessary as the reference data for comparison with the calculated refractive indices of TGS + D-serine on the basis of density functional theory. Determination of the proper position of D-serine, will reveal the features of TGS + D-serine crystal structure necessary to achieve stable unipolarity.

  13. Localization and accessibility of antigenic sites of the extracellular serine proteinase of Lactococcus lactis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, Harm; Kok, Jan; Haandrikman, Alfred J.; Venema, Gerhardus; Konings, Wilhelmus

    1992-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis strains produce an extracellular subtilisin-related serine proteinase in which immunologically different components can be distinguished. Monoclonal antibodies specific for the different proteinase components have been raised and their epitopes were identified. By Western-blot ana

  14. D-Amino-Acid Oxidase Inhibition Increases D-Serine Plasma Levels in Mouse But not in Monkey or Dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Camilo; Alt, Jesse; Ator, Nancy A; Thomas, Ajit G; Wu, Ying; Hin, Niyada; Wozniak, Krystyna; Ferraris, Dana; Rais, Rana; Tsukamoto, Takashi; Slusher, Barbara S

    2016-05-01

    D-serine has been shown to improve positive, negative, and cognitive symptoms when used as add-on therapy for the treatment of schizophrenia. However, D-serine has to be administered at high doses to observe clinical effects. This is thought to be due to D-serine undergoing oxidation by D-amino-acid oxidase (DAAO) before it reaches the brain. Consequently, co-administration of D-serine with a DAAO inhibitor could be a way to lower the D-serine dose required to treat schizophrenia. Early studies in rodents to evaluate this hypothesis showed that concomitant administration of structurally distinct DAAO inhibitors with D-serine enhanced plasma and brain D-serine levels in rodents compared with administration of D-serine alone. In the present work we used three potent DAAO inhibitors and confirmed previous results in mice. In a follow-up effort, we evaluated plasma D-serine levels in monkeys after oral administration of D-serine in the presence or absence of these DAAO inhibitors. Even though the compounds reached steady state plasma concentrations exceeding their Ki values by >60-fold, plasma D-serine levels remained the same as those in the absence of DAAO inhibitors. Similar results were obtained with dogs. In summary, in contrast to rodents, DAAO inhibition in monkeys and dogs did not influence the exposure to exogenously administered D-serine. Results could be due to differences in D-serine metabolism and/or clearance mechanisms and suggest that the role of DAAO in the metabolism of D-serine is different across species. These data provide caution regarding the utility of DAAO inhibition for patients with schizophrenia.

  15. Metagenome resource for D-serine utilization in a DsdA-disrupted Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Mi Young; Lee, Hyo Jeong; Kim, Pil

    2011-04-01

    To find alternative genetic resources for D-serine dehydratase (E.C. 4.3.1.18, dsdA) mediating the deamination of D-serine into pyruvate, metagenomic libraries were screened. The chromosomal dsdA gene of a wild-type Escherichia coli W3110 strain was disrupted by inserting the tetracycline resistance gene (tet), using double-crossover, for use as a screening host. The W3110 dsdA::tet strain was not able to grow in a medium containing D-serine as a sole carbon source, whereas wild-type W3110 and the complement W3110 dsdA::tet strain containing a dsdA-expression plasmid were able to grow. After introducing metagenome libraries into the screening host, a strain containing a 40-kb DNA fragment obtained from the metagenomic souce derived from a compost was selected based on its capability to grow on the agar plate containing D-serine as a sole carbon source. For identification of the genetic resource responsible for the D-serine degrading capability, transposon- micron was randomly inserted into the 40-kb metagenome. Two strains that had lost their D-serine degrading ability were negatively selected, and the two 6-kb contigs responsible for the D-serine degrading capability were sequenced and deposited (GenBank code: HQ829474.1 and HQ829475.1). Therefore, new alternative genetic resources for D-serine dehydratase was found from the metagenomic resource, and the corresponding ORFs are discussed.

  16. Repurposing Suzuki Coupling Reagents as a Directed Fragment Library Targeting Serine Hydrolases and Related Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Serine hydrolases are susceptible to potent reversible inhibition by boronic acids. Large collections of chemically diverse boronic acid fragments are commercially available because of their utility in coupling chemistry. We repurposed the approximately 650 boronic acid reagents in our collection as a directed fragment library targeting serine hydrolases and related enzymes. Highly efficient hits (LE > 0.6) often result. The utility of the approach is illustrated with the results against autotaxin, a phospholipase implicated in cardiovascular disease. PMID:28564542

  17. Initial clinical experience with a radiation oncology dedicated open 1.0T MR-simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glide-Hurst, Carri K; Wen, Ning; Hearshen, David; Kim, Joshua; Pantelic, Milan; Zhao, Bo; Mancell, Tina; Levin, Kenneth; Movsas, Benjamin; Chetty, Indrin J; Siddiqui, M Salim

    2015-03-08

    The purpose of this study was to describe our experience with 1.0T MR-SIM including characterization, quality assurance (QA) program, and features necessary for treatment planning. Staffing, safety, and patient screening procedures were developed. Utilization of an external laser positioning system (ELPS) and MR-compatible couchtop were illustrated. Spatial and volumetric analyses were conducted between CT-SIM and MR-SIM using a stereotactic QA phantom with known landmarks and volumes. Magnetic field inhomogeneity was determined using phase difference analysis. System-related, in-plane distortion was evaluated and temporal changes were assessed. 3D distortion was characterized for regions of interest (ROIs) 5-20 cm away from isocenter. American College of Radiology (ACR) recommended tests and impact of ELPS on image quality were analyzed. Combined ultrashort echotime Dixon (UTE/Dixon) sequence was evaluated. Amplitude-triggered 4D MRI was implemented using a motion phantom (2-10 phases, ~ 2 cm excursion, 3-5 s periods) and a liver cancer patient. Duty cycle, acquisition time, and excursion were evaluated between maximum intensity projection (MIP) datasets. Less than 2% difference from expected was obtained between CT-SIM and MR-SIM volumes, with a mean distance of 3D geometric distortion was 0.59 ± 0.32 mm (maximum = 1.65 mm) and increased 10-15 cm from isocenter (mean = 1.57 ± 1.06 mm, maximum = 6.26 mm). ELPS interference was within the operating frequency of the scanner and was characterized by line patterns and a reduction in signal-to-noise ratio (4.6-12.6% for TE = 50-150 ms). Image quality checks were within ACR recommendations. UTE/Dixon sequences yielded detectability between bone and air. For 4D MRI, faster breathing periods had higher duty cycles than slow (50.4% (3 s) and 39.4% (5 s), p < 0.001) and ~fourfold acquisition time increase was measured for ten-phase versus two-phase. Superior-inferior object extent was underestimated 8% (6 mm) for two

  18. Structural Mechanisms of Inactivation in Scabies Mite Serine Protease Paralogues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Katja; Langendorf, Christopher G.; Irving, James A.; Reynolds, Simone; Willis, Charlene; Beckham, Simone; Law, Ruby H.P.; Yang, Sundy; Bashtannyk-Puhalovich, Tanya A.; McGowan, Sheena; Whisstock, James C.; Pike, Robert N.; Kemp, David J.; Buckle, Ashley M.; (Monash); (Queensland Inst. of Med. Rsrch.)

    2009-08-07

    The scabies mite (Sarcoptes scabiei) is a parasite responsible for major morbidity in disadvantaged communities and immuno-compromised patients worldwide. In addition to the physical discomfort caused by the disease, scabies infestations facilitate infection by Streptococcal species via skin lesions, resulting in a high prevalence of rheumatic fever/heart disease in affected communities. The scabies mite produces 33 proteins that are closely related to those in the dust mite group 3 allergen and belong to the S1-like protease family (chymotrypsin-like). However, all but one of these molecules contain mutations in the conserved active-site catalytic triad that are predicted to render them catalytically inactive. These molecules are thus termed scabies mite inactivated protease paralogues (SMIPPs). The precise function of SMIPPs is unclear; however, it has been suggested that these proteins might function by binding and protecting target substrates from cleavage by host immune proteases, thus preventing the host from mounting an effective immune challenge. In order to begin to understand the structural basis for SMIPP function, we solved the crystal structures of SMIPP-S-I1 and SMIPP-S-D1 at 1.85 {angstrom} and 2.0 {angstrom} resolution, respectively. Both structures adopt the characteristic serine protease fold, albeit with large structural variations over much of the molecule. In both structures, mutations in the catalytic triad together with occlusion of the S1 subsite by a conserved Tyr200 residue is predicted to block substrate ingress. Accordingly, we show that both proteases lack catalytic function. Attempts to restore function (via site-directed mutagenesis of catalytic residues as well as Tyr200) were unsuccessful. Taken together, these data suggest that SMIPPs have lost the ability to bind substrates in a classical 'canonical' fashion, and instead have evolved alternative functions in the lifecycle of the scabies mite.

  19. Plasmodium serine hydroxymethyltransferase: indispensability and display of distinct localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pornthanakasem Wichai

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT, a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzyme, plays a vital role in the de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis pathway in malaria parasites. Two genes have been identified in Plasmodium spp. encoding a cytosolic SHMT (cSHMT and putative mitochondria SHMT (mSHMT, but their roles have not been fully investigated. Methods The presence of Plasmodium SHMT isoforms in the intra-erythrocytic stage was assessed based on their gene expression using reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR. Localization studies of Plasmodium SHMT isoforms were performed by transfection of fluorescent-tagged gene constructs into P. falciparum and expressions of fluorescent fusion proteins in parasites were observed using a laser scanning confocal microscope. Genetic targeting through homologous recombination was used to study the essentiality of SHMT in Plasmodium spp. Results Semi-quantitative RT-PCR revealed the expression of these two genes throughout intra-erythrocytic development. Localization studies using P. falciparum expressing fluorescent-tagged SHMT showed that PfcSHMT-red fluorescent fusion protein (PfcSHMT-DsRed is localized in the cytoplasm, while PfmSHMT-green fluorescent fusion protein (PfmSHMT-GFP co-localized with Mitotracker™-labelled mitochondria as predicted. The essentiality of plasmodial cSHMT was inferred from transfection experiments where recovery of viable knock-out parasites was not achieved, unless complemented with a functional equivalent copy of shmt. Conclusions Distinct compartment localizations of PfSHMT were observed between cytoplasmic and mitochondrial isoforms, and evidence was provided for the indispensable role of plasmodial cSHMT indicating it as a valid target for development of novel anti-malarials.

  20. Comparison of the active sites of atropinesterase and some serine proteases by spin-labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Drift, A C; Moes, G W; van der Drift, E; Rousseeuw, B A

    1985-09-24

    The side chain of the serine residue in the active center of atropinesterase (AtrE), alpha-chymotrypsin (Chymo), and subtilisin A (Sub) was labeled with two paramagnetic reporter groups of different size (label I or II, respectively) by sulfonylation with N-[3-(fluorosulfonyl)phenyl]-1-oxy-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-pyrroline-3 -carboxamide or N-[6-(fluorosulfonyl)-2-naphthyl]-1-oxy-2,2,5,5-tetramethylpyrroline+ ++-3 -carboxamide. ESR spectra of labeled enzymes in 10 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.4, were measured at temperatures between 133 and 298 K by using a home-built spectrometer operating in the absorption mode at 10-kHz field modulation. The spectra, in particular those at 276-298 K, were analyzed by computer simulation of the overall line shape according to the methods developed by Freed and co-workers, based on eigenfunction expansion. In the case of AtrE for both labels, the best agreement between experimental and simulated solution spectra was obtained with only one mobility component showing anisotropic, axially symmetric reorientation according to the Egelstaff jump-diffusion model. The axis of preferential reorientation was found to lie in the XZ plane at a polar angle of about 30 degrees with the X axis. The corresponding rotational correlation time (tau parallel) did not show appreciable viscosity/temperature (eta/T) dependence but had a constant value of 4.4 and 2.2 ns for labels I and II, respectively. The rotational correlation time associated with rotation around the axes perpendicular to that of preferential reorientation (tau perpendicular) showed the usual eta/T dependence and had a value of 22.0 ns at 276 K for both labels. The above results strongly suggest that in AtrE both nonpolar reporter groups reside in a pocket near the active serine. Contrary to the situation in AtrE, the overall mobility of the -N-O. fragments in Chymo and Sub was found to result from contributions of at least two distinct motional states, strongly and weakly immobilized. In

  1. Mark I 1/5-scale boiling water reactor pressure suppression experiment. Quick-look report for test numbers 1. 0(a) and 1. 0(b) performed on March 4 and 8, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCauley, E.W.; Pitts, J.H.

    1977-03-16

    The experimental results obtained from pressure suppression experiment numbers 1.0(a) and 1.0(b) that were performed on the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory's /sup 1///sub 5/-scale boiling water reactor (BWR) Mark I pressure suppression experimental facility are summarized.

  2. A novel serine protease with caspase- and legumain-like activities from edible basidiomycete Flammulina velutipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iketani, Aya; Nakamura, Mayumi; Suzuki, Yuya; Awai, Koichiro; Shioi, Yuzo

    2013-03-01

    A serine protease with caspase- and legumain-like activities from basidiocarps of the edible basidiomycete Flammulina velutipes was characterized. The protease was purified to near homogeneity by three steps of chromatography using acetyl-Tyr-Val-Ala-Asp-4-methylcoumaryl-7-amide (Ac-YVAD-MCA) as a substrate. The enzyme was termed FvSerP (F. velutipes serine protease). This enzyme activity was completely inhibited by the caspase-specific inhibitor, Ac-YVAD-CHO, as well as moderately inhibited by serine protease inhibitors. Based on the N-terminal sequence, the cDNA of FvSerP was identified. The deduced protease sequence was a peptide composed of 325 amino acids with a molecular mass of 34.5 kDa. The amino acid sequence of FvSerP showed similarity to neither caspases nor to the plant subtilisin-like serine protease with caspase-like activity called saspase. FvSerP shared identity to the functionally unknown genes from class of Agaricomycetes, with similarity to the peptidase S41 domain of a serine protease. It was thus concluded that this enzyme is likely a novel serine protease with caspase- and legumain-like activities belonging to the peptidase S41 family and distributed in the class Agaricomycetes. This enzyme possibly functions in autolysis, a type of programmed cell death that occurs in the later stages of development of basidiocarps with reference to their enzymatic functions.

  3. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli use d-serine deaminase to modulate infection of the murine urinary tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesch, Paula L; Redford, Peter; Batchelet, Stephanie; Moritz, Rebecca L; Pellett, Shahaireen; Haugen, Brian J; Blattner, Frederick R; Welch, Rodney A

    2003-07-01

    Although once thought to be unique to bacteria, d-amino acids are also produced by mammals. For example, d-serine is excreted in human urine at concentrations ranging from 3.0 to 40 micro g ml-1. An epidemiological survey demonstrated that urine isolates of E. coli are more likely to catabolise d-serine via expression of d-serine deaminase, DsdA than enteric disease isolates. The urosepsis strain, CFT073, and an isogenic dsdA mutant have similar growth kinetics in minimal or complex media. However, relative to the wild type, the dsdA mutant has a pleiomorphic cell shape and a prolonged, 4-6 h lag phase when grown in human urine. This suggests that d-serine catabolism provides a growth advantage in the urinary tract. Unexpectedly, in a direct competition model of urinary tract infection, the dsdA mutant was recovered 300-times more frequently than the wild type in the bladders of mice 48 h after infection. A new model of E. coli uropathogenesis is proposed where growth and gene expression are modulated in response to environmental d-serine levels. In support of this, the CFT073 dsdA mutant is hyperflagellated and more motile than the wild type indicating that intracellular levels of d-serine may directly or indirectly influence the expression of regulons associated with E. coli uropathogenesis.

  4. Contribution of the D-Serine-dependent pathway to the cellular mechanisms underlying cognitive aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Rouaud

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available An association between age-related memory impairments and changes in functional plasticity in the aging brain has been under intense study within the last decade. In this article, we show that an impaired activation of the strychnine-insensitive glycine site of N-Methyl-D-Aspartate receptors (NMDA-R by its agonist D-serine contributes to deficits of synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus of memory-impaired aged rats. Supplementation with exogenous D-serine prevents the age-related deficits of isolated NMDA-R-dependent synaptic potentials as well as those of theta-burst-induced long-term potentiation and synaptic depotentiation. Endogenous levels of D-serine are reduced in the hippocampus with aging, that correlates with a weaker expression of serine racemase synthesizing the amino acid. On the contrary, the affinity of D-serine binding to NMDA-R is not affected by aging. These results point to a critical role for the D-serine-dependent pathway in the functional alterations of the brain underlying memory impairment and provide key information in the search for new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of memory deficits in the elderly.

  5. Serine, but Not Glycine, Supports One-Carbon Metabolism and Proliferation of Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiaan F. Labuschagne

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous work has shown that some cancer cells are highly dependent on serine/glycine uptake for proliferation. Although serine and glycine can be interconverted and either might be used for nucleotide synthesis and one-carbon metabolism, we show that exogenous glycine cannot replace serine to support cancer cell proliferation. Cancer cells selectively consumed exogenous serine, which was converted to intracellular glycine and one-carbon units for building nucleotides. Restriction of exogenous glycine or depletion of the glycine cleavage system did not impede proliferation. In the absence of serine, uptake of exogenous glycine was unable to support nucleotide synthesis. Indeed, higher concentrations of glycine inhibited proliferation. Under these conditions, glycine was converted to serine, a reaction that would deplete the one-carbon pool. Providing one-carbon units by adding formate rescued nucleotide synthesis and growth of glycine-fed cells. We conclude that nucleotide synthesis and cancer cell proliferation are supported by serine—rather than glycine—consumption.

  6. Abundances in the Ejecta of Core Collapse Supernova Remnants, G350.1-0.3 and G349.7+0.2

    CERN Document Server

    Yasumi, Masato; Nakashima, Shinya; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Sugawara, Ryusuke; Tsuru, Takeshi Go; Tanaka, Takaaki; Koyama, Katsuji

    2014-01-01

    We present Suzaku results of the two Galactic supernova remnants (SNRs), G350.1-0.3 and G349.7+0.2. We find Al and Ni K alpha lines from both the SNRs for the first time, in addition to previously detected K-shell lines of Mg, Si, S, Ar, Ca and Fe. The spectra are well described by two optically thin thermal plasmas: a low-temperature (low-kT) plasma in collisional ionization equilibrium and a high-temperature (high-kT) plasma in non-equilibrium ionization. Since the low-kT plasma has solar metal abundances, it is thought to be of interstellar medium origin. The high-kT plasma has super-solar abundances, hence it is likely to be of ejecta origin. The abundance patterns of the ejecta components are similar to those of core-collapse supernovae with the progenitor mass of ~15-25 M_solar for G350.1-0.3 and ~35-40 M_solar for G349.7+0.2. We find extremely high abundances of Ni compared to Fe (Z_Ni/Z_Fe ~8). Based on the measured column densities between the SNRs and the near sky background, we propose that G350.1-...

  7. alpha_s from tau decays revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Boito, D; Golterman, M; Jamin, M; Maltman, K; Osborne, J; Peris, S

    2011-01-01

    Being a determination at low energies, the analysis of hadronic tau decay data provides a rather precise determination of the strong coupling alpha_s after evolving the result to M_Z. At such a level of precision, even small non-perturbative effects become relevant for the central value and error. While those effects had been taken into account in the framework of the operator product expansion, contributions going beyond it, so-called duality violations, have previously been neglected. The following investigation fills this gap through a finite-energy sum rule analysis of tau decay spectra from the OPAL experiment, including duality violations and performing a consistent fit of all appearing QCD parameters. The resulting values for alpha_s(M_tau) are 0.307(19) in fixed-order perturbation theory and 0.322(26) in contour-improved perturbation theory, which translates to the n_f=5 values 0.1169(25) and 0.1187(32) at M_Z, respectively.

  8. Staphylococcus epidermidis serine--aspartate repeat protein G (SdrG) binds to osteoblast integrin alpha V beta 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claro, T; Kavanagh, N; Foster, T J; O'Brien, F J; Kerrigan, S W

    2015-06-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is the leading etiologic agent of orthopaedic implant infection. Contamination of the implanted device during insertion allows bacteria gain entry into the sterile bone environment leading to condition known as osteomyelitis. Osteomyelitis is characterised by weakened bones associated with progressive bone loss. The mechanism through which S. epidermidis interacts with bone cells to cause osteomyelitis is poorly understood. We demonstrate here that S. epidermidis can bind to osteoblasts in the absence of matrix proteins. S. epidermidis strains lacking the cell wall protein SdrG had a significantly reduced ability to bind to osteoblasts. Consistent with this, expression of SdrG in Lactococcus lactis resulted in significantly increased binding to the osteoblasts. Protein analysis identified that SdrG contains a potential integrin recognition motif. αVβ3 is a major integrin expressed on osteoblasts and typically recognises RGD motifs in its ligands. Our results demonstrate that S. epidermidis binds to recombinant purified αVβ3, and that a mutant lacking SdrG failed to bind. Blocking αVβ3 on osteoblasts significantly reduced binding to S. epidermidis. These studies are the first to identify a mechanism through which S. epidermidis binds to osteoblasts and potentially offers a mechanism through which implant infection caused by S. epidermidis leads to osteomyelitis.

  9. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by blood tests showing the low levels of alpha-1 antitrypsin and abnormal liver tests. Other tests such as ultrasound imaging or tests using specialized X-ray techniques may be necessary. A liver biopsy may ...

  10. SPLICER - A GENETIC ALGORITHM TOOL FOR SEARCH AND OPTIMIZATION, VERSION 1.0 (MACINTOSH VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.

    1994-01-01

    SPLICER is a genetic algorithm tool which can be used to solve search and optimization problems. Genetic algorithms are adaptive search procedures (i.e. problem solving methods) based loosely on the processes of natural selection and Darwinian "survival of the fittest." SPLICER provides the underlying framework and structure for building a genetic algorithm application. These algorithms apply genetically-inspired operators to populations of potential solutions in an iterative fashion, creating new populations while searching for an optimal or near-optimal solution to the problem at hand. SPLICER 1.0 was created using a modular architecture that includes a Genetic Algorithm Kernel, interchangeable Representation Libraries, Fitness Modules and User Interface Libraries, and well-defined interfaces between these components. The architecture supports portability, flexibility, and extensibility. SPLICER comes with all source code and several examples. For instance, a "traveling salesperson" example searches for the minimum distance through a number of cities visiting each city only once. Stand-alone SPLICER applications can be used without any programming knowledge. However, to fully utilize SPLICER within new problem domains, familiarity with C language programming is essential. SPLICER's genetic algorithm (GA) kernel was developed independent of representation (i.e. problem encoding), fitness function or user interface type. The GA kernel comprises all functions necessary for the manipulation of populations. These functions include the creation of populations and population members, the iterative population model, fitness scaling, parent selection and sampling, and the generation of population statistics. In addition, miscellaneous functions are included in the kernel (e.g., random number generators). Different problem-encoding schemes and functions are defined and stored in interchangeable representation libraries. This allows the GA kernel to be used with any

  11. SPLICER - A GENETIC ALGORITHM TOOL FOR SEARCH AND OPTIMIZATION, VERSION 1.0 (MACINTOSH VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.

    1994-01-01

    SPLICER is a genetic algorithm tool which can be used to solve search and optimization problems. Genetic algorithms are adaptive search procedures (i.e. problem solving methods) based loosely on the processes of natural selection and Darwinian "survival of the fittest." SPLICER provides the underlying framework and structure for building a genetic algorithm application. These algorithms apply genetically-inspired operators to populations of potential solutions in an iterative fashion, creating new populations while searching for an optimal or near-optimal solution to the problem at hand. SPLICER 1.0 was created using a modular architecture that includes a Genetic Algorithm Kernel, interchangeable Representation Libraries, Fitness Modules and User Interface Libraries, and well-defined interfaces between these components. The architecture supports portability, flexibility, and extensibility. SPLICER comes with all source code and several examples. For instance, a "traveling salesperson" example searches for the minimum distance through a number of cities visiting each city only once. Stand-alone SPLICER applications can be used without any programming knowledge. However, to fully utilize SPLICER within new problem domains, familiarity with C language programming is essential. SPLICER's genetic algorithm (GA) kernel was developed independent of representation (i.e. problem encoding), fitness function or user interface type. The GA kernel comprises all functions necessary for the manipulation of populations. These functions include the creation of populations and population members, the iterative population model, fitness scaling, parent selection and sampling, and the generation of population statistics. In addition, miscellaneous functions are included in the kernel (e.g., random number generators). Different problem-encoding schemes and functions are defined and stored in interchangeable representation libraries. This allows the GA kernel to be used with any

  12. ALPHA-2: the sequel

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    While many experiments are methodically planning for intense works over the long shutdown, there is one experiment that is already working at full steam: ALPHA-2. Its final components arrived last month and will completely replace the previous ALPHA set-up. Unlike its predecessor, this next generation experiment has been specifically designed to measure the properties of antimatter.   The ALPHA team lower the new superconducting solenoid magnet into place. The ALPHA collaboration is working at full speed to complete the ALPHA-2 set-up for mid-November – this will give them a few weeks of running before the AD shutdown on 17 December. “We really want to get some experience with this device this year so that, if we need to make any changes, we will have time during the long shutdown in which to make them,” says Jeffrey Hangst, ALPHA spokesperson. “Rather than starting the 2014 run in the commissioning stage, we will be up and running from the get go.&...

  13. Eina d'anàlisi de rendiment d'una xarxa : TaFanet v1.0

    OpenAIRE

    Arroyo Caballero, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    Treball de final de carrera que descriu el procés d'implementació de TaFanet v1.0. Trabajo de fin de carrera que describe el proceso de implementación de TaFanet v1.0. Bachelor thesis for the Computer Science program on Computer networks.

  14. Implantation serine proteinase 2 is a monomeric enzyme with mixed serine proteolytic activity and can silence signalling via proteinase activated receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Navneet; Fahr, Jochen; Renaux, Bernard; Saifeddine, Mahmoud; Kumar, Rajeev; Nishikawa, Sandra; Mihara, Koichiro; Ramachandran, Rithwik; Hollenberg, Morley D; Rancourt, Derrick E

    2013-12-01

    Implantation serine proteinase 2 (ISP2), a S1 family serine proteinase, is known for its role in the critical processes of embryo hatching and implantation in the mouse uterus. Native implantation serine proteinases (ISPs) are co-expressed and co-exist as heterodimers in uterine and blastocyst tissues. The ISP1-ISP2 enzyme complex shows trypsin-like substrate specificity. In contrast, we found that ISP2, isolated as a 34 kDa monomer from a Pichia pastoris expression system, exhibited a mixed serine proteolytic substrate specificity, as determined by a phage display peptide cleavage approach and verified by the in vitro cleavage of synthetic peptides. Based upon the peptide sequence substrate selectivity, a database search identified many potential ISP2 targets of physiological relevance, including the proteinase activated receptor 2 (PAR2). The in vitro cleavage studies with PAR2-derived peptides confirmed the mixed substrate specificity of ISP2. Treatment of cell lines expressing proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) 1, 2, and 4 with ISP2 prevented receptor activation by either thrombin (PARs 1 and 4) or trypsin (PAR2). The disarming and silencing of PARs by ISP2 may play a role in successful embryo implantation.

  15. Insights into the serine protease mechanism based on structural observations of the conversion of a peptidyl serine protease inhibitor to a substrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Longguang; Andersen, Lisbeth Moreau; Andreasen, Peter A

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Serine proteases are one of the most studied group of enzymes. Despite the extensive mechanistic studies, some crucial details remain controversial, for example, how the cleaved product is released in the catalysis reaction. A cyclic peptidyl inhibitor (CSWRGLENHRMC, upain-1) of a ser...

  16. Mannan-binding lectin (MBL)-associated serine protease-1 (MASP-1), a serine protease associated with humoral pattern-recognition molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiel, Steffen; Degn, Søren Egedal; Nielsen, H J;

    2012-01-01

    The pattern-recognition molecules mannan-binding lectin (MBL) and the three ficolins circulate in blood in complexes with MBL-associated serine proteases (MASPs). When MBL or ficolin recognizes a microorganism, activation of the MASPs occurs leading to activation of the complement system, an impo...

  17. Development of the Digital Health Literacy Instrument: Measuring a Broad Spectrum of Health 1.0 and Health 2.0 Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Vaart, Rosalie

    2017-01-01

    Background With the digitization of health care and the wide availability of Web-based applications, a broad set of skills is essential to properly use such facilities; these skills are called digital health literacy or eHealth literacy. Current instruments to measure digital health literacy focus only on information gathering (Health 1.0 skills) and do not pay attention to interactivity on the Web (Health 2.0). To measure the complete spectrum of Health 1.0 and Health 2.0 skills, including actual competencies, we developed a new instrument. The Digital Health Literacy Instrument (DHLI) measures operational skills, navigation skills, information searching, evaluating reliability, determining relevance, adding self-generated content, and protecting privacy. Objective Our objective was to study the distributional properties, reliability, content validity, and construct validity of the DHLI’s self-report scale (21 items) and to explore the feasibility of an additional set of performance-based items (7 items). Methods We used a paper-and-pencil survey among a sample of the general Dutch population, stratified by age, sex, and educational level (T1; N=200). The survey consisted of the DHLI, sociodemographics, Internet use, health status, health literacy and the eHealth Literacy Scale (eHEALS). After 2 weeks, we asked participants to complete the DHLI again (T2; n=67). Cronbach alpha and intraclass correlation analysis between T1 and T2 were used to investigate reliability. Principal component analysis was performed to determine content validity. Correlation analyses were used to determine the construct validity. Results Respondents (107 female and 93 male) ranged in age from 18 to 84 years (mean 46.4, SD 19.0); 23.0% (46/200) had a lower educational level. Internal consistencies of the total scale (alpha=.87) and the subscales (alpha range .70-.89) were satisfactory, except for protecting privacy (alpha=.57). Distributional properties showed an approximately normal

  18. Protons from the alpha-particle bombardment of 23Na

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuperus, J.

    1964-01-01

    Resonances in the yield of ground-state protons from alpha-particle bombardment of 23Na were investigated in the energy range Eα = 1.0 – 3.3 MeV. At least thirty-eight resonances were observed. Resonance energies and strengths are presented. At nine resonances angular distribution measurements lead

  19. N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor coagonist d-serine suppresses intake of high-preference food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Tsutomu; Kinoshita, Yoshihiro; Matsui, Sho; Kakuta, Shigeru; Yokota-Hashimoto, Hiromi; Kinoshita, Kuni; Iwasaki, Yusaku; Kinoshita, Toshio; Yada, Toshihiko; Amano, Naoji; Kitamura, Tadahiro

    2015-09-01

    d-Serine is abundant in the forebrain and physiologically important for modulating excitatory glutamatergic neurotransmission as a coagonist of synaptic N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. NMDA signaling has been implicated in the control of food intake. However, the role of d-serine on appetite regulation is unknown. To clarify the effects of d-serine on appetite, we investigated the effect of oral d-serine ingestion on food intake in three different feeding paradigms (one-food access, two-food choice, and refeeding after 24-h fasting) using three different strains of male mice (C57Bl/6J, BKS, and ICR). The effect of d-serine was also tested in leptin signaling-deficient db/db mice and sensory-deafferented (capsaicin-treated) mice. The expression of orexigenic neuropeptides [neuropeptide Y (Npy) and agouti-related protein (Agrp)] in the hypothalamus was compared in fast/refed experiments. Conditioned taste aversion for high-fat diet (HFD) was tested in the d-serine-treated mice. Under the one-food-access paradigm, some of the d-serine-treated mice showed starvation, but not when fed normal chow. HFD feeding with d-serine ingestion did not cause aversion. Under the two-food-choice paradigm, d-serine suppressed the intake of high-preference food but not normal chow. d-Serine also effectively suppressed HFD intake but not normal chow in db/db mice and sensory-deafferented mice. In addition, d-serine suppressed normal chow intake after 24-h fasting despite higher orexigenic gene expression in the hypothalamus. d-Serine failed to suppress HFD intake in the presence of L-701,324, the selective and full antagonist at the glycine-binding site of the NMDA receptor. Therefore, d-serine suppresses the intake of high-preference food through coagonism toward NMDA receptors. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Cloning of Mouse Enamel Matrix Serine Proteinase Encoding Mature Protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MU Ya-bing; SUN Hong-chen; ZHANG Ze-bing; OUYANG Jie

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To clone cDNA of enamel matrix serine proteinase (EMSP1) encoding mature protein from mouse dental germs. Methods: Total RNA was isolated from developing incisors and molars of 7 days mouse pups and reverse-transcribed into cDNA. Two pairs of specific primers was designed to obtain the desired gene by Touchdown PCR and Nested PCR. The segment was inserted into Vector pMD-18T, and recombined vectors was transformed into E.coli JM109.The positive clone was chose and analysed by restriction endonuclease mapping and DNA sequencing. Results:700 bp of cDNA of mouse EMSP1 was sueccessfully cloned from mouse tooth germs tissue. The sequence was consistent with that displayed in PubMed. Conclusion:The mouse EMSP1 cDNA encoding mature protein is obtained for further study.%目的:克隆小鼠牙胚组织中釉基质丝氨酸蛋白酶(EMSP1)成熟肽编码区基因.方法:提取出生后7 d昆明种小白鼠切牙、磨牙牙胚总RNA,逆转录为cDNA,设计两对特异性引物,采用Touchdown PCR 和嵌套PCR方法,扩增出小鼠EMSP1起始密码子至终止密码子基因片段.将目的基因连入载体pMD-18T,转化入大肠杆菌JM109,通过蓝白筛选,挑选阳性克隆培养扩增,纯化重组质粒进行限制性酶切和核苷酸序列分析鉴定.结果:限制性酶切图谱和核苷酸序列分析均表明所克隆cDNA为小鼠700 bp的EMSP1成熟肽基因编码.结论:成功地克隆了小鼠编码EMSP1成熟肽基因片段.

  1. Novel Potent Hepatitis C Virus NS3 Serine Protease Inhibitors Derived from Proline-Based Macrocycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Kevin X.; Njoroge, F. George; Arasappan, Ashok; Venkatraman, Srikanth; Vibulbhan, Bancha; Yang, Weiying; Parekh, Tejal N.; Pichardo, John; Prongay, Andrew; Cheng, Kuo-Chi; Butkiewicz, Nancy; Yao, Nanhua; Madison, Vincent; Girijavallabhan, Viyyoor (SPRI)

    2008-06-30

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3 protease is essential for viral replication. It has been a target of choice for intensive drug discovery research. On the basis of an active pentapeptide inhibitor, 1, we envisioned that macrocyclization from the P2 proline to P3 capping could enhance binding to the backbone Ala156 residue and the S4 pocket. Thus, a number of P2 proline-based macrocyclic {alpha}-ketoamide inhibitors were prepared and investigated in an HCV NS3 serine protease continuous assay (K*{sub i}). The biological activity varied substantially depending on factors such as the ring size, number of amino acid residues, number of methyl substituents, type of heteroatom in the linker, P3 residue, and configuration at the proline C-4 center. The pentapeptide inhibitors were very potent, with the C-terminal acids and amides being the most active ones (24, K*{sub i} = 8 nM). The tetrapeptides and tripeptides were less potent. Sixteen- and seventeen-membered macrocyclic compounds were equally potent, while fifteen-membered analogues were slightly less active. gem-Dimethyl substituents at the linker improved the potency of all inhibitors (the best compound was 45, K*{sub i} = 6 nM). The combination of tert-leucine at P3 and dimethyl substituents at the linker in compound 47 realized a selectivity of 307 against human neutrophil elastase. Compound 45 had an IC{sub 50} of 130 nM in a cellular replicon assay, while IC{sub 50} for 24 was 400 nM. Several compounds had excellent subcutaneous AUC and bioavailability in rats. Although tripeptide compound 40 was 97% orally bioavailable, larger pentapeptides generally had low oral bioavailability. The X-ray crystal structure of compounds 24 and 45 bound to the protease demonstrated the close interaction of the macrocycle with the Ala156 methyl group and S4 pocket. The strategy of macrocyclization has been proved to be successful in improving potency (>20-fold greater than that of 1) and in structural depeptization.

  2. A five-domain Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitor from black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon and its inhibitory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somprasong, Nawarat; Rimphanitchayakit, Vichien; Tassanakajon, Anchalee

    2006-01-01

    A novel five-domain Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitor, SPIPm2, identified from the hemocyte cDNA library of black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon was successfully expressed in the Escherichia coli expression system. The expressed recombinant SPIPm2 (rSPIPm2) as inclusion bodies was solubilized with a sodium carbonate buffer, pH10, and purified by gel filtration chromatography. The molecular mass of rSPIPm2 was determined using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry to be 29.065 kDa. The inhibitory activities of rSPIPm2 were tested against trypsin, alpha-chymotrypsin, subtilisin and elastase. The inhibitor exhibited potent inhibitory activities against subtilisin and elastase, weak inhibitory activity against trypsin, and did not inhibit chymotrypsin. Tight-binding inhibition assay suggested that the molar ratios of SPIPm2 to subtilisin and elastase were 1:2 and 1:1, respectively. The inhibition against subtilisin and elastase was a competitive type with inhibition constants (Ki) of 0.52 and 3.27 nM, respectively. The inhibitory activity of SPIPm2 against subtilisin implies that, in shrimp, it may function as a defense component against proteinases from pathogenic bacteria but the elastase inhibitory function is not known.

  3. An essential signal peptide peptidase identified in an RNAi screen of serine peptidases of Trypanosoma brucei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine X Moss

    Full Text Available The serine peptidases of Trypanosoma brucei have been viewed as potential drug targets. In particular, the S9 prolyl oligopeptidase subfamily is thought to be a good avenue for drug discovery. This is based on the finding that some S9 peptidases are secreted and active in the mammalian bloodstream, and that they are a class of enzyme against which drugs have successfully been developed. We collated a list of all serine peptidases in T. brucei, identifying 20 serine peptidase genes, of which nine are S9 peptidases. We screened all 20 serine peptidases by RNAi to determine which, if any, are essential for bloodstream form T. brucei survival. All S9 serine peptidases were dispensable for parasite survival in vitro, even when pairs of similar genes, coding for oligopeptidase B or prolyl oligopeptidase, were targeted simultaneously. We also found no effect on parasite survival in an animal host when the S9 peptidases oligopeptidase B, prolyl oligopeptidase or dipeptidyl peptidase 8 were targeted. The only serine peptidase to emerge from the RNAi screen as essential was a putative type-I signal peptide peptidase (SPP1. This gene was essential for parasite survival both in vitro and in vivo. The growth defect conferred by RNAi depletion of SPP1 was rescued by expression of a functional peptidase from an RNAi resistant SPP1 gene. However, expression of catalytically inactive SPP1 was unable to rescue cells from the SPP1 depleted phenotype, demonstrating that SPP1 serine peptidase activity is necessary for T. brucei survival.

  4. Crystal structure and characterization of a novel L-serine ammonia-lyase from Rhizomucor miehei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Zhen [College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, Beijing Advanced Innovation Center of Food Nutrition and Human Health, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China); Yan, Qiaojuan [College of Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China); Ma, Qingjun [Key Laboratory of Experimental Marine Biology, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071 (China); Jiang, Zhengqiang, E-mail: zhqjiang@cau.edu.cn [College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, Beijing Advanced Innovation Center of Food Nutrition and Human Health, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2015-10-23

    L-serine ammonia-lyase, as a member of the β-family of pyridoxal-5′-phosphate (PLP) dependent enzymes, catalyzes the conversion of L-serine (L-threonine) to pyruvate (α-ketobutyrate) and ammonia. The crystal structure of L-serine ammonia-lyase from Rhizomucor miehei (RmSDH) was solved at 1.76 Å resolution by X-ray diffraction method. The overall structure of RmSDH had the characteristic β-family PLP dependent enzyme fold. It consisted of two distinct domains, both of which show the typical open twisted α/β structure. A PLP cofactor was located in the crevice between the two domains, which was attached to Lys52 by a Schiff-base linkage. Unique residue substitutions (Gly78, Pro79, Ser146, Ser147 and Thr312) were discovered at the catalytic site of RmSDH by comparison of structures of RmSDH and other reported eukaryotic L-serine ammonia-lyases. Optimal pH and temperature of the purified RmSDH were 7.5 and 40 °C, respectively. It was stable in the pH range of 7.0–9.0 and at temperatures below 40 °C. This is the first crystal structure of a fungal L-serine ammonia-lyase. It will be useful to study the catalytic mechanism of β-elimination enzymes and will provide a basis for further enzyme engineering. - Highlights: • The crystal structure of a fungal L-serine ammonia-lyase (RmSDH) was solved. • Five unique residue substitutions are found at the catalytic site of RmSDH. • RmSDH was expressed in Pichia. pastoris and biochemically characterized. • RmSDH has potential application in splitting D/L-serine.

  5. Allosteric activation and contrasting properties of L-serine dehydratase types 1 and 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shawei; Xu, Xiao Lan; Grant, Gregory A

    2012-07-01

    Bacterial L-serine dehydratases differ from mammalian L- and D-serine dehydratases and bacterial D-serine dehydratases by the presence of an iron-sulfur center rather than a pyridoxyl phosphate prosthetic group. They exist in two forms, types 1 and 2, distinguished by their sequence and oligomeric configuration. Both types contain an ASB domain, and the type 1 enzymes also contain an ACT domain in a tandem arrangement with the ASB domain like that in type 1 D-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenases (PGDHs). This investigation reveals striking kinetic differences between L-serine dehydratases from Bacillus subtilis (bsLSD, type 1) and Legionella pneumophila (lpLSD, type 2). lpLSD is activated by monovalent cations and inhibited by monovalent anions. bsLSD is strongly activated by cations, particularly potassium, and shows a mixed response to anions. Flouride is a competitive inhibitor for lpLSD but an apparent activator for bsLSD at low concentrations and an inhibitor at high concentrations. The reaction products, pyruvate and ammonia, also act as activators but to different extents for each type. Pyruvate activation is competitive with L-serine, but activation of the enzyme is not compatible with it simply competing for binding at the active site and suggests the presence of a second, allosteric site. Because activation can be eliminated by higher levels of L-serine, it may be that this second site is actually a second serine binding site. This is consistent with type 1 PGDH in which the ASB domain functions as a second site for substrate binding and activation.

  6. The transient M/G/1/0 queue: some bounds and approximations for light traffic with application to reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ben Atkinson

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the transient analysis of the M/G/1/0 queue, for which Pn(t denotes the probability that there are no customers in the system at time t, given that there are n(n=0,1 customers in the system at time 0. The analysis, which is based upon coupling theory, leads to simple bounds on Pn(t for the M/G/1/0 and M/PH/1/0 queues and improved bounds for the special case M/Er/1/0. Numerical results are presented for various values of the mean arrival rate λ to demonstrate the increasing accuracy of approximations based upon the above bounds in light traffic, i.e., as λ→0. An important area of application for the M/G/1/0 queue is as a reliability model for a single repairable component. Since most practical reliability problems have λ values that are small relative to the mean service rate, the approximations are potentially useful in that context. A duality relation between the M/G/1/0 and GI/M/1/0 queues is also described.

  7. Selenium adsorption at different coverages on Fe(1 0 0) and Fe(1 1 1): A DFT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwindt, V. Cardoso; Ardenghi, J.S.; Bechthold, P.; González, E.A.; Jasen, P.V. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional del Sur and IFISUR (UNS-CONICET), Av. Alem 1253, (8000) Bahía Blanca (Argentina); Juan, A., E-mail: cajuan@uns.edu.ar [Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional del Sur and IFISUR (UNS-CONICET), Av. Alem 1253, (8000) Bahía Blanca (Argentina); Batic, B.S.; Jenko, M. [Institute of Metals and Technology, Lepipot 11, p.p. 431, SI-1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2014-10-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Selenium is adsorbed in a distorted bridge on the (1 1 1) surface. • In the case of (1 0 0) surface is adsorbed in a 4-fold hollow site. • The magnetic moment decrease 50% on the Fe(1 0v0) surface after Se adsorption. • Fe–Se bonds are formed at the expense of the metallic bond. • Se–Se bonds are detected only in the (1 0 0) surface at 1 ML. - Abstract: Se adsorption on Fe(1 0 0) and (1 1 1) surfaces is examined using the density functional theory (DFT). Selenium is adsorbed in a distorted bridge on the (1 1 1) surface while in the (1 0 0) surface it prefers a 4-fold hollow site, with energies of −10.36 and −5.25 eV, respectively. Se adsorption results in surface reconstruction. There is some contraction in the case of the (1 0 0) plane for 1/4 and 1/2 ML coverage and some relaxation at 1 ML (4.5%). Contraction increases to 15% for the (1 1 1) plane at ¼ ML. At a higher coverage, there is a non-regular movement of surface metal atoms, and there is almost no change at 1 ML. The magnetic moment for surface Fe atoms decreases with coverage. The most important changes are in the (1 0 0) plane, followed by the (1 1 0) and then the (1 1 1) planes with a reduction of 52%, 24% and 7% respectively. The density of states presents a contribution of Se states at −5.0 and −13.1 eV, when stabilized after adsorption. The Fe–Fe bond weakening is higher in the (1 0 0) plane. Fe–Se bonds are formed at the expense of the metallic bond.

  8. Buffer-layer enhanced crystal growth of BaB{sub 6} (1 0 0) thin films on MgO (1 0 0) substrates by laser molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Yushi; Yamauchi, Ryosuke; Arai, Hideki; Tan, Geng [Department of Innovative and Engineered Materials, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259-J2-46, Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Tsuchimine, Nobuo; Kobayashi, Susumu [Toshima Manufacturing Company Limited, 1414 Shimonomoto, Higashimatsuyama-shi, Saitama 355-0036 (Japan); Saeki, Kazuhiko; Takezawa, Nobutaka [Department of Materials Technology, Industrial Technology Center of Tochigi Prefecture, 367-1 Karinuma, Utsunomiya-shi, Tochigi 321-3224 (Japan); Mitsuhashi, Masahiko; Kaneko, Satoru [Kanagawa Industrial Technology Center, Kanagawa Prefectural Government, 705-1 Shimo-Imaizumi, Ebina, Kanagawa 243-0435 (Japan); Yoshimoto, Mamoru, E-mail: yoshimoto.m.aa@m.titech.ac.jp [Department of Innovative and Engineered Materials, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259-J2-46, Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Patent Attorney, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259-J2-46, Nagatsuta-cho, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan)

    2012-02-01

    Crystalline BaB{sub 6} (1 0 0) thin films can be fabricated on MgO (1 0 0) substrates by inserting a 2-3 nm-thick epitaxial SrB{sub 6} (1 0 0) buffer layer by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) in ultra-high vacuum (i.e., laser molecular beam epitaxy). Reflection high-energy electron diffraction and X-ray diffraction measurements indicated the heteroepitaxial structure of BaB{sub 6} (1 0 0)/SrB{sub 6} (1 0 0)/MgO (1 0 0) with the single domain of the epitaxial relationship. Conversely, BaB{sub 6} thin films without the buffer layer were not epitaxial instead they developed as polycrystalline films with a random in-plane configuration and some impurity phases. As a result, the buffer layer is considered to greatly affect the initial growth of epitaxial BaB{sub 6} thin films; therefore, in this study, buffering effects have been discussed. From the conventional four-probe measurement, it was observed that BaB{sub 6} epitaxial thin films exhibit n-type semiconducting behavior with a resistivity of 2.90 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -1} {Omega} cm at room temperature.

  9. Integral Data Test of HENDL1.0/MG and VisualBUS with Neutronics Shielding Experiments (Ⅰ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高纯静; 许德政; 李静惊; 吴宜灿; 邓铁如

    2004-01-01

    HENDL1.0/MG, a multi-group working library of the Hybrid Evaluated Nuclear Data Library, was home-developed by the FDS Team of ASIPP (Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences) on the basis of several national data libraries. To validate and qualify the process of producing HENDL1.0/MG, simulating calculations of a series of existent spherical shell benchmark experiments (Al, Mo, Co, Ti, Mn, W, Be and V) have been performed with HENDL1.0/MG and the multifunctional neutronics code system named VisualBUS home-developed also by FDS Team.

  10. The vacuolar serine protease, a cross-reactive allergen from Cladosporium herbarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöll, Verena; Denk, Ursula; Shen, Horng-Der; Panzani, Raphael C; Dissertori, Oliver; Lackner, Peter; Hemmer, Wolfgang; Mari, Adriano; Crameri, Reto; Lottspeich, Friedrich; Rid, Raphaela; Richter, Klaus; Breitenbach, Michael; Simon-Nobbe, Birgit

    2009-04-01

    Subtilisin-like serine proteases make up one of the most important allergen-families regarding the number of individual allergens. Previously, fungal subtilisin-like serine proteases have been identified from Aspergillus-, Penicillium-, and Trichophyton-species having a prevalence of IgE-reactivity between 33% and 80%. Since IgE-cross-reactivity is a common phenomenon within fungal species we wanted to know whether this protein also represents an allergen in Cladosporium herbarum. Hence, a screening of a C. herbarum cDNA library was performed using the coding sequence of the Penicillium oxalicum vacuolar serine protease (Pen o 18) as hybridization probe, ending up with a full-length clone. Biochemical and immunological characterization of this clone revealed that C. herbarum vacuolar serine protease most likely is synthesized as a precursor with an N-terminal pro-enzyme sequence and represents a minor allergen (Cla h 9) with a prevalence of IgE-reactivity of 15.5%. Furthermore Cla h 9 specifically reacted with the two monoclonal antibodies FUM20 and PCM39, as do the vacuolar serine proteases from Aspergillus fumigatus and Penicillium species. Investigation of IgE-cross-reactivity between Cla h 9 and other fungal serine proteases revealed that cross-reactivity is higher between vacuolar than alkaline serine proteases. IgE-epitope mapping of Cla h 9 was done in order to test whether four Cla h 9-peptides having a high sequence homology to previously determined Pen ch 18-IgE-epitopes also harbour IgE-epitopes. Three-dimensional models of the vacuolar serine proteases from C. herbarum and Penicillium chrysogenum were generated for the three-dimensional localization of the Cla h 9- and Pen ch 18- IgE-reactive and -non-reactive peptides. Taken together a new C. herbarum allergen has been identified, which may be useful in a molecule-based approach of C. herbarum allergy-diagnosis and -therapy. Moreover, Cla h 9 represents a further member of the subtilisin-like serine

  11. Enzymatic production of L-serine with a feedback control system for formaldehyde addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, H Y; Wei, T

    1986-10-01

    Serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT) in the form of crude extract from a recombinant strain of Klebsiella aerogenes was used for the production of L-serine from glycine and formaldehyde (HCHO). A stirred tank bio-reactor with a continuous feed of HCHO (37%) was employed. Since the performance of the serine bioreactor was heavily dependent on how HCHO was fed, an automatic feedback control system was developed for HCHO delivery utilizing the phenomenon of formol titration. This control procedure was based on the following circumstance: as a bioconversion proceeded, if the rate of HCHO feed was balanced by the rate of serine synthesis so that HCHO concentration was maintained near zero, then there was no pH change in the bioreactor. Once the rate of HCHO addition exceeded that of serine synthesis, the HCHO concentration built up and the excess HCHO reacted with the amino group of an amino acid (e.g. glycine or serine) to produce a Schiff base and a proton which lowered the pH. A pH controller detected and relayed this pH change to the on-off switch of the HCHO feed pump. Thus, HCHO infusion stopped when the pH was lower than the set point, which was the initial pH of the reaction. With this control system, the maximum concentration of HCHO that was reached in the bioreactor was only 1mM-3.3mM depending on the pH and amino acid composition in the bioreactor. Moreover, a decrease in pH also signaled the use of a slower feed rate at which HCHO was to be, delivered once the pH resumed its initial value after excess HCHO was consumed by the reaction. Employing this control system, we have optimized the performance of the serine bioreactor to give a serine titer of 450 g/L with an 88% molar conversion of glycine at a volumetric serine productivity of 8.9 g/L/h.

  12. Crystal structure and characterization of a novel L-serine ammonia-lyase from Rhizomucor miehei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zhen; Yan, Qiaojuan; Ma, Qingjun; Jiang, Zhengqiang

    2015-10-23

    L-serine ammonia-lyase, as a member of the β-family of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP) dependent enzymes, catalyzes the conversion of L-serine (L-threonine) to pyruvate (α-ketobutyrate) and ammonia. The crystal structure of L-serine ammonia-lyase from Rhizomucor miehei (RmSDH) was solved at 1.76 Å resolution by X-ray diffraction method. The overall structure of RmSDH had the characteristic β-family PLP dependent enzyme fold. It consisted of two distinct domains, both of which show the typical open twisted α/β structure. A PLP cofactor was located in the crevice between the two domains, which was attached to Lys52 by a Schiff-base linkage. Unique residue substitutions (Gly78, Pro79, Ser146, Ser147 and Thr312) were discovered at the catalytic site of RmSDH by comparison of structures of RmSDH and other reported eukaryotic L-serine ammonia-lyases. Optimal pH and temperature of the purified RmSDH were 7.5 and 40 °C, respectively. It was stable in the pH range of 7.0-9.0 and at temperatures below 40 °C. This is the first crystal structure of a fungal L-serine ammonia-lyase. It will be useful to study the catalytic mechanism of β-elimination enzymes and will provide a basis for further enzyme engineering.

  13. D-Serine and Glycine Differentially Control Neurotransmission during Visual Cortex Critical Period.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire N J Meunier

    Full Text Available N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs play a central role in synaptic plasticity. Their activation requires the binding of both glutamate and d-serine or glycine as co-agonist. The prevalence of either co-agonist on NMDA-receptor function differs between brain regions and remains undetermined in the visual cortex (VC at the critical period of postnatal development. Here, we therefore investigated the regulatory role that d-serine and/or glycine may exert on NMDARs function and on synaptic plasticity in the rat VC layer 5 pyramidal neurons of young rats. Using selective enzymatic depletion of d-serine or glycine, we demonstrate that d-serine and not glycine is the endogenous co-agonist of synaptic NMDARs required for the induction and expression of Long Term Potentiation (LTP at both excitatory and inhibitory synapses. Glycine on the other hand is not involved in synaptic efficacy per se but regulates excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission by activating strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors, then producing a shunting inhibition that controls neuronal gain and results in a depression of synaptic inputs at the somatic level after dendritic integration. In conclusion, we describe for the first time that in the VC both D-serine and glycine differentially regulate somatic depolarization through the activation of distinct synaptic and extrasynaptic receptors.

  14. Quantitative serine protease assays based on formation of copper(II)-oligopeptide complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiaokang; Yang, Kun-Lin

    2015-01-07

    A quantitative protease assay based on the formation of a copper-oligopeptide complex is developed. In this assay, when a tripeptide GGH fragment is cleaved from an oligopeptide chain by serine proteases, the tripeptide quickly forms a pink GGH/Cu(2+) complex whose concentration can be determined quantitatively by using UV-Vis spectroscopy. Therefore, activities of serine proteases can be determined from the formation rate of the GGH/Cu(2+) complex. This principle can be used to detect the presence of serine protease in a real-time manner, or measure proteolytic activities of serine protease cleaving different oligopeptide substrates. For example, by using this assay, we demonstrate that trypsin, a model serine protease, is able to cleave two oligopeptides GGGGKGGH () and GGGGRGGH (). However, the specificity constant (kcat/Km) for is higher than that of (6.4 × 10(3) mM(-1) min(-1)vs. 1.3 × 10(3) mM(-1) min(-1)). This result shows that trypsin is more specific toward arginine (R) than lysine (K) in the oligopeptide sequence.

  15. Cysteine biosynthesis in Lactobacillus casei: identification and characterization of a serine acetyltransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogicevic, Biljana; Berthoud, Hélène; Portmann, Reto; Bavan, Tharmatha; Meile, Leo; Irmler, Stefan

    2016-02-01

    In bacteria, cysteine can be synthesized from serine by two steps involving an L-serine O-acetyltransferase (SAT) and a cysteine synthase (CysK). While CysK is found in the publicly available annotated genome from Lactobacillus casei ATCC 334, a gene encoding SAT (cysE) is missing. In this study, we found that various strains of L. casei grew in a chemically defined medium containing sulfide as the sole sulfur source, indicating the presence of a serine O-acetyltransferase. The gene lying upstream of cysK is predicted to encode a homoserine trans-succinylase (metA). To study the function of this gene, it was cloned from L. casei FAM18110. The purified, recombinant protein did not acylate L-homoserine in vitro. Instead, it catalyzed the formation of O-acetyl serine from L-serine and acetyl-CoA. Furthermore, the plasmid expressing the L. casei gene complemented an Escherichia coli cysE mutant strain but not an E. coli metA mutant. This clearly demonstrated that the gene annotated as metA in fact encodes the SAT function and should be annotated as cysE.

  16. Cell-type specific mechanisms of D-serine uptake and release in the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magalie eMartineau

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence during the last decade established that D-serine is a key signaling molecule utilized by neurons and astroglia in the mammalian central nervous system. D-serine is increasingly appreciated as the main physiological endogenous coagonist for synaptic NMDA receptors at central excitatory synapses; it is mandatory for long-term changes in synaptic strength, memory, learning, and social interactions. Alterations in the extracellular levels of D-serine leading to disrupted cell-cell signaling are a trademark of many chronic or acute neurological (i.e. Alzheimer disease, epilepsy, stroke and psychiatric (i.e. schizophrenia disorders, and are associated with addictive behavior (i.e. cocaine addiction. Indeed, fine tuning of the extracellular levels of D-serine, achieved by various molecular machineries and signaling pathways, is necessary for maintenance of accurate NMDA receptor functions. Here, we review the experimental data supporting the notion that astroglia and neurons use different pathways to regulate levels of extracellular D-serine.

  17. The uropathogenic species Staphylococcus saprophyticus tolerates a high concentration of D-serine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakinç, Türkân; Michalski, Nadine; Kleine, Britta; Gatermann, Sören G

    2009-10-01

    Human urine contains a relatively high concentration of d-serine, which is toxic to several nonuropathogenic bacteria, but can be utilized or detoxified by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). The sequenced genome of uropathogenic Staphylococcus saprophyticus contains a gene with homology to the d-serine deaminase gene (dsdA) of UPEC. We found the gene in several clinical isolates of S. saprophyticus; however, the gene was absent in Staphylococcus xylosus and Staphylococcus cohnii, phylogenetically close relatives of S. saprophyticus, and could also not be detected in isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and 13 other staphylococcal species. In addition, the genomes of other sequenced staphylococci do not harbor homologues of this operon. Interestingly, S. saprophyticus could grow in media supplemented with relatively high concentrations of d-serine, whereas S. aureus, S. epidermidis and other staphylococcal species could not. The association of the dsdA gene with growth in media including d-serine was proved by introducing the gene into S. aureus Newman. Given the fact that UPEC and S. saprophyticus tolerate this compound, d-serine utilization and detoxification may be a general property of uropathogenic bacteria.

  18. Covalent binding of the organophosphorus agent FP-biotin to tyrosine in eight proteins that have no active site serine

    OpenAIRE

    Grigoryan, Hasmik; Li, Bin; Anderson, Erica K.; Xue, Weihua; Nachon, Florian; Lockridge, Oksana; Schopfer, Lawrence M.

    2009-01-01

    Organophosphorus esters (OP) are known to bind covalently to the active site serine of enzymes in the serine hydrolase family. It was a surprise to find that proteins with no active site serine are also covalently modified by OP. The binding site in albumin, transferrin, and tubulin was identified as tyrosine. The goal of the present work was to determine whether binding to tyrosine is a general phenomenon. Fourteen proteins were treated with a biotin-tagged organophosphorus agent called FP-b...

  19. Allosteric inactivation of a trypsin-like serine protease by an antibody binding to the 37- and 70-loops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kromann-Hansen, Tobias; Lund, Ida K; Liu, Zhuo

    2013-01-01

    Serine protease catalytic activity is in many cases regulated by conformational changes initiated by binding of physiological modulators to exosites located distantly from the active site. Inhibitory monoclonal antibodies binding to such exosites are potential therapeutics and offer opportunities...... criteria similar to the E* conformation described for other serine proteases. Hence, agents targeting serine protease conformation through binding to exosites in the 37- and 70-loops represent a new class of potential therapeutics....

  20. ALPHA MIS: Reference manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovin, J.K.; Haese, R.L.; Heatherly, R.D.; Hughes, S.E.; Ishee, J.S.; Pratt, S.M.; Smith, D.W.

    1992-02-01

    ALPHA is a powerful and versatile management information system (MIS) initiated and sponsored and by the Finance and Business Management Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, who maintain and develop it in concert with the Business Systems Division for its Information Center. A general-purpose MIS, ALPHA allows users to access System 1022 and System 1032 databases to obtain and manage information. From a personal computer or a data terminal, Energy Systems employees can use ALPHA to control their own report reprocessing. Using four general commands (Database, Select, Sort, and Report) they can (1) choose a mainframe database, (2) define subsets within it, (3) sequentially order a subset by one or more variables, and (4) generate a report with their own or a canned format.

  1. KABAM Version 1.0 User's Guide and Technical Documentation - Appendix H - Methods for Estimating Metabolism Rate Constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appendix H of KABAM Version 1.0 documentation related to estimating the metabolism rate constant. KABAM is a simulation model used to predict pesticide concentrations in aquatic regions for use in exposure assessments.

  2. Japanese guideline for the oncology FDG-PET/CT data acquisition protocol: synopsis of Version 1.0

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fukukita, Hiroyoshi; Senda, Michio; Terauchi, Takashi; Suzuki, Kazufumi; Daisaki, Hiromitsu; Matsumoto, Keiichi; Ikari, Yasuhiko; Hayashi, Masuo

    2010-01-01

    This synopsis outlines the Japanese guideline Version 1.0 for the data acquisition protocol of oncology FDG-PET/CT scans that was created by a joint task force of the Japanese Society of Nuclear Medicine Technology (JSNMT...

  3. B3LYP study of water adsorption on cluster models of Pt(1 1 1), Pt(1 0 0) and Pt(1 1 0): Effect of applied electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, Raquel; Orts, Jose Manuel [Departamento de Quimica Fisica e Instituto Universitario de Electroquimica, Universidad de Alicante, Apartado 99, E-03080 Alicante (Spain)

    2008-11-01

    A density functional theory (DFT) study of the adsorption of a water molecule on Pt(1 1 1), Pt(1 0 0) and Pt(1 1 0) surfaces has been carried out using cluster models, at the B3LYP/LANL2DZ,6-311++G(d,p) level. The water molecule binds preferentially at the top site on Pt(1 1 1) and Pt(1 0 0) with adsorption energy around -27 kJ mol{sup -1}, and is oriented with the molecular plane nearly parallel to the metal surface and the H atoms pointing away from it. On Pt(1 1 0) a hollow site is preferred, with adsorption energy of -32 kJ mol{sup -1}. Potential energy barriers for the rotation around an axis normal to the surface have been estimated to be below 1 kJ mol{sup -1} for Pt(1 1 1) and Pt(1 0 0) when water is adsorbed on top. Upon application of an external electric field (inducing positive charge density on the metal) adsorbed water is additionally stabilized on the three surfaces, especially at the top adsorption site, and adsorption on Pt(1 1 1) and Pt(1 0 0) becomes more favoured than on Pt(1 1 0). Good agreement has been found between harmonic vibrational frequencies calculated at the B3LYP/LANL2DZ,6-311++G(d,p) level and experimental frequencies for adsorbed water monomers on Pt(h k l) surfaces. (author)

  4. Sharik 1.0: User Needs and System Requirements for a Web-Based Tool to Support Collaborative Sensemaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Sharik 1.0: User Needs and System Requirements for a Web -Based Tool to Support Collaborative Sensemaking Shadi Ghajar-Khosravi...Conclusion A web -based collaborative sensemaking system is proposed to support the user tasks involved in the Intelligence Cycle of Canadian Forces...parentheses after the title.) Sharik 1.0: User Needs and System Requirements for a Web -Based Tool to Support Collaborative Sensemaking 4

  5. Tracing the molecular gas in distant submillimetre galaxies via CO(1-0) imaging with the EVLA

    CERN Document Server

    Ivison, R J; Smail, Ian; Greve, T R; Thomson, A P; Xilouris, E M; Chapman, S C

    2010-01-01

    We report the results of a pilot study with the EVLA of 12CO J=1-0 emission from four SMGs at z=2.2-2.5, each with an existing detection of CO J=3-2. Using the EVLA's most compact configuration we detect strong, broad (~1,000 km/s FWZI) J=1-0 line emission from all of our targets. The median line width ratio, sigma(1-0)/sigma(3-2) = 1.15 +/- 0.06, suggests that the J=1-0 is more spatially extended than the J=3-2 emission, a situation confirmed by our maps which reveal velocity structure in several cases and typical sizes of ~16 kpc FWHM. The median Tb ratio is r(3-2/1-0) = 0.55 +/- 0.05, noting that our value may be biased high because of the J=3-2-based sample selection. Naively, this suggests gas masses ~2x higher than estimates made using higher-J transitions of CO, with the discrepency due to the difference in assumed Tb ratio. We also estimate masses using the 12CO J=1-0 line and the observed global Tb ratios, assuming standard underlying Tb ratios as well as a limiting SFE, i.e. without calling upon X(C...

  6. Why (1 0 0) terraces break and make bonds: oxidation of dimethyl ether on platinum single-crystal electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongjiao; Calle-Vallejo, Federico; Kolb, Manuel J; Kwon, Youngkook; Li, Yongdan; Koper, Marc T M

    2013-09-25

    A surface structural preference for (1 0 0) terraces of fcc metals is displayed by many bond-breaking or bond-making reactions in electrocatalysis. Here, this phenomenon is explored in the electrochemical oxidation of dimethyl ether (DME) on platinum. The elementary C-O bond-breaking step is identified and clarified by combining information obtained from single-crystal experiments and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Experiments on Pt(1 0 0), Pt(5 1 0), and Pt(10 1 0) surfaces show that the surface structure sensitivity is due to the bond-breaking step, which is unfavorable on step sites. DFT calculations suggest that the precursor for the bond-breaking step is a CHOC adsorbate that preferentially adsorbs on a square ensemble of four neighboring atoms on Pt(1 0 0) terraces, named as "the active site". Step sites fail to strongly adsorb CHOC and are, therefore, ineffective in breaking C-O bonds, resulting in a decrease in activity on surfaces with increasing step density. Our combined experimental and computational results allow the formulation of a new mechanism for the electro-oxidation of DME as well as a simple general formula for the activity of different surfaces toward electrocatalytic reactions that prefer (1 0 0) terrace active sites.

  7. AlphaSphere

    OpenAIRE

    Place, A.; Lacey, L.; Mitchell, T.

    2013-01-01

    The AlphaSphere is an electronic musical instrument featuring a series of tactile, pressure sensitive touch pads arranged in a spherical form. It is designed to offer a new playing style, while allowing for the expressive real-time modulation of sound available in electronic-based music. It is also designed to be programmable, enabling the flexibility to map a series of different notational arrangements to the pad-based interface.\\ud \\ud The AlphaSphere functions as an HID, MIDI and OSC devic...

  8. Modulatory effect of a serine protease inhibitor on surgical stress: its clinical implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwagaki H

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between endogenous cytokine antagonists and surgical stress is poorly understood. Surgical stress induces immunosuppression, and the reversed therapy of postoperative immunosuppression has been expected. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of a serine protease inhibitor on postoperative immune reactivity. Twenty patients with colorectal cancer were randomly separated into experimental and control groups of 10 patients each. The experimental group received perioperative administration of a serine protease inhibitor while the control group did not. Plasma levels of cytokine antagonists, which suppress cell-mediated immunity, such as cortisol, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R and soluble tumor necrosis factors p55, p75 (sTNF-R55, -R75 were simultaneously measured. Significant reductions of plasma concentration of sIL-2R and sTNF-R55 were observed. Perioperative administration of a serine protease inhibitor may contribute to ameliorating immunosuppression after major surgery.

  9. Conservation of sequence and function in fertilization of the cortical granule serine protease in echinoderms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulhen, Nathalie; Xu, Dongdong; Wessel, Gary M

    2014-08-01

    Conservation of the cortical granule serine protease during fertilization in echinoderms was tested both functionally in sea stars, and computationally throughout the echinoderm phylum. We find that the inhibitor of serine protease (soybean trypsin inhibitor) effectively blocks proper transition of the sea star fertilization envelope into a protective sperm repellent, whereas inhibitors of the other main types of proteases had no effect. Scanning the transcriptomes of 15 different echinoderm ovaries revealed sequences of high conservation to the originally identified sea urchin cortical serine protease, CGSP1. These conserved sequences contained the catalytic triad necessary for enzymatic activity, and the tandemly repeated LDLr-like repeats. We conclude that the protease involved in the slow block to polyspermy is an essential and conserved element of fertilization in echinoderms, and may provide an important reagent for identification and testing of the cell surface proteins in eggs necessary for sperm binding.

  10. Escherichia coli K-12 mutant forming a temperature-sensitive D-serine deaminase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFall, E

    1975-03-01

    A single-site mutant of Escherichia coli K-12 able to grow in minimal medium in the presence of D-serine at 30 C but not at 42 C was isolated. The mutant forms a D-serine deaminase that is much more sensitive to thermal denaturation in vitro at temperatures above but not below 47 C than that of the wild type. No detectable enzyme is formed by the mutant at 42 C, however, and very little is formed at 37 C. The mutant enzyme is probably more sensitive to intracellular inactivation at high temperatures than the wild-type enzyme. The mutation lies in the dsdA region. The mutant also contains a dsdO mutation, which does not permit hyperinduction of D-serine deaminase synthesis.

  11. Serine Proteases of Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum: Potential as Antimalarial Drug Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asrar Alam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is a major global parasitic disease and a cause of enormous mortality and morbidity. Widespread drug resistance against currently available antimalarials warrants the identification of novel drug targets and development of new drugs. Malarial proteases are a group of molecules that serve as potential drug targets because of their essentiality for parasite life cycle stages and feasibility of designing specific inhibitors against them. Proteases belonging to various mechanistic classes are found in P. falciparum, of which serine proteases are of particular interest due to their involvement in parasite-specific processes of egress and invasion. In P. falciparum, a number of serine proteases belonging to chymotrypsin, subtilisin, and rhomboid clans are found. This review focuses on the potential of P. falciparum serine proteases as antimalarial drug targets.

  12. The VA, VCD, Raman and ROA spectra of tri-L-serine in aqueous solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jürgensen, Vibeke Würtz; Jalkanen, Karl J.

    2006-01-01

    investigated for one conformer, with the goal to determine which level of theory is appropriate to use in the systematic search of the conformational space. In addition, the effects of the counterion, here Cl- anion, are also investigated. Here we present the current state of the art in nanobiology, where......The structures of one conformer of the nonionic neutral and zwitterionic species of L-serinyl L-serinyl L-serine (SSS or tri-L-serine), together with its cationic and anionic species and the capped N-acetyl tri-L-serine N'-methylamide analog were optimized with density functional theory...... with the Becke 3LYP hybrid exchange correlation (XC) functional and the PW91 GGA XC functional and the 6-31G* and aug-cc-pVDZ basis sets. Subsequently, the vibrational absorption, vibrational circular dichroism, Raman and Raman optical activity spectra were simulated in order to compare them to experimentally...

  13. MCAI1.0多媒体课件网络化的研究%Research on.the Networked Version of MCAI 1.0 Multimedia Coursewares

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何佳; 刘政凯; 俞能海; 张荣

    2001-01-01

    This article is about our attempt to create a networked version of MCAI 1.0 multimedia coursewares. We did research on how to simulate the hotspot actions and other functionalities of MCAI 1.0 coursewares in a browser, and here we describe in detail the methods for the realization of some typical functionalities such as playing animations, exoeuting external programs, and tree-like directories.%使用Web技术对实现MCA11.0多媒体课件的网络化进行了尝试.研究了如何在浏览器中模拟MCAI1.0课件的热点动作与各项功能.详细阐速了播放动画、执行程序、树状目录等几种典型热点动作与功能的实现方法.

  14. Origins of Scatter in the Relationship between HCN 1-0 and Dense Gas Mass in the Galactic Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Elisabeth A. C.; Battersby, Cara

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the correlation of HCN 1-0 with gas mass in the central 300 pc of the Galaxy. We find that on the ∼10 pc size scale of individual cloud cores, HCN 1-0 is well correlated with dense gas mass when plotted as a log–log relationship. There is ∼0.75 dex of scatter in this relationship from clouds like Sgr B2, which has an integrated HCN 1-0 intensity of a cloud less than half its mass, and others that have HCN 1-0 enhanced by a factor of 2–3 relative to clouds of comparable mass. We identify the two primary sources of scatter to be self-absorption and variations in HCN abundance. We also find that the extended HCN 1-0 emission is more intense per unit mass than in individual cloud cores. In fact the majority (80%) of HCN 1-0 emission comes from extended gas with column densities below 7 × 1022 cm‑2, accounting for 68% of the total mass. We find variations in the brightness of HCN 1-0 would only yield a ∼10% error in the dense gas mass inferred from this line in the Galactic center. However, the observed order of magnitude HCN abundance variations, and the systematic nature of these variations, warn of potential biases in the use of HCN as dense gas mass tracer in more extreme environments such as an active galactic nucleus and shock-dominated regions. We also investigate other 3 mm tracers, finding that HNCO is better correlated with mass than HCN, and might be a better tracer of cloud mass in this environment.

  15. Possible Role of Mg2+ ion in the Reaction of Organophosphate (dichlorvos with Serine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Vahid Shetab-Boushehri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphate pesticides (OPs inhibit both true and pseudo-cholinesterases by reaction with the hydroxyl group of serine in their active sites. Poisoning with OPs is commonly seen in clinics. A common antidote for OP poisoning is atropine but, after ageing and OP dealkylation, even oximes could not be effective. It has been shown that oximes are not always useful in management of OP poisoning. On the other hand, magnesium has been found effective in both clinical and experimental studies. Studies to find more effective antidotes for OP poisoning are in progress. Presently, the possible role of magnesium ion in catalysis of reaction of dichlorvos (2,2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate, DDVP, a water-soluble OP, with serine is proposed. The hydroxyl group of serine could be a target to which DDVP can react. Nucleophilic attack of pralidoxime to DDVP was previously investigated. To confirm the idea, data were derived from recent and previous research on the role of magnesium in phosphoryl group transfer reactions. Possible reactions of serine and pralidoxime with DDVP in the absence and the presence of magnesium ion were separately investigated theoretically.We propose that the chemical reaction of serine with DDVP exclusively occurs in the presence of a magnesium divalent cation, whereas the reaction of pralidoxime with DDVP occurs independent of the presence of the magnesium ion. The role of the dissociation constant (pKa of functional groups in these reactions seems important.It is suggested that application of serine in combination with the magnesium cation can become a more efficient antidote for treatment of OP poisoning.

  16. Alpha-mannosidosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgwardt, Line; Stensland, Hilde Monica Frostad Riise; Olsen, Klaus Juul;

    2015-01-01

    of the three subgroups of genotype/subcellular localisation and the clinical and biochemical data were done to investigate the potential relationship between genotype and phenotype in alpha-mannosidosis. Statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS software. Analyses of covariance were performed...

  17. Alpha Antihydrogen Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, M. C.; Andresen, G. B.; Ashkezari, M. D.; Baquero-Ruiz, M.; Bertsche, W.; Bray, C. C.; Butler, E.; Cesar, C. L.; Chapman, S.; Charlton, M.; Cesar, C. L.; Fajans, J.; Friesen, T.; Gill, D. R.; Hangst, J. S.; Hardy, W. N.; Hayano, R. S.; Hayden, M. E.; Humphries, A. J.; Hydomako, R.; Jonsell, S.; Kurchaninov, L.; Lambo, R.; Madsen, N.; Menary, S.; Nolan, P.; Olchanski, K.; Olin, A.; Povilus, A.; Pusa, P.; Robicheaux, F.; Sarid, E.; Silveira, D. M.; So, C.; Storey, J. W.; Thompson, R. I.; van der Werf, D. P.; Wilding, D.; Wurtele, J. S.; Yamazaki, Y.

    2011-12-01

    ALPHA is an experiment at CERN, whose ultimate goal is to perform a precise test of CPT symmetry with trapped antihydrogen atoms. After reviewing the motivations, we discuss our recent progress toward the initial goal of stable trapping of antihydrogen, with some emphasis on particle detection techniques.

  18. Case Study - Alpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Leybourne

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This case study was developed from an actual scenario by Dr. Steve Leybourne of Boston University.  The case documents the historical evolution of an organization, and has been used successfully in courses dealing with organizational and cultural change, and the utilization of ‘soft skills’ in project-based management. This is a short case, ideal for classroom use and discussion.  The issues are easily accessible to students, and there is a single wide ranging question that allows for the inclusion of many issues surrounding strategic decision-making, and behavioural and cultural change. Alpha was one of the earlier companies in the USA to invest in large, edge-of-town superstores, with plentiful free vehicle parking, selling food and related household products. Alpha was created in the 1950s as a subsidiary of a major publicly quoted retail group.  It started business by opening a string of very large discount stores in converted industrial and warehouse premises in the south of the United States. In the early days shoppers were offered a limited range of very competitively priced products. When Alpha went public in 1981 it was the fourth largest food retailer in the US, selling an ever-widening range of food and non-food products.  Its success continued to be based on high volume, low margins and good value for money, under the slogan of ‘Alpha Price.’

  19. Alpha Antihydrogen Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Fujiwara, M C; Ashkezari, M D; Baquero-Ruiz, M; Bertsche, W; Bray, C C; Butler, E; Cesar, C L; Chapman, S; Charlton, M; Cesar, C L; Fajans, J; Friesen, T; Gill, D R; Hangst, J S; Hardy, W N; Hayano, R S; Hayden, M E; Humphries, A J; Hydomako, R; Jonsell, S; Kurchaninov, L; Lambo, R; Madsen, N; Menary, S; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Povilus, A; Pusa, P; Robicheaux, F; Sarid, E; Silveira, D M; So, C; Storey, J W; Thompson, R I; van der Werf, D P; Wilding, D; Wurtele, J S; Yamazaki, Y

    2011-01-01

    ALPHA is an experiment at CERN, whose ultimate goal is to perform a precise test of CPT symmetry with trapped antihydrogen atoms. After reviewing the motivations, we discuss our recent progress toward the initial goal of stable trapping of antihydrogen, with some emphasis on particle detection techniques.

  20. A benchmark study on uncertainty of ALICE ASH 1.0, TALYS 1.0 and MCNPX 2.6 codes to estimate production yield of accelerator-based radioisotopes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Seyed Amirhossen Feghi; Zohreh Gholamzadeh; Zahra Alipoor; Akram Zali; Mahdi Joharifard; Morteza Aref; Claudio Tenreiro

    2013-07-01

    Radioisotopes find very important applications in various sectors of economic significance and their production is an important activity of many national programmes. Some deterministic codes such as ALICE ASH 1.0 and TALYS 1.0 are extensively used to calculate the yield of a radioisotope via numerical integral over the calculated cross-sections. MCNPX 2.6 stochastic code is more interesting among the other Monte Carlo-based computational codes for accessibility of different intranuclear cascade physical models to calculate the yield using experiment-based cross-sections. A benchmark study has been proposed to determine the codes' uncertainty in such calculations. 109Cd, 86Y and 85Sr production yields by proton irradiation of silver, rubidium chloride and strontium carbonate targets are studied. 109Cd, 86Y and 85Sr cross-sections are calculated using ALICE ASH 1.0 and TALYS 1.0 codes. The evaluated yields are compared with the experimental yields. The targets are modelled using MCNPX 2.6 code. The production yields are calculated using the available physical models of the code. The study shows acceptable relative discrepancies between theoretical and experimental results. Minimum relative discrepancy between experimental and theoretical yields is achievable using ISABEL intranuclear model in most of the targets simulated by MCNPX 2.6. The stochastic code utilization can be suggested for calculating 109Cd, 86Y and 85Sr production yields. It results in more valid data than TALYS 1.0 and ALICE ASH 1.0 in noticeably less average relative discrepancies.

  1. Ligand Exchange Between Penta-Coordinated Phosphoryl Serine and Histidine Compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹书霞; 牛明玉; 苏玉倩; 廖新成; 卢奎; 赵玉芬

    2003-01-01

    With the assistance of HPLC-ESI-MS/MS, the self-assembly products of serine and histidine penta-coordinated phosphorus compound were separated and identified. The expectative product was seryl-histidine dipeptide, but it was found that there was almost equimolar amount of histidyl-histidine dipeptide as well as seryl-histidine dipeptide. The mechanism was speculated that there was iigand exchange between penta-coordinated phosphoryl serine and histidine in the reaction process. As a result,two types of dipeptide were produced.

  2. Expression and biochemical properties of a protein serine/threonine phosphatase encoded by bacteriophage lambda.

    OpenAIRE

    Barik, S

    1993-01-01

    The predicted amino acid sequence encoded by the open reading frame 221 (orf221) of bacteriophage lambda exhibited a high degree of similarity to the catalytic subunits of a variety of protein serine/threonine phosphatases belonging to PP1, PP2A, and PP2B groups. Cloning and expression of the orf221 gene in Escherichia coli provided direct evidence that the gene codes for a protein serine/threonine phosphatase. The single-subunit recombinant enzyme was purified in soluble form and shown to po...

  3. Propargyloxycarbonyl as a protecting group for the side chains of serine, threonine and tyrosine

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ramapanicker Ramesh; Kavita De; Shipra Gupta; Srinivasan Chandrasekaran

    2008-01-01

    Propargyloxycarbonyl group is used as a protecting group for the hydroxyl groups of serine, threonine and tyrosine. The propargyloxycarbonyl derivatives of these hydroxy amino acids are stable to acidic and basic reagents commonly employed in peptide synthesis. The deprotection of the -Poc derivatives using tetrathiomolybdate does not affect commonly used protecting groups such as -Boc, -Cbz, -Fmoc, methyl and benzyl esters. The di- and tripeptides synthesized using -Poc derivatives of serine, threonine and tyrosine are stable, isolable compounds and give the hydroxy peptides in good yields when treated with tetrathiomolybdate.

  4. Processing of Neutrophil α-Defensins Does Not Rely on Serine Proteases In Vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glenthøj, Andreas; Nickles, Katrin; Cowland, Jack;

    2015-01-01

    in promyelocytes: Neutrophil elastase (NE), cathepsin G (CG), and proteinase 3 (PR3), all of which are able to process recombinant proHNP into HNP in vitro. We investigated whether serine proteases are in fact responsible for processing of proHNP in human bone marrow cells and in human and murine myeloid cell...... lines. Subcellular fractionation of the human promyelocytic cell line PLB-985 demonstrated proHNP processing to commence in fractions containing endoplasmic reticulum. Processing of 35S-proHNP was insensitive to serine protease inhibitors. Simultaneous knockdown of NE, CG, and PR3 did not decrease pro...

  5. Molecular cloning of complementary DNA for human medullasin: an inflammatory serine protease in bone marrow cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, K; Aoki, Y; Sakurai, T; Kajitani, M; Kanai, S; Shimazu, T; Shimizu, H; Naruto, M

    1987-07-01

    Medullasin, an inflammatory serine protease in bone marrow cells, modifies the functions of natural killer cells, monocytes, and granulocytes. We have cloned a medullasin cDNA from a human acute promyelocytic cell (ML3) cDNA library using oligonucleotide probes synthesized from the information of N-terminal amino acid sequence of natural medullasin. The cDNA contained a long open reading frame encoding 237 amino acid residues beginning from the second amino acid of natural meduallasin. The deduced amino acid sequence of medullasin shows a typical serine protease structure, with 41% homology with pig elastase 1.

  6. Stereoselective Synthesis of [alpha, alpha][superscript ']-Biprolines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vartak, Ashish P.; Young, Jr., Victor G.; Johnson, Rodney L. (Minnesota)

    2010-11-10

    A means to induce dehydrodimerization of Seebach's oxazolidinone (5), the stereochemical outcome of which is entirely temperature dependent, is described. The resultant dimers 3 and 4 are precursors to (R,R)-alpha,alpha'-biproline (1) and meso-alpha,alpha'-biproline (2), respectively. An organohypobromite and an iminium halide are proposed to serve as electrophiles in the reaction with the enolate of 5 to give 3 and 4, respectively.

  7. 1.0 Introduction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    women's experiences find ample expressions in the feminist ideology. Feminism in ... this objective critiquing since, as Rhoda Howard says, "Men have a material as well .... marriage; there is a greater female awakening and a better life. .... vulgarities of mere emotional outburst which only aggravates hostilities between.

  8. CHROTRAN, 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-04-13

    CHROTRAN is a fork of the widely-used PFLOTRAN flow and reactive transport numerical simulation code. It implements custom physics and chemistry appropriate to the design of in-situ reduction of heavy metals such as Cr(VI) in groundwater. CHROTRAN includes full dynamics for five species: the metal to be remediated, an electron donor, biofilm, a nontoxic conservative bio-inhibitor, and a biocide. Direct abiotic reduction by donor-metal interaction as well as donor-driven biomass growth and bio-reduction are modeled, along with crucial processes such as donor sorption, and biofilm inactivation. The software implementation handles heterogeneous flow fields, arbitrarily many chemical species and amendment injection points, and features full coupling between flow and reactive transport, allowing for assessment of the effect of bio-fouling.

  9. DSMUS 1.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arucas Chacón

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows how we have developed a video game for Nintendo DS in order to play “Mus”, one of the most popular Spanish card games, thereby we considered designing a video game would be an interesting way of applying our acquired knowledge about artificial intelligence.

  10. XForms 1.0

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    institution W3C

    2007-01-01

    textabstractXForms is an XML application that represents the next generation of forms for the Web. By splitting traditional XHTML forms into three parts—XForms model, instance data, and user interface—it separates presentation from content, allows reuse, gives strong typing—reducing the number of ro

  11. XForms 1.0

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W3C, institution; Boyer, J.M.; et al, not CWI

    2007-01-01

    XForms is an XML application that represents the next generation of forms for the Web. By splitting traditional XHTML forms into three parts—XForms model, instance data, and user interface—it separates presentation from content, allows reuse, gives strong typing—reducing the number of round-trips to

  12. DsdX is the second D-serine transporter in uropathogenic Escherichia coli clinical isolate CFT073.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anfora, Andrew T; Welch, Rodney A

    2006-09-01

    d-Serine is an amino acid present in mammalian urine that is inhibitory to Escherichia coli strains lacking a functional dsdA gene. Counterintuitively, a dsdA strain of E. coli clinical isolate CFT073 hypercolonizes the bladder and kidneys of mice relative to wild type during a coinfection in the murine model of urinary tract infection. We are interested in the mechanisms for uptake of d-serine in CFT073. d-Serine enters E. coli K-12 via CycA, the d-alanine transporter and d-cycloserine sensitivity locus. CFT073 cycA can grow on minimal medium with d-serine as a sole carbon source. The dsdX gene of the dsdCXA locus is a likely candidate for an additional d-serine transporter based on its predicted amino acid sequence similarity to gluconate transporters. In minimal medium, CFT073 dsdX can grow on d-serine as a sole carbon source; however, CFT073 dsdX cycA cannot. Additionally, CFT073 dsdXA cycA is not sensitive to inhibitory concentrations of d-serine during growth on glycerol and d-serine minimal medium. d-[(14)C]serine uptake experiments with CFT073 dsdX cycA harboring dsdX or cycA recombinant plasmids confirm that d-serine is able to enter E. coli cells via CycA or DsdX. In whole-cell d-[(14)C]serine uptake experiments, DsdX has an apparent K(m) of 58.75 microM and a V(max) of 75.96 nmol/min/mg, and CycA has an apparent K(m) of 82.40 microM and a V(max) of 58.90 nmol/min/mg. Only d-threonine marginally inhibits DsdX-mediated d-serine transport, whereas d-alanine, glycine, and d-cycloserine inhibit CycA-mediated d-serine transport. DsdX or CycA is sufficient to transport physiological quantities of d-serine, but DsdX is a d-serine-specific permease.

  13. The Cryptic dsdA Gene Encodes a Functional D-Serine Dehydratase in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoqing; Lu, Chung-Dar

    2016-06-01

    D-Serine, an important neurotransmitter, also contributes to bacterial adaptation and virulence in humans. It was reported that Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 can grow on D-serine as the sole nitrogen source, and growth was severely reduced in the dadA mutant devoid of the D-alanine dehydrogenase with broad substrate specificity. In this study, the dsdA gene (PA3357) encoding a putative D-serine dehydratase was subjected to further characterization. Growth on D-serine as the sole source of nitrogen was retained in the ∆dsdA mutant and was abolished completely in the ∆dadA and ∆dadA-∆dsdA mutants. However, when complemented by dsdA on a plasmid, the double mutant was able to grow on D-serine as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen, supporting the proposed biochemical function of DsdA in the conversion of D-serine into pyruvate and ammonia. Among D- and L-amino acids tested, only D-serine and D-threonine could serve as the substrates of DsdA, and the Km of DsdA with D-serine was calculated to be 330 μM. Comparative genomics revealed that this cryptic dsdA gene was highly conserved in strains of P. aeruginosa, and that most strains of Pseudomonas putida possess putative dsdCAX genes encoding a transcriptional regulator DsdC and a D-serine transporter DsdX as in enteric bacteria. In conclusion, this study supports the presence of a cryptic dsdA gene encoding a functional D-serine dehydratase in P. aeruginosa, and the absence of dsdA expression in response to exogenous D-serine might be due to the loss of regulatory elements for gene activation during evolution.

  14. Evidence for charged B meson decays to a1+/-(1260)pi0 and a1(0)(1260)pi+/-.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, B; Bona, M; Boutigny, D; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Prudent, X; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Garra Tico, J; Grauges, E; Lopez, L; Palano, A; Eigen, G; Stugu, B; Sun, L; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadyk, J A; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lopes Pegna, D; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Orimoto, T J; Ronan, M T; Tackmann, K; Wenzel, W A; Del Amo Sanchez, P; Hawkes, C M; Watson, A T; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Schroeder, T; Steinke, M; Walker, D; Asgeirsson, D J; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Khan, A; Saleem, M; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, K Yu; Bondioli, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M; Martin, E C; Stoker, D P; Abachi, S; Buchanan, C; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Liu, F; Long, O; Shen, B C; Zhang, L; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Richman, J D; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Wilson, M G; Winstrom, L O; Chen, E; Cheng, C H; Fang, F; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Andreassen, R; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Mishra, K; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P C; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Hirschauer, J F; Kreisel, A; Nagel, M; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zhang, J; Gabareen, A M; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Winklmeier, F; Altenburg, D D; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Jasper, H; Merkel, J; Petzold, A; Spaan, B; Wacker, K; Klose, V; Kobel, M J; Lacker, H M; Mader, W F; Nogowski, R; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Volk, A; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Latour, E; Lombardo, V; Thiebaux, Ch; Verderi, M; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Robertson, A I; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cecchi, A; Cibinetto, G; Franchini, P; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Petrella, A; Piemontese, L; Prencipe, E; Santoro, V; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Contri, R; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Wu, J; Dubitzky, R S; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bard, D J; Dauncey, P D; Flack, R L; Nash, J A; Panduro Vazquez, W; Tibbetts, M; Behera, P K; Chai, X; Charles, M J; Mallik, U; Ziegler, V; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Dong, L; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Gao, Y Y; Gritsan, A V; Guo, Z J; Lae, C K; Denig, A G; Fritsch, M; Schott, G; Arnaud, N; Béquilleux, J; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Lepeltier, V; Le Diberder, F; Lutz, A M; Pruvot, S; Rodier, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Serrano, J; Sordini, V; Stocchi, A; Wang, W F; Wormser, G; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Bingham, I; Chavez, C A; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Schofield, K C; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; George, K A; Di Lodovico, F; Menges, W; Sacco, R; Cowan, G; Flaecher, H U; Hopkins, D A; Paramesvaran, S; Salvatore, F; Wren, A C; Brown, D N; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Chia, Y M; Edgar, C L; Lafferty, G D; West, T J; Yi, J I; Anderson, J; Chen, C; Jawahery, A; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Tuggle, J M; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Li, X; Moore, T B; Salvati, E; Saremi, S; Cowan, R; Dujmic, D; Fisher, P H; Koeneke, K; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Zhao, M; Zheng, Y; McLachlin, S E; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Simard, M; Taras, P; Viaud, F B; Nicholson, H; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M A; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Jessop, C P; Losecco, J M; Benelli, G; Corwin, L A; Honscheid, K; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Morris, J P; Rahimi, A M; Regensburger, J J; Wong, Q K; Blount, N L; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Kolb, J A; Lu, M; Rahmat, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Gagliardi, N; Gaz, A; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Pompili, A; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Ben-Haim, E; Briand, H; Calderini, G; Chauveau, J; David, P; Del Buono, L; de la Vaissière, Ch; Hamon, O; Leruste, Ph; Malclès, J; Ocariz, J; Perez, A; Gladney, L; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Manoni, E; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Carpinelli, M; Cenci, R; Cervelli, A; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Mazur, M A; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J J; Haire, M; Biesiada, J; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lu, C; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Baracchini, E; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; D'Orazio, A; Del Re, D; Di Marco, E; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Jackson, P D; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Renga, F; Voena, C; Ebert, M; Hartmann, T; Schröder, H; Waldi, R; Adye, T; Castelli, G; Franek, B; Olaiya, E O; Ricciardi, S; Roethel, W; Wilson, F F; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Escalier, M; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, W; Vasseur, G; Yèche, Ch; Zito, M; Chen, X R; Liu, H; Park, W; Purohit, M V; Wilson, J R; Allen, M T; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Bechtle, P; Berger, N; Claus, R; Coleman, J P; Convery, M R; Dingfelder, J C; Dorfan, J; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dunwoodie, W; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Graham, M T; Grenier, P; Hast, C; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Kaminski, J; Kelsey, M H; Kim, H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Li, S; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Macfarlane, D B; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ofte, I; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Pulliam, T; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Suzuki, K; Swain, S K; Thompson, J M; Va'vra, J; van Bakel, N; Wagner, A P; Weaver, M; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Yi, K; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Petersen, B A; Wilden, L; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Bula, R; Ernst, J A; Jain, V; Pan, B; Saeed, M A; Wappler, F R; Zain, S B; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Ritchie, J L; Ruland, A M; Schilling, C J; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Pelliccioni, M; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Azzolini, V; Lopez-March, N; Martinez-Vidal, F; Milanes, D A; Oyanguren, A; Albert, J; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Hamano, K; Kowalewski, R; Nugent, I M; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Harrison, P F; Ilic, J; Latham, T E; Mohanty, G B; Pappagallo, M; Band, H R; Chen, X; Dasu, S; Flood, K T; Hollar, J J; Kutter, P E; Pan, Y; Pierini, M; Prepost, R; Wu, S L; Neal, H

    2007-12-31

    We present measurements of the branching fractions for the decays B;{+/-}-->a_{1};{+/-}(1260)pi;{0} and B;{+/-}-->a_{1};{0}(1260)pi;{+/-} from a data sample of 232x10;{6} BB[over ] pairs produced in e;{+}e;{-} annihilation through the Upsilon(4S) resonance. We measure the branching fraction B(B;{+/-}-->a_{1};{+/-}(1260)pi;{0})xB(a_{1};{+/-}(1260)-->pi;{-}pi;{+}pi;{+/-})=(13.2+/-2.7+/-2.1)x10;{-6} with a significance of 4.2sigma, and the branching fraction B(B;{+/-}-->a_{1};{0}(1260)pi;{+/-})xB(a_{1};{0}(1260)-->pi;{-}pi;{+}pi;{0})=(20.4+/-4.7+/-3.4)x10;{-6} with a significance of 3.8sigma, where the first error quoted is statistical and the second is systematic.

  15. The radiative charmed baryon decay $\\Xi_{c2}^{0}$ --> $\\Xi_{c1}^{0}$ $\\gamma$

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, M; Walden, J W; Lu, Ming; Savage, Martin J; Walden, James

    1995-01-01

    V-spin symmetry (s \\leftrightarrow d symmetry) forbids the radiative decay \\Xi_{c2}^{0*} \\rightarrow \\Xi_{c1}^0 \\gamma in the SU(3) limit. The quark mass term breaks V-spin symmetry and the leading nonanalytic contribution to the radiative decay amplitude is computable in heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory. The radiative decay branching ratio is determined by the coupling constant g_2 and at leading order in chiral perturbation theory is given by Br(\\Xi_{c2}^{0*} \\rightarrow \\Xi_{c1}^0 \\gamma) = 1.0\\times 10^{-3} g_2^2. Measurement of this branching fraction will determine |g_2|.

  16. INVESTIGAÇÃO EXPERIMENTAL DA VAZÃO DE UMA REDE LOCAL DE COMPUTADORES HOMEPLUG 1.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Luiz Pereira de Siqueira Campos

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teórico e experimental teve por objetivo analisar o desempenho de uma rede de computadores, que utiliza o padrão Homeplug 1.0, no que diz respeito à taxa de transmissão de dados. Nesse trabalho, são estudadas as camadas: física e de enlace; do padrão Homeplug 1.0. Além disso, é analisado o parâmetro de desempenho de redes, a taxa de transmissão de dados, através de inúmeras transmissões. Para isso, foi utilizado o programa computacional de gerenciamento de redes, o SNMP 7.0 da Casttle Rock. Foram consideradas diversas situações de transmissão, bem como diferentes horários. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Homeplug 1.0, Taxa de transmissão, Rede de Computadores, SNMP.

  17. Self-absorption theory applied to rocket measurements of the nitric oxide (1, 0) gamma band in the daytime thermosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eparvier, F. G.; Barth, C. A.

    1992-01-01

    Observations of the UV fluorescent emissions of the NO (1, 0) and (0, 1) gamma bands in the lower-thermospheric dayglow, made with a sounding rocket launched on March 7, 1989 from Poker Flat, Alaska, were analyzed. The resonant (1, 0) gamma band was found to be attenuated below an altitude of about 120 km. A self-absorption model based on Holstein transmission functions was developed for the resonant (1, 0) gamma band under varying conditions of slant column density and temperature and was applied for the conditions of the rocket flight. The results of the model agreed with the measured attenuation of the band, indicating the necessity of including self-absorption theory in the analysis of satellite and rocket limb data of NO.

  18. Density functional study of NO adsorption on undefected and oxygen defective Au–BaO(1 0 0) surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Añez, Rafael, E-mail: ranez@ivic.gob.ve [Laboratorio de Química Física y Catálisis Computacional, Centro de Química, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas, Apartado, 21827 Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Sierraalta, Aníbal; Bastardo, Anelisse [Laboratorio de Química Física y Catálisis Computacional, Centro de Química, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas, Apartado, 21827 Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Coll, David [Laboratorio de Físico Química Teórica de Materiales, Centro de Química, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas, Apartado, 21827 Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Garcia, Belkis [Instituto Universitario de Tecnología de Valencia IUTVAL, Valencia, Edo. Carabobo (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    A periodic density functional approach has been used in order to explore the interaction of NO with undoped and Au doped BaO(1 0 0) surface. Due to oxygen vacancies increase the interaction between the doping metal and the surface, F{sub S} and F{sub S}{sup +} vacancies were studied and compared with the results obtained on the undefected doped BaO(1 0 0). Our results indicate that the high basicity of the BaO surface, besides the electron density changes produced by the oxygen vacancies, modify considerably how the Au atom interacts with the surface increasing the ionic character of the interaction. F{sub S} vacancy shows to be a promise center to activate de NO bond on the BaO(1 0 0) surface.

  19. Density relative change and interface zone mutual diffusion of BiFeO3 films prepared on Si (1 0 0), SiO2 and SiO2/Si (1 0 0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, RenZheng; Wang, ZeSong; Yuan, XianBao; Zhou, JianJun; Mao, ZhangLiang; Su, HuaShan; Li, Bo; Fu, DeJun

    2016-10-01

    The mutual diffusion taken place in the interface zone between BiFeO3 (BFO) films and substrates (Si (1 0 0), SiO2 and SiO2/Si (1 0 0)) has been revealed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS). RBS spectra provide the relative atomic concentrations of Bi, Fe, Si, and O elements changed with the samples' depth as analyzed by RBS spectra fitting SIMNRA software. A certain width of the intermixing layer is probably formed between BFO films and individual substrate which is attributed to mutual diffusion in the interface zone during annealing process. The mechanism of concerted exchange component can explain the interface zone mutual diffusion phenomenon between BFO films and substrates. The width of the interface zone between BFO film and Si (1 0 0), SiO2, and SiO2/Si (1 0 0) substrate is about 1.94 × 1017, 2.01 × 1017 and 3.05 × 1017 atoms/cm2, respectively, which are equivalent to 30.9, 36.7, and 52.9 nm, respectively. It has been declared that the effect on density relative to BFO film is loosen or attenuation is presented in the interface zone, which can be interpreted as a migration or diffusion of various atoms during the annealing. This can also provide an evidence of atomic dynamics and defect engineering on interface diffusion.

  20. Influence of the tensile strain on CH{sub 4} dissociation on Cu(1 0 0) surface: A theoretical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Feng; Li, Kai [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Xie, Guangyou [Energy Conversion R& D Center, Central Academy of Dongfang Electric Corporation, Chengdu 611731 (China); Wang, Ying; Jiao, Menggai [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Tang, Hao, E-mail: tanghao@dongfang.com [Energy Conversion R& D Center, Central Academy of Dongfang Electric Corporation, Chengdu 611731 (China); Wu, Zhijian, E-mail: zjwu@ciac.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The tensile strain on Cu(1 0 0) surface strengths CH{sub x} (x = 0–3) adsorption, but weakens the H adsorption. • The tensile strain changes the rate-determining step for CH{sub 4} dissociation on Cu(1 0 0) surface. • The tensile strain accelerates C migration, while has no obvious influence for C polymerization on Cu(1 0 0) surface. - Abstract: Tensile strain is widespread on the catalyst surface due to the lattice mismatch between the catalyst and substrate, such as Cu/MgO in this work. Thus, it is important to investigate the influence of tensile strain on the catalytic properties. In this study, we have investigated the CH{sub 4} dissociation on Cu(1 0 0) surface by considering the tensile strain. Our results showed that compared with the unstrained Cu(1 0 0) surface, the most stable sites for dissociation species CH{sub x} (x = 0–3) and H adsorption on strained surface remain unchanged. The surface strain strengthens CH{sub x} (x = 0–3) adsorption, while weakens H adsorption. The elementary reaction for CH{sub 4} dissociation with the largest electronic energy barrier changes from CH → C + H on the unstrained surface to CH{sub 4} → CH{sub 3} + H on the strained surface (for strain equal to and larger than 3%), in agreement with the experimental observation that CH{sub 4} dissociation into CH{sub 3} and H is the most difficult reaction. The tensile strain accelerates C migration while has no obvious influence for C polymerization. Both DFT calculations and microkinetic model demonstrated that the strain hinders the CH{sub 4} dissociation process on Cu(1 0 0) surface. CH{sub 4} dissociation rate depends sensitively on the magnitude of the surface tensile strain.

  1. alphaB-crystallin promotes tumor angiogenesis by increasing vascular survival during tube morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimberg, Anna; Rylova, Svetlana; Dieterich, Lothar C; Olsson, Anna-Karin; Schiller, Petter; Wikner, Charlotte; Bohman, Svante; Botling, Johan; Lukinius, Agneta; Wawrousek, Eric F; Claesson-Welsh, Lena

    2008-02-15

    Selective targeting of endothelial cells in tumor vessels requires delineation of key molecular events in formation and survival of blood vessels within the tumor microenvironment. To this end, proteins transiently up-regulated during vessel morphogenesis were screened for their potential as targets in antiangiogenic tumor therapy. The molecular chaperone alphaB-crystallin was identified as specifically induced with regard to expression level, modification by serine phosphorylation, and subcellular localization during tubular morphogenesis of endothelial cells. Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of alphaB-crystallin expression did not affect endothelial proliferation but led to attenuated tubular morphogenesis, early activation of proapoptotic caspase-3, and increased apoptosis. alphaB-crystallin was expressed in a subset of human tumor vessels but not in normal capillaries. Tumors grown in alphaB-crystallin(-/-) mice were significantly less vascularized than wild-type tumors and displayed increased areas of apoptosis/necrosis. Importantly, tumor vessels in alphaB-crystallin(-/-) mice were leaky and showed signs of caspase-3 activation and extensive apoptosis. Ultrastructural analyses showed defective vessels partially devoid of endothelial lining. These data strongly implicate alphaB-crystallin as an important regulator of tubular morphogenesis and survival of endothelial cell during tumor angiogenesis. Hereby we identify the small heat shock protein family as a novel class of angiogenic modulators.

  2. SU(3)-breaking corrections to the hyperon vector coupling $f_1(0)$ in covariant baryon chiral perturbation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Geng, L S; Vacas, M J Vicente

    2009-01-01

    We calculate the SU(3)-breaking corrections to the hyperon vector coupling $f_1(0)$ up to $\\mathcal{O}(p^4)$ in covariant baryon chiral perturbation theory with dynamical octet and decuplet contributions. We find that the decuplet contributions are of similar or even larger size than the octet ones. Combining both, we predict positive SU(3)-breaking corrections to all the four independent $f_1(0)$'s (assuming isospin symmetry), which are consistent, within uncertainties, with the latest results form large $N_c$ fits, chiral quark models, and quenched lattice QCD calculations.

  3. Non-singlet Q-deformed N=(1,0) and N=(1,1/2) U(1) actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Castro, A. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Hannover, Appelstrasse 2, 30167 Hannover (Germany)]. E-mail: castro@itp.uni-hannover.de; Quevedo, L. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Hannover, Appelstrasse 2, 30167 Hannover (Germany)]. E-mail: quevedo@itp.uni-hannover.de

    2006-08-03

    In this Letter we construct N=(1,0) and N=(1,1/2) non-singlet Q-deformed supersymmetric U(1) actions in components. We obtain an exact expression for the enhanced supersymmetry action by turning off particular degrees of freedom of the deformation tensor. We analyze the behavior of the action upon restoring weekly some of the deformation parameters, obtaining a non-trivial interaction term between a scalar and the gauge field, breaking the supersymmetry down to N=(1,0dditionally, we present the corresponding set of unbroken supersymmetry transformations. We work in harmonic superspace in four Euclidean dimensions.

  4. HB Hillingdon [alpha46(CE4)Phe-->Val (alpha1 Or alpha2)]: a new alpha chain hemoglobin variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babb, Anna; Solaiman, Susannah; Green, Brian N; Mantio, Debbie; Patel, Ketan

    2009-01-01

    Routine antenatal hemoglobinopathy screening detected a new alpha chain variant that eluted with Hb A(2) on cation exchange high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in a lady of Sri Lankan origin who had normal hematological indices. The mutation was identified by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) as alpha46(CE4)Phe-->Val, inferring that the variant was due to a single base change at codon 46 (TTC>GTC) of the alpha1- or alpha2-globin genes.

  5. Similarity between the C18O (J=1-0) core mass function and the IMF in the S 140 region

    CERN Document Server

    Ikeda, Norio

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of C18O(J=1-0) mapping observations of a 20'x18' area in the Lynds 1204 molecular cloud associated with the Sharpless 2-140 (S140) H II region. The C18O cube (alpha-delta-vLSR) data shows that there are three clumps with sizes of \\sim 1 pc in the region. Two of them have peculiar red shifted velocity components at their edges, which can be interpreted as the results of the interaction between the cloud and the Cepheus Bubble. From the C18O cube data, the clumpfind identified 123 C18O cores, which have mean radius, velocity width in FWHM, and LTE mass of 0.36\\pm0.07 pc, 0.37\\pm0.09 km s-1, and 41\\pm29 Msun, respectively. All the cores in S140 are most likely to be gravitationally bound by considering the uncertainty in the C18O abundance. We derived a C18O core mass function (CMF), which shows a power-law-like behavior above a turnover at 30 Msun. The best-fit power-law index of -2.1\\pm0.2 is quite consistent with those of the IMF and the C18O CMF in the OMC-1 region by Ikeda & Kitam...

  6. Purification and characterization of tenerplasminin-1, a serine peptidase inhibitor with antiplasmin activity from the coral snake (Micrurus tener tener) venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivas, Jeilyn; Ibarra, Carlos; Salazar, Ana M; Neves-Ferreira, Ana G C; Sánchez, Elda E; Perales, Jonás; Rodríguez-Acosta, Alexis; Guerrero, Belsy

    2016-01-01

    A plasmin inhibitor, named tenerplasminin-1 (TP1), was isolated from Micrurus tener tener (Mtt) venom. It showed a molecular mass of 6542Da, similarly to Kunitz-type serine peptidase inhibitors. The amidolytic activity of plasmin (0.5nM) on synthetic substrate S-2251 was inhibited by 91% following the incubation with TP1 (1nM). Aprotinin (2nM) used as the positive control of inhibition, reduced the plasmin amidolytic activity by 71%. Plasmin fibrinolytic activity (0.05nM) was inhibited by 67% following incubation with TP1 (0.1nM). The degradation of fibrinogen chains induced by plasmin, trypsin or elastase was inhibited by TP1 at a 1:2, 1:4 and 1:20 enzyme:inhibitor ratio, respectively. On the other hand, the proteolytic activity of crude Mtt venom on fibrinogen chains, previously attributed to metallopeptidases, was not abolished by TP1. The tPA-clot lysis assay showed that TP1 (0.2nM) acts like aprotinin (0.4nM) inducing a delay in lysis time and lysis rate which may be associated with the inhibition of plasmin generated from the endogenous plasminogen activation. TP1 is the first serine protease plasmin-like inhibitor isolated from Mtt snake venom which has been characterized in relation to its mechanism of action, formation of a plasmin:TP1 complex and therapeutic potential as anti-fibrinolytic agent, a biological characteristic of great interest in the field of biomedical research. They could be used to regulate the fibrinolytic system in pathologies such as metastatic cancer, parasitic infections, hemophilia and other hemorrhagic syndromes, in which an intense fibrinolytic activity is observed.

  7. $\\alpha$-Representation for QCD

    OpenAIRE

    Tuan, Richard Hong

    1998-01-01

    An $\\alpha$-parameter representation is derived for gauge field theories.It involves, relative to a scalar field theory, only constants and derivatives with respect to the $\\alpha$-parameters. Simple rules are given to obtain the $\\alpha$-representation for a Feynman graph with an arbitrary number of loops in gauge theories in the Feynman gauge.

  8. A Precise Determination of $\\alpha_s$ from the C-parameter Distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Hoang, André H; Mateu, Vicent; Stewart, Iain W

    2015-01-01

    We present a global fit for $\\alpha_s(m_Z)$, analyzing the available C-parameter data measured at center-of-mass energies between $Q=35$ and $207$ GeV. The experimental data is compared to a N$^3$LL$^\\prime$ + $\\mathcal{O}(\\alpha_s^3)$ + $\\Omega_1$ theoretical prediction (up to the missing 4-loop cusp anomalous dimension), which includes power corrections coming from a field theoretical nonperturbative soft function. The dominant hadronic parameter is its first moment $\\Omega_1$, which is defined in a scheme which eliminates the $\\mathcal{O}(\\Lambda_{\\rm QCD})$ renormalon ambiguity. The resummation region plays a dominant role in the C-parameter spectrum, and in this region a fit for $\\alpha_s(m_Z)$ and $\\Omega_1$ is sufficient. We find $\\alpha_s(m_Z)=0.1123\\pm 0.0015$ and $\\Omega_1=0.421\\pm 0.063\\,{\\rm GeV}$ with $\\chi^2/\\rm{dof}=0.988$ for $404$ bins of data. These results agree with the prediction of universality for $\\Omega_1$ between thrust and C-parameter within 1-$\\sigma$.

  9. Characterization of serine 916 as an in vivo autophosphorylation site for protein kinase D/Protein kinase Cmu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, S A; Rozengurt, E; Cantrell, D

    1999-09-10

    Activation of the serine kinase protein kinase D (PKD)/PKCmicro is controlled by the phosphorylation of two serine residues within its activation loop via a PKC-dependent signaling cascade. In this study we have identified the C-terminal serine 916 residue as an in vivo phosphorylation site within active PKD/PKCmu. An antibody that recognized PKD/PKCmu proteins specifically phosphorylated on the serine 916 residue was generated and used to show that phosphorylation of Ser-916 is induced by phorbol ester treatment of cells. Thus, the pS916 antibody is a useful tool to study the regulation of PKD/PKCmu activity in vivo. Antigen receptor ligation of T and B lymphocytes also induced phosphorylation of the serine 916 residue of PKD/PKCmu. Furthermore the regulatory FcgammaRIIB receptor, which mediates vital negative feedback signals to the B cell antigen receptor complex, inhibited the antigen receptor-induced activation and serine 916 phosphorylation of PKD/PKCmu. The degree of serine 916 phosphorylation during lymphocyte activation and inhibition exactly correlated with the activation status of PKD/PKCmu. Moreover, using different mutants of PKD/PKCmu, we show that serine 916 is not trans-phosphorylated by an upstream kinase but is rather an autophosphorylation event that occurs following activation of PKD/PKCmu.

  10. Feasibility study on the reaction of 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO with (L-Serine-L-Serine and (L-Phenylalanine-L-Serine diketopiperazines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitaram Bhavaraju

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the reaction of DABCO with the enol tosylate derivatives made from (L-Ser-L-Ser and (L-Phe-L-Ser diketopiperazines (DKP’s. The reaction between DABCO and EE-di-tosylate (L-Ser-L-Ser DKP (2, results in the isomerization of the serine di-tosylate from EE-2 to ZZ-2. This is the first direct example of the utility of DABCO as a reagent demonstrating the successful isomerization in a DKP derivative. The E-enol tosylate of (L-Phe-L-Ser DKP (4 upon reaction with DABCO provided a unique bis-ylidiene product (5.

  11. Alpha and Beta Determinations

    CERN Document Server

    Dunietz, Isard

    1999-01-01

    Because the Bd -> J/psi Ks asymmetry determines only sin(2 beta), a discrete ambiguity in the true value of beta remains. This note reviews how the ambiguity can be removed. Extractions of the CKM angle alpha are discussed next. Some of the methods require very large data samples and will not be feasible in the near future. In the near future, semi-inclusive CP-violating searches could be undertaken, which are reviewed last.

  12. Inter-Alpha Inhibitor Protein (IAIP) Administration Improves Survival From Neonatal Sepsis In Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Kultar; Zhang, Ling Xiu; Bendelja, Kreso; Heath, Ryan; Murphy, Shaun; Sharma, Surendra; Padbury, James F.; Lim, Yow-Pin

    2010-01-01

    Inter-alpha Inhibitor proteins (IaIp) are serine proteases inhibitors which modulate endogenous protease activity and have been shown to improve survival in adult models of sepsis. We evaluated the effect of IaIp on survival and systemic responses to sepsis in neonatal mice. Sepsis was induced in 2-day-old mice with LPS, E. coli and Group B Streptococci. Sepsis was associated with 75% mortality. IaIp, given by intraperitoneal administration at doses between 15–45 mg/kg from 1–6 hours followin...

  13. Serine Protease Catalysis: A Computational Study of Tetrahedral Intermediates and Inhibitory Adducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Phong D; Mansoorabadi, Steven O; Frey, Perry A

    2016-08-04

    Peptide boronic acids and peptidyl trifluoromethyl ketones (TFKs) inhibit serine proteases by forming monoanionic, tetrahedral adducts to serine in the active sites. Investigators regard these adducts as analogs of monoanionic, tetrahedral intermediates. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations and fractional charge analysis show that tetrahedral adducts of model peptidyl TFKs are structurally and electrostatically very similar to corresponding tetrahedral intermediates. In contrast, the DFT calculations show the structures and electrostatic properties of analogous peptide boronate adducts to be significantly different. The peptide boronates display highly electrostatically positive boron, with correspondingly negative ligands in the tetrahedra. In addition, the computed boron-oxygen and boron-carbon bond lengths in peptide boronates (which are identical or very similar to the corresponding bonds in a peptide boronate adduct of α-lytic protease determined by X-ray crystallography at subangstrom resolution) are significantly longer than the corresponding bond lengths in model tetrahedral intermediates. Since protease-peptidyl TFKs incorporate low-barrier hydrogen bonds (LBHBs) between an active site histidine and aspartate, while the protease-peptide boronates do not, these data complement the spectroscopic and chemical evidence for the participation of LBHBs in catalysis by serine proteases. Moreover, while the potency of these classes of inhibitors can be correlated to the structures of the peptide moieties, the present results indicate that the strength of their bonds to serine contribute significantly to their inhibitory properties.

  14. Cloning, Expression and Activity Analysis of a Novel Fibrinolytic Serine Protease fromArenicola cristata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Chunling; JU Jiyu

    2015-01-01

    The full-length cDNA of a protease gene from a marine annelid Arenicola cristata was amplified through rapid amplifi-cation of cDNA ends technique and sequenced. The size of the cDNA was 936 bp in length, including an open reading frame encod-ing a polypeptide of 270 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequnce consisted of pro- and mature sequences. The protease belonged to the serine protease family because it contained the highly conserved sequence GDSGGP. This protease was novel as it showed a low amino acid sequence similarity (<40%) to other serine proteases. The gene encoding the active form ofA. cristata serine protease was cloned and expressed inE. coli. Purified recombinant protease in a supernatant could dissolve an artificial fibrin plate with plasminogen-rich fibrin, whereas the plasminogen-free fibrin showed no clear zone caused by hydrolysis. This result sug-gested that the recombinant protease showed an indirect fibrinolytic activity of dissolving fibrin, and was probably a plasminogen activator. A rat model with venous thrombosis was established to demonstrate that the recombinant protease could also hydrolyze blood clotin vivo. Therefore, this recombinant protease may be used as a thrombolytic agent for thrombosis treatment. To our knowledge, this study is the first of reporting the fibrinolytic serine protease gene inA. cristata.

  15. Serine protease immunohistochemistry and lectin histochemistry in the small intestine of weaned and unweaned pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, P J; Poulsen, Steen Seier; Wells, M

    1991-01-01

    The distribution of goblet cells containing serine protease and of those binding the lectin Ulex europaeus agglutinin-1 (UEA-1) in the pig small intestine is altered during the period after weaning. Goblet cells exhibiting binding of other lectins were not altered. These alterations and other...

  16. HOMOLOGY MODELING AND PROTEIN ENGINEERING STRATEGY OF SUBTILASES, THE FAMILY OF SUBTILISIN-LIKE SERINE PROTEINASES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SIEZEN, RJ; DEVOS, WM; LEUNISSEN, JAM

    1991-01-01

    Subtilases are members of the family of subtilisin-like serine proteases. Presently, > 50 subtilases are known, > 40 of which with their complete amino acid sequences. We have compared these sequences and the available three-dimensional structures (subtilisin BPN', subtilisin Carlsberg, thermitase a

  17. Homology modelling and protein engineering strategy of subtilases, the family of subtilisin-like serine proteinases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siezen, Roland J.; Vos, Willem M. de; Leunissen, Jack A.M.; Dijkstra, Bauke W.

    1991-01-01

    Subtilases are members of the family of subtilisin-like serine proteases. Presently, >50 subtilases are known, >40 of which with their complete amino acid sequences. We have compared these sequences and the available three-dimensional structures (subtilisin BPN', subtilisin Carlsberg, thermitase and

  18. Identification and characterization of a surface-associated, subtilisin-like serine protease in Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Romano, Pablo; Hernández, Roberto; Arroyo, Rossana; Alderete, John F; López-Villaseñor, Imelda

    2010-09-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a protozoan parasite causing trichomonosis, a sexually transmitted infection in humans. This parasite has numerous proteases, most of which are cysteine proteases that appear to be involved in adherence and cytotoxicity of host cells. In this report we identify and characterize a putative subtilisin-like serine protease (SUB1). The sub1 gene encodes a 101-kDa protein. In silico analyses predict signal and pro-peptides at the N-terminus, and a transmembrane helix at the carboxy-terminal region. The sub1 gene was found as single copy by Southern analysis, albeit additional serine protease related genes are annotated in the T. vaginalis genome. The expression of sub1 could only be detected by RT-PCR and Ribonuclease Protection Assays, suggesting a low abundant mRNA. The sub1 gene transcription start site was correctly assigned by RPA. The transcript abundance was found to be modulated by the availability of iron in the growth medium. Antibodies raised to a specific SUB1 peptide recognized a single protein band (approximately 82 kDa) in Western blots, possibly representing the mature form of the protein. Immunofluorescence showed SUB1 on the trichomonad surface, and in dispersed vesicles throughout the cytoplasm. A bioinformatic analysis of genes annotated as serine proteases in the T. vaginalis genome is also presented. To our knowledge this is the first putative serine protease experimentally described for T. vaginalis.

  19. Serine aspartate repeat protein D increases Staphylococcus aureus virulence and survival in blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Askarian, Fatemeh; Uchiyama, Satoshi; Valderrama, J. Andrés; Ajayi, Clement; Sollid, Johanna U E; van Sorge, Nina M.; Nizet, Victor; van Strijp, Jos A G; Johannessen, Mona

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus expresses a panel of cell wall-anchored adhesins, including proteins belonging to the microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecule (MSCRAMM) family, exemplified by the serine-aspartate repeat protein D (SdrD), which serve key roles in colonization and

  20. Distribution of PASTA domains in penicillin-binding proteins and serine/threonine kinases of Actinobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawara, Hiroshi

    2016-09-01

    PASTA domains (penicillin-binding protein and serine/threonine kinase-associated domains) have been identified in penicillin-binding proteins and serine/threonine kinases of Gram-positive Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. They are believed to bind β-lactam antibiotics, and be involved in peptidoglycan metabolism, although their biological function is not definitively clarified. Actinobacteria, especially Streptomyces species, are distinct in that they undergo complex cellular differentiation and produce various antibiotics including β-lactams. This review focuses on the distribution of PASTA domains in penicillin-binding proteins and serine/threonine kinases in Actinobacteria. In Actinobacteria, PASTA domains are detectable exclusively in class A but not in class B penicillin-binding proteins, in sharp contrast to the cases in other bacteria. In penicillin-binding proteins, PASTA domains distribute independently from taxonomy with some distribution bias. Particularly interesting thing is that no Streptomyces species have penicillin-binding protein with PASTA domains. Protein kinases in Actinobacteria possess 0 to 5 PASTA domains in their molecules. Protein kinases in Streptomyces can be classified into three groups: no PASTA domain, 1 PASTA domain and 4 PASTA domain-containing groups. The 4 PASTA domain-containing groups can be further divided into two subgroups. The serine/threonine kinases in different groups may perform different functions. The pocket region in one of these subgroup is more dense and extended, thus it may be involved in binding of ligands like β-lactams more efficiently.

  1. CSF d-serine concentrations are similar in Alzheimer's disease, other dementias, and elderly controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemans, Elisanne A L M; Verhoeven-Duif, Nanda M; Gerrits, Johan; Claassen, Jurgen A H R; Kuiperij, H Bea; Verbeek, Marcel M

    2016-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of d-serine were recently reported as a potential new biomarker for Alzheimer's disease (AD), showing a perfect distinction between AD patients and healthy controls. In this study, we aimed to confirm these results and extend these previous findings to dementia with

  2. Structure of soybean serine acetyltransferase and formation of the cysteine regulatory complex as a molecular chaperone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serine acetyltransferase (SAT) catalyzes the limiting reaction in plant and microbial biosynthesis of cysteine. In addition to its enzymatic function, SAT forms a macromolecular complex with O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase (OASS). Formation of the cysteine regulatory complex (CRC) is a critical biochem...

  3. An Epithelial-Derived, Integral Membrane, Kunitz-Type Serine Protease Inhibitor in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    an epithelial membrane serine protease. J Biol Chein 275: 36720-36725, 2000. prevents15. Lin CY, Anders J, Johnson M, and Dickson RB. Purification and...functions properly, thus trypsin-like activity. J Biol Chein 274: 18231--18236, 1999. 0 avoiding harmful effects. 17. Lin CY, Wang JK, Torri J, Dou L, Sang

  4. HOMOLOGY MODELING AND PROTEIN ENGINEERING STRATEGY OF SUBTILASES, THE FAMILY OF SUBTILISIN-LIKE SERINE PROTEINASES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SIEZEN, RJ; DEVOS, WM; LEUNISSEN, JAM

    1991-01-01

    Subtilases are members of the family of subtilisin-like serine proteases. Presently, > 50 subtilases are known, > 40 of which with their complete amino acid sequences. We have compared these sequences and the available three-dimensional structures (subtilisin BPN', subtilisin Carlsberg, thermitase a

  5. Identification and purification of O-acetyl-L-serine sulphhydrylase in Penicillium chrysogenum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    østergaard, Simon; Theilgaard, Hanne Birgitte; Nielsen, Jens Bredal

    1998-01-01

    in relation to the cell-free extract. Two bands, showing exactly the same intensity, were present on a sodium dodecyl sulphate/ polyacrylamide gel, and the molecular masses of these were estimated to be 59 kDa and 68 kDa respectively. The K-m value for O-acetyl-L-serine and V-max of O...

  6. Entamoeba dispar: genetic diversity of Iranian isolates based on serine-rich Entamoeba dispar protein gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighi, A; Rasti, S; Nazemalhosseini Mojarad, E; Kazemi, B; Bandehpour, M; Nochi, Z; Hooshyar, H; Rezaian, M

    2008-12-01

    The nucleotide sequences of Serine-Rich Entamoeba histolytica Protein (SREHP) gene have already exhibited stable and significant polymorphism in the gene studies. Serine-rich protein is also present and polymorphic in Entamoeba dispar which called SREDP. The polymorphism of the Serine-Rich Entamoeba dispar Protein (SREDP) gene among 8 isolates obtained from Iranian cyst carriers were analyzed by a nested PCR-RFLP followed by sequencing of the PCR products. From those isolates, six distinct DNA patterns were observed after PCR-RFLP of the nested PCR, whereas sequencing showed 8 different patterns among the isolates. The results demonstrate an extensive genetic variability among Iranian E. dispar isolates. The repeat-containing region of the SREDP was found extensively polymorphic in size, number and order of repeat units. Genetic diversity of Iranian E. dispar isolates based on the SREDP was more polymorphic in comparison of Serine-Rich Entamoeba histolytica Protein (SREHP) of the E. histolytica isolates as well as were different from a few known SREDP genes.

  7. Crystal structure of the high-alkaline serine protease PB92 from Bacillus alcalophilus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laan, J.M.; Teplyakov, A.V.; Kelders, H.; Kalk, K.H.; Misset, O.; Mulleners, L.J.S.M.; Dijkstra, B.W.

    1992-01-01

    The crystal structure of a serine protease from the alkalophilic strain Bacillus alcalophilus PB92 has been determined by X-ray diffraction at 1.75 Å resolution. The structure has been solved by molecular replacement using the atomic model of subtilisin Carlsberg. The model of the PB92 protease has

  8. Ketamine induces tau hyperphosphorylation at serine 404 in the hippocampus of neonatal rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haiyan Jin; Zhiyong Hu; Mengjie Dong; Yidong Wu; Zhirui Zhu; Lili Xu

    2013-01-01

    Male Wistar 7-day-old rats were injected with 40 mg/kg ketamine intraperitoneally, followed by three additional injections of 20 mg/kg ketamine each upon restoration of the righting reflex. Neonatal rats injected with equivalent volumes of saline served as controls. Hippocampal samples were collected at 1, 7 or 14 days following administration. Electron microscopy showed that neuronal structure changed noticeably following ketamine treatment. Specifically, microtubular structure became irregular and disorganized. Quantitative real time-PCR revealed that phosphorylated tau mRNA was upregulated after ketamine. Western blot analysis demonstrated that phosphorylated tau levels at serine 396 initially decreased at 1 day after ketamine injection, and then gradually returned to control values. At 14 days after injection, levels of phosphorylated tau were higher in the ketamine group than in the control group. Tau protein phosphorylated at serine 404 significantly increased after ketamine injection, and then gradually decreased with time. However, the levels of tau protein at serine 404 were significantly greater in the ketamine group than in the control group until 14 days. The present results indicate that ketamine induces an increase of phosphorylated tau mRNA and excessive phosphorylation of tau protein at serine 404, causing disruption of microtubules in the neonatal rat hippocampus and potentially resulting in damage to hippocampal neurons.

  9. Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitors in the midgut of Phlebotomus papatasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah Theresa Sigle

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae are important disease vectors of parasites of the genus Leishmania, as well as bacteria and viruses. Following studies of the midgut transcriptome of Phlebotomus papatasi, the principal vector of Leishmania major, two non-classical Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitors were identified (PpKzl1 and PpKzl2. Analyses of expression profiles indicated that PpKzl1 and PpKzl2 transcripts are both regulated by blood-feeding in the midgut of P. papatasi and are also expressed in males, larva and pupa. We expressed a recombinant PpKzl2 in a mammalian expression system (CHO-S free style cells that was applied to in vitro studies to assess serine proteinase inhibition. Recombinant PpKzl2 inhibited α-chymotrypsin to 9.4% residual activity and also inhibited α-thrombin and trypsin to 33.5% and 63.9% residual activity, suggesting that native PpKzl2 is an active serine proteinase inhibitor and likely involved in regulating digestive enzymes in the midgut. Early stages of Leishmania are susceptible to killing by digestive proteinases in the sandfly midgut. Thus, characterising serine proteinase inhibitors may provide new targets and strategies to prevent transmission of Leishmania.

  10. Role of eukaryotic-like serine/threonine kinases in bacterial cell division and morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuse, Sylvie; Fleurie, Aurore; Zucchini, Laure; Lesterlin, Christian; Grangeasse, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria possess a repertoire of versatile protein kinases modulating diverse aspects of their physiology by phosphorylating proteins on various amino acids including histidine, cysteine, aspartic acid, arginine, serine, threonine and tyrosine. One class of membrane serine/threonine protein kinases possesses a catalytic domain sharing a common fold with eukaryotic protein kinases and an extracellular mosaic domain found in bacteria only, named PASTA for 'Penicillin binding proteins And Serine/Threonine kinase Associated'. Over the last decade, evidence has been accumulating that these protein kinases are involved in cell division, morphogenesis and developmental processes in Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. However, observations differ from one species to another suggesting that a general mechanism of activation of their kinase activity is unlikely and that species-specific regulation of cell division is at play. In this review, we survey the latest research on the structural aspects and the cellular functions of bacterial serine/threonine kinases with PASTA motifs to illustrate the diversity of the regulatory mechanisms controlling bacterial cell division and morphogenesis.

  11. Taraxalisin -- a serine proteinase from dandelion Taraxacum officinale Webb s.l.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudenskaya, G N; Bogacheva, A M; Preusser, A; Kuznetsova, A V; Dunaevsky YaE; Golovkin, B N; Stepanov, V M

    1998-10-23

    Latex of dandelion roots contains a serine proteinase that hydrolyzes a chromogenic peptide substrate Glp-Ala-Ala-Leu-pNA optimally at pH 8.0. Maximal activity of the proteinase in the roots is attained in April, at the beginning of plant development after the winter period. The protease was isolated by ammonium sulfate precipitation of the root extract followed by affinity chromatography on a Sepharose-Ala-Ala-Leu-mrp and gel filtration on Superose 6R performed in FPLC regime. Pure serine proteinase named taraxalisin was inactivated by specific inhibitors of serine proteinases, diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) and phenylmethylsulfonylfluoride (PMSF). Its molecular mass is 67 kDa and pI 4.5. pH stability range is 6-9 in the presence of 2 mM Ca2+, temperature optimum is at 40 degrees C; Km=0.37+/-0.06 mM. The substrate specificity of taraxalisin towards synthetic peptides and insulin B-chain is comparable with that of two other subtilisin-like serine proteinases, cucumisin and macluralisin. The taraxalisin N-terminal sequence traced for 15 residues revealed 40% coinciding residues when aligned with that of subtilisin Carlsberg.

  12. Cloning, expression and activity analysis of a novel fibrinolytic serine protease from Arenicola cristata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chunling; Ju, Jiyu

    2015-06-01

    The full-length cDNA of a protease gene from a marine annelid Arenicola cristata was amplified through rapid amplification of cDNA ends technique and sequenced. The size of the cDNA was 936 bp in length, including an open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 270 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequnce consisted of pro- and mature sequences. The protease belonged to the serine protease family because it contained the highly conserved sequence GDSGGP. This protease was novel as it showed a low amino acid sequence similarity (< 40%) to other serine proteases. The gene encoding the active form of A. cristata serine protease was cloned and expressed in E. coli. Purified recombinant protease in a supernatant could dissolve an artificial fibrin plate with plasminogen-rich fibrin, whereas the plasminogen-free fibrin showed no clear zone caused by hydrolysis. This result suggested that the recombinant protease showed an indirect fibrinolytic activity of dissolving fibrin, and was probably a plasminogen activator. A rat model with venous thrombosis was established to demonstrate that the recombinant protease could also hydrolyze blood clot in vivo. Therefore, this recombinant protease may be used as a thrombolytic agent for thrombosis treatment. To our knowledge, this study is the first of reporting the fibrinolytic serine protease gene in A. cristata.

  13. Homology modelling and protein engineering strategy of subtilases, the family of subtilisin-like serine proteinases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siezen, Roland J.; Vos, Willem M. de; Leunissen, Jack A.M.; Dijkstra, Bauke W.

    1991-01-01

    Subtilases are members of the family of subtilisin-like serine proteases. Presently, >50 subtilases are known, >40 of which with their complete amino acid sequences. We have compared these sequences and the available three-dimensional structures (subtilisin BPN', subtilisin Carlsberg, thermitase and

  14. HOMOLOGY MODELING AND PROTEIN ENGINEERING STRATEGY OF SUBTILASES, THE FAMILY OF SUBTILISIN-LIKE SERINE PROTEINASES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SIEZEN, RJ; DEVOS, WM; LEUNISSEN, JAM

    1991-01-01

    Subtilases are members of the family of subtilisin-like serine proteases. Presently, > 50 subtilases are known, > 40 of which with their complete amino acid sequences. We have compared these sequences and the available three-dimensional structures (subtilisin BPN', subtilisin Carlsberg, thermitase

  15. Identification and characterization of a chymotrypsin-like serine protease from periodontal pathogen, Tannerella forsythia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockensmith, K; Dillard, K; Sanders, B; Harville, B A

    2016-11-01

    Tannerella forsythia is a bacteria associated with severe periodontal disease. This study reports identification and characterization of a membrane-associated serine protease from T. forsythia. The protease was isolated from T. forsythia membrane fractions and shown to cleave both gelatin and type I collagen. The protease was able to cleave both substrates over a wide range of pH values, however optimal cleavage occurred at pH 7.5 for gelatin and 8.0 for type I collagen. The protease was also shown to cleave both gelatin and type I collagen at the average reported temperature for the gingival sulcus however it showed a lack of thermal stability with a complete loss of activity by 60 °C. When treated with protease inhibitors the enzyme's activity could only be completely inhibited by serine protease inhibitors antipain and phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride (PMSF). Further characterization of the protease utilized serine protease synthetic peptides. The protease cleaved N-succinyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe p-nitroanilide but not Nα-benzoyl-dl-arginine p-nitroanilide (BAPNA) or N-methoxysuccinyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Val p-nitroanilide indicating that the protease is a chymotrypsin-like serine protease. Since type I collagen is a major component in the gingival tissues and periodontal ligament, identification and characterization of this enzyme provides important information regarding the role of T. forsythia in periodontal disease.

  16. The serine-threonine kinase LKB1 is essential for survival under energetic stress in zebrafish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velden, Y.U.; Wang, L.; Zevenhoven, J.; van Rooijen, E.; van Lohuizen, M.; Giles, R.H.; Clevers, H.; Haramis, A.P.

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in the serine-threonine kinase (LKB1) lead to a gastrointestinal hamartomatous polyposis disorder with increased predisposition to cancer (Peutz-Jeghers syndrome). LKB1 has many targets, including the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) that is phosphorylated under low-energy conditions.

  17. Stopping power of 1.0-3.0 MeV helium in Mylar, Makrofol and Kapton foils

    CERN Document Server

    Chekirine, M

    1999-01-01

    The stopping powers of 1.0-3.0 MeV of helium ( sup 4 He) in Makrofol KG, Mylar and Kapton were measured. The results were compared with scanty experimental data in the literature and with values predicted by both Bragg's rule and cores-and-bonds model. These values agree with each other within the uncertainties; maximum deviations are <5%.

  18. Evaluation of Tafel-Volmer kinetic parameters for the hydrogen oxidation reaction on Pt(1 1 0) electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, R. F.; Thurgood, C. P.

    2011-05-01

    Modelling of PEM fuel cells has long been an active research area to improve understanding of cell and stack operation, facilitate design improvements and support simulation studies. The prediction of activation polarization in most PEM models has concentrated on the cathode losses since anode losses are commonly much smaller and tend to be ignored. Further development of the anode activation polarization term is being undertaken to broaden the application and usefulness of PEM models in general. Published work on the kinetics of the hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR) using Pt(h k l) electrodes in dilute H2SO4 has been recently reassessed and published. Correlations for diffusion-free exchange current densities were developed and empirical predictive equations for the anode activation polarization were proposed for the experimental conditions of the previously published work: Pt(1 0 0), Pt(1 1 0) and Pt(1 1 1) electrodes, pH2 of 1 atm, and temperatures of 1, 30 and 60 °C. It was concluded that the HOR on Pt(1 1 0) electrodes followed a Tafel-Volmer reaction sequence. The aim of the present paper is to generalize these Tafel-Volmer correlations, apply them to published data for Pt(1 1 0) electrodes and further develop the modelling of anode activation polarization over the range of operating conditions found in PEMFC operation.

  19. CO(1-0) in z>2 Quasar Host Galaxies: No Evidence for Extended Molecular Gas Reservoirs

    CERN Document Server

    Riechers, Dominik A; Maddalena, Ronald J; Hodge, Jacqueline; Harris, Andrew I; Baker, Andrew J; Walter, Fabian; Wagg, Jeff; Bout, Paul A Vanden; Weiss, Axel; Sharon, Chelsea E

    2011-01-01

    We report the detection of CO(1-0) emission in the strongly lensed high-redshift quasars IRAS F10214+4724 (z=2.286), the Cloverleaf (z=2.558), RX J0911+0551 (z=2.796), SMM J04135+10277 (z=2.846), and MG 0751+2716 (z=3.200), using the Expanded Very Large Array and the Green Bank Telescope. We report lensing-corrected CO(1-0) line luminosities of L'(CO) = 0.34-18.4 x 10^10 K km/s pc^2 and total molecular gas masses of M(H2) = 0.27-14.7 x 10^10 Msun for the sources in our sample. Based on CO line ratios relative to previously reported observations in J>=3 rotational transitions and line excitation modeling, we find that the CO(1-0) line strengths in our targets are consistent with single, highly-excited gas components with constant brightness temperature up to mid-J levels. We thus do not find any evidence for luminous extended, low excitation, low surface brightness molecular gas components. These properties are comparable to those found in z>4 quasars with existing CO(1-0) observations. These findings stand in...

  20. Soil and Terrain Database for Tunisia primary data (version 1.0) - scale 1:1 million (SOTER_Tunisia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkshoorn, J.A.; Nachtergaele, F.O.; Huting, J.R.M.

    2013-01-01

    The Soil and Terrain database for Tunisia primary data (version 1.0), at scale 1:1 million (SOTER_Tunisia), was compiled of enhanced soil information within the framework of the FAO's program of Land Degradation Assessment in Drylands (LADA). A SOTER database was compiled based on the digital soil m

  1. SOTER-based soil parameter estimates for Central Africa - DR of Congo, Burundi and Rwanda (ver. 1.0)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batjes, N.H.

    2014-01-01

    This harmonized set of soil parameter estimates for Central Africa, comprising Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Rwanda, was derived from the Soil and Terrain Database for Central Africa (SOTERCAF ver. 1.0) and the ISRIC-WISE soil profile database, using standardized taxonomy-based p

  2. Simple method for coating Si (1 0 0) surfaces with ferritin monolayers-Iron oxide quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadopoulos, Georgios, E-mail: geopap@bio.uth.gr [University of Thessaly, Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Ploutonos 26 and Aeolou, 41221 Larisa (Greece); Anetakis, Constantine, E-mail: kanetaki@physics.auth.gr [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Physics, Laboratory for Thin Films - Nanosystems and Nanometrology and Laboratory of Electronic Microscopy, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Gravalidis, Christoforos, E-mail: cgrava@physics.auth.gr [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Physics, Laboratory for Thin Films - Nanosystems and Nanometrology and Laboratory of Electronic Microscopy, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Kassavetis, Spiros, E-mail: skasa@physics.auth.gr [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Physics, Laboratory for Thin Films - Nanosystems and Nanometrology and Laboratory of Electronic Microscopy, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Vouroutzis, Nikolaos, E-mail: nikosv@auth.gr [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Physics, Laboratory for Thin Films - Nanosystems and Nanometrology and Laboratory of Electronic Microscopy, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Frangis, Nikolaos, E-mail: frangis@auth.gr [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Physics, Laboratory for Thin Films - Nanosystems and Nanometrology and Laboratory of Electronic Microscopy, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Logothetidis, Stergios, E-mail: logot@auth.gr [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Physics, Laboratory for Thin Films - Nanosystems and Nanometrology and Laboratory of Electronic Microscopy, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2011-04-15

    With the goal to develop iron oxide quantum dots we developed a simple method to spread horse spleen ferritin monolayers on a Si (1 0 0) surface. Application of atomic force microscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry showed the existence of regions with dense ferritin monolayers. Application of transmission electron microscopy identified the core of the spread ferritin as FeO nanocrystals.

  3. Parallel GRISYS/Power Challenge System Version 1.0 and 3D Prestack Depth Migration Package

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Zhenwen

    1995-01-01

    @@ Based on the achievements and experience of seismic data parallel processing made in the past years by Beijing Global Software Corporation (GS) of CNPC, Parallel GRISYS/Power Challenge seismic data processing system version 1.0 has been cooperatively developed and integrated on the Power Challenge computer by GS, SGI (USA) and Shuangyuan Company of Academia Sinica.

  4. Survey of ortho-H2D+ (1(1,0)-1(1,1)) in dense cloud cores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caselli, P.; Vastel, C.; Ceccarelli, C.; van der Tak, F. F. S.; Crapsi, A.; Bacmann, A.

    2008-01-01

    Aims. We present a survey of the ortho-H2D+ (1(1,0)-1(1,1)) line toward a sample of 10 starless cores and 6 protostellar cores, carried out at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. The high diagnostic power of this line is revealed for the study of the chemistry, and the evolutionary and dynamical

  5. Soil and Terrain Database for Argentina, primary data (version 1.0) - scale 1:1 million (SOTER_Argentina)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkshoorn, J.A.; Huting, J.R.M.

    2014-01-01

    The Soil and Terrain database for Argentina primary data (version 1.0), at scale 1:1 million (SOTER_Argentina), was compiled of enhanced soil information within the framework of the FAO's program Land Degradation Assessment in Drylands (LADA). Primary soil and terrain data for Argentina were

  6. Soil and Terrain Database for Cuba, primary data (version 1.0) - scale 1:1 million (SOTER_Cuba)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkshoorn, J.A.; Huting, J.R.M.

    2014-01-01

    The Soil and Terrain database for Cuba primary data (version 1.0), at scale 1:1 million (SOTER_Cuba), was compiled of enhanced soil informtion within the framework of the FAO's program Land Degradation Assessment in Drylands (LADA). Primary soil and terrain data for Cuba were obtained from the SOTER

  7. FBG_SiMul V1.0: Fibre Bragg grating signal simulation tool for finite element method models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, Gilmar Ferreira; McGugan, Malcolm; Mikkelsen, Lars Pilgaard

    2016-01-01

    FBG SiMul V1.0 is a tool to study and design the implementation of fibre Bragg grating (FBG) sensors into any kind of structure or application. The software removes the need of an fibre optic expert user, becoming more obvious the sensor response of a structural health monitoring solution using FBG...

  8. Curcumin prevents inflammatory response, oxidative stress and insulin resistance in high fructose fed male Wistar rats: Potential role of serine kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maithilikarpagaselvi, Nachimuthu; Sridhar, Magadi Gopalakrishna; Swaminathan, Rathinam Palamalai; Zachariah, Bobby

    2016-01-25

    Emerging evidence suggests that high fructose consumption may be a potentially important factor responsible for the rising incidence of insulin resistance and diabetes worldwide. The present study investigated the preventive effect of curcumin on inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin resistance in high fructose fed male Wistar rats at the molecular level. Fructose feeding for 10 weeks caused oxidative stress, inflammation and insulin resistance. Curcumin treatment attenuated the insulin resistance by decreasing IRS-1 serine phosphorylation and increasing IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation in the skeletal muscle of high fructose fed rats. It also attenuated hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance and HOMA-IR level. Curcumin administration lowered tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), C reactive protein (CRP) levels and downregulated the protein expression of cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX-2), protein kinase theta (PKCθ). In addition, inhibitor κB alpha (IκBα) degradation was prevented by curcumin supplementation. Treatment with curcumin inhibited the rise of malondialdehyde (MDA), total oxidant status (TOS) and suppressed the protein expression of extracellular kinase ½ (ERK ½), p38 in the skeletal muscle of fructose fed rats. Further, it enhanced Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) activity in the muscle of fructose fed rats. At the molecular level, curcumin inhibited the activation of stress sensitive kinases and inflammatory cascades. Our findings conclude that curcumin attenuated glucose intolerance and insulin resistance through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Thus, we suggest the use of curcumin as a therapeutic adjuvant in the management of diabetes, obesity and their associated complications.

  9. Insights into the effect of coverage on CO adsorption and dissociation over Rh(1 0 0) surface: A theoretical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Xiaojun [Key Laboratory of Coal Science and Technology of Ministry of Education and Shanxi Province, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024, Shanxi (China); Zhang, Riguang, E-mail: zhangriguang@tyut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Coal Science and Technology of Ministry of Education and Shanxi Province, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024, Shanxi (China); Ling, Lixia [Key Laboratory of Coal Science and Technology of Ministry of Education and Shanxi Province, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024, Shanxi (China); Research Institute of Special Chemicals, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024, Shanxi (China); Wang, Baojun, E-mail: wangbaojun@tyut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Coal Science and Technology of Ministry of Education and Shanxi Province, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024, Shanxi (China)

    2014-11-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The adsorption energies gradually decrease with the increasing of CO coverage on Rh(1 0 0). • CO reaches the saturated adsorption with the coverage of 12/12 ML on Rh(1 0 0). • Both CO desorption and dissociation co-exist at the coverage less than or equal to 2/12 ML. • Only molecule CO adsorption is favored at the coverage greater than or equal to 3/12 ML. • Only molecule CO adsorption form exists in syngas conversion on Rh catalyst. - Abstract: The adsorption, dissociation and desorption of CO at different coverage over Rh(1 0 0) surface have been systematically investigated using density functional theory method together with the periodic slab model. Our results show that at the coverage less than or equal to 4/12 ML, CO favored the most stable bridge site adsorption, and the adsorption energies of CO have little difference; while at the coverage greater than or equal to 5/12 ML, the lateral repulsive interaction begins to affect the adsorption structures and the corresponding adsorption energies of adsorbed CO molecules, and the interaction will be stronger with the increasing of CO coverage, which leads to CO migration over Rh(1 0 0) surface when CO coverage is greater than or equal to 10/12 ML. The adsorption energies of these CO molecules will decrease successively until the saturated adsorption with the CO coverage of 12/12 ML. Further calculations on CO dissociation indicate that when CO coverage is greater than or equal to 3/12 ML, the dissociation of adsorbed CO molecules will be unfavorable both kinetically and thermodynamically, suggesting that only molecule CO adsorption are favored. Considering the catalytic activity of Rh(1 0 0) surface toward CO dissociation and the higher CO coverage under the continuous supply of CO in syngas conversion, it is to be expected that only molecule CO adsorption exist on Rh catalyst.

  10. Compositional, structural, and optical changes of polyimide implanted by 1.0 MeV Ni+ ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikšová, R.; Macková, A.; Pupikova, H.; Malinský, P.; Slepička, P.; Švorčík, V.

    2017-09-01

    The ion irradiation leads to deep structural and compositional changes in the irradiated polymers. Ni+ ions implanted polymers were investigated from the structural and compositional changes point of view and their optical properties were investigated. Polyimide (PI) foils were implanted with 1.0 MeV Ni+ ions at room temperature with fluencies of 1.0 × 1013-1.0 × 1015 cm-2 and two different ion implantation currents densities (3.5 and 7.2 nA/cm2). Rutherford Back-Scattering (RBS) and Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA) were used for determination of oxygen and hydrogen escape in implanted PI. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) was used to follow surface roughness modification after the ion implantation and UV-Vis spectroscopy was employed to check the optical properties of the implanted PI. The implanted PI structural changes were analysed using Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). High energy Ni-ion implantation causes only a minor release of hydrogen and oxygen close to the polymer sub-surface region in about 60 nm thick layer penetrated by the ion beam; especially at ion fluencies below 1.0 × 1014 cm-2. The mostly pronounced structural changes of the Ni implanted PI were found for the samples implanted above ion fluence 1.0 × 1015 cm-2 and at the ion current density 7.2 nA/cm2, where the optical band gap significantly decreases and the reduction of more complex structural unit of PI monomer was observed.

  11. Effect of thermal treatment on the characteristics of iridium Schottky barrier diodes on n-Ge (1 0 0)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chawanda, A., E-mail: albert.chawanda@up.ac.za [Department of Physics, University of Pretoria, 0002 (South Africa); Department of Physics, Midlands State University, Bag 9055, Gweru (Zimbabwe); Coelho, S.M.M.; Auret, F.D.; Mtangi, W. [Department of Physics, University of Pretoria, 0002 (South Africa); Nyamhere, C. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Nel, J.M.; Diale, M. [Department of Physics, University of Pretoria, 0002 (South Africa)

    2012-02-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ir/n-Ge (1 0 0) Schottky diodes were characterized using I-V, C-V and SEM techniques under various annealing conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The variation of the electrical and structural properties can be due to effects phase transformation during annealing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal stability of these diodes is maintained up to 500 Degree-Sign C anneal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SEM results depicts that the onset temperature for agglomeration in 20 nm Ir/n-Ge (1 0 0) system occurs between 600 and 700 Degree-Sign C. - Abstract: Iridium (Ir) Schottky barrier diodes were deposited on bulk grown (1 0 0) Sb-doped n-type germanium by using the electron beam deposition system. Electrical characterization of these contacts using current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements was performed under various annealing conditions. The variation of the electrical properties of these Schottky diodes can be attributed to combined effects of interfacial reaction and phase transformation during the annealing process. Thermal stability of the Ir/n-Ge (1 0 0) was observed up to annealing temperature of 500 Degree-Sign C. Furthermore, structural characterization of these samples was performed by using a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) at different annealing temperatures. Results have also revealed that the onset temperature for agglomeration in a 20 nm Ir/n-Ge (1 0 0) system occurs between 600 and 700 Degree-Sign C.

  12. Combining Alphas via Bounded Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zura Kakushadze

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We give an explicit algorithm and source code for combining alpha streams via bounded regression. In practical applications, typically, there is insufficient history to compute a sample covariance matrix (SCM for a large number of alphas. To compute alpha allocation weights, one then resorts to (weighted regression over SCM principal components. Regression often produces alpha weights with insufficient diversification and/or skewed distribution against, e.g., turnover. This can be rectified by imposing bounds on alpha weights within the regression procedure. Bounded regression can also be applied to stock and other asset portfolio construction. We discuss illustrative examples.

  13. Roles of serine accumulation and catabolism in the colonization of the murine urinary tract by Escherichia coli CFT073.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anfora, Andrew T; Haugen, Brian J; Roesch, Paula; Redford, Peter; Welch, Rodney A

    2007-11-01

    A D-serine deaminase (DsdA) mutant of uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain CFT073 has a hypercolonization phenotype in a murine model of urinary tract infection (UTI) due to increased virulence gene expression by an unknown mechanism (B. J. Haugen et al., Infect. Immun. 75:278-289, 2007). DsdC is a D-serine-dependent activator of dsdXA transcription. DsdC may regulate the virulence genes responsible for hypercolonization. The loss of DsdA leads to increased intracellular accumulation of D-serine. In this study we show that deletion of the genes encoding L-serine deaminases SdaA and SdaB resulted in a mutant that accumulates higher intracellular levels of L-serine than CFT073. CFT073 sdaA sdaB has a mild competitive colonization defect whereas a CFT073 dsdA sdaA sdaB triple mutant shows a greater loss in competitive colonization ability. Thus, the inability to generate serine-specific catabolic products does not result in hypercolonization and the ability to catabolize serine represents a positive physiological trait during murine UTI. CFT073 dsdC and CFT073 dsdC dsdA mutants continue to outcompete the wild type in the UTI model. These results confirm that loss of DsdA activity results in the hypercolonization phenotype and that DsdC does not play a direct role in the elevated-colonization phenotype. Interestingly, a CFT073 dsdA mutant with deletions of D-serine transporter genes dsdX and cycA shows wild-type colonization levels of the bladder but is attenuated for kidney colonization. Thus, D-serine acts as a signal for hypercolonization and virulence gene expression by CFT073 dsdA, whereas overall catabolism of serine represents a positive Escherichia coli fitness trait during UTI.

  14. Roles of Serine Accumulation and Catabolism in the Colonization of the Murine Urinary Tract by Escherichia coli CFT073▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anfora, Andrew T.; Haugen, Brian J.; Roesch, Paula; Redford, Peter; Welch, Rodney A.

    2007-01-01

    A d-serine deaminase (DsdA) mutant of uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain CFT073 has a hypercolonization phenotype in a murine model of urinary tract infection (UTI) due to increased virulence gene expression by an unknown mechanism (B. J. Haugen et al., Infect. Immun. 75:278-289, 2007). DsdC is a d-serine-dependent activator of dsdXA transcription. DsdC may regulate the virulence genes responsible for hypercolonization. The loss of DsdA leads to increased intracellular accumulation of d-serine. In this study we show that deletion of the genes encoding l-serine deaminases SdaA and SdaB resulted in a mutant that accumulates higher intracellular levels of l-serine than CFT073. CFT073 sdaA sdaB has a mild competitive colonization defect whereas a CFT073 dsdA sdaA sdaB triple mutant shows a greater loss in competitive colonization ability. Thus, the inability to generate serine-specific catabolic products does not result in hypercolonization and the ability to catabolize serine represents a positive physiological trait during murine UTI. CFT073 dsdC and CFT073 dsdC dsdA mutants continue to outcompete the wild type in the UTI model. These results confirm that loss of DsdA activity results in the hypercolonization phenotype and that DsdC does not play a direct role in the elevated-colonization phenotype. Interestingly, a CFT073 dsdA mutant with deletions of d-serine transporter genes dsdX and cycA shows wild-type colonization levels of the bladder but is attenuated for kidney colonization. Thus, d-serine acts as a signal for hypercolonization and virulence gene expression by CFT073 dsdA, whereas overall catabolism of serine represents a positive Escherichia coli fitness trait during UTI. PMID:17785472

  15. Orthopositronium lifetime. Analytic results in O ({alpha}) and O ({alpha}{sup 3} ln {alpha})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kniehl, B.A.; Kotikov, A.V.; Veretin, O.L. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2008-06-15

    We present the O({alpha}) and O({alpha}{sup 3}ln {alpha}) corrections to the total decay width of orthopositronium in closed analytic form, in terms of basic transcendental numbers, which can be evaluated numerically to arbitrary precision. (orig.)

  16. Influencing factors of childhood overweight and obesity based on 5-2-1-0 model%基于5-2-1-0模式的儿童超重、肥胖影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭晓艳; 刘冬梅; 徐凌忠

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To study influencing factors of childhood overweight and obesity based on 5-2-1-0 model and to provide the basis for preventing childhood obesity. [Methods] Using stratified random cluster sampling method,a total of 1 584 school-age children were selected from three primary schools in Shandong Province. A self-designed questionnaire was used to survey children's height,weight,daily activities,eating habits and so on. The relationship between 5-2-1-0 model and childhood obesity was analyzed with ^z test and binary logistic regression. [Results] The research showed that the rates of the overweight and obesity were 13. 8% and 13. 3% , respectively. Daily TV watching and computer playing time,daily outdoor exercise time and weekly sugary drinks drinking frequency in 5-2-1-0 model were associated with childhood overweight and obesity. [Conclusions] The rates of urban childhood overweight and obesity in China are close to that in developed countries;Meaningful factors can be learned from 5-2-1-0 model and put forward a suitable health promotion model to prevent childhood overweight and obesity in China.%[目的]基于5-2-1-0模式研究儿童超重、肥胖影响因素,为制定预防儿童肥胖措施提供依据. [方法]利用分层随机整群抽样的方法,在山东省济南市、淄博市和临沂市抽取3所小学共计1 584名学龄儿童.自行设计调查问卷调查儿童身高、体重以及儿童的日常活动和饮食习惯情况等.采用X2检验和多因素Logistic回归分析5-2-1-0模式与儿童超重、肥胖的关系. [结果]研究结果显示,1 584名学龄儿童超重、肥胖检出率分别为13.8%和13.3%;5-2-1-0模式中日均看电视玩电脑时间、日均户外运动时间、一周喝甜饮料频率与儿童超重、肥胖有关. [结论]我国城市儿童肥胖问题已接近发达国家水平;可以借鉴5-2-1-0模式中有意义的因素,提出一套预防我国儿童肥胖的健康促进模式.

  17. The Test of 6KT-1.0-type Coffee Beans Polishing and Shelling Machine%6KT-1.0型咖啡豆脱壳抛光机加工试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛宪伟; 方卫山; 霍星光; 海宏; 杨韩辉

    2009-01-01

    本文概述了6KT-1.0型咖啡豆脱壳抛光机的基本结构、工作原理、主要技术性能指标及出料口压力调节装置.通过试验,我们找到了使用该脱壳抛光机在精制咖啡豆加工中出料口压力的最佳范围,同时也证明了我所研发的6KT-1.0型咖啡豆脱壳抛光机是成功的,可行的.

  18. Roscovitine inhibits EBNA1 serine 393 phosphorylation, nuclear localization, transcription, and episome maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Myung-Soo; Lee, Eun Kyung; Soni, Vishal; Lewis, Timothy A; Koehler, Angela N; Srinivasan, Viswanathan; Kieff, Elliott

    2011-03-01

    Latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection causes human lymphomas and carcinomas. EBV usually persists as an episome in malignant cells. EBV episome persistence, replication, and gene expression are dependent on EBNA1 binding to multiple cognate sites in oriP. To search for inhibitors of EBNA1- and oriP-dependent episome maintenance or transcription, a library of 40,550 small molecules was screened for compounds that inhibit EBNA1- and oriP-dependent transcription and do not inhibit EBNA1- and oriP-independent transcription. This screening identified roscovitine, a selective inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1), CDK2, CDK5, and CDK7. Based on motif predictions of EBNA1 serine 393 as a CDK phosphorylation site and (486)RALL(489) and (580)KDLVM(584) as potential cyclin binding domains, we hypothesized that cyclin binding to EBNA1 may enable CDK1, -2, -5, or -7 to phosphorylate serine 393. We found that Escherichia coli-expressed EBNA1 amino acids 387 to 641 were phosphorylated in vitro by CDK1-, -2-, -5-, and -7/cyclin complexes and serine 393 phosphorylation was roscovitine inhibited. Further, S393A mutation abrogated phosphorylation. S393A mutant EBNA1 was deficient in supporting EBNA1- and oriP-dependent transcription and episome persistence, and roscovitine had little further effect on the diminished S393A mutant EBNA1-mediated transcription or episome persistence. Immunoprecipitated FLAG-EBNA1 was phosphorylated in vitro, and roscovitine inhibited this phosphorylation. Moreover, roscovitine decreased nuclear EBNA1 and often increased cytoplasmic EBNA1, whereas S393A mutant EBNA1 was localized equally in the nucleus and cytoplasm and was unaffected by roscovitine treatment. These data indicate that roscovitine effects are serine 393 specific and that serine 393 is important in EBNA1- and oriPCp-dependent transcription and episome persistence.

  19. Roscovitine Inhibits EBNA1 Serine 393 Phosphorylation, Nuclear Localization, Transcription, and Episome Maintenance▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Myung-Soo; Lee, Eun Kyung; Soni, Vishal; Lewis, Timothy A.; Koehler, Angela N.; Srinivasan, Viswanathan; Kieff, Elliott

    2011-01-01

    Latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection causes human lymphomas and carcinomas. EBV usually persists as an episome in malignant cells. EBV episome persistence, replication, and gene expression are dependent on EBNA1 binding to multiple cognate sites in oriP. To search for inhibitors of EBNA1- and oriP-dependent episome maintenance or transcription, a library of 40,550 small molecules was screened for compounds that inhibit EBNA1- and oriP-dependent transcription and do not inhibit EBNA1- and oriP-independent transcription. This screening identified roscovitine, a selective inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1), CDK2, CDK5, and CDK7. Based on motif predictions of EBNA1 serine 393 as a CDK phosphorylation site and 486RALL489 and 580KDLVM584 as potential cyclin binding domains, we hypothesized that cyclin binding to EBNA1 may enable CDK1, -2, -5, or -7 to phosphorylate serine 393. We found that Escherichia coli-expressed EBNA1 amino acids 387 to 641 were phosphorylated in vitro by CDK1-, -2-, -5-, and -7/cyclin complexes and serine 393 phosphorylation was roscovitine inhibited. Further, S393A mutation abrogated phosphorylation. S393A mutant EBNA1 was deficient in supporting EBNA1- and oriP-dependent transcription and episome persistence, and roscovitine had little further effect on the diminished S393A mutant EBNA1-mediated transcription or episome persistence. Immunoprecipitated FLAG-EBNA1 was phosphorylated in vitro, and roscovitine inhibited this phosphorylation. Moreover, roscovitine decreased nuclear EBNA1 and often increased cytoplasmic EBNA1, whereas S393A mutant EBNA1 was localized equally in the nucleus and cytoplasm and was unaffected by roscovitine treatment. These data indicate that roscovitine effects are serine 393 specific and that serine 393 is important in EBNA1- and oriPCp-dependent transcription and episome persistence. PMID:21209116

  20. Signaling pathways induced by serine proteases to increase intestinal epithelial barrier function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahey, Kelcie A; Ronaghan, Natalie J; Shang, Judie; Dion, Sébastien P; Désilets, Antoine; Leduc, Richard; MacNaughton, Wallace K

    2017-01-01

    Changes in barrier function of the gastrointestinal tract are thought to contribute to the inflammatory bowel diseases Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Previous work in our lab demonstrated that apical exposure of intestinal epithelial cell lines to serine proteases results in an increase in transepithelial electrical resistance (TER). However, the underlying mechanisms governing this response are unclear. We aimed to determine the requirement for proteolytic activity, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation, and downstream intracellular signaling in initiating and maintaining enhanced barrier function following protease treatment using a canine intestinal epithelial cell line (SCBN). We also examined the role of phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain on the serine protease-induced increase in TER through. It was found that proteolytic activity of the serine proteases trypsin and matriptase is required to initiate and maintain the protease-mediated increase in TER. We also show that MMP-independent EGFR activation is essential to the sustained phase of the protease response, and that Src kinases may mediate EGFR transactivation. PI3-K and ERK1/2 signaling were important in reaching a maximal increase in TER following protease stimulation; however, their upstream activators are yet to be determined. CK2 inhibition prevented the increase in TER induced by serine proteases. The bradykinin B(2) receptor was not involved in the change in TER in response to serine proteases, and no change in phosphorylation of MLC was observed after trypsin or matriptase treatment. Taken together, our data show a requirement for ongoing proteolytic activity, EGFR transactivation, as well as downstream PI3-K, ERK1/2, and CK2 signaling in protease-mediated barrier enhancement of intestinal epithelial cells. The pathways mediating enhanced barrier function by proteases may be novel therapeutic targets for intestinal disorders characterized by disrupted epithelial